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Ke.-C ^t,j- O . 3>i^l 

Bsusv HAirxim , m. s. Oxo», r. h. s. 

paHMj ni ttntuUj R 

FRANKFORT o. H. 18B». 



genlteman has acconi|ilis)ieiI the very labo- a 
rious l;isk of presenting ta Ihc ^nglisb reader C 
a "Resume" of the moat interesting topics ~ 
which Gennany offers lo foreigners generally. 
Although Ihc work does not exhaust any of 
the questions which the author has touched 
upon, yet these sketches are so ably and 
instructively traced thai any person desirous 
of information will liilly obtain it on the 
subject of history, national character, litera- 
ture, art, customs- etc., of the country at 
large, as well as the constitution, statistics 
and topography of (he various states of which 
it is composed. We therefore cannot pass a 
sufKcient eulogy on its plan, and the care 

and perseverance of the author. ] 

Wc have endeavoured to complete and to 
correct his proditction as much as the hasle 

with which this edition was got up, allowed 
us; and it was only while engaged u|M>n 
this task, that we became fully aware of 
the whole extent of the difficulties which 
the author had to overcome. Although con- 
vinced that onr additions and corrections 
give much additional value to the work, we 
must express our opinion that it has not 
jret attained that degree of perfection which 
would he desirable for a publication of so 
much merit, and at which it will arrive by 
means of new revisions ; we shall continue 
carefully to collect the best and newest ma- 
terials , for subsequent editions. 

Frankfort, June 1839. 

atady a/ Politick EcDnony , wUnh tarma Mdy 
> iMOan ur it, and witich Ganflnea i(BBlf to IB* 
prodHOtlun and dlMrlbatioa ofweBllb. ThesoiAM* 
nf SIMe Kconany, on tb« oUer huid , howavar 
maeb it kM tieeo neglaoted In tbis Gaantry, bi- 
ciadM tiie Vibole internal regulatJon of itatM, 
liieir resources, tbeir composilloB , and tkelr 
mesoa of impiovBiaeat. 

The eonnlry to wbtcli tbls valuniB la devo- 
(ad bu been oftan deacrlbtrf by Iravellera of 
vuiona lastei and talents, eacft woriiint on bli 
•wn pecDllar Flan> a^d puraolng his diatlaot 
nthi t)Dt DO wuk in our own langDaga, aad 
■sne witb wblob I am aoqoalnled in aay Mbai 
tdloD), attempts to draw bo comprebeaatve k 
plctore of tlie entire land, or to afford, avan 
wilbin tbo limits of inany voiunieB, sa concaii' 
tcaled a view of Its various fealvrea. Tbe learn- 
ed Men, Indeed, wbo aptlng ao abundantly horn 
Ikit mU, ba** not aagketed to tsitiay, with 


the Utmost minuteness , the country on which 
they east so much lustre, but their labours are 
scattered over an extensive^ and not always ac« 
cessible ground. 

The eminent German writers who have illus- 
trated the statistics, institutions, and geography 
i)f their own couhtiry, will pardon the omissions 
as well as the commissions of this work, which 
derives nearly all that is most valuable in its 
composition from their researches. They Will 
discern imperfections in many parts which will 
not be' equally perceptible to other eyes ; but I 
am too well acquainted with their candout not 
to foresee that the desire which animates me 
of rendering justice to Germany, will ensure on 
their part a liberal interpretation, if not a We!^ 
co^e. Although the subject is far from being 
exhausted in this volume, and is not even fully 
treated in ail its parts , yet by most English 
readers it will be found sufficiently large, if not 
abundantly long. 

I am far from professing to present either a 
Geography or a Tojiography of Germany , — bat 
my endeavour is rather to point out all- that is 
most remarkable and characteristic in that couiv- 
try; all which distinguishes it from its neigh- 
bours ; all which connects it with the political, 
literar>', and social state of mankind; and all 
which marks its actual condition and prospects. 
Some readers will find a fe\(r things here which 
they did not expect, and others will look in vain 
for some objects which they hoped to discover. 
It was necessary to make a selection out of so 
vast a whole; and I have often sought ratb«r 
for that which lies under the surface; and whidi 

I ghali be amply lewardcd jf Uijs Inparrect 
CDinpil«tlan should In anv degtEG uv»fceii Ibe 
Mention nt Eii(lL»|imen to a, couutoy M'bicb tl 
^iled to l^em by closer and fOOte natnraJ tics 
tium fDY other aertion iff K|u»pe : (o a people 
yilfa tiainioiilze wilA iw In cliar«<^er, In mi- 
114- f f Uieir t«ate"> M><l i" «<lrKo|^n; and whp 
Ate dlfpofod [0 nsvi at wiUi ^ qofe ttaXfTMi 
eye than any otiiet, except, perliapi, the Nof. 
vagiaiu, ^tfr^dpH, aqd D)ineB. Oi^ f^r^t^re baa, 
|n aemmi' '«'•("' If" FirifeBt R^miren, and 
m ftJiieftcppiqiwWtOM; "li" iDngl^WiiUiufpp^e 
bave generated lowarda ub an alliance of (be 
heart, sDt depeaJaiU on trealle>t, aad not att- 
pable of being Btiled by derrees. In momenta 
or calamity, to tbat qnarter we moat tarn with 
the beat probabillt)' sf rapport, — IT (lia aenll- 


ment of national gratitnde does really exist a 
all; and in all seasons , those amongst us who 
may find it convenient to qait their own country, 
or to educate their children abroad, will there 
meet with the nearest equivalent for the home 
which they abandon, will incur the least risk 
of corrupting the morals of their children , at 
the same time that they secure for them ac- 
complishments, which, , if they must be sought 
elsewhere, can nowhere be so easily acquired 
as in Germany. 

It would be tedious to enumerate the various 
sources to which I have had recourse; many 
are quoted In the text, or in notes, several have 
been obtained on the spot during a lengthened 
residence, and some from frequent oral and writ- 
ten communication with natives. Throughout, I have 
been most largely -indebted to the ^'Statistical 
and Genealogical Almanac^," i^ublished annually 
at Weimar, originally edited by the late inde- 
fatigable Hassel, and continued in the most 
elaborate manner by Dr. Froriep, the chief of 
the remarkable ^'Industrie Comptoir" at Weimar, 
from which so many excellent productions have 
emanated. Stein's admirable "Manual of Geo- 
graphy and Statistics," has also contributed to 
my stores f. 

For the chapter on prisons, embracing also 
nome portion of criminal and moral statistics, I 
am indebted to the elaborate notes which Lagar- 

* ''6ene»loKi«eh-Hi«tori»«b-SUiiitiioher Almanftoh." 
To the "Alra»n»oli de Gotha, published Minvally ftt 
Gotha , I have alao been occasionally indebted. 

f '^Handbuch der Geographie und Statiatik." 

"• t.ta» ... i„„,r„ .,,."■"'•"• !• 

teilfcon,' CelgmbMllion 1 >„d !„ ,f "^'^raWioiis- 

It >iti(i^Aci. 

th0 ^^OfivenAtic^-LetiKOn der IMuesten Zeft 
and Lit^atur/' we huve had frequent re<;oarAe. 
The tables at the and of chattel* ^TI are not 
offered as positive facts, bht merely as probable 
approtimations to the real atate of thfiigft ; they 
ean only be regarded as evidence afforded by 
various writers, collected at varying periods;— 
and, although more or less correct at the time 
at whi<ih they were at first severally published, 
may no longer be applicable to the existing con- 
dition of things. Statistical science is not to be 
depreciated because ita results are not pehna^ 
nent; In this respect it partakes of the alloy of 
aiUnost all human sdences, Whose principles and 
whose facts are successively rejected or modified 
in each coming generation; yet the labours of 
our predeceasors are not on that account use- 
less, and thos^ who subsequently worlc In th^ 
same mine profit by their errors, omissions, and 
exaggeration£(, and employ them as a safet}*- 
lamp to guide th^lJr steps in future researches. 


The Prussian NoMlity. Sketch of tbe pre- 
sent state of the German Nobility . 80 


Biographical and Critical View of Modern 
Germaa Lfteratnre. Modern German lite- 
rature , from the time of Oottsched to the 
era of Goethe and Schiller. Gottsched, 
Hagedorn, ancl Haller. Bodmer and Brei- 
tinger. J. B. Schlegel, GeUert. KlopstocKs 
early labours. First productions of Wle- 
land, Sulzer, Gleim, Uz, Kleist, Ramler, 
Gessner. The School of Berlin — Lesslng, 
Mendelssohn, and Nicolai. Bngel, Wlnkel- 
mann. Works of KlopatQelc, of Lessing, and 
of Wieland. Voss, Herder, Burger, Goe- 
tlie, Schiller , , . It2 


Modern German Literature ^ continued. The 
Romantic School*, Aiiguslns TVllUam von 
Schlegel; Frederic yon Schlegel; TiecK, 
Wackenroder, and Novalis; Achiw vpn 
Amim and Brentano ; Schleiermacher, Gdr- 
res, and Steffen*. Klelst, Fouqu^, and 
Horn. German lIumouri«t» •€ tho pMl 
century : ThumoMlt ^WbI Mi Ufihteiibejre. 
humourists »f Uie ptesfnl Ceotiuy: RiiA^ 
ter, Hoflfhiann, aod Cbftmlsso, Dramatists 
of the present century : Werner, Milliner, 
and QfiHparzer. KOrntr. Modera Vn\o 
Poets: Lenau, Uhlantf, Schivab, Riekert, 
Platen, Chamisao, AMMrtaskis Grtfn, and 
Zedatz. Hemry Hciae^ and Boerne . 164 

Cbronulogkal Outline tt ths ProgresH at Ll- 
ter»ture, Science, Art, and Clviliudon in 
dernaD]', fram tbeir early >>e(lai]s, to the 

preaeot Time 3 

Literary Statietlcs of ceriaaDy. The madern 
/ tbecbief Libraries, 
Ir Extent . 3 

On Religion In Germany. RBtlunaIlsni;SiiprB- 
nBturalLnu. TbeelaKical Education. Con- 
atilntion ef the Cburcb; Proportion of 
Mtnlateia of Religion to the PopnlHtion; 
Cliarch Property; Church Patronage; Sa- 
lariea of Clergymen who are not of the 
Eatahlinheil Church. Religious 8ect« In 
Gemany;— TheHorav'tans,SD('inlans, IHen- 
Boniles, PietistR, Hernbutefa, Suedenboi- 



Education in Germany. General View of the ^ 
Universities. Academical Regulations. ' 
Translation of the Prospectus of Lectures 
delivered at the University of Gottiogen. 
Particulars respecting the mode of Life 
at a German University. Preparatory 
Schools. -Gymtoasiams, Lyceonis, Pedago- 
giums. Education in Austria. Pnt^lic Edu- 
cation in Prussia. Normal Schools . 800 


Prisons and Prisoners in Germany. An ac- 
count of the Prisons of Germany before 
their later improvements. Criminal Legis- 
lation in Austria. Present Condition and 
Statistics of the principal Prisons of Ger- 
many: their degree of Security; State of 
of Health, Medical Police , Diet, and Mor- 
tality; Modes of Inspection, Classification, 
I^abdur ; Education, Elementary Instruction, 
Religions Instruction, Worship; Punish- 
ments. The care taken of the Prisoner on 
his liberation. . . . . \ 330 


The Mineral Waters and Baths of Germany. i 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Alexandersbad, Alexlsbad, ^ 

Altwasser , Baden near Vienna , Baden- 
Baden, Berka, Bockiet, Brdckenau, Cann- 
stadt. Carlsbrunn. Cudowa. CuxhaYen. 
Dinkhold. Dobbelbad. Dobheran. Draitsch. 
Eger. Eilsen. Ems. Pachingen. Franzens- 
brunn. Freyenwalde. Gastein. Grre8bach. 
Gross - Wardein. Hercules - Baths. Hirsch 

HeflectEoni on Ihe Political vn^ SocliU Con- 
dition of Germtiay; SCstKllfwI TaUea Utu«- 
tratlve at th« time . ^ -433 

CensonAlp of tha Press , gnd Stale of tbe 
Law relative to Literary Propert)- . . i51 
CHWTSB xvin 
Tbe Nvmvaper Ftom .... 4^ 



The Bmiiire of Auatria. The Rnltng Pamlly. 

PravJBce* and P«#BlatiDB t Frtndpa] Towna; 

RaoM. Keligisn; ItaMker •# Clwnr • Ho- 

naatMlM in BbIhkU j VuheHlUea. Bud- 



get; Army; Navy. Form of Crovernment; 
Officers of Government; Officers of the 
Court. Birtbs and Deaths; Statistics of 
the Population of Bohemia; Number of Me- 
dical Men in an Austria Province; Statis- 
tics of Vienna. Criminal Statistics of the 
Empire of Austria .... 464 


The Kingdom of Prussia. Nationality. The 
Royal Family. Provinces and Population 
Births and Deatlis. Principal Towns. Ra- 
ces. Religion. Number of Clergy. Universi- 
ties and other Educational Institutions. 
Bugdet ; Paper Money in Circulation. Ar- 
my; Pay of the Army. Form of Govern- 
ment; Provincial Diets; Officers of Govern- 
ment'y and their Salaries ; List of Ques- 
tions respecting the cMracter and qualifi- 
cations of Candidates for Office in Prus- 
sia; Officers of the Court. Statistics of 
the Government-District of Potsdam. Sta- 
tistics of Education. System of Pulice res- 
pecting Public Women, Houses of ni Fame, 
and the like. Criminal Statistics of the 
Seven Provinces of Old Prussia, during 
Three Years; Number of Arrests at 
Berlin; Juvenile Delinquents. Courts of 
Law. On the Military tendency of Prussia. 485 


The Kingdom of Bavaria. The Royal Fa- 
mily. Circles and Population; Principal 
Towns. Religion. UnlvenitloB and Schools. 

Budget; Aimy. Farm aFGDTsTBMeM; O^ 
■ccTi or fltrnMHat, aad tf tbs CaiK. 
Statlallrta of tbe Po|ialMi*a; Blttbs and 
DeBtki; Nuiber of HedicalHen; NHMlwr 
or Dear, Danb, and Blind. StatMka ar 
Kclnratiao. StallMlcs or tbe Harried state. 
Solcldes and Accidenta. Crlmlaal Stalia- 
tica. Salariea, Uenl af Hsmm, and Us 

like & 

Tbe KlBfdam or Banover. History or Hana- 
Ter, h'om tbe earliest period to Ihe pre- 
■eut titue. Genealogy of rhe relgninit V*- 
aiiliea of HDnovel and Brqnswirk. Pre- 
sent noyal Family. Blatiatiea) View of 
(heir Papa laCI on ; BIrtha and De«tlif>. Prin- 
cipal Tows. Religion ; Religious liuti' 
tullons, Teacbars, and Bckolara. Prieona. 
Budget. Army. Density or Population. 
Staikatlcs of Cultivated t* I'ucaltivaled 



Land. DiviBion of Landed Property. Ex- 
ports and Imports. Ships. Number of Tra- 
desmen. Physical character of the Coan- 
try. Products. Manufactures. Character of 
the Inhabitants. Administration of Justice. 
Description of the Town of Hanover. The 
Town of GOttingen .... 550 


The Kingdom of Wurtemberg. The Ruling 
Family; Circles and Population; Principal 
Towns. Religion ; Educational Institutions. 
Budget; Army. Form of Government; Mi- 
nisters, and Officers of the Court. Births and 
Deaths; Emigration; Premature Marriages. 599 


The Grand Duchy of Baden. The Ruling Fa- 
mily; Circles and Population; Principal 
Towns. Religion; Educational Institutions. 
Budget; Army. Form of Government; Mi- 
nisters df Government) and Officers of 
the Court. Criminal and Legal Statistics ; Mis- 
cellanies 606 


The Electorate of Hesse-Cassel. The Ruling 
Family; Provinces and Population; Prin- 
cipal Towns. Religion; Educational In- 
stitutions. Budget; Army. Form of Go- 
vernment; Ministers, and Officers of the 
Court 613 


The Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. The 
Ruling Family ; Provinces and Population; 

lalioni Priflcl|>ftlTi>wiifi.Hellelou; Educa- 
lioiiBl Institution!-. BuK<l«Ei Anny.rurm o( 
CnverhnwPt; Minlslnii j Diet; Offrets af 

the Cuuft 


The Durli)- or S.')i(e-M«itiinEen-iniilhprBhRa- 
aen. The Ruling Family; Provinces and 
Pspulatlun; Principal Tcwns. Religion; 
BdM-allonal Inalitulian*, Badgnti rorm al 
OovannvBt; UIM; . U wlnlwtrnttw ; V»- 
• torical aketck of a« Dnoal Unp ot Saw- 

- H«iai«g*n. Natiue Mt PT«d«ata ft tb« 

Country. Town af H«jajax«> " .6 


rhe Ducby uf eaie-Ailfpbarg. The Ruling 
Family i Piavliices and Population; Prln- 



cipal Towns. Religion. Educational In- 
stitutions, Budget; Form of Government; 
Ministers, and Officers of the Court . 641 


The Ducliy of Saxe-Coburg-Gollia. Tlie Rul- 
ing Family; Provinces and Population; 
Principal Towns. Educational Institutions. 
Budget; Form of Government ; Ministers; 
Administration of Justice, Officers of the 
Court. Sketch of the recent History of this 
Duchy. Physical Character of the Country ; 
Products, Manufactures, Exports. The 
Town of Coburg. The towti of Gotha. 
Fortunes of the Reigning Family . . 648 


The Duchy of Brunswick. The History of 
Brunswick; the Ruling Family; Districts 
and Population; Mediatized Possessions 
of the Duke; Principal Towns. Religion; 
Religions Institutions; Educational Insti- 
tutions. Budget; Army. Form of Govern- 
ment. Physical character of the Country; 
Products, Manufactures, Exports and Im- 
ports • • 652 


The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 
The Ruling Family; Provinces and Popu- 
lation; Births and Deaths in 1835. Prin- 
cipal Towns. Religion; Educational In- 
stitutions. Budget; Army. Form of Go- 
vernment; Ministers; Officers of the Court. 
Character of the Inhabitants of the two 



then. Heliglon. Budget; Army. Form 
of Government; Ministers , and Officers 
of the Court 678 


Tlie Principality of Srhwarzbnrg-Sonders- 
hausen. The Ruiing Family. Districts and 
Population; Towns. Religion. Budget; 
Army. Form of Government; Officers of 
Government, and of the Court .681 


The Principality of Scbwarzburg-Rudolstadt. 
The Ruling Family. Districts and Popula- 
tion; Towns. Religion. Budget; Army. 
Form of Government; Officers of Govern- 
ment and of the Court .... 683 


The Principality of HohenzoUern-Hechingen. 
The Ruling Family; Area; Population; 
Towns. Budget; Army. Form of Govern- 
ment; Ministers ..... 685 


The Principality of HohenzoUern-Sigmarin- 
gen. The Ruling Family; Area; Popula- 
tion; Towns. Religion. Private Property 
of the Prince. Budget; Army. Form of 
Government; Ministers .... 687 


The Principality of Lichtenstein. The Ruling 
Family; Area; Mediatized Possessions of 
the Prince; Towns. Budget; Army. Form 
of Government; Officers of Government 689 


The Principality of Schaitmbutg-Liitpe. The 
Haling FuDil)-. DialrlcM and Population. . 
Towns. Religion. Budget; Army. Form 
of aovemment; Minislen . 606 


The Principality of WaMtek. The Baling 
ramlly; Districts and Papala(len;TowaB. 
ReligiDn. Budget. Form of Oovemawnt 
OMcera of Qovenunent, and of the Court 698 


The Iiaodgtaviale af Hesae-IIomtinrg. Tbe 
Hullng Eamily; Provinces and Population; 
Towna; Religion; Private Property ol* 
the Landgrave; Budget; Army; Form of 
aevemment; Hinlater,OflcersarilieCouTt. 700 




The CjMilitBliip of Bentiok. A Half Sove^ 
reignt)'. The Baling Family; Population. 702 

flic Free Towns. Frankfort: Territory and 
Population; Religion; Form of Govern- 
ment; Revenue, and Army. Lubeck: Ter- 
ritory and Population; Religion; Towns; 
Form of Government; Army; Revenue. 
Bremen: Territory and Population; Reli- 
gion; Towns; Birtlis and Deatl^sln 1833. 
Form of Government. * Army; Budget. 
Hamburg: Territory and Population; Re- 
ligion; Towns; Ffiv^ of iG9vemment; 
Army; Revenue 704 

2 3 AUG 1962 ' 










jLavt Gennany of the Romans comprised not 
merely the marshy and woody region bounded 
hy the Rhine, Danube, Ylstula, and the Baltic, 
but also Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finnland, 
Livonia, and Prussia. The races which inhabited 
these territories, resembled each -other more or 
less in physical character, mamiers, and language, 
and were considered to have had a common 
ori^. The ancient German was of huge stature; 
he had reddish hair and blue eyes ; he was more 
tolerant of cold and hunger than of heat and 
thirst; loyal, faithful, and unsuspicious towards 
his friend, he well knew how to dissimulate and 
deceive when acting against an enemy; he was 
inpatient of control and regarded independence 
as the greatest earthly blessing. Unacquainted 



not only ^vith luxuries, but with tlie common 
arts of life, such as agriculture, the use of metals, 
and writing, his principal means of existence were 
furnished bj' scanty herds , and the precarious 
booty of the chase. In time of peace he was 
given to drunJcenness and gamibling, and was 
accustomed to regard as divine suggestions, the 
plans which he formed whilst in a state of 

The government of these races was democra- 
tic ; on the shores .of the Baltic, it is true, the 
heads of several tribes were CiUled kings , but 
regal power, as the moderns understand it, was 
never exercised. There were general assemblies 
of the people, into which, at a certain age, every 
youth was received, and where, either at fixed 
times, or on extraordinary occasions, deliberations 
were held on the necessity of declaring peace 
or war, and on t^e choice of leaders. On such 
occasions, they expressed their approval of a 
proposition by striking their weapons on their 
shields, and their disapprobation by hollow mur* 
murs. On occasions of imminent danger, several 
tribes often chose a single leader, — generally 
some chief noted for his bravery, whose example 
was more eficaeioos than his commands. The 
power of the military chieftain was in abeyance 
in time of peace, when the sole authorities were 
dvil ofiicera chosen in the general aaaemblies, 
to decide disputes and administer justice in par- 
ticular districts! These officers were called princes, 
and had each a guard and a councU coimposed 
of one hundred persons, hut they had no power 
to condemn a freeman to deatl^ or even to cause 
him to be imprisoned or beaten. 

will ud dficrcM It wu tb« dnty vf Ae plfirta 
Iv ascerUlD. Tbey kelisved tn > rntsre worM, 
trAere tbe eeHrigsans are remrdMl by /easts, 
wftere tbej- Bsmte tbeir fanner expMU, and 
drink t>»OT fran immense lioriu, or fron (he rcuIIi 
•r tlwir «n«DieB. 

Tbe origin of the anoleTit eenmuu, thongh 
r«ry ohsmic, U donbUeas Astaltc; Joaepk tbh 
HRMmer dl' tben a BMtvio-Medlaa race. Tbef . 
flrM became knewii to tbe Ram^M h> tbe year 
befor* CbriBt Hi, win Ibey invaded tbe Al- 
pine legloaf, ilefealed tbe ennsnl Vttttt\<*s Carta, 
And Mtrrled oa a Boecessfai war afalnM the le^ 
pabtte for aiatiy years, till they vere e»>- 
pMely r»Bte* By Marlm, b. o. 101. At lUa 
peija< t^y were called the Claitirl , bwt very 
MHe wa* kaown rsa^Mltag their origi* at (^»- 
ractM'. Tlie aexC notl«s we Md of then , la hi 
1^ ^nxm of Cwamr, wha after he >Md csmtmeni 
eaal, rsraued Arl**Mtaa, ■ leaiter ef the Orr- 
Baaa, wbo bad Invaded and irlshed to aettle ta 
thM Booirtry. 


Gaul from ultra-rhenane incorsions; in his later 
Gallic warS) however, he had Germana in Uis 
pay, OH also in his campaign against Pompey. 
The first extensive invasion of Germany was 
made by Tiberias, who advanced as far as the 
Elbe; but the career of Roman conquest was 
shortly interrupted by the defeat, or rather 
destruction, of three legions under Quintilios 
Varus, by Herman the Cheruscian, in the ninth 
year before Christ. The Romans now repassed 
the Rhine, and never recovered their former 
ground , notwithstanding the efforts of the heroic 
Gefmanicus ; indeed, they were shortly compelled 
to abandon the project of subjugating Germany. 
In the first centur>' after Christ, the relation 
of the Barbarians to the Romans was completely 
altered; the policy of the latter was no longer 
aggressive, and they were happy now to be able 
to defend themselves against the predatory attacks, 
which, in the intervals of civil war, the Germans 
were in the habit of making on their neighbours. 
In the year 220, new races, the Visigoths, Gepidi, 
and Herolians, appeared inDacia, and about the 
same time we first hear of the Alemanni, a 
mixture of Teutonic tribes, to protect themselves 
against whom, the Romans erected the Vallum 
Homanorum, parts of which still remain between 
Jaxthausen and CEhringen. As the empire became 
weaker, the Franks, who, together with the 
Alemanni, were the most powerful German people, 
advanced as far as Spain , and shortly afterwards 
completely conquered Gaul, where they formed 
a state of which the first king was Clovis, and 
which was afterwards to comprehend Germany, 
or at least the territories of the Saxons, Thu- 


The last Meroringlsn King was Childeric III., 
wbo wu depaiied Jn 752, by Pepin, his najror 
of IHe palace, who, afler e ' " 



ment, and founded the Carlovinglan iljiiaaty. tty 
rhia time (tie political conRtilatlon of mosl of 
the German nations had mite a consiiterable 
advance Cowards Its modem atale. The Knvera- 
men( of (be Itinhs was monarehical, and the 
BDCcession heredltarr; the king made war or 
eonelnded peace without consulting the stain; 
and new laws were Issued at an assemtily at 
the people, nnt Bo much (hat thejr night receive 
the cnnsent of the latter, as in order (bal thej- 
Blgbt be solemnly eslabllshad. The stales were 
divided into two classes: the first was composed 
of bishops, abhots, dnhes, and counts, who hart 
a deliberative voice in all the assemblies; (he 
second was composed of magistrates and Inferior 
•ncers. Whose onU" fl"fy "»« » recelre tbs 


trders of that other. MeMiirefl were pronofled 
b}' the king through his referendary; the states 
of the first class deliberated on, and the sovereign 
decided respecting them; in the form of laws 
they were then communicated to the states of 
the second class, who were enjoined to execute 
them. The dukes were merely governors of pro* 
vinces, who received orders fcom the sovereign; 
instead of a salary, they had a certain domain 
assigned them, from which they drew their reve- 
nues ; for instance , the town of Wurzbnrg- and 
its dependencies were the domain of the dukes 
of Franconia, and at a subsequent period, the 
circle of Wnrtemberg was that of the dukes of 
Saxony. The counts, subordinate to the dukes, 
administered justice in districts which were called 
pagi or Oaiten — hence the names of provinces, 
BreisgaUj Aargau, Rheingau, 4te. Royal commis- 
saries — mUsi dominici — travelled through the. 
duchies at stated times, to watch over the im- 
partial administration of justice, a duty which 
was also assigned to the bishops. Final appeals 
were made to the count palatine, who was also 
the judge of the court. Neither duke nor count 
was an hereditary title; but the sovereign very 
generally conferred the dignity on the sons or 
brothers of those who had previously been invested 
with it. Though the office of a count was purely 
civil, he commanded the troops of bis district 
in time of war ; he was called a marcgrave when 
the defence of a border territory was entrusted 
to him. After the counts, came the noble signers 
or barons , who owned the greatest part of th« 
territory either as fiefs, or allodial estates. Tli« 
last order was that of the ordinary nobles, who 


Ul>t hlR BUIes wete decidedly apposed to bis 
lntetr«ence witb Itallati poUtic*. Pepin carrted 
•n aucceMfnl ivara against tbe Bavaiiima aod 
Saxons: the litter were cempelled to par liini 
a trilinte of Itree hiuidred botses; and one of 
the eonditiooa of a treaty between tbem and 
the Ft-anlia was, tbattke msiika of Falda should 
be atlowed to initruct them In the Christian 

Pepin died In 768, and was ancceeded by his 
two Bans, CharieiaagBe and Carloman. On tbe 
decease of tbe latter In 771, the fatmer became 
aole rnler of all the empire of tbe rranRs. In 
773, a Breat war was nndertaken agalnti the 
CMurnns, prlnclpMI]' it the buUgatlon of thrUshop 
at Folda, whose Ckrlsttan mlsalonarles the; had 
MMsaKredi this contest Iob| continued > with 



variaiM, and at first, witb very undecided results; 
in 782, Wittefcind defeated at Siiital the army 
of CMarlemagne, who revenged himself by the 
massacre of Verden, where he decapitated four 
thousand five hundred of the partisans of his 
adversary ; at last, vanquished in two sanguinary 
battles, WIttekind and his brother Alboin s,ub- 
mitted to the Franks , - and were baptized at 
Altigny in 785. In 781 , Pepin, son of Charle* 
magne, was crowned king of Italy, and Louis, 
his brother, knig of Aquitatne. 

Conquest invariably attended the arms of Oharle* 
magne ; he defeated the duke of Bavaria , and 
parcelled out his duchy Into counties; subjugated 
the Sclavonians in Pomerania ; and routed the 
Huns, who had ravaged Bavaria: in Italy, his 
arms were equally successful against the empress 
Irene. In 800, he was crowned emperor Xkf the 
West at Rome, by Pope Leo III. vThree years 
afterwards is the date of the last revolt of the 
Saxons; they were again defeated, and Charle- 
magne new transported ten thousand Saxon 
families into the interior of his dominions, and 
gave their possessions to the Obotrites; finall3% 
the nation was incorporated with the empire of 
the Franks. The last wars of Charlemagne were 
successful expeditions against the Bohemians and 
the Danes. JBe died in 814) and was buried at 
Aix-la-Chapelle , where the emperor Otto III.- 
afterwards opened his tomb, and found him sitting 
on a throne clothed Jn his imperial robes. 

In 1163, this emperor was placed amongst 
the saints of the Romish church by the anti- 
pope, Pascal III.; and fourteen yetaa afterwards 
by the pope, Alexander III. Though he did not 

but he flnally took part wltb the bdiii agnlnM 
ths falber , wbo was rtepoaed, and eonlned In 
tbe mona-it^ry nr Pcnm. He wss accused ot 
viewing Willi indiiTerenee tfee debaucIierleB of bb 
wife, Judim, daugbler o( l^e count of Weingai- 
ten , in Suable, — of having murdered Bernard, 
king or Ital)-,— and of having neglected lo bold 
the cuatDmar)- aSHeinblies In the month of March; 
' ror Iheae oirencea he waa constrained lo da 
penance in' public. He was afterwards ahaalved 
by his biRhops at St. Denis; but his rehelliooB 
sons canUnued to harass him as before. He died 
near Mainz in 840, whilst marcbing against bis 
third son, Lewis, wham be bad made king of 
Oenoany in 817. 

Thia prince caosed the Bible te be translated 
iat« tlie eernuQ lansiiaee, In wbkk «everal at 


ififi Iw^^A were putuisbed. To ensure (be fi^elHy 
of bis subjects be aUenttted a great part of bis 
domfiins; and in tbte vfi^y may be explained bow 
tbe fiefs came to be ber.editary. In tbe last 
division wbicb l,ew\» tbe Uebonnaire wade of 
bis. possef^slons, tbe imperial di^rnity , Italy > an(| 
tbe fcingdovis of Lorraine and Burgundy, were 
allotted to Lotbaire, Gernpany to Lewis, a«4 
Fianpe t<> Cbarles tbe Bald. Tbe ambttieft of 
tbe eldest brotber compelled tbe two latter In 
unite tbeir forpes against bim in order tQ reiel 
bis encroa^binents ; and a battle was fougbt at 
Fontenair »ear AMxerre in Burgundy , wbert 
Lotbaire was completely defeaited. A tF^aly of 
peace was sbortiy afterwi^rds coni^l^^ed a( Ve^- 
duH C8^3} » i?y vbicb Lewis was cQnfir«e4 m 
ifke po^etvstQn of ^at part of tbe empire to tb9 
figbt of U^e Rbine; several towns, ^ fi§if», 
i[aipz, were also conceded to h'm— propter vini 
^;>»tiMn«-^i(ccording to tbe writers of tbe dAy* 

Lewis (be Cverm^n subdu?d tbe Obotriles of 
Mecmenburg, and made tbeir leaders dukes* In 
860, be ei«tablisbed a law, by virtue of wbicb 
ifU^ states wwe entit&d to co.-operate in wbatever 
wa9 jpndertaKen witbivt tbe boundaries of tbe 
k^gdora. In 870, be gained possessian of a 
pfirt of tbe iLingdom of Lorraine, via. a^ Mi9 
Low CoAin(rl^» ^i^d of tbe towns of M^inv, Tf6V^« 
aj^d Colagne, Tbis pr^oo <lie<t in 876, and bin 
territories were divided between bis (bree so««< 
C^rlainan, tbo ei4eat, obtain<e.d Bavaria and it« 
dependencies; Lewis |H- was made king o/Saxoiur 
and of Franconia, and of tbat ptrC of Lorri^mt 
ine«tlo««4 above: a«d Cbarles tbe F«t re«9i[ved 
Sni^biAf $wii«iQrlaiiA, 99^A]m^sL, €Ml(m»* Wj»k 

•r P»la, IB bn (Heir aovereigd, Ihe italiann, Uu 
DnkH Gu)' Bnil BereBger, and Ibo (Mrtaan*, 
AtBVBl, Ue lUeellimala auu »f Caiiaman, me 
IMe king at Bavwik. 

' Arnvol U'BB poUuDed in IC&ly, [■ 890. An 
sMembly oribsststwi waa now beld at Forchlioim. 
and Lewis, aaa at tbe Eats ■nverslga, a Iray nf 
■even yemii.of age, was elected king, because, 
Hya Hatlun , tbe arehliiiibop ef Mainz, In his 
lelter to Pope Jabn VI.., tlie aUU« Uieuglit it 
better to fallaw tbe ancient usage »f tlie Franks, 
wboae MTereigns <reT» all of ihe same ramily, 
than to liittoduce a new cuatoiu. 

In 906 and several Buoceailiag yean, Gurnuny 
was ravaged by the Hna, who gained sevtial 
victories, and were only averted ty tbe pHymoM 
•f an annnal tribute ; tbey la^y tamed Ikeir 
wms against Italy. Lewis IV. died, wltbpu 
kaslm been aiarrlad, fai 911} ke was llie ]a.i 


13 S&KfGH or THK 

Carlovingfan prince who relnrned in Germany. 
As the Geramn monarchy had been a conqaest 
of Charlemagne , it might be expected that it 
would remain an hereditary possessian of hia 
family ; and that now, on the death of the last 
descendant of Lewis the Debonnaire, it would 
pass to the Jine of Charles the Bald, which was 
now represented by Charles the Simple; but that 
prince was too feeble to enforce his rights at 
home, much less to follow up his claims abroad, 
and hence the German states proceeded without 
hesitation to elect a sovereign from their own 
body. The nobles, who thus assumed the power 
of disposing of the crown, now began to stipu* 
late for new rights and exclusive privilegea. 

The duchies and counties which had formerly 
been governed by lieutenants or commissaries 
of the sovereign, now began to be regarded as 
hereditary fiefs. By degrees , the nobilities and 
states of the different duchies which had previously 
only acknowledged the sovereignty of the king, 
came to be absolutely dependant on their dukes, 
and to hold, as fiefs the estates which had for- 
merly been in the grant of the crown. Finally, 
the dukes possessed themselves of the domains 
which had belonged to the sovereign in the 
respective districts. The clergy also, soon extended 
their dominions; for the sovereign, dreading the 
increasing power of the now almost independent 
nobility, was glad to exempt the ecclesiastical 
princes from their Jurisdiction, and to oppose the 
latter to them. 

At the period of which we are treating, the 
states of Germany were divided into two classes; 
the one composed of the Bavarians, Snabiaos, 

le Hans had naw adopteil au«b a 

regular system of depredation in Germany, Uiat 

Henry was compelled to make Jmportaat cIuuigeB 

ia the geoeral conslitutlon of [be country la order 

to repel Ibem : he set on foot a large lindy a( 

cavalry, whliA he dlsinplLned with great asaldn[ty; 

be bnllt several towns, and compelled tbe nlntb 

put of the inhabitants of the conatry to lAke 

up tbeir abode tn Ibem; tbe Saxon and other 

towns already existing, he surrounded wltb walls. 

H« decreed that alt public assemblies and feasts 

aliauld be held in cities alone; and he gave to 

his new citixons several prerogatives and piivl- 

\egeB, even obliging the coontry-people to ranish 

tliein with provisions, and to truisport the third 

port of their harvests to the maeazines of the 

eitle"- Snch was, in ■ great measare, the orig' - 

of Uie cities, of their coamanities and gatlt 

•ftt/e patrician families were the desoendanta 

ii«KIeM who had changed their conntry fm 

town abode. Henry was a waiUke prlaea: beatd 

dereAt)«8 tkeHims, ' ' --.. ..-k- 


Misoia, and Luaatia, fram the Sclavanlaii.^ , and 
created marcgravea for the defence of those pr<^ 
viBces. The Hatis were finally de/eated at the 
great battle of MerseburflT} where their amir 
was entirely cut to pieces. ThiM sovereign die«l 
in 936, whilst meditating an expedition into Italy; 
and was buried in the abbey of Quedlinbnrg, 
which be had founded. 

Otho, son of Henry the Fowler, succeeded his 
Aftther; he was elected at Aix-Ia-Chapelle^ where, 
after the dukes, princes, and other nobles had 
voted for him, Hildebert, the archbishop of Mainz, 
presented him to the people, who approved the 
election by holding up their hands. After thit. 
ceremony of the coronation, which was perfor-> 
med by the archbishop of Mains, Otho dined in 
public, and was waited on at table by the dukes 
of his empire: Arnoul, duke »f Bavaria, acted, 
as marshal, Eberlkard, duke of Francoola, as 
grand seneschal, and Herman, duke of Suabia,. as 
grand pup^bearer. The early part of the reign 
of (Mho, who was surnameU the Great, was 
distracted by the revolts of his nobles : his latter 
years were occupied by Italian expeditions. It 
was to him that the German clergy was princip- 
ally indebted for its power and prosperity; he 
conferred entire duchies and counties upon its 
digaltaries, and allowed them to exercise tlM 
same rights as the secular princes. 

At the diet held at SteUa in 94,%, there was 
a great dispute amongst the German jiiriseon- 
salts, as to whether a ehild bom after ttie death 
of its father, ought to share the heritage •f tiM 
iattsr conjointly with its uncles;' Otho decrMi 
that the question should he decided by adaul 

tIecUnx Uia pope , aa uUu of apiMiDting al[ 
kisliuii'i aad archbishvp* in bis kinndouui; It wai 
■lao riecliued tliHt tbe envcror waa MitiUed It 
nuue bin auci^sasor. Aflsr (be ieHth of Biilth, 
Oths M>rrieU Adelaide, dHUgbter af Ralpli, kin« 
Bf Ike twu Borguwlies, wtiuwulii* firatAonuui 
«ni>r«aa and qNean orGwmaujf wbo wu ctovnud, 
and by wfaoDi be had a son, Olho, who saMceded 
hiw ou bM (iBBib ia 973. 

OtM II. bad akieady tie*ii «lacUd kiw of 
GfWBuy i> 061, Mod eriKvneil MWeror In 067: 
he narcUd la 973, Ibeaphanw, nieca af lota 
Ziailaua, emperoi of (be East. He died at the 
early age >tr (weaty-eighC, at Bome, and waa 
barled iu the charob of 3t. Ptter. 

iMm UI., Ibe auo and auceeuor o( the laM 
atuaror, was only three yean of ags an, tbe 
#Mth •( hi* falbra, lithe* ha was vowaa* al 


Aix-la-Chapelle. At the death of Pope John XV. 
he made Brano, son of Otho, duke of Franconia, 
his saccessor, and was crowned hy him in 095, 
after having been elected emperor, in 982, by 
the diet of Verona. Otho III. was poisoned in. 1002. 
The reign' of his successor, Henry II., or the Lame, 
the last of the Saxon emperors, presents nothing 
worthy of notice in a sketch like the present. 

Under the Saxon emperors, the counts pala- 
tine had their origin ; there were two principal 
officers so called, the one for the Saxons, the 
other for the- Franks; and subordinate ones in 
several of the large duchies. The two palatins 
in chief were independent one of. the other, 
and decided, under the authority of the emperor, 
not only causes of appeal, but also the disputes 
between the princes of Germany and. the vassals 
of the crown residing in their territories. The 
count palatine was not merely a judge: he was 
also the hereditary governor of the lands and 
domains of the emperor in his district, and 
receiver-general of finance. As the emperors 
and kings of Germany had no fixed residence, 
and held their courts sometimes in one province 
and sometimes in another, they had palaces in 
all the principal cities , and domains In each 
province for their support during. their stay; and 
during their absence, the conservation of their 
rights was entrusted to the counts palatine. 

Under the Saxon emperors, the power and 
possessions of the clergy increased to such an 
extent, that the body became at last more for- 
midable to the sovereign than the secular princes. 

We shall here enumerate the righta which 
were enjoyed at this period by the emperor and 

terrltaries, lbs slates coiildronn alliances amonsM 
Uiemsetves , declare war and iuild rortresses, 
■end unbBSsadura to foreign princes, tr&namit 
Ueir flefB.lo tbelr sons, assemble Ibeir provincial 
■tales and chiisd tbeir vassals to be tried by 
them. The states were also privileged by the 
emperor, to coin money, to eHt&bilsh fairs, to 
exact tolls, to receive Jews, administer Jnslice, 
and posseaa gold mines. 

We new come to tlie period when the dukes 
of the hanae of Franconia ascended the throne 
or German]'. The first sovereign et this line 
was Cenrad It., who was cboien by a mAJorlty 


of votmin 1034 1 lie was rroMrned ntiifaifls by 
the archbishop. His nobles took the oath of fide- 
lity in. the following: order: firsrt the bishops, 
then the dokes, then the other princes and h^gh 
officers; afterwards the barons or free lords, 
then the ordinary nobles; and filially, the free- 
men attached to the high nobility by fiefs or 
certain duties. Conrad was crowned king of Italy 
at Milan, and afterwards at Monza. He passed 
a law which decreed that no vassal should be 
deprived of hbi fief, except for felony, and by 
the judgment of his peers. He died at Utrecht 
in 1039. 

It was under the sovereigns of this line that 
the regulations respecting the expedition to Italy 
were first enforced. We find that it was then 
the custom for the kings of Germany, before 
going to Italy to be crowned einperofts, to 
announce their intention a year and six weeks 
before-hand; then all the vassals of the crown 
must assemble on the plain of Roncale, to be 
passed in review; the nobles mast also bring 
with them their vassals; and all, of whatever 
rank, who did not appear, forfeited their flefli.' 
At this period, the princes had already their 
officers of couit, namely, a marshal, a seneschal, 
•a cupbearer, and a chamberlain. 

To- show the relation which existed at this 
time between many inferior nobles and the dukes, 
we may quote here the answer which, according 
to AVippon, the counts and lords of the duchy 
of Suabia'Aade to Duke Ernest when he sum- 
moned them to rebel against the emperor: — 
"If we were the slaves of the king, and he had 
subjected us to your laws, we would follow. 


you in all your -enterpriMS ; bat we are free, 
and the emperor is notliing more than the com- 
mon defender -of our liberties, which we ahaU 
lose if we separate ourselves Arom him; there- 
fore, as soon as you require of us that which 
is iiiUnst, we shall make use of our liberty to 
return to the emperor, who has only submitted 
us to you under certain conditions.*' 

Conrad died in 1039, and was saeeeeded by 
his son, Henry III. The times of Conrad and 
Hekiry were the most flourishing period of the 
German monarchy; but the early death of the 
latter, In 1050, the minority of his son, Henry 
IV., and the feminine government of the mother 
of the latter, Agnes of Ouienne^ were, but too 
favourable to the designs of the great nobles. 
A contingent misfortune might have brought the 
imperial throne into a dependant state; and such 
a misfortune at length befell it in the increase 
of the papal power. Henry IV. was engaged, 
at an early period of his reign, in a war against 
the Saxons; and, at the same time,' Rudolf of 
Rheinfeld, duke of SuaDia, and Bertold of Zib- 
ringhen, duke of Carinthia, united their arms 
against him. In 1070,. the king, after having 
had numerous disputes with the pope, ventured 
on his deposition at a diet held at Worms. 
When the bishops made ^ this known in Rome, 
the knights and the |>eQple of that city, always 
ready to embrace the side of (hose who exalted 
the cause of Rome, took up arms antler the 
prefect of the town, but the pope, represented 
to them that spiritual, arms alone must gain the 
victory in this contest, tie assembled a hundred 
and ten binhops, and put und^r Uie bann, Sieg- 


fried, archblihop of Mainz, tiie disturber of tlie 
Gerinan empire, together witli all the bishops 
and abbots who had been present at the diet 
of Worms ; lastly, he extended the same penalty 
to the liing, declaring that he who had violated 
the honours of the church, had more than de- 
served to lose his own. „I will give him peace/* 
said Gregory, „when he shall' seek peace with 
God,'* (meaning with himselO< jj cannot find 
that when the Lord confided to the apostle the 
keys of heaven and hell, he made any exception 
in favour of kings.** 

At this crisis, Gnelph, duke of Bavaria, Ber- 
told, apd Rudolf, consulted together, and gave 
occasion to the summoning of a diet, in which 
they urged the king, since those who for a 
year and a day remained under the bann for- 
feited their estates, to oblige 'the pope to come 
to Germany. The people at this period, influenced 
by the monks, who, by castigation, fasting, 
silence, and strict obedience to their orders, 
had attained a high degree of popular veneration, 
were for the most part determined in favour of 
the cause of Rome. The emperor, apprehensive 
of the consequences - that might ensue if the 
pope should make his appearance on the Ger- 
man side of the Alps, preferred to go and seek 
absolution in Italy. He found Gregory at Ca- 
nossa, a strong fortress belonging to Matilda, 
countess of Este, which had been formed by 
nature and art, as a secure asylum. After the 
king had for three days and nights entreated 
pardon, with lamentation, in penitential gar- 
ments, and with naked feet, Gregory gave him 
absolution, under an engagement that he should. 

levolteil, WSB scarcely dead, when bis Becond 
■on, Henry, imitating the farmei, raised a le- 
belilooH kand aiainst the declining strength of 
his fatbei, who had already fought slily-five 
battles; (he sons of the monarch were ever 
ready to enter into llli(ation against the priri- 
leges of the crown, so lang as they had It not 
In their possession. In 1106, the dftlalh year 
of Us reign, Henry IV. was reduosd Co the 
oecesalty of yielding Che Insignia ot monarchy 
Into the bands of his son. arief and vexation 
shortened Ms days; and utter his death his body 
roBiained Ave years above ground, in a little 
ehapel. In tbe cathedral at Spire, nntil, .released 
nrom the bann. It at length obtained rest In a 
consecrated grave. He was succeeded by Us sen, 
Henry v., who muried Matilda, danghter of 

!23 siXRvcH or tnr 

■enrv I. of Sngland; after hia decease, thijr 
princeas was united to GeoArey of Aqjoa, to 
whom she had a son, afterwards Henry IT., 
king of England. Henry V. renewed the war 
against the papal chair, in which his father had 
/alien a sacrifice to the ambition of the pope. 
In 1111, Paschalis II. in the midst of a solemn 
assembly in the metropolitan oharch of the Chris- 
tian world, was seised and made captive by 
this emperor. But so powerfol was the voice 
of public opinion, that no victory, no rival pope, 
no oalamnions, or even Just reproaches, were 
safioiently powerfol to secure to the emperor a 
decisive advantage. At length, in 1123, Pope 
Calliztiis in. compromised the dispute ooncoming 
investitures with Henry V. ; it was agreed, ,',th8t 
the election should be left to the capitularies : 
the spiritual investiture should be performed by 
the pope with a ring and staff, and that of the 
(emperalities by the emperer , with the sceptre ; 
that a privilage should also he reserved to the 
emperor to ho present, either In person or by 
hhi oommissarles, at the election and consecration ; 
and in the case of any difference of opinion, to 
support the pretensions of the better party.'' 

About this time the progressive culture of 
estates , and the growth of arts , enriched the 
husbandmen and artifieers, and a new Interest 
was thus formed in opposition to the powerful 
nobility. The third state adhered to the monarA 
and the great lords, from Whom it obtained 
Hbeities which gave it security. The people of 
this class gradually flowed to cities, which 
aitoded then the 'safety founded upon unions 
and several citie* often fonued alliances with 

men ID IDC nenMse oi obomm miu 
bnl Bndw the SamUmm line wUab 
1 thea, it fell iBto iluue. 
LoUiBlre U,, »e lut of tbe ftMconUn tm- 
peron, died in 1137, and Conrad, duke af 
Fruconia, son af Frariarlo ol IIaben«taiUfcn, 
ami vfAgnai, dkasktw ofHanirlV., was eietfi 
at Coklena M auceeed felm. At the daath of 
alM pllnee la 1103, kla naptaetr, FTadarla 1, 


flornamed Barbarossa, then in. the flower of his 
age, and already celebrated for military exploits, 
ascended the throne. 

Rome soon experienced how much Frederic 
was capable of elTecting against or in favour 
of papacy; for when, in 1159, the cardinals 
could not agree in the choice of a- successor to 
Hadrian IV., he wrote to them, declaring that 
he would summon a general assembly of all 
Christendom. They then united their endeavours 
in favour of Alexander III. , a prelate of distin- 
guished courage and experience; but a synod, 
held by the emperor at Pavia, declared for 
Octavius , who assumed the name of Victor IV. 
Alexander pronounced the bann of the church 
against his opponent, declared the emperor to 
have forfeited the crown, and endeavoured to 
rouse in his own cause all the Christian courts. 
But the army of the emperor, at the head of 
vrhich fought the two archbishops of Mainz and 
of Cologne, marched towards Rome, and Alex- 
ander fled to Hontpellier. In the mean time, 
the greatest and strongest towns of Lombardy 
had formed a combination for establishing a 
fre6 republic, and a similar spirit began anew 
to display itself in Rome. The cities embraced 
the cause of Alexander, from apprehension of 
the imperial power; and the two great factions 
of the Guelphs who favoured the papacy, and 
the Ghibellines in opposition to it, were now 

The emperor entered Italy, burnt Crema, Tor- 
toua, and Sfllan,* ordered salt to be strewed 
where the latter had stood, and commanded that 
fields and meadows should be formed -on the 

nee ofa yen Uie abuda at ld,000 wuriora. 
n 1174, Pr«deri« kHd again renoarae lo arns; 
nt two yean aflent'ardB w*a CDnplettily Acfoat' 
id uy the Mi|ane»e at I.egnaao. The-«BpBror, 
nn tbis occailon, wim net sa Mnch bODlliated 
I ■umess of h)s adversaries, aa bf tke de- 
I e( his ftiend, Reaiy tbe Lien, at a (line 
wben be ww mfbring tbe presHire of nalainllr. 
In aplte of kla psraonsl remonMraitees. In 
uiglitSMith fear of Ute.scItiaM, Fraderk was 
reeonelled wKb Pope Alexander; be kfaaad tb* 
feet of tbe peRtW, wfco haatened te enbnto* 
anil eondact klui' to the altar. "Whe oIUm 
were Gongrmed, for a certain perted, la^etlgbt* 
of wfalob tbey bad paateMed theB^eltei; and 
Aleiaader, tbe ftUhef of tha Italian repokUea, 
made a (rianpbal entry Inta name , tAJcb tb* 
eld e«naali otgbt haTe envied btm. 



On tike return of Frederic to Germany, he pro- 
ceeded to: panish tbe treason of Henry the Lion, 
wbo refusing to appear before the diet to answer 
ihe charges against him, was deprived of his 
bonolffs, iefs, and other dignities, and, indeed, 
of ail except his atlodial possessions of Brunswick 
and Luneburg. His extensive territories were 
divided as follows: — the duchy of Saxony and 
the curcle of Wittenberg, were given to Bernard 
of Anhalt; the duchy of Westphalia feU to the 
arehbishop ' of Cologne, who had been his prin- 
cipal enemy; the county of Holstein was made 
a fief of the empire; the archbishop of Mainz 
obtained Eichsfeld; and, indeed, most of the 
neighbouring ecclesiastical princes bad their ter- 
ritories «iiJarged at the expense of the dulte. 
The landgraves of Thuringia possessed- themsel- 
ves of the county — palatine of Saxony. The du- 
chy of Bavaria was given to Otho von Wittels- 
bach, tbe ancestor of the present royal family 
of Bavaria. The counties of Cariuthia, Styria, 
and Tyrol, which had formerly been subordinate 
to this ducky, now became imperial flefs. Lubeck: 
and Ratisbon were declared imperial cities; and 
the Sclavonian princes, who had been vassals of 
Henry, were made princes of the empire under 
the name of dukes of Pomerania. Thus the 
treason of the duke of Brunswick entailed con- 
sequences which completely altered- the face of 
the German empire. 

In 1188 a diet was held at Mainz, where 
Barbarossa and a great part of the German no- 
bility took the cross. The crusading army as- 
sembled at Presburg, marched through Hungary, 
spread terror among the Greeks, defeated the 

lased kls reniam wltk seventy thuD- 
if silver. He laid rlalmlotbe mine!' 

.V- ~ ^nlng , 

lut ucfKRi-H -1 tbe erowo, and foicFd Ibe pcis- 
aeasoTH (o give up at least ane-tbird of tbe re- 
venue. The Cj'prfan king, ot the Irause of La- 
slgnan, and Leo, king uf the aeJgbbourinjt Ar- 
nenls, or properly Cilicia, ■oknowlftdfi*' hin 
pawer, which was greater (ban any other prince 
jD Christendom passensed. Re had persuaded ■ great 
proporllon of (he princes of the empire to assent 
that the throne o( Germany should be declared 
hereditary^ but was prevented from carrying this 
iMportant plan inlo execution Uy death, when he 
bad only attained bis thirty-secDnd year. Ae- 
coidlnK to some, he was poisoned by bis empiBBS, 
CimstBnce, daughter of Roeer, king ot «rily, tn 
avenge (he cruelty with which be bad treated 
her rebelliouu cfluntrj-roen. 



The »toit«i now made cheice , not of his »«■ 
rredorlc, wHo wfl» but tHree 5 ears old, but of 
bin brotlier PhlUp, to whoM s^toe P"n<»8» however, 
from Uisaffeotion or appr.eUeiisions for (heir li- 
berties, opposed Otho IV., the son of Henry the 
Lion While these rh als threw the empire Into 
disorder, Naples and Sicily, and the celebrate* 
pope. Innocent III., acknowledged (he preten- 
sions of Frederic. The war between Philip and 
Otho terminated in favour of the former, who, 
in 120^, was crowned at Aix-Ia.-ChapeUe , by 
4I,e archbishop of Cologne; but .th0 succeeding 
year termhiated both his reign and his life : he 
wa« murdered , June 22, 1208, at Bamberg, by 
Olho von Witteisbach. 

^The states now assembled at Frankfort, and 
agreed. OH the election of Otho, who also re- 
ceived the imperial crown from Innocent HI., after 
having sworn to maintain and defend the rights 
of the empire , to protect the churc^i, and espe- 
cially the holy see, and not to attack the youth- 
ful Frederic, king of Naples and Sicily. Notwilh- 
fltanding thesie pledges, Otho soon rushed pre- 
cipitately into the same measures which had 
Hivofved his predecessors in so many conflicta 
with the Roman see. Accordingly, Innocent, ex- 
communicated him, and the princes of the em- 
pire abandoned him for Frederic, son of Henry VI., 
who, accompanied by the bishops, entered Ger- 
many in 1212, and was crowned at Malna. Otho, 
too feeble to resist his successful rival , retired 
to his duchy of Brunswick. Shortly afterwards. 
In conjunction with his aUy, the count of Flandres, 
he was completely defeated at Bo^vlnes by the 
French: he died at Harxburg in 1218. 

with tbs ImagioKry acenca of raiottnce. Frailerie ' 
wwigtrteil Willi a peoolrating genius; kut amidal 
Ui uibUinity he was endowed wttti gracft and 
(Centlaaeiu; and biB afTablllty and true bumanity 
mdeared talm to idl. He poueaaed Inunovatole 
aTmneaH, and a grealnesa of iadividnal chS' 
raeter, tbu imprewion of wblch lang Harvived bj> 
death °. 

In 1315, thJs sovereign naoted an oath rrnai 
hia n«l>lea not to Roin bad money, not to levy 
mlruDrrtlnaiy tolls, and not to steal on the higb- 
way. Tlie Teutonic knigtatn, lining obliged t<> 
qalt Acre, relarned to Germany, where their 
grand-master was received Into the number of 
tk» laqierlal princes. The popes. In order to 
keep Fredwic employed la distsBt. countries, 
eompeltad him to enter - iulo an engagement tn 


30 9EKTCH or TMK 

deliver tke hely sepuldure; whieh, after bavins 
teeen excomiuanicated for bis delay by Gregory IX., 
be was obliged to fulfil in 1229. He concliided 
his eastern expedition without bloodshed , foi 
Meledin, the sultan of Egypt, gave up to him 
the sovereignty of Jerusalem, Betbleben, Naza- 
reth, and otbcfr holy places, without resorting 
to arma. 

Gregory IX. had ascended tiie papal chahr in 
the eighty-fifth year of his age, and held it 
fourteen years in perpetual contention with Ibe 
emperor : be was succeeded by Innocent IV. la 
Ibe employment of spiritual arms, the use of 
other weapons was not lost Might of; but the 
former were now wielded with more than usual 
energy by both parties. The emperor also ridl- 
euled the alTeeted solemnity of hfas adversaries, 
and endeavoured by every means in his power 
to lower tbefar infiuenee. So little, indeed, did 
be respect either clerical fmmanfties or pepnlar 
prejudices, that be suffered priests convicted of 
crimes, to be banged or bnrned; and be Imilt 
a city In the south of Italy for the Saraeeiw 
whom be bad sufodoed; but the time for elect- 
ing the revolution which be meditated had not 
yet arrived. 

la 1240 be was excommunicated by the pope, 
who accased him of having blasphemed Jesaa 
Christ at the diet of Pranbfort, and of b«rlng 
formed a design t« extirpate Ibe CbrMiaii reli- 
gion: this accusation, however, the emperor 
Sttccessfaily repelled. Germany reauiined faltbfiti 
to Frederic, until Henry, bis eldest son, deserted 
him: after whose death the landgrave of Tbo- 
ringia, aad then Wllliaa, coiuit of Bollaad, 

bvassed by Uie)r ovtn nobles, Would admit at 
■A interferenCfi TroBt fbe empwor. 

Neither Gonrad, the Hon of Frederte, whn fell 
ia the derence of his heredlUry paiweaiiioiu -, 
aor William, whs perished ^ematurely ty a 
dllTercnt Tate; nor the duke of Cornwall, brslher 
•r the KnKliah kin^, whn was elected hy tamt 
•f the princes, and onlj- knew how (o aell pri- 
vilege* in ardet to relmbrtnie hiouelT for tha 
■nmfl tJwy bat cost him; noiAlpttonan DfCnatlle, 
to whom athera eonlded (he erewn ; iror any 
other prince in ChrlRtendom, fonnd hlmfelf poa- 
■e«Md of the power reqrialte far reatoring the 
royal autborUy la Gemany, and the ImpOTial 
dtpnlty In Europe, to Ihat degree at eminence 


precedlag eenlnrlea. TW ■■preae magialracy o 
Ike •napoaa eomMOBweaUb Ml lata loifli : 
Blate or WMtoieaa, [hat the ttre«-aiMl-(«>at 


termed by many an interregnum, or a period of 
vacation of tlie tlirone ; and we may so consider 
them without doing injustice to the character of 
the age. 

This interregnum facilitated the consolidation 
of the power of the states; they now seized 
upon the domains of the crown which wore 
situated in their respective territories. No diets 
were held for the administration of justice; 
disputes were decided by duels; and the roads, 
the navigable waters, and, indeed, the whole 
face of the country, was exposed to the preda- 
tory excursions of lawless knights and nobles, 
who Inhabited innumerable fortresses. 

In 1254, the states, interested in the main- 
tenance of peace and order, united in common 
defence : thus was formed the Rhenish confe- 
deracy; and minor associations of the same na- 
ture were established throughout the country. 
TheHanseatic league was now called into exis- 
tence, and was shortly composed of eighty of 
the finest cities of Germany: these were divided 
into four classes, — Lubeck was at the head 
of the first, and of the league in general; Co- 
logne of the second, Brunswick of the third, and 
Dantzic of the fourth. Abroad, this celebrated 
commercial union had its principal establishments 
at London, Bruges, Bergen, and Novogorod. 

We have already seen the people exdnded 
from the election of the emperor: but an eleo* 
toral college was next fonnded, which exdndad 
from the exercise of that function the great 
mass of the nobility, and conferred it ez^usively 
on the chief temporal and spiritual princes. This 
limitation of their powem was re^nrdcd, liowttver, 

tke duchies of Austria, Styrlft, Wendiuiulc, Rod 
C«n>i«la, M flete of lUe emiilre, and 1>> mairy- 
Ing lluee of bis daugbCers to the eleclaia of 
Bavaria, Shiodj-, and BrandBnfaari!. 

The death <f Hudolf tooli place Id 129t ; ■( 
wai folloned liy an interregnam of aiav ujniilbs. 
which was terminated by the elecdon of Adolf, 
caunt af Natsaa, natwitluilaadiBg the eSiirU of 
Albert, son of the lata emperar, wha viaa ton 
powerful and ambilioiui. to suit (be deBigns uf 
the electors, accoalaBied (o UMsnie their own 
■troDcth by the weakneas of Uielt Bo>veTei(n. The 


new emperor was not rit^h enough to repay the 
citizens of Frankfort the expenses of his elec- 
tion; nor could he raise twelve thousand marks 
of silver, to pay for the province of Thuringia, 
which he had bought of Albert the Unnatural, 
its landgrave. Partly in order to obtain the 
money necessary for this purpose, lie entered 
Into a subsidiary treaty against France, with 
Edward, king of England. 

Whilst the emperor was encountering an un- 
expected opposition in taking possession of Thu- 
ringia, Albert of Austria, son of Rudolf, en- 
couraged by his various embarrassments, formed 
a strong party against him, and procured him- 
self to be elected in his stead. Adolf, who was 
a valiant commander, contended unsuccessfully 
for his dignity: after havuig bepn formally de- 
posed by a diet held a Mainz, he was killed 
by the hand of his rival , at the battle of Gel- 
hehn, in 1398. The privileges of the nobles, 
and the rights of the people were detested by 
Albert, because they continually opposed obstacles 
to his will. He endeavoured to carry his arbitrary 
designs into execution, in every possible mode; 
to strengthen his position and increase his pe- 
cnniary resources, he attempted to aggrandize 
himself at the expense of the marcgraves of Mis- 
nia, to form a Swiss principality for one of his 
sons, and to role absolutely inStjnria; and such 
was his conrage and ability, that he succeeded 
in almost all his enterprises. He humbled the 
states, but drew upon himself so much hatred 
on that account, that his neighbours entered 
into a confederacy against him; at length, in 
1308, he was mardered tn Switzerland , by his 


iH ftvpmitng [o maacK (De King or 
emperur died Baddenly, II Is suppo- 
sed of poiaou adojtnislered by a UoBlnican mank. 
Tbe electors, unable to agiee on tbe cbolce o( 
a successor lo tlie tbrooe, were now divided 
into two . paitles ; one of which favoured th» 
pretenalens of Lewis of Bawla, and tbe otber, 
CboSG of Frederic, duke of AuiStrls. A war en- 
■ued, H'tiicta lasted fonr years, and wis at last 
decided on tbe field of MubUarf, la ravonr of 
Lewis: bis rival was afterwards ImpriBoned In 
tke castle of Transnits. Lewis, folEowlng tbe 
example of bis four predecessors, endeavooied 
to consolidate the power of bis faislly, and ob- 
tained tbe sovereignty of Brandenliurg for bis 
eldest son, Lewis. Ilie policy of Ilie boose of 
Laiembtlrg, and (he Inluence of the pope, elfec- 
tualiy destroyed the peace of tbls einperor and 
bis raail>': and before the period of bis death, 
Wbicb took place in 1347, some of the electora 
were already occupied In cbooslog a 


Lewis V. was the first German emperor wko 
constantly resided in his hereditary states; the 
imperial domains no longer sufficing for (he 
maintenance of a court. The crow'n was now 
offered to Kdward IK., of England, who; after 
some deliberation, refused It; finally, after var 
rlous intrigues, and considerable delay, it W9S 
conferred on Charles of .X<azemburg, son and 
successor of John* of Bohemia, who purchased 
the concurrence of his rivals, the marcgrave of 
Mlsnia and the count of Schwarzborg, with thirty* 
two thousand marks. .It appeared to be the chief 
object of Charles, ilnring an administration of thirty 
years , to increase the power and splendour of 
his house, by obtaining from the alienable do- 
mains and privileges, the greatest possible amount 
of money, and other advantaged. On his Jour- 
ney to Italy, he sold freedom to some of the 
towns, and independent power to the tyrants 
who oppressed other- parts of that country; but, 
.on the other hand, he promised not to visit' it 
again, without the consent of the pope; and 
not to pass a night In Rome. He promulgated 
that fundamental law of the empire, the Golden 
Bull, which regulates the election of the German 
monarefas; its style partakes strongly of the 
splrtt of the. times. It begins. with an apostrophe 
to Satan, anger, pride, and luxury, and fixes 
the number, of electors at seven, who are Ce 
oppose the seven mortal sins. It speaks of the 
fall of the angels, of a heavenly paradise, of 
Pompey, and of Cesar; and asserts that the 
government of Germany Is modelled after the 
Trinity. Charles IV. so increased ^is hereditary 
demtelens, that in IdTS, they extended frem 

tence nf viorenl Rnil innDint eanduGt, >nil put 
bim into llie liar* cnMndji or tbe dokiu nf Au- 
Hria. He umda his encApe; bul nix j'rara nflcr- 
wardH, nil tb« nast Hhallnw prslenc(i«, whu ile- 
psned by the spirltiml elmlon, and by tbfl cnnnt 
IwJadne, wba sborlly sAerwarda berunehlsnuc- 
r.eMnr. Wenctilaf waa sa lUtle Ilka olbir mim. 
thM be acqalnicetf very willingly tn Wh nwn 
depotitioB. He is accuasd hy IIm mankMi an- 
naliiits of bis tine of all kinds or debancbery 
aid nnelt)'; batlC li not ImprobabU [bat none 
of the acenaallen* agalost biin may bave bad 
tluir orlUn in Ibe tmaat wbXeb be alKiu-ai] ta 
tha nfenorrn, Hwu and ZlsRK. Oae of tbe 
raaaana alleged iiy Ibn electora for depuring bim 
vita , tbat bi!i uianntra were nnwoHby uf an 
eB|ieror, and IhnC Jie allowed degi tn >leep In 


Frederic, duk* of Bmnswick, wmi elected in 
the place of Weneealaf , bat on his retarn. from 
Frankfort was mardered by the count of Wal- 
deck. Huperty count palatine of the Rhine , a 
prince of prudent and upriglit intentions, next 
obtained the crown. After his death, in 1410, 
it was bestowed on Jodocus of Luxemburi?, 
marcj^rave of Moravia, a nephew of Charles IV. 
On the decease of this monarch, which soon 
followed his election, Sigismund, king of Hun- 
gary, brother of Wenceslaf, was unanimously 
chosen. In 1414, this prince ■ summoned the 
council of Constance, which was attended , it is 
said, by eighteen thousand prelates and priests, 
and sixteen thousand princes and nobles; amongst 
other, persons assembled on this occasion , were 
seven hundred and eighteen courtisans, protect- 
ed by the magistracy. It. was here decreed that 
a council was superior to the pope. Huss was 
summoned to Constance, where he appeared, pro- 
vided with a safe-conduct from the emperor ; this, 
however, was violated, and the honest and zeal- 
ous reformer was humt alive. From this ttane, 
Sigismund became so much the ol^ect of popu- 
lar hatred, that he was obliged to m^^intain a 
war of eighteen years duration against Zlska, 
Procopius, and other leaders of the Hussites; 
and only a few months before' his death, attai- 
ned to the quiet possession of the Bohemian 
crown, which had been bequeathed to him by 
his brother, Wenceslaf. He narrowly escaped 
captivity or death by the arms of the Turks at 
Nicopplis; and was afterwards imprisoned by his 
Hungarian nobles. Sigismund waa so destitute 
of money, that he was obliged to sell the elee- 

iertble portion of that balf of tlie liereilllivy 
Geinuui dominions wbicb belongeil lu his house. 
Tbia prince died In 14»3 , alter tbe Btatea had 
BeverRl times menaced to depoae him, on account 
of (hat very incapacity to which he owed bis 
election; they BCunsed him of neglecting public 
alTalrs, of allowing the peace of the empire tu 
be disturbed with impunity, and of a lai admi- 
nistration of Justice. The greatest confusion pre- 
vailed dating liiH reign, and the empire was 
agitated by perpetual civii wars. 

The patriotic emperor, Maximilian I., son of 
the preceding, endeavoured to remedy (he de- 
fects in tbe political constitution of Germany, 
the danger of wiiicb became apparent. In propor- 
Ui* neighboaiini 

40 SKKtrH OV TNK « 

power «f Ptanee. He dhided tlie coimfry into cir- 
cles , and it was designed tliat the eonsUtifTieii 
of eaeii circle should be a representation in mi- 
niature of the whole empire; and that eack 
should possess its separate president, assemlilies, 
and regulations. This was an exoeileut plan, but its 
execation waS^ impeded by the religious dissen- 
sions which arose soon after this period. 

To put an end to the incessant feuds which 
were carried on under the savage maxim that 
„night gives right/' a supreme court of Justice 
was established; a perpetual internal peace was 
proclaimed, all feuds were prohibited, and an 
imtierial regency was appointed, to act in the 
absence of the emperor. The supreme court was 
composed of a Judge, four presidents, and ifty 
assessors: the latter were chosen by the diflTe- 
rent states. It had been the custom of the em- 
peror, Frederic III., to commute the military 
assistance which the states were hound to aford 
him for a certain sum of money: Maximilian 
followed this example, but Instead of appropria* 
ting all which he thus obtained, he devoted a 
part of It to the maintenance o( a body of re- 
gular troops CLaUTsiaMcMe), At this period, 
the iiower of the states was such, that tbe em^ 
peroi can only be regarded as the president of 
an assembly of sovereigns. The pretensions of 
the church were at this time exorbitant; tbe 
registers of the diet from 1450 to 1512, aro fil- 
led with complaints against the popes, whom 
the ecclesiastical princes did not hesitate to ac- 
cuse of having rendered tributary the free em- 
pire of Germany. The territories of the secular 
nobles were drained of maney for the purchase 

■euloiu, wben two Individuals rescued froni ila 
j-Bke the freedan at Stliope: one of tbeae was 
Praods I., tbe most accompJIilied knigbt of his 
en; and tbe otber, Martin Lntber. Nolbing was 
wanting to reni'er Charles V. the greatest prince 
!■ Earope, except that qnatily which Luther op- 
paaet to him, the daantleas conraKe inspired 
1^- the canaciansness «f pare Intenllona. Charles 
bad more ability to conceive than to execute; 
he was saspiclouB, crafty, and not capable of 
Mtlmallng the moral force of his advenarles. 
His power appeareil iBmeasuraiile, while he was, 
in fact, nnder the naceulty of concealing Uie 
nediacrlty of bis reaoorces: though king of tbe 
opnient lerrUories of the Sanib, heir of Biir- 
saody, and lord of tbe neu' world , he was ofteA 

42 KKKTOH <ir THB - 

flestitnte of mouey, froin want of which pro- 
ceeded •weakness in .a military discipline, which 
was also in itself defective in system, diaries 
did not arrive in Germany till 1520, when he 
was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle by the eccle- 
siastical electors. In the same year, Lather 
called on the pope, Leo X., to appoint com- 
missioners to examine the doctrines contained 
In his attacks on Tetzel, the vendor of the ab- 
solutions; bat the pope refused to comply with 
his demand, ordered his theses to be burnt, and 
excommunicated him after allowing a certain 
period in which to retract. The Reformation 
now coounenced, supported by the elector of 
Saxony and several other princes.. Luther, as 
it easily happens In revolutions, was probably 
carried by contradiction and. opposition much 
farther than he at first intended to go ; and his 
cause, having once been adopted by the nation, 
became invincible. He destroyed a great por- 
tion of tlie strange garb in which truth had 
been iu the dark ages enveloped, if not* totally 
hidden. The Bible, of wich he made an excel- 
lent translation, was the foundation and -support 
*of his whole system. It was in vain that the 
pope enjoined the German states to prosecute 
Luther: they replied by a long enumeration of 
complaints against the holy see, which was sign- 
ed by the Catholic princes, as well as by- the 
partisans of Luther. At this period, Charles V. 
was prevented from attempting summarily to 
repress the new doctrines by a war with Fran- 
cis I., which broke out in 1522, and raged 
without Intermission till the battle of Pavia, in 

carried on In a feeble and unconnected manner, 
und, in 1517, (be ProIesCants were completely 
defeated at Hublberg, Had the elector o( Saiony 
made prisoner. Charles, rree from hia rival ut 
France and frnm the opposition ot the Oermans, 
now forgot hia characterlatle moderstion : he 
Bssnmed at once n deapotic bearing; threatened 
to exeente the elector of Saxony wlUiaat ron- 
anltlng the atales; compelled the landgrave to 
demand pardon of him on his knees; annihilated 
the leagne of SmaUalde, and aaaemliled a diet 
at Aagtbarg, xfler filing (he town and neigh- 
bourhood with kis (Toopa. But this conduct was 
more calculated to Irritate than to terrify, and 
Ibi results H'ere galte cnntrary to what the em- 
peror expected: at length, In 1553, he was 
obliged to liberate tha IroprlBoned princes, ^nd 
conclude > formal peace In matters of religion. 
In the Kama year Charles V. reded to his son 
Philip, lbs r.ow Countries and the territories 
which be posaemed In Italy, after having repealed 
In vain bii efTorts to procure for him the Im- 
perial r^swii. Hvra eiifaabled Hy dlaeanas which 

44 aHMTU 09 THK 

bad impalrea liis vUia powers, and by vacivus 
causes of dissatUfactioii , tban by age, be took 
Cbe resolution, soon alter tbe conclusion of tb« 
religious peace, wboily to wUbdraw bimself 
from piiblic affairs. In bis yoath be bad given 
up bis beredUary doninioiis in Germany, to bis 
brotber; and daring one of tlwse frequent in- 
tervals in wbieb bis confidence in bis ovm for* 
tjne failed bim, bad caused Ferdinand instead 
of bis own son to be deciarc^d king of tbe Ho* 
mans, or presumptive successor to tbe imperial 
crown: in like manner, be now actuaUy trans- 
ferred tbe empire to tbe former, and all bis 
otber dominions to tbe latter. He himself witb* 
drew to tbe monastery of 8t. Just, wbicb is 
situated among well-watered gardens and mea* 
dows in tbe plains of Bstremadura, wbere be 
lived witb bis sisters, tbe widowed queens of 
France and Hungary, like a man wbose happir 
uesa is entirely independent of external greatness: 
be passed two years, and terminated bis life In 
tbis retirement, at tbe age of fifty-eight. 

Ferdinand I., brotber of Charles, ascended the 
throne of Germauy in 1558, after having been 
king of Hungary and Bohemia for twenty years, 
and king of tbe Romans since 1530. lu this 
reign was held a general assembly of tbe Pro- 
testants at Naumburg, wbere all the changes 
which bad been made in tbe confession of Augs- 
burg, in order to approximate it to the system 
of Calvin, were conected. Ferdinand I. died in 
t564, and was succeeded by his son, MaximU 
lian II. Philip iL, son of Cbarles V., received 
no assistance from the German branch of tbe 
House of Austria, between which and the court 

or ibe kindred HecU of Augsburg and Oeuevk, 
Whlcb wne driven (o Uie ntBioit pitch of n- 
KspcTBlioii by llie ula-nmted form oF cunnird. 
Wbile liHllviduiil atates Vfete advimcliig lu the 

union between th«M, livlead of beomuiug flrmer, 
waH relUHd by canlrovertfei*. Whta Ihe vii^ 
Mtlun of llie HHpreme coiut, bafore manUuned, 
CUDS tu tbe turn of tke ProteMant alalu, tbe 
uvceaswy work waa canpletely ut a stand. R»- 
dulf was cumiiellnl by ble bruUier Mattliias, wbu 
aHvrwarda sucoeeded Mm on'Ibe impflrlal Uiroac, 
tu abdicMe the urowua ofBohemia and Hungary. 
HatlMaa was nut riealltul* of talents; but batb 
be Mid Ruduif di«d wJIbout male iaiiae, the foriMr 
hi 1«19, 11)8 laUor In 1613. Under HattUaa 
tbe power uf Ilie alatea iiemia tu have lacrea- 
aed : Uiey unl]^ anwM«il aukaidlea tu lbs oMpirur 
fur spEcUc purpuaea; and tbey cxerdaed Ibarlgbl 


46 8KKf CH OP TUB 

nf electing a king of the Romans during his 
life-time and in spite of bis opposition. 

Ferdinand II., grandson of Ferdinand L, who 
now succeeded to the throne, had heeh educated 
in Spain, and appeared to he governed by this 
one prevailing maxim with regard to his duty 
as a monarch, — „that it was necessary that his 
own creed in matters of religion, should he the 
only mode of faith in his dominions; and in 
temporal affairs, his boundless authority, the 
only power." Under this emperor, - raged that 
great contest between the Protestants and Ca- 
tholics, which, from the period of its duration 
has been called the Thirty Years' War: it is 
divided into. its Palatine, Danish, Swedish, and 
French periods. Frederic, son-in-law of James I. 
of England, the fifth elector palatine of that 
name , ' being elected king of Bohemia • by the 
states of the kingdom, carried on a war with 
the emperor. Being defeated, in 1620, at the 
battle of Prague, and abandoned by his allies, 
he was driven from Bohemia and deprived of 
his other states. Shortly afterwards Christian 
of Brunswick and Count Mansfeld, the Protestant 
leaders in the north of Germany, were comple- 
tely defeated by Tilly. Christian IV. of Denmark 
then placed himself at the head of the confe- 
deracy against the emperor: he possessed the 
lihysical strength of the old Northern heroes, as 
well as their activity and love of glory, but his 
deficiencies as a statesman and in the science 
of war were so /evident that he was quickly 
convinced of his own weakness: Jiaving lost, in 
16!^, the battle of Lutter, in which Tilly com- 
manded the Austrian forces, he signed , three 

elgMh electorate; the Protestants gained liaerty 
nf Roiurclence; and tJie Imperial anthsrilf over 
til* prlncea of tbe empire was diDilnlabed. Tills 
was tbe epncb or several iraportant cbanges In 
the Inttmal CDnsIllutlun of Germany : standing 
Brmlfs wire now maintained, and ■ regular sys- 
tem of twutioD estabUshsd. Tht emparor Fer- 
dinand II. died before tbe peace , In 1637, and 
was Haeeeeded by bla son Ferdinand ni., M 
whoae deatb, in 1658, Leopold I. ascended tbe 
thrane. Not witbstan dine the pacISc dlsposllion 
of this emperor, he was Involved In severU 
cvoteMa wltb Torkey and Fruce; of tbe war 


o/ Uitf Sfittnlsii •uccea»ioii lie did iio( Itvo to 
see the termiiiatioii. In 1692, Brunswick-Lane- 
burg wan niade tlie BiBtli electorate, much to 
tke dissatisfaction of ttie elder branch of the 
family of Guelpli. In 1701, Prussia became a 
kingdom, and its influence on the affairs of the 
empire gradually increased from this time. The 
son of Leopold, Josepfr I. , prosecuted the war 
of the Spanish succession, and placed the elec- 
tors of Bavaria and Cologne uiidvr the baun of 
(he empire for having made common cause with 
France. On the prematHre death of Joseph in 
1711, hbi brother Charles VI. was invested with 
the imperial dignity. This prince was an am- 
bitious competitor for the Spanish crown, but 
the peace of Rastadt in 1714 frustrated his pro- 
jects. He succeeded, however, in establishing 
that celebrated Austrian family law respecting 
the succession, which is called the Pragmatic 
Sanction. In 1733, he took part in the Polish 
war In favour of Augustus III. of Saxony, against 
Stanislaus Lesciusl^y, who was favoured by Le- 
wis XV.; It was terminated favourably for the 
Saxons, hy the peace of Vienna in 1736. In 
1739, peace was purchased from the Turks by 
the concession of Belgrade, Servia, and Orsova. 
Charles VI. was the last male representative 
of the House ofHabshurg: at his death in 1740, 
I his daughter Maria Theresia succeeded to the 

govermuent of his hereditary possessions. But 
the prince elector, Charles Albert of Bavaria> 
disputed her right to the AusCrinn succession, 
and in 1742 opposed her as emperor of Germany^ 
under Ihe name of Charles VII. A war of eight 
> ears' duration ensaed, which wan eoncinded 

borlBburt;, ii> 1763. 

In 1766, Junttpb II. auceaaded liU fMber M 
auiiKUDi. Tbe firnC acts of tiu gitvenunent wore 
a revksiau iirilieailiiUiilstrUiuii »r JuMice ami of 
Ibit «)8(tiBi xf iiiaum: he next Kbaliibeil tba 
tiriler of Ilia Jesuits in Iiis iIouIbhibc, /Dllvwias 

Tbe clwravter uf Ibia priDcs anil Ue tendency 
lit tile tliae were uaiilfdeted by llie BgcHlul- 
zatiuB or iiiuiiuterieB, tkie edict cf (wlerailun of 
Ot-tubur 13, nSl, and Ibe gruiitlag a greater 
■bate o( liberty tu tlie praiis Uuui it bad bitbeite 
enjoyed. Tbe laanrectlan In Belgium, and tbe 
renewal of the vmr agHinst the Tuka, troubled 
(he laxt yeua «f tllis empeiar, wba died op- 
fTaosed with cared, Fekraary 20, 17S0. JoHfli 
wan bold, but tuu prtoiplCate; be bad not eufS- 
deutly atudied Ibe (emper of hla aBbJe«ls , wiri 
be oulMrlpped tbeii litelllgeDCB aad their wauU. 
Bn unitertuok an unequal contest agahut the 
voice of Bauklnd, and the work, »l his life pe- 
rished with biM. 

Leopold IL, bis brother, was now CHiied frun 
Tuacaoy to receive the iMperhtl crown. In tbe 
■UOceedlng year, Pnauia intarfwed between Ih* 
Awilrlaas aad the Turta, and peace was eun- 

60 ' AKKTCH or THB 

b*een gatberihg, and which had at length burst 
over France, threatened Germany also with de- 
vastation: on the 35th of Augast, 1791 , Leo- 
pold and Frederic ^Villiam II. of Prnssia, entered 
into an alliance at Pilnitz, to maintain the in- 
tegrity of the German constitution and empire, 
and to support the rights of the royal family of 
France. A few months afterwards, Leopold died, 
but his son and successor, Francis IL, entered 
into the same league with Prussia. When the 
National Assiembly declared war against Austria, 
the challenge was accepted by the whole German 
empire, November 23, 1792. After the unsnc- 
qesful campaign of th6 duke of Brumnvick and 
other failures, Prussia and several other German 
states concluded a separate peace wKh the new 
repHblie in 1795; and two years afterwards, 
the war* between France and Austria was Inter- 
rupted by the treaty of Campo Formio. Ne- 
gociations for peace between the empire and 
France were entered into at Rastadt, but they 
were frustrated by the renewal of hostilities In 
1799. The peace of Lnneville, which was con- 
cluded', February 9, 1801, made the Rhine the 
boundary of France, to which the empire ceded 
a territory of more than 1200 square miles, and 
containing nearly 4,100,000 af inhabitants. 

fn 1804, Francis IL constituted Aiistria an 
hereditary empire, and soon afterwards, in con- 
Junction with Russia, declared war against the 
emperor of the French. In the campaign which 
ensued, Ulm surrendered to the French, who 
on the 2nd of December, 1805, completely de- 
feated the allied sovereigns at Amterlitz: the 
peace of inresbarg concluded this war , In which 

quenee ot tlie peace at Prestturg; that th« diet 
li«d loag ceaaeil lo bave a will ; tbat tUe union 
arHBnnovBr wltb Prusaia bad aballBbed oneelec- 
tarste, *ui] UuM the king at Swedea had liicor- 
poraled one of the Imperial ptoviiices with his 
other atates; that, therefure, be did uut rerog- 
nlse the existence of Cbe Germiui eunslituljon, 
but on ttie other hand, waa ready lo Hcknow- 
ledge tbe uhllmited sovereignty of the prlncea 
whose territories bad bitberte composed the em- 
pire, and enter into (he same relations witb 
Ibem as witb tbe otber independent sovereign 
powers of Europe." By these meana the Ger- 
man empire of millennial duration was dissol- 
ved; on the 6th of AugunC, 1806, the Empe- 
ror FroBeis resigned the Imperial crown, and 
declared his bereditary posseaaions tu be sepa- 

M 8kkti;h oif tun 

war of Napttleoii ax^ainst l*riissia, llnMsila, Sa- 
xuiiy , and Hwedeii. In October, tli« power of 
Uie first-ineiitioneil kingdom was completely an^ 
uihilatod at Jena, and peace was aiiortly after« 
wards concluded at Tilsit. The Rhenisb confo* 
deracy was now Joined by eleven princes of 
Northern Germany; and in 1807, the kingdom 
of Westphalia was erected for Jerome Baonaparte 
out of Prussian, Hessian, and Brunswickiao 

In 1809, a new war broke out between Rrance 
SMd Austria, on the 9th of April: between tho 
20lb and 33rd of the same month, throe battles 
were fought, at Abensberg, Sckmuhl, and Ha- 
tisbon; and Viunna capitulated on the 12th of 
Blay. By the peace of Vienna, of the 19th of 
October, Austria ceded the IIljTian provinoos on 
the right bank of the Save to Franco; Salta* 
burg, to Bavaria; districts in Lusatia, and the 
wJhole of West Galieia, to Saxony; and tho 
emperor oonsonted to the marriage of his. daugh- 
ter with Napoleon. When Napoleon undertook 
hhi faUl expedition into Russia, in 1812, Au- 
stria and the numerous members of the Rhenish 
confederacy, were forced to furnish contingents 
to his army; and 100,000 Germans foi»d thetar 
graves in the wilds of Russia. The Frettch o» 
their retreat from Moscow were severely pressed 
by the Russians; to whom the king of Prussia 
formally Joined himself at Kalisch, February 28,. 
1813: at the same time, several states of tli» 
North flew to arms in the cause of liberation: 
insurrections broke out at liUbeek and Hamburg, 
and aU Germany was agitated by the hope of 
a speedy emancipation from her dmgracefittl ben- 


fulluwed bis eiatuiile. TUe FfKiidi celrealed 
befvni! tlie Rliiiie, and were parsunit by tkc 
nJlies, H-Uo cnlered Parlx , Marcb SI, 1814. 
Uii Ibe 3t)Ib ur Hny, peace waa eanclDditd at 
Paris: fmuce restured all lis cunquntls, wllli 
the eiceptiuD ill nuntbelllud and a few HaBll 

It was dr<:lded tbat the aeiDun sutes sbould 
leaiaiii independent, but coimeL-ted b) a federa- 
tlve unluu, wbicb was sliurll)' aRenrards esfa- 
bllaiiHd by tlie congresa uf VleiiDB. Thus , Cer- 
uiaiiy bus ceasMl ta be a shigle, united empire, 
nud is changed Inlo a anion uf slatea, wbltb 
are bound by A syatem of co-ordinaliuu, but 
uut uF ■uberdinatiun : they are collectively re- 
preiienlud by a Diet, wbliJi held Itn Irsl sllttng 
■t fVaiikfurt, Kuveniber b, 1816. 

lu urder to animate their subjects In the war 
which Haa waged against Napoleon fur (he na- 
tional axlsleiice, jjomc of tbe sovBreigiis pruuii- 
Hed tu present Ibeui wilh a coiiatitutiunal furm 
uf guvetnmeul, in Ibe ruum uf an arbitrary one, 
— and, at the coucluileii uf that vehemeni and 


lioiiourabU utruggle^ they retteemetl tli«tr pledge 
In various modes and. seasons. If the sanguine 
have not obtained all that tlicy expected, and 
if tlie immediate results bave not been satisfac- 
tory to all, — something must be allowed to 
tbe snddennes of tbe measure, to the imperfec- 
tions inseparable from a first experiment, and 
to the want of training and apprenticeship. For 
a nation does not accustom itself in a few years 
to coiistittttional forms, they must grow even 
through centuries to maturity before the fruit 
can be abundant, wholesome and grateful. One 
of the most fatal political errors of our age, 
is tbe belief that every people are ripe for a 
constitution, — and that all, in the first mo- 
ment of fruition, are capable of converting pos- 
session into happiness. The soil must first un- 
dergo a slow preparatory cultivation, and many 
a harvest must be reaped without present profit 
-~' but still, not all in vain. ^ 

* The EBgliah Unfuage is not very rich in histo- 
ries of Germany, but we may refer the reader to Char- 
lee Butler's Succinct History of the Revolutions of the 
Empire of Germany . (1812) , Halliday's Works on the 
History of Hannover, Brunsn^ick, and the Guelph; 
Dunham's History of the Germanic Empire, in 3 vols., 
forming a part of Lardner's Cyclopadia C^^^— ^)' 
and, above all, to the Universal History of John von 
Mailer, eloquently translatated by Dr. Pricbard, S 
vols. (1818). See also Greenwood's History of Ger- 
many, as far as .the year 1774. Oto). 

Or all tbe leading Eoropean coontrtcs, Get- 
many iH (be least familiarly known, and until 
n rovfliit period, UiE leaat rrequenteil by sban- 

n tbeir 

nera ui<l aspects. Tbis obscuriiy, utiicli m, 
bopplly, daily 3ieldin« to a JiHgtiter dawn, baa 
been lu-otfacled by a larietj' uf rauaeti. One 
iif Ihe cbief of Iheas bas been tbe later deve- 
lupuicnt uf lis literary and artieliral gejilus, — 
' anotbet has been tlie difficulty of tbe laneuage, 
and Ibe loo long adherence to tl>e Golhic letters, 
wbich bave frigblened many a timid slodeiit, 
and, wblcb, it in la be boped, will anon be 
entirely diaused. It is true tbat (bia old Ine- 
tbod of printing ban been vaiued by sume as a 
iiatlunal L'baractertntic , but it is assuredly one 
of no value; and it would be well, alan, if Ibe 
peculiar manner vf band'Wriling were dbicarded 


at tli« same sweep. The excessive cultivation 
of the French language lu almost all (he schools 
of Europe, and more particularly in our own; 
its general emplo}inent in diplomacy, and the 
overweening partiality formerly entertained to- 
wards it among the higher ranks of Germany, 
have proved powerful Impediments to a better 
knowledge of this great country. Bad roads, 
inconvenient conveyance, and frequent occupations 
of armies, may be also added to the catalogue 
of obstacles which no longer exist. 
The name of Germany is believed to be de- 

I rived from two words, the first of whit^i means 

either war, or a sword, and the second is a 
man; together they imply bravery, as does the 
word Frank. The Germany of the ancients co- 
vered a much larger space than that of our own 
time, as it appears to have designated not only 

j the actual Germany, but also other regions which 

have been before enumerated. The people who 
inhabited these countries were called Teutones, 
perhaps from the ijame of one their deities; 
hence the common appellation of Teatonie applifid 

I to all the Germanic family, and hence also the 

word TeutscMand or Deutschland. The et>ino- 
logy of the word AUemanni, whence AUemagne, 
is so variously given, that I shall not pretend 
to interpret it. 

Placed in the centre of Europe, Germany forms 
nearly the fourteenth part of that quarter of 
the world, and about the two hundred and ninth 
part of the world itself. It is longer than the 
whole of Great Britahi, of Ireland, and of Italy 
taken together, longer tbaii Prance. Belgium and 
Holland taken together, and, in Its whole extent. 

dikes 1h order to defsiu] it *£>)»*( tie (en. Ttn 
centre nnil (he souUi are ^xtiaiSet by nnblB 
MMinUin^ rn riv«rs U 4« nire favoarsil lliaa 
my ailmr Earopnan oomttrr; (ke Rfiine rami one 
hDndred anil nint- (y eemMi miles, 4Drlngaf[r*>- 
ter part of which It oonljpaea naTi0l'>'*l "■< 
Elbe sitRnil* live bonAretl «■! nevoMy-Ave Kns- 
llBli milen in length, and in ahn ■ nwl«MI<i 
■Inan; anil like Kraiul Danulie dona not (»m- 
plele Ibe IL-<t, wbllB It nppenn destined, here- 
after, to erUpte all Ike elhen In poMiciil I*- 

TliertijBateor6eriIMny'»eeRIIi Ui have altered 
ltd cbHtactPT under Ibe laAuaoGe of nlvillzatlen. 
It wiw IntenoBly onU Ib the Hffe of Ckmt hmI 

Ju^rT' biHrafT dr JWo- 


of Tacitus, but the country was at that period 
uncultivated, barren,, cheerless — beset with marsh- 
es and with immense gloomy forests. The Her- 
cjrnian forest is said , in the time of C»sar , to 
have been nine daj^s' journeys in. length , and 
six in breadth ; it is now lost in various woods, 
which are called by separate names. At present 
several extensive forests still stud the traveller's 
road, and the mountains are often crowned with 
picturesque woods. The care of these forests 
occupies a large population, of various degrees 
of rank and education , and lends a peculiar 
trait to German life, and not the only one which 
originates In its local circumstances. It is in 
the mountains and forests of Germany that we 
must wander in search of wild tradition, fftUry 
lore, and still surviving specimens of bold, racy, 
pastoral character, starting in rude relief from 
above the surroundinjg: tamer level of cities and 
of commerce. 

In the north of Germany the air is moist, 
and colder than in the mountainous central dis- 
tricts. The south is more dry than the .north, 
but less warm than the central parts. Winter 
reigns almost constantly in the higher moun- 
tains, or yields but for a transient moment to 
the sunbeam; but in the narrow valleys which 
abound in the mountainous ranges, the atmos- 
phere is often oppressively close. In the south- 
em Tyrol, and the country which borders the 
Adriatic, we breathe almost an Italian air, and 
witness southern fruits in a kindred element. 
The climate of Germany has been by Malte-Brun 
divided into three great zones, which admit 
also of subdivisions. The first embraces th* 


mate of Cerman)', the moat wboleaon 


f the Alps, where 
tion and the raiiid declivities prodac 
el teraperiitara — eternal glaciers in one part, 
perTumed valleyN In anuther, and an attemale 
rade health and drcllne of the vineyard. 

The principal German rivers are: 1) the Rhine, 
Into which fiou- the IVulacli, Wlesen , Kander, 
Trelsam, Elz , Kinzlg, Rench , Mnrg, Laoler, 
(now boundary on the side of France), Pfinz, 
Qtieicb, SalKbach, Speyerbach, Neckar, Main, 
Nahe, L^n, HorbI, WIed, Ahr, Sleg, Wipper, 
Etfl, Diissel, Auger, Hnbr, Bmacbei and Lippe. 
2] Ihe Danube which receives the I.auchart, 
Ablacb, Lanter, lUer, Roth, Biber, Ounz, Hin- 
del, Brenz , Schmutter, Wernitz, Lech, Paar, 
Ilm, Altmiihl, Nab, Regen, Labet, bar, Vila; 
inn, nz, Dran, Ena, Ipsand and March. 8) 
, the Weaer which Ir fanned hy the Janetlon of 


tJie WVrra and Fn Id* and wUcb receives tiM 
DiiMuei, Kninier, Werra, Aller, Delme, WHinrae, 
llunCe and Geest. 4} the Elbe into whirh flow 
the Aape, Mettan, Adiers, Dolirawa, ber, Mol- 
dan, Kger, Magiltz, Wi;!«enitz^ Weiaseritz, blark 
ElMtor, Mulde, Saale, Ohre, Tanger, Havel (with 
the Spree), Aland, StAr, Jetze, Stecknitz, II- 
menaa, Este, Luhe, Svhwinge, Aae, Rhene and 
QaCe. 5) the Oder whlph receives the Oppa, 
Oelsa, Klodnitz, Malapane, Weida, Weistritz, 
Neiaae, Ohlau, Katzhach, Boher, Bartath, Warta 
and Ilwa. 6) the Vistula which alao rises in Ger- 
many hnt leaves it at a ahort distance, not being 
yet navigable. 

There are not many canals in Germany; the 
•principal are the Eider canal; the Plauen canal 
between the Blhe and the Havel; the finnow 
and JWullroese canals, the latter between the 
Spree and the Oder; the canal in Bavaria be- 
tween the Isar and the Ammer; tbe Papenhnrg 
canals; the Vienna canal, from that city to and 
beyond Meostadt; and the canal which nnites 
tihe Steckenitz with the Trave at Ldbeck. Ano- 
ther nadertakiag of very great importance to 
German commerce in general is the Donau-Main^ 
C<m0l, intended 9^ a communication between 
the Danal»e and the Main. This canal will pass 
along Bamberg, Brlangeni .^furnberg and enter 
th^ Danube at liehiheim; the works will take 
several years. 

Railroads are not neglected in Germany, but 
tlieir extension depends on the policy of the 
governments, whick does not always correspond 
with the intereats of portions of their rosppf'* 
tiv*^ countries or particular town.**. A railroad has 


Ilniahed at tbe end of ISaS. A tine w)U prn- 
haJUy be laid down between Berlin and tbe Sa- 
lon frontier, so aa to meet tbe contlDoatlon nt 
(be railroad from Dresdan to Leipzig, wblcb la 
to be carried la the aame point, Tbe one be- 
tween Vienna and Bobemta, called (be JCaUer- 
Ferdiiumdi-XOTdbatin, la In progress. Tbe prin- 
cipal townd alonK tint line will have by-roads 
leading to tbe main one. Tbe railroad rrom 
Vienna to Raab, close lo tbe Hungarian bsDndaiy, 
ia hIbo in pragreiiH; (he otber AuBtriao railroad* 
In progrea* are; onebelweenPragae and Pllaen, and 
anotlier between BudweiH andLInz; the latter has 
slread; been continued BonUiward as far as 
Gmdnden. In the duchy of Bninswlclc a railroad 
baa been commeiicud wblcb lata anile tbe towns 
ofBrnnswicic and Harzbnrc; it is flniahed as far 
aa Woirenbnttxl and will he entirely completed 
in the canrae ot 1889. The line intended ta 
be establlsbed between Trankfort and Hayeuce 
ia of macb Inpoit to tbe (rade of tlie two tawita, 
and wlUcertalnl; be carrlad ialo execution, not- 

62 OBKBRAf. VlffW 

wittaHtaiiding some obstacles, wlitch are sCifl 
impeding tlie works. Bavaria has the honour 
of having opened the first one in Germany for 
steam-carriages: this was from Furth to NU' 
remberg; at present another railroad is in course 
of execution between Mannich and Augsburg. 
The principal mineral products are: silver, 
C123,000 marlcs annually^ found chiefly in the 
Brzgebirge and in the Harz; gold C1B2 marks}, 
iron C3,000,000 €wt) , copper C39,000 cwt.), 
tin C8,000 cwt.3, lead C200,000 cwt.J, quick- 
silver C6,180 cwt.3, in Idrta and ZweHMrueken; 
cinnabar C8,(K)0 cwt.), cobalt 016,000 cwtO, 
zinc, sulphur, coal, marble, alabaster, gypsum, 
alum, vitriol, bii*muth, antimony, saltpetre, 
lime, asbestus, slate, grinding-, rolling-, mill-, 
sand- and pumice-stones; chalcedony, basalt, 
agate, amethysts, granite, porphyry, precious 
stones, great quantities of spring-, and rock- salt 
C6,000,000 cwt. is produced by seventy-six salt- 
works , now in operation}. 

The chief vegetable products are : com, maize, 
;^nck-wheat, garden-fruits, pulse , potatoes, hemp, 
flax, tobacco, hops, rapeseed, madder, woad, 
salTron, anisseed, liquorice-wood, coriander-seeds, 
mustard. The most common trees are oaks, 
beeches, firs, pines, larches, alders, birch. Of 
wine thirteen million einter annually are made 
on the Rhine, Neckar, Main, near Meissen and 
Nauniburg. in Saxony, in Austria and Bohemia. 

Among the animals of Germany are: abundant 
horned cattle Ccalculated at 14,000,000}; horses 
(about 3,000,000}, of which the best breeds 
are in Mecklenburg, HoNtein, Oldenburg and 
Kast Friesland; sheep C^000,000} of wMch 


Ueae numhpra ar« dllTereiit In unounl. On the 
wbale ir apreiTB that miirrlageH are more nmne- 
rou« In propoTtlDn in Cm many Ihan in any olhar 
Bnfepean ataCe, — limt hirthnnie mnre nu'me- 
roaa Ibere Ja praporllon to the pnpulatfnn, Ihan 
Ja France, Envland and Srulland — Hnd that 
ae Hnniial pmportJsn of ilealli is also ereater 
(ban )n Oreat BrJIain *. There ara 3,360 ritien, 
•r whlrb iblrty-roHf canlain mnre man 30,000 
InbabitanlB; 3,380 toHM, 110,400 vlJU^ea and 
feanilels and 5,035,000 liuuBea. The fnliahilanR 
belODK Id Iwo aeparate rncrs ; 38,000,000 ate 
OeriDuis and 5,700,000 are Srlavonians, wbu 
•rs icattered ltarau){hout (he east (it Germany. 

06 (jVNKiUL vnw: 

these two words ^. The German language fa 
very nne^ually speken; a remarkable variety on 
point of correctness and elegance prevails even 
among persons of edocation. Indeed it is not 
uncommon to hear it remarked of a German 
gentleman, tbat be speaks his language weU. 
On tlie whole, probably, the German language 
is nowhere heard in higher perfection than in 
the city of Hanover. 

The universities are remarkably numerous ; 
there are 23; in Austria those of Vienna, Grotz, 
Innspruck, Olmutz; in Prussia those of Berlin, 
K«^nrgsberg, Breslau, Halle, Bonn, Greifiswalde; 
in Bavaria those of Munich , Wurzburg , Brlan- 
geh; in the kingdom of Saxony that of Leipzig; 
in Hanover tluU; of Gottingen; in Wurtemberg 
that of Tubingen ; in the grand duchy of Baden 
those of Heidelberg and Freiburg; in the grand 
duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt that of Gressen; in 
the electorate ftf Hesse-Cassel that of Marburg; 
for the several duchies of Saxony that of Jena ; 
in the duchy of Mecklenburg -Schwertn that of 
Rostock, and in the duchy of Holstein, belonging 
to Danemarc, that of KieL Of these, seven are 
Catholic; three, viz: Breslau, Bonn, and Tu- 
bingen, both Catholic and Protestant, and all the 
rest are Protestant. 

In 1830, there were at these universities 890 
teachers and nearly 19,000. students. * The an- 
nual expenditure of the respective governments 
upon them Is, at Bonn 150,000 florins, atGies- 
sen 47,791, at Heidelberg 74,000, at Tubingen 

* VoIIstindiges Bngliseli-Deutachefl ^ u»d Oeutveh- 
Eagliscliefl Wftrterbucli^ page vi. Leipsig, 1838. 

in Silesia, Bobemla, Westphallai of wooIeB 
caods, on (he iMwer Rhine, In Saisny, Sileala, 
Brnndenburg, Ac; af ailk, le«tlier, cotton go oda 
Olid Jace in the Erzgebk-ge; oC Upeatry, Ptper, 
and glasB )q Bohemia and Silesia; of niirrors, 
near Nnreroberg; ef diina, at Berlin, MeUaen, 
and Vienna; af deiri-wace, of whtch there are 
irty-flve , and which together with the twenty- 
flve s/ china, employ abont S,000 men; of Jew- 
ellery, at Berlin and AagBburg; of iron ware*, 
Id WeMphalie and the Rbeniab countries; of 
ire-aims and sword-blades, at Spandaa, Pot*- 
dam, and several other places; at cannons, at 
■everal capllals; of gunpowder, tobacco, artlS- 
clal flowers, straw-hats, musical and ottier in- 


nfrnmeiits, beer, brandy, liqneura. vitriol, Mid 
sugar. The principal exports are : wood , com 
(to the Taloe of 10,000,000 of dollars) , wine, 
lliieii, Cformerly to the value of 80,000,000 of 
dollars), thread, Iron, steel, Naremberfr wares, 
china, quicksilver, glass, mirrors, cattle, fruit, 
wool, salt, potash, smoked and salt meats, 
earthenware, wax, leather, lead, woolen and 
cotton goods, lace, rags, bones, quills, skins, 
alum, lead, vitriol, cinnabar, and brass wire. 
The chief Imports are wine, tobacco, southern 
fruits, colonial goods, millinery, fancy ornaments, 
and Russian linseed Cto the value of 1,000,000 
dollars annually). The most important maritime 
towns are: Hamburg, Altona, Bremen, Bmden, 
Lubeck, Rostock, Stettin, Triest, Wismar; and 
the principal places for inland trade are : Vienna, 
Leipsic, Augsburg, Breslau, Berlin, Frankfort 
on the Main, and Frankfort on the Oder, Sm- 
remberg, Brunswick, Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, 
Elberfpld , Mainz , Botzen , and Prague. The 
most important fairs are at Leipsic, Frankfort 
on the Maine, Frankfort on the Oder, Naum- 
burg, Brunswick, Botsen. 

The commercial union lately formed, at the 
instigation and under the direction of Prussia, 
among several German states, and which is ac-* 
conlingly denominated in the Conver^aHons-Le-' 
xicott, the Prussian-German XoU'Verein — de- 
mands some mention. The avowed object is to 
encourage German trade, and to unile all under 
one common system of customs. The partners 
in this union have agreed to establish one same 
scale of duties, to get rid of all intermediate* 
custom-houses, - and to divide among the partner- 
states the profits accruing, in proportion to the 


p«paiatioii of eaeb. TJiub, tlie restraints on 
internal transport bave boon mitigated. The 
following states compose tbe association : Prassia, 
Bavaria, Saxony, Wortemberg, Baden j^ Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Hesse-Cassel , Nassau, Frankfort oo 
tlie Main; — Bannover, BrwMwick,^ and the 
Hanse Towns, bave bitlierto stood aioof. In 
1835 an union was formed between Hanover, 
Brunswig, and Oldenburg; tbis combination en- 
deavoured to gain over to its party, Lippe- 
Scbaumburg, and Lippe - Detmold ; — and bas 
inally acceded to a conjoint union witb tbe 
Germanic Commercial Association. Holstein is 
neutral. Mecklenburg bas entered into a treaty 
witb France. Austria bas all along remained 
taidepeifdent. A commercial treaty bas lately for- 
med between ber and England; two states wbicb 
seem eminently calculated to render mutual ser- 
vice to eacb other, both in peace and war, 
and which are united by long hiterchange of 
j^ood offices. 

Tbe political constitution of GFermany was iixed 
by tbe treaty of Vienna, conciuded June 8, 181&; 
according to wbicb, tbe sovereign princes and 
free towns form the Germanic confederation, tbe ob- 
ject of which is the maintenance of the exter- 
nal and internal safety of Germany, and the 
independence and inviolkbilHy of the several 
states. The affairs of tbe confederation are 
regulated by a diet, the members of wbicb have, 
through the medium of their plenipotentiaries, 
many of. them separate and entire votes, and 
others, collective votes. 

Austria, Prussia, Pavaria, Saxony, Hanover, 
Wortemberg, Baden, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darm- 


st«<U, Holatein, and Luxemburg, have emck tme 
vote. The graml-ilnral and docal homeH ofSaxony 
luive one fioiUointly ; am also Brunswick and Nassau ; 
the two Meclilen burghs ; Oldenburg, Anhalt, and 
Schwarzburg; Hohenzullern) liichtenstein, Reuas, 
Lippe, andWaldeck; and Anally, the /Vee towns; 
Ihu8 there are altogether seventeen votes. Aus- 
tria has the presidency of the diet. Each member 
is entitled to originate and bring forward pro- 
positions, which the diet is bound to deliberate 
upon within a certain period. 

\^lien a proposition relates to the formation 
and alteration of the fundamental laws of the 
confederation, when it refers to the federal act 
itself, or to the organic federal institutions, or 
when it involves arrangements of any kind, which 
are of general importance, the assembly is for- 
med into a Plenum, in which case, however, 
in consideration of the difference In the extent 
of the several federal states, the following pro- 
portionate distribution of votes has been agreed' 
upon: Austria, Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Han- 
over, and Wurtemberg have each four; Baden, 
Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Holstein, and 
Luxemburg, each three; Brunswick, Mecklen- 
burg-Srhwerin , and Nassau , have each two 
votes; Weimar, Altenburg, Meintngen, Cobnrg- 
Ootha, Mecklenburg -Strelitz, Oldenburg, the 
three Anhalts, the two Schwarxburgs, thi» two 
Hohenxollern , Lichtenstein , Waldeck, the. two 
branches of Renss, Lippe-Schanmburg, Lippe- 
Dntmold, Hesse -Homburg, Lubeck, Frankfort^ 
Bremen, and Hamburg, each one; making al- 
together sixty-nine votes. 

The question as to whether any particular sub- 
ject require the decision of the Plrnum is de- 

jHCtB Of delitierallnn kre dlspused o/, to »c(joum 
fur a cerUlii lime not fiiceeding four noBllis. 

Tu tbuMs readers who may ieahe iu abtahi 
an jnlinnle acqaaislaiice witir tte ta|irif;r»pby, 
liirni feiHtory, antiquities and ainuaeDioiita of 
GMDUiny, we are i;iai^ tu have an nppurlunlty 
of revvoimending two excellent volameB wLlcb 
bavH rscHiti] appwued, and wtaieb HHroaM all 
tbeir piedecesBors in variety aiid uiiiiotaneNp j 
these are , Ibe HaaMook for TriaeUtnrt on fhe 
Conlliieiit, fncludiiig KorUiern Oennaiiy, and tlie 
Baadiook for Travellers la SoaUurn Gervuiny. 
H b bat JHKIice te declare that nu worlc of Ifae 
aane eilent at all equal In \alu«, bas ■jipFsred, 
even in (he Oerman langnagei tbe Guide of 
Heirbard iraptoved by autuiequent editura, tiimea 
Ibe nearest lo tl, but hIIII witb a lung interval. 

We Bluill rondude tills mlsceHaiieoua rfeapter 
wilh ■ (BlialBr view of all tbe Oerman atalea, 
arranged tccordinft to tbelr cumparatlve ranli, 
and dlBplaying their cMent, population, rereiiue, 
and nillilai]' contingent, or 
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PsRViousLY to the revolutionary wars , and to 
Ibe iavasion of tHe Fieencli, Gormany was divi- 
ded into about three liundred sovereignties, and 
fheir temporal and ecclesiastical rulers possessed 
all the attributes of kings, with the exceytloiL 
of their s^egiance to the emperor of Germany. 
A great part of them were swept away. I)y the 
yolitieal tempests, and became mediatised, or 
4ierged in the greater states^. 

In order to establish a permanent, uniform, 
and legal position of the formerly independent 

* The German enpire, as it wan then called^ was di- 
<«Fided into nine circlea^ Austria, Bavaria, Suabia, Fran- 
eonia, tlie Upper Rhine and the Lower Rhine, West- 
]|halia. Upper Saxony and Lower Saxonj. There were- 
t)so some districts which were not incliided in any one of 
liie nine circles, and yet were considered es belonging 
f» the Gre'rman empire, each as Qfvravia, Lusa^ia, 8i- 
bsia, Bohemia, and others. The Austrian LowrCoon- 
tries , which had once foirmed the circle of Borgundy, 
Ifad long ceased to be considered, as a part of the em- 

5 ire. These circles contained a muUitade of small in- 
ependent states ; . there were also fifty-one imperial 
cities, constituting so many republios. 

Those who wish to stady tpe- fine old Gothie and 
feudal forms of Old Germany, with all its eurioos ap- 
Mndages, should consult Btuching'$ Oeoffraphjf. (Eng-. 
Itsh'Transl. 6 vols. 4to.> 



since the jevr 180^, tlie German poweni hare 
agreed on the fottowiiig points: — 

Ffrst, That all medtatised prinees and counts 
should he placed amongst the high 'nohlUty of 
Germany, togeOier with which the right q# aquat 
hirth should be conceded to them. 

Secondly, That they should he the principal 
noblemen of the states to which they belong, 
wliere also they and their famUies should form 
the privileged class, more particularly in respect 
to taxation. 

Thirdly, That they shall permanently possess 
all those rights and privileges, in respect to 
their person ^ family, and property, which are 
connected with the tenure and enjoyment of 
Ibeir possessions, and' which do not interfere 
wi<3i the higher rights of government, and with 
the executive. 

Austria ratified these provisions, and decreed, 
Sept. 9, 182&, that Uie titles of mediatised 
places slioultf correspond to their independent 
ones. Thus the predicate DurcMaucM^ is con- 
ceded to princes, and the predicate JErlctucM^^ 
to counts. Since 1833, the predicate DurcMaucht, 
which was formerly only possessed by the chief 
of the house, has llieen assumed by all its members. 

The following catalogue of the mediatised prin-. 
ces.and counts, who possess the riglit to the 
predicate of Durehlaueht and of Erlauchi ^ has 
heen obtained from Haswers Genealogisch^StaiistU 
scher Aknanacft for 1838^. The population and 
revenues are, of course, only approximative. 

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A. coMPLBTB history of the nobility of Europe 
is a blank which remains to be filled up in mo- 
dern literature. No class of men has undergone 
such cruel reverses, and none has borne them 
with so much fortitude. None have contributed 
so largely to the encouragement of literature and 
the fine arts; none have done so much to em- 
bellish their respective countries. Such a class 
has always existed, and will always continue to 
exist, under whatever appellation they may be 
designated. Whether the title of noble be con- 
ceded to them or not, — still, in republics as well 
as in monarchies, certain individuals will be pro- 
minent through a great name achieved by their 
forefathers, through great possessions, and through 
personal distinction won by themselves. In our 
own country, the nobles have gradually obtai- 
ned for us some of the dearest privileges which 
we enjoy. 

The German nobility does not possess all .the 
moral infldenee wjtch it is essential to the well- 

tan mwniTY or gbbmahy. 


1 1 

being of sodoly tliat this order sboald exerdne. 
This is partly to be attributed to their excessive 
number, and to the careless and sometimes sor- 
did manner in which their rank has been multipli- 
ed, partly to the circumstance of the title being 
participated by all the sons, partly to their for- 
mer reluctance to engage in any parsoit except that 
of the army and the court , and partly to their mis- 
taken aversion to intermarry with families not en- 
dowed with the requisite Quarterings. But these 
matters will ' be better. iUostrated by a view of 
their political and social progress from a remote 
epoch downwards. 

The character of the German nobiIit>', like that 
of the French and Italian has undergone in mo- 
dem times an essential change. Throughout the 
middle ages, and down indeed to the peace of 
Westphalia, the position which the nobles main- 
tained in the state, was diametrically opposed to 
that which they hold at present. We find them 
formerly 'more or less independent, and, gene- 
rally, inimical to the sovereign power. They 
used fireqdently to intimidate* the monarch by 
threatening to refuse him pecuniary supplies, or 
the military Services of themselves and their vas- 
sals for the defence of the state. In their own 
possessions they ruled without control, and ex- 
ercised considerable influence on the general go- 
vernment. In most *of the German states they 
met at a diet, to counsel with the prince, and 
discuss topics of common interest. In their ori- 
ginal and most simple form , these deliberations 
were mere conversations, and were known by 
no other name. Subsequently they received a 
regular constitution, and the qualifications of 



83 TIU NOVIMTV ov snuuNv. 

those •ntHled to take part in tkem were distinetly 
defined. The members of the diet were the of- 
fleials at court, such as the chamberlains, mar- 
shals, and cupbearers ^ , the chief offi'eera ef go- 
vernment, the principal prelates, and, finally tha 
owners of fie/s of a certain value. Such diets 
were common throughout Germany, se early as 
the latter half of the thirteenth century. At a 
iiomewhat later period, the deputies of the more 
important towns were admitted as members^ but 
their Influence was always extremely limited. 

During the first two centuries of their exis- 
tence, the Cverman diets often found it very 
difficult to seize the power which they felt them- 
selves competent to claim. In several states the 
monarch had sufficient private property fer the 
purposes of government, so that his neUea had 
no hold upon him by refiisiag him supplies. 
Still, wherever the active assistance of his suIh 
Jects was indispehsable, the sovereign, however 
indisposed to have recourse to it, waft compeileA 
to receive the advice, and entreat the oeopera* 
tion, of their chiefg. Tk^ power of the nobility- 
increased considerably in the fifteenth eentury, 
when expensive wars a^d more extravagant Iuk 
bits reduced the prince to the necessity •/ a»» 
crificing a part of his Independence, and of eeo- 
ceding privileges prejudicial to his sapromacy> 
for the purpose of obtaining ampler supplies. 
Nevertheless, he nanaUy dung to power wttk 

* It is worthy of reiMu-k , as ekitraetcrialM ol «h« 
ancient poaitioa of lh« German nobility ^ tlutt tboM of-* 
ficials nerformed the duties of their office hy proxy, 
and only appeared at court, themsolroa, on logttlativo 


to the declaratiqiis both of w«r and peace ; 8rd , 
that they were to be consnlted on all divis- 
ions and changes of territory; 4th, that they 
were to be left uncontrolled in the administra- 
tion of their own domains; 5th, that they were 
entitled to superintend the receipt and expen- 
diture of the public money; 6th y that they were 
to be allowed to mediate between their own 
and foreign princes; 7th, that they could as- 
semble at their own discretion for the purpose 
of (deliberation; and, Sthly, that they were le- 
gally entitled to oppose any infraction of their 
rights on the part of the sovereign. 
^ The earliest notice of German diets occurs in 
the history of Bavaria. They existed also, at a 
a. very remote period in Austria and Styria. Aa 
early as the tenth century, we find eonUHa or 
piacita in these states, which were constituted 
by the officers of government and by the no- 
bles CP^f>ceres and prioresj, in the north of Ger- 
many, this institution is of later . date. The re- 
lation which we have described as existing in 
the different states between the nobles and their 
sovereign , lasted , as we have stated above , till 
the peace of Westphalia, about which time it 
began to merge in one of an opposite character. 
Instead of being, as formerly, opposed to the 
monarch, the nobles now became his principal sup- 
port; they sought and effected the amalgamation of 
interests which had previously been essentially dis- 
tinct. This change, in appearance voluntary on 
their part, was in fact an inevitable result of 
circumstances. Tlie Arequent wars which had at 
first. tended to confirm their independent position, 
at last undermined their power. For, in' the 

8S niH NQMLiTV om mammAHY* 

alliance, Uie soT^eign was neitiicff wtlling^ nor 
aUe to reiiecC. Indoed , nmtor the new tonali- 
lotion of tiilDgs » tiiis anicaiae relation of the 
nolkle to tke monarcb, was as natural as tlie 
one which it snfieneded. Aceordingly, it has 
(jontiDHed mere or less unciiangedy and we find 
it witiioQt any eaaential alteration in the Oer^ 
many of the present day. But before we enter 
npoB the general condition of the German nohi- 
Uty at present, we shall give a brief outline of 
the history of the respective nobilities, in the 
several stales into whidi Geniany is divided. 

I. The nobility of Austria Proper, i. e., of 
tlM archduchy, of Carinthia, Catniola, and the 
Tyrol, was always one of the most powerful in 
Germany. This was owing, partly, to the fa- 
vour with which as a body it was regmrded by 
the house of Habsburg. Other ctrcumstanees co»- 
dsoive to this power, were the frequent divisions 
of territory which we«lcened> the Austrian so^ 
vereigns, and the vlchiity of the warllhe Hunga- 
rians, against whom its aid- was so ofien reitni- 
red« The nobles were not the sole membcFS of 
the diet in all the Austrian provinces. In the arch- 
duchy, deputies of towns were admitted ^ and in 
Tsrrol, of the peasants, but they were never in 
sulficient number to aflCct the predominance of 
the nobilit3% 

In Austria, the offices of court were heredi- 
tary; and tlie twelve prindpal ones conferred 
great importance npoai the twelve iitnstrions fa- 
milies by whom they were lield. These laHer had 
exclusive and extraordhiary privileges. They were 
exempted from taxation; hi their castles , they 
coaM under no pretext be. molested, and even 


demanded the buiisiinieiit of the Jesnits. 9vt te 
this, the emperor, though not a rigid Catholic, 
refused to consent; be was afraid of irritating 
the pope; yet, in order to conciliate the affec- 
tions of his Protestant nobles, he tolerated the 
pabllc profession of the Protestant faith. 

After him, Rudolf II., who had been.educa-. 
ted in Spain, adopted every means to prevent 
the spread of the reformed doctrines , and by this 
policy, irritated the peasants to insurrection C15913 
and excited the.opposition of the nobles, who, allu- 
red by the promises of the emperor's brother, Mat- 
thias, leagued themselves with him to dethrone Ru- 
dolf. After they had attained Uieir object, Matthias 
refused to fuliU his promises; but they joined their 
forces to those of the Hungarian Protestants , and 
quickly compelled him to desist from the execution of 
his treacherous plans. His natural aversion to Pro- 
testantism, for which he had ambitiously simula- 
ted an attachment, was of course increased by 
these unfortunate disputes, and he took every 
convenient opportunity of manifesting it, -and thus 
alienated the affections of his most powerful sub- 
jects. The diet assembled at Lmz C16143 re- 
fused him all assistahce , though he was in im- 
minent danger from the marauding Turks. 

Matthias was only sovereign of the archdu- 
chy of Austria. His brother, Ferdinand, gover- 
ned Carinthia, Styria. and Camiola. This prince 
was an inveterate ennemy of the Protestant cause, 
and he preceded actuaUy t6 depopulate, those 
parts of his dominions which were not inhabi- 
ted by Catholics. Although indulgent to his nob- 
les on other points, he was inexorable on this. 
Consequently, as his power and resolntlon ren- 

JanclnreUie Immeoie passeBalonji , wUcIi render 
tlieir families remaikable at (be present day. 

During the Tbuty Yean'War, tbe Austrian 
noblea auTered lesa from plonder and exacUon 
Elian those of (be more nertbetn states. But (lie 
nnmber of tbeic serfs waa gieatly dlmiiiisbed In 
order to ill tlie ranks of (he Catbollc armies. 
In that time of religious persecatlon, their ge- 
nuine attachment to the caose of Borne was of- 
ten SDspected. They were In consequence often 
■nbket to veiatlou* pmaecntions, and the clergy 

90 TIM «09iMTY OP 9wmA!trr. 

to«k 'aAvsiilag« of their equtvocsl iron^on, to 
Ifiorease, at their expeine, its ridies and 'pow- 
er. Towards the latter end of the seventeenth 
oentnry , the Aastrian nobility began to lose Its 
former independence and importance. The grand 
canses of its declhie were the intredactfon of 
stantfing amlea, the improvement of military tac- 
ties, and the establishment throne^at the conn- 
try -^f regiflar tribunals , which superseded the 
fewdal coarts of Jastlee. Nevertheless, daring 
the reigns of Leopold I., Joseph I. and Charles VI., 
they were stm possessed qf great power, from 
their mnriiers and riches, from their holding lAl 
the principal offices both of court and state, and 
thns sniTowding, and often guiding, the sove- 
reign. 9nt the diet, which had been wont to 
oppose «he wtfl of the latter, now sank huto 
ittsignMcance. Charles VI. was the last who by 
an ottth oanihrmed Its righta and prhiteges. Hie 
neMT attitode in which the nobles now fomd them- 
selves was far from fivouraMe to their impro- 
vement. In thehr former lawless independence, 
oa<A had sought to distingnicAi himself in some 
mile way, and was ranked accordingly; there 
had l>een room for emalation, and for the dis- 
play both of mentid and physical superiority. B«l 
noMr that the body had lost its Independence, 
and found its Interest in assiduous siAservlency, 
individual distintftion yitkb no tonger i»06sible. 
Birth and precedence became the -only titles, fa 
promotion. Mental cultivation was neglected, be- 
caase It brovgM with it no extenml advantago^y 
and the morals of the nobles re e eH ^d tlie same 
•imprecn of subserviency whidh their general con- 
dillon had undergone. We no longer <nd them 

saa and •nDeemar, tfae celMirgted JoHepii n., 
was the «reat tefonuer ot tta« AudtriM DablMtj-. 
He left Mmwar any ^H Its ennmii-e righta «m 
IirlvllegM uMmidied; be iMed ta its barien of 
tamtion, Ifterated Hie Herfg, preterted the pea- 
sant agaiiwt encraaAlnent and oppremha, mrt 
admfniBtered impaiOal Jmtlce. Capatitir , aad 
not Tank alone, beirnlBe the tHle ta premutlen. 
These allemtiom, bowerer the? iilglit alFMt 
bidhldnaU, Infase* ft'esk IIFe Into tm bodf at 
large, and were 'fntfly prednrMve d( (lie noK 

II- nv TeMtiea wfeMh «riMed In Bwaria 
datins the middle ajres belween noble and so- 
vereltn was of a slasalat natore. The former 
kad jWDieiiMs and very InrwtaBt iprlvlt^cs, 
but tod Kw ii H oeaiplBta «■< (hair ■svteniMlc 


infraction by thb latter. In tlie fourteentli ceii- 
tfury we find the nobles accusing their monarch 
of conferring court-dignities on foreigners , of 
chicanery towards his own nobility , to whom 
he was difficult of access, and of depriving them 
of their ancient rights of hunting. They specify 
instances, in whicli members of their body had 
been seized and carried off by night, and their 
daughters forcibly married to foreigners^. The 
measures taken by the monarch to limit the 
power of his nobles mainly owed their success 
to the divisions among the latter, between the 
two classes of whom, the lords and the knights, 
the greatest enmity and Jealousy prevailed. Two- 
thirds of 'the lords (Herren), and only one- 
third of the inferior nobles, were eligible to the 
diet. Each of these classes was perpetually 
engaged in combating the ambition of the other, 
and ^e consequence was, that, till a compara- 
tively recent period, they were easily kept in 
check by the sovereign. But divisions of terri- 
tory which took place in the fifteenth century, 
encouraged them to postpone for a period their 
private quarrels to the common pursuit of pow- 
er. They now united and presented a formid- 
able front to their royal antagonists, from whom 
they proceeded to demand that all counsellors 
and officials should be chosen from their body, 
and that all privileges which they had ever 
usurped should be confirmed. But the members 
of the ruling family united themselves also, and 

* It was not till 1517 that the inferior Bararian no- 
bles were authorised by the nobles to cive their davgh- 
ters in marriage to those whosi they tlioufht fit. 


ir It bad not been for the alUanca and vidnity 
or Ilia son-in-law, Uie Emptor Ferdinand, be 
woDld have become its latijeet inatead of Its 
ROverelgn. Aa It was, be waa obliged t« make 
to tbam GDnelderable conceflslone, and amons^t 
others, tbat of relfslona loleraliun. Duiing the 
latter yearf) of his lire, tbls prince became a 
mere tool or the JesaiM, whose astute leaders 
tn n long period beld the reins of sovemment 
)n Bavaria, and regulated the public expendtlnre, 
of course to the advantage of their own bod]', 
natnrithstandInK tbe frequent apposition and con- 
tinual discontent of the nobllttr. The alnple 
hardihood of the latter was no match for the 
crafty policy of the priests, who braved (hetr 
open oppoBlUon, banied their secret conspiracies, 
and reduced them indeed to a state of Insignl- 
Hcance from wblcb tbey did not emerge for se- 
veral generatians. Instead of being bold and 
enterprising as formerly, they became Inert and 

94 TW« IWHMVV 0» OHttMAav. 

aiwUlettc. Wim Mwiwiiiia I., a prhtoe o# 
(Aleut 9mA antovr, aneeBdMl the tlirone, In 
1597, he was. ottVig^A to declare them uneqaal 
to the command »f troops, or to the daties of 
civil offices, and to oonfer both upon foreiffnerSk. 
Of course they complained bitterly of this pre- 
ference, but his ready answer was, that the 
cause of c^^laint should be removed, as soon 
as they could supply him with.inviduals com- 
petent to direct or govern. The only privilege 
%vhifih the Bavarian nobiUty preserved intact at 
this epoch was its freedom from taxation, and 
80 nnimportaat was it become as an element of 
the government, that, from 1M2 to 1670 no 
diet whatever was convoked. SMtring the Thirty 
Years' War, its possessions suffered immepsely from 
the plundering armies. In 1669, the sovereign, bur- 
dened with debts , threw a great part of them upon 
tfke shoulders of the nobility, which now presented 
a melancholy speotade. The minority of its members 
were impoverished and without credit, unedneated 
and without prospect of advancement or promotion. 
In order to preserve the institution from utter 
ruin, the prince-elector introduced in 1672 the 
law of primogeniture. But the nobles continued 
to suffer during (he whole of ttie eighteenth cen- 
tur>' -from the ambition of their rulers, which 
they were too weak and too divided to check, 
and which brought upon the country more than 
once the curse of a foreign invasion. With 
Maximilian Joseph, a better day seemed to dawn, 
but the favour again extended to -the Jesuits 
continued to prevent the nobles from capacitating 
themselves for that sphere of operations which 
their position in the state destined for them. 


liglen, and endeavoured to establish ft In his 
territories, he met with the most violent oppo- 
sition, and was finally banished by his nobles. 
The nobility of JuUers, Cloves, Mark, Berg, 
and Ravensberg, distinguished iti^elf from its 
soathern neighbours by more warlike propensi^ 
ties. At the peace of Westphalia, it was with 
great diffienity that its members could be made 
to desist from frequently resorting to club-law, 
and from embroiling themselves in bloody feuds 
on the most frivolous pretexts. In 1521 , John 
III. of Cloves was obliged publicly to execute 
several of the robber-knights CRo^-rit^}, not- 
withstanding that they belonged to some of the 
highest families in his duchy. In 1590, we find 
his son and successor, Mllliam, continuing the 
work of reform. He abrogated the supremacy 
of the feudal courts of Justice C^atrimonial- 
iSferichte), and decreed, that, under pain of 
forfeiting all his rights and privileges, no noble- 
man should proceed, himself, against his pea- 
sants for refusing to work, for cutting duwn 
fruit-trees, for mischievous idleness, or for run- 
ning into debt, but should bring them before a 
regular court of Justice. But it was only a re- 
solute and able sovereign who could enforce 
these regulations, and the effeminate son of 
Duke William was totally unequal to the task 
of keeping a nobility in check, which had been 
irritated by the measures of his father. On his 
demanding supplies from the diet for paying off 
the public debt, only eight thousand dollars were 
granted to him, and a sum to pay tlie garrisons 
of his fortressess was flatly refused. Moreover, 
bis whole nobility besieged him with complaints. 




a large sum of money. Nevertheless, he was 
pot under the bann of the empire , and, after a- 
protracted defence, finally brought to Justice. 
Singular as it may appear, this marauding chief 
bad managed to enlist several ruling powers in 
h\B cause, —^ amongst others John Frederic, 
duke of Saxony, who was included in his out- 
lawry, taken prisoner at his defeat, and carried 
to Vienna, where he was exposed in a straw 
hat to the scorn of the public, and where he died 
after a confinement of eight and • twenty years. 

IV. The nobles of Brunswick and Luneburg 
were amongst the most restless and unruly in 
Germany. The numerous wars in these states, 
the repeated divisions of territory, and the ex- 
pence consequent on the maintenance of nume- 
rous courts, weakened the sovereigns at the 
same time that they rendered them dependant 
on their nobles for supplies. Henry and Henry 
Julius were the first who, by introducing the 
law of primogeniture, which, however, they 
ware far from establishing, atteijipted to reform 
the constitution of the nobility. The former of 
these princes founded a regular system of ju- 
stice, the latter equalized taxation. But they 
purchased y as it were, these improvements by 
conceding to the nobles privileges and monopo- 
lies w^hich they enjoyed to the prejudice of the 
inferior classes. 

The accession of the family of Luneburg to 
the throne of Great Britain was favourable to 
the power and pretensions of the Hanoverian 
nobility. The government was invested in a 
ministry whi<^ was chosen exclusively from this 
body. Since that time more particularly, the 



thmwelves with bighway roMtery during tbe 
night. But the prince, far from tolerating these 
disgraeefat proceedings, proseoated the offenders 
Inexorably, and when his favonrite, Yon Lin- 
denhorg, was found to have been gniity of tlie 
prevailing crime, he caused even him to be exe- 
cuted. The nobles were extremely irritated by 
this severity, and one of them. Von Otterstaedt, 
had the audacity to write over the door of the 
prince's bedchamber, ''Joachim, take care of 
yourself, for if you fall into our hands we will 
hang you." He even went so far as to assemble 
a band of knights, and watched for an opportunity 
of carrying his menace into execution. But the 
prince, warned of the plot, took measures to 
frustrate it; he arrested the chief, caused him 
to be hanged and quartered , and his head to 
be exposed over the gate of the town. The 
wild licentiousness of the nobility now began to 
yield to the influence of civilisation. Impartial 
Justice was administered by the government, 
public instruction encouraged, and the promul- 
gation of Lutheran doctrines was of the great- 
est benefit to the morals of the country. The 
nobility began to assume the form of an institfb- 
tlon of the country, and under George John, 
the grandson of Joachim, it took upon itself 
without reluctance to pay a third of the public 
deht. Still, so long as they had means of op- 
position within reach , the nobles were not un- 
true to thehr i^ristine diaracter. of insubordlna- 
tton. They faistincttvely took advantage of any 
weakness or embarrassment of the sovereign to 
press theur former tdiOms. We find Duke Albeit 
Che First complaining to bia diet, that be bail 

103 m NOBumr ov obrmany. 

tite remoBstraiiCM and ofejecClonfi with which the 
diet met his demands for sapplies. At last he 
Imposed taxes without demanding its consent, abo- 
lished the freedom from taxation which the no- 
lilts had hitherto ei^oyed , gave the peasant legal 
protection against their oppression and caprice^ 
and abrogated such of their privileges as were 
incompatible with good government. Opposition 
was useless against the courageous head of a 
victorious army , and a prince respected for his 
talents by all the cabinets of Europe. Thus we 
find the old state of things completely Reversed, 
and a nobility which but a few years before had 
insulted with impunity the sovereign power, now 
submissively subject to the slightest manifest- 
ations of its will. A radical change took pla- 
ce in the character of the body; and during 
the succeeding reign of Frederic I., of whose 
weakness they might have taken advantage, and 
whose extravagance was alone sufficient to Irrit- 
ate them, they no longer showed a desire of 
having recourse to their ancient schemes of oppo- 

During the reigns of Frederic I., and of his 
successor, Frederic the Great, the circumstan- 
ces in which the Prussian nobles were placed 
were very peculiar. The former prince had no 
court: he lived like a private nobleman, and 
was surrounded only by the officers of his army. 
The court of Frederic the Great was filled with 
foreigners, and was madeUed in every respect 
after that of the French. Both princes were au- 
tocrats in every sense of the word , and in con- 
ferring the dignities of state, or offices of go- 
vernment, they neither of then listened Co any 

104 THB Nomi'iTy ov obrmanv. 

wero greatly, changed about the period of the 
peace of Westphalia, when standing armies were 
introduced, and German governments verged to- 
wards a parer monarchy. At this time, the diets 
in some states as in the Palatinate, ceased to 
exist , and in others , for intance in Austria, Ba- 
varia , and Brandenburg , lost all influence in the 
government. They remained most powerful in 
Saxony, Brunswick ^ Mecklenburg, and Hesse. 
Besides the monarchical tendency of the West- 
phalian peace, other circumstances coincided to 
change the feudal independence of the nobles in- 
to courtly submission. In the seventeenth , and 
In the early part of the eighteenth century, se- 
veral princes mounted foreign thrones, and found 
soldiers abroad to quell any insubordination at 
home. The example of Loo is XIV. was not with- 
out eflTect; the German courts began to assume 
the ceremonious form , and the nobles who sho- 
ne in them to regard with contempt those of their 
order who preferred privacy to splendour. At a 
later period, the contrast between the nobility 
at court and the nobility In the country (^d^r 
Hof- und der Landadel), became very striking. 
Very ishortly after the peace of Westphalia, 
the French began to exercise a baneful influence 
on the manners and morals of the German no- 
bility. Under Louis XIV. this contagion was at 
its height. .He was the most powerful monarch 
in Europe, _ his court was the most brilliant, — 
his policy the most refined, — > his government was 
esteemed the wisest, -. and he himself was al- 
lowed 'to be the most perfect gentleman of his 
time. Most of the German princes visited and 
were enchanted by the court of Versailles ; they 


100 TUB MOBU'iry o¥ aicitMANy. 

wick, Wblfenbuttel, and In aeveral other states, 
princes ascended tlie throne whose personal 
character was alone snfficient to introduce an 
effectual refomu At this period, too, the na- 
tionality of the Germans seemed to awake as 
from an unhealthj' slumbei. The long years of 
lethargy and slothful dependence were forgotten, 
and the nation suddenly manifested ail the signs 
of reviving youth. A new literature was crea- 
ted, and science was cultivated in a new spirit. 
To these cltanges, the nubility was no stran- 
ger; but while it reaped its share of the gene- 
ral advantages, it was exposed to peculiar los- 
ses. The spirit of the time was inimical to the 
privileges to which it was naturally attached. 
As no popular revolutions had yet rendered the 
governments cautious, the plebeians were allow- 
ed to attack the aristocracy with a boldness 
which would not now be tolerated. Their prin- 
cipal grounds of accusation were , that the no- 
bility alone was eligible to civil and military 
posts, that it was still in the exclusive posses- 
sion of monopolies , and that the. services whisb 
it Imposed on the peasant were incompatible with 
hamanit)', and much less with justice. These 
allegations, aud the deductions which were drawn 
from them, the nobility met wit either indiffe- 
rence or contempt : though here and there indivi- 
duals were found who replied to the charges with 
the same spirit in which they were made. This 
polemical relation could not . but increase the 
mistrust which had ahready existed between these 
two classea of society. Such was the state of 
feeling at the breaking oat of the French re- 


The first measures of the democratic party in 
France were very generally applauiled in Ger- 
many. The public mind had been prepared for 
them by the termination of the American war. 
But the sympathy of the two •neighbouring na- 
tions was of short duration. The horrors which 
were perpetrated in France produced the great- 
est indignation in Germany, and changed the 
prospects of the country. No one dared to hope 
for improvement in his own constitution, when 
an attempt to attain it elsewhere had just been 
productive of such' signal misfortunes. The invec- 
tives and complaints which had lately been re- 
gai!Ued as of little importance , were now denoun- 
ced as treasonable practices. The sovereign became 
convinced- that the nobles were the natural defend- 
ers of the throne, and would hear of no accusa- 
tion against them. Thus they not only maintained 
their ancient position , but fancied that they had 
secured U from attack; but the sequel deceived 
the hopes which they fondly entertained. The 
French Ihvasion of Germany precipitated them in- 
to an abyss of unparalleled misfortunes. The 
nobility on the left bank of the Rhine became 
subject to France, and lost at once all its' pri- 
vileges. The provisions of the peace of Lune- 
ville abolished • the diets in all the states which 
it concerned. The members of the Rhenish con- 
federacy' were also empowered to abolish 'at plea- 
sure the privileges of the nobility. Many avail- 
ed themselves of the right, and only the king 
of Saxony and the dukes of Mecklenburg left their 
diets invested with their former functions, and 
the principal piivileges of their nobilities un- 
touched . Except in Austria , the religious endow- 


wentfry 61 wlikb' tlie c^venuea liad been enJoy«d 
by tbe soau^ of noble /amilies , wero- confiscated. 
In. those, states in wbkh tbe Cod^Napeieon was 
Introduced y the nobility lost Us personal privil*' 
eges, and becanie even liable to conscription. In 
Austria alone of all tlie German states , it esca- 
ped a sliare of tbe general misfortune. 

The unhappy termination of the war of 1806 
brought about a complete change of Prussian por 
liey. The government was obliged to strain ev- 
ery nerve to preseive itself from otter ruin* In 
order to infuse an active spirit into the people, 
servitude (BrbwiierthdnigkeitJ was abolished , the 
plebeian was allowed to purchase the estates 
of noblemen, the nobility was declared liable to 
conscription, and a system of anuj'-promotion 
w«» introduced which excluded the pr^etensioiis 
of birth in the choice of a candidate. 

Thus, in' the minority of the German states, 
the nobility had lost by degrees (he greater part 
of its privileges, when the defeat of tlie French, 
in 1S14, gave Europe reason to anticipate a per- 
manent peace. At this happy epoch, the nobil- 
ity expected perhaps to recover its former im- 
portance. But experience has show'n that this 
institution, which in the middle ages was the 
predominant element of society, is not likely in 
Germany to regain its ascendancy. The absolute 
monarch, supported by. his army, and beloved 
by his people , was no longer willing to tolerate 
an aristocracy in share of his government. He 
was disposed to confer on it his favours, b«t 
not to divide with it the prerogatives of a ruler. 

The middle classes of society had risen into 
new importance, and were natorally inclined to 



look with a Jealous eye on the pretensions of 
birth. Edacation was become more universal, and 
riches Were no longer in the hands of the nob- 
les alone. The peasant could not be driven a- 
gain into servitute, nor the commoner excluded 
Arom civil and military' posts , nor deprived of 
estates of which he had obtained possession by 
legal means. To institute new sinecures or t6 
revive old ones, could neither in modesty be de- 
manded , nor in reason justified. But though the 
German nobility could by no possibility arrive 
at its former power and importance, the con- 
gress of Vienna secured to it all the privileges 
which it could exercise without prejudice to the 
other classes ot society, and without infringing 
upon the prerogatives of the sovereign. 

The present nobility -of Germany consists of 
the mediatised princes f<fie ehemaligen unmittel- 
baren Reichstdnde), and the mediatised knights 
(die ehemalige Reichsrltterschaft) , as well as 
of the ancient nobles. 

The mediatised princes are the highest, and 
rank near the sovereign powers The contro 
which they are allowed to exercise over their 
domains , and those inhabiting them , is as com- 
plete as is consistent with the good government 
oft be state in which ^their possessions are sit- 
uated. They are free to reside in whatever part 
of Germany they please, and also to enter* ioto- 
foreign service. They are only amenable to a 
high court of Justice, and are not liable to con- 
dcription, but they are still subject to the gene- 
ral jurisdiction, of the country. In unimportant 
affairs , they administer justice oh their own 
domains, regulate .the local police, .superintend 


110 ««■ WIBU^m W GKBMASY. 



tke woods and foffeflts^ posses* the Figlit of eliureh* 
prosentattoB, and preside over the department of 
pablic instructfoB. Their decisions , however, are 
not allowed to contradict the general laws of 
the eonntry. Shonld these righto not he res- 
pected by their sovereigns y they are enpowered 
to a|»peal to the German diet at Franefort, which 
has conferred upon them, since the congress of 
Vienna, several new honours. The titles are 
eontinaed to them which they bore when inde- 
pendent; and they and their fami^s are prayed 
for, in the church service, immediately after the 
sovereign. On their decease^ the b^ls are tol- 
led for eight days, in all the chmrches on their 
domains. For all offences against the state, ex- 
cepting military insubordination,* they can only 
be tried by their peers. In the government of 
their domains, too, they have lately been ren- 
dered more independent of their sovereigns, but 
they are still bound to proceed coniB^tenlly with 
the spirit of the launs of their respective countries. 
. The mediatised knights, who were independent 
before the dissolution of the German empire, and 
who only differed from the princes above-men- 
tioned, by their not having a voice in the Imp^ 
rial diet, now eiuoy the same privileges as the 
latter, but in a less degree. 

The ordinary nobyity in the different German 
statcfb, is subjected to the respective sovereign 
powers. In no two countries is its position the 
same. It has almost everywhere lost its exemp- 
tion from taxation, and its remaining privileges 
are rather forms than solid advantages. In the 
constitutional states, however, It takes part In 
the govamment as a legislative cfaamhery and 





-I HE early literatore of Germany does not 
possess the same interest for the general reader 
nor for the antiquarian , which is found so abund- 
antly in the cotemporary writings of England, 
France and Italy. The early literature of Ger- 
many did not represent the national mind, nor 
did it tend much to enlighten nor to move it. 
It principally consists in treatises, more or less 
elaborate , on matters of theology , jurisprudence, 
natural history, physics, and medicine, with no 
small sprinkling of alchemy, astrology, and me- 
taphysics. These were almost all written in La- 
tin, which appears to have beoa almost a second 
tongue, used familiary in conversation, and still 
more familiary in composition. Thousands of bulky 
folios, and tens of thousands of slender the- 


and form exclusively; he may be aal4 io bave 
fo«ided tbe periodical Uterature^ lie encoaragei 
mmierous yoang aatbors, and placed tbe lear* 
ned world on a belter footing wHIi the book- 
aeliers. With the assistance of a number of 
scholars, whom he had gradaally gathered around 
him, he published a translation of Bayle, whose 
work, from its free and novel cast, produced 
a great sensation in Germany. Though a grave 
Professor, he did not disdain to interfere with 
the theatre, and his criticism succeeded in dri- 
ving the Merry- Andrew fHaiMtrtir^O away from 
the stage. A Leipsic lady assisted his reform- 
ing career by the introduction' of feeble trans- 
lations from the French. The influence of the 
pseudo-classic rales of France on the German 
drama lasted till the criticism of Lessing demo- 
lished it at a hloWf and rushed unfortunately 
to an opposite extreme. The period of Gottsched*s 
glory was between the twentieth and fourtieth 
years of the last century. At that time a host of 
scholars, all living at Leipsic, surrounded him 
like of family. His lady was infected with the 
mania of the day, and translated the French 
tragedians, whilst he imitated the Cato of Ad- 
dison. In these palmy days, our Professor as- 
sumed a proportionate degree of presumption 
and conceit. He legislated for the literary world 
with a dictatorial air; but into the nature of 
man, where alone the laws of criticism are seat- 
ed, he never deigned to east a glance. Aria-, 
totle he misunderstood, and his imitation of 
the French was clumsy and imperfect. From 
1756 to 1703, Germany was disturbed by the 
Seven Years' War, during which Frederic the 



of cultivated conversation. Haller was born in 
Switzerland, at Berne, a touii more Frencli than 
German, and he had to learn German with a 
grammar and dictionary. In classing, then, these 
poets together, We only refer to some similar 
points in the character and tendency of their 
works. They commenced an indirect opposition to 
Gottsched, and as they overthrew him, without 
expressly aiming at him, they rendered his over- 
throw the more complete. The criticism of the 
JLeipsic Professor was entirely negative. He had 
prescribed only sobriety of expression, and such 
poetical enthusiasm as could help itself Just as 
well with prose as verse. Haller introduced the 
freedom of English literature into Germany. He, 
at first, took Pope for his model; but if he ex- 
eels him in depth and solidity, he is his infe- 
rior in point of style. H[aller deserted poetry 
for physiology at thirty, and would. fain apolo- 
gize afterwards, for having devoted so much 
time to the Muses. Poetry, he complains, is a 
frivolous occupation, and as for his eflTusions, 
one was written on a journey, another during 
his recovery from ad illness, and the rest on 
similar occasions. His poem, „The Alps'', how- 
ever,' must receive justice from the critic, though 
it may have been rejected by its author ; it con- 
tains touches of nature worthy of a master-hand. 
Haller*s satires are written in a terse and manly 
style. His moral essays are a species of one- 
sided declamation, where the orator launches 
without a compass, and sails through innume- 
rable topics without arriving at any result. Some 
of Pope's works are of the same nature, and 
his „Es8ay on Man*' has no claim to its title; 


tbe best monitors of tbe necessity Which exists 
for giving a rigorons form to descri^ktive poetry. 
Some of HAlIer's moral poems seek to reconcile 
the old qaarrel between free-inquiry and faith. 
One of the hio9t remarkable i^mongst them is a 
comparison between the fortitude in suffering of 
a Christian missionary and of an American war- 
rior. Haller wrote odes, biit in imitation of the 
French — of Baptiste Rousseau, for instance. 
These compositions instead of being poetical, 
are a collection of rhetorical rhymes. The \:ri- 
ticism of our poet-philosopher is not of much 
value ; for to criticise a Literature which is with- 
out models is to thresh empty .<itraw. 

Principal Works of Bailer: Poemr C 17323. 
The Alps C17483. Usong C17713. Alfred C17733. 

Hagedom., who, though he lived in such dif- 
ferent circumstances , is generally classed with 
Haller, was a man of a very different tempe- 
rament. He was sociable and extremely cheer- 
ful, and his aim was the moderate one of avoid- 
ing extravagance, and of attaining perfection 
in a very minor department. He possessed but 
little invention, and his way of life wa.^ not 
chleulated to supply this deficiency! His reading 
was such as no one now would pride himself 
on, being composed principally of second- and 
third-rate English and French ^oets. Bis favour- 
ite models -were Horace, Bollean and Samuel 
Johnson. Like Boileau, he endeavoured to adapt 
the Horatian sathre to modem life. In his imi- 
tation of the Journey to Brundusium, a worthy 
Hamburg citizen, Herr Lisco, figures a<t Mvcenas, 
and the Mariengasse as the Via Sacra. He at- 
tempted to write epigrams, but his pen was too 


mifd, aiid (be objects at which they were di- 
rected too indefinite to endnre their success. A 
man may as well shoot into the air and take 
his chance of hitting anything, as write an epi- 
gram with a general aim. The spirit of person- 
jhHty, as Martial has taught us, is an indispens- 
able requisite. Unfortunately, too, epigrams 
have l>ecome a sort of common property, des- 
eending from generation to generation, and their 
^eyealogy is often to be distinctly traced. The 
„Fables'' of Hagedorn, in imitation of La Fon- 
taine, improved much on the German standard, 
and dxctted further progress. Gellert and Licht- 
wehr took up the subject shortly afterwards, and 
remained masters of the field, till the „Fables'* 
of LeSsing eiFected as great a revolution in this, 
as his philbsophy accomplished in all other de- 
partments of German literature. 

Principal Worh« of Hagedorn, Poetical Es- 
says C17293. Fables and Stories in Verse C1738). 
The Universal Prayer, in imitation of Pope C17433. 
On Happiness C17433. The Gossip 01744}. 

Between the fourtieth iHid fiftieth 3*ears of laist 
century, at which time the fame of Hagedorn 
was fast superseding that of Gottsched ^ appear- 
ed two opponents of the latter who did lipt 
confine themselves to an indirect system of at- 
tack. These were Bodmer and Breitinger, who 
founded what is called the Swiss school of crit- 
icism. Bodmer was bom at Zurich, 1698, and 
died there, 1783. He commenced his literary 
career by publishing a periodical work in 1722. 
In 1725, he was called to the chair of History 
in the- university of his native town. Breitinger 
was borh at Zurich, 1701, he filled th«re the 

-f, ^- - 


Vhiversity chair of Greek and Hebrew^ and died, 
1776. These two carried on a paper war with 
Gottsched, and contributed by their abuse to 
his downfall, without increasing their own fame. 
Their great poetical authority was, as usual, 
Aristotle, whom, from the imperfect study of 
classical literature at that time, they probably 
did not understand, or they would have known 
that, however great was his philosophic acumen, 
Aristotle had no pretensions to the title of a 
critic of poetry. The great merit of the SWiss 
school consisted in thc» further introduction of 
£nglish literature to the notice of the German 
public. They studied Pope and Addison, whose 
criticism, though somewhat tame, is still freer 
than that of the French. But the „ Paradise 
Lost'' of Milton was the chief object of their 
admiration. They had long been on the search 
for an epic in blank verse, in order to silence 
the one-sided criticism of Gottsched, who would 
acknowledge no poetry, unless it were clothed 
in rhyme. The idea of an epic, in those days, 
implied supernatural agency, as well as human 
'heroism. The former was designated by the French 
word, machinet'ie, an unhappy term, derived pro- 
bably from the machinery by the aid of which 
the gods of ancient tragedy descended upon the 
stage. Milton corresponded in every respect to 
the prevailing definition of an epic poet, and 
Bodmer translated the m^estic verse of Milton 
into clumsy and tedious German prose. 

The Swiss school was devoid of a consistent 
philosophy, and failed in the qualifications and 
acquirements essential for the office of general 
criticism. We must strive hard and long before 


of Sophodes and tsairipides into Gennan rhyme. 
Tftongb heabandohed the French school of tragedy, 
he was not quKe free' from ita fnftaettce. If his 
,,Herrman" were ftte from the intHgues Which 
its example rendered essential to the success of 
a play, and were somewhat bolder in its con- 
struction, it Would command unreserved admhr- 
ation; as it is, however, it is superior to the 
,,Herrman'' of Klopstock. It is one of the first 
productions of modem German literature, and 
well calculated to develope and encourage na- 
tional feelings. Indeed, it contains so many alln- 
aions to freedom and independence, that during 
the time of the French domination, the theatric- 
al censors would never have allowed it to be 
performed. In Denmark^ Schlegel wrote a co- 
medy, called the ..Triumph of Good Women," 
and prefixed to it a dissertation, in whicli he 
attempts to prove that productions of this class 
should never be written in rhyme. But comedy, 
the subject of which is drawn from eve'ry-day 
life, may require the assistance of rhyme, to 
preserve it from falling through the various gra- 
des of the iigliter drama into a species without 
elevation and without form. The favonrtte p\hy» 
of the era we are now considering, were of the 
kind technically called characteristic, in which 
a character made up of extremes, whose vices 
might be either moral or menial, was put to all 
Sorts of trialsj through flve«tedious acts. Schle- 
gel brought on the Copenhagen stage, ..The 
Dumb Beauty," a rhymed comedy in one act, 
whidi is admirable of its kind. From this au- 
thor^ the Influence of French taste on the Ger- 
man drama dates its decline; all subsequent 


served neglect. His comedies are the weakest 
of bis works ; one finishes perusing them, really 
without knowing what all the five acts have 
been about. His tales and fables are much too 
similar; he seems to have confounded the spe- 
cies. The "Letters" of Gellert were received 
with great applause, and have survived, in ge- 
neral estimation, many of his works. But it is 
impossible. that a book, the interest of which is 
but local and temporary, should take its stand 
amongst the classics of a nation. 

Principal Works of Gellert, Fables (^7463. 
Moral and Didactic Poems C17543. 3IisceUaneous 
Works C17563. 

Frederic Gottlieb Klopstock was born in 1724, 
at the abbey of Quedlinburg, wher« his father 
was employed. He was the eldest of ten child- 
ren. From 1739 to 1745, he was at school 
at Pforta, near Naumburg; be completed his 
education at the University of Leipsic. The first 
years of his fame he spent in travelling through 
various parts of Germany. Afterwards, from 
1751 to 1771, he resided at Copenhagen, where 
he was pensioned by the king of Denmark. The 
latter part of his life was passed at Hamburg, 
where, in his sixty-seventh year, he contracted 
a second marriage, and where he died in 1803. 

Klopstock came to Leipsic in the year 1746, 
when he had already commenced his great poem, 
"The Messiah," and was full of plans for its com- 
pletion. It would be useless to deny, that in 
some parts of it he has imitated Milton, but on 
the whole he pursued an original palh. 

Klopstock had no ability in rhyming ; his muse 
was neither docile nor pliant. On this score, 


In their ^waoCera and yevn did 4iot allow tlie 
same congeniality of society as ' of poetijcal prin- 
eiples. But mntual rettpect and admiration sor- 
vived personal disappointment. In speaking of 
tlie 'Wieiaad of this period , we must not con- 
found him wkh the Wieland who dazzled Ger- 
many in the year 1763. They are one person, 
it is true ; hot the one person underwent a com- 
plete metamorphosis. At this period, he espoused 
the cause of Plato against that of Epicurus, 
and wrote a poem to refute the .,De rerum Na- 
tura," of Lucretius. Besides this, he composed 
Scriptural epics, in unwieldly verse; as, for in- 
stance Der gepritfte Abraham, Sulzer was the 
scholar of Bodmer in poetry, and of LelbnilB 
in philosophy. Or, rather, the creed which he 
professed j and which was very popular Just at 
that period, was an amalgamation of all possible 
systems. Sulzer's book on the iine arts is now 
almost forgotten; its object is to prove their 
morality, and their morality is undeniable, but 
they must not be used expressly for a moral 
end. As soon as this bias is detected, they 
lose their beauty and effect. 

The works of Gessner, originally a diseipla 
of Bodmer, will be described after noticing an- 
other school to which he afterwards belonged. 

Prom Leipsic and Zurich, we are now called 
to Halle. It was at this university that several 
poets of congenial natures — Gleim, Uz, Klelst, 
and Ramler, — received their education and com- 
menced their literary career. Gleim held an of- 
fice under government, and resided, the greater 
part of bis life, atHalborstadt. His iirst productions 
were Anacreontic poems; he afterwards wrote 


given something in his latter years to have been 
able to recall the unchristian zeiil with which 
he had appeared on behalf' of decorum. But its 
fruits were in the hands of the public, and bis' 
puritanical effusions were ranged on the same 
shelf with other productions of his pen, which 
morality is unable to Justify. 

Kleist was a young nobleman, and an officer* 
in the Prussian service. He fought in the ranks 
of Frederic the Great during the Seven Years' 
War, and was killed at the battle of Kunersdorf. 
His longing for repose, and the partiality with 
which he sketched the peace he was never fated 
to enjoy, betray, In ail his works, the soldier* 
poet. His ^'Spring" is an imitation of the "Sea- 
sons" of Thomson, which is composed of a se^ 
ries of pictures drawn with truth and feeling, 
but in no definite form , and with no general 
spirit pervading the whole. He has all the faults, 
and, it. cannot be denied, all the beauties of his 
model; but poetry is not entirely a descriptive 
art. The works of Kleist were disfigured by 
the corrections of Ramler; and it is only lately 
that they have been published from the original 
manuscripts. Ramler has the credit of having • 
tamed whatever was original and energetic in 
the poetry of his period down to his own stan-* 
dard of correct mediocrity. In his old age be 
versified the Idylls of Gessner, which had never 
possessed great merit, but which he deprived 
of all they had. Gessner, after having been 
educated in the principies of the .Swiss school, 
came to Berlin about the year 1750, to learn 
the trade of a bookseller. Disgusted, however, 
with this occupation, be took to painting, for 

||01»BHN CKRMAN f.lTKRA'TORR. 139 

which nature seems to have Intended him. He 
had received no instniction in the art, and he 
painted^ at first, a number of landscapes with 
common oil, so that they would not dry. It 
was his distress on this account, which led him 
to seek and ask the advice of the Professor of 
Painting. The talent of Gessner was now soon 
recognised, and his landscapes have always been 
very justly praised. Unfortunately, we cannot 
say as much for his literary publications. His 
Idylls are landscapes, as far as he could make 
them such with pen^ ink and paper. His cha- 
racters are like those of Ossian, — speaking 
spirits and shadows, drawn on a coloured ho- 
rizon, and sweeping along luxuriant' ground. 
Probably, his reason for not writing in verse 
was because he could not. But, still, his is 
not the poetic prose which has been so much 
cultivated by the French, by Bitaube, for instance, 
and by Chateaubriand. It is perfectly simple and 
natural; but the subject is not one to which 
these qualities can give much value. He had, 
probably, Theocritus for his model, whose works, ' 
however, he could not read in the original. But 
it would be a mistake to suppose that he re- 
sembles the classic idyllist. The shepherds of 
Theocritus are not the innocent beings, nor are 
his shepherdesses so blissfully ignorant, as is 
generally imagined. In fact, the productions in 
which they appear are sketches of a state of 
society which then really existed. It was his 
successors, and not Theocritus, who forsook 
reality to paint a golden age. With the ^'Aminta" 
of Tasso, snd the "Pastor Fido" of Gnarini, 
Gessner appears to have been quite unacquainted. 

190 MODlWN ftBRMAN l<ITIBAfinUi. 

His ''Death Of Al»el/' ia whieli he followed the 
steps of Bodmer and Klopstoek, has no clalns 
to originality ) and therefore ^ none to notice* 

Between the foiirtieth and sixtieth years of last 
eentnry, a literary school exerted Itself with 
success ia improving the style and constraction 
of Geraian prose. It has happened with Ger^ 
many, as with many other nations^ that its 
poetry arrived at a considerable degree of per- 
fection, whilst its prose was still q/akte as neglect- 
ed. We are now alioot to spealc of the works 
of Lesslag and his friends. Gotth^d Sphraim 
Lessiiig was bom in 1729, and deed shortly af- 
ter be bad reached his fiftieth yew^ His bkth- 
ptaee was Kamenz, a little town in Lnsatia. 
At the age of twelve, he was sent to a scheol 
at Meissen which enjoyed a great reputation at 
ttiat period. It was in 1746 that he visited the 
university of Leipsic, where he became aeiiSKtn* 
ted with numerous literary characters. Here, in 
a weekly joornal, he pvblishecl his first prodae- 
tions. His subsequent place of residence he very 
often changed. \¥e find him engaged in literary 
pursuits alternately at Leipsic, Wittenberg and 
Berlin; subsequently, he became superintendent 
of the theatre at Hamburg, and finally, librariaii- 
at Wolfenbttttel, where he died, 1781. Lessing 
is one of those who have been over -praised; 
he was even esteemed a great poet; bat we 
cannot now concede to him the inspiration of 
poetical genius. He was endowed with numerous 
and very dllTerent capacities; but his studies 
were desultory, and he had much more seal 
than perseverance. He was restless, paradazlcal, 
and, to use a word which was not bom when 

J*^"^"^^ ^1 ■ U" 



he lived, bvt to wbiekhe answered exaeUy, rer 
volationary. His ezertiens and acqaisitiens vere 
immense. He bad a perpetual tlikst for new 
discoreries, and for disceverlng new views ef 
eld ones ; bai liis plan of proceeding was filfnl 
and irregalar. His whole way of life eorreqpead* 
ed to the bias ef his mental character; he was, 
in every sense of the wo^d, eccentric. 

At Berlin he was asaecjated withSolzer, whom 
we have alreiMlv noticed, Moves Mendelssohn, and 
Nicolai. They devoted themselves principally ta 
literary criticism, and their orgaa was the AU- 
ffmneine BeaUphe Bibiioth^, They had, how- 
ever, no real nniversality , which is essentially 
requisite to trne criticism, their views were nar-r 
row, and their judgment confined. But their 
prose was full of life and nerve, widely remote 
from the dtdlness of that of the LeipSic school, 
and from the (dumsin^s of that . of the Swiss. 
The poetical works of Lessing consist dilefly of 
songs and translations. But he conld commence 
no poem without laying down a theory for his 
own guidance; he was always calling himself 
to account, and mtstrustfaig' his impulses, a habtt 
which aiTords us sufflcient evidence of his want 
of the innate confidence which charaetorizes a 
great. mind. He wrote comedies, which now. 
are all**inclnding even Minna von Bamkeim—-* 
nearly forgotten. He was the author of fables 
and epigrams , and of new theories on both. His 
Dramaturgie worked a revolution in the theatre. 
In his tragedies of MUs Sarah Samson and of 
BmUia GaloUi, his chief object seems to be, te 
put into practice a theory which he had broached, 
that the true drama requires the heroic virtues 



tn be tfome^ticized , and not to be propped npon 
French stilts. At ^Volfenbnttel we find him in 
a new character; invading the region of theolo- 
gy. In the library thei^e, he raked up an old 
lAanuscript of sceptical biblical criticism , of which 
probably its author had been afraid ; an<f he Ven- 
turis to publish some parts of it. He wished 
to show, he said, his candour and tolerance. 
But these professions did not shield him from 
Innumerable attacks. The duke of Brunswick 
interfered , and Lessing was compelled to be si- 
lent; but the chagrin and disappointment conse- 
quent on this affair probably contributed to short- 
en his life. About this' time he wrote " Nathan 
the Wise/' a drama, in which his ideas re- 
specting the relations which various religious te- 
nets bear to each other are given to the world. 
After having heen banished from theology, the 
Indefatigable Lessing devoted himself to philoso- 
phical speculation; he became a student of Spi- 
noza, and the predilection which he manifested 
for the system 6f that philosopher raised and of 
ther outcry against him. Lessing was a man 
of enormous learning, but even in his favourite 
department of the drama, he never arrived at a 
perfect comprehension of the Greek tragedians. 

PHncipal Works of Lessing, Miss Sarah Sam- 
l»o» C1755}. PbUotas C17593. Minna von Barn- 
helm C17633. Laocoon 01765}. Dramatnrgie 
C1767-83. Emilia Galotti C1772). Nathan the 
Mlse C1779}. 

Moses Mendelssohn was born 1729, and died 
1786. He was a native of Dessau, where his 
father was a public notary. He first came to 
Berlin, his future permanent abode, in 1742, 


and he made there the acquaintance of Leasing 
In. 1754. He wns born and remained to his 
death in the Jewish profession, but his charac- 
ter was independent, and his mind free from 
prejudices. His principal work is liis Phiedon, 
the object of which is to demonstrate the immor- 
tality of the soul by the aid of modern philoso- 
phy. In the latter part of his career, we find 
him appearing as an opponent of Kant, but this 
was a part which he was then too old and too 
weak to play with any effect. The style of 
Mendelssohn is regular and elegant. His charac- 
ter differed considerably from that of Lessing; 
he was a mild, calm, benevolent man, and his 
works, consequently, want the boldness and ori- 
ginality., of those of his friend. He assisted in 
editing the ^, Letters on Modern Literature," 
and devoted himself, at last, to theology. Be- 
sides Kant, Jiiifobi roused him also to a public 
attack. The latter had had a conversation with 
Lessing shortly before bis death, in which he 
had almost avowed himself a convert to the pan- 
theism of Spinoza. He had published this con- 
versation, and was charged by the Berlin friends 
of Lessing, and principally by Mendelssohn, with 
having misrepresented the opinions of the latter. 
Jacobi replied that he had been the only con- 
fidant of Lessing, and that the philosopher had 
not communicated his opinions to theiu, becau- 
se he feared that, they would not h6 able to 
understand him. 

Principal Works of Mendelssohn. Letters on 
Literature CI 761-5}. Pope as a Metaphysician 
[in conjunction with Lessing] CI 755}. Ph»don 
C17673. Jerusalem C17833. Morning Hours C17853. 



Another friend of Lessing, at Berlin, waf 
Sngel, who was horn in 1741, and who died 
at the commencement of this century. He was 
for some time the tutor of the present king of 
Prussia. Afterwards he was appointed superin- 
tendent of the theatre at Berlin, and wrote a 
hook on the Mimic Art^. In this work we find 
the fruits of Lessing's theory ; for Engel, whilst 
writing on the drama, forgets that a drama 
ought to be a poem. According to him, close 
imitation is the actor's only road to perfection; 
in fact, he recognises only talent, and forgets 
that such a thing as genius exists. 

None of the followers of Lessing have render- 
ed themselves more famous than Nicolai, who 
however, only adhered to the negative precepts 
of his master. Many, indeed^ of his disciples 
were only acquainted with the scepticism of Les- 
sing, anil, thoHgii ostensibly treading in his path, 
they brought discredit on his system. 

Next appears an individual who ran an inde- 
pendent career, as influential and brilliant as it 
was singular. Winkelmann, the son of a shoe- 
maker, was born in 1717, and spent some of 
the best years of his life as an usher. He first 
saw the light at Stendal, a town in the Old 
Mark of Brandenburg, where he received the 
rudiments of his education. He afterwards pass- 
ed two years at the University of Halle. Then, 
for a considerable time, we find him in the most 
straitened circumstances, burning with a deep 
love of art, which he was unable to gratify, till 
he became acquainted, at Dresden, with the 

* TninsUted by Henry Siddonn. 


pope's nuncio, Archlnto, wbo persuaded him to 
abjure the Protestant faith, and to try his for- 
tune at Rome. The remainder of his life he 
spent in Italy, where he wrote most of his works. 
He was murdered by an Italian , at Trieste, June 
8th, 1768. From his earliest youth, Winkelmann 
was filled Cif the expression may be allowed} with 
a prophetic inspiration ; he felt that he was born 
to distinguish himself, without knowing precise- 
ly in what department. Fortunately, he be- 
came acquainted with Oeser at Dresden, and 
obtained with his assistance, a thorough know- 
ledge of the treasures of art which that city 
possesses. He was the first learned man of mod- 
em times who breathed the spirit of antiquity. 
Before his time, the field upon which he entered 
was encumbered with philologers quarrelling 
about manuscripts , and antiquarians disputing on 
the manner in which the Romans tied their shoe- 
strings. These worthies had discussed every 
possible variety of external form, while neglec- 
ting even to mention an internal spirit. 

The only individuals, who imbibed a classic 
spfa-it from the immortal relltc^ of the old world, 
were the artists, — the painters, for instance, of 
the Italian schools. It is easily to be recogni- 
zed in Michael Angelo, and the works of Ra^ 
phael may be readily divided into those produ- 
ced before, and those conceived after he had. 
become acquainted with it. 

The great work of Winkelmann C^hich wob 
aent in portions from Italy to Germany} is his 
"Universal History of Art." The title is a mis- 
nomer; it should have run thus,—.. The Histo- 
ry of Sculpture amongst the Greeks." Winkel- 



nuum was nnaequaintod both with architecture 
and painting. His chief work announced one 
greath truth, hut was disfigured by innumerable 
errors. The extremes into which its author was 
always running, must be , in a great measure, 
excused him, when we recollect that his contem- 
poraries combined the greatest ignorance of art 
with the greatest mannerism in treating of it. 
Unfortunately, he became, at last, partial and 
one-sided, qonsidered himself as an Italian, and 
would acknowledge no genius beyond the Alps. 
He published a work, «, Monumenta inedita, " 
in his adopted language, in which be seems to 
have allowed his friendship for Cardinal Albani 
to have biassed him not a little in his Judgment 
of the works of art in the possession of the 
latter. But his enthusiasm redeems all his faults, 
and often clothes his subject in a strain worthy 
of his classic models. He showed with a mas- 
ter-hand how intimately and inseparably art and 
poetry are bound together. He formed the old 
world anew, from the fragments which have 
come down to us unexplained by each other. He 
sends the poet as well as the sculptor to Italy, 
to study the Apollo and the Laocoon of the 
statuary. He demonstrates that eloquence and 
music have their birth in the same principle as 
poetry and art, and that they are to be woven 
into the same grand whole. But still, we must 
remember that, though Winkelmann felt like 
a poet, he never thought like a philosopher. 
He is seldom clear, sometimes unintelligible, 
and often, even in his better moments , he must 
be contented with the appellation of ' an elo- 
quent stammerer. 


Principal Works of Winkelnmnn. Reffections on 
The ImtCattons of Greek Sculpture and Painting 
CI 756}. Remarks on the Architecture of the An> 
cients C17613. On the Perception of the Beantifal 
in WorksofArtC1763). History of Art* C1764}. 

It will be necessary now to return analytic- 
ally on our own isteps , and to examine more 
in detail what we have been hitherto viewing 
collectively. We commence again with Klop- 
stock , and shall consider him first as the poet 
of „The Messiah," — the work which occupied 
the best twenty-five years of his life. Let us 
anticipate the consideration of it, by a few re- 
flections on the ideas entertained at the commen- 
cement of the last century on the nature of the 
epic. The grand and indispensable duty of the 
epic poet was held to be the imitation of the 
ancients — especially of Homer. But in order to 
imitate, one must first understand; and the crit- 
ics of those days were quite in the dark as to 
the essential nature of the Homeric rhapsodies. 
Recent research has cast a new light upon these 
everlasting monuments of ancient art. They are 
to be considered, not so much the work of an 
individual, as the gradual formation of an age. 
That which we possess under the name of Ho- 
mer's epics, is the genuine core of Greek tra- 
dition, gradually formed and gradually perfected. 
No epic poet can be inspired without an enthu- 
siastic belief of the truth of that which he sings, 
and this was a requisite which modern critics could, 

* His gre»t work on the History of Art has not been 
trnnslnted into English, but a French translation may 
be procured. Fuaeli translated into Englisli one of his 
■mailer works. 


till of lAte years ) never -discover. Acain, an- 
pernatoral interposition, and the sabjeotion of 
tlie liuman will to the decrees of fate, cannot 
be subjects of admiration to the Christian world. 
The morality' of onr dispensation is opposed to 
that of the old mythology. The first principle 
of our religion teaches us the responsibility of 
a free agent, tiut the holiest daty of the Greeiis 
was a freqaently blind obedience to an arbitrary 
decree. As they never recognised this distinction, 
modem epic writers have, for the most part, 
been guilty of the most palpable blunders. It is 
unnecessary here to enumerate the number of 
abortions of tliia class, which have made tlieir 
appearance from time to time. The real epics 
of the modern world have been generally either 
unknown or neglected; (or instance, the tradi- 
tionary ones of the North Cas of Ossian^; the' 
old German poems, such -as the '^Nibelnngen 
Lied;" the Spanish legends, and others. 

The nature of Klopstock's poem suggests a 
comparison with that of Milton, and this must 
terminate by our acknowledging the superiority 
.of the latter. The epic requires for its subject 
a struggle, the result of which, however coiU 
iidently it may be anticipated, must be for fhe 
time uncertaiu. Satan, the hero of Milton, is 
undefeated, even at the falling of the curtain, 
though prophecies and. episodes announce to us 
his approaching downfall. Bnt in Klopstocic, 
the Almighty is the grand agent, and therefore 
all struggle is impossible, and all show of re- 
sistance vain. The acting principle in Milton is 
an individual and daring will; in Klopstock, an 
immutable and unswerving fate. 


Tbe seeood part of Klopstocks poem verges 
too much towards tbe lyrical, where all aetive 
interest ceases. His characters are too definitely- 
divided into good and bad ; tlHHigh Milton avoid* 
ed this rock somewhat equivocally hy adding 
nobility even to the vice of Satan. Still Klop- 
stock was a great poet, for he founded a new 
era. He was full of the dignity of his call- 
ing, was inspired by the sublimity of his sub- 
ject, was a master of description, and a bard 
who roused his age from indifference to enthu- 
siasm. From the consideration of his great work 
we pass on to his Odes, whieh he composed in 
all periods of his life, and which form, indeed, 
a kind of autobiography. These compositions 
have been accused, with justice, of a kind of 
ostentatious originality, of obscurity for its own 
sake, and of a multiplicity of recondite allusions 
beyond all license. The introduction of the Nor- 
thern mythology, in many of his odes, is pro- 
diictive of a bad effect, and his dramas are ren- 
dered still more uninteresting from the same 
cause. ' His Scandinavian deities, like his angels 
in " The Messiah," are but shadows answering 
to no definite ideas , formerly unknown to. the 
reader, and now when more familiar, uninterest- 
ing. His dramas are monotonous productions; 
the wildness they often affect was foreign to 
the inspiration of their author; they are only 
apparently terse , and artificially laconic. . 

Klopstock encouraged in himself, and excited 
in others, a vein of overweening Germanism; 
according to him people may neglect ever>'thing 
foreign, merely because they have not produced 
it. Another of his pectUiarities was, that he 


looked upon versification as something: quite be- 
neath his serious attention; rhyme he held te 
he barbarous; and when the Nibelungen Lied 
appeared in a modern edition, he refused to no- 
tice it, because it was not in blank verse. In 
1774, Klopstock published his *%eamed Repub- 
lic," of which the style is admirable; but its 
allegrorical form was much too obscure for the 
mnltitude, and its tone was too dogmatical and 
oracular for the learned. Amongst his latest 
works were his ''Grammatical Dialogues," which 
were neglected more than they deserved, and a 
'^System of Orthography," full of whimsicalities 
and inapplicable propositions. 

Principal Works of Klopstock. Fisst cantos 
of The ]»re.<«Miah 01*^48}. Termination of the 
Messiah C 17693. Death of Adam, a drama 
C1767). Dramas C1769 — 84). OdeS C1771}. 
Treatise on German Orthography C 17783- Gram- 
matical Dialogues 01794). 

To return to Lessing, more particularly to 
his dramatic career: this he commenced by co- 
medies, which, though they would be, perhaps, 
flat and tedious to the public of this day, are 
still of relative and historical importance. One 
of them, ^'Minna von Barnhelm," attained un- 
usual popularity, for it was a national picture, 
and anything national in those days was new, 
and the public were agreeably surprised to find 
;<omothing contiguous, which they had always 
imagined to be distant and foreign. In some of 
these plays J however, there is a sentimentality 
which is measured, epigrammatic, and too often 
artificial. One of his first tragedies was "Xlaa 
Sarah Samson," one of those touching domestic 


dramas, tben so popular, in which the events 
are much too exaggerated for the sphere in which 
they occur. As soon as his name became cele* 
brated in the dramatic world, he received an 
invitation from the company of players at Ham- 
burg, of whom the well-known BckholT was the 
manager, to take upon him the literary superin- 
tendence of their theatre. A branch of his duty 
here consisted in the publication of a theatrical 
journal. Die Hamburger Dramaturgies which, has 
since become a' standard book in German litera- 
ture. At tliis period, he wrote nothing for the 
boardij himself; but, now that his own produc- 
tive period had expired, he became very zealous 
in discovering the laws which should have re- 
gulated it. 

In his theory of the drama, singular Inconsis- 
tencies and bold truths stand side by side. In 
the first place, he acknowledges unreservedly 
the authority of Aristotle, and goes so far as 
to call him the dramatic Suclid. But while he 
retained his allegiance to the Greek, he entered 
into an alliance with a Frenchman, whose sys- 
tem was exactly opposite; this was Diderot, 
whose system was based on a false idea of the 
natural, and who strenuously endeavoured to ban- 
ish all poetry from the stage. The influence 
of Diderot has not yet expired in Gemuiny; and 
Lessing still continues to be regarded as his 
scholar, although in hbi last dramatic production, 
"Nathan,** he deserted his system^). Nothing 
can be more witty than the polemical articles 

* ,,NatIiaii" has been translated hj Taylor, in hi* 
Historic SurTey of "GermaD Pootry." 


of our author against Racine and Voltaire, and 
few things better than' the criticisms on Shake- 
«pearey which are contained in his '^Dramatur- 
gie." The bad effects, however, of his prosaic 
system are visible in the works of Iffiand and 
Kotzebne. Iffland brought the kitchen on the 
stage, and gave dramatic lessons on domestic 
economy. The public, after having been plagued 
with their debts, disorders, and family disputes 
at home, had to endure a second edition ot them 
at the theatre. Kotzebue's material was a slip- 
pery moral, whitewashed with magnanimity: 
more businesslike than Iffland, he generally let 
a rich nabob fall from the clouds to pay all debts, 
quiet all quarrels, and liberate the dramatis per*- 
soTue from prison before the conclusion of the 
piece. The works of both were written in prose, 
and at last, the players, who were as fond of 
nature as the public, could not be induced to 
perform any piece which was written in verse, 
unless, indeed, they were deceived by its being 
transcribed without a margin and without capi- 
tal letters, and were allowed to deliver it as 
they pleas^fl. Schiller was, for some time, ob- 
liged to have recourse to this method, in order 
to get his dramas represented. 

We now proceed to an account of the literary 
career of Christopher Martin Wieland, who was 
bom at Biberach, in Suabia, in 1733, and who 
died in 1813. At the age of fourteen he was 
sent to school at Klosterbergen, near Magdeburg; 
and thence he went to reside at Erfurt, with 
•ne of his relations. Shortly afterwards we find 
him at Tubingen, attempting to study the law, 
a profession, however, which he could never 


briDg liimself cordiall}'^ to embrace. In 1753, 
lie bad devoited himself to literature exclusively, 
and was living in the house of Bodmer, at Zu- 
rich, which place, however, he soon quitted, 
and led an unsettled life till he was invited to 
Weimar by the Duchess Amelia, whose ftiend- 
ship and protection he enjoyed to the day of 
his death. 

We have described him, at first, as an adhe- 
rent of Bodmer, and a zealous cultivator of the 
biblical epic; but about 1765 his (diaracter un- 
derwent a complete transition; he now appeared 
as the author of comic stories, and of roman- 
ces , as ''Agathon," ^^Musarion," and ''The New 
Amadis/' The philosophy which he here incul- 
cated was a kind of eclectic epicureanism; he 
was afraid of virtue running into excess , and 
would fain deprive her of even the semblance 
of enthusiasm. His grand problem seems to have 
been , to combine sensuality with grace. That 
he was a tasteful writer no one can deny, but 
as a moral teacher he was decidedly reprehen- 
sible. The exalted efforts of our nature, he al- 
ways affected to view with scrupulous saspicion; 
any love, except the sensual passion, he decried 
as deceit or an illussion. He once ventured to 
call the virtue of Cato a Dulcinea; but this cal- 
led down upon him the indignation of the phi- 
losophic and excellent Jacobi, and in no trifling 
degree. 'Wleland, it would almost seem, wished 
to- make a treaty with virtue, and to allow her 
certain rights, on condition that she should de- 
sist from the persecution of vice. 

As a prose ^writer, Wieland must be conten- 
ted to take a much lower station than as a 


liQet: bis difiaseness is perhaps bis least fault, 
for it is general!}'' gracefal ; but bis style is com- 
plex , and full of parentheses. Greece , in its 
bright period between Pericles and Alexander, 
is his scene and subject; but his heroes, instead 
of being Greeks, are moderns, and of the French 
school. His light and humorous manner he chielly 
owed to the study of Cervantes, Sterne, and 
La Fontaine; his disposition to philosophize is 
his own. In his prose works he has an unhappy 
method of betraying his erudition too consciously, 
by recondite allusions, and, what is worse, by 
foreign words. It is somewhat remarkable, that 
his moral laxity and slippery descriptions should 
have been received favourably by a public then 
80 unaccustomed to such liberties as the German; 
certainly they would have been tolerated in no 
other than a Grecian garb, and in no form ex- 
cept that of a philosophic romance : though here 
we must observe, that Weland's philosophy is far 
more dangerous than his elegant licentioasness; 
the latter addresses itself only to the senses, 
whilst the former strikes at the very basis of 
our moral nature. 

The last great work of Wieland was his "Obe- 
ron," on which his poetic fame is greatly groun- 
ded, though, in fact, it is rather a story in 
verse than a poem. It is an arbitrary, and far 
from harmonious, mixture of the fairy tale and 
the heroic legend. Then, again, even in the 
distant age of which it treats, and in the land 
of fairy, VHelattd never forgets his philosophy 
and himself. How differently Ariosto, whoso 
imitator he once announced himself to be, pic- 
tures the same period, displaying all the depth. 


clearuetM, and childlike , but healthy, simplidty 
of the epic |>oet! 

The repose of Wielimd's declining years was 
somewliat disturbed by the anxiety of his old 
friends to remind him of his desertion of the 
severe morality which he had formerly professed; 
but his conciliatory character had its effect even 
on the most violent of these. In private life, 
we must do him the justice to say, he was one 
of the most amiable of mankind; and it is his 
evident benevolence which has, doubtless, grreatly 
contributed to hide from every eye except that 
of the critic, the prejudicial effects which his 
works are calculated to produce. 

Principal Works of Wieland. The Nature 0/ 
Things CI75I3. Spring C1752}. The Trial of 
Abraham CI 7533. Lady Jane Grey, a Tragedy 
C17583. Comic Tales C1762). Don Sylvio de 
Rosalva 017663. Agathon C17673. The Graces 
CI77O3. The New Amadis C17713. The Ab- 
derites C17733. Oberon C17803. Euthanasia 
Ct8053 * 

We have now finished our retrospective review, 
and shall proceed to the grand epoch of German 
literature, to the appearance of men who are 
its glory and its boast. But let us, before we 
enter upon the works of Herder, Goethe, and 
Scbnier, give a short sketch of the character 
of Voss, a man of acknowledged merit, who 
cannot well be classed with any school. 

* The "Oberon" has been well translated by the late' 
Mr. Sotheby. -The story has been agreably exhibited- 
to the public by Mr. Planche, in his opera of "Obe- 
ron." Some of his -lesser prose compositions have been 
translated in the "Varieties of Literatare." 


John Henry Voss was a native of Mo<4Ueii- 
hurg, where he was born in 1751. After hav- 
ing been at school at Brandenburg , he studied 
at GOttingen. During the best part of 1^ life, 
he was a schoolmaster in the North of Germany ; 
afterwards, he was attached to the University 
of Heidelberg, at which town he died in 1826. 
Voss was a man who owed his success entirely 
to his own exertions; bom in unfavourable cir- 
cumstances, he reached no trifling eminence in 
learning and literature. 

In spealLing of his poems, it is necessary to 
make a critical distinction between the different 
editions: in the first, of eight volumes, he in- 
curred considerable censure from frequent coarse- 
ness of expression, and a disgusting fidelity of 
delineation in the treatment of nnpoelical sub- 
jects; in the last, of four v/>lumesy he expunged 
the parts most repugnant to the intervening cri- 
ticism. His songs are genuine elTusions of power- 
ful feelings naturally expressed, but without 
much pretension to originality. His Idylls con- 
tain his happiest efforts; in the description of 
rural rites and feasts he is often inimitable. 
Unfortunately, he too frequently deserts the poet- 
ical for the vulgar view of such subjects ; taste, 
which alone can draw the line between them, 
he unfortunately did not possess. The best idyll 
of Voss is his excellent poem of ''Luise,*' in 
which, with a spirit caught from the bard of the 
Odyssey, he charms* the reader with the simpl- 
est details respecting a country clergyman and 
bis happy family. The translations of Voss have 
had much more influence on German literature 
than his original works. The accuracy with which 


see very clearly. Tkoagli acqaainted with many 
langaages, be had not a thorougrh knowledge of 
one. Hia researches on the subject of popular 
and legendary poetry seem to have led him to 
the conclusion, that the Muses caii only be suc- 
cessfully cultivated by their rudest votaries. But 
this is a grand mistake; Art is natural to man, 
who cannot) even in his wildest state, be lost 
to a love of It; and why should poetry be de- 
prived of its aid? We do not disgrace the 
heavenly guest by clothing her in a costly dress; 
we rather heighten the variety of her beauties, 
and of our own enjoyment. 

Principal Works of Herder. On the Origin 
of Language C17703. Spirit of Hebrew Poetry 
C17823. Ideas towards a Philosophical History 
of Mankind 01784}. Letters on the Progress 
of Humanity 01793}. Reason and Experience 
01799) * 

Herder and Burger are both fond of charac- 
terising Homer as the poet of the people; but 
the fact is, that the Greek singers of his age 
practised their art not in public, but in the halls 
and palaces of princes ^ and it was not till the 
dedine of Greece that their voices were heard 
in the streets. Let it not be supposed, howe- 
ver, that we undervalue the meritorious exer- 
tions of Herder and Burger in the field of po- 
pular poetry; the former discovered the treasures 

* Herder's History of Man has beev trsBsUted by 
Charles Johnston , (in 4io. , and in 2 vols. Sv:") Hia 
work en Hebrew Poetry has been translated in America, 
(2 vols.) Some specimens of his style are also to be 
found in "The Linguist/' and in the German transla- 
tions oil the Hamiltonian plan, by Staohle. 


of by-gone ages, and the latter coined them 
anew for tbe enjoyment of tbe pretent. 

Burger's ballads, and particnlarly his ''Leo- 
nora," and ''The Wild Huntsman/' are amongst 
the most splendid productions of which German 
literature can hoast. Nor can we, whilst ad- 
miring his works, omit to commemorate the 
amiable character of the unfortunate Burger. 
Although his poems, precious as they are, still 
want the high worth of their ancient models, 
yet he little merited the severe attacks of Schiller, 
whose lofty rhetoric imposed on and wounded 

Johaiin Wolfgang von Goethe was born on 
the !2dth of August, 1749,. at Francfort on the 
Main, where he received his early education: 
he afterwards studied at Strasburg and Leipsic, 
and spent his manhood and .old age at Weimar. 
A number of cir<;nmstances combined to call into 
action the poetical faculties with which he was 
endowed. He was born at a period when the 
public were, susceptible, without being satiated; 
Klopstock had awakened them to the beauties 
of poetry, . and Wieland had kept the imagination 
alive. The learned world had been revolution- 
ised by the boldness of Lessing, and the ge- 
nius of Winkelniann. The political horizon was 
bright with unwonted colours; in the north, a 
new kingdom was rising under the auspices of 
the great Frederic, and the south of Germany 
was shortly afterwards agitated by the imperial 
Innovator , Joseph H. Freedom in . an innocent 

* Burger's balUd of ''Leonora/' lias been several 
times translated into English; and in particular hy (he 
late William Spenser, and by VITalter Scott. 


gkrb became a fasbionable guest at German eonrto; 
and the sovereigns vied with each other in grant- 
ing freer institutions to their subjects. In his 
first worJcs, Goethe was the advocate of that 
which he felt to be Nature, against that which 
he thought to be Art. His ^'Gotz von Berlich* 
ingen," was written in defiance of all the old 
dramatic Jaws ; and in "Werlher" he would seem 
to have aimed at the abolition of the conven- 
tional and' artificial, and at the recognition of 
what was called the voice of Nature in their 

Gutz is an historical tragedy, of which the 
hero flourished in the beginning of the fifteenth 
century ; his iron hand ^ is still to be seen at 
Heilbronn; and an autobiography, composed with 
all the sterling simplicity of his age, has de- 
scended to us under his name. Goethe's play 
fulfils the first requisition of the dramatic; it Is 
conceived in the spirit of the age which it por- 
trays; its characters live before us, and whilst 
we behold them, we breathe the air of romance, 
and live in the olden time. Unfortunately, its 
irregularity of construction and mass of incident 
render an adequate representation of it impossible. 
Gdtz von Berlichingen was the first RitterSchau^ 
spiel Cdrama of chivalry}, and was followed 
Immediately by a thousand imitations: the spe- 
cies has continued to degenerate, and is become 
at last the disgrace of German literature. 

A year after GOtz, appeared 'The Sorrows 
of Werther," which produced an incalculable ef- 
fect upon the public, by whom it was tumultu- 
ously received. This book Is a singular mix- 
ture of truth and fiction; to » certain extent^ 


the author identified himself with his hero, and 
then superadded the misfortones of a yonng man 
named Jerusalem, whose suicide, the conse* 
qpence of an unfortunate passion, made at that 
time considerable sensation. As far as the sen* 
timents and feelings of Werther are concerned, 
we mAy taire the identification to he complete; 
though how far the aathor was conscious of it 
at the time of writing is uncertain. 

Of the attaclcs wich this work met with at 
the hands of the critics, Goethe toolc no notice; 
hut he subsequently added one to tlieir number, 
in his '^Triumph of Sentimentality/' With this 
latter word, '^Werther" was the first to make us 
acquainted; great as is the part which it has 
played in our time, we may search for it in 
Tain before the days of Goethe. The feeling, 
though now naturalised in Germany, is of fo- 
reign origin. The Nouvelle Heloise of Rousseau 
first perfectly incorporated it, and is composed 
of little else; it is more artificial, but less mo- 
rally objectionable than ''Werther.*' In Engfand, 
Sterne had touched the same chord, but wi(H a 
steadier hand and a healthier result. Tlie work, 
however, which mainly contributed to establish 
the fashionable feeling in Germany, was the 
''Ossian" of Macpherson, in which the morbid 
refinement of the moderns is pictured to have 
existed at an age, and amongst a people, where 
no refinement Whatever was known. 

The next works of Goethe were two dramas 
In prose, ''Stella, 'V and "Clavigo," which con- 
tabi all the faults of his former productions, 
and very few of their beanties. He presents as 
hore with a picture of the dissolution of all 


definite and decided character , in obedience to 
tlie involuntary and immediate voice of wliat he 
was pleased to call Nature; and tbe very force 
with which he had before sketched this condition 
In "Werther," would seem now to be dissipated 
by the enervating theme. '^Stella," he entitled 
a tragedy for lovers, but a good tragedy cannot 
be usurped by any .class ; it addresses itself to 
mankind at large. The hero is a worthless charac- 
ter, who is subject to every feeling, and faith- 
ful to none. Discontented wilh ordinary felicity, 
he sets out in search of something more than 
happiness. After deserting his wife and daughter, 
and uniting himself to the innocent and lovely 
heroine, without any diminution of his passion 
for the latter, remorse seizes him on account 
of his treatment of the former, and he hits upon 
the convenient idea of arranging the matter so 
as to be able to live with both. In a way of 
his own, somewhat repugnant to GOi\jugal In- 
stitutions. In these plays, Goethe allows all 
emotions and feelings to have their course, with- 
out disturbing them by even the mention of mo- 
rality; but such a system undermines all strength 
of mind , all dignity of character , and instead 
of having a right to our sympathy, it demands 
our contempt. "Stella" has been compared with 
the "Count of Gleichen;" but, whoever has at- 
tentively perused the old legend, will feel that 
there is little analogy between them; the hus- 
band here is separated by a continent from his 
spouse ; he has been long supposed to be dead, 
and he owed his life to the fair Saracen, .whose 
love, though Jie returned, he had not sought. 


Shortly after tbe publication of these drAmaa, 
a metarmorphosts began to take place in the 
literary character of Goethe ; he recognised his 
errors, and was one of the few men of his time 
who rescued himself from the influence of his 
works; he withdrew to study and self-examina- 
tion, and all that was heard of him for jsome 
years, was an indefinite report of his. being en- 
gaged in the composition of "Faust." In 1788, 
he published "Egmont," the most theatrical of 
his tragedies, in which he is no longer true 
to his theory of the natural, for the language, 
insteiid of being the prose of common life, rises 
often to the poetical. 

At this period Goethe made a deep study of 
the Greek tragedy, and recognised the poetical 
foundation on which Shakspeare's world is built; 
(he result of this is to be traced in his ^'Iphi- 
genia in Taurls;" and "Egmont" is a sufficient 
proof of the progress he had made in the com- 
prehension of the English dramatist. The idea 
of making Tasso the hero of a play, occurred 
to Gorthe during a journey through Italy. His 
drama of this name has a certain incidental in- 
terest, inasmuch as it doubtless, to a certain 
extent, describes his own situation. The love 
of a poet for a princess, and the embarrassing 
circumstances with which it is accompanied, were 
subjects with which he was not iinaqnainted. The 
elegance and correctness of diction in this poem 
cannot be surpassed; but it had faults which no 
one had anticipated in Goethe; it was too c61d, 
too artificial. He had not only undergone a 
change, but he had passed to the opposite of 
his former self. He was now a courtier, and 


in this, as well as in otliers of bis. emnpositions, 
would seem to be visited by conilctiD^ su^gres- 
tions f by tbose of bis genius and by those of 
bis new character. The work which bears most 
prominently the stamp of the assumed eloTation 
of which at this period he is justly accused, Is 
his ^'Natural Daughter;" of this it has been justly 
said, that it is as polished and as cold as marble ; 
tiie indifference with which it was received by 
the public warned the prudent poet to retam to 

In 1794, Goethe published bis '^Wilhelm Hei* 
ster," which was received by the public with In- 
difference; the literary world, however, prepared 
its ultimate success by enthusiastic laudation. 
The style of this woric is admlrabio: the clear- 
ness and depth of thought it displays, are 
alike remarkable, but it has the one great fault 
of its great author — it is an imperfect whole. 
It does not solve the problem wich forms its 
foundation; it is but an Introduction, a begin- 
ning without an end. Still, thoagb the frame is 
Imperfect, it contains iigures which are gloriously 
painted. The views of the drama and of art in 
general which it displays, are worthy of more 
praise than the philosophy ivhich the author puts 
into the mouths of men who contemplate life 
from a point the exact position of which it is 
difficult to understand. 

During the early part of his career, Goethe 
bad paid but little attention to versification, 
though some of bis most durable fame rests on 
the versified productions of his youth «. his ballads 
and songs, wbtch for melody and depth of feel- 
ing, are truly singular. He now, to oxerdso 


kimself in the composition of hexKmeters, <;oin- 
posed an excellent version of Reynard tbe Fox, 
in tiiat form, of wbicli he shortly afterwards 
showed himself a master, iif his "Herrmann and 
Dorothea." This work regained for him, in a 
great measure, the favour of the pablic; its 
genoine warmth of feeling, and poetic truth, 
were aniver^lly applauded. It is doubly valu- 
able, as showing both the critical and imagina- 
tive faculties of our author; as being at once 
a modern poem, and the representative of the 
ancient epic of the Greeks. 

Though Goethe was manager of the theatre 
at Weimar, he did not contribute much by his 
writings to the- modem progress of the drama; 
the exertion of interesting and exciting a multi- 
tude, was foreign to the contemplattt'e repose 
of his nature; and even where, as in ''Faust," 
his genius assumes a dramatic form, it is as 
far as possible removed Arom the theatrical. 

The tragedy of "Faust/' was one of Goethe's 
earliest and latest labours; the first part was 
published in 1790, and it was not finished till 
1831. . This is one of the most genial works of 
the greatest German poet, but it is not a phi- 
losophic whole. It displays dramatic talent, but 
Its dilTerent scene**, the force and beauty of some 
of which are unequalled, were nevertheless not 
composed with any determinate view of their 
uKimate poKition. The idea of finding a philo- 
sophic system in this poem is ludicrous, and 
the volumes which have been published with 
that Intention are only valuable as curiosities. 
Perhaps it would have been more perfect as a 
poem, had It never been finished; as it now 


Stands, iC has the reqvuAltea to completeness of 
a beginning and an end, bat at a considerable 
sacrifice of connexion. It has been given to tlie 
public in four successive portions, and each 
succeeding part has confuted at least half the 
liberal eriticisnis which had been heaped upon 
the former one. 

Tike episode of Faust and Helen, in the se- 
cond part, may be viewed as an attempt at the 
union of the principles of classic and romantic 
poetry. Towards the conclusion of the work, 
he wanders more and more into phaatasmago- 
rical regions; in conformity, doubtless, with the 
nature of the legend, but not equally so with 
the manner in which he had at irst connected 
the subject with reality. A mixture of wealc- 
ness and obscurity is, perhaps, the unavoidable 
concomitant of age; depth of thought and feel- 
ing may remain, but vigour to express them 
vanishes with youth. Thus, in the last crea- 
tions of Goethe, the outline is gone, and the 
figure melts away on all sidea into air. 

Goethe did not shine in a critical capacity; 
he prescribed to all artists a strict Imitation of 
the ancients ; but this is at once a narrow-mind- 
ed and discouraging doctrine, for every age, 
unless it be wortliIeJB», must have a character 
of its own. The genius of the middle ages dis- 
played unrivalled excellence in many departments 
which were uncultivated by the classics; and if 
originality is to be proscribed , Goethe himself 
must be content to lose the greatest part of hia 
reputation. In his later criticisms, Goethe displays 
a childish self-complacency , and an amicable to- 
lerance of mediocrity; he was not only indispos- 

mm I ^ I I p^ ■■!■ m n > i 


ed to censure anything , but inclined to praise 
all tbat he noticed ^. 

■ Principal Works of Goethe. GOtz von Berlich- 
ingen, C17733. Clavigo C1774). Werther C1774>. 
Stella C17763. Ipbigenia Ct7873. Egmont C1788}. 
Tasso. C 17903. i^A^st Ct7003. The Gross Cophta 
CI7923. VVilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship C1794- 
963. Herrman and Dorothea C 17983- 'The Natural 
Daughter CI8O43. Elective Affinities CI 8093. Au- 
tobiography C181i-223. Maihelm Meister's Wan- 
dering Years C18213**. 

* Goethe has almost invariably been described in the 
language of unqualified panegyric, and his character 
as a man is little known to foreigners. Mennel, in 
his"Deutsche Literatur,'/ has done some service ita pro- 
bing thoroughly the pretensions ef Goethe; perhaps ho 
has been somewhat rough in his manipulation. Genius 
is a gift of nature, but the use which we make of it 
is our own, and for this we may justly be brought to 
judgment. Goethe possessed more it^ttenee than any 
veriter ever enjoyed; idolised by his countrymen, ca- 
ressed in palaces, and sung in the cottage, he might 
have done something more than amuse. No one was 
ever improved by -his works, none ever. became less 
sensual, less worldly, less intriguing, less profane. 
Although he has touched every string of literature, 
nowhere does he rouse to patriotism, to religious re- 
verence, to the domestic duties; one almost confounds 
the ndtion of right and wrong in reading his works, 
all Seems blended and confused, — amusement and the 
fine arts, theatres and criticism, the passions and the 
cleverest modes of gratifying them, appear the great 
object of life. Let one short trait suffice: when Na- 
poleon entered Berlin in triumph , Mikller wrote a Dis- 
course in French Cl^e la Gloire de Frederic) , in which 
he compared the Conqueror to the old .prussian hero; 
Goethe translated it into German ; and at another time, 
wrote an Epithalamium for this evil genius of his country. 

**■ The extreme popularity which Goethe enjoys in 
Germany, and the continual recurrence of his name in 
conversation, will render the Kngliah reader curioH* 


158 M«DtBN ttnUUM Ml BBAfiniS. 

Wredmie von Schiller was born at Sfarbaeii, in 
Suabia, where his father, an army chaptein, was 
stationed, in 1759. In 1775, he went to Stutt- 
gard to study medicine, but he soon deserted 
this profession for literary pursuits,, and accor- 
dingly was severely censored for his irregalari-* 
ties by the duke of Wortemberg, who refased 
to authorise him to quit the medical school. Schil- 
ler left the country in consequence, and lived 
for some time under a false name at Baverbach. 
In 1785, he went to reside at Leipsic , and four 
years afterwards, he accepted the professorship 
uf History at Jena, at which place he remained 

to MMrtaiB th« best form iii whieli lie can be ween »t 
ho«ie. Hi« "Werther" has never been well 4ran«il«tetf 
iate Englisb; the work which is sold ander that title, 
is only a feeble imitation from a poor French copy. 
"GAts TOn Berlichingen/' it was one of the parliest 
HTorts of Walter Seett to trannUte. The "Wilhelm 
IMmster" has been admirably trniiAlated by Mr. Carlyle, 
bnt dees not appear to have been much read. Some of 
bts amaller poems hare been translated by the late M. 
O. Lewis^ and by Mr. Dodd in bis "Autumn on the 
Rhine;" some by the Rev. Dr. Hawtrey, Head Master 
•f Eton School, in his volume called "Answahl von 
eothe's Lyrischon Gedichtcn." His "lphi<:enia in Tan- 
ng," ban been translated by Taylor, of Norwich. A 
few short specinMns of Goethe have been well render- 
ed by the late unfortunate Mr. Boileao, in "The 
Lininiist," In the several collections of "German Tales/' 

Enhlished by Carlyle and Gillies, some more of 
is prose fictions are contained. His drama of "Fanst,** 
has been successively introduced to the public by Lord 
Francis Bferton, who led the way, by Hayward, Sy- 
me, Auster, Blackie, and Talbot. His "Autobiography** 
has been translated from the unfinished French version. 
Those who wish for ample details respecting this sin- 
gnlar writer, will be highly gratified by the elegant 
"Chameteristics of Goetho^" from the pen of Mrs. Aus- 
tin, who has so ably laboured in the German harvest; 
<— b«i they dot not iuifol4 tbo whole man. 



till he removed to Weimar, where he died tai 

The eircufflstaiicefl of Schiller's footh, were 
exactly such as to prerent the harmonious de- 
velopment and Goltivation of his intelleGtual fa- 
ealfies ; his character was inconsistent with his 
sltaation , and his youth was a perpetual straggle. 

Nothing could possibly be more galling to a mind 
like his than the arbitrary regulations of the mili- 
tary institution at Stuttgard, in which he was 
educated. Here he wrote his Titanic poem , ''The 
Robbers/' which indicates sufficiently the wild fbrce 
of his character, and the despotism of the dlrcum* 
stances which had almost driven him to madness. 
This work is worse than ''Werther," because more 
nnnataraii with loud preCensions to originality, it 
bears premiaent narks of imitation. 

Francis Moor is a prosaic Richard III., ezeit* 
Ing e^ual hatred, but demanding no admiration. 
She fame which this play obtained for him, freed 
aelMller from the shackles of his situation, and 
he was now appointed to a post in connexioa 
with the theatre, at Mannheim, where he pub- 
lished his ''Fiesco" and his <<Cabal and Love." 
Perhaps the peculiar feature of the former is 
Its political bearing which forms its chief claim 
to originality. ''Cabal and Love" abounds fai 
convulsive demonstrations of passion. To his 
test career of enthnsiaflm succeeded, with Schil« 
ler as well as with Goethe, a period of self- 
ezamfaiation and study. His next production was 
"Boa Carlos," of which the outline is good, the 
plot powerful, and tho* execution a manisfest im- 
provement on his former works. Its versifica- 
iUnkf however, is indittoent throughout: the 


Style keeps a middle course between bis former 
extravagance and the lofty rhetoric of the French: 
the political philosophy which pervades it,* is 
as foreign to the century which it represents, 
as it would he to the most distant we can ima- 
gine. It professes to be an historical picture, 
but it is, iu fact, a work of invention; and the 
rude features of the poet's former muse , break 
everywhere through the more civilized mask he 
had now attempted to assume. A year after 
the appearance of "Don Carlos," Schiller pub- 
lished his fragment on the histor>' of the insur- 
rectioil in the Netherlands, a subject which he 
had not studied very profoundly, and which he 
did not know how properly to treat. The du- 
ty of the true historian is, if the expression may 
be used, to reiflect events, and not to reflect 
upon them. Our author now essayed the "His- 
tory of the Thirty Years' War," and showed 
that he had made considerable improvement as 
an historical writer; indeed, his whole life was 
a series of improvements. 

In 1798, appeared "Wallenstetn," a play in 
three parts, of which the first is not connected 
with the others, of which the second has no 
end 9 and the third no beginning. About this 
time, Schiller avowed himself a disciple of Kant, 
whose terminology imposed on the public to 
such an extent, that it was thought he had found 
a key to all the difficulties in the arts and scien- 
ces. Our author's philosophical disquisitions were 
more than ordinarily successful, because he 
was, at any rate, either intelligible or elegantly 
obscure ; but he was too abstract and refined to pro- 
duce any more than a temporary impression. The 


negative axioms of Kant'8 philosophy were trae, 
though the positive were . shadow)' and unsatis- 
factory; indeed, his whole system was sceptical, 
though his followers long persisted in boasting 
,of its constructive powers. 

After the publication of '^Wallenstein ," which 
was enthusiastically received both by the reading 
and the theatrical public, Schiller devoted him- 
self more exclusively to the drama; and he now 
struck into a path which was to be intermediate 
between the classic and the romantic, though, 
In fact, it was only situated between both with- 
out being allied to either. Of his subsequent 
plays, ''Mary Stuart" is one of the best; its 
representation is veiy effective, though partly 
att the expense of historical truth. In his "JMaid 
of Orleans" considering the romantic view which 
he took of the character of his heroine, the 
colouring of the execution was too faint; for 
Schiller, though of a bold and uncompromising 
nature, was timid and misgiving as an artist. 

The ''Bride of Messiiia," and its preface, may 
be looked upon as a confession which Schiller 
was at the trouble of making of his own im- 
perfections; and from the latter, which betrays 
a complete confusion' in his ideas respecting the 
theory of the drama, we may gather, that he 
understood the classic principle which besought 
to imitate, no better than the romantic which 
he wished to avoid. It is the truth and beau- 
ty of single passages, belonging more to lyric 
than to dramatic poetry, which constitute, in 
the public mind , Schiller's great claims to dra- 
matic excellence; but the poetical episodes of 
a drama are often its most glaring faults. 

16) unman oiAiuff MTRRATim*. 

The ''Bride of Messina*' is hslf-sneient and 
half-modern , l)oth christian and classic , withoat 
an attempt at alliance between the opposite ele- 
ments. It is impossible to imagine a costume 
for this play. The chorus differs from that of 
the Greeks, in being divided into two interested 
parties, who do everything bat come to blows 
for their leaders. Bat the Greek choras is es- 
sentially an impartial whole; and represents 
the ideal, contemplative spectator of the drama. 

Even the last and best play of Schiller, ''Wil- 
liam Tell," is not free from a trace of his love 
of tragic antithesis: the murder of the emperor 
Albert is something quite foreign to the libera- 
tion of Switzerland; and it is evident that the 
murderer is merely introduced for the purpose 
of being contrasted with Tell. The local truth 
of this drama is extraordinary , particularly when 
we recollect that Schiller had never been in 
Switzerland: he was indebted for it, in a great 
measure, doubtless to the admirable history of 
John von Mailer. 

The Ij^ical poetry of Schiller has been emi 
nently successful, both at home and abroad; 
and his ballads have been held up as perfect 
models. But, in truth, this is his weakest side, 
and his ballads are among the worst which we 
possess. All his works are more or less imper- 
fect, bat these are glaringly faulty; for every- 
where , even in the simple legends of old which 
they profess to revivify, we are troubled with 
his philosophic reflections and the discord of a 
modern nature. Had he lived longer, it is uiH 
certain how far he might have been snccessfol 
in correcting all his ftuOts ; some of them appear 


too deeply rooted to have been ever thoroughly 
eradicated. Bat let vb conclude Justly by re- 
membering to praise the candour which render- 
ed him alive to his defects, and the genuine 
modesty which always restrained him from great 

Principal Works of 8chiUer, The Robbers 
Ci78l3. Ftesco C17833. Cabal and Love C 17841. 
History of the Revolution in the Netherlands 
C17883- History of the Thirty Years' War C1791>. 
Wallen8tetnC179d}. Maria Stuart CI 800}. Joan 
of Arc C1801). The Bride of Messina Ci8033. 
William Tell C18043. 

There is also a novel by him^ translated by 
Mr. Roscoe, in his '^German Novelists," called 
''The Apparationist." 

* The reader will recollect thai the above character 
of Schiller, is only the private estimate formed of him 
by Professor Schlegel, who entertains a very different 
opinion on this head from that which is current in 
Germany and elsewhere. The "Life of Schiller," by 
Carlyle, may be studied as an opposite view. All, or 
nearly all, of the works of Schiller may be read in 
English. Among the translations de%erve pnrticularly 
to be noticed, the ''Wallenstein," by Coleridge, truly 
remarkable for its kindred lire of genius, and the "Camp 
of Wallenstein," excellently rendered by Lord Francis 
Bgerton. His "jUinor Poems" have been often before 
the public. "Fiesco/'the "Minister," "Mary Stuart," 
the "Robbers," "Don Carles, »* and"William Tell," *ft- 
▼e all been well translated, and some more than once. 
The "Thirty Years' War," and the "Ghost-seer," are 
also accessible. Mr. Carlyle has enriched our litera- 
ture with an admirable "Life of Schiller," full of poetic 
feeling and refined criticism. It has been translated 
into German, and is considered by the Germans as the 
best memoir extant of their poet. It abounds in instruct- 
ive views of the literature and taste of that region. 





In the latter* part of last century, a sebool 
made its appearance in Germany, which has ob- 
tained the appellation of Romantic The term, 
which is rather indefinite, does not correspond 
very distinctly to its character. We are not to 
iinagine that it was opposed to the spirit of the 
classic ages, which, on the contrary, it joyfally 
acknowledged and devoatly revered; hot it be- 
lieved that, while this spirit could not he too 
highly prized, it still ruled too exclusively in 
the world of art. The new school held , that 
we moderns are fiir removed from the state of 
being in which the classic spirit was born and 


flottrished, and that, tlKSrefore, it ean no longer 
have a living existence amongst ns. 

The Romantic School ma>' be looked upon as 
a reaction against a preceding extreme. Goethe 
and Schiller had half disowned Christianity, -^ 
the latter indirectly, the former by an overt at- 
tack. They both looked apon it with indifference, 
if not with repugnance, as incompatible with 
their ttsthetical theories. At any rate, to what- 
ever extent they may have rejected Its form, 
the fact is uadeniable, that its spirit found no 
place in. their works. A grand object of Goe- 
the's endeavours appears to have been, to es- 
cape from its iniuence; and he would seem to 
have composed many of his works, and' more 
particularly his Roman elegie»-, and some of 
his epigrams, to show that he had succeeded. 
Under such circumstances a reaction was ine- 
vitable. The cold, remote, and artistic theories 
which he exclusively favoured, could not find 
access to men of impassioned natures and ardent 
imaginations, for they were enthusiastically de- 
voted to the present, from the impressions of 
which he sought td fly. He wished to be thought 
a Greek, but they were Christians and could 
not forget it^ They recognised the beauty of 
the classic world, but regarded it as something 
foreign and afar olT, and looked for creative 
hispiration and more genial impressions to the 
works of modern art. They left Greece and 
Rome for the Christian middle ages. And as 
soon as they had proclaimed their object, the 
time assumed the character of a new era. The 
relics of old German painting were brought out 
from obscurity, and welcomed* with- enthusiasm. 


The OotUc arcliiteetare,* regftrded as m myate** 
rioiis maBifestation of the Catholic spirit, was 
worshipped in all Its remains. The qaaint 
ditties of the BlinBesingers were heard on every 
lip. Not only at home, but abroad, «1I records 
of the faith and devotion of the chivalric ages 
were eagerly sought for, and appropriated to 
the paiyoses of the school. Italy saw poetical 
pilgrims arrive to do homage to its pictorial 
treasures. The dramas of CalderoA were trans- 
lated, and studied with a religious fervour: 
Shakspeare also, though his genius, which, if 
it was not exclusively Cliristian, like that of 
his Spanish contemporary, still belonged exelu- 
sively to a Christian age, met with unreserved 
and enthusiastic acknowledgment. 

Herder and his friends had already wandered, 
far and wide, amongst the Hebrews, Spaniards, 
and old English, and had brou^it manifold trea- 
sures back to their German home. But they had 
had no other object than that of discovering 
genius, wherever and under whatever form it 
existed. The members of the Romantic School, 
on the other hand, set out with the end and 
aim of poetically re-establishing Catholicism. 
They were devoted to the cause of an hierar- 
chy, and laboured to give a theocratical form 
to the getaeral government. This has been their 
main and leading principle. They may hav« 
been, to fome extent, unoonsdous of it, atiirst, 
and many may have deserted it on ftilly dis- 
covering its tendency, but this does not inval* 
idate tlie general statement. However, the Ro- 
mantic School was not actuated to such -an ex- 
tent by party principles, as to be blind to all 


Which dM not furtJier its particular otijeists. In* 
deed, it Was tlie first to make £:enerally known 
tbe profundity of 6oethe*s genins; and it waa 
only wlien lie refused to give a Christian char- 
acter to his productions, that the Indignation 
of Novalis was roused against him, — that 
Frederic Schlegel called him a German Voltaire, 
— and that his brother, William, pronounced 
him a Heathen converted to Mahometanism, a 
creed for which, strange to say, Goethe is known 
to have entertained a decided predilection. 

The founders and most active members of the 
Romantic Scliool were the Schlegels, Frederic 
and William, Tiek and No vails. 

Augustus William von Schlegel was born at 
Hanover, in the year 1767. At a comparatively 
early age, he went to Gdttingen to study theo* 
logy, which he in a short time deserted, no- 
minally for philosophy; but in reality for literary 
pursuits. Gdttingen he left to be tutor in a family 
at Amsterdam, where he resided three years, 
and then returned to Germany, and settled at 
Jena. Here, till the year 1799, he was active- 
ly engaged in writing for different periodicals, 
principally for Schiller's /'Horen," and the Jena 
''Literaturzeitung." In ;1802, we find him lee* 
turing at Berlin on literature, art, and the spirit 
of the age. Shortly afterwards he became 
acquainted Mrith Madame de Stael, in whose 
company he left Germany, for foreign travel, 
in 1805. With her, he resided, at intervals, 
at Coppet, and visited Italy, Rranee, Vleiina and 
Stockholm. In 1808, he gave his celebrated 
lectures, at Vienna, on dramatic art and liter- 
ature. In 1818, he shared the political etaar- 


acter of his time, and acted in tlie capacity of 
private secretary to tlie erown-prince of Sweden, 
by whom the ancient title of his family was 
restored to him. After the fall of Napoleon, 
he returned to Madame de Stael, whose society 
he frequented till her decease, when he was 
appointed to the professorship at Bonn, Which 
he still continues to hold. 

William Schlegel is distinguished for critical, 
rather than creative power. No original work 
of genius has issued from his mind. He is a 
master of comprehension and analysis. Few 
men have combined such immense learning as 
he possesses, with such a fine sense of the 
beautiful, and such a rigorous critical system. 
He has been entitled, and not ui^ustly, the first 
critic of modem times. Ills classical acquire- 
ments are of the first order, and he has written 
imitations of the ancient^, which show that he 
was fully capable of embodying the spirit of old. 
With the literature of the middle ages, and 
particularly with that of our Elizabethan era, 
he is intimately acquainted. He seems to lose 
the character of his nation asi soon as he passes 
her boundaries, and to assume that of any other 
country the literature of wliich he may examine, 
criticise , or translate. He is bound by no ties 
or associations, and acknowledges only a ge> 
neral standard of truth, beauty and genius. He 
may be said to have established the critical sy- 
stem which at present obtains in Germany uni- 
versal approbation and which is essentially' su- 
perior to that which any other country possesses; 

His earliest studies he devoted to the classics. 
Before he was twenty, he wrote an excellent 



treadse on the geosirapby of tbe Homeric world. 
But lie .soon deserted mere philology, and took an 
a<;tive share in the literary campaigns of the 
time. Be began to make his critical principles 
known in the periodicals, and commenced his 
translation of Shakspeare. Of (he former, we 
can only mention here the general nature and 
bearing. As a critic, Schleget has alwas'S in- 
sisted on a rigorous definition, and an impartial 
Judgment. He views the worlis of literatar<e in 
connexion with the time and country which gave 
them birth. He holds that there are certain in- 
ternal laws which ought to give its suitable form 
to a poem, and that, therefore, the construction 
of the latter can never be regulated by abstract 
dicta or philosophical conclusions. He compares 
the cramping of genius by rules, to an attempt 
to mould a fruit into a different shape from that 
which Nature has given it. In the works of 
great authors, he proves tliat an apparently 
irregular arrangement is demanded by the na- 
ture of t e subject, and by the spirit in wbieh 
it is treated. He demonstrates that every aeene 
in Shakspeare is necessary to the perfoction of 
the whole, which must inevitably be li^ured by 
any alteration. He wages incessant war with 
the narrow-minded commentators, who are al- 
ways quarrelling with the past because it to 
not the present. In flne, he can transport him-^ 
self into all ages and countries, and thus fa- 
miliarise hhnself with the spirit, in which every 
national poem was written. He enters into it» 
intimate constitution, and feels, as it were, its 
creation anew. He divests himself of ail pre- 



.jDonceivecl notions , and Btadies it aa a natural 
philosopher woald a new organisation.. 

Schlegel's translation of Shakspeare, which he 
commenced in 1707, is unique; unfortunately 
he has not finished it. The latter part of last 
century was the most active period of his life. 
He then resided at Jena, where a singular in- 
timacy prevailed amongst, the members of his 
own party, and where he was in constant com- 
munication with some of the most celel>rated 
men of his time. His school was too daring 
and sarcastic to please the elder literati, or to 
suit the public generally. The latter was in- 
dignant at the ridicule wiiich it. heaped, with- 
. out mercy, on old Wieland, who was then in 
the hey-day of his popularity. Even Goethe and 
Schiller were not very well pleased with the 
clamour which was raised by these new aspi* 
rants for fame. The latter went so far as to 
call the two Schlegels, 'Sprigs.'* 

At this period, William Schlegel was vigor- 
ously engaged in attacking Kotzebue, who had 
Just written against him his "Hyperborean Ass." 
The dramatist, though his arguments were of 
the weakest, was- a match for his opponent, in 
daring, assertion and ^bnse. He anathematised 
all the newer literature, and declared that even 
Goethe did not know to write Gennan. Schle- 
gel's parody is of the happiest description. A 
short poem of his, written about tliis time, to 
ridicule the different styles .of Voss,- Schmidt, 
and Matthison, is perfect of its kind. But hia 
opinion of the length to which the satirist may 
proceed, does not at all accord with the good- 
natured views of the German public, which was 


Mdly. oatraired but a few years ago, when he 
poMished some sharp, but playful, attacks on 
filoethe and Schiller in the ^'Mnses' Almanack." 
The most important work of Schlegel is, per- 
haps, his '^Lectnres on Dramatic Art an Lit- 
erature," which contain a complete survey and 
critical history of the drama , from its rise to 
the present day. No particular theory is pre- 
dominant throughout, and no partial leaning is 
evident to any particular form. The Greek drama 
is thoroughly appreciated, and elevated far 
beyond the point to which mere philologers would 
raise it. No comparisons are made between sub- 
jects which have no right to be compared. No 
foreign rules are brought to bear on national 
productions. Sophocles and Shakspeare stand side 
by side,, perfect and independent in their sepa- 
rate spheres. It is only with regard to ono 
country that Schlegel would, at first, seem to 
be pr^udiced. He is deaf to the dramatic and 
poetical pretensions of the French. With the 
solitary exception of the ''Athalie*' of Racine, 
he ridicules all their tragedies. Nor does tbe 
far-famed Moli^re find any favour at his hands. 
He displayed, says Schlegel, no talent in true 
comedy, which ought not to be propped on sa-^ 
tire and. burlesque; he was rather an ironical 
preacher of rhymed morality than a ' dramatic 
poet. He analyzes the plots of his principal plays, 
and shows that they are neither rational nor 
imaginative ^poetical nor philosophiciBtL He main- 
tains that whatever the ^^Tartuire" may be, it 
is neither true comedy nor on approach to it. 
These novel opinions, Cthough they have since 
been fast gaining grounif and making swift pro- 


173 , MODSilN OSaMAN UTKBAfllflK, 

^ress to general accepUitfoii> created a great 
sensation at tbe time, even aniongst the Ger- 
itaansy wlio had been accustomed, since the days 
ef Lessing, to treat French literature with con- 
siderable contempt. Several writers, still har- 
bouring tbe Gallic predilections of the elder Ger- 
man literati, protested against them^ and even 
old Goethe felt himself, at a later period, called 
upon to come forward, in his formal way, and 
censure the unceremonious manaer in which Mo- 
Here had been treated by his countryman.. Schle- 
gel's work has been ably translated into £iig 
lish by Mr. Black, and, therefore, there is na 
occasion for us to mention here the fine analysis 
which it gives of the works of Shakspeare. The 
lyrical poems . of Scblegel are more celebrated 
ft»r beauty and elegance of form, and correctness 
of expression, than for force of original genius* 
Of late years, Scblegel has turned his attentiou 
almost exclusively to Oriental literature, whidi 
he has cultivated w^ith all the ardour and in- 
dustry of his younger days. It is in Sanscrit 
that be is chiefly proiteient. For the reprinting 
of classic works in this language, the Prussian 
government has furnished him with a praiting- 
press at Bonn. The manner in which the study 
of Oriental literature is prosecuted in other 
countries has also been an object of such so- 
licitude to him, that be has not hesitated to 
attack foreign professors whose proceedings were 
not in accordance with bis views. In 18!28, he 
found it necessary pttblicly to repell tbe cliarge 
of having ever reall>* belonged to the Catholic 
Propaganda, which, from tbe tendency of. his 


eiurlter labourN, VoMy his bitter enemy, and tbe 
Rationalists, had often brought against him. 

Principal %Vorks of W. 4. ScMegeL On the 
Geography of the Homeric World C17873. Trans- 
lation ofShakspeareC1797-1810l. Poems CISOO). 
Triumphal Arch for the Theatre. President, Kbt- 
zebue CI8O63. Ion C18033. Spanish Theatre 
C1803-93; Dramatic Art and Literature « C1809). 
Indian Library CI B303. 

■ Frederic von Schlegel, the brother of the.pte- 
ceding, was bom, 1772, at Hanover; and re- 
ceived his earliest edac|ttion from an elder bro- 
ther and an uncle, who were both country 
clergymen. At firsts he was Intended for a 
merchant, and sent to a conntinghouse at Leip- 
sic. But a commercial occupation was so In- 
coinpatibie with hi9 tastes and habits , that his 
father was persuaded to allow him to quit it 
for a learned profession. Accordingly, he went 
to Gdttingen and entered himself at the univer- 
sity as a student of philology. He finished his 
studies at Leipsic, and after residing some time 
at Berlin ' becfltaie a private teacher at the Uni- 
versity of Jena. Here he made the acquaintance 
of the daughter of Mendelssohn, whom he after- 
wards married;* and with whom, after passing 
a short time at Dresden, he visited. Paris, where 
we find him, in 1802, delivering lectures on 
philosophy. On his return to Germany, he and 
his wife made a public and solemn recantation 
of the Protestant faith, and went over to Ca- 
tholicism; the Cathedral at Cologne was appro- 
priately chosen for the cereihony. In 1808, 
Prederic Schlegel went to Vienna, and the year 
after accompanied the Archduke Charles in his 


unfortunate campalgrn; at tbia stiriiiiff period 
his i»eii was employed iii rousing the German 
people against foreign oppression by passionate 
appeals to thetr national feelings and recollections 
of ancient glory. In 1811, he lectured at Vienna 
en Modern History. Some of hts writings ob* 
tained for him, first the attention, and then the 
eonfiilence of Prince Mettemich, who appointed 
him secretary of legation to the Austrian em- 
bassy at Francfort. He returned, however, to 
Vienna in 1828, and devoted himself once more 
to literary pursuits. He died in 1829, whilst 
giving a course of lectures at Dresden on the 
philosophy of language. 

Frederick Schlegel does not equal his brother 
William in taste, elegance and versatility, but 
was perhaps his superior in vastness of con- 
ception and depth of thought. Hts intellectual 
career may be divided into several stages. Du- 
ring the first, he distinguishetl himself by intence 
study, and by the rapid acquirement of classical 
knowledge. His first work of importance, "The 
Greeks and Romans," was highly praised by the 
phHologer Heyue. But he soon left the classic- 
al world, to. take a share in cotemporary lit- 
erature, and even whilst engaged with Schlei- 
ermacher in tbe translation of Plato, wrote a 
number of critical and polemical articles in the 
''Athenseum," a periodical of which he and his 
brother were editors. Many of his dissertations 
on Goethe, and, particularly, on "Wilhelm Mei- * 
ster," are contained in this journal. In 1799, 
we find him in the new character of an equi- 
vocal novel writer — it was in that year that 
lie published his <^Lucinde." This work, of which 

only a part was ever completed, and in whieli 
a licentious imagination is allowed unbridled 
play witli sensual subjects, created a great sen- 
sation in Germany. It was about the period of 
its publication tbat its autbor settled at Jena, 
and his private life there is said to have cor«i 
responded to the principles which his recent 
writings had hiculcated. He became one of the 
loudest partisans of the Romantic School, which 
was Just then in progress of formation. That 
he left his '^Lucinde" unfinished shows that its 
character did not indicate a settled tendency of 
his nature. For some time after its publication 
he seems to have vacillated between varioua 
systems and to have really devoted himself to 
none. He essayed his powers in a dramatic, 
and in various lyrical forms. He then took up 
the study of the southern languages, and of the 
works of art which the middle ages have left 
us. These pursuits contributed to pave the way 
to the grand and final change, which his moral 
and mental character was destined to undergo. 
This change was his conversion to the Roniisli 
church , of which he soon became one of the 
most zealous and unwearied agents. From this 
time forth, he assumed a decided character, and 
his efforts were exerted in a definite direction. 
Whatever he undertook was undertaken in the 
cause of the Roman Catholic church. Even his 
celebrated work, on the '^Wisdom and Language 
of the Indians," is composed in a Catholic 
spirit. In his ^'Modern History" and ''History of 
Ancient and Modern Literature," he strenuously 
advocates the same creed. Everywhere is Ro- 
manism defended and rescued from obloquy, and 


its opponents attacked and reviled. Luther Is 
treated very nnceremoniously as an adventarer, 
and as a man of bad moral character. The 
sincerity of Schlegel is, perhaps, as- audoubted 
as his talent, bat he is justly accused of many 
fnconsistencies. His death, which occurred after 
an excess at table, gave rise to much recrimin- 
ation between his friends and the liberal party 
in Germany, to which he was particularry ob- 
noxious from his desertion of Protestantism, the 
mysticism of his creed, and his leaning to des- 
potic power. 

Principal Works of Frederic Schiegd. The 
Greeks and Romans CI 797}. Lucinde C17093. 
Alarkos , a drama ■ CI8O23. Collection of the 
Romantic Poems of the Middle Ages C18043. 
On the l4anguage and Wisdom of the Indians 
CI8O83. Poems CI8O93. On Modem History 
CI8II3. Lectures on the History of Ancient 
and Modern Literature fadmirably translated by 
Mr. Lockhart] Ci8153. Philosophy of Life 01828}. 
Philosophy of History/ (1829} twell translated 
by Mr. Robertson]. Lectures, principally on the 
Philosophy, of Language C18293. . 

Ludwig Tiek was bom at Berlin, In the year 
1773. Few facts are known respeicting his youth 
and early education, except that he went to 
school at Berlin, and afterwards studied at 
Halle. The Prussian capital was the scene of 
the first period of his literah' activity. He was 
intimately connected with the noted Nieolai, the 
bookseller, at w'hose impulse he is said to have 
written some of his early works. Disputes, ho- 
wever, soon arose between patron and client, 
and the latter left Berlin about the year 1798, 


for Haakburg; wliere he nuinried die daughter 
of Alberti, a clergyaian. Then lie lived for some 
time at Jeiia, wliicli he quitted la 1801, for 
Dresden » when he devoted himself exclusively 
to the study of Art. From Dresden he retired 
to, a poetical solitude near Francfort on the 
Oder, and remained there for some time* 

111 1806) we find him at Rome, busily enga* 
ged ill the study of the old German manuscripts 
with MThich the library of the Vatican abounds. 
On his return to Germany, he led on the whole 
an unsettled life, till he was appointed to tho 
superintendance of the theatre at Dresden, iu 
which city he still lives. 

TieJc is to be regarded as the true founder 
of the Romantic School in Germany. He united 
the creative with the critical faculty. Whilst 
he analysed the old world of literature, his ge* 
nlua contributed to the new one. fle not only 
saw into the defects of the past and present, 
hut he knew how to reform them. In this res- 
'pect, the Schlegels were deficient; whatever 
may have been the extent of their reasoning 
powers, their invention was nearly barren. Af- 
ter his admirable history, and critical analysis 
of the drama, the elder Sciilegel has nothing 
better to prescribe to the modern cultivatora of 
the dramatic art, than a modified imitation of 
Shakspeare, forgetting tliat such a recommend- 
ation runs directly counter to the - essential 
doctrines of his own criticism. But Tieck had 
a world within him, and had no occasion to 
loolB abroad for rulers and models. His works 
were not the. results of reflection, but, as it 
were 9 the Bpontaaeoas progeny of a rich Ima^ 


glnation. He came forth in a moiiotoYiAus and 
prosy time. Goethe had sunk into temporary 
oYHsoarlty, and was occupied more with scien- 
tific than with literary pursuits. The shock of 
Schiller's first appearance had subsided, and the 
middle course he was then steering:, was any- 
thing: but favourable to the free exercise of the 
imagination, which had also lately suflTered nu- 
merous imligpities ftom a school of German ' 
Utilitarians, who, from the nature of their char- 
acters,- were disposed to cry down everything 
which soared above mediocrity, and whose demi- 
god was Intellect, the modern march of which 
they were amongst the first to commence. These 
were' the famous Philistines, of whom there has 
been so much talk both in Germany and in other 
roiuitries. It would be difilicult to enumerate 
the liames of their chiefo, for most of them 
have gfone to their long homes, without leaving 
any behind them. They were only formidable 
from the numbers, which, like all popular and 
superficial sects, they had managed to rank on 
their side. Those whose fame survives them, 
live only in the witty abuse of their adver*^ 
saries. - It was, as we have before observed, 
under the patronage of Nicolai, the bookseller, 
who M'as a great leader amongst the Philisti- 
nes, that Tick vmsi ushered into public notice; 
and it was some time before the native force 
of hiff genius was able to shake off all the ef- 
fects of habit and association. His first work, 
''William -Level ,'* gave but few indications of 
the character he was shortly to assume. It Is 
a dark story, which plays principally in Italy; 
many of Its incidents are revolting, and Its 


wHokle colonr is tragical. The mind of Ita au- 
thor was not yet matured,, or perhaps it lan- 
guished under sinister impressions. But the 
innate grace of Tick's nature could not long 
lie hidden. Nor could the susceptibility of his 
poetic soul. allow him to listen quietly to the 
insults which imagination was daily receiving 
at the hands of his intellectual patrons. Ac- 
cordingly, he did Justice to himself and his poet- 
ic mission in his '^Popular Legends," (Voiks- 
mdrchen), and he avenged the Muses on their 
enemies in his satirical dramas. From the ap- 
pearance 0^ these works, the activity 0/ the! 
Romantic School in Germany may be dated. Let 
us first give some account of his ''Popular Le- 
gends," which have since been embodied in his 
''Phantasus, and to which the English reader 
has access in the spirited translations - of Mr. 
Garlyle. These legends ate remarkable for their 
beauty, their genuine simplicity, and a myste- 
rious intimacy, not so much with the works as 
with the working of Nature. All her changes 
and metamorphoses, the poet follows' with a 
watchfiil ear and a faithful hand. He would 
seem to have hung on the bosom of our com- 
mon mother, and to have become familiar with 
the simple, yet miraculous power which directs 
all her operations. These legends have a fireah- 
ness about them like that of the earliest morn- 
ing, a sweetness as of wild- flowers, and a 
calm beauty, caught as it were, from a radiant 
sunset, or a rising moon. The reader of the 
'^Runenberg," is brought face to face, with the 
presiding spirits of the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms; now he feels as if he were embosom- 


ed in laxnrious vegretation, bathed in fertiSMng 
dew and fanned l>y balmy zepliyrs; and- now, 
as if He were transported to cavern-deptlis, or 
darkest mines , where moantain^spirits exercise 
an unholy infiuence. All the other legendfc, 
"The Fair Eckbert," "The Fairies, and "The 
Trasiy Eckart," have the same beauty and signi- 
ficance, but it is impossible, by mere description, 
to give any idea of their peculiar nature ^ 
they must be studied and felt, to be at alt un- 

The satirical dramas of our. author are as 
remarkable for their wit and humour, as his 
other works for their grace and truth. Indeed, 
he has been called, and with Justice, the Ro* 
mantic Aristophanes. His principal productions, 
in this character, are his ''Puss in Boots," and 
the **World Topsy-turv>\" They are directed 
against the Philistines in general, and against 
Kotzebue, Iffland, and some critics and philo- 
logers in particular. They are alike superior 
In conception and execution, and dealt blows 
which were never forgiven. But we doubt whe- 
tlier they would be relished or appreciated by 
the English public. They are sometimes witty 
without an apparent object, the imagination of 
the author playing with its own creations. This 
eimiricious sportiveness of the fancy, of which 
our poets of the Shakspearian age 'furnished so 
many examples, we are in danger of losing in 
becoming modern aiid merely rational. 

In some works, Tiefc has shown a leaning 
to Romanism; such are his "Genevieve,** a drama 
founded on the old legend, and ^^Stenibald'a 
Wlutderings ," which are dedicated to the lins 

JlimRN fiKRMAH IjlTRIIAttntR. 181 

arts. Bat nXL tli»t ke Mvote, fit on« period^ 
l^trayed motfe or less 6f the SAine tendency^. 

Tieck liaft gi\'«n to Ch^rmilny the best tratitK 
Jation whicti it possesses of CerTauteS. Wifft 
the study of Shaksyeare lie lias been doeupleil 
all his life; the last celitliry saw « tiraiislfttioii 
«f the ^^Tonpest" by kiiii, aiid ««tiie letters on 
Its avther. To the ^Ireseiit day, he Mas been 
engaged iii collecting materials, mid ^hitig shape 
to bis opinions on Shakspeare. The greftt work 
which he has announced , on the genius and 
writings of the Utter, hks been anticipated witA 
singulair eagerness by the German pttblii;; and, 
indeed, that which he has alreiidy written on 
the subject warrants great expectatlonlR , *ntf 
two or tliree of his articles on Shakspeare, con- 
tained in a small work in two voiomes, called 
''^Dramatfirgical Papers," display a bettet ae- 
quaiiitance with the genius of oui' great poet 
than perbi^s any oilier innquiret hits shewn. 

His Studies and reiiearolieB kate led ttihi to 
some . appureittiy paradoxical cow^Usions. Re 
aia'uitaiiis, for sRStahce^ that Hie esjienee Of fhe 
nat«re of Lady MAcbeth Is overweeding lov«> 
and that Ike c^lebraited solil«i«Uy of fiidkit^t doe^ 
not relate to sut^ide. A Closer And mdre Ifecotift 
piece of reastnlhig than the ohe by i^i<^h he 
arrives at tHIs lalrler oonolttsloii, oan rarely be 

Tieck was in London ifi 1818, and wet»t in 
our natlmial theatres over the mtttilil^oif of 
fllMikspeal^e. Of course h& bus iM mer<7 for 
the improvements of Tate, and the alterations 
of Garrick. He could hardly find words to ex- 
pKss his ladifttHtAon at the way in which Mae- 



beth was represented at Drnry Lane. He saw 
John KemMe, whose Corialanns he applauded, 
but at whose HamTet he smiled, take leave of 
the stage. The arbitrary interpretations, and, 
according to him, uiuustifiable interpolations of 
Kean, he could not tolerate. *He saw Macready, 
then in his noviciate, perform in a modem tra- 
gedy, and Tieck foretold his future fame^. 
Miss O'Neill was his favourite heroine. Tieck 
was very much satisfied with his visit to Eng- 
land, and three of his most agreeable days, 
were spent with Coleridge at Highgate. 

After some years' cessation of his literary 
activity, Tieck appeared again as an author, 
about fourteen years ago, but in a new cha- 
racter. The zeal and enthusiasm of his early 
years had subsided, and had been followed by 
a perfect calm. The richness, buoyancy and 
petulance of an imagination Impatient of control 
had vanished, and was succeeded by complete 
regularity and repose. He who had formerly 
done all from impulse, now subjected himself 
unreservedly to the sway of reason. At times, 
he would seem almost to have become one of 
those very Philistines, on whom it was his wont 
so stoutly to fall foul. But this idea it not so 
much suggested by the character of his later 
works, as by their comparison with his formmr. 
We aUude here to the 'bales'' C^ovelienJ, of 
which his latter years have been so productive. 
They are as perfect as anything he has written, 
bur they are, not of so high an order as his 

* And would aow be highly gratified by hit restora- 
tion of Shakepeare ia hie gennine form aad preeanro. 


earlier works. They are psycltolegical rather 
than poetical, treat. of principle rather than pas* 
sioM, and their sphere is the head instead of 
the heart. When the spirit of the age takes 
an erratic direction, its faults and failings find 
a clear mirror in these works. Tieck never mo* 
ralizes, but simply warns by telling the plain, 
unvarnished truth. He shows ''the very age and 
body of the time." He is too much of a phi- 
losopher to fly into a passion with his fellow- 
men, at whose follies, on the contrary, he silly 
smiles. Tieck's ^^Noveilen," are not the works 
of an optimist, — they unbare too cruelly our 
inevitable weaknesses, and repeat too plainly 
'that folly is the heir-loom of our race. A vein 
of irony per\'ades them, of an effect sometimes 
too harsh. It would seem, now and then, as 
if the author wished to disown his kind, so 
completely does he despise it. We doubt whe- 
ther such impressions ought to be left by works 
of art, and whether our author in striving not 
to be polemical, has not, in order to effect his 
object, been actuated by a polemical spirit. In 
point of style and form, these compositions are 
highly finished. 

Amongst the number we may be allowed to 
point out as our favourites, "The Poet's Life," 
part the first, "The Poet's Death," *^The Tra- 
vell^s," "Fortune makes Wise," "The Betroth- 
ing ," "The Witches' Sabbath ," and "The Re- 
volt in the Cevennes." The last-mentioned story, 
borders on the historical species of Scott, of 
whom our author has most unjustly said, "It 
is surprising how little he wants to be a poet, 
but how much that little outweiglis all he is." 

184 IIIM>BHH ORAMAN l«irKilAWftK. 

Tteck c^Bttnaes to reside lit Dresden, where 
the theatre, which is under his Management, 
does him infinite credit, and where his evening 
readings of his own and other ^works C^ften of 
Shakspeare), are the deliglit of all who are 
fortunate enough to he admitted to bear them. 

Principal Works of Tieek. AhdallaU C 17963. 
WlUiam Level C1796>. Popiilar Legends (^ Folder- 
mdrcfien) 01797). Satirical Dramas CI 7t83. Phan- 
tasies on Art CI79O3. Sternbald's Wanderings 
C17983. Translation of Don Quixote C1799-18013* 
Lyrical Poems C18003. The Emperor Octavian 
CI8O43 Generieve C18043. Phantasns C1B143. 
The Pictures 018223- The Travellers C18233^. 

It is difficult to determine, whether the eaiiy 
enthusiasm of Tieek on the subject of art was 
originally his own, or whether it was not, to a 
great extent, imparted to him by his youthful 
friends. Certain it is, that amongst the latter 
there were several equally devoted with himself 
to the study, of the painters of the German and 
Italian middle ages, and equally impressed with 
the idea of imbuing the fine arts with the spirit 
of Christianity. First and foremost amongst these^ 
stands Henry William Wackenroder, who was- 
bom at Berlin in 1772, and who died there, 
1797. Pew have shown a Eeal like his in the 
execution of an abstract purpose. A r^lglous 
fervour pervades all he has written; and lends 

* 'The OldMan of the Mountain/' 'The Lovecharm," 
and the "Pietro of Albano," hare heen translated, in 
oae Tohime, 1831. In the collections of "Gerniaa lii»* 
mnnces^" published by Roacoe an^ Carlylo, will be 
found some of his tales. "Kermer the Genius ,'' has 
been rerently published in the English language at 



the most glowing colours to the pictures of h\a 
imagination. His priiicipal work is his ^'Ilirusions 
of a Afonk devoted to Art," but he also contri- 
buted to several productions of Tiedc. Probably^ 
he took the lead of the latter in their common 
direction* Their joint operations were loudly 
hailed y and eagerly responded to by the Ger- 
man artists at home and abroad. Wnkelmann 
ami Greece were . forgotten for Diirer and his 
pupils, and for the school of Raphael. As is 
always tlie case with the young, on the occasion 
of sudden changes, they were guilty of extra<^ 
vaganctes. They became, some of them, 'bigots 
and fanatics, and many of them rendered them- 
selves ridiculous by adopting the garb as well 
as imitating the spirit of the middle ages. The 
elder German artists regarded, at first, this 
wild intoxication with silent pity, and allowed 
Its earlier outbreaks to pass unheeded ; but they 
did not fail, ultimately, to register their protest 
against it. And, at last, Goethe inflicted on 
the new system , . already verghig towards its 
decline t a mortal blow, in a paper entitleil 
*'0n- the Christian, Patriotic, new German Art,'^ 
published In the second number of his period ical^ 
''Art Und Anttquits\" 

Nearly the same relation In which Wackenro- 
der Stands to Tieok the artist , Novalis bears to 
Tieck the poet. He shared the love of the lat- 
ter for mystery and symbol ^ and the object of 
his literary endeavour appears to hare been to 
erect literature into a kind of religion. In his 
eyes all is wonder, luid the most wondeifhl of 
all is that daily life which wo are accustomed 
to consider vapid and monotonous.' It sofAcas 


for him to touch upon an ordinao' circumstance, 
and it assumes an infinite significance. He did 
not live long enough to finish his principal work, 
so that we can hardly define his object, though 
we may indicate the . direction he was taking. 
This, as may be presumed, was not towards a 
recognition of our conscious powers and reason- 
ing faculties as the highest elements of our 
nature, but rather the contrary. He was bom 
amongst the antipodes of the sceptical world. 
^He rather loved to believe than sought to doubt. 
He preferred to base his system upon the un- 
changeable groundwork of our nature, rather 
than to support it merely on those secondary 
powers, the active existence of which mainly 
depends on cultivation, and the exercise of which 
mast always be exposed to the influence of er- 
ror. To the Rationalists and Indifferentists with 
whom Germany abounds, he was not only na- 
turally averse, but actively opposed. Towards 
Goethe his bearing was always inimical, and to 
his '^Hllhelm Meister", he would fain have op- 
posed the emotions of a living and a loving faith. 
Novalis was the assumed name of the Baron 
Ton Hardenberg, who was bom in 1772, and 
who died in 1801. His life was short, restless 
and unfortunate. The premature death of a lady 
he deeply loved, hastened his own. After his 
decease, his works were published in two vol- 
umes by Frederic Schlegel and Tieek; the most 
remarkable are ^'Hefairich von Ofterdingen ,** an 
unfinished romance displaying ail the mystical 
peculiarities of its author, clothed in a simple 
and singularly beautiful style,. and his ''Hymns to 
tlie Might," remarkabie for (hcdr devout sahlimlty. 


We have now concluded our noUee of the 
men who founded that which has been called 
the Romantic School in Gennany. We have 
alluded to the reaction to which it owed its 
origin, and we have described the characters 
and labours of its' principal chiefti. It has been 
seen that its actual existence, as an active lit- 
erary body, lasted but for a very short space 
of time. The founders, however much^ of its 
character they mig^ht subsequently retain, soon 
separated , and each took his peculiar path. 

Frederic Schlegel turned to philosophy, diplo- 
macy, and Romanism, and his latter years. were 
only reminded of his earlier pursuits and pre- 
dilections by a dedication of Tieck, In which, 
the latter commemorates his ancient admiration 
of the drama of ^^Genevi^ve." We can well 
imagine that the few days which these cele- 
brated men spent together, previously to the 
sudden death of one of them, must have dis- 
covered to them the immense distance which 
separated them. The one had become more than 
ever devoted to the Church of Rome, from which 
the other had not only gradually withdrawn 
himself, but towards which he would seem to 
have taken up an offensive position. Of the 
elder Schlegel, Tieck must now speak as a 
merely personal friend, who has long left him 
for pursuits to which he is an utter stranger. 
He, himself, as we have seen, became soon 
unfaithful to his early character, and gradually 
deserted it for an opposite one^. But, what- 
ever became of the men , their works effected 

* Set his N99*IU, "Tha Wit«li««' Sabbath, 


a rev^lutktn, oi wliieh most evnietit murks are 
V49ilile in tlie literature of the present day. 
Tliey kbidled a npkU; with which otheis were 
uiapired, though thoy negieetetl it, and every 
author ttf eminence who has appeared in Crer- 
many, during: the present eentnry^ is, in some 
degree^ their scholar. 

Two men, the tendency of whose works is 
anahigoas to that of the Bomantio School, and 
who Ixave since flourished, are Achfan von Ar- 
nim and GkauenA Brentano. They are genaraUy 
classed together, from tlietr having both afAxed 
their naaies to a ooUection of ballads , entitled 
f^Tl^e B»y'8 Wonder-Hdm/' These songs, whkh 
bear the geauine imprass of the German national 
chaiaefcer ^ gave a new direction to lyrical poet- 
ry. The subseqiient works of these authors 
were proae-fietious , which never attained any 
great poptilarity. Arnim deals in the horrible 
and phaatastic; Bientano in the eccentric and 
humorous. In the works of the former, for 
instance in the ^^Countess Dolores," and '^Isa- 
heila of Bgypt^" there are scenes of the wildest 
and mast esctravagant description. We will 
lastanoe one from ^Isabella." It presents us 
with four persons travelling together m a car- 
riage to celebrate a wedding , at Bulk tii Bel- 
gium; th^'are, an old gipsy, who is at tlM- 
same time a witch ; an individual who is called 
a BO^enbdutev Cfvo^ Bdreuhaut, a hfrarskin, 
fexmlng his dress^, wlui perpetually shiven 
with cold, and is not a bond fide living being, 
but a corpse whieh lias deserted its grave to 
earn a few ducats,, by engaging itself for seven 
years as a 8er\'ant; the third passenger is a 


Oftlem, i. e,, a fliciire of day, to all appeiivanee 
a beautiful woman, on whose forehead is writ- 
ten In Hebreiv letters the word Troth, aad 
who falls to dust as soon as this word is eras- 
ed ; finally , we have the field-marshal Corne- 
lius Nepos, who is no relation to our cUuMlcal 
acquaintance of that name, and whp, indeed, 
is no other than the root mandrake, which Isa- 
bella of Egypt had plucked underneath a gibbet, 
and whldi had transformed itself under her 
hSMds into a horrible dwarft The Imaginatioa 
of Amim, whilst giving birth to these monstrous 
creations, seems in no state of violent excite- 
ment. The tenour of his story is as calm, as 
if it breathed the most ordinary subjerts. -He 
conjures up Death and his train of gloomy hor- 
rors, as If he only required their presence to 
become more sportive and simple than a child. 
For him life and the present have no charms; 
he flies to the grlive of Qie past, and warms 
in the embrace of death. 

Thd style of Arnlm is masterly, and there 
are parts of his eompositlonfl which are perfect, 
but taken as a whole they are iacongruMUr, 
aad the impression they leave is wisatisfaetory. 
His rrltical opinions were the same as those of 
his friend Brentano, together with whom, sop&e 
thirty years ago, he edited a periodical at Hei- 
delberg, which was the terror of Voss and the 
Rationaltsts. Amim attached himself ileotdedfy 
to none of the religious parties ' in Geimany. 
•mitano, on the contrary, belongs to the Ca^ 
tholic propagandists, and is most zealously de- 
voted to the cause of the Romish churdi. . <l€ 
lale yem, iadeed, he is become move theoto^ 


gic»l than literary. He has spent several years 
of his life in taking down the revelations of a 
Westphalian nun, who is reporteti by the Ca- 
tholics to have been favoured with a miracu- 
loos share of divine inspiration. He is a great 
advocate of the Catholic sisterhood at Coblenz, 
which is celebrated for its simple piety, and 
exemplary self-denial. Brentano spends his days 
at Francfort, often travelling to Munich, the 
head-quarters of German Catholicism. The youth 
of his ultra-Romish sect celebrate him as one 
of the first German poets. They assert that 
what he has published, though avowedly of the 
first order, will bear no comparison with many 
of his works still in manuscript. According to 
them, he towers infinitely above Tiefc, who 
has deserted his better self and sunk to medi- 
ocrity. He is destined, they say, to usher in 
a new poetical era, and to recall the imagina- 
tion from profane excursions to spiritual and 
sublime pursuits. 

Brentano has not cared to do much to verify 
these predictions. From that which he has pub- 
lished, however, we are far from withholding 
its meed of praise. His principal poem, ''The 
Foundation of Prague," embodies the spirit of 
a poetical and heroic age. His comedy of "Ponce 
de Leon," contains, perhaps, more real wit 
than any of which Germany can boast. In some 
of his tales , as in the ''History of the good 
Casperl and the beautiful Nannerl," there is a 
touching simplicity, combined with a pathos whtdi 
invites repeated and never- tiring contemplation. 
Others, as "The Three Wehmuller, or Hungarian 
National Faces," abound in rich descriptions and 


eoaiical Incidents. Ut some, aflrain, tm tn ^'Tlie 
Tbree Nats," tlie trairical is mysterioosly blended 
witli tile Immoroos, and tlie team wliicli tliey 
flQmmon fortli are a^tcompanied witii involuntary 
smiles. : Finally , tbat Brentano is a poet of 
liigli rank, can be doubted by no one wlio has 
perused even his most unpretending productions;^ 
a few verses, for instance, wlilcli he wrote 
some years ago, in. aid of a charitable purpose, 
contain a figurative picture of dawning day, 
which in its peculiar style has, perhaps, rarely 
been equalled. 

We now pass to two classes of authors, who 
have written works analogous in character or 
tendency to those of the Romantic School. The 
first is composed of men who -only occasionally, 
or for a short period of their career, devoted 
their attention to literature. Amongst these we 
may particularise Schleiermacher, Gdrres, and 

Schleiermacher was the translator of Plato, 
and in his early study of the 'Greek philosopher 
was associated with Frederic Schlegel. Their 
friendship appears to have been of the warmest 
kind. When the latter published his obnoxious 
story, ^^Lucinde," the former wrote tetters in 
'^The Athensum," praising and illustrating it. 
Schleiermacher was bom at Breslan, in 1768, 
and died at Berlin, in 1834. It is foreign to 
our immediate subject to enumerate his theolo- 
gical worfeB. 

Gdrres and StefiTens are friends of Tieck and 
the Schlegels , but their works are. rather of a 
poUtical and philosophical, than of a literary 
character. Gdrres was an enthusiastic politician 

192 ■ronm obrmam i*itb*a< 

diifbig tke wmt against tHe Frencli, eM waa 
called Dy tbe ParUian joumaiiste, la einqtUhne 
ptUssancti, Since tiiat time, h« iiaa joined the 
Catholic Propafandiflts ; and is become » rell'- 
gious layatio. He is now I^ofesser at afunlcli, 
wlieFe he cometimeB lectures on Univemal Hi* 
atory, Iwti ia aaid never, even at the end of 
the session , to have arrived fortbev tlian to an 
actBomit of tha Wood, — sueh nuittet does his 
httAghtatloa afford fur a description of ttie an> 
tedllflvian woitd. Amongst his Hlerary psodao* 
tions, may be instanced his ^^Account of Popa- 
lar Legends", and his oonlrifeHtiona to the Hei- 
delbecg peciodtoal of Amiii and Brentano. Has 
political writlnga, for which he was proscril»ed 
in Proasla, are> ^'Germany and the Revolution" 
C1819>, and ''JBurope and tlieRerohition"Ctd2l3. 
lys peeseoution was unnecessary, for his writ* 
Ings wese too abstract, and verged already too 
much towards the mystical, ever to find. readers 
amongst tho people. Ctdrres has written on va- 
rious departments df natural philosophy, and 
is well acquainted with the Persian language 
and literature. He was bom at Coblenz, 1776, 
and the most reauirkable event of his life was 
his mission to PaHa in 1799, the object of 
Which was cue Junction of the provinces on the 
left banic of the Hhlne with France* He re> 
turned to Coblenz without having been able to 
obtain an aodlenee of the litat Consul on the 

Steffens was bom hi Norway at Stavanger, 
in 1773, but has lived more thaii forty years 
hi Germany. Bis attea<ion was at flrsi directed 
to metaphysics and natatal philoaophy. He atu- 

IM»|UU1 CUiaiLAJi I.KIItllAVllllB. 198 

ilieil lUMler W<>>rner af Freitoierg, and afterwards 
gave leetures hioiattf en gealogy. At tlie time 
of the liberation-war, be combated in tlie cans* 
ai hte adopted doimtry both with the pen ami 
the aword. At the conolasion •/ tbe war^ Im 
wrote works of a somewhat similar tendency ta 
these oif dorress. The miifit remarkable of these 
is his '^Consitfer^tiona on the present Time, par- 
tioalarly with respect, to Genaany." Steffens 
has evperiencad a . gpoafc number of reiigioBs 
changea and convofsiens, of which ho has al- 
ways duly iftfonned the pnldio. 0o never, that 
we know of, went over to noaMnism, but he 
has been several tiaies dissatisAed with Protes- 
tantism, until he Jias again sueoeeded in moulds 
ing it to meet his altered views. One of his 
most noted tracts on tbe suluect of his religi- 
ous experience ia entitled, *'HftW i again became 
a Lutheran, and wliat my LuthernnlBm is." Of 
late years Steifons has followed in the traek of 
his friend Tteok, as a writer of tales* ^iV09el/e»> 
He is ntf>re religious tlum the laUer, and his 
abject appears to be more poleaweal and profound. 
But though his style and the e^klt af his sto^ 
ries ara often moffe welcome to our hearts than 
those of Tlek, we cannot praise thttur execu- 
tion. His details are disjointed , and there b< of** 
ten something forced and stiff in his descrip- 
tions; the precise uatnre of Ikis objeet, tod, is 
often extremely doubt Ay. His principal iS'oveiieit 
are ''Malcolm/' ^'Walsetli and Leitli," and <'Tho 
Four Norwegians." Steiens Is at preaent. Pro- 
fessor at Berlin , asul is ««ie of the -most remark- 
able of the German phitowiphical Pielitsts. 

194 ii*DBiiir gsBMAif unttULnrnm. 

To describe the relatien tn whlcli the iMt-meB- 
tioned writers, and, indeed, the Rommitle School 
genernlly stand to Schellingr and to the fliedem 
German, philosophy, would lead ns heyond our 
limits, and belongrs, indeed, rather to a philo- 
sophical than a literary history. 

The second of the two classes of authors, of 
whom we made mention above. Is composed of 
men who devoted themselves exclusively to lite- 
ratore, but whose saccess has not been of the 
highest order. Of these we may ennmerate Hen- 
ry von'Kleist, the Baron de la Motte-Vonqa^, 
and Itancis Horn. Klelst was bom in 1776, 
and died by his own hand, 1811. Since his 
death, his works have been collected by Tieck, 
and published with a critical introdactlon, and 
memoir of their author. There can be no doubt 
that Kleist was a man of genius, but his rest- 
less character, and the unfortunate circumstan- 
ces In which he was placed, prevented him from 
fuUy developing it. His principal production, 
'^Catherine of Heilbronn," a dramatic poem, Is 
an original conception, and Is executed In a 
masterly manner. It contains a beautlftil pic- 
ture of love In Its simplest, meekest form, en- 
during the rudest trials, and remaining true to 
itself to the last. The ''Tales" of Kleist sur- 
prise the English reader, by presenting qualities 
to which one is quite unaccustomed beyond the 
Rhine. They are divested .of all reflection, 
speculation, and discursive dialogue. The au- 
thor seems to be In the situation of a reporter, 
who Is In want of space even for a sucdnet 
detail of important tects. The current of the 
narrative is so rapid and strong, that the rea- 


der Is Irresistibly carried to the end. Some ef 
these stories are historical; ''Michael Kohlhaas'' 
for Instance, is a tme and stirring ptetnre of 
the Lutheran times. Others would seem mere 
anecdotes, if the skill of the narrator and his 
knowledge of hnman nature did not render even 
the slightest Incident of imporianee. The style 
of these productions Is terse , nervous, clear, 
and perfectly original. 

Frederic Baron i<e la Motte-Fouqui Is the 
nephew of the celebrated general of the same 
name, who served under Frederic the Great; 
he was bom at Berlin in 1777. He was destin- 
ed for a military career, and bore anas in 
the early Prussian campaign against the French 
revolution. Afterwards, he devoted himself to 
literary pursuits, under the auspices of the el- 
der Schlegel; but in the eventful year 1818, he 
again exchanged the pen for the sword. His 
principal productions are romances, in which 
his leaning towards the feudal times, and de- 
sire to recall them, are very evident But as 
an author, he is too tedious and prolix to exert 
a strong influence over the public. The style 
and execution of his story of ''Undine" are 
graceful, and the "Magic Ring" is original^. 

Francis Horn, a critic and writer of fiction, 
resided at'BerUn. He was a man of consider- 
able acquirements and commendable Industry; 
his style Is a^eeable, but the general cha^c^ 
ter of his writings is tame. He died In 1887. 

We shall now treat of several authors , whom 
we Rhall class together, not from their having 

* His" Undine" and tltc'^Magio liiug" have appeared 
in an English form. 

t#d VkbOim» OPtftMAN i.BBIIAfOBNi 

formed a acliooly biU from their • having tr«4 tlie 
same ptatli. We allnde lo German wiilers ol a 
iHimoufoos character, or of a decidedly satirioal 
tendency. In the literary histor>- .«f the iMt 
century, three figure in Uuts category; namely 
Thiottnel, Hippel, and Licliteuberg ^. 

Xfaiimmel was born at Schonfeld, near Leipr 
aic, in 1738, and ii'aai educated at the univer^ 
sity of the latter town. He sabaa^iiently her 
eame, Smt, prixT-'C^ounfleller, aad then a^i^rter 
ttf the duofey of Cehurg, but reticed flr«m paMic 
life 80 early as 1783. He died in 1817. His 
ftrat produetion- waa a comic epic, bat the woriK 
with which his fame is Identified, is his ^'Jour* 
aey In tl^ Soathem provinces of France, la. 
the yeaff» 178& and 1780." Thia, whieh is a 
work, of fi(ition , and whkh coinliaitts scenes of 
eonsiderame hamonr , would be Much too tod ions 
fofe our present pablic; Its antiikor, howev^r^ 
deserves praise as having been one of the first 
Qermaa writers, who eschewed tlie pedantry 
aad stiffness wiiich had hithesto eharacteriaod 
the national Hteratare. 

Hipp^ was botn, 1741, in East Prussia, and 
died, 1706, at Kunigsberg. He was an ecoe»- 
trie character, of powerfsl mtaid, original ha- 
mowr and singular habits. He is ehielly remark- 
able as a hamourist, but from his polemical 
standing as a scholar of Kant, and from the 
ohWMrity' in which lie sometimes chooses to in* 
valve both his subject and the end he has In 

*Some spectrocHfl of his '^lIuiitratioBs of Hogarth" 
have appeared in "Blackwood's Magaaiae." llie son 
of tliio remarkable nan fills, at London, a diplonaiic 
poet from ike Court of Hanover. 

vi«Wy fche cireolBtioii of his woi^ has never 
peen eommeusnrate with his literary fame. 

UchteBberg was born, 1743, at Oher-Ram^ 
stadt, ill Hesse -Darmstadt. At the town of 
Darmstafit , where he was sent to school y his 
talents aiMl industry attracted the attention of 
the ao^ereign, who took him lUMler his protect- 
ion ami supported hioL In 1763, we find him 
at Gdttiugen, commencing his astronomical stu- 
dies. He stuirtly became Professor at the Uni- 
versity, and, as sudh, made two or tliree vi- 
sits to Itondon, about the year 1770.. His ac- 
quaintance with England and English literature 
was very extensive, and contributed greatly to 
mould his litorary 'character. He tooJc great 
interest in our theatre, on which, and its hero, 
Garriek , his letters are very interesting. In 
1773, he wrote a witty attack on I^avater, which 
did not, however y prevent him from becoming, 
subsequently, the friend of the physiognomist. 
About the same , he engaged in a literary quar- 
rel with Zimmermann, who returned his spor- 
tive statires U'ith virulent abuse. Liehtenherg 
was a man of most varied attainments. His 
proper province was natural philosophy , in. many 
departments of which, particularly in the sci- 
ence of electricity, he has made hnportant dis- 
eoveiies. Philology, also occupied a share of 
Ms attention , for we tad him in 1781 attacking 
Voss, on the defects of his theory of Greek pro^ 
lUHiciation. His most celebrated wcffk, and that 
on which his fame as a humorist is chiefly ground- 
ed, is lUs ^^4;omplete Explanatioii of Hogarth's 
Copper-plates," in which he lias fully entered into 
the spirit of oaf artist. Ho died, iPebraary 34, 1799i. 

186 U09WBH OKKHUM uniunmi. 

. The principal humourists of whom Germanjr 
has had to boast during the present oentar>', 
are Jean Paul Frederic Hichter, Hoffknann. and 
Chamisso. Richter, commonly called Jean P«al, 
was born at Wunsiedel, near Balreuth, March 
21, 1763. He received the rudiments of his 
education, at Hof , near his native place , and 
In 1770) he went to study at the University of 
Leipslc. He was originally intended for a clergy- 
man, but shortly after the commencement of 
his academical career, he neglected his theolo- 
gical pursuits, and devoted himself to literature. 
His ftither, whose pecuniary means were very 
limited, dying young, he was snlject to much 
anxiety and embarrassment, particnlarl)' on 
account of his widowed mother, to whom he 
was tenderly attached. It was with great difi- 
«ulty that he obtained, as an author and tutor, 
sufficient money for both their support. In 1790, 
he accepted the office of schoolmaster, at a 
small place called Schwarzenbach. It was here 
that he made those Important studies on the 
infant character, and on the gradual develop- 
ment of the mind, the results of which enri^ 
his latter works. The events of the life of this 
celebrated author are few and unimportant. In 
1794, he changed his residence at Schwaixen- 
bach for Hof, whence, at the latter end of last 
century, he made a Journey to the North .of 
Germany, where, his fame having already pre- 
ceded him, he experienced the most giatif^'lng 
reception. He married in 1808^ and settled at 
Baireuth, where he died, November 14, 1825. 

The character of Richter, Uho that of his 
writings, was compounded of the sentimental 


and the hmnonroits. He had the heart of a woman 
and the head of a philosopher. No honan 
heing ever felt more profoundly, but none 
ever.sofomitted his feellni^s to a closer analy- 
sis, or specalated upon them with greater free- 
dom. The susceptibilities of Jean Paul were not 
temporary and evanescent, but permanent and 
grounded In the very essence of his nature. His 
affections were always alive; iiis heart was 
alwaj's warm; his whole life was one stre- 
nuous outpouring of inborn love. This same 
heavenly quaUty per\'ades his humourous as 
well as his sentimental scenes. He has a 
kind smile for those follies and wealmesses in- 
herent in our nature, which he would shame 
by exposure, but not shock by rudely attacking. 
Sometimes he treats even with alTection those 
old foibles of our human kind, which have 
accompanied It from its earliest date, and of 
which the most distant future will hardly see 
It divested. 

Unfortunately, the conceptions of Jean Paul 
are not executed in a manner worthy of them. 
His style has often been animadverted on, but 
never, we think, sufidently censured. The plans 
of his works are often strangely Incongruous, 
loosely followed out and capriciously interrupted. 
His dlctionar)' is about twice as large as that 
of any other German classic, but he Is not so 
essentially diflicult as intentionally obscure. He 
drags in similes out of the abstractest sciences, 
and is repeatedly guilty of the most uncalled- 
for digressions. For these reasons, though he 
has been very popular in Germany, his fame 
has never been acknowledged by the learned. 


Sehiiler for instance, aeems to have regarded 
liim >as an nnaoeouiitable being , wiili whom he 
couid hiive little fellowship , and whom it was 
difficult properly to understand. Goethe tiarelj 
acknowledges his genius, and then hastens to 
censure his wilful neglect of it. The critics by 
profession passed htm over, for the most par^ 
umioticed. For the causes above-mentinned, the 
popularity of JFean Paul has of late years dedi* 
ned in Germany , and he can never beeome a 
favourite abroad^. 

P^rindpal Works of RMiter. Greenland Tri«- 
als C17833. Selection from the I>evtrs Papers 
C17883. Hesperus 017943. Quintns Fixletn Ci796>. 
Biographical Recreations under the skull of a 
Giantess (17963. 'The Campaner Valley, or the 
Immortality of the Soul (17983. Titan (ld06>. 
Katzenberger's Journey to the Bath (18093. Le- 
vana, or a Theory of Education (18073- Vor- 
schule der Aesthetik (18133. 

Hoffmann was bom at Kunigsberg, Janoary 
24, 1776. Hct waft a lawyer hy profession, 
and was appointed in 1808, assessor in the go- 
vernment district of Pesen. In .1808, he visi- 
ted Warsaw, in some offieial capacity, but the 
invasion ;of the French in 1806, finished his 
career in that city. In 1816, he was promoted 
tn the rank of counsellor in the court of judl- 
cntwre of Berlin, where he died July 34, 1823. 

* Some single (ales and specimeiis have been pub- 
lished in nn Bnglish fomij ns in the' collections of 
'-fierana Robimco." ''The liingaist/' And some perio* 
dical works. Those who combine in one idem (he writ- 
ings of Burton and of. Sterne^ will form no bad con- 
eeptioB of the (ood Riobier. 

nrom his yvnth he il(^pt««t hlft fehiore h>o(irii 
to the study of iiiusit;. His i»reditt*tioiiiB are a 
farrago of the hamooruus and the horrible. To 
Rome of Ihem, the reader is at a loss which 
of the two chanicters to affix; there is some- 
thing so lodicrons in the terror they semetimefi 

Tlie original tendency of Hofltoann's charac- 
ter seems to have been towards the comic, and 
that he cultivated this vein with great sucGesS) 
is fully shown in his ''History of Master Flea/' 
and ''Th« confessions of the Cat, Marr.'^ lit 
ether works, as in the ''Night-pieces," and the 
"Devil's Elixirs," the terrible is the almost exeln- 
si%'e featsre, and is portrayed with wild furce 
and in the strongest colours. The' genlas of 
Hoffmann was convulsive, and tats temperament 
unhappy. The discord of liis nature he indreacH 
ed by satisfying its cravings for undue excite-^ 
ment. He became . the victim of his own ima- 
gination, and was himself appalled at the ter- 
rors whidi it conjured up at his beck. At iast, 
his creations became niHhing bat caricatures, 
and his mental vision diseased and distorted. 
Tlie intemperate habits in which he finally in- 
dulged, liastened his 4leath, which was brought 
about by a nervous disease, in the fiftj^-fonrtli 
year ef hit age^. 

* Tlie ''Devil's Elixirs" has b«Mi well translated in- 
to English, and is a work that will delight the lovers 
of the Supernatural Romantic, — belonging to the elas* 
of "The Monk/' by Lewis, and "Molmoth," by Ma- 
turin. It abounds in the fiercest transitions from co- 
medy to melo-drama, and contains many happy descript- 
ions, and burning expressions. 


CliiiiiiUHio is a Frenehnuui hy birth, who emi- 
grated ia Ills diildhooil to Germany. He was 
bom at the castJe of Boncourt; in Champagne, 
1781. During the war against France, he en- 
tered the Pruasian service, and bore amis against 
Napoleon. In 1815, he accompanied young Kotise- 
hue in his Journey round the world , and waa 
absent three years. He resided at Berlin till his 
death which occurred in the coarse of the sum- 
mer of 1838. Chamlsso's proper character is 
that of a botanist and naturalist generally, but 
his book, "The strange history of Peter Schle- 
mlhl, or the Man without a Shadow," has ear- 
ned him literary fame. The conception of this 
story is original, and the execution Ingenious. 
It belongs to a class of productions little cul- 
tivated* In our practical age. It is the offspring 
of an imagination, which has no evident aim, 
except the pleasure of creating. ^ 

The German dramatists since Schiller, have 
followed two directions; both of which may be 
traced to his example. The one is a modern 
adaption of the fatalism of the ancients, which 
is what he attempted in the "Bride of Messina.'' 
Several writers have followed him in this line, 
and have been more successful with the public^ 
though not with the critics. We may instance 
here, the dramatic labours of Werner, Mullner, 
and Grillparzer. One of Werner's most remark- 
able works, is "The 24th of February," so 
called fk'om that day having been ever fatal to 
a family, three members of which, a father, 

* It ha* been translated by Dr. Bowring, but nnder 
the name of a wrong author, De la Motte-Fouqui beinf 
•ubstituted on the tittle page for Chamisio. 

MiminiN eiCHMAN litkratvrk. 303 

mother, and tbeir aon, fonn the dramatis per^ 
soaae. Werner was a man of remarkable eccen- 
tric character, and extremely fickle In hia belief. 
Hfe was first a strenuous Protestant, and as 
such, wrote his ^'Martin Luther, or the Conse- 
cration of Power," in which the rude charac- 
ter of the Saxon monk is invested with the 
dignity of a heavenly mission. Catholicism palls 
before him, and all their cherished prejudices 
desert its devotees. Catherine of Bora, the nun, 
who at first abhors his very name, no sooner 
beholds him , than she finds herself at once con- 
verted to Protestantism, and destined to be his 
wife. But scarcely had Werner written this 
remarkable drama, that he himself became a 
Catholic, and as if to atone for his former he- 
resy, entered a religious order. His subsequent 
works have the same tendency Cbut in a more 
extravagant degree} as those of Frederic Schle- 
gel, and the more decided Catholics of the. Ro- 
mantic School. To promote the progress of 
the papal religion was now the grand object 
of all he wrote. This is very evident in his 
''Sons of the Valley," in which a most enchant- 
ing picture is drawn of the order of the Knights 
Templars. But parts of this, as well as of his 
other principal drama, ''The Cross on the East 
Sea," are so extremely mystical, that they defy 
ordinary comprehension. Werner died in 1823. 
Mollner is chiefly known by his tragedy of 
''Guilt," the most celebrated of its class of 
dramas. These may be easily defined; their 
dialogue is lyrical and harmonic ds, and' gives 
great scope to histrionic declamation; their ca- 
tastrophes are brought about by decrees of fate. 



and are generally of an appallitifir nature, eal* 
culated to produce a solemn theatrical eflTect. 

At the time Mtillner's high -sounding rerfles 

were first pohUshed, they were always on the 

lips of the Gorman youth; and his hold figures 

were universally admired. How often have the 

ff>llo\iing lines ftom the tragedy of **Guilt" 

been enthusiastically quoted! 

It is clear tfaAt Hell is open. 
And its lurid refleetion 
Gleams through the nigbl. 
So tliat the paths are visible. 
Which the devil treads on earth. 

Miillner appeared as a poet late in life, and his 
education was unfavourable to his literary progress; 
his early studies had been devoted to law and ma- 
thematics. This accounts for his forced dignity, 
and laboured style; and for his want of ge- 
nuine simpllcitv. From 1820 to 1825, he edi- 
ted the "Morgenblatt." where his critical sar- 
casm created him a host of eneuiies. He died 
In 1829. 

Grillparzer merely deserves mention as a 
successful writer of this school. His most no- 
ted plays are ^'Tlie Ancestress," and "Sappho." 

Of the dramatists who followed the general 
system of Schiller, Kdmer Is the Bt^at remark- 
able. But his genius was rather lytic thaa 
dntmaUc, and bis heroes iftsteail •f heing tra- 
gically pathetic, are often only seniiaif«nt«lly 
weak. The most vahiabLe of his protluctions 
were songs hreatliing a fiery spirit of patri«Aiamt 
and hatred to foreign oppression, publishe^i um* 
der the title of ''The Lyre and the 8wuN." 
He was kille<i in the I^beraiti«ii-war, In lus 

twentj-third year, and his memory was long 
Iteld sacred by the yenth of bis time. 

Among the latest writers for the German stage, 
appear Heuwald, Auffenberg and Raapach, bat 
none even of their most popular tragedies can 
lay claim to distinguished merit. 

The most famous lyric poets of whom Ger- 
many at present boasts, are Uhland, Schwab, 
Riickert, and Count Platen. Chamisso, too, 
of whom we made mention as a humourist, 
has also distinguished himself in this character. 

Uhland is celebrated for the melody of his 
verse and the simplidty of his style. His muse 
is angelically pure, and there is a sweet me- 
lancholy in his strain, in which he sometimes 
indulges so far, as to have incurred the charge 
of effeminacy, Goethe expressed an opinion, 
that the constitution of his muse was consump- 
tive. His dramas have not been successful. He 
is said to be now engaged in preparing a work 
on the Minnesingers and Troubadours. 

iSchwab, like Uhland, his friend, is a Sua- 
bian, and is a successful follower of the latter. 
In coi\j unction with Chamisso, Cwho died since 
the publication of the London edition of this 
work), he now edites the ^^Muses Almanack." 

Count Platen is an excellent classical scho- 
lar, remarkable for the elegance and correct- 
ness of his German verse. His metrical profi- 
ciency exceeds that of all his predecessors, 
even of Sohlegel himself. Some time ago he 
attracted great attention from the enthusiastic 
confidence with which he promised great per- 



i0 an Orimitiil sdinUur ef vast ac- 
quisitions, wbosQ mHrioal flflittl is •qwal l« that 
af Plaleit y and wbo lays lust«r cuilaia (» ori- 
ginality. His versffied transtaftions from Eastern 
Models, liavo excited astMiifainient even fen Cler- 
many, and can scarcely be equalled in any 
otber Bnropean la«igua«e. Many of his origi- 
nal poems are as perfect in their spliere^ as 
those of UMand. Bat even the moat ceiehrated 
productions of some of these poeta, wmiM pro** 
kaMy disappoint the Bnglish student; the range 
of German lyric poetry is UMre limited than 
our own, and its constiHiAion is much more 
artificial; its character is often too ornamental, 
and its end and aim too exclusively aitistic. 

To these men of eminent tMeixt we have" to 
add a few more names whose reputation has 
imen acquired very lately: 

Jfimpsch has puMiflfltied , under the name of Le- 
rum a collection of excellent poems amongst which 
we shall mention thai of ^^Ahasver" as a highly 
finished production. ThO oovnt of Auerspetg Cwho 
has assumed the name of Anta^uHu OrlUi} is the 
author of the epic poem *Hfae last hnight** and of 
several other peettcal prodMtions. The poems of 
Zedlitz and particularly hiii <'f^Hie0n*rdiiso" have 
also heen very favofurabiy reeeived hy the gMvan 

The politick fever of modem timea haa not 
faded in Germany aa in ottMr ^vanities, to 
affect <lke literature of the day. l¥o lAatt briefly 
notice the man whose writings hetmy HH in- 
flaenee in every page,' and iiiio may ha aald 
to represent the new fvorman school -» ■onry 
Heine. It would he useless to deny the talent 

•f tbl8 author, tot It Is perveeteA mt unlwal- 
tliy. The ^xtmvagance of his cone^ions, Oioiigh 
it may nUmct at first, is so foreed and uuiap- 
tural, as finally to disgust the readef. General 
«xtravagaiice we can admire, witlioiit seekipg 
to ehlU it with «ritielsm, for there is no assign^ 
able iinit to the range of the taagination ; hot 
jieine Is a eomedlan who is always eonscloas 
<of the pipesence of the public. In all his works, 
•there is a constant craving after eJleet. He is 
hut a psottdo-poet , "^ where he is Hiought 
to have sooeeeded best, we hold tliat he has 
Juggled most. Even the quaint pathos of his 
^'BooJc of Songs," Cw^hich has foand so many 
admirers ,3 we cannot but regard as a solemn 
mockery. His four volumes of iieigebilder , 
^Pictures of Travel,} comtaln many startling, and 
aome witty antitheses, hut nothiag which leaves 
a pemiMient or gratifying impression. His 
works may famish a little temporary amusement, 
hat they are not peffeaniaUy relreshing, like 
the gemtine ereatlons of genius. His hook on 
Oermaa literatnre contains., amongst numy in- 
accuracies , some brillant ideas, happily express- 
ed; but he would seem to have no settted 
opinions on tiie sabject of wUeh he treats, and 
to write n»reiy far the pwepose of sayiag staart 
Uiittffl, or of graHfying personal pique. On the 
French he lias lavished flattety, which would 
he ooarso from any lipa, hat whloh is unnatu- 
ri^ i^om tkoae of a Oerman, and which Its 
ohiects wAll Kiipaai as no great eompHment. 
The vanity aC Heine is sach, that perliaps no 
other writer of any ago er country has indulg-^ 
ed in such ladefiiiiigable admtratUm of himself. 


It is imjMSflible to define distinctly the object* 
of Heine's writings; their tendency sometimes 
appears to be republican, tliough at others, he 
asserts that he is a most devoted advocate of 
monarchy. The anti-christian tendency of his 
writings,. is, however, very evident thronghotit, 
nor does he take much pains to conceal it. 

It is unnecessary to mention some small di8> 
ciples of a new little German school, who have 
chiefly distinguished themselves by a servile 
admiration of the French, and a propensity to 
sneer at their own country. One individuiA 
who is sometimes coupled with this group, is 
Boeme, lately dead, a critic, and the author 
of a work in several volumes, entitled ' 'Let- 
ters from Paris," 01830-4,3 the subject-matter 
of which was the politics of the day. The no- 
toriety which this production has obtained, is 
rather to be attributed to its levity and bold- 
ness, qualities hitherto unknown In German po- 
litical discussion, than to any intrinsic importance. 
Boeme, like Heine, was of Jewish extraction. 

Thus, then, we are compelled to close oar 
history of German literature with some of the 
least illustrious of its names. And to illustrate 
better the whole subject, we shall append a 
most important, however painful remark, ema- 
nating from Mr. Carlyle, one of its best informed 
as well as warmest friends. 

''In Riehter alone , among the great C^nd 
even sometimes truly moral} writers of his day, 
do we find the immortality of the soul expressly 
insisted on; nay so much as incidentaUy alluded 
to. This is a fact well meriting investigation 
and reflection, but here is not the place for 


treating^ U. The two venerable Jacobls belong^ 
fai character, if scarcely in date, to an older 
school ; so ^so does Herder, from whom Rich- 
ter learned much, both morally and intellectaally, 
and whom he seems to have loved and reve- 
renced beyond any other. Wielahd is intelligible 
^Q0gh; a sceptic in the style of Bolingbroke 
and Shaftesbury, what we call a French or 
Scotch sceptic, a rather shallow species. Les- 
sing also is a sceptic, but of a mach nobler 
sort; a donbter who deserved to believe^." 

Tlie reader will find in the catalogue pub- 
Uabed by Ch. JFugel, bookseller at Frankfort on 
the Mein, a complete list of U^ productions of 
the aoliiors mentlpned In the foregoing chapter ; 
it contains also the wozks of men of less note, 
whom the plan of the present publication did 
prevent us from animadverting upon. The same 
remark is Ahe more applicable to Chapter VII., 
as the number of historical and scientiflc writers 
of Gesmany is so very great as to render even 
a selection dilficult. 

* German Romance, with Biographical and Criiioal 
Notjeea, vol.' iii. p. 16. ' " 



It would be an act of injosttce to pass over 
in total sUencemany other names which have 
ornamented the literature of Germany In various 
departments less popular among general readers. 
To iUustrate properly the merits of her scien- 
tific, historical, antlauarian, theological and 
statistical writore would demand an entire vo- 
lume; we shall content ourselves in this place 
with a bare enumeration. 

John von MtUler stands at the head of the 
historians: his *njnlversal History" abounds In 
profound reflections, and is the fruit of elaborate 
research, produced In an eloquent and condensed 
form * : his History of Switzerland has not yet 
found a translator Into our language, but is still 
more valued in Germany. The works of Hee- 
ren, Raumer, Hammer and of Niebuhr**, are 
well known amongst as. Luden, Leo, Hormayr, 
Eichhorn, Gervinus, Wachler, Fessler, Manso, 

♦ TransUted by Dr. Priob»d, of Bristol, wlio is 
well known M mi original wrttor. Itg only blemish 
is the reserved, timid, nnd mysterious tone m which 
tlie author treats of r«UKioft. 

*♦ Nearly all the works of Heeroa have been trans- 
lated into English!, and have been published by Mr. 
Talboys of Oxfort, who has been very instrumental 
in clothing many standard Gorman works in an English 
dress. Ranmer's mosi important work CHistory of the 


Spittler, Hanke, Menzel, Relmi, Rotteck, Saaifeld, 
Schlosser, Wilken, Zschokke, Woltmann, -and 
Wachsmuth are less familiar. 

All nations assign the palm to German com- 
mentators on the ancient writers; to German 
philologists, lexicographers, etj'mologlsts and 
grammarians: in that country, indeed, the old 
classical taste finds its fondest home, arid per- 
haps its last stronghold. Adelung, Boeckh, 
Grimm, Heyne, Hammer, WiUiam v. Humboldt, 
Schweighauser , Becker, and Wolff, Lachmann, 
von der Hagen, Busching, Bopp, Jacobs, Host, 
Zumpt, Klqtz, Gesenius, Passow, Hermann, Butt- 
mann, Matthiae, and a good many more are 
illustrious members of the above class. 

The theological writers are not to be regarded 
with such cordial respect, because, however 
extensive may be their attainments, and how- 
ever acute their criticism, it is impossible to 
deny that some of the most eminent, as well 
as many of the less conspicuous, have distorted 
and defaced the plain language of the New Tes- 
tament, and have endeavoured to substitute in 
its place a spurious and feeble Interpretation of 
Christianity, — destroying the force of its mi- 
racles, introducing natural causes in the room 
of supernatural agency, and degrading our Sa- 
viour from his divine birth. In this respect, 

Hohcsstftaffen) is promised in Baglish, but has aot 
y% •ppflar«d. Of Niebulir's work, on Romo there are 
tv;o translations^ of wliicli the most complete is by 
Thirlwall and Hare. A pleasing life of the father of 
Niebuhr, — distinguished by his travels in Arabia, 
and written by the historian-, his son, — has been 
translated by Staehle in one pf the numbers of the 
'^Library of Useful Knowledge." 


Straiua' Llfo of Jeti;na Clirist, is ta tm fneptioaeii 
in |iarticiilar, ^s baving prodoced the greatest 
sensation In Germany as wejl, as in fSngi^nd^ 
9nA fahwinti c|iUed forth an aniiiiated find le^rn- 
^d polen^lc hetween Strauss himself m^ ti^ 
more distinguished tlieological scholars of 6|er4 
pn:|ny, A few theologians still, hosyever, mj^in- 
tain an unequal contest if^ f^Vj^ur of the ger 
nuine doctrines, which are t.he on|y aoli^ fpuq? 
dation of virtiie an4 happiness: 9uid th^ he«t 
wish which a friend pf Qenoany can c|ier|sli ig, 
that this si^ll hut noble band may daily increase 
and extend its influence, (fiesenius, Griesbgctai, 
Michaelis, Mosheim, Paulus, Scblelermi^er, 
Tiioluck, Pratschneider, Aq^npn, August!, Neanr 
jder, Bobr^ Rosenmiiller, de Wette, and Weg- 
acheidef? are i^ome of the most remarJcable na- 
mes in the theological catalogue^. 

In the cnltiyfition ;of systei^atic geography 
^ni of statistics 9 the Germans will readily be 
Hcknow^edged to be unrivalled. The great wor^ 
Af Busclii^g se;t an example for ffiture geogrg- 
l^he^rSi but it .h^ nowhere been go ably followed 
119 ap^g M pwn countrymen, who haye i^d- 
yaffced in ri^tid succession. Hassel, Stein, fit- 
ter, Crome, Mease}, Malchns, luid Schn^ihely 
are a41 classic names in geography and (itgtisticf . 
9prdach, Bickes, Cannabich, Caspar!^ Finfce, 
Hofltaian, Julius, Lichtenstein, Memminger, Berg- 
JuHiSy-Somineryaeluilz, Volgeri andJMme othiws, .de- 
serve most honourable mention also under this head. 

* M«r« infonBAtioii ob Uiia head will be found in 
our ehtifier on IteUipioB. Che £reir:[PB»n divines hni-e 
obuined more transUtorf in the United Steles tknn in 


liUimately connected and blended wUH the 
statistical] and ^eo^rapbical writers are those 
who have devoted themselves to political phi- 
losophy and state-oecoQomy. To this class belbng 
Schubert, author of the ^'Manual of the Univer- 
sal State-o economy of Barope/' (HcMdbuch der 
Ailganeinen StaatsHunde von Europa) , Poelitz, 
AnclUon , Dahlmann, Eichhorn, Kluber, Martens, 
Pfizer, Zachariae* Rotteck and WelcKer, who 
are publishing an extensive Dictionary of Polit- 
ical Science (StcMts-Lexikony at Altona; Mal- 
thas, Rau, Bulau, and not a few others. 

Among the most distinguished authorities in 
jurisprudence are Savigny, Hugo, Feuerbach, 
Thibaut, Miihlenbruch, Hitzig, Bach, Gans and Mit- 
termaier; in no countr}' is the philosophy of legislati- 
on more sedulously investigated , and in none are 
more learned lawyers to be found. It is true 
that the forms of trial, and the procedure of 
courts of Justice, do not correspond in excel- 
lence with the character of the jurisconsults; 
but this circumstance is not peeuliar to Ger- 
many. Everywhere we observe that improve- 
ments in the administration of justice' seldom 
emanate from the professors of law, but are 
generally forced upon them by the progress of 
public opinion, and the gradual enlightenment 
of the public mind. Independently of this, the 
lawyer in Germany is more cramped by the pres- 
sure of political customs and institutions than 
in some other countries. 

The . most celebrated anatomists and physio- 
logists of whom modern Germany has had to 
boast are, LieberKiihn, the three Meckels, Zinn, 
Wrisberg, Maj'er, Scemmering, Loder, Gall, 

914 umoMMCAhy voumtAi'i 

aeUer, Welier, BJiiiiM»kacli«^, Riidolida^'^ Tlede- 
BMum, NUk«c1i, PnrkUUe, TrevkanuS; Carus'^^^, 
llurdiieb , Oaer , RatUe, Otto , JMiiUer f , War- 
ner. In the iwttctice of mediciiie, Frank, Horn, 
and HuCelandff Jhave diatingui8liod>-tliejttMlv«0 
generally; Swediaur and Scbmidfi in tr«atinip Af 
ayphilitiq diaflaaos; Stuets in •caUlepay; Marciia, 
Hildebrandt, and Alliars in le^eni) particularly 
in.typbiis; Krejaig in diseases of the heart; 
Benss and Kiefer in exanthematoiis disorders; 
Guiis in hydrocephalesfff, andJPncheit in disea- 
ses of the veins. The chiof snrj^eons of modenu 
times are Ricbter, Be^, Si>.hBUfdt> Himly, Lan- 
genbeck, Rust, Beck, Blasias, Dieffei*a«h» Wal- 
ther, von €raefe$ and von Amnion, 

It is barely just to declare that the German 
mtedtcal men are the most learned of all Eorope 
in all which relates to the literature of Ihehr 
scienee. Nowhere are the pretiminary ezaminar- 
1;lons aot severe , and in their extensive know- 

. * The ill«»tri«as Tcteran ha« i\w%y been the true 
inemi. «£ Bnglan4. Ris works, which are e^allf eon«i 
•picuou» for Iheir accuracy, condensation, and ele|{an«« 
of style, have been almost all translated into English. 
He may be eensidered as the father and almost the 
feunder of modttjn natnrtil history. 

** The first part of his "Physiology." which is tra- 
inable especially for its bibliographical part, has been 

*** The '-'ComparttHre Anatomy" ol Caoia has bees 
translated by Tdr, Gore , of Bath. 

iViliose "Physiology" has lately appeared in Bng- 
, as well as that of Tiedemnnn. 
ft Well known in Bnilnnd by hw "Art of ptvUng- 
ing Life ,** which Ooeths « a gienuine opicurean , pro- 
nounced to be the Art of rendering Life tediout. 
tft Ttanslated by the lato Dr. Goocli. 
% A native of Folnnd. 


ledge of languages they amply partaKe of the 
usual accomplishment of their conntrjmen. In 
the (^ranches of forensic medicine, medical po- 
lice, and ophthalmic surgery they stand at the 
head of their European hre^ren; and we shall 
probably not be far wrong in awarding to them 
the palm in theoretical pharmacy, in medical 
botany, and in dittetetics. - Mere thftn all ethers 
they have cuttivated the obseure and- unpromis- 
ing study of animal magn^ism* Hahnemann of 
lieipsic has founded a doctrine of homoeopathy, 
-» of which it is here sufiieient to say that it 
does not rank among its followers a single di-- 
stinguished name, and that it has utterly failed, 
when subjected to the statistical test. 

Among the natural philosophers and natural 
historians may be pre-eminenty ranked the na- 
mes of Herschel, Alex, von Humboldt^ Gauss, Oken, 
(UberSy Schubert, Bode, Littrow, Mitscherlicli) 
I^onhard, Keferstein, Treviranus,, 
Ehrenberg, Martins, Mlldenow, Sternberg, Spren- . 
gel, Ruppel,. Nees von Eesenbeck, Naumann, 
Lincky Meyer y Karsten, and last, but far from 
the least, Cuvier, who was born at Montbellard, 
in the tlien duchy of Wurtemberg, and who 
received his education at Stuttgard. 




1 assiiig over ancient art, we open the page 
of modem German architectare with a notice 
of Frederic Weinbrenner, who was born at 
Carlsruhe in 1766, and who died there in 1826. 
His style was rather heavy, and his imitation 
of the ancients not always snccessful: indeed, 
he was more remarkable as having founded a 
school which boasted i»f several men of talent, 
than for an^-thing which he effected himself as 
an architect. Moller of Darmstadt, Barnitz 
of Francfort, and Habsch of Carlsruhe, were 
all his scholars. Moller is the architect of the 
theatre, and of the Catholic church in the form 
of a rotunda, at Darmstadt^. 

A friend of Weinbrenner, von Thouret, Pro- 
fessor at Stuttgard, was born at Ludwigshurg 
in 1776, and was intended at first for a pain- 
ter. He was educated in Italy. It was to him 

* Some of Moller'a works have bees translated in- 
to English. 


that 0«ethe cntniflM Um e^niiMioii of tlM p*. 
lace and tlie eredion «f tbe theatre at Weinar. 
The greatest names in tlie kistory of medcra 
Germaa arrbltediire are tlieae of Frederic SclUn- 
keif a Prussian y Item in 1781) Cautlior of a 
most exeeUenyt otilectiea of arcbiteetoral drawiaga 
piil»lislied la 34 parts}; and of jLeo von Klenze, 
now at Manieii, bom at HUdeslieIn, in 1784. 
Tliey distiagiiisfced tbesiselves advHntageoiialy 
from Weinbreaaer and kis arholarS) by a more 
iaUmate comprelionslon of ancient art, and by 
a display of original and orealive powrer; and. 
tliey may properly be regarded as tke foanders 
of tike modem Germaa scliool of Ardriteotare. 
Klense is tbe mtfre remarkable for hia corr^-* 
neas and parity of style, Scliinkei for bia orl* 
ginaHty. Amoagat the works of tka fenaer, 
are the Pinakotbek and the Glyptothek at Mn* 
nicby the latter of whldi la an admirable specfi 
men of the Ionic order; the new mnlgaban In 
the Florentine style; the All-aaints' ehapel ia 
the Byaaatinian manner , and the Kanlhans ia 
the Venetian. He ia at preaeat engaged ia the 
conalraotioa of the WaJ^alla at Ratishemia. 
Sdbiafcel was edaoiled as a pahiter, and aeeaw 
BMre dispased to foMow has imagiaation than to 
eapy Aren the anoients. Ha sometimes praceeda, 
however » to a oertaia degree in the spirit of 
(he classic world , and of Che middle agea, aa 
ia his Haoptwacfae at Berlin, and in his mona- 
BMat on the Kreazberg: hut his mora remark- 
sdble edifices , such as the new Werder charch, 
the Sieging Academy, and the Maseiuni at Ber« 
lia, are in a style entirely his own. Another 
architect of note, at Berlin, Is C. A. Blenzei, who 



has acquired fame by his publication of a beau- 
tiful collection of plans and elevations for town 
and country houses. 

A celebrated German architect of modern date 
was von Fischer, Professor at Munich, who 
died young. Amongst his scholars we may 
enumerate 6&rtner, who was made Professor 
of Architecture at Munich in 1820, and. Super- 
rintendant of the Royal Porcelain Manufactory, 
and who built the Library and Ludwig's church 
there, in the pure Byzantinian style, and the new, 
magnificent Kurhaus at Kissingen; and Oehlmiil- 
ler, who was commissioned to erect a monu- 
ment and schoQl at Wittelsbach, the ancestral 
residence of the Bavarian royal family^ in the 
old German style, to which of late years consid- 
erable attention has been paid. A work on 
that subject has been written by MoUer, and a 
splendid one published on the Cologne Cathedral 
by Boisser^e. Another large and beautiful work 
has been published on the Oppenheim Cathedral 
by Muller, the Superintendant of the Gallery of 
Darmstadt. Wie may also mention here a col- 
lection of 32, prints published in four parts by 
the bookseller Jugel of Frankfort, representing 
the most remarkable specimens of gothic architec- 
ture situate on the Rhine and the Mein. The 
Florinus church at Coblenz has been lately re- 
stored, and a new church at Treisa built in the 
Gothic style hy von Lassaulx. Among the mi- 
nor schools of architecture in Germany, we may 
mention that of Jussow at Cassel, in which 
Ruhl and Muller of Gdttingen were educated. 
Chateanneuf and Ludolf have distinguished 
themselves at Hamburg, where the fprmer has 


erected tbe Extibknge, and the latter, the Bank. 
Proferaor Tharmer, the architect of the Dres- 
den Posr-office , has gained, of late years, consi* 
denible repatation in Sdxony. On the whole, 
the architectural art may be said to iloarish now 
in Germany, particularly when we compare its 
present state with the low ehh to which it was 
reduced durinsr the greater part of the last centurj*^. 
The oldest of the more celebrated German 
living sculptors are, Dannecker, Schadow, and 
Ohnmacht. Among the most remarkable works 
which the first has executed, are, a figure of 
Ariadne, in the Museum of Bethmann at Frank- 
fort, which is decidedly one of the finest pro- 
ductions of plastic art in Germany^ ; an admirable 
figure of Christf ; a figure of Faith praying, for 
the monument of the Princess Ida of Oldenburg; 
and a statue of John the Baptist, for the Gre- 
cian chapel on the Rothenberg. Of his scho- 
lars we may mention, DIstelbarth of stuttgard, 
noted for his vases and bas-reliefs; Zwerger 
of Frankfort, for his statue of St. Mark, and 
of Ganymede , his bust of J. H. Voss, and many 
more well executed busts and statues of which 
casts may be got at Jugel's library at Frank- 

* In some recent numbers of the 'foreign Quarterlj 
Review" will be found more elaborate information on 
German Architecture. 

§ A fine lithographic print of the Ariadne is to be 
had at Jflgel's library at Frankfort. 


-)- The Christ of Dannecker is a colossal figure which 
was formerly in the possession of the Empress of Rus- 
sia. It appeared to me one of the finest specimens ex- 
tant of modern sculpture^ breatliing a solemn tranquil- 
lity, and a pensive benevolence very difficult to eom- 
bine with noble dignity of demeanoar. 



fmrt Ca VB^nU stalve •f ScMiieff merks parlieii* 
lar mention amwigiit'tlieA}; nnd lastly Wagner 
of StattgnrU) for liia statue of Bacckus, his 
bosta an dbasHreliefa. Ohnmacht waa Profeaaor at 
StrasbwrflTt and feaa execvted among otker works 
a beantifal bust of Klopstock for tbe Duke 
of Oldenbnrg, and a marble atatne of Hebe« 
The fruits of Schadow's recent labours are the 
statue of Luther at Witteaberg, and that of 
Blttcher at ilosto<^. Burgschmtdt at Nurtmberg, 
and Henschel at Cassel, rank also sufficietttly 
high amongst the sculptors of .Germany , te in- 
duee us not to osuft their names in this akoteb. 
ThorwaldsMi, the Dane, has bad several 
German scholars, of whom the most noted are, 
von Launits, Freund, and Herrman. But there 
has, hitherto, been only one great school of 
smdptwe in Germany, that of Schadow, la 
which Ranch and Tick belong. Christian Raueh, 
Professor to the Academy at Berlin, is remarkable 
for the truth, grace and power of his ezecutien. 
His works prove him to be a man of great pe<* 
netration, and, at the same time, of an imagine 
ative mind. He possesses the secret of giving 
a dignified effect to modem costume. He has 
recently executed busts of Zelter and Schleier- 
macher, a colossal statue of Frederic William I., 
at Gumbinnen, and a monument for Franke, the 
founder of the orphan-asylum at Halle. Amongst 
his other works are an admirable little figure of 
G6ethe; but above all, a monument to Queen Louisa 
of Prussia^, and to Maximilian Joseph, of Bavaria^ 

* A worthy compaolon, in excelleiicA of art, lo tko 
Ckrini of DaiMOcker. Tkia admirable woman, no leas 
the brave and p«lrio4ie queen, thaa the tender wile 


Cliristiaii Frederic Vfeck, Pr«feMor of Sculp- 
ture to the Acadenfty of Berlin, was bom la 
tlMt city in 1776. This artist Has studied na- 
ture profoundiy, and Is well Tersed in classic 
art. His execution is sin^larly perfect nnd har- 
monious. His Ganymede and Ills Shepherd are 
admirable works of art, and worthy of a Gre- 
cian sculptor* He iias recently executed busts 
of the Crownprincesci, of Nlemeyer, and of Mil- 
der the singer. Several Scholars of the Berlin 
Academy have distinguished themselves in srulp- 
tnre. as, for instance, the brothers VTichman 
and Rietschel. 

The most noted sculptors at Munich , nre Eber- 
hard, Wagner, aiid Schwanthaler. Bberhard Is 
most happy iii religious subjects, as In bis mo- 
nument of the Princess Caroline, at Munich; 
Wagner who is also an excellent painter, has 
been lately commissioned to execute a friesse for 
the Walhalla, the subjects of which are to be 

and mother, and one of the lovelieei and moet gentle 
of her aex, has never yet received, in foreign.' coun- 
tries, the hoaonr due to her'HMmorT, — and a hun- 
dred lives hav« heen written since hef ti»e not half 
■0 deserving of comraemeration. She reflects the high- 
est lustre OB the house of Mecklenhurg-Strelitn, and 
Ott the Prussian royal family, of which she hecAme 
the ornament : her surviving sister is the queen of HA- 
nover. Mildness, purity, aifability and simplicity, 
wefe the least brilliant, but the best of her qualities! 
and to eomplete her character, fshe was hated *nd 
slandered by Bonaparte. How heautifnl, how tonching 
were some of her latter words! "I shall not be named 
by posterity among- celebrated women, but they who 
kttew the irottbles of our time, will eay of me : She 
suffered much, and with constancy; and mar auch be 
able to add 'hereafter. She gave birth to children who 
deserved belter days, who tried hard to accomplish 
tbMi, md ml liat succeeded." And they luue eueceeded. 


taken from the ancient bistory of Germany; he 
is one of the most learned of modem artists. 
Schwanthaier is celebrated for his reliefs. His 
25 statues of artists and his colossal stataes 
of Bavarian princes, the latter of which have 
been cast in brass and gilt, merit also to be 
particularly mentioned. The principal sculptors 
at Vienna y are Zauner, whose chief work is a 
colossal statue of Joseph II. , and Fischer, Pro- 
fessor to the Academy. 

Raphael Mengs, F. G. Fueger, and Angelica 
Kaufmann, German painters of the last century, 
have left few works behind them which merit the 
reputation they enjoyed amongst their contem- 
poraries; possessed of talent, they seem co have 
been impatient of rules, and, averse to study; 
and they deserted nature for an indefinite ideal, 
which had no foundation in truth. 

Carstens, born in 1754, was the first to tread 
snccesfuUy the path which VVinkelmann had 
pointed out, and to seize the spirit of the clas- 
sic world: unfortunately,- he died so early as 
1798. His works are looked up to, by all the 
German artists, even at the present day. 

Tischbein, the friend of Goethe, was rather 
a dilettante than a true artist ; few of his works 
display intrinsic merit. 

Koch, whose illustrations of Dante are ex- 
cellent, followed in the steps of Carstens, some 
of whose unfinished pictures he completed. He 
died at Rome in January, 1839. 

Another worthy successor of the same artist 
was Wachter of Stuttgard, remarkable for the 
truth, power, expression, and harmony of his 
colouring. In his rich and diversified illustratiomi 


of Biblical and Christian subjects, he presenres 
a classic form. His principal paintings are, his 
Job, tlie Death of Socrates, the Burial of Chris<^ 
and Homer and the Muse of History. * 

John and Francis Riepenhausen of Gottingen, 
differed from the school of Carstens in their 
more ornamental execution, and in greater ele- 
gance of form : Raphael was their favourite master. 

Other painters nearly of the same period were, 
Kiengel, Grassi, Pochman, Petter, Kralft, and 
Vogel *. 

The Modem German School springs frem the 
year 1810, and its principal supporters are 
Overbeck, Cornelius, the Veits, W. Schadow, 
and Scheffer. Its tendency is allied to that of 
the German artists of the middle ages ; it adress- 
es itself to the religious feelings of our na- 
ture, and, without neglecting grace, prefers 
simplicity and force to ornament. 

Overbeck was first a pupil of of Fueger, and 
then of Wachter; but the master to whom he 
has principally been indebted is Albert Oiirer 
The study of the latter may be said to have 
converted him into a painter of the Romantic 
School. Overbeck's great altar-piece, the En- 
trance of Christ into Jerusalem, is now at Lu-^ 
bock. Two fresco paintings at Rome, ^'the Se- 
ven years, famine," and "the Sale of Joseph", 
rank amongst his finest Compositions. His most 

* These few observations respecting the German 
school of painting are but brief and superficial; it 
would require too much space to give a full account 
of it> besides, it would not be very interresting, publio 
attention being more particularly directed towards the 
schools of the present day. 


teipoitmit work, <<The IiiiQence vf Cbrisaanity 
on Um Fiae Arts" iiitMided for Vtaiikf«re and 
pn wliidi he lias been engaged for several years, 
trill soon be Aaishe^. Overbeck is Uviag at 
preaeat at Rome. > ^ 

CeraelJBS, tlie boast of the Modem Oerman 
School, was born at Dusselderf , hi 1787; he 
is^ new a resident at Manieh. At .the oateet of 
his career, this artist soaght for something more 
in painting than mere obedience to a set of 
technical precepts ; he rejected empty forms, and 
became inspired with a new spirit. He regarded 
religion as the proper field of art, and the paia* 
tees especially imboed with it, were those whom 
he fondly studied. The Academy of Arts at 
Dnaseldorf owes to him its present emiBenoe. 

The coUeagnes of CorneJios, at Monich, are, 
Schnorr, Henri and Peter Hess, Schlotthaaer, 
Herrmann and Zimmermann. One of the most 
celebrated piipils of Cornelias is W. Kanlbach. 
His last production Is a large picture, "the Dta- 
trnctloa of Jerusalem"; a previous one, "the Battle 
of Ghosts", Is very remarkable. Another pupil 
of hit, Gdtaenberger of Heidelberg, merits also 
particular meatioB for his beaatifal fresco paint- 
lag in the University HaU at Bonn. 

Hess has painted the celebrated cupola in the 
chhrch of Ail-jSahits at Munich. 

Burkel, Ruben, PetacI, KroUi, Heiniein aad 
Monten are also distinguished artists belonging 
to the Munich School. 

Schnorr is, at present, engaged in decorating 
live rooms of the palace with ph^ures, the sub- 
Jects of Which are to be taken from the Nibe- 


Scbatf ow, the son of tlie scttlptor of that nimie, 
is at the head of the School of DiiflSeldorf, which 
'a noted for the originality and excellefice of ita 
oil-paintings: by some, It is considered as the 
bC9t modern school of historical pailfting. He 
Histingnished himself from the Romantic school 
at Monifth, by a more delicate invention and it 
more ftalshed execution, and by a gfreater lean-* 
ing towards elegance of form. Amongst hih 
principal works we may montion^ Christ and 
his Apostles, Mignon) and Caritas. His most 
opproved siiholars are, H&bner, Hildehrandt, 
the now ciilebrated Lessing, Bendemann, flcbrCd-* 
ter, Stilke, Sohn, etc. 

The brothers John and Philip Veit, whoai WS 
enumerated among the fovndors of the Roman^ 
tic school, were born, the former in 1791, th« 
latter in 1798. They were both educated at 
Rome, where they were the constant associatea 
ef Cornelias and Overbeck. The elder brother 
continues to reside in Italy. 'The younger, Phi- 
lip -Veit, is at present at the head of the Staedel 
Mosdumof Fine Arts at Frankfort, apoblic fnstita- 
tlon fermded according to the wHl of the la(;e Mr. 
Staedel, a merchant of that city» who bequeath- 
ed for that purpose j not only the pictures col^ 
lected by himself,, but also the greater portion 
of his fortwoie. The Gallery Is on the oiiorease 
and has attracted of late a number of young 
artists who may soon constitute a particular 
school of their own. settagas, at present in 
Italy, and who has already painted a 'most ri^* 
markable picture, 'Ube Discovery of the Cross of 
Christ*', is, up to the present time, the first distin- 
guished pupil of Veit, and artist of liote, prodaced 


by that school. Among the artlstfl who have con- 
gregated at Frankfort, we shall mention Rethel, 
Poso, Funk, Lasinsky, and Rustige, mostly 
papils of the Dusseldorf Academy. The follow- 
ing are the most remarkable paintings of liv- 
ing artists, which have been added to the Gal- 
lery, viz: Ezelino in a dungeon, by Leasing; 
Hiob mourning, by Hiibner; Daniel in the lions 
den, by Rethef; the compassionate .Samaritan ^ by 
Schnorr; a most excellent large marine, by Achen- 
bach ; and some fine landscapes by Funk and Pose. 
Veit himself, has adorned one of the rooms of 
the Gallery with beautiful frescoes, the larger 
Qf which represents St. Bonifacius introducing 
Christianity in Germany, and the two leaser 
ones being allegories of German and Italian Artj 
represented by two female figures. 

The principal painters at Berlin arc, Begas, 
Professor Wach, and his scholars, Steinbrnck, 
Henning, and Hopfgarten; then Magnus, Pis- 
torius , Schultze and Krause. This School is no- 
ted for its good execution, correctness of form, 
and harmonious arrangement. At Dresden , Peter 
Hess is famed for his battle-pieces, and Retzsch 
for his well known and much esteemed Outlines 
to dramas and poems of Schiller, Goethe and 

The best modern German landscape painters 
are, first of all. Leasing, equally celebrated in 
historical painting, Fries of Carlsruhe Cdead now), 
Rottmann, and Morgenstern of Munich; Feam- 
ley ^, Schilbach of Darmstadt, Richter and Dahl 

* A nati%'e of Norway , at present establislied in 


of Dresden, Schirmer of Juliers, Ahlborn of Ha- 
nover, Scheuern of Aix-la-Chapelley Achenhacli 
and Pose of Dusseldorf, Fanke of Herfort, La^ 
sinsky of Coblenz, and other pupils of the 
Dosaeldorf Academy. The most distinguished 
painters of animals are, W. Peter, at present 
at Rome, Kernz of Carlsruhe, Wagenbaner, 
Adam, Peter Hess, and Schnitzler at Munich, 
Klein at Nuremberg, and Kruger of Berlin. 

To the Germans, and particularly to Munich, 
is to be ascribed the invention of lithography, 
and the high degree of perfection to which this 
economical and most useful art has attained. 

While alluding to Munich, It is with the utmost 
gratification that we dwell upon the noble mo- 
numents which the present King of Bavaria has 
there raised to the fine arts. Without the pe- 
cuniary resources of more powerful sovereigns, 
he has accomplished more by judicious perseve- 
rance, and well-timed liberality, than any other 
monarch of our own time. But the lustre which 
he has thus conferred on his small capital, is 
not to be viewed merely as a matter of taste 
nor of sentiment; in a political, commercial, 
and moral point of view, he has enriched his 
country both for the present and the future. It 
has become the resort of strangers from all 
parts of Europe ; its artists are obtaining a wide 
field for exertion; and Munich, from the rank 
•f a third-rate city, is now rising to a level 
with the first. It was formerl}^ only remarkahle 
for its Judicious institutions of a charitable na- 
ture, founded through the zeal of the Anglo- 
American Count 'Rumford ; few travellers passed 
through it, and still fewer remained. 


Let US not believe tbas commeree and mAuu- 
lactures are the enly reads to etvUiaation and 
opulence; ->— and, above aU, let tbese wlio 
pesses tlie treasures af the fine arts, impart 
th6m freely to the ptablic, and thus earn for 
thmiselves a moi'e briU»nt celebrity than that 
which atti^ds on mere private acquisition; --^ 
while they sow in the universal mind ardund them 
a froltfal seed of refinement, springing up inta 
Innocent pleasates, and dimising by its lowers 
the sweet odour of humaniiy. 

Several individanls in our own country enjoy 
funds, no less abundant than those v^hidi have 
enabled King Louis, •# Bavaria, to effect so 
much. benefit, and they might thus, confer' on 
thdir respective neighbourhoods the same cele- 
brit}', the same attraction, and the same stimu- 
lus to industry; — and let them not be dis- 
couraged by the uqjnst sneers which are so 
often levelled at the people of England. Once 
freely and kindly admitted to galleries of th^ 
arts, to libraries, to cathedrals, to majestic 
edifices of every kind, and to parks and gar- 
dens, the humbler classes of England will prove 
t|iat they can enjoy these indulgences with as 
mudi forbearance and decency as the natives 
of despotic states, and as the mhabltants of 
those foreign cities in which an ever-vigilant 
and aU-'powerful police prevent almost the pos» 
sibility of disorder. It is the habU of exCiusUm 
Which tends to induce the very rudeness of 
whivh some fastidious persons are so fearful; 
onca accu0tom a people to pariaHe^ and they 
will satisfy their appeUte with moderaUon. But 
it would be difficulty I believe impoSBiUe, to 

.MOBHEN •■ftMAH ABtltft. 320 

Show Uiat tbe people of BaglaiMl do contiit tlie 
abuses which are charged upon them. We hare 
heard of none such at the National Gallefy, nor 
at the British Museum , nor at the Museum of 
tlie College of Surgeons at Sdlnhurgh, at which 
the admission is free to all. Signs of a kindlier 
ssrupathy, in this respect , are beginning to de- 
clare themselves among those who have the 
power of leading the way; we may. mention a 
recent instance, in which the Cathedral of Nor- 
wich has been thrown open to the public daily, 
for one hour, at the time when It is not de« 
voted to divine service; and the increased fa- 
cility of admission to St. Paul's Cathedral,, the 
recent formation of an association, composed of 
individuals of all parties, with the Duke of Sus^ 
sex as its president, devoted to the promotion 
of free access, to public edtHces, is a favouralile 

To return to our more imsiediate subfect. In 
the cultivation of that most delightful of all line 
arts, music, the Germans stand, by common 
MAisent, at the head of all the. world. There 
the science and practice of this solace of lil'e 
are carried to a perfection, and -pursued to an 
extent, which it woulif be vain to seek in any 
other part of the globe. Those iirho, from old 
prejudices, expect to And a rival in Italy, will 
be grievously disappointed. In the village schools 
of Germany , singing Is taught . as a branrh of 
education; a group of peasants, or a regiiueut 
of soldiers, will there execute <!horal music in 
a better taste than some of the professional 
choirs in other parts of -Curope. In most of 
the large towns are academies, at which instrn- 


mentfil and vocal mii9ic are gratuitously, or al- 
most i^atuttoasly , taaglit. It forms the staple' 
amosement of every batbing-place, of every pu- 
blic garden, of almost every society. Good mu- 
sic is sought and prized, from whatever quar- 
ter it may proceed,- — not merely the compo- 
sition and performance of noted names, not 
merely that which is new, but the truly good 
of all times, climes, and persons, is estimated 
at its Just valae. I shall not pause to inquire 
haw it happens that in the more southern parts 
of Europe, the pretended genial soil of melody, 
the true musical genius is comparatively so bar- 
ren, and the taste and mechanism in proportion 
so scanty, and so partial; but, whatever may 
bo the cause, not only is Germany the most 
methodical and the most learned, but she alone 
appears endued with the true enthusiasm, the 
full temperament of melody. To enumerate the 
great mniical authors of Germany, would be to 
repeat a host of names familiar to all who hon- 
our sweet sounds; a small triumphant band will 
suffice, at the head of whom stand HAndel, 
Gluck, Bach, Haydn, Mozart, van Beethoven, 
Winter, Spohr, Weber, and still more lately, 
Meyerbeer and Mendelsson-Bartholdy, who have 
translated their' art into a new language, pouring 
out at one moment rushing torrents of sublime 
eloquence, and at another gently gliding into 
the heart in sportive or murmuring streamlets. 

As to the instrumental performers of Germany, 
their names abound in the catalogue of ever>' 
orchestra and concert in Europe. Of great sin- 
gers she has not been so fruitful, although 
many such have been bom of German parents 


established in foreign coantriefl; and I believe 
that the impediment of langnage, and the vogue 
of the Italian school, have contributed to keep 
others in qbscority. In our own time, Sontag 
and Schroeder-Devrient have elevated the na- 
tional claims to vocal distinction. Another very 
remarkable female singer who has never left 
Germany yet, and is therefore entirely unknown 
abroad, is Sophy Liiwe, at present engaged at 
Berlin. Fischer-Achten, Sabina Heinefetter, von 
Hasselt, and Lutzer rank also high among the 
female singers of Germany. 

Even in the sister art of dancing, which 
some, may, ^om prepossession, infer to be 
uncongenial to the soil, there are some most 
successful candidates for fame, such as Heberle 
and the two Elslers; and, in short, as Ger- 
many, is the home of music, so also is it the 
only land in which,- in these later and sadder 
days, the dance maintains its footing as a 
thoroughly national pastime. 

A chapter on the fine arts of Germany ought 
not to be closed without an incidental allusion 
to the state of the drama in Germany. Of' the 
merits of the chief dramatic productions we have 
spoken in the account of German writers; but 
the present age is not more favourable to ori- 
ginal dramatic composition in Germany than in 
other countries. Throughout Europe iVe find 
that opera, musical farce and splendid decora- 
tions, are making rapid strides, while tragedy 
and comedy live almost entirely on the past; — 
in all parts of Europe, also, we observe that 
the theatre is gradually less frequented by the 
higher classes, and more attended by the lower 


noes. TIflfli ciroumfltjiiice i« readily explaine by 
tHe incr^RMhiie: mental cultivatloii of tootb ranks: 
the higher 'Hfid more pleasure in private society 
and in the bosom of their families, ^hite the 
latter are attracted by the growing developement 
of their facnltiffs and tastes to se«k for new 
ideas and fresh pastimes. In Germany , b«w- 
eter, the drama stUI retains a irm hold m alt 
classes of society: it forms almost* an integral 
portion of tfaily SJKtstenee to a largo mass of 
tM popnlation* Very mAny penons roj^air to 
the theatre almost nightly to dissipate eminl; 
and the aaittsements ttstutliy commence and ter- 
minate at an early hoar. The Oernum actors 
are chiefly remarkalMe for their industry and 
attention; carelessness Is rare; all the details 
are carefully studied jumI represented. A ten- 
dency sometimes breiuts out to a sentta^ental 
Whine, or a nasal twang, which is mer« ^A^y 
to understand than te describe; hut this tone 
is not ancovmien, also, In the national conver- 
sation. The Cierman actors ressenibie the Eng- 
lish rncher than the French; they are energetic 
in tragedy, and can froife in the broad humour 
of farce. Bat, on the whole, the wannest m- 
eeuragement Is at inresent afforded to opera,, 
which is nowhere else so faithfully and so earn- 
estly exhibited, and nowhere else so Jndieioasly 



Bef. Christ. 

113. Invflsion of the Cimbri and Teutons into Italy. 
71. Germans cross the Hhine. 
58. Ariovist vanquished by Caesar. Expedition 

of the former against the Belgians and 


15. Rhaetia and Vindelicia conquered by Dru- 

su«i and TiberiuH. 
12. First expedition of Drusus in Germany. 

A. I). 

9. The Roman legions defeated by ArmiHitis. 

16. Expedition of Germaaicns to the Weser. 
38. The Ffisones defend their liberty. 

43. Druids in Germany. 

69. Velleda, the prophetess of the Germans. 

98. Suenonian fleet in the Baltic. 
178. Mareoiiuuiniati confederation. 
213. Allemannian tribes on the Rhine and Neckar. 
241. First cultivation of the viud in Germany. 

^Great Allemannian confederacy. 
278. Vineries laid oat on the Rhine, on tho 

Moselle y and in Hungary. 
360. Ulpluias translates the bible. 

A. D. 

870. First glass-windows known in Germany. 

407. Migration of tlie German nations. 

419. Great kingdom of the Western Gotlis. 

444. Attila extends ttie dominion of the Hans 
from China to Gallia. 

470. Written laws of the Western Goths. 

500. Collection of the Allemannian laws. 

511. Bards flourish in Germany. 

516. Norman tribes settle on the Franconian 

. 534. Invasion of the Slavonians into Germany. 

560. Collection of the Anglo-Saxon laws. 

568. Introduction of fiefs, heriban and single 

584. Decision of law-suits by ordeals. 

590. The mediating power of the aristocracy 
between king and freemen, introduced in 
tht Franconian empire. 

602. Kadmon, Anglo-Saxon poet. 

611. Columbaii propagates Christianity in sou- 
thern Suabia. 

630. Persecution of the Jews in Franconia and 
in the western kingdom of Goth. Col- 
lection of the Visigothian laws. 

643. Collection of the Longobardian laws by 
King Rotharis. 

650. Wendian nations on the Baltic coasts. 
Fredegar, chronicler. 

692. Willebrod introduces the Christian religion 
among the Frisones. 

696. Rudbert, the Bavarian apostle. 

700. Mine^ in Bohemia first discovered. 

719. Winfiried CBonifacins) among the Friso- 
nes. The bishoprics of Salzburg and 
Frelsingen established by Corblnian. 

A. D. 

732. Glass-painting on charcti*windows. 

734. The Frisones subdued by Charles Martell. 

Several German bishops profess their 

allegiance to the pope. 
740. The bishopries of EichstAdt, Wnrzburg, 

Erfurt, and Burabnrg, established. 
'744. A new code of laws is introduced by the 

Longobardian king Rachis. The Abbey 

of Fulda, established. 
759. Paul Warnefried, flourishes. 
780. Tythes instituted by Charlemagne, for the 

support of the clergy, churches, schools 

and poor. "* 

783. The bishoprics of Onabruck and Verden, 


788. The bishopric of firemen instituted. 

789. Charlemagne presented with a striking- 

clock by. Harun al Rashid. 
792. A synod is held at Ratisbonne. 

703. Charlemagne intends building a canal 

to unite the Rhine with the Danube. 
Flying bridge at Ratisbonne. Cathedral 
and convent schools, instituted. 

704. A synod is held at Frankfort. 

795. Collection of the laws of d liferent nations, 

decreed by Charlemagne. Copies of ma- 
nuscripts are multiplied. 

796. Ancient German songs, collected. Aix-la- 

Cbapelle becomes the imperial residence. 
800. First singing schools in Germany. The 

laws of Charlemagne are promulgated. 
805. The commerce pf the Wendian cities on 

the Baltic shores, flourishes. 
810. Charlemagne's regulations concerning the 


386 cnR«KoiiOciioAi<ofVTi4NB or Tmt ra«oiiMs or 

A. D. 

813. Water mills km Gernany. 

813. A SyaoU is heM M Monts 

831. Arclibisliopriek of Hanborip, ostablislied. 

843. Partition of the Franconlan omplre. 

867. Clnb law anil easCles Introdaoed, and rob- 
bery iwevalent in Germany; NiCbard, bi- 
torian, flomristaes. 

867. Ottfried Craaslates. the Cvanirellsts into 
German verse, and introduces • sacred 

$68. Synod at Worms. Celibacy of the Clergy 

87f. The Bdda, Icelandic po«m. 

877. Hereditary dignity of dukes and earls, 
and hereditary* llefB establlshea in Ger- 

887. Oil-colours used for painting in Germany. 

888. Salt work near Hall in Suabia. 
900. Cotton spinning in Germany. 

903. A toll is levied on the vessels navigating 
on the Rhine. 

938. The Arabian games of chivalry are adop- 
' ted by the German nobles. 

934. Royal palaces. Counls-palatine are crea- 
ted In Germany. 

936. Construction of fortresses. Circnmvallation 

of towns. Origin of the class of citizens 

937. The dignity of Maregrave is created for the 

defence of the frontier of the empfare. 

939. Sllrerinines discovered In the Harz. The 

Bishoprick of Brandenburg, founded. 
963. Beginning of the Hdmerzape, the kings of 
Germany assuming the protectorate over 
the Romiui Church. 

A. D. 

968. ArnhbtalioiPriefc of Mmgd^bm^y and bidi«p^ 
ricks of Pra^e, M eiMen^ ManwiNirg aiii 
Posen, eatablislied. 

970. Flat coinage indrodneed, tani faliing nHIa 
establihed in Gemany. . 

972. WittelEind of Corvey's JiiiUry of Saxony. 

993. Berward, iusltoii at HUdealieim promote* 
indostry and commerce. Motlier transla- 
ten the psalms into Genaan. 

996. Permission granted by Otto ill. to the 
Jewsy Lombards and Prenchy to travel 
throagh, Germany with their merchan- 
1006. Glasiag of pottery invented at Schlettstadt. 
1008. BarlKhard of Worms collets thp Church 

1015. The cathedral of Strassboig, lisgnn; Ci* 

nished in 1489.) 

1016. Worms cathedral bailt. 

1018. Ditmar of Mersebnrg, historian of the 

Saiic emperors, dies. 
1033. Commerce between the towns on the 

Bait^ shore, and Italy. 
1038. Conrad II. endeavours to aphold the 

Lords peace by suppressintr internal dis- 
« turbance and private warfare. 
1031. Cathedral of Spire, built. 
1036. All the fiefs are proaoanced hereditary by 

Conrad II. 

1050. The jews are tolerated in Germany. 

1051. Abbot Willman translates the Song of So- 

lomon In Germaa venie. 
1056. Henry IV. unites Moravia te Bohemia. 
1062. Bishop Hanno, of Cologne, assumes the 

government of Germatay. 

A. D. 

1062^ Great pilgrimage to Palestina. 

1069. Adam of Bremen aiid Lambert of Ascbaffen- 
burg, bistorlans. 

1076. Differences . arise between the Pope and 
tlie Emperor, concerning tlie investiture 
of tlie clergy. 

1084. Carthosian order, establi8lied|by Brano of 

1096. First crasade to Palestine. 

1103. ''Groschen" coined, sixty worth one mark 
of fine Sil\;er. 

1111. The right of investitare restored to the 
emperors, by treaty. In the cities, com- 
merce and traficlE are making rapid pro- 
gress. Guilds and corporations, esta- 

1122. Concordate of Worms. 

1123. The bailding of Freiburg catliedral, com- 

menced. ' 

1124. The Pomeranians are christened. 

1125. Creation of the Electors of thd Empire. 
-1146. Otto of Freisingen, historian. Doves used 

as messengers. j 

1147. Second crusade. Tlie cathedral of St. 
Stephen, built at Vienna. 

1156. Primogeniture instituted in Austria. 

1157. First fair of Leipzig. 

1158. Imperial court of law. First taxes imposed 

by Frederic Barbarossa. 

1162. Berlin founded by Albert the Bear. 

1167. The Freiberg mines are discovered. 

1169. Henry von Veldeck, first Minnesinger. 

1175. Tournaments held in Saxony. 

1180. The secret tribunals (Vehmgeriehte) es- 
tablished. . 

A. D. 

1182. Diet held at Lubeck. 

1188. The (LandfriedeJ law for the sappres- 

8ion of private warfare, decreed at Na- 


1 190. Third crusade, lead b^ Frederic Barbarossa. 

Soldiers first paid by Henry VI. 

1191. The teatonic order, established by the 

merchants of Bremen and Labech. 
1193. Henry VI. poet and promotor of poetry. 

1198. Patricians at Nuremberg. Aera of the 

Suabian chivalric poetry. 

1199. Order of the sword, established by Bishop 

Albert of Riga. 
1205. The poem of the ^^Nibelungm" and the 
legend of the ^'Imights of the. Table- 
round", renewed. 

1213. The christian religion propagated In 

Prussia by Bishop Christian. 

1214. Conrad of Marpurg, the german inquisitor. 

1215. Hamburg declared a free town of the 


1219. 8a3con Laws (Sacfwens/Hegel) by Repgow. 

1220. Constitution of the free town of Frank«- 

fort, established. The Christian aera is 
adopted throughout Germany. 

1223. Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Hulstein li- 
berated from the Danish dominion. 

1124. Henry of Ofterdiogen publishes his "IW- 
denbuch" CPoems celebrating the achie- 
vements of noted warriors of old.;) 

1226. Lubeck declared a free town of the em- 
pire. Wolfram von Eschenbach and Wal- 
ther von der .Vogelweide , lyric poets. 

1230. The teutonic order's progress in Prussia 
and Curland. 

%40 chromalooical nonMK or thk proorrss ov 

A. D. 

1!233. Sovereign preroieatlvea of the teity. The 

unh'erEiity ef Vienna, founded. 
1333. Geof&ri^y of Strnsburg, iyric Roel. 
1237. The teutonic order and that of the sword 

are nensed into one. 
1239. Frederic II. colieets manuscripts and pro- 

■Mtes natural history. 
1240.. League established between Hamburg and 

Ldibeefc for the secnifty of commerce. 
1241. The HanseatiG league, established! Tinr 

mines discavcred in Bohemia. 
1248. ^rhe buildiag of the Cologne oathedrhl, 


1253. Rudolph of Bms translates the Old TesCa^ 
. ment into German. 

1254. Rhenish confederacy of seventy towns. 
1250. Interrepum in Gfrmany till 1273. 
.1258. Albert of 8tade» chronicler. « 

1260. The HnasettLc league iiolds its first dieC 
atT^becfc. The Tofttrfa PeuHngeriana at 
Colmar. Looking glasses manufactured. 

1262. Henry, Bfarcgrave of Misnia, poet. 

1264. Commercial establishment of the Hanseatle 
lofigne at Novogorod, In Rimsia. 

1268. The Icnighthoodof the empire established* 

1276. eriami ef Grimmensteln's fliiahiaa Laws 

1279. Public and political transactions heU in 
the Oennan language. 

1282. Aibrecht of BelletAfit, mechanician. 

1283. The. remainder of Prussia eeiivefted te 

1285. Cloth- mannfticlwry eatablished at Nurem- 
1287. Conrad of Wurzburg , mlnJieshsgrer. 


1290. The emperor Rudolf of Hapuburg: destroys 
many castles, tbe owners of wbich were 
in the habit of plundering the way- 

1294. Adolpbus of Nassau , first german prince 
who received subsidies from England. 

1302. Great linnen manufactury at Augsburg. 

1308. Rndiger of Manesse's collection of the 

songs of 140 minnesingers. 

1309. Grand-masterdom Marienburg established. 

1310. Danzig becomes the property of the teu- 

tonic order. 

1316. Paper, made of linen, first known io Ger- 


1317. Henry Frauenlnb, minnesinger, dies. 

1319. Augsburg carries on commerce with * the 


1320. The commerce of Mentz, Coiogne, Erfurt, 

and other German towns, flourishes. Gun- 
powder discovered by Bertold Schwarz. 
Gothic architecture flourishes. 

1321: "IVire - drawing at Nuremberg. 

1326. Peter of Duisburg's history of Prussia. 

1330. The power of the nobility, limited at Spire; 

the rights and liberties of the German 
citizens f Bur^er«cA^/Y> , established. 

1331. Great fair established at Erfurt, for the 

commercial intercourse between northern 
and southern Germany. 

1837. Saw -mills introduced at Augsburg. 

1343. Matthew of Behaim tranidates the Bible 
into German, from the Vulgata. 

1348. First German university founded at Pra^ 
gue. The constitution of Bohemia estab- 
lished. Dreadfttll persecution of the Jews. 


A. D. 

1856. ProimlgaUon ^fOktOoldm BuU eontaiiiing 
rQlefl for th« election of emperors and 
eBtaUisluing primogeniture for the so- 
vereign families of tbe seven elector- 
ates of tlie empire. 

1360. Brandy imported by Frankfort merchants 
from Asia. 

1861. Gonpowder-miii built at Lubedi. 

1864. Constitution of the Hanseatie confederacy, 

eemprising 77 commercial towns, from 
the lower Hhine to Livonia. 

1865. The university of Vienna, founded. 

1867. Canfr-playittg introduced in Germany. 

1868. War of the Hanseatic league against 

Denmark and Norway. Establishment 
of seventeen guilds at Augaburg. Tbe 
streets of Nuremberg, are paved. 

1870. Pins manufactured at Nuremberg. 

1871. Cannon-foundery at Augabui^. 

1878. Apothecaries at Nuremberg. 

1874. Houses of the BefUtMS (Schools for girls) 

1276. League of the Suabian towns. Henry of 

Mogelin and Muscatebliit, masteningers 

1877. Jaeob of Kdnigshefen writes a chronic of 


1879. Subdivision of the 6emum eiapira into cir- 

cles. Crnsa-aaddles introduced. 

1880. The Cologne school of painting, flourishes. 

1881. ijireat league of the Suabian and Bhenish 

towns. Cards manifaetured at Nuremberg. 
188&. War of the Swiss against the House of 
Hapsbnrg. University founded at Hei- 

A. D. 

1888. UnivorsiCy etiAbiished at Cologne. 
1392. The commerce of Naremberg to the Le- 
vant, flourishes. Universit)' foandod at 
1400. Johannes Boss at Prague. Hieronymtti 

of Prague. 
1403. University founded at Wdrsburg. 

1409. Uoiveralty founded at Leipilg. 

1410. Johannes von Eyck's improvements in oi|«- 

palntlng and enamel. 
1415. Martyrdom of Hnss. 

1417. Felix HAmmerllng, satyric writer. 

1418. Gipsies enter the German states. 

1419. War of the Hussites. Univenity founded 

at Rostock. 
1432. Roil of the members of the empire, pro- 
mulgated at Nuremberg. 

1438. The Hanseatic confederacy possesses the 

preponderanee In the northern teas by 
means of Its fleet of 380 ships and 
13000 sailors. 

1439. Efflgies of sainta in wood-cut* 

1431. Air-guns invented at Nuremberg. The art 

of printing > dlsedvered at MenCs^« 
1439. Rust and Schdn, engravers in copper. 
1441. Johannes of GmiiAd, astronomer at Vienna. 

1447. Velvet manufactured at Nuremberg. 

1448. Concordate of Vienna concerning theOe- 

man church. 
1450. Club-law superseded by absolute monar- 

* Tilt fttttmpi to apply the printiBg from kloekf 10 
the production of booiie, which Gutoiiherg conunooooi 
mt Slrmshurf , he contianed mt Moots ; ond it i« oWdoot 
that oboat the yeor 1450 he hod mlremdy preporod o 

A. D. 

1453. Tlie founding of prlatiog -types invented 

. by SclioelTer, 

1454. Hans Rosenbliit's Carnevat-pJ*y8. First 

printed calendar. 

1456. Tlie universities of Freiberg and Greilb- 

Vkralde are founded. 

1457. Papal commissions of indulgence Are sent 

through Germany. The Psalms, printed. 
1461. George of Peurbach, astronomer, dies. . 
1463. Propagation of the art of printing. First 

German Bible, printed. Private warfare 

prevails in Germany. 
1469. The prvllege of copyright granted to 

booksellers and prhiters. Invention of 

the pedale on organs, by Bernard von 

1471. Silver mines opened at Annaberg aud at 

1473. University established at Ingolstadt. 
1473. Rudolf Agricola, first professor of Greek 

at Heidelberg. 

1476. CJob* MuUer3 Regiomentanus, the mathe- 

matician, dies. 

1477. Universities of Bfentz and Tubingen, estab- 


1478. Conrad Schwe^Tiheim, first nmp-engraver. 

Bnmber of engraved blocks, wlien , finding himself 
prevented by want of means from bringing his inven- 
tion to perfection, he was about to renounce all far- 
ther thought upon the subject ; but he was enabled by 
•he advice and pecuniary assistance of Johann Faust, 
a citixen of Menta, to carry his long cherished idem 
into effect. — (See the "Foreign Quarterly Review/' 
April, 18S7, for an interesting history of the invention 
of printing.) 

A. D. 

t483. First latin lexicon pifitlislietr By R^uehJin. 
1484. Trial for a^teery iv^tated in Germany. 
1485; ^nikanpoi»iif tor stories: ^'Reynard tlie fox/' 

9m4 **^hl E«tenS|rie|rel." 
1488. Suablan leaguef of iatemal petteef (Land- 

1491. Conrad Celtes, crowned as poet, in Na- 
remtterg. Beliaim consCrikcte^ A globe. 

1593. file eatlfedrkl of Vltti, com'pteleit. 

1^4911. Haniff Sae lis^ tlie poet, born. Cdied In 15^0). 

1495^ IiilemBi peace (Land^riede) promulgated 
at Worms. Private wars siibdned. Club- 
in^ abolislietf. TMe liigll court of justice 
CBMen^MmmerserieM) estaMisfted. 

1498. rirSf groat fail' Held at BrmiswicK. Wood- 
eats executed by Albreclit Dd^r. 

1500. Oemiafly dtvMed fAlk» six cirefies. FhHst 

Herman dollars coined^ at Jowohimsthal. 
WMOheS Invented liy P. HeM. 

1501. The wealth and fnilueiiOe of the Hansa 

d^reas^s iw consequence of the change 
in commerce and na«^igatfon, brought 
aboiHi by Vasoo' de Gama's discovery ot 
the maritimo route to the East Indies. 
the nAiversity of Wittenberg, founded. 

t505. aerman armies improved by the introduc- 
tion of the body of LaHzkrmiKte. 

1506. The post, for the reglkiai^ conveyance of 
letters, estaMfshed in Gormany by Firan- 
ehs of Taxis. UnfvOfsity founded at Franlc- 
fort on tife Oder. 

1508. Sale of alMlolilttoUS Ay TOt^efl. Luther, 
Cborn 14881 an^oMled professor of pbi^ 
iosophy at WittemUerg. 


A. D. 

1512. Oermany divided into ten circles. Tbe 
Imperial Court of Law (ReichshQ froth) 
established.. Regulations concerning tHe 
Notariate, introduced in Germany by tlie 
emperor Maximilian. Albrecht Dnrer et- 
ches on metal -plates with the etching 

1514. Ulric of Hutten, the editor of the epistolae 
obscwromm virorum C.^iea in 1523}. 

1515. Commencement of the Reformation. . Lu- 
ther fastens tl^e ninety live theses on 
the doer of the Wittemberg church. The 

! first censer appointed by the Archbishop 

I of Ment?. Teuerdank poem by Pfinzing. 

lllieel-loGk'd guns made at Nurem- 

1518. Philip Melanchthon at Wittemberg. The 
fire«engine improved at Augsburg. 

1519. Charles V., Emperor of Germany, esta- 
blishes the Law of Election ^ffo/Uca- 
pitulation}. Theological disputations held 
at Wittemberg. 

1520. Luther excommunicated. The family of 
Fugger flourishes at Augsburg. Sebaff 
tian Brandt's ^^Ship of Fools", satiric 
poem. The German painters, Albrecht 
Ourer, Cborn 14713 and Lucas Cranach, 
Ciiorn 14723 flourish. 

1521. Diet held at Worms; the evangelical church 
established; Melanclvthons ''loci theolo- 
gici" published. Sernhard of Feldkirch, 

• Deacon of Camberg, marries. 

1522. The New Testament translated into Ger- 
man by Luther. 

A. D. 

1533. Diet held at Nuremberg, where a peti- 

tion of the nation y containing an enu- 
meration of one hundred ecclesiastical 
abuses, is presented to the Pope. Cot- 
ton printing at Augsburg. 

1534. Insurrection of the peasants, led by Tho- 

mas Slunzer. Walther's first Lutheran 
psalmbook. Hans Sachs, the poet, flou- 
rishes. Political accounts written at 
Vienna and Augsburg. 

1535. .Saxony and Prussia profess the Lutheran 

religion. The Reformed Church estab- 
lished. Luther marries. 

1536. Reformation in Hesse. Copernicus publish- 

es his new system of astronomy. Krafr, 
and Peter Vischer, German sculptors, 

1537. The first protestant university founded at 

Marburg. Chemical medicaments intro- 
duced by Paracelsus Cdied 1543}. 

1538. Written political advertiser at Ratisbon. 

Albrecht Durer dies. 

1539. Diet held at Spire. Differences among the 

Protestants at Marburg. Protestant con- 
sistories, established. Luther's. catechism 

153(y. Diet held at Augsburg. The Augsburg- 
Confession, published. Michael Stie- 
fel invents the logarithms. Jurgens 
invents a wheel for spinning flax. 
Painting on porcelain flourishes in Ger- 

1531. League of Schmalkalden. 

1533. Criminal code (HaUgerichtsordnung) in- 
troduced by Charles V. 

A. D. 

il$34. Lirtli«# iinislMsi fete tfanilaAtfit of ttteBtftfe. 
Anabsptists al Bfawstei^. 

14351; The reformed ehorcli introaueetf In Wur- 

1538. University fMMded at awtlMMrg. 

1549. The siUiilg of Ihe courts of laiir are no 
Uttm^t ptOilUs. ReimariM' CTeniMW invents 
Vbie MleaMRiiiK titb^' 

1543. Cmvrtesr V. «eelaif«» the Indians free men. 
School for princes etalMisifed Stt Pforta. 

1^544 University founded at Kmigemierg. 

1546. ScBMiUlcaldfaB' Urar. Luth«r dier. Agri- 
cola's researches on metallitrgry. 

1551. Rhenisft milver floriAS aro eotned. CeWrad 
CPessner, the psyslologist , coltects the 
flrst nMseum- of nal^ral htetory. 

1553. The Jesuits make their an»«Brence in 


1554. Hans Hoihein, the paftite#, dieti. Fir^t ca- 

talogue of the hooks hroofrtti to the 
fraitfkfortl fahr. 

1555. Peace of Augsliurgr. ToierafioiT is ga- 

iianl»eed to the protestaM ant I'eligron! 
1558. Unfve^sfty of ^emi, founiied. 

1560. Air-guns inveiiCed at Nuremberg. 

1561. Lace-lcnitting invented in Saxony. 
1566^ Snglish factory al Ifam5urg. 

1567. University fomnletf at Olm«tz. Ai aatro- 
micaf ohSOrtatory esCahffsBed iH Cassel. 

1571. John Keppier the astronomer, iKiirn, Cdied 
in I631'3f. PofifaV newspttpers' first pub- 
lished at Nuremberg and Diltin^en. 

1574. Joachim CamerarMM, theologian^ and pv- 
Ij^htstor. Reinhold's geomntrfa: Mbier* 
ranea. Sugar reinery at Augsburg. 

A. D. 

1575. Jacob Beolime born, Cdied 1634). 

1576. University founded at flelmstadt. Xylan- 

der, ptaiiologer. Tiie city of Cologne's 
commerce to East India, flourishes 

1577. The painter Rubens, born at Cologne. 

1578. First German grammar published by Cla- 


1585. University of Bamberg, founded. 

1586. University founded • at Graetz. Orteiius 

publishes his map of the world. 
1590. Micodemus Frischlin, the poet, dies. 
1592. First book fair, held at Leipzig. 
1597. The privileges which the German Hansa 

towns enjoyed in England, are abolished. 

Opiz, the poet, bom, Cdied in 1639.) 
1603. Gilberts doctrine on magnetism. Otto of 

Gnerlke, mathematician and mechanician 


1603. Hamburg regulations concerning billH of 

exchange. Theodor Meyer, engraver. 

1604. Keppler's optical discoveries. 

1605. Art of glass-painting, lost. 

1606. The Religions friede: treaty of peace enter- 

ed into at Vienna by the representatives 
of the catholic and of the protestant 
Justus Lipsius, philologer, dies. 

1607. University founded at Giessen. 

1608. Evangelical uplon established, headed by 

the Palatinate. 
Edmund Richter, theologian. Rudolf Week- 
herlin, poet. 

1609. The catholic union established, headed by 

BaVaria. RoUenhagen author of the 

dM> caiioH«i.oeicAL. otrrLiMB or thb pRfoeaBss ov 

A. D. 

1610. Ladolf of CoIogMy tite matlwauitician, and 

01. Rdoier, astromer, die. Origin of 
tlie mystic society of tite RosecrusioM. 
Valentin Andreae, tiieologian. 

1611. Fabridas' and Scheiner's observations witli 

tile lielioscope. Sdieiner's pantograpiier 

1612. Jacob Bdbme pubUstaas his work '<Aaroca'\ 
1616. Frankfort Journal published by Emmel. 

1616. University founded at Paderborn. 

1617. A society is established at Weiiuar for 

the .promotion of the parity of the Ger- 
man language. 

1618. Beginning of the thirty-jeara' war. 
1610. The bank of Hamburg) established. 
1620. Tabacco smoking introduced in Saxony. 
1622. Universities established at Batseburg and 

at Rinteln. 
1 62#. Benedict Garpzov, lawyer, dies. Jacob Boeh- 
me, theologian and mystic writer, dies. 

1626. Keppler publishes his astronomical tabiefi. 

1627. Drebbel's magnifying glasses. First nieltf- 

drama in Germany: Daphne, by 0pi2> 
the music by Sagittarius. 

1628. Wallenstein besieges StnUsund. Keppler's 

treatise on dioptrics. 

1629. Imperial edict of restitnUon of the se- 

questrated lands of the elergy. Pra«- 
fessorsltip of chemistry first eetahlia* 
hed at Jena. 
1680. Gttstavus-AdolphMS, king of Sweden, intro- 
duces muskets In Geramny. The Han- 
seattc league, dissolved; Bremen, Ham- 
burg and LObeck continue to be united 
Lucius Vorsterman, engraver. 

niTKRATimil, aCIKNCK , ART AND CIVH^lftATKlN. 251 

A. a 

1631. Magdeburg destroyed b}* Tili)\ Battle near 

Leipsic. BaTHrian league dissolved. 

1632. (Jniveraity foonded at Osnabruck. 

1637. Heveltas invents his telescopes; Drebbel 
his thermometer. 

1639. Opiz, the bead of the first Silesian school 

of poetry, dies. 

1640. Frederic Wiihelm of Brandenburg, surna- 

med the great elector, reforms the laws 
of Ilia country. Paul Femmlng, ecclesi- 
astical poet, dies. Gryphius, Lohenstein 
and Hofmannswaldau, poets of the Sile- 
sian school, flourishes. 

1641. general eomnranications are established 

throughout Germany, by means of a 
regular system of posting.' 

1643. An Orphan Asylum established at Hanover. 

1646. Leibnitz, the philosopher, born Cdied 1716). 

1648. Westphalian treaty of peace; free exer- 
cise of the lutheran and reformed re- 
ligions, granted. 

1650. The air-pump invented by Otto Guericke 

of Magdeburg, and the aeolian harp by 
Kircher, Cdied 1680). Bigamy allowed 
by the diet of Noi^mberg, with the view 
of recruiting the population which had 
been diminished by the thirty yetfs' war. 
Patatoes planted in Volgtiand Ci'^^ ^^ 

1651. John Wallichius' eaieuhu infinUorum, He- 

velian's observations and astronomical 
definitions of the geographical site of 
several towns. Patatoes first brought 
to Berlin. 

A. D. 

1653. An ac-ademy of naturalists established at 
Scliwelnfurt. Jung first publishes the fun- 
damental idea of a .sexual system of 

1653. Von Logauy epigrammatist. 

1655. University eounded at Duysburg. Thoma- 
slus , theologer and Gritlc, born, Cdied In 

1657. Prussia is declared a sovereign dukedom. 

1659. Glauber's wender-salt. Prona's first trea- 
tise on chemistry. Commenil: Orbis pic- 

1660 CocceJuS) theologer , died. Herman Con- 
rinng publishes his sjrstem of political 

1661. Puffendorf, first teacher of natural law 
and of the laws of nations, at Heidel- 

166$. Permanent diet at Batisbonne. 

1664. Andreas Gryphius, dramatic poet, died. 

1669. Henry Schwanhart discovers the art of 

etching in glass. Phosphor discovered 
by Brandt. Abraham a Santa Clara 
preaches at Vienna. 

1670. Leibnitz publishes his theory of gravita- 


1671. Otto Gnericke*8 invention of the electrical 


1673. Sturm's phyHca experimmUaUt, Military 
uniforms Introduced. The pressure of 
the air illustrated by Guericke. 

1673. Streets lighted in Hamburg. 

1676. Paul Gerahrdy ecclesiastic at poet, died. 

1677. University founded at Inspruck. Leibnitz 

inventor of 'the differential calculus 

i — 

A D. 

discovers tbe Ibws of centripital mo- 
tion. Concbyliology studied by Mtyor 
at Kiel. 

1679. Wepfer's investigratlon of ttie effects of 
several species of poison. Hoftbannswaf- 
daUy Silesian poet, dies. 

1681. New roll of tbe menibers of tbe German 
empire, prosinlgfated. Tbe ellipses of se- 
veral comets, first ealcttiated by Dorfel. 
Papin at Martrarg discovers tbe effect 
of steaiB, and ititro^aees bis boiling 
macblne to r«daoe bones into jelly. 

1683. Complete liberty of religioas professioB, 

prpBMilgftted. Tbe Aeta BrudHiorHm Lip- 
aienHvm first publisbed. Hanibttrg jour- 
nal for science and Uterature. 
1688 Vienna besieged by tbe Ttirklsb ajrmy. 
Lobenstein, Sllesiftn poet, dies. 

1684. Protestant maAufacturefs leave France and 

.settle in Prussia and otber' German 

states. Pasten - painting Aeurlsbes at 

Dresden. • 

1686. Otto of Guerleke, matbematteian and ma- 

dianician, and Hevel, aiitrotioBier, die. 

Tsc4iirnbau«eA Invents burning mirrors. 
1688. First political €ti»»u»ijoHi«al, publlsbed by 
• TbomasittS^. 

I<y90. Ilfgb IttiperfAl court of law ^Heichskam- 

mergenchtsrath) etablisbed at Wetzlar. 

Becker, tbeologian, dies. Tbe darlnett 

invented by Denner. FTencb fruits and 

gardening introduced in Germany. 
1694. University founded at Halle. Coffee brougbt 

to LeipKiic. 
1696. Tbe lectures of tbe universities delivered 


A. D. 

fox tke first time in the German Ian- 
gaage Cftt Halle). 
1696. The first German coffee-house opened at 

1699. Orphan -Asylum established at Halle by 

Hermann Francke. Pietists make their 

1700. Academy of sciences^ founded at Berlin. 

Prussian standard of coinage, introduced. 
The protestant states in Germany adopt 
the Gregorian Calendar. Gallomania 
. prevailing in Germany. 

1702. University founded at Breslau. 

1703. University founded at Vienna. Silk-worms 

kept, and sllk-manufacturles established 
In Prussia. 

1704. The lutherans and calvinists endeavour 

to establish a union between themselves. 
The art of fortification improved by 

1705. Albert Fabricius* Bibliotheca araeca. 

1706. Astronomical obser>'atory established at 

Berlin. Prussian-blue, discovered. 

1707. Christian Wolf, professor at Halle. Bey- 

er's .lectures on German common -law. 
Cellarius, geographer, dies. 

1708. The great plague breaks out at Vienna^ 

Stahl, professor of medicine, flourishes 
at Halle. 

1709. Fahrenheit invensts the quicksUver-ther- 

mometbr Cdied 1740). 

1710. Porcelain mannfacturles established in 


1711. Veterinary art cultivated in Germany. 
1714. Thermometer of spirit of wine invented 

A. D. 

by Fahrenheit. Earth-perforating inslru- 
ment invented by Lehman at Leipzic. 

1715. Boebmer's Protegtant Ecclesiastical Law. 

The plague at Presburg and Ratlsbonne. 
The town of Carlsrnh, built. 

1716. Heineccius, lawyer. War between Au- 

stria and the Tnrlcs. 

1717. Schroeder's Pianoforte. First Great emi- 

gration from Wortemberg to North Ame- 

1718. Frederic Hoffmann's system of pathology. 

1719. Anatomical wax preparations by Zumb. 
1722. Count Zinzendor/, the founder of the 

Moravian sect, becomes conspicuous. 

1724. Herreahut, established. Insurrection at 

Thorn against the Jesuits. Schultens' 
critical inquiry. The poet KlopstoclE, 
bom at Quedlinbnrg. 

1725. Agricultural improvements introduced in 

1727. Petersen, mystic. Gasser, first' professor 
of political economy at Halle. 

1732. Haydn, the composer, born. 

1733. Gmelin, philosopher and naturalist, travels 

through Siberia. 

1734. Universites of Goettlngen and Fulda, foun- 

ded. The composers HIindel , Bach, and 
Gluck, flourish. Hansen invents a new 
electrifying maclUne. 

1735. Linnean system of nature adopted in 


1737. Moshetm, theologian. Moser's treatise on 

political laws. 

1738. Lieberkohn, invents the soJar micros- 


A. D. 

1741. Hentfel's oratorio: Tbe Meimah, Cotton 
spinning in the Scliwarzwald. 

1748. University founded at Erlangen. Kleist's 
electric condensater. Comic opera in- 
troduced in <3eraiany. 

174^1. .Wincicler's electrical ezperiaients. Krat- 
zenstein's electric Cures of human di- 

1745. Werlhof recommends the pernvian bark 

in fevers. 

1746. Reiske and Michaells, orientalists, flourish. 

1747. Mosheim, professor at CKIttingen. Euier, 

mathematician. Achenwall, first teacher 
of statistics. Hagedom*s Odes and Songs. 
The Dresden gallery of painting beco- 
mes remarkable. 

1748. CoCee introduced for daily use. 

1749. Kloppstock's "Messiah". Meckel's disco- 

veries concerning the nervous system. 
J'. B. Schlegel, poet, dies. Goethe bom 
at rrankfort on the Mein Cdied 1883>. 
CrinUnal execution for sorcery at Wiirz- 

1750. A. G. Baumgarten's aesthetics. Von Kleist's 

poem: The Spring,. Patatoes almost 
universally euttivateii throughout Ger- 

1751. Schmidtbauer's glass harmonica. Saxon 

troops sold to Holland and England. 
1758. The standard of twenty florins per mark 

of pure silver is introduced. 
1754. Seminary for Schoolmaster established at 

Hanover. Christian Wolf, philosopher; 

Emanuel Bachj composer 5 Holberg and 

Hagedom, poets, die. 

A. D. 

1755. Moses Mendeissolin's popular philosophy. 

Winkelmanii studies antiquities at Rome. 
Tables of the course and variations of 
ttie moon, calculated by Tobias Meyer. 
Mosheim, theologian, dies. 

1756. Beginning of the seven years' war. Mi- 

chtelis, orientalists, at Gottingen; Er- 
nesti philologer, at Leipzic. Lambert's 

1757. Hailer's pliifHolggy. Unger's art of form- 


1758. ZimuermanB, physician, author of the 
worH on solitude. Gleim's war-song3. 

1759. Academy of sciences, founded at Munich. 

Berlin *' Letters on Literature" published 
by Lessing. Haendel, composer , die.s. 
Schiller bom at Marbach Cdied in 1805}. 

1762. Wilke invents the electrophor, H. TtscJi- 

bein celebrated draughtsman at Cassel. 

1763. Winkeimann publishes his hUtory of the 

art. Hitler's German operettes. 

1764. Semmler and Teller, theologians, and 

Schnikh, historian, .flourish. 

1765. The Emperor Joi»eph If. reduces the num- 

ber of convents in Austria, and allows 
liberty of thought and of religion through- 
out his dominions. An academy insti- 
tuted at Freiburg, in Saxony, for the 
study oi mineralogy and of the art of 

1766. New Stanford of coinage at twenty four 

florins per marc of pure silver. Les- 
sing pubU.shes his Laocoon. Abbt, phi- 
losopher, dies. 

1767. Schlotzer, lUiguist and historian, flouri.^hes 

A. D. 

at Goettlngen. Busch establislies a com- 
mercial school at Hambarg. Salzer first 
discovers galvanism. Torture abolished 
in Baden. W. A, Schlegel, bom. 
1766. Assemann, orientalist; Reimarus, theolo- 
gian; Winkelmann, antiquarian, die. 

1769. Zolliiiofer, theologian , flourishes. Gothic 

literature cultivated by Ihre. Basedow's 
works on eiementnry education. Alexan- 
der von Hnmboldt, natural philosopher, 

1770. Kant, professor at KOnigsberg, reforms the 

system of philosophy pre%'alent at that 
period. liichtenberg, natural philosopher, 
at GOttingen. The Almanac of the Mu- 
ses first published. Mozart, the compo- 
ser, flourishes. 

1177. Sidiool of industry founded at Blbingerode. 
Sulzer's theory of the Fine Arts, Ra- 
hener, satyrical writer, dies. 

1772. Beckmann's ttchnology. Achenwall, statis- 
tical writer, dies. Lessing pablishes his 
tragedy: Emilia Gattoti, 

1778. Heyne's philological school at GOttingen; 
Science aiid art flourish At Weimar. Goe- 
the pablishes his G6t% von Berlichintfen, 
WIeland his German Mercury. 

1774. The theological Fragments of Woifen- 
hiUtet pablished by Lessing; Adelung's 
Dictionary of the German language; Goe- 
the's Werther makes their appearance. 
Scheele discovers oxyfrene gaz. Wer- 
ner publishes his geologicai theory. Gldck, 
the composer, flourishes. Philantropical 
school established at Dessaa hy Basedow, 

A. D. 

Campe and WolXe. ReiAe, philologer, 

1775. Bngel publishes his PhUosopher for the 
world; Mendelsohn his Phaedon; La- 
vater his physiognomical theory, Schro- 
der, the tragical performer, becomes 

1776 The order of the Illuminates established 
by Weishaupt. Cramer, theologian and 
author of ecclesiastical songs flourish- 
es. Gluck composes his opera of Iphige- 
nia, Mesmer publishes his system of 
animal magnetism. Hdlty, poet, dies. ' 

1777. School of trades established at Prague. 

Haller, poet, and physiologer flourishes. 
Zachariae, poet, dies. 

1778. Heinicke's Deaf and Dumb- Institution at 

Leipsic. Bergmanu and Crell, chemists. 

1779. Feder, philosopher. Hindenburg's com- 

binaiory calculus, Frank's medical po- 
licy, Lesslng*s: Nathan. The two bra* 
thers Stolberg, poets. Iflland, dramatist; 
Sulzer, chemist; Mengs, painter, die. 

1780. John von Muller publishes his: History 

of the Swiss confederacy; Wielandhis: 
Oberon, Emesti, philologer, dies. 

1787. Papal Bulls against the heretics prohibi- 
ted, the edict of toleration promulgated, 
and reforms of the clergy introduced, by 
the Emperor Joseph II. Eichhom's biblical 
criticism, Kant's criticism of the faculty 
of reasoning, Voss' translation of Homer 
into German verse. Herschel discovers 
the planet Uranus. Leasing dies. 

1782. Bondage abolished in Baden. Iselinfhi- 


A L. 

0tociaii. The disease called tlie influ- 
enza makes its appearance. 

1763. Ettler, astronomer; Hasse, orientalist; 
€ramer, novelist; Bodmer, poet; and 
liiehtweliry fabulist, die. 

17B4. University founded at Leinberg. Salfl- 
mann's ptailantliropical school a| Schnep- 
fenttiaL Herder's ideas on the phUosO" 
phy of the history of mankind. Iffland's 
dramatic works. 

17d5. Journal of Literature published at Jena. 

1786. The order of the Uluminates is pro- 

hibited. The German archbishops remon- 
strate against the papal pretenaions. Papal 
Nuncio at Munich. Herinstadt, chemist; 
Klinger, dramatist; Haberlin, historian; 
and Benda, composer, die. 

1787. Kant's Criticism of practical reasoning, 

Schiller's Don Carlos. Veit Weber's TO' 
ies of oiden times, Mozart's Don Juan, 
Ignatius Pleyel, composer ; Musaeus, ro- 
mantic writer ; and dock, composer, die. 

1788. The administrations of ecclesiastical affairs 

aad of public instruction, hitherto ani- 
ted in Prassia, are separated. >Forkers 
history of music. Becker's: yofh and 
HiUfsHichUin CUntversal knowledge for 
every one); Hamann, philosopher ; Gess- 
ner, poet; Emanuel Bach, composer, die. 

1789. Reinhold, philosopher. 

1791. Prassian code of law published. Vacci- 
nation liESt introduced in Hoistein. Schro- 
ter's Seienography. Kotzebue's dramatic 
works are much in vogne. Mozart pu- 

A. D. 

blishes his opera: The Magic Flute. 
St'ljubart poet, dies. 

1792. Eckliel publiAbes bis great numismatical 


1793. Spittler's work on tbe political systems 

of tbe states of Europe. Buscbing, geo- 
grapher ; Bahrdt and Uoeterlein , theolo- 
gians , die, 

1794. Fichte publishes his philosophical theory 

of the sciences (^WisaeiMchaftslehre). 
Lichtenbergy natural philosopher and 
satirical writer; Mdser, historian and 
politician; Burger, poet; Ignace Schmide, 
composer ; and Breitkopf , the inventor 
of music -printing- types, die. 

1795. Posselt publishes his political Annals (Eu- 

ropaUche Annalen}, Voss' Luise, epic 
poem. Benda, composer, dies. 

1796. Lithography invented by Sennefelder at 

Munich. Haydn's oratorio: the Creation. 
Hippel, humoristic writer; Uz, poet, die 

1797. Sunday-schools introduced In Prussia. 

Schelling's Idea9 on natural philosophy. 
the German romantic school: Tieck, A. 
W. and F. Schlegel, and Novalis'; Rleist, 
Blumauer, Gotter, Alxinger, poets; Jun.- 
ger, dramatist; Rhode, painter and en- 
graver , die. 

1798. Fiorillo's HUtotTf of the fitie Arts. Garve, 

philosopher; and Ramler, poet, die. 

1799. Alexander von Humboldt travels in South 

America. Lichtenberg, philosopher; Oe- 
ser, painter; and Dietersdorf, composer, 



A. D. 

1800. Missionary - scliool etablislied at Berlin. 

Jean Paul C^rederlc Rlchter) , publihes 
ills Titan. SaccesfuU essais towards the 
recovery of the art of glass painting, 
made byMohn, Birkenbach, Buhler, Frank 
and Miiller. The scalptors Danneker, 
Tieck, and Ranch, acquire celebrit)'. 
Baggesen, poet; Unger, engr&ver on 
wood, Kfistner mathematician; Schulz, 
composer; Hess, engraver, die. 

1801. Pestalozzi's system of Hementary educa- 

tion; Lavater, physiognomist; Novalis 
CHardenberg3 , romantic writer; Nan- 
man, composer, die. 

1802. The Princesp Pauline of Lippe-Detmold 

establishes her Kleine- Kinder -Schulen^ 
{\. e. receiving houses for children of a 
very tender age, wjth the specific ob- 
ject of taking them, during day, from 
oil the hands of their parents, who can- 
not attend to them in consequence of 
being obliged to earn a livelyhood for 
their family}. Gibers discovers the pla- 
. net Pallas. Engel, philosopher; Zumsteeg, 
composer, die. 

1803. Krusenstern and Langsdorf travel round 

the globe. Lichtenstein's Journey through 
Cafferland; Seetzen's through Syria and 
Africa. Vega, mathematician; and Her- 
der; die. 

1804. Francis U. declares himself hereditary 

Emperor of Austria. Pestalozzi's method 
of elementar) education introduced in 
several schools. Von Aretin introduces 
his mnemonical method. The summit of 

A. D. 

tlie miDiuil; Ortelefl in Tyrol, first ascen- 
ded by Pichler. Teller, theologian; and 
Kant, philosopher, die. 

1805. Thibaut publishes his System of Pandects. 

Schiller dies. 

1806. The German Empire is dissolved; the 

Rhenish confederac>', established. French 
occupation of Germany. Savigny author 
on Jurisprudence. Jean Paul's Levana, 
Adelung, the lexicographer and orienta- 
list dies. 
1807 Gibers discovers the planet Vesta. Hac- 
kert and Angelica Kaufmann, painters; 
Marie la Roche, poetress die. 

1808. Association for the observance of virtue 

established in Prussia. Jung -Stilling pu- 
blishes a theory concerning 4Jie men- 
tal intercourse with ghosts. Fellen- 
berg and Tha^r promote agricultural 
improvements. Schroekh, historian, dies. 

1809. Universities of Rinteln and HelmstAdt 

abolished, and that of Berlin founded. 
Schamhorst publishes his work on mili- 
tary tactics. ROntgen perishes on a 
Journey through Africa. Henke, physi- 
cian; Schldzer, political writer and his- 
torian; John von Miiller, historian; and 
Haydn*, the composer, die. 

1810. Grand Dukedom of Frankfort , estabUhed. 

Several german territories are incorpora- 
ted to tbe French empire. University 
founded at Landshut. A Jewish consistory 
established at Cassel. Hornemaiin, tra- 
veller; Spittler, historian; Meiners, phi* 
losopher; and Seume, podt,, die. 

264* CHBONOLOeiCAL OlTTliimi 09 THR PROOHBM <>' 
A. D. 

18tl. UniT«fflity founded lit AreslaU. Jahn es- 
tablishes at Berlin an instittition for 
gymnastie exercise. Seetzen and Pallas, 
travellers; Salzmann,,pliiIahtropist, and 
Nicolai, satiric writer, die. 

1812. Bible-association Established at Stattgard. 
Civil rights granted to the Jews in Prus- 
sia. Hegel introdoces a new system of 
philosophy founded on logical propo- 
sitions. Beinhard, theologian; HeynE. 
philologer ; and Wllldenow, botanist, die. 

1818. The Rhenish Confederacy, dissolved; a 
reorganisation of the German States 
takes place at the Congress of Vienna. 
The Prussian armies mcrnited by voloh- 
te'ers and^by the institution of the Land- 
toehr and of the Landsturm (the for- 
mer , a regular standing militia and the 
latter an extraoitltnary one}. Reil, re- 
nowned physician, Wlelandy romantic 
writer and poet; and Kdrner, dramatist 
and poet,' die. 

1814. Bible -associations established at Kdnigs- 

berg and Elberfeld. Gymnastics intro- 
duced in the schools of Germany. Vio- 
lent theological disputes, particularly 
at Halle, between ithe two religious par- 
ties : the Rationalists and Pietists. Fichte, 
philosopher; Bredow, historian; Jaeobi, 
philosopher and poet; IlTland, dramatist; 
Vogler and Hummel, composers, die. 

1815. Confederation- Act promulgated at Vienna. 

Permanent diet established at rrankfort. 
River- Navigation- Act promulgated at 
Vienna. The pictures which the French 


a; d. 

had carried away, are restore^ to the 
vajrioiis towns of Germany. Bible-a88o- 
ciatioR established at Berlin. Schmalz 
publishes his work • on the secret politi- 
cal associations. Honigberj^er travels jto 
the East. Mesmer, the promoter of the 
study of animal magnetism, dies. 

1816. The Conferences of the Diet at Frank- 
fort are opened. Pelytechnical Institution 
established, at Vienna. The Glyptothek 
founded at Munich. First steamboat on 
the Rhiiie. Schroeter, astronomer, re- 
nowned for his Selenography, and Schroe- 
der, celebrated dramatic performer, die. 

1817. The Constitution of the Grand Duchy of 
Weimar garanteed by the German Con- 
federation. Bondage abolished in Wnr- 
temberg. The students of several Ger- 
man universities establish secret corpo- 
rations between themselves Ohe Bur- 
schengchaft^. Numerous emigrations of 
Germans to the United States of North 
America. Bavarian Concordate. Pro- 
posals concerning the union of the la- 
therau and reformed churches in Prus- 
sia and Nassau. Bible- associations in- 
creasing in number throughout Germany. 
The universities of Halle and Wlttem- 
herg are united. Spix and Martius travel 
through Brajiil. Wbltmann, historian; 
H. Klapproth, chemist; Werner, dra- 
matist; v. Thummel, hunoristic writer; 
E. Sciiuhse, poet ; and H. Lips, engraver, 

A. D. 

1818. Tlie Constitutions of Bavaria and Baden 

are promulgated. University founded 
at Bonn; those of Duj^sburg, Erfurt, 
Mnnster and Paderbom, are abolished. 
Charles Bitter publishes the iirst volume 
of his Geography, Agricultural institu- 
tions established at Hohenstein and at 
Altenburg. Rosegarten, i^oet, dies. 

1819. Kotzebue is stabbed by the student Sand. 

Congress held at Carlsbad, in conse- 
quence of which a uniform system of 
execution of criminals, the censorhlp 
of the press, and a close inspection 
of the universities , are introduced in 
every state of Germany. The consti* 
tutions of Wurtemberg and Hanover 
are published. A central commission 
established at Mentz for the trial of 
' demagogues. Jacobi and Leopold von 
StoUberg, die. 

1820. Ftaiai resolution of the German Confede- 

ration talcen at Vienna. The Constitu- 
tion of the Grand-Duchy of Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, introduced. Eschenburg, philoger, 

1621. A protestant theological faculty, esta- 
blished at the university of Vienna. A 
West-India trading companj* established 
at Elberfeld. Hermes, theologian; Chris- 
tian von StoUberg; and Romberg, com- 
poser, die. 

1822. Union of the protestant churches cele- 
brated in the Rhenish province of Hesse- 
Darmstadt. Association of German na- 
turalists and physicians, established by 

A. D. 

Oken. Poppig travels in America; 
Edaard Riippel trough Arabia. Sclinei- 
der, pliiiologer; Herschel, astronomer; 
and Becker, historian, die. 

1823. Provincial diets coustltated in Prussia. 

West bidia trading company establish- 
ed at Dresden. Roippel continues his 
travels through Dongola and- Nubia. 
Siebold's Journey to Japan. Werner, 
dramatist, dies. 

1824. Secret political associations in Germany; 

the Prussian government orders them 
to be prosecuted according to the cri- 
minal code. A hew jeviish liturgy is 
introduced at Berlin. Frauenhofer's great 
refractor. First steam - press in Ger- 
many. First steam-boat, on the lake of 
Contance. Railroad from Bohemia to 
the Danube. German -American mining 
company established at Elberfeld. As- 
sociation for the exclusion of foreign 
produce and manufacture. Vorherr's in- 
combustible constructions. The resto- 
ration of the Cologne cathedral is com- 
menced. F. A. Wolf, philologer; Spohn, 
antiquarian, die. 

1825. Several German governments claim iii 

vain from Holland the free navigation 
to the mouth of the Rhine, which had 
been stipulated at the Congress of 
Vienna. Societies for antiquarian re- 
search are formed in different parts of 
Germany. Bopp publishes his grammar 
of the Sanscrit language. Crome, geo- 
grapher and political economist. Steam 

A. D. 

navigation ou .several German rivers. 
Eictienwald's Journey to the Caspian 
sea and the Caurasian mountains. Jean 
Paul CPrederin Hichter} ; Hemprich, plii> 
lologer; Pfaff, mathematician; Count 
Loeben, poet; Winter, composer, die. 

1826. The university ofLandshut transferred to 
•Manich and the Pinacothek founded. 
Ebrenherg returns from his Journey 
through Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia and 
Syria. Bode, astronomer; Frauenhofer, 
optician; Falke, Hebel, Baggeseu, J. H. 
Voss and Mahlmann, poets; Maria von 
Weber, composer, die. 

1897. An archbishoprick established at Freiberg. 
Pirac|' of books prohibited in Prussia. 
Polytechnlcal school founded at Munich, 
iiangsdorf travels through Brasils. Knapp 
and Sichhoni, theologians; Pestolozzi, 
pedagogue, and van Beethoven, com- 
poser, die. 

1828. The central commission at Mentz dissol- 
ved. Several commercial and customs- 
unions are entered Into by different 
States of Germany. The abolition of 
Celibacy of the Catholic clergy In Ba- 
den, proposed by Dattlinger, In the 
chamber of deputies. A Rhenish mis- 
sionary-society, and an ' association , for 
the improvement of criminals, esta- 
blished in Prussia. Nleme)'er, theologian 
and pedagogue; Reinhard, author of 
sermons; Ersch, bibliographer; von Sie- 
bold, surgeon ; and Thaer, economist, die. 


A. D. 

1829. Alex, von HumlifrlfU, Ehreuberg and 

. Rose travel to tha Ural. Hassel, geo- 

gifapher; Fred, von Schlegel, critic and 

romantic writer ^ Muliner, dramatist, die. 

IddO. Insurrections in Hesse, 8azony, and Bruns- 
wick. Destruction of the customs-offices 
'in several parts of Germany. Formation 
of national guards, and constitution 
. proclaimed at Hesse - Cassel. . Religious 
dissenters make their appearance in Prus- 
sia. Prussian litliurgy introduced at Carls- 
ruh. The AValballa established by the 
King of Bavaria. JBrmann returns from 
a journey through Siberia. Afayen sails 
round the globe on a Prussian ship. 
Soemmering and Ebele, physiologists, 

1831. The constitution of the kingdom of Sax- 

ony proclaimed. The students of se- 
veral German universities break the 
peace. The public adresses to the Diet 
concerning political affairs are prohi- 
bited. New Rhenish treaty of navigation. 
The Cholera - morbus pervades several 
german countries. Hegel, philosopher; 
Hellwig , physician ; Achim von Amim, 
and Matthisson, poets; Klinger, roman- 
tic writer; I^afontaine, novelist, die. 

1832. Popular meeting at Hambach. Decrees 

issued by the Diet to uphold legal order ; 
several German political journals and pe- 
riodicals prohibited ; enactments against 
the press-association, and public congre- 
gations ; the wearing of distinctive marks 
on dresses, is prohibited. Numerous emi- 

A. D. 

grBlbiotM take place tu North America. A 
commercial treaty is concladed between. 
England and Frankfort o. M. Politi- 
cal emancipation of tlie Jews promul- 
gated in Hesse - Cassel. First telegra- 
pbical line in Germany, from Berlin to 
Magdeburg. Sailer, theologian and pe- 
dagogue; Schutz and Beck, phllologers; 
Zach, astronomer; Loder, anatomist; 
Schmidt-Phiseldeck , political writer; and 
Goethe, poet, die. 

1833. Troubles at Frankfort o. M. Several German 
Chambers of deputies are dissolved. 
Another Constitution granted to Hano- 
ver by King \V3lIiam IV. Prussian sub- 
jects are not allowed to visit foreign 
universities. A protestant missionary 
society is established at Hesse -Cassel. 
Homoeopathic school at Leipzig. Hof- 
ma>T's pathological preparations in wax. 
Utzschneidor's gigantic tube for aslruiio- 
macal observations. Plank, theologian; 
t'euerbach, writer on criminal law ; Spren- 
gel, physician and botanist; Hermbstlidt, 
chemist, die. 

1884. The Diet establinhes a court of arbitration 
composed of its own members, {Austrd- 
gai-OericM), with the specific object of 
settling any difference which might arise 
either between some German govern- 
ments, or between any of them and its 
chambers. Decrees of the Diet concer- 
ning the universities. Evangelical sy- 
nods held In Baden. Regulations con- 
cerning the abolition of tithes in Ba- 

A. D. 

den. Magneticat observatory established 
at Gdttiiigen under the superindence of 
the astronomer Gauss. Steam-lithogra- 
phy invented by Baumgartner. Danube- 
steam- navigation- company. The Urst 
steam -carriage upon common roads in- 
troduced by VoigtlAnder at Vienna. A 
canal is commenced between the Danube 
and the Rhine. Schleiermacher , tlieolo- 
gian; Langsdorf, mathematician; Man- 
nert, geographer; Maclceldey, writer on 
jurisprudence, die. 
1835. Religious dissenters make their appearance 
in Silesia. An association of authors 
assumes the denomination of the ^'Young 
Germany." Strauss' life of Jesus Christ. 
Schuster's geognostical map. The piracy 
of books y prohibited by the Diet. A 
bookseller's exchange established atLeip- 
zic. Railroad from Fiirth to Nuremberg 
completed. Matthiae and Rost, philolo- 
gers ; Klapproth and Rosenmuiler, orien- 
talists; William V. Humboldt, philologer; 
Bottiger, writer on antiquities; Baader, 
mechanician ; Friedrike Bruu, and Count 
Platen, poets, die. 




A. most remarkable increase in the nomber 
of books published in Germany has taken place, 
of late years, owing partly to the greater de- 
mand for German books in foreign countries, 
partly to the tranquillity and prosperity of peace; 
but mostly to the rage of bookwriting, and to the 
speculative eagerness of the German booksellers, 
the greater portion of whom are also publishers. 
Previously to the year 1814, the annual amount 
of works published in Germany is said to have 
been about 2000. This number has gradually 
augmented in the following proportion: — 

In 1814, were published 2529 works; in 
1816, 3197, in 1822, 4288, in 1827, 5108; 
in 1830, 5926; in 1831, 5508, in 1832, 6122; 
in 1833, 5653; in 1834, 6074. « 

Each succeeding catalogue of the Leipsic Faur 
is more bulky than its predecessor. That of the 
late Easter Fair of 1837, forms a volume of 
26 sheets', and contains 4353 new works, or 
new editions. Of these, 429 were published 
abroad, leaving for Germany Concluding Swit- 
zerland , Hungary, and that part of Prussia not 

* See Strang's ''6«rm«ny in 1831 /' vol. ii. p. 4&3i. 


belonging to the German oohfederftlion^ 8924. 
In the total number tliere are, 

Books and panaphlets in the German language . 3200 

Books and pamphlets in the ancient languages . 302 

Books and pamphlets in living foreign languages 539 

Novels 144 

Plays 23 

Musical Publications 42 

Maps 108 

Of the above, 239 are translations from fo- 
reign languages, Cainong the novels alone, 44^- 
and 349 periodioals. 

The principal states of Germany contributed 
in the following proportions to the general 
amount: — Austria, 226 Cin Vienna alone, 165} ; 
Prussia, 1151 Cin Berlin 425}; Bavaria, 469; 
Saxon)^ , 669 CLeipsic alone , 556} ; Hanover, 
106; Wurtemberg, 331; Baden, 156; the Hes- 
sian states , 141 ; Holstein, 40 ; the four Saxon 
duchies, 160; Brunswick, 45; Frankfort 55; 
Hamburg, 123. * 

Tlie publications of 1834, have been in a 
more minute and illustrative manner classified. 
Of the entire 6074, 1327 come under the head 
of belles lettres and the fine* arts, including 
358 novels, 173 plays, and 109 works on mu- 
sic; 1141 under theology, including 550 ser- 
mons and devotional works; 860 under history, 
including 212 biographies , and 87 works on 
antiquities; 777 under polities and political 
economy; under medicine 639, including 81 on 

* From the ,, Foreign Quarterly Review," October, 
1837 : — a mine of information, to whose past and 
present valuable numbers all readers must hare re- 
course, who seek for copious details, and just criti- 
cism on German matters* 


ehemistry and pbarmac)', 76 on the new ho- 
moeopatbic method of treatment, and 42 on 
veterinary medicine; 597 under philology; 400 
under the natural sciences ; 385 under geogra- 
phy and travels; 338 under technology; 285 
under jurisprudence; 269 under philosophy and 
literature in general; 237 under domestic and 
rural economy ; 217 under education ; 212 under 
mathematics; 187 under military science and 
equitation; 175 under commerce and mining; 55 
Under forests and the chase; and finally, there 
were 200 of misceUaneous contents. 

We perceive that the number of new publi- 
cations was formerly much greater in Germany 
than in France, from the following comparative 
number of books published in the two countries. 

In the Team In Frtnce. In Germany. 

At Bnater. At Michaelmas. 

1814 W9 . , . , . 1490 1039 

1815 1712 y. . . 1777 975 

1816 1851 1997 ..... 1200 

1817 2126 2345 1187 

1818 2431 2294 1487 

1819 2441 2648 1268 

1820 2465 2640 1818 

1821 2617 3012 985 

1822 3114 2729 1554 

1828 2687 2558 1751 

1824 8486 2870 1641 

1825 3569 ..... 3196 1640 

1826 ..... 4347 2648 2056 

88,775 82,204 18099 

In France 33,775 

Balance in favour of Germany . . 16,528 


Latterly, however, tiie Frencb press «ppe«jni 
to have grained some advance, as in 1826, 
when above 7000 publications are said to have 
been printed in France. 

Our excellent '^ Foreign Quarterly Review" 
states, that the number of periodical works 
enumerated in the Leipsic catologue for 1836, 
is 297. The names of 530 publishers are given 
in this catalogue. An Augsburg journal has 
lately affirmed, that on a moderate calculation, 
10,000,000 of volumes are annually printed 
in Germany and as every half- yearly cata- 
logue contains tbe names of more than 1000 
German Writers , it has been assumed that there 
are now living in Germany, more than 50,000 
persons who have perpetrated one or more books. 
The total Value of all the books published an- 
nually, has been estimated at from 5,000,000 
to 6,000,000 of dollars . 

To illustrate the increase of the book -trade 
during the last hundred years, we may cite the 
fact, that Leipsic contained in 1722 only 19 
bookselling establishements, and 13 printing- 
offices; while in 1836 it was in possession of 
116 of tbe former, and 23 of the latter. 

The book- trade was thirty years ago in the 
hands of only 300 .booksellers or publishers; at 
present there are about 1000. Saxony ftamishea 
the greatest number of new publications, next 
Prussia, theA the Southern states of Germany 
Cviz. Bavaria, Wdrtemberg, Bade, Hesse Ac.) 
and lastly Austria; but Austria is far behind in 
point of numbers. 

For further information connected with the 
sul^ecti we must refer the reader to our two 


Chapters on (he ^'Censership, " and on ^News- 

The estimates of the number of volumes con- 
tained in the principal libraries of Germany vary 
80 considerably as to render a correct state- 
ment perfectly impossible. The materials of the 
following table have been taken from the newst 

edition of the ^^Conversations- Lexicon." 

No. of No. of 
Volumes. ManascripU. 

RoyftI Library at Muiiicm .... 400,000 . 9,000 

Imperial diUo ftt Viuiha 300,000 . 12,000 

Boyal diUo at Bsmua . .... 250,000 . 4,600 
Royal ditto M Dkmvbw .... 220,000 . 2,700 

pamplileu 150,000 

UaiverMty ditto ai Goncaosa . . . 300,000 
Ducal ditto at WoLraaBvirai. 200,000 . 10,000 

Cnrrereity ditto at Dbmdm .... 200,000 

Academy ditto at Paag 190,000 . 8,000 

University ditto at Hbu»buu.» . . 120,000 . 847 
Royal ditto at 8*un«ABT . . . 180,000 

University ditto at Faaiaun« . . • . 100,000 






Ok all the subjects treated of in tliis vrorki 
this iM the one which I approach with tbe great- 
est iliffiUence: knowing well that I shall give 
heavy offence to many worthy clergymen in 
Germany, yet anxious to speak that' which ap- 
pears to me to he the truth on the most import- 
ant of all topics. Impressed with an earnest 
belief, that, in proportion as a people departs 
from the Christianity delivered in the New Tes- 
tament, It loses the straight road equally to 
public and to private happiness, 1 cannot avoid 
inferring, that the ne wmode of interpreting the 
Scriptures which has sprung up in Germany, is 
the darkest cloud which lowers upon the hori- 
zon of that country. With an innate disposition 
to humility and reverence, the Germans have 
been conducted by some of their spiritual teachers 
to the borders of a precipice, one leap from 
whieh will plunge them, into Deism. And, if 



we are to judgre from the tone of many popular 
writings, from tlie feelings entertained by many 
towards the clergy , and from the spirit in which 
religious matters are often handled in society, 
we must anticipate, however reluctantly, that, 
not only in Germany, but In some ether parts 
of Europe , the heaviest calamity impending over 
the whole fabric of society in our tine, is the 
lengthening stride of bold scepticism in snmie 
parts, and the more stealthy unwards^creeplng 
step of critical cavil in others^. 

Rationalism in Germany is of kindred origin 
to the sceptical philosophy which was so pre- 
valent in France during the last century. The 
mo«t notorious amongst its early professors were 
the Aufhl&rer C^postles of intellect}, Nicolai 
and his friends j the contributors to the Allge- 
meine Deutsche Bibliotheh, 

A Socinian interpretation of the Scriptures had 
been, it is true, long known before them, and 
indeed frequently advocated, but they were the 
first who earnestly and aealously sought to 
found on it a popular creed. 

The AUgemeine DetUeche BMieOieh was fom- 
ded in 1766. But there were niuneroufl theo- 
logians of that period,- not immediately connected 
with its editors, who laboured in the same 
eaiise. Of these , the moat eminent were Teller 
ihOtrtueh dee ChritOMten Glaubem, 1774), 

* If * statement oontained in the "Gentleman's 
Mafasine/' for April, 18t8, is eorrect, tlie doctrine 
•f the Trinity kss b«sn ««iusd in the last Catechism 
published by the Chiirch of Geneva^ and the Church 
of Lausanne has protested against the Socinianism of 
the Genevese church. If I vvas rightly informed in 
Osnmarlc, RatiMwIism is tbtr* also mnhiag Mnne wny. 


and Seimnler, professor of. theology at Halle, 
who is called the father of the moderti Rational- 
ists. The reckless boldness of Senimler raised 
him a host of enemies, who were, however, 
unsuccessful in preserving the public mind from 
the baneful elTects of his doctrin^. Moreover, 
he found efficient supporters in Jerusalem, in 
fiberhard, who denicfd the operations of grace, 
in Bahrdt, who first, spectHlly, attacked the 
doctrines of the Trinity , and in Junghaus. But 
these, with the exception of Semmler. and Bahrdt, 
though they agreed with the Rationalists of 
the present day in rejecting the essential doc^ 
trines of original sin , grace ■ and redemption, 
were still not so far advanced in a negative 
career as the latter, -inasmuch as most of them 
admitted that the Scriptures contain a positive 
and supernatural revelation. 

Bahrdt was at the hea$i of a sect called the 
Naturalists, the principal* object of which was 
to explain away or deny the miracles. 

The philosophy of Kant, which was very 
popular in Germany about the .year 1790, was 
not without considerable influence upon the doc* 
trines of theology. Tieftrunk, Schinidt, Ammont 
Stilttdlin, and Krug, were amongst the mes, 
zealous in enlisting it in the cause of religion. 
But its positions, that the invisible is not an 
t>lu^ct of. conception but of belief, and that mo- 
rality is the only test of truth , never obtained 
very general acceptation. The doctrines of the 
Rationalists had been long making progress, 
before they were reduced to s^'stematic order. 
The first to eflTect this were Rdhr, now clerical 
superinteudant of the grand duphy of Weimar, 


in liifl Brief e iiber den Mlationalismua Ci8l33) 
and Wegscheider , in his institutiones Theeio- 
giciB Christiana DogmatictB , first published in 
1815, and which have since pa^ised through 
more than ten editions. From the nature of 
these works it is clear, that the fundamental 
doctrine of modern Rationalism is, that the 
mission of Christ and the whole scheme of re- 
velation were merely intended for our iiislruc' 
tion in certain principles, the truth of which 
uninspired . human reason, would alone, in pro- 
cess of time, have been able to establish. They 
consequently disclose to us the frightful fact, 
that all the essential doctrines of Christianity 
are unreservedly rejected by their aathors. Be> 
sides the above-mentioned , tli** most noted Crer- 
man Rationalists of modem times, are Gesenins, 
the celebrated Hebrew scholar, De Wette, 
Schleiermacher^ , whose symbolic system, though 
it assumed the appearance of Christianity, was 
far from including its essence, Bretschnetder, 
Fritsche, and Paulus. 

Ttie Supranaturalists in Germany, are those, 
who maintain the necessity and reality of a 

• * Schleiermiicliar it tlius characlerisad by Robinson, 
ftn American divine : "He seems to sUnd between the 
Antionaliats and the Evangelical party, being, how- 
ever, more distant from the former than from the lat- 
ter. It was related to the writer by Harms, of Kiel, 
thai he himself, and several of his acquaintances, had 
been brought from Rationalism by the logic of Schlei- 
ermacher; but not being able to rest in the position 
which he had taken , they had gone forward to em- 
brace the evangelical doctrines." (A concise view of 
the Universities and of the state of Theological Edu- 
ration in Germany. By E. Robinson, Professor Ex I rs- 
ordinary in the Theological Seminary at, Andover"). 


•Hpernatnral revelation, but wlio deny tlie doc- 
trine of original sin. Tliey also disbelieve in 
tlie existence of angels and demons. Tlie most 
noted leaders of tbis party, are Stoir, Rein- 
liard , and Ammon , who have all given in more 
or less to the system of accommodation i. e., 
of seeking to explain away the wonders of re* 
velation to the level of hnman reason^. 

Theoiogical Education in Germany. In Pro- 
testant Germany, those who intend to enter 
the church, commence their education at the 
gjrmnasiam, where they generally remain till 
their eighteenth year. Here they are taught 
Hebrew, and are instructed io the diictrjiies of 
religion, generally according to some theologi- 
cal conqiendtiim , of which thisre are so many 
for the use of students. In the lower classes 
of the g^'^mnasiums, the historical parts of the 
Bible are read and explained. In Wfirtemberg, 

* The account given in the text of the Supranatu- 
ralists , is not entirely correct. The Sapranaturalists 
in Germany correspond^ in a certain degree, to the 
term Orthodox in England; and the above descriptioa 
of their tenets does not apply by any means to the 
mass of individuals who constitute that party. Some 
of them may entertain peculiar notions as to original 
sin } but it ought not to have been so broadly affirmed, 
that the Supranatoralits deny so essential a doctrinee 
Dr. Hengstenberg, of the university of Berlin, is one 
of fhe ablest representatives of this Party , and is the 
editor of a weekly journal, called the ''Kvangelisch. 
Kirchen 7ieitung," which may, perhaps, be considered 
as a recognised interpreter or organ of these opini- 
ons. — Dr. Neaader, also an eminent profesepr at 
Berlin, is another distinguished writer of nearly the 
same views, espevsing similar doctrines, but expound- 
ing them in a more subdued form, and in a milder 


(here are nix theological ffemtiiades, of which 
four are Protestant, and to which all yonng 
persons intented for the church are sent^. 

The Catholic clergy throughout all Germany 
are educated in seminaries. From the gymntk'- 
sium or seminar>', the student passes to the 
university, and it is not generally, till this pe- 
riod , that he definitively chooses his profession. 

In Saxony, Baden, Hanover, and moat other 
German states, the student is allowed to enter 
nnder what professor he pleases, and is also 
permitted to spend some portion of his acade- 
mical career at a foreign university. But in 
Prussia, Hesse, and Wurtemberg, both the -for- 
mer privilege Ohat of HdrfreihetO and the lat- 
ter are restricted to a certain extent. In Wiir«» 
temberg, the students of theology, after having 
spent a certain period of time at the prepara- 
tory seminaries above-mentioned, are removed 
to a higher one at Tubingen. At most German 
universities, the students are initiated into the 
practice of the ministry' by lectures and homi- 
letic societies , which latter are generally direct- 
ed by some distinguished teacher. 

The theologians have to pass several exami- 
nations, viz. that at leaving the gymnasium, 
that "pro candidatura /' and that "pro mittis- 

At the conclusion of his academical career, 
the student passes his examination "pro candt- 

* We mfty lier« remark tb&t WSrt^mberf han pro- 
du<$ed some able opponenCs of llie new levelliiiic nyii- 
tem in religion. T&bingen has the repntation of being 
the only university wkich has not departed from the 
doctrines of the Reformation. 


dukira," generally called '^tlie first examina* 
tion" which is conducted by the Professors of 
the theological faculty ; it is not universal , bat 
has only been introduced during the last ten or 
fifteen years, in Prussia , Saxony, and some 
other states. 

A short time previously to his receiving an 
appointment he mast submit to the grand exa- 
mination *^pro minUteriOy' which is conducted 
by a select number of members of the consistory. 

At these two last-mentioned examinations, 
the student has to write treatises in I^atin or 
German, on exegetic, d«)gmatic, or historical 
subjects, to answer questions put at the dis- 
cretion of the examiners, to- preach two ser- 
mons before the latter, and, finally, to cate- 
chise children on any given religious subject. 
From the period of his grand examination, to 
tliat of his obtaining a place in the church, 
the theologian is not under any immediate su- 
perintendence. He is generally requured, how- 
ever, to preach once a year before the snperin- 
tendant of the diocese in which he resides, and 
in some parts, as in Saxe-Gotha, to write a 
treatise on a religious subject proposed by the 

In Mecklenburg, Nassau, Hanover, and at 
Wittenberg Jn Prussia, there are seminaries 
where theologians, after having passed their 
final examination , live together until they are 
called to the ministry. But by far the greater 
number become ' tutors in gymnasiums , private 
teachers, and Cespecially m Wiirtemberg} assis- 
tants to the clergy. In order to keep up their 
theological acquirements, and prepare themsel- 


ves for the exercise of the clerical fiiitctionfl, 
they irenerally form private bomlletioal societiefl, 
liresided over, in most cases, by a superiiiten- 
dant. After the theologian has been appointed 
to a living, he is confirmed by the consistory, 
and enters into a certain engagement Mith it. 
In Bone states . the young minister promises to 
promulgate no doctrine which is opposed to the 
Aogsburg confession; in others, he merely pled> 
ires himself, In general terms, to folio nr, as 
his guide, the Holy Writ. The day after the 
confirmation , he is. ordained , asoally by the so- 
perintendant, and in the presence of a great 
number of clergymen. 

Iiithe kingdom of Saxony, all clergymea have 
to deliver two sermons a year before the saper- 
taitendant of the diocese. In the. Saxon daehies, 
they are bound, also, to write one or more 
treatises annually on theological subjects. 

ConstitnUion of the Church in Qermam^. As 
the reformers occupied themielves exclusively 
with the spiritual concerns of the Church, its 
secular administration, in the Protestant states, 
fell, at a very early period, into the hands of 
the respective governments. These latter estab* 
lished consistories, which since the middle of 
the sixteenth century have gradually increased 
in authority, so as finally to constitute the ofi~ 
iy legislative and administrative power of the 
Church. As they were appointed by the govern- 
ments, they were of course more or less depend- 
ant upon them, and are particularly so at the 
present day.- The summum ju* circa sacra is 
exercised by a minister of . the crown , assisted 
by counsellors, who are generally mMlbers of 


the consistory. This is the case in Prussia, 
Hanover, Saxony, Weimar, Gotha, Bavaria, 
and Wurtemiiersr. But tlie power of tlie minis- 
ter is limited, — Firstly, by tlie consistories 
themselves, which are considered as the repre* 
sentatives of the Church, and which in some 
states, as in Hanover, are formed by the whole 
clergy of the country ; — Secondly , it is limited, 
as in \Vurtemberg^ by the highest ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries or prelates ,. who maintain , to a 
certain extent, an independent position; — Thirdly, 
by the representatives of the country, forming 
the diets, as in Saxony, Wurtemberg , Baden 
and Hesse, where the heads of the Church 
have permanent seats in the Chambers , and 
where clerg>-men are eligible as deputies; — 
Fourthly, it is limited by synods. In Baden, 
general s>nfiods were instituted on the union of 
the two churches in 1821 , and have been held 
twice; viz., in that year, and in 1834. In 
Bavaria there are synods every fourth year. 

The Catholic Church is of course very differ- 
ently situated to the Protestant. In the former, 
wherever established , the supreme authority is 
shared, to a certain extent, by the pope. The 
Congress of Vienna left it to the different go- 
vernments to treat separately with the Pope on 
eclessiastical affairs. lAccordlngly treaties (con- 
cordats) were entered into with Rome, by Ba- 
varia in 1817, by Prussia in 1821, by Wur- 
temberg and Baden, in 1830. The olgect of 
these treaties vas to define the limits of tem- 
poral and papal authority in ecclesiastical affairs. 
In Bavaria , the king appoints to bishoprics and 
archbishoprics, but the clergy are allowed to 


be ia direct eemmiuiieaUen wUh Rene. Ih Pnis- 
8iA, bhfhops are appointed by the eiiaptera, in 
accordance with the wlslies of the kingr; the 
inferior preeentations are at the disposal of the 
pope or of the bishops. ^ The Catliolic clergy 
or laity are permitted to communicate with Rome, 
hut only througrh the bishops and the govem- 
ment. The treaties at present exiting between 
the smaller Protestant states and the pope are 
only provisional In Hanover, the bishop cannot 
be appointed without the consent of the chapters 
and government, and of the pope; the canons 
are appointed by the chapters, the bishops, and 
the government; the inferior clerg>' by the two 
consistories. In Saxony, the apostolic vicarship 
and its consistory are now under the immediate 
control of government. In Wortemberg, Hesse, 
and Nassau, the authority of the pope Is some- 
what more predominant than in the above-men- 
tioned states; in* the Saxon duchies, on the 
contrary, it is less so. In Baden, it is now 
decreed that Catholic synods are to be held 

'* To illustrate the kind of Authority which the Pro- 
testant liing of Pi^ueeift posseflses over the Bomen Ca- 
tholic Church in his dominioas, we shall instance a 
very recent occurence. The king , being offended with 
the oonduoi of the archbishop of Cologne, issued in 
November, 1S97, a decree, ordering him to quit his 
see, forbidding any persons to commnnieate on public 
•ffiirs with him «nde.r heavy peaalliee , imd directing 
the ohapter to act during his suspension. The decree 
begins thus: "The archbishop of Cologne has attemp- 
ted, ever since his election to that see, to exercise 
his fnnetiona in a manner entirely ineompatible with 
the fundamental laws of the monarchy , as , no bishop 
has ever attempted, and as is not to be tolerated in 
any of the states of Oermnny." 


ev«ry ienth year , ia ike presence of commiieioft- 
ers appointed by goveranenC. 

in Aaatria, the axcbUsbopa are elected by 
the pope and the government eoajointly: the 
bishops by the latter exdosively. The commu- 
nication of the clergy with Rome, and the de» 
crees of the pope, are sabjeot to the ''Placet*' 
of the government. 

The highest administrative authorities of the 
Protestant Church are the consistories, which 
are in most cases subject to the immediate con- 
trol of the government. In Prussia, each of 
the eight provinces has its consistory, at the 
head of which is the president of the provincial 
government. Each consistory has two depart^ 
ments , that of ecclesiastical and that of scIhk 
lastic affairs; to its province, also , belongs the 
drawing up of statistical reports relative to pa- 
rochial registration. The Jorisdiction on matri* 
monial affairs has been transferred to the secu- 
lar authorities, since the establishment of the 
handrecM, CModem Code of Common Law3.. 
The territory of the kingdom of Saxony is very 
unequally divided into three consistories; that 
of Dresden, which decides on all generally im* 
portant mattera , and which is called the su- 
preme oeasistory, embraciag seven^eigths of the 
whole country* In Saxony, jurisdiction in ma- 
trimonial aMrs still appertains to the consisto- 
ries. In Ciie Saxon duchies, the consistories 
have a general SHperiatendaat as their spiritual 
head, and this is the case, for the most part, 
throughout Pretestant Germany. In Bavairia, the 
Protestant supreme consistory is only partially 
subject to the control of the government; there 


are three inferior consiRtorles. In Austria, tliere 
is one consistory at Vienna for tlie l^utlieran 
and Reformed Cliurcbes, and under it are nine 

Tlie bigliest administrative authorities -of the 
Catliolic Churcli are archbishops, bishops, deans, 
Ac. In tlie Protestant states, the hij^hest autho- 
rities of the Catholic Church are archbishops, 
bisliops and consistories , as in Hanover , Prus- 
sia, Baden, drc. ; or apostolic vicars and con- 
sistories , as in Saxony. 

The ecclesiastical authorities which rank next 
to the consistories are either superintendants-;e- 
neral, superintendants , or deans. In Hanover, 
there are fourteen of (he former, who act un- 
der the consistories, and who have acting un- 
der jeach of them, ten or twelve inspectors. 
Thus , reckoning the population of Hanover at 
1,400,000, there is a snperintendant- general 
to every 100,000 inhabitants, and an insprector 
to every 10,000. An inspectbrsiiip generally 
comprehends from ten to fifteen parishes. In 
Hesse , tliere are four consistories , twelve su- 
periutendants- general, and seventy superiuten- 
dants. The Protestant population being 560,000, 
there is one snperintendant- general to every 
40,000 inhabitants, and one superintendaut to 
every 8,000. In Wnrtemberg there are, one 
consistory, six prelats, fifty deaneries, and 
eight hundred and sixty -five parishes. Thus, 
the Protestant population amounting to 1,660,000, 
there is one prelate to 276,666 inhabitants, 
and one dean to 33,300. In Saxony there are 
thirty superintendants , or one to every 51,666 




Prussia. . We have not been able to discover 
tlie number of the Protestant ministers. The Ca- 
tholic population amounts to 4,816,813; and 
there are 3,200 Catholic parishes, thus tliere 
are 1,505 persons to each parish. Saxony: In 
this country there is one Lutheran minister to 
1,600 inhabitants, and one Catholic minister to 
433. In Saxe-Altetiburg , there is one minister 
to 800 inhabitants; in Hanover y one to 1 146 
amongst the Lutherans , one to 490 in the Re- 
formed Church, and one to 710 amongst the 
Catholics. In Wurtemberg, there is one Luthe- 
ran minister to 1,300 inhabitants, and one Ca- 
tholic to 628. In Catholic Austria, there is 
one ecclesiastic to 500 inhabitants: of the Re- 
formed Church there are 2,035 parishes , and . 
815 persons to each parish; of the Lutherans 
there are 807 parishes and 1,400 persons to 
each parish; there are 50,000 Unitarians, who 
have 111 ministers, which is one minister to 
459 individuals. In Bavaria, there is one mi- 
nister to 1,000 inhabitants among the Catholics 
and oiie to 914 among the Protestants. ' 

Church-Property in the Protestant States. A 
considerable part of the church-property in Ger- 
many was seized upon by the governments, 
when the monasteries were secularized at the 
Reformation; another portion, consisting of 
ground-rent, has, for some time, never been 
realized, and finally, a part has been expended 
Cas in Saxony,) for the establishement of schools 
and on the relief of the poor. However, tlie 


290 RKijaioN m okrmanv. 

little landed property belonirHi? to- each partoh- 
chnrch, has, for the most part, remained in the 
possession of the clergy, and is now the prin- 
cipal source of their income. 

In most livings, there is a parsonage -house, 
surrounded by gardens and orchards. Tith^ 
are very common, and the value of them some- 
times equals that of the church - lands. The 
clergymen has also certain fees , on the ooca^ 
sion of marriages , baptisms , burials and conir- 
mations C^bese are called Acddenzieny. Where 
the income from these sources is too limited, 
the government makes up the deficiency. In 
some, parts, and particularly in the north of Ger- 
many, it is customary, at certain periods of 
the year, to make presents to the clergymen. 
On the whole, in Protestant Germany, the in- 
comes of the country - clergy vary from 350 to 
'800 dollars; some have less than the former 
sum, and some as much as 1,000, 1,200, or 
1,600 dollars. The value of a living often de- 
pends on the price of corn, and on the profit 
which the clergyman is capable of drawing from 
his glebe-lands. The livings in towns are so- 
mewhat more valuable, varying from 450 to 
1,000 dollars on an average. The two most va- 
luable livings in Saxony are of 4,000 dollars a 
year, but, in both cases, this income is chiefly 
derived from fees. 

In no part of C^rmany, has the church- pro- 
perty been better preserved from spoliation than 
In Hanover, where consequently, the clergy are 
better paid. In Wurtemberg, the property of 
the church -has been consolidated, and applied 
not only to ecclessiastical purposes, but to the 


RRLieiON IN eSRMANy. 291 

<;sUibIiflliiiieiit mf 8cli«»l8 , ami to the relief «r 
the peer. Moreover, in 1806, it was antted 
with the royal domains, and auhjeeted to the 
aame adiaiaiAtration. The lands attached to the 
«0Hntry - chardMs have not, however, siiared 
this fate, but are under the control of ecele^ 
slastical oomnissioners. In Nassau, the average 
value of livings is from 600 to 1,800 florins, 
of deaneries from 1,900 to 1,800; the Protes- 
tant bishop has an income of 3,000 florins. In 
Prussia, the government pays oat of the trea* 
sary to the support of the ohorch, 2,326,000 
dollars annually. 

Church" IH-opertp in th€ Caiho^ie States, In 
Austria, not only are the clergy talced in common 
with the lay citizens, but particular imposts 
are laid upon their body. The valiio of the 
<diurGh-|Hroperty in this empire Is 200,000,000 
florins ; besides a fond called the Reiiffious Fund, 
Constituted by the pun^hase » money of cliarclH 
property Cmonasteriee , (ft'c.3 sold by the Smpe*- 
ror Joseph, the annual interest of which is two 
and a half millions of florinv. In Bavaria, the 
archbishop has an income of 20,000 florins, and 
the bishops of from 12,000 to 1&,000 florins. 

Church'P(Uronaff€, In Germany, the greater 
number of church - presentations are at the dis- 
posal of the governments, only a fourth part 
being in the hands of private indlvMiuais. In 
Hanover, 219 only out of 852 livings are in 
the gift of private patrons. The latter are ge- 
nerally noblemen, large landed proprietors, ma- 
gistrates , or superiiitendants. Before a minis- 
ter is definitively appointed hy government, the 
ecclesiastical superintendant of the district de- 


maiids of the congregatkHiy whether they have 
any objection to the character or doctrines of 
the individaal -to whose care their spiritual in- 
terests are about to be confided. But this is, 
in general, a mere form. Advantage, however, 
has been taken of it, in one are .two cases, 
shice 1830, to oppose the wishes of the go- 

Salaries of Clergymen laho are not of the es- 
tablished Church, — in most Protestant states^ 
the Catholic and the Established churches are 
placed upon the same footing. But as the mi- 
nisters of the former persuasion are more nu- 
merous than those of the latter, and as, owing 
to the practice of celibacy, their wants are 
fewer, their incomes are generally iess. On the 
other hand, the Catholic dignitaries are much 
better paid than the Protestant ones. In Bhenish 
Prussia, the Catholic archbishops have an an- 
nual income of 12,000 dollars, the bishops of 
8,000, the dean9 of 1,800 or 2,000, the ca- 
nons of 1,000 or 1,200. . This money is now 
paid out of the treasury ;. the estates from which 
these dignitaries formerly derived their incomes 
having all been secularized.. In Saxony, where 
the ruling family is of the Catholic religion, 
though the great mass of the population is Pro- 
testant, the clergy of the former persuasion are 
so well paid, as to cause ^reat je«ilousy amongst 
those who are followers of the latter. In Han- 
over, and in Hesse - Cassel, the Catliolic clergy 
are equally well paid with tlie Protestant, though 
this is not the case in ^Vurteniberg and Baden. 
In Austria, (he Protestant clergy are pro- 
vided for by (heir congregations, wliich have 


also to pay the Jura stolae to the Catholic priests. 
In Bavaria, the expenses of the Protestant 
church are defrayed by the government. 

We believe that the Jews throughout Ger- 
many are obliged, themselves, to defray the 
expenses of worship. 


Bohemian or Moravian Brothers. — Some of 
this sect, the descendants of the Taborites, 
who were the more strict amongst the Hassites, 
are still to be foand in Germany. At Berlin 
and Dresden, there are small congregations of 
them; also in Sloravia, Silesia, and Upper Lu- 
satia. In matters of doctrine, their only antho- 
rity is the Bible , which they explain according 
to the Augustinian theory. In reference to their 
progress in religious experience, they are divi- 
ded into beginners, advancing', and perfect Chris*^ 
tians; they admit the presence of our Lord in 
the Sacrament of the Holy Supper, but in a 
mystical manner; and they have a very strict 
ecclesiastical discipline. 

Socinians. — The head -quarters of this sect 
are in Transylvania. A. few of them settled in 
Prussia, in 1772^ and formed two congregations, 
at Rudan and at Andreaswalde ; that of the 
latter place , however , is the only one which 
exists at present. 

Mennonites, ^ In the year 1820, 2000 Men- 
nonites settled in Schleswig, and built the town 
of Vriedrichstadt. They call themselves Tauf- 
gesinnte. In 1830, some people in Mecklenburg, 
who &toud in no relation to the Mennonites, 

994 aM4M0M IM eRBMANV. 

f ejected the baptism of infants, but Hie fpovern- 
ment interfered, and they were cooipelled te 
abandon their new dectrlneti. 

The SHetiHs, property so called , were the 
followers of jSpener, and resided principally at 
Halle. As a sect, they are now extinct, but 
the term * is still applied to the more mystical 
and zealoas Protestants, who are scattered over 
the whole north of Germany and whose opinions 
are advocated at the present day by Professor 
Tboluck of Halle. 

Herrahuters. — The Herrnhuters were origi- 
nally Moravian fugitives, who settled, in 1722, 
at Berthelsdorf, the estate of Count Zbizen- 
dorf, who shortly after their arrival formed 
them into a community, which was recognised 
by the Saxon government. Their creed is that 
of evangelical Christianity. Their principal con- 
gregations are atHerrnhutb, Berthelsdorf, Niesky, 
Neudietendorf , JBbersdorf , Onadau and Neuwied. 
They differ from the pietists and methodists in 
rttiecting the doctrine that a vehement contri- 
tion is necessary* to regeneration. Eveo' con- 
gregation is divided into choruses, according 
to the various ages aqd sexes of Ua members. 
Sinners and lukewarm professors are submitted 
to the operation of a gradaal discipline, 

SchtoeOenborgioM. — Schwedenberg has a 

* The Fi«4isl» (brmerly bore to the Lutherem cli«rch 
the same relation which the so-called Bvaagelical por- 
tion of the Church of Bngland bears to the geaerml 
cemmuMiy ef thM church. They plaeed * greater 
stress uDon certain fceaets than did the eld orthodox 
body: their influence appears to have been at first 
beneficial, so long as Spener and Franke survived j but 
they eeoa degenerated. 


few followers m Wunewberg, wtiere lately Ta- 
fei, of the Royal Library, Hofacker, and others, 
pubMely e»pouHed his doctrines. Schwedenborg 
w«8 a sort of mystical Rationalists, rejecting 
the doctrines of the Trinity and of the Ato- 

Other sects which may be mentioned, bat 
which are now either extinct, or nearly so, are 
the Oichtelians, or followers ofGichtel, a mys- 
tic of Ratiabon ; the Schwenkfeldians , in Silesia ; 
the ManhardUU, separatists from the Catholic 
church in Tyrol, who rejecteU the priests that 
had submitted to Napoleon ; and the PMlaleihet, 
• a deistical sect at Ki«l. 

In addition to the aerman sources above in- 
dicated, we must refer those who are desirous 
of deeper iiiformatiou on the subject of I|a- 
tionallsm, and of the German school of theo- 
logy , to the writings of Mr. Rose , the respec- 
ted Principal of King's College; of Dr. Posey, 
Professor of Hebrew at Oxford; of Professor 
HoppuSf of the London University; to two re- 
cent articles in the ^'Church of England O^ar- 
terly Review," COctober, 1837, and January, 
18383; to ''A Concise View of the Universities 
in Germany , " by Edward Robinson , Professor 
at Andover, U. S. ; to the article ''Rationalis- 
mus" in the Conversations - I^exikon , and to 
scattered views in most modern German theo- 
logical writings. 

In order to afford a fuller illustration of the 
eeelesiastieal polity of Prussia , we subjoin some 
of the stutements furnished by Sir. Hoffuiann 
on this head to th« British government in 1835 
The ministerial department for ecclesiastics 




Rflfaii'S is tbe central authority for all religious 
matters, including also the Jewish worship; as 
also the exercise of the supreme episcopal au* 
thority over Uie Protestant church. Each pro- 
vince has in addition its consistory y subordinate 
to tbe ministerial department , to watch oveir 
the affairs regarding the Protestant faith and 
worship. The consistory includes only members 
of the Protestant faith, and \a presided over 
by the highest civil authority of the province, 
the chief president COber^PrasidfinO. The su^ 
perintendant- general is a privileged member of 
tllis board. 

^'By the rig^t of patronage the king confers 
a number .of livings and other clerical offices 
in all provinces among both confessions. By. 
his episcopal power, he appoints the. Protestant 
superinteiidants - general , and members of the 
consistory. By an indult implicitly contained 
in the bull De salute anitiutntm, the king like- 
Wise appoints the Catholic cathedral provosts, 
and fills up those canonri^s wliich become va- 
cant in mense papali, but in this ca»e the see 
of Rome gWes the provista , or the institution. 

''The appointment of Catholic bishops is re- 
gulated by the bull De salute animarum nf 1821, 
(_Preussische Gesetz-Smnndung of 1821, No. 12.), 
that is to say, the chapter has the right of 
ejection. The difference between election and 
postulation is abrogated , and therefore every 
ecclesiastic, whether he belongs to tbe chapter 
or diocese or not, is eligible, even foreign 
clergymen, but only after a previous royal per- 
mission. A conteniporarj' lirief of Pope Pins 
Vfl. obliges the chapters to olert fH>rsttnam regi 

RELlcnoN IN eBRMANV. 307 

prof am. The k'mg fixes the day of election 
within the canonical term. He sends a commis^ 
sioner, who takes no part in the canonical af- 
fairs of the election, but assumes, notwith- 
standing , the initiative , by declaring to the 
members of the chapter, the intentions of the 
crown. By these means, not only has the elec- 
tion of an individual disliked by the court been 
avoided, but the choice falls always on these 
whose promotion to the rank of bishop tlie 
court had in view. The person canonicaily cho- 
sen receives his confirmation from the Pope, 
and the approbation from the Sovereign. The 
Pope is required to entrust a Prussian prelate 
with the consecration. 

'<The LandrecM, g. 65. tit. 3, vol. fi., pro- 
vides that ordination can' only be given to a 
clerical office which affords a maintenance. Ac- 
cordingly , ordination , even in the Catholic 
church, is only granted upon proof of the right 
of admission according to the canonical law, and 
is besides restricted by a regulation, obliging 
the bishops to deliver a list of the candidates 
or ordination, and to declare the necessity for 
them, to the chief president of the province. 
There is, however, rather a scarcity than a 
superabundance of Catholic clergjmen. Nobody, 
without a special permission, is permitted te 
he ordained abroad. — LandrecM, vol. ii. tit. 3, 
$ 64. 

''There exist no general rales respecting the 
support of the clergy. Only the incomes of 
the higher Catholic clergy are fixed by the bull 
De saXute animarmn, namely, for the archbishops 
and prince-bishop of Breslan at 13,000 Pros- 


sian d<»llars ; ([abcNit 17&0^.3 ; for the other 
bishops 8,000 Prussian dollars, for the digni- 
taries of cathedral chapters respectively, 2,000, 
1,800, 1,400 Prussian dollars; and for canons 
4Mr prebends, respectively, 1,200, 1,000 and 800 
Prussian dollars, besides house-r4)oiu. The in- 
comes «f all other livings, either of the Pro- 
lestant or Catholic church, are very dilTerent. 
Th« cl^gyman receives his income either in 
kiiMl or in money. It is paid in kind when it 
arises from a real estate belonging to his be- 
nefiee, which he manages himself, or when it is 
rendered to him by landed propietors. Of the 
.same Kind are tithes , rents , and other payments 
from land. The money- ipcome of the clergy 
arises partly ofit of the public revenues of the 
crown, 4^r of the parijihes, either as a salary 
or compensation for appropriated lands or ground- 
rents , or as rents from private estates , or from 
endowments laid out at interest. The crown 
has undertaken the above-mentioned payment 
of the Catholic dignitaries, since their landed 
property ha4 been appropriated to the public 
revenue. In the Trans - Rhenane part of the 
kingdom, where, during the French sway, the 
church- property was seized and chiefly aliena- 
ted, the crown pays a salary to the clergy, a9 
a compensation, according to a concordate en- 
tered into by the French conaular government 
with Pope Pius VII. 

''The maintenance of the clergy- proceeds in 
genera]l from the pecular endowment of each 
congregation. Where this not the case , the 
congregation that desires the service of a cler- 
gyman^ la reaponsiMe ier his maittteuance. The 


government n general is nut obliged to guaran- 
tee tlie salary of the clergy of either confes- 
sion. Where such is the case, a special legal 
right; or a special liherality, is supposed. Ne- 
vertheless, the namber of parishes is not small, 
which in this case eiUDy a support out pf the 
public funds , by the favour of the king. 

^'In general every parish possesses a place 
of worship for its exclusive use. The case is 
called a simulkuieum, when two congregation 
0f different confessions are entitled to the use 
of the same building for divlpe service; which 
is very rare , and then generally depends pn old 
usage. In the Trans-Rhenane j^rt «f the mng- 
dojii, U m prohibited by law. 

''In general every church has its own fund 
(bona fabrics) f out of which it has to defray 
the expense of building, repairing, and the ex- 
penses caused by divine service. ^Vhere this is 
not the case , the subsidiary obligation falls, 
according to the dlflTerence in the constitution 
of the provincial or local law, eithj^r upon the 
beneficed clergyman, if he has more than a suf- 
ficient living (congruanOf or the parish, if 
there is no patron, or the patron together with 
the parish, or the patron exclusively, or the 
proprietor of the church tithes if ifec^mator^ ^ o^ 
the civil commune. In case^ of urgent necessity 
the assistance of government is accorded, but 
only as a boMnt> , if there be no special legal 
ground prpvlding f«r it. '* 



It is undenialile, tbat no country possesses 
so ample a provision for 'tlie education of Ml 
ranks of people , in all sciences and arts , as 
Germany. It is hi tliis country, then, that the 
results of education may he most advantage- 
ously ascertained and weighed. Some may ob- 
serve, in answer to this, that the want of free 
institutions, and of an unshackled development 
of mind, is an obstacle to a full statement of, 
and decision upon, the results. This may be 
true, to a certain degree, — but the fact with 
which we set out, remains unaltered. A singu- 
lar contrast exists between the tendency and 
the consequence of an English and a German 
education. The German education Is particu- 
larly engrossed with the physical and practical 
sciences; the English one is rather occupied 
with theological and moral principles, with the 
rultlvation of the ancient classics, with poetry 



aiid rhetoric. Yet in the end, the Englishmiin 
becomes most practical, and the German the 
most theoretioal and senthnental. 

The facility with which the highest education 
may be obtained in Germany, naturally intro- 
duces into the arena of life an immense propor- 
tion of candidates for its higher prizes, too 
many of whom finally obtain disappointment, if 
not entire destitution, while not a few bury 
their obscure heart-burnings in the chance pit- 
tance afforded by foreign countries, already 
overstocked with aspirants of indigenous origin. 
Thus, in the course of ten recent years, the 
number of Protestant clergymen has doubled in 
Prussia, and the Roman Catholic priesthood 
has tripled ; the lawyers have increased one- 
fourth, but the doctors of medicine only one- 
seventh. At the beginning of this period there 
was one lawyer in 12,600 inhabitants, at the 
end there was one in 8,562; there was one 
doctor of medicine , at the beginning , in 27,000 
souls, and at last one in 25,205. In conse- 
quence of the increase of students there was 
recently in Prussia so many as 
^One student of theology in 442 inhabitants. 
„ „ law in 822 „ „ * 

„ „ medicine in 5660 „ „ 

But the state in Prussia only requires — 

One clergyman for 1,350 inhabitants 

One lawyer for 822 „ „ * 

One doctor of medicine for 3,516 „ „ 
How many of those now employed must accor- 

* This is evidently an error, as in Prussia the pro- 
fession of the law te at least as much overatoclied as 
any other. 


ilia§ly die er retreat, iii order to m«k« rooip 
for tke forthcoming ! In tlu) MmiUlor statos of 
Germany the prospect in stiU m»rii ilisJiearten- 
lug. In the dnchy of Baden > only eight va- 
cancies annuaUy occur of offices in the law, 
enjoying a fixed salary, while so many as forty- 
six candidates preseiit t|iemaelves aanuaUy for 
examination ; and , Uiere wre, already ee nuwy 
as two hundred and fifty- one candidates exa- 
mined and approved, and awaiting the long- 
deferred turn. ^ 

The German govenuneattf hejng awwre of the 
pernicious censequencee whieh mast result frpin 
toe great a «nmher of iiidividaals entering 
on the study of thx» learned prefeaslons, have of 
late introduced seme restrictive meaanres in 
that respect, while they have at the «ame 
time encouraged; by aU the means at their dis- 
posal, the entering of young i»eepli» in eem- 
merce er same trade. 

The following is a list of the universities of 
Germany, wltli tbe year of their foaiidniien, 
the ftuiullies in wliich tbe meat emliiewt of U^m 
excel!, the numJ^er of professecs «lt««4Md to 
each, and the aver««^e numbtr of aHulenta at- 
tending them. 

* Schdn, Allgemeine Gescliiclifo und Stalislik dfr 
Buropiischen Civilisation. fLetpxif I8S3), pug. 18S-* 



o o 


O kO d >o 
qD 9) OO i« 

O h 


t« H< o •«« 

QD QO 9b CD 




• m 

S I 







■^ 09 




a A 
.2.2.5. .. 

« S S 5 

K S «S »i^ 









• fl • 
. "S . 


. '^ a. 


a. wa 


S Ai U 


CO |> fc« t> 00 <x> 

•»".«<(— "^rii^^^" 




o* * « .M 



The sums allowed for the support of the oni' 
varsities , by their respective states , is not large. 
The professors derive their chief emolimient front 
the students who attend their private courses; 
they are hence stimulated to extend their repu- 
tation, to diffuse themselves, and to compete 
with each other. Their energies are thus awaken* 
ed and sustained, but a certain portion of in- 
dependence of character is endangered. The sa> 
lary alloted to the professors is not uniform, 
but fluctuates according to the reputation of the 
individual, and to other circumstances. 

A few years since it was decreed in Hano- 
ver, that no youth shall commence the study 
of any of the faculties, until he have passed 
a previous examination. Greek, Latin, German, 
French, Natural Philosophy, Mathematics, and 
History form the basis of this examination : part 
of it is viva voce , and part on paper. An exer- 
cise is performed in writing in each of the four 
languages. If the student is deficient, he is 
rejected, and is prevented for the present from 
commencing the study of his faculty. This pre- 
vious rejection often occurs. If succesful, he 
may begin his studies , which in the ease of the 
medical student must be continued during three 
years and a half. He must attend both the 
winter and summer courses. There are two 
short vacations only In the year; about live 
weeks at Easter , and five at Michaelmas. The 
order in which the different lectures are attended 
Is left entirely to the discretion of the stu- 
dent. He may begin with botany or with ob- 
stetrics, according to his own inclination. On 
going up for his final examination for a degree, 


he produees eertUcates of having attended, at 
least , one course ' of the most indispensable 
branehes: auxiliary departments are not so ri- 
gidly enforbed. A student , for instance^ is not 
obliged to produce certificates of attendance of 
the surgical clinic, or on the principles of sur- 
gery; but anatomy, chemistry, materia medica, 
botany, and the practice of medicine, are as 
indispensable. A single examination conducts 
the student to his degreee: it lasts five hours^ 
and is now entirely carried on in the German 
language. The principal professors of each fa- 
culty are present: the examination takes place 
in private, at the house of the dean .of the fa- 
culty, whb is changed every year. No part of 
the examination is in writing , unless a prescrip- 
tion is demanded of the student. Having pass- 
ed tlirough this ordeal, the student delivers a 
thesis in public, in Latin, and chooses three 
opponents in general, who carry* on a public 
discussion , if they think proper. The expense of 
a degree is about 25/. Still, after having per- 
formed all tliese duties, the graduate cannot 
practise in any part of the kingdom, until he 
has undergone another examination at the me- 
tropolis, — this is called the State- f8laate-> 
examen, and costs about two pounds more. 
I'his examination lasts about three hours, and 
comprehends nearly the same subjects as those 
required at Gdttingen. In addition to viva voce 
questions, he performs tliree manuscript exer- 
cises, for the inspection of the state-commissio- 
ners at Hanover. - A nearly similar course of 
Htiidy prevails in the universities of. all the 
German states. WHU respect to tlie time and 

306 K9UCAVI9N IM QammAKv, 

the exi^enses of as examtiuitl^n for tlie degree 
in the other facalties they vary acording to the 
diflTereiiC studieM ; that of medicine may at all 
events lie considered the most expensive of 
them all. 

The following is a literal translation of the 
Latin prospectus of the lectures delivered at 
the nniversity of Gottingen, during a receat 
winter sessions: — 


Theo. Jac. Planck, Doctor of Divinity and 
P. P. O.y will treat of and expound, God wil- 
ling and giving him strength, in the present 
winter - semester , h. iii. — ix. , Bneyciopm" 
diac Thtoloffjft *ta]King as a guide his Compen- 
dium, written for the use of his lectures in 
1631 entitled Orundris^ der TheoiogUchem En-- 
eydopwdief now published by Rnpreoht and 
yandenhoeek;'«nd h. xi. — xii., he will treat 
of the first pait of BcdeaitutUsol Historff; on 
both subjects he will lecture four times a week 

D. David J. Pott, P. P. O., wiU interpret 
privatim h. ix — ^x., Me Gospei and Episttet of 
Si, John, with isopious digressions on the prin- 
cipal opinions of the Jews as oocarring in the 
New Testament; h. x. — xi., he will expound the 
PsalnUf treating also of their grammatical con- 
struction; h. ii. — iii., he will lecture on the 
HomUeUc Art, and will also continue to regu- 
late the dUrerent exercises of the scholars of 
the Royal Homiletic Seminary. 

Henry Planck, Dr. and P. P. O., announces 
six private lectures per week , to firm the other 
part of his exegetie course, including* the writ- 


inga of 8t, Jefrn, the Oospei, tatd Ute BftUtlea; 
h. ix. — X., be will lecture on the Aet9 of the 
Apostles ; h. xi. — xii. , he will ^ive an historico- 
critical introduction to the sacred twoks of the 
New Testament. He will also continue, in his 
Ufloal manner , to regulate the exercises of the 
Theological Societ5\ 

G. C. F. Lticke, Dr. and P. P. O., Privatiiu: 
I h. ix. , he wUl interpret , in alx lessons week- 
ly, the Epistles of St. Paul to the Tkessaloni'^ 
anjt, Oalatians, Honans, tLmiPhilippians , giving 
iirst an introduction to all St. Paul's Rfistles; 
2. h. xi., he will teach the Christian Dogma- 
tic in Bix lessons weekly; he will also liold 
conferences with his class on dogmatic (taes- 
tions at a convenient hoar. Pahlice: he will con- 
tinue , in his usual way, to regulate the exer- 
cises of the Latin Theological Society on Thurs- 
days, at seven in the evening. 

J. 6. L, Glnsele, Dr. and P. P. O., will give 
the seeond part of Bcelesiasitical Historjf, six 
times a week, h. viii. ; the History of Dog^ 
mas five times, h. v. 

J. P. Treffurt, Dr., Honorary Prof., will deli- 
ver, privatim. 1. h. k — ii., on Mondays, Tue»- 
di^s and Fridays, the Preeepts of the Cateche^ 
tieal Art, with the first practical exercises; 2. 
h. ix. — X,, five times we^ly. Pastoral Theolo- 
9V, with an outline of ProtesttuU BcclesiasUeai 
Law, as far as a knowledge of it seems nece»* 
sary for a minister of tho Divine word. In 
heth courses of leetores, he will use his Con- 
spectus, Tofretf. lititfaden sti Aeadem, Vorlesun" 
gen iXber din PasloraUehre, published 1825'; pub- 
lice: h. i.— ii., twke weekly, he will continue 


in his usual way to regulate the exercises of 
the. Tatechetical Seminary. 


G. J. F. Aleister, h. x. — ^xi. , will teach from 
his Compendium Crifninal Law, including CH- 
mined Process, h. iii.— iv..,' he will deliver tho 
Theory of the CHvU Process, according to the 
text of Martini.. 

6. Hugo, h. viii./ will give the History of 
CivU Law; h. x., the Rncyclopadia of Law, 
leaving his books for private study. 

Anton. Bauer , D. , b. xl. — xii. , will teach the 
Institutions of Roman Law, according to the 
text of Waldeck; h. x. — xi. Criminal Law, 
from his Compendium; h. li. — iii., four times a 
week. Natural La/w from the third edition of 
his Compendium ; h. viii. — ix. , four times a 
week, he will expound to the Nassau students, 
The constitution and administration of the dai- 
chy of Nassau, 

V. BergmanU) Cr.» h. be., four, times a week, 
will hold his class of practical law (proeessu- 
ale practicumj h. ix., three times a week he 
will institute pleadings with the assistance of 
his book, Beitrdge zur Binieitung in die Jh'axis 
des Civil^Processes ^c; h. 1.^ five times a 
week, he will deliver the Hanoverian Common 

J. F. L. Qoesclien,. Dr., h. ix. — ^x. , and h. 
xi. — xii., will lecture on the />ait<lecf« ^ from 
the new edition of his book; h. i.— ii. , he will 
give the History and Antiquities of the Roman 
Law, chiefly of the Common Law. 


G. 6. Albrecht, h. xi. , will lectvre six times 
a week on Qemum Public Law; ii. ii.^ five ti- 
mes weekly, *od tlie History of German Imw, 
both Pvblic and Private, . 

; F. Blame ) Dr., h. ix. — xi., will teach the 
doctrine of Pandects, dsUly, from his liook, 
Orundriss des Pandectenrechts; h. iiii, he wUi 
interpret the first books of the Digests of Jus- 
tinian, after giving a History of the Digests. 


J. F. Blomenbach, Dr., h. viil. — ix., four ti- 
mes a week, will lecture on Comparal^he Ana- 
tomy;' h. iii. — ^iv.,on Natural History. 

C. Himly, Dr., h. x.. six times a week, Will 
expound the more special Nosology and Thera- 
peutics 'of the digestive, respiratory, uropoietic 
and other systems; h. xi., daily,, will give Cli- 
nical and Medico-Chirurgical Instructions, in 
the hospital, and in private hoases of the town 
and neighbourhood, in the manner described in 
his book, Verfassung der Med, GMr, Klinik vu 
Gottingen, 1803. Privatissime , at convenient 
hours, he will instruct in tbe Operative Surge- 
ry of the iByp (tnd Ear. 

H. Schrader, Dr.. h. ii. — iii., four times a 
week', will treat of the PkamiacologicfU part 
of Materia Medica; h. xi. — xiL, twice weekly, 
he will lecture on. the Linniean Cryptogamia; 
and-, also, twice weekly, h.. ii. — iii., on Vege- 
table Anatomy and Physiology; h. xi. — xii., on 
^Vednesdays, lie will show the rarer plants 
which are cultivated in tiie hothouses of the 
Botanical . Garden. At the accustomed hours he 


will instiMe BotmnicMl ExeurHoM towards 
furthering the knowledge of cryptogaaiio plants. 

C. J. M. Langenbeck, Dr., Professor of Ana- 
tomy and Surgery ) h. i. — ii., will give Anaio^ 
micai demonstrations, according to tais book, 
(AmU. Handbuchj tabellarUch entworfen,) in 
which he will go tlirough Spiancknology , Angi^ 
okofy and Neurology, and which he will iUa»- 
irate by his AnatomiGal plates: h. ii. — iv., he 
will instruct his class in the Art of Dissection; 
h. vi. — ^vii. p. m., he will lecture on the second 
part of Surgery; h. ix. — n., he will direct the 
elinlcsA surgical exercises in the Surgical Hos- 
tHM; privatlssime, he will give a courae of 
ManiuU Surgery, and a course of Operative Oen^ 
lot Surgery, 

F. Stromeyer, D., Professor of CheBlstfy and 
Pharmacy, h. ix. — x., six tines a week, will 
give Sxperimenlal , Theoretiad Chemistry'; k. 
viit. — ix. , three times a week, Vegetable Che- 
wUstry; and, at the same hour, twiee a week. 
Animal Chemistry; h. l.^-ili., twice a week, he 
will attend in the Chemical Laboratory and dl> 
reet, in the usual way, the Chemical Manipu- 

D. J. 6. Conradi, h. lii., four times a week, 
will lecture on Pathology and Bensral Thera- 
peutics; h. v., four times a week, on the se- 
cond part of Pathology and Spe4:ial Therapeu- 
tics^ embracing anomal excri^tious, caehexles, 
pai ns , eclyses , spiuimodic diseases and disea»- 
es of the mind, aecording to the third eilitlon 
of his Compendium; h. ix., he will teach the 
PracUee of Medicine in the Clinical Instltation. 


A. F. Henyel, Dr., ft. x. xi., twice weekly, 
will teacli Otteoie§y and Sfndesmoiogy; h; x. — xii., 
lie will svperlnCend the dissection of bodies,* b. 
i. — ii., he will explain Myology m anatomical de- 

L. J. C. Mende, Dr., h. viii., five times a 
week, win teack the Obstetric Art and Science; 
h. ix., on Staturdiays, and at every otker oppor- 
tunity, ke wHl superintend Obstetric Operations, 
at tke Royal Obstetric Hespital; ke will be rea- 
dy to give more prirate instruction in this art 
to those who require it; h. iii. , p. m. , four ti- 
mes a week) he wUl expound the treatment of 
the Diseases of pregnant, parturient, and puer- 
peral Women; h. v., live times a week, he 
will lecture on Forensic Medfeine. 

C. F. H. BfarX) Dr, , h. ill. — Iv., will treat 
of Pathology and Special Therapeutics, or, after 
an introduction, that part whicli comprehends 
nervous diseases, ckchexies, retentions, and 
fluxes. On account of its present prevalence, 
he will treat more fnllir of Cholera, taking as 
a guide his book recently published on that disease. 


J. D. Reus will give the History of Untver- 
sal Literaiure. 

T. C. Tychsen, h. ix., will illustrate the an- 
tiquities of the Hebrews, using his printed Con- 
spectws as a text-book^ h. ii., he will comment 
on the prophecies of Isaiah. Publice, he will 
illustrate the Hebrew songs found In the histo- 
rical books, at an hoar which will be indicated 
on the black board. 

313 B0UCAT1<»^' IN QIRMANV. 

C. G. Blitsclierllcli. fe. xl. — xii., on Satur- 
days, will regolate the disciissioiis of the pupiht 
in the Royal Philological Seminary; h. ii. — iii., 
pri^'attm, he will translate the Agamemnon of 
Aeschylus, the iEdipus Tyrannus of Sophocles, 
and. the Cyciops and P/uenisstB of Euripides. 

A. H. L. Heeren , h. xi. — zii., wiU teach the 
Statistics, general and special, of the British 
finipire, France, Russia, and the United States; 
h. iv.— v., the Hisiory of the principal King^ 
doms of Europe, from the national migrations 
to the present time. . 

O. E. Schulze, h. viiL — ix./ live times a week, 
will read Xiogto and the Encyclopedia ofPhilo- 
eophyy the former aecoiding to the fifth edition 
of his Compendium; h. iv, — v., he will teach 
Metaphysics, with the Philosophic Doctrine of 

B. F. Thibaut, h. vi. — vii.^ will deliver t^re 
Mathematics; h. iii. — iv., the Differential and 
Integral Calculus, 

C\ F. Gauss, h. X., vKill explain (he Vse of 
the Calculation of ProtHtbiimes applied to the 
Mathematics, especially to astronomy, to the 
higher Geodesy, atut to Crystallometry ; In hiN 
more private lessons he will teach Practical 

J. F. L. Hanssmann, h. viii. — ix, twice a week, 
will teach Agriculture; h. x. — xi., six times week- 
ly, Mineralogy, from the second edition of his 
work. Privattssime , h. viii. — ix., four times a 
week, he will treat of Metallurgy. 

V, L. Harding, h: x. — ^xi., will give the ele- 
menta of Astronomy; h. ii. — iii., he will expound 
the \autical Art. 



G. F. Qenecfce, |). vi. — vii., p. m., four times 
II week, will deliver the Blements of the Eng- 
lish Language. He will arrange to give » cour- 
se of Otrman Literature to those who are occu- 
pied with the study of ancient poetry ; he will 
be really to assist those who require more. pri- 
vate instractipn. 

C. Bunsen, h. vMi. — ix-, will treat of Phff si- 
cat Geography; b. iv. — v, , five times i^ week, 
he will give the elements of the Italian, Spa- 
nish and Portuguese languages; b. v. — vi., four 
times « week, he will eijcfound the Prieoepta 
Styli Theodisci. 

L. Blwen, publiee, h. xi. — xii., Mondays and 
Tuesdays, the pupils ef the Boyal Philological 
Seminary will translate in bis presence he 4/iur 
of Sophocles; privatiui, h. iii. — iv%, five times a 
week, he himself will lecture uu Homdn Anti- 
quities. • 

Solangia Arlaud, four times a week, nt t4ie 
hour convenient to his class, will give tl^e His- 
tory of French IM^rttture pn ihe French If^nguff^ 
ge; he will continue his more private lessons 
in the usual way. 

p. Sa^lfeld, h. y.-t— vi., will lecture, 1. on 
Universal Policy, or the Science of eonstitu/ff^g 
and adiHini4tering the Heputtlie, ^smg as ^ gui- 
de his Conspectus { %. . on Poiiticai Bconon^, 
also, the Art of managing the Pttblie Revenue, 
HQcording to his prospecitus CpubliNii^d by Vanden- 
boeck and Itupprecht}. h.x. — xi.; 3. on the Positive 
fjnw of Nations, three times a week, h. ix. — r- 
aecording to his Conspectus Cpublished by Vanden* 
doeck ant| Eupp.} 4- on the Unversal History of the 
Present Titne, from the brejuliing out of the French 



revoltttion to our days, according to bis Conspectus 
tpnblished by Vaudenhoeck and Rupprecht.) h. 

111. — IV. 

C. O. Muiler will .exercise, publice, the 
pupils of the Royal Pliliological Seminary, in 
explaining the play, The Captives, of Piaatus, 
twice a week, h. xi — xii; privatim, h. 1x. — ^x., 
Ave times a week, he will teach the Mythology 
and History of the Religion of the Ancients; 
h. X. — xi., also five times a week, he will ^ell- 
vf^r the History of the Greek and LaUn Languages, 

A. Wendt, h. viii. — ^ix., four times a week, 
wiU expound Psychology, or Psychological An- 
thropology, acG6rding to theses to be communi- 
cated to i^is auditory; h. .x. — ^xi., five times a 
week, he will give a conspectus of the History 
of Philosophy, using as » guide his edition of 
the Compendium of Tennemann ^fifth edition, 
Lel^slc, 18303; h. v. — vi.,. five times' a week, 
he will propound .Esthetics, or the Doctrine of 
the Nature of the BeaiitiAil and of Poetry, ad- 
ding an outline of the 'Xr<#tory of German Poe- 
try, from his theses. Finally, he will institute 
gratuitous . philosophical exercises. . 

F. C, DahUnann, 1. h. x., six times, will lec- 
ture on €terman History-, according to his work, 
Quellenhunde der deutschen Geschiehie C1880, 
ap. Dietrich); 3. h. X/, five times weekly, on 
Political Economy; 3i h. iii., times weekly, 
on Universal Policy, when he will give a fioll 
explanation of Police, 

J. Grimm, h. iv. — v., four times a week, w&l 
teach Grammar of the Ancient German LangMa- 
ge, and its relation to that of the modern. ' 
. G. C. J, Ulrich, h. xi., on Saturdays, will 


lectute pubitee on the doctrine- af pfrspeetiwi; 
h. ii , privatim, on Pure Mathematics; h. iv., 
on Trigonometry^ Polygonometnj, ami Stereome- 
try, According to his Compendium; h. ix., on 
Mgebra and Analytical Geometry; h. xi., on ' 
Practical Mathematics; h.. I., on Civil Architecture, 
. C. Hoeck. h. v. — \i. , five times a week, will 
delh'er Universal Ancient History; h. iv. — v.i 
be will expound, phiiologically and historically, 
the Philippics and other pablic orations of De- 

G. B. D. Ewald, h. X., will translate the book 
of the prophet Isaiah; h. ii., he will expound 
the Archofology of me Bible, with the History 
of the Hebrews. Public^, h. f., on Mondays and 
Wednesdays, he will illnstrate to the students 
of Sanscrit and Arabic select rhapsodies of the 
Mahabharata; on Tuesdays and Fridays, the Ko- 
ran stn^ Xtamasa; h. vi., on Fridays, he will 
ekercise the Bxegetlc Society, in the" usual 
manner. . 

G. Webet will announce hto Physical Lectu- 
res on the black hiMird at a convenient time. 



G. Reiche in the coming semester, 1. will 
translate, six times a week, the Lesser Epistles 
of St, Paul, h. Ix.^x.; 2. h. ii.— iii., wlU give 
an Historico-Critical Introduction to the Cano- 
nical Boohs of the New Testament; 3. h. il.— iv., 
he will teach Theological Ehcyciopcedia and Me- 
thodology, He wiU examine the hearers of his 



exefetic lectures two or three times a weett. 
He will take a future opportunity of agreeing 
mi tlie hoar of instrnerlon witb those who may 
require private examinafions. 

if. OF THU ITACriiTY OF l-AW. ^ 

G. J. Reichendorf, D.,\wm teach, privatim, 1. 
h. xl., and on Tuesdays and Fridays also at 
nine, the Institutions of Roman Law; % h. x. 
The History and Antiquities of the Ronum Law ; 
3. h. ii., five times a week, the Doctrine of 

W. T. Kraut, Dr., h. ix. — x., and h. xi. — xii., 
six times a week, will lecture on Qerman Com- 
mon JMW Cwith feudal Law3 from his book, 
Grundriss zu Vorlesungen iiber das Deutsche 
Privatrccht. Gottingen, 1830; h. ii. — iii., five 
times a week, on Eclesiastical Jmw, from the 
fiflh edition of the Compendium of Wiesianus, 
published by him. 


J. F. Oslander, h. ii., will treat of the Obste- 
tric Art, which cumprehendB the method of ireat- 
ing both natural and preternatural birth. 


o. Grimn will translate > ^riVBttm, four ifmen 
a Week, the epic fknem, chlled IweUi, edited at 
Berlin, 1827, by Beneek« and Lachmann. 

F. 1*. Bariling, Dr. Ph., 1. will demonstrate 
public^) h. if., twh^e a week , the orders nf tbo 
PmlfpeMoUJS Plants; %. h. ii., four times a week^ 


be will also give the history of- Cryptogamic 
Plants and h. xi., four times a week wfll teach 
Organography and VegeiaMe Phytioiogg. 

E. Schmidt, will deliver PofnUar AHronomg. 
h. vi.; AnaiyfiSy together with Anaiyticai €teo- 
mutry, h. iii. 

•E. F. Ayrer, Blaster of Eqaltatidn, will con- 
tinue in his usual manner, his etiuestrian exer- 
cises in the Royal Riding-school. Privatim, he 
.will teach that part of the veterinary art which 
treats of training the horse. 

F. C. Lappe, Dr., Director of the Royal Ve- 
terinao' Institution, h. 1. — ii., ive times a week, 
will give the Anatomy and Pftgsioiogy of the 
domestic animals used for agricultural purposes; 
h. ii.— iiii, four times a week, Veterinary Ma- 
teria Medicay h. xi. — xi., he will continue the 
practical exercises in the usual manner. 

Mueic and the Art of Drawing, also the Lan- 
guages ' and Literature of the most cultivated 
nations of Europe, will be taught by intelligent 
and learned men, who will announce, in the 
usual place, the subject and time of their lec- 
tures. €hfnmastics and the Art of Fencing will 
be (aught by stipendiary masters. 

The Annual salaries of the professors, at the 
smaller German universities, vary from 500 to 
1200 florins; in the Prussian universities, where 
It must also be taken into consideration that 
the expense, of living Ls greater, they 'receive 
as many dollars. It is not customary for Ger- 
man students to lodge in the houses of the 


pro#e8cnini; b«i foreigners are rec«i.%eil into Uiem 
-^ometiflMi: tliere is no |:e«eral rule for the 
expense of flacb an arrangement. ■ 

riie aomber of dueia varies \«ry muoli at the 
dUR$reat universities: some »f them are celekr»- 
ted for tbeir prevalence, wbilst, in otiiers, par* 
ticularly in Prussia, tliey are nearly suppressed. 
M GiesseU) wheve tliere are from foor to five 
hundred atudents, tliere are perhaps a linndred 
duels annually: at Wurabur?, the proportion ik 
aottewliat ^roater, and at Heidelberg larger still. 
In the universities situated in large towns, as; 
in Bedin, and Vienna, duels were always com- 
pajratively rare, and are now- very aeldom resort- 
ed to. The aaual acverage eSEpentttture of a 
Ctaman student at an university is abeut five 
iHBidred florins; In the north, it is somewhat 
more; in the south, considerably lees. The fees 
for lectures amount to about one hundred flo- 
rins annually, supposing the student to attend 
fear classes each seniestery whidi is the usual 
number. A good lodging may he had at Hei« 
delberg or Tubingen for twenty-five florins per 
semester, but at Bonn or Berlin it would cost 
at least as many dollars. At even the dearer 
univeristies , a ahtUing is consfaiered a eonslder<- 
able price for a dinner; many of the students 
dine for sixpence, and some for less than that. 

The time which, a metfieal studeait ba* to 
pass at the uuivvrsityy before lie cau pvesent 
himself #er examination, is generally four 
years; the students of law and theology a 5^ar 
less. The theologians are often ectremety poor, 
and britig with them from the burnromaster uf 
)heir village a teiUniHtium pamperintig, by vir* 



•Uie of wiiicJi tfie)' are admitfiefl free even U 
tbe private lectures of tbe profeissors. The sieu* 
deriieasi of the sani with which many of these 
are pn»viiicd, for th^ defraying of their acade- 
i»iciil expenses) is very remaricahle. The b(u- 
itents, or academical citizeiis, as they were caJl* 
ed, JMVe hitherto heen a privileged liody ia 
Ckjrmany) «nly amenaMe to the uaiversity-lawa 
and regulations; and though this state of things 
is now in progress of abolition, its forms are 
«till more or less respected ia moAt ol the uui- 
versltiefl. The nnmbef of students aaaualiy 
relegated used to be very limited, before the 
reoent .operattoa of politi^ causes; Fonaer^', 
on an average, not more than ' one or two w^re 
expelled in ■ a year i aud lately whole bodies ha* 
ve beea banished, to the number «f fifty or mx- 
ly, «t some peculiar crises. 

The conec^BS and punishments in force are 
the following: — Imprisonment , cofKtfiuHi 
9b9tm4i, rMegaiio, and reiegati9 in perpeiumn.- 

Gambling is allowed, but not gambling -hou- 
ses. The number of students who Jieep lioraes 
is extremely small ; indeed , at the malorlty qi 
ihe aaiveraities none do so; the few who ride, 
hfare their steeds. In the small towns ceatain- 
ing universities, there are no brothels licen- 
sed by the governments. Students of liceotions 
iMMkits occasionally make expeditions to sono 
neighbouring large town; from Bonn, they go 
to Cologne; from Heidelberg, to Mannheim; and 
from Marburg, to rcankfort. Though bro4Jbeis 
are foiMdden, there aro still in most of tJiese 
small flams two or three prostituteu, whA am 
geacratly of the very lowest order. There are 


some few profligate indtvidaals to be found in- : 
eacli anlversity; but from the spirit of party 
wbiGli divides ttae stodents into distinct classes, 
they fortunately come very little into contact 
with J and consequently cannot corrupt the mass ■ 
which, on the whole, is moral in conduct. 
For a- student to have an illegitimate child , is 
a case ho rare as to form quite an exception to 
the general rule. Beer- drinking and smoking 
are sometimes indulged in to excess. 

No sumptuary laWs are in force, but no tra- 
desman can summon a student for more than a 
certain sum. In Giessen, for instance, a tailor 
cannot claim more than twelve florins; a shoe- 
maker more than ten, a victualler more than 
the amount of a two month's bill, or a lod- 
gihg-house keeper more than half a year's rent. 

The schools at which students are prepared 
for the university are called Gymnasiums, Ly- 
ceums, and Pedagoginms; they are generally 
established by the goventmeiit, and the expense 
of instruction at them is very moderate: A 
thorough knowledge of . the Latin and Greek 
Languages, of the Classics and of Antiquity, 
of the French and €^rman - Languages and so- 
metimes of the English or the Italian, History, 
Geography, Algebra . and Geometry, Natural 
History* may be acquired in them. Introductory 
lectures to the study of philosophy are also 
delivered there , and, as was stated before iu 
a previous chapter, Hebrew is taught in the 
higher classes for the use of students who intend ' 
devoting themselves to the clerical functions. 
Boarding-schools are not very common. The 
children of parents residing in the GOiintr>', who 

IDUCAtiaN IN CimMAMY. 331 

are infteuteii f6r learned profesaioii^, are gene- 
rally sent to lodge witii a friend to some neigh*- 
bouring towii, where they enter at the gym- 
naaiiim as day'^seholars. Boarding -school.s fre- 
quented by foreigners, are chiefly to be found 
in the north of Germany : amongst i»ome others, 
we may instance estabiisiiments of this liind at 
Halle in Saxony, and at ilefeld in Hanover. At 
the latter place the terms, inclnding every thing, 
are two hundred dollars a year for tlie foreig- 
ner, and one hundred and thirty -five for the 
Hanoverian. There is also one at Offenbach 
near- Frankfort o. M. 

Parochial schools exist in all parts of Oer*- 
many, and. education is not only, generally, al- 
most gratuitous for the poorer classes, but it 
is to a certain degree enforced by law. At 
most of these, singing Is a part of the ele- 
mentary education imparted, and a most bene- 
ficial portion , because it harmonises the mind, 
alfurds an Innoncent amusement for unemployed 
hours,and is a bond of union in humble societies. 


We siiall confine ourselves to a mere sketch 
•f the classes of seminaries existing in Austria. 
They may be divided into: 

I. National schools, — among which are the 
schools of every parish , in wblch a register is 
kept, open to all ages; head 9chwAs , existhig 
in the ilhief towns, designed for instructing youth 
in mechanical occupations; nomml schoiHs^ Amt 
the purpose of educating teachers; and civic 
gchimls , destined for aflTurding practical know- 
ledge ill commerce and the arta. ^Vith the 


exception of Haniirary and Tnmgyivania^ tlie pro- 
portion of .pupils attending the above schools is 
about one in ten of the whole population; and 
there is, on an average, ^ine master to every 
sixty pupils. 

II, Besides these national -schools ^ there are 
clasHcai ones, which consist of the ordinary 
iand.gynuiasiumsj. and of the lyceums, and uttt- 
persity gymnasitoM. These seminaries are sup- 
ported by. the fees of the papUs, and by en- 
dowments and grants: they resemble,' in some 
respects, aur classical schools, are subjected 
to a fixed course of study, and use a fixed se- 
lection of booka. 

III. There are preparatory schools to the nine 
imtoer^i/iM of Austria. There are several medical 
schoola,. and special institutions,, as for mining, 
polytechnics, agriculture , and Oriental langua- 
ges, in diflTerent towns, not connected with the 


We shall speak more largely on this topic, 
in consequence of the large share of attention 
which It has excited in other countries, and of 
the frequent reference made to it. We do- not 
presume to decide as to its special merits, in 
comparison with the system pursiied fai other 
parts of Germany; but we helieve that all the 
states deserve attention and inquiry In almost 
an equal degree. The territory of the kingdom 
of Prussia is divided into ten provinces*, which 
are subdivided into departments, circles, and 
parishes. Every department has a board of 
education, which emiiloys school-faiapectors, who 



re0id.e in the cbief towns of every circle, and 
wbo Inspect all ttaie schools in It. Every circle 
and parish has also its school-^hoard^ and every 
school its proper inspectors or. committee : the 
clergyman of the parish is, by virtue « of his 
ofilce, one qf the inspectors. There is also an- 
other officieri the scbool-couneellor, who inspects 
the schools , qiiichens and keeps . alive the in- 
terest of the differient boards and schoolmasters, 
and. reports to. the higher authorities. • The 
whole system., since it came Into operation in 
1819, has been under the cognizance and con- 
trol of the Minister of Public Instruction , who 
Is assisted In his deliberations by a council. 
The minister, though fully Informed of the re- 
sults of the system,' by -long and accurate re- 
ports from the dependant functionaries , does 
not interfere minutely with its details. The 
functionaries in the department of Public In- 
struction , have, for the most part, a salary 
attached to their office. ' The educational esta- 
blishments' are, 1. elementary, or primafy schools; 
3. burgher-, or middle schools, gj'mnasiums; 
and, 3. universities. 

All parents who' are unable to ' prove that 
they can give their .children a competent edu- 
cation at home, are bound by law to send 
them to school, as^ soon as they' have reached 
the age of five years. All manters and manu- 
factures , who' employ children as servants or 
appreiitic<*s , are required to give fhem a suit- 
able education from their seventh to their four- 
teenth year inclusive. - No * child can be remov- 
ed from school, till the inspectors have exa- 
mined whether he has- gone through- the whole 


clemenUry connie. Cart 10 everywkeft Ukmt 
Ut fariii9li necessHous pwrento wilh tbe iiie«iis 
of sending their cbildren to school, by provi- 
ding them with clothing and books. The schools 
are supported by ep4owiiie«ts variously derived, 
by a tax upon property, and by contribdtioiis 
of parents who are able to pay for the edaca* 
tion of their children. The number of ebildren 
in a school must not be too great, nor can one 
roaster have more than a hnndred^ scholars. No 
sclioolmaeter collects the fees; this most be 
done by the board or committee. Children are 
permitted to coatribute to a fund for the edu- 
cation of those who are too poor to pay their 
portion of the charge. There are some schools 
in large places entirely free to the poor. No 
schoolmaster is allowed to increase hie income 
hy occupations inconsistent with the dignity of 
bis office. The committees are legally respon- 
sible for all the expenses of the schools, and 
for the management of their fuiuis. 

The school^houses must be built in a heal- 
tliy situation , must contain good - sized rooms, 
be well ventilated, and kept with great neat- 
ness : in villages or small towns, they have a 
garden belonging to them, which is made avail- 
able to the scholars for instruction in botany 
and horticulture. In front of or behind, the 
school, a gravelled court must be laid out for 
exercises. Maps and geographical instruments, 
models for drawing and writing, instruments 
and collections for studying mathematics and 
natural history , are supplied , according to the 
wants of the scholars. 

The lirst object of every school , says the 



law. of 1819, 18 to train up the young hi Buieh 
a manner as to implant in tiieir minds a know- 
ledge of the relation of man to God, and, at 
the same time, to excite them to govern their 
lives according to the spirit and precepts of 
Christianity. The daily occupations, therefore, 
shall begin and end with. a short prayer, and 
some pious refiections; and all the solemnities 
of the schools shall be interspersed with isonga 
of a religious character. Obedience to the laws, 
fidelity and attachment to the sovereign and 
state, are to be carefully inculcated. No kind 
of punishment which has. a tendency to weaken 
the sentiment of honour shall In any case be 
inflicted. Incorrigible scholars, after the neces- 
sary attempts to reclaim them have proved fu- 
tile, are ito be expelled. 

In the elementary schools the course of in- 
struction is to comprehend Religion, as a means 
of forming the moral character of chjldsen ac- 
cording to the positive truths of Christianity; 
the German language, and the language of the 
country in provinces where another is spoken- 
the elements of Geometry and Drawing; Calcu- 
lation and practical .Arithmetic; the elements of 
Ph)sics, Geography, general History, and espe^ 
cially the history of Prussia; singing, princi- 
pally for the purpose of religious exercises ; 
writing and gymnastic exercises; and the simr 
plest meclianical and agricultural operations. 
The instructions in religion , reading , writing, 
arithmetic , and singing , are to b.e strictly In- 
dispenstble in every school. 

In the burgher or middle schools, the course 
of instruction is to include, besides the most 



importatit ^f the foteg^tag rabjects, cfxereiftes iii 
Style, tbe modern Foreign Languages, ki the 
Oerman part of tbe ooontry as an atcoMory bramrli 
of atudy ; Latin , as a means of exercMng the 
faculties of the papll, and of detemtailng whe- 
ther he is to enter the higher schools; the ele- 
ments of Mathematlai, and a thorough coarse 
of practical Aritlmetlc ; «ih1 the nrussian Law* 
ami Constitution. 

Periodical examinations are to he held; and 
en quitting the elementary school, the pupil is 
to receive a certificate as to his capacity, and 
his moral and religious disposition, signed hy 
the master and the school-committee. No spe- 
cial books are to be prescribed fer the different 
branches of instruction in the primary sdiools, 
which are to be free to adopt the best worlES 
as they appear. For religious instruction, which 
in Protestant schools Is founded mainly on the 
Holy Scriptures, the Bil»le, and the Catechism 
generally adopted, shaU be used. The new 
Testament shall be given to children who can 
read. The more advanced scholars shall have 
«the whole Bible, in Luther's translation: this 
book shall also be used for the Teligious in- 
stmction in all the <flasses of the gymnasiums. 
Public examinations of the boys' si^ooUi ate te 
take place at Intervals, and, if possible, en 
days celebrated in the national history. Bxa- 
minations of the girls* schools shall also be 
iMld, but only in the presence of the masters 
and parents. Parents may address complaints 
to the proper authorities, respecting the edu- 
cation of their children, but they must not pre- 

irmJCATflON IN OltllMANV. S37 

senl any olwtacie to tlie cMiAmtialiaii of tlw 
latter to the rules establiiibed in the schools. 

Cler^Taen are to fleize e\'ery ojypovtKiiifty, 
whether at church, or tfffring their visits of 
tnspoction, of reminiJIng teachers of their higli 
and holy mission, and the people of their d«ty 
towards the public instructors. The people, ill 
«hor(, are to l>e brought, as much as posslMe, 
to regard education as one of the essential 
conditions of public life, and Aaily to take 
deeper interest in its progress. 

In 1833, there were about fifty schools for 
teachers Coi* Normal Schools, as they are so- 
metimes caned3 in Prussia, in wMch the ooorse 
of study lasts three years. The demmid fur 
new teachers in the respective departments Is 
regularly ascertained, and jio more are educa- 
ted than can iind employment in tlie country. 
The same establishments train masters fur the 
lower and higher schools; the expense of tlMMi 
is chiefly defrayed by the govermnent. The supply 
of teachers is not entirely furnished by those 
«eminaries; but the standard of lltnMs which 
is set up in them, is applied by law to all 
•other candidates for the office of teaching. I>e^ 
males have to go through a ceitafn syvtem of 
preparation for the tuition of their 4fwn sex. 

The {^lection and nomination of schoolmasters 
are decided by the committee and inspector of 
schools conjointly, who gimetttHy apply to the 
seminaries above mentioned fm teachers, and 
never accept one unless he Is recommended ac- 
«orAng to law. The appointment is ratified by 
the provincial board, and sometimes by the 
iHlnisterlhl authorities. Incompetent teachers are 


8«meUmea retorned .to tlieir flemtnary for addi- 
tional preparation; and no inefficiont teachiaip 
nor iax discipline overlooked or permitted in 
tbe soliools. Tlie directors of schools are ex- 
pected to be the guides and friends of the 
teachers. They are bound , says the law , espe- 
cially to attpnd to the young masters, to give 
them advice ) set them right, and excite them 
to aim at perfection, by attending to the plans 
of more experienced masters, by forming con- 
ferences , and by studying the best works on 

Of the children in the Prussian monarr:|iy, 
between the ages of seven and fourteen, it is 
calculated that ^^f,^ are educated in the public 

It must not be supposed that these regula- 
tions are always carried into effect; they are 
soihetimes evaded , or inadequately carried into 

After this compact and pleasing picture . of 
the Prussian system of public education, it is 
natural to inquire into the results which it has 
actually produced. On this subject I find it 
impossible to produce any satisfactory authority. 
It is in vain to seek for results in the worjss 
of those who have only studied the plan in Mb 
programm, and in decrees, and who have not 
looked into the farmhouse, the barracjk, the 
manufactoEy^ and the cottage, for the measure 
of its realisation. 

Let me not be understood to speak with dis- 
respect of a. noble attempt to advance humanity; 
I onty maintain, that siirh measures are to be 
tested by their operation on the mass of sa- 



ciety , anU that in appreciating political experi- 
ments , we are not merely to analyse them 
upon paper. An. admirable feature of it is the 
reverence which it encourages for the Christian 
religion. I am the last person to attach much 
weight to my own observations, but, in default 
of the remarks of others, I have not succeed- 
ed in discovering th&t the Prussian peasant or 
artisan is better informed, or more moral than 
his neighbours; his manners ^re not superior, 
nor does he appear to solace his hours of leir 
sure more than others, with study, or books. 
But the formation of character is so intimately 
blended in Prussia with the military system, 
which converts every man into a soldier, for a 
certain period of his life, that it is difficult to 
ascertain the respective share which is to be 
ascribed to the various elements which combine 
to mould the individual. The most intelligent 
and best informed peasant in Europe has ap- 
p eared to me to be the Scotch, while the Aus- 
trian rustic is perhaps the happiest. 




liVe shall commence our account of German 
prisons, with a rapid glance at the state Of 
those estabLiahment at the period when the 
modern views hegan to pass from theory into 
practice. As early as 1780, the labours of 
Howard were naturalized in Germany, and 
since that time, the appearance of numerous 
writings, and the publication of some isolated 
government-edicts, have given proof that the 
ideas of the English philanthropits have not fal- 
len upon an ungrateful soil. But, still, these 
were feeble precursors of improvement, and, as 
late as 1803, we find the Prussian minister, 
Arnim, declaring ''that the state of the Prus- 
sian prisons was such, that palliative remedies 
were no longer of any avail, and that it was 

vmma» iMocivuiiB. 9^1 

stoseMitely iiecesMry to •ttack Urn 9lbfm9B wUek 
exiei te thetn^ »t Uie root." 

The prisons of Bftvaria, aoeording to Baron 
^eveld , were In tbe same mtoorabie coQditioB. 
At tbis period indeed, tkroiighout Cfenminy, 
the places of oonftaenent for eiiBiiiiala were 
generally subterraneoiuiy dark and moist; and, 
in many, no provislDn whatever waa made for 
AQpplying warmth in winter. The cells were al« 
ways infested with YenBin, and the priaonen 
in the most iUthy and al^ct condition. The 
government of the prisons was in the hands 
of nomhers of offlcials of all descriptions, ami 
was properly attemled to by none. The minis- 
l«rs of the interior, of Justice, and of war, the 
commanders of fortresses, provincial governors,, 
consistories, and even private individuals, were 
in the habit of interfering in the management 
of different prisons. No general system was 
ever proposed, much less established. In many 
eases, prisons were united to hospitals and lu- 
natic asylums, and even to worhhousea and 
oiphan asylums. 

Prisens in €)ermany, at the Ume of which 
we are speaking, were extremely numerona; 
few contained two hundred prisoners, and the 
average number of their inmates was estimated 
at fr«n fourty to JifXy. Consequently, the num* 
ber of persona employed in their management 
was very great in proportion to the sum total 
of prisoners, bnt waa smaU, and altogether 
insulAcient, in reference to each individual pri- 
aan. Little impattnufo was at that time attadb- 
«d to the suiyect of criminal legislation, and 
we are noH* surprised at the smaUuess of the 

332 pttTSoN mBcipr.ifni. 

mna whlcH was tli«n allotted hi the budgets to 
the maintenaiice and improvement of prisons. 
The efficiency , for the purpose of confinement, 
of the establishments in question, may be esti- 
mated by the following facts, extracted from 
authentic reports on Prussian prisons. 

All the prisoners confined in the fortress of 
61eiwit2» escaped In a single night, in the year 
1800. At Wesel, nearly a whole band of hri' 
gands , who had been condemned to hard labour 
for life, escaped from confinement. In 1799, 
five great oflTenders escaped from Schweidnits; 
in 1800,- three from Kosel, and, among other 
instances, twelve from Klarenburg. No mea^ 
3ures were taken for observing the conduct of 
the prisoners, and for preventing that cemmi- 
nication between them , the efl'eet of which is 
to train up to crime the less hardened offender. 
In many prisons, the male and female culprits 
were suffered to remain together both night 
and day; in others, they were separated at 
night, but, in scarcely any, were proper mea- 
sures taken for their complete separation. Again, 
some of these establishments were always ex- 
tremely crowded, whilst others were nearly 
empty, and had become entirely useless. 

According to Arnim, whose facts are authen- 
tic, the house of correction at Colberg did not 
contain one prisoner in 1790; in 1791, only 
one prisoner was admitted into it, and in 1796, 
only three. On the other hand, at Wesel, the 
tieglect of management and want of room redoe- 
ed several prisoners, whose reason, on thoir 
admission, was somewhat affected, to a state 
of raging madness. The inmates of moat of 


tbese places were either entirely lieprived of 
the light of day, as at Kustrin or at ZulUchau, 
or received it only through a very narrow aper*- 
tnre, as at Rathenow, Lenten , and Falkehbnrg. 
The atmosphere of almost all was unhealthy 
to a dangerous degree , and the filthy condi- 
tion of the interior, contributed not a little to 
increase this dreadful evil. At Balrenth , it was 
necessary to employ artificial means for the pur- 
pose of bringing a supply of fresh air into the 
establishment; at Dant^ic, the moisture was so 
great, that water streamed down the walls at 
every season of the year. At Berlin, Warsing and 
Schlechtendahl, reporters on the state of the 
Stadt-Vogtei prison, declared, that '*it was no 
small sacrifice to visit a prison in such a state." 
At Minden, to use the words of the provincial 
government, ''the prison was scarcely good 
enough for, a stable." At Baireuth, in 1799, 
it was stated in a report, as a great act of 
kindness, that the prisoners were allowed fresh 
straw for their bedding every three months. 

In 1803, there was only one prison . in all 
Prussia, that of Tapian, where the criminals 
received necessary clothing at the expense of 
the establishment. In all others, this was only 
granted as a favour and in cases of extreme 
necessity. At Berlin , in the Stadt-Vogtei pri- 
son, a new shirt was now and then givi^n, at 
the expense of the establishment, to those who 
were reduced to a state of absolute nakedness. 
Wilh respect to the food of the prisoners, the 
utmost irregularity and uncertainty prevailed. 
In some places, as at Roessel, it was good, 
and perhaps too abondant, but in most cases 

884 immmk nmcvfuta** 

H w«B fttrnifllMd by ^ntmctprs^ wlio' wen 
ntti fluluect to aii>' euntrol. At Biurenlb, aiscoEd* 
ing lo Vdldendorff, tUe OMises of tbe priaoaers 
were examined by a pbosician, ipd foand not 
ealy Inadequate to nutrition, but yeeltiveiy iniuM- 
cal to tlw health. A great ean»e of tbio 9«k- 
l^tuatieti of these abuses wm the fact, tliat 
tlbft cantf ftptore for furnishing tiie diet weiie theo^ 
selves petty ofieem ef the prisoik On tlie at* 
tention paid in those tijaes to theprlsaaers who 
were ill, let us quote agaia tlie reporters en 
tlK» flIadt-VoKtei at Swliii; *'Tk^ sick," Ihey 
say, **are deatitute of every kind of attention.; 
and so great is the negloet under wUfh they 
aaffer, that, in general they prefer to quti tha 
ininnary a«i return te the wards of the prison; 
where , though they are less eematodiously lodh 
ged, they, at least, hape to experiene e the caiu- 
passion and aid ef their coiapawions ia urislor- 

At the tine of whidk we are treatfng, there 
were three descriptlsiia ef psisensi ia Oennany; 
via., houMs of arreat loA detention, houses 
ef eorreetiea, and fortresses* la th« former, nu 
sort ef employment was assignad tethe pttaan-t 
era, and in the fortresses^ the) w«e only es^ 
ployed on the public works. The houses of 
cerrectioB ('AicM/kdiMer^ were superior in thia 
as wen as in several other respects, though, 
in some even of them, no work whatever wan 
aUattod to> the prisoners, and in many ethers, 
the system of employment was so imperfectly 
followed out, that it availed bat tittle for any 
proilaUe purpose. In some places, 9fi at Stet- 
tla, Stargmrd, and Kolhmg, it ww IfH to tha 

lifA^retidm «/ tli« pilvoiitiai iiiiiellidr Idey W0iil4 
WOTk Of not. No penion watcbed tfe^k- lalioiii% 
ami tlie oaiy wasters they bad to stimaJate tben 
to exortioii, vere liitDger aad want. It was qaita 
a natter ef dMnce, whether their employmenta 
liad any share in training them to a future 
life of activity and indastry. The mocit eom- 
m»a trades were not exevelsted in the prisons^ 
and the et^cnpations almost universaHy pursued^ 
were spinning, carding wool, poKslring glass, 
and rssping wood. The proilts reantting from 
the lalioara of the prisoners reverted in every 
ease to eentraotors, who farmed this privilege 
at a smaH rent, and the former were rarely 
encouraged to work for their own hene^t after 
theit allotted task was finished, which woald 
have given them an oppertnnity of earning 
something to assist them nftes tbekr release. 

No attention whatever wn0 paid t^ the moral 
•ad religioua ioipFevement of the prisoners. In 
« few of the gaols, there was a chaplain, hut 
the greater part were wUh^Hrt smy religions in- 
siriictoff. bi one alone, that of Halle, the pri- 
soners- were allowed to have private conferen- 
ces with the chaplain. During the eighteenth 
eentof y, several of the places of religioas worship 
attached to prisons were shut up*, or converted 
to other purposes. 

Before we pass to a description of the pre- 
sent sOite of prisons in Qermany, we shall say 
a few words on the eriminat legislation of Aus- 
tria, whieli has preseitved a distinct and some- 
what remarkable character. Austria has been 
severely reproached for having so frequently re- 
course to the bastinad<i», and for the severity 

g86 pumoft BisciriiiN*. 

of its "sehwersU KerhBrHrafe*' C«Ao8«stor tannic 
est ifflprUioiiment3. But we must recollect th«t 
tlie bastinado fa employed^ at the preaent day, 
with but few exceptions, in aU tlie prisons of 
Germany ^ and in all the '^bagnes" of France^ 
and, we may add, in several penitentiaries of 
America. The Austrian government , indeed, was 
one of the first which endeavoured to prevent 
the abuse of this punishment \^th regard to 
the schwerste Kerherstrafe , we. must not for<^ 
get, that this punishment is inflicted by a code, 
which admits neither of transportation nor of 
forced labour, and which does not ordain capi- 
tal punishment, like the French, for numerous 
crimes, such as, coining, infanticide, and ar- 
gon. Moreover , Says Jenull^, it is not inflicted 
In a manner which can be injurious to the 
health of the culprit; those who suffer it havo 
as much fresh air as the nature of their labour 
will permit; their diet is similar to that with 
which many poor families are contented, and, 
finally, it is only had recourse to in the follow- 
ing extreme cases; viz., misprision of treason; 
infanticide, when committed upon a legitimate 
child j arson , robbery of an aggravated descrip- 
tion , and as a commutation of the. punishment 
•f death. Austria, too, it must be recollected, 
had already banished from her code, prelimina- 
ry torture arid all the barbarous accessories of 
capital punishment, before France bad made any 
real reform in her penal laws. At the present 
time, the criminal legislation of Austria is one 

* Dai Oeaterrrichitche Criminalreckt nock teim^n Griin- 
dm mtd i^btem Geiita. 1830. 

of the most hnnMiie anil 6iilf«lilAne4 in Kurope. 
The directors of gaols are enjoined, in taking 
measures to seeore a prisoner , neither to wound 
his feelings nor his person. The prisoners are 
always to be treated by the directors as well 
as by the gaolers with great caution, mildness, 
and attention. Improper modes of conduct, or 
gross and offensive acts on the part of the gaol- 
ers towardid the prisoners, are to be punished 
with the greatest severit}^^. In a repertory of 
Jurisprudence, published at Vienna, there is, an 
article upon the moral Improvement of convicts, 
which displays considerable talent. The system 
of the author, who was for some time director 
of one of the largest Austrian prisons, is that 
of Arnim and Weveld. Labour, classifioafion, 
religious instruction, elementary education, he 
admits, and recommends to be actively employed; 
bat the state, he says, ought only to make use 
of them as furnishing an opportunity of improve- 
ment to the prisoner, and is not to disturb 
Itself about the effects which they may produce 
upon his moral system. In a word, it ought to 
do that which is in its power, happen what may. 
''Every other sj-stem," he continues, ''will only 
lead to despotism. The heart of man is a sanctu- 
ary which one fl'iend opens to another, and in- 
to which the eye of God penetrates, but the 
state cannot look within it, without entering 
upon a dangerous track." 

We shall now ^peak of the present state of 
the prisons of Germany under the heads of, their 

. * See Vrtiiohev eru/' Materialien fUr Gnet%hunde und 
Reekttp/ltge in dm 0«tlerreiehi$ehem' Staaten." Wien, 1810. 

9M p«M«oM MBcm^tm, 

MciHrUiy, hMttth, iii8|«fti«ii wA claasUlcalioii, 
iMlMMH, and mmral and religloiifl iastruetioD. Uhp- 
der each head, the priacipal priii4Mis •f the teth 
peetive states wUl be instanced. 

Willi respeet to Secwrity, we shall cenm^nee 
wUh the Prusstaii prisen of Naugard. The severe 
dMicipU»e prevaiUng here, which is altegeiher 
of a mUitairy aatare, has produced the in^st he- 
neHoial results. It is well adapted to the char- 
racter of men of hmtaUsed feeliaga, slace it 
serves to represa Iheir inclination to disorder. 
Nevertheless, the director is far from iadiag in 
a rigorous discijpUne the only guarantee for tlie 
seenrity of the establislunent, and he is, above 
everything, careful to distinguish toere signs of 
obedience and subordination amongst his prison^ 
ers, from that internal and involuntary respect 
with whiich they ought to be inspired* on re- 
cognising the moral object of the system to which 
they ai^e submitted. A new floor of this prison 
has lately been constructed » which has been Sfft 
apart for the younger criminals; it is composed 
of twelve chamhem (capable of containing from 
one to seven prisonera each}, and of thfoe tooma 
for wof hing in, sufficiently large to- contain fifty 

The prison of Luckau, also in Pxnssift, was 
fomifrly a convent, and from 1747 |o 1818 
was at once a^ house of correction, an asylum 
for lunatics, a work-house, an orphan- asylum 
and a seminary for scheohnastem. These dii^r- 
ent establishmentii were sneeessively sepasatMl 
from each other, and since 1827 the prison of 
LucKau has received a regular organisation, and 
has been placed under the direction of a commit 

MIflMN Bltcm.tfiN. M9 

tee, two of tie menAers of wklch are apiioiiii- 
ed by the king:, and two Wy the states. This 
establishment is eompose^ of few different build- 
ings, a large garden, a terraeey and oatheuaea 
for cooking. The first of the balldiB(9Sy caned 
the old bo«M», has three stories; It is one hand- 
red and sixty -fear feet loag, ftlty three «if 
whieh are oeoapled by a handsoaw chapeiy whMi 
is i^rovideil with an organ. It contains only 
male prisoners, eseept In the washing and alM»- 
maklng roomSi The prisoners o# the most da»* 
gerovs class sleep by twos or threes m ehaai- 
hers shut up by bolts, and those of the aecond 
or less daflgerous class sleep together in one 
room. The new house, erected in 1768, con- 
tains a church, a (hrelling-house fow th» dire^ 
tor, and the neoeasavy aoeommodatlofla ftnr mal^ 
faig tapestry, which is die principal oeeupation 
of -the eonvfets ; ft Is used for the reception 
of females only. The third building is sixty-4wo 
feet in length; it is an inirmary, and contains 
also baths, and work-rooms for dyers. The fourth 
Is the dwelling of the physidan and the ivo 
masters of the works. AR these buildings art 
In a situation favourable to^ the heallh of their 
Inmates, they are surrounded by small gaedens^ 
and two plots of grass, which are used aa bteack- 
Ing and dyeing grounds. There fe a military 
guard in the prison both night and day, and at 
nine o*clock the porter has to deliver up^ the 
keys to the inspector. In winter and In dark 
nights, the court is lighted by four tamterni; 
One hundred and thirty-nine prisoners were re- 
cently in^ coniiiemettt at Etuekau) six of whom 


are ioipriHoned for life ; nine of the others M'ere 
confined as vagabonds. 

Another Pnisnian prison , tbat of Schwetdnitz, 
wbidk was completed in 1801, consists of two 
great buildings, ^formerly tbe property of tbe Je- 
suits, containing twenty-three work-rooms, an 
infimary, dormitories ,^ lodgings for a p^rt o( 
the officers, a large room for prayer, and a re- 
fectory. The prison is large enough for three 
himdred culprits. The cells are under rontinual 
inspection daring the night. The experiment 
has been tried here of placing the culprits with- 
out the walls of the prison, either in service, 
or in apprenticeship; of 1055 thus disposed of, 
451 escaped, of wbom 309 were retaken; 66 
other convicts escaped from the prison itself. 
The prisoners who escape^ and who are reta- 
ken, wear a yellow sleeve, and are not permit- 
ted, like the others, to purchase salt, butter and 
tobacco with the surplus of their gains. 

The prison or House of Correction (ffandar^ 
beitshatis) of Brauweller, formerly a Benedictine 
abbey, is two miles distant from Cologne. It 
is a fine building of one story, 269 feet in length, 
31 in width, and 34 in height, and was erec- 
ted in the middle of the eighteenth century. It 
has sixteen acres of garden belonging to it, 
surrounded by a wall ten feet high, and seven- 
ty-two acres of arable land without the enclo- 
sure. It is capable of containing six hundred 
prisoners, and is maintained by the four districts 
of Cologne, Dusseldorf, Alx-la-Chapello, and 

During the years 1811 to 1825, 965 priso- 
ners died, and 120 escaped, out of 7739 ad- 


oiitted. Daring the year 1826, tills prison re* 
ceived tliirty-six boys and seventeen girls un- 
der the age of sixteen, and one hundred and 
seventy two men and eigthj'-three women above 
that age, in all, three hundred and eight per- 
sons: two hundred and forty one of these were 
set at liberty, forty-seven died, four succeeded 
in escaping, and fourteen who attempted to es- 
cape, were recaptured. 

The prison of Cologne contains eighty- six 
apartments of different descriptions; attached to 
it' are several courts, and a garden of three' 
quarters of an acre , surrounded by a wall about 
thirty feet high. The instances of escape from 
it are very rare. The prisoners are guarded 
by six. soldiers who are reinforced at night. 
The dimensions of the building do not permit 
the prisoners to have separate apartments. 

There are live old prisons at Hamburg, three 
of which, die Pferdfimrktuwacke, die CHrofsneU" 
markUwache , and die Gdnsemarktswache , are 
houses of arrest; two only., die RoggerikisU 
and das Spinnhatts, are for the reception of 
criminals properly so called. We shall speak 
first of the Spinnhaus, which is the most re^ 
markable, and then of the new prison, which 
is not included in the above. The former , with 
the courts which are attached to it, comprises 
a space of 17,370 square feet; the church 
alone occupies 2975. On entering, we find 
on the left hand a porter's lodge, and on 
the right a dwelling for the steward. Passing 
through the kitchen of the latter, we come to 
a cellar which contains the potatoes and other 
provisions which it is necessary to keep in such 

943 raWMi MtCVMNI. 

a pUm». a little fortMr is the btmA alive- 
Mom. On tlM rig^ht, too, is a large cofper ba- 
ain wiiieli ia illod witii water by an bydraulie 
vadiine in tbe city. Pipes condnct tlie water 
into tlie kitclien, to tbe places wbere tlu» ser- 
vants amt wark-people are oocupied in wasbing 
•tenails. We next come to the kitcbens, where 
there are copper cauldrons, each capable of 
containing a safficient portion for three hun- 
dred pcrsonn. Above the kitchen, wood is kept 
On the irst floor are the rooms of the per- 
sona employed in the prison, and the large 
pieases which contain the prisoners' linen and 
clothing. A small staircase leads hence to the 
first workHTOom, where the thread is prepared, 
which is altewaffds brought into a aide room 
to be twisted. In the doors of this room, as 
well as of all the others, small inspection win- 
dows are plaood. The rooms for twisting, and 
alflo those for spinning, which come next to 
thtm, are the prisoners' dormitories. Behind tha 
latter are two. dark cells, which are used for 
diacifillnary punishments. A staircase leads from 
tMo part of the establishment of the first court, 
and the visitor sees on his left in descending 
it, a plaee {^^^ SpinuwinhelJ , which contains 
seven cells for (he greatest criminals^ Fifty 
other eells of this descriptien are dispersed 
thffooghont the establishmenC. On the left side 
of the court of which we have spoken » is the 
entrance to the church. The building in the 
centre is kept for uromen and for master-work- 
men.- All the windows are furnished with bars 
of iron , so disponed , as to render impossible 

9BM0N BmcwhtHm. 949 

all conmankaUMi bHwee* the pwtowten ef dilU 
ferenl; looms. 

Tlie Hew priflttn fDeteiKtom- iMt^tiigniUs) is 
iBlcMled f«r indivfaluals suspc^ieii of crimes, 
ami for tliose wko liaYe ^ees convilBCad af sltgbl 
orenees. It coiisistB of a princiyai IwUdiag, witlft 
two wings at rigiil; angles. The nmlenirMNMt 
ehambersy the ground floer, aail the irst story, 
jure arched; the staircases are of stooM. The 
chambers on eaich ioor open into eorrid^Krs, 
well lighted, and well ventilated. The aimvtr 
ments aadergrsiiiid are fnite free from moist- 
are; adiongst them are not only the kitchen 
and storerooms, but seven or eight cells for 
prisoners seatenced to solitary oenflnement« 
Other cells, intended for the same purpose, are 
placed on the third floor; these only receive 
Hght from above. The height of these cham* 
bers varies from eleven to twelve feet. The 
windows are very high, and If it were not for 
the gratings which cover them, the destination 
e# the building would be forgotten. The iisl 
and second floors are exclusively reserved fax 
prisoners. The chambers reeelve but little lights 
because the windows are very narrow. M» air- 
tempt has been made here to apportion the 
degree of light, and oi other conveniences in 
the rooBM, to the greater or less degree ol 
toiminallty of the inmates; all the Eooni» are 
alifce in these respects. 

The prison of Gluckstadt, the best in the 
German dominions of the king of Denmark, 
was organised in 1819. It is a building of one 
stery withevt any suhteraneous apartments, and 
its two wings run Into two «ttfferent streets. 

344 PKI80N macmi»m. 

On tlie gr6mt6*fLoor, oh one siife, ure the lotfg- 
ing8 of the officers of the prison, the kiteheu, 
the hakeheuse, the store-room, and the. refec- 
tory; on the other side, are four work-roons^ 
two of which commanieate with the street, 
and two with the court, which is separated 
from them by a> corridor, and a room where 
the work is distributed. The first story contains 
rooms for the sick, situated on eacli side of a 
long corridor, and work-rooms communicating 
with the court and the store-rooms. Above the 
refectory is the clinrch, and above the work- 
rooms are the night- cells, separated from one 
another by a staircase and a shoemaker^s work- 
room^ The court, which forms a square, is 
terminated on the third side by a building of 
one story intended for carrying on different 
trades : on the fourth side, is an isolated build- 
ing, containing fire-engines, and different ap- 

This prison is reserved exclusively for men. 
The women are confined in another building of 
one story, situated in the middle of a square, 
adjoining the principal prison. The prison of 
Gliickstadt is- so constructed as to permit the 
watchmen to observe the convicis without being 
perceived by them. The use of chains is al- 
most entirely suppressed ; in 1825, tbey were 
worn by ten prisoners only. The culprits who 
are confined for life are placed in the rooma 
which command the most extensive prospect of 
the sorrounding country. 

Notwithstanding its imperfections, the prison 
of Gluekstadt is now made the model of all 
othera which are constructed in that country. 


The priflon of Preetz, also in Holstein, wovM 
seem to have been allowed to remain ^ in order 
to sen^e as a means of comparison between the 
eld and new systems. All the rooms of which 
it is composed , are subterraneous ; they receive 
light and air only through grated openings , and 
the atmosphere which is breathed within them 
is totally corrupted. The gaoler, himself, speaks 
of them with horror. Unhappily, many of 
the prisons of the duchy of Schleswigr Holstein 
are in an equally bad state; the instances of 
escape are very numerous. 

We now pass to the South of Germany, and 
iirst to the prison of Mannheim. This establish- 
ment contains about two hundred culprits. It 
consists of two stories, besides the ground floor, 
and the subterraneous apartments; it is situat- 
ed in the centre of the city, and is surround- 
ed by a court. The church and sacristy are 
on the ground floor. This floor contains, also 
bosides one large and two small sleeping-rooms, 
a chamber of observation of the governor (Zucht^ 
meister}, another chamber for judicial examina- 
tions, a small office, a chamber for linen, four 
vaulted rooms which receive the light by small, 
round windows, communicating with the court, 
and which are capable of being warmed during 
winter, and two necessaries. The upper part of 
the church, which is destined for the prisoners, 
is on the first floor. On the second floor is a 
large work-room, above the church, a small 
one, and several sleeping-rooms. On the north- 
west side of the court is a small garden, a 
kitchen, washhoose, storehouses for br^ead and 
for wo9d, a pig-stjre and a poultry yard. The 

Ml mmam •iscfv>biiai. 

piimm Hb Mranied on the west hy 4Mr«reiit twH- 
ifiii|*8, and by tbe rMidence of the dareotor; on 
the 8011411, aii4 -on ike east, hy private itousea^ 
wbMi are aeparated 4mm H by a wall, cemaon 
to boCb. 

'WHh tbe exoeptton of this laat bonndar>', 
which does not present sufficient obstacftes to 
tMMBfaranieating with penoas wifelioot, the Bfaon* 
iMim prteon leaves bat Uttle to desire under the 
ftead of «e«irity« Varioas ylots have bees far- 
aied hy ffae prfsoaars, daring tw«iity-4ive recent 
years, for obtaining their liherty, bat they hare 
aSi been 4i8oovered In time; and of foor per- 
aofis wlio liave attempted to earape , daring the 
last alxteaa years, only one has sneeeeded. 

The prisan of Freibui;g, situated in the city 
-of that name, is boaaded on the noith, north* 
eaat, and west, by streets; on the south and 
east , It is net confined by buildings ; a very 
large coart surroands it on three aides; and 
the whole of tlie establislHnent is surroaaded 
hy a waH, twenty feet in height. The principal 
hniidlag is two hnadred and tweisty* seven feet 
long, and consists of two ateries. On the first 
Aoor is an infimary for the meo, aud six pri- 
soners' domltaries. The work-iooau are on the 
second floor. The noith>- eastern extremity of 
the iNtiidlng is traversed hy a canal , which re- 
eelves the tlth and In^Brities, aud prevents 
any corruption of the atmosphere. 

JMgtng from the aetaal stale of the doiailto- 
Ties and work -rooms, this prison is capable of 
aontalnlag one handred and aixty men, aad 
forty women ; the infirmary for the mea has 
room for twenty- three penaas; that .for the 

PAiMN nmcipi'tiiit. 347 

wvinen fur seven. Tblrteen hitfhidMAs we 
diarged with the duty of inspecting the rondiiei 
ef the prisoners, and of raperihtending their 
Ifthoars. The military appointed to guard the 
prison, are a sabaltern officer, a corporal and 
nine soldiers. 

The prison of Kaiserslautem , in Rhenish 
Ravariay is at once a place of confinement for 
l^ersons condemned to hard labour, a house of 
confinement, and a house of correction. Those 
wjio are condemned to hard labour have a chain 
attached to each foot with a weight at the 
end of it, or, if the nature . of their labours 
will permit, they are coupled' two and two. 
AH criminals are chained hy one leg during 
the night, as soon as they ar« discovered to 
bo dangerous. All correspondence with persons 
either in or out of the prison is forbidden thetti. 
If letters are addressed to them, the director 
opens them, ascertains their contents, 'and af- 
terwards communicates to them all which he 
tbinlLS proper for them to -know. Prisoners of 
a less degree of criminality are not so rigor- 
ously treated. 

The next head under which we are to consi- 
der German prisons is that of their Saiutriiy; 
fwid here we shall allude to the lodging of the 
prisoners, the atr amd exereise alEi>rded them, 
their cleanliness, food, dress, and the treatment 
of the sick. 

Avd, fiist, in respect of lodging: the Ger- 
man prisons are no longrer se crowded as 
formerly. Prussia has distingalslied herself in 
attending to this point Austria has provided in 

S^ PHiaoN vificipt'iNi;. 

Her p^ial code for enlarging the interior of ber 


The following table shows the nnmbor of 

inmates in the prisons of Arurtemberg, in 1829, 

and, also, the number for which they were 

respectively built. 

Number Number 

of of 

Prisoners Prisoaer* 

for whiek January 1, 

they were 1829. 
Houses of Police at: built. 

HKiLUKOSN . 100 142 

ROTTKNBU^O 100 76 

ViM 105 98 

Houses of Correction at : 

MARKOnoNtKGBN 200 201 

LcuwuisBURo 670 675 

OoT'rEszBM 220 2*22 

Fortress of 

Total . . 1413 1420 

At Gliickstadt, the work-rooms are large and 
well-lighted ; on the floor are chests which ser\'e 
as seats .for the workmen, and contain their 
property^ There is glass in the doors, througfai 
which the- prisoners are inspected. In the sleep- 
ing-room, the beds are in a line, bat, some- 
times , the want of space renders it necessary 
to place one above another. Bach prisoner has 
his separate bed, wjiich is composed of a mat- 
' trass and piUow , stalTed with chaff, two. sheeta, 
and one G«verlit in soDimer and two in winter. 
The aged, who are in ill-health , have feather- 


tr^ds. The pirlitoiierB IMive eUhn fertitfeb» «nee « 

At Freibarg, th« bifdsteads ar« »f oidi:) boiftain 
tiro pertfonli, nnd aire renovefl two feet aM It 
half from each other. The more ^angerouA 
jMitooiiers, and ttime 'vriio are In fff-tiealllk) sleep 
Alone. The beid ieonsiiitft of a matfraas, ^M^ilf^l^ 
\ng thirty poinh^a, of a plHMW tt»red wtth chaff, 
«f two blehcheftf lieinpefi Mieeitls, knd >of two 
wdllen coverlita in wiAt^, atid oae In summer. 
By the side of «Ach wed Is a spittoon; BMd in 
each rbokn, are «Wo tables fbr wAMililg) and 
water for drinkfyig; eiMch prlsoher ftaa hlii WASfe- 
fhr^ftsm and tow^. Ther« is a nig^ht- itool 
Iti e^ery fldeeillner-rootti. The roomil are 'lighted 
liy two fatefns, aiid in Mi tikere hre sttMl 
Windows, Ihrmigh w])l($h tw^ w«tchmeti are 
-stiriceiy boand to l-eoik into tHkeitt every ^aarter 
^f an hour. 

At Cologne^ aiso) t^« natoire of Mke bvlMitti: 
will not Allow of ea<m pflBOnet havlnf a dell 
and a hed to Himself, itvti be«sce«ds have been 
Ihtrodweed Iketre ivkte the lnfliiiMr>'^ ^ Ml are 
about t<o be i»o tliroaglioat th^ prison. 

At HMbbottrg, the aystem of hewiing tife ti«w 
.prtoen wtOi Wanh trnter odirt^yed fa vfipw has 
been adopted. 

With ireapect to ttlr Ufttt ekevclse lih Geiteian 
.^iBOns, we nay renarit, thAt lit Weibtrlr. A«eBh 
Atr is admitted every 4«y into the DWrMiMli, re- 
•feciwrieii, bed> and wotklngr-rboAis, and Hiat the^ 
«re fumigated Wttft |anip«r. 

At NftirganI, tlie lihr is changed twice a 'divy, 
and urnch prMoneni as lie ilot worfc iti the open 


3&0 PBiBON msciPLniB. 

jgir^ are taken every day into the court of the 
prison j and remain there for some time. - 

At Gliickstadt, the prisoners have large courts 
to walk in; where they remain for haVf an hoar 
at a time. 

. In the prison lately constructed at Hamburg, 
the only place for exercise is a court. thirty feet 
wide, and sixty- nine long, which is enclosed 
.hy a high wall; but it must not he forgotten, 
that it is merely a place of detention, and that 
prisoners never remain in it long. 

An Austrian lawyer, a manager of prisons, 
has well observed that .in ensuring the cleanli- 
ness of prisons, we ought not to fear the charge 
of affectation. Cleanliness, he truly says, is 
one of those qualities, the habit of which hav- 
ing been once acquired is never lost. In the 
Austrian prison of Linz, which serves as a mo- 
del for all the others in that empire, the pri- 
soners, both male and female, are charged 
with the duty of cleaning the building. 

In the- prison of Mannheim, there are baths, 
and the prisoners are supplied with soap and 
towels. They are shaved once in. eight days, 
and their hair is cut as often as necessary. 
The bed and work-rooms are regularly washed^ 
and are whitewashed once a year. 

At Luckaa, in Prussia, the prisoners are 
obliged to wash themselves after every meal, 
and thoroughly every Saturday evening. Their 
hody-linen and towels are changed every week ; 
their sheets every three months, except when 
they are ill. Twice a year the mattrasses and 
pillows are washed, and staffed with clean straw; 

FflltOlf DISCIFUNK. 851 

tbe wooden bedsteads, are also taken to pieces, 
and washed with warm water. 

At Nangard , Cologne , and at the fortress of 
Coburg, arrangements similar to the foregoing 
are In force, and in the latter, a reward is 
given annually to those prisoners who are most 
noted for their cleanliness. 

At Glfickstadt, the rooms are swept every 
day, and washed once a month. 

At Gustrow, in Mecklenbarg-Schwerin, de- 
viations from cleanliness are severely punished; 
the sleeping-cells, passages, and staircases are 
fumigated every day with vinegar', the work- 
rooms are washed every three weeks; sipoklng 
is forbidden, and the prisoners are obliged to 
wash every time they quit work. 

At Freiburg,, the prisoners have a bath every 
month and a fuot>bath every fifteen days. 

At Kaiserslautern , in Rhenish Bavaria , the 
work-rooms, corridors, and sleeping -cells are 
swept every day, and washed once a week. 

With respect to diet, we have collected the 
following facts: At Nangard, the government 
only supports those prisoners who can produce 
a certificate of poverty. Provisions are furnished 
by contract. Prisoners of a superior class are 
obliged to adopt the same diet as the others; 
except that they are allowed sometimes to pur- 
chase meat for dinner and -soup for supper. 

At Schweidnitz, the prisoners' breakfaist con- 
sists of a soup made of bread, flour, or pota- 
toes; for dinner they have peas, oatmeal, po- 
tatoes , turnips or saaerkrant, and two pounds 
of bread; once a fortnight they have a quarter 


TlM» e««IP«Rl^i9« 9/S thft sauB for two. liundred 
pjarw^i^ in tf>e nr'uum Q^ ^iackstadt^ 10 as fol^ 
l«jivfi: Thr^e pcplw 9I o^^m^l, * iar«^ quautitj,' 
ul v#t«|fte« , f«wr peo](8 «f c«ir(Mifi|» <^nd fi^am 
one hundred and ihipty t€| one .hundred an^ 
tliiitdf-i.v« ROim^ 0^ fresfi mea^ Ct«ii oances 
per head). Som«tiN»^, tl^fy li^av? J^pOc-iSoiq^ 
a«d, «o«M||iiMts., the A«o^<^d fouji^ 

Al Dresden, M>e pf woi^ei^ U9iVa «I0W ^^ birf*^ 
fiwH, v««eiWrte« C4»r diniieS} and two poi^^ 0^ 
ImwaOi e%ii» pe4* dj«iit. 

At tf»u)aii^A«ii ?•?*. P^iaoiwr ^, daUy , one 
pqtu«a IW4 a iMiU ol gotod brea^, lia^ a piol, <^ 
soap and as mv^M vegot^bl^st; and oa SunAia,ya 
Qjwl lioU^Mffif^ <A« po«MMl aa^d a guart^r 0/ nieat; 
before trim, ihtts l¥ive tb^ saoke qoantily oJ^ 
meat Qvery otlwr d»^v Yi^e prov^noua are €ur- 
nifilied by • co^liiacfcWy mM^ U»e sjMM^J^iAte^r 
danco •iC tb^ (Uvtfcloi:- 

At IMrawiroiWr, In Vh^tlifih Frussia, tU^e diet 
'm t^mku \o tM» abo^v^f but lUe prisoners w^^ 
U*i seiVte^^d to. bawd lal^our, cctoeive an extra- 
aMowav^e ^f m«at, 9aW) beojr, bJ;aiiay> ^d bread. 
Tbtf aged 9xe allowed a lAttlo tobaccot.. 

At Cologne, the prisoners in guod health have 
oa« pAund and. a )kaU o| bli^ck bread diMly; 
for breaKfftst, soiip oo^npoiiod of three oun^e^ 
and a half 4^f wMie«t Aowf) baif im oiwce •f bat- 
ter a^d hatf m QUDQ^ of sait, The dinner, «oik- 
sUtfs aAtenigtely 0/ »otatoea, s<MI«clura«A , oM- 
BOfO, poaa, bei^s, i|«d l^nUJ^s* 

At enntrow, the pi:isoa^r has one pou^d and 
a half of ryebiead daily, two quarts of beer, 

PBIBON DltCtPLOni. 858 

Boap for breakfast, and vegetaM«» for diimer; 
besides this, the prisoners of the first class have 
one third of a pound of meat twice a week, and 
the other five days, herring, sausages or tripe; 
those of the second class have one third of a 
ponnd of meat on Sundays, anid tripe twice a 
week. Those of the first class have hatter and 
cflieese in the evening, and those of the second, 
salt to eat with their remaining bread. 

In Austria, the prisoner has one pound and a 
half of bread per diem, a farinaceous dish with 
milk three times a week ; and on Sundays, a soup 
with a quarter of a ponnd of meat, and the fn- 
rhiaceons dish again; but by working industri- 
ously, he is allowed to improve his condition. 
. In respect to ClotMng, the prisoner at Mann- 
heim receives t!!e following articles of dress at 
the expense of the state ; viz., a cap and waist- 
coat of cloth, two pairs of trowsers of canvas 
ticking, and two under-\itiistcoats of the same 
stuff, a woollen waistcoat, two pairs of worsted 
or cotton stockings, three shirts, two pocket 
handkerchiefs, and two cravats. The colour of 
the dress is gray for those guilty of lighter 
oflfences, and gray mixed with black for the 

At Lackau, the prisoners condemned for six 
months or less, retain the dress which they 
bring into the prison ; the others, unless the com- 
mittee of the establishment permit the contrary 
in some instances, all wear the costume of the 
establisliment, which is gray and yellow. 

At BranweHer, all the culprits wear the pri- 
son dress, whfch is good and warm. 

At Cologne, dresses are only given hi cases 

9&4 iWiMi m^cmjfuk' 

«ars of irr^y eUth, sliiiUi» mmOks And oHpa r tlios« 
wlM) work biive leatbera akoes; tlie otliera, w«oii«p 
oneiL TI19 women Uave stripea dresses whidi 
wi|9b) flboes and stoeUngA. 

A4; Hambofg, ilie Gulprita on entering i^iaon 
Ifiy aside their own dresses, and receive froat 
tbe estabtishment 9 tbree sbirts, two pafars mf 
stockings y a paUr of trowaers, a Jacket and a 

At Kaaserslautern , tbe prisonerA are dressed 
in. gray detb; tbey bave an unbleacbed linen 
cravaty whicb is cbanged every week; a waist* 
coat, an nnder-waistcoat, a pair of linen trow* 
sers, wbicb are wasbed as often as necessary; 
stockings clean every week, shoes, a shirt clean 
every week and bleached twice a year^ one 
packet bandkercbief per week, and a cloak of 
gray cloth for the cold weather, aa well as a 
cap of tbe same material. 

Tbe women's dress is composed of a black 
cap, a neck-handkerchief and an apron of un- 
bleacbed linen ; a black gown and a Jacket of stri- 
ped stuff; a pocket-handkerchief, worsted stock- 
ings, shoes and a shift; their linen is changed 
as often as that of. the men. The prisoners 
cendemned A»r criminal offences wear celonred 
dresses, half gray and half brown. 

. In Austria, the prisoner's dress consists 0/ a 
jacket and trowsers, of linen in summer, and 
of common cloth In winter, of a pair of shoes 
and a cloth-cap. Tbe women have two pair of 
stays, one for winter tbe ether for summet, a 
gown, ah apron, thread stocktnga and a pafar 
of slippers ; their Unen Is changed every week. 


H^ B9W «Mia Co tlM rr««l4ini4 <^ Me ^lick 
in the German prisons. At Plessenlinrg) in Ba« 
v«ria, tta mwrtelity ^f tbe sick is iwo and a 
telf.per oent. The beds in (lie inlirwary are 
eompMed of » iMillasse, a imUtuss, a piUoWf 
a csverlit> and sheets whieh are ciwBged every 
da}\ The patients are treated wHh th«> greatesl 
eare, and are allewed bath neat and wine when 

At JWamiheiw, as fmoa as a prisoner is ill, 
the physician orders lilm to the infirsDMiry, whteh 
is « larce phMe, very airy and lighted by Ave 
windows. The flalhry of (he physiciap is 909 
Awinsy that of the sargeen^ ld3 AQtim^ IHitients 
sttfering under Qontagioos diseases are kept 
separate from the re«t. The pioportloii ef th« 
sitik to the whoU namlier of enlprito Is as oai^ 
te seven. Illien signs ef SAental alienatloA are 
majtlfested by a prisoner, he is conined alone^ 
and if the disorder eontiniieS) is sent to thir 
Mviatio Asylum. 

Al Naagard, the men employed ip (he inifm* 
ary are takev from the prisenens of the Irst 
olass; the norses may he the wives «f the prir 
spfttoffieeES. Ail sooa as a iNriaoner is ill» hf 
i« transferred from the control of the dtroetor 
to that of the physloian. In 1828^ whon inter* 
mKtent fevers were very fre«aent, the mortality 
of «II the inmates wm one in sizty-sii, and ip 
t9St9, when they reappeared, ane in fortyniiir. 

At schweidnitfs the mortality is five per wnt. 
At Qi^nweller, in 1826, 746 prisensrs were ad- 
mitted inte the infirmary^ and 980 othws were 
treated f«r ligh^r complaints in (h^ prison it- 

866 vmmoH msciputm. 

self; of tliese 1726, 1587 were enred, and for- 
ty-seven died. 

At Freilrarg, tbe physicHui is ohhge^f when 
the circnmstances of the case require It^ to sett 
his patients two or three times a day, and al* 
ways to visit tbe prison daily; he is also bound 
to send in a detailed report at the emi of the 
year. At Kaiserslautern the physician sees that 
the regulations of cleanliness are fully carried 
into effect, superintends the diet and clothing 
of the prisoners, and visits them daily. 

We now come to speak of Inspection, the 
third of the heads under which we proposed to 
treat of Cferman prisons: and we may remark, 
at the outset, that they are not well construct- 
ed for facilitating this object. In the prisons 
of Southern Germany the culprits are generally 
compelled to be silent during the hours of la- 
bour; at Freiburg it is forbidden to the prison- 
ers to speak, at any time, to any one except 
the director and the superintendants; and the 
punishment here for communicating by signs is 
more severe than for breaking silence. They 
are not even allowed to raise their eyes to 
look at the visitors of the establishment. Their 
conduct is incessantly watched, and any negli- 
gences in performing devotional duties are se- 
verely punished. At Aix-la-Chapelle, the sn- 
perintendance is very imperfect, being chiefly 
Intrusted to the director, the task-master, and 
to three old soldiers in bad health, who often 
require as much watching as the prisoners. 

At Naugard this duty is exercised by the In- 
spector of police, the inspector of the work, 
and by twelve superintendants who are armed 

»i^ii a^cfMM»tre<| like fl<srj«iHita of poilice. TiMy 
rejpaii^ wMb tlie prVsoiwrs ait day, except when 
tliey lii^vo ot^^c duMaa tw futfl Ui the esUblish^ 
m^t. Ip tMU pria^f^ tlie bell rhiga for riaii^ 
^ feuf i« attonner and hajlf-paat six in winter, 
wben tbe siiperinlendanta and steward attend 
to see tbat tbe prisoipers wmdi tb^piselvea pro- 
perly , aa.<| keej^ tbe prisoifi clean; tben tbey or- 
4er tbe piVson to be fumigated througbont. Break- 
ftipst follows, wben tbe superintendants receive 
from tl^e director' bis orders for tbe day, ol 
wbicb tbey begUi to regalate tbe execution as 
iH>on as tbe i^eal is finisbed. Half an boiir af- 
ter labour baa ceased, vis*, at lialf-past ei^it in 
summef, aiM^ At balf-past four in winter, tbei 
bj^U rings lojr ^be prisoners to be conducted to 
tbeir cells. At Gustrow tbe prisoAers rise all 
U^ year r^^nd at. four, and rotljre to tbeir cells 
at nine. 

lu Austria tbe prisaners rise a,t Ave^ make 
tboir beds, open tbeir wUidows,, fumig^e^ anil 
afterwards wasb at ^i^e fountains iii^ tbe court, 
under tbe eyes of the guard* There are mom- 
lipg-iurayera at a quarter to six, i^ter which 
the prisoners are conduicted to work. At seven 
tk«y have one pound and a half of bread each, 
wbiob is to serve tfiem aU day. At eleven, 
they enter the bet^rooins ^bere lil^ey pray in 
common; each tben goes to fetch bis; dinn^s; 
they are aMowed frooi dinner |o mid-day fQr re- 
d^eatipn* Tbey finish lyork at seven; on Satur-> 
days, sit six. Tbey retire to rest, after evening- 
prayers, at a quarter t» eight in winter, and at 
a quarter to nine in summer* 

Tl^ principle of ViofjfifidiaUim ha^ been sue- 

358 PRISON DISCd>1'lNK. 

cessively acted upon in most of the prisons ' of 
Germany. At Naogard, the men are divided in- 
to three classes, and the women into two. * The 
divisions are founded on the degree of crime 
and on the severity of the punishment, but as 
the latter does not alw&ya afford a just indica- 
tion of the viciousness of the prisoner, this rule 
admits of exceptions founded on signs of repent- 
ance exhibited by diiferent culprits. At Luckan 
the sexes are rigorously separated, and lodged 
in different buildings. The men are divided in- 
to two classes, one of which is composed of 
the principal criminals and also of those who 
appear to be dangerous characters, whatever 
may be the degree of the offence which they 
are expiating at the time; the second class con- 
sists of those who are imprisoned for a compa- 
ratively short period, and who are not regarded 
as dangerous. 

In Rhenish Prussia classification of prisoners 
is still imperfect; at Cologne, the sexes are 
separated, but prisoners of the same sex are 
not classified. A separate locality has, how- 
ever, been recently granted to those who exhibit 
signs of good conduct. An edict of 1811 ordains 
the separation of different species of convicts 
in the duchy of Nassau. An ordinance of 1818 
prescribed the separation of the young from 
the old in the prisons of Holstein, but it had 
not been generally carried into effect in 1828. 
There does not appear to be any classification 
at GldclLstadi, but the efficiency of the system 
of superintendance somewhat counterbalances 
this defect. At Freiburg, the sexes only are 
separated; at Mannheim, besides this division, 


the culj^rits form two claflses . and at Kaiseri- 
lautern, three. 

Ill respect to the liObour which . is executed 
by the culprits, the prison^ of Germany deserve 
particular attention. The spinning^ and rasping 
which were formerly carried' on in these estab^ 
lishments were doubly objectionable, as afford- 
ing but little pecuniary profit, and being of 
little service to the prisoners on their liberation. 
It was the jealousy of the different trades and 
corporations which restricted the employments 
of the prisoners, and the same obstacle pre7 
vaiis, though to a much less extent, at present. 
The prisoners at Munich are employed in an 
excellent manufactory of cloth, and as tailors 
and shoemakers. The cloth alone, which is of 
the quality worn by the higher classes , pro- 
duces a revenue to the government of more 
than 50,000 florins yearly. The prisoners in 
Holstein are still, for the most part, unemploy- 
ed; but not 80 io Schleswig, particularly at 
GKickstadt, where each prisoner is bound to do 
a certain quantity of work., which if he ne- 
glects, he is punished ; if he does more than Is 
required, he is paid for the surplus. The pri- 
soners are employed in spinning, carding wool, 
knitting stockings, weaving, making pipes for 
fire-engines, and sail-cloth. 

At Dresden the prisoners are employed in 
cleaving wood, breaking stones, down to sand, 
and dragging coals through the touii. The inha- 
bitants can obtain the prisoners to do any sort 
of work for them , by paying five groschen >per 
day to the establishment. 

At Plessenburg there is a cloth manufactory 

S0O pinids «ficfi*f.f!fR. 

ttnd A ^bflOtelibUlie 1ft the pHisoH. Tft<» yMMkiii^iii 
are allowed to work a little for tbemarelves. 
lite ttianagftrs ef the prison allow cufptltii who 
have* been liberated to become the wiperlntend- 
ants of th« others when at work. 

At Maftftheim tbe ei&plO)i»en<s 6f the prisoil^ 
era are dressing liettip, weaving, knittitig, midt- 
thg dothes, shoes, and, lately, manntkctarlng 
ifflt. The Mfperilitendanfts of the ilifltereftt kinds 
«f worlA receive fontr htttidred florins a year. 
ISome of the prisoners are employed In ttAking 
the furniture of the establishment, aaM oChert 
are empfo^ed by the inhUbitahtd , At tbeir own 
liouses, to cleave wood. At Freiburg th<i prison- 
ers are employ^ ih stone- catting, weaving, 
carpenter's- wnrk, and as masons, flftoettiakers, 
tailors, locksmitlHS, and clockmakeris. At Co- 
logne , a certtin naihber of prisoners afire with- 
out occupation , those , for instance , who ai-e 
condemned to a short imprisonment, debtors, and 
tfcose tft the untried who are not likely to re- 
ttlain long. fVades of all sorts are carried on 
by tbe nest of the prisoners; iimongst other*, 

The following table shows the numbers of 
employed and unemployed in the prison of Alx- 
la-CbapeUe, in 1828: — 

Blen eihployed in weaving, carding, ^. 

or as taiiofti, meohnnics, An 768 

Men employed in the kitdhen, infirmary, 

and in the service of the iMtablisbniettt M 

Total employed SI 8 


Tli« men unemployed, were: 

Prinoners placed au secret 43 

Ditto of weak body or mind 87 

Ditto flick 162 

Ditto of a certain rank ,' and debtors . . 14 
Ditto condemned to pay a line, or confi- 
ned for a sbort period 400 

Ditto confined temporarily in this estab- 
liflliment, in transit . . . > 109 

Total unemployed 815 


The number of women employed in knit- . 

ting, weaving, 4:c. , was 197 

Ditto in the service of the establishment 9 

Total employed 206 

The women placed au secret 23 

Ditto in lU health 28 

Ditto debtors , or confined for a short 

period 87 

Ditto temporarily imprisoned, in transit . 60 

Total unemployed. 198 

Since 1826, a treadmifl has been used in the 
house of correction at Hamburg. The diameter 
of the wheel is seven feet and a half; it has 
twenty - one steps ; ten prisoners are employed 
at it eight hours a day; they are divided into 



two seetiona of five eRcb, and relievo each 
other every five minates; during this short 
space of time they have to moiiBt foar handred 
and twenty steps. 

At Gustrow, several trades are exercised, and 
the object of emploj-ment is, not only to keep 
the prisoners occupied during their stay in the 
prison, hut to teach them a useful vocation for 
tlie future. 

At Rudolstadt, in the duchy of Schwarshurg- 
Radolstadt, the prisoners are employed in tur- 
ning a wheel, the noise of which constrains them 
to silence ; it sets in motion a machine for clothe 

At Naugard, the object of the management 
has been, not to turn the prison into a manu- 
factory, but to employ the prisuuers in any oc- 
cupation which they had previously been taught. 
At Kaiserslautem , the treadmill and several 
occupations have been introduced. 

Before we conclude this subject, we shall say 
a few words on the savings of prisoners, and 
on the produce of their labour in general. 

In Austria, the daily task allotted to each 
prisoner is such, that the very industrious have 
a little time to work for themselves. The half 
of what the prisoner earns for himself is set 
apart to be given him at his liberation; the 
other half he can spend in buying bread , beer, 
or broth. In order to appreciate this privilege, 
we must remember that the Austrian prisoner 
has, for three days of the week, only a pound 
and a half of bread for all provision. 

At Naugard, the prisoner has first to pay for 
his support by his labour, before he receives 

PHISAN DISril'LlNR. ^6$ 

anything extra, l^liat lie saves, is placed in 
the Savings'>bank at Stettin, aiMl should he die 
in coninement, it goes to his heirs. On his 
qaitting the prison, he not only receivi^s his 
extra earnings^ bat he is duly recommended 
where he is lllcely to obtain employment. In 
respect to their gains, all the prisoners are pat 
as much as possible on the same footing; and 
half is at their disposal for the purchase of 
provisions, a little brandy, and, on Sundays, 
of tabacco for chewing. 

At Dresden, the sum accruing from surplus 
labour is never placed at the prisoner's disposal 
until his liberation. 

At Hamburg , the system of surplus labour 
has not been adopted; but a part of what the 
prisoners earn reverts to them. 

The other German prisons ressemble more or 
less the above, in the arrangements they have 
introduced respecting the employment of prisoners. 

At Coburg, half the gain is given weekly to 
the prisoners to spend; and the other half -is 
retained until their discharge. 

At Mannheim, elementary instruction of a 
mutual Kind has been introdueed , by which 
reading, writing, and arithmetic aretahght; it 
takes place for an hour every day. On Sundays, 
one of the convicts reads portions of the Bible 
to the others. 

At Freiburg, the Sundays and holldhys are 
devoted to the instruction of l^uch prisoners as 
desire it, in reading. Writing, and accounts. Of 
6941 prisoners who were confined at Schweid- 
nitz, from 1801 to 1836, 1500 learned to read, 



1250 to write, and 970 to cast accountfl. This 
efltabUshiu^nt has a regular scliooi master. 

At Naugard, a prisoner is charged provision- 
ally with the elementary instruction of his 
companions ; but only the better prisoners are 
taught to write, from a fear that they may 
abuse the acquisition. 

The following table shows the state of ele- 
mentary instruction in those prisons to which 
the influence of the Rheno - Westphalian Prison 
Society had extended , two years after its for- 




Not able 

No. of 







cast . ac- 

Bouie of Correc- 





. tionatDQflSBL- 






Home of Arrest 


•t Cl.BVB« . . . 





Criminal Prison 

•t Wbsbl . . . 





t>itto At COI.OOIIB , 





Hoaae of Arrest 

et Cologhb . . 




House of Correc- 


tion et Bbav- 

^nrsiLBK .... 



— .. 


In the Stadt'Yogtei prison at Berlin, no mea- 
sures have been taken to promote elementary 
instruction: the women only receive it, owing 
to the exertions of a committee of ladies. At 
Spaniiau, a school was established in 18!H, 
where the prisoners are taught reading, writing 
and accounts; the schoolmaster has a salary of 
fifty dollars. At Brandenburg thhrty of forty 


are choiSen out of three or four hundred prison- 
ers to receive elementary instruction t^hrice a 
weelc. At Prenzlau and at Potsdam, the young 
prisoners alone are instructed and are sent to 
school in the respective tow'ns. 

At Luckau, Kdnigsber/er, Rawicz, Brieg, Muiis- 
ter, Werden , Aix - la - Ctiapelle , and Malmedy, 
there is religions, but no elementary instruc- 
tion. At Lichtenburg, (he clergyman is the 
schoolmaster, and at Treves, on Sundays and 
holidays, the prisoners are instructed in read' 
ing, writing, arithmetic and drawing; whilst 
the young Protestants go regularly to a school 
in the town. 

In the house of correction at Brauweiler there 
are a schoolmaster and a schoolmistress, the 
former has two hundred and sixty -^ two dollars, 
the latter, two hundred dollars, salary. Tlie 
prisoners are taught spelling, reading, writing, 
the history of their country, arithmetic, dra^ 
wing and singing, and natural history. In 1826, 
the school contained one hundred and sixt3'-two 
children of from five to sixteen, and twent}'- 
one persons above that age. The boys learn 
the military exercise, during the hoars of re- 
creation, and form a well organised company, 
which has a commander, eight sub- officers, 
eight corporals, four drummers, and six trum- 
peters; this company materially contributes to 
the maintenance of order. There is an annual 
examination of the school. 

In the Austrian prisons, Sunday-schools only 
have been established, where reading, writing 
and arithmetic are taught to those who desire it. 

Our next topic is the Religious Instntction 

346 PAISON ai8CIPI>lNK. 

wliiGh is iniyacteii to pristtneni in G^many. In 
Austria, the chaplains «»f the gaols have ordi- 
nary and extraordinary duties ; the former con- 
sist of the ceremonies of worship, of regular 
religious instruction, and of tlie administration 
of confession and of the sacrament every three 
months to those who request it; the latter con- 
sist of admonitory visits to the prisoner on his 
admission and at his departure. The chaplain 
has also to visit the sick, and sometimes the 
work-rooms. The Protestant prisoners -are un- 
der the spiritual care of pastors of their own 
faith, who have interviews with them at sta- 
ted times. The care which the Austrian govern- 
ment takes to define in what cases the prison- 
ers may confer privately with the chaplain, 
shows evidently that it considers such commu- 
nications as exceptions to its system, which Is 
rather passive than active. 

A different principle prevails in the Prussian 
prison of Naugard. Here the most scrupulous 
measures are taken in order that the chaplain 
and director may become thoroughly acquainted 
with the character of each prisoner, the cir- 
cumstances of his crime, his previous life, his 
family relations, and the state of his moral 
nature. The chaplain is tiound to visit the pri- 
soners frequently, to gain the confidence of 
each, to become their friend and father, to con- 
cert measures with the director for improving 
the situation of those who deserve it, and in 
cases of complete and sincere regeneration to 
recommend them to the royal clemency. 

Religious instruction is still very limited in 
the prisons of Rhenish Prussia; however, for 

rmsoH BiM;iM.iNtt. 817 

some years past, they have been recovering tnm 
the defective state in this respect, in which they 
were left by the French government. Almost 
all the prisons of Old Prussia have their cha- 
plains, and in all there are sermons on Sandaya 
and holidays. Prayer •books, bibles, and testa- 
ments are distributed amongst the prisoners, and, 
in some places, the work entitled Stunden der 
Amdacht CHours of Devotion3. In the Hamburg 
prison, religious service is performed on Sun- 
day's and holidays, and all the prisoners take 
the sacrament twice a year. At Mannheim and 
at Freiburg, mass is -celebrated on Sunday mor- 
ning, and religious instruction is given in the 
afternoon; on Tuesdays and Fridays, the same 
forms are repeated at Mannheim. 

The principal Disciplinary Punishment in €»er- 
many is the bastinado, which is everywhere r^ 
sorted to, except in the city of Hamburg, and 
in the Rhenish provinces, where the Code iVir- 
poieon is still in force. Solitary confinement 
has also been .adopted as iv punishment in se- 
veral German- prisons. 

In the prison at Munich, the disciplinary p»«. 
nishments are, the bastinado for the men, and 
solitary imprisoinnent for the wemen; in Au»* 
tria, they are reprehensien, either private, f« 
before all the prisonefs, exelasion from recre- 
atiMif bread-aad-water diet, the bastinado foe 
the men, and whipping for the women. At Dres<* 
den, Plessenbnrg, and Mannheim, they ressemble, 
more or less, the foregoing, as also at Naugard. 
At Luckan, in addition to tho above punishments^ 
the men are sometimes pat in irons. At Kal-^ 
serslautem, In Hheniah Bavaria, the disciplinary 


panisluneiits are, privation of lOap, or diniinu- 
tion of the daily allowance of bread, soHtary 
imprisonment and a certain quantity of laboar 
for a peclotl not exceedin^^ eiglit days; solitary 
Imprisonment and labour witliout soup, for a 
period not exceeding lifteen days; and, finally, 
solitary confinement without ligbt or ocenpation 
and with the hands and feet fettered for the 
same period. At Brauweiler, the oniy» disciplin- 
■ ary punishment is solitary confinement , which 
can be inflicted for tliree days up to three months. 

A praiseworthy care is talcen by the respec- 
tive government of the prisoners after their (I- 
beration. At Hamburg it not unfrequently hap- 
pens, that the prisoner receives on his liberatioB 
a sum of. from two hundred to three liundre<L 
marks , as the produce of his labour. When 
the conduct of the prisoners has been good, 
exertions are made to establish him honestly.- 
In the duchy of Nassau, if the prisoner's gaina 
do not amount to a certain sum, the deficiency 
It supplied by the government. In all cases hh 
receives a new dress gratis, and care is taken 
to replace him well in the world, and to pre- 
vent him from returning to his former career, 
fn Rhine-Prussia, as soon as the prisoner is 
liberated, he is protected and assisted by the 
Rheno-Westphalian society. In Austria it is 
the authorities of the police who are bound to 
superintend him, and to aid in his restoration 
to society. 

On the proportion between the recommUtoU 
and the sum total of admissions, we have select- 
ed the following facts. Of 1700 culprits con- 
fined at Plessenburg, during five years, ono han- 


ilred and forty-elglit bad already been once im- 
prisoned, and twenty-one twice. At Brauweiier, 
out of tbree bondred and eight prisoners, ninety- 
seven were twice imprisoned, eight thrice, and 
two five times. The prisoners who have been 
recommitted form a second class, and their diet 
is not 80 good as is that of the first. Of 9071 
prisoners admitted during the year 1838 into 
the prison of Aix-Ia-Chapelle, 1215 men and 
375 women were committed for the first time, 
two hundred and thirty-six men and ninety-two 
women for the- second, one hundred and forty- 
seven men and sixty-eight women for the third, 
twenty-nine men and two women for the fourth, 
five men and one woman for the -fifth, and one 
man for the seventh time. Of seventy Juvenile 
prisoners confined at Frankfort on the Oder in 
1836, forty eight boys and eleven girls may be 
regarded as improved, inasmuch as till 1830 at 
least, they had been convicted of no fresh oflTen 
ce; and nine boys and two girls were recom- 

Here, then, we terminate the abstract which 
we have made from the minute and instructive 
researches of M. Lagarmitte. To render the 
statement more complete, it should be added 
that Dr. Julius, of. Berlin, Cwell known for his 
devotion to the subject, an4. for his systematic 
lectures upon it,) has been lately sent to Ame- 
rica by the king of Prussia, in order to report 
upon the state of the Penitentiaries of the Uni- 
ted States. Dr. Julius promises the results of 
bis observations in detail, and, for the present, 
has issued a pamphlet in which he declares him- 
self, in general terms, favourable to the system 


of separate confinement purai|eil la some of tliose 

TlioKe who are desirous of more minute in- 
formation respecting tbe prisons of Germany 
wili do well to consult, in addition to tbe works 
of Julias; FrUdUMdet, " BitHiographie M^tbo- 
diqae des Oavrages publi^es en Aliemagne sur 
les Paavres, prec^dee d'un Coup-d'oeil Histo- 
riaue siir les Pauvres, les Prisons, les Hdpl- 
taux," CParis 1822); Rialelhiiber , '^Vegweiser 
der Literatur der Waisenpflege, und der Gefang- 
nissfcunde/' CCdln, 1831); InglU's ''Tyrol," 
for an account of the prisons at Munich and 
liinspruck; the Reports of tlie London Societjr 
for the Improvement of- Prison Discipline; and 
the ''Journal des Prisons" edited at Paris by 
B. Appert. For an account of tbe old aspect 
of thpse institutions, reference may be made to 
the tiol^le Howard's "State of Prisons. " 





Xhe baths, spas, or mineral waters of Ger* 
many, constitute so large a portion of amvse- 
ment, health, and profit to the inhabitants, are 
so attractive to strangers, anil enter so widely 
into its natnral history and social geography, 
that it reqaires no apology to introdace them 
at some length to the reader. Those who de- 
sire more copious illustrations will probably 
have recourse- to the volumes lately published 


by Dr. GnrnviUe, * and Co tlie German w«rk8 of 
Osmann, Bley, RIchter, and Mosch: the liter- 
atare of Germany is particularly rich in all 
that relates to the history of batiusi and mineral 
waters; they appear , indeed, to have alwajra 
been a matter of fonder interest to the Germana 
than to other Europeans. We have preferred 
the alphabetical arrancrement, as most conve- 
nient for reference. Their celebrity is constantly 
fluctaating: new springs rise occasionally into 
a notoriety, not always dependant on their po- 
sitive efficacy, but humble slaves to the caprices 
of speculating proprietors, and of distinguished 

Aiz-la-Cmapbllb. This town, one of the 
tuost noted of the German watering-places, boasts 
ef an illustrious antiquity. Its situation, on 
the boundaries of three monarchies, has greatly 
contributed to its celebrity. It is now annually 
frequented by between four and five thousand 
persons. Its hot sulphureous waters are both 
used for bathing and are taken internally, and 
maintain their early celebrity as a curative agent 
in gout, abdominal disease, cut-aneoos affec- 
tions, and obstructions. 

Two products of these sprbigs deserve a par- 
ticular mention, viz., der Badestein Cbathstone) 
deposited in the tubes through which the waters 
are conducted, and the sulphur- precipitated by 
the vapour of the Kaiser Spring. This latter 
is esteemed purer than any other salphur, and 

* Of which «B abridfemeDt^ with eorr«ctions and 
«otei, h«« he«B puhliahed hj ih« hookii«ll«r Ch. Jagel 
•t Fr«»kfort. 


is , thwelore , always preferred for medicinal 
purposes. There are several clialybeate springs, 
one of which has only lately been discovered. 

Since 1831; thermal salt has been prepared 
from the springs of Aix-la-Chapelle, and this 
together with the thermal sulphar, precipitated 
by the Kaiser Spring, will render it possible to 
imitate the waters at a distance, as far as na- 
ture can be imitated. 

There are hotels in immediate connexion with 
most of the baths. Private lodgings cost Arom 
one to four dollars weekly. In the hotels , for 
the same period, from four to ten Prussian 
dollars are paid ; the price of dinner at the 
table-d'hdte, is from one-third to two-thirds of 
a Prussian dollar. 

- The hire of coaches is dear; for instance, 
from four to six dollars are paid for a single 
afternoon's ride. 

Amongst the uomeroos places of amusement 
and public resort are the gambling Casino, the 
concert and ball-rooms, tea-gardens, Tivoli, and 
aomi neighbouring villages, romantically situated. 

The latest and best works on Aix-la^Chapelle 
and its mineral springs, are BeschreUnmg von 
AtuMn von Quix, 4to. 1829, and Die HeiU0tel* 
len von Aachen, ton J, P, Monheim, 183^. 

Analysis of thb Kaisbh Sphing. 

I. Solid matter in sixteen ounces. 

Sulphate of Soda t\ grains. 

Muriate of ditto ^\xo » 

Carbonate of ditto 4*L „ 

Carbonate of Lime *^/,o ,, 

Carbonate of Magnesia .... ^j, ,, 


374 iUSBiUI^ WATKWS ov ovbmavv. 

II. Gaseous matter in sixteen ounces. 

Carbonic Acid Qaa .... ^'^l^ ciil^la inciies. 
Sulpburetted Hydrogen . . IS'I, „ 

iUJcxANDBRSBAo, in BavaHa, lies hBlf a leagiia | 

from tlie town of Wiinsiedel, and dose to tbo 
village of Sichersreutb. Tlie acidulated spring 
here was discovered in 1734, and tbe building 
wbich encloses it, erected in 1741. Tbe last 
marcgraves of Brandenburg -Baireath expended 
large sums of money on tbis watering-ylafle, in 
erecting several buildings whicb form a bal^ 
circle. Numerous and very diversified walks in 
tbe chanaittg neigbbourbood render a stay bere 
extremely agreeable. Curious masses of rock 
claim especially tbe attention of tbe visitor. 
Tbe spring is somewbat similar to tbe Selter»* 
water. A very agreeable beverage is made by 
mixing it with wine, sugar, and. currant -juice. 
It is ah exceUent remedy in cases of relaxt^ioa, 
mucous cough, diarrbcea, female co«plaiQls» 
eruptions and. sores. On account of its tonic 
quality, it is often taken after a course of tbe 
Carlsbad waters* Tbe pbi«e is not At present 
very much frequented, although livtaig Uier^ 
is dieap and very agreeable. 

The next post-station is Wunsiedel. The best 
account of this mineral spring Is by Vbgel, Die 
Mineraiqueiien des K6iUgreieti9 Batepn. Alexan- 
dersbad is seventy-one leagues from Hfunidk. 



Analysis of tub Sphins , by Voesi'* 

SuIptiaCe of Soda . . . O.tO grains In 16 oz. 

Carbonate of ditto . . 0.30 „ „ 

Muriate of ditto . . . 0.!20 ,, „ 

Carbonate of Magnesia 0.25 ,, „ 

Carbonate of Lime . . 1.12 „ ,, 

Carbonate of Iron . . 0.28 „ „ 

Silica 0.25 „ „ 

Solid matter . . . 2.50 ,, „ 

Carbonic Acid Gas, 28,2 cable inclies in 16 oz. 

Albxisbad. This celebrated watering-place is 
situated in the Seekethal, in tbe Lower Harz, 
and in the dachy of Anhalt - Bernburg. The 
spring here was first discovered hy the miners; 
who , at an early period , were familiar with 
this romantic region. But is was not till the 
years 1766 that It was chemically examined, 
and it was first visited by invalids in the sac- 
ceeding year. It never, however, became much 
known, till In 1800, the researches of Von 
Grafe, who was then sargeon to the duke of 
Anhalt, established its repntation. 

In the years 1800 and 1810 , the first build- 
ings were erected, and in 1812, the number of 
visitors was three hundred and fifty-six. Since 
that time, two chalybeate springs have been 
discovered in the immediate neighbourhood. 

The principal buildings at Alexlsbad are, the 
Saloon, with adjoining gamiBg«*roems, the Led* 
ging-house, containing sixty apartments, the 
Traiteur-heuse , with thirty rooms for the use 
of travellers, the New Baths, and the Ducal 
PavUlen, •Ituated on the bank of a mountaia* 



Stream, surrounded by beautiful and romantic 
walks. The expense here is moderate, particu- 
larly that of lodging and bathing. 

The neighbouring little town of Harzgerode 

furnishes the necessaries of life, and receives 

visitors when Alexisbad is full. 

The nearest post-station is Ballenstadt. The 

best account of the mineral spring is by Gr&fe. 

Analysis by Gravk. 

Sulphate of Soda . . l.^L 
Sulphate of Magnesia 0. ^I^,, 
Sulphate of Lime . . 0.'f<) 
Resinous extractive 

matter O.'/g 

Muriate of Magnesia O.^Jq 
Muriate of Lime . . 0.*/, 
Sulphate of Iron . . O.^L 
Muriate of ditto . . O.^L 
Carbonate of ditto . 0.^/^ 


Solid matter . ,. 6.^) 


ns in 16 oz. 

Altwassbr is a village in the circle of Wal- 
denbnrg, in the Prussian province of Silesia. 
It has been a watering- place since the middle 
of the last century, and was formerly much 
frequented by the Polish nobilit>'. 

The waters are prescribed in abdominal af- 
fBctions, gout, melancholy, chlorosis, hysteria, 
and nervous weakness. 

There are live fountains.. The principal in- 
gredients of the waters are the carbonates of 
soda, lime and magnesia, and carbonic add 
gas, In the proportion of tweinty«>/oiir cubic in- 


ches in sixteen ounces.- Here, ais in all tlie 
larger Silesian watering-places, tiie guests are 
divided into three classes witli respect to tlie 
charge for bathing; the first pays seven gro- 
schen, the second and the third three, for a bath. 

The place is pleasantly sitaated in a narrow 
valley , and contains a royal palace. The walks 
in the neighbourhood are delightful. A musical 
corps of the miners plays every day on the 

Many invalids drink the waters of the neigh- 
bouring Salzbrunn, and only bathe at Altwasser. 
This place is becoming more frequented than 
formerly. The nearest post-station is Friedland. 

Badrn near Vienna. This watering - place 
is situated in a delightful neighbourhood, and 
boast of a beautiful park , a theatre , a casino, 
several palaces, and numerous seats of Aus- 
trian nobles. The water is strongly impregnated 
with salts and sulphur, and with it is made an 
artificial slime for medicinal application. The 
springs are efficacious in incipient mucous phthi- 
sis, in gout, cutaneous diseases, paralysis, con- 
tractions, scrofula, and various sores. They are 
used both for bathing and drinking. Till within 
the last few years , Baden has been the most 
frequented of German watering-places; it com- 
bines all the advantages of an agreeable way 
of life, with very moderate prices. Lodging 
is particularly cheap. The neighbourhood is' ex- 
tremely attractive. In 1831 , the monthly rent 
of a room was from twelve to twenty -five flo- 
rins. Vienna is two German miies from Baden. 

378 minkraf. wavsrs of oshmanv. 

Analysis ov thb Spbino, by Voha. 

Sulpbate of Soda . . l^f^ grains In 16 oz. 

Muriate of Soda . . . S^f^ 

Sulpbate of Lime . . 3 

Carbonate of Lime . 3*/^^ 

Sulpliate of Magnesia I'f^ 

Carbonate of ditto . 2''jjj 

Muriate of Alumina . 1 

Carbonic Acid Gas . l^^/aj cubic iiich«»« 16 m. 
• Sulplmretted Hydrogen 4^1^ ,, „ 

Badrn-Badbn is situated on the Os- or Oes- 
bacli, in ttie grand ducliy of Baden. Its cele* 
brated warm springs were known at a very re- 
mote period. Tbe town contains about four 
hundred houses and three thousand inhabitants. 
It was founded by the emperor Adrian, and 
embellished by Aurelins Antoninus. Baden and 
its neighbourhood are beautified by numerous 
private seatA, by lovely walks, vineries, mea- 
dows and English gardens. There are several 
ancient buildings , which have been converted 
to modern purposes. There are sixteen principal 
springs. In August, 1832, the number of visi- 
tors at Baden was eight thousand. The public 
boildings are remarkably numerous and splendid. 
The waters are prescribed for gout, paralysis, 
cutaneous diseases, ulcers, and abdominal affec- 
tions. TJie best account of ihis noted place is 
contained in Schrader's €f€schicht& Badens. The 
best German isiociety is not to be sought here; 
but there is no lack of gambling and dissipation. 


Analysis op ihb paikcipai« Spiiikg,. by Sulxkh. 

Muriate of Soda . . 17^f, grains fn 16 02. 
Sulphate of Lime . S'*/,, „ „ 

Muriate of ditto . . I'^/ioo » >» 

Carbonate of ditto . 1*'L 
Muriate of Magnesia . **/.^^ 

Oxii'e of Iron *l^^ „ 

00 >> f> 

Bekka is situated on the river llm, in the 
grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar, about three leagues 
from the capital. A sulphureous spring was 
discovered here in 1813, and a chalybeate one 
in the succeeding year They rise in a meadow 
which has since been changed into a [garden. 
In the buildings and arrangements, the conve- 
nience of the invalid, and the pleasure of the 
gayer visitors , are alike regarded. The nearest 
post-station is Weimar. 

BocKLn is a village in the valley of the ri- 
ver Saale, aboat two leagaes froqi Kissingen 
and fourteen from Wurzburg , where there is 
an excellent chalybeate spring. The neighbour- 
hood presents delightful valleys, skhrted by well- 
wooded hills. The baths are enclosed in six 
noble baildlngs; and the w^hole is the property 
of the state. The beauty of the neighbonrhood, 
and the excellent arrangements which have been 
made there, have rendered Bocklet a very fa-^ 
shlonable' resort. The houses are elegantly fur- 
nished, and the beds excellent. A dinner costs 
from t^'onty-four to forty kreutzers. The way 
of life .here is stiller and more retired than in 
most watering-places. The waters are parti cut 



larly efftcacious in all nervous alTectiona, chro- 
nic maladies, and diseases of females. They 
ebb and flow about every twenty- eight hours. 
For further particulars, see Dr. Haas's Booklet 
und seine Heilquellen, Wiirzburg , 1831. 

Analysis op tub Ludwiosqukm.k and Frirdiiichs- 





III 16 oz. 

. 27.50 . 


in 16 ox. 

. . 5.50 

. 6.25 . 

. . 3.25 

. 1.25 . 

. . 0.75 

. 0.75 . 

. . 0.75 

. 7.25 . 

. . 6.25 

. 1.25 . 

. . 0.75 

. 0.65 . 

. . 0.25 

. 0.50 . 

. . 0.25 

Muriate of Soda .... 
/I^ulphate of ditto . . 
Muriate of Potasli . . 
Muriate of Magnesia , 
Carbonate of VAwni . , 
Carbonate of Magnesia 
Carbonate of Iron . . 
oiiica .•■•...•• 

Of Carbonic Acid Gas, 31 cubic inches aro 
contained in 16 ounces of the Ludwigsquelle, 
and 26'la u> the FrUdrichsqvuUe, 

BrCckrnau. This ancient Bavarian watering- 
place is situated in the Upper Mayn circle. I* 
owes its present celebrity to the patronage of 
the king of Bavaria, and to the assertion of 
Hafeland that its waters, great quantities of which 
are exported, are equal to those of Schwalbach : 
they are said to be the purest chalybeate known. 
They are as clear as crystal, very brisk, and 
pleasantly acid. Their medicinal effect- Is deci- 
dedly tonic, and they are particularly efficacious 
ill nervous disorders. The' spring riaes half a 

MINRRAI. WATKim Of aRlUNANy. 881- 

league from tUe town in a lovely valley. The 
public buildings are numerous, and very taste- 
fully and conveniently conctructed. Brdckenau 
is a post-station. 

Cannstadt is an old town in the kingdom of 
Wurtemberg, about two English miles from Stutt- 
gard, and situated in the lovely valley of the 
Neckar. In this place there are no less than 
thirty-seven mineral springs. The effect which 
the water produces upon the animal system is, 
to invigorate the secreting organs; it is also a 
laxative and a reputed solvent. The bathing- 
houses are commodious. A dinner at the best 
table d'hote costs forty-eight kreutzers. There 
are vineries in the neighbourhood, which pre- 
sents numerous interesting objects to the anti- 
quarian and lover of nature. The climate is 
mild and pleasant. Nevertheless, Cannstadt is 
not much frequented, except for a few days, 
by persons from Stuttgard. The principal ingre-. 
dients of the water are muriate of soda and 
carbonic acid gas, with both of which it is strong- 
ly impregnated. 

Cahi^sbau is situated in the kingdom of Bohe- 
mia, on both sides of the riVer Tepel, at about 
fourty degrees North latitude, and at one hun- 
dred and eighty-two fathoms above the level -of 
the sea. This celebrated watering-place derives 
its origin and name from the emperor Charles 
the Fourth, who recovered here from the wounds 
he had received at the battle of Cressy. 

In 1581, the first bathing-house for the poor 
was erected here by the count of JSchlick. Alto- 

383 minbhal watkhs or grrmant. 

getiier, tlvere are at least a dozen springs. Nu- 
meroas relics are faitlifidly preser^^ed at Carlsbad 
of tlie noble and illustrious guests who bave 
visited it from time to time. Several parts of 
the town are named after different distinguished 
visitors. In 1832, ciarlsbad contained four hun- 
dred and fifteen houses, and three thousand two 
hundred inhabitants. In the season, It presents 
a. scene of remarkable variety and animation. 
Since 1831, arrangements have been made in 
order that the baths may be used in winter as 
well as in summer. A bath costs, according 
to the style of building and furniture, from twelve 
to twenty-four kreutzers. The year 1833 was 
one of the most brilliant that Carlsbad has ever 
seen; 6,599 visitors were present, amongst whom 
were several crowned heads, and renowned ge- 
nerals. A peculiar custom here is, that no one 
is allowed to carry arms; even officers are not 
permitted to wear their side-arms. 

A good dinner at a iabie tthote costs thirty- 
six kreutzers. There are numbers of ruins, ro- 
mantic villages, valleys, Ac, in the neighbour- 
hood, to which, during the season, excursions, 
are constantly made. Since the discovery of 
the Carlsbad springs, several hundred persons 
have written respecting them. A good modern 
author on the subject, is Porschmann. Der 
Schiossbrunnen zu Carlsbad. Prog 1817. Or. 
de Carro has written a guide-book, in the flench 


Analysis or thb Sphudkl at Gahlsbad, by 


Grftins in 16 osj 

Salpliate of Soda 10.86916 

Muriaie of ditto ... , , . 7.97583 

Carbonate of ditto 9.69500 

Carbonate of Lime 10.05005 

Fluoride of Caldam 0.02458 

Pliosphate of Lime 0.00169 

Carbonate of Strontia .... 0.00737 

Carbonate of Magnesia . . . 1.36965 

Phospliate of Alumina . . . 0.00246 

Carbonate of Iron 0.02780 

Carbonate of Manganese . . 0.00645 

Silica . 0.57725 

Solid matter .... 40.60729 

Carlsbrunn is situated in Austrian Silesia, 
about tliree leagues from Freudentlial , wliich 
is the nearest post-station. It lies in tlie nar* 
row, wild, and well-wooded valle)' of tbe Oppa. 
It contains chalybeate and acidulous springs. 
The buildings consist of a bathing-house, some 
lodging-houses, a public room, and an hotel. 
This is one of those retired watering-places 
which are only visited by invalids. There are 
some wild and extensive views in the neigh- 

CimowA is a village in the circle of Glatz, 
in Prussian Silesia, very near the Bohemian 
boundaries. It contains several extensive bath- 
ing-houses, and other buildings. The springs 
are alkaline-chalybeate, and are amongst the 
strongest In GerBMny. In 1829, 185 famlHes, 


consisting of 348 persons, visited Cudowa^ tout 
the n.imber has since dimimshed. The nearest 
post>station is Reinerz. 

CiTXHAVKN, a watering-place ) is sitaated at 
the mouth of the Elbe, on the North Sea. It 
has been a sea-bathing place since 1816. It 
boasts of a beaatiful new bathing-house, near 
the haven, which contains a great nnmber of 
apartments, halls, and galleries. On the heach 
are conveyances, for sea-bathing. In the eve- 
ning, til ere are always amusements here, such 
as balls, and concerts. The nearest post-station 
is Ritzehuttel. 

DiNKHOLD, in Nassau, situated not far from 
where the Lahn falls into the Rhine, contains 
an alkaline-chalybeate spring. It is rich in 
iron, bitter hut not; unpleasant, and is a very 
good tonic, and stomachic. The nearest post- 
station is Ems. 

Dobbri^had is a batiungrplace in Styria, about 
half a league from Gratz. It is the property 
of the States -general. The waters are cold, 
sharp, and bitter, and contain calcareous and 
chalybeate salts. Most of the visitors here are 
females. The nearest post-station is Gratz. 

DoBBRAN Is a market-town of the grand duchy 
of M dckienburg-Schwerin, about half a mile from 
which, on the shore of the Baltic, is the oldest 
and most popular sea-bathiag place in Germany. 
It contains a ducal palace, with beaatiful gar- 
dens. Tliere Is also a handsome theatre, and a 

WtVKHAI. WAtKlig W imUMAViY. 885 

l&rii^ |iubli« ro«in in the fturni of a pttviUon. 
T4I4S place was a favourite residence of the late 
lamented graiid duke. There are several lakes 
In |he neighbourhood. In the month of August, 
swan-hunting on the Coventlake is a favourite 
amusement Tke n^earest post-station is Rostock. 

Dhaitsch, or GfoDRSBsne, is situated near the 
Rhine, about a league from Bonn. About a hun- 
dred yards from this lovely village there is a 
mineral spring. It has been a watering-place 
since 1789, hut was much more frequented be 
fore the French war than at present. Dr. liar- 
less, of Bonn, has examined the waters, and 
pronounced them to be chalj'heate , and mildly 
stimulant. The part of the Rhine valley in 
which this place is situated, is extremely beau- 
tiful ; on the one side it is hounded by the Se- 
ven Mountains, the forem^kst of which is the 
Drachenfels , and on the other by woody hills. 
The nearest post-station is Bonn. 

EoBR, or FHANZHNSBitrNN, is n watering-place 
in the Eilbogner circle of the kingdom of Bohe- 
mia. The springs ar« half a mile from the 
town. The buildings round them are remarkable 
for their eiegaace and convenience. Prices here 
are moderate ; thirty-six kreulzera are paid for 
an excellent dinner at a tiUde- d'hote. There 
are four springs. From 150,000 tm 300,000 bott- 
les of the water are exported atinually. Their 
medicinal . effect are universally ' celebrated in 
aCectJons of thelnngs, kidneys, and liver. Tlie 
way of life at Eger is tranquil and, retired. 
It is •■« af the few places where the guests 


380 V »nN*BAh wiitinis or cKRWANr. 

Have free license to hunt. The* season eom- 
menoes rather later than in most otlier places^ 
and lasts till the middle of September. The 
nnmber of visitors is between nine hundred and 
a thousand annually. The climate Is rather 
cold. The town of Eger is a post-station. 

Analysis of thb paiNciPAL. Spring, by 

Grftimi in 16 os. 

Muriate of Soda 8.9333 

Sulphate of ditto 25.4166 

• Bicarbonate of ditto 8.4555 

Carbonate of Lime 1.6000 

Carbonate of Magnesia . . . 0.5333 

Carbonate of Lithia 0.0026 

Carbonate of Strontia .... 0.0013 

Carbonate of Iron 0.0683 

Carbonate of Manganese . . 0.0043 

Phosphate of Lhne 0.0213 

Phosphate of Magnesia . . . 0.0106 

Silica 0.3666 

Solid matter 45.4142 in 16 os. 

Carbonic Acid Gas, 21,106 cubic inches in 16 os. 

EiLSBN is situated in the principality of Lippe- 
Schaomburgy a leagiae from the capital, Backe- 
burg, and twelve leagues from the city of Ha- 
nover. It is a poor village, but rich in mineral 
springs, of which seven are saline and sul- 
phureous, and four chalybeate. The bathing- 
bouse, which is an excellent building, is the 
property of the prince. In 1833, the season 
commenced June 1, and ended September % 


The large lodging- house contains 140 rooms. 
In the season, halls and concerts are the chief 
amusements ; gambling is forbidden to the na- 
tives. The surrounding country' is agreeable. 
Buekeburg is the nearest post- station. 

EmS) in tttfi duchy of Nassau, lies in the 
deep and narrow valley of the Lahn. The baths 
here were known to the Romans, and were 
celebrated throughout the middle ages. The 
public buildings are elegant, extensive, and 
very con^modious. The price of a room, in 1832, 
in the two large bathing- houses, was from 
twenty-four kreutzers to two florins, daily. .A 
good dinner costs about a florin; wine ia a| 
forty-eight kreutzers a bottle. This place is 
extremely rich in mineral springs, which have 
been found particularly efficacious in diseases 
of the eyes, also in glandular and cutaneous 
disorders. The fashionable period for Ems, was 
between the years 1815 and 1830. On this 
watering-place, read Hulshoff, Bau und #«tfM 
QueUen, Mitnst&r, 1831. 

Analysis of thb Krabnchkm SpaiMe, -bv Stbuvb. 

Sulphate of Potash 0.5924 grains in 16 oz* 
Sulphate of Soda . 0.1213 
Muriate of ditto . . 7.7974 
Carbonate of ditto . 0.7118 
Carbonate of Lithia 0.0167 

SUtca 0.4139 

Phosphate of Alumina 0.0018 
Fluate of Lime . . . 0.0019 
CarbonaU of ditto . 0.1407 











Carbouftte ofifagiiesia 0^7887 gcaiiis m Id #z. 

Carbonate of Strontia . 0.0107 ,, . ,, 

Carbonate ofBarytes . 0.0020. „ „ 

Carbonate of Iron . . 0.0164 „ „ 

Carbonate ofMangane seO.0037 ,, „ 

Solid matter 19«&104 » »- 

FachingicN is in the dacliy ef Naasaw, two 
miles north of ^Viesbaden , en tiM Laiin. The 
mineral waters of this place are " vnivefsaily 
celebrated, and ftent even t« America. The 
Tillage lies between high moantaltis; the sfrtringa 
rise in a meadow, and aire three in Roml^er. 
The taste of the principal one is ptqaant, aot'- 
duiated , and somewhat bitter , and contains a 
good deal of. carbonic acfd' gaa, and irom It is 
efficacious is* crndlties, obstraotions , and weak- 
ness of digestion , also in goaty and netvoiis 
affections. The place is ne<» Areqaented by in- 
valids, bat 800,000 bottles of the water have 
been expdrSed. annually. The nearest post-station 
is Limbarg. 

FttAftzsiisBinjHN. Se<e E§»r. 

Fkkyrnwam^h is a town of not far ftom the 
Oder, in the Prussian province of Brandehbarg. 
About half a league distant from it, ia a mea- 
dow-valley surrounded by wooded hills, H a 
mineral spring and batlring'4l6asei Ranad these 
are other buildings, oiie of which is a small 
theatre. This pla^e was fom^rly mubh patro- 
nized by the Prusslah royal family. HereVre- 
derie William I. itsed to senC lite giani- greiia- 


diers. The waters are not particularly efficaeioiuiy 
but have been found useful in gout and rheu- 
matism ; they are chalybeate ; and are said to 
taste like ink, and smell like gunpowder. The 
neighbourhood is extremely agreeable. The town 
is a post-station. 

Gastrin. This Austrian watering-place, situa- 
ted in the Salzach circle, was known to the 
Romans, and strongly recommended by Paracel- 
sus. It lies at the foot of mountains which are 
a continuation of the Norian. Alps. There are 
here four principal springs, and a bathing-house 
for horses. The place is visited by about one 
thousand guests annually, chiefly of the higher 
classes, and foreigners. 

The waters are clear, are without either smell 
or taste, and contain no gas; and in 16 oz. 
only 2'|2 grains of solid matter, which is chiefly 
mineral alkali. The warmest of the springs 
elevates the thermometer to 35^ Reaumur , and 
possesses the property of affecting the magne- 
tic needle, which, however, the water loses 
as it cools. The springs are very promotive* 
of vegetable fertility. They are prescribed in 
nervous relaxation, hypochondriasis, and scro- 
ftila. Gastein is sixteen miles from Salzburg. 
The latest author on this place* is Strietz , hM 
Bains de Gastein, et leur effet adaUrabitt dans 
ies Maladies les plus desesperees. Gastein is a 

GoDRSBinio. Se« Draitsch. 

GanisfiAta ia a nnall village near Frenden- 

890 NHiniAf^ WAfMmm of GKMiAffir. 

stadt, in the 4athy af Ba4«n. The spring /tr 
which it ifl celebrated Is a. valine -cbaifirlleate, 
which has been found beneficial in meipwnt di- 
«eases of ttie longs, hemorrhoids, font, and 
Jaundice. The neightioiiriitod eonsisti of me^ 
dows, intersected by trout-streams, and banii- 
ded by hills. There are also some wide and 
wo«dy |HNM!ped»^ Sonte yeftvs «f o , H w^as vi- 
«tted by the grand d«Jce. The nearest pfst- 
staitiom is Freudenstadt, 

Gaoas^WABKON, a wsterlng-'Plaoe in HMngary, 
48 an fanpoxtant town kk tiie Bihar distfiot. The 
w^na Biirinc^s rise in the neightonriag moiui- 
taHuB, tmA iow tavrards the town. They oontain 
iron^ selenium, and sulphate of magnesia, and 
onlay great reputation in the cure of stone, 
paridysis, and diseases of the akin. 

Th« hanks ot tiia streams in which these 
WJrteffs flow, are often covered with tents pit- 
rhed hy visitors from the «eighbottrh,ood. No 
good analyaUi hia yet been made of these 
•prtngs. The town is a poa^station. 

Hnncijiins-BAVHS , or Mkuasla. These II(ing«- 
rian springs rise in Baitat, and ui the AVal- 
lachiaBi- Iliyrian district. They are all warm; 
some 42^ E^aumur. They were esteemed by 
the Romans, and are aow visited anmially 
hy 1,400 persons from Hungary, Croatia > 6oU« 
vonia, Transylvania, ^c. By the HomanS they 
were consecrated to Hercules. In the daric and 
barbarous ages, amidst freqaent wars and mi- 
grations, and under the dominion of the cres- 
cent, they were nsghectsd «id foigottfln. Though 

mnuMM4 wATsas or qbumany. 801 


fhe springs are sometitiies cftUetl Meii^ia) UMy 
rise Mearly a aule from that town, in the long 
Knd romaiiHc vaii^y of the Cserna. 

There are a great number of iMktbs in splea- 
did public buildingH) arranged with every ima- 
giimbte attention to comfort and ooRv^nienoe. 
Bally concert and biliiard-rooms , and ail the 
other buildings cammon to watering-places, are 
-here in abundance. The waters are very rich 
in hydrogen , and are useful in relaxation , cu- 
taneous disotders^ pai'alysis, and the sequelie 
of apoplexy. The credit which they enjoy in 
the neighbourhood is unbounded. See Dr. Srhwar- 
zott, Die Herculesbader bei Mehadia, Wien, iBSi. 

HiBSCHBBRo, orVVARMBHUNN, .is B Small but 
hemitifitl marJcet-tawn, lying on bath banks of 
the Zacken in Prussian Silesia, in the district 
of Liegnitz. The warm sulphureous springs here 
were discovered in 1176, and since that lime 
ihetr reputation has always been very aKteasive. 
9bey are now surrouaded by four hiiiidred noble 
buildings, and w«re visited in 1831, by 3^9&8 
persons of .whom 2,617 were invalidfl. There are 
.six principal bathing -kmises; also, an basplCal 
for the poor, of whom four hundred aanvally 
reomve, ^ratnitonsty, the beaeiit of these watcMrs. 

The temperature of theae springs is froaa 34^ 
to 30^ CRO They are used with giood effiect in 
rheumatism, gout, glnidular, cutaneous, abia- 
nUnal affections, and indammatioB of tlie' eyes. 

In respect to the sitnatioii aad surroimdiag 
country, few waterJng*p]aee0 can compete with 
it. PsBps and vaponr- baths are here, compa* 
ratively, very chaap, and the neaesaariea of Ufa 


not exi»ensiTe. The latest desaiption of tbis 
watering- place is by Bergemann, Warmbrwm 
und seine Heilquellen, Hircliberg, 183i; HirscA- 
berg is a post-station. 

Analysis ok trr Probstbi-bad , by Tschvbtnrb. 

Carbonate of Soda . 5.014 grains in 16 oz. 

Sulphate 6f ditto . . 2.666 

Sulpliate of Lime . 0.290 

Muriate of Soda . . 0.666 

Carbonate of Lime . 1.043 

Silica 0.754 

Resin 0.057 

Solid matter . . 10.490 

>» if 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas, 6,666 cubic Inches 

in 16 oz. 

KIS8IN69N is a .Bavarian town , in the Lower 
Mayn circle, the rising celebrity of which is to 
be attributed to the peculiar excellence of its 
mineral waters, and to the improvements in its 
establishments of which the government is par- 
ticularly careful. A magniiicient Curtaal has 
been opened in 1838; and beautiful walks laid 
out in the environs. The town lies in a valley 
of meadows, enclosed by vine- dad hill^; past 
it flows the river Saale. The situation and 
whole neighbourhood of the place are extre- 
mely beautiful. The bathing- houses and other 
public buildings axe in the most elegant style. 
A well stocked circulating library, kept by 
the Frankfort bookseller Charles JAgel and con- 
stantly supplied with the newest f^enoh, ir^nnaB, 



and Piigliih publications conlributes to the enter- 
tainment of tJHe visitors. Tbe prhicipal spring is 
calletf the Hagotzy ; its waters are dear and 
briglit when first drawn, but they shortly turn 
yellowish, and deposit a red sediment. To (he 
taste they are acidulated , satt and bitter. They 
are very efficacious in indigestion, gout, alFoc- 
tions of the kidneys, congestion, and cutaneous 

Aiiotlier spring, the Pandur, which is very 
rich in carbonic acid gas,. is at once a laxative 
And a remedy in diarrhoea. Provisions here are 
goojd, particularly the wines, and prices not high. 

In 1833, there were 1,400 guests at Kis- 
singen, amongst whom were members of several 
royal families. In 1838 this spa was visited by 
more than 2000 guests. 

Analysis op vhb Raootxt. 

Muriate of 8oda 

Muriate of Kali 

Muriate of Magnesia . . . 
Muriate of Ammoniac . . 
Hydro-Oxyde of Magnesia 
Carbonate of Soda .... 
Carbonate of Iiime ., . 
Carbonate of Magnesia . 
Carbonate of Strontia . . 
Carbonate of Oxyde of Ir«i 
Cair^Mittte of Mangaaefie I 
CarbMiate of Liibia I 



to KMtner. 

to Vogel. 

6 ruins. 


i.i lb' u«. - 

.ill 111 u/. 







— - 















Phosphate of Soda — 0.17 

Sulphate of Soda 2.00 2.00 

Sulphate of Lime 2.75 2.60 

SUica , 0.50 2.25 

Alumina — 0.18 

Organic Extract — 0.15 

grains in 16 oz. 85.00 or 85.36 
Carbonic acid gas .... 25.00 26.25 
Nitrogen — traces. 

^ Lanobck is a town in Prussian Siieaia, which 
gives its name to some mineral springs about 
a quarter of a league Arom iL These were 
celebrated as early as the thirteenth* centnryi 
but were nearly forgotten, when they were vi<- 
sited in 1766, by Frederic the Great. 

The public buildings underwent great impro- 
vement at the beginning of this century. The 
number of guests here annually, some years 
ago, was from six hundred to eight hundred; 
at present it does not amount to more than five 
hundred. There are four principal baths. The 
hotels are not very goad. One of the springs has 
a temperature of 84^ C^O Another, which con- 
tains a great deal of sulphuretted hydrogen, is 
given with good effect in gout, serofala, and 
some cases of hiemorrhagy. 

The surrounding country is rich in natural 
beauties ; most of the neighbouring streams con- 
tain trout. The nearest post -station is Glatz. 

Lauchsvadt is situated in Prussian Saxony, 
in the circle of Mersebnrg, A saline dudybeata 
spring was discovered here in 1810. There ara 

Miicitiiiiii WATB1I8 OP emiiAKy. 395 

awttal eseelient public baildiDgs, among whieli 
is a theatre y formerly honoured by thesuper- 
intendance of the poet Goethe. 

In 1831, there were fonr hundred visitors at 
Lauehstadt. The springs here never fireesse, and 
maintain an eqaaie temperature of 48^ C^O 
1%is- place is a mile from M erseburg , which is 
the nearest post- station. 

LiBBKNSTKiN IS a Village in the duchy of Saxe-> 
MeiniBgen, two German miles and a half south 
of Eisenach, and four north of Meiningen. . It 
lies on the south-western border of the Thurin- 
gian forest, in a romantic and fruitful country. 
Its springs have been celebrated since 1606. 
. The public buildings are excellent. Dinners 
cost from twenty -four kreutsers to a florin; 
from four to six florins are paid monthly for a 
room. There are several natural curiosities in 
the neighbourhood. The waters are strongly 
impregnated with alkalies, iron, and carbonic 
acid gas, and are of great service in the treat- 
ment of hypochondriasis, hysteria, and weak- 
ness of the stomarh. 

The nearest post -station is Wizelrode. The 
queen cTowager of England resided here dmring 
her visit to Germany, in 1834. 

Mannbbsdobf it situated at a short distance 
to the south-east of Vienna. Its alkaline springs 
are much warmer in winter than in summer, 
and contain ten grains of selenium, and twelve 
of sulphate of magnesia> in every two pounds. 
They are very serviceable in all disorders arts- 


sing iT9m ooiigiflstioii , load or i^eiioHil. Vk* 
n«xC |ioBt<«tiitioii iv Wimpassinff. 

Mahiknbad is situated in Bolieaia, at about 
49® North latitude, and lies aliout three bwidrad 
and tweBt>'-two fathoms above the level of Um 
sea. This noted waterini^-plaoe is of recent 
celebrity; in 1813, its springs flowed neglected 
through a region, which answered exactly to 
the description of the aaoient German marshy 
forests, Intersected by streaais, and interrapted 
by rocky mountains. Since that time, however, 
at least eighty -elegant buildings have sprmg 
up rovnd the mineral, springs in this wilder- 
ness. In 1882, there were 1,528 viaitora, of 
whom one htindred and fourty were Prusatens, 
seventy*eiglit Russians, and fifty-four Poles. 

The walks in the neighbourhood are extra- 
mely agreeable. There are five principal mine- 
.ral springs, strongly impregnated with mineral 
alkali and carbonic acid gas. These watera 
are largely exported, having been found very 
beneficial In congestions, scrofoiii and dropsy; 
but the respective springs differ so mseh In tlieir 
chemical oompositlon,* that there is searoely any 
complaint for which one or other of tbem may 
not be adapted. 

Accounts of these springs are to be found 
in the forty sixth volume of ^Huf eland's ioranal,*' 
and in Gerle's BifjKhreilOing tier BithmUehen 
HUder. Prag. 1827. The nearest post^atatioa 
is Plan. 

MKiKmcno is a vMage and watering-iilace ia 
the principality of Lippe-Detmold , very near the 



^umim b9imdftries. The public buildings are 
gaoiiy 9Ln4 Uie musical band excellent. Gambling, 
beyond a certain extent, is not permitted. The 
family of the prince of Lippe visits Meinberg 
almost every year. The springs ' are alkaline 
and sulphureous. The nearest post-station is 

Nrkndohv is a pretty village and watering- 
place, in the county of Scliaumburg , belonging 
to the Bleotorate of Hesse. The first buildings 
were erected here in 1786; the ' principal are, 
the electoral palace, three batliing^houses , and 
a lodgiog-liouse. The arrangements . are admir- 
ably adapted . for the convenience of visitors. 
There are three principal 8pring.s, each contain- 
ing a. large proportion of sulphur. For a de- 
tailed account of their medicinal effect, see AVur- 
zer, Ueb^ die Schwefelquellen zu Nenndorf, 
l^pzig, 1822, Nenndorf is a post-station. 

NiBDKRSKiiTRKS, 6r Srltbhs, is situated in the 
Dukedom of Nassau, oh the road between Frank- 
fort and Cologne, three leagues from Limburg, 
which is the nearest post-station. Its. mineral 
springs, which are amongst the most celebrated 
in Europe, were discovered in the middle of the 
sixteenth centory. In 1&19, one and a half 
millien bottles of these waters were exported, 
and in 1832 that quantity had considerabl}' increa* 
sed. The temperature of the springs is 12° CB3. 
The present price of one hundred bottles is from 
fourteen to sixteen florins. . This water increa- 
ses the activity of the lymphatic and glandular 
system, and not being heating, is equally adap- 



tetf for the plethoric and debilitated. BisehofT 
published the latest work on the Selters* waters 
in 18!26. 

Analysis by Bischoff. 

Grftins desiccftted 
in 16 OS. 

Carbonate of Soda 5.85&3 

Salphate of ditto 0.2488 

Muriate of ditto 16.2855 

Phosphate of ditto 0.2749 

Carbonate of Lime 1.8627 

Carbonate of Magnesia . . . 1.5958 

Carbonate of Iron 0.1542 

Silica 0.2892 

Solid matter ' 26.5703 

Carbonic Acid Gas 15,5714 cubic inches in 16 oz. 

NiKRENSTKiN IS a town in the grand Duchy of 
Hesse, noted for it.s wine, and for a mineral 
spring strongly impregnated wilh sulphuretted 
hydrogen. The nearest post station is Darmstadt. 

NoROHBiH, a town in the kingdom of Hano-> 
ver, possesses a sulphureous spring, which was 
discovered in 1804. For an account of its me- 
dical efficacy, see Redderson's Veber die Zeu§f' 
nisse und KrankheitagescMchte im Jahre 1807. 
EinbecH, 1808. The nearest post-station is 

Okrn is an important watering place in Hun- 
gary, near Pesth, frum which it is separated by 
■the Danube. This town has often been under 
Turkish dominion, of which there are many re- 
lics in the neighbourliood. The principal bnil- 


dings and spring are railed tlie Kaisers -bad; 
the former was erected either by Mohamed Pasciia 
or Hussein. In tlie hotel opposite it, there are 
still three Turkish baths. The price of a bath 
is from twenty-seven to thirty kreutzers. The 
stream- of the principal spring turns seven mills, 
and gives at its rise eight hundred and forty 
cubic feet in an hour. The water is acid, sa- 
line, chalybeate, and sulphureous, and is an 
excellent remedy in diseases of the urinary or- 
gans, in rheumatic head-ache, and in diseases 
of the abdominal viscera. Ofen is a post-station. 

Posing is a royal Hungarian free town, near 
which rises on a vine- hill, a cold chalybeate 
spring. When first discovered, it was only used 
for the cure of intermittent fever; but it has 
since been found equally successful in stone and 
its kindred maladies. Besides iron, it contains 
mineral ailiall and selenium. The bathing-house 
was erected in 1777; two set6 of pipes run 
through all the rooms, the one containing hot, 
the other cold mineral water, so that the guests 
can bathe at pleasure. The surrounding country 
is exquisitely beautiful. To the south of the 
place is an immense oak-wood. Posing is a 
post -station. 

PuTTBiB is a snail Prussian town, in Pome- 
rania, . near Stralsund, which is the nearest pest- 
station. It lies in the isle of Riigen. It is the 
residence of the prince of Puttbus, whose pa- 
lace is surrounded by a lovely park. There is 
a bathing- house near the town with the usual 
public buildings. Puttbus is rather a place of 


temporary resort fur travellers tlicoqgh the iine 
island, tban of residence for invalids. 

PvRMuNT is a market- town ia the valley of 
the fimmer , in the principality of Waldeck. Its 
mineral springs were esteemed by Charlemagne, 
and during all the middle ages their reputation 
was wnequaled. In the year 1556, there were 
10,000 guests at Pyrmont from all parts of 
Europe. In the latter half of the seventeenth 
century, its fame diminished, partly, doubtless^ 
on account of the writings of Bergzabern, who 
asserted that its waters were poisonous. Ne- 
vertheless, it continued to enjoy gxeait celebrity, 
and was honoured, during the last century, by 
the presence of several crowned heads. The 
public and private building^ rival those of most 
watering-places in Europe. There are twelve 
principal fsiprings, the waters o/ which are of 
undoubted efficacy in diseases of females, neph- 
ritic complaints, scrofula, rheumatism, and di- 
seases of the eyes. The latest author on Pyr* 
mont is Harnier, Resume d' Analyse et d' Expe- 
rience sur les Eaux de Pyrmont, This town 13 
a post -station. 

Analysis of tub principal spring CTHiNKorKLhR), 

BY Bhandks 

D«siccMe4 gnim^ 

ia 16 «i. 

Carbonate of Soda 4.0235 

Sulphate of ditto 1.5586 

Sulphate of Magnesia 3.1628 

Carbonate of Iron 0.7389 


Grtiins in 16 ot. 

Muriate of Magnesia 0.4276 

Muriate of Soda 0.4046 

Ryilrothionate of Soda .... 0.0657 

Phosphate of Potash ..... 0.1012 

Sulphate of Lithia 0.0030 

sulphate of aitto ....... 6.0320 

Carbonate of ditto 5.8733 

Carbonate of Magnesia .... 0.1933 

Carbonate of Magjinese . . . 0.0200 

Sulphate of Strontia 0.0217 

Sulphate of Baryta 0.0015 

Silica 0.0954 

Resinous matter 0.1133 

Solid matter ...... 22.8364 

Carbonic Acid Gas 44,92 cubic inches in 16 oz. 
Sulphuretted Hydrogen 0,84 % 


•Rkhbbbo is A town in the t^Hncipality of 
Calenbergj in the kingdom of Hanover, at a 
distance from which of half a mile there are 
sulphureous and saline springs, they are pre- 
scribed with beneficial eflTect in gout, stiffness 
of the Joints, irritability of the nerves, convul- 
sions Csuch as epilettsy and St. Vitus' dance}, 
and cutaneous diseases. The public buildings 
are good, and the town is a post- station. 

Rrinkr/. is a small town in the circle of Glatz 
in Prussian Silesia, at the distance of an Eng- 
lish mile from which there are several mineral 
springs. Round them there are good public buil- 
dings of (he usual description. The principal 
spring rises in a gray, clayed soil, tastes brisk, 


salt, and vitriolic; anil froths con8id4*ralily. In 
1829, tliere were seven liundred fifty two gaesta, 
a great part of whom were Polish nobles. The 
season begins in June and ends in August. The 
water is prescribed in diseases of the thoracic 
and abdominal viscera. In respect to payment, 
visitors are divided into three classes, the high- 
est pays a shilling weelily for baths, the lo- 
west, sixpence. Lodgings cost from one to four 
dollars weekly. The springs risie at an altitude 
of 1678 feet above the lefvel of the sea. The 
neiglibourhood is very attractive. Mosch wrote 
on these baths in 1832. Reinerz is a post-station. 

RCoKM»'ALDK Is a Prusstan sea-bathing place, 
on the coast of the Baltic, at the mouth of 
the Wipper. There Is a beautiful walk between 
the town ami the bathing-establishment. Li- 
ving here, as ever>*where in Pomerania, is very 
cheap. This place is a post-station. 

Safjebrunn is a large village In Prussian Si- 
lesia, in the circle of Waldenburg. It lies In a 
pleasing valley surrounded by lofty mountains. 
Of late years, the springs at this place have 
attained great celebrity, and it has improved 
accordingly. There are three scales of payment, 
\\7,. one shilling and sixpence, a shilling, and 
sixpence weekly, for the waters, for music and 
the promenades. The quantity of water exported 
annually, has increased of late years from less 
than twenty thousand to more than one hundred 
thousand bottles, some of which are sent as 
far as India. The number of guests has increa- 
sed with still greater rapid!t>'. In 1816, there 


were only sixty-six, and in 1832, thirteen hun- 
dred and twelve. In 1830, there were one ban 
dred goats and twenty asses kept, to furnish 
whey, nine thousand quarts of which are annu- 
ally consumed here. One of the springs, the 
Oberbrunnerif is a good remedy in thoracic affec- 
tions, glandular swellings, and visceral obstruc- 
tions. Another principal one, the MUhlbrunnen, 
requires considerable caution as to its. adminis- 
tration. It is never prescribed to plethoric pa- 
tients, but to such only as suffer from relaxa- 
tion, and inactivity of the digestive organs. The 
air of Salzbrunn is very pure, and tolerably 
mild; and the surrounding country is rich' in 
natural beauties, l^e latest and. best writer on 
Salzbmnn is Zemplin, DieBrunnen- und Moi- 
henanstalt von StUzbrunn, Bretlau, 1833. Frei- 
burg is the next post'Station. 

Analysis or thb Obkr brunnbN| by Fisciirii. 

Carbonate of Soda . . 8.000 grains in 16 oz. 
Sulphate of ditto . . 3.200 
Muriate of ditto . . . 1.017 
Carbonate of Lime. . 2.060 
Carbonate of Magnesia 1.100 

Silica 0.240 

Iron 0.018 







Solid matter 16.000 

>> » 

In 16 oz. there are. 98 cubic inches of Carbonic 
Acid Gas, in a free state, and 130 do. in 



ScHANt>Au is a town on the S(b6, In Saxony, 
four mtles from Dresden, which has been lioted 
for Its mineral springs through the last century. 
Ther« is here a massive bathin|(«hoase, whieh 
contains an elegant public room, and nnmerotts 
chambers. The place \h not much frequented, 
notwithstanding the beauties of the Saxon Swit- 
zerland, by which It is surrounded. The waters 
contain iron, and sulphuretted hydrogen. There 
are nine different springs. The nearest pos^- 
fitation is Dresden. 

S€Hi.ANeKNBAo« In the Duchy of Nassau, is three 
leagues fh»m AVisbaden^ and four fk-om Mentz. 
Its^ mineral springs are salU to have been dis- 
covered two hundred years ago, by a shepherd, 
whilst tending his 0ocks. Their temperature is 
31'' CRO The water is clear and inodorous. 
Hufeland speaks thus of its medicinal effects: — 
*'It softens, gently relaxes, solves, purlfles, and 
composes, I know no mineral water so adapt- 
ed for those kinds of nervous disorders, which, 
particularly in females, cannot bear he slightest 
Irritation. For such affections, the waters of 
Schlangenbad are an unique remedy." 

This is a calm and retired place, where plea- 
sure is only sought in private circles, or In so- 
litude. The surrounding scenery Is beautiful. 
A great proportion of the guests are females, 
with whom riding on asses is a favourite amu- 
sement. The latest work on this place is, ScMan^ 
pesnbad vnd seine Heiltugend. Darmstadt, 1824. 
We have also the '^Bubbles" of Sir F. Head. 
Schlangenbad is a post-station. 


watering -place in tft^* DMby of Nasaan, roitr 
leagues from Wiabatlen, and six from Mentis. It 
lies in a deep and Marrow valley, at one end 
of Which is a spring, called the Weindnmnen, 
and at the other, ajseeond) called the Stahl^ 
brunne/t. ^oth are sorroonded by elegant build- 
ings. Th« SiahlbrunneH , accdrding to Ilafelandy 
Is an excellent remedy in those cases of debili- 
ty which result from a too excited stale of the 
nanguitieous system, and from hemorrhage. The 
Weinbrunnen is noted for its richness io carbon- 
ic acid gas. All the Schwalbach waters are 
given with success, in the various alPecttoits of 
the lymphatic system, ami in the long list of 
diseases resulting from obstractions and conges- 
tions of the abdominal viscera. Tht buihliiigs 
Here are excellent ; tlie wine of the sunroiindiiig 
country cheap and good; and the agreeable so- 
cial tone which prevails, tends, also, to make 
it a favourite with the pvfolle. The nuMher i^ 
visitors is 1500 or 1000 annually. As the cli- 
mate is rather cold, the season does not com- 
mence till the middle of June ; it terminates at 
the end of August. The neighbourhood is extre- 
mely interesting. The latest writer on Scliwal- 
bach is Fennery Schwcdbach und seine Heilquei- 
len, 1823. Sir F. Head has brought this place 
into English vogue. 

Analysis op thr 'Wkinjbruknkn, by BuciiHObz. 
Carbonate and Muriate of 

Soda ..... . . 

• 'k 

grains in 16 oz. 

.Ditto of Lime . . . 

. 2 

>; fj 

Ditto of Magnesia . 

. 3 

» >» 

Oxide of Iron .... 

• '/, 

>> 97 

Of Carbonic Acid 6m there are 14 \ cubic inches in 16 on 


• SridschCtk, is a town^in Bohemia, a league 
anil a lialf from Bilin, and a qnarter of a iea- 
lirue from Sedlite. It lies on tbe bare declivity 
of a mountain, and near it rise at least twenty 
mineral springs. The water is bitter, inodorous, 
and as clear as crystal; it contains 160 grains 
of solid matter in 16 oz., of which, nearly half 
is sulphate of magnesia, the other half being 
principally composed of nitrate of magnesia, and 
of the sulphates of potash and soda;, it also 
contains a little carbonic acid gas. The tempe- 
rature of the waters is always lower than that 
of the atmosphere. A hundred thousand bott- 
les of them are exported annually. In the neigh- 
bouring town of Bilin, a great quantity of sul- 
phate, of magnesia is prepared from them. They 
are properly prescribed in all cases where laxa- 
tives are indicated. Hufeland particularly recom- 
mends them in cerebral congestion, catarrhal 
rheumatism, and in eruptions of plethoric sub- 
jects, particularly of young females. The nea- 
rest station is Leutmeritz. 

Sbdmtx is only a qnarter of a league from the 
last-mentioned place, and its springs are of a simi- 
lar nature. They became celebrated in conse- 
quence of the researches of HofTmann in 1717. 

Analysis by Naumann. 

Sulphate of Lime ... 8 grains in 16 os. 
Carbonate of ditto* . 
Sulphate of Magnesia 
Muriate of ditto . . . 
Carbonate of ditto . 

Solid matter . . . 

. 8 




. 126 


Sbltrss. See NieilerSeliers. 

SchwikbmDndic is a sea-batbing-place in Prus- 
sian Pomerania. It is -recommended by, suitable 
establisliments, situated lialf a leairue from tiie 
town, and separated from it by a wood. Iii 
18339 tiio season commenced June 20, and en- 
ded September 30. ' . 

TsiNACHy or DrinacH; is situated in the Black- 
forest circle of the kingdom of Wurtemberg. Its 
springs have a pleasant taste, and are' rich in 
carbonic acid gas, alkaline salts, and iron. The 
water is of great service in tiervons debility, 
paralysis, gout, jaundice, and cutaneous disea- 
ses. Tliis place is not so much frequented as 
formerly. The nearest post-station is Calw. 

'TBM4TK is a town in the Leutmeritz circle 
of the kingdom of Bohemia, situated at 30° 
North latitude, and 648 feet above the level of 
the sea. Its mineral springs were discovered 
A. D. 763. The town contains at present, 400 
houses, and 3,500 inhabitants. There is a pa- 
lace, and a great number of gpieudid buildings 
belonging to the nobility. Prices here are com- 
paratively moderate. From three to ten florins 
are paid weekly for a room: a good dinner at 
a table d'h&te costs from thirty to fourty kreut- 
zers. There are several charitable institutions, 
amongst which may be instanced, the Austrian 
Prussian, and Saxon military hospitals. In 1830 
there were eleven springs, and eighty-four baths 


A single bath costs elgbt, ten, or twelve kreat- 
zers. In 1810, the namber of visitors amount- 
ed to 2,568, in 1822 to 3,600, but since 1838, 
It has fit least doubted. The waters are parti- 
cularly serviceable in all kinds of duronic rhea- 
matism, in diseases of the Joints and bones gc- 
nerally, in chronic ulcers and eruptions, in in- 
durations, contractions, and nervous complalntB. 
They are prejudicial in cases of phthisis, drop- 
s)r, and intermittent fever. In several diseases, 
gout for instance , the Carlsbad waters are t»- 
ken first, and those of Tepltts afterwards. The 
latter are taken to second the effect of bathing, 
in cases of imperfect digestion, impeded abdo- 
minal ctrcalation, and female complaints. TeplltB 
lias been resorted to as a watering-place, sinee 
158a In 1713, Peter the Great visited It with 
a beneficial result. During the present century, 
the town has been altered and beautified In siich 
a manner, that it may be said to have keen 
rebuilt. The walks at TeplitB, during the sea- 
0on, present a most animated scene. It is one 
of the gayest at the German watering- plaeea^ 
and political conferenees have of late eo»fenred 
upon it universal celebrity. It is situated ki a 
delightful neighbourboud. The latest writer oft 
Teplitz, is Gross, Die Teplftaier HeUqueiltn im 
lArsr positiven Wirhung. Leipzig 1832. 


Analysis i>r vhb VA^!VTvmh1x, bv Ambkoxsi. 

Snlpbate «f Soda . . 1.696 grains ia 16 osk 

Mariate of ditto . . . 0.776 

Carbonate of ^iUo . . 12.240 
Carbonate of Lime . 0.3^0 

Silica 0.420 

Resin ) and extractive „ ;, 

matter , 6.100 „ ,, 

Carbonate of Iron . . 0.036 

» »> 

it it 

Solid Matter. . . 15,608 

Of Carbonic Acid Gas there is 2,400 cabic in- 
ches in 16 091. 

THAVBMaNBB, a towtt and sea-bathing place 
belonging te Ldbeek, is situated on tile border 
of the North Sea. The snrrounding conntry is 
flat and not very agreeable. The town, fTom 
which the bathing-estabiisliinent is a quarter of 
a mile distant , Is poor and unimportant. Prices 
are high at Travemdnde, compared with other 
German watering-places, tiubeck is the nearest 
post- station. 

WAaMBRuNN. See HirscKberg, 

WiRSBADKN, the capital of the Duchy of Nas- 
sau is celebrated for the medicinal efficacy of 
its mineral springs , and for the elegance of its 
public buildings. This is oitd of the most an- 
cient watering-places in Germany, and is men- 
tioned in the works of Pliny. The town lies ia 
a deep valley, and contains 600 houses, and 
ah«ttt 6,500 inhabitants. The establtshmeat for 

410 'minmbaI' watkbs op vkkmamy. 

the sale 'of. books aiid productions of tbe.iiie 
artH, kept here during the season by the book- 
seller Jiigel of Frankfort, affords literary enter- 
tainment- to- the amateurs. The number of visi- 
tors annually', amounts to mere then 8,000. — 
The season begins in May, and often 'does not 
end till October. The temperature of the springs 
varies from 440^ to 150^ CF.3 The waters are 
•powerful remedical agents; they act chiefly on 
the cutaneous and glandular systems, on the In- 
testines j and vessels of the abdomen. They are 
uncommonly beneficial In chronic rheumatism, in 
all forms of gout , scrofula , congestion , and 
nervous afTectloiis. Good writers on Wiesbaden, 
are Peez, Wiesbaderu HeilqueJien und ihre Kraft, 
1828; and Richter, who has lately published an 
English work on the 'Wiesbaden waters. 


Muriate of Soda . . 46 L, grains In 16 oz* 
Sulphate of ditto . . S"]^, „ „ 

Muriate of Lime . . jS^/ 

21 » " 

18 >» " 

l> » 

Carbonate of ditto . 1'/^ 

Muriate of Magnesia 0"/^ 

Carbonate of ditto . 0^7', 

Alumina 0"|„ „ „ 

Extractive matter . . S'^L, „ „ 

Carbonate of Iron . O'f^^ „ „ 

Of Carbonic Acid Gas, there is 5*/, cubic in- 
ches in 16 oz. 

Wii.DBAD is a small town in the Black- fo- circle of the kingiiom of Wurtem'berg, five 
leagves fromCalw, which is the nearest post-Bia- 


tion. It ifl kept so warm by subterraneous springs, 
that no snuw lies on it, and the grass grows 
in winter. These springs, which are the only 
warm ones in Wurtemberg, flow out of a gra- 
nite rocic , and are received into basins , one of 
which is 1064 feet in circumference. The tem- 
perature of some of these springs is 30^ CB.3 


AiTSTRiA. — The order of the Ooiden Fieece 
was instituted by Philipp, duke of Burgundy, 
on the day of bis marriage witb Isabella, prin- 
cess of Portugal. Its statutes are dated No- 
vember 23, 1431. The sovereigns both of Austria 
and Spain confer the dignities of thL^ order with 
almost the same decoration. No knight, with the 
exception of ruling; princes, can wear any other 
order with that of the Golden Fleece. 

The order of the Stary Cross, exclusively In- 
tended for ladies of the nobility, was founded 
in 1660, by the empress Eleonora, wife of Leo« 
pold I. 

The order of Maria Theresia was founded by 
the empress whose name it bears, during the 
Seven Years' War, and is only conferred for 
military services. The number of its members 
is unlimited; they are divided into tliree classes 
viz. , the grand crosses , the commanders , and 
the knights. Thero are eight pensions of 1,500 
florins for the first class, sixteen of 800 florins 
for the second, one hundred of 600 florins for 
the first division of knigths, and one hundred 
of 100 florins for the second divisio^i. The wi- 
dows of members pensioned or not pensioned, 

QROXttS OV KKl«tlTll<H»D. 413 

receive the half of the pension corresponding 
to the rank of their husbands. 

The order of Elisabeth Theresia conferrs also 
pensions on its knights. 

* The order of Si. JSTtephan was founded May 
5, 1764 by Maria Theresia, and is conferred as 
a reward for talent and military senices. The 
grand mastership is attaclied to the crown of 
Hungary. Its members are divided into three ^ 
classes, and every Austrian becomes a priv>'- 
counsellor on receiving the grand cross or that 
of a commander. 

The order of Leopold was fbunded January 
8, 1808, by Francis I., and was intendetl to 
serve as an acknowledgement and recompense 
of the services rendered to the state, and to 
the imperial house, by the Austrian nobility. 
The number of members is unlimited. 

The order ol^the Iron Crown was instituted, 
February 12, 1816, by Francis f., to comme* 
morate the re -union of the Italian provinces 
with the Austrian empire. All are admitted into 
it, without any distinction of rank, who have 
given strong proof of attachment to their so\e* 
reign, or who have signalizeif themselves 6y 
any useful enterprise. There are twenty knights 
of the first class, thirty of the second, and 
fifty of the third, the princes of the imperial 
house not included. 

The Teutonic order was Instituted In 1190, 
by Frederic, duke of Suabia, who intrusted to 
its members the defence of the Holy Land, the 
protection of the church and its ministers, of 
widows and orphans. Henry Walpot of Bassen- 
heim , was its first grand master. The order 

414 oiuMuts or kkighthood. 

obtnined territories from the duke of Manovia, 
for ser\'ing against Prussian Pagans in the year 

After the loss of the Holy Land, the grand 
master fixed his residence, first at Venice, and 
subsequently at Marburg. The power of this 
order was on the increase till 1350, after which 
it began to decline. It lost a great part of its 
Prussian possessions by the second treat>' of 
Thorn 014663- 

In 1535, the grand master, Albert of Bran- 
denburg, was made hereditary duke of East Prus- 
sia, under Polish supremacy; then the sovereign 
of the order took up his residence at Marien- 
thal 01527*) , and was received member of the 
circle of Franconia. 

In 1792, the order was in possession of the 
grand mastership of Harienthal, and of eleven 
bailiwicks. By the peace of |pneville (1801) 
it lost the bailiwicks of Coblenz, of Altenbrie- 
sen, of Lorraine,, and a part of those of Alsa- 
tia and Burgundy. It received as an indemnity 
the chapters, abbeys and convents of Vorarl- 
berg in Austrian Suabia, and all the disposable 
convents of the dioceses of Augsburg and Con- 
stance, except those of Brisgovia. 

Baden took possession of the territories of 
the Teutonic order, December 3, 1805, and, 
aftenvards, during the various changes which 
succeeded, they were variously distributed. Fi- 
nally , by virtue of a decree of the congress of 
Vienna, the archduke Maximilian of Austria, 
was invested with the grand mastership of the 
order, and as such, entitled to receive the re- 


veiiuefl from its possessions at Frankfort on the 
Main, and in Silesia. 

Order of St, John of Jerusalem at Malta, of 
which the Grand^Priorate is in Bohemia. 

Tlie grand prior of tliis order, obtained in 
1546, of tlie Emperor Cliarles V., tlie dignity 
of prince of tlie empire, and a seat and- voice 
in tbe German diet. The order had posses-oions 
on the left banlc of the Rhine, comprehending 
eleven square miles, containing 19,800 inliabi- 
tants, and yielding an annual revenue of 143,000 
florins. In exchange for these, it received, in 
1803, the abbeys of St Blaise, Trudpert, Schut- 
tern, St. Peter, and Tennenbach , and their de- 
pendencies, yielding an annual revenue of 154,000 
florins. During the French wars the order met 
with various disasters, which led to its suppres- 
sion in several states. 

At present, Austria posseses the court of the 
order at Francfort, and holds its sovereignty; 
but all that now remains of it in Germany, is 
the grand priorate of Bohemia, and some com- 
manderies in Austria , Moravia, and Prussian 

There is a Medal for Military Virtue and of 
Civil Honour, a Cross of Honour in gold and 
silver, ard a mark of distinction for veterans, 

Baobn. — The order of Military Merit was 
instituted by Duke Charles Frederic, April 4, 
1807. Its members i^re divided into three clas- 
ses, to each of which apartain pensions, the 
highest of 400 florins. Generals only can recei- 
ve the grand cross of this order. 

The order, of the I4on of Zaehrinyen was 


fottililed by diaries, grand dake of Baden, De- 
cember 36, 1812, the birth<-day of his duchess 
Stephanie, to ronimelhorate the orijsin of the 
dukes of Zaehriiijicen. Besides these, there is 
an order nf- Fidelity founded in 1715 and re- 
newed In 1803;' and a cross of MUitary Merit. 

DAVAHiA. — The order of St, Hubert was 
created by Gtrard V., duke of Berg, in 1444, 
to commemorate a victory which he had obtain- 
ed over Arnaud d'lSgmont. It was renewed in 
1790 by the elector-palatine, John \ViIllam. Only 
ruling princes and their descendants can receive 
the cross of this order. 

The order of 8t. George. The crusading du- 
kes of Bavaria, Otho Iff. and Eckhard, are said 
to have been the founders of this order. It 
was renewed, April 24, 1729, by the Emperor 
Charles VIl, In iHinonr of Beliglon, of the Im- 
maculate Conception, and of St. George. Svery 
knight, on his admission^ takes an oath expres- 
sive of bis devotion to the objects of the order. 
It is divided into three classes, aiid lias ecclesi- 
astical members; viz., a bishop, deans and cha- 

The Military order of Maximilian Joseph was 
instituted by that sovereign, March 1, 1806, 
when the royal dignity was established in Ba- 
varia. It is a recompense for all remarkable 
actions in the military ser>'iee, not prescribed 
by ordinary duty, in which talent, presence of 
mi nil, or courage is displayed. The cliapter of 
the order examines into the character of candi- 
dates, and presents them to the king, who de- 
cides on their admission. Pensions and various 


pravileges are attached to tbU ordei^ which is 
divided into three classes. 

The order of Civil Merit of the Bavarian 
Crown, was created by the same soverei^^, 
Mai 27, 1808 to reward merit in the civil ser> 
vice of the state, and distinguished patriotic 
virtue., It is divided into four classes; viz. 
twenty four grand crosses, not including those 
who are knights of the order of St. Hubert, 
forty commanders, one hundred and sixty knights, 
and an unlimited n|iuuber of persons decorated 
with gold and silver medals. He who has re- 
ceived the decorations of the three first classes 
•btaijtis the privilege of assuming an hereditary 
title of nobility, but this privilege has lately 
been limited. The children of deceased knights 
receive a pension of from 2.50 to 300 florins. 

The order of St. Michael ' was instituted, Sep- 
tember 29, 1693, by Joseph Clement, duke of 
Bavaria, and was renewed in 1808 by Maximi* 
lian Joseph. Its primitive object was the sup- 
port of religion^ and the defence of divine ho- 
nour; but it has latterly been conferred as a 
reward of patriotic virtues. It is divided into 
four classes, of which the three first are com- 
posed of nobles exclusively; into the la^t, that 
of honorary knights, men of merit of all classes 
are admitted, without distinction of ranic or 

The Royal order of Louis WB/i founded by 
King Louis I., for' those officials who have pas-f 
sed fifty years, satisfactorily to the government^ 
in the civil, military, or ecclesiastical service of 
the state, or in that of the court. 

The order of Theresia was instituted, Decern* 



Uer 12, 1827, by Theresia, queen of Bavaria. It 
is inteiited for the daugliters of noble families, 
in reduced circumstances, and, with it, Is con- 
ferred a pension of 300 florins. Besides these, 
there is an order of Eiiitabeth, founded in 1766, 
hy the electresa Maria Elisabeth, which is only 
conferred to princesses and ladies of the house- 

BHiTNSWicK — The order of Htnty the lAon 
was instituted April 25, 1834, by Dulce WUliam, 
to reward civil and military merit, and emi- 
nence in the arts and sciences. It is divided into 
four classes. A cross of merit is also attached 
to this order. 

A cross of distinction' for Military services 
was decreed April 1, 1833. 

HANovBH. — The order of the Oueiph was in- 
stituted by the Prince-Regent, afterwards Geor- 
ge IV., August 12, 1815, to commemorate the 
epoch when Hanover was liberated from the 
French domination and elevated to the ranic of 
a Iciiigdom. It is divided into three classes. 
The grand cross is only conferred oii persons 
of the ranic of lieutenant-generals, and for ser- 
vices rendered on occasions when they acted 
on their own authority. The dignity of com- 
mander is granted to the rank of miUor-general. 
But no ranic is specified for the candidates for 
the knighthood of this order. The sovereign of 
this order is the king of Hanover. 

Ri.KCTOHATR OP HKssK. — The Order of the Ool- 
den Uon was instituted, August 14, 1770, by 


the landgrave Flretieric II. It is divided Into 
three classes, and is conferred as a reward for 
distinction in the civil and military 8er\'ice of 
the state. 

The order of the Iron Bdmet, created, March 
14, 1814, corresponds to the Prassian order of 
the Iron Cross. There are, also, an order of 
Military Merit and a cross of Merit, 

GRAND DUCHY OP HKSSK. — The Order of Louis 
was instituted by the grand duke Louis, August 
25, 1807. It is divided into five classes. The 
grand cross is only conferred on princes, or 
persons with the title of £xcellenc}% 

A mark of honour for Military Service was 
established December 26, 1823. 

ruRssiA — The order of the Black Eagle was 
founded by Frederic III., elector of Brandenburg, 
January 18, 1701, on the day on which he was 
crowned king of Prussia. In 1885, there were 
one hundred and eleven knights of this order, 
of whom eleven were princes of the royal fa- 
mily; fifty-four foreign sovereigns and princes; 
fifteen Prussian knights; and thirty-one foreig- 

The order of the Red Eaple was formerly 
called the order of Concord, and received its 
present name in 1734. It was for med by the 
marcgrave of Baireuth-Culmbach in 1777, and by 
him transmitted to Frederic \Villiam of Prussia, 
in 1791. Its knights rank next to those of the 
Black Eagle. It is divided Into four classes. 

The order of the Iron Cross was instituted 
by Frederic William III., March 10, 1813 and 


conferred on all who liad dlsUngaisheil ttiem- 
8«lveH in the Liberation^ War. 

There arci also, a Pru^Rian order of Merit 
indiscriminately conferred on all ranks of socie^ 
ty> for services rendered to the state, an order 
of St. John, and of Louisa, A decoration of 
Merit for having saved a fellow-creature from 
danger, was instituted February 1, 1835. Be- 
sides these, there are also decorations and me- 
dais for soldiers and.officers of the lower ranks, 
who have rendered eminent services. 

Saxony. — 'phe Military order of St. Henry 
was instituted by Augustus III., King of Poland 
and elector of Saxony, Octnbar 7, 1730, as a 
recompense for brilliant military exploits. It is 
divided into three classes. 

The order of Cvcil Merit was created- by Fre- 
deric Augua^us, June 7, 1816, on his return to 
Saxony. It is conferred on tliose who are dis- 
tinguished for patriotic merit, and on foreigners 
who have earned the gratitude of Saxony. It 
is divided into ihree classes. There^ is also, a 
niedal «f Military Merit. 

In the grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar, there is 
an order of Vigilance , known also by the name 
of the order of the White Falcon. In the tu- 
chies of Saxe-Gotha, Siixe-Altenborg, and Sa- 
xe-Melningen, there is « dtical order of the 
Ernestinian line. 

' WuHTKMBKKS. — The Order of Military Merit 
was created, Februarys 11, 1759, by Charles 
Eugene, as a for those officers who 
had distinguished themselves in the Seven Years' 



War. It was renewed in 1799, by rrederic I. 
and totally reformed in "1806. It is now divi- 
ded into three classes. 

The order of CirU Merit, wltli which is now 
united the order of the Golden Eagle, was in- 
stituted by King Frederic, November 6, 1806. 
It is divided into three classes. Every counsel- 
lor can claim it, who has served with zeal da- 
ring twenty-fddr years; personal nubility is con- 
ferred with it. This order is, at present, known 
by the name of the ardtr of the Crown of 

There are, also, an order of Frederic, and a 
medal of Civil Merit in gold and in silver. 

Since the desire of distinction Is inherent in 
mankind , and has been the source of many of 
the greatest actions and works which have em- 
bellished and benefited society , we cannot join 
with those who profess to depreciate stich re- 
Wards. When profusely distributed, they lose^ 
of course, a portion of their value; but there 
are many individuals who do not desire money; 
and who require some such stimulus aA an in- 
centive to exertion. 





IVorniNo appears ■ more easy, at first sigbt, 
than to deliver an oraenlar sentence on the mo- 
rality, the refinement, the hospitality, and the 
disposition of various cotintrtes and cities; a 
visit of a few weeks suffices with some t«i af- 
ford the requisite data, and others seat them* 
selves on the tripod after a caanal intercourse 
with four or five natives, or supported hy the 
experience of a few adventures at an inn. It 
appears to me that the only safe road to expe- 
rience on this head lies in the domain of Sta- 
tistics; it is only by a large comparison of facts 
published by the respective local authorities, 
that an approximation to the truth can be at- 
tained; and I refer with far more confidence to 
such documents scattered throughout this volume, 
than to the following personal impressions. 

To deliver a correct opinion on the political 


condUion and setiCiments of miy given country 
is one of the most difflcnlt tattles that can be 
attempted, which any one will admit who ob> 
senes the diversity of sentences proneuRced 
respecting the tendencies of his own countrymen. 
We find, in fac^, in every nation ^ that society 
is divided into four or five political classes, each 
of M'hich supposes itself to be infallible, and the 
traveller is generally converted to the tenets 
of that sect, whatever it may be, into which 
he liappens to have been tlirown by accident, 
by his position in life, or by his previous tastes. 
One party is fdr rudely pushing forwards, ano- 
ther is disposed to progress cautiously, a third 
Is willing to stand still, and a fourth entertains 
an Epicurean carelessness as to every movement, 
except that which may interfere with his own 
amusements or pursuits. I shall endeavour brief- 
ly to sketdi out the general outline of political 
views and of social life in 6enuany , but with 
little hope of success, and with no. expectation, 
of satisfying all Judges. 

The complaint is sometimes heard in Germany 
that it does not form one great empire; that 
it is so. much subdivided as to lose the impor- 
tance and consideration, which ought to attach 
to so many millions of people.. -It is difllcult to 
foresee all the good which is imagined by spe- 
culators, as likely to accrue from such a cen- 
tralisation of dominion. The manufactures of 
Germany are already boldly competing with those 
of England and France; its maritime relations 
are not capable of any very considerable exten- 
sion, because nature has stinted sea-ports to it. 
As far as political and military weight can go, 


424 poi.iTicAr. AN» sqciAi* 

Cterinaay lias earned for iUelf a dignified pre- 
poiiileraiice. What miire is Ui be obtaineU rrum 
tills deHiretl fusion of HtatcsV Is a larger por- 
tion of freedom , more prosperity > more Itappi- 
flesS) descried in the visionary distance V There 
are some advantages which a native of Germany 
possesses in a higher degree than any other 
fiuropean. One of tliese coiinists in the greater 
number of employments which lie open to his 
ambition and his talents. All the numerous Ger- 
man states aflTortl existence to their own respec- 
tive cabinet ministers, envoy^s, generals, digni^ 
taries, and civil officers, of various denomina^ 
tioiis. In some situations, which onjy a single 
Individual fills in England aiid France, perhaps 
twenty individuals are installed throughout Ger- 
many. Eingland sends only one minister to France, 
while Germany sends a>)out thirteen; and the 
same observation applies to several .other func- 
tions. ^ III H ort , a German . ei^oys several 
chances of obtaining au honourable post for the 
exercise of his talents or industry, where the 
Bnglishman and Frenchman have only a single 
ticket in thQ lottery of life. The same advan-< 
tage is extended to the Germans who cultivate 
literature and scienire. In the British Islands, 
we have, perhaps, five unversities which corres* 

* According to SchSn, the following is the compa« 
rative aumber of penonii employeil ta the admiaialraw 
tioni of the Stale in diffiereni oouQiriea » aamely. 

In Scandinavia .... 1 in 204 

Spain i „ 462 

Prusnia 1 „ 630 

BnjEUnd i „ 1000 

(See his Affgemtine Geachichte und Stathlik der fivro- 
(riSBcktm CMlUaHitn, p. 228.) 


IMiiil in character to tb« tliirty German univer- 
sities; add to this, that a German university 
contains usually aboub- twice the number of pro- 
fessors , who are included in the English ones. 
But the German states also display itinumerablei 
colleges, gj^mnasiumsy and lyceums, not to be 
found in any similar proportion among ourselves, 
and each marshalling its own peculiar array of 
professors, curators, librarians, and other such 

There are hundreds among us capable of fil- 
ling such situations, with distinction to them« 
selves, and with benefit to the public; but they 
have no opportunities of obtaining such favour- 
able positions, and they linger in obscurity, so- 
metimes in involuntar>' idleness. Some, indeed,, 
may profess to despise such honours — -and the 
theor>' ol indiference is very convenient; but if 
we regard life with a practical eye, H is im- 
possible to deny that the opportunity of earning 
fame and employment, is both encouraging to 
individuals, and profitable to the public. A much 
smaller income suffices, where the station yields 
some digntty — and no one ever despised the 
respect of those among whom he lives, but the 
man who was unable to attain it. 

Let us examine another benefit which the mi- 
nute division of Germany into Independent sta- 
tes, confers on the German public. Kvery so- 
vereign, however low in the scale, is anxious 
to distii>gulflh and embellish his territory; ac- 
cordingly, he forms museums of antiquities, and 
of natural history; he collects large public li- 
braries; he creates academies for the fine arts; 
he plans extensive gardens, and other places 


of recrentton for his ftobjects. .Anil thus, f»w 
one Miich establishment in Enn^land and France, 
we shall finil about twenty in Germany — ef 
all which, the public partake most fireely. The 
inhabitant of a great provincial town in England 
or France, must travel to London or Paris in 
search of such objects ; but the citizen of M«nicb, 
or of Dresden, is not obliged to wander to Ber- 
lin or Vienna , in pursuit of that which lies 
near his own door. 

Examples of this sort might be drawn without 
end. It would be easy to show in what respect 
Stuttgard diflTers from Newcastle » or Weimar 
from Narbonne, but it is unnecessary to multiply 
comparlHonw. Many persons will reply,, that in 
orher to purchase such prevHeges, the poorer 
classes HuflTer, for the benefit of the middle and 
higher ones, and tliat taxation presses heavily, 
in order to bring about suoii results. But on 
personal examination, it will bofouml that tho 
peasantry and artisans, of Germany, are not less 
happy than the correspondiiig raift» in the grea-* 
ter states of Europe, although their wants anil 
enjoyments may differ in quality ; nor can it he 
with truth asserted , that the Gemaii is more 
heavily taxed, in pra(Hirttou, than otber fin- 

.Such remarks wilt not be misinterpreted into 
an attempt to maintain that Germany is the moat 
fortunate countr)' in Europe, and to undorvaiue 
that which is excellent among onrselves, an4 
our neighbours. I trust that no one wili sus- 
pect mo of a dispuoUioii to depreciate our own 
nather'tand; liidi*iM>, on account of a former work 
wf^Mivai HimUstlaity I have been taxed with 


wmtae partiality towards our own caiintr>'. My 
only obje<;t isr to state with -candour , the ad- 
vaiitagefi which flow from Chat which many are 
disposed to call an evil source — namely, the 
partition of one great country Into several king- 

It must be admitted, that this subdivision of 
the great German family does not tend to in- 
duce mutual aflTectioii among ail its component 
members; the innate love of countr>'^, which id 
one of the best gifts of oar nature, becomes 
diluted, and sometimes entirely evaporates. A 
German is sometimes heard to wish, that Foe* 
tune had created him the native of some vther 
more compact country; and thus be becomes an 
excellent colonist, an accommodating traveller, 
and readily forgets in new lands, the usages 
of. the .old home; in short, he is too pliant, too 

The expenditure attendant on so many courts, 
is one of the arguments which is sometimes 
adduced against them — but this is counter- 
balanced by the paternal and unrestricted wel« 
come which invites the people to a participation, 
in the enjoyments wlii(*Ji are thus obtained. 
Every palace, gallery, garden, and park is open; 
the money which is received from the subject, 
is returned to him in a considerable degree j. in 
the form of mental and bodily amusement ; and* 
assuredly, few private Individuals in other conn- 
tries, however wealth)^, are. in the habit of 
emulating the German sovereigns iu this respect. 

in cuuniries, indeed,, which liave long been 
subjected to an absolute rule, or to. a govern- 
ment upproaching to absolutism, we lind (hat 

428 imhnKAh akd sociaI' 

nucli mure tiahis are taken to pravide aniiwe- 
meiits fur the lower classeR, tban among: limi* 
ted mofiarcliies and republics. The reasons are 
ehviuuS) — but, whatever they may be, tlie 
results are visible in every part of Germany, 
wlierethe most abundant means of reereation 
are brought into action for the use of those 
who cannot afford to lay out gardens, nor to 
collect parties of friends at their own houses, 
nor to purchase tickets for spectacles and con* 
eerts. Another feature equally pleasing and 
ttsuaily prominent in such countries, is, a gra- 
cious and cordial familiarity pre^-ailing between 
the highest and the lowest. This friendly in* 
tercourse is owing, Indeed, to the extreme de« 
pendance of the lower upon the higher, which 
renders ^e kindness safe, and unabnsed; and 
another cause lies in the ubiquity and strength* 
of the police , which is ever awake and present 
to prevent misconduct. Madame de Oenlis, in 
this spirit, contrasts the rural f^tes which were 
so frequent in France before the first revola- 
tieii, — at which the lord and lady of the vil- 
lage danced freely among their rustic guests, — 
with the absence of all such intimac>' which she 
found to prevail in SVance under a representa- 
tive govern Diebt. 

Let us not be supposed, in enumerating such 
agreeable peculiarities, to prefer a gilded and 
tinkling despotism, to the independence of free 
citizens; but the truth must still be told. Every 
form of human affairs has its bright and its 
giooihy aspect ; we cannot unite in any one 8>'s- 
tern, all imaginable blessings; bat those who 
have not gained one prize, may at least b« 



consoled wUli tlie posseasioh of another, in 
proportion as free institutions ativance, men 
appeur to have a tendency to separate them*- 
selves into siiiall knots , to insulate themselves 
from the mass ; there is less familiarit}' between 
various classes ; a- desire to seek enjoyment in 
one's own room , in one's own <:ircle , arises, 
instead of blending with, an unlimited public, 
for the sake of mutual support, protection, and 
e;Khilaration. Happy and wise are those who, 
blest with a birthright of free institutions, can 
still seek to make those around them happy, in- 
stead of confining their solicitude to their own 
immediate group or coterie. 

hH us borrow from Germany a little more of 
this frank and courteous deportment towards those 
who happen to- be born a few degrees lower 
than ourselves In the scale of wealth, rank, or 
education. T4ie grand remedy for most of the 
e\ ils of- England must be sought in a more inti- 
mate approximation of the different grades of 
society; it is not money which. is needed, that 
is every-wliere througliout England most .libe* 
rally dispensed ; but a little more communication, 
less dread of contamination from impure mixtu- 
re, a softening of asperities of manner, a greas- 
ier readiness to greet, — these are the bands 
which alone are wanting to unite more firmly 
all the various members of our great community. 
Is the. daughter of a pe^r, or of a country gent* 
leman-, or of a banker, or of a barrister, less 
modest, less feminine, less graceful, because 
she occaiiionally stands next In the public hall 
to the daughter of a respectable tradesman V Is 
the cottage only to be entered on the eve of 

490 POUfftCAh AND «OCIAI< 

•n election V No mAn ought to be considered 
as a pieee of lumber, to be made use of att a 
stop-gap, or as a barrier in the case of an 
emergency, and then to be thrown aside as hm»- 
less untill the next year of need. Tliese re- 
marlcs, which to some will - appear coarse and 
ill-tinted, proceed, from one who, in all humility, 
would not only preser\'e all that is precious 
among ourselves, but who would gladly revive 
much that once prevailed, but which now ap- 
pears to be losing ground. 

It is hot easy to decide on the positive amount 
or degree of political discontent in Germany, 
as it does not anywhere pronounce itself in a 
decided manner, and as the grievances and wish- 
es vary according to the country the individual 
is living in. Few travellers, I believe , will affirm 
that there is as much actual discontent in Germa* 
ny, as in France, although France lias made a 
large stride on the road to freedom. Most philo- 
sophers have deemed that in England we have 
attained all the JIberty which can be -reasonably 
enjoyed; yet, here also, there is no paucity of 
grumblers. In England it is sometimes difficult to 
ascertain the nature of the grievance, because 
diferent parties entertain totally opposite opini- 
ons; but in Germany, we believe that the most 
generally lamented evils are, the restrictions on 
the press,, the impediments to locomotion from the 
passport system, Ovhirh we are happy to learn, 
have of late been rehioved to a great extent), the 
spirit of interference on the part of the polioe, 
and lastly the dependence of the smaller states in 
consequence of the overpowering Intaence of 
the greater ones^ In Germany, m«ch of ovr own 

CONHITtON ear eaCRMAKY. 431 

pr AsperUy is atif itMited to tlie nonitUerfsrence on 
tiie part of tlie governai^nt ; while many among 
ourselves are perpetnaliy uivokmg it ta centralise, 
to undertake natioaai education, and to stretcli 
out its hand in every direiction. The excessive 
propensity to reduce the mos4 trifling facts to 
writing, to accumulate masses of useless docu- 
ments, to register that which deseruas to l»e 
forgotten, to multtply verbose forms of office, to 
transmit papers through a multitude of hands 
witliout receiving any improvement on their pas- 
sage, is also one of the most- prominent themes 
of complaint in Germany. The ministry of war 
of one. of the states of the confederacy got rid of. 
seventy thousand statements in one year, which 
had been slumbering in its portfolios. In Prus- 
sia, the most trifling judicial matter, whose so- 
lution depends on a higher court, passed formerly 
through the hands of forty-eight persons , before 
the parties interested could receive any notice or 
summons. ^ Within these last years however, se- 
veral important reforms have been introduced 
and new ones are still expected to be carried 
into efl'ect. 

Among the national peculiarities, the exces- 
sive addiction to smoking^ has been reproached, 
but unreasolnahly. In every pact of the world, 
and in every class of society, some mode of 
obtaining solace . or relaxaUon after fatigae or 
toil, some excitement or sttmulant, is resorted 
to, and happy are those who have recourse to 
an amusement so comparatively innocent. It is 
certain that this habit disposes the mind to 
serenity, to a mild repose, to contentment, and 

* CSchSo p. 223). 

■4d3 ■ lV)I.ITICAli AM) 6onAh 

to fheerfulitess ; a smoking commonity is never 
a riotous,- nor a pugrnacioas, nor a brawling one; 
and it would t)e difficult to discover anywliere 
a populace more good-tempered, peaceful, and 
inoffensive, than that of Germany. At all events^ 
such an amusement will be preferred to the 
glass of spirits continually repeated daring the 
day, and t«o frequently closing It in bloodshed, — ^ 
or conducting gradually its victim to a prema- 
ture grave, — or to the living tomb of charac- 
ter, industry, and dfecency. We ought not to 
be too fastidious towards the innocent amuse- 
ments of others, and especially of the peasant 
and the artisan, when they only entrendi upon 
the prerogative of the organ of smell. The 
German labourer , seated at a table in a public 
garden, quietly smoking his pipe, listening to 
excellent music, and surrounded by his family, 
is no mean spectacle of human happiness and 

It Las long been thought, both by Englishmen 
and. by foreigners, that no country presents so 
many specimens of originality of character, of 
various tastes and habits, of eccentricity in mo- 
des of thinking and acting, as England. MHat- 
ever may have once been the ease, I am incli- 
ned to believe that this distinction no longer 

* The habitual fare of the German peasant in extre** 
iDcly moderate : it is chiefly compoeed of a black bca" 
vy bread, usually rye, — with vegetables^ and the 
produre of the dhiry; (he returns to the Poor T^a^r 
Commissioners add, "meat once or twice a -vroek $*' 
bat- meat in a rare luxury in many rural districts ; — 
a little weak milk-coffee is highly prized. I beliere 
that the Prussian private soldier has a daily ration of 
hair a pound of meat. 


foelongfl prp-eminently to Engfamd, but that.tlie 
palm, in this respect, mast be assigned to Ger- 
many. It is possible tJiat Germany may at pre- 
sent ressemble, in some, features, the aspect 
which our country, perhaps, presented a century 
ago; but in England, we perceive, in our own 
time, a tendency rather to the adoption of one 
uniform standard in dress, in deportment, in ha- 
bits of life, and in amusements: instead ofstud)'- 
ing to please themselves, most persons among 
IIS appear to strive after the attainment of a 
tame uniformity. As soon as any fashion or 
taste becomes once known in England, it rapidly 
circulates through the extremities of the king- 
dom; even in dinners, in furniture, in phrases, 
each seems to sacrifice the individual on the 
altar of the . community. The prejudices and 
opinions of our neighbours are studied and drea- 
ded ; the voice of the world is alone heard, and 
equally in public and* in private becomes the 
regulator of our daily movements. The circum- 
stance is probably mainly owing to the rapid and 
constant communication, w^bich occurs between 
all parts of our country, and forms us into one 
large family; the general disposition is thus to 
look upwards and around, instead of to turn 
inwardly. When an English physician visited 
the German phrenologist. Gall, at Paris, he 
found him in an apartment tenanted by innume- 
rable birds; Gall said to him with a smile, 
'^You would be afraid of doing this in England." 
The Germans, in short, are less the slaves of 
faMbion and of exclusive tastes, than probably 
any other great European people; each consi- 
ders his own means and indinatioua , and pur- 



BVes them without deferenee to others, and also 
without offence; no one stares in Gemany at 
a deshabille, no one is surprised at an uncouth 
coat; no one paragrapim his folLios, parties^ 
furniture, or writings, in tlie newspaper; but an 
unpretending independence of character passes 
current and unnoticed. 

Since nowhere in the world eiist such ample 
and easily accessible institutions lor education 
as in Germany, we are naturally led to inquife 
into the influence which they exeirt upon the 
well-being of society. There is no science, and 
there are very few arts, which may not there 
most easily and very clMaply be studied by all 
who are desirous; the iheans of a decent edu 
cation are open to all, — are almost foreed 
upon all; and the facilities of acquiring a most 
complete ednoation are denied to none. "What 
then, are the fruits which this deeply-rooted 
and widely-spreading tree are found to produce? 
The answer is most difficult; we are anxious 
to afford it impartially. It lies in a simple 
fact, which Is too often excluded from the argu* 
ment of education; whatsoever eduratiott nmy 
be given to maniilnd, one half of the number 
who nominally receive it, will scarcely be fomt 
to have derived much permanent and flnal ad-> 
vantage fi'om it> or to retain much in thehr me* 
mory^ Lecture-rooms may be opened gMlui« 
tously, books mrity be accamulated^ but earty 
Impressions, accident, indolence, and bad dispo- 
sitions will defeat our expectations. It. is a 
melancholy truth, but It must be told. Although 
a small knot of individnals in Crormany is more 
learned than a similar number to be found In 


any other coaiftry, who create ami devoar more 
lieolDs than any others, yet it will hanlly be 
asserted , that the bulk of the German nation 
are more virtuous, more wise, more agreeable, 
more temperate in the enjoyments of lifb, more 
Hsefol in their generation, than the oorrespotH 
ding mass of some other European communitiett^ 
whkh possess the opportunities of mental im-» 
provement in a more limited extent. It Is one 
thing to learn, and another to retain dmd to 
practise; when the stadions and the practiiMil 
comhine in the same individnal, then alone \a 
the higher character of man developed ; -^^^ hoi 
such an union occurs rarely any where, and 
not often in Germany* We admit with pleasure 
one distinguished result ef education in Germa- 
ny, — the respect which is paid to the literary 
and scientific character. On tlie other hand, it 
most be confessed, tliat the most favoarabte 
position, with regard to mental cultivation, coii" 
ducts there, more frequently to a refined taste 
in the fine arts, or to a barren erudition^ than 
to those pursuits which have for their aim the 
general tanprovement of humanity, l^e German 
will reply, that his exclusion from active p^liti^ 
Cal life is the source; butcn wide field is stilt 
open for alt the best energies of his nature^ in 
the cultivation of the Christian character^ and 
one in which there are fewer competitors, and 
a surer retompense, than in the chamber of 
deputies, or in the columns of a newspaper. 
Unsettled principles of action are too often his 

It appears to me that one essential defect in 
the system of German university odacatioB, is 


tbe absence of a good pervading instraction in 
religion; it is true tliat tliere are nnmeroas tlieo- 
logical courses delivered for tlie benefit of stu- 
dents destined for the cliurcii, but tliese do not 
reacli the mass of otiier pupils: they do not 
necessarily participate in tills first and last re- 
quisite of an elevated education^. Every sci- 
ence is copiously tauglit, is almost overtaught, 
except that master- science which alone teaches 
us rightly to apply ail the rest, without which 
all the rest are comparatively valueless, and 
which, if not sown in the earlier years of our 
existence, will seldom find a fertile soiL We 
have alluded to this subject in the chapter de- 
voted to the religious state of Germany. 

The condition of the female sex in every si- 
tuation depends upon the example which is pla- 
ced before her, and on the treatment which she 
experiences from the stronger portion of the 
community; and nowhere Is this troth more 
palpable than in Germany. There the tempera- 
ment of woman is cast in a happy mould; gentle, 
Itind, unambitious, unalTected , she is less intent 
upon adorning herself, than on administering to 
the happiness of those around her; she Is fen- 
ced round with fev artificial restraints; and 
nowhere is the natural woman more distinctly 
discernible beneath the social crust. But her 

* The stadeBt wlio atienda • Germaa oniversity is 
•ot compelled, ae Utterly at Oxford and Cambridge, 
to atudy the history, evidences, and text of the Chris- 
tian relifion, unless he is destined for the church. Thin 
is the most important improvement that has been ever 
made in academical education; its results are already 
visible in the univeraities themselves, and im thn cha- 
racter of lh« present and rising gnaemtion. 


feelings are WMsm, her tfuste fer pleasure is 
lively; sbe . contiiiually breathes the atmosphere 
of the sot|^, ami of the dance; in society she 
often meets with too mnch laxity of opinion 
and usage ; and her full and ■ confiding heart 
requires a helpmate on whom to lean through 
life. \Vlien this support is granted to her, she 
generally exhibits all the domestic virtues in 
their vernal bloom, \\lien transplanted to a 
strange soil, she usually reflects honour on fthe 
country which gave her birth, not less by the 
numerous minor accomplishments which embel- 
lish oar present existence, than by the habits 
which prepare us for a future. one. 

It must be admitted, nothwithstanding , that 
(he facility of obtaining divorces in the Protes- 
tant states and the large proportion of natural 
children, are the weak side of German morality: 
but it would be easy to prove, that it is not 
on the female inhabitants that the blame is to 
be balanced. 

The Germans are not so domestic a people 
as the English) yet, perhaps,' more so than the 
French. The taste of the middle and lower 
classes carries them incessantly to public gar- 
dens, coflTeehouses , the table d'hdte, and the 
theatre. In the neighbourhood of every town 
are one, two, three, or more public gardens, in 
which a good. band of music is stationed at the 
hours of resort; some parties promenade, in a 
few even dancing is practised, but the greater 
part of the visitors seat themselves in the open 
air, consuming ices, coffee and beer; the women 
often knitting, the men usually engaged in smo- 
king. The musicians send one of their number 

440 POfiltlCAl' ANB SOCIAL 

tlie national charaetei', it is too often misinter- 
preted into pride and arrogance, of which it is 
the very antipodes. 

The natural modesty oif the German charac- 
ter often fails into a paii^ful and unworthy ex- 
treme, when it undervalues all that belongs to 
is own soil , and exaggerates the merits anil 
beauties of other scenes. No country, perhapn, 
presents a greater variety of interesting objects 
of nature and art, but instead of appreciating 
that which belongs to himself, the German too 
frequently indulges in a vague and meretrictons 
rapture, inspired by renUniscences or visions of 
other regions^. Scliilier finely, but in a des- 
ponding and' too 4imid mood, touches on tliis 

* This stlf-abasing spirit^ so consfanlly inculcated 
by our HeftTenly Ttftcher on the individual man, is 
BO longer n virtue when it tends to depress tlie tuMo' 
lud spirit; a mau should^ if possible, be proud of hin 
country, although arrogance cannot Be tolerated in 
himself. The preference of French literature and man- 
ners so long exhibited^ by the rulers and nobility of 
former generations in Germany, deadened that warm 
and generous enthusiasm which naturally clings to the 
soil of our birth; Frederic the Great scarcely deigned 
to read a German book, and his intimate friends and 
councillors were foreigners. The princes and higher 
classes of that time were glad to correspond and to 
converse in French; and every native taste and taleal 
were depreciated as vulgar. When Vollaire was once 
arrangidg some Prussian grenadiers as subordinate ac- 
tors at a rehearsal of his tragedy at Potsdam, he da- 
red to exclaim, because they could not comprehend bin 
French, "J'ai demand^ des hommes^ et Ton me donne 
des AUemands." Bitter were the fruits which this 
anti-national deportment produced in Germany. At the 
(TosMieNcemmf of the late ware, the German people di4 
not easily awaken from this torpid attitude into which 
they had been so unwillingly thrown ; the house was 
ready swept and prepared for the foreign invader, who 
•eems to have been regarded ae a superior being. 


cbord of ikis conntrymen , and tries to awaken 
it to a wore genial tone. His ode is too instruc- 
tive to be conrtailed. 

'^Dear friends, there bave been more grlorions 
times ttaan oars : tiiat is not to be disputed ; and 
a nobler people have once existed. 'Were even 
history silent about it, a thousand stones dug 
from the bosom of the earth, give striking evi- 
dence. But they are gone; that highly favou- 
red rare has vanished. We, we are living. Ours 
are the passing hours, and the living have their 
claims. Friends, there are, as the far-travelled 
wanderer tells us, happier regions than the coun- 
try in which we live indifferently well; but if 
nature denies us much, knowledge is friendly, 
smiling upon us, and our hearts are wanned by 
its lights. Though the laurel does not prosper 
here, and the myrtle becomes the prey of our 
winter, yet the cheerful foliage of the vine thri- 
ves to crown our brows. 

"There Is, no doubt, more bustle on the busy 
shores of the Thames, in the market of this 
earth, where four worlds exchange their frea- 
snres. A thousand vessels arrive and depart; 
every thing most precious may be liad there, 
and money, the divinity of the world, rules 
triumphant. But it is not from the troubled mud 
of brooks, swollen by heavy rains, that the 
image of the sun is reflected; this plays only 
on the smooth surface or the calm rivulet. The 
beggar at the gates of the castle of St. Angelo 
has a more splendid dwelling than we in our 
North, for he beholds everlasting and unparal- 
leled Rome. He is surrounded by a throng of 
beautiful and magnificent otiJects^ and a second 


keiiven, llie iHirv^Uoiis dome of St. Petor, rises 
before him into the flky. But Rome, in all its 
splendour, is the tomb of past glory; it is only 
the fresh plant whldL hads in the eheering re- 
volving hottr that exhales life. €ireater tbiags 
may happen dsewhere, than with qs in emr little 
aphere ; yet aothing new is seen ander the sin. 
But en the boards that represent the world, we 
tranquilly behold the great deeds of all ages la- 
geniOQsly passing before oar eyes. Bvery thing 
Ib life Is but repealed; imagination alone la 
ever yoiing, nothing is free from growing an« 
tiquated, but what never and nowhere oeeorred. ^ 
It Is of little moment to discuss the character 
of ethers, unless we endeaveur to deduce seme 
results applicable, more or less, to the- illus- 
tration and improvement of eur own ; and this 
reflection conducts us to the most delicate and 
dilicult part of our brief estimate. A singuUur 
period has arisen in Europe, and is fast arri- 
ving at maturity; it eonsists in the rapid in- 
crease of knowledge In the lower classes, in 
the diffusion and misrepresentations of news- 
papers, in tlie augmentation of the middle ranks 
in nambcr. and wealth , and in the losses and 
eonfbslon which the higher famlles have ki many 
parts experienced. through, the ravages. of war» 
the phmder of foreign invasion, the ciuuges of 
territory, and the whirlwind of revelations. Tke 
ploblem, then, which awaits solution, and which 
earnestly demands the deepest consideratiott •f 
the wise and vhrtuous, is^ to regulate this new 
movement aright, and so to direct the hHm, 
that the vessel may not lose Its comrse, and 
* TtOMlaiti hj BoilMu M "Hm Uagsiol/' 

CMiMn»N or MCBMANT. 443 

thAt all on board may noi be 8hi|iwreeke«l, witb 
the ezceptioa of a few uniiriiicipled and selllsb 
passeaifers, wbo also mast, at last, nhare tbe 
coalmen fate. 

In Qennany, this new motien communicated 
to society, is in a certain degree softened and 
eased by Uie Ariendly toae which, more or less, 
prevails among the different classes of the com- 
munity ; an extreme affability, beginning at the 
highest point, and gradaally descending to the 
base, seema likely to. prevent violent collisions, 
and to dimUiish the friction. A truth of inex- 
pressible value- in all tke relations of life is 
there ackaowledged and practised as a funda- 
BMiital usage of intercoarse; namely, that all 
are to be treated with respect, that no supe- 
riority of raak or fortune caa warrant arrogance 
of demeanour, or pride of speedi. Manlcind will 
far more readily forgive even great vices than 
a breach of courtesy ; and we have ample ex- 
perience in ail biography and history, that kind- 
ness and affability of manner form the real se- 
cret of conciliating golden opiniona. It is net 
sufficient that laws should be equally adminis- 
tered between different ranks; It is still highly 
■eeessary, in order to preserve social harmony, 
that a cordial, gentle, and unpresaming deport- 
ment should be observed by those who are pla- 
ced on an eminence, and whose example, whe- 
ther good or evil , in this respect, will assii- 
redly be imitated In various shades by all the 
intermediate classes, until we arrive at4he low- 
est. It is impoflsihie to deny, however paia- 
fnl may be the avowal, that a certain pride of 
deportment prevails /recently in our own coon- 

444 , MuncAL AMD aoeuMs 

try; nol at all coained to the highor elasaes/ 
tat very conspicuous in all , from wliich none is 
exempt in its intercourse with those l»elow it, 
and which may be traced even in stronger cha- 
racters III the farmer, the tradesman, and the 
domestic servant, than in the middle orders, 
and iff again more prominent in the middle or- 
ders than in the highest. A certain hitlerness 
of feeling is thus engendered, which, although 
it simulates men to rise above their own ori- 
ginal position to the one next above them, ren- 
ders them too apt to entertain calumnious re- 
ports, to encourage the slander of newspaper, 
and to propagate scandal. A separation of In- 
terests and a aratnal jealousy is thus fomented 
between the different classes, which, in calami- 
tous and difficult times, will tend to harden the 
feelings of each class against the one above 
it, and to inspire a hateful satisfaction in wit- 
nessing the degradation of others. This senti- 
ment of distrust and repulsion is unhappily en- 
couraged by political incendiaries not confined 
to any one rank, but to be found in all con- 
ditions, who seek to propel themselves into an 
unnatural popularity, or to gain some tempo- 
rary, sordid olyect, by declamations against the 
oppressions of the rich, against the miseries 
wilfully indicted upon the poor, and by a sweep- 
ing abuse of the aristocracy to which they 
themselves belong, and whose spirit they them- 
selves breathe in an inflated degree. 

This so-called aristocracy, is not in England, 
the proper title of any particular set of men, 
but belongs equally to all; it is found in the 
hRbit.<9, language, and behaviour of the servants'- 


liall, the veslry, and tlie coffee-room , as com- 
nionly a^f in the counting-house, the baU-room, 
or the race -course; and in all these places, it 
is far more highly coloured than in the palace, 
the college , or the literary and scientific meet- 
ing. No where , indeed , is aristocracy more 
legibly written tlian on some of those persons 
who inveigh most vehemently against it on the 
hustings and in logislative assemblies: and who, 
in the midst of their cheap public pretensions 
to universal equality, exhibit in the private 
scenes of life all the haughtiness , the illiberal 
prejudices and the ezclusiveness which. we are 
apt to attribute to despotic princes, but which 
is certainly seldom to be found among the rulers 
of Germany. 

Would it not be more patriotic, more wise, 
more kind, instead of holding out to the poor 
expectations and promises which are incapable 
of being fulfilled, instead of exasperating them 
against those on whose prosperity they ultim- 
ately depend, to encourage in them a taste for 
innocent pleasures , and to provide them with 
the means of ei^oying them — such as public 
gardens, gratuitous achools for music, cheap 
concert -rooms, public libraries, nay, dancing- 
rooms^, and facilities for manly sports? Such 
are the elements of contentment, of cheerful- 
ness, and of a friendly reciprocity of feeling> 
and sympathy between the upper and lower clas-^ 
ses, and not delusive suggestions of cheap bread, 

* I feel an humble sMisfAction ia baTing been on* 
of the first to pi^nt out the wftut of public gardens at 
Manchester, in my Report on the Factory Commission 
of 1833. 

446 w0iaamAh and sogiai* 

or of aa impoasible degree of reclaeed taxatiMi. 
A desire and a neceasity lor relatatien are iu- 
separable from all beings engaged in toil; tt is 
the business, then, and the lateffest, equally 
as it is tlie doty, ofaegislatets and of wealthy 
and inHuential individuals, to promote these' ob* 
jeots. The artisan and the peasant have nol 
the means, nor always the reqnisUe knowledge, 
to prepare suitable recreations on a large scale 
for their respective classes; Chey are thus dri- 
ven insensibly, we may almost say inevitably, 
to the gin-shop, and the beer-house, at which 
fatal haunts, after dissipating at the same time 
their scanty savings and their health, they re- 
turn to their accustomed labour sullen and an- 
refreshed, while their wives and children have 
not only been denied any participation in their 
so-called amnsements, but are suffering daily 
privations in consequence. These remarks may 
appear trivial to some; othccs will object to in- 
creasing the number of places of resort ion the 
ground of the supposed attendant debauchery 
and bad company* Birt places of amusement 
might be easily promoted, from which the sale 
of spirits and of beer eheuld be excluded, and 
a vigilant police might avert riot and theft aa 
easiiy as in other countries. It is a libel ott 
oar countrymen to argne that they cannot use 
reereation without abusing It; bat they cannot 
find it uiuutsisted; they mast be taken by the 
hand. The experiment has net yet been tried* 
but its timely adoption will tend to rivet more 
firmly the rapidly- divldhig links of the social 


Comparative View of tbe Pro^Hiwi of Taxes 
paid yearly by each individnaly taking the 
average of tlie various States of Germany, 
and for the sake of illastration, 9f the other 
States of Europe Ctaken trvm *'8clmabeVs 
General Statistik,";) 

riorim in 
Conventiom Money. 

tn Great Britain, the inhabitant pays 

yearly 18 

France ll'f, 

Holland 10 

Belgium . ' 10 

Hamburg O'/j, 

Frankfort 9'f„ 

Lubeck 7**),^ 

Bremen 7*^ 

Spain 5^ 

Prussia 5'l 

Saxony and Hesse b\^ 


Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt . . 4'L 

Sardinia. 4^' 

Denmark and Saxe Weimar 4^ 

Baden '. 4' 

Brunswick, Hesse - Homburg , and 

San Marino 4*/^ 

Anbalt-Ciitheii , and Anhalt-Bern- 

burg Z\ 

Austria and Portugal 3'/^ 

the Two SiciUes, and Saxe- Co- 

bnrg-Gotha Z% 

Tuscany, Reuss, and Lippe-Schaum- 

burg S'la 

Hanover and Wurtemberg d'f, 

Nassau and Lucca 3'h 

Oldenburg and Waldeck ...... 3'|g 


VIorins in Con- 
vention Money. 

In Sweden, and Norway) and Lippe*- 

„ Detmold 8'/i2 

„ Saxe-Bfeiningen -S 

,j Russia , HolienzoUern-Hecbingen) 

and Lichtenstein 2^1,, 

„ Modena, Parma, and Cracow . . 2% 
,y the Roman States, and the two 

ScJhwarzbnrgs < 1t,\ 

„ ^ Turkey, and Mecklenburg - StreUtz 2'fia 

„ Anhalt-Dessau 2 

„ Mecklenburg-Schwerin l*/, 

„ Switzerland V\^ 

Comparative View of the Proportion of the Mi- 
litary to the whole Population in the various 
States of Germany, and in the other States 
of Europe Ctaken from "SchnabeVs General 
Statistik, ") 

In Denmark, the soldiers is 1 — (M oftliewliole 

Sweden 1 — 63 

Wurtemberg 1 — .59 

Poland 1—60 

Prussia 1 — 68 

Bavaria 1 — 69 

Russia 1 — 70 

Austria 1 — 100 

France 1 — HO 

England 1 — 140(overrftted.) 

the Two SiciUes .... 1 ~ 200 

Tuscany 1 — 400 

the Roman States ... 1 — 500 


CMnpar^^ive Rate of Agricultural Wages in Ger* 
many, and in other States of Europe C^l^^^n 
from ** timCs Lehrbuch der poiUittchen Oeko- 

Kf«u(ser8. * 

In East Prussia, the day- 
labourer earns about . . 14 

„ Mecklenburg from 18'/, to 21 

About Magdeburg Ciu 1830) „ — 227, 

In the Rhine Country. • . . „ — 24 

I^abeurer 4n the Rhine 

vineyards „ 36 — 

In Holstein „ 21 — 26 

,, the Mark Brandenburg . ,, — 26*/, 

„ the Black Forest . » . . „ 30 — 40 

„ France „ 35 — 42 

,, the Canton of Berne, and 

„ of the Valais „ 41 — 49 

„ England yy 48 ' — 60 

Comparative Table of the Proportion of Legiti- 
mate to Illegitimate Births, in various Coun- 
tries of Europe. C^Iost of the authorities are 
derived from the Foreign Returns made to 
the Poor Law Commission, printed fai 1834, 
and digested by Mr. Senior.) 

In Belgium, there are 21 to 1 

„ Kurland, in Russia ..... 20 — 1 

„ England. 19 — 1 

„ Sweden 16 — 1 

„ North Holland. 15 — 1 

„ Norway .14 — 1 

* A kreutaer is the third part of • pen ay. 








Franee . . • t 13 

Prussia . * IS 

Wales 13 

Austria 9 

Denmark . . 9***/ 

Mecklenburg 9 

Bohemia 7 

Saxony 7 

Wurtemberg 7*/io 

the Azores . 7 

Hesse - Darmstadt Cao 
eording to Sehdn). . 4 







Mhe restrictioni imposed on printing, %nd 
publislung, in a greater or less degree, through 
liout Germany, form ttie most common theme 
of tlie disaffected in that country. The regnla- 
tions, on this head, are however never strictly 
enforced , unless writings injurious to religion, 
to morality, or to the state, are to be sup{>res- 
sed, or foreign influence, and internal irritation 
to be checked. In times of peace and quiet, the 
German States eiUoy as much freedom of the 
press, as any other country. Although mischie- 
vous, so far as regards the publication of truth, 
we cannot help considering the institution of the 
censure as a beneficial one, when we reflect on 
the mischief which is daily perpetrated in Fiance 
or England. Not only does it serve as a har- 
rier to revolutionar>' ideas, which are but too 
frequently advocatedin an unwarrantable manner, 
in couBtries where an unlimifed exercise of the 
liberty of the Press exists; but it also exempts 
the community from numberless cruel Inroads on 
the privacy of families, and from the circulation 
of atrocious libels whose bitterness can never 


bo extracted or neutralized by the veVdict of a 

If on the one hand the German Press, and 
particularly the daily one, is far behind those 
of England and France, in respect of freedom, 
it can not be denied , on the other , that those 
very restrictions contribute greatly to the main- 
tenance of good order, Cobservsible throuj^iout 
Germany), without putting a stop on the de- 
velopement and propagation of liberal ideas, 
which are constantly advancing. 

In the different States of Germany, the laws 
on the Press vary , according to the political 
organisation adopted by them respectively. Aus- 
tria, Bavaria, and Prussia, may be considered 
as the German states in which the Press is most 
closely watched. In Wortemberg, Baden, Saxony, 
and the Free Towns it enjoys greater freedom. 

Formely, works containing more than twenty 
printed sheets needed not be submitted to the 
censor; they were, however, liable to be seized, 
if any dangerous principleswere detected in them. 
At present, in most states, all books and pe- 
riodicals, without exception, must lint go to 
the censor, before they can be printed. In the 
towns where there ia a university, or wheie 
a congregation of literary men renders it desi- 
rable , the censorship is committed to the care 
of several scholars, every one of which peruses 
the works which^Sre to be published in his pro- 
vince. The author or the publisher has to pay 
the censor for his trouble ; in some states how- 
ever, the censor has a fixed salary from the 
government; and in that case he does not levy 
any charge from the -publishers. 

CKKMRSHir OF THK rm88» 453 

It ivas also allowed formerly to Indicate the 
sentence wbicli the censor liail fltruck out, liy 

inserting dashes in their place, as — . 

But an ordinance, Issued in 1832^ has now for* 
bidden this. When tbe censor has examined tbe 
copy and maile any alteration which he deems 
necessary, be delivers it to the printer, who is 
bound to submit to him the proof-sheet, in or- 
der that lie may satlsf>' himself tbat his altera- 
tions have been properly carried into effect. Ha- 
ving attented to this, he returns it accompanied 
by a certificate that the work has been properly 
censured. Then, and not till then, can it legally 
be published. 

A work, which has passed throhgh the hands 
of the censor, and the publication of which is 
allowed by the respective government, does not 
for that reason possess the right of circulating 
freely in all tbe other German States ; it may 
be prohibited wherever it can be productive of 
pernicious consequences. Unconditional prohibi- 
tions of works , already published , are excep- 
tions wbich occur but very rarely In times not 
disturbed by any political excitement which may 
have been produced by events abroad. 

Literary Property is protected in every one of 
the states of the Confederacy. The laws on this 
head, diffpr however, according to the interests or 
to the particular position of every one of those 
states. The Diet issued, in l^Aialaw which gua- 
rantees the Literary Property in every state of 
Germany, for at least ten years after the date of 
publication. This period of ten years is extended to 
twenty, in case a- special demand to that effect 


i9 mftde.for worke wbteh reqalre a consMerable 
time, before they can be completed, it was tken 
left to tbe option of the respective govenmieBta 
to give a fuller extent to tbe proviRions of tbfai 
law, tbe principal object of tbe Diet i>eiBg to 
fix a minimiBn for tbe duration of tbe protectioa» 

At tbe commencement of 1888, tbe Prasolaa 
government pnblisbed a new law of literary pro« 
perty, according to Wl|ieb tbe autbora of works 
of literature, tbe sciences, and arts, in Prussia, 
are secured an exdnsive privilege of publisbing 
and multiplying tliem, daring tbe term of tbeir 
natural lives; tbe same privilege's secured to 
tbeir representatives, for a period of thirty years, 
ftom tbe day of tbe author's death. The same 
privileges and protections are granted to anony* 
mous and pseudonymoua authors for oidy fifteen 
years. By sab8e<|nent provisions the same pro-> 
tection is granted to the authors of worka in 
Geography, Topography, Natural history, Ar- 
diiteeture, and other prodnetionfl of a similar 
nature, and likewise to musical composition!. 
Works of Art ei\joy this protection only as long 
as they remain in tbe possession of tbe anthor, 
or of the person they were originally ordered by. 

Some of the states of Germany have adopted 
tbe oBtire of this Pmssiaii law, others have me- 
rely taken its most essential parts. IVtartemberg, 
however, has provisionally fixed tbe protection 
of Utmrmry prope^ to only ten years f^om the 
date of publication. This law is Just now mdor 
tbe consideration of a se'ieet cosunittee of the 
Chamber of Deputies, and is very likely to bo 
amended, so as to extend the duration of tho 
protection. Austria follows, in this respect, a 

cKNtensNip or tun pmu. 455 

system entirely its own, and only.calcaiated for 
(he interests of its sut^ects. 

It is very probable that sooner or later , this 
natter will be brought once more before the 
Diet, and that a aniform principle will then be 
laid down for all the slates belonging to the 



A-lthough in every Uerman state, a system of 
censure for literary productions prevails; tliere 
is probably no country vtrliere so many periodi- 
cal works are published. Every German love^ 
to be an autbor, and almost all who have had 
a classical education, have at one time or other 
written an article in some Journal. 

No newspaper ran be establisbed without the 
permission of government, and this permission 
•is only granted to a privileged few. The Ger- 
man newspaper, consequently, can only be oT 
general interest, in so far as they indicate the 
tendencies of their respective governments, or 
of any foreign power, which may have oStained 
some control in their direction. 

Prussian Nbwspapbrs. The Prussian goverib- 
ment has lately decreed that no person shall be 
alloW^ed to edit a newspaper, who has not re- 
ceived bis education at an university. Four p<k- 
litical Journals are published at Berlin. The. first 
we shall mention, is the State-gazette C^taats- 
steitung'), which is the special organ of the mo~ 
vemment. It is edited by some official of the 
foreign department, and affords publication tu 
statements and articles emanating from the mi- 
nistry. Its size is that of the large French 
newspapers. Two pages, and sometimes more, are 
commonly devoted to fof eign affairs and are priu- 


mB NBWtP^ntB t>HBM. 45.7 

ctpally lilleii with extractei flwn foreign Joar-> 
nalB ; to hoBie afllairfl akout a eolamn, and some- 
tlmoB Bot even half a eolumn, is devoted^ 
and that space is generally entirely filled with 
statistical or topographical notices. The remain- 
der of the Joomal is filled with general statis- 
tics of Prussia, reviews, scienAfic notices, and 
the like. Leading articles (»a they are called 
in the Bnglish papers), are not to ^e found at 
aO. in this jonmal, neither does it contain any 
discnssions whatever on any branch of internal 
policy. The chief correspondence which it in- 
serts at present, Is from Vienna, St. Peters- 
burgh, Warsaw, Sweden, and som^ portions of 
Germany. Connected with the State-gazette, 
wfiich appears daily, is a literary paper called 
the ^'Magazine of Foreign Literature'* (.Magazin 
far Sie Idteraiur des Axulandeg). The State- 
gBBette is supposed, to se^ about 9000 copies. 

The Gazette of Haude and Spener," (die IToif- 
d9^ und Spener^sche ZeUiauf}, is now the pro- 
perty of Dr. Spiker, librturian to the' King, who 
is also its editor^. - Its arrangement is almost 
the same as that of the State-gazette; hut Eng- 
lish politics are treated in It at greater length. 
It is edited in a Conservative tone. Raumef 
is its theatrical critic, and as such, enriches it 
with some excellent dramaturgic articles. This 
journal is pttDlished daily, H sells perhaps 14000 

* This Gentleman is well known to English travel- 
lers by his courtesy, hospitality, sad extensive know- 
ledge of our literature and language. To the literary 
world he is familiar, as the author of a good book of 
Travels in Bngland, which has been translated into 
English and Dntcli. 



copies, and is Mid to bring in a proft of at 
least 5000L. a year. Its form is that of oar "Attae- 
nteum." It Contains advertisements sufieient to 
c'over all its expenses. 

''Voss's Gazette," (die Vossische Zeitung)j 
is of tbe- same form and arrangement as tlie 
last-mentioned. Its principal editor* is Mr. Roll- 
stab, well known in Berlin as a. writer of iic* 
tion, and as a musical critic. This paper has 
the reputation of being somewhat liberal , bat 
not in the sense in which liberalism is inter- 
preted by an English Radical. It appears daily, 
except on Sundays and has about 120001 sub- 

'"the Weekly Political Journal of Berlin," 
(daa Berliner poiitische Wochenblatt) , is per- 
haps the boldest, most talented, and most con- 
sistent advocate of the doctrines of absolutism 
which at present exists in Europe. According 
to its views of state-policy, an English Ultra- 
Tory would be sublimed into a Liberal. This 
journal was formerly edited by Professor Jarke, 
who from the talent he displayed in it, and the 
principles he advocated, recommended himself 
to the notice of Prmce Metternich, from whom 
he received an appointment in Austria, where 
he at present resides. His successor , Mafor 
Streit, seconded by several assistants, continues 
to wage his weekly war with no mean resour- 
ces. This paper is by some regarded as an or- 
gan of the party which was conducted by the 
late Prince Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. It 
1ms no very extensive circulation. 

Besides these journals published in Berlin, a 
paper appears in the chief towns of ever>' go- 



vemment district, (Regienrngs-Betirk), after 
whose name it is called, as for instance, tiie 
''Gazette of Maffdebnrg," '<of Cologne, "4*c. On 
tile wliole tliere are twenty-five of these politi- 
cal joarnals, amongst wbicb, at present, ttae Ga- 
zette of Breslau, Elberfel'd and tbat of Cologne 
are tbe more remarkable, on account of the lea- 
ding articles wbich they venture to give on fo- 
reign politics. They are under tbe direct super- 
intendance of a local censor. We think that 
in tbeir respective districts, they eigoy a mono- 
poly of advertisements, i. e. every person who 
wishes to advertise, mast advertise in them. If 
tbe editor of one of these provincial Journals 
should consider himself harshly treated by tbe 
local censor, he has the right of appeal to tbe 
supreme president of the province. 

''The Hamburg Impartial Correspondent,'* (der 
Hamburger Vnparteiische CorrespondenQj was 
established more than a hundred years ago, and 
for the first fifty years of its existence was tbe 
only journal of any note in the north of Ger- 
many. It had formerly and has still, the repu- 
tation -of being liberal. It contains, frequently, 
communications from St Petersburgh, Berlin, 
Stockholm and Hanover, Copenhagen and some 
smaller capitals of the North of German)% 

''The Hanoverian Gazette," C^e Hannoversche 
Zeitung), is the organ of the Hanoverian go- 
vernment. Its politics are conservative. 

"The Gazette for Villages," (Dorr-ZeHung), 
appears at Hildburghausen, in the State of Saxe- 
Meiningen, and has a very considerable circula- 
tion amongst the German people. It is edited 
by tbe clerical superintendent, Nonne. It is writ- 

4#0 f !!■ mwflPAmt mibss. 

ten ia a godd p«t«bMr dtyle; it always takes 
l»«ld TiewB of general sabjeets , and of politics 
as far Us dremnstanees admit. II is puliUslied 
twice a week. 

<<The Universal Leipzig eazette" C^i9 AUgt- 
mHne Leipvi§er Zeitung), is the eleveroH and 
boldest of the liberal papers of Germany, and 
has correspondents in ev^y place of note in 
the North of Germany^ Denmark and Sweden. It 
is alsoregalarly sopplied with articles from Pa- 
ris and Londcm. It appears daily, except l|iui- 
days, and is published by Brodtbaus. 

The Fkakkvobt papers are the following: — 

1. ^'The Gazette of the General Post-office ; 
Cdie Ober-P99t-AmtS'Zeikmg}, This Journal la 
edited by Mr. Berly whose clever pen has en- 
riched the paper with many interesting articles^ 
Its politics are that of a moderate vniig; it is 
published daUy. 

% ''The Jonnat of Vrankfort" Cdas Frank" 
furter Journal), IHis newspaper was establi- 
shed before the Thirty-Years' War , and is the 
oldest in Germany. It is of a somewhat libe- 
ral tendency, and is published daily. 

3. "The Journal of Frandbrt/' in IVench, 
Cle Journal de Francfort), This paper advo- 
cates conservative principles; For the last aiz 
years the Journal do Franefort was edited by 
Mr. Charles Durand, a very able writer who pre- 
viously was -editor of the ^Joamat de la Haye 
and who resides now at Paris, where he Is 11- 
k^y to distinguish hiauielf. English readero, 
who desire to take in a good epitome of eoa- 
tinental news In the Freneh* language, cannot 


fare better thaii by subscribing to this coiive- 
iiieiit journal. 

*'Tlie Nuremberg Correspondent/' and tlie Fran- 
f!onian Mercury" are daily papers of a somewhat 
liberal tendency. Tbe former is published at 
Nuremberg, the latter at Bamberg.. 

The '^Universal Augsburg Gazette'* (_die AUge- 
meine Augsburger Zeitung'), edited by Dr. Gus- 
tavns Koib, is the German paper which en- 
joys the widest European fame. It was estab' 
Hshed by the late bookseller of Stuttgard and 
Tubingen, Baron Cotta of Cottendorf, and has 
generally been in the interest of the party which* 
was dominant for the time being, sometimes lean- 
ing towards liberalism, and sometimes, towards 
absolutism. At this moment its tendency .'Is In 
the lattei direction. Its chief merit consists in 
the detailed and well -written correspondence 
which it presents from almost all the countries 
of Europe. Its correspondents are generally 
very well-informed, and are sometimes persons 
filling situations under governments. I believe 
that good articles are readily admitted into this 
journal, from whatever quarter they, may pro- 
ceed : but the Censor will sometimes mutilate them. 

^^The German Courier," {^der deutsche Cou- 
Her}, is a weekly paper published at Stuttgard, 
and edited by Dr. Weil. This journal espouses 
the cause of the German constitutional Stateit 
against the attacks of the writers who maintain 
opposite views. It has always warmly defen- 
ded king Louis Philippe, and the Revolution of 
1830, in opposition to the organs of the abso- 
lute powers. 

*'TUe Snabian Mercury," (der Svhv 



Mertmr), is a MIy P«ir<r paUMied Hi SCiiU* 
gard, and of a liberal cast. 

**The AiMtrian Olwefver," ider OeatfHcMsche 
B0obaoht€r)r^i» a daily paper i^ublifibed at Vienna. 
Ua principal editoi ia Sdler voa PiUit;. Tbia 
journal is said to rapreiseat tbe aentimento of 
Prinee BtfttenvkA, tbe truly feiiiarl(ai»ie prime, 
nintoter of Austria} who daring so many ye«unf 
lu» safely gntded tbe imperial vessel tli rough 
tenpests and ro6ka> a«d - wbQ lias received so 
laxge a portion of abuse In foreign eonntriea, 
from persons who know bvt little about liim^. 

We most «ot omit mentioning here that at 
the present moment a veir animated eontfovoiny 
Is carried on between many Qennan papers on 
account of religious mutters. The Prussian pa- 
pers Cwho participate in it) the Frankfurter 
Jo«rnal» the Hanoverian Ctazette and the Unl* 
veraal Leipaig Gazette are strenuous supporters 
of Protestantism » and of the Prussian gevem- 
ment, In the yet unsettled question of marriages 
between raembera of the Cifttholie and the Pro- 
testant churches* On the other hand the CftthQlk 
interest is most warmly defended by the Munich 
papers and the "New WAnsborg Gasette." The 

* It is to be regretted that tbe Englisli Cabinet^ of 
wbateirer party eempesed, doe? not always adopt some 
MM joarnM, aa e faithful end ataady repvesaatative of 
its scativeats. In default of such a reflection of iia 
own political character^ the English ministries are per- 
petnaily mftiahem, both as to their spirit, intentions, 
and actual pweeadings, as wall at bona as in forai^ 
countries. Irritation is es^eited ag^Ast then, in oqnaa*- 
qaence of certain articles which appear in journals 
tupposed t^ be under their control, but which, in fact, 
Jisiori then, and not unfxefnently, even attack than. 


Universal Aagsbarg. Gazette leans that way too, 
but (fares not, or will |>ot go *'tlie whole hog." 

Some of the German governments have adop- 
ted the method of refusing admittance to such 
papers, foreign as well as German, the politics 
of which are reprobated by tbeoi , or which have 
taken upon themselves to handle certain ques- 
tions to (k-eely. 

An attempt has been made , to show the pro- 
portion of periodical worKs and of neu'spaperH, 
In various parts of Europe. This list affords to 

Austria, one Journal among 376,000 inhabitant?. 
Prussia, „ „ „ 43.000 „ „ 

Vienna, „ ,> „ 11.608 „ „ 

Berlin, „ „ „ 4.074 „ „ 

The number of journals published in Austria 
in 1837, amounts to .sevent3'-two, 91 of which 
are furnished by Vienna. The Lombardo^Vene- 
tian kingdom Issues 36 ; Milan alone 35, Veaice 
6, and Verona 4. 

We hav« not enumerated all the newspapers 
which are published in ^rmany, and have con- 
flned ourselves to the more noted ones. Still 
lesp will it be convenient to describe the nu- 
merous periodical miscellanies which emanhle 
from that quarter in illustration of every braaeh 
of knowledgo and art. We had Intended to 
wuae the most disUngutohed, — but the dlfi^* 
cmty of makfaig an impartial selection, aad of 
rendering jiialice to all, detera us from the 






OP clkroy; monastbrirs in bohkmia; univbrsi- 
TiRS. budokt; papbr monby in circulation; 
army; navy, form or ootbrnmbnt ; okficbrs 
of oovrrnmbnt; officbrs of thb court, births 
AND dbatIis ; statistics of tab population or 


In the great panorama of Germany, the Ans- 
trlan empire forms the most curious and picta- 
resqne object to every class of observers. There 
we find the greatest variety of dialects, of dre«c* 
ses, usages, but all blended into one powerful, 
if not harmonious mass, moving with regularity, 
and, if not rapidly advancing, making nevec- 
theless a steady step onwards. There we oh- 
serve inconsistencies, which the framers of sys- 
tems wiU find it difficult to reconcile; but the 

trae- point of vl«w from wbkii Aastrln ought to 
be viewed, is tlio variety of its compoaent parts, 
and the extreme dUlicttlty of maintaining them 
together, except by a rigid and inflexible politi- 
cal system. Yet, severe as is the Austrian 
system towards real or supposed political oflea- 
ceSf nowhere is a better provision made for the 
elementary instruction of the inhabitants, and 
nowhere perhaps is a greater degree of happi- 
ness enjoyed, than in the Germanic portion of 
the empire. 

It is a mistake to suppose that every politi- 
cal feature in Austria continues unchanged. A 
slow and unobserved progress is at work, not 
announcing its march by outcry and violence, 
but gently and insensible accommodating the con- 
dition of men and of things to the alterations 
in the proceedings in other parts of the world, 
and to the wants of their own portion. Thus, 
in 1785 there existed in Bohemia, 6,257 eccle- 
siastics, 1,577 nobles, 3,077 ofiioiais, and 85,600 
citizens;^ and in 1795 we find a dawn of change, 
which, in the yewc 1805 continues, and perse- 
veres through 1815, until In the year 1825 we 
perceive the last result, demonstrating a very 
singular transposition or dislocation in the v»* 
rlous daases of society: the ecclesiastics an 
greatly diminished, the noMes are somewhat 
augmented, the official persons are neariy treb- 
led In number, and the amount. of those descri- 
bed as citizens is decreased. ** 

BcclMiutiea, Noblet, Officiala, Citieras. 

♦ la 17W, 4,790 1>677 8,202 81,751 

1805, 4,210 9,051 5,»93 74,281 

1815, 4,142 2,053 0,S50 72,348 

1825, 4,009 8,267 0,986 66,210 

** Schon, Op. at. p. 230. 


The imperial liease of Austria is of tlie Ca- 
tholic religion. The present emperor is Ferdi- 
nand I., born April 19, 1793, crowned Icing of 
Hungary, September 28, 1830, who succeeded 
his father, Francis L, March 2, 1835. He mar- 
ried , 1831 , Caroline , princess of Sardinia. He 
has three sisters, Maria Louisa, duchess of Par- 
ma; Maria Clementina, married to the prince of 
Salerno; and Maria Anna, abbess at Prague; 
.and one brother, Francis, bom In 1802, married, 
1824, to Sophia, princess of Bavaria, by whom 
he has three sons and one daughter. Francis, 
the eldest son, was bom, August 18, 1830. The 
Empress Dowager, Caroline, princess of Bavaria, 
mother-ln-Iaw of the emperor, born In 1792, ia 
still living. The emperor has live ancles, viz. 
the archdukes; Charles, duke of Teschen, Ge- 
neral- Fieldmarshal; Joseph, late palatine of 
Hungary; John, general of cavalry; Rainer, 
vice-king 'of Lombardy; and Lewis, general of 
artillery. Charles married a princess of Nassan- 
Weilbnrg; Joseph, has been thrice married, first 
to Alexandrina Pawlowna, a Russian grand-dv- 
chess; secondly, toHermine, princess of Anhalt- 
Bemburg-Schaumhurg; and, thirdly, to Maria, 
daugther of Prince Lewis of Wurtemberg. Rai- 
ner, married a princess of Savoy- Carignano. 
They have all several children. 

The following is a view of the provinces of 
Austria, and of their popolation, accordhig to 
the census made in 1804. ^ 

* As i|iv«ii ill th« "etnealogiseh-Hiitoriscli-SUtisti. 
scber Almanitrb of Weinftr/' for 1838. 





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468 BurriHK ov juistmu. 

The proportion in whicli lie inhabitants of 
Austria are distrlfoated in the country and in 
towns, JB nearly similar to the Prussian scale. 
In the country live ''^)ioo> ^^ ^^ ^^® towns *\^. 
There are six viUage:^ to a square mile in Aus- 
tria, hut only one town to fifteen square miles^. 
The proportion of the agricultural classes to the 
manufacturing , ~ is said to be as four to one. 
The proportion of paupers is one in 25 of the 
whole mass.** 

Great pains have latterly been taken to im- 
prove the cultivation of the soil in Austria. 
About 81 parts in 100 of the cultivable portion 
have been brought into use. The «rahle Uwd 
forms less than half of the available surface: 
the forests and woodlands, more than a third. 
The vineyards occupy about a fiftieth part, and 
the meadow-land an4 grasUig-land, each about 
an eleventh part of the whole cultivable sor- 
fiice. Malchus estimates the gross quantity of 
grain produced at about 82,070,000 quarters, 
of which about 17,820,000 being reserved for 
Heed-corn, a surplus of 64,250,000 will remain 
for consumption or export. 

* SohSn. Getth. und SUtistik d«r Earop. CiTilisftF. 
tioB, p. 161. 

** UnterBttclivHigMi Qb«r Bev5lk«rasg, Arbeitoloha, 
mii PaupeiiBVi^ voa F. Sclunidt, p. g29w (Loipsig 1630 



The principal towns are: 


































» f> 































38>000 -KLAVSBirBVB« 



















The population is composed of 15,650,000 
Sclavonlans, 6,200,000 Germans, 4,650,000 Itali- 
ans, 4,500,000 Magyars, 1,800,000 Wallachians, 
470,000? Jews; 110,000 Gypsies, 13,500 Arme- 
nians, 4,000 Greeks, 1,500 Clementinlans, l,OoO 
Osmans and French. 

With respect to religion, 26,990,000 are Ca- 
tholics, 3,040^000 members of the Greek church, 
1,660,000 of the Reformed church, 1,190,000 
Lutherans, 470,000 Jews, 50,000 Unitarians, 
13,500 Armenians, 500 Mohammedans. 

The Catholic clergy consists of three cardf- 
nals, 1*3 archbishops, and 70 bishops, and the 
cathedral chapters of 2568 clerg>^en. Accor 
ding to tbe official reports of 1828, there were 
69,515 secular and other clergymen. The whole 
body of clergy comprises 72,169 individuals, the 
spiritual orders of knighthood, the professors 
of seminaries and colleges, and the students, not 



There are 294 abbeys, 637 monasteries, and 
110 nunneries. 

There are t8 evangelical and one protestant 

In Bohemia there are 79 monasteries, viz., 
37 in the archdiocese of Prague, 20 In the dio- 
cese of Leutmeritz, 12 ui the diocese of Kd- 
nigsgratz, and 10 in the diocese of Bndweis 

The university of Vienna numbers 1J9S4 stu- 
dents, of Prague 1,449, of Pavia CiB313 1,300 
of Padua 410, of Pesih CiSSSy 1,710, of Lem- 
berg 1,010 of Innspruck 082B) 352, of Gratz 
C 18283 321; there is also a university at 01- 
mutz, reestablished 1827. 

The revenue of Austria amounts to 152,000,000 
florins. Its principal sources are as .follows: — 

Lftnd-tax 42.000.000 

ladireet tkxet • • ; 54.000.000 

Regmlien* 86.000.000 

Domains and Forests 8.000.000 

Interest of Government Property **^, ^e. 12.000.000 

The expenditure of the state, io time of pea- 
ce, amounts to 125,000,000 flosins annually. 
The public debt is 500,000,000 florins. Ui Octo- 
ber, 1835, Austria made a loan of 40 milUoBS 
besides, and another loan of 30 millions florins 
has been contracted in March, 1839, by several 
ban]£ing houses of Vienna. The sinking fimd 

O Jura Regalia. Monies aceming from pririlefes eott" 
netted with the sovereign power. 
«<> Prozenlutuehlage. 

BMriRIt 0» JrtTStRIA. ffi 

poM^KiTed M th^ftid of April tS^y 177,591,895 
ilorins. Thie Cdfftl amount of stocks withdrawn 
firoM drcolatioH at that time was 349,700,129 dn- 
rins. In the bofiinning of 1834, there were in* 
cirefflation 36,7<(6,588 fioritts, paper money. 

It would be unjust to pass over In silence 
seme remarkable transactions relative to the 
linanees of Austria, which we rather reeord inr 
the words of a Crormaii, than in our own. Our 
authority Is Schneiler, who speaks thus in a 
passage of the third Tolnme of his '^Bistory or 
Bohemia," translated and cited in a recent n'um- 
her of the ^'Britislfr aivd Poreign Retiew." We 
have ommKted some of his comments. 

"1^ sooner was Count WiOiU called fretti the 
post of Oherstbarg-graf ki Prague to> that of 
flAtmc^minister. in Vienna, than he percefveA 
that the financial measures of Counts Samrair, 
Zichy, and (Monell, li[H)m 1790 fee 1811, had 
only causeit a mementaiy relief, wMho«t any 
permanent amelioration. Voluntaffy eootriniitions 
had been calleil for; tlie- silver of the chur- 
ches had been takea: a base cuvreney, ef half 
its nomimi value, had bcpen Issneif ; Mh»' expov^ 
tatioft of the melais Had beei» prohibited; a 
compulsory loan of seventy^fite mintons- of flo« 
rins had heen decreed, to dlmlnlshf th» qamftfty 
of bank notes; Immense dniiea had heen laM 
upon all colonial produce; die post money hud 
been raised two or three times; a property^tai 
of one-lialf per cent had- been introduced for 
air indefinite period; the emperor had pubiteiy 
promised to stop any further issue of bank no- 
tes, but he was compelled again to have re- 
course to them; — nevertheless, all wtm in vain. 

473 iMPnui ov austhia. 

'The floating bank notes had imperceptibly 
risen to one thousand' and sixty millions of 
florins C 106 ,000 ,0001. sterling}; the amoimt 
of the interest-paying debt was never exactly 
known, but it was donbtleSs even more consi- 
derable;, the salaries of all public officers and 
the expenditure of the state had of course ri- 
sen enormously, in proportion to the depreciation 
of the currency; all these palpable evils were 
to be remedied at once by the bold project and 
the determined character of Count Wallis. 

<<The C(mp d*etat which that minister carried 
into execution, received the approbation of his 
miUesty on the llth of February, 1811; the 
important orders were printed with the greatest 
secrecy in the imperial printing-office; a copy 
of the patent was sent, sealed, to ail the go- 
vernors of the empire, who were to open it at 
the same hour, on the 15th of March, 1811; 
these orders were instantly to be acted upon, 
without remonstrance, and without the assent 
of the states. In what did this master-stroke 
consist? In the substitution of quittances for 
bank notes, so that five florins of the latter 
were paid by one florin of the former in all 
public as well as private transactions. 

''The whole financial system throughout the 
empire was changed. In the following war of 
1813 a fresh issue of two hundred and twelve 
millions in paper was made, besides AnUeipa- 
tUmseheine to three times that amount. When 
Count Stadion succeeded Count Wallis, the pa- 
per money was so fallen, that he found it ne- 
cessary to reduce it from two hundred and fifty 
to one hundred; the consequence was, that, in 
every part of the empire, the property of mi- 


nors, hospitals, an iiistitations, and capitalists, 
.was reduced from one hundred thousand to 
twenty thousand by Wallis, and from twenty 
to eight thousand by Stadion. The state was 
compelled to borrow, after the peace, first twen- 
ty millions, and afterwards thirty-eight millions 
of Rothschild , and nearly as much again firom 

other contractors." 


The Standing Army amounts to 366,814 

and OABtistft of 

I. inWAHTtiVt 

58 regiments of the line. 
17 regiments of the frontier. 
1 regiment of Tyrolean riftes 
30 battalions of grenadiers. 
12 battalions of rifle^i. 

5 battaliontl for garrisons. "^ 

altogether 210,000 men. 

II. c A V A I. R y: 

8 regiments of cuirassiers. 

6 ,, of dragoons. 

7 ,f of chetaux-leger$. 
12 ,,. of hussars.. 

4 „ of lancersi ^ 

altogether 39,024 men. 


5 regiments for fidd serrice al- 
together with the artillery of the 

garrison^ engineers Ae, ,. . 17,1^ men. 266,614 

In time of war the army may be carried to 
750,000 men by means of the Militia &c. 
Austria has 26 fortresses. 

* The girdle of the empire, called the Military Boun^ 
dary, furnishes 45,000 men for the maintenance of the 
Cordon $anit«ure iAuriA% war it fttrnishes 100,000 men. 

474 PMVfW «9 AOBtMA. 

Tk9 niimlp#f of bielM»r olfiofrs, not Includiikg 
tboBO ID actiTO service, is 239; of staiT and^ 
oilier ofioors, about lOjOOO, of underofficers' 
81,200, of civil officon attaebod to the army 
159a Tbe number of horses is 70,000. 

TJie navy consists of eight ships of the line, 
eight frigates, four corvettes , six brigs, seven 
srhooners, and many smaller vessels; altogether 
more than thirty ships of war. 

This is an hereditary but mixed monarehy, 
consisting of several inseparable provinces in- 
corporated into one state, under the protection 
of a chief, who bears the title of emperor, and, 
with the original German provinces, forming 
part of the German confederacy. The emperor 
combines all the rights of government , with the 
exception of those which he shares with the 
Hungarian diet by virtue of capitulation-oaths. 
Every province of the imperial state, with the 
exception of the Military Boundaries, of Dalma- 
tia, and of the Sea-coast, bas its representa- 
tives , though with very unequal privileges. On- 
ly those of Hungary and Transylvania can talce 
part in the legislature. The representatives of 
the other states have a much more limited spbere 
of action; they can only make representations, 
and regulate the distiibution of taxes. There 
are no fundamental laws for the whole of this 
empire; but there are Hausgesetze , ia the Prag- 
matic Sanction, dtc, and every state or province 
has its particular charters of different kinds 
(Charten und Handvesten). 

The chief officers of government are four 
state and cabinet ministers, of whom one is 
cbanceUor and minist^ of foreign affairs, and 


tw» iiave seats in tlie couneil for home- affairs, 
ill which, also, are two archdoKes, amd seve- 
ral councillors. There is a dirnstor of the pri- 
vate cabinet of the emperor, aad a president of 
the general chamber of accounts. In each of 
the provinces I there is a president of the go- 

. The chief officers of the imperial court are, 
a first- grand -master, a grand -chamberlain, a 
grand-marshal, a grand-equerry, a grand -mas- 
ter of the kitchens , a grand-keeper of the plate, 
a grand-master of the house, a grand-huntcanan, 
an intendant-general of buildings, a director of 
the amusements of the court, a grand-master 
of the ceremonies. 

The Austrian government is remarkablj* free 
from any taint of ostentation or vanity; it ta- 
kes no pains to procure itself a good name, 
and appeai|i q^uite a stranger to the arts of 
puffing and self-praise. Perhaps it might earn 
a more popular character if it condescended to 
practise such manceuvres, but it steers quietly 
and independently its course. Although gene- 
rally reputed to be an enemy to publicity, in 
few countries are the statibtical reports more 
ample; it shows no disfavour towards Protes- 
tantism, and has now established a Protestant 
college in its metropolis^ Foreigners are not 
excluded from its service; several of our own 
countrymen are enrolled in its army, and straur 
gers are admitted even to political employments. 
Above all we must render justioe to the tempe- 
rance, the httmilit>, the a&hiHty, the mildness 
of its imp«riat famUy. 

476 BMMiur or adsthia. 

Tlie attentton wbkb is bere bestowed on the 
most minnte details affecting the health and 
weil-belng of the subject is remarkable; I am 
far from sayiag that this ubiquitous interference 
is worthy of imitation in alt respects, but some 
of its cares are laudable. The most abundant 
provision exist for the sick poor: no interment 
of a body can take place until it has been exa- 
mined by the state-pliysician of the district. 
The sale of bad or spoiled food Is cheeked; n» 
poisonous article can be sold, even in the smal- 
lest doso, unless on the prescription of a li- 
censed practitioner. It is even said that the 
musicians at the baths are ordered to play only 
cheerful tunes; but,Avether such an ii\junctioD 
exists or not , it is certain that nothing escapes 
tl|e eye of the authorities, who are indulgent 
parents to the docile and submissive, but stem 
and unyielding to the restless and dJiBcontented. 

From 1828 to 1833 inclusive, the average 
annual number of births in the Austrian domi- 
nions CHongary not included} was 764,290; of 
marriages, 167,704; and of deaths, 688,763. 
The men geiierally marry between twenty-four 
and thirty; the women, between twenty and 
twenty-four. There is one marriage amually te 
130 individuals. The number of female to male 
births is as 1,000 to 1,062. About every tenth 
ebUd is illegitimate. The average number of 
chUdren to a marriage is four and a half. The 
number of persons who die between forty and 
sixty is about the same as that of those who 
die between siacty and eighty. During six yeans 
from 1829 to 1831 inclusive, 3875 persons 
have reached the age of 100, that is, 82 in 


ItMMltB 69 XUSTIUA. 477 

every 100,000. The most healtby districts are 
Croatia, Carinthia and Styria — tlie least so, 
Lombardy and Venice. Tlie mean duration of 
life is tbirty-five and one-fifth years. Of the 
645,767 deaths which occurred in 1834, 614,946 
were from ordinary diseases, 11,883 from local 
diseases, 4414 from the small pox, 707 from 
suicide, and five were inflicted by the execu- 

In 1788, of every 207 Individuals in the king- 
dom of Bohemia, 107 were females. In 1815, 
in consequence of Jthe French wars, of 22% 
123 were females. After the peace the usual 
proportion was re-established; accordingly, in 
18^, we find that of 211, 111 were females. 

The mean population of Bohemia^ from 1784 
to 1814 inclusive, was 3,033,420; in 1827, it 
was 3,736,840. During, the former period, there 
were 3,788,362 births, 3,011,702 deaths, and 
732,954 marriages. From 1815 to 1828 CU 
years3, there were 3,031,325 birtlis, 1,404,045 
deaths, and 383,416 marriages. From 1785 to 
1815, every 1000 couples produced 5,240 chil- 
. dren, and from 1815 tQ 1828, 5,296 chUdren. 
In every eight births, one is illegitimate. The 
Bohemians are the most remarkable of all the 
Sclavonic people, for matrimonial fecundity. Du- 
ring the former of the above-mentioned periods, 
there wore 125 births to every 100 deaths, du- 
ring the second, 144. During both periods, there 
was one birth annually to 23 inhabitants; and 
one death to 80 during the former period, and 
one to 34 during the second. 

In 1800, there were 4312 ecclesiastics, 1741 
nobles Clioads of families}, 3457 persons em- 

478 iFiviup OK Avvtau. 

pl0y«d by gwevment, . 8^fii7 eltiziaiif, ^e., 
and 125,597 iieavaiits. In 1827, tbere wer^i 
411$! ep^lesiastics, 2285 nobles, 10,088 persofui 
empl«iyed by government, 69,94^ citizeps, ^c, 
and 141,436 peasants. From 1806 to 1827 iiw 
dasive, 157,571 Bobemians entered into tbe 
milHary ^e^vW0, 89,Q61 left it> a«<^ 47»?10 died, 
or remained i^ ^|ie r^uoKa. 

Of 3955 children born in Prague, in 1828, 
1404 were illegitimate. Tbe legitimate were 
1291 boys, and 1260 girls; tbe illegitimate were 
73il boys and 673 gurls. Oat of tbe above to-* 
tal number of birtbs, tbe number o/ tbe stiU-r 
born amounted to 107 boya an4 97 girls^ ^i 
tbe . Fonndlii^ H<V9pii^ of Prague, 11^5 ebil* 
4J(m wer^ b<^o in V^^ year 18!%7* Tbe nmn- 
1|^r 9i marriages i^ tbe saffie yefur was G/^\, 

Tl^e total nnim^er ^f de^l^i ^as #99^ Q^ 
tb^e, 119t3 w^e qf 0uld«e^ vlsi^ ar pot ex- 
fee^ili^ one ye^ ftldf 

886 werQfrom 1 to 4 yearn oIA. 

405 p 4 ^ 20 # 

521 » 20 » 40 # 

517 » 40 # 60 M 

544 IT 66 # 80 p 

tm » 80 # 100 # 

and 8 were above 160 years of age. 

Among tbe above nupiber of djeatljtf, wera 
813^ aulpides, one mjordeved^ t^O) exe^ul^, 26 
<Jrowoed, 40,46 died of ^Is^^^, fsnd 15 wex^ 
shot C^ut in wb^t fivmneif \a jptot e;^aiiie<Q 
Of the 4096 persons who died , 37T3 were C^tb4-^ 
lies, 256 Jews, and only 07 werQ Jfrt^yiaiwaf^^. 

♦ string's ''G«^[iQ«9y in 1831/' v^i ii., f? \92, 

BimiUI •P ADSTHIA. 479 

To give 8fr Mea of the paMage ef trsveUera 
tiiroogli Pragne, tHe number of passports recei- 
ved at the poliee-offtoe of that city, in. 1829, 
anownted to 51,333^; of these passports , 16,074 
belongeil to foreign merchants and tourists, 17,059 
to mechanics, and 18,300 to Jews^. 

In order to point out the proportion which 
prevails of the medical profession to the popa- 
lation, we sliali state that there is a province 
in Austria wliich contains 821,600 inhabitants. 
The nimber of medical men residing in this 
province is as follows: 48 physicians Cor doc- 
tors of medicine and sargery>; 349 surgeons of 
inferior grade Ccorrespondkig to our general 
practitioners3 ; one veterinary surgeon ; 38 phar- 
maceutists Cof licensed draggists); and 666 li- 
censed midwives. 

The Austrian capital, Vienna, contains 6660 
registered citizens, and 4970 licensed to trade 
ofi their own account. There are 173 b4kers, 
88 bookbinder^, 112 twiners, 21 diamond cut- 
ters, 210 jewellers*. workaien , 280 gardeners, 
130 millitteffs, 1554 tailors, 1776 shoemakers, 
665 silk- weavers, 915> carpenters, 200 watch- 
makers, and 920 weavers. There are 100 but- 
dMsrs, 460 miUunen, 916 dealera '» previsions, 
886 kHi]ceeper&, and i^ hMiefS. About 100 
manufiaetorie» hafve warebousefih is Vienna, and 
250 hawkers are lieeaae«l toi sell: in the town. 
Of the population, 163,368 ase maiies , and 166^506 
f)imalc8. The rlsh. and' lh«»se in eassi cireums- 
tanoes ase 8000^ the eAIHals 6i900, and the 
servants S^OttK Thejeare 700'hfl«fciiey coach- 
men » about 60, winecellars^ more than 50 

* Strang'* «Oerm»ny/' vol. ii., p. «M. 

480 RMjPiiuc or AunitiA. ^ 

eoffee-houses, and about 500 ale-bouses. The 
number of horses Is 10,000, of dogs 20,000,. 
SQ that there is one dog to about fifteen inha- 
hltants. In 1835 403,352 casks of beer were 
eonsamed, 22,103 cwt. of butter and lard, 
42,123,397 eggs, 14,405 cwt. of fish, 81,972 
birds Cgame3, 1,277399 other lairds, 8,031,087 
quarts of milk, 402,909 head of cattle, anil 
428,346 barrels of wine and cider. 

Vienna is one of the most orderly and agree- 
able cities in the world; intoxication or rude- 
ness are rare; pauperism is kept out of sight. 
The secret police cannot be reduced to calcula- 
tion, but Che police employed to patrol the city 
and suburbs amount to about 700. In no city 
probably are strangers treated with greater civi- 
lity; if I were to speak my own impression^ 
yienna stands first in this respect , and Copen- 
hagen the second. * 

Important commercial advantages, and unfore- 
seen pdlitical results, will, doubtless, accrue 
as wen to Vienna, as to the whole empire of 
Austria, from the Steam -Navigation recently 
introduced on the Danube. Two English shlp- 
buiiders, Andrews and Prichard, in 1828, obtain- 
ed an exclusive privilege for three yean, for 
carrying this scheme into eifect. A Company 
has since been formed to prosecute fiirther this 
great object; one of the most zealous promoters 
has been the patriotic Count Szecheny; it eiUoya 
a charter for twenty- five years. There are 17 
Hteaiuboats, now forming a chain of communi- 
cation between Linz and Constantinople^. 

* For ample pArticularn respecting the Steam-NaTi- 
gation of the Danube, consult the "Handbook for Tra- 
vellers in Southern Germany," p. 853. 

BiiniiB or Ai7ffvuA«. 481 

It is ftdmUted ttiat, of all tiie states of Ger- 
many, Austria is the one in which justice is 
most cheaply administered ; the fees of the ad- 
vocates and other members of the legal profes- 
sion are fixed by degree. The local authorities 
are enjoined to attempt to effect an agreement 
in ail civil disputes. 

At tlie first opening of the Continent, it was 
the universal fashion to level every sort of op- 
probrium on the severity of the Austrian police, 
and on the supposed exclusion of all publica- 
tions of a free tendency. Nevertheless, at the 
very moment when such statements were com- 
mon, I found in the Merchant's Reading Room 
at Vienna, in the year 1823, the lifoming Chro- 
nide, the Constitutionel , and the Edinburgh 
Review. No visitor ,nor native can complain 
that his personal amusements or his studies are 
impeded, and nowhere is a better provision made 
for the security of property and of person. Ev^y 
one understands, that the measures of the go- 
vernment are not to be attacked; but, with this 
exception, and that of the unnecessary rigour 
of passports, there is no country in which a 
well-disposed individual is so little annoyed. I 
am no defender of the spirit of the government, 
but, in order to criticise it with Justice, the 
observer ought to stand behind the scenes. 

The average income of every Austrian, affor- 
ded by a rude division of revenues among the 
whole population, has been estimated at 182 
francs, or about seven guineas, yearl}^ To show 
the proportion which has thus been endeavoured 

4^ ^ BaiPtMB tOf ASSYRIA. 

tt be foimea Jiefcween the yearly iiMNne #f the 
BuFepemi population, ^ 


Tim Gnglifthman has been sateii to 

ewloy 46,S yeaiiy 

Nelliierlanaer 214 ,,. 

Frenchman «... 301 ^^ 

Ausrtitan 182 ,, 

nriwaian 141 ^y 

AiHly aUawing three imiividHa^ on an avarage 
to eaich family, this woulil auriia the annual ia- 
came of 


An English Fawily 1,4.^ ytarfy 

Netherlandish . 642 „ 

French g05 „ 

Austrian 54a „ . 

Prussian ,**... 425 ,» 

The foUowing was the proportion of the num- 
ber o| every kind 0^ indictments for offences to 
the yopiUation , during the five years of 1824, 
1825, 182a, 1827,. and 1828, in seven provinces 
•f AuyMffi^ 

* See Schdn^ who very properly point* ont that nneh 
» table , koweve* ooruci it mtny bo in itself ^es a»< 
afford t voiry clear indication of tfta antnal iiM;4inn of 
any class of the community. Thus, in France, it was 
ascertained, some years ago, that the arerage daily 
imcome of «ack inlMibktant was fifty^onr oeoliini^a CabpvA 
fiy«>pence h4l(panny), b«it th« pffsitive insoino of above 
six millions of inhabitants in fact exceeded that sum, 
while a large majority, in fact> received less than tlia* 
sum daily) that U, i& round nunib«w, a»vfn miUionpi 
could spend forty centimes daily, seven millions only 
thirty-three, and seven other millions only twenty-five 

RMPiKK or AfBnvoJk. 483 

PeOVIHCB*. POPOLATlOir. ^„ ,„hal.iu„l,, 

Morarift kad Silest« . OeriBAii and Sclavonian 1 to 1707 

Austria Proper .... German i „ 1676 

Bohemia Sclaronian and German 1 „ 1438 

Galioia Polish 1„ 138S 

Interior Attstrim .... €l«rman , Sefaivonian 

and Itftliaft t „ 669 

Vyrol and Yorarlberf German and Italian . . t „ 39t 

Dalmatia SolaToninn 1 „ 186 

The pTAvoction of cbilttf^n visiting tke nohoobi) 
•moAff one tk^wMi^ atile to attemi, was, in 
tbe aamo yffovinoea, m taie yeacs 18^4, iS%^ 
and 16d8, tho loltowin^i 

Front V009 
PbOVIHCIS. Childrett 

wdnl tu school 

AusUia Pxojuar 948t 

Tyrol and Vorarlberg 945 

Moravia and Silesia 919 

Bohemia 906 

Dalmatia 649 

Interior Austria 443 

Galicia 115 

In comparing these two tables, I find the in- 
crease of crime with a decrease of education 
nearly agreeing in Austria - Proper , in Moravia, 
Silesia, Bohemia, in Interior Austria, and even 
in Dalmatia, where the numbers are too small 
to furnish a fair and accurate Judgment. But 
on the reverse, the Tyrolese, one of the no- 
blest and bravest races of the world, sending 
nineteen-twentieths of their children to shool, 
give more occupation to Austrian Judges, than 


all the otber provinces of the empire $ except 
Dalmatia, the common asylum of fugitives from 
lawless Turkey; and Galicia, whose Polish in- 
hahitants, shanning, like their brethren in Prus- 
sia, popular instruction, .send only the ninth part 
of their children to school, and furnish, at the 
same time, far fewer criminals than Interior 
Austria, Tyrol, or Dalmatia. The great amount 
of crime, in Tyrol, may be, perhaps, accounted 
for, by the character of the Tyrolese, who, like 
most mountaineers, prefer, in their spirit of in- 
dependence, to revenge a wrong, rather tlian 
to go to law; and by the circumstance, that a 
very great number of the male population of 
Tyrol annually travel into foreign countries aa 
pedlars, with goods manufactured at home. ^ 

* See observatioBs by Dr. Juliu* in "Franci* Lieber 
on the Relation between Bduoation and Crime," p. 17. 
CPliiladelphia, 1835). 


natlonaiiry. thb royal vamily. pr0vin0b8 anit 
population. births and dbatb8. principal 
towns. racbs. rbligion^ numbbb qp clbroy. 
un1vbr8ities and othbr bdocauonab institu- 
tions, buoobt ; papbr monby in cibculation. 
army; pay op thb army, form of govbrnmbnt> 
provincial dibts; ^officers of govbrnmbnt, 
and their 8ai4arik8 ; list of fiubstions rbspbc- 
ting thb charactbr and qualifications of can- 
didates for office in prussia j officers of 
thb court. statistics of berlin. statistics 
of thb government - district of potsdam, 
statistics of education. system of police 
respecting pubuc women, houses of iix famr 
and the like. criminal statistics of tub 
seven provinces of olb prussia, during three 
years; number of arrests at bbrlin; juve- 

Prussia is remarkable for its long safferings 
and mortifications daring the late wars^ and not 
less 80 fer tlie energy witb which her natives 
finally rallied. In her bosom she still retains 
several deep-seated and corroding cates, some of 
which are not likely to be diminished by time. 
Bat the Prnssians have the wisdom and the virtue 
not to amuse the world with their internal sor- 


rows;, one of the best traits in tlie Prussian 
character Is Nationalit}', a quality indispensable 
to greatness, however much it may be sneered 
at by cosmopolites of our own 4]ays, who love 
that nation the best in which they can procure 
the best (Unner at the least cost^ tho Prussians 
are not the people to depreciate the merit of 
their great generals, nor to unveil the naked- 
ness of their land to the malignant eye of the 
stranger. In this respect, they offer a strong 
contrast to certain writers and orators of oar 
country, whose favourite theme appears to be 
the crimes, the errors, and the feebleness of 
England. Prussia stands in rather a critical po- 
sition with regard to the future, but her sons 
do not boast of a mother's weakness. The re- 
sources of the nation are scarcely equal to the 
.rank which it seeks to maintain among the po- 
wers of Europe; and in spite of industry, and 
ingenuity, perseverance, the res angusta domi 
will probably long remain the most dangerous 
of its enemies. 

The royal house of Prussia is of the Protes- 
tant religion. The present king is Frederic Wil- 
liam HI, bom August 3, 1770, who succeeded 
his father November 16, 1797. He married, first 
in 1793, Louisa, princess of Merklenburg-Stre- 
litK, who died 1810, and, seemidl}', in morga- 
natic marriage, 18^, Angnsts, daugtlMr oi 
Count Ferdinand von Harrach , bom Angust 80, 
1800, who bears the title of princess of Lieg- 
nitz. By bis first wifs, he has fov sons and 
tluree daaghtesa; viz., Frederic William, the 
heir apparent, bom l7fiS^ married 18^ te Bli- 
sabetb^ priju^ess of Baoarbi; Williaai, married 

KmoBOM or paimaiA. 487 

to Augusta, princess of Saxe- Weimar, by whom 
lie has a son, Frederic William, born 1831; 
Charles, married to Maria, princess of Saxe- 
Weimar, hy whom he has one son and two 
daughters; Albert, married to Marianne, princess 
of the Netherlands, by whom he has a son and 
a daughter. The daughters are, Charlotte, born 
1798, married to the emperor of Russia; Ale- 
xandrina, married to the grand duke of Meek- 
lenburg-Schweriu ; and Louisa, married to Prince 
Frederic of the Netherlands. 

The king had three sisters, of whom two, 
Wilbelmina, queen of the Netherlands, and the 
duchess of York C^ia half-sister} , are deceased, 
and Augusta, married to the elector of Hesse ; 
and two brothers, Henry, general of infantry, 
and William, governor of the fortress of Menz, 
married to Marianne, princess of Hesse-Homburg, 
by whom he has two sons and two daughters. 

The number of nobles, was rated by Hassel, 
in 1822, at 200,000. But the number of noble 
families in Prussia, has been lately estimated 
Cby the Berlin correspondent of the Morning 
Chronicle^ at 20,000. I cannot at all vouch for 
the correctness of this last calculation. 

The following is a view of the provinces and 
of their population according to the census made in 
1837: — 

Am tn Population 

Geograjihicttl iocluding tilt 

Suture Uil«. Uanding armj. 

h HBANDBNBune 780*^ 1,741,411 


1. Potsdam and Berlin . 382*^ i,00&,332 

' 3. Frankfort on the Oder 348"*^ 736,089 


Geographical including the 
•quwre MUea. SUnding Arniy. 

II. PoHKBANiA 674"** 990,285 

1. Stettin 286®^ 464^440 

2. CdSlin 258*^ 865,417 

3. Stralsund 79^' 160,438 

lU. 81LESIA 741'* 2,679,473 

1. Breslau 248** 1,027,799 

2. Oppeln . 243°* 807,395 

3. Liegnitz 250^ 844,231 

IV. Saxony 460** 1,564,187 

1. Magdeburg 210** 598,981 

2. Merseburg 188*"* 652,591 

3. Erfurt ei'"* 312,615 

V. Westphalia 867^*1,326,467 

1. Munster 132*' 405,265 

2. Minden 95*^ 417,276 

3. Arensburg 140'* 503,916 

VI. Rhinb-Phussia 487" 2,473,723 

1. Cologne 72*° 426,694 

2. Dusseldorf 98** 466,837 

3. Coblenz 109** 461,907 

4. Treves 131" 446,796 

5. Aix-la-CbapelJe . . . 75^^ 871,489 

VU. Prussia 1 178°^ 2,152,873 

1. Konigsberg 408" 746,462 

2. Gumbinnen 298^^ 558,192 

3. Dantzic 152*" 849,218 

4. Marlenwerder .... 319** 499,001 


Am in Pupitl«li«a 

G«Ogrnihieal includiiig the 

S<{uar« Miles. Standing Army. 

VIII. PosBN . . . 536" l,t69,706 

1. Posen 321^® 788,578 

2. Bromberg 214^^ S8i,i28 

Total 5077^* 14098135 

Neufchatel ...... 13^' 58«27 

Lichtenberg ..... 10*' 37000 

Tote! 5101*^* 14193752 

To show how large a proportion of the inha- 
bitants live in the country, Schun states that 
^'lioo "belong to this class, while only *'/ioo *'® 
domiciled in towns. There are only three vil- 
lages to a square mile, which is a small num- 
ber compared with Austria and with England; 
but then, there is one town in six square miles 
which is more than doable the proportion of 

The proportion of the agricultural population 
to the manufacturing, is about five to one. About 
one in 30 of the whole populatiofi is said to 
be in the state of pauperism. ^ 

In the province of Prussian Saxony, in 1835, 
there were 58, 165 births^ 29,903 of males, 28,262 
of females; 36,611 deaths, 19,773 of males, 
18,878 of females, and 13,658 marriages. 

In the province of Pomerania, there were, in 

*Uttier0uchaugeii fiber BeTfilkemng, Arbettslohn, 
«nd Pftuperism, ron Dr. Friedrich Schmidt, p. 325. 
CLeipsis, 1836). 

490 BINeDOM or FRUSfllA. 

tne district of Stettin, 16,546 births, if, 299 
deaths, and 3,975 marriages. 

In the district of Coslln^ there were 14,033 
births, 8,847 deaths, and 3,181 marriages. 

In the district of Dantzie, there were 13,444 
births, and 10,806 deaths; 6,999 were male, 
and 6451 female births. 

in the district of Marienwerder , there were 
21,421 births, and 14,027 deaths; of the births, 
11,078 were mate, and 10,343 female. 

In the district of Gumbinnen, there were 21,363 
birtlis, 19,267 deaths, and 4,192 marriages. 

In the district of Posen, there were 29,954 
births, 15,330 male, and 14,624 female, 20,930 
deaths; and 6,971 marriages. 

According to the latest rates C^ataster'Auf- 
nahmenj, the eight government districts of Rhine, 
Prnssia, and Westphalia, contain 18,128,208 acres 
(Morgen) of land, 536,015 dwelling-houses, 
and 3,799,190 inhabitants. 

The following are the principal towns of Prus- 
sia, and their population, according to the cen- 
sus of 1834: Berlin t266,022 — 1836, 272,000 
inhabitantsD, Breslan C9I,5913, Cologne C72,530) 
Kunigsberg (09,077), Dantzie C61,2993, 9fag- 
debnrg (47,229), Aix- la-Chapelle C39,518), 
Elberfeld 0^2,682), Posen C^,627), Stettin 

On the whole, there are in Prussia 1,027 
towns, 281 market-towns, and 34,451 villages 
and hamlets. In 1828, there were 16,919 chur- 
ches and chapels, 1,674,929 dwelling-houses 
and farm-houses, 91,436 mills, manufactories, 
and private magazines, and 1,600,531 stables, 
bams, hovehi; altogether, 3,434,606 buildings. 

Of tbe iiilua>U»ntA, 9,000,000 are GetniBtMls 

3,924,000 Sclavonians, 90,000 French, and 200,000 
Jews. With respect to religion, 8,000,000 are 
Protestants, 5,000,000 Catholics, 14,000 Men- 
nonites, and 200,000 Jews. The Protestants 
have one charch to 1009 inhabitants; the Ro- 
man Catholics have one to 1051 ; and tike Jews 
have one syna,gogae to 211 of their race. ThA 
Catholic clergy consists of 2 archbishops, 2 epis- 
copal princes, 3 bishops, S snffragans, 25 pre- 
lates, and 99 canons. The noniber of secular 
priests, is 3500; that ef vkars, cbaplaiMy 4'c., 
1900. There are ahost 2000 monks, ami 1000 
nuns. Attogether, ttiere mre 8597 clergymen^. 
The Protestant cUrgy consists of 4 bishops, 
369 superinte^dants , and 5720 parish priests. 
The proportion oif Pr^ectaat students of theo- 

• The hftrmony which exists between the PrptestAnts 
and the Roman Catholics in Vruseia, is often contras- 
ted with the unhappy discord which prevails in Ire- 
land. There are two causes, each of which is alana 
almost sufficient to explain the causes of this different 
fa«fr of things : — io Prussia, the Romish clergy, from 
the highest to the lowest, are more or less dependant 
on the crown; and the Romish priest or bishop who 
should in Prussia exert himself to divert the minds of 
the people inta ft particular political ehanael, would 
soon feel the iron hand of the government. All is con- 
sequently smooth on the surface, although the under- 
•urrent is not equally tranquil. The other cause is, a 
Bvmerous, powerful, everywhere-present, constantly- 
corresponding gensdarmerie,, — who alike prevent outra- 
ge, and unfailingly and unflinchingly seize its promo- 
ters.' A system of tamvlt, or a combination to procuro 
any end by vioi«>t means, ia hopeles. Wbanever tho 
Romish clergy in Ireland is salaried by the govern- 
ment, and a judicious Poor Law is established, the 
terrorism, agitation, and discord will siali from the 
boiling-point to Koro. 

492. KmeooM of pritssia. 

logy to the Roman Gatholics, is said to be as 
three to one. 

At the University of Berlin in 1837-8, were 1^585 students. 

Ditto of Halle 1833 

888 „ 

Ditto of BresUu .... 1836 

758 „ 

Ditto of Bonn 1836 

686 „ 

Ditto of KSnigsberg . . . 1836 

867 „ 

Ditto of Greifswalde . . 1829 

154 „ 

Seventeen Englishmen studied in 

these uni- 

versities in 1836. 

There are 13 seminaries for schoolmasters in 
the province of Prnssia, 3 in Brandenburg, 4 in 
Pomerania, 6 in Silesia, 5 in Posen,' 6 in Saxo- 
ny, 2 in Westphalia, and 6 in Rhine-Prussia; 
altogether 45. • 

The following is a view of the state of Fi- 
nance in Prussia, in 1838: — 


, Dollar*. 

Net Produce, of the Domains and 

Forests 4,033,000 

Sale, drc. of Domains 1,000,000 

Produce of the Mines, Salt Worics, 
and Porcelain Manufactory at Ber- 
lin 917,000 

From the Post-office 1,200,000 

From Lotteries . 928,000 

From Taxes and Duties: — Dollars. 

a. Land-tax 9,847,000 

b, Income-tax<^ 6,502,000 

* The income-tax onlj affects the officerii of govern- 
nent, who are taxed according to their salary. 

* KIKGIMIM 0¥. PtlbstiA. 4ft3 

D o 1 L a r «. 

c. Trade-tax*» 2,054,000 

d. Duties on goods im- 
ported, exported bnd 

. passing througb the 
country; on the con- 
sumption of home pro- 
ducts', tolls of roads, 
havens, canals, flood- 
gates, drc. ; duties on 
shipping and stamps 20,130,000 
e. Bevenue from the 

sale of Salt 5,630,000 


From sources not included in the 

above 400,000 

Total Revenue ....... 52,681,000 


D o I 1 « r «. 

Interest of the general and 
provtneiat Debt, and ex- 
penses* of its adminis^ 
tration 6,067^00 

Paid off the Deht 2,537,000 

Interest and paying off the 

new provincial Debti* . 41,000 


I^ensions, Life Annuities, and Gra- 
tuities 2,468,000 

*^ This is a tax on the calling of A tradetiman, and 
is difrer«Bt for every trade. 



Capitals and Soreties withdrawn, and 

Indemnities for abolished rights DolUrs. 
and privileges 1,073,000 

, For the Private Cabinet, the Office 
of the Ministry of State, State- 
book-keeping; administration of 
the Exchequer, and of the Mint, 
State and Provincial Archives, the 
Secretariate of State, the Supreme 
. Chamber of Accounts , the Gene- 
ral Commission of Orders, and 
the StatiiAical Office 293,000 

For the Department of Religions Ib- 
stroction and Medical Affairs . . . 2,817,000 

For the Department of the Ministry 
of the Interior, and of the Police 
general commissions 2,414,000 

For the Department of Trade and 
Manufacture , for buildings and 
water-works 1,389,000 

Fur the Roads, and Road-debts . . 2^925,000 

For the Ministry of Foreign AfiTaifs 671,000 

For the Ministr>' of War , and Mili- 
tary Orphan-Houses 23,436,000 

For the Administration of Finance . 151,000 

For the Administratimi of the Do- 
mains and Fnrests 98,000 

For the Ministry of Justice 2,166^000 

For the. High Presidents and Provln- 
cal Governments 1,710,000 

For the Studs 169,000 

For covering Deficiencies, for Ex- 
traordinary Expenses, and for Pu- 
blic Improvements 2,323,000 

Total Expenditure 52,681,000 


Ott July 20^ 1634, according t» an omcial 
report, tbe public debt of Prussia amounted to 
175,398,829 dollars. 

There are now in circulaUon, 17,242,347 dol- 
lars in paper money, of wliich 99,244 fifty-dol- 
lar notes, 995,502 five- dollar, aad 7,302,637 
one-dollar notes. 

Tbe paper money formerly issued by the bank 
of Berlin, the SeehantUung (_a. royal Institution 
for the encouragement of exportation by sea), 
and other similiar ^establisments, amounting to 
eight millions and a half dollars, has been with- 
drawn from circulation, and the same amount 
of government notes substituted in its stead. The 
actual total amount of government paper money . 
in circulation, is therefore now 25,742,347 

The following is the composition of the 
Army: - — 

Standing Army . 159,190 

which is thus divided : — Men. • 

The Guard 17,908 

Infantry of the Line 104,712 

Cavalry 19,132 

Artillery 15,718 

Gensdarmery, Chasseurs . . . 1,720 
(there are about 122,000 men in actual 

Reserve, or Militia answering to the 

first summons (Landteehr ersteii 

Aufgebots) ^ 230,000 

Reserve, or Militia answering to the 

second summons (zweiten Aufgebots). 180,000 

Total 569,190 

496 KlfWDOM OF PftUBSU. 

The icorps of ofiflcera comlBted in 1839; of 1 
field-marshal, 3 generals of cavalry, 7 generals 
of infantry , 33 lieutenant generals , 65 major 
generals, 138 coionols, 95 lieutenant eolonel, 
554 ms^ors, 1,614 captains of horse and foot, 
1,534 first lieutenants, and 5,637 second lieu- 

The following table ihows the regular yearly 
pay of the army Coxcluslve of rations and ser- 


Oeaeral of Infantry 12,000 

General of Cavalry 12,000 

Chief of the General Staff .... 12,000 

Intendant 1,800 

Councillor of the Intendancy . . . 1,200 

Assessor of ditto 700 

Corps-auditor 800 

General Staff Surgeon . . . 2,000 to 3,000 

Chief Staff Surgeon . . . 1,200 to 1,500 

Surgeon to a regimont 1,000 

Ditto to a batalion 500 

Ditto to a company. . . ... . 120 

Lieutenant-general 5,416 

Major-general 4,416 

Colonel . 2,908 

Lieutenant-Colonel . 2,908 

Miyor 1,800 to 1,900 

Captain of Cavalry 1,300 

Captain Cist class) 1 ,200 

Captain C2d class) 600 

First Lieatenant 360 

Second ditto 204 

KINQ0OM or 4>RV«MA. 407 

Sergeant of Horse (WacMmeisier) 120 

Sergeant 102 

Cbief Fire- woricer |33 

Pire-worker 78 

Bomliardier 48 

Corporal 60 

Private in the Guards 36 

Private .30 

Incladtng rations and serviee-money, the pri- 
vates have yearly 100 dollars pay, the corpo- 
rals and ^Immmers 150, the sergeants from 200 
to 250, the lieutenants from 300 to 600, and 
the captains from 800 to 1,700. 

After a service of a certain number of years, 
the retiring officer and soldier are entitled tOt 
pension, unless some civil office has heen con 
ferred upon them. It is, a lirevaiting principle 
of the Prussian government, to instat the vete- 
ran in some vacant civil appointment. If the 
value of such an appointment is less than the 
amount of the pension due, the deficiency is 
supplied to him. A lieutenant -colonel, and a 
miyor, after a service of twenty-five years, re- 
ceive a pension of about 113 1. per annum, a 
first captain obtains about 85 1. annually. The wi- 
dows of officers also Acquire a title to a pension. 

Every Prussian must be a soldier during a 
certain part of his existence. From the twenty- 
sixth to the thirty-second year of his age, every 
individual forms a part of the first division of 
the Landwehr Cof militia^; from the thirty-se- 
cond to the fortieth year of his age, he is ran 
ged in the second division; from forty to fifty 

fee belauEB M tka Lanittrnm C*r Hmy of ema- 
Renej', at levy In masa). The expeiuwa nf Hie 
ai-m; abiorb In Praula neaily ane-balf or the 

The sovernment of PniuUi Is * — wcfcy. 
lioilled )n a very allfht degree; tltera la no 
«hamher of representativea far tte H4iale kiag- 
dom; bat In aU the prevtacea, chwnbera iMve 
either been re-ealabliahed or newIy-eaasUtuted, 
wbick in general lutve h deilbsradve voic#, and 
a >bare In Ibe dlMributtaB of taxea. But (lu 
Donarch baa all lbs rifhts of Koveraaeat in 
Ua bandj he ia the aourca of ibe laws, aol be 
seta la motloD Ue tvhoJe aadiine of the atate, 
•f wliiGb bU eapUal ia the centre. The aMMtar- 
cby la hereditary; there ia so general fand*- 
mealal law , Ihoagh there are pieTiDclal lawa, 
and lawa of Ihe royal hooae f^BittUgetftM). 
The manarchy, or at leaat the greater part of 
it, ia included in the CFerntan confederacy. 

The provincial aaaeaibllea of tbe kinxdom of 
Pmaalii, (each province bavioc it 
biy.) are r 


biAsaMicli as tide irst two claiweB, constUa- 
ting the aristocrAcy of tbe chambers y .comprise 
266 votes, and the last two, constituting their 
democratical branch, posses 301 votes, there 
woirid appear, to be a trifling preponderance in 
fave«r of the latter, but this is more than coun- 
terbalanced by two important considerations, in 
the first place, the exclusive right of 'presiding 
over the assemblies of the state, as well as in 
its committees, and over the commissions which 
it may appoint, is vested in the eivuestrian or- 
der; and in the second, this order being com- 
posed of ground landlords, the independence of 
the country-representatives is, in almost every 
instance, not only merely neutralised^ but a 
perfect dead letter. Adding, therefore, to the 
366 votes, the 132 from those representatives, 
we have a total of 388, which exceeds the 
majoriry of two-thirds of the votes required to 
pass any legislative measure. 

It is also deserving of remark that even in 
those provinces where the towns possess the 
greatest number of representatives, that num- 
ber, in no ease, exceeds one-third of the whole 
aggregate of votes; so that the agricultural in- 
terest is certain to predominate on every occa- 
sion, excepting where so unnatural, a state of 
things shall exist as a want of harmony in its 
three constituent parts. These assemblies exer- 
cise a control over, and immediately participate 
in, the civil affairs of their respective provinoes. 
Property is the exclusive basis of representatioiu 
They were first called into existence by the 
royal rescript of 1823, which gave them the 
power of advising and deliberating in all legis- 

500 klVttDOM OF PBOSStA. 

lative matters, having reference to the rights 
of persons, property, and to fiscal arrangements. 
The immediate object of their institution is uni- 
versally considered to he the preparation «f minds 
and habits for a national legislatnre. Such a 
course, indeed, is accordant with the policy of 
the sovereign to whose hands the sceptre is 
committed; for it ought not be forgotten that 
he paved the way for these very assemblies 
themselves, first, by restoring personal liberty 
under the rescript of October, 1807, which abo- 
lished hereditary servitude; next, by placing 
the administration of all communal properties 
under the superintendance of the districts thrai- 
selves in 1808; and, in the last place, by ex- 
tending the abolition of feudal servitude in 1819 
to the acquisitions made by the crown of Prus- 
sia in Lusatia and Saxony, and to the other 
districts where it still remained in force. 

The chief officers of government are, a mi- 
nister of foreign affairs, one of finance, one of 
public instruction, religious and medical afiftiirs, 
one of the royal house and of court-affairs, one 
of the interior, for trade and for police, two mi- 
nisters of Justice, one of war, and a post-mas- 
ter-general. There is a state-council, composed 
of fifty three members, which is divided into 
six departments. In the different provinces, there 
are presidents of the respective governments. 

The names of the inferior Prussian officials 
will be found in the following Table, which 
shows the pay of all the functionaries: 

KINODOM or NtOMU. 501 

A. ItfiNisncRuri FoNcnmmARiMs. 

DolUrs annually. 

Mhiisteffs of State have ... - 12,000 
Privy - Conticillors with tho 

tiUe Bxoeileucy 8,000 

Dfarectora 4,000 to 5,000 

CounciUois 2,000 ,, 2,800 

Assessors 800 

fiecretarios 1,000 „ 1,500 

Directors of the Board of Fi- 
nancial Control 1,800 „ 2,000 

Members of that Board . . . 600 „ 1,600 

Masters of the Records . . . 1,200 „ 1;500 

Registrars . 600 „ 1,200 

Joornalists 600 „ 1,400 

Directory of the Chancery of 

ClerlOi 1,200 „ 1,400 

Clerks 400 „ 800 

Chief Clerk of the Cash . . . 1,500 ^, 2,000 

Cashier 1,000 „ 1,600 

Comptroller of the Cosh . . . 800 „ 1,200 

Book-keeper. ......... 600 „ 1,000 

Clerks of the Cash, and thair 

assistants 300 „ 500 

Servants of the same depart- 
ment 300 „ 400 

Servants of the Chancery . . 200 „ 350 
Masters of Messengers Cof 

whom some still exist) „ ^00 

Portersi „ 400 

502 KiMeDOH ovmvBMA: 


DoUarn annually. 

Tbe High President of a Previnee Has 6,000 

Local -President 2>d00 to 3,500 

Directors 1,600 ,> 2,000 

CeuBCiilors » . . . 800 ,, 1,600 

Assessors 500 ,, 600, 

Secretaries I ^"* ""^"^ ^>^^ 

secretaries jg^^^^ ^^^^ _ ^^ ^^ qqq 

Registrars 400 „ 1,000 

Members of the Financial Board 

of Control 400 „ 1,200 

Chief of the Clerks 800 

Clerks . 200 „ 600 

Messengers 100 „ 150 

Chief Clerk of the Cash . . . 1,500 

Comptrollers 400 „ 600 

Cashier 600 „ 800 

Book-keeper 400 „ 700 

Clerk of the Cash. ^200 „ 300 

President of the Supreme Court 

of Justice 4,000 

Councillors of the same. . . . 1,000 „ 1,800 
Assessors of the same .... 500 „ 800 
Secretaries of the same. . . . 600 „ 1,000 
Registrars of the same .... 400 „ 800 
Clerks of Salaries and Depo- 
sits of the same .*.... 400 „ 1,000 
Members of the Board of Cofi- 

trol of the same 600 „ 1,000 

Clerks of the same 250 „ 600 

Under-sheriffs (Land-Hathe) . 600 „ 800 


In the gelection and recompense of its servants, 
the Prussian government is particnlarly pnifient. 
As before stated , a university educatioii is ile- 
cessary for all candidates for the higher posts; 
ranlc is not at all preferred; the salaries are 
moderate; and instead of giving pensions to sa- 
perannnated of&eials, it obliges the successor to 
pay out of his salary a fixed portion to the 
former incumbent daring his lifetime. 

The following is a list of the. questions, or 
substance of questions, which most be answered 
to the satisfaction ' of the ministry, before any 
individual can be received into the Prussian service. 

I. Description of the individuai. — 1. Name. 
2. Office, or employment. 3 Place of abode. 

n. Particulars of Mrth, ^c. — 1. The day 
of his birth. '2. Where born. 3. Condition of 
his parents. 4. Mother-tongue. 

III. Education. — 1. What school was he edu- 
cated at ? 2. Has he been educated anywhere 
besides at school? 3. To what trade or profes- 
sion was he originally brought up? 4. His oc- 
cupations previously to entering the civil or mi- 
litary service. 

IV. Former Publie Service, Military or CioU, — 
1. Has he completed his military duties, and if 
not , why ? 2. In what branch of military ser- 
vice has he been engaged? 3. His previous 
civil occupation, with the date of his entering 
on, and quitting it. 4. In what civil service 
has he been hitherto actually employed? 4.-EQ8 
oath on first entering the. public service. 6. 
Where is the attestation? 7. What is its date? 
8. Does he possess orders, badges, or other 

V. ParUmaare regpeeUny Ms preg^t Service 
and CsndHion* -— 1. Is lie active? 2. Does lie 
discbsrge the datieft of his own office? 3. By 
wbftt title has bis appointmcMt been obtained ? 

4. Is he employed permanoBtly, pFovistonally, on 
trial) ot does he hold a comiBission ? 5 St^say 
auid emolamenta, and from what fonda ? 6. Doea 
he from private business derive tfiiy additional 
income? and if so, to what amount? 7. What 
is his rank in the Landwehr, if he is still in it ? 

VI. Particulars respecting Property, — 1. 
Does he derive his income from hts own re* 
sources , or- from those of a member of his fa- 
mily ? Does he receive private assitance ? 2. 
Has he landed pro|»erty, and what? 8« How 
much security can he provide for his ofiice? 4. 
How much security is he himself capable of 
providing? By his own means? By guarantee? 

5. How much of the security has he. been ex- 
cused from paying? 6» Has be debts, and how 
many specifically ? 7. Does he contribute to the 
fund. for the relief of widows , and if so, to 
what amount? 

VII. Particulars . respecting Family, — 1. Is 
he married , single , a widower , or divorced ? 
3. His wife's father. 2. Number of his cbildxen : 
a. provided for; b, unprovided for, under nini* 
years of age; c adopted, or step -children. 4. 
Relations besides wife and children, whom he 
maintains or assists. 5. To what tradespeople 
is he related to the third degree? 

VIIL Mo4e of lAfe. — 1. Have he or his wif«f 
any wants above their station , and what arn 
they ? 2. What reoreations or amusements is 
be partial to ? 3. How much rent doe* he pay ? 



KINODOM OF-FflllBnA. 5t& 

for how many rooms, with stovas in thtn V 4. 
Number of Mr^'antsr, aiid amount mt thoir wairea. 
5. How many horses does he koop? 

IX. PhyHcai CeMiitution, — * 1. Cleneral state 
4>f heaUh. 9. HaJlitual complaints. , 3. Incui^ 
vmieat woimds. 4. Bodily stren^th^ and patience 
in enilurlng fatigue. ^. Ouikneas of sight and 


X. CharacUr. — 1. Is he hoaett, bonouraMe 
persevering j eeonomieal , discreet, eoorageoiiK, 
disinterested, veraeious, regular, polite, tem* 
perate, diligent, sociable, friendly, obedient; or 
prone to debauchery, chicanery, or frivolOHS in- 
trigue? is he passionate, or timid and reti* 
ring? is he inclined to gambling, dissipation, 
apd turmoil? is he inconsiderate, vindicttve, or 
servile ? 

XI. Knowledge of the World, — 1. Is he 
courteous to the tax- paying commiuiity V 2. 
Hoes he know how to keep on a friendly foot* 
ing with oilier departments ? 3. Does he know 
liew to make his Inferiors perform their duties 
cheerfully ? 

XII. AbUmetf. -^ 1. Natural abilities and dis- 
cernment. % Quick perception. 3. Quick decision. 
4. Calm execution. 5. Good memory. 

Xiil. AcGompiUhmenis. •— 1, What foreign 
languages does he speak? 2. How dees he 
speak German? 8. Does he write German or- 
thographically , and grammatically? 4. Is bis 
hand-writing gjood and legible? &. What ao^ 
counts is he conversant within 6. Has Ito stu- 
died mathematics? 7. Does he anderaland che- 
mistry? 8. \\7iat other sciences is he conver- 
sant with? 9. Can he draw? ride? does he 


506 KlNSDOM OP PIlinBStA. 

ttndeistaiid how to use Hre-arms? 10. Does he 
possess a good exterior,' and are his adress and 
manners prepossessing? 

XIV. Results of Ms Official Management. — 
1. Have the receipts under his management ge- 
nerally increased or diminished V % &as he keen 
commended daring the past year? 8. Has he 
heen reprimanded? 4. Has he been punished? 
and if so, for what? 

XV. BeeommendaiUms, — Does he deserve an* 
conditional employment or promotion? 3. For 
what offices is he quallfled, and for wliat In 
particular?' S. Is a removal expedient? 4. Han 
he received any promises as to a change In the 
days of his offlclal duties? 5. Is it advisable 
to pension him? 6. What reasonable and pro- 
per wishes has he? 

The grand offOcers of court are, a grand 
chamberlain, a grand master of the eeremonlen, 
a grand marshal and intendant of the royal gar- 
dens, a grand equerry, a general Intendant of 
museunui and exhibitions, a grand huntsman, a 
general intendant of the theatres, a grand cnp- 
bedier, a captain of the palace, a chief hunts- 
man of the court, and a marshal of the court. 

The Prussian . government, with the best mo- 
tives, has distributed the common lands of many 
vlttages; up to the year 1819, it had distrife*- 
ted the common lands of 1838, and had thus 
created 13,058 new proprietors. There Is an 
evil, which is, however, constantly on the In- 
crease; this is, the extent of mortgages and debts 
among the proprietors of lands and houses; 
whose enterprise and industry are thus heavelsr 


8had(ied. In 1827, the Prussian tribunals are 
said to have taken cognizance of no less than 
17,547 processes of Foreciomre^. 

It is even said, that in West Prussia, oat of 
S6!{ large properties, only 67 are free Arom 
debts, and tliat 71 are. sequestrated. The great 
subdivision of lands, and the abolition of res- 
trictions as to the practice of trades, and as to 
the right of settlement in a place, have indu- 
ced a disproportion between the population and 
the resources of industry. 

In the year 1833, 9341 children were bom 
in the city of Berlin, 4738 boys, and 4603 girls. 
There were 7040 deaths* Of iliegttimate births, 
Uiere were 786 male, and 755 female, of 
whom, however, 733 died shorty after their 
birth. Tliere were 103 twin-births, and 2032 
marriages^ 876 persons died between 70 and 
80, 396 between 80 and 90, and 21 above 90. 
The deaths were most frequent in the months 
of April, May, and June. In the Charite Hos- 
pital, Dec. 31st, 1832, there were 728 patients, 
and 5969 more were admitted in the course of 
the succeeding year, altogether 6697; of these, 
4903 were dismissed cured, and 116 as incu- 
rable, 7 ran away, and 916 died; altogether, 
5962. Consequently, Dec. 31, 1833, 705 per- 
sons remained under treatment, viz. 351 men, 
338 women, and 16 children. In 1833, 62,412 
strangers entered, and 61,210 left Berlin; of 
the former, 6012, of the latter 5094, were fo- 
reigners. To the Sladt Voigtei prison were 
brought, on the whole, 9900 persons, viz. 7470 
males, and 2430 females; 1373 were committed 

* Subha$taliant-Proee$9t. • • 

bOS %i.Hmt9m op piu>s8ia. 

ami sent to the rMpeetive crimiiiBl coorts^. 
There were 9048 thefts, the peryetraters of 
only. 1008 of which were detected. There wero 
84 tires in the town i and neighbourhood , of 
whirh .were considerable. The niunber of sai- 
cides was 7 more than the average, viz., 63, of 
which 11 were committed by women. 04 per* 
sons were killed by accidents of various iciada. 
10,180 wispels (a wuipel is four bushels) of 
wheat, 3910 of rye, 5090 of barley, 8955 of 
oats, entered the towiiifty land; 11,333 of wheat, 
11,611 of rye> 2324 of bwrley, and 9157 of 
oats, by water. 

In 1836, Berlin contained 272,000 anbabitanta, 
amongst whom were 263 medical men, 266 
bakers, 81 bankers, 152 barbejrs, 122 brandy- 
distillers, 37 brewers, and 51 poffee^hoqse fcee* 
pers, 110 confectioners, 56 midwives, more tliaii 
600 painters of diiFerent descriptions, 500 gro- 
oers C^aieriaiijften^, 150 professors, 57 large 
milliners, 68 reataaratears, 2145 tailors, 1950 
shoemakera, 124 innkeepers, and 113 tobacco- 
nists. There were 24 burial-places , 32prlnting-of- 

^ Robberies and crimes of all sorts are greatly on 
the increase in Berlin, if we sre to believe tbe Inteai 
aceonnts i^ubliehedl by the Crerman papers. Accordiof 
to the official accounts, above 10,600 persons were 
arrested in the course of the year 1836, and 9870 rob- 
beries are reported daring ibe same period; b«t th# 
Journals add, that it is well known, that the catalo- 
gue of robberias does not comprise one half of those 
which have been really committed* In Berlin, as inrell 
as in London and Paris, the incroaM of youthful oC- 
tenders, and the number of vagabond boys wandering 
about the streets, studjring mischief, and supporting- 
themselves by precarieus and often crimiual means, 
has excited the attention of the governnnut. 




§r.esy 84 hotels, 4 prisons, 78 inns ; 40 diurcheH, 
39 shops for objects of art^ 40 licensed pawn- 
brokers, 206 schools, and 53 periodicals. 

According to Thaers, a peasant witli a small 
family, in Prussia and Brandenburg, requires 
for his support, 102 Prussian dollars annually. 

The following abstract of the state of the 
savings-banlcB in -the kingilom of Prussia may 
not be without its interest, as connected with 
the statistics of that country: 

Prussia Proper 



Brandenburg . , . 
Prussian Saxony . 
Westphalia . . . . 
Rhanisli ProYinoss 

Total . . . 

fa M) . 







e « « 




^ 5 



fill 2 



From a recent official return of the valued 
rent of the city of Berlin, we are led to infer 
that the rental is moderate in proportion to tliat 
of some other cities of Europe, which are more 
frequented by travellers and absentees. Out of 
all the lodgings of the city, more than one- 
fourth part pay less than 30, and rather more 
than one-half pay from 30 to. 50, dollars of 
annual rent. There are not quite 500 lodgings 
which pay from 500 to 1000 dollars of annual 
rent, and not 40 which pay 1000 dollars annu- 


all)'. There are not 20 houses in Berlin which 
pay so much as from 1200 to :1500 dollars for 
annual rent) or which , in English money are 
rented at from 180^. to 225/. yearly. The en- 
tire rent of all the 41,037 lodgings of Berlin 
amounted, in 1824, only ttf 9,657,600 dollars 
(about 600,000/.)<^. 

Out of 40,935 families inhabiting Berlin in a 
recent year, 12,087 were unable to pay the 
communal taxes; From 1822 to 1826, the num- 
ber of mendicants doubled itself, and the num- 
ber of families receiving relief, rose from 2900 
to 3475«* 

In 1834, there were 26,548 births in the go- 
vernment-district of Potsdam, of which 13,781 
were male, and 12,767 female; of these 2163 
were illegitimate, and 1161 premature and still- 
born. Amongst them, there were 848 twin births, 
and three of three children ; consequently, one 
child in 12 was illegitimate, one in 222 stUl- 
bom, and there was one twin-bom in 76. 20,619 
persons died, 10,872 males and 9,747 females. 
5080 died at less than a year old, that is, the 
fifth of the whole number of children bom; 52 
died at more than 90, viz., 24 men and 28 wo- 
men. 2543 died of old age, 4660 of inflamma- 
tory diseases, 7885 of internal chronic diseases, 
1684 of sudden attacks, 867 of external disea- 
ses, 239 during deliver}' and in childbed; Cone 
of every 111 children, therefore, cost the mo- 
ther her life;) 554 died of the small-pox, 382 
by accidents, and 130 by suicide. 

* SirM$, i. 370, 271. ** 8ch6«, Op. Ctt. 10». 

KiK«ooM OP pmjflsrA. 51 1 

The propoition of lunfttics to the populatioii 
in Pramia has iteen rated , perhaps incorrectly, 
as oae in eeO*!,. 

The total numher of biind persons in Silesia 
was estimated) a few years ago by Schun, at 
2000, at which time there existed in that pro- 
vince of Prnssia only two instltntions for their 

In 1880 and 1831, there were 109 gymna- 
sioms and colleges in Prussia, at which were 
instrncted S3,767 popils. The number of stu- 
dents in the seven universities of the monarchy, 
was, during the winter of 1839 -. 80, 6160, 
of whom 1211 were strangers. In the univer- 
sity of Berlin alone were 127 professors, of 
whom 49 were ordbiary and 42 extraordinary; 
29 were private teachers, and 7 professors of 
the arts. At the University of Berlin ime 1816 
pupils , of whom. 

685 studied Theology, 
674 „ Law, 
802 „ Medicine, and 
255 „ Philosophy. 

At the same time there were at Bonn 987 
students, of whom 

6 were studying Catholic divinity 



Protestant divinity^ 










In the elementary schools of the Prussian 
dominions in 1881, the proportion of scholars to 

512 Kni«>0« 0» MIUSSM. 

every 1000 iiiliabltanti was 147, or abeui one 
in BeveHf the t^greghte of Hrh«t\tir» being 1,^7,934 
C087,475 boys, and 950,459 girls). The wim- 
ber of teacliers of all deiiMutnatious, male and 
female, M'as 24,919, and the number of sishooln, 

The middle schools ( IHiUettdttiien} existing in 
the Prussian states, iu the same year, amoun-' 
ted to 8'13, viz., 48 1 for boys and 343 for ffiUs, 
besides the gymnasiums and other sdperiofSfboolSy 
140 ill uumher. In (he middle schools for bo>*8, 
there were 1532 teachers; aad fai ttio middle 
sehools for girls, the teadiers of both aezos were 
1.278. In the gymnasiums and other sapertor 
schools, the numbers of head and astistani 
teachers were, respectively, 1124 and 309. Th« 
number of male pupils freQuentiag the mWdfe 
schools was M,789, and of feomle pupils 46,59d» 
making ^ total of 103,477; while the nunher 
of pupils receiving in.struc(iun in the gymna- 
siums, amounted to 20,041. 

The proportion of divorces in the kingdom of 
Prussia is so many as one in 37 marriages. ^ 
The amount is so large as to be scarcely cre- 
dible. Unfortunately the review from which I 
quote, it is a mixed digest of three German sta- 
tistical works, and it does not state from which 
of the three this painful result is obtained. The 
reader will do well to compare it with an equally 
extraordinary calculation relative to the divorces 
of Saxony , given- under that head. 

* Bulletin Universe!^ Sectityn GeograpkiqMf, torn, v.^ 

KIKflDeM IIP mHtssiA. 613 

Tke following «t«t«meHi is eoHnected with 
Uie moral fitaUfitiCB of Berlin; ami we present 
it with fioine ^eceanory detailii. Tbere exist at 
INresent in tlie city of Bertin, 

2 Houses of 411 fame of Che Hrst dass, 
96 ,, „ ,, ;, se^Mnii eU»s, 

3 „ tt 11 11 . third, or lowest elasK 

31 Houses. 

The ' number of prostitutes Inhabiting these 
houses is 275; there are also 36 who have 
private lodgings; so that he whole amount of 
those whose names were inscribed at the police* 
oftce in 1837, as prostitutes, was 301. 

To compare this number with Paris, we shall 
state, that on the last day of the year 1834, 
there were 3816 females registered by the po- 
lice of Paris; of these 63 were ileclared by the 
medical inspectors to be labouring under sypbi- 
lis , %vhlch is a proportion of about one in 60 ; 
a more satisfactory resultt han liad been obtain* 
ed at any previous period. In 1800, the pro- 
portion of those thus aflTeeted had been so high 
as one in 9; in 1813, one in 34; and 1816^ 
one in 36. The monthly average of the whole 
year, 1884, was about one in 43. As to the 
origin or birth-place of these registered women 
the Department of the Seine Cin which Paris is 
situated,} famished about a fourth part; next 
in frequency occur the departments most near to 
Paris, and several manufacturing districts. Among 
the foreigners , Belgium supplied the largest 
amount, 61; next Prussra, 16; then Switzerland, 
13; Hollami 10, the United States 7, Kngland 
5, Irland 3: Ave were from Italy, one from 

KiNODOM or PBOSailA. ^ 615 



Respecting sypiiUis, the following mre the me-^ 
uical police regalatioiis. Wlien a prostitute ia 
.iifected^ the keeper of the house must {nstaotiy 
announce the fact to the police, and must fol' 
.ow its directions for the cure #f the patient. 
The concealment of the infection , either by the 
patient or by the house- keeper , is severely 
punished. The inmates who refuse to submit to. 
or who seek to evade, the regular examination 
of their surgeon, or the superintendance of the 
police, are liable to be arrested and confined in 
the House of Correction,, whence they are re- 
moved to workhouses, where they remain vntil 
they we capable of gaining a respectable IKe- 

Persons, not residing in such houses, Mjie 
know that they are infected with syphilis, and 
who, nevertheless, do not refrain, are liable to 
be punished, Rvery keeper of such houses is 
furnished wHh » written description of the symp- 
toms of s^pbHis, with which also, he is bound 
to make bis lodgers acquainted, ^Vhen a visi- 
tor is infected by an inmate, the housekeeper is 
bound te> pay the expenses of his medical treat- 
ment. On the other hand , ^f the inmate can 
prove that any particular person has been the 
source of tlie evH, that person has to pay for 
her cure, and a fine of fifty dollars besides. 

The- medical men throughout the country- are 
particularly enjoined , when a ca^e of syphilis 
occurs , to try to discover its origin , in order 
that persons of a debauched character, who are 
continually propagating the contagion, may be 
cured and punished. Tlie police, is to be made 
acquainted with every case of syphilis, occurring, 
in private families. 

&16 'K1M«II*M f PKUSMA. 

Servttiite wlio geduce tlie daagtbers or «lber 
relati^as ef I heir employers, -te wliom, ea ac- 
cftant oi disparity of rank, they caimet he mar- 
ried, are to be pimtetaed by, from wne to tlwee 
year's imprlsoiiment in a house of oorcection. 
Even in cases where there is no disparity of 
rank, a conftnesient of from six moath's to m 
y^BT may .be inifeted. A parent and child •/ 
opposite sexes are forbidden te sleep together^ 
if the latter be more than ten years of aige; 
and children of different sexes, and of nsore 
than ten years old, are not to sleep ia tlie 
same bed. ^ 

llie psopoKtion of vioieni dtaikt ia Prassia is 
very nearly one in 40 among the male deaths, 
ba| among (lie women only one In 127. SmmlU 
pQX caused one death fai 133 deaths, daring aa 
average of fifteen }-eai8. Daring 6kx years oao 
death in 500 persons took piaoe ftoai m§ddsm 
/Mf. The dsaths from Asiatie cholera were very 
nnnMVoas la Prassla» — so many as 82^647 took 
place in IdSt, wlUle, in tke same year, fiOgOOO 
died of IHo infirmitiea of old age. remmlcs do 
not appear to aaury ^ usually , much before the 
age of twenty-Aye. Aboat oiie*-«iixtb of all the 
lemale deaths^ between the fourteeath and forty- 
ifth year^ take place in chUdibed.. From 1$29 
to 18S1 , there was, on aa average, one bora 
ta 26 IKingy and one death in somewhat more 
than at. ^ 

* NicoUi, Gnmdtiss der aMMtfts*Polts«i, im« bef«B- 
4er«r Besichuns «iif den PreuASMcheA StaM. B«rliAy tSS^- 

* From the vatuable "Stutrstical View of Births and 
l>eftthii in the Prii«iii«ii State*/' compiled by HoffiMm, 
Biract«r of the atatislicftl Offiee oC Berlia, aad 

IUM«*«M 0¥ PmOBMA. 


SffATimcs Q¥ CauiK in tuc wvsn Pmivincbs 
or Oi<» Pmiissu pub tub Ybab 1819. 

Crimes Bgttiist persons. Crimes Against Property 



of Inhabi- 
tants to one 


of iulutbi< 
tanli fa one 



1. Poni«rania . 

. 2218 

1. P«merania . 

. 1042 

Z SileslB . . . 

. 1636 

2. Silesia . . . 

. 810 

3. WeMtpliRlia 

. 1314 

3. Poseu . . . 

. 504 

4. Braiiileiiburg 

. 1167 

4. Brandenburg 

. 485 

5. 8AXOII) . . . 

. 1130 

6. Saxuiiy . . . 

. 471 

6. PruNtfia . . 

. 1044 

6. Prussia. . . 

. 404 

7. Potfeii . . . 

. 743 

7. \\'est|)halia 

. 182 



1. Pomcraiiia . 

. 2634 J 

1. PumerAuia . 

. 1170 

2. Saxuiiy. . . 

. 2674 

2: Posen . . . 

. 7^8' 

3. Brandenburg 

. 2134 

3. Silesia ... 

. 710. 

4. Silesia « . . 

. 1777 

4. Saxony . . . 

. 617 

5. Poseii . . . 

. 1496 

5, Brandenburg 

. 534 

6. WestiiliaJta 

. 1479 

6. Prussia. . . 

. 458 

7. Pru&Lsia . . 

. 1242 

7. Westf Jialia 

. 440 



1. Poineraiiia . 

. 2749 

1. Pomeran{a . 

. 1427 

2. Silesia . . 

. 1795 

2. Silesia . . . 

. 864 

3. Brandenburg 

. 1727 

3. Westphalia 

. 822 

4. Saxony . . . 

. 1648 

4. Posen . . . 

. 772 

5. Westphalia 

. 1449 

5. Prussia . . . 

. 668 

6. Prussia . . . 

. 1433 

6. Brandenburg 

. 642 

7. Piisen . . . 

. 1340 

7. Saxony , . . 

. 634 

Iftied bjr Mr. Deverell in the "Tmnsactions or the Via* 
liflticsl Society of T«oiidon,'' %-ol. i.^ part i., p, 121. A 
stilt more recent official document respecting the birthn^ 
mnrniaf es» and deaths in the Pmaaian dominions, during 
the year 1936, has appeared in tlM "Statistical Jour* 
nal" for November, f8S7. 



In the year 1:833^ there were, on an average 
daily, 8i<X prisoners in the house of conpection 
lit Spandau , and 546 in tliat at Brandenburg. 
At the end of the year there remained 1419 in 
both , of whom 83 were condemned to fanpri- 
sonment for life, and 375 for more than 10 
years; 695, almost the half^ were recommittals; 
of these, 499 are from Berlin; and there are 
15 who have suffered punishment in the house 


of correction lirom six to nine times. i 


An analysis has been made of the state of 
education among the prisoners confined in the 
province of Brandenburg. It appears from thiff, 
that out of 100 prisoners, only 11 can neither 
read, write, nor calculate; 16 can only read 
and write, and 37 can only read. 

During 1835, 10,334 persons were arrested 
at Berlin, without reclconing military or foreig- 
ners. The population is about 250,000, so that 
one in 25 of the inhabitants of that city, du- 
ring that year-, passed a greater or less time 
in prison. Only 2962 women were in confine- 
ment, but among them were some for the hea- 
viest crimes, and two were sentenced to deatli 
for murder. 

The smallest numbers of juvenile delinquen- 
cies has been observed to occur in the least in- 
structed and entirely agricultural provinces of 
Pomerania and Posen ; and the largest numbers 
in the best instructed, and also most industrious 
and manufucturing provinces, those of Prussian 
Saxony and the Rhenish countries, whose com- 
mercial and manufacturing districts surpass even 
the metropolis of Prussia in this class of irana- 
gressors. Since the year 1820, to the honour 

KiVODOM OP PnOSMil. &19 

of (his counto') twenty-eight institutrons for ju- 
venile delinquents, or neglected children (none 
of them larger than for sixty boys or girls), 
has been established, and supported by volun- 
tary subscriptions, In different parts of the klng- 
doBi under the especial protection of the Mi« 
nister for Public Instruction. Under this excel- 
lent system the indictments against children of 
an age capable of having thorougly participated 
in their benefits has decreased; while the in- 
dictments against children under that age has 
increased.^ These .schools furnish religious and 
moral instruction; and accomplish the education 
of the heart, — while in most common shoots 
the attainment of writing and reading, «nd the 
like, are the points <d)iefly attended to. This is 
the true reason -why so many prisoners are 
found in all countries who can read and. write, 
who, in short, are comparatively what Is cal- 
led educ<Ued: their education has only supplied 
them with accomplishments, but not with prin- 
ciples of good conduct. Unless religious instruc- 
tion goes hand in hand with literary education^ 
we only place in the hands of the Individual a 
powerful instrument of mischief to himself and 
to the community. John Falk, who founded in 
1813 a House of Reform for Juvenile offenders 
at Weimar , thus expressed himself in his peti- 
tion to the Chambers of the Grand Duchy: "The 
acquirements mechanically imparted to rogues 
can serve only as so many master-keys put into 
their hands to break into the sanctuary of hu- 
manity. << 

* See "Remarks on the Relation between Education 
aud Crime/' by Francis Licbcr, and Dr. Julius, C^l^i- 
ladelphia^ 185J p. 168. 

5f0 MIK60OM or PBl'SSIA. 

An ofieinL re|>ort, lately published, of th« 
fctgh-coHrt; ol Justice at Magdeburg, shotis tlie 
laiporiacen e/ tlie "tribunal of Gonnlon arMtra* 
tl«Mi" reeeiiUy establisiied in Rruasia. Of 539 
caufies hrou^ht before Hiat tribunal, from May 
1, 1834, to ianuar 1, 1836, 433 were flettleil 
by amleable arrangenent. But tiiUi tribunal poa- 
sesaefl a stiU greater advantage, inasawcli as 
personal offences of little importance whi<:ii are 
often both Incoitvenienl; and ridiculous, when 
brought before, higher trihiaals, are. In tliis 
manner, satisfactorily arranged. Another oficial 
i«port states, that out of 6366 causes thus 
sohmitted, 4862 were thus settled, and only 
695 sent to higher courts. 

There were no fewer than 1S7,564 etvil ac« 
tions in Prussia, during the- year 18% alone, 
which afforded a proportion of one suit at law 
to eighty inhabiianhi. In the year 1830, the 
criminal actions brought before the tribunals of 
Pmasia, amounted to 113,275, out of which 
number 71,000 were cases of poltoe. In those 
provinces of Prussia in witich a strict line of 
separation exist between civil and criminal can- 
ses, the decisions of the courts are far siore 
speedy; thus, in 1830, in tlie Rhenish . provin* 
ces in which such a d«uareatl6u prevails, the 
courts dispatched seven-eighths of the civil can* 
ses, seven-eighths of the oorreetional processes^ 
and all the criminal causes; while in the JBas- 
tern provincea, on the contrary, where the Ju- 
dicial bodies combine all canses in the same 
court, only nine -tenths of the civil proceflsen, 
and two- 1 birds of the criminal causes, were 
ilecided. * 

^ See Sclion, Op. Cit. 

Mhr«H»MI OP PRVtWik. d^l 

The policy ef mainUiliiing so Ukrgt an artaiy, 
amt of eiiforcinff a miiltary eddcatiou on All her 
suhJeeCs, is the aiost remarkahte /eature whieb 
Prassia at this moment presents to the observer, 
and is a difficult problem, not capable of being 
summarily discussed. Under a liiug, however, 
of extreme moderation in expenditure, and un- 
der a most prudent succession of ministers, the 
difficulties inseparable from this condition «re 
for a time kept under. 

Unfortunately, in proportion as this excessive 
military system has developed itself, the number 
of Individuals devoted to the pursuits of indus- 
try has declined.* Thus, in Silesia, on compa- 
ring the number of artisans of the year 1831, 
with those which had existed in 1828, it was 
found that, 

The Bakers had diminished in number 257 

„ Butchers 212 

„ Shoemakers • 153 

„ Tailors . 507 

„ Carpenters 87 

„ Masons 82 

„ Weavers 1259 

„ Small Shopkeepers 215 * 

Since the peace, Prussia has connected her- 
self more closely with Russia than with any 
other state. Her new commercial system is an 
experiment, the results of Which are not as yet 
fully decided ; nor are political inquirers agreed 
either as to the precise motives which induced 
its formation , or as to the probable influence 

* See Schdn, Op. cit.j p. 343, 


wbicli' it will have on tbe prosperity of tlie va- 
rious German states and of tlieir neigliliourB. 
80 much, however, is certain^ that the nume- 
rous branches of manufacture which the Pros* 
sian government lias either much encouraged or 
wholy called into life, have received a consi- 
derable and lasting impulse hy the abolition of 
international lines of customs, througfiout a great 
portion of Germany. 




PROVINCES OP old; PRINCIPAJ4 towns, rrugion; 


•R he royal family of Bavaria are of the Ca- 
iliollc religion. The present king is Lewis I., 
bom August 25 y 1786 » who succeeded his fa- 
ther, Maximilian I., October 13, 1825, and who 
married, October i% 1810, Theresa CC. F. A.3, 
princess of Saxe-Altenburg, by whom he has 
eight children; viz., Maximilian, the crown- 
prince, born in 1*811; Otho, king of Greece, 
bom 1815, married to Amalia, princess of 
Oldenburg; LuiCpold, and Adalbert; and four 
daughters, of whom one, Matilda, bom 1813, 
is married to Lewis, eldest son of the grand 
duke of Hesse - Dannstadt. The brothers and 
sisters of the king are : 1^ Augusta, born 1788, 
now ductless dowager of Leachtenberg and prin- 
eesB of RkhstAdt, who has two sons and four 



(laughters; viz., the duke Maximilian, recently 
betrothed to the grand duchess' Maria of Russia ; 
Josephine, crown-princess of Sweden ; Augustus, 
King of Portugal, fdied in 18353; Amalia, era- 
press iiow|iger of the DraMils ; and Theodolinde, 
born in 1814; 3° >Car#line, hern 1792, now em- 
press dowager of Austria; and 3° Prince Charles, 
bom 1795, general Qteundry, 4^ Elizabeth, bom 
1801, crown princess of Prussia; 5^Anmli«, bom 
1801, rnnrvML to prince John of £Uixony; 6^ Sophia, 
bent 1805, flMirried to ttio arehdnke Francis of Aus- 
tria; 7^ Blaria^ horii 1805, Qaeen of Saxony; 8*^ 
Ladovica, born 1808, narrled to Ue duko Maxi- 
mitfan of Bavaria. 

The foHowiag is a view of the circles of the 
kingdom of Bavaria, and of their population: — 

Isar Circle . . . 
Lower DasvW 

Bef ea 

Upptr B»B«he 


Upper Main • . 
Lower Main, . 

ToUl .... 












1 1,477. 


tion in 






111,468 38 





In 1888 f the king of Ba%iuria has re-eota- 
blfiilied the aaeient appellations of the divisions of 
Uie kingdom. We give here a view of their extent 
oaid populMion,' according to th« luleat rettinui. 


Vfiiei»«M or bAvaria. ytft 

G»rm>n pop„uHon 

tj.';y*^ in 1880. 

J. rpper Bavaria Proper 306 684,400 

2. Suabia and Neuburg: . 167 533,600 

3. Lower Bavaria Proper 185 515,100 

4. Upper Palatinate and 

Ratisbonn .... 207 449,600 

5. Central Franconia . . 145 507,600 

6. rpper Franconia ... 119 480,200 

7. Lower Franconia and 

Asclianrenbiirg . . 170 579,500 

8. The Palatinate .... 109 565,300 

Total 1408 4^315,400 

The principal towns are the following: "^ 
Munich C95,00OiiibHbitaiiU), Nuremberg €41, 000), 
AngslNirg CdlySOO"), Ratisbonn (26,5003. Wikx- 
burg C22,500}, Bamberg C20,560), Futth C16,735), 
Anspaeh C16,7353, Baireutb (13,9853, Srlapgen 
(11,5803, Pasaau (10,3003- 

\\lth the exception of aliout 57,000 Jew3, 
and 6,000 French , the inliabitaats of Bavaria 
are jill Gormans. 

With respect to religious distinf^tions, tkey 
are divided , according to a census taken some 
years ago, into 2,880,383 Catholics, 1,094,633 
Protest;ants, 4427 members of various sects, and 
57,574 Jews. 

There are two Catholic archbishops, six Ca- 
tholic bishops, 181 deaconrtes, and 2756 parishes. 
There are 1215 Protestant parishes, 79 deacon- 
ries; also, 138 reformed congregations. 

In tlie year 1837 there were .45 monasteries 
and 31 nnaneries. These monasteries are in posses- 


sioa of a vested capitAl of 1,681,353 florins, and 
of 143,045 florins of annaities, granted to them. 

Tbere are tbree Universities, viz., at Afiuiicli, 
Wurzburg, aud Eriangen. In 1838, tlier^ w«re 
at Munich 1432 students; at Eriangen, in 1838, 
248; and at Wurzburg, in 1838, 424. 

In Bavaria, there are 24 gymnasiums, one 
lyceum, five seminaries for schoolmasters, 34 
Latin schools, 31 local school-commissions, one 
institution for the deaf and dumb, one institu- 
tion for the blind, one ladies* school for the 
higher classes, and.ohe school for artists. There 
is a great number of schools for mechanics (^Cte^ 
toerhschulen}. In 1831,, the whole country contai- 
ned 5008 schools, in which there were 489,196 
scholars, and 7114 tutors of various ranks. There 
is an academj' of sciences at Munich, which com- 
prises 176 ordinary, 10 extraordinary, 50 ho* 
norary, and 131 corresponding members. 

The yearly expenditure of the Bavarian go- 
vernment, during the period fronf 1831 to 1837 
has been 28,000,836 florins. 

The items are as follows: 


Interest of the Public Debt, Sin- 
king Fund, 4tc 8,100,608 

Expenses of the Royal Family 

and Court ^ 3,188,800 

Council of State 73,000 

Ministry of Justice 923,960 

Ministry of the Interior 660,000 

Ministry of Finance « 772,000 

The Church (Cuitiu) 1,336,000 

Education 767,812 

Medical establishments 154,000 

Klt^ODOM or BAVABfA. 69T 


Benevolent objects 169,000 * 

Police 414,000 

Trading and agricaitural Esta- 

Misliments 156,000 

Certain Outlays of the Excbeqaer 109,000 
Roads, Bridges and Water-works 1»382,000 

. Public Edifices 638,000 

The Army . . . 7,451,500 

The yearly revenue during the same period 
has been 28,185,139^ florins, of \9h\eh sum 
7,385,139 florins have' been derived from direct 
taxes and 20,800,000 florins ft-om indirect taxes, 
state-establishments and domains. 

According to the budget for the years 1837 
to 1843, the yearly expenditure is 30,077,198 
florins and the revenue 30,143,784 florins. In 
October, 1835 the public debt amounted to 
130,860,547 florins, and absorbed annually 
8,746,294 florins ; of this latter sum 4,988,440 
florins were applied to the payment of the interests. 

According to the latest reports which have 
been laid before the chambers, the army con- 
sists of one fleld-marshal , two generals, of in- 
fantry and cavalry, 15 general - lieutenants, 26 
general-minors, 15 Inhabers ^ of regiments, 37 
colonels, 45 colonel-lieutenants, 73 majors, 204 
captains of foot and horse of the first class, 
and 133 of the second, 229 first lieutenants 
and 600 second lieutenants. The entire army, 
consists of 57,061 men, i^f whom 17,196 have 
always leave of absence}, and is divided as 
follows: — 

* Commaadtra , tlie refimeats bMring their reiip«c« 
tive names. 



Bodj'-guar^ of Halberdiers 119 

Two Garrison-coinpanie.s and a Pa- • 

lace-gruard 407 

One Body- regiment of Infantry of 

the liiie 3,661 

Fifteen Infantry re^ifiieiUs of the line 35,109 
Vonr Battalions of Chasseurs .... 4,«'>59 
Two Cuirassier-reKimentH of the line 2,153 

Six Regimental I/ight Horse 6,585 

Two Regiments of Artillery 4,866 

One Batallion of Siigineers (techtti- 

ttche*) 330 

One Co^ipany of Pontoniers ^ . . . . 98 

One Company of Worknw^n 144 

The Bavarian contingent to the army of the 
confederacy, amounts to 35,600 men. 

The government is a constitutional monarchy, 
founded on the deed CVonatitutionsacte) of May 
26,-1818. The king pos.ses8es all the powers 
of the administration of the state, and exercises 
them for the objects which he has specilletl In 
the constitutional declaration; he is, however, 
hound to obey the decrees of the German con- 
federacy , of which Bavaria forms an integral 

The territories of the kingdom form a single, 
indivisible, inalienable whole, to which all fresh 
acquisitions belong, and a clear definition exL^s 
of that which is the property of the state, of 
that which is alienable and of that which is 
not. There is a (iiamber'of councillors (Heicha^ 
rathe} y and a chamber of deputies, as organ 
and representative of the nation. The art of 
eonatitu/ion , ahove-mentioneil, ixos di.st1nei- 


ly their rights and privileges. Hie «rown is 
hereditary' Chough te the excimioii of fe- 
miUes) aocorduig to the law of primogenitare an^ 
of relationship C^9nati»ch-U»eariate Erbfolgei; 
but on the death of the last male descendMit 
of the royal family, if there should be no near 
relationship with a German house to make valid 
its claims, the crown can pass to % female. 
See the Family Laws ^FomiKen- und Hatu-Ge- 
4tetzeJ of 1816. 

The chamber of couneiUors consists of the 
princes- of royal blood, of the officers of the 
crown, of the archbishops, of the heads of the 
mediatised families, of the heads of the Catho- 
lic and Protestant Churches, of the hereditary 
councillors, and of the councillors for life. There 
are the usual ministers of state, and the mi- 
nister for foreign affairs is also minister of the 
royal house*-hoId. The grand dignitaries of the 
crown are,* .a grand master, a grand chamber- 
lain, a grand marshal, and a grand master of 
the post. The supreme officers of court are, a 
grand master, a grand chamberlalii , a grand 
master of the ceremonies, a grand equerry, and 
a captain-general of the body-guard. 

Between 1817 and. 1828, there was an aug- 
mentation in the population of Bavaria of 477,560, 
which was an annual increase of about 43,414, 
In 1838, there were 140,079 births and 108,532 
deaths. No marriage can talce place between 
humble persons not possen^g som^ capital, un- 
less by previous permission of the Institutions 
for the Poor, which are appointed by law in 
each town and village.* The directors who do 
not attend to the decrees on this head, have 



to Muraror for tlio awintenance of the new fa- 
■lilies, if (hoy should not he able to sapport 
themselves. So also the priests and other c hurch> 
men are reopoBsible for the support of ;»ach 
peisons whom they have married without leave 
from the authorities — besides other ines im- 
posed on the breach of the regulations relattve 
to marriM** In respeet to rank and oceapation, 
the adult male popalation is divided as follows : — 
there are 25,931 nobles, clergymen, and civil 
and military ofieers, 3!|9,785 tradesmec, me- 
chanics, ^., and 4dO,030 peaMtnts and day- 
laboarers; the sokliera are enumerated above. 

The thirteenth part of this country is ancul- 
tivated. The people live principally on potatoes, 
iour and milk; their favonrite beverage Is beer, 
and their wine is that of the Main and Rhine. 
On an average, Bavaria produces annually, 
58,800 quintals of hops, of which 5:2,800 are 
consumed in the countr)', and the 'rest expor- 
ted; the value of this anndal produce is from 
seven to eight millions of florins. Of tobacco 
30,000 quintals are grown annually, on an ave- 
rage. The oils are very abundant, but not fine; 
principally, from the want of good mi:i.«. In 
this country, there were in a recent j-ear*!, 895,687 
head of horned cattle, 1,338,103 sheep, aad 
324,991 horses; there are great quantities of 
ItigH and pottltr>', but not many goats and oa- 
ses. Honey and wax are not produced in suf- 
ficient quantity for home-consumption. 

With respect to cultivation in Bavaria, tte 
following calcalations have been made: 9,798,2M 
acres (TagetPitrkeJ are laid out in ploughed land, 
363,812 in gardens, vineries and dwelUng-plaees 
2,792,160 ill meadows, 6,444,846 in uoods; 
507,247 are water, and 2,232,771 are heaths 
and pasture land. 



A pt»ty(eeliiiio cruinmfttee h^iui founded at Mu- 
nich in 1816 , u'bich is composed of artisans, 
sclinJars and official men from all parts of the 
kingdom; it exerts a very favouralile influence 
on indiistr)' hy its lectures and pulilicatioiis. It 
has instituted an exbiiiition of manufactures 
which has excited great activity amongst arti- 
sans of every' class. Similar committees have 
been estabtisbed at Augsburg, at Nuremberg, 
and in other towns. In Bavaria there are not 
many large, buf there are a great number of 
small manufactories , particularly of linen cloth. 
In some parts, a weaver's loom may be found 
in almost every peasants cabin, la wooUen- 
clotlis, thd Bavarians cannot riva *H4th foreigners, 
because they vranC good machines, and large 
manuAustories; their wool, besides^ is of an in- 
ferior quality. Their cotton-goods are also not 
iirst-rate, though this branch of industry is 
better understood than the foregoing. The tan- 
narles are flourishing, and far more skins are 
exported than imported. The paper is inferior 
to the English, Dutch or Swiss; A proitable 
stntw-manufarture is carried on in some part«t. 
A great number of persons are employed in the 
felling and transport of %V4>od. The toys of 
Nuremberg and Bercbtesgade are universally 
known. Bavarian beer is probably the best of 
the European continent,' and is exported to a 
considerable extent. There are fifty maiiufact<»- 
rles of tabacco in full activity; several of s.tgar 
frem beet-root, and forty-flve in a 
floarisbiitg state. There are nine manufactories 
of pareelain, ef which the mast celebrated si 
that of Nympheiiburg; ami fourteen of delft- 
ware, which, however, is of aa inferior des- 



cription. Tb« seven salt-works of tikis idnf dom 
produce annually, on an averaire, aHovt 645,000 
qafaitals of salt, of which 70,000 quintals are 
exported ; they yield a net profit to the gavem- 
ment of 2,2 17,375 florins annually. The quar- 
ries of lime, gypsum, freestone-, and clay, eat- 
ploy 7200 persons. The cmdmines yield 700,000 
quintals annually. Sulphur is not produced iii 
sufficient quantity for home-consumption, nor is 
Iron : several other metals , too , as mereory, 
e»pper, cobalt and lead, are not* very abundant. 
Gold and silver are found in small quantities in 
the sands of the Rhine., the Inn, the Danube 
and the liiar. The mannfactorj' at.Amberfr finr* 
nishes the army with the requisite number of 
musketsv The goldsmiths, engravers and cut- 
lers of Davaria compteto with those of France 
and England. There are chain-bridges of iron- 
wire at Nuremberg and Bamberg. 

Bi'ery Bavarian who has arrived at the age 
of 21 is liable to militar>' conscription. During 
the first two years, he must hold himself In 
readiness to Join his regiment on the receipt 
of an order so to do. Those exempt frohi con- 
scription are the only sons of parents who have 
lost two sons, and any son of parents who have 
lost three children fai the military service of the 
state. The time of service is six years* All 
soldiers who are not completely mounted and 
equipped are allowed leave of absence. 

Vaccination is performed 0t the expense off 
the state, and parents, howe\*er reluctant they 
may be, are obliged to submit their children ta 
this operation. At Baireuth, Glesing, Schwa* 
bach, Bamberg and Wfirsburg there are esta* 



blisliuient for (lie recejitioii of the insane. There 
are forty-one medicinal springs in Bavaria. The 
following taljle shows the number of patients 
treated , and the rate of mortality , in the Ali-. 
gemeiite Krankenhaus (General HospitaQ at Mu- 
nich, from its erection in 1813 to the year 
1831-1832. AAer the year 1819-8130, the pa- 
tients of the midwifery department are included 
and tliroughout the table, the patients remainiilg 
at the end of the year, are Included in th~e 
number of those received in the succeeding one, 
I insert it here as one of the 'most complete 
ever published in any country. 











Namkcr of 





16,209 33,818 

























































































The excefisive nnmlier of illegitimate childreir 
in Bavaria attracted, in i835, the attention of 
its Upper Cliamlrer of Representatives. -Accor- 
(img to Hoffman, the rate in the rural parts of 
Bavaria exceeds that wbrch is found even iir 
the most dissolute citres of Europe. In Munich 
tite number of children bom out of marriage, 
is nearly the same- as that produced by. wed- 
loclv. The Upper Chamber wished the follow^ 
ing points to be considered preparatory to 
remedial measures: I. the abolition of the action 
at law against the father; 2. a provision for 
the cliildren, . by th<9 establishment of histitotiona 
fwr their support , at the expense af the state 
or of the cinrle; and 3. the punishment of the 
moth«rs in houses of correction or in the work- 
houses. But the Lower Cliamber d'ectared that 
such plans were not reconpileable either with 
humanKy, justice, or morality; that they would 
expose the weaker sex , and often reduce an 
innocent woman to the extremttiev of despair. 
Tills is not the place to enter into a disscusioir 
of this -most important subject. The total num- 
her of natural children born in Munich, in 1823 
was so many as 990, while the legitimiite 
births were only 1030. lit 1834, there were 
1291 natural children, counterbalanced by enly 
1339 legitimate children. « 

bi the circle of the Rhine, the French codeM 
of crirl procedure and crimitial instruction have 

^ It is but fair to mention Iiere that tlie excellent 
Lying-ia-HoBpital of Munich attracts a great number 
qt unmarried women from the provinces of an^ Bik>- 
vajria even from abroad. » 


been retained, and also the French penal code. 
There are in Bavaria 18 tribunals of circles and 
eities which are of the first instance, ^5 prp- 
vincial tribnnals, 723 patrlmojiial courts of the 
second class, 3-12 of the first class, and' 54 
fieig^norial courts. The civil tribunals of the se- 
cond instance are, 7 courts of appeal and 7 
commercial courts of appeal. Criuiifials condem- 
ned to death are decapitated by the sword; the 
guillotine Is not used in Bavaria. 





AND deaths; number of medical men; number 


Saxoii)', liltherto, appears to have derived 
more advantage from tbe new commercial unioii 
tban any other ^stafe of Germany. The eoMn- 
eipation of the Jews, to a very limited extent, 
has lately passed the chambers; but this act 
does not admit them to sit in the chambers, nor 
to fill high posts. 

The royal family of Saxony are of the Catho* 
tic religion. The present fting is Frederic Au- 
gustus, who was born May 18,1797, and succee- 
ded his uncle, Anthoio', Jane 6, 1836. He mar- 
ried, firstly, Caroline, archduchess of Austria, 
who died in 1832, and, secondly, Maria, prin- 
cess of Bavaria. Jfis fatUer MaxrmHnui, Cborn 
April, 17593 wbo, on tlH^ death of the late 
king, renounced his pretensions to the throne. 




He died Januao' S^, 1838, and iiad besi- 
des fVederic Augustus, three cbildern by his 
first wife, who was a princess of Parma, viz. 
Amalia, born 1794 ; Maria, grand duchess dowager 
of Tuscany and prince John, married to Amalia 
Aagrusta, princess of Bavaria, of wtiom be has 
seven childern. Maximilian's second wife , Louisa, 
princess of Lucca, whom he married in 1825, is 
still alive. 

The following is a view of the .circles of the 
kingdom of Saxony, and of their population: — 




•5 B£ 






Jo 00 

•S s S 

















ssl sa 












1«F 030 




i4i| so 1 s,m 

The number of noble families in the kingdom 
of Saxony is said to be about eiglity, but this cal- 
culation probably includes only the higher clas» 
of nobility. 

The principal towns are, Dresden C66,183^ In- 
habitants, not including soldiers and stranger8>, 
Leipsic C47,514) Chemnitz C31, 1373, Freiburg 
CI 1,545), Plauen C8,5703, Bauzen C8 ,467) , 
Zittau C8,195), Meissen C7,525). Besides these^ 

588 KiKanoM w uakohv. 

tiiere are twelve otiier towm, eaoli eonteniing < 

mure tliaa dOOO iubakitants. 1)525^512 of the i 

ininlHtants are Germana; 31,423, Sdavoaiaiis or j 

Wends; 850, Jews; and 39, Greeks 

WUh re.«peet to religion, 1,580,370, are Lii-o 
tiierana,* 27,938 Boman CAtiieUca; 39, Greek Ca- 
tli«liGs; 1591, members uf the Reformed Cbqrrh; 
and 850 Jejirs^^. 

The following was (lie rate of increase among 
tiM varioos religions denomiaations, dorlng a 
period of about two years, from 1832 to 1834. 
Amongst tlie Latherans, it was 37,017, or 21 
per thonsand; amongst the members of the Re- 
farmed Church, 230, or 165 per thousand ; amongst 
the Catholics, 240, yearly nine per tliousand. 
The members of the Jewish persuasion bad de* 
creased, during the same period, by 24, or 27 
per thousand. 

In Saxony, there are, ana co.n8istor>'« 25 in- 
spectorles, 616 Lutheran, and 31 Catholic pa- 

The principal, estoblishments for public in- 
struction are^ the university of Leipsie Cat which 
there were about 1100 students in 1838^; two 
land or prince's schools Cthese were founded 
at the Reformation, ^aad endowed with part of 
tile church property, which was then devoted 
to secular pnr|»ose83; fifteen gymnasiums and < 

classical schools; four seminaries fur school- 
masters, a school for miners, an institution fur 
foresters, two military schools, and an agricul- 
tural srbool, and twenty five Sunday schools 
and sclioolM for mechanic^; 

In 1833 the Saxon prime minister. Von Lin- i 

* These last •latemeals are drawn from the c«msns 
•f 1839. 

KINflBftM eP SAZOKY. 530 

denmi, in bringring the touilget befwe the ctuuii- 
lierfl at Dresden, estiomteil the piiblie income 
at 5,4$4,210 deUara Caboat 81&,000/.)i »nd (■>« 
expenditure at 5, 130,528 dollars Cnboot 769,800/0* 
leaving a surplus of 45,000/., or upwards of 
Ave per cent, on the amount of the income, 
which would be applied to a reduction of the 
public debt. It was observed by the minister,' 
that ^^after subtracting the amount of re%'eBne 
derived from the crown lands, forests, ^c, as 
well as the local ratoN, neither of which for- 
med part of the actual burdens imposed by the 
«tate, the amount of the imposts actually levied 
by it, did not exceed four millions of dollars, 
which was two dollars and a half C^<^ven shil- 
lings and sixpence) for each inhabitant, being 
less than in most other German states, and btft 
one-third of the sum contributed by every per- 
son in France, one-fourth of that in England." 
He further added, that *^the value of the Immo- 
vable property, viz., lands and houses, in the 
kingdom of Saxony, was about 512,000,000 dol- 
lars Cabout 76,000,0001. sterling) ; in which es- 
timate, the value of house property was taken 
at 18,80O,000l, that of the seignorial estates, 
including their appendages, at 3,000,0001., and 
all other immovable property at 50,200,0001." 
^Vlth reference to the comparison which the 
Saxon minister has here made, It is to be re- 
marked, that under the item of expenditure, the 
United Kingdom, which is twenty times larger 
than Saxony, and has a population sixteen ti- 
mes greater, paid away in varioas shapes, a 
SUM of 50,908.2011. in 1832; and France, wkich 
is forty-six times larger, and has a population 
at least thirty fold greater, expended, in the 



aame year , a sum of 44,3Q3>0001. Tlie rate of 
public expenditure in these three states, there^ 
fore, WBfif as compared with their gross popa- 
lations, in Saxony (1,553,000 inhabitautsj, nine 
shillings and teii-peuce per head; in Vraiice 
(33,000,000 inhabitants} , twenty-six shillings 
and three-pence; and in the United Kingdom 
(24,100,000 inhabi(ants3^ within a fraction of 
fort)'-two shillings and threepence. 

. The public expenditure fur 1836, was 5,055,714 
dollars, the revenue amounted to 5,300,390 dol- 
lars, consequently, there was a surplus 'Of 244,676 
dollars. According to tlie budget for the yeara 
1837 to 1839, the revenue was to amount to 
5,194,873 dollars, and the public expenditure to 
5,049,449 dollars; consequently there was to 
be an. annual surplus of 145,424 dollars. 

The public debt of Saxony consists in two parts: 
the one, in circulation, amounts to 8,460,666 
dollars, and the other, not in circulation, to 
7,243,430 dollars. It has been resolved by the 
States in 1837, to transform the amount of 
2,831,000 dollars (one of the items of the debt 
then not in circulation) Into stock bearing 3. p. c 

The interests of the public debt are annually 
321,545 dollars, and the amount applied to (lie 
sinking fund, 171,806 dollars. 

The standing army amounts to 12,193 men, 
and is divided as follows: — 


The Guard 370 

Infantry of the \h\e 7080 

Cavalry . 2066 

Artillery 1032 

Chasseurs 1454 

Train 19l 


The pay of a lieatenant-general is 5000 ron- 
vention dollars annaall}'; of a miyor-general, 8000; 
of a colonel, 7000; of a maior, 1300 to 1500; 
of a captain of tlie iirst class, 1000; of a cap- 
tain of tlie second class, 800; of a first lieute- 
nant, 400; of a second lieatenant, 240; of a 
private soldier, 34 dollars annuall3\ In the ca- 
valry, the pay of all the ranks is somoHrbat 

The contini^ent to the army of the confede- 
racy is 12,000 men. The expenses of the army 
amount to 82 per cent, on the whole public 

The government is a limited monarchy, wKh 
two representative chambers. Besides the na- 
tional diet, the old Lusatian provincial chambers . 
continue to exercise their former functions. The 
two chambers are equal, in respect to their rights 
and powers. The throne is hereditary, to the 
exclusion of females; on the demise of the last 
descendant of the present ruling family, it would 
pass to the house of Saxe- Weimar. Should there 
he no prince entitled to this successldn, either 
by birth or alliance, the crown may be inheri- 
ted by a female. The king is fit age when he 
has completed bis eighteenth year. 

There are the usual ministers of state; the 
minister of justice is also minister of the royal 
house. The state-council is composed of the 
ministers, the presidents of the different circles, 
councillors, and extraordinary members, and its 
president is a prince of the royal family. 

* HeMn, Op. Cit., p. 243. 


642 lUNOPjOil OK 8AX0NY. 

The' ftUtlioriti«8 subordinate to ^be diffjereiit 
minuters are, the director of tlie archives of 
state, tlie president of the sii|ireine tribunal of 
appeal, the director of tolls and t^es, the cap- 
tain general of the mines, Uie director of the 
post, the director of the hank, the presidents of 
the different circles, the general auditor of tbe 
supreme tribunal of war, the president of the 
consistory, the president of the Catholic consis- 
tory^ and the president of the apostolical vica- 

The chief ofAcers of the court are , a grand 
marshal, a grand chamberlain, a grand equerry, 
a grand huntsman of the jcourt/ a marshal of 
the house, a chamberlain, a director-general of 
the theatre and of music, and a grand cupbearer. 

The limits of Saxony were reduced by the 
congress of Vienna in 1814 \ it is now about 
110 English miles long, and its greatest breadth 
is about 75 English miles. The pfoportion of 
inhabitants to an English square mile is about 
319. The population appears to increase at the 
rate of one per cent, annually; and, according 
to ^oinnann, would double in about 69^/3 years. 

The number of cities and towns is 141, of 
which there were, in a late year — 


4with and above 10,000 inalll43,196 

36 „ „ „ 4,000 „ „ 148,821 

92 „ „ „ 1,000,, „ 202,121 

and 19 With less than 1,000 „ „ 14,399 

1UNGD(HM or SAXONY. 643 

The number of villages, lumdets, 4te. , is 
3501, of wliieh there were — 


152 with, and ahove 1000 in all 251,086 

2404 „ „ „ 100 „ „ 756,56* 

and 855 „ „ „ 100 „ „ 58,553 


The namber of individaals in variouB detach- 
ed farms , manufactories , and other buildings, 
was 4893. 

The total number of habitations was 209,122; 
viz. — 

In the Towns 40,006 i 

. Villages, «firc. . . . . 159,596 { 209,122 
Detached Bnildings S20 ) 

Of the above bouses, 5314 were uninhabited. 

For the whole kingdom, the average propor<» 
tion of the inhabitants of towns to the rural 
population, was as. 1000 to 2108; for the dire- 
rent circles the proportions were: — 

Circles Inhabitants Hural 

of of the Towns, population. 
Dresden, 1000 to 2034 
Leipsic, 1000 to 1582 

£wickau, 1000 te 1797 
Bautzen, 1000 to 1603 

In 1833, there were i»om 58,74)1 Individuals, 
of whom 30,496 were males , and 28,293 fe- 
males. In the same year, 42,185 persons died, 
of whom 21,782 >vere men, and 20,278 women. 



With respect to age, tlie population is divi« 
ded as follows: — There are 466,261 children, 
under fourteen years of age Cnearly one- third 
of the whole3; 848,981 persons, between fifteen 
and sixty; and 86,824 above sixty. There are 
in the whole kingdom 45,108 more women than 
men. Half the deaths that occur are of persons 
under the age of fourteen years. The first three 
months of the year are. the most fatal; the mor- 
tality decreases after the end of March. In 
1830, there were 167 deaths from accidents, and 
one from hydrophobia. 

Saxony contains 450 physicians, 585 sur- 
geons, and 150 apothecaries. The number of 
infants not vaccinated is greater than the num- 
her vaccinated. 

The total number of the deaf and dumb, and 
of the blind, is, by the latest estimate, 1010, 
and 324, respectively; the exact number of each, 
in the different circles, being as follows: — 


DsAr AHS DiTMB. | 

Bliwd. 1 







Dresden . 
Leipsic . . 
Zwickau . 
Bautzen . 
Military. . 


















Totals . . 1 555 | 455 





in Towns . 
„ Villages 

Totals . . 



300 1 78 
709 1 98 






1009 f 

1 176 




1% is thtfs seen that the nmnfoer of deaf and 
dumb , in proportion to th6 population , was 1 
in 1579 individuals Cin 1823, it was 1 in 1334) ; 
and, in like manner, that the number of the 
bUud Cwhieh in 1832 was 1 in 3675} was 1 
in 4924: sbowingr in both cases a considerable 

This country contains 1158 ecclesiastics, and 
1912 elementary teachers. A comparison of the 
whole number of persons receiving education 
with the enture population, shows the average 
proportion of the former to the latter to be 
about 1 in 6, or 178 in lOOO individuals. 

The number of widowed persons was 90,138 
in the year 1834. 

A curious and striking result is exhibited by 
a comparison of the number of widows and wi- 
dowers. Of every 100 widowed persons, there 
were, in the 

Circle of Dresden 26 males to 74 females. 

„ „ Leipsic 28 „ ,; 72 ^ „ 

„ „ Zwickau 31 „ „ 69 „ 

„ y^ Baut;zen 30 „ „ 70 „ 

^Vhole country. . 29 „ „ 71 „ 

The married state is amply illustrated by the 
documents recently published by the Statistical 
Society at Dresden. The total number of mar- 
ried persons in the kingdom of Saxony, in the 
year 1834, was 277,812. Of these pairs, 85,751 
lived in towns; and 191,138 in villages. The 
married persons of all denominations amounted 
to, somewhat more than seven - twentieths , or 
about one-third of the whole population! A man 

mttf not marry bcfare 31 yeitrs of age, it be is 
llsMe to serte id tlie Rrmy. In MMdeii, arti- 
sans are not ftLlowed (o marry until tliey be- 
eone imBterfi in tbeir trade, Tbe nnmber of 
naiitwl persons Ilviiig aepanlf was extrem<>Iy 
nnmeroaH, so raany as 11,313, namely, 5451 
aisles, and S763 females. Tbe pioportlon of 
divorced peraons is very larg-e, in relation to 
eiie waatt pspolatlon of Suiony ; Iti^y were so 
waity as 3798. Tbe faaiiit]' wltb whkh iHver- 
tea are procured on tilfling pleas ,■ socb as in- 
CDDipatibilfty of temper, ii Dn« nt the leftst 
agreable featofea in tbe domestic life of Germany. 

Tbe nttmber of prostltDtes at Dresden, ranges 
between AOO and 600. AC Leipsic, tbey amount. 
It Is said, to 400. No bouses uf llt-fame are 
tolerated either at Dresden or nt Iicipslc. 

The proportion of llleglllinato tu legitinate 
birtha for tbe whole counlry l.i, an the averace 
arorded by the four years from lB3t to 1331, 
one in 6.'. 

Tbe number of ileatiis , oecanluned by suiclile 
and accidents, In tbe years 1639 and 1633, 
was as follows: — 


The number of gensilarmeer , belonging to the 
police of Dresden, is' bO. 

On the ist of January , 1831 , there were in 
the prisons of this Iringcfom, 7 persons accosetf 
of assassination, 10 of infanticide, 8 of homo- 
cide, 5 of poisoning, 1 of perjury, 6 of rape, 
3 of bigamy, 4 of adultry, 27 of incendiary 
attempts , 37 of robbery ami housebreaking, 7 
of sacrilege , 407 of robbery without aggrava^ 
ted circumstances, 13 of highway robbery, 6 of 
passing bad money, 1 of fraudulent bankruptcy, 
and 124 of rioting. 

Of the whole number of p^ersons accused, 1329 
(1017 males and 312 females} had been before 
in custody ; and 2024 (1587 males and* 437 fe- 
males} were admitted to bail. 

The greatest number of offences was commit- 
ted by individuals between the ages of 21 and 
40 years; and in regard to seJC, the proportion 
of male to female offenders was about twu-thirds. 

Main. FmmIo. ToUU. 

Punifihed .... 3794 


3844 or more than one-hftlf. 

Acquitted .... 768 


1065 orabout one-seventh. 

Died, escsped, or 

committed sui- 


cide 66 



Remained in cus- 

tody al the end 

of the year . . 1938. 


2495 or one third. 




The offenc6s coiAmittetf by the diilitary, in 
1B32, amounted to 424, and the offenders to 
549, of whoih 17 were superior officers, 40 
subalterns, and 492 privates. Of the whole 
number, 326 were punished, 83 acquitted, and 


Uie rest remained in custody at the end of the 

The number of military delinquents, confined 
for different periods in the prison-house at Dres- 
den, was 

In ISai 45 

In 1832 22 

In 1833 26* 

The. salary of a cabinet minister in Saxony 
is 5000 thalers annually. The minister for fo- 
reign affairs deceives 3000 thalers besides for 
the expenses of hospitality. A judge receives 
2000 thalers annually. ** The deputies receive 
three thalers daily for their expenses. The wa- 
ge& of a man - servant are about 20 thalers 
annually; 25 are large wages. A female cooIl 
receives, perhaps, 14 thalers annually; but the 
servants have a small present made to them at 
certain festivals. 

The rent of the first floor of one of the best 
mansions of Dresden is about 500 thalers an- 
nually, unfurnished. Such is the rent which 
one of the chief foreign ministers pays. A first 
or second floor of an excellent house may be 
bad for 200 dollars annually, and a sufficiently 
good one for a moderate family for 100 up to 
150 thalers. 

* We are indebted for many of the above statem^mts 
to an important document published hj the Statiitical 
Society of Dreiden, and translated in the 'Troeeedingt 
of the Statistical Society of London. " 

** A burgomaster receives 2200 thalers annually > n 
StadtraHk receives from tOOO to 1800. 


The total number of English who have spent 
more than one year at Dresden, and who are 
at present residing there, is 150. 

The number of passports annually delivered 
at Dresden, is, on an average of six years, 
3000. This number appears somewhat small: 
probably, it only refers to new passports, and 
not to passports examined. 

The Statistical Society of Dresden, in its last 
Annual Report, of December, 1837, -publishes 
the remarlcable fact, that the mortality of the 
whole Kingdom fluctuates, in various places, bet- 
ween 1 in 19, and 1 in 65 annually. 


ter on Bninswiclr, whicl^' hius Ibiig been subject 
to the same family. 

The early bistory of the provinces wUfch con- 
stitute the present kingdom of &anover, Is in- 
volved in an obscurity which no research has, 
a§ yet, been able to dispel. Drustis Germanicus 
who penetrated into the nokth of Germany, in 
order to revenge the slaughter of the Roman 
army by Hermann, nbver made any durable con- 
quests in these regions. Their ancient inhabi- 
tants were, doubtless, Celts and Germans; and 
at the beginning of the Christian' era, several 
tribes of the latter, such as die Cheruscians 
Westpliillians, and Thttrihj^ianls, I'^mkined mas'- 
ters of the territory, and formed together a' 
duchy. The wild and inacessible natui'e of the 
country occasioned thdse tilbeis to pi'eserve lon- 
ger than those in' the south, the old Gennan 
foVms' of government and barbariail dustoni^. 

The earliest certain data Which' we poissess 
respecting these countries are fui'nished by the 
wai^s of Cbatlemajirn^, who destroyed the hea- 
then fal^tnesses called, accordihg to some, Bi^uns- 
wyclc, and, in Latin, VictM Bmnonis. fhe fii-st 
of the Brurids on' record, who are looked upon-, 
as the ancestdi's' df the present house of B'ruiiis- 
wick, was^ a coliht Bruno, dtike of Engern, the 
friiend of Wittekind the Saxon: A descendant 
of tht^ chief wa^ Otho, duke of Thuringia' and 
tSaxohy, ^ho floiirished arioiit the end .of the! 
nintii (^entuiV, when he inh^rilfed the territories 
compHsiilg a considei'able part of tttb pf-esent 
kingdom of Hknovet, and who, ih 911, defined 
the imperial croWn of Germany, on account 
of lili^ great age. His son Henry was chosen 


emperor of Germany, and was surnamed the 
Fowler, and sometimes the Town-builder. This 
prince, in. whom all the manly virtues are said 
to have been united, seems to have been much 
attached to his hereditary dominions ; he greatly 
improved the town of Brunswick, and made it 
the imperial residence, a privilege which it con- 
tinued to enjoy under the three Othos, his sac* 
cessors, commonly called the Saxon emperors. 
After the death of Otho III., great-grandson of 
Henry the Fowler, Brunswick fell to his cousin, 
Bruno II., who began to reign in 1002, and to 
whom the city of Brunswick owes the rudiments 
of its municipal institutions. His successors were 
Ludolf, Egbert I., and Egbert U., the last of 
whom having no issue, the emperor, Henry IV., 
was ambitious of inheriting his possessions, and 
not having patience to await his natural decease, 
had recourse to treachery, and murdered him at 
his hereditary castle of Hohewart. But this 
crime did not obtain its object, for the people 
of Brunswick, roused by it to indignation, drove 
the emperor's hirelings out of their territory, 
droclaimed Gertrude, Egbert's sister, their sove- 
reign, bore her in triumph to her ancestral castle, 
and swore to obey and defend her. 

About the year 1090, Gertrude married Hen- 
ry the Fat, count of Nordheim, whose territo- 
ries were incorporated with hers. Their daugh- 
ter Richenza, married Lothario, count of Sap- 
plinburg, whose territories were also united to 
those of the house of Bruno. ^ The' only issue 
of this union was Gertrude, who espoused a 
Guelph, duke of Bavaria, and marcgrave of Este, 
whose house had been already celebrated for at 

Kingdom oir hanovbh. 559 

least three centuries in Germany and Italy. Tliis 
anion is the common origin of tlie two lines 
of Bronswick-Wol/enbuttel and Brunswick-Liine- 

The family of the Guelphs can be traced so 
far back as the reign of Charlemagne. About 
the year 860, there was- a Warin, count of 
Altorf, in Suabia, whose descendants, according 
to an old legend, obtained the name of Guelph 
in the following manner.' Isenbrand, his son and 
successor, saw once an old woman who had 
three children at a birth, and thinking this un- 
natural, he called her an adultress. The. old 
woman, in her anger at this insult, prayed hea- 
ven that Irmentraut, wife of the count, might 
have as many children at a birth, as there are 
months in the year. Her prayer was answered^ 
and Irmentraut was delivered of twelve boys; 
but fearing the severity of her husband's cha- 
racter, she commanded her servant to drown 
eleven of them. "Whilst the latter was procee- 
ding to obey her mistress's orders, the count 
met her, and asked her what was in the bas- 
ket she was carrying. The girl frightened, ans- 
wered that they were ^'Guelphs," Cyonng dogs3. 
But the count not being satisfied with the reply, 
took off the cloth from the basket, and judging 
that the children were his own from their live- 
liness and. strength, he <>reserved their lives, 
educated them secretly, and when they were 
grown up, took them all again to their mother. 
One of the twelve, Guelph the First was the 
successor of Isenbrand. 

The descendant of this family, who in 1127, 
married the above-mentioned Gertrude, was Henry 


554 KiKGmoM oK it.iNovKir. 

the Proud, who, in 1137, was a competitor aC 
Nentz for the impeHal crdwn, With Cohrad of 
BohenstauiTeii. The latter being successful , part- 
ly, owihg to the fear generally entertained of 
the overweening power of Henry, deitianded of 
His rival that he should resijgti the sceptre of 
Saxony, inasmuch av it \SraM illegal for one head* 
t« beai* two ducat crowns. To decide the dis- 
pute, both parifres had recourse to anas; and* 
tlie war, which riiged wltti' ttie greatest fury 
for several years, was not qtiitd terminated', even 
by the death- of Henry, who was poir^orled in 11 40. 

The son and successor of this prince, was 
the famous' Henry the LtOn, who wasr born I'l^ZO", 
and who, on* cothing of age in 1146, found his 
title to his hereditary dominions keeiily disputed 
by his ambitious' neighbours. However, he soon 
succeeded in driving his rival, Albeit the Bear, 
out of Saxony, and in discoihlitihg the archbishop 
of Bremen. But in the south, he likd to en- 
counter a more powerful rival in Conrad, the 
emperor, who dpposed his claSm to BaVaria. It 
was ill VaiH' that hb at^pealbd for jiii^lce to the 
diet at Frankfort, or strengtheni^d' his' pfosition 
by marrying Olem&ntiiia, daught'ei' of the?' pdtrer- 
ful' dUke of ZTaUrihgeii, an inveterate fde' df the 
idftierial fkmiiy; li^ w^as' finalty compelled td tike 
Up arnli^. The wkr was proseciiti^d Wiiii varibii^ 
sucr/ess, Uhtil, iit 11^, the' GUbli»hs r^altkted 
Oh their ad ver^suriesi; and poii^bHed' ttii^ eui^^ivr, 
at the instigsitioh of tfaeii^ ait>', Ro^^r of Nkpt^s. 

lb the m^an ttiiie, tUb yoiittifdt' H^nr3^ ^M' 
fought successfully against the Vaifdalfci, and se- 
cured; by the success of hi^ arms; thc^ throne 
of Denmark to Canut, the rival of Sw«no; and 


wheii; in- 1154, Barbarofllia) who had' succeeded 
Conrad, ceased to contest his ri^ht to Bavaria, 
he becamtr more powerful than was consistent 
with the stability of the imperial - throne. His 
territories stretched from the Baltic to the Adria- 
tic; Westphalia and Saxony — all the country 
between the Rhine and the Blbe — obeyed- him ; 
the greater part of Bavarfa W9ls bis fief; and 
f«r the hereditary possessions of the Guelphs in* 
Italy, his Italian vassals had not ouly to do 
him homage, but to pay him 400 raarics of 

In 11'57, he accompanied Frederic IDarbarossa 
on his Polish expedition, when, together they 
compelled King Boieslaw to^ aekubwledge , the 
supremacy of the German emperor. Barbarossa 
was also assistei^ by Heiit^ in his Italian wars, 
and, as a-recompeiise, left him uncontrolled power 
in the north of Germany, where he was conti- 
nually engaged in extending his power, and in* 
creasing his dominions. The lion which he erec- 
ted in the centre of his capital, Brunswick, was- 
a fit emblem of his chtirafctei' and' projects^. Hts- 
made' the Selavonian rulers of Pomeilinia and* 
Iffecklenburg his- vassals; ahd' another SclaVorti- 
an- prlnbe, Nfkfot, who' iholt up- arms against his- 
ambition, ahd whb was offended, albo'^ by the 
:ieai of tue- i^iijcon miJMittnailtfs to convert hlm> 
to Christianity, he completely defteatbd^ id 1160? 
Still, however, his walls' with' the StUaVonittns 
did not ceaSe, ahd in 1166y ifewral ofhia'&mnf 
enemies, Vii;. , the arclibishop' of Bremetiv th« 
bishopsr of Hiidesheini and- Hialbertstadt, ahd' the 
marcgraves of Thuringia and Brandenburg, en- 
couraged by the obstinacy of the barbarianb in- 



thwarting his projM^s, declared war agailkst him. 
The duke, however, quickly defeated them, and 
th'ie contest was finally terminated by an impe- 
rial decree in his favour, issued at Bamberg 
in 1168. . 

About this time, Henry separated himself from 
his wife, Clementina, on account of conscien- 
tious scruples, and married Matilda, daughter of 
Henry IL, of Bnglandr Shortly afterwards he 
undertook an exp.edition to Palestine, whence, 
on fulfilling his vow, he returned happily to 

The period now approached when he was des- 
tined to meet in arms his friend, relation, and 
sovereign, Barbarossa. The causes of their rup- 
ture are variously given, but it Is of little con- 
sequence to seek to determine them rigorously, 
since through the character of the two heroes, 
it could not have been finally avoided. It had 
only been so long delayed, because the Italian 
wars of Barbarossa, and the Sclavonian cam- 
paigns of the Lion, had hitherto kept their in- 
terests apart. Henry's pretexts of complaint were, 
that his uncle Guelph had been bribed to leave 
his Suabian possessions to the emperor, and that 
the latter had availed himself of a report of his 
death, which had been propagated during his ex- 
pedition to the East, to obtain possession of his 
Saxon fortresses. 

Nevertheless, he followed . Barbarossa as his 
vassal, in his fourth Italian expedition. They 
conquered Susa together; but Alexandria, during 
a whole winter, withstood their assaults; and 
when. an army of Lombards advanced to attack 
them, Henry anaoimced 'the treasonable project 


of deseiting the emperor, if the latter would 
not reward his services by an increase of terri- 
tory. Tliis Barbarossa refused, but embracing 
the duke's kneiBS, he prayed him, for the honour 
of the empire, to stand by him itt tills critical 
juncture; but Henry was inexorable, and de- 

A few days afte;rwards the weakened army of 
the emporor was completely routed by the Lom- 
bards at Legnano CAlay 29th, 11763. To ans- 
wer for his treasonable desertion, the duke was' 
summoned before the imperial diets at Rudol- 
stadt and Goslar, and, on his non-appearance, 
was declared an outlaw. But whilst a decree 
was issued, which divided his possessions amongst 
his enemies, he was collecting an army to de- 
fend them. He defeated the archbishop of Co- 
logne, who claimed Westphalia, and took the 
bishop of Halberstadt prisoner. Here, however, 
the tide of fortune turned against him; his sub- 
jects were terrified by the decree of outlawry, 
and when the imperial army made its appear- 
ance in the North, he was obliged to fly to JLiU- 
beck. The city of Brunswick alone was true 
to htm, and for some time baffled all the besie- 
ging powers of the archbishop of Cologne. But 
all hope of effectual resistance having finally 
vanished, he petitioned the emperor for pardon 
in 1182; and could only obtain a promise, that 
his allodial possessions, Brunswick and Lune- 
burg, should not be wrested from him, if he 
would atone for h\3 fault by three years* exile. 
He was obliged to conform to these hard con- 
ditions, and went with all his family to . the 
court of his father-in-law^ Henry U., of £ng- 

558 KIN&DOlA 09 HilffOVUB. 

laitd'. Be i^etnr^d^ however, at the expf ration 
orf two years, and lived itt cN^Hiision at Bruns- 
wick; hnt Barbafossa still refiAsed to trtlst him, 
9M demanded that be irhouM either folltfw him 
to Palestine, or return, foir three= nn>re years to 
England. Benry chose th^' latter alternative; but 
hearing, shortly afterwards that it was the tn> 
tentton of his eneniies no longer to' redpect even 
his allodial possessions, he agaih mitde his appear- 
ance in Germaity. He quitelcly roiited the Dajnes, 
who marched to oppose him, and conqoeretf Ham- 
hnrg, and Itzehoe. A^l the floini9hing> town of 
Bardwbck, which refused hi^ adAtlsrsion, be des- 
troyed, excepting its cathedraF, on the walls of 
Which he engraved the frfghtfu! image of an 
Avenging Lion, with the inscription Vestigia Leo- 
nis, which remahts* to the present day. Bat here 
the stadtholder of Holstein interrupted his vic- 
torious career, and drove him, after a defeat, 
into the city of Brunswick, which, in cor^unction 
with the bishops of Hildesheim and Balberstadt, 
Henry, son of Barbarossa, besieged, but without 
success. At last^ the archbishops of Bfentz antf 
Cologne intervened; a treaty was signed bet- 
ween the belligerent powers; and Henry proniiis> 
ed to deliver up fiisr sons as hostages. Never- 
theless the quarrel' continued till the marriage 
of Henry, the duke's nephew, with Agnes, niece 
of Barbarossa. This alliance effected a recon- 
ctlfatron between the Guelphs and th^ H^hen- 
stauffen. Henry the Lion now took up Ms aSbo- 
de at his favourite' city of Brunswick, where he 
spent fats old age 7h' eoUectfng and stad>'htg an- 
cient chronMes. He died in tt9<V, at iM age 
of 6<^, and his hereditary possessions' were divi- 
ded between his two sons, Otho and WUIiam. 


Bftrbftrossa dM not live to return ftcm Ms 
erusade; be was drowned in Citieia, In 1190, 
and baried at Antioeh. His son and avecesaor, 
Henry VI., after the reconeiliation wittar Henry 
the Lion, and tlie re-esUMishafent of |ieace« m 
Northern Germany, marehed sronthwards to the 
conqiieHt of Naples, after ha<ving effected which, 
and whilst en the eve o'f invading C^eece, he 
died suddenly af Messina, In 1197. 

Tliere were now two candidates for the im- 
perial crown, Philip, brother of' the late empe- 
ror, and Otho of Brunswick, son of Henry the 
Lion. Th& former was supported by all tlie south 
of Germany, and by the nanveroias enemies of 
the Ouelphs in the Nortik, and was erowned at 
Muhlhausen, in 119S. Otho relied for the sup- 
port of his claims on his alliance with Englaiid 
and Denmark, on the decision of the pope, #hrrhr 
was favourable to hrm, and on the' assistance 
of Ottokar, king of Bohemia. A lohg and b!ood> 
contest ensued', gradually to the disadvantage 
of Otho ; it was termiinated by the death of 
FhiJip, who was murdered by Otho von HlttelH- 
bach, at the castle of Babenburg, 1208. Otho 
now betrothed himself to Beatrice, the daugliter 
af his rival, and fearful of the claims to tlie 
imperial throne of Frederic, son of Hen»y VI. 
and Constance of Neaples, who residetrat Paler- 
mo, he marched into Italy to enlist the pope 
on his sidle. He quarrelled, howei^er, with the 
pontifo, who excommunicated him, and command- 
M air the German princes to el^ct Frederfe, 
emperov. The IaCtei» entered Germany with only 
sixty followers, but suth was the entluisiasm 

500 KiNoooM or haKuvkr. 

wUb whidh he was received^ that lie wa« short- 
ly able to discomlit his opponent, who fled down 
the Rhine, and Frederic was crowned at Aix-la- 
Chapelle, in 1215. Otho died Without issue at 
BranswiciE in 1218, and was sacceeded in his 
hereditary possessions by Henry, the count pala- 
tine, who dying without male issue in 1227, the 
succession devolved on 'the son of William, the 
third son of Henry the Lion , who was bom at 
Winchester, and who had spent his early years 
in England. His father had bequeathed to him 
the cities of Lanenburg and Luneburg, anil 
the chronicles of the day usually call him, the 
prince of Luneburg. In 1202, he married Helen 
of Denmark, by whom he had one son, Otho; 
he died, 1213, at the early age of twenty-nine. 
Otho, his successor, who was only two years 
old at his decease, was called all bis life Otho 
the Child, partly because he assumed the reins 
of government in his hereditary possessions of 
Luneburg and Lauenburg at the- early age of 
fourteen, and partly on account of his shorthand 
childlike stature. At the death of his uncle in 
1227, he was engaged in a feud with the em- 
peror, who disputed his succession to the fiefs 
of the latter; the young prince however, was 
successful and completely established his right. 
Shortly afterwards, in coi\junrtion with the king 
of Denmark, he engaged in a war with Schwe- 
rin, Bremen, and Lubeck, which was terminated 
by the battle of Bornheve, where,, after a dread- 
ful slaughter on both sides, the Dane and 
Guelph were defeated; the former lost an eye, 
and the latter was made .prisoner and confined 
at Bostock, the capital of Schwerin. Upon hear- 


ing of this misfortane , the emperor determined 
to proHecnte his former designs against Bruns- 
wick, and despatched an army for that purpose 
under the command of his son, the king of the 
Romans ; but the fidelity of the Brunswicker reii> 
dered the expedttiAn perfectly futile. At the 
death of the count of Schwerin, in 1228, Otho 
was liBerated from confinement. On arriving at 
Brunswick, he renewed and confirmed the char- 
ters of that city, and greatly enlarged its privi- 
leges. In 1228, he married Matilda of Branden- 
burg, and, in 1230^ we find him assisting Hen- 
ry III. of England in a war against France. On 
his return to Germany, he set about the refor- 
mation of the religious orders, the profligacy of 
some of which was already notorious; in a let- 
ter still extant, dated March 15th, 1234, addres- 
sed to the abbot of Nordheim, he reproves their 
abuses, and particularly enjoins the separation 
of the monks from the youthful- nuns. 

In 1235, in order to terminate the tedious 
disputes, in which he had been long engaged 
with the emperor, he delivered up to the latter 
his allodial possessions, and received them from 
him agftin as fiefs. He was now proclainied as 
Otho I. of Brunswick; his right to a tetith of 
the produce of the mines at Goslar was acknow- 
ledged, and he secured several privileges to his 
duchy. From this time is to be dated the mo- 
dem political existence of Brunswick, inasmuch 
as it formed, hereafter, an integral part, of the 
German empire. He now pacified the towns which 
still manifested any > signs H>f the sedition that 
had formerly been fostered by the emperor, and 
suppressed the banditti who infested the country. 

^62 HfKatioM or HjiNoviiH. 

In ^236, he J4Hned.t|ie TetKoiiic order in com- 
bating tli^ pagan Pjrassku», who iiad invaded 
the north-east of Germany, and destroyed tti« 
Christian churches; they were finaUy defeated 
at Balga, w^ere the 8kiil and courage of th^ 
duKe of Brunswick pnainly contriiNited to tha 
victory. jOtho, after having been tavittved in tlia 
qnarrels of William, cownt of Holland, ii pre» 
jtender to the crown of Gerfnaiiy, wlio^had mar* 
ried his daughjter Eltaabejbh, died Jane 9th, 1253, 
in the fifty-first year of his age; he left four 
sons and five daughters. 

AU»ert siirnamed the Great, horii 1236, suc- 
jeeeded his fatlyer as dyke of Briioswick; tlia 
first weaswres of his reign were directed agaiasit 
his rjefraotory vassals; he subdued the lords af 
Wt^ifenbQttel 9Jid joined their |errltor>' to flmoa-^ 
•wicK; several covints of Everstein he haagad, 
and incorporated their possisssions with tha pria>? 
cipaUty of Gojtting^. About the year 126^ this 
prince undprtpok an expieditian ta Eogland, to 
assist Henry fih agaiaat tha rehei earl pf Laieea* 
ter; he was present at the battle a# JBve8h«n^ 
where the latter was defeated and. slain* Ob 
his retarn to Germany, bis brotheia demandad 
of him a partitipa of their father's heritage, 
founding their jclaims pn the Boaiaa eode, whteli 
did not acknnwledge th^ right of primogenitva. 
Accordingly, he was saoaar or later, eompeUail 
to invest all his hrothers with different sova- 
r^ignties: ptbp waA ma4e bishop •( HtMasheim ; 
Canrad, archbishop of Varden; and John, dtta 
of Lunahnrg and €eUe; thus ail that Alhart 
r^taiped $»t himself, was Wblfenbuttel, Calaa- 


hergf and Gottingen : iUie town of SruQSWick re- 
qiained comipon property. 

' Albert the Great ^ter baving cofttjiuered the 
Elbe provjiLces of t^e count of Scliweriii, an4 
aimexed Grubei^hagen to liis territiQrie^, died in 
1279. Dut'mg liis xe}gn, the provinjces under 
his doipinion became richer, n^ore powerful and 
more civilised. QrunswicK was added to the 
Hanse-Towus ; conumerce w^ encouraged, and 
the arts soccesfully QuUivated. The great vices 
of the German n^iddle ages, gluttony and gam- 
bling, were properly encountered by restrictive 
laws. The power of the clergy was limited 
and the privileges of the monasteries curtailed. 
Many pf the ser/s were emancipated, and much 
was done toiv^s amelior^t^g the condition of 
the re;^. Num^rons religion institutions were 
established, religious exercises were promoted, 
and at the same tl/pe that spirit of patriotism 
encouraged whicl^ is promptly intolerant of fo- 
reign interference. ^Ihe^p left behind him si^ 
sons, of whom three entered into religious or- 
ders; bejtween the other three his territoriea 
were divided; Henry, the eldest, obtained Gru- 
benhagen; Albert, the seconti, Gottingen; and 
VVllliam> the third, Brunswick and Wolfenbiit- 
tel. These prinpes, however, as soon as they 
reached man's estate, commenced a war with each 
other respecting the partition, which led to no 
other fes#U| fhi^ ^tip of . filling theni with mu- 
tual averj^lpfi and distrust. John, duke of Liine- 
burg and jDeile, died in 1277, and left an only 
son f btho , whp si^ceeded to the throne. 

Albert, the sojcond son of Albert the Great, 
carried on the succession of his family; he 


married a princess of Mecklenburg, by whom 
he had seven sons, and died in 1318. Two of 
his sons became bishops of Halberstadt and Hii- 
desheim; two entered the Teutonic oder; whilst 
the eldest and two youngest divided amongst 
them their father's territories. About this time, 
the last remnants of paganism, which had been 
obstinately, though secretly, adhered, to in some 
parts, of the country, were abolished in the do- 
minions of the family of Brunswick. 

During several centuries succeeding . the pe- 
riod to which we are now arrived', the history 
of the Hanoverian countries is reduced to little 
else but a list of the births and deaths of pet- 
ty princes, a detail of perpetual divisions of 
territory and an account of miserable fends, as 
to the sovereigns of the different lines, and the 
dates of their decease: a description of the 
different successions is so dry and intricate, 
that we should fiot be able to render it intelli- 
gible in the brief space to which our limits con- 
fine us. We must here content ourselves, there- 
fore, with only noticing the more illustrious 
descendants of the house of Guelph. The first 
noted character to whom we are led, in follow- 
ing the course of time, is Otho, who was 
prince 'of Grubenhagen in 1851. In his yoaCh 
he had been a knight of the Teutonic order, 
which he quitted to travel through France anil 
England. He subsequently entered into the ser- 
vice of the king of Bohemia, and fought under 
that sovereign at the battle of Creasy. MTe 
next find him at the head of the Guelphic amy 
in Italy, where he was renowned firom the 
brillancy of hift success against the Ghtbellinea, 


His courage was rewarded by the hand of Joan- 
na, queen of Naples; but this union liad a tra- 
gical termination; the count of Dnrrazzo, who 
laid claim to the Neapolitan succession, envious 
of the German intruder, excited a portion of 
the people to take up arms in his cause. After 
several contests with various success, the royal 
pair were taken prisoners, the queen strangled 
and the prince of Orubenhagen confined in the 
castle of Mlnorano, whence, however, he es- 
caped to Avignon. He subsequently returned 
to Naples, where he died in 1398. 

In the year 1400, Frederic, duke of Bruns- 
wick, was chosen emperor of Germany; hut 
before his coronation , he was murdered by the 
count of Waldeck , at the instigation of the 
archbishop of Mentz; and such was the lawless 
spirit of those times , that this atrocious deed 
was suffered to go unpunished. 

The Reformation found several of its most 
zealous supporters amongst the princes of the 
house of Brunswick: Ernest, second son of 
Henry, duke of Liineburg, was the immediate 
disciple of Luther, and two of his brothers also 
emhraced the reformed faith. But the other 
Guelphic princes, viz., Philip, duke of Gruben- 
hagen, Henry, duke of B^unswlck-Wolfenbuttel, 
and Erick, duke of Calenberg and Gottingen, 
were only excited by these conversions to at-- 
tach themselves more devotedly than before to 
the Catholic church. They refused to belie tbe 
ancient Guelphic devotion to Popish supremacy, 
and Henry, duke of Brunswick, became one of 
the most determined adversaries of the Refor- 
mation. All these princes were present at the 



diet at Worms, where Luther deff^nded bimself 
with memorable boldness before the emperor ; 
and it was Ernest of Brunswick^ who, after one 
of his most exhausting efforts of eloquence, or- 
dered that a can of beer should be brought to 
refresh him. The dukes of Luneburg' continued 
to support him in spite of the ban of the em- 
pire^ Indeed, resistance to the new doctrines 
seemed to favour their propagation in the North; 
never did they spread so rapidly as when they 
were proscribed. £ven the duke of Grubenha- 
gen, and Erick of Calenberg and Gottingen, 
were compelled, in the course of time, to to- 
lerate, and finally to profess them. The duke 
of Brunswick - Wolfenbuttel alone resisted the 
tide of Protestantism, and lived and died a sub- 
missive adherent to the Catholic creed. This 
remarkable prince was at the head of the Ca- 
tholic army, which was raised in 1537 to op- 
pose the Protestant princes ; he was several 
times defeated, and at last taken prisoner, with 
his son Victor, at Hockelem. He remained in 
confinement till 1547, when his adversaries re- 
ceived a terrible check at the battle of Miihl- 
berg. On his liberation he determined to prose- 
cute the religious war, but first marched against 
the predatory bands of the count of Mansfeld, 
who had invaded his territories; these he coin- 
pletely defeated, July 19, 1553, but lost In 
the combat two of bis sons, and Maurice of 
Saxony, his ally. In another victory which he 
obtained 8liortly afterwards, his eldest son was 
also slain; one child was now all that remain- 
ed to him , — Julius , who was low of stature 
and deformed, and whom he suspected of attach- 


ment to tlie Protestant cause. Still, though 
strongly indisposed, he was constrained to make 
him his heir, since the emperor refused to ac- 
knowledge Eitel, his favourite illegitimate son. 
In his old age, Henry's disposition seemed to 
become more pracific; he was, in a great mea- 
sure reconciled to his son, and ceased to. mani- 
fest violently his ancient antipathy to the Re- 
formation. This prince died in 1568. The beauti- 
ful Eva von Trott was his mistress, and by her 
he had seven iliegitime children. In order to 
keep his relation to her secret, he caused it 
to be spread abroad that she was dead . and 
attended a fictitious burial, in order to give foun- 
dation to the report; then, he r-emoved her it 
the castle of Stauffenburg, where she lived on 
the greatest seclusion. 

Meanwhile, the dukes of Luneburg showed 
themselves zealous Protestants, at home as 
well as in the camp, Luther's translation of the 
Scriptures they caused to be distributed through- 
out their dominions; and the Gospel was preach- 
ed to their subjects in the German language. 
The most celebrated of these ^ Ernest the Con- 
fessor, duke of Celle, the common ancestor of 
the existing branches of the Brunswick family, 
was particularly indefatigable in promoting the 
spiritual and temporal welfare of his subjects. 
He institated schools for the young, corrected the 
superstitious ceremonies of the church, and is- 
sued a code for the instruction of the clergy. 
But his^ physical frame did not correspond to 
the unwearied activity of his mind, and most 
aptly did his motto — Aiiis inserviendo me ipsum 
consumo — express his untimely fate;' for in 


568 KiMauoM OP hasovkh. 

his fortieth year> be presented nil tbe signs of 
old age. He died in 1547. 

Julius, who succeeded to tbe throne of Bruns- 
wick- Wolfenbuttel , had been, on account of 
his predilection for the Protestant cause, con- 
signed by his father, at an early age, to the 
care of the Catholic priests, who condemned 
him to perpetual imprisonment as an incorri- 
gible apostate; he escaped from confinement, 
however, and fled to Custrin, where he remain- 
ed till he was recalled home by his relenting 
parent. ' 

Immediately on mounting the throne, he es- 
tablished the Protestant religion, and with tha 
assistance of the must celebrated divines , com- 
posed the Corpus Doctrinoe Julii, wtch was in- 
tended to serve, in future, as a constant rule 
of faith in the dominions of Wolfenbitttel. 

This sovereign founded and endowed free- 
sqhools in his principal towns; repaired the 
roads at his own expenc&; rendered the river 
Ocker navigable by deepening its bed; and wor- 
ked to great advantage tbe mines of the Harz. 
He died, May 3, 1589, and was succeeded by 
his son, Henry Julius, one of the most learned 
men of his time. He was master of several 
languages, deeply versed in tbe sciences, and 
was perpetual rector of his own university of 
Ht'lmstadt. Tbe city of Brunswick, which Lad 
lung been received into the Hanseatic league, 
bad several times profited by the weakness and 
divisions of the Guelphic princes, so far as to, 
establish a kind of independence; and its tur- 
bulent citizens so insulted Henry Julius, that 
he was obliged to lay siege to tlie place, whk'h 


bad nearly been bron^lit to surrender, when 
liis. army was surprised and dispersed by a noc<^ 
tamiil attack of bis adversaries. He, however, 
soon raised a second body of troops, blockaded 
the town agrain, and inundated it, by diverting 
the Ocker from its channel; still the town per- 
severed in its rebellion, and the dake was ob- 
liged to raise the siege. 

The Branswickers were now no longer con- 
tented to remain on the defensive, and their 
mercenaries proceeded to ravage the territories 
of the duke ; they even formed fui ambuscade 
for the purpose, of taking him prisoner. They 
were now put under the ban of the empire, the 
execution of which was intrusted to the duke, 
who, however, so managed the matter as to 
arrange their differences without proceeding to 
extremities. This prince died July 20, 1613. 

Henry Julius was succeeded b)' his son, Fre- 
deric Ulrick, who, together with his brother 
Christian, bishop of Halberstadt, figures in the 
history of the Thirty Years' War. The bishop 
Joined the celebrated count of Mansfeld, and took 
the field against the Catholics; in 1633, howe- 
ver, they separated, and the former, whilst msir- 
ching to Darmstadt, was overtaken, and defeat- 
ed, at Hoechst, near Frankfort, by the Catholic 
general, Tilly. At Darmstadt, to which place he 
escaped with, his cavalry, he was. rejoined by 
Mansfeld, and the two adventurers then marched 
into the Netherlands, where they fought against 
the Spaniards the battle of Fleurus , at which 
Christian lost an arm. 

Shortly afkerwards, he visited England, and 
quiekly succeeded in convincing -James I. of tho 


neceiiaity of rapporthngr Ui? drocipiiig fwtiwmen of 
tbe ProtestaBt tou^e ia Geonfuty, And of assis^ 
tui9 tbo e}04tor-palatiii«, its ctempion, who. had 
married the Prineesa Blijeabeth Sioart. A body 
of JSnglish troops was -aiccordiiigLy. aent over to 
the north of Oermanyy and Christian waa made 
one of' its oommataders. 

By this time^ the Catholic gonerala^ THly ami 
'WaHeBNtoini had invaded (he BrunswtdL territo- 
ries, and mado (beiaseives mastoKS of Oidendorf 
aad Cal«itberg« Bfaosfeld was defeated oa ihe 
SIbo, by Wallenatein, and died shortly after** 
wards> a waa^rer amoiifiist tho Bohemian moun- 
tains; bat amidst tt^eae misfortanea, Ghnstian'a 
coaatanoy never w<avered; he swore never to 
lay 4own his arms till the retiim of ihe «lectar»> 
yalatineto his former posaessioaa ; ho roeoaqiMr* 
ed G6ttiagen, Nordheim, and Mhtden, hot Jhis 
active career was arrested by a fever, wlUch 
terminated in bis death, Jaly 6, 1630» when he 
was little BMMre than twenlj-eeven y«ars of a«p. 
' The Catholics were now erety where sucoeaa- 
fttl nntii the avpeapanee of Gnatavna Adolphna) 
whom the Princes of Bninawick were ameoipst 
the friA to join/ and to whom they Aiitbfally 
adhered throagh every variety af fertnne. The 
battle of Ijiftzen decided the war at length fai 
their lavonr. . 

Abant this time, Aagustaa of DannehBiv, grand- 
aon ef Ernest the Confeaaor, greatly disttagniBh*- 
ed himself; he was an ardent loviir and iiatron 
of acienee; lie himpelf pobliahed aoreral woika 
under the name of Gustavns Sfdenna: and lie 
i^oanded the nnlveisjty •€ Wellienhattal. Be had 
travelled mwA in his yenth, and hta mafennv 

KIDHMMMI or HANftVSfl. &71 

y«8rs be devoted to stady. His son Aatbony 
Ulrick, doke of Wolfenbuttel, was also celedra* 
ted fpr hki learning, and is. nambered amtHigst 
the bards of the Silesian school of poetry. His 
novels, ''Aramena," in five vols., and ^'Octavia," 
in six vols., are interesUng on aecount of tli« 
numerous anecdotes tliey contalA of contenipo« 
rary courts. In his seventy^eveath year, this 
prince deserted to the Catholic religion. His 
subjects did not reap those advantages from bis 
government which they bad aright to expect from 
his talMits; he had an unfortunate predilection 
for French manners,. and was inclined to sple** 
did extravagance. 

In 1668, Ernest Angustns, who was after- 
wards created elector of Hanover, married Sophia, 
youngest danghter of the elector-palatine and'«f 
the Princess Slizabeth Stuart; this celebrated wo- 
man was born at the Hague, in 1630, and was 
the favourite of her widowed mother. Hmest 
Augustus enlarged and beautified his capital^ 
HaMover, and built the p(ilace of HerrealMuseii. 
Vn/ortittiately, from the mania which at that 
time prevailed for imitating the French, the elen* 
toral court manifested a too decided tendency 
to dissipation and extravagaaee ; which, howe^ 
vor, the Princess Sophia was zealous in coun* 
tevacting, and from her excellent mofhl charao- 
tor and inteUectual acquirements, she largely 
sttoceeded. She did not, however, escape (he 
sorrow which such a state of addety brings Into 
the doaestic cir«ie. Her san^ Croorge L«uis» who 
had. married bis eousin of Colle, for political 
purposes, devoted <o her but little of hi9 aflfec*- 
tion, and it was in vain tliat the electress sot 


tbe neglected wife an example of patience and 
forbearance. Her brother-in-law, Phiifp, was tbe 
confidant of her griefs, and one of his friends, Coant 
Koenigsmark , who sometimes saw her In his 
8ociet}% boasted of possessing a share of her 
alTeetions. Whether he acted subsequently, as 
.the agent of Philip, or whether he was himself 
the lover of the duchess, is not exactly known. 
Certain it is, that once, at least, he was ad- 
mitted to the chamber of the latter at a very- 
unseasonable hour: George Louis had been In- 
formed of the visit, and he posted soldiers at 
the door, who destroyed the count on his lea- 
ving the apartment of the princess. Th« 'latter 
was afterwards confined, for the remainder of 
her life, at the castle of Dahlen, which she only 
left, at rare intervals, to visit her parentsr at 
Celle. George Louis succeeded to the throne 
in 1698. 

In 1701^ the British parliament declared, that 
the electi'ess Sophia, grand daughter of James L, 
was heiress to the British crown, and the earl 
of Macclesfield announced the passing of the Act 
of' Succession, to the princess, at Hanover. 

Iti the war of the Spanish succession, the elec- 
tor of Hanover joined the English against the 
French, and his brother Maximilian commanded 
Marlborough's cavalry at Blenheim. GHiortly af- 
terwards, the elector himself was appointed ge- 
neral of the imperial' army, and at its head un- 
dertook a campaign against the FremA, whom 
he surprised and defeated, at OflTenbacb, Sept. %^y 
1.707. But to lead the old imperial army was & 
thankless office; men of dlflTerent countries, fight- 
ing for a cause which did not interest them per- 


soiia|ly« could not be broaght to act zealously, 
or in unison; .besides, the different states were 
slow in sending tlieir contingents, and negligent 
in furnisbing supplies. Accordingly, the elector 
resigned the command, auid returned to Hanover, 
which he left four years afterwards, to ascend 
the British throne. 

The last days of the electress Sophia were 
troubled by the cabals at the court of Queen 
Anne, and by the aversion of the latter, who 
declined a visit from her grandson Cufterwards 
George 11.)) and affected to reprove her ambi- 
tion. This excellent princess and admirable wo- 
man died June 8,. 1714, a short time only before 
the accession of her son, George Louis, to the 
throne of Great Britain, which took place August 
1, 1714. 

George I. was far from neglecting the inte- 
rests of the electorate of Hanover; on the con- 
trary, it was a common accusation against him 
in England, that he had them too much at 
heart. In 1715, he concladed a treaty with Den- 
mark, by virtue of which the duchies of Bremen 
and Verden were definitively ceded to Hanover, 
In consideration of a certain equivalent in money. 
In the same year, in his electoral capacity, he 
declared war against Sweden; but the parties 
did not come to arms, and a treaty of peace 
was concluded between them, 1720. This sove- 
reign died at Hanover in 1727 ; he left two chil- 
dren, George, who succeeded him on the throne, 
and a daughter, married to Frederic William, 
king of Prussia. 

The acces.<(ion of the house of Hanover to 
the throne of Great Britain, was the commence- 



ment of a new and flourishing »ra for the elec- 
torate; a plurality of courts was no longer ne- 
cessary; the country was burdened by ho private 
debts of the sovereign; on the contrary, the 
greater part of the revenue from the domains 
was now devoted to the support, of the army, 
and of the other institutions of the country. Ta- 
xes were never imposed without the consent of 
the states-general, which were composed of pre- 
lates, of the equestrian order, of nobles, and of 
magistrates, who represented the towns. 

George II. succeeded his father in 1727: no 
war disturbed the first years of his reign, which 
were devoted in Hanover to improvements in the 
administration, and in the department of' public 
instruction. Several public schools sprung into 
existence and in 1737, by the advice of his 
minister Munchhausen , he founded the university 
of Gdttingen, the celebrity of which, daring the 
last fifty years of the eighteenth century, re- 
flected no little splendour on the government 
whose munificence had given it birth. 
• George II. took an active part in the first 
war which resulted from the invasion of Silesia 
by Frederic the Great; he espoused the cause 
of Maria Theresa; and by gaining the battle of 
Dettingen in 1743, contributed not a little to 
bring about a favourable termination of the con- 
test, which, however, did not cease till 1748. 
In the next war which ensued, having been in- 
sulted by Austria and France, he took part 
against those powers, and entered into an al- 
liance with the Prussian king. The duke of 
Cumberland, known ail over Europe as th^ hero 
of CuUoden, was >sent to take the command of 


the Hanoverian forces; bat be disappoiDted tlie 
hopes which where generally entertained of his 
success: he was attacked at Hastenbeck, and 
from some unaccountable precaution sounded a 
retreat before the battle waa decided; so that 
the French, under the marquis D'Estr^es, ob- 
tained an easy victory, and pursued him to 
take advantage of it. He shortly afterwards 
signed the disgraceful convention of Kloster Se- 
vern, by virtue of which, his soldiers laid down 
their arms, and Hanover remained in the pos- 
session of Richelieu, who had succeeded D'Es- 
trdes in the command of the French. Though 
this convention was subject to the ratification 
of England, which it, of course, did not receive, 
its immediate elTects were tantamount to a com- 
plete conquest of Hanover, which, with all 
Westphalia , fell a prey to the avarice of Ri- 
chelieu and the licentiousness of his soldiers; 
the iormer was called by his men. Father Plun- 
der, and they might very justly be denominated 
his sons. The Pavilion de Hanovre, which was 
erected on the Boulevards at Paris, received a 
part of the spoils, and served to commemorate 
the indignities of this worthless conu»aign. The 
triumph of the French, however, was of very 
short duration; on the 5th of November, 1757, 
they were completely defeated by the Prussians 
at Rossbach; and when Prince Ferdinand of 
Brunswick took the field against them in Hano- 
ver, they were compelled to evacuate that coun- 
try more precipitately than they had entered it. 
After this the war was carried on with various 
success; but the French never again obtained 
a permanent footing in the electorate ; at length. 


tti« peftce of Hubeitsbttrg in 1763, restored tran- 
quillity to Earope, without ttlterfng materiall)- 
the extent of territory of any of the belligerent 

Qeorge II. died before the termination of the 
war, October 35, 1760; but it was vigorous- 
ly jprosecuted by his grandson and successor, 
George III. 

During the thirty years which succeeded the 
Seven Years' War, Hanover, in common with 
the rest of Northern Germany, was not tardy 
in availing herself of the peace which Was un- 
disturbed during the whole of that period. The 
trade from England and America, through the 
Hanse Towns and the electorate to the south of 
Germany, flourished unremittingly till the time 
of the French war and blockade, when it at- 
tained a height, which had never before been 
even anticipated. A considerable portion \>f waste 
^ land was now brought under cultivation ; -' the 
population increased at a rapid rate; and public 
Instruction kept pace with industry and opulence. 
Hanover was in this flourishing condition on 
the breaking out of the revolution in fYanre: 
against which power its soldiers bore arms in 
all the campaigns after 1793: they were paid 
by England, and thus, a part of the burdens of 
war was renioved from the shoulders of the 
Hanoverians. In IdOl, in consequence of a 
misunderstanding between England and Prussia, 
the latter invaded and occupied Hanover, whirh, 
liowever , she was quickly compelled to restore 
to its legitimate government, though she retain- 
ed Hildesheim, Corve}', and Hdxter: Hanover 
was partially indemnified by the acquisition of 

KlNeirOHf OP HANOTRR^ 677 

Omabriick. On tfiift re-«ommefieemefit «f the war 
aiBraiiist France, Napoleon ordered one of li}.<« 
generals, Mortier, to frrrade the eler^torate: 
When after a few skirmisrheft , the Hanoverian 
army retreated beyond the Elbe, and its gene- 
rals concluded the ignoble convention of Art* 
leifbnrg, Joly 5, 1803, by virtue of which the^' 
were to disband their troops, and eonslgn the 
electorate ancondttionally to the discretion of 
the invaders. TIte court and ministers hatf n\^ 
ready iled; and Mortler now appointed a eoni> 
mission for the execution of his- mandates. The 
imposts alone , during the Urst half-year of the 
Ihrench goTernment, amoimted to four fflilftott<i 
and a half of dollars; and a regular system of 
exaction was pursued both under Mortier) and 
his successor, Bernadotte, (ill, in 1806, (lie 
country was ceded by the French to Prussia, 
Which promised to the Hanoverians 'Uhat pro- 
tection and securit.> for which they now looked 
in vain to the family of Brunswick. '* Bat this 
new arrangement was of verj- brief duration; 
for when the army of Prussia was completely 
defeated at Jena, October 14, 1806, it was de- 
prived of Hanover, which Was now divided into 
two parts, one of which was commanded by a 
Ifrench governor- general, and tire other incor- 
porated with the new kingdom of Westphalia. 
To this latter it was afterwards^ entirely an- 
nexed, la 1810; except that part lyfng north of 
the Elb(», which Was made htto a department 
of the French empire. 

Vnder Jeronte, the king of Wesrfpftatla, 18,000 
troops Were levied In Hanover, for the senire 
of the French emperor; amongst whom were 



3000 boys, between the ages of ten and four- 
teen.' From 1803 to 1808, the French aaded 
five millions to the Hanoverian publio debt. It 
is needless to say that the new government was 
cordially detested by th^ people, who were amongst 
the first to commence the great Clerinan libera- 
tion-war. Early in 1813, volunteers, assembled 
on the Lower Elbe, ai^d were indefatigable in 
attacking and harassing the French. On Sep- 
tember 30, of the same year, Jerome fled from 
Hanover, which Bernadotte and the victorious 
allies entered on the 4th of November. Adol- 
phiis, duke of Cambridge, was now proclaimed 
governor-general of the electorate, which was 
soon afterwards raised to the rank of a king- 
dom, and the former ministers were re-instated 
in their respective offices. The greater part of 
the seignorial courts of Justice were not re-es- 
tablished, and the most obnoxious, of the taxes 
which had been imposed by the French, were 
instantly abolished. 

According to an edict of 1814, the deputies 
were, no. longer to form provincial states-gene- 
ral, but were to be united into one body^ which 
svas composed of ten deputies of the clergj', 
forty-three of the nobility, twenty-nine of the 
towns, and three of the holders of seignorial 
estates. Though the nobles thus formed the 
majority of the representatives, their privileges 
were very much curtailed; they were np longer 
exempt from taxation, and had now to serve 
in the army like other subjects of the state. 
The representative chamber, above-mentioned, 
was only provisional, and ceased to exist In 1819, 
when a new constitution was issued under a 


KiNflDOM OP hanovrh. 579 

patent ojf the Prince Regent, who, in the succeed- 
ing year, ascended the tiirones of Great Britain 
and Hanover, as George IV. By virtue of tiiis 
constitution, the old proyincial diets were again 
called into existence, and the general diet for- 
med two chambers. 

In the years 1828 and 1829, the distress and 
discontent which had for some time prevailed in 
some quarters in the kingdom of Hanover in- 
creased to such a pitch that a manifestation of 
some sort appeared imminent. The popular com- 
plaints were of various kinds, and had their 
rise chiefly in inevitable circumstances: the com- 
merce between the north and south of Germany 
to which the war had given great importance, 
began to droop at the peace; prices became gra- 
dually low, and gain less easy ; the great temp- 
tation to smuggle, which was furnished by Na- 
poleon's iiscal regulations, no longer existed; 
moreover, the goyemment of the restoration fur- 
nished the agitators with pretexts for discon^ 
tent, in adhering to the ancient routine of ad- 

Be this as it may,, on the 8th of January, 
1831, about half a year after the accession of 
William IV., an insurrection broke out at'Gdt- 
tingen of the citizens and students. In spite of 
the garrison and of the academical senate. The 
rebel leaders issued a proclamation, enjoining 
their followers to remain armed in the cause of 
peace and order; a common-council was form^ 
6f dtiaens, to deliberate on the present posture 
of atrUrs; but the peculiar characteristic of this 
enterprise was, that it was intended to prose- 
cute it without violent means. It was expected 

680 KiNaDVM or hanovkh. 

thafc the govecnmem would sabmit to tke revo- 
lution, and not combat it: aceerdingrly, the in- 
surgents remained qoite inactive, and whilst 
they. were in arms against the government, aboMK 
ded in protestations of their loyalty and mode- 
ration. This mighty commotion had a very 1»- 
dicroKS termination: the rebels do not seem to 
^ave wished to catch even a glimpse of their 
enemies; and when, on the 16th of January, 
General Von Dem Bossche entered the town at 
the head of 8000 men, most of the ringleaders 
had escaped, and on the following day tnuKfitfl- 
U!y was foiiy re-established. 

On the 36tli of September, 1833, a new cen- 
stHutioa for the kingdom of Hanever was rati- 
fied in London by King WiUlam IV. Its priii- 
cipal provisions were as follows : — the provln- 
eiat. diets were again acknowledged; the gene- 
ral diet was composed of two chambers, of whM 
the first eeasisted of the princes ef the royii' 
faadly,. of several mediatized prtacea and other 
neMemen, of prelates^ of two of the ehief Pr»-> 
testant rlergj^, of hereditary members named hy 
the eoverelgn, of thirty-ive deputies of Che nob- 
les, and of four persons appotaited by tsttm king. 
The second chamber consisted of three depatlen 
of religfomi endowmentsy of whom two were lo 
l»e Protestant clergymen; of three memticm ap^ 
pointed by the sovereign, on account of Oie g»- 
ncra^ monasterial fnml: of a deputy of tlie ani* 
verstty, GdUiagen; of two from iho PiolesCmit 
coilslaloriea; of one from the cathedral chapter 
at HOdesheim; of thirty-seven fr&n dWsront 
towns; and of thirty-eight from the peamtati; 

1UM6II0M 0¥ HANOVKH. 581 

The deputies received, the sum of three dol- 
lars diiily/or their maintenance; they were entit- 
led to this sum only when they actually took 
their seats. The total amount of this allowance 
to the deputies was so much as 60,000 dollars 

We cannot conclude jthis sketch of the histo- 
ry of Hanover, without adverting to an event, 
which is not as yet sufficiently developed to ad- 
mit of' substantial comment, — namely the chan-- 
ge in the constitution. 

'Oa bis accession to the throne CJune 1837) 
king Ernest declared to his people that he would 
take into consideration the legality and fitness of 
the constitution introduced in 1833 by his bro- 
ther muiam IV, and the assembly of the sta- 
tes was dissoh'ed in consequence. In Novem- 
ber of the same year, the king issued a patent 
in which he stated that ^e could not recognise 
the constitution of 1833, as it was contrary to 
his agnatic rights, and in which he announced 
that a new constitution was to be laid before 
the assembly of the states. When the States 
met, early in 1838, several members of the lowt 
house entered their protest against the King's 
abolition of the constitution of 1833, insisting 
upon his obligation to uphold, and abide by, the 
fundamental law introduced with the consent 
and cooperation of his predecessor. In conse- 
quence of the strong opposition wl|ich manifes-^ 
ted itself in the chamber of deputies against 
any- new constitution, the government withdrew 
the bill, and proposed the substitution of the'one 
of 1819, granted by George IV, fur (hat of 1833, 
and dissolved the assembly of the states, it 


iii«t ;agaiu in March 1839 , when, after a fort- 
night's delay, it was found that the premedita- 
ted absence of a certain nnmber of members of 
the low^r house, prevented any bussiness of im- 
portance being entered into. The king was therefore 
obliged to prorogue the diet anew, and he order- 
ed all the boroughs and corporations, whose 
representatives had not appeared in the house, 
to proceed to new elections. With the excepti- 
•on of a very few, those new elections have 
been declined. The result of this manoenveriog 
on the part of the opposition cannot easily be 

Just as we are going to press, a new pro- 
clamation of H. M. reaches us, by which a 
new general assembly of the States is ordered 
to take place. May 28th, 1839. Let us hope 
that the excitement which lias prevailed for some 
time in the kingdom , will . soon subside , ' and 
that the wonted loyalty to the sovereign will 
then again manifest itself in its original degree 
of warmth. 

As the crown of Hanover only, devolves upon 
male heirs, it Is now no longer an appendage to 
the sovereign of Great Britain. It is satisfactory, 
now that the connexion is dissolved, to recol- 
lect tliat it has been an honourable one on both 
sides. The British sovereigns, in whose number 
the late excellent and beloved vicero)*, the duke 
of Cambridge, especially de8er\-es to be included, 
have ruled Hanover with a truly paternal spi- 
rit, ^— not appropriating' its revenue to their 
own gratification, not conferring lift posts upon 
foreigners; — while the Hanoverians have re- 
quited them with a filial attachment and have 
fought in their cause with courage and zeal. 

Tlie ruUuK funliy of HiBOvmr la of Uie Pr*~ 
Intaiit religlDD. The present king is Krneat An- 
gDBlUB, barn June 6, 1771; be married. Hay 29, 
1615, Frederlks, princeaa of HecUenbDTS-Stre- 
lltz, lUe widow of tbe prince of Bolms, by whoB 
keha» one son, Prince George, bom May 27, 1819. 

Tbe foIlDwlng la a ataliatlMl view of Ue pro- 
vince* of Hanover, and of Uelr population. 

835, Ibere we 

re 56,070 birll 

IS, 37,753 

and 13,088 in 


principal lowr 

la are, Banovi 

>, (2fi,80O 

Inbabltanta) , Hlldeabeini ci3,SO0], I.uneburg 
C12,a00), Emden (12,000), Osnabnick (IJ.SOO], 
esttlngen CI0,909] , Celle CI0,300}, Clauatlial 
C66593, fioBlar C7164), I.eer (0340), Bamela 
(5750), Norden (5000), Stade (5500), Elni- 
tmli (5100). 

Tlie liibabitaiita , witli the exception of tba 
Jews, are all Germana. Wllb respect to religion. 



(bey «r& dividea si3 ftllows; — 1,341^,850 are 
Lutheraiui, 2X0,000 are Catholics, 105,000 are 
of tJUe Heforitte<l eliurcb, 1850 are Hermliutea 
and Menuonites, and 12,300 are Jews. 

There are 10 Lutheran superintendant gene** 
ral-ships, 94 Lutheran and Reformed in8|»ec|;oiw 
Bhip-^, 034 Lutheran and 114 Reformed congre- 
gations. There Is 1 Catholic bishop, 143 Ca* 
thQlic congregations, 3 Mennonite and 1 Herrn* 
hates places of worlrhfp , and 9 Lutheran reli-i 
gious fundattons for men, and 18 for women. 

Tite educational- institution« are, the univer- 
Hity of 6dttlngen, at which there were 725 stu- 
dents in 1838; an academy for noblemen, a pe- 
dagogium, 16 g>Bifla8ium8, 20 mi«Mie schools, 

5 seminaries, 1 institution for the deaf and 
dumb, 1 school of surgery, 2 veterinary schools, 

6 schools of midwifery, and 3561 town and 
country schools. 

At the end of 1826, there were 3436 teachers 
in the elementary schools, of whom 3085 were 
Protestants, and 341 Catholics; the number of 
children instmcted was 214,524, who, in the 
different provinces, were in the following rela- 
tion to the teachers: 

I« Aurich, tliere wtre 20,159 scbolars and 295 teachers. 



46,21 1 























There are on the whole 13 prisons and hou- 
ses of correction of dilferent Kinds. 


The principal taxes in the kiiigfdoin of Hano- 
ver amounted formerJy annaally) to- 5,361,609 
dollars, of wliicfi 2,335,009 were furnished by 
the royal chests, 3,006,600 by the land-chests. 
The revenue from the domains was 1,194,6441 
doUars, from mines and salt-works 117,000 dol- 
lars, from the customs 569,800 dollars, from 
the post-office 142,303 dollars, from the gene- 
ral chest 70,800 dollars, from the general sala- 
ry-chest 1 12,000 dollars, flrom the land-tax chest 
and taxes 2,965,066 dollars; the immediate re- 
venue from the land-tax che.«t was 20,000 dol- 
lars, and of the crown-endowment 150,000 dol- 
lars. The collective expenditure in the princi- 
pal departments of the government amoanted to 
5,390,800 dollars annually,, of which 2,373,490 
were furnished by the royal chest, and 3,017,310 
by the land-chests. The expenditure for the 
cabinet-ministry was 90,950 dollars, for the Ger- 
man chancery in Liondon 14,490 dollars, for the 
land-drosteis 104,500 dollars, for the bailKvicks 
513,850 dollars, for the ministry of foreign af- 
fairs 70,000 dollars, for the ministry at war 
1,657,950 dollars, for the ministry of jjistlee 
215,600 dollars, fbr the ministry of public in- 
struction and ecclesiastical affairs 97,650 dollars, 
for the ministry of the interior 651,000 dollars, 
fik that of commerce 41,300 dollars, for that 
^f finance, 208,000 dollars, for the Pa8»iv^at 
144,000 dollars, for pensions 144,000 doMarM, 
for expenses about tq cease '198,000 dollarn. 

In April 1837, the ministry submitted to the 
chambers, tljte accounts of the year 1835 — 1830, 
leaving a surplus of 446,038 dollar&^, those of 
the current year 1836 — 1837 with a surplus of 
24;!^566 doUars and the budget for the year 1837— 


1838, the receipts of which were estimated at 
6,093,978 dollars and the expenUititre at 6,063,566 

A decrease of 36,000 dollars has taken pmee 
during the last year in the amount of interest 
of the public debt. Prom January 1836 to June 
1837, 2,685,268 dollars of stock have been with- 
drawn from circulation by the sinking fund. Ub- 
belahde, in his work on the finances of Hano- 
ver, states the amount of the public debt to be 
15,691,283 dollars. 

We cannot pass over in silence that one of 
the great objects of the repeal of the consti- 
tution of 1833, was to separate again the ad- 
ministration of the royal chests from the land 
chests, which had been merged, with the con- 
sent of WiUiam IV, the present King claiming 
the royal domains as property belonging to the 
royal family exclusively, while part of their 
produce was formerly applied to the expenses 
of the state. 

The contingent to the army of the confede- 
racy is 13,054 men. 

The composition of the «rmy is as follows: — 

Men. Horses. 

First military Staff 15 

Two companies of Pioneers and 

Pontonniers 1^® 

Two horse companies and two 
foot battalions of Infantry, 
and one company of Workmen 1868 275 

Bight regiments of Cavalry twen- 
ty-four squadrons 8840 2444 

Fourteen battalions of Infantry 15,580 

Total 20,501 2719 


According to the new organisation of the ar- 
my, its yearly cost amounts to 1,201)500 dol- 
lars, which is 140,058 dollars less than formerly. 

The government has lately miide a material 
alteration in the institations for military instmc- 
tion. The general academy of state, the engi- 
neer and artillery school , as also the cavalry 
school, are to be combined in a military acade- 
my, which is to be erected at Hanover, and 
which is destined for officers of all arms. 

The average number of inhabitants to the squa- 
re mile in the kingdom of Hanover is 3365; 
but in the province of Ltineburg there are only 
two-thirds of that number, and in that of Stade 
only four-fifths. The duchy of Aremberg-Mep- 
pen, too, comprehending SO^f, square miles, does 
not contain more than 48,816 inhabitants. These 
thinly populated districts form the largest plain, 
and greater hair of the kingdom. The district 
of East Friesland contains 3905 inhabitants per 
square hiile. Osnabrdck is very unequally popu- 
lated, in some parts there not being more ihaii 
^1^2 of the average number of inhabitants, in 
others, 7300 per square mile; for the .entire 
province the number is 3167. The number for 
the province of Hanover, notwithstanding that 
it contains the capital, is not higher than 3680. 
In the principality of Hildesheim there are 4806; 
in that of Grubenhagen 4954 ; and in the neigh- 
bouring Harz only 3903 inhabitants per square 

rn the mining-districts, '^/^oo of the popula- 
tldn live In towns; ^^f,oo In Hildesheim; "/x^^ 
in Aurlch ; "(,oc *" Hanover; ^\oo in liUneburg; 

fioo i" Osnabruck, arid only ^/j^g in Stade. Thus 



-Uie inliabUsints of towns <to not amount to quite 
a sixtd of tbe entire mass. 

Tbe kingdom comprehends (4,589,918 Calen" 
^erp Morgens, or acres, of wliicli 8,075, 18d are 
laid out in arable land, nieadows, i;ardens, and 
WoodH, leaving 6,514,613 morgens for commons, 
nncultivatad lieathSy moors ^ lakes, rivers and 

Tlie cultivated land, inclading the woods, ia 
in the AOIowing proportion ^ $hs whole tetri-i 
tory, in tlie different provinces: in Hanover it 
amounts to ^^jioo) ^ Hildesbeim to ^^J^^^; in 
iiuneburg to * fipo? in Stade to ^/jooj ^ Osna- 
Vruck tp ^^/joo* *"* Aurlch to '*/,oo; and in th^ 
9arz to ^\^. 

In this calculation, the commons, on which, 
during the summer, 641)8331 cows are, in a great 
measure, Kept, are not reckoned as cultivated 

Of grass, arable, and garden-land, the pro-r 
portion to each inhabitant is, in the Harz, half 
a morgen; in Hanover S^f^,^ morgens; in Hildesi 
helm 2^/,^; in Luneburg 4*°*/,^6; in Stado 
4'°li2o; »n Osnabriick:^"!^^^,; and inAurich 4 '^j^,,,; 
thus on an average there are ^^\^ morgens 
of such land to each inhabitant, and of cultiva-v 
vated nearly nine mojrgens^ 

0f the entire cultivated territory, Including 
the woods, 63^|^^ per cent belongs to farmers; 
^Vio P^^ c^^' ^^ ^^^ possessors of fiefs and allodi- 
al estates; i*^}^^ per cent, to churches and schools ; 
y^\o per cent, to the crown; 9**/^^ per cent, 
lo exchequers and parishes; and. to the monas-« 
lerial exch»?HUer (^Klos^rhamtker) ^/^^^ per cent. 


Tii^re are in Hanover 366»289 hmded proprie- 
tors, and ai)out nineteen timea as many niurgena 
of grass, garden, and arable land. 

Tlie exports are chiefly of coin andmetala; in 
1790, 8837 cwt. of lead was esfporC^d ; in 1832, 
70,744 cwt. In 1832, were also exported 9521 
cwt. of bones, and 3657 of oil-cake. 

The ioimeuaeiy increased importation of coffee 
is worthy of notice. In 1732, 500 lbs. only 
were sent Arom Bremen into Hanover; and in 
1832 as much as 870,000 lbs. In 1834, were 
imported 50,000 cwt. of coffee, .50,000 cwt. of 
raw sugar, 42,te7 cwt. of tobacco-leaves, and 
11,736 cwt. of manufactured goods. It has been 
calculated that Hanover annually imports mer- 
chandise of the value of 8,000,000 of dollars. 

The number of ships bearing the Hanoverian 
flag has increased considerably of late years. 
On the coast of East Friesland, from 1825 to 
1836, were built 165 vessels of from 20 to 
more than 100 lasts, in 1835 alone, 45 large 
vessels were built. The province of Bremen 
witli Hadeln bad only two or three vessels in 
1793; but in 1834 it had 54 ships of fr^m 20 
to more than 100 lasts. In 1828, 35 Hanove- 
rian ships of more than 20 lasts, and 121 of 
less, entered the port of Hamburg; in 1835, 70 
of more, And 208 of less than 20 lasts. 

The export^rtrade is principally cnrried on by 
sea, excepting that ip horses, oxen, Kome kinds 
of linen and salt. The coalmines produce about 
2,500,000 cubic feet of coal annually. 



In 1820; the number 

Of wood-merch%nt8 was 
Of shopkeepers . . . 

Of corn-dealers . . 
Of dealers in linen . 
Of dealers in wool . 
Of dealers in cattle . 


In 1834, 111,119 pieces of linen, of the va- 
lue of 775,326 dollais, were exported from Ha- 
nover by way of Bremen. 

The number of factor}- workmen , properly so 
called, does not amount to more than 18,697; 
of whom, in 1824, 7026 were cloth- weavers. 

On the whole, those engaged in trade amount 
to ^jj3 of the inhabitants of towns, and '1^, 
of those of the country; they consist of 25,0^ 
families residing in towns, and 66,677 resi- 
ding in the country^. 

The northern part of the kingdom of Hanover 
is divided into the Geedtland and the Marsch- 
land: the former is either sand, covered witb 
heath or furze, as in the principality of Lune- 
burg, ^c, or low moor, as in tbe duchy of 
Bremen. The marsby country lies in the direc- 
tion of Hadeln, Kehdingen, Ac. These districts 
are only preserved artificially from the encroach- 
ments of the sea. There are few hills in 

^ Fronf Marcard's work, ''^ar Beurtlieiluag dM N»- 
ttonal-WoiilaUndes^ des Handels und der Gewerba im 
K^nigreiclie Hannover." — Hannovar, 1886. 


the North of Hanover; hut in the South it 19 
extremely mountainons. Many parts of Hanover 
abound in oxen of an excellent description: in 
1820, there were in East Friesland alone 90,000 
cows, and 50,000 oxen' and steers. The same 
province is celebrated for its fine breed of hor- 
ses, of which 5000 are exported annually to 
Italy. In the Harz, there are 60,000 goats, and 
also wolves, foxes, badgers, and wild cats. The 
village's contain 60,000 bee-hives, which, -when 
the sweetbroom is in flower, are removed to, and 
tended on the heaths. There is plenty of corn; 
but of fruit, except in some places cherries auid 
apples, Very little. 20,000 rix-dollars'' worth -of 
bilberries are annually sent to Hamburg for the 
colouring of red wine. In East Friesland 6000 
men are continually employed in digging and 
carrying turf. The chief mineral products of 
Hanover are, pit-salt, C329,055 cwt. annually), 
saltpetre, coal, sulphur, marble, alabaster, iron, 
lead, copper, silver, gold Cin very small quan- 
tity), zinc, arsenic, and cobalt. 
. The kingdo;n of Hanover is not celebrated for 
its manufacturer, of which the principal are of 
cloth, tobacco, soup, cotton and iron-wares, at 
Hanover, and Mindeu; of linen, at Luneburg, 
Bremen, ^c. ; of sail-cloth, at Scharmbeck; of 
rope-work, at Markhausen; of lace, at Liebe- 
nau, Av,.] of hats, at Minden, Osnabruck, ^c; 
and at various other places, of silks, leather, 
gloves, parchment, paper, wax, sugar, and oil. 
It is calculated that goods are annually manu- 
factured in the kingdom of Hanover to the va- 
lue of 6,000,000 rix-dollars. ' 


The Hanoverians are for the moMt part of 
8axou origin. In tlie Nurth-Westeru provinces, 
liowever, there are Frieslanders ; near Minden, 
some descendants, of the Franks; Thuringians 
in the county of Hohenstein; Vandals on the 
Middle Blbe, and a few descendants of French 
refugees. They are, in general, strong and 
well-hotlt, persevering 4uid industrious. In many 
parts there are peasants possessed of conside- 
rable, property > who display no small portion of 
pride, and who consider it discreditable to in- 
termarry with families poorer' than themselves. 
There are tracts of country in the North, bor- 
dejring on the Kms and Hase, where many of 
the inhabitants have never seen a town, and 
are very boorish and uncommunicative: the pea- 
sant of Southern Hanover is much better uistrucr 
ted and more sociable. Marriages and christe- 
nings are occasions of great feasting throughout 
the country. The Hanoverian agriculturists can 
scarcely be divided into different classes, being 
most of them both .fanners and laboorera; the 
richer amongst them indulge in very few luxu- 
ries, except in the duchy of Bremen, and Ha- 
deln, where mahogany furniture is often found 
in their houses, and where they sometimes tra- 
vel, drawn by four beautiful Holstein horses. In 
these last-mentioned districts, the country-people 
are very hospitable and generous: they are aisa 
very tenacious of their rights, and strict obser- 
vers of ancient customs. Beer is their favourite 
beverage, but- many have wine in . their cellars. 
They are fond of vegetables, but potatoes are. 
more eaten in the towns than in the eonutry. 

KIN«I>«IM or IIAN9VKH. 603 

Tbe iiaiioiml fttshes are smokea goose, lieef »ii4 
rftifitnSy HiiU pork and dried fruit. 

TJie aduinistranoii of Justice in tlie kingdom 
of Hanover is vested in a supreme court of ap« 
peal, composed of a president, two vice-presi- 
dents, and elgtateen counciilocs, of wliom, six 
are nominated by the king, and tlie rest by tiis 
provinces; in seven chanceries of justice, and 
finaiiy in bailiffs, magistrates and patrimonial 
judges throughout the country, where it is com- 
bined with the ordbiary administration. 

Mention of tlie existence of the town of Ha- 
nover is first made in an edict of Henry the 
Lion, dated 1136; but the vases and urns which 
have been found in and near the town, prove 
that its site must have been inhabited at a 
much earlier period. The first mention of its 
commercial importance is in 1303, when it tra- 
ded in cloth, skins, salt, butter, and herrings. 

The richer Hanoverians appear to have view- 
ed the Hcformation with distrust: the first Pro- 
testant preacher was banished the town; and a 
second would have shared the same fate, had 
not a public disturbance taken place in his fa- 
vour. This occurred in 1532; but in 1536 we 
lind the inhabitants, running into extremes on 
the side of the Beformers; death and confisca- 
tion of property were the punishment of those 
who deserted after having once professed the 
Protestant doctrines; the Papists were punished 
with rods, and the Catholic -revenues applied to 
the repair of the churclies, and the support of 
the Lutheran ministry. Hanover escaped the de- 
vastations which were so common in Germany 
fiuring the Thirty Years' War. Tilly appeared 


before its gates, November 5tli, 1635, and de- 
manded admission, but did not obtain it. Du- 
ring the reign of John Frederick the Catholic, 
who ascended the throne 1641, and of his suc- 
cessors, Hanover made great advances both in 
size and splendour; operas and plays were first 
introduced; masquerades became popular, and 
the French and Italians, who were invited in 
considerable numbers to court, encouraged gam- 
bling to a great extent. 

Every person who possesses a house, or fol- 
lows a trade, in Hanover, is a citizen, and is 
eligible to civic offices, ei^oys common-right, 
and the right of sporting oh certain estates. 
The citizens- are divided into guilds and com- 
panies, which choose the burgomaster and s>n- 
dicus, on whom it devolves to elect the other 
members of the magistracy; namely, six coun- 
cillors, two camerarii, and a secretary. The 
magistracy has the town-police under its con- 
trol; but in its regulations respecting the latter, 
it is bound to follow the directions of the go- 
vernment. There is a spirHual magistracy, com- 
posed of the six preachers of the three chmr- 
ches, of whom the eldest is president. These 
two magistracies decide on minor matrimonial 
disputes, of which the more important are re- 
ferred to the royal conslstorial court 

Respecting the provisions consumed here, we 
have no very recent data. According to a re- 
port of 1742, when the number of inhabitants 
was about half what it is at present, 2360 oxen 
were slaughtered, 11,701 calves, 5548 pigs, 481 
sucking pigs, 5690 sheep, and 1969 lanbs. The 
principal manufactures of Hanover are of gold 


and silver lace, leather, playing-^ards , oll-clotb, 
earthenware stoves, tobacco, dyes, and stockings ; 
but the only important objects of commerce are 
leather, linen, and worsted; The royal- Berg^ 
handhmgj for the produce of the Harz mines, 
is in this town; it has factors and correspon- 
dents in all the principal cities of Northern Ger- 
many and Holland. The miners are bound to 
deliver all the produce of the mines , * at a cer- 
tain' price, at the warehouses of this commer*- 
cial establishment. 

There are common schools attached to each 
of the three churches, to the support of the 
teachers of which, even should they send their 
children elsewhere, the parishioners are bound 
to contribute. In the highest class of the Ly- 
ceum, in which there are eight teachers, the 
pupil pays eleven dollars annually; in the low* 
est, ilve and a half. 

For medical instruction, there is an anatomi- 
cal college, founded by the surgeons of the town, 
and a museum. The royal librar)* contains more 
than 90,000 volumes, chiefly on history and po- 
litical law; it possesses all the books of Leib- 
nitz, as well as a collection of rare tracts which 
he made at Berlin. Other establlNhments for the 
promotion of literature, science, and art, are, 
the library of the royal chancery of Justice, of 
the magistracy, of the dilTerent churches, of the 
isociety of natural histor)', Ciruner's mineral ca- 
binet, Reuissman's museum, the government and 
town archives, and the Walmoden gallery. 

In 1804, a Bible Society was founded, of 
which the duke of Cambridge was the zealous 
protector: its revenue for three years, including 

596 KIM^i»i*M UV lUKOVVR. 

a sum ef 60(M. from ilie BritiHb and Fi^reign 
Bible Society, lias anioutited U 10,0(H) doUani, 
With wliich sum it has distry»uteil 11,000 copies 
of tJhet Bible. Tlie. readmg-roojns and circula- 
ting Utjraries bere bave been under tbe superin- 
tendance of a censor, since tbe time wben tbe 
Frf^nch propaganda awakened greater vigilance. 

For the relief of tbe, poor and tbeir children 
there are 'considerable funds, and several insti- 
tutions ; but those who avail themselves of then, 
are obliged to make a public procession throngb 
tbe town twice a year. There are several bos- 
pitals, and a new one has lately been erected. 
One of tbe most remarkable public buildings %% 
Hanover, is the temple to the memory of Leib- 
nitz, consisting of a rotunda, of which tbe cu- 
pola is supported by twelve Ionic c^ilumns: in. 
(be centre is a colossal bust of Leibnitz, in 
white marble. 

Tbe climate of Hanover^ is not particularly 
good; meist and cloudy weather is far from un- 
common: tbft plains on tbe North, West, and 
East sides of the town, give full play to tbe 
winds from those quarters. Tbe number of' deaths 
is generally exceeded by that of births; but 
longevity is of rare occurrence. 

Tbe customs and way of life at Hanover, amongst 
ihb more wealth)^ appear to be inclining more 
(ban formerly to German simplicity: French go- 
vernesses are not so common; the women are 
growing more domesticated; and tbe division of 
time i>i more consistent with nature^ Between 
tbe several cUi.<ises of society there was former- 
ly little communication; tbe Urst only admitted 
those received at court; the second, the lower 

KtNOnOM 09 HAXOVKH. 597 

irotiiltty ftml lii^er offlrtals, and so onto a iiflh: 
bnt these rigorous distinctions are now dying 
away, and Ziminerinann wouhl scarcely call thvf 
present tone of Hanoverian society lialf Spanish 
and half German. 

The principal popafar amusementis are sledge-^ 
racing in winter, and hi snmmer, shooting at 
(he buirs eye. There is also a good theatre. 

Gottingen is the seat of one of the most distin- 
gaished Protestant universities of Germany, which 
has been ever nobly supported by the govern- 
ment. It is situated in the prrirclpality of the 
same name, on the New Leine, which is a ca- 
nal of the river Leine : it contains 1200 hou- 
ses, and 11,050 inhabitants, soldiers and stu- 
dents not included. It is celebrated for its uni- 
versity, to which are attached an admirable 
library, a valuable collection of coins, a mu- 
seum , a collection of models , an observatory, 
a botanical garden, an anatomical theatre and 
museum^ a chemical laboratory, a lying>in-hos- 
pital, a riding-school, and fencing-school; with 
which we may mention the admirable museums 
of Blumenbach and Beermann. GOttingen has 
manufactories of linen and woollen articles, to- 
bacco , leather, and saddlery; and is noted for 
lis sausages. A grand Jubilee was celebrated 
here in the autumn of 1837, in commemoration 
of the lapse of a century since the period of its 
first foundation, on which occasion a statue of 
William IV. was exposed to the public view; 
a great concourse of old students and learned 
men from all parts attended; the new kuig was 
present, and the whole ceremony passed oflT 
with Joy and solemnity. 



The number of students nt the university of 
Gottingen, in 1837, Was 901, amongst whom 
were three members of princely families, besi- 
des several noble ones. Of this number 522 were 
native Hanoverians, and 387 foreigners. They 
were thus divided — 200 for theology, 362 for 
law, 224 for medicine, and 123 for philosophy. 
In consequence of the political changes which 
have taken place of late , the number of stu- 
dents has decreased of about 150, by the re- 
moval of a good many foreigners who used 
formerly to abound in this univerBit>\ 





A Prior of »SchDl8tein living' at Prague, con- 
ceived the liappy idea of forming, scbools in 
which pupils should learn, independently of other 
usual branches of study, the application of the 
sciences to practical purposes , or arts. lo the 
year 1777 a Polytechnic School, or School of 
Arts , is said to have been first founded at 
Prague; There is no want of schools in which 
literature is taught, but these schools of the 
arts are still comparatively rare, and particu- 
larly in our own country. 

The kingdom of Wurtemberg haa the distinc- 
tion of standing at the head of all the coun- 
tries of EuBope in this respect; and it ia on 
this account that we commence our sketch of 
its statistics with the display of a feature so 
honourable to the governors, and so useful to 
the governed. In -1815, there were already in 
this small kingdom so many as 260 schools of 
art or of industry, which were frequented by 
10,000 pupils; and, in 1835, the numMr of 



these inRtitations had increased to 334, and the 
pupils amounted to 14,000. 

The royal family of Wurtemherg is of the 
Lutheran religion. The reigning prince is Wil- 
liam I, born September 27, 1781, who succeed- 
ed his father, Frederic I., Oetoi^er 30, 1816. 
He has been married three times , firstly, to 
Charlotte Augusta, princess of Bavaria, from 
whom he was separated in 181,4 , and who is 
now empress dowager of Austria; secomtly, to 
Catherina Pawlowna, a Russian prtncess, who 
died January 9, 1819; and thirdly, to I'auline, 
princess of 'Wurtemberg. He has two daughters 
by his second, and two daughters and one son 
by his third wife;' the latter, Frederick, the 
crowti prince, was born March 6, 18^3. The 
king has one brother, Paul, who is married t» 
Charlotte , a princess of Sate-'Altenbtirg, by 
whom he bas two son^ and two daughters. The 
elder of the latter, Helena, born 1807, is uMir- 
rled to the grand-duke Mckael of Rnssfa; andl 
the younger, Pauline, bem 1810, to tbe dSke of 
Nassau. The king l)ad three ifncies, wh& hare 
left nwneress descendants. 

The following is a view of the drcles snd W 
their popalatioir: — 


Are* in I 

Geojf^. I Vopithtiem 
dqusre | 188». 

NeelrAr . . . 
Blacft ¥onwt 
Dan»lre . 
J»xt ...*.. 






toM, A Odd 


Toul . . . J3637^|l,588,048|l33 


In December }836, the population had in- 
ereaaed to 791,550 male, and 830,814 female 
inhabitants. • 

The principal towns are,- Stuttgart C38,100 
inhabitants, including soldiers and strangers}, 
Ulm C12,139), Reotlingen (10,400^, Heilbronn 
C8,200) , Tubingen C7,227), Esslingen (6,475), 
Hall C6,220), Ludwlgsbarg (6,2083, Rothen- 
burg (6,057), GmCnd (5,822). 
, Altogether there are 132 towns; 1211 villa- 
ges with livings, and 462 other villages; 125 
hamlets with livings, and 2901 other hamlets; 
2644 farm -yards; 2177 odd houses; and 1888 
parishes. , 

With' the exception of the Jews , all the in- 
habitants are Germans. %Vith respect to reli- 
gion they are divided as follows: 1,087,413 
are Protestants, 489,025 are Catholics, 10,766 
Jews, and 210 of other creeds. 
' There are in this country 6 superintendant- 
general ships, 48 Lutherian deaneries , 877 parish- 
es of the Lutheran and- the Reformed church 
with 919' ministers, 1 Catholic bishopric, 637 
Catholic parishes with 882 priests, and 28 Ca- 
tholic deaneries. 

The Wurtemberg university is that of Tul)in- 
gen, at which, in 1838, there were 668 stu- 
dents. There are also 6 gymnasiums of the 
first class, 3 lyceums, 83 Latin schools, 1 Ca- 
tholic convictorium forming part of the univer- 
sity, and 2 lower ones attached to gymn^iums, 
4 lower' Lutheran schools, 12 Aeo/ schools, 
1400 Lutheran schools for the people CVoiks- 
sehulmj, 787 Catholic ditto, i agricultural 
institation, 1 school of art and drawing, 1 


609i KiNMittH B9 "WVBTMUUEUek, 

veterinary scbool, and 1 institution for tlie fteaf 
and dumb, 1 Protestant and 1 'Catholic seminar 
ry for teachers, 2 orphan^asylums, and 1 seiio^l 
for ofAcera of the army. 

The accounts of the year t83& — 36 have left 
a net surplus of 1,713,654 iarins. 

The yearly expendttnre from 1836 to 1899 
is fixed at %3S1,813 florins, ^e feUowing am 
the principal items: — 


CivU List of the King 850,000 

Interest, drc, of the National Debt 1,206,868 

The Army 1,902,848 

The Cimrch and public Instruction 2,240,275 
Administration of Justice .... 710,558 
Administration of Finance .... 718,821 

The revenue amounts to 9,321,813 florirs, of 
which 3,995,068 florins are contributed hy the 
domains of the State Cincluding 1,975>548 flo- 
rins from the former Lutheran church property, 
tlie value of which is 27 millions and a half of 
florins ; It is now incorporated in the domains) 
and 5,372,241 florins by direct and indirect tar* 

The public debt, in June 1837, was 34,663,014 
florins. The surplus of the year 1838 — 1839 
being very considerable, the government hai* 
proposed cancelling at once one million of flo- 
rins of the public debt, which will be produc- 
tive of a saving of 40,000 florins per annum, in 

The standing army consists, in tine of war, 
of 19,240 men, in time of peace, oi 6690 men. 

HINenOM 0¥ WURTKMBBll^. 603 

Tbe army farms 4 reg^ents of cavalry , a 
Sfsadron of chassears, a flquadron body-guard 
of cavalry; 8 regiments of infantry of the line, 
several garrison-cenpanies , and a corps of in- 
valtflB* 1 regiment of artillery Ci< 6* 1 battalion 
of Horse, and 1 of foot, with a train}, and a 
division of garrisoii-artillery. 

Ithe govomnient is an hereditary limited mo- 
narchy , founded on the constitution of. Septem- 
ber 25 , 1819. The representatives , who form 
two chambers, have a share in legislation, and 
in the distribution of taxes, but the king is the 
only executive power. According to the family- 
law (Bau9gesetz) of January 1, 1808, the crown 
is hereditary to the exclusion of females; but 
should no male representative exist, females are 
admitted to the succession. 

the crown -prince is of age at eighteen, the 
other royal princes and the princesses at twen- 
ty'One , and the remaining members of the roy- 
al family at twenty -two. Appanages, jointu- 
res, and dowries, can never consist of landed 
property, but must be paid out of the treasury. 

There are the usual ministers of foreign af- 
filrs, war, justice, finance, and of home affairs, 
with ecclesiastical affairs, and public instruction. 

The privy-council is composed of some of the 
ministers, of privy- councillors, and of state 

The grand dignitaries of the crown are an 
hereditary grand marshal of the kingdom, an 
hereditary grand master of the kingdom, an 
hereditary grand chamberlain of the kingdom, 
and a banneret of the kingdom. 


The supreme council of tbe court is composed 
of a grand master of the court, of a graiid 
equerry, of a president of the chamber of the 
court, and of a grand chamberlain. 

During the space of fifteen years, the num- 
ber of births in the kingdom of Wurtemberg 
has surpassed that of deaths by 183,977. Du- 
ring the years 1812, 1813 and 1814, 17,840 
couples were married; 81,139 boys, and 77,118 
girls were born, which is 27,046 boys, and 
25,706 girls , on an average , annually. 

During the same space of time, there were 
8684 illegitimate male births, and 8513 illegi- 
timate feaiale births, which give together an 
annual average of 5732. There died in the 
above years 71,789 males, and 68,114 females, 
in all 139,903; — an annual average of 23,930 
men, and 22,7Q5 women. From 1815 to 1829 
inclusive , ^here were born 429,914 boys , and 
406,417 girls; on an average annually, 28,661 
boys and 27,094; girls; there were 15iS7 more 
buys than girls bom on an average annually. 
Of the 429,914 boys, 50,162 were iUegitimate; 
of the girls 48,307, in aU 98,469 ; on an. ave- 
rage annually, 3344 boys and 3221 girls, in 
all 6565. 

In the course of these same 15 years, there 
died 334,487 men, and 317,867 women, in all 
652,354; — an annual average of 22,299 men 
and 21,191 women, in all 43,400 annually. 

In the years 1813 and 1814, 746 strangers 
C315 men, and 431 women) settled in (his king- 
dom, and 733 persons C^i'k men, and 519 wo- 
men} emigrated. It is probable, that the grea- 
ter part both of the settlers and emigrants were 


servants. From 1815 to 18!a|9 inclusive, 4218 
men and .5637 women settled in the country, 
altogheter 9855. In the same years 15,555 men 
and 15,868 women, altogether 31,423 persons 
emigrated. This great increase of emigration 
is explained hy the advantages which the Uni- 
ted States offer to poor, if industrious settlers. 

Thus daring these fifteen years, though the 
births had exceeded the deaths hy 183,977, the 
actual increase of the population was 162,409. 

Prostitutes are not supposed to exist in the 
eye of the law, and no ofilcial superintendance 
of them exfiits. 

No man is allowed to marry until his twenty- 
fifth year , on account of hi« military duties, 
unless permissioB has been specially obtained 
or purchasejl: at that age he must also obtain, 
permission, which Is granted on proof that he 
and his wife will have together snlfieient means 
to maintain a family, or to establish themsel- 
ves; namely, In large fcownsy ftrom 800 to 1000 
fiorins , and in smaller ones , from 400 to 500, 
— and, in villages, 200 florins. They must not 
be persons of disorderly or dlssobite lives, drun- 
kards, or under suspicloA of erhne; and they 
must not have reeelvett any assistance from 
(heir parish within the last three years. 




JLhe ruling family of Baden is of the Protes- 
tant religion. The present grand duke is Leo- 
pold iC. F0> who was born August 29, 1790, 
and who succeeded his half - brother , Lewis^ 
March dO, 1830. He was married, July 25, 
1810, to his cousin, Sophia ) daughter of Gas- 
tavus nr., king of Sweden. They have six chil- 
dren, four sons and two daughters; Lewis, the 
heir-apparent, was born August 15, 1824* The 
grand duke has two . brothers , Maximilian and 
William, both of whom are in the army, and a 
sister, Amelia , married to the prince of Furs- 
tenberg; his half-brother, Charles Lewis, wha 
died in 1801, left a daughter, Caroline, who 
is now the dowager-queen of Bavaria, and a 
son, Charles, who was grand duke, and who 
was married to Stephanie, Mile, de Beauhamois, 
the adopted daughter of Napoleon; he died De- 
cember 8, 1818. The offispring of this marriage 
are, Louisa, born June 5, 1811, married to the 
prince Gustavus Wasa, Josephine, married to 


CkKTles, i^riaee a! VobraxoVem-aigaM'mgta; 
■nd Maria, bom Oclober II, 1817. 

The following in a view of tbe clrclea or the 
irand durhy of Barian, and of theirpopalatlon: — 

According to Ih 
1834, ibe popDlHtio 
ted to 1,331,319. 

TliR principal towni are, Carlarnhe, tlie ca- 
pital (21,464 inhabitants) .Mannheim (30 584] 
Breiburg (14,6343, HeldeiberK (11,8113, Brach- 
sal (7137), Pforzheim (92593, Lahr (5699), 
Constance (6380), and Raatadt (6S1S). 

fhe inhabitants ue all GenniuiK, with the 
eiception of the Jews, and of 520 French. Vnot 
respect to religion, there are in the grand durhy 
777,580 ProtejitanM, 810,380 Calholica , (4H 
Menngnitee, and 19,423 Jews. 

There are two universities, at Heidelberg and 
Vreiburg; at (hat of Heidell/erg, In the winter 


of 1834, Uiere were 580 students; viz., 38 stu- 
dents of theolo^' ; 238 of law ; 222 of medi- 
cine, 'surcrery, and pharmaey; 68 of political 
economy and mineralogy 5 and 24 of phUosopky 
and philology. At the university of Freiburg, 
in 1834 - 5 there were 445 students. 

In the Baden Protestant church, there are 28 
dioceses, 28 deaneries, and 318 parishes. Of 
the Catholic church, there is 1 archbishop, ca- 
thedral-chapter, and .episcopal ordinariat; there 
ar^ 35 land - chapters , 35 deaneries, and 723 
parishes. In this country, there are .4 lyceums, 
6 gymnasiums, 6 pedagogiums, 14 Latin schools, 
8 seminaries for females, 1 evangelical and 1 
Catholic seminary for schoolmasters, 1 institu- 
tion for the deaf and dumb, 1 veterinary school, 
1 poly technical and 1 trade school, and 1- mili- 
tary academy. 

The net annual revenue of the grand duchy 
for the years 1837 and 1838, was 8,256,607 

The public debt amounted, iq 1831, to 26,399,422 
florins; Deducting from this sum, the value of 
the national property, viz.: 4,366,670 florins, 
there remains a net amount of debt of 22,232,741 

In November, 1833, 1,602,042 florins, 30 
kreutzers, paper-monej' , wliich had been called, 
in between June % , 1832 , and May $1, 1833, 
were destroyed. 

In 1833, the sum devoted to paying off the 
national debt amounted to 889,869 florinn; in 
1834, to 892,038 florins. 

The standing army contains 10,412 men, aiid 
is divided into 1 division, or 8 battalions, of in- 


fantry , 8046 men, and 1 brigade of cavalry, 
or 3 Regiments of dragoons, 1518 men. The 
continent to the army of the confederation is 
10,000 men. 

The present form of government is an here- 
ditary, constitutional monarchy, established by 
the deed of August 22, 18dl. There are two 
chambers of representatives, to the first of which, 
no person is eligible, who is not twenty* five 
years of age, and to the second, none who is 
not thirty years of age. All candidates must be 
of the Christian religion. Candidates for a seat 
in the second.. chamber, must prove that they 
are either in possession of a capital of 10,000 
florins, or that they are in the receipt of an an- 
nual income of ,1500 florins. Every citizen, and 
every person fllllng a civil office, has the right 
of voting for a member of the diet, who is 
chosen for eight years. 

Females are excluded from succession to the 
throne, so long as there exists a male repre- 
sentative of the ruling family. 

There are the usual ministers of state. £ach 
circle has a director, who resides in its chief 
town. There is a director of the forests and 
mines, and another of the domains, a third of 
the taxes, and a fourth of the supreme cham- 
ber of accounts. The post-office is also under 
the superlntendance of a director. Besides these, 
there are directors of the Evangelical church- 
section, and of the Catholic church-section. 

The officers of the court are a grand master 
of the court, a grand chamberlain, a grand 
marshal, a marshal of the court, an intendant 


of the domains of tile court, and an Intendant 
of the court-nasic and of the coart-theatre. 

Tho number of law- suits has of late years 
very much increased in Baden. In 1814, there 
were 1674; in 1833, 2994. tn 1833, 1131 
trials were decided in the criminal courts, and 
sentence was pronounced upon 1629 persons, 
of whom 673 were acq.nitted, and 946 declared 
guilty of the charges brought against them. Of 
the latter, 7 were condemned to death, and ail 
executed, with the exception of one, who .com- 
mitted suicide; hut in 1830, all those who were 
condemned to death, 8. in number, had their 
sentences commuted to imprisonment. 206 of 
the persons convicted, were condemned to im- 
prlsonmont: 10 for more than 15 years, and 30 
for less than a year; the others for different 
intermediate periods. 129 of the culprits were 
condemned to labour at public works in a par- 
ticular dress, and three to bard imprisonment. 
On the whole, 338 persona were punished by 
imprisonment or hard labour, and 611 by ligh- 
ter inflictions. The proportion of persons tried 
for criminal offences to the whole population, 
was that of 1 to 748 5 of those punished, 1 to 
1275. Of those tried, 13,5 per cent, were fe- 
males; of those punished, 14 per cent. 

Ih 1833, 5,7 per cent, of those tried, and 
6,2 of those convicted, were between 14 and 
18 years of age, 48 per cent, of the prisoners, 
and 50 per cent, of the convicts, were between 
18 and 30; 23,28 per cent, of the prisoners, 
and 21,65 per cent, of the convicts, were bet- 
ween 30 and 40; 13 per cent, of the prhfoners. 


and 11,83 per cent of the canvicts, between 
40 and 50; 6,5 per eent. of the prisoners, and 
6,25 per cent, of the oonvicta, between 50 and 
00; and 2 per cent, of the former, and 2 of 
the latter ,. between 60 and 70. 

Of the whole number of convicts in 1830, 
35 .per cent, were Protestants ' 63,5 per cent. 
Catholics, and 1,5. per cent. Jews. Of the 1629 
persons tried, 1056 were either bachelors or 
widowers, 986 had no trade or profession, 1178 
were totall)' without, and 142 were possessed 
of property. 54 persons were moving in re- 
spectable society ; and of these, 22 were con- 
victed and 6 condemned to imprisonment and 
hard labour. 15 persons were tried for political 

In the year 1833, in the courts of the baili- 
wicks, 3055 persons were tried, 639 acquitted, 
and 2416 convicted. Of the Avhole number 333 
were women , of whom 83 were acquitted , and 
250 condemned. In the same year, there were 
1050 offences committed , of which the perpe- 
trators have not yet been discovered ; of these, 
162 were burglaries, 13 street -robberies, and 
3 murders. There were 67 suicides, besides 7 
attempts at suicide, and 164 deaths from ac- 

Prostitutes are not tolerated by the police in 
Baden , in any places except Mannheim and 
Carlsruhe, the principal cities, and also at Ba- 
den, the mnch-f^eqnented mineral spring, during 
its season. They are visited by an official surgeon 
once a week, and the police is charged to main- 
tain a vigilant superintendance over th^m. 



According to Schnabel, the popnlatiori of this 
country increases annually at the rate of 1 per 
cent. ; according to Stein , and his editor Hdr- 
schelmann, the increase is nearly Vf^ per cent, 



STITUTIONS, budobt; army, form of oovkrn- 


T^he ruling family of the electorate, of Hesse 
Is of the reformed religion. The present prince 
elector and grand duke is William H., born July 
28, 1777, married 1797, to Augusta, princess 
of Prussia, who succeeded to the throne, Fe- 
bruary 27, 1821. His children are Caroline, born 
1799; Frederic Mllliam, hereditary prince elec- 
tor, co-regent since October 1, 1831, born Au- 
gust 20, 1802 , united . in morganatic marriage, 
to the countess of Schaumburg; and Maria 
married to the duke of Saxe - Meiningen. The 
prince elector had two sisters, Maria Frederica, 
dowager- duchess of Anhalt-Bernburg, died in 
April 1839, and Caroline, now dowager-duchess 
of Saxe-Gotha. He bad also two uncles, Char- 
les, landgrave, Danish field-marshal, and stadt- 
liolder of the provinces of Sleswick and Hol- 
stein ; and Frederick, landgrave, a Hessian ge- 
neral of infantry, both of whom loft several 
descendants. Among the olTspring of the Land- 
grave Charle.«, is the present Queen of Denmark 
and among (hat of the Landgrave Frederic, are 
the duchess of Cambridge and the grand du- 



.chess of Mecklenbttrg-Strelits. The heir-apparent, 
after the present hereditary prince elector, Ia 
prince Frederic, born November 26, 1820, son 
of prince Wiliiam of Hesse, OfM»ish major- ire- 
neral and governor of Copenhagen, and a prin- 
cess ef Deamaik. 

The following is a view of the provinces of 
the electorate, and of their population. 


Lower Hesse 
Upper Hesse 
Fulda . . . . 
Hanau . . 

Total . . . 

Area in 




in 1838. 



Tlie principal towns are, Cassel C29,931 in- 
habitants, not including soldiers), Hanaa .(.148343, 
Fulda C97043, lllarbjirg C75123, Hersfeld C63433. 

With the exception o/ the /ews, and of 2700 
persons of French ey traction, all the whabitants 
are Germans. In 1829, 518,349 of the inhabi- 
tants were of the evangelical confessien, 102,000 
wcYo CathoUcs, 8300 Jews, and 260 MennonUes. 

There ace 1 superintendant -generalship, 4 sy- 
perintendantships, 3 inspectorships, 41 clasaea, 
291 Protestant parishes, o/ which 19 are French, 
1 Catholic bishop, 63 Catholic parishes, and 18 



The Uflrtrersit)' a€ Mfohnrg nninl^erefl, in 1833, 
4^ stndentfl. There is 1 lyremii^ 1 paHRgm- 
Xtam ,- 6 g)iniiff«ttniis , 1 episeopnl tfMHkiBVf j 3 
veaiiiiaries for fiel)«oloi«flter8 , ^ ara4efiif«a 4m 
drawing and palntingr; 2 ininitiitiMis for fi»re»- 
tet%f and 63 tewRHNiioois. 

The Bxpenditinre for tke Finance 

Period of 18S4-S6 was 3,^8,919 

Tile Revenue for the fiaiue period . 3,06f^,540 

Deficit 188,672 

The Expenditure for the Finance- 
Period of 1837-39, was 3,330,070 

The Revenue for the same period . 3,314,810 

Deficit 15,260 

The pabllc debt amounted in January 1837 
to 1,540,850 doUars bearing S\ per cent, in- 
terefft, of which the government held 001,050 
doUan, so that there were in circulation only 
630,800 dollars of stock. 

The army la composed of 2 brigades of infan- 
try, 2 regiments of cavalry, 1 horse and 2 
foot batteries of artillery, and 1 company of 
pioneers and workmen. The contingent to the 
army of the confederation is 5070 men. 

The government is monarchical and represen- 
tative. The representatives form only one cham- 
ber. The constitujlion wa.«i granted January 5, 
1881. The crown is hereditary , to the exclu- 
sion of females; the law iHauftgesetx) of March 



4 , ' 1817 , regulates the faoiily affairs of the 
grand-ducal house. 

The members of the state -ministry are the 
ministers of finance , of war , of foreign affairs, 
of Justice, and the interior, the director of the 
grand state -chest CHaupt^taaUkasse^ , and jtwo 
ministerial councillors. 

The chief officers of court are a grand mar- 
shal of the court, an intendant- general of the 
theatre, a grand huntsman and ^chamberlain, a 
marshal of the court and chamber, .a grand 
equerry and chamberlain , and a captain of the 
palace and chamberlain. 



Ihe ruling family of the grand duchy of 
Hesse is of the Lutheran religion. The present 
grand duke is Lewis !(., who was born Decem- 
ber 26 J 1777 J and who succeeded his father, 
Lewis L , April 6» 1830; he was marrie^ June 
19, 1804, to Wilhelmiha , princess of Baden, 
who died in 1836. His children are, Lewis, the 
heir -apparent, born June 9, 1806, married to 
Matilda, princess of Bavaria; Charles, married 
to the princess Elizabeth , niece of the king of 
Prussia; and Alexander and Maria. He has three 
brothers living, George, Frederic, and Emile. 

The following is a view of the provinces, of 
the grand duchy, and of their population. 

Rhine Hesse 
Upper Hesse 

Total . . . 

•-« JB «-• 
< O or" 





tion in 






* e 

2 • 



49 1 1060 






At tke end of 1834, the entire populalloii 
amounted tor 760,694. 

Tlie following is a view of the country, with 
respect to its ctflCtvatloin , the cildilation being 
made in Morgeha (acresj , of which there are 
22,018 in a square mile. 

Ploughed Land 
Meadow. . . . 
Pasture .-. . 
Vinerj- . . . \ 
Garden .... 


Total of culti- 
vated gAund 






























The farm-halldlnga , roada, and mcaltlvala^ 
grooad oceapy, la the three iMraviacea, 234^663*1, 

. The folkniing table ahewa hew the wee^ of 
this eeuntry are divided amoagst the varieas 
classes: — 

Uppea Hesse 

Morgeus . 


1 19,514 


If obU aa4 

■itl 8>ta- 









91,011 1 409^,61< 



TJle prtnci#al (owas aire, Mants CSiyTOO In- 
IwbiUiitfl, wiUM«t tte gwhrnm), IHurmBCadt 
C34,5i)03 , Wonifl (80003 , OflSenliMli CttOO}, 
IM«Mai C7000). 

Tlie tekftMtfuita ve aU GwBans, with the 
excepiti*]! ef the Jews, and of 2400 flench. 

WiUk reaped to religloue 41irereaee8» thejr 
iir# divideil In tlie three provineee ni foUews : ** 


Rhine Hesse 
Upper Hesse 

Total . . . 











516,687 I 177,888 | 1,208 | 22,174 

There are 3 mperlntendantships of the Pro- 
testant churchy 41 deaneries, and 421 parishes. 
Of the Catholic <9inroh, there are 1 bishop, 17 
deaneries, and 146 parishes. 

There Is 1 university at Oiessen, which nam- 
bered in 1834 — 5, 202 students. There is an 
institution for foresters, a philologieal seminary, 
an episcopal seminary, 7 gymnasiums, 2 semi- 
naries for schoolmasters, 4 reof-scfliools, a mi- 
litary academy, and a sdiool for mldwives. 
There are 16 scfliools of industry, and there is 
at least one school in every parish. 

During the three years 1^8 — 85 , the annual 
revenue was 6,576,106 florins, including a sum 
of 106,648 florins from the fhnd of reserve. 

Tlie expenditure was the same as the Income ^ 
amongKt its items, the expense of the grand du- 
cal house and court was 762,877 florins, in 

620 aa&KD vucasr of u^8sx. 

whieli is included me civil list of the grand 
duke ) anounting to 681,000 florins, and the ct- 
villistof the heir-apparent, 60,000 florins. 

At the end of 1834, the public debt amounted to 
11,564,377 fl. and according to the ralculations 
of the minister of finance, was to be reduced, 
at the end of 1835, to 10,235,845 florins.' 

The following table shows the strength and 

state of the arm3\ 

Time of Time of 
War. Peaee. 

i.a. General Staff 6 6 

b. Company of Sappers '90 61 

2. Cavalry. One regiment of Light 
Horse 1328 908 

3. Artillery : 
a. Staff ....... 8 8 

. b. Horsemen. . . . , 67 57 f -^^v 040 
c.Foc^t ArtUlery . . 226 162( ^^ 
d. Drivers 339 121 J 

4. Four Regiments of Infantry of 

' the Line 7405 4965 

Total 9469 6288 





The contingent to the army of the confede- 
I ration is 6195 men. . 

The government is a constitutional and here- 
< ditary monarchy, founded on the charter of 

Dec. 17, 1820. Females are excluded from the 
|, succession, so long as there is a male repre- 

'' sentative of the ruling family whose claims are 

ii founded on relationship or ErbverbrUdentng. The 

\ representatives of the people form two chambers, 

i The ministers are, a directing minister C''^- 

rigirender Minister), a minister of foreign af- 


fairs, and of the grand-ducal house , a minister 
of the interior, and of" justice, a minister of fi- 
nance and a president of the war department. 

The state-council is composed of two princes 
of the ruling family, of several of the minis- 
ters, of state- councillors, and of members who 
are elected fur a year. 

The cliief officers of court are, a grand court- 
marshal, a grand chambjerlain, a grand equerry, 
a grand master of the court, and a grand mas- 
ter of the ceremonies. 

•ni« mjcHY t>r holstbin. 

•rim noiiiM* wAwnx. msTHicvs and poi^i«ATibM; 
. V0WK8. Hmamimv BuooKt ; aiimy. ptfim ov 


Holstein, a part of the kingdom of Denmark, 
is briefly noticed here, tun is entitles the king 
to a seat ill the German diet. 

The, ducal family is of the Lutheran religion. 
The present duke is King Frederic IV., horn In 
1768, who was made co-regent in 1784, and 
who succeeded his father, March 13, 1808. He 
married, July 31, 1790, Maria, princess af 
Hesse-Cassel. He has two daughters, Caroline, 
born in 1793, married, 1829, to her consin, 
Prince Ferdinand ; and Wilhelmina, bom in 1808^ 
married, 1828, to her second cousin. Prince 

The area of the dnchy is 172." square 
miles, of which lO.*'* form the province of 
Lanenburg. The population, in 1828, was 
410,385; namely 374,745 in Holstein, and 
35,640 in Lauenburg; in February 1835, it had 
increased to 435,590. There are, 17 towns, 28 
market-towns, 163 villages with livings, 448 
small villages and hamlets, 52,500 houses. The 
inhabitants are all Germans and Lutherans 
with the exception of 500 members of the Re- 
formed church, 900 Catholics, 400 MeiUMaite!i, 



and 3000 Jews. The capital, Gluckstailt, con- 
taiiiM 5,!200 inhabitants , Altona , 36,000, Kiel 
h,701, and Rendsi>urg 7,700. 

Tbe revenue is 2,400,000 florins, of Which 
Holstein contributes 2,130,000 florins, and Laa- 
enfaturg 280,000 florins. 

The contingent to the army of the confede- 
wey is 3,600 Nteii. 

The goviNnniiient is monai«hieal, with a diet 
since 1834. 

Kiei , the university of Holstein , is placad 
in an agreeable country, and maintains an ac- 
tive coniniunioation with Copenhagen by steam- 
boats. The library coi|tai«0 100,000 volumes. 
In the winter o# 1831^—30, there were 152 aUi- 
dents in theology, 105 in law, 57 in. medicine, 
and 10 in other studies. 9^e profeewors, who 
«nJoy the greatest note are, Twesten, in theo- 
logy, and I. Olshausea, who hw been engaged 
in publit^hing the original of tbe'^Zentf Avesta.^' 




By tbe treaty of Vienna , this duchy was 
made over to the king of Holland, in 1815; a 
stipulation being exacted at the same time, that 
he should give up all claims on the dominions 
of Nassau. The treaty of 1831, which has been 
finally^ settled in 1839, alienated this duchy 
from Belgium, and it is still in the hands of 
the king of Holland , but its strong fortress, 
is garrisoned by Prussian soldiers. 

It is divided into three circles , which are 
again subdivided into 25 cantons, and 314 com- 

The area of Luxemburg is 108.^ German 
square miles. The population in 1835, was 
315,000, who are Walloons, for the most part, 
there being only 10,370 Germans, and who, 
with the exception of 450 Jews, are all Catho- 
lics. There are 16 towns , 6 market-towns, 314 
congregations, 809 villages and hamlets, and 
48,710 houses. The capital, which, since 1814, 
has been one of the fortresses of the German 
confederacy, contained, in 1821, 11,430 inha- 
bitants, not including the giurrison. 

»IIANO DUCHY OP 1«I7XEtlflBUH6. 625 

Tbe revenue amoHiits to 1,800,000 florins. 
The GOtttinigrent to tbe army of the confederacy 
is 2556 men. 

The government is. monarchical and represen- 

Agriculture is not here in an advanced state, 
and it is necessary to import some supply of 
food annually. The breed of horses is good 
and considerable, anil the 8h«ep are numerous. 
Some employment is afl'orded to the inhabitants 
by the iron mines, which are said to produce 
about 10,000 tons of the metal annually. The 
roanufai:tures are chiefly weaving, linen- spin- 
ning, and paper-making. 

This duchy is chiefly remarkable from the 
character of its fortress, which is reputed one 
of the most important in fiurope, both from its 
situation , and from its artificial strength. It 
has occupied public attention recently , in con- 
sequence of the negotiations following the se- 
paration of Belgium from Holland. 

THfi gHamd duchy of SAXA-WCIMAR- 



Xhe gr«ifi*dii€al lioMe ot S«xe-WeiflMur-Si- 
■•■aeli is Af tk« LttUioraa religion. TJie j^e-' 
sent grand dukn ki Clianles IlreilciMc, bom f «- 
braary % 1788, who succeeded bis father, Char- 
les Angusttts, June 14, 1828. He was married, 
Attgnst 8, 1804, to Maria, a princess of the 
Russian imperial family. Ho has three children, 
Maria, bom 1808, married to Prince Charles of 
Prassia; Augusta, bom 1811, married to Prince 
William of Prussia ; and Charles, the their-appa- 
rent, bora June 24, 1818. The duke has one 
brother , Bernard, born Hay 80, 1793, a lieute- 
nant-general in the service of Holland, who 
was married in 1816 to Ida, princess of Saxe- 
Meiningen, by whom he has six children, four 
sons Ghe eldest of whom died lately) and two 

(his ilurh), and of (heii po^latim: 

srthe emirs popalxion, in 1635, 116,474 
wen males, and 133,97% fiinialea : 61,319 fer- 
s«M were nnuried, 3S45 Ihu on aMu, Md ftt 1 
wen d«>r and doBA. Ilivre wen 718 peTsvns 
Iff BMre Iban 80 yem of age. 

In 1887, ttlH impUlatltni afeirtMed to 944,300. 

■fU principal towns ars, VFMnar ^ 1,000 
hifeBMbintH], Elaenach (9270), and J«n tftTH). 

WUi Iba exception of tke *cw8, all the inha- 
biluita are Geraana. With respect to religion 
ch«y an tmu -divided ; 329,6W an miMMnta 
MM CMballcs, and 1416 Aw*. 

Tbere are 3 ProtcBMnt KBpeHntendaht Eene- 
ral-iriilpit, 3* dtoeases, tnd S94 pRilHIin. there 
are 10 Catholic partahes and one dean. 

The univeralty U Jen» namAered 4K Hliidmts 
Ib 1636. There are 3 gymnasi lints , 69 town- 
schools, 648 coantry-achaolR, 2 seBinarics (lit 
scfasolmaBters, 9 dthwhllt BtadKmles, I Initttu- 


DUCHY Ot 8JUE««WBflf4tt-'ISKKA<!H. 

lion for forosters, 1 scliool of art, 2 free trade- 
MchooU, and 2 setaools for midwives. 

The yearly expenditure for the years 1836, 
1837, and 1838 has been fixed at 637,636 dol- 

The principal heads are as follows: — 


Salaries of Offioials 103,809 

Costs of Administration 30,560 

Extraordinary expenditure in extra- 
salaries and pensions, Ac, . . . 92,084 
Contributions to the church and schools 41,830 
Bstablishments and institutions of 

general utility 22,795 

The Diet 3,400 

Tiie Army . 99,000 

Military Storebouses 1,000 

.Interest, «fi:c., of tbe Public Debt . . 170,000 

Tax-gathering . 33,741 

The introduction and administration of 

the customs, and brandy-tax . 22,584 

Agio-loss and extras 34,300 

For the Reserve-fond . . . 6,000 

The revenae amounts to 749,845 dollan, but 
if we add to this, the revenae of the donialna, 
which amounts in roand numbers to 680,000 dol- 
lars, the entire revenae of t|ie duchy is, 1,429,845 

The principal items of the revenue are the 
following: — 


Balance in hand Cbeing the surplus of 
the years 1836, 1837 A 1838) 110,000 

orcNV 09 sAzi-nriiMiUi-BisiNAeH. 8^ 


Old land-tax , 162,094 

Tbe Customs 154,694 

Compound taxes 2,624 

Taix on brandy 79,367 

Produce of the salt-works , card-mo- . 
nopoly, malting -bouses, tobacco- 
fields, and vineries 86,399 

Universal direct tax on ' land and 

incomes . 151,034 

Agio-gain, and fines, rents, and et- 
ceteras , . . . 3,629 

Tbe public debt amounts to 3,500,000 dol- 
lars; tbe excbequer Ct^ammer') debt to 1,000,000 

Tbe army consists of 1 regiment of infantry, 
and 1 corps of bussars. Tbe contingent to the 
army of tbe confederacy is 2010 men. 

The government is monarcliical and constitu- 
tional ; tbe representatives form only one cham- 
ber. Tbe grand duke, who is tbe bead of tbe 
Ernestinian bouse of Saxony, has several rights 
in common with its other princes, with whom, 
and the king of Saxony, he is also united by a 
family contract (^Uausverband), Females are ex- 
cluded from the succession, which is hereditary. 

The ministry of state consists of tbe minister 
of Justice, home affairs, police, ecclesiastical 
affairs, public instruction and war; of the mi- 
nister of finance, of a prfvy-councillor, and , of 
two referendaries; consequently, of only five 

The diet consists of 31 deputies, of whom, 1 
is chosen by the University of Jena; 1 by the 


mmilalilEed nobles; the poiwesflors of seignorial 
»<t fct €B cboose 9 ; tlie towns 10; ttwi llie yea- 
M«ts liO. 

The chief officers of court afo, a sraad cham- 
berlain, % grand eqaencies, a grai)d iMmtaman, 
a grand auffshal, a i^nuiid cn$»teKtew^ an# a 
grand mistreaa of the c4H|Kt of her iuperiai 
highness the grand duchess. 

This small state has actairedeciebrity through- 
ant the civilized world, from the home which 
It afforded to the meat eminent of the Qerman 
«ttt#rs; for this advantage it was Indebted to 
the wise liberality of the reigning family, who, 
hi secaring Che presence of Herter, Coethe, and 
Schitlcv, conferred the SMSt aobatanfial beneito 
on their subjects, and in every sense, enriched 



fllolningeti is • sweet SMd secluded country 
of Germany , standing almost la tfee ceutre of 
tbat land, and, like Colmrg, only little knoVm 
to travellers througli its distance from fhe gtetA 
capitals. To English families, wh9 deem it neces- 
sary to seek a foreign residence, or the means 
of « good education,' remote from the seduc- 
tions of crowded cities, the prlndiMa town of 
this duchy offers some advantages; and tlwrt, 
also, they will find the unalloyed German rte- 

The present duke of meiningen, is Bernard 
CE. F.), who was bom December 17, 1800, and 
under his mother's guardianship, sneceeded his 
father,' December 24, 1803, and assumed the 
reins of government, December 17, 1821. He 
was married March 23, 1825, to Maria (F. W. 
C), princess of the electorate of Hesse, by whom 
he has a son, Oeoige, born April 2. Iftl6. Duke 
Bernard has two sisters: Adelaide, the queen- 



dowager of Enig^land, who was born August 13tb, 
1793; and Ida, born June 25, 1794, who ia 
married to Duke Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. 

The following is a view of the provinces and 
population of the duchy of Meiningen: 

Dukedom of Meiningon : 

a. Unterland with Rdmhild 
and Thamar ...... 

b. Oberland with .parts of 

Dukedom of Hildbiirghausen 
Principality of Saalfeld . . 
County of Hamburg . . . 
Lordship of Kraaichfeld 

Total . . 

The following are the principal towns: Mel<> 
ningen, the capital, containing 6000 inhabitants; 
Saalfeld, containing 4d00; Hildburghausen 3500; 
Posneck 3500; Sonneberg and Eisfeld, each 3000. 

The inhabitants are all Germans, with the ex- 
<;eption of 1030 Jews. With respect to religion, 
they are divided into 140,200 Lutherans, 450 
Catholics, and 384 members of the Reformed 
church, and 1030 Jews. 

There are 3 gymnasiums and clasyiral schools, 
a fieminary for schoolmasters, a school for fo* 
rosters, 17 town schools, and 212 village schools. 


The following is the budget of the duchy of Mei- 
ningen for the year commencing April 1, 1835: 


A. From the Domains : . Florins. 

1. The Ducal Estates . . " 105,332 

2. Dues and Duties . . 159,539 

3. Administrlition of the 

Forests and Hunts . 276,605 

4. From different sources 10,141 

5. From Arrears .... 5,250 

. Florins 556,867 

B. From Taxation, drc. : 

1. Amount of Direct Taxes 240,152 

2. Amount of Indirect ditto 403,146 
8. Regalien 8,280 

4. From different sources 38,715 

5. From Arrears . . . 4,500 

Florins 1,251,659 



The Court 183,000 

The Diet • • ®>^^ 

Department of the Minister of the 

Interior 14,759 

College of Privy-Councillors . . 5,814 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs . . . , 9,307 

General Administration .. . 60,669 

Roads and Bridges 66,092 

Medical Establishments .... 9,392 

The Army 57,425 

6d4 nrcHY ov SAXK-MfetKrNeitTr. 


Corps of Chasseurs . * * . . . 14,605 

'Ailministration of jHStke .... 73,987 
Ecclesiastical Affairs, and pf Public 

fnstrnctlon 40,150 

Aihnifristration of Finance in g^eneral 50,643 

Bitto of the Domains 44,141 

Ditto of the Revenues 96,024 

muo of the Forests 79,247 

Exehetiuer 10,372 

PRhllc Buildins^a 40,525 

School for For««tor9 ....... 4,181 

Prisons, «fi:c 194)00 

0d«c»^n Chest 1,800 

Gratirttles . . . , ..... 110,858 

fi»t«Mst and payi^js off of the DcM 289,368 

Adinkristration of mi» ..... 4,965 

aeserve , 25,000 

Fl. 1,251,059 

The budget for the years 1838, 1839, 1840 
and 1841 states tfie a^MMil teven^e: I. firoiii the 
Domains, at 616,251 florins Cof which son 200,000 
fkrtfW are applied to the civil list) 11. from 
dfreet And kidkeot Taxes, at 730,426 florini, for- 
nriitg a total of 1,346,677 florins. 

The national debt of Che iluehy of Meinfiigeii 
anoonts to 5,303,556 florins. The Iniereflts and 
anoimt applied to the i^tMng f^ind, are tauM- 
ally 280,368 florins. Ae Miitlifgeiit <• the ar- 
my of the confederacy Is If 50 men. 

The government is a co«rtltiiCloB«l moMurCby; 
ttie fltew fondamental law Is ilateil Av^nrt !KI, 


1^39. The 4iet is oompoftei «f 84 menb^rs, 6 
clioaeii fMm tke eiMs vf Migvovfal laik#-owtt«rB 
(BOUtr^ts^etUter}, B from the class «f citl- 
E6IIS, fmd 8 tnm tliat Af pe«saiil9. R mnsf Im» 
«Mnroked ence hi three years, aademi be convo- 
ked ^only by tHe duke. Dnriiig the reces^s, 
Iho Amcfloiis of the diet are exercised ^ its 
marslial, two presidents) and syndicas. A snb* 
stitnte fmr a depoty In alwnys chosen wiDh lie 
latter. AB 4nde]ieiident faithere of families are' 
voterS) sttch at least, wlio are Cliristfans, and 
who frtfil the duties of a eittnen'. A candidate 
for the rup ie s e ntatlon of « town, or of the pea- 
sants, besides possonsfn^ the qnaliHes of a vo- 
ter, must pay 15 doBars In #lreet tasMs , anno- 
all^. Tlie 4opntten of th« landed profrletora 
must be twonty-five years old. On the motion 
of any depmty, the votes of ihe diet may be 
given «ecreCly. 

file government of the country consists of 
the daite, his minlslry, the diet, and the prtvy- 
connctl, consistiiig of #our members. By a de- 
cree, datod N«f«mber-35, 1^38, 41m administva- 
tiott was divided %nto four depaitmonts: first, 
into fhat of the govemmciift, property so called, 
eomprohendlng general policy', dtnnestic and fo- 
reign ; neeondiy, hito that of the supreme cMit 
for the admimstrallon of jnBtice; the third 4o- 
partmmit Is that «f the eontistoitfla court; and 
the fonvlb, that of the ea»lio4|tter. 

The ottoera of the co«rt are, a gvhnd chnm- 
berlain, « grand Mtthnnsn', a i4oo-gHmd equer- 
ry, and a marilMfl of the court. 

The founder of the dneil Mne of flaxe-BCei- 
nfngen ivas BtMMrd, third son of Smeet the 



Pious, diike of Gotha, at the divUion of whose 
tepritories in 1630, he obtained Meiningen/ the 
seventh part, valued at 16,137 florins annually. 
This prince was twice married, and had twelve 
children. His eldest son, Lewis, had five chil- 
dren, but they left no male heir, and the suc- 
cession devolved upon Antony Ulrich, his youn- 
gest son, by a princess of Brnnswick-Wolfen- 
huttel, in 1746. Dulce Anthony Ulrich had eight 
children by a princess of Hesse-Philipsthal, and 
at his death, in 1763, was succeeded by his el- 
dest son, Augustus. This prince dying without 
male issue in July 1782, was succeeded by his 
next surviving brother, George Frederic Charles, 
who married, Louisa, princess of Hohenlohe>Laii- 
genburg. The offspring of this marriage were, 
the present duke of Meiningen, Adelaide, queen 
dowager of England, and Ida, duchess of Wei- 
mar. Duke George died in 1803, and left his 
duchess unrestricted regent of his hereditary 
states, and sole guardian of their infant children. 
The good sense, sound discretion, and firmness 
with which tliat excellent lady ruled her people, 
and the strong, and solid religions principles in 
which she educated her children, are sufficient 
proofs that the confidence of the duke had not 
been misplaced. This estimable princess died 
April 30, 1837, in her seventy-fourth year. 

The original heritage of Duke Bernard in 
1680, only comprehended ten square miles ; but 
it had been Increased, by successive acquisitions, 
to eighteen square miles, when a division of the 
dukedom of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was made in 
1826. . On this occasion, the duke of Meiningen 
obtained the bailiwick of numbild, several Ce- 


Inirg bitlliwiekjt Rnd tn^iiH, tlie dachy df Hild* 
bvrghaascn, Kambnrg, Krftiiiciifeld , and &•»• 
other t«mall«r places^ 

At thiR period) there were ^ve differefit eoiH 
stitutiotis in the duchy (if Meitiingen. lu Mei" 
ningen fUielf, the dake bad granted a new oirtF' 
In 1894, but both Bildbarghausen and the Co* 
barg provinces had constitations of their own. 
In the bailiwick Kranichfeld) the Gonstltiition of 
Gotba, and in the bailiwick Kamburg , that of 
Altenbnrg was in force. Th« system of admi«^ 
nistration in these different provlncds was ettaatlf 
distlsict. in order t« obviate these diserepanciesy 
and to place ait his territories ander one for«i 
of gOTernment, the doke of Metningen first ap* 
pointed ft comtnission, and subseiiuentiy samMDn^ 
HI the prlvyMsonncilioT Schmid, a profossor lit 
Jena, to his assistance. The plans and whole 
system of the latter are contained in » series 
of edicts, and in a new fandamentai law of Au^ 
gnat 29, 1929. The con^ittftimi of the higher 
(y/llces of goventment presents nothing remar- 
kable. The privy councii fofttis a Kind of legis* 
latlve coiimiltilee, •( which foreigners of talent 
afid distinction nmf also be memtter*. Thfe great 
nattbef of provincial jadge-shlpa have been ab«* 
Hsbed, 9t united ta tfaese 6f the towns. Tho 
penal law Is adwititstered by the ordinary jud- 
ges, and the enciro officers ai*d their own police. 

Th« territory of Meinhigen is composed of 
mouiifi«l«M and valleys, m some parts wher* 
flte Black rorest extends, amd wMre th^ Tftn- 
rttfigtan forest joins the VlchCalgclilffge , U la ex- 
tfemdy I'ough and uncultivated. The growth of 
corn does not equal the demand, and it is the- 
refers Imported from Bavaria. The chief pro- 



dacts of the country are potatoes, flax, tobacco, 
tome hops and turnip-seed, good fruit, and an 
Immense quanty of wood, which is a stable ar- 
ticle. There are iron-mines, yielding 17,000 cwt. 
yearly, salt-works, and marbte-pits. 

The articles of manufacture are porcelain, glas- 
ses, colotirs, potash, and slates. The principal 
exports are iron-ware, slates, mill-stones, tobac- 
co, salt, and wood. 

The capital of this duchy is the toWn of Mei- 
ningen, which contains 600 houses, knd 6000 
inhabitants. It boasts of three pala^s, a thea« 
tre, built in 1831, a senate-house, in which there 
is a public library, a riding-school, a pariK, and 
an orangery. There is also a library belonging 
to the duko, a museum of natural history, a col- 
lection of coins, pictures, and prints; also, the 
Bentinck-Donop cabinet of antiquities. 

The other iiubUc buildings are, the Casino or 
club-house, the new gymnasium, and new hos- 
pital. There are beautiful walks in the park, 
and in the whole neighbourhood ; the former six 
leagues in circumference. 

The other principal towns in this state are, 
SaalfeM, remarkable for its lyceum, mint, and 
manufactiures, with a population of about 4000 ; 
Sonnenberg, With 2400, famous for its cheap toys 
and other fancy articles, very extensively expor- 
ted ; Poesneck, with 3000 inhabitants, and a por- 
celain manufactdry; Dreisslgacker, noted for its 
forest-school: Liebenatein, and a few others. 

Bfeiningen is remarkable, in modem times, aa 
the birth-place of Adelaide, the queen-dowager 
of England, who is. equally dear to the coan- 
trymen whom she quitted in her )^utli, as to 
the ^nhjetts among Whom siie has since become 


natoralized. In an age in which a certain class 
of writers are so eager to sneer at royalty, it 
is gratifying to hold forth the character of this 
illustrious wdman, against whom the genius of 
malice has never been able to propagate a ca- 
lumny. To more authentic and more popular voi- 
ces than my own, I shall intrust the record of her 
character. The following is a brief extract from 
the "Conversations-Lexlkon/' a work notoriously 
written on what is called the liberal side. 

''From her childhood quiet and unostentatious, 
she spent the greatest portion of her time in the 
cultivation of her mind; but in the circle of her 
family, she was always animated and cheerful. 
Her aversion to vain show, and to . the -follies 
of the gay world, increased as she grew older, 
and she manifested the most decided opposition 
to the moral laxity and irreligion which at one 
time were countenanced at several German courtiS. 
Tofl^ether with her mother, she was 'extremely 
active in establishing and superintending schools 
for the lower classes, and in alleViating the diis- 
tres<<es of the poor both in the capital and through* 
out the country. She was the soul of every 
institution which bad the good of her fellow- 
creatures for its object^." 

A later tribute was delivered by the archbishop 
of Canterbury, at a public meeting held soon after 
the death of William IV. I am happy in having 
an opportunity of rescuing such impressive words 
from a fugitive newspaper. 

"It is not many days since I attended on his 
late Mi^esty during the few last hours of his 
life, and truly it was an edifying sight to wit- 

* See tlie article "Adelaide/' in tlie ''Convereatiou- 
Lexikon der Neueeten Zeit and Literatur," vol. i. 


ife» the |ntlenc« with which he endured Buffe- 
rings tb<» most oppressive; his tha»lifulne9S lo 
the Almighty for any aUe\'atioBS qnder the mo^t 
painful fti»orders; his sense of each eare palil 
him; the afisencs of all expref<sions "of impa- 
tience; his assiduity in the Uiscliarge of every 
public duty to the ntmosC of his power; hi« 
attention to every paper that was brought tu 
l|im; the serious state of his mind, and his de« 
votion to his religieuM duties preparatory to bis 
departure for that luippy world to which he ho- 
ped that he had been summoned. Three diffe- 
rent times/' said his Grace, *Vas I called into 
bis presence the day before his dissolution. He 
reteived the sacrament first; on my second sum- 
mons I read the church service to him, and the 
tliird time, it appeared that the oppression un- 
4«r which he laboured prevented him from Join- 
ing oatwaHUy In the service, though he appear- 
ed smuilble of tha consolations which I read 
to him out of Qvr religloos service. For three 
weeks prior to his dissolution, the queen had 
sat by his bedside, performing for him every of- 
fice which a sidL man could require, and depri- 
ving herself of all manner of rest and refection. 
She underwent labours which I thought no or- 
dinary woman could eiidore. No language can 
do justice to her meekness, and to the calmness 
of mind which she sought to maintain before 
the king, while sorrow was pre>'ing on her heart. 
Such constancy of affection was, I think, one 
of the most interesling Npectacles that r.uuld be 
presented to a mind deHirous of being gratified 
with the sight of human excellence/' 





Xhe ducal hquse of Sitxe - AUenbiirg is of 
the Lutberan religion. Ttie present duke, Jo- 
seph, bom in 1789, succeeded bis father in 
1834. He married, in 1817, Amelia, daughter 
of DuKe Lewis of Wurtemberg, by whom he 
has four daughters. He has two sisters : Char- 
lotte and Theresa, the former married to Dnlce 
Paul of Wurtemberg: the latter to the King of 
Bavaria: and three brothers: George, married, 
to Princess Maria of Mecklenburg -Schwer in; 
Frederick; and Edward, married to a princess 
of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. 

The tw.o divisions of the duchy, East and 
West-half of Altenburg, contain 23."^' , Geogra- 
phical square Miles, 121,266 inhabitants, 8 
towns, 2 market towns, 458 villages, 19,856 

The principal towns are, Altenburg, (13,800 
inhabitants}, Ronneburg C46403, and Eisenberg 

The inhabitants are all Germans, except 10,443 

642 DuciTk or »axk-.4i<tknbitii«. 

VattdAls, \\hi>t however, are now quite Germmi- 
ized. There are 150 Catliollcs In this state; 
all the vest of the population is Lutheran. 

There are a superintendant-general, 6 special 
superlntendants , 130 pariMhes , aiMl 79 filiaie, 
or smaller communities not having a clerjryman 
of theilr o#H> ahd h^lhcr kleoirpolniled le some 
neighbouring parish. 

thM M a |^]fhiliisiutti , A lyifteniii, 8 town- 
mHi^)oI« y H glrii'^dbhooi • ah Ihstltutfon fur the 
(tsitt^tli^tll bf inoMb fhddtliiM, a seminafy for 
schoolmasters , a erblidol for dMiWlhg , aiid ohe 
for* trade and art. 

The revt^mie ameahta annaaHj' to 360,428 
dollars And the expendfturo to 250/460 dollars. 
Tlie eiVH list i* 8&>200 dOfartf, and for the 
exiieiissa for the courts ^; 65^440 dbiiftrs liaire 
li^n allbwed. The Whole hlndnnt of the |>uhliis 
deht ia 796>085 iloHara; the liltereiMs 27,600 
dollats. The s«m allowed n>r the sihktais hmd 
during the years 1837, 18a8> 1889, and 1840 
in 61,180 doltail». 

. The eo>itfngoHl til the army af (he cealbde^ 
rany to 982 meh. 

The government is a monariehr'y Which fit J^ 
mlted hy « dlet> eoaaisting of liiepotlee of itttb* 
lea, eHizertSi and peasants. The eoahtllflHeh 
now in folree has b«t»n giranted Ih 1831 i 

t%« aiinlsteia ai«) a presideirt ef th6 cImu»* 
ber of finance, a president of the oonsistofir^ 
ahd a pi^esldent of the goveniatfDnlt. 

The chlbf officam of donrt are^ a grand haata- 
man, a grand marshal, and a grand eqherry. 



i^ohur'tt is « cbmilry wliicli iias been as yet 
liiUe visited by tjravellers, bKAu^e it does not 
111» tn tbik cOtirBb Of tAe gr««C FdAtlS; Dm XM 
fine M;e»ery^ tb^ uiisophistiteted and orl«r)nal 
old Geriuan time af nannerS) tlie economical 
MM^e o^ llViitg> ami tlit; oeli^brity nf its reigning 
faniUy, will probably gradually attract many 

the daeal house oT BiOre^Cobdirgi-Oettaa is «r 
the LutlMran rbiigielK Th« reigning ddke id 
Kni#sfe^ Mi-n ianaary 2^ 1784> wbb bnrceeded 
to the tlirone, December 9, 1%M* He was miHr^ 
rjed» lirst) to ia«ttisa, princeiMi of fiax^Qotiia, 
frMN wbem . M wns separated in 18!)6, and wIm 
died in 1833^- and, adeandi^, Ui 1898^ «o Ma- 
riA, daugliter of the late OMKe Aleoiander of 
of Wartembbrgi He has two aatos: Bracat, tHa 
heir-apparent, bom June 21, 1818; 4Md Alberf^ 



born the succeeding year. Of his two sisters, 
Julia, married to the Grand-^Duke ConstAntine 
of Russia, fromivhom she was divorced in 1820, 
is living in the envirous-uf Berno, in Switzer* 
land; the other is Victoria, duchess of Kent, 
born August 17, 1786. He has also two brothers, 
Ferdinand, born 1785, and Leopold, king of the 
Belgians, born 1700. The former has three sons 
and one daughter; the eldest son, Ferdinand, is 
married to Donna Maria, queen of Portugal. 

The following is a view of the provinces of 
the duchy and of their population: — 




•» • 





« « 



«• ^ 






"3 oo 









Coburg . . 







Gotba . . . 









The principal towns are, Gotba C 18976 Inha- 
bitants), and Coburg C^OOT). With (he exr^p- 
llon of the Jews, all the Inhabitants are Ger- 
mans, and all are Lutherans, exeept 2000 Ca- 
tholics and 1000 Jews. 

In this duchy, there are three gymnasiums 
and clasifical schools, one .academical gymnasi- 
urn, two seminaries for schoolmasters, one la- 
dies' school, Cat Coburg), one commercial school, 
three Sunday schools, 85 town schools, and 800 
village schools. 


From the Ut of July 1835 tv Jtinv aOth, 
1836, tile i«veiiue of the duchy amounted to 
257,272 dollars, and the expeadlture to 226,014 
dollars. From July 1836 to July 1837 the re- 
veiiued Hihounted to 215,678 dollars and Ihe 
expenditure t» 20^,311 dollarH. The publt€ deht 
amounts to 850,000 dollars, bparing 43,500 dol- 
lars interests Afier the separation of Saalfeld 
and Lithteiiberg from the duchy, the revenue of 
the latter way he estimated at 160,000 dullars 
and its puhlie debt at 80,000 dollars. The con- 
tingent to the army of the confederacy is 1366 

The government is a constitutional monarchy ; 
the representatives form one chamber only. Go- 
tba, however, has. still its old diet Ctbree clas- 
ses In one chamber3. The qualification to vote 
for a deputy of the nobles is constituted by 
the possession of a seignorial estate QRiUerguty 
For the deputies of towns, every citizen Is en* 
titled to vote who has never been a bankrupt-, 
and who has not been punished for (ransgrea* 
sloB of the laws. 

In the villages, the householders form the 
constituency. The deputies must be of the Chris- 
tian religion, citizens of the state, thirty years 
of age, and men of unblemished reputation. Those 
of the (owns and villages must have either an 
estate IVee from incumbrances, worth 5000 flo- 
rins, or an annual income of 400 florins. Offi- 
cers of the government appointed for the ' pur- 
pose, superintend the election of the knights 
and of the citizens ; in the villages, the ele<titions 
are superintented by the ordinary officials. 


The ministry is. composed of one minister of 
state, and of three privy-couiiciKors. 

The highest court of justice is the supreme^ 
court of appeal; tlie lower courts are the colle- 
ges of justice at Coburg and Gotha ; and final- 
ly, throughout the country, justice Is adminis- 
tered by bailiffs, magistrates, and patrimonial 

The chief officers of the court are, a first 
marshal of the court and a grand equerry. 
- -The present duJce of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was 
formerly duke of Saxe-Saalfeld-Coburg, but, in 
1826, he ceded Saaifeid and obtained the duchy 
of Gotha, with the exception of the lordship of 
Kranichfeld. After this change of territory, one 
of the first acts of his government was the crea- 
tion of a prWy-councii, consisting of the oflS- 
cers of government both in Coburg and Gotha. 
A decree of October 30, 1828, established in 
each duchy a separate college of justice, which 
takes cognizance of matrimonial matters, for- 
merly falling under the jurisdiction of the con- 
sistoriar co*urt. Each duchy has its own system 
of internal administration, taxation and excise. 
On the otiier hand, for both Coburg and Gotha, 
there is only one high consistorial court for 
ecclesiastical affairs and for public instruction, 
and only one war-office. According to the new 
regulations, the fees which were formerly claim- 
ed by the officials are now the property of 
the state. In 1830, a journal was establishea 
for the more prompt promulgation of laws and 
edicts. On the Ist of July, 1829, the army was 
re-organized, so that the soldiers of both duchies 
C1366 in number} were made to form one in- 



fantry regiment of tbe line, divided into two 

The fonds for the preservation ahd increase 
of the hooks, pictares, and coins at Gotha, have 
been lately enlarged. The governmeni has par- 
ticalarly distinguished itself in encouraging trade 
and commerce. Monopolies were abolished in 
Coburg, so early as 18i;2; in Gotha, in 1829. 
Sxhibitions of home products, and trade schools, 
have been established; and all impediments to 
eommerce have been removed. 

The French revolution of 1830, produced a 
temporary sensation in Coburg and Gotha, which 
led to no important results. But in the distant 
principality of Lichtenberg, which had been ce- 
ded to the duke, by the congress of Vienna, in 
1816, its effects were such as not only to dis- 
quiet the inhabitants, but also to weaken tho 
moral force of the government. Aw^ken^d by 
these circumstances to a sense of the difficulty, 
of governing a separate territory, inhabited by 
a restless population, the duke of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha sold in 1834 the principality of Lichten- 
berg to the king of Prussia for a perpetual an- 
nuity of 80,000 dollars, per annum. 

Hi this duchy, no preference is given to birth 
in electing officers of state. Difference of reli- 
gion does not affect the equal enjoyment of po- 
litical rights. Bv^ry citizen is bound to serve' 
for a certain period in the army, should . he be 
chosen by lot, or to find a substitute. No citi- 
zen can remain in arrest for the space of twenty- 
four- hoars without being Informed of the cause 
of his apprehension.* 

d4d BtCnY 09 SAXtt-COBVMG-^OtHA. 

The territories of tHe 4uke of *GotiiA tie kk 
Ttiaringia; thej- are extremely fertile, well tviU 
tlvfttetft ftnd thlekiy pofmlated. Agrictlltiire is 
fhelr prittefpal sowee of prosperity. The nor* 
them ilistrlcts «re platM, intersected hy elMliis 
of hills; tte sontfa is moantatnoiis and woo«y. 

The prtfielpal prodaets are corn, potiM««8) car« 
fots, aM other vegetahteS) flax, poppies^ ani« 
seed, woad, and an Inmense ^luiitty ef wtfod, 
whieh is the staple aHieie. A few hops are 
grown ; there is not much flrolt, and the wine 
is 9iity made for vinegar. There are plenty of 
plg» and poiilti^', hat the horses are of an Iih 
ferrior hreed. The covntry contains nrfnes of 
iron, mangftfiese, coal and slate. Thenre are 
numerous worsted -spttin'ors and linens-weavers, 
particfalafly iir the Mlly districts. There are 
Hfso Woollen and cotton manafsetorfes, hot they 
as'e not very numerouii. Other articles of trntk- 
nrufheture are, irOft\mre, wire, e«p)^er goods, 
stoclrings; tobacco, grue, leathei^, and soai^. There 
are 'lire paper-mills, three iftorcelaln^ anrd thre^ 
hardware manafnctories; 

The exports are eom, wood, wonf, woAd, 
manganese, i^lteh^ pdtash, hflherrl^, dorlander* 
seeds, aniseed, butter, lliidnj iron' gooAi>, sau- 
sages, and livers of geese. 

Gohur^, Che eapltui of the prfiscipalify of €d« 
mnrg, and formerly tfhe rMidencd of Hie duke; 
fs sivaated in a defightfnff eou«tr> ; R eoofhfiii^ 
mere than 800 houses, aud libdttt 9000 likhaA*- 
tants. One of the most irrdMtflerit i»ttMie bull- 
dings is the palace o# Bhrehborg, M whMi thi^ 
present duke has made large hnprordiMiits. It 
now contains a library, a cabinet of natural 

hvcnr of sAXK-coBUBo-eoTHA. 649 

history, of medals anil prfats, and an armoary. 
In the neighbourhood of the town is the castle 
of Coburg, wliich contains a workhouse, and a 
bouse of correction. In the town itself is a 
gymnasium, supplied with a library, with spe- 
cimens of natural history, and medals. There* 
are a senate house, an orphan asylum, a casino, 
an armour^', and a government house, built 
In an Italian style of architecture: Amongst 
the curiosities of the place are IiUther*s room. 
Which contains some bi^autiful woodwork, and 
the alabaster monument of Duke John Frederic, 
in the church of St. Maurice. The principal places 
of amusement are the theatre, the casino, the 
redoute, and the musical club. In the neigh- 
bourhood, are the beautiful old and now^ walks, 
the ruins of the castles of Callenberg andLauter- 
burg, and the lovely seat of Che duke, the Ro- 

Gotha, the capital of the duchy of Gotha, and 
also a residence of the present duke, contains 
about 1300 houses, and 13,000 Inhabitants. The 
palace of Friedenstein contains a very good li- 
brary, a collection of coins, a museum of natiK 
ral history, a Chinese cabinet, a picture gallery, 
and remarkable coUeclions made by the late 
duke, — the whole forming a treasure of iltera- 
titre and art, such as few moderate towns can 
boast of. In 1824, the museum which was gi- 
ven to the country by the late duke, Frederic, 
was opened. The ducal llhraries contain 150,000 
volumes. The walls and fortifications of the 
town have been changed into ornamental walks. 
Near the town is the observatory on the See- 
berg, 1189 feel above the level of- the sea. In 



the nei9libottrik««d 4 Uo, is tli« palace of Fcie^ 
ricluitbal, containing^ some valuable monuments 
of Italian art, and the Orangery and Park, where 
the Dnkes Ernest and Augustus are buried. 

The chief places of amusement and public 
resort here, are the theatre, balUroems, and pu- 
blic gardens. In the neighbourhood of Gotha 
are, two ducal palaces, and the Moravian colony 

The house of Saxc-Coburg is indisputably the 
most fortunate of all the existing great families 
of Europe. No common lot has attented them 
in our time, and they appear destined to fill a 
remarkable place in modern history.. The reign- 
ing duke has succeeded to the inheritance of 
the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, which he eiUoys in 
addition to his original sovereignty of Coburg, 
His brother, Leopold^ was born under an extra- 
ordinary star; he first married the heiress to 
the British throne, and subsequently a daughter 
of the king of Uie French; two ladies not lesa 
amiable than elevated; and, after declining the 
throne of Greece, he has been chosen king of 
Belgium. One sister espoused the grand duke 
Constantine of Russia, and thus in the ordinary 
coorse of events would have become empress 
of alt the Biissias. The history of another sis- 
ter, the duchess of Kent, is too well known t« 
require comment; she is the mother of the qneen 
of Bn^nd. Another brother has married one 
j»f the grc«t«st heire«3e8 of the Austrian empire, 
the daughter of the prince of KohAry, and ooca- 
pies the high pest of lieutenant -fieldmarahal, i« 
the service of the emperor. FinaUy, a nephew 
of the duchess of Kent is King of Poitugal. An 


impartial review of the progress of this distin- 
guished family compels us to add, that it does 
not owe Its success to unworthy Intrigue; its 
members bear their great estate with prudence, 
with good sense, and with moderation; and 
their dcmestic qualities form an antidote to the 
venom which generally pursues a career of success. 





; !, ~, 

Tlig hIMorteji of Hanover and Brauswick are 
Indissoluhl)- euniiecteJ to a very late period. C«M 
Hanover). In (lie yexr 1S90, liowerer, we 
find Ike territories nf the present dncil family 
of Branawlck inally separated from thoie of 
tUe hoDse or Hanover, and under (he daminion 
at tliree prlneeHi viz., Rndoir AuKiutiia , dnke 
of Brunswbk; Antbony Ulric, dake of Walfen- 
buttelj and Ferdinand Albert, dake of Bovem. 
Tbese duvbiea were fiiaUy nniled under Feidt- 
nand Albert of Bevem, In 173& who wax unc- 
ceeded, tbe same year, by bia Hon Cbailea, 
tvbose excellent administration and admirable 
cbaracter secured bim the lasting alTectioD of 
Ilia BubJecl>L The Brunswick hospitals are pro* 
nilnent monuments of his benevolence; he waa 
also the foander of Ibe excellent school called 
the CoUtglwH Carolinum. This prince died In 
1780, and was succeeded by bis son Cbarlea 
AViliiam Ferdinand, whose name la celebrated 


in the liistory of the ^arly German war against 
revolutionary France. This prince was one of 
the heroes of the Seven Year's War , and hin 
uncommon bravery at the battles of Hastenbeck 
and Crefeld, gained him the applause and es- 
teem of Frederic the Great. 

On ascending the throne, he prosecuted the 
Improvements of his father; protected and en- 
couraged the cultivation of the arts and sciences, 
and was an active advocate of the education 
of his people. Subsequently, he accepted the 
command of the imperial army against France, 
which be held until 1794, fighting with various 
success, but al\i'ays with the same zeal and 
intrepidity. He now devoted himself exclusively 
to the welfare of his duchy till the year 1806, 
when the fatal day of Jena found him at his 
post, and when he received the wounds of which 
he died shortly afterwards at Altona, November 
10, 1806. 

I«eopold, the brother of this unfortunate prince, 
cannot be passed over unnoticed, on account of 
his singular benevolence and philanthropy. He 
was educated by two of the most extraordinary 
men of bis time, Jerusalem and Leasing, the 
latter of whom accompanied him on 'his travels. 
After having for some time borne arms in the 
Prussian service, he took up his abode at 
Frankfort on the Oder, where he lived in the 
constant practice of charity and benevolence. 
He was the father of the poor, whose cottages 
he loved to visit; at fires or inundations, he 
Was always the first to rescue tliose in danger, 
and combat the progress of the calamity. Be 
was drowned in attempting to save the lives of 


•one- follow- creaUuret. Several moiutiiients at 
Frankfort tranaiuit to posterity a knowledge of 
tlie love aDd veneration with wliick ke was re- 
garded liy his grateftil contemporaries.. 

Wiiliaat Ferdinand wassneceoded by his youn- 
gest son, Frederic William, who, however , -did 
nnt enter upon the^ government till the year 
1818, as even before the death of his father 
the dnchy had been oceupied by Napoleon, and 
was shortly afterwards incorporated with the 
new Ungdom of Westphalia. In the mean time, 
he took an active part in all the wars against 
-France, and was made prisoner with Blacher's 
corps at Lubeck, in 1806. On his liberation he 

j retired to Brachsal, where, in 1808, he lost his 

dnchess, the Princess Eliaabeth of Baden, by 

I whom he had two sons, Charles and Wiliiam, the 

, present dakes of Brunswick. In 1809 he com* 

meneed the heroic career, to which his name 
chiefly owes its glory : at the head of a gallant 
body of soldiers, he commenced an unremitting 
war against his adversaries, nothing daunted 
by their numerical superiority. He forced his 
way through Westphalia ^ to thie shores of the 
Baltic, and then took ship for Spain, where he 
fought in the British ranks till 1813: then he 
returned to Brunswidc covered with glory, bat 

' was quickly recalled to the ield of action by 

Napoleon's return f^om Elba, la 1815; on the 

16th of June of which year, the hero /oil at 


^A regency was now appointed in the dachy 

\ of Brunswiok, which carried on the gov<»rnment 

till the Bu^orHy of Duke Charles, in 1823. One 
' of the first acts of this prince, on ^is acceston 

D«ciiT OF •ttiWswicK. 665 

to the throne, was to reproach hia guardians 
with ft deelaration that his minority had been 
BiiJustly prolonged; he then rendered himself 
very obnoxious to his subjects by various arbi- 
trary proceedings. In 1830 he visited France, 
and returned to Brunswick, August dO; when, 
instead of taking measures to allay the irrita- 
tion which prevailed there, he recalled the sol- 
diers who had leave of absence, and placed 
cannon in the streets. Shortly afterwards, the 
duke was besieged in his palace by the populace, 
whom his hussars did not succeed in dispersing 
till late at night. On the 7th of September ano- 
ther tumult took place, and the duke, being in 
imminent, danger, fled, accompanied by a few 
soldiers. The mob tiow set fire to the palace, 
which , with all that it contained , was entirely 

The next day a national guard was formed, 
and a deputation sent to Duke MHlliam, the 
younger brother, praying him to accept the crown. 
He entered the town shortly afterwards, sur*^ 
rounded by the authorities, and welcomed by 
the people. One of his first arts was to dissol- 
ve the late ministry, and to convoke the states- 
general, and having b^en acl<nowledged by the 
relatives of his house, and empowered by the 
Diet at Frankfort to retain his authority, he 
was proclaimed ruling duke of Brunswick, April 
25, 1831. * 

* Tliese partiouUrs ijBlatir* (o th« r^volvtion of Bruas- 
wirk, ar« talieo from the Staats Lexikoo of RotUck 
and Welker farticle Braunschweig) , but an tliis in a 
recent piece of hintory , the actors still alive , and no 
variety of aiithorities exist to be consulted^ wo have 
•milted oovortl paaaagcs and plirases extremely severe. 



Tlie ruling familj' oi Branswick is of the Im- 
llieran religion. The present duke .is Wiiiiam, 
born April 25, 1806, who, after the flight of 
liis brother Charles, ascended the throne Sep- 
tember 28, 1830. 

The following is a view of the districts of 
Itie duchy and of their population: — 

2 « 


ID 1833. 





• if 















Srhoniiigen . 







Harz .... 







Weser . . . 







Total . . . 













The population in 1832 amounted to 245,783, 
according to official returns; and there were 
41,609 families. About one-third of the terri- 
tory is covered witU wood. 

The present duke possesses , as mediatized 
territory, in Prussian Siiesia, the principality of 
OeLs, which contains 37. ^'^ square miles, and 
90,000 inhabitants , eiglit towns , one market- 
town , and 337 villages : the revenae of this 
piincipality is 170,000 florini|. 

Tiie principal towns are , Brunswick C35,340 
inhabitants), Wolfcnbuttel C83103 , and Helm- 
stedt C62733 Mlth the exception of the Jews, 
all the inhabitants are Oernians: 242,700 are 

DiTcnv or BRvNtwrcK. 657 


LntheranH , 2500 Catholics , 100 Herrnhuters, 
aiid 1400 JeWM. 

There are seven Lutheran superintendant-ge- 
neralships, 29 Huperintentfantships : 23d parishes, 
and 398 churches and chapels, three Catholic 
congregations, and one belonging to the Reformed 
church; and 4 synagogues. 

The educational institutions are, a lyceum, 
two pedagogioms , six gymnasiums, 63 town 
and 369 village schools. 

Tlie amount of the budget for the years 1837, 
1838 and 1839, as agreed upon by the assem- 
bly of the Sates, is 3,307,020 dollars, or an- 
nually 1,103,204 dollars. 



Surplus from the Domains * . . . 436,162 

Direct Taxes 1,807,559 

Indirect Taxes 1,209,807 

Tolls i»c V 147,339 

Feudal Dues 1,950 

Post 75,000 

Pawn-broking-establishments . . . 3Cf,000 

Lottery 31,147 

Accidental Receipts 59,056 

Total 3,307,020 


Public Liabilities 10,500 

The Ministry 74,808 

Envoys, ««rc 10,625 

According to the agreement ibade in 1883 between 
tli« Dulie and the Stateii the civil list baa heen fixed 
at 237,000 dollars which are taken from the revenues 
rf the domafns. 

058 99CUY er BRUNgwicft. 

Expenses for the mainiauiance of 

several privUedges of tlie crown 7,572 

Assembly of the States 22,830 

Ministry of Justice . 407,571 

Ministry of Finance 331,360 

The Army . 879,834 

Interior Administration ...... 134,146 

Public buUdings 494,160 

Pensions 367,432 

Interest of the Public Debt, sin- 

. king fund, 4tc 535,420 

Extraordinary Expenses 130,71 2 

Total 8,307,090 

The net revenues of monasteries and endowed 
seiioolfl C^}605 doUariii) pay the expenses of 
the church and of public instruction. 

The. contingent to the army of the confede- 
racy is 2096 men. The army consists of 1625 
infantry, 299 horse, and 172 artillery and pio- 

Thd form of gevemment is monarchical and 
representative. The Diet is composed of two 
chambers, or sections, of which the higher con- 
sists* of six prelates, and the proprietors of 78 
.seignorial estates; the lower, of six prelates, 
19 deputies of towns, and 19 of the other 
landed proprietors. 'Females are excluded from 
the succession, but only as long as a male re- 
presentative of the ruling family exists. 

The Northern part of the duchy of Brunswick 
is an undulating plain with very slight eleva- 
tions; the Southern districts are composed df 
the mountains o^ the Harz. In (he North, the 

bucHY oif bhunswick. 659 

soil is extremely fertile, but in the South, the 
greaier part of it is sterile and stony. 

The principal products are corn, beans, buck- 
wheat, tumipseed, poppies, potatoes, chicory 
CI 25,000 cwt.,7, tobacco C7000 cwt.D 7 flJtx, a 
staple commodity (84,000 cwt.3) hops, not for 
their excellence C^OOO cwi.)) And wood. The 
duchy contains 87,000 oxen, 51,000 horses, 110 
mules and asses , 259,000 sheep , 8300 goats, 
47,000 pigs, a great quantity of poultry, and 
10,500 beehives. 

The mineral kingdom In Brunswick affords 
lime, plaster of Paris, macble, alabaster, pipe- 
clay, jasper, chalcedony, granite and porphyry, 
salt, saltpetre, coal, sulphur, asphaltus, iron 
C62,000 cwt.3, silver, copper, lead, quicksilver, 
arsenic, zinc, and cobalt. 

There are manufactures of wollen and linen 
goods, of paper, leather, tabacco^ cl^corj', and 
mineral acids. 

The principal exports are of worsted , linen, 
corn, linseed-oil, chicory, leather goods, wood, 
hops, glass-paper, wool, tobacco , soap, tallow, 
hemp, and flax. The imports are spices, East 
and West Indian goods, raw material fish, or- 
namental articles, butter, cheese, cattle, and 





J. he ruling family of Meekleiiburg- Schwerin 
Ks of the Protestant religion. Tlie present grand 
iluke is Paul Frederic, who succeeded his grand* 
father, Frederic EVancis ; be was born September 
lb, 1800, and he married, May 25, 1833, 
Alexaiidriiia, princess af Prusi»ia, by whom lie 
has (wo »on8 and one daughter. The grand 
duke has one sister; Maria, born in 1803, mar* 
ried to prince George of ^axe-rAlteiiburg and a 
lialf-sister; Helena, born in 1814, married to 
the duke of Orleans. 

He has an uncle, Gustavus, who is cathedral- 
"capitular** at Magdebhrg, and an aunt,-. Char- 
lotte Frederica, married in 1784 to the Prince 
Christian Frederic of Denmark, from whom she 
was separated in 1812. 

The followiirg is a view of the provinces of 
.Mcekleiiburg-Schweriii^ and of (heir population: 

Accorillng t<> a cenrua maiJe since 1B37, tbe 
etillre |.opDlBtiDii was 487,499. 

In 1635, mere were 8719 male,' and 8259 
femtle MrlbJii ; o( the wliolu uf which, 2070 
were Illegitimate: lliere u-ere 11,341 deaths, 
Cnut incladliig the still-born], of which 5634 
were or mates, a»<l A407 ur remaluB. 1599 
peraous dle<l at mure Ihaii seienly yearx uf age: 
tbere weie 3646 marriages; and 10,564 elill- 
dren were vonSroied. 

The principal towns are, Rautucn (18,381 in- 
haliitnnlK), Scliwer in (13,035), IVlanar (10,090), 
CiiKlruw (SUSO), ParcUini (5690). 

\Mth the exception uF the Jew*, all the in- 
hatiltutits are German*. With respect to religion, 
463,632 are Lutherans, 643 CaChuIii-s, 140 
muiubera of the Refurmed Chiirch , and 3134 

. There are 6 Lutheran dioceses, 32 superiii- 
lendaiitships I Prapotltui-eaJ, 3(9 parishes, 395 
rliiitrhcs , and 3 Catholics p.irishes. 

Ttie eduratiDjiHi iiisiitallons are , the uiilver- 
' sit) uf Ituatock, Hi which there were 110 stii- 
deiHM in 1830, 5 gimnasluux, 41 iirincipat 

663 DCCHY OP MK€ILl.«N«UH«-fiCHW|(f|ll«. 

town- schools, a seminary for preaebers, and 
one /or sehooluasters. - 

The revenue is 2,300,000 • florins. The pub- 
lic liebt amounted to 9,500,000 florins, [n 
1837, 150,000 doUars have been applied to pay 
ofi* part of It. 

The army in composed of 4 battalions of In- 
fantry, 1 of artillery, and a regiment of light- 
bt>rse. The contingent to the army of the con- 
federacy is 3580 men. 

The form of government Is monarchical and 
representative. The diet, which is united to that 
of Strelitz, has important rightif, and is com- 
posed of holders of seignorial estates, and of 
the autorities of the 41 towns. The constitu- 
tion is based on contracts made in 1572, 1613, 
and 1675, between the sovereign and the states. 

The ministers of state are, a president of the 
privj'-council, two privy councillors, and a coun- 
cillor of flnance. 

The chief officers of court are, a marshal, a 
marshal of the house, and a grand -equerry. 

The inhabitants of Mecklenburg are an able- 
bodied race , with light hair and blue eyes ; 
generally thin during their youth, but after 
thirty predisposed to corpulence. Tliey are im- 
moderate eaters, and make C^ith the exception 
of the higher classes) Ave meals a day. Hoff- 
man assures us, that what a peasant devours 
at the first of his two breakfasts, would serve 
most persons for one whole day, and a small 
eater for three. The country- people are nut 
fond of vegetables, soup, or beer ; their favour- 
ite dishes are solid meat, and they are much 
addicted to spirits. The costume iu many parts 


is peculiar: the women, wearing a gay lifaU- 
dress; the nieU) hroad-^bri aimed hats and gaiters. 

The agricultarai class in its ^different divisions, 
is more analogous to that of England, than is 
the case in other parts of Germany; its richer 
members are called by the Baron von WercU^ 
'^geatlemen farmers." The peasant generally, 
though now emancipated , have more or less 
the character of serfs. The clergymen, (ami-* 
liarly called pastors dPastoren^ are much more 
liberally supported in Mecklenburg, than In Sou- 
thern Germany: they are most of them rich 
enough to keep a carriage of some kind, a lu- 
xury , of whicb very few clergymen of Wur- 
temberg or Baden can boast. 

The inhabitants are passionately addicted to 
gambling, and are remarkable .f4)r making heavy 
bets on trilling occasions. It is at cards that 
they chiefly stake their money; with dice they 
are quite unacquainted. The country-people are 
very superstitious, and their belief in witches 
and spirits is still, in a great measure, unsha- 
ken. On May day, it is a common custom with 
them to chalk three crosses on the doors of 
their stables and farm- yards, to preserve the 
cattle from being bewitched. They attempt to 
prophecy the nature of future events, from the 
form which- molten lead assumes when poured 
into water.. On New Year's eve, they look 
through the handle of an old key at the roof 
of the house, where, if one of its immates is to 
die during the succeeding year , they believe 
they shall see a black coffin. At Saster, and 
In many parts at Michaelmas, there are town 
and village horae-races, whexe the victor is re- 

WHTileJ with a rlcbly ornxmenteil ccown, wkldi 
b^ w«Hrs nn the tap of his bat: be b calleil 
(be king, nnd ll(^ Heconil - beat rideni an alau 
digiilfled with lurty tUten. The tain, throagh- 
out the ducby, htc the Teams af friends and 
old acquaintances, wbo onlj' see one anotAer 
on meb ' oicasiotiB. Tbe rsvoarlte amusenents 
of Ilie lown'a-iienple are HhoellnK at a tnsrlt, (a 
diversion cummnn (hrnuelioat Germany,) and 
skittle*. A (rent orcasiau of popalar rejulcing, 
i« the driving nut of the cattle rrom the tint- 
jardK nt fprlng-llde: ivhen the young ateers are 
allowed to fight, and soBietlaies to mortalir 
woand each other. In (be autumn, dances In 
the open air are i ery common , particularly at 
the O'e-harveat. 

Marriages are -itelayed by the conscription, 
which (akefl place in the twenty - second yetr, 
and by military service for six years. The pat- 
ties must also have a dwelling. Without wblcb, 
a elergj'man I9 not perrultted to marry them. 

The family a{ Hecklenbarg Is, with the fa- 
mily of the Capets, the most ancient relgnlnfc 
, house of Eurnpe. It Is the only sovereign 
Iwuse of Sciavonlan origin now. In existence 
It wna a royal husse before it waa princely, 
independenC before It united itself to the empire, 
. and a member af (be empire before II became 
again Independent in the bosom of tbe Oeniianl<r 
cuu federation. Its reigning princes have far a 
long time borne the tillea of dukes, anil since 
1816 have taken that of grand dukes. Ttie 
Oenuan genealDUl.HiK maiie them descend ftoni thr 
Sclnvunian pilncen of the race Wende, or Wan- 
dallqiie, of Ihe IrttM of Obotrltes. At'CorriInK 


to tliem tlielr origin may be traced back to 
Witssan, the cbief of that tribe. 

From Micislaa down to the present da)*, this 
family reckons twenty-eight generations. It has 
contracted alliances with nineteen sovereign sta- 
tes, and with twenty -three sovereign families, 
of which fifteen still exist. It has received the 
bloud of twenty reigning houses through thirt}'- 
one princesses. Russia gave it a niece of Peter 
tJie Great, and a daughter of Paul I.; Sweden, 
a daughter of Gustavus Wasa; Denmark, a grand 
niece of Canute the Great, king of England; 
and Prussia five princesses, among whom Is 
Alexandrina, wife of the reigning grand duke. 
Its blood has been mingled with nine foreign 
sovereign houses, who have intermarried with 
fourteen princesses of Mecklenburg. It gave to 
Busssia , the Regent Anne, mother of the Czar 
Iwan; to England, Charlotte, the worthy queen 
of George III.; to Denmark, Louisa, consort of 
Frederic ly. ; to Poland, Lnitgarde, consort of 
Przemislas II.; to Prussia, Sophia Louisa, con- 
sort of Frederic I. ; and Louisa , the late admi- 
rable consort of the reigning king, Frederic 
William III.' It gave a king to Sweden, tliroagh 
Margaret, who made the treaty of Calmar, in 
1397. In fine, having become allied wltu ele- 
ven daughters or sisters of kings , it has given 
seven queens or regents to Russia, England, 
Poland , and Prussia , and recently a wife to 
the heir -lipparent to the throne of France, in 
the princess Helena, who promises by her higii- 
Jy cultivated and amiable character tu emulate 
the queens, whom Mecklenburg formerly gave 
tu Eugland and Prussia. 


DUCKY O* MltCllli1»Nftl'a»-SC?llWKHI«. 

The reignlBg duke ^f M«c]cl«nb«rg-Sctaw«riii, 
Is son -in law to tbe present kingr of Prassia; 
nephew to William, king of Hollimd, whn mar- 
ried tbe Princess Wilbefmina) sister of the king 
of Prassia, brother-in-law to tbe Emperor Ni- 
obolas'Of RiuMda, wtio married Gluirlotte, the 
daoghter- of Frederic William III., and his ne- 
phew by his mother, the' daughter of Paul I. 
&e is also nepliew to William, prince of Orange, 
heir to tlie throne of tlie Netherlands, wko 
married Anne , Bister of the Emperor Nicholas ; 
also nephew of tbe Archduke Joseph, palatine 
of Hangary, uncle to the present emperor of 
Austria, who married Alexandra, siatnr of tlie 
Grand Ducbess Anne. Finally, he is nephew tu 
CharlM Frederic, grand duke of Saxe-Weimar, 
who married Mary, slater to tbe above-mentioned 
princesses. Such are the family connexions of 
the reigning grand duke of Mecklenhurg-Schwerui. 






Xlie roling family of MecklenbDrg-StreUtz to 
of tbe Protestant religion. Tlie present grand 
duke is George, liorn August 12, 1779, wlio 
sacceedeil to tlie tlirone, Nov. 6, 1816, and was 
HUirrled, in 1817, to Maria, daugliter of tlie 
Landgrave Frederic of Hesse-Cassel, by wliom 
lie lias two SSBS and two daughters; Frederic, 
tHe heir-apparent, was born Oct. 17, 1819. Of 
the duke's two slaters, Theresa, princess of 
Tham and Taxis, died later)'; the other is Fre- 
deriea, queen of Hanover. 

The grand duchy comprises an area of 86.^^ 
square miles; viz., of 29.^^ in the principality 
of Ratzebiirg. The population at the end of 
1886, was 85,257. There are 9 toHnns, of which 
New Strelitss contains 5767 inhabitants, New 
Brandenburg 6003, Friealand 4433; and Old 
Strelita 8089; there are also 2 market-towns, 
219 villRges, Cin 185 of which, there are f;hur- 
ehes3, 245 dural e8tat«*s and domains, and 65 


allodial and feudal estates. In 1835, there were 
1118 male, and 1127 female births; 850 deaths 
of males, and 762 of females; and 571 marria- 
ges, in the duchy of Strelitz. Of the births, 
259 were illegitimate. In the principality of 
Ratsebtirg, there were 544 births^ of whicli^ 63 
were illegitimate; 888 deaths, and 105 marri- 

The population belongs almost entirely to 
the Reformed Church, there being only 655 JewK 
and a few Catholics. 

There are three classical, and llJIeal-schoola, 
and one for parish clerks, which is also a se 
■uiinary fur country-schoolmasters. 

The revenue is 500,000 florins; the public 
debt is Joined to that of Schwerin;. the amount 
of the exchequer-debt is not known. 

The army is composed of 742 men, m^o form 
a l^attaiion of infantry, and a coatiMuuio of 
linssars ; the contingent to the army of the con- 
federacy is 717 men. 

The goTemment is monarchical, and exactly 
similar to that of Schwerin, coi^ointly with 
the diet of wliich its representatives form one 
chamber. The families of Schwerin and SCrellte 
are bound by familj'-contracts of 1701 and 1755. 

The officers of government are, a aiinister of 
state, a counciUor, and a secretary of state. 

The officers of the court are, a grand master, 
a house -marshal,' and a^ marshal of the court. 

Tlie grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Sftrelitz is a 
level countr)^ with very few ele%'ations; it con- 
tains several lakes. Its principal products are 
com, pulse, flax, hemp, hops, fruit, potatoes, 
turnips, tabacco, and wood; its aniaial produces 


are horses, oxen, sheep, swine, geese, game, 
and fish. 

Its manufactures are not very numerous ; the 
most remarkable are of linen, tabacco and leather. 

Almost all the inhabitants are Lutherans, and 
the 55 livings under the direction of 5 syn(»ds; 
the number of clerg>'men is 66. The depart- 
ment of public instruction is under the direction 
of the consistorial court. At the head of the 
department of Justice, is the supreme court of 
appeal; under it is the chancery of Justice; be- 
sides these, there are 8 town - magistrates , 4 
balUlTs, and the patrimonial courts. 

Several particulars at the close of the prece- 
ding chapter apply equally to the inhabitants, 
and to the reigning family , of Mecklenburg- 
Strelitz and of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. ' 




The grand -ducal house of Oldenbarg ia of 
the Lotheran religion. The present duke ia Att« 
gustua, horn in 178$, who aueeeeded to tha 
throne In 1829. He haa been three timea awr- 
ried; first,' to Adelaide, princeaa of Anhalt- 
Bernburg-Srhaumburg ) who died 1820; aecoad*- 
ly, to Ida, the aiater of hta late wife, wha died 
1828; and, thirdly, to Ceeflia, daughter of Ooa- 
tavua Adolphus IV., formerly king of Sweden. 
He haa two daughtera by his first wife, of whom 
Amelia ia queen of Greece; one son, Peter, the 
heir-apparent, by hia second; and one by hia third. 

The following is a view of the provincea of 
Oldenburg, and of their population: — 

. Oldenburg with 

▲reft in Geog. 1 
Sq. Miles, i 

P opaUtion. 










Kniphausen . . 
Lubeck or Butin 
Birkenfeld .... 



* 207,800 

** 19,970 







Total .... 






* According to the census of 18SS. 
** According to the census of 18S8. 


III <he 4B£liy of Oiilenburg itaelf, tbere weto 
7052 birtb* in 1833; of these 3646 were male, 
and 3406 female; there were only 4852 deaths. 

The nass of the population are Lutherans, 
hut there are 70,880 Catholicji, and 23H mem- 
tiers of the Reformed church. 

Wth tlie exception of 980 Jews, all the in^ 
liabitants are Germans. 

There is a Lutheran superintetidant - general- 
ship, 8 svperiiidantships ; and 101 parishes. 
There is a superintendant of the Reformed church 
and 4 parishes. The Catholics have a general 
deanary and 37 parishes. 

There are 2 gymnasiums, 4 classical schools, 
a normal school, 2 town schools, a seminary 
for schoolmasters, and a military academy. 

The revenue is 1,500,000 florins: there is no 
public debt. 

The army consists of 2 regiments of infantry, 
1 \ batteries of artillery, and a corps of land- 

The contingent to the army of the confede- 
racy is 2820 men. 

The government is monarchical without re- 
presentatives. The law of primogeniture regulates 
the succession, from which however, females are 

There are two cabinet-ministers, and two pri- 
vy-councillors of the cabinet. 

The chief officers of court are , a grand 
equerry, a grand chamberlain, a marshal, an 
equerry, and a vice-grand- master. 

The general aspect of this country is low, 
sandy and marshy ; and it is intersected with 
canals and dikes, which are necessary to drain 



off lll« wMer, and lo pratect It agAimt InundH- 
tlon. Althongb AgrtcHlture la th« dilcr pnmK 
of tke InhnbiUnta , It JK iaiil not to raise com 
enough for Its dameStlR Wants. Oldenburg', the 
capital. Is a well- built elt>-, witb 5603 inhM- 
(snts; it baa a line cathedral and new palacei 
In- lis vicinity bave been feund coloaMl busks 
of stone, and iitber relics of tbe ardent Inba- 
bitants of tbe Nortb. 

The reignhiK tamily Is one of the oldest In 
Earope; tbe flrst count of Oldenburg built tbe 
city of that name In 1155, and bis poilerltr 
have swayed tbe sceptre of Denmark. 




The dQcal house of Nassaa is of the Reform 
med church. The present duXe is William, bora 
June 14, 1739; he succeeded to the throne of 
Nassau- Weiltmrg in January, 1816, and to that 
ef Nassau-Usingen in March, of the same year. 
He married, 'firstly, Louisa, princess of Saxe- 
HildbHrghausen, who died in 1825, and, ceeondly. 
Pauline, daughter of Frince Paul of Wurtemberg, 
He has seven children, three sons, and four 
daughters. Adolphus, the crown-prince, waa 
horn July 24, 1817. The duke's eldest daugh- 
ter, princess Theresa, is married to prince Peter 
of Oldenburg, nephew of the emperor of Russia, 
and a lieutenant-general in the russian service. 

The duke has one brother, Frederic, who ia 
in the Austrian army, and three aunts, viz« 
iiouisa, dowager princess of. Reuss-Greits, Ame- 
lia, dowager princess of Anhalt-Bernhurg-Schaum- 
hurg, and Henrietta, widow of Duke Lewis of 

The area of ibis duchy, not including the 
streams of aU sizes, is 82'^ German square miles. 





■n.l>»k. . . 




Din . . . 




Bin.A.n ■ 




BI»ilU . . 







Bttum . . 







Huekbii- . 




ntchM . . 




IJlHU. . . 








LiBV..« . . 

H«ri«ll(Tg . 



1.832 . 


















B..k.i . . 







S«llcr< . . 




[T^Dp- . . 




W.ll««* . 




Wtkaa . . 




Wnlkwi . 









S 316 


»CCHV 0# NA8SAI7. 675 

With resyefi to ciiltivatioiiy tlie land is divi- 
ded as follows: — 6545 morgens (acres') are 
e«eapied by farm - yards ; 7473 are gardens; 
703,004 are ploughed land; 196, 1 20 are mea^ 
dows: 15,543 are vineries; 1251 are ponds; 
736,377 are woods; 106,981 are triescMand and 
pasturage ; 40,247 are uncultivated, or are occu- 
pied by roads, 4:c. 

lu 1833, there were 12,942 births, of which 
6690 were nialeH, and 6252 females; 9063 per- 
sons^ died, f. e., 4557 males, and 4506 females. 
There were 3367 marriages. 

According to the census made in April 1838 
the entire population of the duchy was 379,272. 

The principal towns are, VVlesbaden, which, 
contains 9004 inhabitants, and Biberich, which 
contains 2859. The inhabitants are all Germans, 
with the exception of the Jews, and of a few 
descendants of French Protestants. With respect 
to religion, 196,387 of the inhabitants are Pro-' 
testants, 167,800 Catholics, 184 IKIennonites, and 
6003 Jews. 

There is one bishop of the Protestant churchy 
20 deaneries, 178 parishes, and one theological 
seminary (hi Herborn}., Of the Catholio church, 
there are one bishop, and one episcopal cbm- 
missarlat, 15 deaneries, 133 parishes and ohe 
theologicui seminary Cat Liniburg}. 

There are three pedagogiums in Nassau, one 
gymnasium, one seminary for schodlmasters, one 
institution fur the deaf and dumb, one agricul- 
tural school, two ileal-schools, and one military 
academy. There are 658 school-districts, in which 
there are 844 teachdvs. Mr. James, in his work 
#n the educational instiluthms of Germany, sta- 

676 BiTOHV oir nassap. 

tes that, in idSS, ea»635 scbolam were inatrae- 
ted in the sehools of these 4i8trict8, wkile abeat 
ftOO youths were edacated in the higher gevw»- 
ment eatabUsbments, and a conafdenihle nnmber 
in the private scboola of Nasaaa, amongst wliich 
are aoiae of the best iif Germany. This givas 
an average of abont one scholar to six of tlie 
population, 77 scholars to each teacher, and 98 
scholars to each school. 

The annual revenue of the daehy is 1,810,000 
florins. The public debt amonnts to &,000,000 
florins. The debt of the domains, at the end of 
1830, was 7,217,164 florins. With the consent 
of the States, a loan has been made in 1837; 
its amovnt is 2,400,000 florins hearing d p. c. 

The army consists of two regiments of infan- 
try, one battalion of artillery, half a company af 
pioneers, one battalion of reserve, one garrlaon, 
and one driU. company. 

• Tlie contittgeBfe to the amy of the confede- 
racy is 8028 men. 

The goverament is monarchical and canatitn- 
tionaL The representatives are divided into two 
benches, the rights and privileges of which are 
established by the constitution of 1817. The 
••accession is hereditary, to the exclusion of fe- 
rn Ales* 

The ministry of state is ooavased of a mi- 
nister of state, anci of three miaisterlal caaa- 
cUlors. The council of atate eanaiata , at pre- 
sent, of the grand haatanuui, the ex«prealilaat 
of the supreme court ef appeal, the chief of the 
war department, the dIreetor-genenM of the ta- 
xes, the viee-presideat of the chamber of acconata, 
the president of the country -government, the 


president and vice-president of the supreme court 
of appeal. 

The chief officers of the court are, a grand 
huntsman, a grand chamberlain, a grand equerry, 
and a marshal of the court. 




jLhbrk are three dukedoms of Anhalt,* viz., 
Anhalt-DessRu , Anhalt-Bemburg, and Anhalt- 
Cdthen. The ruling families of all of tbem are 
of the Protestant religion. 

The, present duke of Anhalt-Dessan is Leo- 
pold , bom October 1, 1794, who succeded bis 
grandfather , Leopold , in 1817. He married, in 
1818, Frederica, daughter of Prince Lewis of 
Prussia, by whom he has two children, Frede- 
rica , and Frederic , the heir apparent, bom April 
29. 1821. 

The reigning duke of Anhalt-Bemburg is Alex- 
ander Charles, l)om 1805, who' succeded his father 
Alexias, in 1834; in which year, he married 
Frederica, princess of Schleswlg-Holstein-Son- 
derburg-Glucksburg. His sister Louisa is mar- 
ried to Prince Frederic of Prassia. 

The present duke of Anhalt-COthen is Henry, 
born 1778, who succeeded to the throne, in 
1890; he married, in 1819, Augusta, ofReuss- 

The following is a view of the division.s of 
Anhalt, and of their population: — 




- • 

Area in 


















Auhalt - Bern- 

Upper Duchy i 
Lower.Diicliy \ 

Total . . 






1 6,547 




Acording to the census matle in 1837, the 
entire population. of the duchy of Aiihalt-Dessau 
amounted. to 60,945. 

The mediatized possessions of the duke of 
Anhalt-DeHsau , whicb are all allenaible except 
the bailiwick of Walternienburg , conprehend 9 
square miles, and contain 53 villases, 1600 
houses and 12^000 inhabitants. The principality 
of Piess, in Silesia , is a possession of the se- 
cond son of the house of Cdthen, and belongs 
iio>v to Prince Lewis, brother of the reigning 
-duke. It comprehends 19 square miles, and 
contains 2 towns, 2 marftet>-towns, 91 villages, 
. and about 43,000 inhabitants. The possessions 
in the south of Russiu aAoitnt to about 10 square 
miles, and are now permanently united to the 
duchy of Cdthen, by the- will of the last grand duke. 

Tlie principal towns are, Dessau CM, 749 in- 
. habitants) , Zerbst C9201), Coiheh C60353, 
Bernburg C5995}. The inhabitants are all Pro- 
testants, with the exception of 1050 Catholics, 
and 2000 Jews. 


oyiuiivwi or AJSUAUj. 

32 of tliiii; Befomed cMrch) and 3 Catholic; it 
Bernburg, 42 of the eraogellcal church; in Cd- 
then; 28 of tiie Reformed, |9 Lutheran, and 1 
Catholic. If Deesau, tjiere are 2 gymna;8iiim3, 
in Bembnrg 1, and in COthen 2. 

BeTenue. Puhlie D«b««. 

Florins. Florias. 

Id Dessau, 600,000 l,aOO,0(M> 

Berttbuiv VK^OOO 600,060 

of the daks) ... 1 

T»Ul 1,900,000 5^100,000 

The oMitingent of Ddasau to lh« amy o# the 
confederacy is 529 men; ofBernhurg, 870; and 
of Cothen , 325. 

The foim of govemment is monarAical, h«c 
the fight of taxation ia Aared by the oM dial 
of the dnehy. The aaceesaion is hereditary, lo 
the exfilu4ioD of feauAea, The diet (Ltmd9eliafV} 
is coaipoaed of two eommitteea; the irat con- 
taioa four landconndllora for Bernbarg, Cdthea, 
Oesaan aad Zerhat, and Che bargomaaters af 
those towns; the second oonalsta oftWelye poa- 
aesaora of seignorial estates, .and of d^atiea af 
the four abovementioned towns, eiiSht in nomhar. 
The raiaiitera are, in Deaaao, a presidant •f the 
gavecment , and a directar of the exehaqaap. In 
Bernbarg, they are the sane, and there ia alao 
a prlv3'-council. InCdthan, they araalaa the same. 

The chief o/lcera in the canrta of jlnhalt nre, 
a marshal of the eavrt,- a master of the taane, 
and a rapitain of the castle. 



.govkhnmknt; oppickks op oovkhniunt, and op 


Xhe ralinfi^ family of Scbwarzburg-Sonders- 
haaBen is of the Lutheran reli|(ioti.' The reigning 
prince is Qnnther, born September 24, 1801, 
who succeeded to the crown, on the resignation 
of his father, 1835; and who married, first, 
Maria, princess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, who 
died in 1833; and secopdfy, Matilda, priQcess 
of Hohenlohe-Oebringen. Ho has three children 
by his first wife, Elizabeth, Guntber, and Leo- 
pold, and one by his second, Maria. 

The territory of this state comprehends 16**'^ 
German square miles, and is divided into 7 bai- 
liwiclcs. The population is 54,080. The popula- 
tion in 54,080. The capital, Sondershauseii, con- 
tains 3600 inhabitants; and Amstadt, 4843. 
There are 7 market-towns, 83 villages, and 
8000 houses. The inhabitants are all Lutherans, 
with the exception of 200 Catholics. 

The revenue is 400^000 florins, and the public 
debt, which amounted to the same sum, a few 
years ago, has been reduced to 79,673 dollars. 


In 1883, the direct taxes were 75,123 dollars; 
but in the sncceediniif year they were diminished 
to 48,891 dollars, and at present they amount 
only to 32,862 dollars; The badget for 1838 
states the Revenue at 99,936 dollars and the 
fixpwidltiire at only 94,411 dollars. 

The contingent to the army of the confederacy 
.is 451 men. 

The government Is monarchical, and there has 
existed a diet since Deeembre 28, 1830. 

The officers of government are, a chancellor 
and president of the consistory, a president of 
the chamber of finance, and a councillor of the 

The chief officers of court are, a grand hunts- 
man, a grand eqaerry, and a captain of the 




^The rnling house of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 
is of the Lutheran religion. The present prince 
is Gunther, hprn November 6, 1793, who suc- 
ceeded to the crown, under the guardianship of 
his mother, in 1807, and who assumed- the reins 
of government in 1814.. He married, in 1816, 
Augusta, princess of Anhalt-Dessau, and has 
two children, of whom the eldest, Gunther, the 
heir*apparent, was born in 1821. He has a sis- 
ter, Thecla, born In 1795, princess of Schdn- 
burg-Waldenburg ; and a brother, Albert, mar- 
ried to a princess of Solms-Braunfels. 

This state contains 19*'^ German square miies, 
and is divided into 11 bailiwicks. Th^ entire 
population Is 64,239. There are, 7 towns, 1 
marlcet-town, 155 villages, 8 castles, and 10,281 
houses. The town of Rudolstadt contains 4000 
inhabitants; Frankenhausen, 3900. All the in- 
habitants are Lutherans, with the exception of 
150 Catholics and 167 Jews. 

The revenue is about 208,330 dollars: the 
public debt Cnot Including the exchequer debt} 
amounted, in 1896, to 80,152 dollars. 





Xhe family of Hohenzollern is tbe parent 
tree of the present Prussian dynasty. Tbe most 
remote Imown ancestor of this race was Tbas- 
silo, count of Zollern, who died aboal 800. 
His descendant in tbe eigbt generation bad two 
sons, Frederic and Conrad; tbe latter became 
marcgrave of Nuremberg in 1200, and bis grand- 
nephew Frederic, was made, in 1277, a prin- 
ce; — from this last personage, the royal house 
of Prussia is descended. 

The ruling family of HohenzoUern-Hecbingen 
is of the Catholic religion. Tbe present prince 
is Frederic, born 1801, who succeeded to tbe 
throne in September 1838, and married 1826, 
Eugenia, princess of Leuchtenberg. 

This principality comprehends .6'f, German 
square miles. Tbe population is 21^000, who 
are all Germans and Catholics. There are four 
towns, one of which, Herhingen, tbe capital, 
contains 2800 inhabitants; 25 vUIages, and 2420 
houses. Not far from Hechingen the traveller 
discerns the ancient castle of Hohenzollern, the 
cradle of the ruling family of Prussia: its lofty 
site commands a wide range of scenery. 


contingent to 1 

It Is monarrbical, and ri 

lilies form (be reptesenW- 
> ehasen by the Ihe (own 
of Hecbingen, and. 10 hy tbe caunCrj-pariabes. 
Tbe lUcceMloa to tbe llirone, in botb Hoben- 
zalleroi, is regulated by the cantract of 1575, 
and by tbe FamUten-Intlitut, of 1621, wbicb 
was guaianteed by the kltie oF Prussia, as tbe 
bead of tbe bouae. Tbe law of succesaiun ex- 
cludes females, till tbe last male represenUlive 
of tbe bDQSe, In eltber of three linea, ia deceased. 

Tbe ministeis are, a president of tbe govern- 
ment, a privy-couiicillor, and a director of tbe 

This la a mountainous region; furesui darken 
and variegate lis beighta, widle its valleys ari^ 
fertile, and iiroduce a sufficient supply of corn 
for tbe Goosnuiiitioii of (be Inbabitsnls. 


CHAPTBR Xlillt. 



M.he ruling family of Hohenzollern'<^iginarin- 
gen is of the Catholic religion. The present 
prince is Charles Anthonj^ born 1785, who suc- 
ceeded his father, Anthony, in 1831, and mar- 
ried, in 1808, Antoinette Murat, niece of Murat, 
kins: of Naples. He has three daughters and 
one son; the latter, Charle.*;, the heir- apparent, 
waa bom in 1811, and married, in 1834, Jo- 
sephine, princess of Baden. 

The area of this state is 18'" square miles. 
At the end of 1886 the population was 42,542. 
There are 4 towns , 7 market-towns, 70 villages 
and hamlets, 8 castles, and 7107 houses. With 
the exception of 100 Jews, all the inhabitants 
are Catholics. The capital, Siginaringen, has a 
population of 1400. Besides this principality, 
the monasteries of Beuren and Holzheim in Ba- 
varia, and the lordships of Boxmeer, Dixmuiden, 
Berg, Gendringen, Elten, WtRch, Pannerdeii and 
Muhlingen in the Netherlands and Belgium , are 
also possessions of the prince of Sigmaringen. 




ThUi oiwleiit iw4 disUngaiBlied family is 
descended fr^iA Asio IV., of fiste, wlio died ia 
1037. Ttie principality is situated a few leagaea 
soatli oi tbe lake of C^nstaiiee, on tlie banks of 
the Rhine; is an agreeable district,- containing 
line forests, and rearing a considerable namber 
of horned-cattle. The prince maintains a guard 
of honour and a company of grenadiers. 

The house of Lie<ditenBtein is of the Catholic 
religion. The present prince is Aloys, bom in 
1796, who succeeded his father, John, in 1836. 
He married, in 1831, the Countess Francisca de 
Paula von Kinsky, by whom he has three 
daughters, Maria, Caroline and Sophia. He haa 
six brothers, five of whom are in the Austrian 
service; and four sisters. 

The territory of Liechtenstein comprehends 2^* 
German square miles; but the mediatized prin- 
cipalities and lordships belonging to the prince 
of Liechtenstein, include 104 German square 
miles: they are situated in Austria-Proper, Mo- 
ravia, Silesia, Bohemia, Hungary, and Styria. 

In Liechtenstein, there are 5800 inhabitants, 
who are all Catholics. It contains tW4> market- 



towns, of Which Vaduz has 697 intaabitanU. 
There are 9 vilTai^es, 5 castles, and 1207 houses. 
The mediatized possessions contain 24 towiur, 
35 market-towns, 756 viUages, 46 castles, and 
about 600,000 inhabitants. 

The revenue of the prince is more than 
1,200,000 Horins of which the inhabitants of 
Liechtenstein pay 5000 florins; the domains of 
that Rtate produce 17,000 florins. 

The contingent to the army of the confederacy 
is 55 men. 

The government is monarchical, and has been 
constitutional since 1818: the representatives 
form one chamber. 

The officers of government for the principality 
are, a conrt-counciUor, and a chief bailifl' CO^^*- 
vogQ at Vaduz. 




All the princes of Reuss are of Uie Protes- 
tant religion. The heads of the different fami- 
lies are as follows : — 1 . Henry XX. , pruice 
of Reuss - Graiz , born 1794, succeeded to the 
throne 1836, married, 1834, to Sophia, prin- 
cess of Lowensteiu-Wertheim- Rosenberg; 2. 
Henry LXII., prince of Reuss-SchieitK, born 1785, 
siiGceeded his father 1818; 3. Henry LXIV., 
prince of Reuss - Schleiz - KOstritz , born 1787, 
succeeded his father 1814; 4. Henry LXXII., 
prince of Reuss-Lobenstein and Ebersdorf , born 
1797, succeeded his father 1822. The family 
of Graiz is the elder line; all the others are 
members of the younger, or Schleiz. 

The following is a view of the divisions of 
Heuss, and of their population: — 

I. ReuM (elder linO . 

II. Reus* (younger line) 
Reuss-Srhleis . • . . 

•nd Ebemdorf 
Gert (in common) 

ToUl .... 








262 1 13,280 


In 1885, tlie lordsiiip «f Dreyflslg, in the 
Weissenfels circle of the Prussian dukedom of 
Saxony, fell to the prince of Lobenstein-Ebers- 
dorf, who took pomession of it, June 9, 1885. 
It consists of 24i villages. 

The principal towns of Reoss are, Gera C9050 
Inhabitants) , and Graiz (63003. The popula- 
tion is entirely German, with the exception of 
800 Jews ; besides whom and 400 Herrnhnters, 
all the inhabitants are Lutherans. 

The revenue of Gralz is 140,000 florins; of 
Schleiz 300,000 florins; of Lobenstein 310,000; 
and of K«stritz 60,000. 

The contingent to the army of the confederacy 
is, 206 men for the elder line, and 538 for the 

The gevemment is monarchical and constitu- 
tional. The diet consist of three deputies of 
the nobles, aud four of the towns, for Graiz; 
of three of the nobles, and three of the towns, 
for Sehleiz; of the same, for Lobenstein and 
Eberstforf; and for Gera, of six deputies of the 
nobles, and two of the town, Gera. 

There is one minister at Gralz , who has the 
tftle» of president of Uie prince's cabinet, of the 
government, the exchequer, the consistory, and 
the department of taxation. At Sehleiz, and 
at Ehera^otff the cabinet consists of three in- 

At Reass- Graiz, there is a marshal of the 
roart; at Sehleiz, a marshal of the house; at 
I^obenstein and Ebersdorf, a marshal of the 
house, an equerry, and a court-cavalier. 

Gera is the chief place of the principalities 
of Reuss; it is a handsome town, containing 


11,000 inhabitants, and carrying on active ma- 
nufactures and trade. In the jieigtabonrhood is 
the magnilicient valley of the £lster. The agree- 
able baths of Ronneburg are in the vicinity. 
The waters are ferruginous, and are used both 
internally asd externally. 














Xbe ruling family of Lippe la of tHe Pro- 
testant, religion. The present prince Is Leopold, 
born 1796, who, under the guardianship of 
his tnother, succeeded to his father, April 4, 
1802. He married, 1820, Emilia, princess of 
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, bom April 28, 1800, 
by whom he has eight children; Leopold, the 
heir-apparent, was born 1821. The prince has 
one brother, Frederic, who was bom in 1797, 
and is now an ofificier of the Austrian army. 

The territory of Lippe comprises 20.^ square 
miles, aiid is divided into 12 bailiwicks. The 
population in 1828, was 76,718. There are 6*/, 
towns ^, 6 market- towns, 44 parishes, and 
12,218. houses. Itie capital, Detmold, contains 
2400 inhabitants. The inhabitants, with the 
exception of 5100 Lutheran