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Full text of "Gettysburg College Catalog"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/gettysbu198788199192gett 



KMi 



Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 




Catalogue Issue 1987/88 



Table of Contents 

1 A Statement of Purpose 

5 Gettysburg College— The 
Community 

17 Academic Policies and 
Programs 

Academic Purposes, Honor Code, 
Curriculum, Advising System, 
Credit System, Degree 
Requirements, Residence 
Requirements, Registration, 
Grading System, Academic 
Standing, Transcripts, Withdrawal 
and Readmission, Transfer Credit, 
Exemption from Degree 
Requirements, Individualized Study 
and Seminars, Senior Scholars' 
Seminar, Computer Courses, 
Teacher Education Programs, 
Off-Campus Study, Additional 
Off-Campus Programs, 
Preprofessional Studies, Dual- 
Degree Programs, Senior Honors, 
Deans' Honor Lists, Prizes and 
Awards 

63 Courses of Study 



141 Campus Life 

Student Life, Office of Student Life, 
Residential Life, Greek Life, Dining 
Accommodations, Student Conduct, 
College Union, Student 
Government, Programming and 
Student Activities, Campus 
Communications, Counseling 
Services, Career Services, Health 
Service, Religious Life and Chapel 
Programs, Athletics, Academic 
Services and Information Facilities 

153 Admission, Expenses, and 
Financial Aid 

Admission Policy, Comprehensive 
Academic Fee Plan, Board, Room 
Rents, Payment of Bills, Housing 
Policy, Refund Policy, Insurance, 
Student Financial Aid 

169 Register 

Board of Trustees, Administration, 
The Faculty, Other Instructional and 
Administrative Personnel, Calendar, 
Statistical Summary, Student 
Retention, Endowment Funds 

191 Index 



The provisions of this catalogue are not 
to be regarded as an irrevocable 
contract between the College and the 
student. The College reserves the right 
to change any provision or requirement 
at any time. This right to change 
provisions and requirements includes, 
but is not limited to. the right to reduce 
or eliminate course offerings in 
academic fields and to add 
requirements for graduation. 



GETTYSBURG April 1987: Volume 77 
Number 5 

GETTYSBURG (USPS 218-120) is 
published monthly in August, 
October and December semi- 
monthly in April by Gettysburg 
College, Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
Second class postage paid at 
Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to Printing Office, 
Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 
17325-1486. 



A Statement of Purpose 
Gettysburg College 

Chartered in 1832 for the express purpose of exerting "a salutary 
influence in advancing the cause of liberal education," Gettysburg 
College is a community committed to the discovery, exploration, 
and evaluation of the ideas and actions of humanity and to the 
creative extension of that heritage. Gettysburg College cherishes 
its place in history as the oldest existing college affiliated with the 
Lutheran Church in America and intends to continue that church 
relatedness. By intent also, Gettysburg College is nonsectarian in 
its instruction and strives to serve students of all faiths. 

To meet its commitment, Gettysburg College seeks foremost to 
establish and maintain an environment of inquiry, integrity, and 
mutual respect. In this setting, the College creates opportunities for 
students to learn specific intellectual skills and to strive for 
breadth of understanding. A rigorous program of undergraduate 
learning in the arts and sciences is complemented by student and 
religious life programs designed to challenge and enrich the 
academic experience. 

Gettysburg College considers its purpose fulfilled if its students 
grow as critically informed, humane, and creative individuals and 
continue to grow in these qualities after they have left Gettysburg. 

The Academic Program 

At the heart of Gettysburg College is the academic program which 
stresses logical, critical thinking and clear writing and speaking. 
Through a curriculum that derives its coherence from the traditions 
of liberal education, faculty introduce students to the assumptions 
and methods of a representative variety of academic disciplines in 
the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. Students are 
encouraged not only to specialize but also to broaden their 
understanding of the past and present intellectual, social, and 
cultural contexts within which knowledge lives. The academic 
program is designed to provide more than skills and intellectual 
perspective; it places these in a context of humane values such as 
openmindedness, personal responsibility, and mutual respect. 

The Gettysburg faculty is dedicated to the goals of liberal learning, 
committed to professional development that serves and 
exemplifies those goals, responsible for periodic review of the 
curriculum, and eager to teach and learn with students in an open 
and trusting exchange. 

Gettysburg's academic program can reach its full potential only if 
our students continue to have the ability and the inclination to 
profit from an intense liberal arts experience. The academic 



environment is further enriched when such students come from 
many socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds. 

With a coherent curriculum, an able and dedicated faculty, and 
students committed to learning, the academic program seeks to 
free students from narrowness and provincialism and to free them 
for the joys and benefits of conscious intellectual strength and 
creativity. Gettysburg wants its students to learn a wise 
skepticism and a sense of human fallibility, to acquire new 
interests and orientations through liberating experiences of change 
and growth, and to learn to use the skills, knowledge, and values 
of a liberal education in an unending but satisfying search for 
wisdom and fullness of life. 



The Student Life Program 

Students entering college are interested in discovering who they 
are. Because students often face critical decisions about personal 
values, occupational choices, and role identities during their 
college years, the student life program seeks to provide 
opportunities for resolution of these important matters. To assist 
students in weighing available options and making decisions, the 
student life program offers, for example, psychological and career 
counseling and informal seminars on a variety of topics. Personal 
contact with Gettysburg's faculty and administration provides the 
attentive student with a wide range of role models to contemplate. 
Gettysburg's annual lecture series further expands students' 
horizons. 

The College also reveals its commitment to the total development 
of its students by encouraging them to play an important role in 
establishing and enforcing the conditions of campus life. Students 
supervise the academic Honor Code; students participate on 
certain trustee, faculty, and College planning and policy-making 
committees; and students fund and control many student 
activities. 

To supplement what students learn through living on campus and 
participating in student development programs, the College 
provides a full and varied extracurricular program. This program 
encourages students to develop leadership skills by working in 
student government; to deepen their appreciation for the arts by 
participating in concerts, dramatic productions, and other 
performances; to sharpen their writing and speaking skills by 
contributing to College publications or broadcasts; and to enjoy 
the mental and physical self-discipline required by competition in 
intercollegiate, intramural, and recreational athletics. 



The Religious Life Program 

Gettysburg College has partnership agreements with the Central 
Pennsylvania and Maryland Synods of the Lutheran Church in 
America. These relationships and, more specifically, the campus 
religious life program, nurture intellectual values and give 
opportunities for the examination of spiritual and moral values and 
for commitments by those who choose to make them. 

The religious life program of the College is designed to meet the 
needs of this religiously heterogeneous community to worship, to 
study, and to serve. The Chaplains, although they are employed by 
the College and report directly to the President, are called to this 
service by the synods of the Church. They assume primary 
responsibility for corporate worship; they counsel students and 
other campus personnel, help students and faculty plan programs 
to explore theological issues and to reach out to those in need, 
facilitate the work of local churches and denominational groups on 
the campus, and speak prophetically to issues of human justice 
when College values and College practice seem to diverge. 

Gettysburg College best serves the Church through its performance 
as a superior educational institution in which the Church's 
commitments and practices may be tested. 



Summary 

Through its academic program, its student life program, and its 
religious life program, then, Gettysburg College provides for the 
development of the young adult as a whole person— intellectually, 
socially, emotionally, physically, and spiritually. 

Approved by the Gettysburg College faculty: October 8, 1981 
Approved by the Gettysburg College Board of Trustees: 
December 5, 1981 







d. 





«*&?*•, 



Gettysburg College: 
A heritage of excellence 



Gettysburg College was 
chartered in 1832 during a time 
in early nineteenth-century 
America when most of the 
nation's strongest liberal arts 
colleges were established. It is 
the first Lutheran-related college 
established in the United States 
and for more than 150 years has 
offered a liberal arts education 
of high quality to students of all 
faiths. At Gettysburg, you will 
find an environment that fosters 
both academic and personal 




*#C*T^ 







growth; a highly qualified and 
dedicated faculty; and a 
diversified curriculum that 
offers challenge, opportunity, 
and excitement. 

All of the roads leading to 
Gettysburg College, in the 
historic town of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, cross the site of 
the famous Civil War Battle of 
Gettysburg. During those three 
hot July days, fighting occurred 
on the fields and ridges within 
sight of the College campus. At 
that time, Pennsylvania Hall 
(now the College administration 
building and listed in the 
National Register of Historic 
Places) served as a hospital for 
both Union and Confederate 
soldiers. It was from this 
building that Gettysburg 
students marched to hear 
Abraham Lincoln give his 
immortal address on November 
19, 1863. 



Today, Gettysburg College 
borders a 3500-acre National 
Park and lies three blocks from 
the center of town. Because of 
its historic significance, 
beautiful countryside, and easy 
access from nearby cities, the 
town of Gettysburg welcomes 
over a million visitors annually 
from all over the world. 
Consequently, it offers 
numerous attractions, shops, 
restaurants, and lodging 
facilities that one would not 
expect to find in a small town — 
even a college town. 

Gettysburg College, like the 
town of which it is a part, has 
grown since its Civil War days. 
It now has a 200 acre campus 
with 44 buildings and seeks to 
limit its enrollment to 1850 
students. 



Throughout its history, 
Gettysburg College has 
dedicated itself to the principle 
that a liberal arts education 
liberates the minds of students 
so that they can respond to the 
challenges of a contemporary 
society. Therefore, the goals of 
the educational program at 
Gettysburg are to develop your 
capacity to think logically and 
use language clearly; to give 
you a rigorous introduction to 
the assumptions and the 
methods of a representative 
variety of academic dis- 
ciplines; and to acquaint you 
with the range and diversity 
of human customs, pursuits, 
ideas, values, and longings. 

Although all courses at 
Gettysburg are designed to 
achieve these goals, the 
Freshman Colloquy in liberal 
learning lays the foundation 
within the curriculum. This is a 
course that strengthens 
reasoning, writing, and 
speaking skills in a small 
class setting while introducing 
all Freshmen to a major issue 
in the liberal arts. 

Ultimately, this type of 
education is the most practical 
of all because it teaches you 
how to approach and solve 
problems creatively. In 





addition, Gettysburg believes 
strongly that such an 
education will foster in you a 
high sensitivity to moral and 
spiritual values along with a 
quest for knowledge which will 
continue after completion of 
formal studies. 

Although training for specific 
jobs is not seen as a primary 
function of a liberal arts 
education, Gettysburg does 
not ignore your appropriate 
concern about careers. The 
College offers a career 
services program; preparation 
and certification for teaching; 
advisory services for prelaw 
and premedical students; 
opportunities for student 
internships in a variety of 
fields; and concentration in 
a major field as preparation 
either for further specialization 
in graduate or professional 
school; or for work in 
business, industry, or 
government. 

Academic programs at 
Gettysburg provide you with 
both a broad range of 
intellectual experiences and 
the individual attention you 
need to make the best use of 
those experiences. One of the 
advantages of an education 
at Gettysburg is the 
availability of small classes, 
especially in more advanced 



courses. A student-faculty 

ratio of 13:1 helps 

to assure close relationships 

between you and your 

professors. 

You may select a major field 
of study from any one of 24 
academic areas: art, biology, 
chemistry, classical studies, 
economics, English, French, 
German, Greek, health and 
physical education, history, 
Latin, management, 
mathematics, music, music 
education, philosophy, 
physics, political science, 
psychology, religion, 
sociology and anthropology, 
Spanish, and theatre arts. 

It is possible to have visited 
Gettysburg National Battlefield 
many times without ever 
realizing that it surrounds a 
substantial town of 8,000. And 
at the heart of the town is the 
marvelous campus of 
Gettysburg College. It's an 
ecclectic assemblage of 
Georgian, Greek. Romanesque, 
Gothic Revival and modern 
architecture, plus several 
styles not easily categorized. 
All blend so beautifully that 
the whole 200 acres should be 
designated a national 
architectural monument. 

Excerpt from a recent article in 
the Washington Post. 




Gettysburg lets you take much 
of the responsibility for 
selecting an academic 
program that meets your 
needs and interests. If you 
want to concentrate your 
academic program on a 
particular area of emphasis 
which involves courses in 
several different departments, 
you may design your own 
major. A Special Major can 
cover broad areas such as 
International Studies, or it can 
focus on a specific topic such 
as Community Planning and 
Administration. 

The College's distribution 
requirements assure your 
acquaintance with several 
broad areas of study. After 
you select a major field of 
study, ample opportunity is 
provided for electives in fields 
of your choice. 



You will have a faculty adviser 
to assist you in planning your 
academic program. Academic 
counseling is available, as is 
counseling for nonacademic 
personal matters. Gettysburg 
wants you to succeed, and the 
faculty and staff are dedicated 
to assisting you. 

Through membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin and Marshall 
Colleges and through other off- 
campus and cooperative or 
dual-degree programs, 
Gettysburg offers you academic 
opportunities beyond our 
campus. Off-campus programs 
include the Washington 
Semester programs with 
American University in govern- 
ment and politics, economic 
policy, foreign policy, public 
administration, justice, urban 



studies, journalism, or arts 
and humanities; the United 
Nations Semester at Drew 
University; and cooperative 
programs in marine biology 
with Duke University Marine 
Laboratory or the Bermuda 
Biological Station. A number 
of students each year study in 
foreign countries under our 
Study Abroad program. 

Gettysburg has dual-degree 
programs in engineering with 
Pennsylvania State University, 
Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute and Washington 
University of St. Louis. 
In addition, there is a dual- 
degree forestry and 
environmental studies 
program with Duke University. 
Under all of these programs a 
student begins his or her 
college career at Gettysburg 
and completes it at the 
cooperating university, 
earning degrees from both 
institutions. 

Preparation for a career in 
teaching is available through 
the teacher education 
programs. You can become 
certified to teach in elementary 
education, music education, or 
in one of 12 different 
secondary education fields. 



8 



Gettysburg offers all the 
courses necessary for you to 
enter the medical, dental, or 
veterinary medicine school 
of your choice. For students 
interested in either medical or 
legal careers, we have 
special advisors to help 
students plan their courses 
and to help them obtain 
admission to the professional 
schools they choose. 

The faculty at Gettysburg is at 
the heart of the College's 
excellence as an academic 
institution. The faculty 
members not only are highly 
skilled as scholars and 
teachers, but are also very 
much interested in the growth 
and development of you, the 
student. 

The faculty is concerned with 
continually improving their 
teaching skills. In recognition 
of the College's commitment to 
excellence in undergraduate 
teaching, funds for such 
improvement have come from 
grants from two major 
foundations and the National 
Endowment for the Humanities 
as well as from the College's 
own resources. 

Teaching occurs most 
obviously in the classroom, 
but it does not stop there. 
As a student, you will be 
encouraged to talk to your 
professors after class and 
during office hours. You will 
have a faculty adviser to turn 
to for advice or simply for 
conversation. 




■v- 




The relationship between 
students and faculty need not 
end at graduation. Student- 
faculty relations continue on 
a social as well as a scholarly 
level. If you visit the home 
of a faculty member during 
Homecoming Weekend or 
Commencement, you may find 
former students as guests. 



The first blind student 
admitted to medical school in 
the United States in this 
century was a Gettysburg 
graduate. His story was the 
subject of the motion picture 
made for television, "Journey 
From Darkness" and the book, 
White Coat, White Cane. Most 
students do not require the 
special attention from faculty 
and other students that was 
needed to prepare a blind 
student for medical school, 
but when an individual student 
needs such attention, 
Gettysburg tries to provide it. 

While emphasizing the 
teaching of undergraduates, 
the faculty is also concerned 
with scholarly achievement. 
More than 85% hold the 
doctoral degree or the highest 
earned degree in their fields, 
and many publish books and 
articles in scholarly journals. 
These scholarly activities 
assure that faculty members 
keep up with— and contribute 
to— the latest developments in 
their fields. These scholarly 
achievements thus help to 
make the faculty better 
teachers. 




Gettysburg's 200-acre campus 
provides excellent facilities for 
all aspects of college life. The 
center of the academic 
facilities is the Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources 
Center. Total library 
collections include 
approximately 300,000 
volumes, 22,000 microforms, 
32,000 government 
publications, 11,500 records, 
and subscriptions to 1,300 
journals. Musselman Library 
has an automated library 
catalog which is accessible 
through a dozen public access 
computer terminals. 



Today a college needs more 
than an excellent library. New 
instructional techniques must 
be available. Gettysburg's 
computer center has a 
sophisticated Burroughs 
computer which permits use 
in every major computer 
language to serve your 
educational needs and a 
microcomputer laboratory 
with more than 30 Apple 
and IBM microcomputers. 
The College has a modern 
language laboratory, a 
theatre laboratory studio, 
a greenhouse, an observatory 
with a 16-inch telescope, and 
a planetarium with a 30-foot 
dome on which paths of 
planets and stars are 
projected. 








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Gettysburg is fortunate to have 
both an RCA EM U4 
transmission electron 
microscope (TEM) and a JEOL 
TS20 scanning electron 
microscope (SEM) so that 
students in the sciences can 
do any advanced work for 
which an electron microscope 
is a necessity. In addition, our 
recently renovated chemistry 
building has a full range of 
modern instrumentation 
including a new Fourier 
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
Spectrometer. 

Eleven residence halls, 11 
fraternity houses, and three 
special interest houses provide 
you with variety in your 
housing choices. Eighty-five 
percent of the students live in 



College residences or fraternity 
houses. The College dining hall 
provides meals on either a 
contract or occasional basis. 

The College Union Building with 
its many features— including 
bowling alleys and an Olympic- 
size swimming pool— is a 
center of student life on the 
campus. 

Other recreational and athletic 
facilities include two 
gymnasiums, a fieldhouse, a 
stadium with a football field 
and quarter-mile cinder track, a 
physical fitness trail, and five 
additional outdoor athletic 
fields. Both indoor and outdoor 
tennis courts are available. 

The well-equipped College 
Infirmary has 9 double rooms 
for in-patients, a two-bed 
isolation room, a kitchen, 



nurses quarters, and treatment, 
examining, and consulting 
rooms. 

Although many major buildings 
on campus have been built in 
the last 25 years, the original 
campus building— Pennsylvania 
Hall, built in 1837— has been 
renovated and serves as the 
center for administrative 
personnel. Many other older 
buildings on campus have been 
renovated so that their exteriors 
retain the architectural charm of 
their period of construction 
while the interiors contain 
modern facilities. 

For example, there are 
extensive new facilities for the 
fine and performing arts. Brua 
Hall, the recently renovated 
theatre building, accommo- 
dates a 250-seat playhouse with 
a thrust stage and state- 



11 



WFfc 



\ 







of-the-art sound and lighting, 
and a laboratory theatre/ 
classroom featuring TV 
recording and monitoring 
equipment. Renovated in 1982, 
Schmucker Hall houses the Art 
and Music departments, and 
contains studios, galleries, 
classrooms, and practice 
rooms, as well as an impres- 
sive 200-seat recital hall. 

A full and diverse program of 
cultural, extracurricular, and 
religious activities is provided 
to enrich your personal and 
academic growth as well as 
to provide enjoyment and 
relaxation. 

Student responsibility is 
promoted through student 
participation in a number of 
committees, clubs, and other 



12 



organizations. Because 
Gettysburg is a residential 
college, the Student Life Council 
is particularly important. 
Students play a vital role in the 
work of this Council, which 
reviews the College's policies 
for residential life and student 
conduct. An elected Student 
Senate is the main organization 
of student government. 
Students also play a vital role 
in the Honor Commission, which 
administers the student 
academic Honor Code, and the 
Student Conduct Review Board, 
which handles disciplinary 
cases within the student body. 

The College has a full calendar 
of cultural activities. Concerts, 
plays, and lectures occur 



frequently. Student performing 
groups include the Gettysburg 
College Choir, which has 
received international 
recognition, the Chapel Choir, 
the College Marching and 
Symphonic Bands, the 
Gettysburg College-Community 
Chamber Orchestra, various 
ensembles, the Owl and 
Nightingale Players, who 
present three major theatrical 
productions each year, and the 
Laboratory Theatre, which 
performs a dozen one-act plays 
and Otherstage, which offers a 
variety of short theatre pieces. 

The College Union is the center 
of student activities on campus. 
Many events such as concerts, 
lectures, films, and dances are 
held in the ballroom of the 
Union. The student-operated 
Bullet Hole, also in the Union, is 
a snack bar that serves as an 
informal meeting place for the 
campus. 

Social events are also provided 
by fraternities and sororities. 
Gettysburg has 11 fraternities 
and 7 sororities, all of which are 
nationally affiliated. 





n addition to the social 
raternities and sororities, the 
College has many 
iepartmental, professional, 
ind honorary societies. There 
ire honorary fraternities or 
lubs for students in 16 
ifferent academic areas. 
Jettysburg also has a chapter 
)f Phi Beta Kappa, the national 
icademic honorary fraternity. 

o keep you informed about 
appenings on campus, there 
s the student newspaper, the 
iettysburgian; the student- 
iperated FM radio station, 
VZBT; and a weekly 
innouncement sheet, This 
peek at Gettysburg. The 
ewspaper and radio station 
ffer you opportunities to 
)arn about all aspects of 
Durnalism and radio 
roadcasting. Other 
ettysburg student 
ublications include The 
'Pectrum, the College 
earbook, and The Mercury, a 
Durnal of student poems, 
hort stories, photographs, 
nd art work. 



At Gettysburg all students can 
participate in some supervised 
sport. Depending upon your 
athletic ability, you may 
choose to play on one of the 20 
varsity teams, or to be part of 
the extensive intramural, 
recreation, and fitness 
program. The intercollegiate 
program for men includes 
football, soccer, basketball, 
swimming, wrestling, lacrosse, 
tennis, cross country, 
baseball, golf, and track and 
field. The golf team is open to 
both men and women. There 
are women's teams in field 
hockey, volleyball, cross 
country, basketball, swimming, 
lacrosse, softball, track and 
field, and tennis. Club sports 
include a soccer team open 
to women. The College is a 
member of the Middle Atlantic 
States Athletic Conference 
and the Centennial Football 
Conference, and enjoys well- 
balanced athletic rivalries 
with other teams in those 
groups. 

The Intramural, Recreation, 
and Fitness Program offers a 
large number of activities for 
the entire campus community. 
Some of these activities 
include club rugby, club ice 
hockey, aerobitone, water 
polo, intramural volleyball, an 
outing club, karate, and weight 
lifting. 

Student Life at Gettysburg is 
lively and diverse. There is one 
simple goal for all the 
organized activities on 
campus— to enhance the full 
range of your liberal 
education. 




After you take advantage of all 
that Gettysburg has to offer, 
you may wish to pursue 
further graduate study, enter 
your career field immediately, 
or you may be undecided. The 
Career Services Office is 
available to provide you with 
counseling, information, and 
the practical skills necessary 
for setting and achieving your 
future occupational goals. This 
office maintains a library that 
includes vocational informa- 
tion and information about 
graduate studies, offers work- 
shops on resume writing and 
effective interviewing, and 
hosts on-campus employment 
interviews with various 
companies. Its broad range of 
services can help you set and 
achieve the career goals that 
suit your particular skills, 
values, and aspirations. 



13 




Admission to Gettysburg is 
based on high academic 
achievement and evidence of 
ability to do college work of 
high quality as indicated by 
aptitude tests and personal 
qualities. The College 
welcomes applications from 
students of differing ethnic, 
religious, racial, and 
economic backgrounds and of 
differing geographic settings. 
Applications for admission are 
due no later than February 15 
of your senior year. Offers of 
acceptance are usually sent 
early in April. The College 
complies with the candidates' 
reply date of May 1. 
Applications for Early Decision 
will be considered between 
November 15 and February 1 
of the senior year with 
notification of acceptance 
between December 15 and 
February 15. 

14 



Total expenses covering 
comprehensive academic fee, 
room, board, and books and 
supplies are estimated at 
$14,280 for the 1987-88 
academic year. Additional 
costs include personal 
expenses such as laundry and 
clothing, transportation, etc. A 
generous program of financial 
aid is available for students 
who are unable to finance their 
entire education from family 
and/or personal resources. 

The College catalogue cannot 
give the full flavor of 
Gettysburg. When we ask our 
students "Why did you choose 
to come to Gettysburg?" most 
of them mention the College's 
academic programs, but they 
also talk about the friendliness 
that is Gettysburg. One student 
said it this way: "I felt so at 
home when I visited 



Gettysburg that I knew I 
wanted to go there. It seemed 
the people cared more and 
noticed me more. When you 
don't know anyone, simple but 
meaningful gestures of 
kindness are never forgotten." 

Only by visiting Gettysburg 
can you gain a fuller 
understanding of what a 
Gettysburg education can 
mean to you. As you sit in on a 
class, talk to a professor, or 
chat with students at the Bullet 
Hole, you will begin to 
appreciate all the ways that 
you can benefit from attending 
Gettysburg. The admissions 
staff can answer any specific 
questions you have about the 
College, but you also will learn 
much from the many informal 
conversations you have during 
your visit. 

If you want to visit Gettysburg 
or if you have any questions 
about the College, please 
write— or call— Delwin K. 
Gustafson, Dean of 
Admissions, Gettysburg 
College, Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania 17325-1484, 
telephone (717) 337-6100 or 
1-800-431-0803. 



A two-minute look 
at Gettysburg 

Type of College: Four-year, 
coeducational, liberal arts 
college founded in 1832 and 
affiliated with the Lutheran 
Church in America. 

Location: The College is 
adjacent to the Gettysburg 
National Military Park. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania is 36 
miles from Harrisburg, 55 
miles from Baltimore, 80 miles 
from Washington, D.C., 117 
miles from Philadelphia, and 
212 miles from New York City. 

Enrollment: About 1,850 

students— approximately one- 
half are men and one-half are 
women. 

Campus: 200 acres with 44 
buildings. 

Library: Musselman Library 
with total collections of 
300,000 volumes, 22,000 
microforms, 32,000 
government publications, 
11,500 recordings and 
subscriptions to 1,300 
journals. The library seats 800 
students, and has an 
automated library catalog 
accessible through a dozen 
public access terminals, an 
after-hours study, media 
theater, graphics center, and 
language lab. 

Faculty: 144 full time with 88% 
having an earned doctorate or 
the highest earned degree in 
their field. Student-faculty 
ratio is 13.1. 



Academic Calendar: Semester. 

Degree Programs: Bachelor of 
Arts, Bachelor of Science in 
Music Education. 

Majors: Art, biology, chemistry, 
classical studies, economics, 
English, French, German, 
Greek, health and physical 
education, history, Latin, 
management, mathematics, 
music, music education, 
philosophy, physics, political 
science, psychology, religion, 
sociology and anthropology, 
Spanish, and theatre arts. 
Students may develop their 
own inter-departmental or 
inter-disciplinary majors. 
Many optional minors. 



Special Programs: Study 
Abroad; Internships; 
Washington Semester 
(government and politics, 
economic policy, foreign 
policy, public administration, 
justice, urban studies, 
journalism, or arts and 
humanities); United Nations 
Semester; dual-degree 
programs in engineering or 
forestry and environmental 
studies; cooperative program 
in marine biology; computer 
studies; certification in 
elementary and secondary 
education; Internships; Army 
R.O.T.C; Cooperative College 
Consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin & Marshall 
Colleges. 




15 



Distinctive Features: Sophis- 
ticated Burroughs computer, 
50 Apple, IBM, and Zenith 
microcomputers; 2 electron 
microscopes— transmission 
and scanning units; extensive 
new facilities for fine arts, 
music, and drama; 
planetarium; greenhouse; 
observatory; writing center; 
extensive physical education 
facilities; career services 
office. 

National Honor Societies: Phi Beta 
Kappa (one of only 18 chapters 
in Pennsylvania) and honorary 
or professional societies in 16 
academic areas. 

Social Life: 11 men's social 
fraternities and 7 women's 
sororities; Student Activities 
Council which sponsors a 
diverse schedule of social 
events. 

Student Activities: Student- 
operated FM radio station; 
yearbook; newspaper; full 
range of musical groups 
including two choirs and 
bands, orchestra, and 
numerous ensembles; Black 
Student Union; theatre groups; 



numerous student special 
interest groups. 

Cultural Activities: Full schedule 
of lectures and concerts 
bringing to campus nationally 
known speakers and 
performers; film series at 
College Union; art exhibits; 
trips to nearby Washington 
and Baltimore to events of 
special interest. 

Sports: Extensive 
intercollegiate and intramural 
programs with 10 
intercollegiate sports for men 
and 9 intercollegiate sports for 
women. The office of 
Intramurals, Recreation, and 
Fitness provides a wide array 
of activities to satisfy various 
interests and levels of skill. 

Student Services: Faculty 
advisers, academic and 
personal counseling, career 
counseling, financial aid 
counseling. 

Residence Halls: Eleven 
residence halls and three 
special interest houses. Some 
residence halls are single sex; 
others occupied by students of 
both sexes. Some student 
residence areas assigned to 





special interest student 
housing groups. 

Religious Life: Programs for 
students of all faiths 
coordinated through the 
College Chapel. 

Student Government: Students 
assume the major role in 
planning student activities and 
in enforcing rules of 
responsible citizenship. The 
academic Student Honor Code 
gives students responsibility 
for maintaining high standards 
of academic integrity. 

School Colors: Orange and Blue. 



16 




Academic Purposes of 
Gettysburg College 



Gettysburg College believes 
that liberal education liberates 
the human mind from many of 
the constraints and limitations 
of its finiteness. In order to 
accomplish its liberating 
function, Gettysburg College 
believes that it owes its 
students a coherent curriculum 
that emphasizes the following 
elements: 



1. Logical, precise thinking 
and clear use of language, 
both spoken and written. 
These inseparable abilities are 
essential to all the liberal arts. 
They are not only the practical 
skills on which liberal 
education depends but also, in 
their fullest possible 
development, the liberating 
goals toward which liberal 
education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject 
matter. The curriculum of the 
liberal arts college should 
acquaint students with the 
range and diversity of human 
customs, pursuits, ideas, 
values, and longings. This 
broad range of subject matter 
must be carefully planned to 
include emphasis on those 
landmarks of human 
achievement which have in 
particular shaped the 
intellectual life of the present. 



3. Rigorous introduction to the 
assumptions and methods of a 
representative variety of the 
academic disciplines in the 
sciences, the social sciences, 
and the humanities. The 
curriculum must encourage 
students to recognize that the 
disciplines are traditions of 
systematic inquiry, each not 
only addressing itself to a 
particular area of subject 
matter but also embodying an 
explicit set of assumptions 
about the world and employing 
particular methods of 
investigation. Students should 
recognize that the disciplines 
are best seen as sets of 
carefully constructed 
questions, continually 
interacting with each other, 
rather than as stable bodies 
of truth. The questions that 
most preoccupy academic 
disciplines involve 




18 




interpretation and evaluation 
more often than fact. Students 
should learn that inter- 
pretation and evaluation are 
different from willful and 
arbitrary opinion while at the 
same time recognizing that 
interpretations and 
evaluations of the same body 
of facts may differ drastically 
given different assumptions, 
methods, and purposes for 
inquiry. Human thought is not 
often capable of reaching 
universal certitude. 

These necessary emphases of 
the college's curriculum are 
liberating both in the sense 
that they free students from 
narrowness and provincialism 
and in the sense that they free 
them for the joys and benefits 
of conscious intellectual 
strength and creativity. 



Liberal education should free 
students from gross and 
unsophisticated blunders of 
thought. Once exposed to the 
diversity of reality and the 
complexity and arduousness 
of disciplined modes of 
inquiry, students will be less 
likely than before to engage in 
rash generalization, dogmatic 
assertion, and intolerant 
condemnation of the strange, 
the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a 
sense of human limitations, for 
no human mind can be a 
match for the world's 
immensity. Promoters of 
universal panaceas will be 
suspected as the gap between 
human professions and human 
performance becomes 
apparent. Students will tend 
less than before to enshrine 
the values and customs of 
their own day as necessarily 
the finest fruits of human 
progress or to lament the 
failings of their time as the 
world's most intolerable evils. 





But wise skepticism and a 
sense of human fallibility are 
not the only liberating effects 
of the liberal arts. With effort 
and, in all likelihood, some 
pain, students master difficult 
skills and broad areas of 
knowledge. They acquire, 
perhaps with unexpected joy, 
new interests and orientations. 
In short, they experience 
change and growth. Perhaps 
this experience is the most 
basic way the liberal arts 
liberate: through providing the 
experience of change and 
growth, they prepare students 
for lives of effective 
management of new situations 
and demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis 
for creative work. Creativity is 
rarely if ever the work of a 
mind unfamiliar with past 
achievements. Rather 
creativity is almost always the 
reformulation of or conscious 
addition to past achievement 
with which the creative mind 
is profoundly familiar. By 



19 



encouraging students to 
become responsibly and 
articulately concerned with 
existing human achievement 
and existing means for 
extending and deepening 
human awareness, Gettysburg 
College believes that it is best 
insuring the persistence of 
creativity. 





20 



The intellectual liberation 
made possible through liberal 
education, though immensely 
desirable, does not in itself 
guarantee the development of 
humane values and is 
therefore not the final purpose 
of liberal education. If 
permitted to become an end in 
itself, it may indeed become 
destructive. A major 
responsibility of those 
committed to liberal education, 
therefore, is to help students 
appreciate our common 
humanity in terms of such 
positive values as 
openmindedness, personal 
responsibility, mutual respect, 
empathic understanding, 
aesthetic sensibility, and 
playfulness. Through the 
expanding and diverse 
intellectual activities offered in 
liberal education, students 
may develop greater freedom 
of choice among attitudes 



based on a fuller appreciation 
of our common humanity and 
based on clearer recognition of 
our immersion in a vast, 
enigmatic enterprise. 

The faith of the founders of 
Gettysburg College expressed 
in the charter supports the 
foregoing statement of 
academic purposes. The open 
search to know, tempered by 
humane reflection, 
complements our religious 
heritage. Together, we hope to 
add useful initiative toward 
the creation of a world in 
which diversity is more 
challenging and interesting 
than it is fear-producing; a 
world in which one may hear 
the sad truths reported by 
cynics while hearing, too, tales 
of quiet courage, of grace, of 
beauty, of joy. Then the 
response to the inevitably 
dissonant experiences of living 



may be wiser as a function of 
liberal education. Of course, 
the development of wisdom 
remains an elusive aim. It 
involves realms of experience 
that go beyond the academic, 
and a time span that 
encompasses a lifetime. 
Nevertheless, liberal education 
can be profoundly useful in the 
search for the fullness of life. 

Adopted by the Faculty 
December 1, 1977 




The Honor Code 

A liberal arts program has as 
a basic premise the ideal of 
academic integrity. Gettysburg 
students live and work in a 
college community which 
emphasizes their 
responsibility for helping to 
determine and enforce 
appropriately high standards 
of academic conduct. 

An academic honor system 
was instituted at Gettysburg 
College in 1957 and was 
strongly reaffirmed in 1976. It 
is based upon the belief that 
undergraduates are mature 
enough to act honorably in 
academic matters without 
faculty surveillance and that 
they should be encouraged to 
conduct themselves 
accordingly. At the same time 
the College clearly recognizes 
the obligation placed upon 
each student to assist in 
maintaining the atmosphere 
without which no honor 
system can succeed. 



The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed 
on all academic work 
submitted, states that the 
student has neither given nor 
received unauthorized aid and 
that he or she has witnessed 
no such violation. The 
preservation of the 
atmosphere of independence 
permitted by the Honor Code is 
the responsibility of the 
community as a whole. 
Students must comply with the 
Honor Code both in presenting 
their own work and in 
reporting violations by others. 
No student may enroll at 
Gettysburg College without 
first having signed the pledge. 
A person who would sign the 
pledge with reservation should 
not apply for admission. 

Alleged violations of the honor 
code are handled by an Honor 
Commission elected by the 
students. Decisions of the 
Commission may be appealed 
to a student-faculty- 
administrative board of review. 




21 



Curriculum 

The major goals of the 
curriculum are to provide the 
student with the ability to 
think logically and precisely 
and to use language clearly; 
an exposure to broad, diverse, 
subject matter in order to give 
acquaintance with the range 
and diversity of human 
customs, ideas, and values; 
and a rigorous introduction to 
the assumptions and methods 
of a representative variety of 
academic disciplines in the 
sciences, the social sciences, 
and the humanities. The 
Freshman Colloquy with its 
strong emphasis on lucid 
writing, helps students 
sharpen analytic skills 
necessary for college and 
beyond. 

Gettysburg College's 
Distribution Requirements 
assure the student an 
introduction to the variety of 
opportunities offered by a 
liberal arts education. In the 
freshman year in addition to 
the Freshman Colloquy in 
liberal learning, the 
Gettysburg student normally 
takes courses in a variety of 
fields and begins to fulfill 
distribution requirements, 
such as those in foreign 
languages, laboratory 
sciences, social sciences, or 
literature. In the sophomore 
year the student usually 
selects a major and, in 
consultation with a major 
adviser, plans a college 
program which will allow the 
completion of specific 



graduation requirements and 
also provide opportunities for 
the widest possible choice of 
electives. In the last two years 
most students concentrate on 
courses in their major fields or 
a Special Major and 
supplement their programs 
with elective courses. Students 
are expected to complete the 
two-year physical education 
requirement by the end of the 
sophomore year. 



Students majoring in the 
natural sciences usually begin 
such programs in the 
freshman year and follow a 
closely prescribed sequence of 
courses. Students anticipating 
careers in medicine, dentistry, 
or veterinary medicine should 
begin acquiring necessary 
preparatory courses in the 
freshman year. 




22 



The Advising System 

The College believes that one 
of the most valuable services 
which it can render to its 
students is careful counseling. 
Each freshman is assigned a 
faculty adviser to assist in 
dealing with academic 
questions, in explaining 
College regulations, in setting 
goals, and in making the 
transition from secondary 
school to college as smooth as 
possible. Special assistance is 
also available from deans and 
counselors. 

During the first week of the fall 
semester, all new students 
participate in an orientation 
program designed to help them 
become acquainted with the 
College. All entering freshmen 
receive in advance a detailed 
schedule of events of this 
program. During orientation, 
students have individual 
conferences with their 
advisers, take part in 
discussions of college life, and 
engage in other activities 
intended to familiarize them 
with the College. They also 
take achievement and 
placement tests which provide 
the College with valuable 
information concerning their 
educational background and 
academic potential. These 
tests help Gettysburg to 
provide an education suited to 
each student's capacities. 







During the year, freshman 
advisers arrange periodic 
meetings with their advisees 
to review the students' 
progress. Advisers are also 
available at other times to 
discuss unexpected problems 
as they arise. Any changes in 
a freshman's schedule must be 
approved by the adviser. 

When a student chooses a 
major field of study, preferably 
by the end of the sophomore 
year, a member of the major 
department becomes his or her 
adviser and performs 
functions similar to those of 
the freshman adviser, 
including the approval of all 
course schedules. It is the 
responsibility of all students to 
take the initiative in 



discussing their entire 
academic program with their 
advisers and to view that 
program as a meaningful unit 
rather than as a collection of 
unrelated courses. 

A student wishing to change 
the major course of study 
must notify the department in 
which he or she is a major and 
secure the approval of the one 
desired. Juniors and seniors 
making such changes should 
understand that it may be 
necessary to spend more than 
four years in residence in 
order to complete their 
concentration requirements. 
Permission to spend more than 
four years in residence must 
be obtained from the Academic 
Standing Committee. 



23 



Students may confer with their 
faculty adviser, personnel 
from the Career Services 
office, deans, or counselors as 
they consider their options for 
a major, weigh their career 
objectives, choose a graduate 
or professional school, or 
search for employment after 
graduation. 

The College encourages 
qualified students to prepare 
for graduate study, which has 
become a necessity in an 
increasing number of career 
fields. It is important for such 
students to become familiar 
with the requirements of the 
graduate programs in which 
they are interested, as well as 
the qualifications for 
fellowships and assistantships 
within these programs, well in 
advance of their graduation 
from Gettysburg College. 
Above all, they should 
recognize the importance of 
building a superior 
undergraduate academic 
record. 

The Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources 
Center has a collection of 
graduate school catalogues for 
student reference. Four times a 
year the Graduate Record 
Examination is given on the 
Gettysburg campus for those 
students who plan to enter a 
graduate school. The National 
Teacher Examination is given 
twice. Special advisers assist 
students in planning for the 
legal and health-related 
professions. 




24 



Credit System 

The course unit is the basic 
measure of academic credit. 
For transfer of credit to other 
institutions the College 
recommends equating one 
course unit with 3.5 semester 
hours. The 3.5 conversion 
factor is also used to convert 
semester hours to Gettysburg 
course units for those 
presenting transfer credit for 
evaluation at the time of 
admission or readmission to 
the College. A small number of 
quarter course units are 
offered in Music, Health and 
Physical Education, and 
Military Science. These 
courses may not be 
accumulated to qualify as 
course units for graduation. 
Quarter course units should be 
equated to one semester hour. 





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Requirements for the Degree 

of Bachelor of Arts 

The College will confer the 
Bachelor of Arts degree upon 
the student who completes 
satisfactorily the following: 

1) 35 course units, including 
Freshman Colloquy; plus 3 
quarter courses in Health and 
Physical Education; 

2) a demonstration of 
proficiency in written English; 

3) a minimum accumulative 
average of 2.00 and an 
average of 2.00 or better in the 
major field; 

4) the distribution 
requirements; 

5) the concentration 
requirement in a major field of 
study; 



25 




Each student is responsible for 
being sure that graduation 
requirements are fulfilled by 
the anticipated date of 
graduation. Normally, students 
will be required to complete 
the degree requirements in 
effect at the time of their 
original enrollment. 



6) a minimum of the last full 
year of academic work in 
residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved 
College program; and 

7) the discharge of all financial 
obligations to the College. 

Quarter course credits do not 
count toward the 35 course 
graduation requirement. 

No course used to obtain a 
bachelors degree at another 
institution may be counted 
toward the requirements for a 
Gettysburg College degree. 

The requirements for the 
degree of Bachelor of Science 
in Music Education are found 
on page 42. 




Writing Policy Since the ability 
to express oneself clearly, 
correctly, and responsibly is 
essential for an educated 
person, the College cannot 
graduate a student whose 
writing abilities are deficient. 
See Item 1 under College 
Course Requirements below. 
Grades on poorly written 
papers, regardless of the 
course, may be reduced 
because of the quality of 
writing; in extreme cases, a 
failing grade may be given for 
this reason. 



26 




College Course Requirements 

Each student must 
successfully complete the 
college course requirements 
listed below. 

1) Demonstration of 
proficiency in written English 
during the first year of 
enrollment. Normally, such 
proficiency is demonstrated by 
passing English 101. For other 
ways to satisfy this require- 
ment, see Exemption from 
Degree Requirement on p. 36. 

2) Freshman Colloquy: a 
required seminar for all 
freshmen designed to 
strengthen reasoning, writing, 
and speaking skills using a 
multidisciplinary theme as a 
focus. 



3) Health & Physical 
Education: 3 quarter courses 
including one semester of 
study in each of the following 
groups: health science, fitness, 
recreational skills. 



Distribution Requirements Each 
candidate for the Bachelor of 
Arts degree must satisfactorily 
complete the following 
distribution requirements. See 
the listing on page 64 or, read 
the departmental material 
under Course of Study for the 
specific courses that fulfill 
each requirement. Any 
requirement may be satisfied, 
with or without course credit, 
by students who can qualify 
for exemption (see page 36). 

1) Foreign Language: 1-4 
courses. The student must 
prove proficiency through the 
intermediate level. Normally, 
proficiency is demonstrated by 
completing the 202 course in 
German, Greek, Latin, 
Portuguese or Spanish; the 
201-202 course sequence in 
French; or other designated 
intermediate level language 
courses. 

2) Arts: 1 course in art, music, 
creative writing, or theatre 
arts. 




3) History/Philosophy: 1 
course in history, philosophy, 
or culture/civilization in 
languages or interdepart- 
mental studies. 

4) Literature: 1 course in 
English, French, German, 
Greek, Latin, or Spanish 
literature. 

5) Natural Science: 2 courses 
in biology, chemistry, or 
physics. The courses must be 
in the same department and 
must include laboratory. 

6) Religion: 1 course on the 
100-level in religion. 

7) Social Science: 1 course in 
anthropology, economics, 
political science, psychology, 
or sociology. 



27 



(wllWlfi 




8) Non-Western Culture: 1 
course to satisfy the 
distribution requirements 
listed above must be in a 
course which gives primary 
emphasis to African or Asian 
cultures, or to the non- 
European culture of the 
Americas. A student may, 
instead, take a non-western 
course that happens not to 
satisfy any of the other 
distribution requirements. 



Major Requirements Each 
student must successfully 
complete the requirements in a 
major field of study. A major 
consists of from 8 to 12 
courses, depending on the field 
of study, and may include 
certain specific courses as 
determined by the department. 
A department may require 
its majors to pass a 
comprehensive examination. 
Requirements of the various 
majors are listed in the 
departmental introductions 
under Courses of Study. 

The following are acceptable 
major fields of study at 
Gettysburg College: 

Art 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Economics 

English 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Physical Education 

History 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 

Music Education 

Philosophy 

Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology and Anthropology 

Spanish 

Theatre Arts 



A student will normally file a 
declaration of major with the 
Registrar between May of the 
freshman year and April of the 
sophomore year. A student 
may declare a second major 
no later than the beginning of 
the senior year. 

As an alternative to the major 
fields of study listed above, 
students may declare a 
Special Major by designing an 
interdepartmental 
concentration of courses 
focusing on particular 
problems or areas of 
investigation which, though 
not adequately included within 
a single department or 
discipline, are worthy of 
concentrated study. The 
Special Major shall consist of 
eight to 12 courses, at least 
six of which must be on an 
advanced level. 

Students interested in 
declaring a Special Major are 
urged to consult with the 
Chairperson of the Committee 
on Interdepartmental Studies 
before the end of the 
sophomore year. Special 
Major applications must be 
submitted to the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies for 
its approval no later than the 
end of the third day of classes 
of the applicant's junior year. 



28 




Residence Requirements 
and Schedule Limitations 

The normal program for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree 
consists of nine courses per 
year with five courses in one 
semester and four in the other. 
Thus, a student will complete 
graduation requirements in 
four years of full-time 
academic work in the 
September through May 
academic year. The last full 
year of academic work must 
be in residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved 
College program. Students 
may not complete require- 
ments as a part-time 
student during their last 
semester of residence. 

Students proposing to 
complete graduation 
requirements in less than four 
full years, must have their 
programs approved by the 



Optional Minor Beginning with 
the first semester of the senior 
year, a student may declare a 
minor concentration in an 
academic department or area 
that has an established minor 
program. Not all departments 
have established programs. A 
minor shall consist of six 
courses; no more than two of 
which shall be 100-level 
courses. Exceptions to the two 
100-level course limitation 



may occur in departments 
offering more than one major 
or concentration. Each 
department having a minor 
program stipulates the 
requirements for it. A student 
may not declare a minor in the 
same department in which he 
or she has a declared major. A 
student must maintain a 2.00 
average in the minor field of 
study. 




29 



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Academic Standing Committee 
through the Ottice of the Dean 
of Educational Services. Such 
approval should be sought at 
least a year before the 
proposed completion of 
requirements. 



A full-time student for 
academic purposes is one 
carrying a minimum of three 
courses during a semester. No 
student who is a candidate for 
a degree may take fewer 
courses than this without 
permission of the Academic 
Standing Committee. Students 
may not take more than five 
full unit courses per semester 
without the approval of the 
Academic Standing 
Committee. In granting 
approval to take more than 
five courses, the Committee 
requires evidence that the 
student will be able to perform 
at the B level or above in his 
or her courses in the term in 
which over five courses are 
taken. 



Gettysburg College is aware 
that handicapped persons may 
have special needs and is 
willing to make adjustments to 
meet these needs in order to 
make the program accessible 
to them. 

The required quarter courses 
in health and physical 
education and the optional 
quarter courses in ROTC, 
generally taken during the 
freshman and sophomore 
years, are in addition to the 
full course load in each of 
these semesters. These 
courses do not count toward 
the 35 course graduation 
requirement. 



30 




Majors in music and health 
and physical education must 
take quarter courses in 
addition to the normal course 
load. 

Students may take quarter 
courses in applied music over 
the course limit with the 
approval of their advisers and 
of the Music Department. 

A student may audit informally 
any College course with the 
permission of the instructor. 
No charge will be made for 
such an audit and no record of 
auditing will be recorded on 
the student's transcript. 



Registration 

Credit will be given in courses 
for which the student is 
officially registered. The 
Registrar announces, in 
advance, the time and place of 
formal registration. A student 
registering after the appointed 
day will be subject to a late 
registration fee. 

A fee of is also assessed for 
each course change after the 
regular registration dates. A 
proposed change must be 
submitted to the Registrar on 
an official course change slip 
after first being approved by 
the instructors involved and 
the student's adviser. Students 



are not permitted to enroll in a 
course for credit later than 
twelve class days after the 
beginning of that semester. 

By formally completing his or 
her registration, the student 
pledges to abide by College 
regulations. 

The Grading System 

Normally courses are graded A 
through F, with these grades 
having the following 
significance: A (excellent); B 
(good); C (fair); D (poor); and F 
(failing). Instructors may 
modify their letter grade with 
plus and minus signs. 




31 




In successfully completing a 
course under this grading 
system, a student earns a 
number of quality points 
according to the following 
scale: 



A+41/3 


C 2 


A 4 


C- 1 2/3 


A- 3 2/3 


D+1 1/3 


B+31/3 


D 1 


B 3 


D- 2/3 


B-2 2/3 


F 


C+2 1/3 




A student's accumulative 


average is com 


puted by 


summing his or 


her quality 


points and divk 


ling by the 


number of courses taken. The 


average is roun 


ded to the third 


decimal place. 





The College reserves the right 
to make changes and 
adjustments in the grading 
system even after a student 
enrolls. 

The College also offers a 
Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory 
grading option. This option is 
intended to encourage 
students to be intellectually 
adventurous in choosing 
courses with subject matter or 
approaches substantially 
different from their prior 
academic experience or 
attainment. An S signifies 
satisfactory work, and is given 
if a student performs at the C- 
level or higher; a U signifies 
unsatisfactory work, and is 
given for work below the C- 
level. A student may elect to 
take a total of six courses on 
an S/U basis during his or her 
four years at Gettysburg 
College; however, no more 
than two S/U courses may be 
taken in any one year. This 
grading option may not be 
selected for (1) College course 
requirements in written 
English or the Freshman 
Colloquy, (2) distribution 



requirements for graduation, 
and (3) courses taken in a 
student's major field. 
Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases 
where a department specifies 
that a particular course is 
available under the S/U 
grading system only, and in 
cases where the major was 
declared after the course was 
taken and permission is 
granted by the department. 
Courses graded S/U do not 
affect a student's quality point 
average, but a course 
completed with an S grade will 
count toward the total number 
of courses needed for 
graduation. 

The only exceptions to the 
two-courses-per-year S/U limit 
are for the basic skills courses 
in Health and Physical 
Education (all of which are 
graded S/U) and for Seniors 





who are enrolled in either 
Education 475 or 477. In 
determining the maximum 
number of S/U courses a 
student may take, the quarter 
course basic skill courses in 
Health and Physical Education 
shall not be counted. Students 
who enroll in Education 475 or 
477 may take an additional 
course under the S/U option 
during the senior year, 
provided that their total 
number of S/U courses does 
not exceed six. 

When a student registers for 
and completes a course which 
he or she has already taken at 
Gettysburg College, both the 
credit and the grade 
previously earned are 
cancelled, but they are not 
removed from the permanent 
record. The credit and grade 
earned in repeating the course 
are counted toward the 
student's requirements. 



A grade of I (Incomplete) is 
issued by the Dean of Student 
Advisement or Dean of 
Educational Services when 
emergency situations, such as 
illness, prevent a student from 
completing the course 
requirements on time. Unless 
the Academic Standing 
Committee extends the time 
limit, an incomplete 
automatically becomes an F if 
it is not removed within the 
first six weeks of the semester 
following the one in which it 
was incurred. 

A student may withdraw from 
a course only with the 
permission of the instructor 
and his or her adviser. A 
student who officially 
withdraws for medical reasons 
receives a W. A student 
withdrawing after the 
drop/add period receives a WP 
(withdraw passing) or WF 
(withdraw failing) according to 



33 



the estimate of the work done 
in the course up to the time of 
withdrawal. Those 
withdrawing from a course 
during the last five weeks of a 
semester will receive a WF. A 
grade of N/F (non-attendance 
failure) will be given for those 
who do not attend the classes 
for a registered course and fail 
to withdraw properly. The 
grades of WF and N/F carry 
quality points and are used in 
computing averages. 

Academic Standing 

A student is expected to 
maintain an academic record 
that will enable him or her to 
complete the requirements for 
graduation in the normal eight 
semesters. Any student who 
falls below the 2.00 minimum 
accumulative average needed 
for graduation will be warned, 
placed on academic probation, 
advised to withdraw, or 
required to withdraw. The 
student who falls below the 
following minimum standard is 





34 



normally advised or required 
to withdraw: 
for freshmen- 1.50G.P.A. 
and 6 courses completed 
for sophomores - 1.80 
G.P.A. and 15 courses 
completed 

for juniors- 1.90 G.P.A. and 
25 courses completed. 

In addition to these minimum 
standards, a student on 
probation must show 
significant improvement 
during the following semester 
in order to remain at the 
College. Normally, a student 
may not remain at the College 
with three consecutive 
semester averages below 2.00. 

The Academic Standing 
Committee interprets and 
applies these standards on a 
case by case basis at the end 
of each semester. In 
accordance with the 
regulations of the National 



Collegiate Athletic 
Association, a student who is 
advised to withdraw, but 
chooses to remain at the 
institution in an attempt to 
improve his or her academic 
record, may not participate in 
the institution's intercollegiate 
athletic program. 

Transcripts 

Each student is entitled to one 
official transcript of his or her 
record at no charge. Additional 
transcripts are $1.00 per copy. 
Requests for transcripts must 
be in writing and should be 
directed to the Office of the 
Registrar. 

Withdrawal and 
Readmission 

Readmission for students who 
withdraw from Gettysburg 
College is not automatic. The 
procedure for seeking 
readmission depends on the 
student's academic status at 
the time of withdrawal, the 
length of time that has elapsed 
since withdrawal, and the 
reason for withdrawal, as 
described in the sections that 
follow. Normally the Academic 
Standing Committee reviews 
applications for readmission in 
November and April. 

Voluntary Withdrawal A student 
who withdraws voluntarily, 
and is on academic probation 
at the time of withdrawal, 
must submit an application for 
readmission to the Academic 
Standing Committee through 
the Office of Educational 
Services. The Academic 
Standing Committee will 
review the student's 
application, previous record at 
Gettysburg College, activities 
since leaving college, and 
prospects for the successful 



completion of his or her 
undergraduate studies. 

A student who is in good 
academic standing at the time 
of withdrawal and seeks 
readmission within one 
academic year after 
withdrawing does not have to 
submit an application for 
readmission. Instead, the 
student must file with the 
Academic Standing 
Committee, through the Office 
of Educational Services, a 
letter requesting reinstatement 
no less than three weeks prior 
to the beginning of the 
semester that matriculation is 
desired. Any student who 
seeks readmission after one 
year has elapsed must submit 
an application for 
readmission. 

A student who withdraws 
voluntarily should arrange for 
an exit interview with a member 
of the Educational Services staff 
prior to leaving the College. 
Failure to do so may jeopardize 
the student's opportunity for 
readmission. A readmission 





interview is expected and, in 
some cases, required. 

Required Withdrawal A student 
who is required to withdraw 
from the College for academic 
reasons is not eligible for re- 
admission until one academic 
year has elapsed. An appli- 
cation for readmission must be 
submitted to the Academic 
Standing Committee through 
the Office of Educational 
Services. A personal interview 
is required. The Academic 
Standing Committee will review 



the student's application, 
recommendations, activities 
since leaving college, and 
prospects for future success. 
Students who have been 
required to withdraw for 
academic reasons and are 
subsequently readmitted will be 
considered ineligible to 
participate in intercollegiate 
athletics during the first 
semester of their return to the 
campus. 

A student who is suspended for 
disciplinary reasons must 




35 




follow this same procedure for 
read mission. A student in this 
category is eligible to apply for 
readmission at the end of the 
time period designated for the 
suspension. 

Medical Withdrawal A student 
whose health is so impaired 
that matriculation cannot be 
continued will be granted a 
Medical Withdrawal, provided 
that a physician, psychiatrist, 
or psychologist confirms in 
writing the seriousness of the 
condition and recommends that 
the student withdraw from the 
College. In such cases the Dean 
of Student Advisement or the 
Dean of Educational Services 
may authorize grades of 
"W" for the courses in which 
the student is currently enrolled. 
A student who has been granted 
a Medical Withdrawal does not 
have to fill out an application 






for readmission, but must 
submit to the Academic 
Standing Committee through the 
Office of Educational Services a 
written request for reinstate- 
ment at least three weeks prior 
to the beginning of the semester 
that matriculation is desired. A 
letter from his or her attending 
physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist which certifies 
that the student will be ready to 
resume a full academic program 
by a designated time is also 
required. If, based on medical 
considerations, there is reason 
to limit the student's course 
load or physical activity, a 
recommendation for such 
should be noted in this letter. 
Decisions regarding reinstate- 
ment are the responsibility of 
the Academic Standing 
Committee. 



Transfer Credit 

Students may receive a 
maximum of three course 
credits for work taken at other 
colleges after enrolling at 
Gettysburg if such courses 
have first been approved by 
the chairperson of the 
department concerned and by 
the Registrar. This transfer 
option is not available to those 
who receive transfer credit at 
the time of admission or 
readmission to the College. 
This course credit limitation 
does not apply to Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium 
Courses or to off-campus 
study programs which are 
described beginning at page 
45. Course credit but not the 
grade is transferred to 
Gettysburg if the grade earned 
is a C- or better. Grades as 
well as credit are transferred 
for work done at another 
Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium College, or in 
certain Gettysburg College 
approved programs 
(Washington and U.N. 
Semesters Programs, Lutheran 
Theological Seminary 
Exchange, Duke Marine 
Laboratory, Bermuda 
Biological Station, and Wilson 
College Exchange). 

Exemption from Degree 
Requirements 

The College may recognize 
work on the college level 
completed elsewhere by a 
student. This recognition may 
take the form of exemption 
from degree requirements and 
may carry academic credit. 
Students should present their 
requests for such recognition 
to the Registrar. They should 
be prepared to demonstrate 
their competence on the basis 



36 




of their academic record, 
Advanced Placement 
Examination results of the 
College Entrance Examination 
Board, (see page 155) or 
examinations administered by 
the department concerned. The 
decisions on exemption and 
credit rest with the department 
and the Registrar. 

Students may satisfy the 
writing proficiency 
requirement by scoring 
sufficiently high on the Test of 
Standard Written English 
(TSWE) of the College Entrance 
Examination Board. In 1985, 
the College exempted those 
students who scored 58 or 
above on the TSWE. Those 
scoring 53-57 were permitted 
to gain exemption by passing 
a departmental examination 
given on the campus. 



Students may satisfy the 
foreign language requirement 
in a language not regularly 
offered at Gettysburg by 
demonstrating achievement at 
the intermediate level through 
transfer credit, by 
examination, through 
independent study with a 
Gettysburg faculty member, or 
through an approved exchange 
program with the Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium. For 
foreign students, who have 
learned English as a second 
language, the requirement may 
be satisfied with the student's 
primary language. 

Individualized Study and 
Seminars 

There are opportunities in 
most of the departments for 
students to engage in 



individualized study and 
seminars. These opportunities 
are primarily for seniors, but 
other students are frequently 
eligible. In some departments 
participation in this type of 
activity is part of the required 
program of study; in others it 
is optional. Most of these 
courses are numbered in the 
400's under Courses of Study. 

Senior Scholars' Seminar 

The College offers an unusual 
opportunity for its outstanding 
senior students. Each fall, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar, 
composed of selected seniors, 
undertakes the study of a 
contemporary issue which 
affects the future of humanity. 
The issues are ones which 
pose a threat to the values or 
existence of human society. 
Past topics have included 



37 



genetic engineering, the 
human habitat, conflict 
resolution, global disparities, 
computers and human 
communication, aging and the 
aged, U.S. energy policy, 
dissent and nonconformity, 
post-industrial society, nature 
vs. nurture, and environmental 
protection or exploitation. 
These issues are multi- 
disciplinary in scope and the 
students selected for this 
seminar represent a wide 
variety of majors. 

The Senior Scholars' Seminar 
invites authorities of national 
stature to serve as resource 
persons. Persons who have 
visited the seminar as 
consultants include George 
Wald, Ian McHarg, Kenneth 
Boulding, Herbert Gans, Paolo 
Soleri, Alan Westin, Joseph 
Fletcher, Leon Kass, Stuart 
Udall, Georg Borgstrom, 
Maggie Kuhn, David Freeman, 
Thomas Szasz, Daniel Bell, 
James Gould, and Howard 
Odum. Student participants in 
the seminar publish a final 
report based on their findings 
and recommendations. 

During their junior year, 
students in the top quarter of 
their class are notified of their 
eligibility and are invited to 
apply to participate in the 
seminar. The Inter- 
departmental Studies Com- 
mittee and the course directors 
select up to twenty 
participants from as many 
different academic disciplines 
as possible, basing their 
selection on students' interest 
and academic competence. 

Students selected for the 
seminar are expected to 
participate in non-credit, 
informal planning sessions 




with the course directors 
during the spring semester of 
their junior year. The purpose 
of these sessions is to define 
further the seminar topic, to 
select resource persons, and 
to select and compile reference 
material. Students who 
participate in the planning 
sessions during the spring 
semester of their junior year 
and register for the seminar in 
the fall semester of their 
senior year receive two course 
credits upon satisfactory 
completion of their work. 

Computer Courses 

In the tradition of the Liberal 
Arts, Gettysburg College 
emphasizes the 
interdisciplinary nature of the 
computer as a tool in problem 
solving. A thorough 



understanding of the concepts 
and applications in various 
disciplines is important for 
those students interested in 
pursuing a career in computer 
science. The Biology, 
Chemistry, Economics, 
Management, Mathematics, 
Physics, Political Science, 
Psychology, and Sociology 
and Anthropology Depart- 
ments all offer courses that 
make significant use of the 
computer. In recent years, 95% 
of the graduating students 
have made use of the 
computing facilities in their 
courses at Gettysburg. 

In addition to these courses in 
various departments, the 
College has a Computer 
Studies curriculum of courses 
that cover the concepts that 



38 



are at the core of computer 
science. These courses are 
listed under Computer Studies 
in the Course Descriptions 
section of this catalogue. 
While there are within the 
College over fifty courses that 
utilize the computer (not 
including those in the 
Computer Studies curriculum), 
the following courses offer a 
more concentrated study in the 
use of the computer. 



BIO 341 


Biochemistry 




(simulations) 


CHEM 305, 


Physical Chemistry 


306 




ECON 241 


Introductory Economic 




and Business 




Statistics (data 




analysis) 


MAN 353 


Cost Accounting 


MATH 211 


Multivariable Calculus 


MATH 212 


Linear Algebra 


MATH 366 


Numerical Analysis 


PS 103 


Global Politics 




(simulations) 


PSYCH 205 


Introduction to 




Statistics and 




Measurement 


PSYCH 305 


Experimental Methods 


REL138 


Christian Humanism 




(class bulletin 




board) 


SOC 303 


Data Analysis and 




Statistics 



Teacher Education 
Programs 

Gettysburg College education 
programs in secondary school 
subjects, elementary 
education, music education, 
and health and physical 
education are competency 
based and have received 
program approval from the 
Pennsylvania Department of 
Education. The liberal arts are 
central to the College's teacher 
education programs. The 
student planning to teach must 
complete a major in an 
academic department of his or 
her choice. The student fulfills 
all the requirements for the 




Bachelor of Arts degree or for 
the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Music Education. 
Upon completing a program in 
teacher education, a student is 
eligible for a Pennsylvania 
Certificate, Instructional I, 
enabling him or her to teach in 
the public schools of the 
Commonwealth and nearby 
states with reciprocal 
agreements. Students who 
pursue teacher certification 
are required to demonstrate 
computer literacy prior to 
admission to the Education 
Semester. Students who are 
seeking their first Instructional 
I Certificate on June 1, 1987, or 
after must demonstrate that 
they have successfully 
completed a Pennsylvania 
Department of Education 
approved teacher certification 
exam in the following four 
areas: 



— Basic Skills (writing, 

reading, and 
mathematics) 

— General Knowledge 

(social studies, 
literature and fine arts, 
and science) 

— Professional Knowledge 

(instructional skills) 

— Specialization Area Tests 

(the subject area for 
which candidates are 
seeking certification) 
For more information on the 
Pennsylvania Department of 
Education approved teacher 
certification exams, contact a 
member of the Education 
Department. 

Secondary Education Students 
interested in preparing to teach 
academic subjects in the 
secondary schools must com- 
plete one of the following 
approved programs for secon- 
dary certification: biology, 
chemistry, physics, general 




39 



science, mathematics, English, 
German, Latin, French, 
Spanish, health and physical 
education, and comprehensive 
social studies. These 
secondary programs have 
been granted program 
approval by the Pennsylvania 
Department of Education. The 
student must complete an 
approved program listed in the 
Handbook for Teacher 
Education, which will, in most 
cases, closely parallel the 
requirements in his or her 
major. Early planning 
beginning in the freshman year 
is essential for all of these 
programs. 

Secondary education students 
are required to engage in pre- 
sident teaching experiences 
in the secondary schools 
during the sophomore and 



junior years. Students serve as 
observers, aides, and small 
group instructors in secondary 
classrooms. These experiences 
are part of the requirements 
for Education 209 (Social 
Foundations of Education) to 
be scheduled in the sophomore 
year, and Education 201 
(Educational Psychology) to be 
scheduled in the junior year. 
For the senior year, the 
student, in consultation with 
his or her major department, 
will select either the fall or 
spring semester as the 
Education Semester. The 
following program constitutes 
the Education Semester. 

Education 303 (Educational 
Purposes, Methods, and 
Educational Media: 
Secondary) 




Education 304 (Techniques of 
Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subjects- 
Biology, English, etc.) 

Education 477 (Student 
Teaching— Secondary two 
courses) 

Note: Only four courses may 
be taken during the Education 
Semester. 

The student seeking admission 
to the secondary education 
program must file an 
application with the Education 
Department by February 15 of 
the junior year. Admission to 
the program is granted by the 
Committee on Teacher 
Education, a body composed 
of faculty from each 
department which has 
students in the secondary 
education program. This 
Committee also determines 
standards for admission to the 
program. Members of the 
Committee also teach 
Education 304 for the students 
of their respective 
departments and observe them 
when they engage in student 
teaching. 

The admission of a student to 
the Education Semester 
depends upon the student's 
academic achievement and a 
recommendation from his or 
her major department. The 
guidelines for evaluating a 
student's academic achieve- 
ment are an accumulative 
grade point average of 2.33 
and a grade point average in 
the major of 2.66. 

Completion of a progam in 
secondary education enables a 
student to teach in 
Pennsylvania, and numerous 
other states cooperating in a 
reciprocity arrangement. 
Numerous states require 
specific scores on portions of 




the National Teacher Exams 
(NTE). See the Education 
Department section for details. 

Students in the program 
leading to certification in 
secondary education shall 
present the six specified 
courses in Education. In 
addition to these six courses, 
students are permitted one 
additional education course 
in individualized study, or 
in an education internship, to 
count toward the Bachelor of 
Arts degree. 

Elementary Education The 

elementary education program 
is distinctive in giving the 
opportunity to concentrate in 
the liberal arts studies and 
complete an academic major, 
thus qualifying for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree. 



Students interested in entering 
the elementary education 
program should consult with 
Mr. Slaybaugh or Mr. Packard 
in the Education Department 
no later than the fall semester 
of the freshman year in order 
to establish a program of 
study. 

The prospective elementary 
teacher should complete the 
following program: 

1) Psychology 101, and HPE 
199 in the freshman year 

2) Education 201, Mathematics 
180 (Basic Concepts of 
Elementary Mathematics) and 
Psychology 225 

3) Education 331, Education 
370 (Elementary School 
Science: Purposes, Methods 
and Instructional Media), 
Education 209, and Psychology 



225 if not completed 
previously. 

4) Education Semester— fall or 
spring of senior year 

Education 475 Elementary 
Student Teaching (2 courses) 

Education 334 Corrective 
Reading 

Education 306 Educational 
Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social 
Studies, Art, and Music. 
Education 306 is a full-time 
field based course. 

Student teaching (Education 
475) and Education 306 consist 
of 11 weeks of full-time 
participation in a public school 
near the College. Education 
334 is taught in a four week 
block and includes a two week 
full-time experience in the 
schools under the direct 
supervision of a reading 
specialist. Only four courses 
may be taken during the 
Education Semester. 




41 



Elementary education students 
are required to engage in pre- 
sident teaching experiences 
in the elementary schools 
during the sophomore and 
junior years. Arrangements for 
these experiences are made by 
the Education Department. 
Students serve as observers, 
aides, and small group 
instructors in elementary 
classrooms. 

The student seeking admission 
to the elementary education 
program must file an 
application with the Education 
Department by February 15 of 
the junior year. Admission to 
the program is granted by the 
Committee on Teacher 
Education, a body composed 
of faculty members from the 
Education Department and 
other departments. This 
committee also establishes 
standards for admission to the 
program. 

The admission of a student to 
the Education Semester 
depends upon academic 
achievement and recom- 
mendation of the Committee 
on Teacher Education. Criteria 
for admission include a C+ 
overall average and 
demonstrated competence in 
the education courses 
completed during the 
sophomore year and in the fall 
semester of the junior year. 

Students interested in teaching 
in states other than 
Pennsylvania will find that a 
number of states certify 
teachers who have completed 
a baccalaureate program in 
elementary education at a 
college approved by its own 
state department of education. 
Numerous states require 



42 




specific scores on portions of 
the National Teacher Exams 
(NTE). See the Education 
Department section for details. 

Students in the program 
leading to certification in 
elementary education shall 
present the eight specified 
courses in Education. In 
addition to the eight courses, 
students are permitted 
one education course in 
individualized study, or in an 
education internship, to count 
toward the Bachelor of Arts 
degree. 

Music Education The 

prospective teacher of music 
in the elementary and 
secondary schools should 
complete the program for the 
degree of Bachelor of Science 



in Music Education. This 
requires successful completion 
of 135 courses exclusive of 
courses in applied music. Also 
required are two semesters of 
the basic activities quarter 
courses in health and physical 
education. 

The program includes: 

Music, 12 courses as follows: 
Music Theory, 141, 142,241, 
242,341,342 
Music History and Literature 
Music 312 (History of 

Medieval, Renaissance, 

and Baroque Music) 
Music 313 (Music in Classic 

and Romantic Periods) 
Music 314 (Music in the 

Twentieth Century) 
Conducting 
Music 205 (Choral 

Conducting) 
Music 206 (Instrumental 

Conducting) 



Applied Music 
Music 456 (Senior Recital) 
Fifteen to nineteen quarter 
courses. These do not count 
toward the 35 course 
graduation requirements 
and may be taken in 
addition to the 36 courses 
permitted. Consequently, in 
the fall and spring 
semesters the student will 
typically carry four or five 
full courses plus several 
quarter courses in applied 
music. The latter must 
include work in: 
Major performance area 
Piano 
Voice 

Instruments of the Band and 
Orchestra 

Music Education, 5 courses as 
follows: 
Music 320 (Principles and 

Procedures of Teaching 

Music in the Elementary 

School) 
Music 321 (Principles and 

Procedures of Teaching 

Music in the Secondary 

School) 
Music 474 (Student 

Teaching) 

(3 course units) 

Certification Requirements 
Psychology 101 
Education 209 (Social 

Foundations of Education) 
Education 201 (Educational 

Psychology) 

Distribution Requirements 

Electives 

Participation for four years in 
an authorized musical group 
and presentation of a recital in 
the senior year are required. 



The student in the Bachelor of 
Science program should 
consult with the music 
department as early as 
possible in order to arrange a 
four-year program. 

Employment Prospects in Teaching 

Current figures from the 
National Center for 
Educational Statistics indicate 
an increase of 3,370,000 
students in elementary schools 
from 1982 to 1990. There will 
be a need for many more 
elementary and secondary 
teachers in the near future. 

Of the 1986 graduates who 
sought teaching positions in 
elementary education 100% 
were teaching or in education- 
related occupations in the next 
school year, and in secondary 
one-hundred percent. The 



average salary for 1986 
graduates reporting this 
information to the College was 
$17,500. 

Teacher Placement The College 
maintains a Teacher 
Placement Bureau to assist 
seniors and graduates in 
securing positions and to aid 
school officials in locating 
qualified teachers. All 
communications should be 
addressed to the Director of 
the Teacher Placement Bureau. 





Off-Campus Study 

Central Pennsylvania Consortium 

The program of the College is 
enriched by its membership in 
the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium, consisting of 
Dickinson, Franklin and 
Marshall, and Gettysburg 
Colleges. The Consortium 
provides opportunities for 
exchanges by students and 
faculty and for other off- 
campus study. The Consortium 



stands ready to explore 
innovative ideas for 
cooperation among the 
member institutions. 

Consortium Exchange Program 

Gettysburg College students 
are eligible to apply for course 
work at another college within 
the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium. Students may 
take a single course or enroll 
at the "host" college for a 
semester, or a full year. 



Gettysburg College accepts 
both credits and grades earned 
through the exchange 
program. Interested students 
should consult the Registrar. 



44 



Additional Off-Campus 
Programs 

Washington Semester Gettysburg 
College participates with 
American University in 
Washington, D.C. in a 
cooperative arrangement 
known as the Washington 
Semester. This program 
enables a limited number of 
qualified students in the social 
sciences to engage in a first- 
hand study of American 
government in action. The 
program is divided into 
several distinctive areas. 
Washington Semester, 
National Government and 
Politics focuses on important 
national institutions and the 
interrelationships of the 
various actors in the political 
process. Washington Semester 
in Foreign Policy examines the 




45 



formulation, implementation, 
and consequences of the 
foreign policy of the United 
States. Washington Urban 
Semester concentrates upon 
the operation of the political 
and administrative systems of 
urban America. Washington 
Semester in Public 
Administration studies the 
structure, process, and impact 
of the administrative sector. 
Washington Semester in 
Justice concerns the nature 
and sources of crime and 
violence, the conflicting 
theories and beliefs about 
justice and the impact of 
national policymaking on 
social and criminal justice. 
Washington Semester in 
Journalism provides an 
introduction to the principles, 
ethics, and issues of American 
journalism as it exists in 
Washington, D.C. Washington 
Semester in Arts and 



Humanities gives an intensive 
cultural study of Washington 
with a focus on a particular 
area such as art history, 
foreign culture and language, 
history, religion, literature, 
or the performing arts. 

Students in the Washington 
Semester program participate 
in seminars (two course 
credits), undertake a major 
research project (one course 
credit) and serve an internship 
(one course credit) in a 
congressional, executive or 
political office. The seminars, 
research project, and 
internship provide students 
with several opportunities for 
discussion with members of 
Congress and their staff, 
Supreme Court Justices, 
administration officials, and 
lobbyists. Residence in 
Washington provides a unique 
setting for the conduct of 
political research. 





The Washington Semester may 
be taken during either 
semester of the junior year or 
the fall semester of the senior 
year. To qualify, a student 
must have completed at least 
one course in political science, 
have a minimum accumulative 
average of 2.50, and 3.00 in 
the major, and clearly 
demonstrate ability to work on 
his or her own initiative. Most 
participants major in political 
science, history, sociology, 
and economics, but applicants 
from other areas are 
welcomed. Further information 
may be obtained from the 
Department of Political 
Science. 




The Washington Economic Policy 
Semester Gettysburg College 
participates in this 
cooperative, intercollegiate 
honors program with The 
American University in 
Washington, D.C. The semester 
is designed for students with 
an interest in economics. It 
examines intensively 
economic policymaking from 
both the theoretical and 
practical, domestic and 
international points of view. 
During the semester, students 
are brought into direct contact 
with people who are involved 
in the formulation of economic 
policy. 



The program of study includes 

(1) the Economic Policy 
Seminar (two course credits), 
which encompasses a 
theoretical analysis of 
economic policy problems; 
extensive reading; on site 
discussions with economic 
policy decision-makers; 
preparation of papers; and the 
presentation of alternative 
paradigms that may be used to 
understand economic policy; 

(2) the choice of an internship 
(one course credit) in a private 
or governmental agency 
involved with economic policy, 
or an intensive independent 
research project (one course 
credit); and (3) an elective 
chosen from the courses 
offered by The American 
University. It should be noted 
that the grades received in 
these courses, as well as the 
credit for four courses, will 



appear on the student's 
Gettysburg College transcript. 

This program can be helpful to 
students in several ways. For 
all students, it provides an 
opportunity to dispel the 
mystery surrounding the 
policy-making process, to 
make them better informed 
citizens, and thus to improve 
their understanding of the 
complex interaction between 
the government and the 
economy. For those persons 
who plan to be professional 
economists, it will provide a 
practical introduction to 
learning about the nation's 
important economic 
institutions as well as the 
political considerations that 
influence the translation of 
economic theory into 
government policy. The 
program will allow students to 
become familiar with the basic 
economic issues of the times 




47 




and with the different 
approaches for solving those 
problems. For the person who 
is interested in becoming a 
business economist, lawyer, or 
community organizer, the 
knowledge gained about the 
bureaucracy in Washington 
and how the federal 
government operates will be 
invaluable in his or her career. 

The student should take the 
Washington Economic Policy 
Semester in the fall or spring 
semester of the junior year or 
the fall semester of the senior 
year. To qualify, a student 
must have a minimum 
accumulative grade point 
average of 2.50, a grade point 
average of 3.00 in the major, 
and have demonstrated the 
ability to work on his or her 
own initiative. In addition, 
students wishing to apply for 
this program should have 
48 



completed Economics 103-104, 
241,243, 245, and Accounting 
153. Most participants major in 
economics or management; 
however, interested applicants 
from other areas are 
encouraged to apply. Further 
information, including the 
application procedure for this 
program, can be obtained from 
Dr. William F. Railing, 
Department of Economics. 



The United Nations Semester 

Students qualifying for this 
program spend a semester at 
Drew University in Madison, 
New Jersey. On Tuesdays and 
Thursdays these students 
commute to the United Nations 
for a survey course in 
international organization 
which consists in part of 
briefings and addresses by 
individuals involved in United 
Nations activities. A research 
seminar also uses the facilities 
of the United Nations 
Headquarters. Other courses to 
complete a full semester's 
work are taken at the Drew 
Campus. 

The United Nations program is 
offered in both the fall and 
spring semesters. Some 
scholarship assistance may be 
available for non-Drew 
University students. 
Application should be made in 
the junior or senior year. 
Students from any academic 
concentration who have taken 
an introductory course in 
political science and who have 
maintained a respectable 
grade point average are 
eligible for nomination. Further 
information may be obtained 
from the Department of 
Political Science. 




Study Abroad Qualified students 
may study abroad during one 
or two semesters of their 
junior year or the fall semester 
of their senior year. The 
Registrar maintains an 
information file of possible 
programs and stands ready to 
assist students with their 
unique study plans. It is 
important to begin the 
planning process early. During 
the first semester of the 
sophomore year students who 
plan to study abroad should 
discuss with their advisers the 
relationship of their proposed 
course of study to their total 
academic program. An outline 
of the program and a list of 
specific courses with 
appropriate departmental 
approval must be submitted to 
the Academic Standing 
Committee, which gives final 
approval on all requests to 
study abroad. To qualify a 



student normally must have a 
minimum accumulative grade 
point average of 2.50 and a 
grade point average of 2.67 in 
the major. Study abroad 
programs are not limited to 
language majors; students in 
any major field may apply. 
Further information may be 
obtained from the Office of the 
Registrar. 

Center for Cross Cultural Study. 
Seville, Spain In addition to the 
other options for study 
abroad, students who have 
satisfied the language 
distribution requirement in 
Spanish may study for one or 
two semesters of their 
sophomore (with permission of 
the Academic Standing 
Committee) or junior year or 
the fall semester of their 
senior year at the Center for 
Cross-Cultural Study in Seville, 
Spain. Both credits and grades 
earned in the Center will be 



transferred to the student's 
college transcript. Except as 
already described, 
requirements for participation 
in this program are similar to 
those described under the 
Study Abroad heading above. 
Students interested in studying 
at the Center should consult 
the Spanish Department. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary 
Exchange Gettysburg College 
students are eligible to take up 
to four courses at the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary also 
located in Gettysburg. Both 
credits and grades earned 
at the Seminary will be 
transferred to the student's 
college transcript as "in- 
residence" credit. Interested 
students should consult the 
Registrar. 

Wilson College Exchange 

Gettysburg College offers an 
exchange opportunity with 




49 




Wilson College, an area 
college for women with course 
offerings that supplement 
Gettysburg's offerings in 
communications, women's 
studies, international studies, 
dance and other creative arts. 
Students may take a single 
course or enroll as a guest 
student for a semester or full 
year. 

Marine Biology The biology 
department offers two 
programs for students who 
may be interested in pursuing 
studies in marine biology; one 
program is in cooperation with 
Duke University and the other 
with the Bermuda Biological 
Station. 

The Bermuda Biological 
Station (St. George's West, 
Bermuda) offers courses in 
biological, chemical, and 
physical oceanography during 
the summer. Any course taken 

50 



by a Gettysburg College 
student may be transferred to 
Gettysburg with the grade 
received in the course 
provided prior approval is 
granted by the department. 

Gettysburg College is one of 
a limited number of 
undergraduate institutions 
affiliated with the Duke 
University Cooperative 
Undergraduate Program in the 
Marine Sciences. The program, 
offered at the Duke University 
Marine Laboratory (Beaufort, 
North Carolina), is a ten-week 
semester of courses, seminars, 
and independent investi- 
gations. Studies include the 
physical, chemical, geological, 
and biological aspects of the 
marine environment with 
emphasis on the ecology of 
marine organisms. 





The program is appropriate for 
juniors or students who have 
had 3-4 courses in biology. The 
student receives the equivalent 
of five courses, two of which 
may be used toward the 
minimum eight required in 
biology. The remaining 
courses will apply toward 
graduation requirements. 

Interested students are urged 
to contact the Biology 
Department regarding the 
current curriculum at the 
laboratory and additional 
information regarding the 
program. 

Preprofessional Studies 

Prelaw Preparation A student 
planning a career in law 
should develop the ability to 
think logically and to express 
thoughts clearly. In addition, 



the prospective law student 
needs a wide range of critical 
understanding of human 
institutions. These qualities 
are not found exclusively in 
any one field of study. They 
can be developed in a broad 
variety of academic majors. It 
should be noted that a strong 
academic record is required 
for admission to law school. 

The College has a prelaw 
adviser to assist and advise 
students in their consideration 
of the legal profession and to 
aid them in gaining admission 
to law school. A brochure is 
available through the 
Admissions and Career 
Services Offices, describing 





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prelaw preparation at 
Gettysburg. Students planning 
a career in law should review 
this brochure. 

Premedical Preparation The 

Gettysburg College curriculum 
provides the opportunity, 
within a liberal arts 
framework, for a student to 
complete the requirements for 
admission to professional 
schools of medicine, dentistry, 
and veterinary medicine, as 
well as several allied health 
schools. Students considering 
a career in one of these fields 
are advised to schedule their 
courses carefully, not only to 
meet the admission require- 
ments for the professional 
schools, but also to provide 
for other career options in the 
event that their original 
choices are altered. The 
following courses will meet the 
minimal entrance requirements 




for most medical, dental, or 
veterinary schools: Biology 
101, 112; Chemistry 111, 112; 
Chemistry 203, 204; Math 107, 
108 or Math 111, 112; Physics 
103, 104 or Physics 111, 112; 
two or three courses in 
English; and a foreign 
language through the 
intermediate level. Since 
completion of these courses 
will also give the student 
minimum preparation for 
taking the national admissions 
examinations (to prepare for 
the Biology sections of these 
examinations, Biology 200 
should also be completed) for 
entrance to medical, dental, or 
veterinary school, it is 
advisable to have completed 
or be enrolled in these courses 
by the spring of the junior 
year, when the tests ordinarily 
are taken. While most students 
who seek recommendation for 
admission to health 
professions' schools major in 
either biology or chemistry, 
the requirements can be met 
by majors in most other 
subjects with careful planning 
of a student's program. 
Premedical students are 
encouraged to choose 
electives in the humanities and 
social sciences and to plan 
their programs in consultation 
with their major adviser or a 
member of the premedical 
committee. 

51 



All recommendations for 
admission to health 
professions' schools are made 
by the premedical committee, 
normally at the end of the 
junior year. Students seeking 
admission to these 
professional schools must also 
take one of the following 
national admissions 
examinations: MCAT 
(medical), DAT (dental), VAT or 
GRE (veterinary) or OAT 
(optometry). The Premedical 
Committee is composed of 
members from the 
Departments of Biology, 
Chemistry, Physics, and 
Psychology, with the 
Associate Dean of the College 
acting as chairperson. 
Because of the competition for 
admission to medical school, 
the premedical committee 
recommends that a student 
maintain a high accumulative 
average (near 3.50) overall and 
in medical school required 
courses. Generally, students 
with a competitive 
accumulative average and a 
competitive score on the MCAT 
gain an interview at one or 
more medical schools. 

The premedical committee has 
prepared a brochure about 
preparation at Gettysburg for 
the health professions. Copies 
of this are available from the 
Admissions and Provost 
Offices. Students interested in 
the health professions should 
obtain this brochure. 





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The premedical committee 
holds periodic meetings to 
explain requirements for 
admissions to health 
professions schools and to 
bring representatives of 
these schools to campus to 
talk to students. In the 
office of the Provost is a 
collection of materials about 
the health professions. It 
includes information about 
admissions requirements, 
guidebooks on preparing for 
national admissions 
examinations, catalogues from 
many health professions 
schools, and reference 
materials on fields such as 
medicine, dentistry, veterinary 
science, optometry, pharmacy, 
podiatry, physical therapy, 
public health, and health care 
administration. 



Dual-Degree Programs 

Engineering This program is 
offered jointly with 
Pennsylvania State University 
(PSU), Rennselaer Polytechnic 
Institute (RPI), and Washington 
University in St. Louis. 
Students spend three years at 
Gettysburg College followed by 
two years at one of these 
universities. Upon successful 
completion of this program, 
the student is awarded the 
Bachelor of Arts degree from 
Gettysburg and the Bachelor of 
Science degree in an 
engineering discipline from 
one of the three affiliated 
universities. Although 
Gettysburg has no current 
formal affiliation with other 
engineering institutions, 
individual students have 
negotiated similar cooperative 
arrangements with such 
institutions as Illinois, 
Delaware, and Iowa State. 

Candidates for this program 
will have an adviser in the 
Physics Department. Normally 
a student will be recommended 
to PSU, RPI, or Washington 
University during the fall 
semester of the junior year. 
Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point 
average in order to be 
recommended except for 
students interested in 
electrical engineering at RPI 
who are required to have a 3.5 
average for recommendation. 



52 



The specific courses required 
for admission by each 
affiliated institution vary and 
students should schedule 
courses in close cooperation 
with the Engineering Adviser 
at Gettysburg. In general, dual- 
degree engineering students 
can expect to take Physics 
111,112,211,215,216; 
Mathematics 111, 112,211, 
212, 363; Chemistry 111, 112 
and a Computer Science 
course. PSU's requirements 
are more restrictive and 
students who wish to complete 
their requirements at this 
institution may need to attend 
a summer school to be eligible 
for transfer. All dual-degree 
engineering students will have 
to complete the distribution 
requirements of Gettysburg 
while in residence at 
Gettysburg. Because of the 
limited flexibility of the dual- 
degree engineering curriculum, 
students are urged to identify 
their interests in this program 
at the earliest possible time. 

Forestry and Environmental 
Studies The College offers a 
dual-degree program with 
Duke University leading to 
graduate study in natural 
resources and the 
environment. The student will 
earn the bachelor's and 
master's degree in five years, 
spending three years at 
Gettysburg College and two 
years at Duke University's 
School of Forestry and 
Environmental Studies. The 
student must fulfill all the 
distribution requirements by 
the end of the junior year. The 
first year's work at Duke will 
complete the undergraduate 




degree requirements and the 
B.A. will be awarded by 
Gettysburg College at the end 
of the first year at Duke. Duke 
will award the professional 
degree of Master of Forestry 
or Master of Environmental 
Management to qualified 
candidates at the end of the 
second year. 



Candidates for the program 
should indicate to our 
Admissions Office that they 
wish to apply for the Forestry 
and Environmental Studies 
curriculum. At the end of the 
first semester of the third year, 
the College will recommend 
qualified students for 
admission to the Duke School 
of Forestry and Environmental 
Studies. No application need 
be made to the School of 
Forestry and Environmental 
Studies before that time. 
During the first semester of the 
junior year at Gettysburg the 
student must file with the 
Office of the Dean of 
Educational Services a petition 
for off-campus study during 
the senior year. All applicants 



53 



are urged to take the verbal 
and quantitative aptitude tests 
of the Graduate Record 
Examination in October or 
December of their junior year. 

The major program emphases 
at Duke are 1) Forest Resource 
Management, 2) Resource 
Ecology, 3) Water and Air 
Resources, and 4) Resource 
Economics and Policy; 
however, programs can be 
tailored with other individual 
emphases. An undergraduate 
major in natural sciences, 
social sciences, management, 
or pre-engineering is good 
preparation for the programs 
at Duke, but a student with 
other undergraduate 
concentration will be 
considered for admission. All 
students contemplating this 
cooperative program should 
take at least one year each in 
biology, mathematics, 
economics and computer 
science. 

Students begin the program at 
Duke in late August. The 
student must complete a total 
of 48 units, which generally 
takes four semesters. 

Some students may prefer to 
complete the bachelor's degree 
before undertaking graduate 
study at Duke. The master's 
degree requirements for these 
students are the same as those 
for students entering after the 
junior year. All credit 
reductions are determined 
individually and consider both 
the student's educational 
background and objectives. 








Army Reserve Officers Training 
Program The ROTC program 
conducted by the Department 
of Military Science allows a 
student to earn a commission 
as a Second Lieutenant in the 
US Army concurrent with 
academic degree conferral. 
The training received in 
leadership, management and 
human relations provides an 
excellent, highly valued 
foundation for subsequent 
civilian careers. 

The Basic Course covers the 
first two years of the ROTC 
Program. Instruction includes 
the national defense structure, 
military history, orienteering, 
wilderness survival, and 
leadership instruction. The fall 
and spring semesters of both 
years involve one hour of 



classroom instruction and one 
hour of professional 
development lab per week. 
There is no military obligation 
involved with enrollment in the 
Basic Course. 

The Advanced Course covers 
the third and fourth years of 
the ROTC program. Instruction 
includes advanced leadership 
development, group dynamics, 
organization and management, 
small unit tactics and 
administration. Each semester 
entails three classroom hours, 
one professional development 
lab hour per week, and one 
field training exercise per 
semester. In addition, 



54 



Advanced Course cadets are 
paid $100.00 per month. Army 
ROTC also otters scholarships 
on a competitive basis. Eligible 
students may apply for two or 
three-year scholarships which 
pay full tuition and book 
expenses plus $100.00 per 
month. 

The Military Science 
Department offers both a 
4-year and a 2-year program 
towards commissioning. 
Interested students should 
contact a member of the 
Department of Military Science 
for details on both these 
programs. It should be 
remembered that a student 
must have two full academic 
years remaining to participate 
in the Advanced Course and 
must have completed the Basic 
Course or received credit for 
the Basic Course prior to being 
enrolled in the Advanced 
Course. 

Senior Honors 

The College awards the 
following honors to members 
of the graduating class. These 
senior honors are intended for 
students with four years 
residence at Gettysburg 
College, and computations for 
them are based on four years' 
performance. 

1. Valedictorian, to the senior 
with the highest accumulative 
average. 

2. Salutatorian, to the senior 
with the second highest 
accumulative average. 

3. Summa Cum Laude, to those 
seniors who have an 
accumulative average of 3.750 
or higher. 

4. Magna Cum Laude, to those 
seniors who have an 
accumulative average of 3.500 
through 3.749. 



5. Cum Laude, to those seniors 
who have an accumulative 
average of 3.300 through 3.499. 

The Academic Standing 
Committee may grant the 
above honors to students with 
transfer credit if they have 
satisfied the conditions of the 
honor during at least two 
years in residence at 
Gettysburg College and have 
presented excellent transfer 
grades. 

In addition to the above, 
departments may award 
Departmental Honors for 
graduating seniors based upon 
their academic performance in 
a major field of study. 
Departmental Honors are 
awarded to transfer students 
on the same terms as to 



other students since the 
computation for this award is 
not necessarily based on four 
years in residence at 
Gettysburg College. 

Deans' Lists 

The names of those students 
who attain an average of 3.600 
or higher in the fall semester, 
or in the spring semester, are 
placed on the Deans' Honor 
List in recognition of their 
academic attainments. Also, 
those students who attain an 
average from 3.330 to 3.599 
are placed on the Deans' 
Commendation List. To be 
eligible for these honors, a 
student must take a full course 
load of at least four courses, 
with no more than one course 
taken under the S/U grading 
option during that semester 
(except for students taking the 
Education Term who may take 
two courses S/U). 




Phi Beta Kappa 

Phi Beta Kappa elects to 
membership seniors who have 
a distinguished academic 
record in a liberal arts 
program. No more than ten 
percent of the senior class 
may normally be elected. The 
Gettysburg College Chapter of 
Phi Beta Kappa received its 
Charter in 1923 and is one of 
237 chapters of Phi Beta Kappa 
in American colleges and 
universities. 

Prizes and Awards 

The following prizes recognize 
outstanding scholarship and 
achievement. They are 
awarded at a Fall Honors 
Program in October or a Spring 
Honors Convocation held in 
April or May. Grades earned in 
required courses in physical 
education are not considered 
in computations for prizes or 
awards. Transfer students are 
eligible for prizes and awards. 

Endowed Funds 

Betty M. Barnes Memorial 
Award in Biology The income 
from a fund, established by Dr. 
& Mrs. Rodger W. Baier, is 
awarded to a female senior 
student with high academic 
ability preparing for a career 
in biology or medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize The 
income from a fund 
contributed-by Dr. Charles 
Baum (1874), is given to the 
sophomore showing the 
greatest proficiency in 
Mathematics. 



John Edgar Baublitz Phi 
Lambda Sigma Awards The 
income fund from a fund 
initiated by John Eberhardt 
Baublitz in honor of his father, 
John Edgar Baublitz (1929) who 
was the first president of the 
Gamma chapter of Phi Lambda 
Sigma, given annually to a 
senior major in business 
administration, a senior major 
in economics and a senior 
major in political science. 

Anna Marie Budde Award The 
income from a bequest from 
Anna Marie Budde, Instructor 
and Assistant Professor of 
Voice 1953-1972, is given to the 
outstanding sophomore voice 
student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Gettysburg 
College Athletic Training Room 
Award The income from a 
bequest from Rose Ann 
Capozzi in memory of her late 
husband, Romeo M. Capozzi, 
is given to the student who 
has demonstrated the greatest 
degree of proficiency in 
Athletic Training Room 
techniques. 

Oscar W. Carlson Memorial 
Award The income from a 
fund contributed by the family 
of Oscar W.Carlson (1921) is 
given to a senior who 
demonstrates excellent 
academic achievement 
through his or her junior year 
in three or more courses in the 
Department of Religion, 
including two courses above 
the 100-level. 



John M. Colestock Student 
Leadership Award The award 
contributed by family and 
friends, is given to a senior 
male student whose optimism, 
enthusiasm, and strength of 
character have provided 
exceptional leadership in 
student affairs. 

Malcolm R. Dougherty Mathe- 
matical Award The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
Columbian Cutlery Company, 
Reading, Pa., in memory of 
Malcolm R. Dougherty (1942), 
is awarded to the sophomore 
who during his or her 
freshman year had the highest 
average in mathematics and 
who is working to earn part of 
his or her college expenses. 



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56 



Margaret E. Fisher Memorial 
Scholarship Award The 
income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. Nelson F. 
Fisher (1918) in memory of his 
mother, is awarded to a male 
student who excels in one or 
more major sports and who 
achieves the highest academic 
average among winners of 
varsity letters. 

Lena S. Fortenbaugh Memorial 
Prize The income from a fund 
established by the children of 
Lena S. Fortenbaugh (M.A. 
1925) and Robert Fortenbaugh 
(1913), Professor of History at 
the College from 1923-1959, is 
awarded to the senior selected 
by the German Department on 
the basis of outstanding 
achievement in the study of 
German language and culture. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial 
Award A fund established by 
the friends and classmates of 
Holly Gabriel (1978) provides a 
memento and notation on a 
plaque in the office of the 
Sociology and Anthropology 
Department to a senior 
sociology major selected by 
the department who 
demonstrates superior 
academic achievement, 
concern for the welfare of 
others, and the intent to 
continue this service beyond 
graduation. 

Samuel Garver Greek 
Prize The income from a fund, 
contributed by the Rev. Austin 
S. Garver (1869) in memory of 
his father, is awarded to the 
student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek 
during the freshman year. 

Samuel Garver Latin Prize The 
income from a fund, 
contributed by the Rev. Austin 
S. Garver (1869) in memory of 
his father, is awarded to the 




student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin 
during the freshman year. 

Graeff English Prize The 
income from a fund 
established in 1866 is awarded 
to a senior selected by the 
English Department on the 
basis of outstanding 
achievement in the work of 
that Department. 

David H. Greenlaw Memorial 
Prize The income from a fund 
contributed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph W. Greenlaw in memory 
of their son, David H. Greenlaw 
(1966), is awarded to the 
student who has contributed 
most to the technical aspects 
of the College's theatre 
productions. 

Edwin T. Greninger Award in 
History The income from a 



fund contributed by Edwin T. 
Greninger (1941) and a 
certificate are awarded to a 
student selected by the History 
Department on the basis of the 
quality of the student's paper 
written for any of the courses 
in the department. 

John Alfred Ham me 
Awards Two awards, 
established by John Alfred 
Hamme (1918), are given to the 
two juniors who have 
demonstrated in the highest 
degree the qualities of loyalty, 
kindness, courtesy, true 
democracy, and leadership. 

Henry W. A. Hanson 
Scholarship Foundation 
Award The income from a fund 
contributed by College alumni 
in honor of Henry W. A. 
Hanson and in recognition of 
his leadership of and 
distinguished service to 
Gettysburg College and to the 
cause of education in the 
Lutheran Church and the 
nation, is awarded to a senior 
who plans to enter graduate 
school in preparation for 
college teaching. The student 
must have taken the Graduate 
Record Examination. If the 
senior chosen cannot accept, 
the next qualified candidate is 
eligible, and if no member of 
the senior class is chosen, a 
committee may select a 
member of a previous class. 

Harry C. and Catherine 
Noff singer Hartzell A ward The 
income from a fund, 
contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) in 
memory of his parents, is 
awarded to the outstanding 
junior student in the 
Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology. The selection of 
co-recipients may be made at 
the discretion of the 
Department. ^ 



James Boyd Hartzell Memorial 
Award The income from a fund 
contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) and 
his wife, Lucretia Irvine Boyd 
Harzell, is awarded to a junior 
student majoring in economics 
or in management for 
outstanding scholarship and 
promise in these fields. The 
selection of co-recipients may 
be made at the discretion of 
the Departments of Economics 
or Management. 

James Hamilton and Lucretia 
Irvine Boyd Hartzell 
Award The income from a fund 
contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) and 
his wife is awarded to a 
sophomore student for 
outstanding scholarship and 
promise in the field of History. 
The selection of co-recipients 
may be made at the discretion 
of the History Department. 



Mildred H. Hartzell Prize The 
income from a bequest from 
Mildred H. Harzell (1926) is 
awarded to a student who 
shows high quality in more 
than scholarship with 
preference being given to a 
member of Alpha Phi Omega, 
the national service fraternity, 
or other such organizations as 
may reflect similar quality and 
ideals. 

Hassle r Latin Prize The income 
from a fund contributed by 
Charles W. Hassler, is 
awarded to the best Latin 
student in the junior class. 

John A. Hauser Meritorious 
Prize in Business The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
family of John A. Hauser is 
awarded to an outstanding 
Management major who has 
achieved excellence in both 
academic studies and campus 




leadership while 
demonstrating good character 
and concern for high moral 
standards. 

Rev. George N. Lauffer (1899) 
and M. Naomi Lauffer (1898) 
Scholarship Award The 
income from a fund is given 
each year to a junior who has 
maintained high scholarship 
and who evidences 
outstanding ability and 
Christian character. It is 
understood that the recipient 
will complete the senior year 
at Gettysburg College. 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. 
MacCartney Scholarship 
Award The income from a fund 
established by Michael Alan 
Berk and Kerry MacCartney 
Berk (1975) is given to a 
student on the basis of 
academic excellence, initiative 
shown in a work-study 
program, and contributions to 
the College through leadership 
in campus activities. 

J. Andrew Marsh Memorial 
Awards The income from the 
fund is presented each year to 
the sophomore and junior 
students of Gettysburg College 
who best exemplify the "whole 
person" concept through 
positive attitude, exceptional 
spirit, high standards, and 
notable achievement, both 
curricular and extracurricular. 
Priority is given to candidates 
in the Army ROTC program. 

Military Memorial Prize The 
income from a fund 
contributed by alumni and 
friends of the College is 
awarded to the student who 
has attained the highest 
standing in the advanced 
course of the Reserve Officers 
Training Corps. 




Miller Freshman Prize in 
Physics The income from a 
fund contributed by alumni 
and friends of the College in 
memory of George R. Miller 
(1919) is awarded to a 
sophomore for outstanding 
performance in physics as a 
freshman. The selection of the 
recipient may be made at the 
discretion of the Physics 
Department. 

Miller Senior Prize in 
Physics The income from a 
fund contributed by alumni 
and friends of the College in 
memory of George R. Miller 
(1919) is awarded to a senior 
for sustained outstanding 
performance in physics. The 
selection of the recipient may 
be made at the discretion of 
the Physics Department. 

Franklin Moore Award The 
income from a fund 
contributed by the friends of 



Mr. Moore is given to the 
senior who, during his or her 
undergraduate years, has 
shown the highest degree of 
good citizenship and, by 
character, industry, enterprise, 
initiative, and activities has 
contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the 
prestige of the College. 

Muhlenberg Freshman 
Prize The income from a fund 
given by Dr. Frederick A. 
Muhlenberg (1836) is awarded 
to the freshman taking Greek 
or Latin who attains the 
highest general quality point 
average. 

Muhlenberg Goodwill Prize An 
illuminated certificate is 
awarded to a senior male 
student "For his growth during 
formative years at Gettysburg 
College in awareness of 
personal responsibility for the 
welfare of all peoples; for a 



degree of achievement in same 
during College years; and in 
the hope of his future 
accomplishment for 
betterment of Community, 
State and Nation." 

William F. Muhlenberg 
Award The income from a 
fund is awarded to two juniors 
on the basis of character, 
scholarship, and proficiency in 
campus activities. 

Nicholas Bible Prize The 
income from a fund 
contributed by the Rev. Dr. J. C. 
Nicholas (1894) is awarded to 
the senior who has done the 
best work in advanced courses 
in religion. 

Clair B. Noerr Memorial 
Award An inscribed medal, 
established by Constance 
Noerr (1958) in memory of her 
father, is awarded to a senior 
woman on the basis of 
proficiency in athletics, 
scholarship, and Christian 
character. 

Dr. John W. Ostrom 
Composition Awards The 
income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. John W. 
Ostrom (1926) is awarded to 
the student who achieves 
excellence and demonstrates 
the greatest improvement in 
freshman composition (English 
101) and to the student who 
achieves excellence and 
demonstrates the greatest 
improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English 
Award The income from a 
fund contributed by Dr. John 
W. Ostrom (1926) is awarded 
to the student who has, in the 
judgment of the members of 
the Department of English, 
written the best expository 
essay for an upper level 
English course. 59 



Keith Pappas Memorial 
Award Notation on a plaque in 
the Office of the Dean of 
Student Life and a certificate 
is given annually as a 
memorial to Keith Pappas 
(1974), an honors graduate 
who made an extraordinary 
contribution to the life of this 
College and its people. This 
award is to be given to a 
current student who most 
significantly affects the 
College community through 
the quality of his or her 
participation in its functions 
and whose divergent 
contributions give form to 
what is called Gettysburg 
College. 

Jeffrey Pierce Memorial 
Award The income from a 
Memorial Fund established in 
honor of Jeffrey Pierce (1971), 
is awarded annually to that 
male senior who, in the 
judgment of the Department, 
has reached the highest level 
of achievement in the field of 
history. 

Martha Ellen Sachs Prize The 
income from a fund 
contributed by John E. Haas in 
memory of his aunt, a Lecturer 
at the College, is awarded to a 
student exhibiting excellence 
in English composition, with 
consideration given to 
improvement made during the 
year. 

Stine Chemistry Prize The 
income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. Charles M. 
A. Stine (1901), is awarded to a 
senior chemistry major on the 
basis of grades in chemistry, 
laboratory technique, 
personality, general 
improvement in four years, 
and proficiency in chemistry at 
the time of selection. 




Earl Kresge Stock Writing 
Prizes The income from a fund 
contributed by Earl Kresge 
Stock (1919) is awarded to the 
three students who write the 
classroom papers judged best 
in the areas of the humanities, 
the sciences, and the social 
sciences. 

Samuel P. Weaver Scholarship 
Foundation Prizes Prizes 
established by Samuel P. 
Weaver (1904), are awarded to 
the two students writing the 
best essays on an assigned 
topic in the field of 
constitutional law and 
government. 

Earl E. Ziegler Junior 
Mathematics Award The 
income from a fund 
contributed by Phi Delta Theta 
Alumni is given in honor of 
Earl E. Ziegler, Associate 
Professor of Mathematics at 



Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, to the student who is 
majoring in mathematics and 
has the highest average in 
mathematics through the 
middle of the junior year. 

Earl E. Ziegler Senior 
Mathematics Award The 
income from a contribution by 
Earl E. Ziegler, Associate 
Professor of Mathematics at 
Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, is awarded to the 
mathematics major who has 
achieved the highest average 
in mathematics through the 
middle of the senior year. 

Edwin and Leander M. 
Zimmerman Senior Prize The 
income from a fund is given to 
the senior whose character, 
influence on students, and 
scholarship have contributed 
most to the welfare of the 
College. 



60 



John B. Zinn Chemistry 
Research Award The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
family of John B. Zinn (1909), 
who was Professor of 
Chemistry at the College from 
1924-1959, is awarded to the 
senior making the greatest 
contributions in his or her own 
research in Chemistry and to 
the research activities of the 
Chemistry Department. 

Unendowed 

Charles W. Beachem Athletic 
Award The Physical Education 
Department presents a trophy 
in memory of Charles W. 
Beachem (1925), the first 
alumni secretary of the 
College. Based on Christian 
character, scholarship, and 
athletic achievement, the 
award is given to a senior 
student. 

Beta Beta Beta Junior 
Award This award is given to 
a junior Biology major who 
has become an active member 
of Beta Beta Beta. The award 
is based on scholarship, 
character, and attitude in the 
biological sciences. 

Beta Beta Beta Senior 
Award This award is given to 
a senior Biology major who 
has demonstrated academic 
excellence in the biological 
sciences. The award is based 
on scholarship, character, and 
an active participation in the 
Rho Chapter of Beta Beta Beta. 

C E. Bilheimer A ward 
Notation on a plaque and a 
memento are given to the 
senior major in health and 
physical education with the 
highest academic average. 

College President's Award: 
Military Science An engraved 
desk writing set is awarded to 




the outstanding senior in the 
Army ROTC program chosen 
on the basis of academic 
excellence, military 
performance, especially 
leadership ability, character, 
industry and initiative, and 
participation in activities. 

Delta Phi Alpha Prize A book 
on German culture is awarded 
to the outstanding student for 
the year in the German 
Department. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial 
Award An award established 
by the family of Anthony di 
Palma (1956), provides a book 
to the junior having the 
highest marks in history. Other 
things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Sigma 
Chi fraternity. 

French Cultural Counselor's 
Award A book presented by 
the Cultural Counselor of the 



French Embassy is awarded to 
a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

Frank H. Kramer Award The 
award is given by Phi Delta 
Theta fraternity, in memory of a 
former Professor of Education, 
to a senior for the excellence of 
his or her work in the 
Department of Education. 

Pennsylvania Institute of 
Certified Public Accountants 
Award This award, sponsored 
by the Pennsylvania Institute of 
Certified Public Accountants, is 
presented to a senior selected 
by the faculty of the 
Management Department who 
has demonstrated excellence in 
the area of accounting and who, 
by participation in campus 
activities, shows qualities of 
leadership. Eligibility for this 
award is based on the 
satisfactory completion of a 
substantial number of 
accounting courses. 

Psi Chi Award The award is 
given to a senior psychology 
major, in the spring of his or 
her senior year, who shows 
promise in the field of 
psychological endeavor. Other 
things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Psi 
Chi. 

Psi Chi Junior A ward An 
award is given to a senior 
psychology major who has 
displayed outstanding 
potential and initiative 
throughout his or her junior 
year. 

Sceptical Chymists Prize To 
encourage the presentation of 
talks, the prize is awarded by 
the organization to the 
member or pledge who 
delivers the best talk before 
the Sceptical Chymists during 
the year. 

61 




Sigma Alpha lota College 
Honor Award Sigma Alpha 
lota, an international music 
fraternity, gives an award 
each year to a young woman 
in the local chapter who has 
exemplified the highest 
musical, scholastic, and 
ethical standards, whatever 
her class standing. 
Contributions to the local 
chapter of Sigma Alpha lota 
and participation in Music 
Department activities are 
important criteria for 
selection. 

Sigma Alpha lota Honor 
Certificate Sigma Alpha lota 
annually awards in each 
chapter an honor certificate to 
the graduating woman who 
holds the highest academic 
average among music majors. 



62 



Society for Collegiate 
Journalists Award A medal is 
presented to a student who 
has done outstanding work on 
the College newspaper or 
literary magazine or with the 
radio station. 

Dr. George W. Stoner 
Award The income from a 
fund is awarded to a worthy 
male senior accepted by a 
recognized medical college. 

Student Life Council Award A 
citation is awarded to a 
student in recognition of the 
quiet influence he or she has 
exerted for the improvement of 
the campus community. 

Wall Street Journal Student 
Achievement Award The 
award of a silver medal and a 
year's subscription to the Wall 
Street Journal is presented to 
a senior in the Department of 
Economics and to a senior in 
the Department of 
Management who have shown 
outstanding academic 
achievement in the study of 
finance and economics. 



Charles R. Wolfe Memorial 
Award An award is given by 
Alpha Xi Delta to a graduating 
senior on the basis of 
scholarly endeavor, warmth of 
personality, and dedication to 
the College. 

Marion Zulauf Poetry 
Prize The income from a fund 
established at The Academy of 
American Poets by Sander 
Zulauf (1968) in memory of his 
mother is presented annually 
to that student who writes the 
winning entry in a poetry 
contest sponsored by the 
Department of English. 




Each year the Registrar's Office issues an 
Announcement of Courses to be taught during 
the fall and spring semesters and the times they 
will be taught. Since not every course listed in 
the following pages is offered each year, the 
Announcement of Courses should be consulted to 
obtain the most current information about course 
offerings. 

Usually, courses numbered 100-199 are at a 
beginning level. Intermediate courses are 
numbered 200-299. Courses numbered 300-399 
are at an upperclass level. Courses numbered 
400 and above are advanced seminars, 
internships, and individualized study. 

Courses which are listed with two numbers, e.g., 
Biology 101, 102, span two semesters. For 
courses separated by a hyphen, the first 
numbered course must be taken as a prerequisite 
for the second. Where the two numbers are 
separated by a comma, either of the semesters 
of the course may be taken independently of the 
other. 

The College and distribution requirements for a 
B.A. degree are listed on page 25 and for a B.S. 
in Music Education on page42. Courses to meet 
the distribution requirements are offered in 
various departments. 

Following is a listing of the courses that may be 
taken to satisfy each of the distribution 
requirements. The department introductions and 
course listings on the following pages indicate to 
a greater degree the specific courses which fulfill 
certain requirements. 



Requirements 

Writing Proficiency 

Freshman Colloquy 



Foreign Language 



Arts 



History/Philosophy 



Literature 



Courses that fulfill the requirement 

English 101 (or exemption 
by examination). 

Freshmen Colloquy (FC) 100, but 
taught by professors from various 
departments. 

French 201-202, 205, 206; German 
202; Greek 202; Latin 202 or 203; 
Portuguese 202; Spanish 202, 205, 
206. 

Art (all courses in history and 
theory); English 205; Music 101, 
103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
110,312,313,314. 
Theatre Arts (all courses) 

Classics 121, 122; Greek 251; Latin 
251; French 310; German 211, 212, 
213; Spanish 310, 311; IDS 101, 102 
206, 211,227, 228; History (all 
courses except Hist 300); 
Philosophy (all courses). 

Classics 262, 264, 266; French, 
German, Greek, Latin and Spanish 
Literature, but not language or 
civilization courses; IDS 103, 104, 
216, 222, 235, 237, 238, 245; 
English (all courses except Eng. 
101,201,203,205,206,208,209, 
305 and courses in speech and 
theatre arts). 

Biology 101, 102 or 101, 112; 
Chemistry 101, 102 or 111, 112; 
Astronomy 101, 102; Physics 103, 
104; 111, 112. 

Religion (all 100-level courses) 

Anthropology (all courses); 
Economics 103, 104; Political 
Science 101, 102, 103, 104; 
Psychology 101; Sociology 101. 

Non-Western Culture Anthropology (all courses); Art 
227; Economics 338; French 331; 
Hist 221, 222, 224, 251, 254, 321; 
IDS 227, 228, 235, 237, 238, 245; 
Political Science 263, 265; Religion 
202, 241, 242; Sociology 219. 



Natural Science 



Religion 
Social Sciences 



Freshman Colloquy 

Required seminar for all freshmen designed to 
strengthen reasoning, writing, and speaking 
skills. Using a multi-disciplinary theme as a 
focus, students will analyze readings, lectures, 
and other presentations through intensive 
writing and class discussion. 



64 



Anthropology— See Sociology and Anthropology 

Art 

Associate Professors Agard (Chairperson) 

and Paulson 
Instructors Small and Trevelyan 

Overview 

The Art Department has the following major 
objectives: 

(1) to educate the visual sensibilities beyond the 
routine responses, toward an awareness of the 
visual environment around us, as well as 
cognition of works of art as the living past; (2) to 
study the historical-cultural significance and 
aesthetic structure of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture, and the enduring dialogue between 
continuity and change; (3) to teach the history of 
art and the practice of art as separate but 
interrelated disciplines; (4) to provide the 
interested major with a curriculum which will 
give him or her a foundation for graduate or 
professional study leading to a career in high 
school or college teaching, to commercial art 
and industrial design, or as professional 
painters, sculptors, and printmakers. 

The Department offers to prospective majors a 
flexible program of study in interrelated studio 
and art history courses. It encourages students 
from disciplines other than art to select from 
both types of courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for students concentrating in 
studio art are: Art 141, 145, 146, 120 and courses 
in painting, printmaking, and sculpture, 
additional courses in at least two of these 
disciplines and a minimum of two courses in 
addition to Art 120 in the area of history and/or 
the theory of art. Students are encouraged to 
take additional courses in the discipline of their 
special interest and competence. 

Students intending to concentrate in studio art 
are advised to take Art 141, 145, in their 
freshman year if their interests will lead to an 
emphasis in Painting and Printmaking. Students 
interested in a Sculpture/Painting or 
Sculpture/Printmaking emphasis are advised to 
take Art 141, 145, and 146 in their freshman year. 

For such majors there will be a senior show at 
the end of the second semester of the senior 
year. 



Art 

Requirements for majors concentrating in the 
history of art are: a minimum of nine art history 
courses (including Art 120) selected by the 
student, in consultation with the adviser, which 
will meet his or her projected needs and which 
the Department considers to be a coherent 
program; and two basic studio courses in order 
to sharpen visual perception and foster an 
understanding of visual structure. Students 
intending to concentrate in the history of art 
should take Art 111, 112, and 120 in the freshman 
year. Students concentrating in art history must 
take at least two 300-level courses and Art 400. 

Because of graduate school requirements and 
extensive publications in French, German, and 
Italian, students interested in the history of art 
are advised to fulfill their language requirement 
in one of these languages. 

The Art Department reserves the right to keep 
one work by each student from each studio 
course. These selections will become a part of 
the Department's permanent collection. 

Art History and/or Theory of Art Minor 

Students interested in minoring in Art History are 
advised to take the following courses: one (1) 
100-level studio course, one (1) 200-level studio 
course, Art 120 and three (3) 200-level art history 
and/or theory of art courses. Students with an 
acceptable knowledge or background in art 
history may seek an exemption from Art 120. If 
the student is released from Art 120 by the 
instructor, the student must take four (4) 200- 
level art history and/or theory of art courses. 

Art Studio Minor 

Students interested in minoring in Studio Art are 
advised to take the following courses: two (2) art 
history and/or theory of art courses and four (4) 
studio courses. 

Students minoring in either art history and/or 
theory of art or studio art should be reminded 
that not more than two (2) 100-level courses are 
acceptable to fulfill the College's requirements 
for a minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any course in the area of history and theory of 
art may be counted toward the distribution 
requirement in arts. 

Special Facilities 

The new 1,100 sq. foot Schmucker Hall Art 
Gallery displays ten different exhibitions each 

65 



Art 

year. Included in the gallery calendar are works 
by professional artists, a faculty show, a student 
show, several senior art major shows, and 
numerous theme and specially funded 
exhibitions. 

A collection of approximately 45,000 color slides 
supports the teaching of art history and studio 
classes. Available to students is a corresponding 
collection of 20,000 opaque color reproductions 
of architecture, painting, and sculpture. Art 
museums in Washington, Baltimore, and 
Philadelphia, as well as art exhibits at the 
College, make possible the necessary contact 
with original works of art. 

The Department has presses for relief, surface, 
and intaglio printmaking. For sculpture it has 
both gas and electric welding equipment, power 
tools for working in wood, stone, and plastic, 
and a small foundry for bronze casting. 

History and Theory of Art 

111,112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Introductory study of the visual arts from 
prehistoric times to the 19th century. Class will 
examine reasons for changes in the content, 
form, and function of two-dimensional and three- 
dimensional art. Exercises in visual analysis of 
individual works develop critical methods. 
Fulfills distribution requirement. Juniors and 
seniors only by permission of instructor. 

Staff 

120 Theory of the Visual Arts 

A course to give the liberal arts student a basic 
approach to visual experience. This is not a 
chronological survey but a study of visual 
elements which relate to art. The emphasis will 
be on painting but other forms of art will also be 
considered. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
Arts. Juniors and seniors only by permission of 
instructor. 

Ms. Small 

201 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome 

An introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of the Classical World explaining the 
cultural and intellectual difference between the 
people of these two civilizations and reflected in 
the Arts of both. Fulfills distribution requirement 
in Arts. Juniors and seniors only by permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 



203 Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in the Italian 
Renaissance 

A survey of the visual arts during the centuries 
that, in many ways, mark the boundary between 
the ancient world and the modern one. The 
course will approach the arts of the period from 
this perspective. Many of the artists and 
monuments included are traditionally 
acknowledged to be among the finest in the 
history of art, including the works of 
Michaelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and 
Titian. A secondary focus of the course will be to 
question and explore the reasons why the art of 
this period is so acclaimed. Prerequisite: Art 111 
or Art 112 or Art 201 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

205 The Arts of Northern Europe: A.D. 1350-1575 

An analysis of artistic developments in Northern 
Europe from late Gothic times through the 
turbulent period of the reformation. The works of 
many artists (including Jan van Eyck, Claus 
Sluter, Hieronymous Bosch, Hans Holbein and 
Albrecht Durer) will be explored to discover the 
ways in which social, political, and intellectual 
developments are mirrored in the art of that 
period. Prerequisite: Art 201 or any one-hundred 
level art history course or permission of 
instructor. Alternate years. Offered Spring 1988. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

206 European Painting 1700-1900 

Introduction to eighteenth century painters in 
Italy, France, and England and their relationship 
to the Enlightenment. Major emphasis on the 
evolution of painting in France during the 
nineteenth century in relation to the changing 
social, political, and philosophical climate. 
Special attention will be given to impressionism 
and Post-impressionism. Alternate years. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 
111 or Art 112 or Art 120 or Art 201 or permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. Small 

210 Twentieth Century European Painting 

Study of the schools and critical writings 
surrounding the major figures. Such movements 
as Art Nouveau, Nabis, Fauvism, Cubism, 
Futurism, German Expressionism, De Stijl, Dada, 
and Surrealism will be considered. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in Arts. Recommended 
prior courses: Art 111 or Art 112 or Art 120. 

Ms. Small 



66 



221 Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century 
American Painting 

Survey of American painting from the Colonial 
Period to 1900, studied in relationship to 
developments in Europe, and with emphasis on 
the response of art to the changing social and 
technological environment in America. Alternate 
years. Fulfills the distribution requirement 
in Arts. 

Ms. Small 

227 The Native Arts of North America 

A survey of the arts created by the original 
inhabitants of North America emphasizing the 
cultural and religious traditions that formed the 
basis for most of it. Emphasis will be on 
developing an understanding and appreciation of 
the fundamental differences between the arts 
and cultures of native people and those of 
modern western cultures, as well as aspects of 
similarity. The arts and people of every major 
geographical region in North America will be 
examined. Fulfills the distribution requirement in 
Arts and the distribution requirement in Non- 
Western Culture. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

307 The Mannerist and Baroque Periods in European Art 

A study of painting, sculpture, and architecture 
in Europe from the first decades after the 
Reformation through their transformation under 
the impact of the Counter-Reformation. Artistic 
developments in Italy will be discussed as well 
as allied approaches in Northern Europe and 
Spain. The works of some of the world's best 
known artists will be examined— including 
Bernini, Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, 
Vermeer, El Greco, Velasquez and Poussin. 
Prerequisites: Art 201 or any one-hundred level 
art history course or permission of instructor. 
Alternate years. Offered Spring 1989. 

Staff 

317 History of Modern Architecture 

Study of the character and development of 
modern architecture and the contributions of 
Sullivan, Wright, Gropius, and Corbusier toward 
creating new environments for contemporary 
society. Alternate years. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 111 or Art 
112 or permission of instructor. 

Staff 

322 Painting in America Since 1900 

Survey of twentieth-century painting. Two basic 
themes of the course are: the changing social 
role of painting as America's self-image develops 
and the aesthetic role of the eclectic process. 



Art 



Fulfills the distribution requirement in Arts. 
Recommended prior course: History 132. 

Ms. Small 



335 History of Modern Sculpture 

Study of the evolution of sculptural forms from 
the nineteenth century through the present 
decade with emphasis on the effects of science 
and technology on man's changing image of man 
and his universe. Alternate years. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 
111 or Art 112 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended prior courses: History 317, 
History 318. 

Mr. Paulson 

400 Seminar 

An advanced study of a specific issue in art 
history. Although the approach will vary to some 
extent according to the specific topic, common 
denominators will be a close examination and 
analysis of art objects and a thorough 
investigation of the historical and social 
background. Students will develop skills in 
advanced verbal and visual research, written 
and oral projects, and critiques. Topics will be 
selected according to interest in significant areas 
not otherwise covered in course offerings. Topics 
presently under consideration are: Ruskin and 
the 19th Century; Influence of Japanese Prints on 
Western Painting; American Female Artists since 
1945. Alternate years for one semester. 
Prerequisites: Minimum of 3 art history courses, 
at least one of which is a 300-level course, or 
permission of instructor. 

Mesdames Trevelyan and Small 

Studio Courses 

The purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen 
the sense of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and 
eye; develop the ability to organize visual 
material; and to integrate the intuitive and 
rational into creative activity. Lectures 
accompany basic studio courses when 
necessary to relate theory and practice. 

The Lora Qually Hicks memorial fund, 
established by family and friends in honor of 
Lora Qually Hicks (1971), provides funds for the 
purchase of works created by Gettysburg 
students. 

141 Introduction to Drawing 

An introductory course. Drawing from the model 
and controlled studio problems. Intended to 
promote coordination of the hand and the eye to 
achieve a degree of technical mastery over a 

67 



Art 



variety of drawing tools. Emphasis will be placed 
on line quality, techniques of shading, negative- 
positive relationships, figure-ground 
relationships, form, structure, and an awareness 
of the total field. Offered fall semester only. 
Open to freshmen and sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

142 Introduction to Drawing 

Builds on the knowledge and skills accumulated 
in Art 141. Focuses on a wide range of drawing 
techniques and media. Experimental techniques 
and concepts, mixed-media, and collage will be 
introduced. Subjects will include the model, 
nature, architecture, interiors, and other visually 
interesting situations. Prerequisite: Art 141 or 
permission of instructor. Offered spring semester 
only. 

Mr. Agard 

145 Basic Design (two-dimensional) 

An introductory course to help the student 
develop a capacity to think and work 
conceptually as well as perceptually, and to 
provide a basic discipline with which to organize 
a variety of materials into structural and 
expressive form. Open to freshmen and 
sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

146 Basic Design (three-dimensional) 

An introductory course extending the basic 
disciplines of 141 into the third dimension. 
Projects introduce materials such as clay, 
plaster, wood, and metal. The intent of this 
course is to assist students to organize three- 
dimensional forms. Open to freshmen and 
sophomores only. 

Mr. Paulson 

241 Intermediate Drawing 

Intermediate studio problems: emphasis on 
drawing concepts and the development of 
individual student concerns in a series. 
Prerequisites: Art 141 or permission of instructor, 
and Art 142. Offered spring semester only. 

Mr. Agard 

251 Painting 

Development of a series of paintings according 
to a thematic image. Assigned problems are 
designed to introduce a variety of conceptual, 
procedural, and experimental possibilities. 
Prerequisite: Art 141 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended prior course: Art 322. 

Mr. Agard 



252 Painting 

Development of unique and experimental 
techniques, procedures, images, presentations, 
and textural applications. A series of paintings is 
developed. Alternative concepts and 
methodology are discussed. Students are 
referred to works by artists who have related 
aesthetic interests. Prerequisites: Art 141 or 
permission of instructor and Art 251. Offered odd 
years only. 

255 Introductory Printmaking 

An introductory course in printmaking. The 
creative process as conditioned and disciplined 
by the techniques of intaglio and lithography. 
Discussion of past and contemporary methods, 
and the study of original prints. Prerequisite: Art 
141 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Paulson 

256 Printmaking 

Further experiments but of individual concerns 
with concentration on one technique. 
Prerequisites: Art 141 and Art 255. 

Mr. Paulson 

261 Introductory Sculpture 

An introduction to the fundamentals of three- 
dimensional forms and modes of expression 
involving creative problems in the organization 
of space, mass, volume, line, and color. 
Correlated lectures and demonstrations will be 
used to acquaint the student with those aspects 
of sculptural history and theory relevant to 
studio projects. This course is intended for the 
general student as well as the art major. 
Prerequisite: Art 146 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended prior course: Art 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

262 Sculpture 

A program of studio projects (arranged by the 
instructor and the student) concerned with 
developing an individual approach to three- 
dimensional form with concentration in directly 
fabricating techniques involving a series of 
experiments in spacial organization. 
Prerequisites: Art 146 or permission of instructor, 
and Art 261. Recommended prior course: Art 335 

Mr. Paulson 

351 Advanced Painting 

Advanced studio problems: emphasis on painting 
concepts and the development of individual 
student concerns in a series. Prerequisites: Art 
141 or permission of instructor, Art 251, 252, 322. 
Offered odd years only. 

Mr. Agard 



68 



355 Advanced Printmaking 

Experimental printmaking concentrating on 
personal development of one method and 
exploration. Prerequisites: Art 141 or permission 
of instructor, and Art 255, 256. 

Mr. Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture 

Further exploration of individual three- 
dimensional concerns with concentration in one 
media and technique. Prerequisites: Art 146 or 
permission of instructor, and Art 261, 262, 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

Individualized Study 

Provides an opportunity for the well-qualified 
student to execute supervised projects in the 
area of his/her special interest, whether studio 
or history. Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 



Biology 

Professors Barnes, Cavaliere, and Schroeder 
Associate Professors Beach, Hendrix 

{Chairperson), Mikesell, Sorensen, 

and J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professors Etheridge and Logan 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Bayola-Mueller 
Laboratory Instructors Price, Tresham, 

H. Winkelmann, and Zeman 

Overview 

Courses in the Department are designed to 
provide a foundation in basic biological concepts 
and principles, and the background necessary 
for graduate study in biology, forestry, dentistry, 
medicine, veterinary medicine, and various other 
professional fields. All courses in the Department 
include laboratory work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Beginning with the class of 1990, the minimum of 
eight biology courses required for a major must 
include Biology 101, 112, 200, and 310, but is 
exclusive of Electron Microscopy and 
internships. Beyond the four above, there are no 
specific courses required for the major. This 
relative freedom permits the attainment of the 
different backgrounds required for various 
biological careers. Specialization at the expense 
of breadth, however, is discouraged. A student, 
in consultation with his or her adviser, should 
construct a broad, balanced curriculum. Every 
program should include at least one course from 



Art / Biology 

the area of botany, one from zoology, and one 
300-level course. Biology 101, 112 are 
prerequisites for all upper-level biology courses. 
Exceptions are made for those minoring in 
biology or by permission of the instructor. 

Chemistry 111, 112 and Chemistry 203, 204 are 
required of all majors in Biology. It is desirable, 
but not essential that Chemistry 111, 112 be 
taken in the freshman year and that Chemistry 
203, 204 be taken in the sophomore year. 

Two courses in introductory physics (either 
Physics 103, 104 or Physics 111, 112) are required 
for admission to graduate and professional 
schools, and for the teacher certification 
program in Biology, but this subject is not a 
requirement for the major. 

A minimum competency in statistics and 
calculus is expected of all majors in biology. Any 
deficiency should be rectified with Mathematics 
105 (Applied Calculus) and Mathematics 107 
(Applied Statistics). Students desiring a double 
major with chemistry, mathematics or physics 
must take Mathematics 111, 112 (Calculus of a 
Single Variable). 

A minor in biology includes Biology 101, 112 (or 
Biology 101, 102) and any other four courses in 
the Department which would count toward the 
major provided that all prerequisites are met. 



Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in laboratory 
science may be satisfied by Biology 101, 102, or 
by Biology 101, 112. 

Special Facilities 

Greenhouse, animal quarters, aquarium room, 
environmental chambers, electron microscopy 
laboratory (housing both scanning and 
transmission electron microscopes), independent 
study laboratories. 

Special Programs 

Dual degree program in Forestry and 
Environmental Studies with Duke University 
(p. 53). Cooperative programs in Marine Biology 
with Duke University and Bermuda Biological 
Station (p. 50). 



69 



Biology 

101 Introductory Biology 

Designed for science and non-science majors. 
The course includes the chemical nature of 
protoplasm; structure and function of cells; basic 
energy relationships; genetics and evolution. The 
historical aspects of modern biological principles 
are emphasized throughout the course. Three 
class hours and laboratory. 

Mr. Cavaliere and Staff 

102 Contemporary Topics in Biology 

Designed for non-science majors. The course will 
focus on pertinent topics covering contemporary 
problems and solutions in today's world. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Biology 101 is a 
prerequisite for Biology 102. 

Mr. Mikesell and Staff 

112 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Functional design 
of plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 
evolution, phytogeny, and ecology are also 
covered. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Biology 101 is a prerequisite for Biology 112. 

Mr. Barnes and Staff 

200 Cell Biology 

Structure and function of eukaryotic cell 
membranes and organelles; protein synthesis, 
structure, and function; energy relationships; the 
cytoskeleton; cell-cell interactions; molecular 
genetics; cell evolution. Three class hours and 
laboratory. 

Mr. Sorensen 

201 Vertebrate Morphology 

Detailed examination of the origins, structures, 
and functions of the organ systems of 
vertebrates. Special attention is given to the 
evolution of major vertebrate adaptations. Three 
class hours and two scheduled laboratories. 
Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

202 Structural Plant Development 

Anatomical approach to the study of higher plant 
structures. The origin and differentiation of 
tissues and organs, environmental aspects of 
development and plant anomalies are studied. 
Six hours a week in class-laboratory work. 
Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Mikesell 



204 Taxonomy of Flowering Plants 

Identification, classification, structural diversity, 
and evolutionary relationships of angiosperms. 
The course includes extensive field work for 
collection of local flora, and methodology and 
principles of related disciplines, e.g., plant 
geography, cytogenetics, and numerical 
taxonomy. Three class hours and 
laboratory-field. 

Mr. Beach 

215 Electron Microscopy 

Introduction to basic theory and practice of 
transmission electron microscopy (Zeiss EM 109) 
and scanning electron microscopy (JEOL JSM 
T20); techniques of tissue preparation and 
introduction to interpretation of animal and plant 
ultrastructure. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Cost: approximately $50.00 for materials which 
will remain property of student. Does not count 
toward the eight minimum courses required for a 
major. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Ms. Logan and Mr. Cavaliere 

217 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant Kingdom 

Synopsis of embryo-producing plants, primarily 
liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, and seed 
plants. Emphasis is on comparative morphology, 
adaptive diversity, and phylogeny. Six hours a 
week in class-laboratory work. Alternate years. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Mikesell 

224 Vertebrate Zoology 

Introduction to the systematics, distribution, 
reproduction, and population dynamics of 
vertebrates. Field and laboratory emphasis is on 
natural history, collection, and identification. Six 
hours in class, laboratory, or field. Optional trip 
to North Carolina. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

227 Invertebrate Zoology 

Biology of the major free-living metazoan 
invertebrate groups, exclusive of insects, with 
special emphasis on adaptive morphology and 
physiology and on evolution. Six hours a week in 
class-laboratory work. 

Mr. Barnes 

230 Microbiology 

Introduction to the biology of bacteria, fungi, and 
protists, their morphology, reproduction, 
physiology, genetics, and ecology. Isolation, 
cultural techniques, environmental influences, 
biochemical, genetic, and immunological 
characterization are emphasized in the 
laboratory. Three class hours and laboratory. 

Mr. Hendrix 



70 



300 Plant Physiology 

Physiological processes in vascular plants. Plant 
responses, growth promoting substances, 
photoperiodic responses, water absorption and 
transpiration, mineral nutrition, and general 
metabolic pathways are studied. Three class 
hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 200 
or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Cavaliere 

305 Ecology 

Principles of ecology, with emphasis on the role 
of chemical, physical, and biological factors 
affecting the distribution and succession of plant 
and animal populations and communities. The 
course includes numerous field trips to a variety 
of local freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Three 
class hours and laboratory-field. 

Mr. Beach 

310 Principles of Genetics 

Principles of Mendelian genetics, the 
interpretation of inheritance from the standpoint 
of contemporary molecular biology, and the 
relationships between heredity and development, 
physiology, ecology, and evolution. Three class 
hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 200. 

Ms. Logan 

320 Developmental Biology 

Survey of the principles and phenomena of 
biological development at the molecular, cellular, 
and organismic levels of organization. Major 
attention is given to embryonic development in 
multicellular organisms, especially animals. 
Vertebrates are emphasized in the study of the 
formation of animal organ systems. Three class 
hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 200. 
Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Sorensen 

325 Animal Behavior 

Study of animal behavior through readings, 
films, discussions, and field and laboratory 
observations. A wide range of phenomena will be 
considered, from simple reflex responses to 
complex social organizations. The role of 
behavioral adaptations in the biology of animal 
species will be emphasized. Three class hours 
and laboratory. Alternate years. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Winkelmann 



Biology 

332 Immunobiology 

Introduction to the structure and function of the 
immune system in vertebrates at the molecular, 
cellular, and organismal levels of organization. 
Antibody structure, the interaction of antibody 
and antigen, the genetics of antibody diversity, 
the immune response, immunity to infection, 
hypersensitivity, and transplantation reactions 
are emphasized. Prerequisite: Biology 200. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Alternate years. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Sorensen 

340 Comparative Animal Physiology 

Regulation of basic physiological processes. 
Unifying principles will be studied using a 
comparative approach. Prerequisite: Biology 200. 
Three class hours and laboratory. 

Ms. Etheridge 

341 Biochemistry 

Introduction to the principles of biochemistry, 
with emphasis on biochemical adaptation. 
Topics include the structure and function of 
proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates; 
the kinetic analysis of enzyme activity; the 
thermodynamics of biochemical reactions; and 
the organizations, regulation, and integration of 
metabolic pathways. Laboratory includes an 
independent project designed by the student. 
Prerequisites: Biology 200 and Chemistry 204. 
Three class hours and laboratory. 

Ms. Etheridge 
Individualized Study 

Independent investigation of a topic of special 
interest to the student. Study would normally 
include both literature and laboratory research 
carried out under the direction of a faculty 
member familiar with the general field of study. 
A seminar dealing with the investigation will be 
presented to the staff and students as a part of 
individualized study. Open to juniors and 
seniors. A single Individualized Study may be 
used toward one of the 8 courses required to 
fulfill the major. Prerequisite: Approval of both 
the directing faculty member and the Department 
prior to registration day. 

Staff 



71 



Chemistry 

Chemistry 

Professors Fortnum and Rowland 
Associate Professors Grzybowski and Parker 

(Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Jameson 
Assistant Instructors Jackson and Luckenbaugh 

Overview 

Each course offered by the Department provides 
an opportunity for a concentrated study of the 
various principles of classical and contemporary 
chemical knowledge. From the introductory to 
the advanced courses, application is made of 
basic theories and methods of chemical 
investigation.- The courses offered by the 
Department utilize lectures, discussions, library 
work, on-line computer literature searching, 
computer assisted instructional programs, 
videotapes/films, and laboratory investigations 
in order to emphasize the concepts that underlie 
the topics covered. Each course, as well as the 
major itself, is designed for the curious and 
interested student. 

The program of the Department is accredited by 
the American Chemical Society. The paths taken 
by majors after graduation are varied; many 
enter graduate work in chemistry. Graduates 
also enter medical and dental schools, industrial 
and government research laboratories, 
secondary school teaching, and other fields such 
as business and engineering. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for a major are 
Chemistry 111, 112 (or 112A), 203, 204, 221, 305, 
306, and 317. Additional offerings within the 
Department may be elected according to the 
interests and goals of the individual student. 
Physics 111 and 112 and mathematics through 
211 are required of all chemistry majors. 
Additional courses in mathematics (212), 
biology, and physics may be recommended for 
those contemplating graduate study in certain 
areas. Junior and senior majors are expected to 
join with staff members in an afternoon seminar 
series which is designed to provide an additional 
opportunity for discussion of current 
developments in the field. Approved safety 
goggles must be worn in all laboratories. 
Prescription glass but not contact lens may be 
worn under safety goggles unless a liability 
waiver is signed. 



72 



For the prospective secondary school teacher the 
Department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Chemistry. Introductory biology is 
required for certification. 

Individualized study and independent laboratory 
work are available in connection with most 
courses. An honors section (112A) of the 
Fundamentals of Chemistry course provides a 
select group of students with such an 
opportunity at the introductory level. During the 
student's junior or senior year the major may 
elect Chemistry 462, a research course in which 
a student can utilize his or her knowledge and 
creativity intensively. Summer research between 
the junior and senior year is also offered. 

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 
111, 112 (or 112A) plus four other chemistry 
courses at the 200 level or above. Individualized 
Study courses may not be counted toward the 
optional minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistry courses 
may be used to satisfy the distribution 
requirement in laboratory science: either 101 or 
111 followed by 102, 112 or 112A. (Course credit 
will not be given for more than two introductory 
chemistry courses. Credit will NOT be given for 
both 111 and 101 OR for both 102 and 112.) 

Special Facilities and Programs 

Breidenbaugh Hall which houses chemistry 
classrooms and laboratories was completely 
renovated in 1985. At the same time the 
Department purchased new instrumentation such 
as a Fourier Transform NMR Spectrometer and 
a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer. 
Chemistry majors receive hands on experience 
with all major instrumentation beginning in the 
sophomore year. The Department's library is at 
the disposal of all students. Numerous lectures 
and seminars are sponsored by the Department 
and Sceptical Chymists. These involve resource 
persons from universities, industries, 
government agencies, and professional schools 
and are designed to complement the curricular 
activities of the Department. An annual highlight 
is a three-day visit by an outstanding scholar in 
the field of chemistry. The program is supported 
by The Musselman Endowment for Visiting 
Scientists. Many qualified upper-classmen— 
chemistry majors and others— gain valuable 
experience from serving as laboratory 
assistants. 



101 General Chemistry 

Study of chemical principles with emphasis 
placed on providing the student with an 
understanding of how these principles relate to 
the non-scientist, especially in the areas of 
industry, ecology, health, and philosophy. 
Laboratory experiments are designed to offer a 
"hands-on" familiarity with the principles 
discussed in the lectures. The course is designed 
for students planning to complete only two 
courses in chemistry and who may have limited 
or no previous exposure to chemistry. Three 
lecture hours and one laboratory. 

Mr. Jameson 

102 General Chemistry 

Review of principles studied in Chemistry 101 
and application to problems of current and 
historical interest. Demonstrations and 
laboratory experiments are designed to illustrate 
and complement the material discussed in class. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 101 or 111. Three lecture 
hours and one laboratory. 

Mr. Jameson 

1 1 1 Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Study of atomic structure, theories of bonding, 
stoichiometric relationships, properties of 
solutions and gases, and elementary 
thermodynamics. The laboratory work covers 
quantitative relationships by employing 
titrimetric and gravimetric techniques. This 
course is designed for biology, chemistry, and 
physics majors and others with a secondary 
school background in chemistry and elementary 
mathematics. Course credit is not granted for 
both Chemistry 101 and 111. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Parker 

112 Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of reactions, 
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and theories of 
complex formation. Laboratory work includes 
kinetic studies, qualitative analysis, and the 
application of various instrumental procedures 
to quantitative analysis. Course credit is not 
granted for both Chemistry 102 and 112. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 111. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Grzybowski 



Chemistry 

112A Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Designed as an honors seminar for the more 
capable first-year chemistry students. Kinetics, 
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and coordination 
chemistry are among the topics discussed. 
Laboratory work includes experiments in 
kinetics and equilibrium and the application of 
principles from lecture to a project of several 
weeks duration. Emphasis is placed on 
independent work with necessary guidance in 
both the seminar and the laboratory. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 101 or 111 and 
invitation of the Department. Two afternoons. 

Mr. Parker 

203 Organic Chemistry 

Study of the fundamental concepts of the 
chemistry of carbon compounds with emphasis 
on methods of preparation, reaction 
mechanisms, stereochemical control of 
reactions, and the application of spectroscopy to 
problems of identification. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 112 or 112A. Three lecture hours, one 
lab discussion hour, and one laboratory 
afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

204 Organic Chemistry 

Study of the various classes of organic 
compounds, including substitutions in the 
aromatic nucleus, polycylic compounds, and 
natural products such as amino acids, 
carbohydrates and peptides. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one lab 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

221 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy 

Study of the theories and applications of 
ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic 
resonance, and mass spectroscopy are 
discussed in relation to the import of these 
spectroscopic methods in the analysis of 
chemical systems. The utilization and limitations 
of each type of spectroscopy are covered. 
Course work includes lectures, discussions, and 
laboratory sessions. The lab periods involve the 
use of spectrometers in the identification of 
organic compounds. Lecture work is 
supplemented by films, videotapes, and 
computer-assisted instructional programs. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 

Staff 



73 



Chemistry 



305 Physical Chemistry 

Study of the principles of thermodynamics and 
kinetic theory as applied to the states of matter, 
chemical reactions, equilibrium, the phase rule, 
and electrochemistry using lectures, readings, 
problems, discussions, and laboratory exercises. 
The computer is used as a tool for solving 
problems and for the reduction of experimental 
data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 112 or 112A, 
Physics 112, mathematics through calculus 
(usually Math 211). Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Fortnum 

306 Physical Chemistry 

Introduction to theories of chemical kinetics, 
quantum mechanics, and statistical 
thermodynamics and their applications to 
chemical systems through the use of problems, 
lectures, readings, discussions, laboratory 
investigations, and projects. The computer is 
used for modeling, simulations, and solving 
problems. Assignments are made so as to 
encourage the individual study of specific related 
physical chemical phenomena. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Fortnum 

317 Instrumental Analysis 

Study of chemical analysis by use of modern 
instruments. Topics include complex equilibria, 
electroanalytical methods, quantitative 
spectroscopy, and chromatography. Analytical 
methods will be studied from both a chemical 
and an instrument point of view. The laboratory 
will stress quantitative analytical procedures 
and laboratory preparations. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours and 
one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Grzybowski 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry 

Study of synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical 
concepts in organic chemistry. Particular 
emphasis is placed on the study of methods used 
to determine organic reaction mechanisms, 
stereospecific reactions, photochemistry, 
pericyclic reactions, and the design of multistep 
syntheses of complex molecules. The laboratory 
work involves the development of modern, 
advanced, synthetic skills as applied to 
multistep synthesis together with extensive use 
of the chemical literature; in addition, each 
student will complete a short research project. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 204 and 221. Three 

lecturehours - Mr. Jameson 



373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 

Study of valence bond, crystal field, and 
molecular orbital theories; boron chemistry; 
organometallic compounds; structural, kinetic, 
and mechanistic studies of coordination 
compounds. Group theory and symmetry are 
applied to various systems. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours. 

Mr. Parker 

390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Chemistry 

Designed to combine and expand upon the 
laboratory skills learned in the fundamental 
courses of the Freshman and Sophomore years. 
Numerous projects will be pursued in organic 
and inorganic chemistry, utilizing a combination 
of library skills (e.g. on-line computer 
searching), advanced laboratory skills (e.g. inert 
atmosphere techniques, modern separation 
methods, and advanced spectroscopic 
characterizations) and scientific writing skills. It 
is anticipated that this course will prepare a 
student for independent research in the Senior 
year. Prerequisite: Chemistry 221. 

Messrs. Grzybowski and Jameson 

462 Individualized Study Research 

An independent investigation in an area of 
mutual interest to the student and a faculty 
director. The project normally includes a 
literature survey and a laboratory study. An oral 
report to staff and students and a final written 
thesis are required. A student wishing to enroll in 
this course should consult with the faculty 
director and submit a written proposal to the 
department for approval at least three weeks 
before the last day of classes of the semester 
preceding the semester in which this course is to 
be taken. Prerequisites: Permission of the faculty 
director and approval of the proposal by the 
chemistry department. Open to junior and senior 
chemistry majors. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 



74 



Classics 

Professor Pavlantos (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Snively and Wohlers 

Overview 

The courses offered are designed to acquaint the 
student with the language, literature, history, 
and civilization of Greece and Rome. These 
societies present a microcosm of all human 
experience. Fulfillment of the human potential in 
spite of adversities and threats to existence was 
the ultimate quest then as it is today. Learning 
how the founders of western civilization dealt 
with such conflicts as the aspirations of youth 
and the compromises of middle age, the claims 
of community and individual rights, the ecstasy 
of love, and the despair of loss can help us 
understand our own thoughts and emotions as 
we confront these age old problems and 
pressures. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, 
and Classical Studies. Required for all majors: 
CI. 121, CI. 122, CI. 400. Additional requirements: 
Latin Major: 7 courses in Latin including 

Lat. 312, beyond Lat. 102, 

Latin 251 
Greek Major: 7 courses in Greek beyond 

Gr. 102, Gr. 251 
Classical Studies 8 courses. The 202 level in 
Major: either Latin or Greek must 

be attained. 

In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201, 
202 or their equivalent is a prerequisite for all 
higher language courses. 

A minor consists of six courses in the 
department including two language courses. 

Distribution Requirements 

Latin 201, 202 and Greek 201, 202 may be used to 
meet the College's language requirement. Latin 

203, 204, 303, 306, 308, 309, 311, 401, Greek 203, 

204, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306 and Classics 262, 264, 
266 may be used in partial fulfillment of the 
literature distribution requirement. Classics 121, 
122, Latin 251 and Greek 251 may be used toward 
fulfillment of the College distribution requirement 
in history/philosophy and Latin 251 and Greek 
251 may be counted toward a major in history. 

For prospective secondary school teachers the 
Department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Latin. 



Classics 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium, Gettysburg, along with the other two 
member colleges— Dickinson and Franklin and 
Marshall— share membership in both the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens 
and the Intercollegiate Center for Classical 
Studies in Rome. 

Greek 

101. 102 Elementary Greek 

Introduction to the alphabet, inflections, and 
syntax of Attic Greek. 

Staff 

201, 202 Intermediate Greek 

Designed to increase the student's skill in 
reading texts. Selections from Xenophon's 
Anabasis, some writers of the New Testament 
and other authors are read, with an emphasis on 
grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102 or its 
equivalent. 

Staff 

203 Plato 

The Apology and Crito, with selections from 
other dialogues. 

Staff 

204 New Testament Greek 

Introduction to Koine Greek. Selections from the 
New Testament are read with attention to their 
language and content. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

251 Greek History 

Survey of Hellenic civilization from the Bronze 
Age to the Hellenistic period. Papers required. A 
knowledge of Greek not required. Offered 
1988-89. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

301 Homer 

Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey with 
examination of syntax and style. Not offered 
every year. 

Ms. Snively 

302 Greek Historians 

Readings in the text of Herodotus or Thucydides. 
Not offered every year. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

303 Greek Comedy 

An introduction to Greek drama. Selected 
comedies of Aristophanes are read with attention 
to style and metrics. Not offered every year. 

Staff 



75 



Classics 



304 Greek Tragedy 

Selected plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides. Various plays are also read in English. 
Oral reports required. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

306 Greek Oratory 

Selected orations of Demosthenes and Lysias. 
Not offered every year. 

Staff 



Individualized Study 

Latin 

101. 102 Elementary Latin 

Introduction to Latin. 



Staff 



Ms. Snively 



201. 202 Intermediate Latin 

Designed to increase the student's skill in 
reading texts. Selections from Latin prose and 
poetry are read, with continuing grammatical 
review and analysis. Prerequisite: two years of 
secondary school Latin or Latin 101, 102. 

Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose 

Selections from Roman prose writers and 
intensive review of grammar. Prerequisite: three 
or four years of secondary school Latin or Latin 
201,202. 

Ms. Snively 

204 Roman Poetry 

Extensive reading in Catullus, Ovid, and Horace 
with an examination of poetic forms other than 
epic. Prerequisite: three or four years of 
secondary school Latin or Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

251 Roman History 

The history of the Republic and Empire. Papers 
required. A knowledge of Latin not required. 
Offered 1987-88. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

303 Cicero 

Selected essays of Cicero, with supplemental 
reading from letters and orations. Supplemental 
reading in English. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

306 St. Augustine 

Selections from Confessions with attention to the 
differences between Late Latin and Classical 
Latin. Not offered every year. 

Staff 



76 



308 Roman Satire 

Selections from Horace, Martial, and Juvenal 
with attention to the changes in language and 
style from the Classical to the Post Classical 
period. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

309 Roman Historians 

Selections from Livy and Tacitus with attention 
to their peculiarities of language and style. Not 
offered every year. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

311 Lucretius 

Extensive reading in On the Nature of Things 
with attention to Lucretius' metrical forms, 
science, and philosophy. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

312 Prose Composition 

Designed to increase the student's ability to 
translate from English to Latin, includes a 
thorough grammar review. Not offered every 
year. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

401 Vergil 

Study of Vergil's literary style, poetic genius, and 
humanity as seen in theAeneid. Open to seniors 
and qualified juniors. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Pavlantos 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Classical Studies 

121 Survey of Greek Civilization 

Survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc. 
of the Greek polis from its beginning to the 
conquest of Alexander with emphasis on Greek 
concepts which influenced western thought. 
Knowledge of Greek not required. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization 

Survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc. 
of Rome from its founding to the Council of Nicea 
with emphasis on the authority of the state and 
development of a system of law and government 
encompassing the whole Mediterranean. 
Knowledge of Latin not required. 

Ms. Snively 

230 Classical Mythology 

Survey of classical mythology with attention to 
the process of myth-making and the 
development of religion. No knowledge of Greek 
or Latin required. 

Ms. Snively 



262-266 Genre Literature 

An examination of the genre literature of Greece 
and Rome in translation. Selected works will be 
studied through analysis of form, structure, and 
content. No knowledge of Greek or Latin 
required. 

262 Ancient Epic 

Study of Homer, Apollonius of Rhodes, and 
Vergil. Offered 1987-88. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

264 Ancient Tragedy 

A study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and 
Seneca. Offered 1988-89. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

266 Ancient Comedy 

A study of Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, and 
Terence. Offered 1989-90. 

Ms. Pavlantos 

400 Senior Seminar 

Content will be determined each year by the 
senior class in consultation with the staff. 
Required of all majors. 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Staff 



Classics / Computer Studies 

Computer Studies 

Professors: Fortnum, Leinbach (Chairperson) 

and Mara 
Associate Professors: Flesner, Kellett, and 

K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors: Karshner, Magness, and 

Wijesinha 
Instructor: R. Mueller 

Overview 

The Computer Studies curriculum is designed to 
encourage students to develop the practice of 
clear thinking and logical reasoning needed to 
take advantage of the opportunities to develop 
and apply new approaches to problem solving. 
These approaches involve communicating 
solutions to problems using language 
representations and designs, thus implementing 
them by algorithms operating on data structures 
in the environment of hardware. Implicit in this 
statement are the following: creating solutions to 
problems; analyzing the languages used to 
communicate problem solutions; studying the 
limits to computations; designing and analyzing 
algorithms and data structures; studying the 
ways in which information can be transformed 
and represented; creating and analyzing the 
hardware environment; attempting to mimic 
human behavior using computers; and analyzing 
the interaction between humans and computers. 

The courses listed below cover those concepts 
which are at the core of computer science. This 
core can serve as a base for students who intend 
to apply the principles of computing to their 
academic discipline and also for students who 
wish to become computer scientists. 

The following courses taught in other 
departments are generally considered as part of 
an undergraduate Computer Science program. 

Management 247: Management Information 
Systems 

Mathematics 366: Numerical Analysis 

Mathematics 371: Discrete Mathematical 
Structures 

Physics 240: Electronics 

Physics 241: Fundamentals of Microprocessors 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The following courses are designed to meet the 
needs of the two types of students mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph. 

Computer Studies 105 is an introductory course 
which emphasizes problem solving with the 



77 



Computer Studies 

computer. Programming projects for this course 
are done in the Pascal language. The following 
course, Computer Studies 106, has Computer 
Studies 105 as a prerequisite. A student who has 
had a rigorous high school computing course 
which included programming in the Pascal 
language may obtain permission to take 
Computer Studies 106 without taking Computer 
Studies 105. Upon completing Computer Studies 
106, a student may take Computer Studies 216, 
Data Structures, or Computer Studies 230, 
Interactive Computer Graphics Systems. The 
Data Structures course is a prerequisite for the 
remaining Computer Studies courses. It is 
strongly recommended that a student who 
intends to take Computer Studies courses 
beyond Computer Studies 106, take either 
Mathematics 111-112 or Mathematics 105-106. 

The minor in Computer Studies consists of six 
courses, Computer Studies 105-106, and four 
Computer Studies courses at the 200 or 300 level. 
These courses may be selected from the 
Computer Studies course offerings according to 
the student's interests and needs. 

In addition, students intending to do graduate 
work in Computer Science are advised to take 
Differential Equations, Discrete Mathematics, 
Modern Algebra, and Numerical Analysis from 
the Mathematics Department. It is also 
recommended that these students take the 
Electronics and Microprocessor courses offered 
by the Physics Department. 



base, and applications software is available for 
student use. The microcomputer facilities are 
open a minimum of 70 hours per week in addition 
to their use for instruction. 

Computer Studies also maintains a UNIX-based 
multi-user system for use by students studying 
operating systems and computer architecture as 
well as those doing independent research 
projects. This machine is located in the Computer 
Studies area and is completely maintained by 
students. 

105-106 Introduction to Problem Solving and 
Computer Programming 

An introduction to computer science with an 
emphasis on problem solving methodology and 
algorithms. The first course includes structured 
programming, control structures, functions, and 
procedures, files, arrays, and records. The 
second course includes advanced programming 
topics, elementary data structures, machine 
language programming, and some elements of 
computer organization. 

Staff 

216 Data Structures 

An introduction to the major data structures and 
some of their applications. Topics include linear 
lists, sets, queues, stacks, linked lists, string 
processing, trees, graphs, arrays, tables, files, 
and dynamic memory management. Prerequisite: 
Computer Studies 106. 

Messrs. Flesner, Leinbach, and Wijesinha 



Facilities 

The Academic Computing Center maintains a 
Burroughs 5920 computer. This computer 
supports several programming languages and 
applications packages. Approximately 90 
terminals distributed in computing clusters, 
academic departments and faculty offices are 
attached to this computer. Also available for 
student use with this machine are a high speed 
line printer, letter quality output devices, 
graphics terminals, and plotters. This facility is 
available 24 hours a day during the academic 
year. 

The Academic Computer Center and Computer 
Studies each maintain Microcomputer 
Laboratories which include over 45 
microcomputers and several output devices. The 
microcomputers include both APPLE and IBM- 
compatible architectures. An extensive library of 
popular word processing, spread sheet, data 



230 Interactive Computer Graphics Systems 

An introduction to the methods and issues of 
constructing interactive graphics packages. 
Topics include graphics input and output 
devices, scan conversion of lines, circles, and 
polygons, clipping, polygon filling, graphics 
primatives, and two and three dimensional 
image processing. Proper interactive sequencing 
is stressed and students will construct a small 
interactive graphics package. Prerequisite: 
Computer Studies 106. 

Mr. Leinbach 



78 



31 1 Design and Analysis of Algorithms 

A survey of the basic principles and techniques 
for the development of good algorithms. 
Emphasis is placed on individual development of 
algorithms and an analysis of the results in 
terms of usefulness, efficiency, and organization. 
Topics include design techniques, worst case 
and average case analysis, searching, sorting, 
branch and bound, spanning trees, reachability, 
combinatorial methods, and NP-hard problems. 
Prerequisite: Computer Studies 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 1987-88. 

Messrs. Leinbach and Wijesinha 

322 Computer Organization and Assembly Language 
Programming 

Programming at the machine level with an 
emphasis on the logical connection of the basic 
components of the computer and systems 
programs. Topics include machine and assembly 
language programming, basic computer 
operations, hardware organization, systems 
software, and compilers. Prerequisite: Computer 
Studies 216. Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Messrs. Leinbach and Wijesinha 

391. 392 Selected Topics 

Study of an advanced area of computer science. 
The subject matter will be selected by the 
Computer Studies Faculty. Some possible areas 
for study are database management, artificial 
intelligence, software engineering, design and 
implementation of programming languages, 
simulation and modeling, and the theory of 
computation. Prerequisite: Computer Studies 216. 

Alternate years. Offered 1988-89. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Pursuit of topics of an advanced nature by well- 
qualified students through individual reading and 
projects under the supervision of staff members. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the Computer Studies 
faculty. 



Computer Studies / Economics 

Economics 

Professor W. F. Railing 

Distinguished Research Professor Hogan 

Associate Professors Fender (Chairperson), 

Gemmill, Gondwe, Griffith, Hill, and K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors Fletcher and Majd 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become 
increasingly important for effective participation 
in a complex society. The Department's courses 
present this knowledge, in both historical and 
contemporary contexts, with a focus on problem 
solving that emphasizes understanding, 
identifying, and solving social problems. As a 
social science, economics studies how societies 
organize and make decisions for using scarce 
resources to produce and distribute goods and 
services domestically and internationally. 
Economists examine both macro-economic and 
micro-economic problems and consider the 
implications of alternative solutions for 
efficiency, fairness, and growth. Courses in the 
department stress the critical thinking skills of a 
liberally educated person: gathering of pertinent 
information, analysis, synthesis, and ability to 
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives. 
However delightful the study of economics for 
the sake of individual understanding, the 
Department also stresses effective oral and 
written communication of the insights achieved 
through study of the discipline. 

In addition to courses in economics, the 
Department also offers courses in introductory 
and intermediate applied statistics and in 
geography. 

The Department's courses are designed to meet 
the College's liberal arts objectives while also 
serving well students who intend to (1) pursue 
graduate study in economics; (2) enter graduate 
professional schools in business administration, 
law, and related areas; (3) pursue careers in 
business, non-profit private organizations, or 
government. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

The Department requires its majors to take a 
minimum of ten courses: Economics 103-104, 
Management 153, Economics 241, 243, 245, and 
333, and three courses chosen from the 
following: Economics 242, 301, 302, 303, 305, 324, 
336, 337, 338, 351, and 352. A student may take 
Mathematics 351-352 in lieu of Economics 241- 



79 



Economics 

242, as long as both semesters of the 
Mathematics sequence are completed. Much, but 
not all, of the material covered in such applied 
statistics courses as Mathematics 107, 
Psychology 205, and Sociology 303 duplicates 
that in Economics 241; therefore, credit will not 
be given for more than one of these courses. The 
research methodology basic to economics is 
covered in Economics 241 and 242; therefore, 
those students taking one of the other applied 
statistics courses before deciding to become an 
economics major may be required to take 
Economics 242 as well. 

Because of the importance of mathematical 
modelling and statistical testing to the 
application of economics, majors in economics 
are required to demonstrate achievement in 
Mathematics equivalent to one term of calculus. 
This requirement can be satisfied by taking 
Mathematics 105, Mathematics 108, or 
Mathematics 111, or via exemption by 
examination. The Department strongly 
encourages students who have an interest in 
majoring in Economics to complete this 
mathematics requirement during the first year 
because several 200-level courses have a 
calculus prerequisite. 

A student planning to pursue graduate study in 
economics is encouraged to take Mathematics 
105-106 or Mathematics 111-112 and 
Mathematics 211-212, and Economics 351-352. 

The computer has become an important tool in 
economic analysis. Therefore, the Department 
strongly recommends that its majors take a 
course or courses dealing with the use of the 
computer from among Computer Studies 105 or 
211, Management 247. 

The Department offers a minor in Economics, 
which a student can complete by taking 
Economics 103-104, two courses from the 
Department's 200-level offerings, and two 
courses from the 300-level offerings. 
Additionally, a student minoring in Economics 
must demonstrate the same achievement in 
mathematics as required of majors, and must 
achieve a grade point average of 2.0 in courses 
counted toward the minor. 

Economics 103-104 are prerequisites for all 
upper-level courses in the Department except for 
Geography 310 and Geography 320. Under special 
circumstances and upon student application, the 
prerequisites for a course may be waived by the 
instructor. 



80 



The Departmental brochure, entitled HANDBOOK 
FOR MAJORS, contains additional information 
about the Department. Students interested in 
studying economics are urged to obtain a copy 
from the Departmental office. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs 

The Department values intensive and 
independent work by its majors, as well as 
interaction with peers and faculty on topics of 
interest to economists. To encourage and 
recognize work of high quality of this sort, the 
Department offers Departmental Honors to 
students who (1) satisfactorily complete 
Economics 400, including the Honors Project, 
during the senior year, and (2) earn an 
acceptable overall and Departmental grade point 
average. Students also can undertake 
Individualized Study. 

Internships involving the application of 
economics are available to qualified students. 
Those persons desiring more information should 
contact Dr. Railing. Gettysburg College also 
recognizes the Washington Economic Policy 
Semester at The American University, a program 
that involves both classroom study and an 
internship in Washington, D.C. Page 47 of this 
catalogue contains more information about 
the program; interested students should contact 
Dr. Railing in the spring semester of their 
sophomore year. 

Distribution Requirements 

A student may satisfy the College distribution 
requirement in social sciences by successfully 
completing Economics 103, 104, and may satisfy 
the non-western culture requirement with 
Economics 338. 

103-104 Principles of Microeconomics- 
Principles of Macroeconomics 

Gives students a general understanding of 
economic systems and economic analysis, with 
emphasis on the operation of the U.S. economy. 
Topics covered in 103 include the price system, 
theory of consumer behavior, theory of 
production, theory of the firm, income 
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro 
aspects of international trade. In the second 
term, topics covered include national income, 
accounting, employment, inflation, monetary and 
fiscal policies, aggregate demand and supply 
analysis, economic growth, the monetary 
aspect of international economics, and 
comparative economic systems. 

Staff 



241 Introductory Economic and Business Statistics 

The nomenclature of descriptive statistics, 
probabilities using the normal, binomial, Poisson 
distributions, the Tchebycheff inequality, 
Chi-square, sampling, hypothesis testing, linear 
regression and correlation. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103-104, and one of the following: 
Mathematics 105, 111, or the equivalent. Please 
note that a student may not receive credit for 
both this course and Mathematics 107 or 
Sociology 303. 

Messrs. Hill and Niiro 

242 Intermediate Economic and Business Statistics 

Advanced Statistical Theory applicable to 
economics and business problems. Topics 
included are non-linear regression and 
correlation and the use of transformations; 
multivariate techniques and analysis; Chi-square 
applications; variance analysis; index numbers 
and their use; and time series. Prerequisite: 
Economics 241. 

Mr. Hill 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory 

Further study of classical, neoclassical, 
Keynesian and post-Keynesian economics 
focusing on, along with national income 
accounting, the various theories and policies 
which deal with the generation and maintenance 
of full employment and a stable price level. The 
causes and cures of unemployment and inflation 
are also analyzed. Offered both semesters. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104 and 
Mathematics 101 or its equivalent. 

Mr. Gondwe 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory 

Uses the methodological tools of economics to 
examine consumer and producer behavior and 
economic behavior under different input and 
output market structures, and to analyze the 
implications of such behavior for general 
equilibrium and economic welfare. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103-104, and one of the following: 
Mathematics 105, 111, or the equivalent. 

Mr. Griffith 



Economics 

301 Labor Economics 

Theoretical and empirical study of the 
functioning of labor markets with emphasis on 
wage and employment determination. Topics 
include impacts of legislation, unions, education, 
and imperfect markets; time allocation, 
economics of fertility, wage differences, and 
discrimination; labor relations, collective 
bargaining, and the Phillips curve. Prerequisite: 
Economics 103-104. Recommended: Economics 
245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

302 Gender Issues in Economics 

An application of microeconomic theory to 
gender issues in our economy. The course will 
explore demographic issues such as fertility and 
divorce, consider the effect of the tax structure 
and other public policies on gender differences in 
labor force participation over time, and examine 
alternative economic paradigms for explaining 
gender discrimination in our society. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104, 
Recommended: Economics 245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

303 Money and Banking 

An examination of the role of money, credit, and 
financial institutions in the determination of 
price and income levels. Coverage includes the 
commercial banking system, the Federal Reserve 
System, monetary theory, and the art of 
monetary policy. Emphasis is placed upon 
evaluation of current theory and practice in the 
American economy. Prerequisite: Economics 103- 
104. Recommended: Economics 243. 

Mr. Gemmill 

305 Public Finance 

Concerned with the principles, techniques, and 
effects of government obtaining and spending 
funds and managing government debt. Nature, 
growth, and amount of expenditures of all levels 
of government in the United States are 
considered, along with the numerous types of 
taxes employed by the various levels of 
government to finance their activities. 
Government debt is also considered. 
Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. 

Mr. W. F Railing 



81 



Economics 

324 Comparative Economic Systems 

Concerned with a comparative analysis of free 
enterprise economies, centrally planned 
economies, and mixed economies. Primary 
attention is given to the economic aspects and 
institutions of these economic systems, but the 
political, philosophical, and historical aspects 
are also considered. Prerequisite: Economics 
103-104. 

Mr. W. F Railing 

333 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

A study of the development of economic ideas 
and policies in relation to major forms of social, 
political, and economic problems. Emphasis is 
placed on major contributions to economic 
thought from Plato to Keynes. Prerequisite: 
Economics 103-104. Recommended: Economics 
243, 245. 

Mr. Gondwe 

336 International Economics 

Covers comparative advantage, commercial 
policy, economic integration, balance of 
payments, exchange rates and international 
monetary systems. Prerequisite: Economics 
103-104. 

Mr. Griffith 

337 Introduction to Political Economy 

This course examines the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribution 
of Third World peoples and minorities in the 
United States to the process and continued 
growth of capitalist development. It also 
examines current economic, social, and political 
issues as they relate to, and affect, Third World 
peoples. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104. 

Mr. Griffith 

338 Economic Development 

An examination of the economic and non- 
economic factors accounting for the economic 
growth and development of less-developed areas 
of the world. Various theories of economic and 
social growth and development will be analyzed, 
and major policy issues will be discussed. 
Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. Satisfies 
distribution requirement in non-western culture. 

Mr. Gondwe 



351 Application of Mathematics to Economics 
and Business 

An introduction to the application of calculus 
and matrix algebra in economics and business. 
Numerous illustrations of mathematically 
formulated economic models are used to 
integrate mathematical methods with economic 
and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics 
243, 245, and Mathematics 105-106 or 
Mathematics 111-112 and 211-212. 

Mr. Niiro 

352 Introduction to Econometrics 

An introduction to the application of 
mathematical economic theory and statistical 
procedures to economic data. Coverage includes 
the development of appropriate techniques for 
measuring economic relationships specified by 
economic models and testing of economic 
theorems. Prerequisites: Economics 243, 245, 
Mathematics 105-106 or Mathematics 111-112 
and 211-212, and Economics 242, or Mathematics 
358. 

Mr. Niiro 

400 Senior Seminar 

Involves study of research methodology and 
application of economic theory to contemporary 
problems in economics. Students prepare and 
discuss research papers on topics in economics. 
Seniors must take this course to qualify for 
Departmental Honors. 

Ms. Fender 

Individualized Study 

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well- 
qualified students through individual reading and 
research, under the supervision of a member of 
the Department's faculty. A student wishing to 
pursue independent study must present a 
proposal at least one month before the end of the 
semester preceding the semester in which the 
independent study is to be undertaken. 
Prerequisites: Permission of the supervising 
faculty member and the Department Chairperson. 
Offered both semesters. 

Staff 



82 



Geography 

310 Cultural, Social, and Physical Geography 

A regional approach in the study of the various 
elements that make up the atmosphere, the 
hydrosphere, and the lithosphere and how the 
forces of the interrelationships develop the 
physical environment in first half of course and 
in the second half a systematic regional study of 
the superimposed cultural, social, and economic 
developments and how they evolved in response 
to the limitations imposed by the existence of 
varied environments. This course is designed to 
satisfy the geography requirements for students 
whose objective is teaching in the public 
schools. 

Mr. Hill 

320 Geography of North America 

Study of North America based on a regional 
approach which is party physiographic, climatic, 
cultural, economic and political. The sequence of 
study for each region emphasizes the climate, 
the physical structure and landscape which is 
followed by the superimposed economic and 
political developments. Lastly, each region is 
discussed as to the potential possibilities and 
habitable earth. Opportunities for special 
assignments will be given to students. 
Prerequisites: History 131, 132 or Economics 
103-104. 

Mr. Hill 

Individualized Study 

(See description following Economics 400) 



Education 



Economics/Education 



Associate Professors J. T. Held, Packard, 

and Slaybaugh (Chairperson) 
Adjunct Instructors Burkholder and 

S. Van Arsdale 

The purposes of the teacher education programs 
are to give the student a thorough background in 
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts 
of instruction, and to provide an opportunity for 
student teaching. 

The Education Department works cooperatively 
with all other departments in the preparation of 
teachers in secondary education, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. Students interested in 
pursuing one of these programs will need to 
study carefully the teacher education programs 
on pages 39 to 43. 

201 Educational Psychology 

Opportunity for extensive investigation of the 
development of the individual, the development 
of psychological principles of learning, pupil 
evaluation, and the statistics necessary for 
analyzing test data. Repeated in the spring 
semester. Psychology 101 recommended as 
background. 

Staff 

209 Social Foundations of Education 

An opportunity to study the professional aspects 
of teaching, the relation of schools to society, 
the organization of state and local school 
systems, the impact of national programs on 
education, including Supreme Court decisions. 
Sophomore course for all secondary and music 
education students. Repeated in the spring 
semester. 

Mr. Packard 



303 Educational Purposes, Methods, and Educational 
Media: Secondary 

The function of schools in a democracy. 
Emphasis is placed on methods and techniques 
of the teaching-learning process and classroom 
management in secondary schools. The 
underlying principles and techniques involved in 
the use of teaching materials and sensory aids 
are studied. Includes a unit on reading. 
Prerequisites: Education 201 and 209. Repeated in 
the spring semester. 

Mr. J. T. Held 



83 



Education 

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject 

Secondary subjects including biology, chemistry, 
physics, English, French, Spanish, German, 
Latin, mathematics, health and physical 
education, and social studies. This course is 
taught by a staff member of each department 
having students in the Education Semester. 
Included is a study of the methods and materials 
applicable to the teaching of each subject and 
the appropriate curricular organization. 
Prerequisite: Consent of the major department. 
Repeated in the spring semester. 

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and Instructional 
Media in Social Studies. Art, and Music 

Applying principles of learning and human 
development to teaching social studies in the 
elementary school. Included is the correlation of 
art and music with the teaching of the social 
sciences. A field-based program in an 
elementary classroom and weekly seminars. 
Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, 331, 370, Math 
180. Repeated in the spring semester. Elementary 
education students enroll for this course during 
the Education Semester. 

Ms. Van Arsdale 

331 Foundations of Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts 

An introduction to the theory and problems in 
reading instruction and language arts. Current 
trends relating to recognition of these problems 
and appropriate instructional aids are studied. 
Prerequisite: Education 201. Fall semester only. 

Mr. Slaybaugh 

334 Corrective Reading 

A study of the analysis and correction of reading 
disabilities. Survey of tests and materials 
including children's literature as an incentive to 
greater interest in reading are included along 
with a reading internship in the public schools 
under the guidance of a reading teacher. 
Diagnosis and remedial tutoring of school pupils 
who are having reading problems is provided. 
Elementary education students enroll for this 
course during the Education semester. 
Prerequisite: Education 331. Repeated in the 
spring semester. 

Mr. Slaybaugh 

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes. Methods, 
and Instructional Media 

Scientific principles for mastery by the 
elementary pupil in connection with appropriate 
experimental procedures; lecture, demonstration 



classes, instructional media, and field 
experiences designed to give the prospective 
teacher a thorough background in elementary 
school science. Prerequisite: Education 201. 
Spring semester only. 

Mr. Slaybaugh 

411 Internship in Teaching Composition 

A teaching internship in a section of English 101. 
Under the supervision of the instructor in that 
section, the intern will attend classes, prepare 
and teach selected classes, counsel students on 
their written work, and give students' papers a 
first reading and a preliminary evaluation. All 
interns will meet regularly with members of the 
English Department to discuss methods of 
teaching composition and to analyze the 
classroom experience. Required of all majors in 
English planning to enroll in the Secondary 
Education Program. Students should register for 
Education 411 in the fall or spring semester prior 
to their Education semester. 

English Department Staff 

461 Individualized Study— Research 

Offered both semesters. 

471 Individualized Study— Internship 

Offered both semesters. 

475 Student Teaching— Elementary 

Student observation, participation, and teaching 
in the elementary grades under supervision of an 
experienced teacher. Group and individual 
conferences are held for discussion of principles 
and problems. The student will spend the full day 
in the elementary classroom. This course carries 
two course credits. Prerequisites: Education 201, 
209, 331, 370, and Mathematics 180. Repeated in 
the spring semester. 

Ms. Van Arsdale 

477 Student Teaching— Secondary 

Student observation, participation, and teaching 
on the secondary school level under supervision 
of an experienced teacher. Group and individual 
conferences are held for discussion of principles 
and problems. A minimum of 90 hours of 
responsible classroom teaching is recommended. 
This course carries two course credits. 
Prerequisites: Education 201, 209. Repeated in the 
spring semester. 

Mr. J. T. Held 

Basic Concepts of Elementary Mathematics, 
Mathematics 180, is listed under the 
Mathematics Department. 



84 



English 

Professors E. J. Baskerville {Chairperson), 
Clarke, Frederickson, J. Myers, Pickering 
Schmidt, Stewart, and Stitt 
Associate Professors Locher and Stavropoulos 
Assistant Professors Berg, Garnett, Goldberg, 

Hanson, Lambert, and Srebrnik. 
Adjunct Assistant Professor M. Baskerville 
Adjunct Instructors Hartzell and Showalter 

Overview 

The courses offered by the Department are 
designed to train students to express their 
thoughts clearly and effectively through spoken 
and written language and to understand, 
interpret, and assimilate the thoughts and 
experiences of the great writers of English and 
American literature. English is excellent 
preparation for careers in business, teaching, 
law, publishing, journalism, and government 
service and for graduate study leading to 
advanced degrees in English, the ministry, and 
library science. 

The courses in Theatre and Drama offered by the 
Department are designed to train students to 
conceive of the theatrical event as a unity, 
joining its literary and historical values with 
means of expression in production, 
demonstrating the relationship of acting, 
directing, and design with the efforts of 
playwrights both past and present. The study of 
Theatre Arts prepares students for careers in the 
theatre, television, radio, arts administration, 
teaching, and business. 

The Department offers a major in English and 
American literature and a major in theatre arts. 
The Department also offers a minor program in 
each field. 

The Department believes that a well-balanced 
program for a major in English and American 
literature should include (1) knowledge of the 
literary history of England and America; (2) 
training in the application of the techniques of 
literary analysis and the different critical 
approaches to literature; (3) knowledge of the 
characteristics and development of the major 
literary forms or genres; (4) study in depth of the 
work of one author of significance; (5) some 
knowledge of the history of the English language 
and of English as a system. 

The Department also believes that a well- 
balanced program for a major in Theatre Arts 
should include (1) knowledge of the history of 
the theatre from primitive man to the present; (2) 



English 

training in and application of the various 
performance areas of theatre; (3) knowledge of 
the characteristics and development of the 
literary genre known as drama; (4) the 
development of a play from the initial script to 
actual performance. 

The Writing Center 

The Writing Center, staffed by several English 
Department faculty members and specially 
trained Gettysburg College students, is a 
valuable college resource. The Center's staff 
assists students with their writing in the 
following ways: 

— Discusses an assignment in order to clarify 

it or to plan a method of approach 

— Helps in organizing a paper or other piece 

of writing such as letters of application 

— Suggests ways to make troublesome parts 

of a paper more effective 

— Shows ways to correct recurring 

grammatical errors 
The Writing Center is open six days a week. 
There is no charge for this service. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Major in Literature The requirements for the 
major in literature are twelve courses in English 
and American language and literature in addition 
to the first semester of Literary Foundations of 
Western Culture (IDS 103). All majors in literature 
are required to take English 151, 152, 153 and IDS 
103. In addition, to obtain the desired distribution 
of courses, majors must elect the specified 
number of courses from each of the following 
categories: 

I. English Language (1 course): English 208, 
209, 210 

II. English Literary History (2 courses from 
Group A; 2 courses from Group B): 

A. English 331, 334, 337, 338 

B. English 341, 342, 345, 346 

III. American Literary History (1 course): English 
318, 319, 320 

IV. Major Authors (1 course): English 362, 365, 
366, or any seminar devoted to a British or 
American author considered by the 
Department to be of major importance. 

V. Electives (2 courses): English 218, 219, 225, 
323,324,328,329,351,352 



85 



English 

English 101, 110, 201, 203, 205, 206, 305, and 
courses in speech may not be used to fulfill the 
Department's major requirements. Courses in 
theatre arts count only toward the Theatre Arts 
major. 

The Minor in Literature The requirements for the 
minor in literature are six courses. All minors 
must take English 151, 152, and at least three 
courses on the three-hundred level. Writing 
courses, with the exception of English 101, may 
be used to fulfill the Department's minor 
requirements. 

The Major in Theatre Arts In addition to English 
151, 152, and IDS 103, majors with a concen- 
tration in theatre arts must take Theatre Arts 105 
and either 203 or 204. They must also elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following categories: 

I. Theatre Arts (3 courses): 1 course from each 
of the following groups: 

A. (Acting) 120, 220, 320 

B. (Design) 115, 155,255,355 
C.(Directing) 182, 282, 382 

II. Drama (3 courses): English 225 328, 329, 
365, 366 

III. Electives (2 courses): Any of the theatre arts 
and drama courses listed above and/or 
Theatre Arts 222, 252. 

The Minor in Theatre Arts The requirements for 
the minor in theatre arts are six courses: Theatre 
Arts 105, Theatre Arts 203 or 204: one course in 
Drama (English 225, 328, 329, 365, 366); 2 studio 
courses (Theatre Arts 115, 120, 155, 182, 220, 255, 
282, 320, 355, 382); one course in theatre arts or 
drama (any of the above listed theatre arts or 
drama courses plus Theatre Arts 252). 

Elementary and Secondary Education The major 
for students enrolled in the elementary education 
program consists of ten courses, including 
English 151, 152, 153, in addition to the first term 
of Literary Foundations of Western Culture (IDS 
103). Working with the chairperson of the English 
Department, each elementary education student 
designs a major program, following as closely 
as possible the Department's distribution 
requirement. Students planning to teach English 
in the secondary schools are required to take 
English 208 or 209 and either 365 or 366. Speech 
101 is recommended. The Department cooperates 
in offering Education 304, Techniques of 
Teaching and Curriculum of Secondary English, 
and Education 411, Internship in Teaching 
Composition. 

86 



History 131, 132, 203, 204 and Philosophy 203, 

204, 211, 220 are strongly recommended for 
majors. Students planning to do graduate work 
in English should develop proficiency in Latin, 
French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variety 
of fields, such as journalism, law, public 
relations, publishing, radio and television. 
Theatre Arts majors may take internships in 
theatre, radio, television, public relations and 
arts administration. Students who wish to apply 
for internships must secure from their advisers 
a statement of the Department's policy regarding 
application deadline, form of proposal, 
requirements, and grading. 

Distribution Requirements 

All courses offered by the Department, except 
English 101, 201, 203, 205, 206, 208, 209, 305 and 
courses in speech and theatre arts, may be used 
to fulfill the College distribution requirement in 
literature. All Theatre Arts courses and English 

205, 206 may be used to fulfill the College 
distribution requirement in arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors who have shown special promise 
in English will be invited to complete a thesis 
and seminar sequence during their senior year. 
Students taking the program will write a thesis 
during the fall semester under the direction of a 
member of the Department. During the spring 
semester they will participate in an Honors 
Seminar under the direction of the Program 
Director. Only students selected for and 
successfully completing the program will be 
eligible to receive Honors in English. For details 
of the Program, consult the brochure available in 
the English Department. 

101 English Composition 

Aims to develop the students' ability to express 
themselves in clear, accurate, and thoughtful 
English prose. Not limited to freshmen. Repeated 
spring semester. 

Staff 



110 The Interpretation of Literature 

An intensive study of the dominant literary 
types: short story, novel, poem, and drama. The 
course attempts to stimulate a valid appreciation 
and judgment of literature through precise 
critical analysis of selected works truly 
representative of major literary forms. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in literature. Open only 
to freshmen and a limited number of 
sophomores. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

151. 152 Survey of English Literature 

A historical survey of English literature from 
Beowulf to Joyce and Yeats in the twentieth 
century, with some attention to the social, 
political, and intellectual background. Selected 
works will be analyzed in class to familiarize 
students with the techniques of analysis, and 
students will write several short critical papers 
each semester. 

Staff 

153 Survey of American Literature 

A chronological study of American writing from 
colonial days to Emily Dickinson. Primary 
emphasis falls on the Puritans and the American 
Romantics. Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 

154 Modern American Literature 

A survey of American literature from Robinson 
and James to the present. Major figures will 
include Frost, Eliot, Williams, Stevens, Dreiser, 
Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Faulkner, and selected 
contemporary writers. Designed for students not 
majoring in English. 

Staff 

201 Advanced Expository Writing 

An intensive course in advanced rhetorical 
techniques, with particular emphasis on analysis 
of evidence, selection of appropriate style, and 
importance of revision. 

Ms. Stavropoulos and Mr. Pickering 

203 Journalism 

A general introduction to journalism. Students 
can expect to spend their time practicing the 
techniques of writing news copy, feature, sports, 
and editorial articles; composing headlines; 
doing make-up; and working at copy reading and 
rewrite. 

Mr. Baskerville 



English 

205. 206 The Writing of Fiction, Poetry, and Drama 

A workshop in the writing of short stories, verse, 
and plays, with an analysis of models. Either 
course may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in arts. Prerequisite: Permission of 
the instructor. 

Mr. Clarke 

208 Introduction to Linguistics 

Studies the three best-known analyses of English 
grammar: traditional, structural, and generative. 
The theories of grammar and the varying 
attitudes toward language make students aware 
that language in itself is an appropriate object of 
study. 

Ms. Hartzell 

209 History of the English Language 

Provides a historical understanding of the 
vocabulary, forms, and sounds of the language 
from the Anglo-Saxon or Old English period to 
the twentieth century. 

Mr. Baskerville 

210 Theories of Literature 

Undertakes to examine and compare the various 
ways in which literature has been regarded: its 
sources, forms, and purposes. The history of 
critical theory is surveyed, from Plato and 
Aristotle to the present, with emphasis upon the 
modern period and such movements as New 
Criticism, structuralism, deconstruction, and 
feminist criticism. The goal of the course is to 
make students aware of themselves as readers. 

Ms. Berg 

218. 219 The English Novel 

A study of the form and content of the English 
novel as the genre developed in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. English 218 
concentrates on the eighteenth century and 
focuses on novels by Richardson, Fielding, 
Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. Offered 1988-89. 
English 219 is devoted to the nineteenth century 
and includes novels by Scott, Dickens, Eliot, 
Hardy, and others. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Pickering 

225 The Drama of Shakespeare's Contemporaries 

A study, after some attention to the beginnings 
of drama in the Middle Ages, of some of 
Shakespeare's contemporaries, including Kyd, 
Marlowe, Jonson, Tourneur, and Webster, among 
others, to assess their importance in the 
development of English drama. 

Ms. Hertzbach 



87 



English 



226 Introduction to Shakespeare 

A course that endeavors to communicate an 
awareness of Shakespeare's evolution as a 
dramatist and of his importance in the 
development of Western literature and thought. 
Designed for students not majoring in English. 

Mr. Myers 

231 to 260 Studies in Literature 

An intensive study of a single writer, group, 
movement, theme, or period. May be counted 
toward the major. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in literature. Open to freshmen. 

Staff 



305 The Writing of Poetry and Short Fiction: Advanced 

A course open to students who have 
demonstrated that their skills in the writing of 
poetry and fiction might be further developed. 
The goal of each student will be the composition 
of a group of poems or short stories. 
Prerequisite: English 205, 206. 

Mr. Clarke 

318 American Prose of the Colonial and 
Romantic Periods 

A study of the fiction, essays, journals, and 
autobiography written by major American 
writers from the early days to 1860. Although 
Puritan and 18th Century prose will be covered, 
emphasis will be on the masterworks of the 
American Romantics: Cooper, Poe, Emerson, 
Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

319 American Realism 

A study which concentrates on fiction by major 
American writers between 1860 and the early 
Twentieth century. Twain, Howells, James, and 
Crane will receive major emphasis. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

320 American Poetry 

A study of the development of American Poetry 
from Anne Bradstreet to William Carlos Williams 
and other modern figures. Emphasis will be 
placed on Emerson, Poe, Whitman, and 
Dickinson. 

Mr. Stitt 

323. 324 Twentieth Century Fiction 

A study of the form and content of a 
representative selection of English and American 
novels and, occasionally, short stories written 
between 1900 and the present. Some 
consideration will be given to the social and 



intellectual context. English 323, devoted to the 
fiction of 1900 to 1940, examines works by 
Conrad, Joyce, Woolf, Lawrence, Hemingway, 
Faulkner, and others. English 324 is devoted to 
fiction from 1940 to the present, and includes 
Updike, Nabokov, Bellow, Pynchon, Cary, 
Fowles, and others. 

Messrs. Garnett and Fredrickson 

328. 329 Twentieth Century Drama 

A study of major dramatists from Ibsen to the 
present and of dramatic movements such as 
realism, naturalism, expressionism, as well as 
Theatre of the Absurd. The first semester 
includes Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, O'Neill, and 
others; the second semester begins after World 
War II and includes Williams, Miller, Osborne, 
Pinter, Beckett, lonesco, Genet, and others. 
Alternate years. 

Mr. Schmidt 

331 Mediaeval Literature 

Sketches the development of Western literature 
from the Patristic Age through the Carolingian 
revival and then concentrates on selected topics 
and themes explored in the literature of the High 
Middle Ages. Anglo-Saxon poetry, Arthurian 
romance, the Tristan and Isolde story, the Grail 
legend, and Malory represent materials always 
dealt with. 

Mr. Baskerville 

334 Renaissance Literature 

Selected works of More, Machiavelli, and 
Castiglione provide a background in basic 
Renaissance ideas as a prelude to a careful 
study of works by Marlowe, Sidney, 
Shakespeare, and Spenser. 

Mr. Baskerville 

337, 338 The Seventeenth Century 

A study of the poetry, prose, drama, and thought 
of the period extending from the last years of 
Elizabeth through the early years of the 
Restoration. The fall semester, stressing 
religious and scientific backgrounds, will 
concentrate on such poets as Jonson, Donne, 
Herbert, and Marvell, as well as such selected 
prose writers as Bacon and Browne. The spring 
semester will begin with poems by Waller, 
Cowley, and Vaughan and then proceed to the 
works of Milton, with emphasis on his 
development as a poet and his relation to his 
age. The spring semester will conclude with the 
reading of selected Restoration plays. 

Mr. Myers and Ms. Stavropoulos 



341, 342 Literature of the Restoration and 
Eighteenth Century 

A critical analysis of the prose, poetry, and 
selected drama written between 1660 and 1798 
with attention to the political, social, and 
intellectual background. English 341, devoted to 
the literature from 1660-1740, concentrates on 
the work of Dryden, Swift, Pope. English 342, 
devoted to the literature from 1740 to 1798, 
concentrates on the work of the mid-century 
poets, Johnson, and Boswell. 

Ms. Stewart 

345. 346 The Nineteenth Century 

A critical analysis of poetry and prose with some 
attention to the historical and intellectual 
background. English 345 explores the literature 
from 1790 to 1830, with some consideration given 
the principal theoretical, psychological, and 
ethical concerns of the major Romantic poets: 
Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, 
and Keats. English 346 is devoted to the 
literature from 1830 to 1900 and focuses on the 
works of Carlyle, Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, 
Newman, Rossetti, Pater, and on selected fiction. 
Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Srebrnik 

351. 352 Twentieth Century Poetry 

A study of selected British and American poets 
of the modern period, with attention given to the 
explication of individual poems, as well as to the 
style and method of each poet and to the ways in 
which each responds to the problems and 
themes of his or her cultural milieu. The fall 
semester is devoted to major figures who 
flourished before 1939 with primary emphasis on 
W. B. Yeats and T. S. Elliot; other poets covered 
include Frost, Hopkins, Stevens, Moore and 
others. The spring semester deals with poets 
whose reputations have developed since 1939, 
with emphasis on Richard Wilbur, Theodore 
Roethke, Robert Bly, and Sylvia Plath. 

Messrs. Garnett and Stitt 
362 Chaucer 

Examination of a selection of Chaucer's minor 
poems and of five of his major poems (including 
"Troilus and Criseyde" and "Canterbury Tales") 
as the means of assessing the poet's response to 
literary influences and of tracing the develop- 
ment of his original genius. 

Mr. Pickering 
365. 366 Shakespeare 
A course that seeks to communicate an 
understanding both of Shakespeare's relation to 
the received traditions of his time and of his 
achievement as one of the most important 
figures in Western literature. Language, 
characterization, and structure in each of the 
numerous plays will be carefully analyzed. The 



English 

fall semester will focus on the early plays 
through Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida, the 
spring semester on the later plays. 

Mr. Myers 

420 Honors Seminar 

An intensive study of an announced topic under 
the guidance of the Director of the Senior English 
Honors Program. Prerequisite: Successful 
completion of an Honors Thesis. Offered in the 
spring semester. 

Staff 

464 Honors Thesis 

An individualized study project involving the 
research of a topic and the preparation of a 
major paper under the direction of a member of 
the Department. This research and writing will be 
done during the fall semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: By invitation of the Department 
only. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

An individual tutorial, research project, or 
internship under the supervision of a member of 
the staff. A student must submit a written 
proposal to the Department well in advance of 
registration. Prerequisites: Approval of the 
Department and of the directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 



Theatre Arts 

The major in Theatre Arts is described on 
page 86. 

Any theatre arts course may be used to fulfill the 
distribution requirement in arts. 

105 Introduction to Theatre Arts 

An overview of theatre, including its historical 
background, its literary works, its technical 
aspects, and its performance techniques. 
Students will study the theatre of today in 
relation to its predecessors and in terms of its 
modern forms in cinema and television. Students 
will read texts and analyze methods used in 
bringing those works into production. Field trips 
will offer opportunities to critique performances. 

Mr. Hanson 



89 



English 

115 Theatre Production 

A course designed to provide an extensive 
investigation of the historical and contemporary 
trends and practices essential for theatre 
production. The student gains an understanding 
of theatre procedures and acquires a grasp of 
the equipment necessary for the execution of 
scenery, properties, sound and stage lighting. 
This course is a combination of lecture and 
laboratory work and requires backstage 
participation in college productions. Offered each 
year. Fall semester only. 

Mr. Hanson 

120 Fundamentals of Acting 

The study of the theory and technique of the art 
of acting; voice technique for the stage; the use 
of pantomime, including the study of gesture and 
movement. Emphasis will be placed on the 
discipline and control of the body and the voice 
to best serve the actor. Improvisation will be 
employed. In addition, students will be expected 
to perform in scenes for class analysis. 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

155 Fundamentals of Stage Design 

Basic theories and technique of design for the 
stage. The theory behind the design, and the 
interrelationship of scene design, lighting, 
costumes, and properties. How stage design 
interprets the themes and moods of a play as 
well as identifying period and place will be 
studied. This course will follow a lecture- 
discussion format and involve extensive studio 
work. Students will analyze, create, and execute 
basic designs for the Laboratory Theatre Series 
in association with students in Theatre Arts 182. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 115 and /or permission 
of the instructor. 

Mr. Hanson 

182 Fundamentals of Directing 

The study of the theory and technique of the art 
of the director: how a play is selected; play 
analysis; tryouts and casting; the purpose and 
technique of blocking, movement, and stage 
business. Students are required to direct scenes 
in class and a short play as part of the 
Laboratory Theatre Series. Prerequisite: Theatre 
Arts 155 and/or permission of the instructor. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Schmidt 

203. 204 History of the Theatre 

A survey of the theatre from the primitive to the 
present. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of 
theatre design, production techniques, and 



acting styles to the plays of their periods, and 
the relationship between society and the theatre 
it nurtured. The first semester covers Greek, 
Roman, Medieval, Elizabethan, and Oriental; the 
second semester is devoted to the Italian 
Renaissance, French, Neoclassical, the 
Restoration, and the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and 
Twentieth centuries. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Schmidt 

220 Advanced Acting 

Further study in the theory and technique of the 
art of the actor: the analysis and interpretation 
of a role and the building of a characterization. 
Roles, both comic and tragic, from 
Contemporary, Restoration, Elizabethan, 
Commedia dell'Arte, and Greek theatre will be 
analyzed and performed. Prerequisite: Theatre 
Arts 120 and/or permission of the instructor. 
Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Schmidt 

222 Oral Interpretation of Literature 

An analytical and structural study of recognized 
prose, poetry and dramatic selections which will 
facilitate individual rehearsal and performance 
of the literature. These readings will incorporate 
the Readers Theatre format and emphasis will be 
placed on developing an appreciation for the 
literary work as a complete aesthetic unit. 
Students will be challenged to recognize their 
potential for speaking and reading before an 
audience. The class will employ an ensemble 
approach and present several public perform- 
ances during the semester. 

Mr. Hanson 

252 Studies in Film Aesthetics 

A study of historically significant films, film 
theory and criticism, intended to develop an 
appreciation for film as an art form. Students 
will keep a journal of critical responses to films, 
write short critical papers, and will become 
familiar with writing that has been done 
about films. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

255 Advanced Stage Design 

Examination of historical and contemporary 
theories of scene, lighting, and costume design. 
Students will consider design as the visual 
manifestation of the playwright's concepts. 
Besides designing the same play for proscenium, 
arena, thrust, and profile stages and a period 
play for ? neriod other than its own, students 
will complete advanced designs in scene, 
lighting, and costumes and create designs for the 
Laboratory Theatre Series in association with 



90 



students in Theatre Arts 282. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 155. 

Mr. Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing 

Further studies in the theory and technique in the 
art of the director. Students will engage in 
directional analyses of plays representing 
different periods. Particular attention will be 
given to contemporary methods of presentation 
with special emphasis on arena and thrust 
staging. In addition to directing scenes in class, 
students will direct two scenes and a one-act 
play for public presentation, the latter as part of 
the Laboratory Theatre Series. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 155 and 182 and/or permission of 
the instructor. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Schmidt 

320 Problems in Acting 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in acting which will culminate in 
an independent study project. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 120 and 220 and/or permission of 
the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

355 Problems in Stage Design 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in design which will culminate in 
an independent study project. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 155 and 255. 

Mr. Hanson 

382 Problems in Directing 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in directing which will culminate 
in an independent study project. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 182 and 282. 

Mr. Schmidt 

Individualized Study 

A production of a major work, a tutorial, or an 
internship under the supervision of a member of 
the staff. A student must submit a written 
proposal to the Department well in advance of 
registration. Prerequisites: Approval of the 
Department and of the directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 

Staff 



English/French 

Speech 

101 Public Address 

A study of the basic principles of public address. 
Emphasis is placed on developing both a 
theoretical and practical understanding of oral 
communication, through lecture and reading 
assignments, as well as through practice in 
preparing, organizing, delivering, and criticizing 
speeches in class. Repeated spring semester. 

Mr. Hanson 

201 Advanced Public Address 

An analysis of public address as an art form and 
as an important civilizing force in Western 
society. Students will have the opportunity to 
apply concepts and strategies they have learned 
in Speech 101. Prerequisite: Speech 101. 

Mr. Hanson 

French 

Associate Professors Lenski, Michelman, 
A. Tannenbaum, and Viti (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Exton, Gregorio, 
Richardson, and K. Wiley Sandler 
Adjunct Professor Cormier 
Adjunct Instructor P. Sandler 
Teaching Assistant Casassus 

Overview 

Foreign language study not only teaches 
students much about their native tongue, but 
also introduces them to another people's 
language, literature, and customs. This 
awareness of cultural and linguistic relativity is 
one of the hallmarks of a liberal education. 

Introductory French courses develop students' 
skill in spoken and written French and acquaint 
them with the literature and culture of the 
French-speaking world. Language laboratory 
work is mandatory for all beginning students. 
With emphasis on oral/aural proficiency, it 
complements classroom instruction in the 
language. 

Advanced language instruction allows the 
student to reach the higher level of mastery in 
French required in more specialized study and 
usage. In the more advanced literature and 
civilization courses, students study French 
writing and culture in greater depth, thereby 
gaining considerable knowledge of and insight 
into France's past and present achievements in 
all fields of endeavor. Majors (and, indeed, non- 



91 



French 

majors as well) are moreover encouraged to 
study abroad as an inestimable enhancement to 
their understanding of the country, its people, 
and its language. 

Students specializing in French will find that 
their major studies, in addition to their 
humanistic value, afford sound preparation for 
graduate study and for careers in teaching or 
interpreting. A knowledge of French will also be 
invaluable to them in the fields of international 
business and government as well as social work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in French include 
French 301, 302, and seven additional courses 
above the 302 level. Majors must include French 
307, 308 and 309 in their major program. Majors 
are urged to take French 310 in their sophomore 
or junior year. Individualized study may be taken 
only once as part of the minimum requirements 
for the major. These requirements may be 
waived in special cases at the discretion of the 
Department. Majors are encouraged to study in a 
French-speaking country, although this is not a 
Departmental requirement. All majors must take 
at least one course within the Department during 
their senior year. 

Requirements for a minor in French involve a 
total of six courses. For students who begin in 
the 101-102, 103-104, or 201-202 sequences, 202 
will count toward the minor. In addition, students 
must take 205 or 206, 301-302 and two additional 
courses, of their choice, above 302. 

Students who begin in 205 or 206 must take, in 
addition, 301-302 and three other courses above 
302. 

Students who begin on the 300-level must take 
301-302 plus four additional courses above 302. 
As with the major, courses taken abroad may be 
counted toward a minor. 

Students comtemplating a minor in French must 
see the department chairperson to receive a 
Handbook for minors and to be assigned a minor 
adviser. 

The prerequisite for entry into all courses above 
the 200-level, with the exception of French 400, is 
French 202 or its equivalent. French 307 is a 
prerequisite for all literature courses above the 
200-level. (However, students may take 307 and 
308 simultaneously.) 

Prior to their first registration at the College, all 
students receive preregistration materials which 

92 



give detailed instructions on language placement 
and fulfilling the distribution requirement in 
foreign languages. The following courses fulfill 
the distribution requirement in literature: French 
205, 206, 308, 309, 321, 322, 326, 327, 328, 331, 
and 400 where appropriate. 

The distribution requirement in foreign 
languages may be fulfilled by successful 
completion in French of 201-202, 205, 206, or a 
course at the 300-level or above. The equivalent 
of intermediate achievement may be 
demonstrated by an Advanced Placement 
Examination or a Departmental Qualifying 
Examination given during the initial week of fall 
semester. French 205 or 206 satisfies both the 
foreign language requirement and the literature 
requirement. These courses, which are complete 
as individual units, emphasize intensive reading 
of complete works of literature for 
comprehension and analysis of style. Students 
who qualify and choose this alternative should 
have adequate preparation in reading French 
prose. A student who shows unusual proficiency 
in 201 may, with the consent of the Department 
Chairperson, take 206 and thereby fulfill the 
language and literature requirements. 

French 310 fulfills the distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy and may, under special 
circumstances, satisfy a history major 
requirement. (See "Requirements and 
Recommendations" under History.) 

French 331 fulfills the distribution requirement in 
Non-Western culture as well as in literature. 

Special Facilities 

Language Laboratory in Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources Center. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad 

La Maison Francaise (The French House) 
Students may elect to live in this separate 
residential unit staffed by a native-speaking 
Assistant. French is the principal language 
spoken in the house and residents help plan and 
participate actively in various French cultural 
activities on campus (see Other Activities below). 

Other Activities 

The Department and La Maison Francaise 
sponsor various activities and organizations 
such as the weekly French Table in the Dining 
Hall, the Cercle Francais (French Club), French 
films, and lectures. 



101-102 French for Beginners 

Elements of speaking, reading, and writing 
French. Language laboratory usage is required. 
Enrollment limited to those who have not studied 
French previously. A student may not receive 
credit for both 101 and 103 or for both 102 and 104. 

103-104 Elementary French 

Fundamentals of speaking, reading, and writing 
French. Language laboratory usage is required. 
Enrollment limited to those who have previously 
studied French and who are enrolled according 
to achievement on the Departmental Qualifying 
Examination. A student may not receive credit 
for both 101 and 103 or for both 102 and 104. 

201-202 Intermediate French 

Grammar review and practice in oral French in 
the fall semester with stress on reading and 
written expression in the spring. Contact with 
French culture is maintained throughout. 
Enrollment limited to those who have previously 
studied French and who have completed 101-102 
or 103-104, or who are enrolled according to 
achievement on the Department Qualifying 
Examination. 

205, 206 Readings in French Literature 

Two objectives of skill in reading French prose 
for comprehension and reading a significant 
amount of French literature of literary and 
cultural merit. Conducted in French, these 
courses differ from French 201, 202 in that they 
emphasize reading for comprehension of 
content. Enrollment limited to those who have 
previously studied French and who are enrolled 
according to achievement on the Departmental 
Qualifying Examination. 

301. 302 French Structure. Composition, and 
Conversation 

Review of grammar and syntax at an advanced 
level; exercises in directed and free composition; 
group discussion and presentation of individual 
oral work. Offered every year. 

303 Phonetics and Diction 

Study of modern phonetic theory; practice in 
transcription, pronunciation, and diction. 
Laboratory course. Alternate years. Offered 
1988-89. 

304 Advanced Stylistics 

Intensive practice in the refinement of writing 
skills directed towards a sophisticated and 
idiomatic use of the language. Components of 
course work include composition, translation, 
comparative stylistics, French for use in 



French 

commercial and other correspondence, and work 
in the spoken language. Prerequisite: French 301- 
302. Offered every year. 

307 Approaches to Literary Analysis 

Reading and analysis, in their entirety, of 
representative selections of prose, poetry, and 
theatre. This course aims to introduce students 
to interpretive strategies and to make them more 
aware of and competent in the art of reading. 
Offered every year. Prerequisite: French 202 or 
equivalent. This course is required of all majors 
and is a prerequisite for all literature courses on 
the 300-level. 

308. 309 Masterpieces of French Literature: Middle 
Ages to 1789; 1789 to Present 

A survey of French literature in two parts, 
through reading and discussion of complete 
works of some of France's most outstanding 
authors. Although major emphasis will be placed 
on the study of these masterpieces, the broad 
outline of French literary history, styles and 
movements will also be covered. Offered every 
year. Prerequisite:^ 309, French 307 or 
equivalent. (307 and 308 may be taken 
simultaneously.) Required of all majors. 

310 French Civilization 

The manifestation of history, art, economics, 
politics, and sociology in the culture of France. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. Alternate years. Offered 
1987-88. 

318 Literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 

Study of early French literary texts: epic poems, 
lyric poetry, plays and romances; sixteenth- 
century prose and poetry. Prerequisite: French 
307 or equivalent. Three hours per week. 
Alternate years or every third year. Offered 
1988-89. 

321 Seventeenth Century Theatre 

French drama, comedy, and tragedy of the 
classical period. Corneille, Moliere, and Racine. 
Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. Alternate 
years. Offered 1987-88. 

322 The Age of Enlightenment 

A study of the Age of Enlightenment through 
reading and discussion of the representative, 
fiction, non-fiction, and theatre. Prerequisite: 
French 307 or equivalent. Alternate years. 
Offered 1987-88. 



93 



French/German 

326 Nineteenth-Century Prose Fiction 

Reading and analysis, through lecture and 
discussion, of nineteenth-century novels and 
short stories of such major authors as Constant, 
Hugo, Stendhal, Balzac, Flaubert, Maupassant, 
Zola and Huys mans. Prerequisite: French 307 or 
equivalent. Three hours per week. Alternate 
years. Offered 1988-89. 

327 Contemporary French Theatre 

A study of major trends in modern French 
drama: surrealism, existentialism, the absurd. 
Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. Alternate 
years. 

328 Contemporary French Novelists and Their Craft 

A study of representative works by major 
twentieth-century French novelists from Gide and 
Proust to Butor and Robbe-Grillet. Prerequisite: 
French 307 or equivalent. Alternate years. 
Offered 1987-88. 

331 La Francophonie 

A survey of the imaginative literatures of such 
French-speaking countries and areas as Africa 
north and south of the Sahara, Canada, Vietnam, 
the West Indies, Louisiana, and others. Aside 
from their intrinsic literary worth, the selections 
will afford a perception of the impact and 
adaptation of French language and culture 
among widely diverse populations of the world. 
Alternate years. Fulfills the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. Prerequisite: 
French 307 or equivalent. 

400 Seminar 

An intensive study of a particular aspect of 
French literature, civilization or culture to be 
determined by the instructor in consultation with 
students. Intended for upperclass majors. 
Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and 
approval of Department Chairperson. Offered 
every year. 

Individualized Study 

Guided readings or research under the 
supervision of a member of the staff. 
Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and 
approval of the Department Chairperson. 



German 

Associate Professors Crowner, McCardle, 

and Ritterson (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Armster 
Teaching Assistant Schwentker 

Overview 

One of the attributes of a truly liberated 
individual is acquaintance with the language and 
culture of at least one foreign nation. The 
offerings of this department are designed to 
contribute to the attainment of this goal. Apart 
from the values accruing from the mental 
discipline demanded by language learning and 
the practical utilization of such learning in the 
areas of research and technology, international 
trade, diplomacy, teaching, and foreign travel, it 
is hoped that doors will be opened to an 
understanding of the German people and an 
appreciation of their significant contributions to 
the world's cultural heritage. 

Through the use of the foreign language in the 
classroom and correlative audio-lingual drill in 
the laboratory, effort is directed toward the 
development of a reasonable proficiency in 
speaking and listening comprehension as well as 
in reading and writing. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

German 202 or equivalent proficiency is 
considered prerequisite to all higher-numbered 
German courses, unless specified otherwise. 

Major Requirements. A major consists of a 
minimum of nine courses beyond the level of 
German 202, including 301, 302, 321, 322, two 
courses from those numbered 211, 212, 213, and 
two courses from those numbered 323, 324, 325, 
328. Majors preparing to teach German in the 
secondary school must also take Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary German (does not count toward 
German major). 

Majors who take a Study Abroad program may 
count no more than six of those courses toward 
the major and must take at least two German 
literature courses in their senior year. 

Majors who, by the end of the junior year, have 
not demonstrated a satisfactory level of 
competency in the reading, writing, speaking and 
listening comprehension of German, as 
determined by the Department's staff, will be 



94 



assigned such additional work as considered 
necessary and appropriate to the attainment of 
such competency by the end of the senior year. 

Minor Requirements. Minor is offered in German. 
For students beginning at 201 or below, the 
German minor consists of 201-202, 301, 302, and 
any two courses above 202. For students 
beginning at the 301 level, the minor consists of 
301, 302 and any four courses above 202. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following courses may be counted toward 
the distribution requirement in literature: German 
119, 120, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 328. 

The following courses may be counted toward 
the distribution requirement in the area of 
history/philosophy: German 211, 212, and 213; 
and, with the consent of the History Department, 
toward a history major: German 211, 212, and 
213. 

The distribution requirement in foreign language 
may be satisfied by completion of German 202 or 
of any 300-level course. 

Special Programs 

Junior Year Abroad 

Qualified students are encouraged to study 
abroad one or both semesters of their junior 
year. Students can choose from programs 
administered by American institutions at 
universities in Munich, Freiburg, Marburg, 
Heidelberg, Bonn, and elsewhere (see Study 
Abroad). 

German House 

Students may elect to live in a specially 
designated area of a residential unit staffed by a 
native German Assistant. The use of the German 
language is promoted, and residents help plan 
and participate actively in various German 
cultural activities on campus. 

German Language 

101. 102 Elementary German 

Essentials of grammar, composition, 
pronunciation. Course includes oral and written 
work, graded elementary reading, and use of 
audio-visual cultural materials and correlative 
drill in the language laboratory. Prepares for 
German 201, 202. 

201. 202 Intermediate German 

Continuation of the work of German 101, 102. 
Progressively more difficult reading, in class and 
outside, is selected to introduce the student to 



German 

German literature and civilization. Course 
includes use of audio-visual cultural materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prerequisite: German 102 or its equivalent. 

235 German Conversation 

Intermediate level conversation course with 
emphasis on everyday, applied usage of the 
language for nonliterary purposes. Limited 
enrollment of ten students. Does not count 
toward fulfillment of language requirement. May, 
with departmental approval, count toward minor 
or major. May be taken concurrently with 
German 202. Prerequisite: German 201 or its 
equivalent. 

301 Advanced German 

Designed for advanced work in the language and 
intended for students who have successfully 
completed at least German 202, as well as for 
qualified incoming students. The plan of study 
incorporates extensive reading and intensive 
practice in aural comprehension, oral 
expression, and directed composition. Conducted 
mostly in German. 

302 Advanced German 

Continuation of exercise in the skills of German 
301, but with emphasis given to readings and 
discussions on problems of German literary 
studies. Both primary and secondary (unedited) 
sources will be read. Students will be asked to 
present oral reports and to write resumes and 
compositions on the materials read. Conducted 
in German. Prerequisite: German 301 or 
demonstrated equivalent preparation. 

German Culture Studies 

211. 212 Survey of German Culture to 1945: 
Origins to 1790; 1790-1945 

Study of the cultural history of the German 
people from their beginnings to 1945, including 
an appreciation of their major contributions to 
the world's cultural heritage. This course is 
accepted toward fulfillment of the distribution 
requirement in the area of history/philosophy. 

213 Survey of German Culture Since 1945 

Study of the culture, society, and politics of 
contemporary Germany, East and West, 
including a comparison of the social systems 
and of attempts to deal with the problems of the 
present and future. Assigned readings include 
both critical/analytical and literary works. A 
knowledge of German is not required. This 

95 



German/ Health and Physical Education 

course is accepted toward fulfillment of the 
distribution requirement in the area of 
history/philosophy. Alternate years. 



German Literature 

119, 120 German Literature in Translation 

Critical analysis and appreciation of form and 
content of representative German literary 
masterpieces, selected from the literary periods 
from the Middle ages to the present, together 
with an examination of the times and cultural 
circumstances which produced these works. 
Does not count toward a major in German. This 
course is accepted toward fulfillment of the 
distribution requirement in literature. 
Ms. Armster and Messrs. McCardle and Ritterson 

302 Advanced German 

See course description under German Language 
(above). 

321, 322 The Age of Goethe: 1750-1785; 1785-1830 

Study of German literature of the Enlightenment, 
Storm and Stress, Classicism, and Romanticism, 
with special emphasis on Lessing, Schiller, and 
Goethe. Critical reading and analysis of 
representative works are included. Outside 
reading and reports. Alternate years. Offered 
1987-88. 



323. 324 Post-Romantic to Mid-Twentieth-Century 
German Literature: 1830-1900; 1900-1945 

Study of German literature from the 1830s to 
1945, with particular attention in the fall 
semester to Young Germany. Biedermeier, 
Regionalism, Realism, and Naturalism; and in the 
spring semester to Impressionism, 
Expressionism, the New Objectivity, and their 
successors through the end of World War II. 
Critical reading and analysis in class of 
representative works and outside readings and 
reports are included. Alternate years. 

325 German Literature Since 1945 

Study of West and East German literature, 
including Borchert, Boll, Grass, Durrenmatt, and 
Handke. Critical reading and analysis in class of 
representative works and outside reading and 
reports are included. Alternate years. 



328 Goethe's Faust 

Intensive reading and analysis of the work in 
class. Lectures and discussions highlight its 
aesthetic, moral, and ethical values and 
autobiographical significance, together with an 
examination of its modern cultural implications. 
Outside reading and reports. 

400 Senior Seminar 

Intensive study of selected aspects of German 
language, literature, and civilization through 
reading, discussion, oral and written reports. 
Topics will be selected with a view to affording 
students an opportunity to strengthen their 
knowledge in the areas not covered in their other 
course work in the department. 

Individualized Study 

Guided reading or research under the supervision 
of a member of the staff. Prerequisite: Consent of 
the Department. 

Greek— See Classics 



Health and Physical Education 

Professor Kenney (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Biser and Donolli 
Assistant Professors Claiborne and Reider 
Coaches: Anderson, Babinchak, Bowers 
(Coordinator of Women's Athletics), Breaux, 
Campo, Drexel, Hulton (Director of Intercollegiate 
Athletics), Hummel, Rawleigh, Riggs, Streeter, 
and Wright 



Overview 

The Department of Health and Physical Education 
is in harmony with the purposes of our liberal 
arts institution and our philosophy is a holistic 
one. We believe in the Greek ideal of "A sound 
mind in a sound body." The College stresses the 
individual need for total fitness for all students 
through our required courses. Our majors' 
courses offer those students with a particular 
interest in health and physical education a 
rewarding, well rounded, educational and life 
experience. 

A major in Health and Physical Education is an 
excellent preparation for specific areas such as 
state-approved teaching certification in Health 



96 



and Physical Education (K-12), certification in 
athletic training, and allied health careers. With 
proper course selection, students can qualify for 
post graduate work in allied therapy fields such 
as physical, occupational, and play therapy. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

All HPE majors must satisfy all of the College 
distribution requirements. Psych. 101 and Soc. 
101 are the preferred social science courses. 
Biology is required as the laboratory science. 
Biology (101-112) is preferred but Biology (101- 
102) is acceptable. 

Majors in HPE are required to complete seven 
core courses plus courses in an area of 
concentration. The seven core courses are as 
follows: HPE 112, 116, 117, 214, 218, 309 and 320. 
In addition to taking the core program, all HPE 
majors will select an area of concentration, and 
complete the courses specified. 

a) Allied Health Science Track 

Each student will be required to take the 
following courses: 

HPE 101, 102, 201, 202, 310, 415, 449, Math 107 
or HPE 332 and Chemistry 101, 102 or Physics 
103, 104. It is highly suggested that HPE 211, 
and Biology 200, 224 and Chemistry 203, 204 
be taken by those students considering 
graduate work in allied health careers 
(physical therapy, athletic training, exercise 
physiology, sports medicine, etc.). 

b) Teacher Education Track 

For the student in the teacher certification 
program (K-12) elementary and secondary 
teacher education, the following courses must be 
scheduled: 

HPE 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 211, 230, 332, 
and Education 201, 209, 303, 304, 477. (See 
listings and requirements in the Education 
Department and under Teacher Education 
Programs in this catalog). 

Faculty advisers are available to help in 
counseling, but students have the sole 
responsibility for meeting all major 
requirements. It is important to declare the HPE 
major early in the four year curriculum, as 
failure to do so often means an additional 
semester or two to complete the program. 

There is an additional learning experience that 
our department requires. Each student must 
participate in our intercollegiate program on one 
of the following levels: player, student trainer, 
student manager, or as a student coach. (The 



Health and Physical Education 

latter would be only for a very select, highly 
qualified athlete.) The above participation must 
be accomplished once each year for the four- 
year program. 

Distribution Requirements 

For non-majors in health and physical education, 
three quarter courses in health and physical 
education are required for a Bachelor of Arts 
degree. These courses are graded only on an S/U 
basis. They are normally taken during the fall 
and spring semesters of the freshman and 
sophomore years in addition to the general four 
or five course requirement. One semester of 
study yielding one quarter course credit is 
required from each of the three following groups: 

Group l-HEALTH 

HPE 105-Health Science (or Health Credit through 
proficiency testing) 

Group 11-141 FITNESS ACTIVITIES 
Advanced Basketball 
Advanced Judo 
Basketball 
Body Conditioning 
Cardio Fitness 
Endurance Swim 
Indoor Lacrosse 
Jazz It 
Jogging 
Judo 

Mountaineering (Military Science 101) 
Orienteering (Military Science 201) 
Soccer 

Team Handball 
Track and Field 
Weight Training 

Group 111-171 RECREATIONAL SKILLS 
Activities for Children 
Advanced Golf 
Advanced Horsemanship** 
Advanced Lifesaving 
Advanced Tennis 
Advanced Volleyball 
Archery 
Badminton 
Beginner's Swim 
Bowling** 

Contracts (Individualized Program) 
Golf 

Horsemanship** 
Outdoor Recreational Skills 
Softball 



97 



Health and Physical Education 

Tennis 

Volleyball 

Water Safety Instructor*** 

Wilderness Survival (Military Science 202) 

** Requires extra fee 

***Must have current Advanced Life Saving 
Certification 

A proficiency health knowledge test is offered 
freshmen and transfer students. If the health test 
is passed, the student can elect to take Health 
Credit or substitute a semester of study in any 
other group. If not passed, HPE 105 must be 
taken. 

In Groups II and III the student has the option of 
selecting one odd-numbered course which 
extends for a full semester or two even- 
numbered courses which taken sequentially 
during the same semester are equivalent to a full 
semester. The three group requirements may be 
taken in any order. 

Students who are unable to participate in the 
regular programs enroll in HPE 106, Adapted 
Physical Education, which can be substituted for 
courses in any group except HPE 105, Health 
Science, in Group I. 

101. 102, 201. 202. 301. 302 Major Skills 

Skill development and methods and techniques 
of class organization and instruction for the 
following physical education activities: lacrosse, 
field hockey, wrestling, swimming, gymnastics I, 
folk-square-social dance, baseball, softball, 
tennis, badminton, elementary school teaching, 
golf, archery, soccer, speedball, elementary- 
junior high-senior high games and recreational 
activities, basketball, volleyball, and track and 
field. This course is for health and physical 
eduction major students. Va course each 

Staff 

112 Foundations of Health, Physical Education, 
and Recreation 

The historical and philosophical development of 
health and physical education from early 
civilization to present; examination of the 
purposes, scope, and interrelationships of 
health, physical education, and recreation; and 
their application to the total education process. 
Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Ms. Kenney 

116 Human Anatomy and Physiology I 

An introductory course in Human Anatomy and 
Physiology. Systems of the body will be 
examined with emphasis placed on the 



integration of structure and function. Topics 
covered in laboratory and lecture will be cells, 
connective tissues, skeletal system, muscle 
tissue, nervous system, special senses, and 
circulatory system. 

Mr. Biser 

117 Human Anatomy and Physiology II 

Continuation of the course Human Anatomy and 
Physiology I. Additional systems of the body will 
be studied with emphasis placed on the 
integration of structure and function. Topics 
covered in laboratory and lecture will include 
endocrine regulation, respiration, digestive 
system, nutrition, metabolism, urinary system, 
fluid-electrolyte and pH balance, reproduction, 
and development/inheritance. Prerequisite: HPE 
116. 

Mr. Biser 

211 Personal and Community Health 

A critical look at the relevant health issues of 
this decade. Careful inspection of data 
concerning drugs, human sexuality, marriage 
and family living, old age, pollution, etc. is 
included along with the examination of the 
relationship of personal health problems to the 
community at large. 

Mr. Reider 

214 Medical Aspects of Sports 

Prepares the prospective coach for the 
prevention and care of injuries. Course includes 
instruction about protective equipment, safety 
procedures, and facilities, as well as preparation 
of the athlete for competition, emergency 
procedures, post-injury care, and medical 
research related to training and athletics. 
Material in the official Red Cross Standard and 
Advanced First Aid courses will be given and 
certificates can be earned. Practical work 
covered includes massage, taping, bandaging, 
and the application of therapeutic techniques. 
Prerequisites: HPE 116, 117 and HPE 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Biser 

218 Kinesiology and Applied Physiology 

Study of voluntary skeletal muscles, not only in 
regard to their origins, insertions, actions, and 
interrelationships with the body systems, but 
also with particular emphasis on the essentials 
of wholesome body mechanics. Prerequisites: 
HPE 116, 117 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Donolli 



98 



230 Nutrition and Performance 

An investigation into the area of human nutrition 
focusing upon the nutrients and factors which 
affect their utilization in the human body. 
Emphasis will be placed upon the effects of the 
various nutrients on fitness and athletic 
performance. Topics such as nutritional 
quackery, weight control, and pathogenic 
practices among athletes will be addressed. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Ms. Claiborne 

309 Physiological Responses to Endurance Training 

Serves to acquaint the student with the 
physiological mechanisms that are involved in 
circuit, interval, and aerobic type endurance 
training. The physiology of cardio-respiratory 
and muscular responses will be covered. The 
students will be involved in practical application 
of the training methods studied. A pre-exercise 
and post-exercise test of significant endurance 
responses will be administered to each student. 
Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Donolli 

310 Principles and Techniques of Adult Fitness 

Designed for students to gain an understanding 
of exercise prescription for healthy adults and 
for those with coronary heart disease risk 
factors. Standard fitness testing techniques will 
be demonstrated in supplemental laboratory 
sessions. All exercise testing and prescription 
considerations will be taught in accordance with 
guidelines established by the ACSM. 
Prerequisite: HPE 309 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Claiborne 

320 Adapted Physical Education and Health Inspection 

Provides instruction and experience in the health 
inspection and observation of the school 
environment and of school children. Specific 
abnormalities of children are studied, and 
exercises are adapted to individuals to allow 
more complete personality development through 
activity. Prerequisites: HPE 116, 117 and HPE 218. 
Messrs. Biser and Rawleigh 

332 Measurement and Evaluation in Health and 
Physical Education 

Concentration on test preparation in the 
cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains, 
application of measurement and evaluation 
optics, analysis of data through the use of 
computers, and participation in field experiences 
with standardized testing. 

Mr. Reider 



Health and Physical Education/ History 

415 Advanced Exercise Physiology 

An in-depth study of various factors affecting 
human performance with emphasis on regulation 
of various bodily functions at rest and during 
physical activity. Laboratory activities will 
acquaint the student with equipment and testing 
procedures used in measuring physiological 
parameters. Prerequisite: HPE 218, 309. 

Ms. Claiborne 

449 Introduction to Research 

Study of the various methodological approaches 
used in research. The course provides practice in 
designing research tools and in research writing 
and is helpful for those planning to continue with 
graduate study. Prerequisite: HPE 332 or Math 
107 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Kenney 

464 Honor's Thesis 

Will provide an opportunity for selected senior 
HPE majors to conduct an original research 
investigation under the direction of a thesis 
committee. Upon completion of a formal thesis, 
each student will orally present the nature and 
results of the study to the entire HPE staff. 
Successful completion of the program will entitle 
the student to receive credit for one course 
which can be applied toward the HPE major. 
Prerequisites: HPE 449, Math 107 or HPE 332. 

Staff 



History 

Professors Boritt, Crapster, and Glatfelter 
Associate Professors Bugbee, Fick, Forness, 

and Stemen (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Hmshaw 
Adjunct Assistant Professor J. Holder 

Overview 

The Department aims to acquaint the student 
with the concept of history as an organized body 
of knowledge which is "the memory of things 
said and done." Mastery within this broad field 
provides an appreciation of history as literature, 
an understanding of our heritage, and a standard 
by which one may thoughtfully evaluate our own 
time. Through classroom lectures and 
discussions, an introduction to research, and 



99 



History 

seminars, the Department encourages the 
student to develop as a liberally educated 
person. Courses which the Department offers 
help prepare students for graduate study and for 
careers in teaching, law, the ministry, public 
service, business, and other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major are nine courses, 
including History 300 (in the sophomore year) 
and one of the senior research seminars. All 
majors must pass at least four additional 
300-level courses chosen from at least two of 
three groups— American, European, or Asian 
history. Senior research seminars— number 401 
to 410— are normally restricted to history 
majors, for whom one is required. A selection 
from the list of seminars is offered each year. 
They provide students with an opportunity to 
work in small groups with a member of the staff 
in the study of a selected topic. Typically 
participants are expected to engage in reading, 
discussion, oral reports, and writing formal 
papers based on individual research. 

The minor in history consists of six history 
courses, of which no more than two may be at 
the 100-level and at least two must be at the 
300-level. One course may be from the list of 
courses from other departments listed below that 
count toward the major. No courses taken S/U 
may be included. 

Greek 251 (Greek History) and Latin 251 (Roman 
History) may be counted toward the nine-course 
requirement for the history major. A student who 
has declared a double major in history and a 
modern language may, with special permission 
from the chairperson of the Department of 
History, count one of the following courses 
toward the nine-course requirement for the 
history major (but not toward the 300-level 
requirement): French 310; German 211, 212, 213; 
Spanish 310, 311. 

Distribution Requirements 

All courses except History 300 are acceptable 
toward fulfilling the distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. 

The following courses meet the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture: 221, 222, 
224,227,228,251,254,321. 



101. 102 History of Europe 

Survey of the major political, economic, social, 
and intellectual developments in Europe from the 
5th century to the present. The first course goes 
from the Germanic invasions of Rome to 1715; 
the second extends from 1715 to the present. 

Mr. Fick 

131. 132 History of the United States 

With the dividing point at 1877, a general survey 
of the historical development of the American 
nation from the age of discovery to the present. 
Open to freshmen only. 

Staff 

182 Lincoln on Black and White 

A seminar limited to fifteen freshmen. Considers 
Lincoln and black freedom as well as the 
subjects of politics, statesmanship, mythology, 
and the uses of history. 

Mr. Boritt 

203, 204 History of England 

Surveys English history from the Anglo-Saxon 
invasions to the present, emphasizing 
institutional, social, and cultural developments. 
Some attention is given to Ireland, Scotland, and 
the overseas empire. The dividing point between 
the two courses is 1714. 

Messrs. Crapster and Fick 

205 The Age of Discovery 

A study of maritime exploration and discoveries 
of the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French, 
and the geographical and technological bases for 
them, concentrating on the period 1400 to 1550. 
Attention is given to settlement of the newly 
discovered lands, to the indigenous cultures, and 
to European perceptions of the Americas. 

Mr. Fick 

215. 216 History of Russia 

Survey of the major political, social, economic, 
and intellectual trends in Russian history. The 
first semester begins with the earliest Russian 
state and ends with the reign of Catherine the 
Great. The second semester covers the years 
from 1801 to the present. 

Ms. Hinshaw 

221. 222 History of East Asia 

A survey of East Asian civilizations to 
approximately 1800 in 221 and of East Asian 
political, social, and intellectual developments 
since the Western invasions of the nineteenth 
century in 222. 

Mr. Stemen 



100 



223 United States Relations with East Asia 

Study of the diplomatic, military, and cultural 
relations of the United States with China, Japan, 
Korea, and Vietnam, from the late eighteenth 
century to the present. Such subjects as trade, 
missions, wars, intellectual and artistic 
influence, and immigration will be covered. 

Mr. Stemen 

224 Chinese Thought and Culture 

An intellectual history of China from the 
beginning to the eighteenth century. Readings 
are drawn from philosophy, history, religion, 
poetry, and fiction, and are studied in the context 
of the intellectual and artistic culture of the 
times. 

Mr. Stemen 

IDS 227. 228 Civilization of India 

Course description included under 
Interdepartmental Studies. 

Ms. Powers 

233 Mission. Destiny, and Dream in American History 

An introduction to American history from the 
seventeenth century to the present by focusing 
upon the intertwining themes of the American 
people's belief in their unique mission and 
destiny in the world and their dream of creating 
a just and prosperous society. Students will 
probe the varying manifestations of these 
themes through major events and movements in 
American social, economic, and cultural life and 
in politics and diplomacy. 

Mr. Forness 

235 American Economic History 

Examines the economic development of the 
United States from the colonial period to the 
1960s. Among the topics covered are the 
westward movement, development of 
transportation networks, growth of monetary 
markets and investments, industrialization, and 
the role of government in the economy. Not 
offered every year. Prerequisite: Economics 
103-104. 

Ms. Fender 

236 Urbanism in American History 

An introduction to American history from the 
perspective of urbanism. Beginning with the 
colonial town and continuing to the megalopolis 
of the mid-twentieth century, students will 
investigate the nature of urban life and its 
influence upon the course of American 
development. 

Mr. Forness 



History 

237 War and American Society 

Considers America's wars from the Revolution to 
Vietnam and the opposition to war they have 
evoked. 

Mr. Boritt 

239 Architecture and Society in Nineteenth-Century 
America 

A study of American architecture from the 
neo-classic developments of the late eighteenth 
century to the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and 
his contemporaries at the beginning of the 
twentieth century, focusing upon relationships 
between architectural styles and the changing 
social, economic, and technological factors that 
influenced American culture. 

Mr. Forness 

251 History of the Ancient Near East 

Survey of the history of the Near East to 622 
A.D., concentrating particularly on the major 
civilizations of Egypt and the Fertile Crescent, 
i.e., Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria, as well as 
those of Crete, the Hittites, Persia, and the Indus 
Valley. Secondary attention will be given to 
ancient Near Eastern art and architecture, 
religion, and literature (in translation). 

Mr. Bugbee 

254 History of the Middle East under Arab Influence 

Commencing with the career of Mohammed, 
deals with the history of the Middle East, North 
Africa, Spain and, to some extent, India under 
the impact of Islam. Emphasis will be placed 
upon the Arab Conquest and the early, formative 
centuries of Islamic civilization, as well as upon 
developments— especially under the influence of 
the West— since 1798. Secondary attention will 
be given to Islamic art and architecture, religion, 
literature, and philosophy. 

Mr. Bugbee 

300 Historical Method 

A course designed for history majors which 
introduces the student to the techniques of 
historical investigation, deals with the nature of 
history, and examines the relation of history to 
other fields of study. It also surveys the history 
of historical writing. Prerequisites: Two courses 
in history. 

Mr. Glatfelter 

31 1.312 Medieval Europe 

A survey of the period from the breakdown of 
Roman institutions in the West to about 1050, 
with special emphasis on the role of the Church, 
the Carolingian age, the Viking invasions, the 
establishment of the German Empire, and the 



101 



History 

beginnings of the struggle between Empire and 
Papacy in 311. History 312 deals with the central 
theme of the rise of a distinct Medieval 
civilization and the emergence of the Western 
monarchies. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fick 

313 Renaissance and Reformation 

Beginning about 1300, treats the gradual decline 
of Medieval civilization, the major theme being 
the transition from "Medieval" to "Modern". It 
ends about the middle of the sixteenth century 
with the establishment of Protestantism and the 
strong movement of reform within the Roman 
Church. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fick 

314 Age of Absolutism 

Beginning with the sixteenth century wars of 
religion, continues with a study of the 
Habsburgs' failure to dominate Europe, the Thirty 
Years' War, the emergence of France to 
predominance, the development of the absolute 
state and "enlightened despotism," the rise of 
new powers by 1700, and economic, cultural, and 
social developments. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fick 

315 Age of the French Revolution 

Following a general survey of political, 
economic, social, and intellectual currents in 
Europe on the eve of the French Revolution 
considers developments in France and the rest of 
Europe between 1789 and 1815. Not offered every 
year. 

Mr. Craps ter 

317 Europe 1848-1914: Nationalism, Industrialization, 
and Democracy 

After a survey of European developments of 
1815-48, studies the Revolutions of 1848, 
industrialization and urbanization, the 
unification of Germany and Italy, state-building 
and the development of democratic institutions, 
dissident movements, and international affairs 
leading to the First World War. Not offered every 
year. 

Mr. Craps ter 

318 Europe and Two World Wars 

Studies selected aspects of European history 
from the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 
to the end of the Second World War in 1945. 

Mr. Crapster 



319 Europe Since 1945 

Perspectives on Europe since 1945: 
reconstruction, nationalism, European 
integration, the American presence, the Cold 
War, the role of the state, with consideration of 
the reflection of these in culture and society. 

Ms. Hinshaw 

321 Modern China 

A study of Chinese history since the Opium War 
of the nineteenth century, with emphasis on the 
Nationalist and Communist revolutions. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Stemen 

332 American Diplomatic History 

The foreign relations of the United States since 
the American Revolution, with emphasis on the 
twentieth century. 

Mr. Stemen 

335, 336 American Social and Cultural History 

Traces America's major social, religious, artistic, 
and philosophical movements and their 
immediate and long-range impact on American 
life and culture. Beginning with the American 
Revolution, History 335 covers the period to the 
Civil War. History 336 continues from that period 
to the present. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Forness 

341 Colonial America 

Commencing with the European background and 
the Age of Exploration before considering the 
settlement of North America, stresses political 
and constitutional developments to 1763, with 
attention to European rivalries, mercantilism, 
and attempts to achieve intercolonial unity. 
Colonial art, architecture and the American 
Indian are also discussed. 

Mr. Bugbee 

342 Age of the American Revolution 

Begins with a review of colonial beginnings, 
followed by the French and Indian War, which 
set the stage for the disruption of the old British 
Empire. It traces the road to revolution and 
independence, the war itself, the Confederation 
experiment, and the impetus which led to the 
Federal Constitution of 1787. Political and 
constitutional developments are emphasized. 

Mr. Bugbee 

343 Jeffersonian-Jacksonian Era 

Covering the period from the 1790s to the 
Mexican War, treats the development of 
American national life and sectional interests 
under such influences as Jefferson's agrarian 



102 



republicanism and the new democratic 
movements of the Jacksonian period. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr. Forness 

345 Civil War 

The trauma of America from the end of the 
Mexican War to Appomattox, moral judgments in 
history, political culture, economic interests, 
diplomacy, and war. 

Mr. Boritt 

346 Post-Civil War America 

The study of an America attempting to 
reconstruct itself, from 1865 to the 1890s. The 
focus is on the short and long-range effects of 
the Civil War. 

Mr. Boritt 

348 Early Twentieth Century America 

Deals primarily with the major political, 
economic, and social developments in the United 
States from about 1900 to 1945. Some attention 
is given to the role of the United States in the 
world during this period. 

Mr. Glatfelter 

349 The United States Since 1945 

Deals with the major political, economic, and 
social developments in the United States since 
1945, and with the demands made upon the 
United States as a leading world power. 

Mr. Glatfelter 



Senior Research Seminars: 

401 England in the 1880s 

402 Tudor England 

404 Founders of the United States 

405 The U.S. in the 1890s 



Mr. Crapster 

Mr. Fick 

Mr. Bugbee 

Mr. Glatfelter 



407 American Diplomacy in the Early Cold War 

Mr. Stemen 

409 European Diplomacy in the Age of the Baroque 

Mr. Fick 



410 Abraham Lincoln 



Mr. Boritt 



Individualized Study 

An individual tutorial, research project, or 
internship requiring the permission of an 
instructor who will supervise the project. The 
instructor can supply a copy of the statement of 



History/Interdepartmental Studies 

departmental policy regarding grading and major 
credit for different types of projects. Either 
semester. 

Staff 

Interdepartmental Studies 

Professor Hammann (Chairperson) 
Adjunct Assistant Professors 

M. Baskerville, Hogan, and 

Powers 
Lecturers Jones and Nordvall 

The Committee on Interdepartmental Studies 
offers courses and coordinates specialized 
interdepartmental programs. The Committee 
bears responsibility for identifying and 
encouraging interest in Interdepartmental 
Studies courses and programs, such as Asian 
Studies, American Studies, and Medieval and 
Renaissance Studies. (See pages 106-108.) 

Among the opportunities for Interdepartmental 
Studies is the Special Major: a student, with the 
consent of two supervising faculty members 
from different departments, may design a 
coherent program of at least eight courses 
focusing on a particular issue or area not 
adequately included within a single department. 
It may be based on any grouping of courses 
drawn from any part of the curriculum so long as 
the proposed major is coherent, serves a 
carefully defined purpose, and includes at least 
six advanced courses. The Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies has final 
responsibility for approving Special Majors. (See 
page 28.) The Committee also helps to coordinate 
a program in Area Studies, focused each year on 
a different critical area of global interest. (See 
page 108. 

By nature of their objectives and content, 
Interdepartmental Studies courses cross the 
lines of departments and specialized disciplines. 
For example, some of these courses attempt to 
provide the common body of knowledge 
traditionally associated with a liberal education; 
others attempt to integrate the understanding of 
different kinds of subject matter; and still others 
combine methodologies from diverse 
departments and disciplines. Most notably, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar challenges an invited 
group of seniors, representing as many 
academic departments as possible, to apply their 
skills to the investigation of a problem which 
crosses the boundaries of and demands the 
methods of several disciplines. 



103 



Interdepartmental Studies 

101, 102 Ideas and Institutions of Western Man 

An introduction to the religious, political, and 
philosophical ideas and institutions that 
characterize Western Civilization. During the first 
semester, students read selected documents 
ranging from the Bible and seminal Greek 
thinkers through Luther, Calvin, and other 
figures of the Sixteenth century Reformation. In 
the second term, readings range from documents 
illustrative of the Scientific Revolution of the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries through 
Darwin, Marx, Lenin, and Freud. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 

Mr. Baskerville 

103, 104 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

A study of selected major literary achievements 
of Western culture regarded as philosophical, 
historical, and aesthetic documents including 
authors ranging from Homer and Plato through 
St. Augustine and Dante to Shakespeare, Milton, 
and Goethe. By means of reading and discussing 
complete works of literature the student is 
introduced to those humanistic skills that have 
traditionally distinguished the liberally educated 
person. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
literature. 

Staff 

111,112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

An introductory study of the visual arts from 
prehistoric times to the nineteenth century. Class 
will examine reasons for changes in the content, 
form, and function of two- and three-dimensional 
art. Exercises in visual analysis of individual will 
develop critical methods. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in arts. 

Ms. Small 

206 Byzantine Civilization 

An introduction to the civilization which radiated 
from Constantinople, the capital of the Roman 
Empire from 330-1453. Its contributions to 
eastern and western Europe are still evident in 
art, law, classical learning, economics, 
Christianity, and bureaucracies. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 
May be counted in the eight-course requirement 
for a religion major. 

Mr. Trone 

211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

A study of death and dying from a variety of 
perspectives: psychological, medical, economic, 
legal, and theological. Dignity in dying, what 
happens after death, euthanasia, body disposal, 
and other such problems are examined. Fulfills 



distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 
May be counted in the eight-course requirement 
for a religion major. 

Mr. Moore 

213 Women in the Ancient World 

An investigation of the role/s of woman as 
reflected in the myths, legends, epics, law codes, 
customs, and historical records of the 
Sumerians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans. The relevance of some of 
this for contemporary roles and problems is also 
examined. May be counted in the eight-course 
requirement for a religion major. 

Mr. Moore 

215 Contemporary French Women Writers 
(in English) 

An investigation of the "myth of women"— a 
male invention as Simone de Beauvoir pointed 
out— through various twentieth century texts. 
Students will read everything from a novel by 
this century's earliest and most notable French 
woman writer, Colette, to the exposition of Luce 
Irigaray on Freud and Julia Kristeva on the 
feminine in language. All readings and dis- 
cussions will be in English. 

Ms. Richardson 

216 Images of Women in Literature 

Undertakes to examine and compare the various 
ways women have been imagined in literature. 
We will look at how and why images of women 
and men and their relationship to one another 
change, and at how these images affect us. 
Emphasis will be placed on developing the 
critical power to imagine ourselves differently. 
We will concentrate on representative literary 
texts by authors such as Maya Angelou, 
Charlotte Bronte, Joseph Conrad, Charles 
Dickens, William Faulkner, Adrienne Rich, 
Marilyn Robinson, William Butler Yeats. 

Ms. Berg 

222 Romanesque to Gothic 

A sampling of intellectual achievements in 
several categories, selected from the twelfth and 
fourteenth centuries. Focusing on six major 
literary works, the participants will examine 
representative patterns in music, art, science, 
and philosophy in order to investigate the Middle 
Ages as times of change as well as of strong 
continuity. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
literature. 

Mr. Pickering 



104 



227. 228 Civilization of India 

First course: cultural developments from Indus 
Valley Civilization to coming of Muslims, with 
emphasis on Buddhism, evolution of Hinduism, 
and their representation in art and literature; 
second course: historical factors underlying 
Hindu-Muslim antagonism as well as 
contemporary, political and economic problems. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy and the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. Alternate 
years. Offered 1987-88. 

Ms. Powers 

235 Introduction to African Literature 

A survey in English of modern sub-Saharan 
African literature. After an introductory section 
on background and the oral tradition, the course 
will treat the primary themes of this writing, 
many of which bear the stamp of the colonial 
experience and its aftermath. Representative 
novels, plays, and poetry will be read and 
discussed for their artistic value and cultural 
insights. Short papers, mid-term and final 
examinations are required. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in literature and the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. Alternate 
years. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Michelman 



237, 238 Literature of India 

Study of major Indian literary works in 
translation. First course: Vedic hymns, major 
epics, Sanskrit drama, Gupta love poetry and 
political fables. Second course: Tamil epic and 
lyrics, devotional poetry, Islamic literature, the 
modern novel. Complete works are read from the 
standpoint of religion, history, and aesthetics, 
using criticism from Western and Indian sources. 
Fulfills distribution requirements in literature and 
in Non-Western culture. Alternate years. Offered 
1988-89. 

Ms. Powers 

239 Architecture and Society in Nineteenth-Century 
America 

(See listing under History department) 

IDS 245: African and Caribbean Novels 

A study of eight novels: Three from African 
countries in which independence has been 
achieved, two from South Africa, three from 
countries of the Caribbean. Attenton will be paid 
to the historical background from which the 
literature has emerged. Fulfills literature and 
non-Western requirements. 

Ms. Srebrnik 



Interdepartmental Studies 

246 Irish Quest for Identity: The Irish Literary Revival 

A study of the culture and history of Ireland as 
reflected in its literature in English c. 1880- 
c. 1940. The course will explore how Ireland, 
principally through her writers, succeeded in 
reviving and asserting her unique Gaelic 
identity during the decades immediately 
preceding and following the War of Independence 
(1916-1921)). Authors to be studied will include 
Samuel Ferguson, Standish Hayes and Standish 
James O'Grady, Douglas Hyde, Augusta Gregory, 
W.B. Yeats, J.M. Synge, George Russell, James 
Stephens, Sean O'Casey, and James Joyce. 
Fulfills literature requirement. 

Mr. Myers 

247 Maintaining Irish Identity: Modern Irish Literature 

A survey of Irish literature since the 1940s. The 
course will examine how poets, dramatists, and 
writers of fiction have responded to the problems 
of maintaining an Irish identity on a partitioned 
island and in the contemporary world. Special 
attention will be given to the inter-relationship of 
Catholic and Protestant, and rural and urban 
traditions. Authors to be studied will include the 
following: from the drama, Samuel Beckett, Hugh 
Leonard, Brian Friel, Thomas Murphy; from 
poetry, Seamus Heaney, Patrick Kavanagh, 
Austin Clarke, Eilean ni Chilleanain, John 
Montague, Eavan Boland; from fiction, Sean 
O'Faolain, Mary Lavin, Edna O'Brien. Fulfills 
literature requirement. 

Mr. Myers 

250 Criminal Justice 

Overview of the criminal justice system in the 
United States and role in that system of features 
such as police, attorneys, trials, and prisons. 
Major United States Supreme Court cases are 
read to illustrate the nature of legal reasoning 
and criminal justice problems. Not offered every 
year. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Nordvall 

301. 302 Literature of Modern Western Culture 

Continues the study of major literary documents 
into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 
Novels, dramas, and short stories are discussed 
as artistic structures and are seen in their 
relationship to modern culture. Representative 
writers include the French and Russian realists, 
James, Joyce, Kafka, Mann, Camus, Albee, and 
Dickey. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
literature. 

Staff 



105 



Interdepartmental Studies 

320 Human Sexual Behavior 

Discussion of biosexual, sociosexual, and 
psychosexual development in a cultural- 
behavioral setting. Resources from a variety of 
disciplines will be discussed as they relate to the 
present day social-sexual milieu. Seminar 
format. In-depth research investigation required. 

Mr. Jones 

401 Senior Scholars' Seminar: The Future of Humanity 

Seminar for selected senior students addressing 
an important contemporary issue affecting the 
future of humanity. The approach to this issue is 
multi-disciplinary. Authorities of national stature 
are invited to serve as resource persons, and a 
final report is published by the seminar 
participants. The seminar carries credit for two 
courses and must be taken in the fall semester. 
Interested students should consult page 37 of 
this catalogue for admission criteria. 

451 Individualized Study: Tutorial in 
Interdepartmental Studies 

453 Area Studies: Tutorial in 
Interdepartmental Studies 

461 Individualized Study: Research in 
Interdepartmental Studies 

Special Programs 

Asian Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a number of courses 
for students wishing a sound introduction to 
Asian culture as part of the liberal arts 
curriculum. Each Asian Studies course fulfills 
some distribution requirement. These courses 
are presented by members of various 
departments, persons with interests and 
competence in Asian Studies. A student may 
construct a Special Major with concentration in 
Asian Studies. Students wishing to prepare for 
advanced work in Asian Studies will be 
interested in the following course combinations 
supplemented by off-campus Language and Area 
Study programs to which the College has access: 

1. Civilization of India. 

2. An introduction to East Asia including History 
of East Asia and such courses as Religions of 
East Asia and West Asia and Modern China. 

3. The Consortium exchange program by which 
students may take selected courses dealing 
with East Asia or South Asia at Dickinson or 
Franklin & Marshall Colleges. 

4. Any two-semester sequence of courses in 
Asian Studies taken at Gettysburg followed by 
an intensive senior year of work in an Asian 



language and area courses at the University 
of Pennsylvania. 
5. An arrangement whereby students may study 
in India for academic credit through programs 
offered by Associated Colleges of the Midwest 
and the University of Wisconsin (summer plus 
a full year) or the School for International 
Studies and the University of Virginia (one 
semester). Interested students should consult 
Dr. Janet Powers, Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Interdepartmental Studies, for further 
information. 

Asian Studies Courses 

IDS 227, 228 Civilization of India 
IDS 237, 238 Literature of India 
History 221, 222 History of East Asia 
History 223 United States Relations with 

East Asia 
History 224 Chinese Thought and Culture 
History 321 Modern China 
Religion 242 The Religions of East Asia 

and West Asia 

American Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of courses 
analyzing American life and thought, thereby 
providing students with many opportunities 
for creating Special Majors in American 
Studies. Such majors may emphasize 
behavioral analyses, historical perspectives, 
literary and artistic dimensions, or coherent 
combinations of such approaches as they are 
reflected in courses from several 
departments. For example, Special Majors 
could be designed in the areas of early 
American culture, modern American social 
stratification, ethnicity, or the religious and 
economic values of the American people. 
Students should seek assistance in planning 
an American Studies Special Major from 
faculty members who teach courses in these 
areas or from the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies. 

Course offerings suitable for Special Majors 
in American Studies are found under many 
departmental listings. 

Medieval and Renaissance Studies 

Through the curricular offerings of eight 
academic departments and the 
Interdepartmental Studies Program, the 
College makes available a wide range of 
courses that deal with the civilization and 
culture of the Medieval and Renaissance eras. 
Those eras laid the foundations for many 
modern ideas and values in the fields of 
literature, history, religion, political theory, 



106 



music, art, science, technology, commerce, 
mathematics, and law. For many students 
concerned with a more realistic 
understanding ot the rich heritage derived 
from the Medieval and Renaissance world, the 
vitality and creative energy of those eras hold 
a special fascination and add new dimensions 
for comprehending contemporary issues. 

Faculty members teaching courses in these 
areas are associated in the Council on 
Medieval and Renaissance Studies in order to 
facilitate scholarship and course 
development, to provide a forum for the 
discussion and promotion of ideas and 
common interests, to encourage Special 
Majors, and to sponsor visits by students and 
faculty to museums and cultural centers in 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and 
Washington. Special majors in this area might 
deal with the medieval church and the arts, 
medieval literature and philosophy, or the 
ideological and institutional revolutions of the 
Renaissance. Students should seek assistance 
in planning such Special Majors through the 
Council on Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 
Professor George H. Fick, History Department, 
Director. 

Medieval and Renaissance Studies Courses 

Art 111 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Classics: Latin 306 St. Augustine 

English 209 History of the English Language 

English 331 Mediaeval Literature 

English 334 Renaissance Literature 

English 362 Chaucer 

English 365, 366 Shakespeare 

English: Theatre Arts 203 History of the Theatre 

French 305 History of French Literature: Middle 

Ages to 1789 
History 203 History of England to 1714 
History 311, 312 Medieval Europe 
History 313 Renaissance and Reformation 
IDS 101 Ideas and Institutions of Western Man 
IDS 103, 104 Literary Foundations of Western 

Culture 
IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization 
IDS 222 Romanesque to Gothic 
Music 312 History of Medieval, Renaissance, and 

Baroque Music 
Philosophy 203 Classical Greek and Roman 

Philosophy 
Philosophy 204 Medieval and Early Modern 

Philosophy 
Religion 121 Church History: to the Eighth 

Century 
Religion 122 History of the Medieval Church 
Religion 227 Monks, Nuns, and Friars 
Spanish 310 Spanish Civilization 



Interdepartmental Studies 

Peace. War. and World Order Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a concentration of 
courses in Peace, War, and World Order Studies 
through the course offerings of several 
departments. A special major in Peace and World 
Order Studies would emphasize such areas of 
study as global interdependence, historical 
perspectives on peace and war, ethical issues of 
war and peace, the dynamics of global problems 
such as hunger, poverty, and human rights 
abuse, mechanisms for resolving global 
problems peacefully, and systems of 
international law and organization. 

Students who elect this special major would 
enroll in their senior year in IDS 461, 
Individualized Research, in order to synthesize 
the work of the other courses in their special 
major and to pursue a research interest such as 
Conflict Resolution, Global Ecology, the 
Psychology or Sociology of War, or World 
Organizations. Interested students should 
contact the Chairperson of the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies. 

Peace. War. and World Order Studies Courses 

Political Science 103 Global Politics 
245 World Order 
263 The Politics of Developing 

Areas 
341 International Political 

Economy 
344 U.S. Defense Policy 
Economics 324 Comparative Economic 

Systems 
336 International Economics 
338 Economic Development 



History 



Classics 



237 War and American 
Society 

318 Europe and Two World 

Wars 

319 Europe Since 1945 

345 The United States Since 

1945 
121 Greek Civilization 



Military Science 246 American Military 
History 

Philosophy 105 Contemporary Moral 

Problems 



Psychology 



Sociology and 
Anthropology 



221 Basic Dynamics of 

Personality 
225 Developmental Psychology 

203 Population 

220 World Culture 

221 World Urbanization 

107 



Interdepartmental Studies/Management 

Area Studies 

Each year the College arranges a program of 
films, lectures, symposia and special events 
focused on an area in the world of critical 
interest. The program has dealt with such topics 
as Central America, Vietnam Ten Years After, 
Struggle in Southern Africa, and The Middle East. 
Often specific courses are available that study 
the area focused on for the year. It is always 
possible for students to enroll in IDS 453 in either 
or both semesters. This tutorial course requires 
participation in the several aspects of the Area 
Studies program and a special project under the 
supervision of a member of the faculty. 

Latin— See Classics 

Management 

Professors Pitts and Rosenbach {Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Schein 
Assistant Professors Alkhafaji and Jacobson 
Instructors Hays, Mueller, Patnode, Stroop, and 

Witmer 
Adjunct Assistant Professor J. M. Railing 
Adjunct Instructors Gardiner and Lewis 

Overview 

The Department of Management of Gettysburg 
College provides a distinctive curriculum 
designed to engender understanding of the role 
of management in a variety of organizational 
settings: public, private, local, national, and 
international. In order to develop the breadth of 
understanding appropriate for a liberal 
education, the curriculum is integrative. The 
curriculum incorporates the historical and social 
contexts within which managerial decisions are 
made and brings into clear focus the moral and 
ethical dimensions of such decisions. Students 
thus are encouraged and equipped to become 
informed decision-makers who employ carefully 
considered values and the aesthetic and intuitive 
components of leadership as well as the relevant 
analytic and technical skills. Most importantly, 
the curriculum and the manner in which it is 
taught foster the qualities of critical, creative 
thinking; the entrepreneurial disposition to be 
intellectually bold, independent, and innovative; 
the zest for lifelong learning; and the values so 
important to vital and socially responsible 
management in our public and private 
enterprises. 

The Department offers a major in management, 
with three areas of concentration: 
entrepreneurship, human resources, and 



108 



accounting and finance. In addition to its liberal 
arts objectives, the Department's curriculum is 
designed to meet the needs of students who 
intend to enter graduate professional schools in 
business administration and related areas, or to 
pursue a career in public or private enterprises. 

To declare a major students must have received 
a grade of C or better in each of the following 
courses: Economics 103, Economics 104, 
Economics 241, and Management 153. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Majors in management are required to complete 
seven core courses plus a minimum of four 
courses in one of the three areas of 
concentration. The seven core courses are as 
follows: Economics 103-104, Management 153, 
Economics 241, Management 247, Management 
266 and Management 400. Each student majoring 
in management will also be required to take at 
least four courses in one of three areas of 
concentration: entrepreneurship, human 
resources, or accounting and finance. 

This program applies to students entering the 
Fall of 1985. Previously enrolled students have 
the option of completing this Program or the 
Program that immediately preceded it. 

Students anticipating a management major are 
encouraged to take Economics 103-104 during 
the freshman year. In addition, management 
majors are required to demonstrate proficiency 
in mathematics by successfully completing 
Mathematics 105 or 111. The mathematics 
requirement should also be completed during the 
freshman year. 

In order to qualify for Departmental Honors in 
Management, a student must 1) satisfactorily 
complete Management 400 during the senior year 
with a grade of A; 2) be recommended by his or 
her adviser; and 3) have earned a 3.3 
departmental grade point average. 

The department offers a management internship 
(Management 473) for selected management 
majors entering their senior year. The internship 
is comprised of an employment experience 
completed during the summer between their 
junior and senior year, and an academic 
component completed during fall semester of the 
senior year. One course credit is awarded for 
successful completion of the internship. 

Additional information regarding the Department 
of Management is contained in Managing Your 
Major: Department of Management Handbook. 



All majors and potential majors are urged to 
obtain a copy of this booklet. 

153 Financial Accounting 

Study of the basic principles, concepts, and 
problems in recording, summarizing, reporting, 
and analyzing financial data. Emphasis is placed 
on reports used by decision-makers both inside 
and outside the firm. 

154 Managerial Accounting 

Study of accounting concepts for planning, 
control, motivation, reporting, and evaluation by 
management of the firm. Prerequisite: 
Management 153. 

247 Management Information Systems 

Integrative systems of people and machines for 
providing information to support the operations, 
management, and decision-making functions in 
an organization. The course examines gathering, 
storing, transmitting, and manipulating data to 
provide timely, accurate, and useable 
information. Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. 

253-254 Intermediate Accounting 

Continued and more intensive study of the 
principles, concepts, and theories prevalent in 
accounting. Emphasis is on literature and 
pronouncements of professional accounting 
groups and regulatory agencies. Prerequisite: 
Management 153-154. 

266 Management and Organization 

The decision-making process concerned with the 
planning, staffing, leading and controlling the 
affairs of organizations in the public and private 
sectors, including profit making as well as not- 
for-profit. Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. 

267 Business Finance 

Introduction to the principles and practices 
involved in the acquisition and administration of 
funds. Emphasis is placed on financial planning, 
asset management, and sources and costs of 
capital. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104 and 
Management 153 and 266. 

270 Organizational Behavior 

Theory of behavioral science applied to the 
organization with emphasis on the interaction of 
the individual and the organization. Topics range 
from individual attitudes and behavior to 
organizational change. Prerequisite: 
Management 266. 

353 Cost Accounting 

Concepts of cost accumulation and cost analysis 
for decision-making in manufacturing concerns. 



Management 

The same concepts are also applicable to other 
organizations. Prerequisite: Management 
153-154. 

355 Auditing 

Introduction to the objectives, concepts, 
analysis, and procedures underlying the review 
of financial reports prepared by organizations. 
Emphasis is placed on the analysis of internal 
control and the auditor's ethical and legal 
responsibility. Prerequisite: Management 
253-254. 

356 Federal Taxes 

Introduction, history of federal income tax, 
problems of tax bases and rates, economic and 
social implications of taxation, application of 
bases problems through research of regulations 
and preparation of taxes. Prerequisite: 
Management 153-154. 

357 Not-for-Profit Accounting 

Accounting, budgetary financial control, and 
evaluation procedures for governmental and not- 
for-profit organizations. Emphasis is placed on 
the basic differences between commercial and 
not-for-profit accounting and on managerial uses 
of information generated by the accounting 
system. Prerequisite: Management 153-154 or 
permission of instructor. 

360 Organizational Ethics 

Ethical restraints on organizational decisions. 
This course will explore these restraints and try 
to clarify their place in and their effects on the 
decision-making process. The class may employ 
the case study method as appropriate. 
Prerequisite: Management 266. 

361 Marketing Management 

Study of the place of marketing in the world of 
business; the marketing concept; understanding 
consumer buying behavior; marketing planning 
and product policy; sales management; 
distribution strategy; current problems, 
influences, and pressures on marketing. 
Marketing case studies are analyzed and 
discussed. Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. 

363 Business Law 

Law of torts, crimes, contracts, and sale of 
goods as well as how law affects managerial 
decision-making. Historical development of law 
is briefly examined. 

365 Human Resources Management 

Major principles of human resources 
management from the perspectives of both 
organizational demands and individual interests 



109 



Management I Mathematics 

as well as from a functional and line 
management point of view. This will be 
accomplished through the study and application 
of theoretical concepts relating to staffing, 
employee performance, compensation, labor 
relations, training and development, as well as 
several special topics of current importance. 
Prerequisite: Management 266. 

368 Investment Management 

Investment practices, the risks of investment and 
the selection of appropriate investment media for 
individuals, firms, and institutions. Theories and 
techniques for maximizing investment portfolio 
performance are studied. Emphasis is placed on 
analysis and selection of securities, portfolio 
management, and the operation of securities 
markets. Prerequisite: Management 267 or 
permission of instructor. 

371 Financial Intermediaries 

Functions and portfolios of financial 
intermediaries. Sectoral demand and supply of 
funds, nature and role of interest rates, term 
structure and forecasting, impact of inflation and 
regulation on financial markets, and current 
developments in the financial system are 
studied. Also covered are political, social, and 
ethical implications of the operation of capital 
markets. Prerequisite: Management 267. 

381 Small Business Management 

Study and critical analysis of the principles and 
procedures for establishing, developing, and 
managing a small business. The relevant 
differences between large and small business 
management are examined. Attention is given to 
the personal attributes needed for successful 
entrepreneurship. Prerequisites: Economics 
103-104, Management 153, Management 266, 
Management 361. 

385 International Management 

Identification, analysis, and evaluation of 
managerial functions and issues in the context of 
an international organization with emphasis on 
problems of adapting to different cultural, legal, 
political, economic, and geographic 
environments. Prerequisite: Management 266. 

386 International Business, Finance, Accounting, 
and Taxation 

The financing of international trade. Topics 
covered include financial planning and capital 
budgeting in an international context, financial 
risk, and issues in international taxation. 
Prerequisite: Management 267. 



110 



400 Policy and Strategy 

Integrative capstone course dealing with the role 
of senior executives in business enterprises. 
Course focuses on problems of strategy 
formulation, organization design, and 
organization renewal. Required of all seniors. 
Prerequisite: Senior Status. 

410 Senior Seminar 

Investigation of contemporary problems and 
special topics of current importance in the field 
of management. Specific issues to be addressed 
will be determined by the instructor. 
Prerequisites: Senior status and permission of 
instructor. 

473 Internship 

A minimum of six weeks of on-site participation 
in management with a public or private 
enterprise. A student wishing to pursue an 
internship must submit an acceptable proposal 
to the Staff Director of Internships during spring 
semester of the junior year. Prerequisites: Junior 
management major with a minimum 2.0 overall 
and departmental grade point average. 

Individualized Study 

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well- 
qualified students through individual reading and 
research, under the supervision of a member of 
the Department's faculty. A student wishing to 
pursue independent study must present a 
proposal at least one month before the end of the 
semester preceding the semester in which the 
independent study is to be undertaken. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the supervising 
faculty member and the Department. 



Mathematics 

Professors Fryling, Holder (Chairperson), and 

Leinbach 
Associate Professors Flesner and Kellett 
Assistant Professors Magness, Pringle, 

and Wijesinha 
Instructor Y. Niiro 
Adjunct Instructors Cooper and Leslie 

Overview 

A knowledge of mathematics is an essential part 
of what is meant by a liberally educated person. 
Mathematics is both an art and a science. It 
possesses an inherent beauty and exhibits a 
precision and purity of expression not found to 
the same degree in any other discipline. Beyond 
its intrinsic value, mathematics is indispensable 
in both the physical and social sciences and is 



occupying a position of increasing importance in 
many other fields. The computer has played a 
major role in this broadening use of 
mathematical methods. It is essential that all 
mathematics majors as well as other students 
who will apply mathematics learn how to use the 
computer as a problem-solving tool. 

The mathematics curriculum provides a 
foundation for students who will specialize in 
mathematics or in fields which utilize 
mathematics. By a careful selection of courses a 
student can prepare for graduate study in 
mathematics, for secondary school teaching, or 
for a career in a mathematically related field. 
The curriculum also provides courses 
appropriate for liberal arts students who wish to 
gain an appreciation of mathematics. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

All majors must complete the following basic 
core of courses. 

THE CORE PROGRAM 

Math 111-112: Calculus of a Single Variable 
Math 211 
Math 212 
Math 321 
Math 331 



Multivariate Calculus 
Linear Algebra 
Analysis I 
Abstract Algebra I 



Normally, prospective majors begin with Math 
110 or 111 depending on high school background. 
Advanced placement in Math 112 or 211 is 
possible either by scoring sufficiently high on the 
Advanced Placement Examination (see p. 155) or 
by permission of the department chairperson. 

In addition to taking the core program, all majors 
will select one of the following areas of 
concentration and complete the courses 
specified. 

AREA OF CONCENTRATION 

Computer Studies— Math 366, 371, Computer 
Studies 216, plus two additional 300-level 
mathematics courses and one additional 200- or 
300-level computer studies course. 

Management Science— Math 351-352, 362, Econ 
351, 352, plus one course chosen from Math 
356, 358. 

Physical Science— Math 363, 364, 366, two 
courses chosen from Chem 305, 306, Phys 311, 
312, 319, 330, plus one additional 300-level 
mathematics course. 



Mathematics 

Probability & Statistics— Math 351-352, 356, 358, 
and two additional 300-level mathematics 
courses. 

Pure Mathematics— Math 322 or 332, 363, 343 or 
364, plus three other 300-level mathematics 
courses. 

Elementary or Secondary Teaching— Math 343, 
351, the Education Semester, plus two other 300- 
level mathematics courses. 

Student Designed Concentration— With the 
approval of the Mathematics Department a 
student may follow an individually designed 
concentration, which must contain six courses at 
least four of which must be 300-level 
mathematics courses. 

COMPUTING REQUIREMENT 

All mathematics majors are required to take 
Computer Studies 105 and should complete it no 
later than the end of their sophomore year. 
A minor in mathematics consists of six 
mathematics courses, including 211, 212, and at 
least two 300-level courses. 

101 College Algebra 

Review of basic algebraic concepts as well as 
more advanced topics, including the notion of a 
function; linear, quadratic, polynomial, rational, 
exponential, and logarithmic functions; systems 
of equations. Applications will be drawn from a 
wide variety of fields. Credit may not be granted 
for both Mathematics 101 and 110. 

Staff 

105-106 Applied Calculus- 
Applied Calculus and Matrix Algebra 

Concepts and applications of calculus and 
matrix algebra that are particularly important in 
Biology, Economics, Management, and other 
social sciences. Topics include: differentiation 
and integration of algebraic, exponential, and 
logarithmic functions; matrix algebra; linear 
programming; the simplex method; and an 
introduction to differential equations and 
multivariate calculus. Emphasis is on 
applications and problem solving. Credit may not 
be granted for both Math 105 and 111. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 101 or the equivalent. 

Staff 

107 Applied Statistics 

Designed for students in the Biological and 
Social Sciences. Topics include descriptive 
statistics, fundamentals of probability theory, 
hypothesis testing, correlation, regression, and 
analysis of variance. An important aspect of the 



111 



Mathematics 

course is the use of a statistical package on the 
computer. Credit may not be granted for both 
Mathematics 107 and Economics 241. Four 
lecture hours per week. 

Staff 

110 Precalculus 

Preparation for the study of calculus. Includes 
topics from algebra, trigonometry, and analytic 
geometry. The function approach will be 
emphasized. Four lecture hours per week. 

Staff 

111-112 Calculus of a Single Variable 

Differential and integral calculus of one real 
variable. Topics include introduction to limits, 
continuity, the derivative, the definite integral, 
sequences, series, and elementary differential 
equations. Both theory and applications are 
stressed. No prior experience with calculus or 
computing is assumed. Three lecture hours and 
one problem session per week. Credit may not be 
granted for both Math 111 and 105. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 110 or equivalent. 

Staff 

180 Basic Concepts of Elementary Mathematics 

Designed for future elementary teachers who are 
sophomores and above and have been approved 
for admittance into the program for elementary 
certification. Topics include the number system, 
different bases, number line, use of sets, 
principles of arithmetic, introduction to geometry 
and algebra. 

Mr. J. T. Held 

211 Multivariate Calculus 

Vectors, vector functions, function of several 
variables, partial differentiation, optimization, 
multiple integration, transformation of 
coordinates, line and surface integrals, Green's 
and Stoke's theorems. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
112. Four lecture hours per week. 

Staff 

212 Linear Algebra 

Systems of linear equations, algebra of matrices, 
determinants, abstract vector spaces, linear 
transformation, eigenvalues, and quadratic 
forms. Prerequisite: Mathematics 112 or 
permission of instructor. Four lecture hours per 
week. 

Staff 

321-322 Analysis I. II 

Provides both a rigorous treatment of concepts 
studied in elementary calculus and an 
introduction to more advanced topics in 
analysis. Among the topics studied are: elements 



of logic and set theory, properties of real 
numbers, elements of metric space topology, 
continuity, the derivative, the Riemann integral, 
sequences and series, uniform convergence, 
functions of several variables. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 211. Mathematics 322 offered in 
alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Holder and Ms. Magness 

331-332 Abstract Algebra I, II 

A study of the basic structures of modern 
abstract algebra, including groups, rings, fields, 
and vector spaces. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
212. Mathematics 332 offered in alternate years. 

Messrs. Flesner and Pringle 

343 Topics in Geometry 

A brief introduction to the history of the 
development of geometries from Euclid to the 
present, with emphasis on the significance of 
non-Euclidean geometries. Topics from 
projective geometry and its subgeometries, from 
affine to Euclidean. Alternate years. Offered 
1986-87. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 

Messrs. Flesner and Pringle 

351-352 Mathematical Statistics and Probability 

Probability, frequency distributions, sampling 
theory, testing hypotheses, estimation, 
correlation and regression, small sample 
distributions, and applications. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 211. 

Mr. Fryling and Ms. Magness 

356 Statistical Decision Theory 

An introduction to applied decision theory using 
Bayesian statistics. Topics will include decision 
rules, risk, the likelihood principle, utility and 
loss, prior information and subjective 
probability, Bayesian analysis, and game theory. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 351 or Economics 241. 
Alternate years. 

Ms. Magness 

358 Stochastic Processes 

Includes the principles of probability, both for 
discrete and continuous distributions. The 
Poisson and exponential distributions will be 
emphasized with applications to birth, death, 
and queueing processes. Other topics included 
are Markov chains, random walks, and Gaussian 
processes. Prerequisite: Mathematics 351. 
Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Messrs. Fryling and Kellett 



112 



362 Introduction to Operations Research 

A study of techniques and tools used in 
mathematical models applied to the biological, 
management, and social sciences. Topics 
selected from the following: optimization, game 
theory, linear and non-linear programming, 
dynamic programming, transportation problems, 
and network analysis.The computer will be used 
extensively. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 or 
106, and CS 105. Alternate years. 

Messrs. Kellett and Leinbach 

363 Differential Equations and Special Functions 

First order ordinary differential equations, linear 
differential equations of first and second order, 
series solutions, Fourier series and integrals, 
partial differential equations of physics, 
Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 211, 212. 

Messrs. Mara and Pringle 

364 Complex Variables 

Analytic functions, conformal mapping, complex 
integrals, Laurent series, theory of residues, 
potential theory. Prerequisites: Mathematics 
211,212. 

Messrs. Holder and Mara 

366 Numerical Analysis 

Numerical techniques of solving applied 
mathematical problems. A heavy emphasis is 
placed on the interrelation with these techniques 
and the digital computer. Topics to be covered 
are numerical solutions of systems of equations, 
the eigenvalue problem, interpolation and 
approximation, and numerical solutions to 
differential equations. Although emphasis is 
placed on the numerical techniques, 
consideration will also be given to computational 
efficiency and error analysis. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 211, 212. Alternate years. Offered 
1987-88. 

Ms. Magness and Mr. Wijesinha 

371 Discrete Mathematical Structures 

A study of the mathematical structures used in 
computer science as well as in many other 
contemporary applications of mathematics 
involving finite and countably infinite sets. 
Topics will include sets, relations, algebraic 
systems, graphs, formal systems, and 
combinatorics. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 
Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Leinbach 

381, 382 Selected Topics 

Study of some advanced phase of mathematics 
not otherwise in the curriculum. The subject 
matter and the frequency of offering the course 



Mathematics / Military Science 

will be dependent on student interest. Some 
possible areas for study are: point set topology, 
combinatorics, graph theory, partial differential 
equations, differential geometry, and number 
theory. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Pursuit of topics of an advanced nature by well- 
qualified students through individual reading, 
under the supervision of staff members. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the department 
chairperson. 

Staff 



Military Science 

Army ROTC: Military Science 
Professor Dombrowsky (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Barthle, Campbell, 

Earwood, and Rourke 
Assistant Instructors Holmes, Moody, and Slifko 



Overview 

The Department of Military Science offers 
courses which develop a student's ability to 
organize, motivate, and lead others. 

The freshman and sophomore years of military 
science are referred to as the Basic Course. 
There is no military obligation connected with 
enrollment in the courses offered. Completion of 
the Basic Course or credit for the Basic Course is 
required for entrance into the Advanced Course. 

The junior and senior years of military science 
are referred to as the Advanced Course. Men and 
women enrolled in this course agree to a military 
service obligation. The active duty obligation is 
normally 3 years but can be as little as 3 months. 
This obligation should be investigated on an 
individual basis with a Military Science 
Department instructor. Students enrolled in the 
Advanced Course receive $100.00 per month 
during the school year. 

Advanced Course graduates are commissioned 
Second Lieutenants in the US Army, the Army 
Reserve, or the Army National Guard. In addition, 
Advanced Course graduates may also obtain 
educational delays from active duty for graduate 
studies. 

The Military Science program offers a 4-year and 
a 2-year program for commissioning: 

a. The 4-year program— 



113 



Military Science 

1. A college freshman enters the ROTC program 
during the fall semester of the freshman year 
and continues in the program through the senior 
year. 

2. A freshman or sophomore may enter the 
program either during the second semester, 
freshman year or the first semester, sophomore 
year, and through compression of the military 
science courses, be eligible to enter the 
Advanced Course at the beginning of the junior 
year. 

b. The 2-year program— 

1. Successful completion of a six-week Basic 
Camp during the summer between sophomore 
and junior years can qualify individuals for 
placement in the Advanced Course at the 
beginning of the junior year. 

2. Veterans and those who have received military 
training in high school, in college ROTC, or at a 
service school may be granted credit for the 
military science Basic Course and be eligible to 
enter the Advanced Course. 

ROTC scholarships are offered on a competitive 
basis. Eligible students may apply for one, two 
or three-year scholarships which pay full tuition 
and textbook expenses plus $100.00 per month. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

MS 101, 102, 202, and 246 are open to all fresh- 
men and sophomores and incur no military 
obligation. MS 301, 302, 311, and 312 are open to 
those junior and senior students who have 
entered the Advanced Course and are seeking a 
commission in the US Army. These courses 
should be taken in sequence. Interested juniors 
and seniors not seeking a commission may 
enroll in the 300-level courses with the 
permission of the department chairperson. 

101 Orienteering 

Study of the art of finding your way with map 
and compass across unknown terrain to a 
preselected destination. Skills involved in 
reading symbols on a topographic map and use 
of the compass will be developed. Practical 
application exercises will be used to enhance 
skills. Meets the college course requirement in 
Health and Physical Education in Group II Fitness 
Activities. 

1 /» Course Credit 



102 Introduction to Military Science 

Study of the organization of the Army and ROTC, 
the military as a profession, customs and 
courtesies of the service, a survey of the U.S. 
defense establishment, and introduction to 
leadership through practical exercises. 

Va Course Credit 

202 Wilderness Survival 

Study of basic skills and techniques which are 
required to insure survival in a wilderness 
environment. Emphasis will be placed on 
practical application experiences. Meets college 
course requirement in Health and Physical 
Education in Group III Recreational Skills. 

1 A Course Credit 

246 American Military History 

A survey of the development and commitment of 
United States Military Forces from the colonial 
period to the present. Emphasis on the evolution 
of strategy and tactics and their impact on US 
military institutions. The course is designed to 
maximize the use of guest speaker professional 
Army historians from the US Army Center for 
Military History (Washington, D.C.) and the US 
Army Military History Institute (Carlisle, PA). In 
addition, the offering will include a terrain study 
of the Gettysburg Battlefield. Priority to Army 
ROTC cadets. Offered in spring semester each 
year. No prerequisites required. Three class 
hours each week, one hour laboratory for ROTC 
cadets only. 

1 Course Credit 

301 Advanced Military Science I 

Study of the principles of leadership and their 
application in both a military and non-military 
environment. The principles of personnel and 
equipment management are also studied. 

1 Course Credit 

302 Advanced Military Science II 

Study of military operations involving various 
elements of the army, to include small unit 
tactics. The student learns through practical 
exercises the basic principles of handling 
tactical units in combat. 

1 Course Credit 

311 Advanced Military Science III 

Seminar-lecture with primary emphasis on 
military justice, staff organization, personnel 
and administration, and the Law of Land 
Warfare. 

1 Course Credit 



114 



312 Advanced Military Science IV 

Seminar-lecture primarily designed to prepare 
the student for commissioning. Military problem- 
solving techniques, speaking and writing skills, 
and current military issues are addressed. The 
obligations and responsibilities of an Army 
officer are also stressed. 

1 Course Credit 

Leadership Laboratory 

All ROTC cadets participate in a professional 
development laboratory each Thursday 
afternoon at 4 p.m. This laboratory period is 
designed to provide an understanding of the 
fundamental concepts and principles of Military 
Science and an opportunity to develop 
leadership and management potential. Students 
will develop skills in Mountaineering, Survival, 
and Orienteering. All advanced course and 
scholarship cadets are required to attend one 
weekend of training per semester. This training 
is optional for basic course students. 



Music 

Professor Weikel 

Associate Professors Belt, Finstad, Matsinko 

Nunamaker (Chairperson), and Zellner 
Assistant Professors Culbertson and Speck 
Adjunct Assistant Professors T. Bowers and 

Sollenberger 
Adjunct Instructors Botterbusch and Wastler 

Overview 

The Music Department endeavors to introduce 
students to the historical significance of Western 
Music so that they have an understanding of 
their musical heritage and some knowledge of 
current musical trends. Supporting this 
historical knowledge is acquaintance by 
students with the basic elements of music 
(harmony, counterpoint, and form) and 
discovery of their own abilities through direct 
contact with, and creative manipulation of, such 
material. The music curriculum also involves the 
student in an intensive study of applied music. 
This encompasses two aspects: individual and 
group (or ensemble) experience. In the practice 
room, studio, and recital hall the student has an 
opportunity to refine the techniques for musical 
performance. In the ensemble the individual 
must work within a larger social context to 
achieve a common musical goal. The program 
also provides courses for the student who plans 
to enter the field of music education. These 



Military Science/Music 

offerings are based on competencies prescribed 
by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. 
The Music Department offers programs leading 
to a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in 
music and a Bachelor of Science degree with a 
major in music education. 

Also available is a minor in music and a B.A. 
major in music within the elementary education 
certification program. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Department requires an audition of all 
candidates proposing to major in music or music 
education. Appointments for such auditions 
should be made through the College Admissions 
Office. Requirements for a major in music 
leading to a Bachelor of Arts degree consist of 
twelve full courses (Music 141, 142, 241, 242, 341, 
342, 312, 313, 314, 205, 206, and 456) plus seven 
quarter-courses in the student's major applied 
area. The major must also participate for four 
years in an authorized ensemble and present a 
recital in the senior year. 

Music majors in the elementary education 
program must meet the same requirements as 
the B.A. candidate with the exception of courses 
341 and 342. 

The successful completion of the program 
leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education (see page 42) satisfies the 
Certification requirements for teaching music in 
elementary and secondary schools. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in arts may be 
fulfilled by one of the following: Music 101, 103, 
104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 312, 313, 
and 314. 

Performing Ensembles 

All College students are eligible to audition for 
College Choir, Chapel Choir, Band, and 
Orchestra. Band members are eligible to audition 
for Jazz Ensemble, Brass Ensemble, Percussion 
Ensemble, and Clarinet Choir. Music majors and 
choir members are eligible to audition for the 
Chamber Choir. Auditions for all groups are held 
at the beginning of the school year or at other 
times by appointment. 



115 



Music 



101 Introduction to Music Listening 

A consideration of the principal music forms 
against the background of the other arts. 
Intensive listening is an essential part of the 
course. Repeated spring semester. 

Messrs. Belt and Matsinko 

103 The Symphony 

The standard symphonic repertoire presented 
through listening. Attention will be given to 
stylistic changes in that music from the classic 
to the romantic and contemporary periods. 

Mr. Belt 

104 Opera 

Study of standard operatic works. These are 
listened to and discussed as examples of drama 
and music. 

Mr. Fins tad 

105 Introduction to Contemporary Music 

Study of the major trends in twentieth century 
music with emphasis on the music of Debussy, 
Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Bartok, and the Avant 
Garde composers. This course is designed for 
students with some musical background. 

Messrs. Belt and Speck 

106 Art Song 

Study of the history, interpretation, and style of 
the art song. Literature will include German, 
French, English, and American Art Songs. 

Mr. Matsinko 

107 Music of the Romantic Era 

Study of the philosophical background for 
nineteenth century music and its stylistic 
features. Extensive listening will be done in the 
areas of orchestral, vocal, and chamber music. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

108 Church Music of J. S.Bach 

Study of compositions written by Bach for use in 
the services of the eighteenth-century German 
Lutheran Church. Baroque style characteristics 
will be investigated and relationship to earlier 
forms and functions will be studied. 

Mr. Weikel 

109 Baroque Music 

Study of Baroque music with some emphasis on 
stylistic comparisons with Baroque art and 
architecture. Included will be a brief background 
of the classical style of the Renaissance as a 
basis for contrast to the romantic style of the 
Baroque. 

Mr. Belt 



110 Survey of Jazz 

Study of the roots and styles of jazz and of 
related black culture. Emphasis on listening 
awareness. 

Mr. Belt 

141 Theory I 

Fundamentals of basic theory, notation, 
and nomenclature; introduction to writing 
skills; basic analytic technique; melodic 
analysis; correlated sight-singing and aural 
perception skills. 

Mr. Speck 

142 Theory II 

Continuation of writing skills; analysis and 
writing of chorales; correlated sight singing and 
aural perception skills; keyboard harmony. 

Messrs. Speck and Weikel 

241 Theory III 

Study of the common practice period; extensive 
written and analytic projects; study of musical 
structure through small forms; correlated sight 
singing and aural perception skills. 

Mr. Weikel 

242 Theory IV 

Study of late romanticism to the present day by 
means of analytic and written projects. 
Correlated sight-singing, aural perception skills, 
and keyboard harmony are included. 

Mr. Speck 

341 Theory V 

Study of the capabilities and limitations of the 
standard wind, string, and percussion 
instruments. Included is score study, 
transposition and emphasis on applied 
orchestration projects for laboratory 
performance and critique. 

Mr. Speck 

342 Theory VI 

Study of the structural organization of music. 
Included will be the analysis of the larger forms 
of composition drawn from the standard 
literature of the eighteenth to twentieth 
centuries. 

Mr. Weikel 

205 Choral Conducting 

Development of a basic conducting technique. 
Emphasis is placed upon the choral idiom 
including vocal problems and tonal 
development, diction, rehearsal procedures, 
interpretation and suitable repertoire for 
school, church, and community. 

Ms. Culbertson 



116 



206 Instrumental Conducting 

Continued development of conducting skills and 
score. This involves interpretation, musical 
styles, balance, intonation, rehearsal 
procedures, and suitable repertoire for large and 
small ensembles. 

Mr. Zellner 

303 Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to the contrapuntal technique of the 
sixteenth century through the study of plainsong 
and early motets. Composition in the small 
forms is a part of the course. Offered on demand. 

Mr. Weikel 

304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to the contrapuntal style of the 
eighteenth century and an analysis of the 
baroque forms with attention to linear motion 
and fundamental harmonic progression. 
Composition in the various forms is required. 

Mr. Weikel 

312 History of Medieval. Renaissance, and 
Baroque Music 

Study of the major forms and styles of music 
and composers from the pre-Christian era 
through the eighteenth century. Extensive use of 
musical examples and recordings is included. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

313 Music in Classic and Romantic Periods 

Study of the principal stylistic tendencies of the 
periods of music from 1740 to c. 1900. Extensive 
listening to, and examination of, illustrative 
materials is an essential part of this course. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

314 Music in the Twentieth Century 

Study of the principal stylistic tendencies of 
music as well as developments in experimental 
music from c. 1900 to the present with 
examination of the works of representative 
composers. 

Mr. Speck 

320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary School 

Study of the methods and materials of teaching 
music in the elementary grades. Various 
approaches to guiding pupils in perception of, 
reaction to, and evaluation of music experience 
are included. Alternate years. 

Ms. Culbertson 



Music 

321 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music in 
the Secondary School 

Study and evaluation of methods, materials, and 
techniques relative to music classes and 
performance groups with a development of a 
personal philosophy of music education. 
Alternate years. 

Ms. Culbertson 

474 Student Teaching 

Teaching in public schools in cooperation with, 
and under the supervision of, experienced 
teachers. Individual conferences and seminars 
with the College supervisor and supervising 
teacher are required. Offered in spring semester 
only. 

Three Course Units 
Mr. Zellner 

Individualized Study 

Prerequisite: Approval of department and 
directing faculty member. 

Applied Music 

The Department offers instruction in voice, 
piano, organ, and the standard band and 
orchestral instruments. The repertoire is adapted 
to the student's ability. One quarter-course credit 
is given for one half-hour private lesson per 
week, per semester. Some piano and voice 
instruction may be in group classes. 

Students majoring in music who are candidates 
for the Bachelor of Arts degree may take up to 
eight quarter-courses of private instruction, and 
those who are candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Music Education may 
take up to 12 quarter-courses of private 
instruction at no additional cost beyond the 
comprehensive fee. 

The Department also sponsors various music 
organizations, including the College Choir, 
Chapel Choir, Band, and Orchestra. All college 
students are eligible to audition for any of these, 
either at the beginning of the school year or at 
other times by appointment. 

111-112 Woodwind Instrument Class 

Instruction in the technique of teaching and 
playing woodwind instruments, using the 
clarinet as the basic instrument. 

Two Va Courses 
Mr. Zellner 



117 



Music 

113-114 Brass Instrument Class 

Instruction in the technique of teaching and 
playing brass instruments. The trumpet or cornet 
is used as the basic brass instrument. 

Two Va Courses 
Mr.Zellner 

115-116 Stringed Instrument Class 

Instruction and practice in the techniques of 
stringed instruments and the organization of a 
string section. 

Two Va Courses 
Mr. Botterbusch 

117 Percussion Class 

The organization of practical and theoretical 
materials concerning all of the percussion 
instruments, their performance techniques, and 
teaching procedures. 

Va Course 
Mr. Zellner 

121 Voice 

Private instruction in fundamentals of voice 
culture with emphasis upon breath control, 
resonance, tone quality, diction, pronunciation, 
and an appreciation of the best works of 
the masters. Repeated in the spring semester. 
Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per 
semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Mr. Fins tad 

122 Voice Class 

Study of vocal techniques using lectures, class 
discussions, and demonstrations. The course 
will have a practical workshop atmosphere: 
practicing basic vocal production with emphasis 
on posture, breath control, diction, and 
vowel formation. Fee for class lessons per 
semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Mr. Finstad 

123 Piano 

Private instruction in the development of the 
necessary techniques for facility in reading and 
interpreting a musical score accurately at the 
keyboard. Literature includes representative 
compositions of various styles and periods. 
Public performance is required of those majoring 
in this area of concentration. Fee for one 
half-hour lesson per week per semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Messrs. Matsinko and Belt 



124 Class Piano 

Emphasis on sight-reading, ensemble playing, 
and harmonizing melodies with various types of 
accompaniment as well as playing some of the 
standard piano literature. Fee for class lessons 
per semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

125 Organ 

Private instruction designed to include literature 
of various periods, sight-reading, hymn-playing, 
chant and anthem accompaniment. 
Prerequisites: satisfactory performance of all 
major and minor scales (two octaves) and a 
Bach Invention. Fee for one half-hour lesson per 
week per semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Messrs. Weikel and Belt 

127 Band Instrument Instruction 

Private instruction emphasizing the 
fundamentals and repertoire for the performance 
of woodwind, brass, and percussion 
instruments. Fee for one half-hour lesson per 
week per semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Ms. Bowers and Messrs. Speck, Was tier & Zellner 

129 Stringed Instrument Instruction 

Private instruction emphasizing both the 
fundamentals of string playing and repertory. 
Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per 
semester: $230. 

Va Course 
Mr. Nunamaker 

131 College Choir 

Performs high quality sacred and secular choral 
literature. In addition to campus concerts and 
appearances in nearby cities, the Choir makes 
an annual concert tour. Oratorios are presented 
in conjunction with the Chapel Choir. Four 
rehearsals weekly, first semester. Three 
rehearsals weekly, second semester. 

No Credit 
Mr. Finstad 

132 Chapel Choir 

Performs standard musical literature with the 
purpose of supporting and assisting the College 
community in the Sunday morning services. The 
Choir appears in nearby cities and makes a 
short tour each spring. Three rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Weikel 



118 



133 Band 

Performs a wide variety of literature for the 
band. After several marching performances the 
symphonic band presents campus concerts and 
a spring tour of Pennsylvania and neighboring 
states. Four rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Speck 

135 Orchestra 

The study and performance of orchestral music 
of all eras. Membership is open to all students of 
qualifying ability. Two rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Nunamaker 

456 Senior Recital 

Solo presentation of representative literature of 
various stylistic periods of the student's major 
applied area with emphasis on historical 
performance practice. 



Philosophy 

Professor Coulter {Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Portmess 
Assistant Professor Walters 

Overview 

The departmental objectives are to promote 
inquiry into perennial philosophical questions 
such as the nature of justice, happiness, 
knowledge, and freedom, to produce awareness 
of the answers that have been proposed in 
response to these questions; to teach the tools 
for the analysis of the assumptions and values 
which underlie different intellectual disciplines; 
and to promote the application of philosophical 
analysis to issues of public policy and morality. 
The study of philosophy encourages the student 
to develop the ability to analyze problems, 
understand central issues, and develop 
alternative solutions. It challenges the student to 
reflect upon problems involving values, to 
examine problems in an interdisciplinary way, to 
examine alternative world views and forms of 
knowledge, and to develop an awareness of 
intellectual history. Classes encourage 
discussion and writing. The study of philosophy 
is an integral part of an education in the liberal 
arts tradition. 

A major in philosophy is excellent preparation 
for graduate school or for professional schools 
in almost any field. It is especially good 
background for law and the ministry. It will also 



Music/Philosophy 

prove valuable in any occupation which 
demands clear thinking and the ability to 
understand the points of view of other people. 
Individually, philosophy courses will prove 
useful supplements to course work in other 
areas. The Department is interested in assisting 
and encouraging students to design Special 
Majors in which philosophy is an integral part. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Philosophy 101, 105, and 211 have no 
prerequisites. Any 100-level course or 211 is 
recommended as preparation for a 200- or 
300-level course, though the instructor may 
grant permission on an individual basis to 
equivalents prepared students. 

A philosophy minor consists of any six courses 
in the Department, only two of which may be 
100-level courses. A philosophy major consists 
of nine courses in philosophy, including 211; at 
least two out of 203, 204, and 220; three 300-level 
courses; and 460 (Senior Thesis). 

Distribution Requirements 

Any course offered by the Department may be 
used to satisfy the distribution requirement in 
History/Philosophy. 

101 Introduction to Philosophy 

A study of selected philosophical texts with the 
aim of developing the students' ability to read 
philosophy and to reflect and comment upon 
philosophical problems. 

Staff 

105 Contemporary Moral Issues 

A study of moral problems facing individuals in 
our society. Selected readings dealing with 
moral disputes in business, politics, 
international affairs, medicine, and social policy 
will be discussed along with the ethical theories 
which the various sides use to make their cases. 

Staff 

203 Classical Greek and Roman Philosophy 

A study of the philosophers and philosophies of 
ancient Greece and Rome. Major emphasis will 
be on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and 
Hellenistic Neoplatonism. 

Mr. Coulter 

204 Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy 

A study of philosophers and philosophies of 
Medieval and Early Modern Europe as these 



119 



Philosophy / Physics 



reflect the impact of religion and science on the 
traditional problems and assumptions of 
philosophy. Major thinkers to be studied include 
Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, Leibniz, 
Spinoza, Locke, Berkely, Hume, and Kant. 

Ms. Portmess 

211 Logic and Semantics 

An introduction to formal logic and a study of 
the uses of language, with particular reference 
to the nature of inference from premises to 
conclusion; rules for deductive inference; 
construction of formal proofs in sentential 
and quantificational logic; the nature of 
language; informal inferences and fallacies; 
theory of definition. 

Mr. Coulter 

220 Nineteenth Century Philosophy 

A study of leading European thinkers of the 
Nineteenth Century, including readings from 
Hegel, Feuerbach, Marx, Mill, Freud, Kierkegaard 
and Nietzche. 

Ms. Portmess 

234 Philosophy of Art 

A survey of the major paradigms in the history 
of aesthetic theory (e.g., formalism, imitation 
theory, etc.), with emphasis on the relation of 
aesthetics to other aspects of philosophy. 
Such issues as the nature and function(s) of 
art and the qualifications of a good critic will 
be discussed. 

Mr. Walters 

350, 351, etc. Topics in Philosophy 

Studies of philosophical topics as treated by 
Twentieth Century philosophers. Recent topics 
have been Social Philosophy, Philosophy of 
Religion, Analytic Philosophy, Ethical Theory, 
Environmental Ethics and Theories of Reality. 
Topics will differ each semester and will be 
announced in advance. Prerequisites: Major or 
Minor in Philosophy, or permission of the 
instructor. 

Staff 

460 Senior Thesis 

An individualized study project involving the 
research of a topic and the preparation of a 
major paper. This will normally be done during 
the fall or spring semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: Major or Minor in Philosophy. 

Staff 



Physics 

Professors Daniels, Haskins, Hendrickson, Mara, 

and Marschall 
Associate Professor Cowan {Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Karshner 
Assistant Instructor Johnson 

Overview 

Within wide limits, a physics major can be 
tailored to meet the needs and desires of 
individual students. A major in physics is 
appropriate for those who enjoy the subject and 
who have no particular career in mind. It is also 
suitable preparation for careers ranging from 
government and law to theoretical physics and 
molecular biology. Gettysburg physics graduates 
have selected a wide range of fields for graduate 
study, including: astronomy; astrophysics; 
biophysics; business; geophysics; 
environmental, electrical, nuclear, and ocean 
engineering; physics; and physiological 
psychology. 

Persons who become physics majors ought to be 
curious about the ways of nature and have a 
strong urge to satisfy this curiosity. Their 
success depends upon their ability to devise and 
perform meaningful experiments, their intuitive 
understanding of the way nature behaves, and 
their skill in casting ideas into mathematical 
forms. No two majors are endowed with 
precisely the same division of these talents, but 
they must develop some proficiency in each. 

Courses in the Department emphasize those 
theories and principles that give a broad, 
unifying understanding of nature and the 
analytical reasoning needed for their use. 
Laboratory training stresses the design of 
experiments, the techniques of precise 
measurement, and the interpretation of data. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The minimum physics major consists of nine 
courses including Physics 111, 112, 213, 240, 310, 
312, 319, 325, and 330. This minimum major is 
more than adequate preparation for physics 
certification for secondary school teaching and 
industrial or government laboratory work. 
Anyone for whom graduate study is a possibility 
should plan to take twelve courses in the 
Department. Students are not permitted to take 
more than twelve courses in the Department 
without the permission of the Department unless 
the thirteenth course is Physics 462. 



120 



All majors must complete mathematics courses 
through Mathematics 212 or its equivalent. 
Those planning to go to graduate school should 
also complete Mathematics 363. Majors are 
expected to exhibit increasing computer 
competence as they progress through the 
courses in the physics curriculum. 

The Department strongly recommends that all 
majors take Physics 462. This course provides a 
research experience in conjunction with a 
faculty member in either physics or astronomy. 

Freshmen who are considering a major in 
physics should enroll in Physics 111, 112 and 
Mathematics 111-112, if possible. While it is 
desirable for majors to take this freshman 
program, students may accomplish a full major 
in physics even if they take Physics 111, 112 in 
their sophomore year. 

A minor in physics consists of Physics 111-112, 
213 plus any three courses in Physics beyond the 
100-level. 



Distribution Requirements 

The laboratory science distribution requirement 
may be satisfied by taking one course from 
among Physics 103 or 111 and one course from 
104 or 112, or by taking Astronomy 101 and 102. 

The prerequisites listed below in the course 
descriptions are meant only as guides. Any 
course is open to students who have the 
permission of the instructor. 

Special Facilities 

In addition to the usual laboratories in nuclear 
physics, atomic physics, electronics, and optics, 
the facilities of the department include a 
planetarium and an observatory. The 
observatory features a 16" Cassegrain telescope 
with a computer controlled drive, a UBV 
photometer, and an astronomical spectrometer. 

Computational resources include an Apple ll-e 
equipped introductory laboratory, a variety of 
other microcomputers, and terminals to access 
the College Burroughs 5920 microcomputer. 

Support facilities in Masters Hall include the 
Physics library, a machine shop, and an 
electronics shop. 



Physics 

Special Programs 

The Department administers the Dual-Degree 
Engineering Program with Pennsylvania State 
University, Washington University in St. Louis, 
and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students 
selecting this program take Physics 111, 112, 
213, 215, and 216 and graduate from Gettysburg 
with a major in Physics upon successful 
completion of an engineering degree at 
Pennsylvania State, Washington University in St. 
Louis, or RPI. The Dual-Degree Engineering 
Program is further described on page 52. 

More details about the physics and the Dual- 
Degree engineering program are described in the 
Handbook for Students prepared by the Physics 
Department. Majors and prospective majors are 
encouraged to request a copy from the Physics 
Department office. 

Astronomy 101 Solar System Astronomy 

An overview of the behavior and properties of 
planets, satellites, and minor members of the 
solar system. Subjects include: basic 
phenomena of the visible sky, gravitation and 
orbital mechanics, the results of telescopic and 
space research, and theories of the origin and 
evolution of the solar system. This course is 
designed to satisfy the laboratory science 
distribution requirement for non-science majors. 
Three classes and a laboratory. 

Messrs. Karshner and Marschall 

Astronomy 102 Stellar Astronomy 

An overview of current knowledge about the 
universe beyond the solar system from a 
physical and evolutionary standpoint. Subjects 
include: observational properties of stars, 
methods of observation and analysis of light, the 
nature of stellar systems and interstellar 
material, principles of stellar structure and 
evolution, overall structure and development of 
the physical universe. Prerequisite: Astronomy 
101 or permission of the instructor. Three 
classes and a laboratory. 

Messrs. Karshner and Marschall 

103, 104 Elementary Physics 

A general coverage of the fields of classical and 
modern physics with time devoted to areas of 
special interest in biology, fluids, heat, radiation, 
and numerous applications. While particularly 
useful for biology majors, the course will serve 
any student as an introduction to a wide range 
of topics in physics. Prerequisite: Facility in 
algebra and geometry. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 

Messrs. Cowan and Daniels 



121 



Physics 

111 Mechanics 

An introduction to classical mechanics: laws of 
motion and the conservation laws of linear 
momentum, energy, and angular momentum. The 
rudiments of calculus and vector analysis are 
introduced and used throughout the course. 
Students already having credit for 103 or 104 
may register for Physics 111 for credit only with 
the permission of the Department. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 111, which may be taken 
concurrently. Four class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr. Mara 

112 Heat. Electricity, Magnetism, and Relativity 

Heat and the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, electrostatic fields, currents, 
magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, 
Maxwell's equations, light as a propagating 
electromagnetic disturbance, and the special 
theory of relativity. Prerequisite: Physics 111. 
Four class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Mara 

213 Waves, Optics, and Modern Physics 

An introduction to interference, diffraction, and 
polarization. Principal topic is foundation of 
atomic and nuclear physics including black body 
radiation, photoelectric and compton effect, 
Rutherford's atom, Bohr-Sommerfeld theory, 
spectra, spin, magnetic moments, uncertainty 
principle, radioactivity. Prerequisite: Physics 104 
or 112. Three class hours and one afternoon 
laboratory. 

Mr. Haskins 

215 Engineering Mechanics: Statics 

Equilibrium of coplanar and noncoplanar force 
systems; analysis of structures, friction, 
centroids, and moments of inertia. Required for 
engineering students. Prerequisites: Physics 112, 
Mathematics 211. 

Mr. Daniels 

216 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics 

Motion of a particle, translation and rotation of 
rigid bodies, work and energy, impulse and 
momentum. Required for engineering students. 
Prerequisite: Physics 215. Three class hours. 

Mr. Daniels 

240 Electronics 

Principles of electronic devices and circuits 
using integrated circuits, both analog and digital 
including amplifiers, oscillators, and logic 
circuits. Prerequisite: Physics 104 or 112. Two 
class hours and six laboratory hours. 

Mr. Karshner 



241 Fundamentals of Microprocessors 

Basic concepts and principles of microprocessor 
design; Microprocessor programming with a 
view toward interfacing including interrupts, 
memory devices, bus structure and I/O devices. 
Prerequisite: Physics 240 or consent of 
instructor. 

Mr. Karshner 

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics II 

Introduction to quantum mechanics. Potential 
wells, barriers, one electron atoms, multielectron 
atoms are studied. Other topics include nuclear 
models, decay, and nuclear reactions. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Prerequisite: Physics 213. 

Staff 

312 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Temperature, heat, the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, introductory statistical 
physics; Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and 
Bose-Einstein statistics. Applications to selected 
topics in solid state physics, low temperature 
physics, and other fields are included. 
Prerequisite: Physics 213. Three class hours. 

Mr. Hendrickson 

319 Classical Mechanics 

Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics for 
upperclass physics majors. Topics include 
equations of motion, non-inertial reference 
systems, conservation laws, clamped and 
coupled oscillators, central force motion, and 
rigid body motion. Prerequisites: Physics 213 and 
Mathematics 211. 

Mr. Hendrickson 

325 Advanced Physics Laboratory 

A laboratory course with experiments drawn 
from various areas of physics such as optics, 
electromagnetism, atomic physics, and nuclear 
physics with particular emphasis on 
contemporary methods. Error analysis and 
experimental techniques are stressed. 

Mr. Haskins 

330 Electricity and Magnetism 

Static electric and magnetic fields, 
electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's equations 
in space, fields in matter, time dependent fields. 
Prerequisites: Physics 112 and Mathematics 363. 
Three class hours. 

Mr. Marschall 



Ml 



341 Quantum Mechanics 

An introduction to the Schrodinger and 
Heisenberg formulations of quantum mechanics. 
Topics covered include free particles, the 
harmonic oscillator, angular momentum, the 
hydrogen atom, matrix mechanics, the spin 
wave functions, the helium atom and 
perturbation theory. Prerequisite: Physics 310 
and 319, Mathematics 363. Three class hours. 

Mr. Mara 

342 Relativity: Nuclear and Particle Physics 

Special relativity: includes four vectors, tensor 
analysis, electromagnetic field. Nuclear and 
particle physics at a level requiring quantum 
mechanics are covered including time dependent 
perturbation theory, scattering, Breit-Wigner 
resonance, isospin, and quark model. 
Prerequisite: Physics 341. Three class hours. 

Mr. Haskins 

452 Tutorials: Special Topics 

Designed to cover physics or physics related 
topics not otherwise available in the curriculum. 
Open to upperclass physics majors who arrange 
with a staff member for supervision. Possible 
areas of study include advanced electronics, 
medical physics, astrophysics, acoustics, optics. 
Prerequisite: Approval by Department. 

Staff 

462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy 

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a 
research level problem selected by a student in 
consultation with a staff member. Students 
should arrange with a staff member for 
supervision by the end of the junior year. Open 
only to second semester senior physics majors. 
Results of the investigation are reported in a 
departmental colloquium. Prerequisite: Approval 
by Department. 

Staff 

474 Internship 

Research participation during the summer at a 
recognized research laboratory such as Argonne 
National Labs, Department of Energy 
laboratories, or Oak Ridge. Individual students 
are responsible for obtaining acceptance to 
these programs. In most cases students will be 
required to describe their participation in a 
departmental colloquium. Prerequisite: 
Completion of sophomore year and Department 
approval. 

Mr. Cowan 



Physics/Political Science 

Political Science 

Professor Boenau 

Associate Professors Borock (Chairperson), 

Mott, and D. Tannenbaum 
Assistant Professor Sylvester 
Instructor Hirschmann 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Warshaw 
Adjunct Instructors Barlow, Fishman, and 

Twining 

Overview 

The Department aims at providing an 
understanding of the study of politics, 
emphasizing the methods and approaches of 
political science and the workings of political 
systems in various domestic, foreign, and 
international settings. 

The program provides balance between the 
needs of specialists who intend to pursue 
graduate or professional training and those who 
do not. Courses offered in the Department help 
prepare the student for careers in politics, 
federal, state, and local government, public and 
private interest groups, business, journalism, 
law, and teaching. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The requirements for a major in political science 
are as follows. Majors in the department are 
required to take a minimum of 10 courses in 
political science. Majors are required to take 
three of the following four introductory courses: 
Political Science 101, 102, 103, or 104. These 
courses are designed to introduce the students 
to the discipline and to the types of issues that 
are important to political scientists. The 100 
level courses may be taken in any order, and 
they should be completed by the end of the 
sophomore year. Of the remaining seven 
advanced courses (courses at the 200, 300, and 
400 level), majors are required to take at least 
one course in three of the following groups: 
American Politics, Comparative Politics, 
International Politics, Political Theory. The 
introductory courses serve as prerequisites for 
advanced courses; nevertheless, the department 
believes that three introductory courses provide 
a firm foundation in the discipline as a whole. 
Therefore it strongly encourages majors to take 
advanced courses in all four of the groups. 
Majors may begin taking advanced courses as 
early as the sophomore year provided they have 
taken the particular prerequisite, or in the case 
of not having the prerequisite, they believe they 
are prepared to do so and have the instructor's 



123 



Political Science 

permission. Courses graded S/U are not 
accepted toward the major. 

Requirements for a minor in political science are 
as follows: successful completion of any two 
100-level courses and any four upper-level 
courses which normally count toward the major, 
provided that they do not all fall into the same 
sub-field. 

Departmental honors in political science will be 
awarded to graduating majors who have 
achieved an average of 3.3 in political science 
courses and who have successfully completed a 
significant research project under the 
supervision of a member of the department. 

In the junior and senior years, majors are urged 
to participate in seminars, individualized study 
and internships. Majors are also encouraged to 
enroll in related courses in other social sciences 
and in the humanities. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any of the following courses may be counted 
towards the College distribution requirements in 
social sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The 
following courses may be counted towards the 
College distribution requirement in Non-Western 
culture: 263, 265, and 266. 

Special Programs 

Qualified students may participate in off-campus 
programs, such as the Washington Semester, 
The United Nations Semester, and study abroad. 

Introductory Courses 

101 American Government 

Examination of the institutional structure and 
policy-making process of national government 
as reflections of assumptions of liberal 
democracy and the American social and 
economic systems. In addition to the legislative, 
executive, and judicial branches of government, 
political parties, interest groups, and elections 
are considered. 

Mr. Mott and Ms. Hirschmann and 
Ms. Warshaw 

102 Introduction to Political Thought 

Analysis of political philosophies dealing with 
fundamental problems of political association. 
The course will examine concepts of power, 
authority, freedom, equality, social justice, and 
order as expressed in works of philosophers 
from Plato to Marx. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

124 



103 Global Politics 

Examination of the behavior of nation-states in 
the international system from a micropolitical 
perspective that encompasses such topics as 
nationalism, power, and war as well as from a 
macropolitical perspective that stresses broad 
trends such as political and economic 
interdependence and the effects of 
modernization. 

Ms. Sylvester and Mr. Borock 

104 Introduction to Comparative Politics 

Introduction to the structure and processes of 
political institutions in major types of political 
systems, including parliamentary systems, the 
soviet system, and systems in developing 
countries. 

Mr. Boenau 

Comparative Politics 

260 Comparative Parliamentary Systems 

Analysis and comparison of parliamentary 
systems in Europe, Asia, and Commonwealth 
countries, focusing on interest groups, political 
parties, political elites, public participation, 
governmental structures and processes, and 
case studies of political systems in operation. 
Prerequisite: PS 104 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Boenau 

261 Comparative Communist Systems 

Analysis and comparison of the political 
systems of the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China, 
focusing on the role of the communist party, the 
problem of succession, and case studies of 
political systems in operation. Prerequisite: PS 
104 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Boenau 

263 The Politics of Developing Areas 

Introduction to the study of political 
development and underdevelopment, including 
approaches to Third World politics; the nature of 
traditional politics; disruptions caused by 
colonialism and imperialism; the reformation of 
domestic politics; contemporary political 
processes and problems. Prerequisite: PS 104 or 
permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Sylvester 

265 African Politics 

An examination of the dynamics of political 
change and continuity in independent Africa. 
Topics include colonialism, national liberation 
struggles, imperialism, dependency, institutional 
direction (e.g., parties, the military, the 
bureaucracy) and the politics of economic 
development. Prerequisite: PS 104 or permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. Sylvester 



266 Comparative Middle East Politics 

A comparison of the political systems of the 
Middle East and an examination of the political 
dynamics of the region focusing upon the 
influences of Islamic fundamentalism and 
nationalism, the geopolitical significance of the 
region, and the historical, political and cultural 
antecedents that have an impact upon such 
contemporary issues as the Palestinian problem, 
the impact of oil, intra-regional warfare, and the 
Western— Middle East conflicts. Prerequisite: 
P.S. 104 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Barlow 

American Government 

220 Urban Politics 

Study of the changing patterns in American 
urban life. Particular attention will be given to 
the governing of urban America in the past, 
present, and future, and the structure of power 
that has affected urban policy decisions. 
Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of the 
instructor. 

Staff 

111 Public Administration 

Study of the politics, structure, and procedures 
of governmental administration. Particular 
attention is given to the administrative process, 
policy-making, and the public responsibility of 
administrators. Prerequisite: PS 101 or 
permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

223 U.S. Congress 

Study of the United States Congress focusing on 
theories of representation, nomination and 
electoral processes, internal organization of 
Congress, influences on Congressional policy- 
making, and Congressional interaction with 
other participants in the policy process. 
Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

224 The American Presidency 

Study of the Presidency in the American political 
system, including presidential selection, 
presidential leadership and decision-making, the 
president's advisors, and the role of the 
Presidency in the policy-making process. 
Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of the 
instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

lib American Constitutional Law 

Study of the judicial process in the United 
States, with particular focus on the Supreme 
Court and its historical role in nation-building, 



Political Science 

establishing principles of federalism and the 
separation of powers, and determining the scope 
of personal and property rights. Prerequisite: PS 
101 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Mott 

231 American Parties and Politics 

Examination of political parties, their role in 
democracy, and the nature of the party system 
in relation to other social and political 
processes. Aspects of voting behavior and 
campaign techniques are considered. 
Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Mott 

322 Civil Rights and Liberties 

Study of selected problems involving 
interpretations of the Bill of Rights. Attention will 
be given to both the evolution and current 
standing of issues treated by the Supreme Court. 
Prerequisite: PS 101, PS 225, or permission of 
instructor. 

Mr. Mott 
International Politics 

242 United States Foreign Policy 

Examination of the formulation of policy within 
the national government structure, including the 
varying perspectives on goals and objectives; 
the implementation of policy; and the impact of 
policy domestically and internationally. Topics 
include decision-making; the arms race; foreign 
economic policy; military intervention; alliance 
systems; foreign aid; and the East-West/ 
North-South confrontations. Prerequisite: PS 103 
or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Borock 

245 World Order 

Examination of the roles of state and non-state 
actors in the international system. Attention will 
be given to the U.N. and its agencies, food, 
energy and resource regimes, and regional 
security systems. Prerequisite: PS 103 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Borock 

246 Soviet Foreign Policy 

Examination of the evolution, instruments and 
objectives of Soviet foreign policy, with 
particular emphasis on the present era. The 
course begins with a review of the foundation of 
Soviet foreign policy, traces the USSR's 
emergence as a world power, identifies the 
instruments of Soviet diplomacy, and surveys 
Soviet activities and interests on a regional 
basis. It concludes with an evaluation of the 
effectiveness of Soviet foreign policy, an 



125 



Political Science 

assessment of trends and forces which will 
shape future Soviet activities in the world affairs 
and an appreciation for the manner and means 
by which foreign policy serves the contemporary 
Soviet state. Prerequisite: PS 103 or permission 
of instructor. 

Mr. Twining 

341 International Political Economy 

Probes the impact of economic factors on the 
international political system and various 
sub-systems. Capitalist, Marxist, and socialist 
economic theories are discussed as well as 
specific relations of trade, production, monetary 
exchange, and economic organization within the 
West, between East and West, and between 
North and South. Prerequisite: PS 103 or 
permission of instructor. 

Ms. Sylvester 

344 U.S. National Security Policy 

Examination of the process by which military 
and political decisions join to form a unified 
policy. Attention will be given to decision- 
making, the identification of national security 
issues, defense spending, strategic policies, the 
impact of technological change, and civilian- 
military relationships. Prerequisites: PS 103 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Borock 

Political Theory 

280 Modern Political Ideologies 

Study of the philosophical content and the role 
of political ideologies in the modern world, with 
emphasis on liberalism, socialism, communism, 
and fascism. The concept of ideology, historical 
development and the intersection and overlap of 
ideologies, and the influence of ideologies on 
political behavior will also be considered. 
Prerequisite: PS 102 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

281 Elites and Masses 

Examination of selected political theories which 
deal with the relationship of elites and masses in 
modern society. Among the writers to be 
considered are Burke, De Tocqueville, Mosca, 
Pareto, Michaels, Ortega y Gasset, and Lenin. 
Prerequisite: PS 102 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Boenau 

282 Feminist Political Thought 

Exploration of the issues of women's political 
participation as presented in historical and 
contemporary political thought. The introduction 
to some frameworks for feminist analysis, and 



126 



the examination of: the ways in which women 
have been excluded from political life in political 
thought; women's relation to the concepts of 
consent and obligation; the ways in which 
modern writers have redefined social contract 
theory and; the way in which women's entry into 
public life has been accommodated. The course 
will conclude with an analysis of several 
constructions of a feminist notion of citizenship. 
Prerequisite: PS 102 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Hirschmann 

380 Marxism 

Examination of Marxism through close textual 
analysis of books, polemical tracts, and other 
writings of Marx and Engels, and selected 
readings from the critical literature on Marxism. 
Prerequisite: PS 102 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

381 American Political Thought 

Study of the development of political thought in 
America from the colonial period to the present. 
In addition to examining individual writers and 
movements, the course will consider the 
relationship of the ideas examined to the 
broader tradition of western political philosophy. 
Prerequisite: PS 102 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

Advanced Courses 

400 Seminars 

Advanced study of domestic, foreign, or world 
politics. A common core of reading and written 
reports by each student is provided. Topics 
differ each semester and will be announced in 
advance. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Intensive research on an approved topic 
presented in oral or written reports, under the 
supervision of a member of the department 
faculty. 

Staff 

Internship 

A minimum six weeks of on-site participation in 
administration with a public or private 
organization under the supervision of a member 
of the department faculty. Available during the 
fall or spring semesters or during the summer. 

Staff 
Honors 

Opportunity for highly qualified students to 
participate in a program of original research 
under the supervision of a member of the 
department faculty. Each student will complete a 
thesis and present her or his research to the 
department staff. 

Staff 



Psychology 

Professors D'Agostino, Mudd, and Pittman 
Associate Professor Gobbel (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Bornstein, Lorenz, Riggs, 

and Sawyer 
Adjunct Assistant Professors August and 

J. Glassick 

Overview 

The Department emphasizes experimental 
psychology in all of its course offerings. The 
objective of the Department is to promote 
knowledge of the causes of behavior, with 
emphasis on the formation of a scientific 
attitude toward behavior and appreciation of the 
complexity of human personality. This objective 
is approached by providing a representative 
array of courses in psychology, including 
seminars, special topics, independent reading, 
and independent research, and by providing 
selected opportunities for field work. Direct 
experience with the major methods, instruments, 
and theoretical tools of the discipline is 
emphasized throughout. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other 
courses in the Department. Requirements for a 
major include Psychology 101, 205, 305, 341, one 
of the following laboratory courses 316, 317, 318, 
325, or 336, and, four additional courses in 
psychology. Most laboratory courses have a 
200-level course as a prerequisite. Majors must 
earn a grade of C or better in both Psychology 
205 and 305. 

It is possible for those who have scored 60 or 
above on the CLEP (College-Level Examination 
Program) General Psychology examination to 
waive the introductory course (Psychology 101) 
and to qualify for advanced placement in the 
department. Write College Entrance Examination 
Board, Box 1822, Princeton, NJ 08540 for 
information about taking the CLEP exam. 

It is recommended that students looking forward 
to admission to graduate school take two 
advanced laboratory courses, one from each of 
the following two groups: (a) 318, 325, and 
(b) 316, 317, 336, and an Individualized Study. 
Experience in the use of the computer and/or 
training in computer science is recommended for 
all majors and is highly recommended for those 
planning to go on to graduate work. Students 
should consult with their advisers for specific 
information on the prerequisites for work at the 



Psychology 

graduate level in the specialized areas of 
psychology. 

Departmental Honors in psychology are awarded 
to graduating majors who, in the combined 
judgment of the staff, have demonstrated 
academic excellence in course work and who 
have completed an Individualized Study. The 
Honors Thesis, open by invitation of the 
Department Staff only, is not required for 
Departmental Honors. 

Distribution Requirements 

Psychology 101 may be used to fulfill the 
distribution requirement in social sciences. 

101 General Psychology 

An introduction to the basic scientific logic, 
facts, theories, and principles of psychology, 
including the study of human motivation, 
learning, emotion, perception, thought, 
intelligence, and personality. Some attention is 
given to the applications of psychology. 
Repeated spring semester. May be used toward 
fulfilling the distribution requirement in the 
social sciences. 

Staff 

204 Human Information Processing 

Starting from theoretical concepts and methods 
surveyed in Psychology 101, the topics of 
sensation, perception, and cognitive processes 
are developed more completely. 

Mr. D'Agostino and Ms. Sawyer 

205 Introduction to Measurement and Statistics 

Descriptive and inferential statistics, including 
nonparametric methods. Measurement theory, 
including reliability and validity, is studied in the 
laboratory as an application of statistics. Credit 
may not be granted for this course and 
Mathematics 107 or Economics 241. Offered each 
semester. Prerequisite: High school algebra. 
Required of all majors. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Sawyer and Mr. Mudd 

210 Behavioral Economics and Social Engineering 

Introduction to behavioral economics and the 
implications of that field for social planning in a 
high mass consumption society. The potential 
contribution of behavioral systems analysis and 
social science research to more effective social 
and economical planning is considered. Two 
three hour seminars (arranged) and one group 
field survey are required in the course of the 
semester. Alternate years. 

Mr. Mudd 

127 



Psychology 

212 Industrial and Organizational Psychology 

An introduction to industrial and organizational 
psychology including theory and practice in the 
following areas: personnel, organizational 
behavior and development, training, and the 
place of work in the psychological makeup of 
humans and human society. Equal attention is 
given to theory and applications. Several group 
projects are required in addition to the normal 
examination pattern. Three class hours. Offered 
in alternative years with Psychology 210. 

Mr. Mudd 

214 Social Psychology 

Review of current psychological theory and 
research in social psychology. Topics include 
attitude and behavior change, conformity, 
attraction, interpersonal perception, and 
psychological aspects of social interaction. 

Ms. Riggs and Mr. Pittman 

221 Basic Dynamics of Personality 

An introduction to the major approaches to 
personality, including psychodynamic, 
behavioral, humanistic, and trait models. 
General issues and problems which arise in the 
study of personality are considered, and the 
importance of empirical evidence is emphasized. 

Mr. Bornstein 

225 Developmental Psychology: Infancy and Childhood 

The psychological development of the individual 
from conception to adolescence. Theory, 
methodology, and research are presented in the 
areas of perception, learning, cognition, 
language, social and moral development. 
Mesdames August, Glassick, and Gobbel and 

Mr. Pittman 

226 Developmental Psychology: Adolescence 

Study of psychological development of the 
adolescent. Topics include research methods, 
physiological changes, cognitive development, 
vocational, social sex-role, and value 
development: Psychology 225 is recommended 
as a prerequisite but not required. 

Ms. Gobbel 

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Introduction to the anatomical and physiological 
bases of human behavior. Topics will include 
sensory physiology, biorhythms and sleep, 
homeostasis, sex, learning and memory, 
language, and mental illness. Emphasis will be 
on developing an ability to conceptualize 
psychological phenomena in biological terms. 

Mr. Lorenz 



128 



305 Experimental Methods 

An introduction to scientific method and 
experimental design Emphasis is placed on the 
logical development of new ideas, kinds and 
sources of error in experimentation, methods of 
control, design and analysis of experiments, and 
scientific communication. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 101 and Psychology 205. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Riggs and Messrs. D'Agostino and Pittman 

316 Perception 

Introduction to sensory and perceptual 
processes in vision. Lectures deal with sensory 
coding, feature detection, figural synthesis, and 
semantic integration. Laboratory work includes 
several minor studies and one major two-person 
group research study on a special topic of the 
students' own choice on some aspect of human 
facial perception. Prerequisite: Psychology 305. 
Three class hours and the equivalent of three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr. Mudd 

317 Memory and Social Cognition 

An introduction to human memory and social 
cognition. Attention will focus on factors known 
to influence the storage and retrieval of social 
information. Errors and biases in human 
judgment will also be examined. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr. D'Agostino 

318 Experimental Social Psychology 

Study of specific content areas in social 
psychology. Current theories and empirical data 
will be used to illustrate experimental designs 
and relevant methodological considerations. 
Laboratory work includes the design, execution, 
and analysis of two original experiments. 
Prerequisites: Psychology 214 and Psychology 
305, or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and the equivalent of three laboratory 
hours. 

Ms. Riggs and Mr. Pittman 

322 Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 
Uses and Abuses 

A survey of the various topics and issues of 
contemporary clinical and counseling 
psychology. Topics covered include 
psychotherapy, diagnosis and psychological 
testing, ethical issues, and research in clinical 
psychology. The course is not a practicum. 
Prerequisite: Psychology 221 or 326. Offered 
spring semester, alternative years. Offered 
1988-89. 

Mr. Bornstein 



325 Life-Span Development— An Experimental 
Approach 

An intensive study of one or more areas of 
research in cognitive, social, or language 
development. Emphasis is placed on unique 
characteristics of research with children and/or 
adults across the life span. Laboratory work 
includes the design, execution, and analysis of a 
research project. Prerequisites: Psychology 225 
and Psychology 305. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Ms. Gobbel 

326 Abnormal Psychology 

An introduction to psychopathology and 
abnormal behavior, with particular attention to 
conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues 
involved in the study of abnormal psychology. 
Models of psychopathology and 
psychodiagnosis are discussed with an 
emphasis on the empirical evidence for different 
models. 

Ms. August 

336 Physiological Psychology 

Advanced discussion of the topics included in 
Psychology 236 as well as an in-depth treatment 
of brain development and the neurological basis 
of behavior. Prerequisites: Psychology 236 and 
305 or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Lor em 
341 History and Theories of Psychology 
A review of the development of psychology to 
the present. Emphasis is on the role of the 
reference, or defining, experiment in setting the 
course of major programs of research in 
psychology over the past century. Several 
demonstration labs are required. 

Mr. Mudd 
400 Seminar 

An opportunity to work on a selected topic in a 
small group under the guidance of a member of 
the staff. Not offered every semester. The topic 
for a given semester is announced well in 
advance. Enrollment by permission of the 
instructor. May be repeated. 

Staff 

421 Personality Theory: Seminar 

Selected issues in the study of personality are 
examined in detail, with an emphasis on the 
empirical validation of different models and 
concepts in personality. Content of this course 
may vary, with different topics and issues taken 
up in different years. Prerequisites: Psychology 
221 and Junior or Senior status. Meets three 
hours once a week. Alternate years. 

Mr. Born stein 



Psychology 

Individualized Reading 

Opportunity to do intensive and critical reading 
and to write a term paper on a topic of special 
interest. Student will be expected to become 
thoroughly familiar with reference books, 
microfilms, and scientific journals available for 
library research in the field of psychology. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. May 
be repeated. 

Staff 

Individualized Empirical Research 

Design and execution of an empirical study 
involving the collection and analysis of data in 
relation to some psychological problem under 
the supervision of a staff member. Students are 
required to present an acceptable research 
proposal no later than four weeks following the 
beginning of the semester or to withdraw from 
the course. Research culminates in a paper. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. May 
be repeated. 

Staff 

Honors Thesis 

Designed to meet the needs of the clearly 
superior student. During the senior year each 
participant will engage in an original program of 
research under the direction of a thesis 
committee. In addition to completing a formal 
thesis, each student will present and discuss his 
or her research before the entire staff. 
Successful completion of the program entitles 
the student to receive credit for two courses 
which can be applied towards a Psychology 
major. Prerequisite: By invitation of the 
Department only. 

Staff 



129 



Religion 

Religion 

Professors, Hammann, Loose, and Moore 

{Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Trone 
Assistant Professors McTighe and C. Myers 

Overview 

Essential to an understanding of the past and the 
present is a study of the varied religious 
experiences, beliefs, and institutions of 
humankind. The Department offers courses in 
the areas of biblical studies, history of religions, 
and religious thought, all of which investigate 
the complex phenomenon of religion. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

A major consists of 8 courses in the Department. 
One of the 8 must be Religion 460. No more than 
3 courses of the 8 may be 100-level courses. 
Since some upper-level courses are not offered 
every year, students should consult with 
individual instructors when planning their 
programs. Those planning to attend seminary or 
a graduate school in religion should consider 
either a major or a minor in the Department. 

A minor consists of 6 courses in the Department. 
No more than 4 of the 6 courses may be 100-level 
courses. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any one of the 100-level courses will fulfill the 
one-course distribution requirement in religion. 
The following courses meet the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture: 202 and 242. 

100-Level 

101 History. Literature, and Religion of the 
Old Testament 

A study of the history, literature, and religion of 
the Hebrews from the age of Abraham to about 
500 B.C. The history and culture of Israel are 
related to those of surrounding nations, with 
special emphasis on the relevancy of 
archeological data. 

Mr. Moore 

1 1 1 History, Literature, and Religion of the 
New Testament 

An introduction to the writings of the New 
Testament as they originated in their Greco- 
Roman milieu. Emphasis is on the distinctive 
purposes and main content of each writing. The 
use of source, form, and redaction criticism as 

130 



tools for the academic study of the New 
Testament is demonstrated. 

Mr. C. Myers 

117 Topics in Biblical Studies 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of Biblical Studies. 
Offered at the discretion of the Department. 

Staff 

121 Church History: To the Eighth Century 

A historical study of all groups who claimed to 
be Christian from Pentecost to the eighth 
century. Theologies, liturgies, councils, heresies, 
and the outstanding participants are examined 
with the aid of primary documents. 

Mr. Trone 

122 History of the Medieval Church 

A historical study that continues Religion 121 up 
to the fifteenth century. The Latin, Orthodox, and 
the heretical traditions and institutions will be 
included. Religion 121 is not a prerequisite for 
this course. 

Mr. Trone 

123 Church History: Fifteenth to Twentieth Century 

A historical overview of the development of 
Christian beliefs and practices from the fifteenth 
century to the present. This course will examine 
the variety of ways in which individual 
believers, congregations, and ecclesiastical 
authorities have articulated what it means to be 
a Christian during different historical periods 
and in different social contexts from pre- 
Reformation Germany to modern-day Latin 
America. 

Mr. McTighe 

127 Topics in History of Religions 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of History of 
Religions. Offered at the discretion of the 
Department. 

Staff 

135 Religion in Fiction 

An examination of the fictional representation of 
religious stories. The works of Lewis, Malamud, 
Olson, Kazantzakis, MacLeish, Lagerkvist, and 
others will be read. 

Mr. Hammann 

137 Topics in Religious Thought 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of Religious Thought. 
Offered at the discretion of the Department. 

Staff 



138 Christian Humanism 

A review of Christian ideas about human dignity, 
potential, and responsibilities by examining 
Christian classics from the Bible to the present 
in order to define the uniqueness of Christian 
humanism. 

Mr. Trone 

139 Catholics, Protestants, and Jews 

A study of mainline religious groups in the U.S. 
The course will consider the particular history 
and distinctive character of the Roman Catholic 
Church, Conservative Judaism, and other groups 
such as the Methodists, Presbyterians, and 
Mennonites. Insofar as possible, the religious 
bodies studied will be represented by 
participants in the life and governance of the 
group. 

Mr. Hammann and Mr. McTighe 

Biblical Studies 



Religion 

210 The Apostle Paul 

A study of the life, letters, and legacy of this 
early Christian through a careful consideration 
of primary and selected secondary sources. 
Particular attention will be given to 
understanding the Pauline literature in its 
historical context. Ancient and modern 
interpretations of Paul's life and work are also 
treated. Prerequisite: Religion 111 or permission 
of the instructor. 

Mr. C. Myers 

311 Jesus in the First Three Gospels 

An examination of the Jesus tradition as 
interpreted in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and 
Luke using the techniques of source, form, 
redaction, and literary criticism. Special 
attention is given to the distinctive perspective 
of each Gospel. Prerequisite: Religion 111 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. C. Myers 



201 The Prophets of the Old Testament 

A historical and sociological study of the life and 
times of Israel's prophets as drawn from the Old 
Testament and extra-Biblical sources, with 
special emphasis given to both the importance 
of prophetic interpretations for their own day 
and to their lasting effect upon Judeo-Christian 
thought. 

Mr. Moore 

202 Wisdom Literature 

A comparative study of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs with the 
wisdom literature of the Sumerians, Egyptians, 
Babylonians, and other contemporaries and 
predecessors of the Israelites. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in Non-Western culture. 

Mr. Moore 



203 Archaeology of the Ancient Near East 

An introduction to the history, methodology, 
and findings of Palestinian archaeology with 
attention to the related fields of Egyptian and 
Mesopotamian archaeology. Lectures on field 
technique, slide presentations, museum visits, 
and consideration of the historical and religious 
significance of artifacts will be central to 
the course. 

Mr. Moore 



312 The Gospel of John 

An exploration of the thought and content of the 
Fourth Gospel. An effort is made to determine 
the background, purposes for writing, and 
community addressed by John's Gospel. The 
question of its relationship to the Synoptic 
Gospels and to the Epistles of John is also 
included. Prerequisite: Religion 111 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. C. Myers 

313 Judaism From 200 B.C. to A.0. 500 

The history, institutions, and religious ideas of 
the Jews from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 500. Jewish 
writings of the period, including some from 
Qumran and the Talmud, are studied as the 
primary sources of information. Prerequisite: 
Religion 101. 

Staff 

History of Religions 

IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization 

For course description see Interdepartmental 
Studies. 

Mr. Trone 

IDS 213 Women in the Ancient World 

For course description see Interdepartmental 
Studies. 

Mr. Moore 



131 



Religion 



223 Religion in U.S.A. 

An investigation of the religious history of the 
American people from the seventeenth century 
to the present. This course will focus upon the 
varieties of American religious experience. It will 
explore the Protestant, Roman Catholic, and 
Jewish traditions along with indigenous 
movements such as Mormonism and Christian 
Science. 

Mr. McTighe 

227 Monks. Nuns, and Friars 

A study of the rules and practices of religious 
orders for men and women for Latin and 
Orthodox to the fifteenth century. The course will 
also include the art and architecture produced 
by these orders and some of the famous ascetic 
personalities. 

Mr. Trone 

242 The Religions of East Asia and West Asia 

Primarily an examination of the varieties of 
historical and contemporary Buddhism and 
Islam. The class will also study some other 
religious traditions from east or west Asia that 
can be contrasted with Buddhism and Islam. 
Insofar as possible, original sources in 
translation will be used. Fulfills the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. 

Mr. Hammann 



332 History of Christian Thought: Fifteenth to 
Nineteenth Century 

An examination of major works by represen- 
tative theologians from the eve of the Reforma- 
tion through the Enlightenment including Julian 
of Norwick, Luther, Calvin, Teresa of Avila, 
Jonathan Edwards, Locke, John Wesley, Kant, 
Kierkegaard, and others. 

Mr. McTighe 

333 Contemporary Religious Thought 

Critical study of the primary theological 
literature of nineteenth and twentieth century 
Europe and America. Contrasts and continuity of 
themes, constitutive ideas, and movements in 
representative works by Schleiermacher, 
Kierkegaard, Bultmann, Tillich, Buber, 
Bonhoeffer, Altizer, Daly, liberation theologians, 
and others are examined for the purpose of 
determining the basic presuppositions 
underlying the various texts. 

Mr. McTighe 

460 Individualized Study for Majors 



461-469 Individualized Study 



Staff 



Staff 



Religious Thought 

IDS 211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

For Course Description see Interdepartmental 
Studies. 

Mr. Moore 



236 Religions from the Center to the Fringe 

A historical and critical study of recent 
unconventional religious movements primarily in 
the West. Movements such as Baha'i, Jehovah's 
Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, Unification 
Church, ISKCON, Scientology, Ahmadi Islam, and 
others will be considered. The study will aim at 
understanding religious characteristics as well 
as social effects of these movements. 

Mr. Hammann 



132 



Sociology and Anthropology 

Professor Hook 

Associate Professors Emmons, Hinrichs, 

and Loveland 
Assistant Professors Denison, Gill, Johnson, 

and Porter 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Mashayekhi 
Lecturer Lemelle 

Overview 

Studies in the Department are directed toward 
understanding social organization and action 
and the role of culture in shaping human 
behavior. Reflecting the diversity of perspectives 
in sociology and anthropology, the courses 
present various, sometimes conflicting 
approaches. Some perspectives start with 
individuals in interaction with each other and 
focus upon how they develop meaningful social 
relationships, groups, and institutions. Other 
approaches focus upon the molding of 
individuals by various institutions, groups, and 
cultures or upon the functional or conflict 
relationships among various classes and 
subcultures. By emphasizing the scientific and 
comparative study of social institutions and 
cultures, the Department seeks to have students 
develop an understanding of social realities and 
to increase their competence in dealing critically 
and constructively with social problems and 
programs for social change. 

The Department's goals are to contribute to the 
liberal arts education at Gettysburg College, to 
provide a solid academic foundation in 
sociology and anthropology for students 
interested in graduate study, to assist students 
in meeting their academic and career needs, and 
to acquaint all students who take our courses 
with the sociological perspective. The courses 
reflect the diversity of perspectives in sociology 
as a discipline and cover the core subject matter 
of the field. 

Majors are prepared for graduate education in 
sociology, urban planning, law, communication, 
law enforcement, social work, criminology, 
anthropology, health care, theology, and library 
science, as well as for careers in teaching, 
business, and fields related to the graduate 
programs cited. The Department has a chapter of 
Alpha Kappa Delta, the Sociological Honor 
Society. The Department emphasizes a 
commitment to experiential education; field 
trips, travel seminars, and internships are 
available to interested students. A Student- 
Faculty Liaison Committee operates within the 



Sociology and Anthropology 

Department to provide a means to respond to the 
particular needs and interests expressed by the 
students. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Sociology 101 is a prerequisite for all other 
sociology courses; and Anthropology 103 is 
considered a prerequisite for all other 
anthropology courses except culture area 
courses (Anthropology 211) and the ethnography 
course (Anthropology 220). Exemption from 
Sociology 101 is possible through satisfactory 
performance in a written examination. 

Students majoring in the Department will take a 
minimum of nine courses. Students must take 
Sociology 101, 302, 303, 304, 400, and one course 
in Anthropology. Additionally, students must 
select a minimum of three courses from the 
remaining departmental offerings. None of these 
courses may be taken S/U. Sociology 450 and 
470 may not be included as one of the three 
electives for the major. Sociology 202, 206, 208, 

209, 210, 212 and 217 are recommended as being 
central to the discipline. Those majors who are 
interested in pursuing an Anthropology 
concentration may substitute, after consultation 
with the adviser and department chairperson, 
certain courses taken at Franklin and Marshall 
College (F&M) in Anthropology for Sociology 304 
and/or 400. 

Students in the class of 1989 and thereafter 
majoring in the department will take a minimum 
of ten courses. Students must take Sociology 
101, 302, 303, 304, 305 (Contemporary 
Sociological Theory), 400 and Anthropology 103 
(may substitute an upper-level Anthropology 
course which is not a culture area course with 
permission). Additionally, students will take two 
electives from the following social process and 
inequality courses: 202, 208, 209, 210, 212, 217; 
and one elective from Sociology 205, 206, 207, 
213, 218, 219, 225, 226, 460 or Anthropology 211, 
215, 216, 220, 223, 224. For students in the class 
of 1989 who are devotees of Anthropology the 
department offers an Anthropology track. 
Students in the track will take a minimum of 10 
courses. Students must take Sociology 101, 302, 
303, 304 and Anthropology 103. Also, students 
will take one culture area course selected from 
Anthropology 211, 220, 223, 224 Sociology 219 or 
F&M substitute; one topics course selected from 
Anthropology 215, 216 or an F&M substitute; one 
elective from Sociology 202, 205, 206, 208, 209, 

210, 212, 213, 217 or 226; one additional elective 
in Anthropology; and Anthropology 450 or 460 or 
an F&M substitute. 

133 



Sociology and Anthropology 

In order to insure adequate preparation for 
Sociology 303, majors in the class of 1989 must 
have a background in math through Algebra II or 
its equivalent in high school or through Math 101 
or its equivalent in college before enrolling in 
Sociology 303. 

In response to varying needs, interests, and 
expertise of individual students and staff 
members, the Department provides means for 
students to pursue independent research and 
studies through Sociology 450 and 460, field 
work application or direct experience, and other 
opportunities to expand specialized interests. 
Sociology 460 is a requirement for departmental 
honors, and students who want to be considered 
for honors should enroll in this course in 
addition to the six required courses listed above. 

Supporting courses for the major are normally 
chosen from the social sciences and the 
humanities. Computer Science 105 is 
recommended as preparation for graduate study 
in sociology. 

Students who are not majors in the Department 
may minor in either Sociology or Anthropology. 
Six courses are required for the minor in 
Sociology. Students must take Sociology 101, 
302, and 304. The remaining three courses may 
be elected from departmental offerings, with the 
exception of Sociology 450, 470; no more than 
two of these three electives may be in 
Anthropology. 

Six courses are required for the minor in 
Anthropology. Students must take Anthropology 
103. Three additional courses must be elected 
from the other Anthropology offerings (one of 
these may be Sociology 450, Individualized 
Study in Anthropology). One non-anthropology 
course must be selected from the list of courses 
that fulfill the non-western studies distribution 
requirement. One sociology course must be 
selected from the following: 101, 202, 206, 208, 
209, 226, 302. 



Distribution Requirements 

All courses except Sociology 302 and 303 may be 
used to fulfill the distribution requirement in 
social science. All courses in Anthropology and 
Sociology 219 may be used to meet the Non- 
Western culture distribution requirement. 

101 Introductory Sociology 

Study of the basic structures and dynamics of 
human societies and the development of 



principles and basic concepts used in 
sociological analysis and research. Topics will 
include culture, socialization, social institutions, 
stratification, and social change. 

Staff 

202 Wealth. Power, and Prestige 

Examination of social ranking and rating 
systems. Topics include social classes, social 
mobility, economic and political power, and 
informal prestige and fame. 

Mr. Emmons 

205 Sociology of Religion 

Examination of the relation of religion and 
society. Topics include: definitions and theories 
of religion, sociological analysis of historical 
and contemporary religious groups, religious 
organization and behavior, religion and 
morality, religion and social change, 
sectarianism, and secularization. 

Mr. Hook 

206 Sociology of the Family 

Analysis of the structure and continuing 
processes of marital relationships in American 
society with relevant comparisons from other 
cultures. Topics include choice of marriage 
partner, ethnic and status differences, sex 
roles, alternative lifestyles, and aging. 

Mr. Hook 

207 Criminology 

Introduction to and delineation of the field of 
criminology. The course begins with a 
discussion of criminal law and the extent of 
crime and continues with a comprehensive 
examination of police, courts, and corrections. 
Theories of crime causation, criminal behavior 
systems, and victimology are also examined. 
Alternates with Sociology 208. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

208 Community and Urban Life 

Study of communities from a sociological 
perspective with a major emphasis on urban 
areas. Topics include: historical development of 
cities, development of suburbs, urbanism as a 
unique way of life, city planning, metropolitan 
dynamics, and urban problems. Alternates with 
Sociology 207. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

209 Racial and Ethnic Relations in America 

Comprehensive study of ethnic and minority 
relations. Theoretical perspectives include 
immigration and assimilation, prejudice and 
discrimination, and the structure of the ethnic 
community. The study of Black-American, 



134 



European-immigrant, and Asian-American 
communities is emphasized. 

Mr. Emmons 

210 Social Change 

Application of theories of social change to 
contemporary trends and changing norms, 
values, and expectations. Emphasis is on a 
critical examination of recent changes in the 
economy and political structure of U.S. society 
and on the assessment of the efforts by social 
movements to direct social change. Students 
who have taken Soc J-30 (America in Transition) 
may not enroll. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Gill 

212 Sociology of Deviance 

Examination of the concept of deviance and 
exploration of the various sociological theories 
and perspectives for viewing deviant 
phenomena. Sociological, biological, and 
psychological theories of causation are 
examined. There will be an in-depth analysis of 
alcohol and drug use, variations in sexual 
behavior, child abuse, and skid row. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

213 Political Sociology 

Analysis of the role of power and of political 
institutions in social systems. Marxian, elitist, 
pluralist, and systems theories of the bases, 
distribution, and uses of power will be 
examined, along with studies of power 
relationships in organizations, communities, 
nations, and international relations. Attempts to 
change power relationships by mobilizing new 
bases of power and legitimacy are examined. 
Not offered every year. 

Mr. Emmons 

217 Gender Roles and Inequality 

Examination of the patterns of gender 
stratification in American social structures and 
the impact of sex roles on interpersonal 
interaction. The course centers on the various 
forms of sexual inequality in today's world, 
examining the positions of women and men in 
families, schools, occupations, and politics. 
Topics include socialization, historical and 
cross-cultural variation in sex roles, and 
possibilities for change. 

Ms. Gill 

218 Sociology of Work and Organizations 

Analysis of economic, social, and organizational 
aspects of the American workforce. Topics 
include: industrialization and the historical 
development of the American occupational 



Sociology and Anthropology 

structure, alienation and its solutions, social 
organization of work, career patterns and 
development, the future of work and workers in 
America. Special attention is given to the 
organization of occupational groups along class 
lines and changes in the workplace affecting this 
historical stratification of work. 

Ms. Denison 

219 Chinese Society 

Sociological and anthropological analysis of 
China and Hong Kong. Major sociocultural 
themes in both traditional and modern systems 
are examined with special emphasis on religion, 
magic, ancestor worship, politics and law, social 
class, cities, education, and medicine. 
Prerequisite: Either Soc 101 or Ant 103. Students 
who have taken Soc J-24 (Chinese Society) may 
not enroll. 

Mr. Emmons 

220 World Cultures 

The study of the cultures of Asia, the Pacific, 
Africa and Native, North, Central and South 
America. Will discuss ethnographies and films 
about a variety of socio-economic types 
inlcuding foraging, horticultural, agricultural and 
pastoralist societies. No prerequisites. Credit 
will not be given to students who have taken Ant 
J-8 or Ant 220 under the title, Native American 
Religions. 

Mr. Loveland 

226 African-American Social Institutions 

An examination of the character and the history 
of African-American social institutions 
compared and contrasted with mainstream 
institutions. Primary emphasis will be on 
economics, education, politics, family and 
religion with some attention paid to the arts and 
sports. 

Mr. Lemelle 

302 Sociological Research Methodology 

Introduction to designing and assessing social 
science research. The goal of this course is to 
develop the student's ability to critically review 
and evaluate social research findings and to 
prepare the student to plan and carry out 
research. While greatest emphasis is devoted to 
survey research, several qualitative and 
quantitative designs are examined including the 
experiment, participant observation, and 
evaluation research. Issues of sampling, 
measurement, causality, and validity are 
considered for each technique. 

Ms. Gill 



135 



Sociology and Anthropology 

303 Data Analysis and Statistics 

Treatment of the analysis and reporting of 
quantitative data. The logic of data analysis, 
statistical techniques, and use of the computer 
will form the basis of the course. Does not fulfill 
distribution requirement in social science. 

Ms. Gill 

304 The Development of Sociological Theory 

Examination of different theoretical perspectives 
in explaining social reality— functionalism, 
conflict theory, social exchange theory, 
symbolic interactionalism. Special emphasis is 
given to Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, 
George H. Mead, Talcott Parsons, and Robert 
Merton. 

Mr. Hook 

305 Contemporary Sociological Theory 

Analysis of Post-Parsonian theory development 
with emphasis upon the recent direction taken 
by sociological theory and the ways in which 
contemporary theorists draw upon classical 
theorists. Topics include ethnomethodology, 
phenomenology, socio-biology, the world system 
schema, radical sociology and new direction for 
action theory. 

Mr. Hook 

400 Seminar 

Intensive culminating experience for majors. 
Under the direction of a member of the 
department faculty, students will work to 
integrate their major and their understanding of 
the sociological perspective. 

Staff 

450. 470 Individualized Study 

Independent study in fields of special interest 
outside the scope of regular course offerings. 
The consent of the Department is required. 

Staff 

460 Research Course 

Individual investigation of a research topic in 
sociology or anthropology in the student's 
special area of interest under the guidance of a 
faculty member. The topic must be approved by 
the Department. The project culminates in 
written and oral presentations of a formal paper 
to the faculty. This is required for departmental 
honors and is open to juniors and seniors only. 

Staff 



Anthropology 

103 Introduction to Social-Cultural Anthropology 

Comparative study of human, social and cultural 
institutions utilizing a series of ethnographies of 
non-western cultures at different evolutionary 
levels. The concepts, methods, theories, and 
history of the discipline will be discussed. 

Mr. Loveland 

211 American Indians 

Introduction to the traditional aspects of Native 
American cultures by examples drawn from the 
major culture areas of the Americas. The 
present day situation of Native Americans will 
be discussed. 

Mr. Loveland 

215 Psychological Anthropology 

Examination of the influence of culture in 
shaping the personality of the individuals in non- 
western societies. The course will include the 
following topics: psychoanalytic theory, dreams, 
cross-cultural research, socialization, 
personality development, modal personality, 
mental illness, and the effects of social change 
upon personality. Ethnographic examples from a 
variety of cultures will be utilized. 

Mr. Loveland 

216 Introduction to Medical Anthropology 

Study of systems of belief and knowledge 
utilized to explain illnesses in various cultures 
and attendant systems of curing. Topics 
discussed include: hallucinogens, shamanism, 
curing, sorcery, witchcraft, herbal medicines, 
and the modern American medical system. 
Ethnographic examples are drawn from a variety 
of cultures. 

Mr. Loveland 

220 Native American Religions 

Comparative analysis of the religions of 
American Indians focusing on the indigenous 
religions of Amerindians and the "new" religions 
such as the algonkian prophetic movements, the 
Ghost Dance, Peyote Cult, and the Handsome 
Lake Religion of the Iroquois. Ethnographic 
examples will be drawn from: the Shawnee, 
Delaware, Papago, Sioux, Mandan, Iroquois, 
Comanche, among others. Credit will not be 
given to students who have taken Ant J-8 or Ant 
220 under the title, World Cultures. 

Mr. Loveland 



136 



Spanish 



Spanish 

Associate Professors dinger and Thompson 

{Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Burgess, Diaz, Donahue, 

and Jackson 
Instructors Rabinowitz and Yager 
Adjunct Instructors de Quintero, Elorriaga, 

Hubbard, and Williams 
Teaching Assistant Hernandez-Dominguez 

Overview 

The ability to speak and understand a language 
other than one's own, and to have insight into 
the artistic and cultural heritage of other peoples 
of the world is considered an integral part of a 
liberal arts education. The Department, through 
a strong core of basic courses, gives students 
facility in the use of spoken and written Spanish 
and some knowledge of its literature and 
cultural history. The oral-aural method of 
modern language teaching is stressed in the 
classroom and all courses are conducted in 
Spanish. Laboratory facilities in the Library 
Learning Center and other audio-visual 
equipment complement classroom instruction. 
Regular laboratory work will be required of 
some students and advised for others. 

Advanced level courses in literature and 
civilization are designed to give students an 
understanding and appreciation of the literature 
and cultures of the Hispanic peoples. Students 
are encouraged to study in a Spanish-speaking 
country and opportunities are offered through 
Study Abroad programs with approved colleges 
and through a cooperative agreement with the 
Center for Cross Cultural Study, Seville, Spain. 

Courses in the Department provide sound 
preparation for graduate study, teaching, or 
careers in government, business, or social work. 
The Department works cooperatively with the 
Education Department in the preparation of 
Spanish teachers. Since the largest minority 
group in the United States is Spanish speaking, 
the Department feels that a knowledge of 
Spanish and an understanding of the Hispanic 
cultures is of increasing importance. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in Spanish include 10 
courses above the 245 level. Course 
requirements are: Spanish 301, 302, Introduction 
to Literary Analysis, three other 300-level 
literature courses, the Senior Seminar and one 
Civilization course. Other courses for the major 
'are elective. 



Requirements for a minor in Spanish include 6 
courses above the 202 level, and must include 
Spanish 301-302, and no more than one course 
from 205, 206, and 245. Students may include 
Spanish 202 for the minor, if they have begun 
language study at the elementary or 
intermediate level at Gettysburg College. 

Distribution Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, all 
students receive pre-registration materials 
which give detailed instructions on language 
placement and fulfilling the distribution 
requirement in foreign languages. The following 
courses may be counted toward the distribution 
requirement in literature: Spanish 205, 206, 304, 
308, 313, 314, 319, 320, 324, 325, 326, 400. Spanish 
310 and 311 fulfill the distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. 

The distribution requirement in foreign 
languages may be fulfilled by successful 
completion of Spanish 202, 205, 206, 245 or a 
course at the 300-level or above. Achievement 
equivalent to 202 may be demonstrated by an 
Advanced Placement Examination or a 
Departmental Qualifying Examination given 
during the initial week of fall semester. Spanish 
205 or 206 satisfy the foreign language require- 
ment and the literature requirement. The 
courses, which are complete as individual units, 
emphasize intensive reading of complete works 
in literature for comprehension and analysis of 
style. Students who choose this alternative 
should have adequate preparation in reading of 
significant amounts of prose of various literary 
periods. A student who shows unusual 
proficiency in 201 may, with the consent of the 
Department Chairperson, take 205 or 206 and 
thereby fulfill the language requirement and the 
literature requirement. 

Special Facilities 

Language Laboratory in Musselman Library 
Learning Resources Center. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad, Center for Cross Cultural 
Study, Seville, Spain. 

101-102 Elementary Spanish 

Elements of understanding, speaking, reading, 
and writing Spanish. Use of language laboratory 
is required. Enrollment limited to those who have 



137 



Spanish 

never previously studied Spanish. Students can 
not receive credit for both 101 and 103; 102 and 
104. 

103-104 Fundamental Spanish 

Fundamentals of understanding, speaking, 
reading, and writing Spanish. Use of language 
laboratory is required. Enrollment is limited to 
those who have previously studied Spanish and 
who are enrolled according to achievement on 
the Departmental Qualifying Examination. 
Students can not receive credit for both 101 and 
103; 102 and 104. 

201-202 Intermediate Spanish 

Practice in oral and written expression, grammar 
review, readings, and discussions of Spanish 
writing as contact with Hispanic Culture. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 102 or 104 or consent of 
the department. 

205. 206 Readings in Spanish and Spanish 
American Literature 

Conducted in Spanish with the dual objective of 
comprehension of material and reading of 
Spanish and Latin American literature of cultural 
and literary merit. Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or 
consent of the Department. 

245 Spanish Conversation 

Conversation course beyond the intermediate 
level with emphasis on everyday, applied usage 
of the language for nonliterary purposes. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or consent of the 
Department. Enrollment limited to twelve 
students. This course counts toward the minor 
but does not count toward the major. To be 
offered annually in the fall. 

301. 302 Spanish Composition and Conversation 

Exercises in directed and free composition; 
group discussion and presentation of individual 
oral work; review of grammar and syntax at an 
advanced level. Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or 
consent of the Department. To be offered 
annually. 

303 Spanish Phonology 

Introduction to Spanish phonetic and phonemic 
theory and analysis, applied to improve 
pronunciation skills. Study of variation in 
pronunciation in Spain and Latin America. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or approval of the 
Department. Offered annually in the fall. Three 
lecture hours and one laboratory. 

304 Introduction to Literary Analysis 

Introduction to basic critical approaches to the 
reading of prose fiction, poetry, and drama. 



Through the careful study of works in each 
genre students will acquire a knowledge of 
analytical skills and critical terminology in 
Spanish. Offered in the fall semester. 
Prerequisite: Two Spanish courses beyond 
Spanish 202 or consent of the Department. 

308 Literature of the Golden Age 

Masterpieces of different genres of the late 16th 
through the 17th centuries. Emphasis will be 
placed on major writers of theater, short prose 
fiction, essay, and poetry. Prerequisite: Spanish 
304 or consent of the Department. Offered 
1988-89. 

310 Spanish Civilization 

Study of the history and culture of Spain from 
the earliest times to the present. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or consent of the 
Department. Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

311 Latin American Civilization 

Study of the history and culture of Latin America 
from pre-Columbian times to the present. This 
course fulfills distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or 
consent of the Department. Alternate years. 
Offered 1988-89. 

313 Hispanic Theater 

A study of the drama of both Spain and Spanish 
America through the ages. The focus of the 
course will vary from semester to semester, 
based on such aspects as literary period, 
common theme, historical development, and 
dramatic theory. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or 
consent of the Department. Offered 1987-88. 

314 Cervantes 

A study of the masterpiece, Don Quijote de la 
Mancha, as well as some Novelas ejemplares 
and entremeses or one act plays. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 304 or consent of the Department. 
Offered 1987-88. 

319 Nineteenth Century Literature in Spain and 
Latin America 

Studies in the essay, the novel, the short story, 
the drama, and poetry according to the essential 
literary movements (romanticism, 
costumbrismo, realism, naturalism, modernism) 
of the nineteenth century in Spain and Latin 
America. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of 
the Department. Offered 1988-89. 



138 



320 Lyric Poetry 

A study of Spanish lyric poetry through the 
ages. The course will concentrate on the 
interrelationship of form, content, and idea, 
noting major influences upon the poetry of each 
period. Appreciation is considered a major goal 
of this course and much poetry will be read 
orally and discussed. Alternate years. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of the 
Department. Offered 1988-89. 

324 Latin American Contemporary Prose 

Emphasizes the novel of the "boom" in Latin 
America. Major writers such as Gabriel Garcia- 
Marquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes, 
Julio Cortazar, Juan Rulfo, and Jorge Luis 
Borges, among others, will be read. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 304 or consent of the Department. 
Offered 1987-88. 

325 Generation of '98 and Pre-Civil War Literature 

Studies in the essay, poetry, prose fiction, and 
drama of the major writers of the late nineteenth 
and early twentieth-centuries in Spain. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of the 
Department. Alternate years. Offered 1987-88. 

326 Post-Civil War Literature of Spain 

A study of the major literary trends and works in 
Spain beginning with the resurgence of Spanish 
Literature in the 1940s and continuing to the 
present day. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or 
consent of the Department. Alternate years. 
Offered 1988-89. 

351 Introduction to Spanish Linguistics 

Introduction to linguistic theories, methods, and 
problems as applied to Spanish. Some attention 
will be given to typical areas of investigation, 
such as Spanish dialectology, sociolinguistics, 
bilingualism. Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or 
approval of the Department. Offered annually in 
the spring. 

400 Senior Seminar 

Directed and specialized studies in Spanish and 
Latin American literatures from the medieval 
period to the present. This course is to be taken 
by seniors during the final semester in order to 
complete their undergraduate work in Hispanic 
literatures. Prerequisite: Limited to seniors 
except with permission of the Department. 
Offered in the spring of every year. 



Spanish/Portuguese 

Portuguese 

101-102 Elementary Portuguese 

Elements of understanding, speaking, reading, 
and writing Portuguese. Course includes oral 
and written work, graded elementary reading, 
and use of audio-visual cultural materials and 
correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Offered in 1987-1988. 

201-202 

Practice in oral and written expression, grammar 
review, readings, and discussions of Portuguese 
writing as contact with the culture of countries 
where Portuguese is spoken. Prerequisite: 
Portuguese 102 or its equivalent. Offered in 
1988-89. 



Theatre Arts— See English 



139 



Student Life 

The College recognizes that students develop not 
only intellectually, but emotionally, physically, 
socially, and spiritually as well. The Student Life 
Division, an administrative division within the 
College, has as its central purpose the provision 
of an environment, programs, and services 
which enhance the students' liberal education. 
Under the direction of the Dean of Student Life, 
the Office of Student Life, College Union, 
Intramurals/Recreation and Fitness, Greek Life, 
Counseling Services, Career Services, and 
Health Services together compose the Student 
Life Division. 

Office of Student Life 

The Office of Student Life strives to help students 
improve the quality of their lives outside of the 
classroom. This is accomplished by providing a 
variety of programs and services. The Office 
of Student Life staff assist students in the 
following areas: 

Information. Students require information about 
many opportunities available to them. The Office 
of Student Life answers student questions about 
the College, or, when appropriate, will refer 
students to the proper source for information. 

Advisement. Members of the Student Life staff 
work with various student organizations, 
providing them with guidance and training in 
leadership skills. 

Living Accommodations. The many 
opportunities for on-campus living are 
administered through the Office of Student Life. 
An undergraduate staff of residence coordinators 
and resident advisers is supervised by the 
Associate Dean. 

Change. Any healthy educational institution 
must continually undergo change. Students often 
provide the invaluable input which leads to 
change in policies, programs, and services. By 
working cooperatively with Student Life 
administrators, students have successfully 
initiated changes in residential options, dining 
options, informal educational programs, 
facilities, and numerous rules and regulations. 

Publications. On an annual basis, the Office of 
Student Life staff works with students in 
publishing the Student Handbook and Spectrum, 
the College yearbook. 

Research. In order to improve its services and 
programs, the Office of Student Life often 
collects data on student needs, attitudes, and 

142 



evaluations. Recently, research has been 
conducted on living accommodations, residence 
hall visitation options, dining plan options, and 
alcohol use. 

Discipline. The Dean of Student Life is 
responsible for the non-academic discipline of 
students. Staff members work with the faculty 
and student members of the Student Conduct 
Review Board to uphold the regulations of the 
College and to protect the rights of the 
individual. 

Residential Life 

Residential life at Gettysburg College has a major 
impact on the total development of the student. 
The residential environment (persons, policies, 
and facilities) promotes the formation of a 
community and encourages the styles of life 
which are conducive to the development of 
respect for the individual and the society in 
which the student lives. During a student's years 
at Gettysburg College, commitments are often 
made concerning personal values and 
occupational choices, role identities, the 
development of personal responsibility, and 
philosophy of life. The residential program 
attempts to provide opportunities for examining 
these areas of concern. 

Recognizing the impact of environment on 
development, Gettysburg College requires all 
students (unless married or residing with their 
families) to live on campus. Exemptions from 
this requirement are granted only by the 
Associate Dean of Student Life. Carefully 
selected student resident advisers and residence 
coordinators work closely with the students, 
assisting them in planning a variety of programs 
for the residence halls and helping them resolve 
problems in group living. These advisers 
participate in an on-going training program 
which enables them to help other students adjust 
to the environment. Students living in residence 
halls also have the opportunity to work with 
members of the faculty and administration in 
setting regulations which apply to all College 
residences. 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of options in 
living environments. The students can choose to 
live in one of ten residence halls varying in 
occupancy from 54 students to 158 students, and 
co-education and single sex halls. Each of the 
halls exercises a different visitation policy. The 
visitation policies are predetermined from the 
following options: 



Option A— Open Vistation from 10 A.M.-12 

midnight, Sunday through Thursday. 
10 A.M.-2 A.M., Friday and Saturday 

Option B— Open Visitation from 10 A.M. -12 

midnight, Sunday through Thursday. 
24 hours, Friday and Saturday 

Option C— Open Visitation, 24 hours, Sunday 
through Saturday. 

Another living opportunity exists in special 
interest housing for students who wish to live 
together and work on a project of mutual interest 
throughout the academic year. 

Also included as an optional living environment, 
is the opportunity for sophomore, junior, and 
senior men to live in a fraternity house on or 
near campus. 

Most of the student rooms are double 
occupancy; however, a few single rooms are 
available and some rooms are large enough for 
three or four people. Each student is provided 
with a single bed and mattress, a dresser, and a 
desk and chair. Students provide their own 
pillows, bedding, spreads, study lamps, and 
window curtains. Students may, through the 
Penn Linen & Uniform Service, Inc., rent linens 
for an annual fee; weekly laundry of the linen is 
included in the rental fee. Coin operated washers 
and dryers are available on the campus for 
student use. Each student room in residence 
halls has a telephone and cable TV service. The 
use of television sets and refrigeration units is 
permitted in student rooms; refrigeration units 
may have a capacity of not more than 3 cubic 
feet. Rental units are available. Cooking units are 
not permitted in student rooms. 

Greek Life 

Greek organizations have a long and rich 
tradition at Gettysburg College. The first 
fraternal organization was formed for men on 
campus in 1852. National sororities were first 
formed on campus in 1937. Currently, there are 
eleven social fraternities and seven social 
sororities. 

The fraternities, which have individual houses 
either on or near the campus, offer an alternative 
living option to their members. The sororities do 
not have houses but each has a chapter room in 
a central location which serves as a meeting and 
socializing place for the group. 

In addition to providing one social outlet for their 
members, Gettysburg's fraternities and sororities 
serve the campus and community with 



beautification campaigns, blood drives, 
Christmas parties for local children, and other 
philanthrophic activities. 

The goals of the Greek system are to instill in its 
individual members the qualities of good 
citizenship, scholarship, service, and respect for 
oneself and others. Any student interested in 
joining a Greek organization is required to have 
a2.0GPA. 

Dining Accommodations 

All freshmen and sophomores, with the 
exception of those living at home, are required to 
enroll in a College-approved dining option or to 
select one of the Student Life Dining options 
which include a variety of dining options in 
Gettysburg restaurants. Fraternity members and 
pledges may take their meals at fraternity 
houses. Juniors and seniors have the option of 
taking their meals in a College dining option or 
they may eat elsewhere. 

Student Conduct 

Every community has certain regulations and 
traditions which each member is expected to 
abide by and uphold. Perhaps a college campus 
community, even more than others, depends 
upon members who are mature and have a sense 
of responsibility. Only in such a community of 
responsible citizens can there be an atmosphere 
established which will contribute to the liberal 
arts education. 

Consequently, the student who fails to support 
the objectives of Gettysburg College forfeits his 
or her right to continue to attend the College. The 
College reserves the right to dismiss any student 
whose conduct is detrimental to its welfare or 
whose attitude is antagonistic to the spirit of its 
ideals. Such an individual forfeits all fees which 
he or she has paid. Living groups or 
organizations formally approved by the College 
are subject to the same regulations as individual 
students. 

Believing that it is sensible and proper for all 

students to be fully aware of their obligations 

and opportunities as Gettysburg College 

students, the College publishes a statement 

entitled, "The Rights and Responsibilities of 

Students." This document is the result of 

discussions and conclusions reached by a 

student-faculty-administrative committee. It 

deals with such questions as the academic, 

citizenship, and governance rights and 

responsibilities of students. It is published 

annually in the Student Handbook. 

143 



The Student Conduct Review Board handles 
student violations of College policies, including 
individual or group violations of College rules. In 
working to preserve the ideals and objectives of 
Gettysburg College, the Student Conduct Review 
Board wishes to emphasize that it does not 
necessarily stress the administration of 
punishment but rather the promotion of 
education. Gettysburg College, being a liberal 
arts institution, provides a learning experience 
both in and out of the classroom. By aiding and 
protecting this educational environment, the 
Student Conduct Board feels that it can help 
students realize their potential as mature 
responsible citizens. 

The Student Conduct Review Board consists of 
twelve student members, nine faculty members, 
plus the Provost of the College and the Dean of 
Student Life. Four of the student members shall 
be representatives from the Student Senate, the 
Interfraternity Council, the Panhellenic Council, 
and the residence halls. The eight remaining 
members shall be elected by the student body. 

Before a student decides to apply for entrance 
into Gettysburg College, he or she should be 
aware of the rules governing student conduct. A 
complete copy of the rules and regulations may 
be obtained by writing to the Dean of Student Life. 

College Union 

The College Union is the center of student 
activities and an informal laboratory for 
experiential learning. Through a myriad of 
services and activities, the Student Activities 
Council and College Union offers many 
opportunities for students to become involved in 
planning and participating in campus activities. 
Assistance with the development of 
interpersonal and leadership skills, as well as 
working with faculty, administrators, and 
students to initiate a well-balanced program of 
cultural, educational, recreational, and social 
activities are the priorities of the College Union 
staff. 

Located in the College Union are meeting rooms, 
offices for student organizations, recreational 
facilities, including a pool and bowling alley, the 
College Store, an art gallery and showcases, 
photo darkroom, and a 2,000 seat ballroom. The 
Bullet Hole (snackbar), which is student operated 
and managed, provides for the development of 
aspiring business managers while offering an 
outstanding service to the campus. The 
Gangplank is an informal gathering place for 
students to meet, relax, study, and listen to 

144 



music, both live and recorded. Pinball machines, 
billiards, electronic games, and a snackbar are 
all located here. This multipurpose room may be 
used for dances, speakers, small group 
discussions, movies, and theatrical 
performances. 

Among the many services provided by the 
professional and student staff of the College 
Union are: information about campus and 
community activities; film passes and ticket 
sales; camping equipment and bike rentals; 
travel information; photocopying, mimeo and 
sign press services; lost and found; and 
newspaper subscription services. 

Hours of Operation 

College Union 

Monday thru Friday 8 a.m. to midnight 

Saturday 8 a.m. to 1a.m. 

Sunday noon to midnight 

Gangplank 
Saturday thru Friday . . 10 a.m. to 11:30 p.m 
Sunday 2 p.m. to 11:30 p.m. 

The College Union Policy Board is the policy- 
making body for the College Union. The Policy 
Board deals with issues regarding scheduling, 
space allocation, house rules, and general 
policies and procedures for the College Union. 

While the facilities and services offered by the 
College Union contribute largely toward making 
it a comfortable place for students, the Student 
Activities Council (SAC), a student-run 
programming board, provides meaningful and 
enjoyable cultural, educational, recreational, and 
social activities which complement and 
challenge the curriculum at Gettysburg College. 
All such events are supported by student- 
controlled funds. SAC is composed of eight 
committees: Art Appreciation, Coffeehouse, 
Concert, Films, Gangplank, Ideas and Issues, 
Public Relations, and Special Events. 



Student Government 

Students participate in College governance by 
serving on various College, class, and faculty 
committees; through participation in Student 
Senate, class, residence hall, or fraternity 
meetings; and by exercising their right to vote in 
various campus elections. 

Student Senate 

Student chest funds are distributed to student 
organizations by the Student Senate. Currently 
the Senate provides financial support to a large 
number of exisiting clubs and organizations. 
New groups may be formed by interested 
students. The Student Senate, which is the 
principal unit of student government, works in 
cooperation with the administration and faculty 
to bring to the campus community a well- 
organized and democratic form of student 
government. It represents the students in 
formulating many College policies and works to 
promote cooperation among administration, 
faculty, and students. 

Student Life Council 

The Student Life Council is an organization 
composed of members of the student body, 
faculty, and College administration. This Council 
has responsibility for studying matters and 
developing policies pertaining to student life and 
student conduct. Business may be brought to the 
Council or legislation proposed by any member 
of the College community. Major issues are 
debated in Student Senate and in faculty 
meetings before resolution by the Council. The 
Council makes recommendations to the 
President, who accepts, rejects, or refers them to 
the Board of Trustees prior to implementation. 

The Honor Commission 

The Honor Commission is a student organization 
which is authorized by the constitution of the 
Honor Code. The Commission is composed of ten 
students, aided by four case investigators, six 
faculty advisers, and a member of the staff of 
the Office of Educational Services. Its function is 
to promote and enforce the Honor Code at 
Gettysburg College, to secure the cooperation of 
students and faculty to these ends, and to 
adjudicate allegations of Honor Code violations. 

Interfraternity Council 
An important part of the responsibility for 
governing fraternities at Gettysburg College is 
assumed by the Interfraternity Council, an 
organization composed of the President and one 
representative from each social fraternity. This 
Council formulates and administers general 
regulatory policies by which fraternities must 
abide. It serves as the representative of the 



social fraternal groups to the student body, the 
College, and the community of Gettysburg. 
During the school year the IFC sponsors a 
variety of campus social and social service 
activities. 

Panhellenic Council 

Important responsibility for governing the 
sorority system at Gettysburg College is 
assumed by the Panhellenic Council, to which 
each sorority sends two student representatives. 
This Council establishes and enforces the 
Panhellenic "rushing" regulations and functions 
as a governing body in matters involving 
sororities and intersorority relations. 

Programming and Student Activities 

In addition to the programs sponsored by the 
Student Activities Council and College Union 
staff, the College offers many other major 
activities which are sponsored by campus 
groups. Among these are the Lecture and 
Performing Arts Committee and Convocation 
Committee as well as various dramatic and 
musical organizations. 

The lecture program, sponsored by a faculty 
lecture and performing arts committee, brings 
well-known scholars and outstanding figures in 
public life to campus each year. In this way, the 
College extends the student's view beyond the 
confines of the College community. In addition to 
the general lecture series, the following special 
lectures are given regularly. 

The Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lectures An 
endowment provided by Clyde E. (1913) and 
Sara A. Gerberich supports a series of lectures 
and other programs in the Department of History. 
Each year an authority on the Civil War period 
has lectured on a topic related to those years. 
These public lectures are presented in November 
to coincide with the anniversary of Abraham 
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. 

Musselman Visiting Scientist A fund provided by 
the Musselman Foundation in honor of Dr. John B. 
Zinn, former Chairman of the Chemistry 
Department, supports an annual three-day visit 
by a renowned scientist to the Chemistry 
Department. 

Stuckenberg Lecture A bequest from Mary G. 
Stuckenberg in memory of her husband, the 
Rev. J. H. W. Stuckenberg, enables the College to 
sponsor a lecture in the area of social ethics. 

Bell Lecture A fund from the estate of the Rev. 
Peter G. Bell (1860) was given to the College to 
establish a lectureship on the claims of the 

145 



gospel ministry on college men. The main object 
of this fund is "to keep before the students of the 
College the demand for men of the Christian 
ministry and the condition of the age qualifying 
that demand." 

The Henry M. Scharf Lecture on Current 
Affairs A fund provided by Dr. F. William 
Sunderman (1919) in memory of Henry M. Scharf, 
alumnus and member of the College's Board of 
Trustees from 1969 to 1975, is used to bring a 
recognized authority or scholar to the campus 
each year to speak on a subject of timely 
interest. 



The College encourages students to experience 
and to participate in various performing arts and 
provides an opportunity for those with special 
talent to develop and share that talent. 

Faculty Lecture and Performing Arts 
Committee Each year recognized professional 
groups and individuals present to the campus 
performances of dance and drama, as well as 
vocal and instrumental music. 

The Gettysburg College Choir Internationally 
recognized through occasional European tours, it 
appears at special services and concerts on 
campus. Each year it makes a concert tour, 
presenting concerts in churches and schools. 
Choir members are selected on the basis of 
ability, interest, and choral balance. 

Chapel Choir During the year it performs at 
chapel services, special services, and concerts. 
Members are selected on the basis of ability and 
willingness to meet the rehearsal and service 
requirements. 

Band The "Bullet" Marching Band begins its 
season with a band camp in preparation for 
performances at football games, festivals, pep 
rallies, and parades. 

At the conclusion of the marching band season, 
the College Symphonic Band begins its 
rehearsals. In addition to home concerts, there is 
an annual tour through Pennsylvania and 
neighboring states. 

The offering of small ensembles remains a vital 
segment of the overall instrumental program. 
Clarinet choir, brass ensemble, jazz ensemble 
and others are open for membership to Band 
members and meet on a weekly basis. 

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Gettysburg College/Community Chamber 
Orchestra The Orchestra performs concerts 
throughout the academic year. Membership is 
open to all students who have the necessary 
proficiency. Auditions are held at the beginning 
of each school year. 

The Sunderman Chamber Music Concerts The 
Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation, 
established by Dr. F. William Sunderman (1919) 
to "stimulate and further the interest of chamber 
music at Gettysburg College," each year 
sponsors important campus performances by 
distinguished and internationally-recognized 
chamber music groups. 

The Owl and Nightingale Players Each year this 
distinguished group of performers stage three 
major productions under the leadership of the 
College's Director of Theatre. Their program is a 
varied one: each four-year season usually 
includes plays by Shakespeare, Shaw, Moliere, 
and O'Neill, as well as Broadway musicals and 
works by contemporary dramatists. All 
productions are offered in the handsome new 
245-seat Kline Theatre which features a thrust 
stage and is located in Brua Hall. 

Laboratory Theatre Lab Theatre produces a 
dozen one-act plays each year, many of which 
are frankly experimental and some of which are 
the work of campus playwrights. All works are 
given in the exciting new Stevens Laboratory 
Theatre in Brua Hall, where the seating can be 
rearranged to provide staging in the round, 
thrust, profile, and frontal. In addition, senior 
Theatre Arts students utilize the theatre for 
staging their major thesis productions. 

Otherstage In addition to sharing the facilities of 
the black box Stevens Theatre, this troupe 
performs its short plays at other areas both on 
campus and in the community. Their work 
encompasses Lunchtime Theatre, Street Theatre, 
and Children's Theatre. 

In each of the theatre groups, students are 
afforded the opportunity of gaining experience in 
all areas of theatre, from acting and directing to 
scene design, lighting, and costuming. 

Gettysburg Theatre Festival Now in its 
seventeenth season of offering cultural 
stimulation as well as refreshing entertainment 
to both campus and community, the Theatre, 
with its company of professional performers, 
provides the focus for the Theatre Practicum. 
This is a college credit course: students herein 
enrolled serve in supporting roles and assist in 
the technical aspects of the theatre's life. The 
company offers an interesting balance of modern 



classics, Broadway and Off-Broadway hits, and 
avant garde works not generally performed in 
summer theatre. All works are performed in the 
air-conditioned Kline Theatre. In addition, the 
company operates a Theatre for Children, which 
offers a series of hour-long plays for young 
people on the lawn adjacent to Brua Hall. 

Artist-in-Residence During the year, the College 
invites professional performing artists to the 
campus for one-month residencies. Drawn from 
music, theatre, and dance, the Artists-in- 
Residence work with interested and talented 
students in workshops as well as in rehearsals 
and, ultimately, in performance. 

Campus Communications 

Every community needs to keep its members in 
contact with each other and with the rest of the 
world. On the Gettysburg campus student 
communication media not only inform the 
members of the community, but also afford 
students an opportunity to express their ideas 
effectively and to learn the practical necessities 
of producing newspapers, radio broadcasts, 
magazines, and yearbooks. 

The Gettysburgian The College newspaper is 
staffed completely by students who are 
responsible for editing, feature writing, news 
writing, layout, personnel management, 
subscription management, and circulation. This 
weekly newspaper carries news, feature articles, 
and editorials concerning activities on and 
off campus. 

The Mercury The poems, short stories, and 
illustrations published in The Mercury are 
contributed by students. The student editorial 
staff encourages creative writing within the 
campus community. 

The Spectrum A pictorial essay of life on 
campus is featured in the College yearbook. 
Staffed by students, the yearbook offers the 
opportunity for creativity in design, layout, 
photography, and writing. The Spectrum covers 
the full academic year, including commencement 
weekend. It is mailed to graduating seniors 
and offered to underclassmen early in the 
fall semester. 

WZBT The College radio station (91.1 
megacycles) has been the voice of the campus 
for many years. WZBT operates as a 
noncommercial, educational FM radio station 
over the public airwaves and under FCC 
regulations. The station is student staffed and 
broadcasts a variety of programs from its fully 



equipped studios in the College Union. WZBT is 
organized like a professional radio station and 
offers positions for announcers, disc jockeys, 
newscasters, engineers, and music librarians, as 
well as jobs in production, continuity, and 
advertising. A student Executive Committee 
supervises the daily operation of the station, and 
a Board of Overseers composed of students, 
faculty members, and administrators, 
establishes general policy for the station. 

Other Activities 

Debating Union The Debating Union is committed 
to developing reasoning and argumentative 
skills through intercollegiate debate as well as 
through the sponsoring of campus forums and 
discussions. Student members offer workshops 
in reasoning and argument, and volunteer their 
services as moderators, devil's advocates, and 
discussion leaders for various campus 
organizations. 

Opportunities for students to pursue their special 
interests also exist through the long list of clubs 
and organizations on the campus. Among the list 
are BACCHUS, Chess Club, Minority Student 
Union, Outing Club, and Photo Club. Various 
other opportunities are available in Departmental 
and Professional Clubs and Honorary Societies. 

Counseling Services 

With the goal of promoting the emotional well- 
being of all members of the Gettysburg College 
community, the Counseling Services staff, 
located in the health center, offers a number of 
services and a wide variety of programs. These 
activities are concerned with helping students 
grow to become effective, self-directing adults, 
and with teaching them the skills necessary to 
deal with their personal problems and feelings so 
that they can benefit as much as possible from 
their educational experience. 

One of the services offered by the College's 
professional counselors is individual counseling. 
They work with students in a confidential 
relationship teaching them how to approach their 
problems and how to resolve them. Some of the 
types of things students talk to counselors about 
are their morals and values, academic pressure, 
study habits, concerns about their sexuality, 
relationship issues, problems with friends and 
roommates, their goals and plans, difficulties at 
home, feelings of depression and lack of 
motivation, and how to become the kind of 
person they want to be. While much counseling 
involves solving problems and changing, its 
focus is often simply helping a student to better 
understand himself or herself. 



147 



Counseling Services also offers a number of 
topic oriented group experiences which teach 
skills that students can use to improve their 
experiences on campus and to assist them when 
they leave Gettysburg. Group experiences that 
are regularly offered are designed to teach 
assertiveness skills, communication skills, 
relaxation, improve study habits, help in 
approaching eating disorders, build self-esteem 
and to cope with separation. Other group 
experiences are created based on campus need 
and interest. 

An audio and video tape library is available in 
the Counseling Office for students interested in 
self-help for a variety of interests. 

When appropriate, the Counseling Service also 
functions as an information and consulting 
service working with students and others on a 
variety of campus programs and projects to 
improve the environment. Members of the 
Counseling staff teach, conduct research, and 
work closely with faculty, administration, and 
parents on issues of student concern. 

Alcohol and Drug Education 

The College is significantly concerned with the 
rise in the use and abuse of alcohol and other 
drugs by young persons in our society. 
Accordingly we provide the campus community 
with a program of alcohol and drug education 
which includes prevention programming, help for 
problem users, support groups for recovering 
persons, and various awareness presentations. 
A trained Alcohol Education Coordinator is 
available to the campus community to develop 
and maintain appropriate educational programs 
and to counsel with individuals. 

All Counseling Service activities are free and 
available to Gettysburg College students. It is the 
Counseling staff's desire that their services 
complement the College's academic program and 
their hope that for many students they will be an 
integral part of their educational experience. 



Career Services 

The Career Services Office seeks to perform two 
primary functions: 1) to assist students in 
making and acting on career decisions: 2) to 
promote an awareness of Gettysburg College and 
a receptivity to Gettysburg students among 
individuals and organizations beyond the 
campus community. Relatedly, the office 
provides a diverse and comprehensive program 
to support students in planning and 
implementing the next step after graduation. 
Core group-based programs include the First 
Step Orientation Session, which focuses on the 
career decision-making process and the workshops 
on job hunting, resume writing, interviewing 
skills, and the graduate school selection process. 
Examples of additional programs designed to 
correspond to the various phases of the career 
development process (decision-making, 
planning, and placement) are workshops dealing 
with the process of making an effective 
transition to life after college and a Career Day 
during which students may receive information 
from representatives from a variety of career 
fields. Individual assistance is also available. 
Both group-based and individual help provided 
by Career Services are evaluated very favorably 
by student participants. 

The office also maintains a career library which 
includes employer literature, graduate school 
directories, and self-instructional materials. A 
special feature of this library is a series of taped 
interviews with Gettysburg alumni employed in a 
wide array of careers. These interviews convey 
both career information and suggestions for 
students interested in pursuing the type of 
work involved. 

Seniors may take advantage of interview 
opportunities provided by employer and 
graduate and professional school 
representatives who visit the campus annually. 

All students are encouraged to become involved 
with the Career Services Office early in their 
college careers in order to learn more about both 
the relationship between the liberal arts and 
career development and means of working 
toward a satisfying post-graduation 
involvement. More specifically, the following 
sequence of activities is recommended. During 
the freshman year, exposure to many aspects of 
the college experience, both academic and 
extracurricular, may be gained, and interests 
and skills may be expanded. The sophomore 
year represents a time for beginning the formal 
exploration process by learning more about both 
one's values, interests, and skills, and career 



148 



opportunities. The First Step Orientation Session 
is strongly recommended at this point. During 
the junior and senior years, career decisions 
should be made, and action plans for pursuing 
the desired goals should be developed and 
implemented. While this sequence is an ideal 
one, Career Services staff members are sensitive 
to other timetables which may exist for students 
based on individual differences. Consequently, 
assistance is available to students throughout 
their time at Gettysburg. 

Career Services also conducts a follow-up study 
of each graduating class to learn more about the 
members' post-graduate experiences. The most 
recent data provides information about the Class 
of 1985. Approximately 63% of the class 
responded to this survey. Of that group, 96% of 
those who were employed and 98% of those in 
graduate or professional school assigned 
positive ratings to the preparation they received 
at Gettysburg, while 90% of the employed group 
and 93% of the further education group 
expressed satisfaction with their current job or 
educational program. Members of the class 
pursued a wide range of post-college 
involvements including jobs such as accountant, 
teacher, management trainee, research 
technician, sales representative, assistant media 
planner, and mental health counselor, and 
further study in fields such as physical therapy, 
acting, law, theology, psychology, medicine, 
marine biology, chemistry, international 
relations, and business. Examples of 
organizations where graduates obtained 
employment are AT. & T., Arthur Andersen & 
Co., The Johns Hopkins University, Merrill 
Lynch, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 
New England Telephone, Westinghouse, and the 
Women's Equity Action League, and examples of 
educational institutions attended include 
Columbia University, Dickinson School of Law, 
Duke University, The London School of 
Economics, and University of Virginia. 



Health Service 

Gettysburg College maintains a Student Health 
Service to provide health care of good quality to 
students. Health education with a focus on 
wellness is emphasized. The staff is under the 
direction of a certified nurse practitioner and 
consists of a college physician, nurse 
practitioner, and registered nurses. The Student 
Health Service staff provides primary care for 
common illnesses and injuries as well as follow- 
up care for selected ongoing health problems. 
Twenty-four hour service is available during the 



school year. In addition to out-patient services, 
there are thirteen in-patient beds. 

A health record is maintained on each student. 
The health history and physical examination 
forms are required for each new student prior to 
registration. All students must have the 
following immunizations: 1) Tetanus 
immunization within 10 years; 2) Tuberculin skin 
test within 1 year; 3) Rubella (German measles) 
immunization or evidence of having had the 
disease; 4) Rubeola (measles) immunization or 
evidence of having had the disease. 

The contents of the health record are confidential 
and are not incorporated into the college record. 

Religious Life and Chapel Programs 

The Gettysburg College Chapel Programs offer 
students opportunities to grow in the 
understanding and practice of their own religious 
traditions, to appreciate the religious traditions 
of others, and to better understand and integrate 
the relationship between faith and reason. 
Completely voluntary, the Chapel Program 
attracts students and faculty members of 
various religious backgrounds, provides spiritual 
nurturing, and assists in the exploration of 
religious disciplines. 

Corporate worship is an important part of the 
Chapel offerings. Students from a variety of 
traditions join together in worship at Christ 
Chapel each Sunday. Led by the College 
Chaplains, the service often features noted 
speakers. The Chapel Choir offers anthems and 
liturgical music, and students often assist in the 
worship. In addition to the College Chaplains, a 
Roman Catholic priest is available to students 
and holds Mass each week. A Quaker service is 
held in the Planetarium on Sunday mornings. 
Students are also welcomed in the various 
churches of the Gettysburg community, and local 
ministers participate in Chapel worship through 
the year. Each Wednesday there is a Candlelight 
Communion Service in Christ Chapel. 

The Chapel Programs are coordinated by the 
Chapel Council— a voluntary group of students 
from all classes. Committees of the Chapel 
Council also include The Tutorial Program which 
arranges for students in local schools to be 
tutored by Gettysburg students; The Community 
Services Program which involves students in 
visitation to local homes for the aged and 
mentally handicapped; The Volunteers for Youth 
Program in the Gettysburg community; The 
Social Justice Committee which examines a 

149 



commitment to peace and human rights issues; 
The Worship and Music Committee which plans 
for services in Christ Chapel; The Lecture 
Committee which sponsors outstanding speakers 
and a Resident Theologian's visit each year. 
Leaven, a monthly newsletter about Christian 
existence in secular contexts, is a journal of the 
Chapel Council and is distributed to 
undergraduates and interested graduates. 

Other offerings of the Chapel Program include 
annual field trips to investigate the work of the 
Church in an urban setting and Awareness Trips 
jointly sponsored with the Sociology department. 
Recent trips have included visits to Appalachia 
and John's Island, South Carolina. 

Communities Of Risk— groups of up to ten 
students and a resource person— agree to meet 
for one overnight each week at the Dean's 
Conference House and explore more fully what it 
means to be human and in community. Search is 
a common interest group similar to COR but with 
the specific goal of examining Christian 
community. The Group is modeled after youth 
ministry programs and deals with various topics 
such as: current issues, Bible study, campus life 
and group events with Chapel and Catholic 
Councils. Pre-Seminary Students meet monthly 
to support each other while exploring the Church 
professions, thai is a common interest group for 
persons interested in Jewish culture and meets 
for social activities and a deeper appreciation of 
Judaism. The Catholic Community Council meets 
weekly to plan programs of interest to Catholic 
students. Also on campus, Inter-Varsity and 
Fellowship of Christian Athletes meet for 
fellowship and renewal. 

Through these programs— and those that evolve 
to continually meet the needs of the Gettysburg 
College community— and through the personal 
relationships established by the Chapel staff, the 
College provides an opportunity for the student 
who desires better to understand and to practice 
his or her religious commitments while attending 
Gettysburg. 

Athletics 

The College has an extensive program of 
intercollegiate and intramural athletics for men 
and women. It is possible for all students to 
participate in some supervised sport. For those 
with particular athletic skills and interest there 
are the varsity teams. For others there is the 
opportunity to participate in the intramural 
program, for which competitive teams are 
organized from fraternities, residence halls, and 
other groups. The possession of a College 

150 



identification card guarantees free admission to 
all intercollegiate contests. 

Intercollegiate Athletics Gettysburg College 
maintains membership in the National Collegiate 
Athletic Association, the Eastern Collegiate 
Athletic Conference, and the Middle Atlantic 
State Collegiate Athletic Conference. In football, 
Gettysburg participates in the Centennial 
Football Conference, which includes Dickinson, 
Franklin and Marshall, Johns Hopkins, 
Muhlenberg, Swarthmore, Western Maryland, 
and Ursinus. 

The intercollegiate program includes teams for 
men, teams for women, and athletic teams for 
which both men and women are eligible. The 
breakdown is as follows: 



Fall 







All 


Men 


Women 


Students 


Football 


Field Hockey 


Bowling 
(Club) 


Soccer 


Volleyball 




Cross Country 


Cross Country 




Rugby (Club) 


Soccer (Club) 




Basketball 


Basketball 




Swimming 


Swimming 




Wrestling 






Baseball 


Lacrosse 


Golf 


Lacrosse 


Softball 




Tennis 


Tennis 




Track and 


Track and 




Field 


Field 





Winter 



Spring 



Intramurals, Recreation & Fitness For those who 
are interested in both competitive and 
non-competitive leisure activities, but do not 
have the ability or inclination to participate 
intercollegiately, there is an Intramural, 
Recreation and Fitness (IRF) program on 
campus. 

With an underlying mission of "something for 
everyone," the IRF program is designed to create 
a large number of leisure opportunities to satisfy 
various levels of skills. 

Competitive team sports offered at the College 
include: Softball, Flag Football, Floor Hockey, 
Innertube-water-polo, Basketball, Innertube- 
water-basketball, Volleyball, Indoor Soccer, and 
Ultimate Frisbee. 

Apart from the competitive team sports are the 
individual and dual events. They entail: Tennis, 
Badminton, Frisbee Golf, Platform Tennis, Ten 
Mile Triathlon, Free Throw Contest, One-On-One 
Basketball, Table Tennis, Bowling, Frisbee 
Contest, and Horseshoe Pitching. 

For the fitness enthusiast, IRF sponsors a 
number of sport clubs that are guaranteed to get 



you in shape; i.e., Karate, rugby, gymnastics, ice 
hockey, skiing and the outdoor club. Noonercise 
and evening aerobics are also very popular 
activities for both men and women alike. 

The IRF office issues a booklet detailing the 
procedures, rules, times and places of all events 
throughout the year. All students are invited to 
participate in the IRF program. 

Academic Services and Information 

The Office of the Dean of Educational Services, 
located in Pennsylvania Hall, is involved with 
many of the academic situations which students 
encounter. Academic deficiencies and student 
petitions to the Academic Standing Committee 
are processed by this office. Working in 
conjunction with the individual student's adviser, 
the Deans assist students in making educational 
plans and solving academic problems. In 
addition, the freshman orientation and advising 
programs are administered by this office. 

The Provost of the College, whose office is also 
in Pennsylvania Hall, handles matters pertaining 
to faculty and academic programs. The 
Associate Dean of the College supplies 
information concerning medical and dental 
school admission requirements and affirmative 
action. The Registrar maintains information 
about study abroad opportunities. 

Intercultural Advancement 

The focus of the Division of Intercultural 
Advancement is a coordination of college efforts 
toward increasing cultural and racial diversity. 
The staff provides the professional expertise 
required to plan, institute, and evaluate the 
various undertakings at the College to expand an 
environment where multiple cultures flourish. 

The Assistant Dean of Intercultural Education 
is responsible for the coordination of admissions 
recruitment and academic advisement of 
minority students. In addition, instructional 
support is provided to faculty concerning African 
American curricula. 

The Developmental Education Specialists in 
English and mathematics tutor students as 
requested. They also encourage minority 
students to achieve academic excellence by 
furnishing guides on study skills, time 
management and interpersonal relations. 

The Division is responsible for the Louis Eugene 
King national competitions that are held annually 



recognizing outstanding minority students at 
the secondary level. Guidance is proved to the 
King Scholars in their pursuit of independent 
research while enrolled at Gettysburg College. 
Special support is provided to the Fellow-in- 
Residence for completion of his/her doctoral 
dissertation during a one year appointment. 
All members of the campus community are 
encouraged to engage in intercultural activities 
sponsored and/or co-sponsored by the Division, 
academic departments, and the Black Student 
Union. Resource materials are available upon 
request concerning people of African descent, 
Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Native 
Americans. 

Financial Aid 

Details about Financial Aid procedures are found 
in the Student Financial Aid section of this 
catalogue. 

Facilities 

Gettysburg College has a 200 acre campus with 
44 buildings that provide excellent facilities for 
all aspects of the College programs. These 
buildings range from the original College 
building, Pennsylvania Hall (Old Dorm), 
constructed in 1837 and listed on the National 
Register of Historic Places, to the modern 
Musselman Library/Learning Resources Center 
that was cited for its excellent design by the 
American Institute of Architects. 

Academic Facilities 

The Library The College library collection is 
housed in the Musselman Library/Learning 
Resources Center, completed in 1981, and in two 
departmental libraries, Chemistry in 
Breidenbaugh Hall and Physics in Masters Hall. 
Total collections are approximately 300,000 
volumes, 22,000 microforms, 32,000 
governmental publications, 11,500 records, and 
extensive slide, filmstrip, and other audio-visual 
media. The library subscribes to 1,300 journals. 
An automated system provides users with 
enhanced access to the library catalog through 
computer terminals. 

A Guide to Musselman Library is a booklet 
available in the library which outlines library 
hours, service, usage, etc. Those using the 
library should review this publication. 

The College's library uses the Interlibrary 
Delivery Service which allows Gettysburg 
College to borrow materials quickly from 130 
academic and research libraries. The library also 
maintains cooperative arrangements with the 
Associated College Libraries of Central 



151 



Pennsylvania, PALINET (Pennsylvania Library 
Network), and the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium. Faculty and students are 
encouraged to use these extended services. 

Classrooms, Laboratories The following 
classroom and laboratory facilities serve the 
College. 



Non-Science Facilities 






Academic 


Special 


Building 


Departments 


Features 


Brua Hall 


Theater Arts and 


Kline Theatre 




Speech 


Stevens 

Laboratory 

Theatre 


Glatfelter Hall 


Computer Studies 


Computer Center 




Economics 


Microcomputer 




English 


Laboratory 




Management 






Mathematics 






and Religion 




McKnight Hall 


French 
German 
and Spanish 




Schmucker Hall 


Art and Music 


Studios and Recital 
Hall 


Weidensall Hall 


Classics 
Education 
History and 
Philosophy 




West Building 


Military Science 




White House 


Political Science 




Science Facilities 






Academic 


Special 


Building 


Departments 


Features 


Breidenbaugh 


Chemistry 




Masters 


Physics 


Hatter Planetarium 
with Spitz A3P 
planetarium 
projector in a 
30-foot dome 


McCreary 


Biology 


Electron 




Psychology 


Microscopes 




Sociology and 


Greenhouse 



Anthropology 
Observatory Sixteen-inch 

Cassegrain 
telescope 
Computer Center The Computer Center is located 
in a separately air-conditioned area in Glatfelter 
Hall and contains a Burroughs 5920 computer 
available to faculty and students for education 
and research needs. Priority is given to students 
enrolled in courses that require use of the 
computer and to faculty and students engaged in 
research. 

Microcomputer Laboratory The Microcomputer 
Laboratory is located in a large, air-conditioned 
room. This facility houses over 30 
microcomputers, representing Apple and IBM- 
compatible architecture, as well as printers and 

152 



other display devices. The lab is used for 
instructional purposes. It is also available for 
student use seventy hours per week. 
Supplementing the lab is an extensive library of 
applications software. 

Connecting Individual Microcomputers to 
Mainframe While there are a few dial-up ports 
utilizing standard RS232 protocol, owners of 
Zenith 150 systems or other IBM-PC look-alikes 
may obtain a terminal emulator and hardware to 
permit direct attachment to the Burroughs 5920. 
In this mode, no modem is required, higher 
speeds are supported and so is bi-directional file 
transfer. 

Athletic Facilities 

Eddie Plank Memorial Gymnasium, Hen Bream 
Gymnasium, and John A. Hauser Fieldhouse 
contain the College's indoor athletic facilities. 
These facilities include seven regulation 
basketball courts, four indoor tennis courts, and 
a 1/11 mile Chem-turf track. In addition there is a 
swimming pool of Olympic dimensions in the 
College Union Building which is used for varsity 
swimming competition and intramural and 
recreation swimming. 

There are several athletic field areas: Musselman 
Stadium, which contains a football field and a 
quarter-mile cinder track; a baseball field west of 
the stadium; two areas for soccer and lacrosse; 
Memorial Field, adjacent to Eddie Plank 
Gymnasium for women's field hockey and 
lacrosse; a women's softball field, and the 
intramural areas which contain eight tennis 
courts, soccer, football, and hockey fields. 

Fourteen intercollegiate tennis courts are also 
available. 

Student Services 

Located near to the residence halls are the 
College Union Building, the Sieber-Fisher Health 
Center, and Christ Chapel. 

Administrative Offices 

Pennsylvania Hall, the original College building, 
after complete renovation, now provides modern 
offices and facilities for administrative 
personnel. The Admissions Office is housed in 
the Dwight David Eisenhower House, which 
served as the office of General Dwight D. 
Eisenhower during his years in Gettysburg. 

Other Facilities 

On the campus is the home of the College 
President. College maintenance services are 
centered in the West Building. On the northern 
portion of the campus is the Dean's Conference 
House, which is used for small group meetings. 



Admission Policy 

Gettysburg College students come from a wide 
variety of backgrounds and secondary school 
programs. The College encourages applications 
from students of differing ethnic, religious, 
racial, economic, and geographic settings. 

The Admissions Staff encourages applications 
from students who have demonstrated a 
capacity for academic achievement, 
responsiveness to intellectual challenge, 
eagerness to contribute their special talents to 
the College community, and an awareness of 
social responsibility. Such persons give promise 
of possessing the ability and the motivation 
which will enable them to profit from the many 
opportunities that the College offers. 

Since the competition for admission is very 
competitive, the Admissions Staff gives careful 
consideration to each application. Its decision is 
based on three categories of evidence described 
below. 

Evidence of high academic attainment as 
indicated by the secondary school record The 
College considers grades in academic courses, 
distribution of subjects, and rank in class as 
highly significant parts of the applicant's 
credentials. Participation in accelerated, 
enriched, and advanced placement courses is 
desirable. The College regards superior facility in 
the use of the English language and an 
understanding of fundamental mathematical 
processes as essential to a successful college 
experience. It also assumes graduation from an 
approved secondary school. 

Evidence of ability to do high quality college 
work as indicated by aptitude and achievement 
test results The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) 
of the College Entrance Examination Board or the 
test results of the American College Testing 
program are required of all candidates. The 
College prefers that the SAT be submitted. 
Applicants submitting the SAT should ensure the 
reporting of the subscore of the Test of Standard 
Written English (TSWE), since those results are 
used for placement purposes in English (see p. 
36). Achievement tests are suggested but not 
required to complete an application. 

Evidence of personal qualities There is high 
interest in individuals of character who will 
contribute in a meaningful way to the college 
community. Such contributions should be 
appropriate to the talents of each student 
whether these be leadership in campus 
programs, involvement in the welfare of others, 



expression of artistic creativity, or the quiet 
pursuit of scholarly excellence. In estimating 
such qualities, the College relies on what 
students say about themselves; the confidential 
statements from secondary school principals, 
headmasters, and guidance counselors; and on 
personal appraisals by its alumni and friends. 
Essentially, any evidence of in-depth 
involvement in secondary school activities 
and/or participation in community affairs 
(especially volunteer services) is favorably 
considered in the final decision-making process. 

Admission Procedure 

The student interested in Gettysburg College 
should submit an application during the fall of 
his or her senior year and no later than February 
15. A nonrefundable fee of $25 must be sent with 
the application. Although not required, a visit to 
the campus and an interview with a member of 
the Admissions Staff is strongly urged. A student 
considering a major in art, music, or physical 
education should make his or her interest known 
when requesting an interview, so that 
arrangements can be made for an appointment 
with a member of the department concerned. 
Seniors should plan their visits before February 
1 and juniors, after April 1. 

Offers of Acceptance 

The Early Decision Plan The student with a 
strong record through the junior year of 
secondary school who has decided on 
Gettysburg College as the college of his or her 
first choice, may submit an application for Early 
Decision acceptance. The application will be 
considered between November 15 and February 1 
of the senior year. Those students accepted 
under this program are obligated to enroll at 
Gettysburg College and to withdraw applications 
submitted to other institutions. Notification of 
the decision on admission will be made between 
December 15 and February 15. Payment of a 
nonrefundable advance fee of $200 is required to 
validate this offer of acceptance. 

The Early Decision applicant should take the 
Scholastic Aptitude Test in the junior year. 
However, scores from the November testing date 
of the senior year may also be considered. Those 
students submitting applications for Early 
Decision who are not offered acceptance at that 
time will automatically be considered for 
admission under the Regular Decision Plan upon 
receipt of subsequent grades and test scores 
from the senior year. 



154 



The Regular Decision Plan To be assured of 
maximum consideration, students must present 
applications by February 15. Most offers of 
acceptance will be announced by the first week 
in April after the receipt of November, December, 
or January Scholastic Aptitude Test results and 
senior year first semester grades. College 
Entrance Examination Board tests taken prior to 
the senior year may be used to satisfy test 
requirements. 

Payment of a nonrefundable advance fee of $200 
is required to validate this offer of acceptance. 
Since Gettysburg College subscribes to the 
principle of the Candidate's Reply Date, the 
student has until May 1 to make his or her 
decision and pay the advance fee. 

Students offered acceptance under either plan 
are expected to maintain their academic record, 
pass all their senior courses, and earn a 
secondary school diploma. 

Admission with Advanced Credit and Placement 

Students who have taken college-level courses in 
secondary school and wish to be considered for 
advanced credit or placement must take 
Advanced Placement Tests of the College 
Entrance Examination Board. All entering 
students who submit a score of four or higher on 
these tests shall receive two course credits for 
each tested area toward the 35-course 
graduation requirement with the exception of the 
Mathematics Calculus AB examination, for which 
one course credit shall be given. Students 
submitting a score of three may receive, at the 
discretion of the appropriate department, one 
course credit or advanced placement. Students 
who have completed advanced level or honors 
courses may be considered for advanced 
placement. 

Those high school students who have taken 
regular courses at the college level in regionally 
approved junior or senior colleges may receive 
credit for these courses if no duplication of high 
school units and college credits is involved. This 
credit must be approved by the chairperson of 
the academic department involved. 

See the section on Residence Requirements and 
Schedule Limitations for information about the 
planning of the academic program of students 
who plan to complete their graduation 
requirements in less than four full years. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

A transfer student may be admitted at the begin- 
ning of any semester. He or she must present a 
regular application, including secondary school 



records and College Entrance Examination Board 
Test results and an official transcript from all 
colleges and universities attended. All transfer 
students must be entitled to an honorable 
dismissal without academic or social probation 
from the college from which they transfer 
and must be recommended for transfer by the 
Dean of the College previously attended. A 
transfer candidate is expected to visit the 
campus for an interview. 

Gettysburg College requires sound academic 
performance in previous college work for 
students who seek admission as a transfer 
student. Credit is granted for individual courses 
passed with a grade of C or better at approved 
institutions, provided that these courses fit 
reasonably well into the Gettysburg curriculum. 
Academic credit for courses transferred is 
granted tentatively until the student has 
satisfactorily completed one year of work at 
Gettysburg College. All transfer students must 
satisfy all requirements for the degree for which 
they are candidates. 

Admission as a Special Student 

A high school graduate, not a candidate for a 
degree, may apply for admission as a 
nonmatriculated student. Normally, such a 
student may enroll in a maximum of two 
courses. Permission to take more than two 
courses must be secured from the Provost. 

Taking courses as a special student requires 
permission of the instructors of the courses 
involved, as well as filing an application for 
special student status with the Admissions 
Office. A special student who may later wish to 
become a candidate for a degree must submit an 
application under regular admissions 
procedures. Special students have the same 
classroom duties and privileges as regular full- 
time students, but no promise is made in 
advance that the special student will be admitted 
as a candidate for the degree. 

Comprehensive Academic Fee Plan 

Gettysburg College charges a comprehensive 
academic fee covering the two semesters of the 
academic year. NOT included in this fee are 
books and supplies, some private lessons in 
music, and optional off-campus courses. 

Payment of the comprehensive fee entitles a 
student to register for and receive a grade in a 
total of 36 course credits and in the required 
quarter courses in Health and Physical 
Education. A student may enroll in five courses 



155 



during any semester and may do so (without an 
extra charge) during half of the semesters in 
which he/she is enrolled. Three required HPE 
quarter courses may be taken without charge at 
any time. Transfer students may enroll in five 
courses at no extra charge during half the 
semesters in which they enroll at Gettysburg. 

The fee applies to each full-time student. For 
purposes of the comprehensive academic fee a 
full-time student is one registering for at least 
three but not more than five courses per 
semester (except for required HPE quarter 
courses). Any additional course registration 
beyond five requires additional charges of $920 
per full course or $230 per quarter course. 
Majors in Health and Physical Education and 
Music may take some quarter courses above the 
five course limit at no additional charge (see the 
departmental listings for details). 



Comprehensive Academic Fee 

1987-88 

Board 

College Dining Hall (21 meals per week) 

Room Rents 

Costs for all College living facilities 

Single rooms 

Apartment 



$10,840 



$1,530 

$1,510 
$1,770 
$1,740 

Estimate of Total Expense for an Academic Year 

Comprehensive Academic Fee $10,840 

Board $1,530 

Residence Hall Room $1,510 

Books and Supplies $400 

$14,280 

This tabulation does not include personal 
expenses such as clothing, laundry, spending 
allowances, fraternity dues, and transportation. 
College Store 

Since the College Store is operated on a cash or 
charge basis, students may charge up to $500 
each semester to purchase books and supplies. 
Charges must be paid within 30 days. 
Unpaid College Store charges will be added to 
the student's account receivable and subject 
to a 1% late payment charge. 
Special Student Fees 

Any student who is not a candidate for a degree 
will be charged at the rate of $920 per course 
or $230 per quarter course. Part-time matriculated 
student fee is $1,200 per course. 

Payment of Bills 

Checks should be made payable to Gettysburg 
College and sent to the Accounting Office, 
Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 17325-1483 
by the dates outlined below. 

156 



The College operates academically with a two- 
semester calendar, and divides the student's 
charges into half-year billings; the first due and 
payable on AUGUST 1 and the second due and 
payable DECEMBER 1. Each student candidate for 
a degree will be billed for one-half of the yearly 
comprehensive academic fee, room rent, and 
board charges before the beginning of the fall 
and spring semesters. Special students will be 
billed on a per course or quarter course basis 
and for room and board, if applicable, before the 
beginning of each of the two semesters. 
DELINQUENT ACCOUNTS WILL BE SUBJECT TO A 
LATE PAYMENT CHARGE AT THE RATE OF 1% 
PER MONTH. This late charge will be waived for 
Guaranteed Student Loan amounts processed by 
the College prior to due dates for payments. 
Students and parents are responsible for 
collection costs on any accounts placed for 
collection. 

The advance payment of $200 made under either 
the early or regular acceptance plans is credited 
to the reserve deposit account. While the student 
is enrolled, this non-interest bearing account 
remains inactive. The reserve deposit is 
activated after the student graduates or 
withdraws from school. At that time, reserve 
deposit funds are transferred to the student's 
account receivable to satisfy any unpaid bill 
including: room damage, fines, lost library 
books, NSF checks, unpaid phone bills, unpaid 
College Store charges, etc. If, after applying the 
reserve deposit to the student's account a credit 
balance exists it will be refunded or credited 
against a College Loan. 

Every continuing student in the College is 
required to pay $200 by March 15. This amount is 
deducted from the student's first semester 
College bill. No refunds of this fee will be made 
after the date of Spring Registration. 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 

Gettysburg College has made arrangements with 
the Veterans Administration whereby children of 
veterans attending College under the provisions 
of Public Law 634 are eligible to receive monthly 
payments from the Veterans' Administration in 
accordance with the scale established by the 
law. Students requiring any forms to be 
completed by the College concerning such 
benefits should contact the Office of the 
Registrar. 

Insured Tuition Plan 

An Insured Tuition Payment Plan is usually a 
combination of a prepayment installment plan 
covering four years of College expenses and an 
insurance policy guaranteeing payment for 



completion of the four years in the event of the 
death or total disability of the person financing 
the student's education. 
There are a number of Tuition Payment Plans 
(some with insurance and some without). The 
College is the most familiar with the plan of the 
Richard C. Knight Insurance Agency, Inc., 53 
Beacon Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02108. In 
addition, there are others such as: The Tuition 
Plan, Inc., Concord, New Hampshire 03301 and 
Academic Management Services, 1110 Central 
Avenue, Pawtucket, Rhode Island 02861. 

Parents should write directly to such 
organizations. The Director of Admissions 
generally mails out plan information about these 
plans to all new students around June 1st of 
each year. 

Board 

Junior and senior students may choose to take 
their meals in the Dining Hall on an individual 
meal or semester basis or to eat elsewhere. All 
fraternity members and pledges may choose to 
take their meals in the fraternity house. All other 
students except those living at home must take 
their meals regularly in the College Dining Hall 
on a semester basis, and participate in the full 
board plan, unless approval is granted by the 
Dean of Student Life to participate in special 
meal options other than the College Dining Hall. 

Housing Policy 

All freshman men and women are expected to 
room in the College's residence halls and 
preference is given them in securing dormitory 
space. Fraternity housing is available to 
students following the freshman year. When the 
residence halls have been filled, permission for 
off-campus housing may be granted to a limited 
number of students who have applied through a 
procedure administered by the Dean of Student 
Life. Students who have withdrawn from the 
College and are approved for readmission are 
expected to occupy any vacancy which may 
exist in a College residence hall. 

Refund Policy 

Board 

If a student withdraws for any reason at any 
time, the unused portion of the half-year bill paid 
for board will be refunded on a pro-rated basis 
from the date of withdrawal to the end of the 
half-year billing period, based on the date when 
the Dining Hall sticker or card is returned to the 
Business Office. 



Comprehensive Academic Fee and Room Rental 

One hundred dollars of any comprehensive 
academic fee or room rental paid by a student 
shall be non-refundable regardless of the time of 
withdrawal, except upon request in the case of 
students required to withdraw for academic 
reasons, and in the case of those advised to 
withdraw who do so prior to the beginning of the 
subsequent semester. 

Date of withdrawal will be the date the student 
has filed the completed withdrawal form with the 
Office of the Dean of Student Life. 

Withdrawal Because of Serious Illness or 
Withdrawal of Student with Guaranteed Loan 

A student who withdraws because of the 
student's serious illness and/or has a 
Guaranteed Student Loan guaranteed by a 
federal, state, or private agency will be entitled 
to a refund of comprehensive academic fee and 
room rental based on the following schedule 
applied to the half-year bill in question. 

One week or less 90% refund 

Two weeks or more than one week 80% refund 

Three weeks or more than two weeks 60% refund 

Four weeks or more than three weeks 40% refund 

Five weeks or more than four weeks 20% refund 

More than five weeks but less than 

one-half of the period covered by 

the half-year bill 10% refund 

More than one half of the period covered 

by the half-year bill No Refund 

Voluntary Withdrawal 

A student who voluntarily withdraws by October 
5 of the fall semester or by February 15 of the 
spring semester is entitled to a 25% refund of 
tuition for that semester's billing. 

Required Withdrawal for Disciplinary Reasons 

A student who is required to withdraw for 
disciplinary reasons will forfeit all fees (except 
board, if refund requirements are met) which he 
or she has paid. 

Unused portion of respective half-year bills for 
comprehensive fee, room, and board will be 
refunded if academic withdrawal is required at 
the end of any semester provided the student 
follows all procedures for obtaining refunds. 

If a student or the student's parents or guardian 
feel that the individual circumstances of the 
student warrant an exception to the refund 
policy, an appeal may be made to the Treasurer, 
Gettysburg College. 



157 



Reduction of financial aid obligations and advances 
will receive priority in the payment of refund. The 
unused reserve deposit balance will be refunded 
within 8 weeks of the student's graduation or 
withdrawal, provided that the student has no 
outstanding loans or debts to the institution. 

Accident Insurance 

Each student as a consequence of his or her 
payment of the Comprehensive Academic Fee, 
receives coverage under an accident insurance 
policy with a $1000 limit. Information concerning 
the coverage provided by this insurance is made 
available at the time of registration or in 
advance if requested. 

Personal Property Insurance 

The College does not carry insurance on 
personal property of students and is not 
responsible for the loss or damage of such 
property. 

Student Financial Aid 

Although charges made by colleges and 
universities have risen sharply in recent years, 
the fact remains that in most institutions the fees 
paid by a student or a student's parents cover 
only a portion of the total cost of a student's 
education. In private institutions the remainder 
comes from endowment income and from gifts 
from sources such as alumni, businesses, 
foundations, and churches. 

Gettysburg College recognizes the primary 
responsibility of the student and his or her 
parents to provide as much as possible toward 
the total cost of the student's college education. 
Since an education is an investment which 
should yield lifelong dividends, a student should 
be prepared to contribute to it from his or her 
own earnings, both before entering and while in 
college. 

Gettysburg College has a program of financial 
aid for worthy and promising students who are 
unable to finance their education from personal 
and/or family resources. Access to such aid is 
considered a privilege, not a right. The 
qualifications for assistance, in addition to need, 
are academic ability, academic achievement, and 
promise of contribution as a student and citizen. 
The amount of aid in any particular case is 
based upon the financial need of the student. 

The College participates in the College 
Scholarship Service and requires all applicants 
to file both Side I and Side II of the Financial Aid 
Form. All Financial Aid Forms should be sent to 



the College Scholarship Service, Box 2700, 
Princeton, New Jersey 08541. The College also 
requires that a notarized or certified copy of the 
parents' most recent U.S. Individual Income Tax 
Return (Form 1040) be sent directly to the Office 
of Financial Aid at Gettysburg College. 
Applicants for admission need not send the IRS 
Form 1040 in order to receive consideration for 
financial aid unless specifically requested. This 
form, however, must be submitted when the 
student enrolls at the College (May 1). 

A prospective student seeking financial aid 
should forward both Side I and Side II of the 
Financial Aid Form to the College Scholarship 
Service as soon as possible after applying for 
admission, but no later than February 1. A 
student already enrolled who has previously had 
some form of aid should secure a renewal 
application from the Office of Financial Aid and 
should request his or her parents to complete 
this form. The renewal application should be 
forwarded to the College Scholarship Service no 
later than February 10. 

Financial aid is awarded in the form of grants, 
loans, or a combination of these. All financial aid 
awards are made for one year only. The Director 
will consider a request for renewal and will act 
on the basis of the applicant's record as a 
student and campus citizen as well as his or her 
continuing financial need. 

Applications for financial aid, of those students 
who demonstrate financial need, are reviewed to 
determine eligibility for the following forms of 
assistance available from Gettysburg College. 

Presidential Grant— awarded to entering 
freshmen with exceptional academic ability, 
outstanding academic achievement, and superior 
promise of contribution as a student and campus 
citizen. 

Gettysburg College Grant— awarded to students 
who, in addition to financial need, evidence good 
academic ability and academic achievement, and 
give promise of contribution to the College's 
extracurricular program. These grants are 
renewable as long as the recipient continues to 
demonstrate need, participate in his or her 
extracurricular activity, and maintains a sound 
academic record. Normally, such grants are 
combined with loans and/or student employment 
in order to meet the student's financial need. In 
cases of students who demonstrate exceptional 
talent, skills, and abilities, need may be satisfied 
entirely with grant funds. 



158 



Lutheran College Grant— awarded to Lutheran 
students. In addition to financial need, 
consideration is given to academic ability and 
achievement. 

Louis Eugene King Grants— awarded to entering 
minority freshmen who have exceptional 
academic ability and achievement in at least one 
of the areas of fine arts, leadership, or 
community service. King Grant recipients will 
normally receive the majority of financial aid in 
the form of a grant. Students who do not 
demonstrate financial need but meet other 
criteria may receive the minimum award of $100. 

Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant— a 
grant program funded by the federal government 
and administered by the College. The program is 
designed to assist students from low-income 
families. 

Gettysburg College Loan— a loan program made 
available by Gettysburg College. 

Perkins-National Direct Student Loan— a loan 
program funded by the federal government and 
administered by the College. 

College Work-Study Program— an employment 
program funded by the federal government and 
the College. 

Grants need not be repaid; but the College hopes 
that recipients will recognize that they have 
incurred an obligation and will therefore 
subsequently contribute as they can to help 
insure that the benefits which they enjoyed will 
be available to others. 

Approximately thirty-three percent of the 
students receive financial assistance in some 
form from the College. About sixty-five percent 
of the Gettysburg College student body receives 
aid from the College or other sources. 

Rules governing all types of financial aid are 
stated in the Financial Aid Agreement that is 
enclosed with the Notification of Financial Aid. 



Endowed Scholarships (Grants-in-aid) Student Aid 

All students who apply for financial assistance 
and are determined to have financial need will be 
considered for these scholarships (grants-in-aid). 
Recipients are selected by the College. 

Though the College administers scholarships 
restricted to members of a particular sex, the 
discriminating effect of these awards has been 
eliminated in the overall administration of the 
financial aid program through use of other funds 
made available by the College. 



Frederic S. Almy, Sr. Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund created by his son in 
memory of a man who did not have the 
opportunity to attend college, for a deserving 
and financially needy student. 

777e Alumni Fund: The income from a fund 
established by the alumni for needy and 
deserving students with preference given to 
children of alumni. 

Ruth C. Apple Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established in honor of their mother 
by members of the Apple family of Sunbury, 
Pennsylvania, to be awarded to promising but 
needy students with a preference to those from 
Snyder, Union or Northumberland Counties in 
Pennsylvania, especially those with skills and 
aspirations in the performing arts. 

Richard A. Arms Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by the Class of 1924 in 
memory of the Chairman of the Mathematics 
Department (1920-1963) is awarded to a worthy 
student. 

Dr. Joseph B. Baker (1901) and Rena L Baker 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
donated by the Woman's General League of 
Gettysburg College is given to a needy and 
deserving student in the Music Department. 

Dr. Ray Alfred Barnard (1915) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund provided by Dr. 
Barnard is given to a male student from the 
Central Pennsylvania Synod who is preparing for 
the Lutheran ministry. 

The Rev. Sydney E. Bateman (1887) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from the fund is awarded to a 
needy ministerial student. 

Admiral William W. Behrens, Jr. Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established by 
Mrs. William W. Behrens, Jr. is awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Belt Hess-Quay Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund provided by Effie E. Hess Belt (1898) 
in commemoration of several relatives is 
awarded as follows: first preference is given to a 
member of Grace Lutheran Church, Westminster, 
Maryland; second preference to any other 
resident of Carroll County, Maryland, who is 
pursuing theological studies at the College; and 
third preference is given to any deserving 
student. 

Helen A. and James B. Bender Scholarship 
Fund: The income from the fund is granted on 
the basis of need and ability, preference being 
given to residents of Adams County, 



159 



Pennsylvania, majoring in Economics and/or 
Management. 

Jesse E. Benner (1907) and Minerva B. Benner 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a bequest is 
used to aid worthy students, preferably 
preministerial students. 

Burton F. Blough Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by a former trustee is 
used to aid needy and deserving students. 

Jean Aument Bonebrake Presidential Scholarship 
Fund: A fund established by Roy Bonebrake 
(1928) in memory of his wife, the income of 
which shall be awarded to promising and worthy 
students in need of scholarship aid, with 
preference given to students who possess 
exceptional academic abilities and outstanding 
promise. 

Harry F. Borleis (1925) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest is used to assist needy 
and deserving students. 

Elsie Paul Boyle (1912) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a gift by Elsie Paul Boyle is 
awarded to a needy and worthy student, 
preference given to a Lutheran from Weatherly, 
located in Carbon County, Pennsylvania. 

Henry T. Bream (1924) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by alumni and 
friends of the College in honor of Henry T. 
Bream, Professor of Health and Physical 
Education, 1926-1969, is awarded to a needy and 
deserving male scholar-athlete. 

lay em H.Brenneman (1936) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund provided by 
Lavern H. Brenneman (1936), former Chairman of 
the Board of Trustees of the College, and his 
wife, Miriam, in honor of their son, James (1960); 
daughter-in-law, Mary Jane (1960); 
granddaughter, Kathleen (1984); and grandson, 
Stephen (1987) to be awarded annually to needy 
and deserving students. 

Randall Sammis Brush (1973) Memorial 
Scholarship: The income from a fund contributed 
by family and friends in memory of Randall 
Sammis Brush is awarded to a needy and 
deserving student particularly proficient in the 
study of history. 

Edward B. Buller (1923) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by the Lutheran 
Church of the Good Shepherd, Pearl River, New 
York, and friends in honor of the Rev. Edward B. 
Buller is awarded to a deserving student, 



160 



preference being given to a student from Good 
Shepherd congregation. 

Cambridge Rubber Foundation Scholarship 
Fund: The income from the fund given by the 
Foundation is awarded to a qualified male 
student. First preference is given to an employee 
or relative of an employee of Cambridge Rubber. 
Second preference is given to a resident of 
Adams County, Pennsylvania, or Carroll County, 
Maryland. 

Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli (1933) Scholarship 
Foundation: The income from a scholarship 
established by Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli is 
awarded annually to a student (or students) who 
demonstrates superior character, industry, 
serious academic purpose, and financial need. 
Preference is to be given to a student preparing 
for the medical profession. If there are no 
students who demonstrate financial need (who 
are preparing for the medical profession), then 
the income may be used to aid other students 
who demonstrate financial need. If there are no 
students who demonstrate financial need, then 
the College may use the income for any purpose 
it determines. 

Class of 1903, George S. Rentz Memorial 
Fund: The income from the fund is used in 
support of the College scholarship program. 

Class of 1913 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund is awarded to a needy and 
deserving student. 

Class of 1915 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund is awarded to a needy and 
deserving student. 

Class of 1916 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund is awarded to a needy and 
deserving sophomore. 

Class of 1917 Schmucker-Breidenbaugh 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: The income from 
the fund is awarded to a needy and deserving 
student or students. 

Class of 1918 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund is awarded to a needy and 
deserving student. 

Class of 1921 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund is awarded to a needy and 
deserving student. 

Class of 1933 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by members of the Class 
of 1933 is awarded to needy and promising 
students. Preference is given to students who, 
beyond academic and personal qualifications, 
are descendants of members of the Class of 1933. 



The Ernst M. and Agnes H. Cronlund Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The fund was established in 
memory of Ernst Magnus and Agnes Hoffsten 
Cronlund by their children Ernest and Shirley, 
Eleanor, Martin (1929) and Rebecca, Raymond 
(1933) and Lillian. The income is awarded to 
needy and promising students. 

W. K. Diehl (1886) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund created by Norman E. Diehl in 
memory of his father, W. K. Diehl, D.D., is used to 
provide scholarships to needy and deserving 
students. 

Chris Ebert (1965) Memorial Fund: The fund was 
established in memory of Chris Ebert by his 
father and mother. The income is awarded 
annually to a needy student. First preference is 
given to a student who is pursuing a career in 
teaching or majoring in mathematics, and/or 
participating in intercollegiate wrestling; second 
preference is given to a student who is studying 
for the ministry. 

The Charles L. "Dutch" Eby (1933) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established by the 
family and friends of Charles L. Eby is awarded 
to needy students. Preference is given to 
students who, beyond academic and personal 
qualifications, are residents of Southcentral 
Pennsylvania and have demonstrated leadership 
ability through active participation and excellent 
performance in extracurricular activities. 

Jacob C. Eisenhart and Rosa Bott Eisenhart 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established by the J. C. Eisenhart Wall Paper 
Company is awarded to a deserving Lutheran 
preministerial student. 

The Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship: 
Established by the Eisenhower Society in honor 
of the thirty-fourth President of the United 
States, a former resident of the community of 
Gettysburg and a friend and trustee of the 
College. The Society is dedicated to the 
preservation of the qualities and ideals of 
Dwight D. Eisenhower and the contributions 
which he made to world peace. The income from 
the fund is awarded to needy students who 
exemplify superior qualities of honesty, integrity, 
and leadership. 

Clarence A. Eyler (1880) and Myrtle B. Eyler 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a bequest is 
awarded to a worthy Lutheran preministerial 
student. 

Annie C. Felty Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund is given to a needy and deserving 
student. 



Wilbur H. Fleck (1902) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest is awarded to 
a graduate cum laude of the Protestant faith of 
the Wyoming Seminary. 

Dr. Daniel F Garland (1888) Scholarship 

Fund: The income from the fund is awarded to a 

deserving ministerial student. 

Richard W. Gaver (1966) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund contributed by Dr. 
and Mrs. Leo J. Gaver in memory of their son is 
awarded to a worthy student, preference being 
given to a premedical student. 

Gettysburg College Alumni Association 
Scholarship Fund: Formerly the Gettysburg 
College Alumni Loan Program of 1933, the 
Gettysburg College Alumni Association 
Scholarship Fund was established in 1984. The 
income from the fund is to be awarded annually. 
Preference shall be given to sons or daughters of 
alumni in accordance with criteria established by 
Gettysburg College. 

Lorna Gibb Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by the Gibb Foundation in 
memory of the Foundation's founder is awarded 
to needy students who have demonstrated good 
academic ability as well as the willingness to 
contribute to the Gettysburg campus community 
in other ways. 

Dr. and Mrs. James E. Glenn Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund contributed by 
J. Donald Glenn (1923) in memory of his parents 
is awarded to a worthy student preparing for the 
Christian ministry or the medical profession. 

Gordon-Davis Linen Supply Company 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
contributed by the company is awarded to a 
deserving student. 

Grand Army of the Republic Living Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
donated by the Daughters of Union Veterans is 
awarded to a needy and deserving student, 
preferably the descendant of a Union veteran. 

The Dr. H. Leonard Green Scholarship Fund: The 
income from this fund, established by the family 
and friends of Dr. H. Leonard Green, is awarded 
to worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship funds with preference given to 
students majoring in religion or philosophy. 

Ida E. Grover Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a bequest is awarded to a needy and deserving 
student. 



161 



The Merle B. and Mary M. Hafer Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest from the 
estate of Mary M. Hafer is awarded to a 
deserving student, preferably one preparing for 
the Christian ministry. 

John Alfred Hamme (1918) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund given by Mr. 
Hamme is awarded to a deserving student. 

Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President Emeritus, 
Gettysburg College, 1961-77 Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a fund given by Dr. Hanson's 
wife, Ann Keet Hanson, and friends is awarded to 
a needy junior student or students who have 
demonstrated, through performance in the first 
two years, a record of outstanding academic 
excellence and high performance in subjects 
ranging across the curriculum. 

Marie H. Harshman Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest made by Marie H. 
Harshman is awarded to a Lutheran student 
preparing for the ministry. Preference is given to 
a student who intends to enroll at the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary of Gettysburg. 

The Robert W. Hemperly (1947) Memorial 
Fund: The fund was established in memory of Dr. 
Hemperly by Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Easley. The 
income is awarded annually to one or more 
needy students of high academic ability and 
outstanding personal qualifications, preference 
being given to a student preparing for a career in 
medicine or dentistry. 

The Rev. Clinton F. Hildebrand, Jr. (1920) and 
Mrs. Clinton F. Hildebrand, Jr. Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund is used to aid 
worthy preministerial students. 

Edgar L Hildebrand (1928) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established by 
Louis 0. Hildebrand as a memorial to his son 
Edgar L. Hildebrand is awarded each year to 
worthy students of the College. 

The Pearl Hodgson Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest from Pearl Hodgson to 
the York and York County Sub-League of the 
Woman's League of Gettysburg College and 
established by the Woman's League of 
Gettysburg College in honor of Pearl Hodgson is 
awarded annually to needy and deserving 
students. 

Dr. and Mrs. Leslie M. Kauffman Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund donated by Dr. 
Leslie M. (1890) and Nellie G. Kauffman is 
awarded to a deserving student, preference 



162 



being given to students of Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, or preministerial or premedical 
students. 

Hon. Hiram H. Keller (1901) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest by Mr. Keller, 
a former trustee, is granted on the basis of need 
and ability, preferably to applicants from Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Alvan Ray Kirschner Scholarship Fund: The fund 
was established by Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Kirschner 
in memory of their son who lost his life in World 
War I. The income from the fund is awarded to 
two students, preference being given to 
applicants from Hazleton and vicinity. 
Applications for these scholarships should be 
made directly to Mr. Carl E. Kirschner, Attorney 
at Law, Northeastern Building, Hazleton, 
Pennsylvania 18201. 

Klette Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established by Dr. Immanual Klette (1939) and 
friends in honor of Mrs. Margaret Klette, is 
awarded to a student (or students) whose 
activities evidence an innovative 
accomplishment and potential in the promotion 
of human betterment. 

Kathleen M. and Samuel W. Knisely (1947) 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established by Dr. and Mrs. Samuel W. Knisely is 
awarded to students majoring in or intending to 
major in biology or chemistry who show promise 
for contributions to their chosen field of study. 

The Rev. Frederick R. Knubel (1918) Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund given 
by John M. McCullough (1918) in memory of his 
classmate, is awarded to an outstanding senior 
ministerial student who has financial need. 

Bernard S. Lawyer (1912) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest shall be awarded to 
needy and deserving students, preference to be 
given first to members or former members of St. 
Mary's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Silver Run, 
Maryland, and second to members or former 
members of Evangelical Lutheran Churches in 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

Clarence Gordon and Elfie Leatherman 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund given 
by the Leathermans is awarded to a deserving 
preministerial student. 

The Rev. H. J. H. Lemcke (1860) Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund given 
by Ruth Evangeline Lemcke in memory of her 
father is awarded to worthy male students who 
are graduates of Pennsylvania secondary 
schools. 



Frank M. Long (1936) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund is given in 
memory of Frank M. Long to worthy students. 

The Lutheran Brotherhood Fund for Lutheran 
Students: The income from a fund established by 
The Lutheran Brotherhood to be awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising Lutheran students 
who demonstrate financial need. 

Charles B. McCollough, Jr. Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund provided by 
Charles B. McCollough (1916) and Florence 
McCollough in memory of their son and by H. R. 
Earhart in memory of his grandnephew is 
awarded to one or more worthy male students. 

The Robert McCoy Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by the family 
and friends of Robert McCoy is awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

William R. McElhiney (1936) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund provided by 
William R. and Pauline McElhiney to be awarded 
annually and to be divided equally among needy 
and deserving students who demonstrate an 
interest in the College band and the College choir. 

Mahaffie Scholarship Fund: A fund initiated by 
Ralph Mahaffie '22 in honor of his brother James 
Eugene Mahaffie '16, the income of which will be 
awarded to worthy and promising students in 
need of scholarship funds. 

Charles H. May (1904) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Mr. May is awarded to 
deserving male students from York County, 
Pennsylvania. 

Dr. John E. Meisenhelder (1897) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest by Dr. 
Meisenhelder is awarded to a deserving student. 

Forrest L. Mercer (1908) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Forrest L. Mercer is 
awarded to a deserving and needy student. 

J. Elsie Miller (1905) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Mr. Miller is awarded 
to a preministerial student. 

Miller-Dewey Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by the Rev. Adams B. Miller 
(1873) is awarded to a deserving student. 

Rev. William J. Miller (1903) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest by Mary 
Willing Miller is awarded to worthy young 
persons. Preference is given to students 
preparing for the Lutheran ministry and 
especially to those from Tabernacle Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 



Musselman Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a fund established by The Musselman 
Foundation, to be awarded to a deserving 
student, with preference given to sons or 
daughters of employees of the Musselman Fruit 
Product Division, Pet Incorporated. 

Albert C. and Linda Newmann Endowment 
Fund: The income from a fund established by 
Albert C. Neumann (1964) is awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising students with 
preference given to students with an interest in 
pursuing a career in the health sciences. 

John Spangler Nicholas (1916) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest by John 
Spangler Nicholas is awarded to a member of the 
Junior or Senior Class of sterling character and 
high intellectual ability in the Department of 
Biology, preferably zoology. 

Nellie Oiler and Bernard Oiler Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a bequest by 
Ida R. Gray in memory of her daughter and 
son-in-law is awarded to a deserving student, 
preference being given to a Lutheran applicant 
from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. 

Lovina Openlander Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is awarded to needy and 
deserving students. 

Thomas 0. Oyler Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund provided by Thomas 0. Oyler, Sr., 
and his wife Janet B. Oyler, in honor of their 
children, Thomas 0. Oyler, Jr., Jane A. Oyler, 
Jerome P. Oyler, William J. Oyler (1977), and 
Susan T. Oyler (1985), to be awarded annually to 
a deserving Pennsylvania student whose major 
is Management or German with elective courses 
in the other field of study. 

The Lillian M. and William H. Patrick, Jr. (1916) 
Scholarship Award: The income from a bequest 
by William H. Patrick, Jr., is awarded on a 
competitive basis to students with musical 
ability. 

Willard S. Paul Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed in his honor by friends 
of the College on the occasion of President Paul's 
retirement and thereafter awarded to a deserving 
student. 

Earl G. Ports (1923) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund provided by Horace G. Ports 
(1925) in memory of his brother is awarded to a 
worthy student preferably in the Department of 
Physics. 



163 



Dr. and Mrs. Carl C. Rasmussen Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund donated by The 
Reverend Carl C. (1912) and Alma I. Rasmussen 
is awarded to a deserving student. Preference is 
given to a student preparing for the ministry in 
the Lutheran Church. 

Rev. ClayE. Rice (1911) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by Minnie 
Catherine Rice in honor of her husband, Rev. 
Clay E. Rice, is awarded to a student preparing 
for the ministry. 

John S. and Lue'ne Rice Scholarship: The income 
from a fund provided by Ellen F. and Lue'ne Rice 
which is to be awarded to students of 
exceptional academic ability and outstanding 
promise of contributions to the College as a part 
of the Presidential Scholars Program. 

James A. Rider (1942) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by James A. 
Rider is awarded to worthy and deserving 
students determined to be in financial need. 
Preference is to be given first to dependents of 
active employees of Thermos Industries, Inc., of 
Raleigh, North Carolina; second, to students who 
compete in intercollegiate athletics; and third, to 
students who may be orphans. 

Lawrence E. Rost (1917) Fund: The income from 
a fund established by Jeanne Preus Rost in 
memory of her husband, Lawrence E. Rost, is 
awarded to deserving students, descendants of 
Charles A. Rost, Red Lion, York County, 
Pennsylvania, being given first consideration. 

Philip P. Rudhart Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by Emma Bennix in memory of 
her brother is awarded to deserving male 
students. 

Mary Sachs Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a fund established as a memorial to Mary Sachs 
is awarded to a needy and deserving student, 
preference given to a student in business 
administration whose interests are in retailing. 

Charles Samph, Jr. Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by the friends 
and family of Charles Samph, Jr. is awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students with 
preference given to students who are involved in 
the campus Greek system, in the Reserve Officers 
Training Corps, and who major in mathematics. 

Andrew C. Schaedler Foundation 
Scholarship: The income from a fund established 
as a memorial to Andrew C. Schaedler is 
awarded to worthy and needy students from 
Central Pennsylvania who graduated from a high 

164 



school located in Dauphin, Lebanon, 
Cumberland, York, Franklin, Lancaster, Perry, 
Mifflin, Adams, Northumberland, or Huntingdon 
County. 

Calvin L. Schlueter Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Calvin F. Schlueter is 
awarded to needy and promising students. 

Gregory Seckler (1965) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund given by Mr. and 
Mrs. J. M. Arnold, Sr., in memory of Gregory 
Seckler, is awarded to a deserving student, 
preference being given to an English major. 

Ralph E. Sentz (1949) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund provided by Ralph E. Sentz, 
loyal alumnus and member of the Board of 
Fellows of Gettysburg College, and his wife, 
Veronica, to be awarded annually to needy and 
deserving students, preference being given to 
those with disabilities. 

Joseph T. Simpson/Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Scholarship Fund: A fund established by the 
friends and colleagues of Joseph Simpson, the 
income of which shall be available to worthy and 
promising students in need of scholarship aid, 
with preference given to those students with 
exceptional leadership ability. 

Edgar Fahs Smith (1874) Scholarship: The 
income from a fund provided by Margie A. Smith 
in honor of her father, Edgar Fahs Smith, is given 
to a student recommended by the Chemistry 
Department. 

Mary Ann Ocker Spital Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest is awarded to a qualified 
male student. 

Edward J. Stackpole Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by the friends of 
General Stackpole is awarded to a deserving 
student, preference being given to a student in 
American history interested in the Civil War. 

The Rev. Milton H. Stine (1877) and Mary J. Stine 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund provided by Dr. Charles M. A. Stine (1901) 
in memory of his parents is awarded to a 
preministerial student. 

Dr. J. H. W. Stuckenberg Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Dr. Stuckenberg is 
awarded to a qualified student. 

Surdna Foundation Scholarship: The income 
from a gift of the Surdna Foundation is awarded 
to students of exceptional academic ability and 
outstanding promise of contributions to the 
College. 



Warren L. Swope (1943) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by Warren L. 
Swope, a career diplomat, is awarded to a 
qualified student, preference being shown to 
students of American parentage who have spent 
a significant portion of their pre-college years 
abroad. 

William J. (1929) and Ruth Krug Thomas (1928) 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund given 
by the Thomases in gratitude for the contribution 
the College has made toward the enrichment of 
their lives, to be given to worthy students, 
preferably English majors. 

Colonel Walter K. Thrush Fund: The income from 
a fund provided by the estate of Edna L. Thrush 
in memory of her husband, Walter K. Thrush 
(1919), to assist a student who is a member of 
ATO Fraternity endeavoring in the course of 
engineering, the recipient to be chosen by the 
Trustees of the College. 

Parker B. Wagnild Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by alumni and friends of 
the Gettysburg College Choir is given to needy 
and deserving students in the Music Department. 

The John G. Walborn (1937) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund provided by 
John G. Walborn is given to needy and deserving 
students, preferably those majoring in 
Economics or Management. 

The Stuart Warrenfeltz Memorial Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Ethel Warrenfeltz 
McHenry in memory of her son Stuart 
Warrenfeltz is awarded to a worthy young man, 
preference being given to students from 
Funkstown, Washington County, Maryland. 

Dr. Rufus B. Weaver (1862) Scholarship 

Fund: The income from a bequest by Dr. Weaver 

is awarded to deserving students. 

The Rev. David Sparks Weimer and Joseph 
Michael Weimer/Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Scholarship Fund: A fund initiated by Mrs. Ralph 
Michener daughter and sister of David and 
Joseph Weimer, the income of which will be 
awarded to worthy and promising students in 
need of scholarship aid. 

Senator George L. Wellington Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest by Mr. 
Wellington is awarded to a deserving Lutheran 
preministerial student. 

Mary E. Werner Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest to Gettysburg College from the 
estate of Mary E. Werner is awarded to a pre- 
ministerial student with preference given to 



students from Glen Rock, Pennsylvania, or York 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Richard C. Wetzel Scholarship: The income from 
a fund contributed by Richard C. Wetzel is 
awarded to a deserving and needy student. 

Jeremiah A. Winter and Annie C. Winter 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund contributed by Amelia C. Winter in memory 
of her parents is granted to a needy and 
deserving student. 

Norman S. Wolf (1904) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by Dr. Spurgeon 
M. Keeny (1914) in honor of the Rev. Norman S. 
Wolf is awarded to a worthy student, preference 
being given to a student who is fatherless. 

Woman's League Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by The Woman's General 
League of Gettysburg College to be awarded to 
needy and promising students. 

Barry B. Wright (1955) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by Barry B. 
Wright is awarded to a student or students with 
preference being given to disadvantaged 
students from the inner cities. 

Peter W. Wright Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by Peter W. Wright is 
awarded to one or more worthy students with 
preference being given to students who have an 
interest and involvement in extracurricular 
activities and are members of Alpha Tau Omega 
Fraternity. 

John B. linn Scholarship Fund: A fund 
established by friends and former students of 
Professor John B. Zinn, former Chairman of the 
Chemistry Department, to provide support for 
promising students, who demonstrate need, with 
preference given to students preparing for fields 
associated with the healing arts. 

Loan Funds for Students 

The Rev. Edward I. Morecraft (1924) Memorial 
Loan Scholarship Fund: This fund was 
established by the St. James Lutheran Church of 
Stewart Manor, Long Island, in memory of its 
former pastor. 

Milton T. Nafey and Mary M. Haley Student Loan 
Fund: A bequest from the estate of Mary M. 
Nafey provides a fund for student loans. 

Eva R. Rape Student Loan Fund: A loan program 
made available by a bequest from the estate 
of Eva R. Pape of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
to be assigned to students of high promise 
and financial need. 

165 



The Charles H. Rothfuss and Martha Huffman 
Rothfuss Loan Scholarship Fund: This fund was 
contributed by Dr. E. Lloyd Rothfuss (1916) in 
memory of his parents. 

Other Aid for Students 

Scholarships 

AAL Lutheran Campus Scholarship: Aid 
Association for Lutherans makes available 
scholarship funds each year to assist needy 
students who hold membership with the 
association. Selection of recipients is made by 
the College. 

Army ROTC Scholarships: United States Army 
Scholarships provide part or full tuition 
scholarships to some students enrolling in the 
ROTC program. After completing their education, 
students enter active duty in the United States 
Army as commissioned officers. Information on 
these scholarships may be acquired by writing to 
the Army ROTC, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, 
PA 17325. 

Frank D. Baker Scholarship Fund: An award 
available to aid worthy students in immediate 
need. Selection of recipients is made by the 
College. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Lutheran Senior College 
Scholarship: The scholarships are awarded to 
Lutheran students who will begin their first year 
of post-secondary study at Gettysburg College. 
Recipients are selected by Gettysburg College on 
the basis of scholastic achievement, religious 
leadership, and financial need. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Members' Scholarship 
Program: Established to assist Lutheran 
Brotherhood members attending accredited post- 
secondary institutions. Information is available 
from Lutheran Brotherhood, 701 Second Avenue 
South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55402. 

Frank L. Daugherty (1922) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a trust established by Frank L. 
Daugherty is awarded to a deserving York 
County resident who would not otherwise be able 
to attend Gettysburg College for a lack of 
finances. The recipient is selected by the College. 

Christian R. and Mary F. Lindback Foundation 
Scholarship Fund: The scholarship is awarded 
preferentially to residents of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, or Maryland who are of 
high character and ability. 



Guy L. Moser Fund: Mr. Guy L. Moser 
established a trust fund to support grants to 
male students from Berks County, Pennsylvania, 
who are majoring in American history and who 
rank in the upper third of their class. 
Applications for these grants should be made 
directly to the National Central Bank, 515 Penn 
Street, Reading, Pennsylvania 19603. 

Charlotte L. Noss Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a trust established by Charlotte Noss is 
awarded to a deserving female student from 
York County, Pennsylvania, who will not 
otherwise be able to attend Gettysburg College 
for a lack of finances. The recipient is selected 
by the College. 

The Ernest D. Schwartz (1916) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established in 
memory of Ernest D. Schwartz is awarded to a 
needy and worthy student. The recipient is 
selected by the College. 

Weaver-Bittinger Classical Scholarship: The 
income from a trust created by Rufus M. Weaver 
(1907) is awarded to a needy and deserving 
student(s) who has demonstrated outstanding 
academic achievement. Recipients are selected 
by Gettysburg College. 

State and Federal Scholarship Programs 

Pell Grant: A federal grant program to enable 
students to attend colleges and universities; 
awarded by the Office of Education. 

State of Connecticut Scholarship: An award 
given by the State of Connecticut to students 
who are residents of Connecticut. The students 
are selected on the basis of academic 
achievement and financial need. Information on 
these scholarships should be acquired from the 
high school guidance office. 

Maryland Scholarship: An award made available 
by the State of Maryland to residents of 
Maryland. The recipients are selected on the 
basis of financial need. Information on these 
scholarships should be acquired from the high 
school guidance office. 

Pennsylvania Higher Education Grant: An award 
given to students who are residents of 
Pennsylvania, selected on the basis of financial 
need. Information on these scholarships should 
be acquired from the high school guidance office. 

There are other states with scholarships and/or 
grant programs. Further information may be 
available at high school guidance offices. 



166 



State and Federal Loan Programs 

Guaranteed Student Loan: This education loan 
program enables students to borrow directly 
from a bank, credit union, savings and loan 
association or other participating lender. 
Students may borrow up to $2,625 during each of 
the freshmen and sophomore years and $4,000 
during each of the junior and senior years with a 
maximum aggregate limit of $17,250 for 
undergraduate study. The interest rate is 8% and 
repayment of the principal and interest begins 6 
months after completion of college. 

Parent Loan for Undergraduate Study: Parents of 
dependent undergraduate students may borrow 
up to $4,000 per academic year through this 
federally sponsored program. Total borrowing 
may not exceed $20,000, and the repayment 
period can be from 5 to 10 years, beginning 60 
days after the first loan is advanced. 
Applications for PLUS loans may be obtained at 
a participating lender. 

PHEAA-HELP Loans: This program of higher 
education loans through the Pennsylvania Higher 
Education Assistance Agency can provide a total 
of $10,000 per student, per year. The program 
offers a "package" of student loans and parent 
loans which are available to both Pennsylvania 
residents and non-residents who are attending a 
Pennsylvania college. Interest rates may vary 
from 8% on student loans of up to $4000 per year 
to 12% on the parent loan portion. The repayment 
of loans may extend over a maximum of ten 
years. Application materials are available 
through PHEAA-HELP in Harrisburg and the 
Office of Financial Aid at Gettysburg College. 

Cooperative Installment Payment Plan 

In affiliation with a local bank, Gettysburg 
College offers an installment payment plan to 
parents that covers a portion of the yearly 
educational costs. Interest rates are fixed over 
the term of the repayment schedule, which may 
be from one to five years, beginning 45 days 
after execution of the note. The College is the 
guarantor of each loan; therefore, the interest 
rate is lower than the regular market rate. 
Application is made through the Financial Aid 
Office. 

Insured Tuition Plans 

See page 156 in the Comprehensive Academic 
Fee Plan section. 



167 



S& 







Board of Trustees 1 

Clyde 0. Black, II (1980) 

Chairman 

Attorney 

Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania 

Arline E. Shannon (1981) 
Vice Chairman 
Lititz, Pennsylvania 

Bruce S. Gordon (1983) 
Secretary 

Marketing Manager 
Bell of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Charles E. Anderson (1984) 
Executive Vice President, ITT 
President and Chief Executive 
ITT Natural Resources and 
Food Products Corporation 
New York, New York 

James G. Apple (1978) 

Vice President 

Butter Krust Baking Company 

Sunbury, Pennsylvania 

Kerry M. Berk (1984) 
Staff Manager-Financials Division 
Bell of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Lavern H. Brenneman (1962-1974) (1976) 
Retired Chairman and President 
York Shipley, Inc. 
York, Pennsylvania 

Charles A. Camalier, Jr. (1985) 
Chairman of the Board 
Camalier & Buckley 
Washington, D.C. 

John W.Clark (1983) 

President 

Clark Metals, Inc. 

Gardena, California 

"Ralph W. Cox (1972) 
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina 

Margaret Blanchard Curtis (1979) 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Guy S. Edmiston (1977) 

Secretary 

Central Pennsylvania Synod 

Lutheran Church in America 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 



170 



Susan Eisenhower (1985) 

President 

The Eisenhower Group, Inc. 

Washington, D.C. 

Charles E. Glassick (1977) ex-officio 
President, Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

M. Thomas Goedeke (1985) 
Retired Superintendent 
Howard County, Maryland 
Public Schools 
Cockeysville, Maryland 

Henry W. Graybill, Jr. (1977) 

Retired 

Mutual Inspection Bureau 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Donald A. Haas (1984) 

Pastor 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church 

Baltimore, Maryland 

Angeline F. Haines (1973) 
Lutherville, Maryland 

Robert L Hosking (1976-78) (1985) 

President 

CBS Radio 

New York, New York 

Kristine F. Hughey (1986) 

Associate Lawyer 

Petrikin, Wellman, Damico, Carney and Brown 

Media, Pennsylvania 

Edwin T. Johnson (1977) 
Chief Executive Officer 
The Johnson Companies 
Newtown, Pennsylvania 

Richard E. Jordan (1983) 
President 
L.B.Smith, Inc. 
Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Ernest J. Kruse (1984) 

District Manager 

Chief Financial Officer's Organization 

AT&T Company 

New Brunswick, New Jersey 

Howard J. McCarney (1958-1960) (1966) ex-officio 

Bishop 

Central Pennsylvania Synod 

Lutheran Church in America 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Patrick F. Noonan (1978) 

President 

Conservation Resources, Inc. 

Potomac, Maryland 



Philip I. Parsons (1986) 
General Manager 
Perfect Pinch 
Chicago, Illinois 

James A. Perrott (1975) 
Retired Judge 
Baltimore, Maryland 

Edward V. Randall (1985) 
Senior Vice President 
Pittsburgh National Bank 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Frederick H. Settelmeyer (1985) 
Vice President 
The Boston Company 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Donna L. Shavlik (1985) 

Director 

Office of Women in Higher Education 

American Council on Education 

Washington, D.C. 

Bruce R. Stefany (1986) 
President 
ManEquity, Inc. 
Englewood, Colorado 

*F. William Sunderman, M.D. (1967-1979) 
Director 

Institute for Clinical Sciences 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

James I. Tarman (1978) 
Director of Athletics 
Pennsylvania State University 
University Park, Pennsylvania 

James R.Thomas (1981) 
Vice President— Finance 
CPC North America 
Allendale, New Jersey 

Richard L. Unger (1981) 

Agent 

Lutheran Brotherhood Insurance 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Barry B. Wright (1986) 
Chairman, Chief Executive Officer 
Temporaries, Inc. 
Washington, D.C. 

Earl W. Zellers (1979) 

Pastor 

St. Mark Lutheran Church 

Annville, Pennsylvania 

Morris G. Zumbrun (1982) ex-officio 

Bishop 

Maryland Synod 



Lutheran Church in America 
Baltimore, Maryland 



' The dates following the names indicate years 
of previous service and the beginning year of 
present service on the Board of Trustees. 

*Honorary Life Trustee 

Trustees Emeriti 

Daniel J. Andersen 

Washington, D.C. 

Harold Brayman 

Wilmington, Delaware 

Henry T. Bream 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Paul E. Clouser 

Middletown, Pennsylvania 

Charles W. Diehl, Jr. 

York, Pennsylvania 

William S. Eisenhart, Jr. 

York, Pennsylvania 

Charles H. Falkler 

York, Pennsylvania 

Paul L Folkemer 

Linthicum Heights, Maryland 

Millard E. Gladfelter 

Jenkintown, Pennsylvania 

Robert D. Hanson 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Alfred L Mathias 

Cockeysville, Maryland 

Paul M. Orso 

Millersville, Maryland 

Carroll W. Royston 

Baltimore, Maryland 

Samuel A. Schreckengaust, Jr. 

Lemoyne, Pennsylvania 

Joseph T. Simpson 

Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Herman G. Stuempfle, Jr. 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Raymond A. Taylor. M.D. 
York, Pennsylvania 

Howard Trexel 

Somerset, Pennsylvania 



171 



Donald K. Weiser 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Charles W. Wolf 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

Irvin G. Zimmerman 

Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 

Administration 
(1986-1987 Academic Year) 

Charles E. Glassick 1977- 

President and Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., Ph.D., 

Princeton University; D.Sc, University 

of Richmond 

Julie L Ramsey 1981- 
Assistant to the President 
B.A., Denison University; M.A., 
Indiana University 

Karl J. Mattson 1977- 

Chaplain 

B.A., Augustana College (Illinois); B.D., 

Augustana Theological Seminary; S.T.M., Yale 

Divinity School 

Donald W. Hinrichs 1968- 

Interim Dean of the College 

Associate Professor of Sociology and 

Anthropology 

B.A., Western Maryland College; M.A., University 

of Maryland; Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Robert C. Nordvall 1972- 

Associate Dean of the College 

B.A., DePauw University; J.D., Harvard 

Law School; Ed.D., Indiana University 

G. Ronald Couchman 1967- 

Assistant Dean of the College and Registrar 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Karen Wiley Sandler 1985- 

Assistant Dean of the College and 
Assistant Professor of French 
B.A., Principia College; M.A., 
The Pennsylvania State University; 
Ph.D., The University of Pennsylvania 

Richard K. Wood 1969- 

Director of Academic Computing 

B.A., Earlham College; M.S. (2), University 

of Wisconsin 

William Wilson 1979- 

Coordinator of Academic Computing 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Connecticut 



172 



Kim S. Breighner 1975- 

Computer Operator 

A.S., York College of Pennsylvania 

Willis M. Hubbard 1983- 

College Librarian 

B.A., Monmouth College (Illinois); M.S., 

University of Illinois; M.A., Southern Illinois 

University 

Paula Demanett 1986- 

Technical Services Librarian 

B.A., University of California, Riverside; 

M.L.S., Brigham Young University 

David T. Hedrick 1972- 
Special Collections Librarian 
B.A., Emory and Henry College; M.A., 
University of Denver 

Dwight A. Huseman 1971- 

Systems and Serials Librarian and 

Director of Church Relations 

A.B., Susquehanna University; B.D., S.T.M. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary, 

Philadelphia; M.S.L.S., Drexel University 

Anna Jane Moyer 1961- 

Readers' Services Librarian 

A.B., Susquehanna University; M.S.L.S., 

Drexel University 

Martha N. Payne 1984- 

Catalog Librarian 

L.W.C.M.D., Welsh College of Music and 

Drama, Wales; Certificate in Education, 

University of Wales, Cardiff; M.L.S., 

Indiana University 

Frances H. Playfoot 1972- 

Assistant Readers' Services Librarian 
B.A., The George Washington University; 
M.S.L.S., Shippensburg University 

H. Wayne Wolfe 1985- 

Audio Visual Services Coordinator 

A.F.A., B.S., Ferrum College 

Frank B.Williams 1966- 

Dean of Educational Services 

B.A., M.A.T., Wesleyan University; Ed.D., 

University of Pennsylvania 

Salvatore Ciolino 1971- 
Associate Dean of Educational Services 
B.A., State University of New York at Geneseo; 
M.S., State University of New York at Albany; 
D.Ed., Nova University 

Ronald L Shunk 1983- 

Director of Financial Aid 

B.A., M.Ed., The Pennsylvania State 

University 



David P. Steinour 1986- 

Operator/Programmer-Administrative 

Computing 

Diploma, Computer Learning Center 

Lisa M. Yeo 1986- 
System Administrator and 
Analyst-Administrative Computing 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Donna L. Kolowsky 1986- 

Research Assistant 

B.A., Wheaton College 

M.S., Southern Connecticut State University 

Nancy C. Locher 1968- 

Dean of Student Advisement 

B.A., Mary Baldwin College; M.A., University 

of North Carolina 

Robert T. Hulton 1957- 
Director of Intercollegiate Athletics and 
Associate Professor of Health and Physical 
Education, B.A., Grove City College 

Donald L. Anderson 1982- 

Head Coach/Men's Basketball 
Assistant Coach/Men's Lacrosse 
B.A., Franklin and Marshall College 

Denise Babinchak 1986- 

Head Coach/Women's Basketball 
Head Coach/Women's Softball 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Lois J. Bowers 1969- 
Coordinator of Women's Athletics and 
Associate Professor of Health and Physical 
Education, B.S., Temple University; M.Ed., 
Western Maryland College 

Darwin P. Breaux 1985- 

Head Coach/Wrestling 

Assistant Coach/Football 

B.S., M.Ed., West Chester University 

John W. Campo 1985- 

Assistant Coach/Football 
Assistant Coach/Baseball 
B.S., University of Delaware; M.S., 
Queens College of the City University 
of New York 

Doreen M. Drexel 1984- 
Head Coach/Women's Volleyball 
Head Coach/Women's Tennis 
B.S., M.S., Frostburg State College 

R. Eugene Hummel 1957- 

Head Coach/Baseball and Associate 
Professor of Health and Physical 
Education, B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Columbia University 



Michael K. Rawleigh 1985- 

Head Coach/Swimming 

B.A., University of North Carolina at 

Chapel Hill 

J. Edward Riggs, Jr. 1984- 
Head Coach/Track and Field 
Head Coach/Cross Country 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.Ed., 
Western Maryland College 

Barry H. Streeter 1975- 

Head Coach/Football and Assistant Professor 

of Health and Physical Education 

B.A., Lebanon Valley College; M.S., 

University of Delaware 

David W. Wright 1986- 

Head Coach/Soccer 

Assistant Coach/Track and Field 

B.S., State University of New York at 

Cortland; M.A., Brigham Young University 

Delwin K. Gustafson 1967- 

Dean of Admissions 

B.A., Augustana College (Illinois); J.D., 

University of Nebraska 

Daniel A. Dundon 1972- 
Associate Dean of Admissions 
B.A., State University of New York at 
Buffalo; M.A., Eastern Michigan University 

Jean S. LeGros 1978- 
Associate Dean of Admissions 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Gail Sweezey 1983- 

Assistant Director of Admissions 
B.A., Allegheny College 

Darryl W. Jones 1985- 

Admissions Counselor 

B.A., The Pennsylvania State University 

Kristin Ardell Morrow 1985- 
Admissions Counselor 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Stephanie Norce 1986- 

Admissions Counselor 

B.A., Franklin and Marshall College 

Susan M. Brady 1982- 

Dean of Student Life 

B.S., Ed.D., University of Massachusetts, 

Amherst 

Mary E. Gutting 1979- 

Interim Dean of Student Life 

B.S., University of Northern Colorado; 

M.Ed., Colorado State University 



173 



Bernard J. Davisson It 1985- 

Assistant Dean of Student Life 
B.S., Frostburg State College; M.A., 
Ohio State University 

Deanna S. Forney 1978- 
Director of Career Services 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., The 
Pennsylvania State University; M.A., 
University of Maryland 

Margaret-Ann Marshall 1986- 

Associate Director of Career Services 
B.A., Texas Woman's University 
M.A., Hood College 

William H. Jones 1964- 

Coordinator of Counseling 

B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; M.A., 

University of Wisconsin; Ed.D., Boston 

University 

Frances Parker 1980- 

Counseling Psychologist 

B.A., M.A., University of Kentucky 

Donna M. Behler 1985- 
Health Services Director/Nurse Practitioner 
B.S.N., University of Maryland School 
of Nursing; M.S.N., Vanderbilt University 
School of Nursing 

John Dufendach. M.D. 1985- 
Medical Director 
B.S., Albright College; M.D., The 
Pennsylvania State University College 
of Medicine 

Edward F. McManness 1970- 
Director of the College Union 
B.S., M.S., East Texas State University; 
M.B.A., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Susan E. Hubbell 1985- 

Program Director— College Union 
B.A., Muhlenberg College; M.Ed., 
University of Vermont 

Brian J. DeVost 1985- 
Director of Intramurals/Recreation and Fitness 
B.A., Mount Allison University; B.A., 
Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec; M.S., 
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale 

Harry B. Matthews 1985- 

Dean of Intercultural Advancement 

B.A., State University of New York at Oneonta; 

M.A., Northern Michigan University 



Anthony J. Lemelle 1986- 
Assistant Dean of Intercultural Education 
B.A., Park College; M.A., California State 
University, Dominguez Hills; Ph.D., University of 
California, Berkeley 

William P. VanArsdale 1985- 

Treasurer/Business Manager 
B.S., Villanova University; M.Ed., 
Antioch Graduate School of Education 

Roland E. Hansen 1973- 

Assistant Business Manager 

B.A., Nebraska Wesleyan University 

Jay P. Brown 1947 - 

Assistant Treasurer and Bursar 
Certificate, American Institute of Banking 

Michael Malewicki 1976- 
Director of Personnel, Chief Accountant 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Shippensburg 
University; M.B.A., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Jane D. Howell 1986- 

Associate Director of Personnel 
B.S., Miami University (Ohio) 

Gary L Anderson 1973- 
Director of Auxiliary Services 
B.A., University of Albuquerque; 
M.B.A., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Thomas Phizacklea 1982- 

Manager, College Store 

B.A., University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown 

Timon K. Linn 1985- 
Director of Safety and Security 

Martin L Crabill 1986- 

Director of Physical Facilities 

Richard Page Allen 1978- 

Vice President for College Relations 

A.B., Lafayette College 

Gary Lowe 1978- 

Associate Vice President for College Relations 
B.S., Denison University; M.S., Miami 
University 

Bruce Bigelow 1983- 
Director of Major Gifts/Planned Giving 
B.A., College of Wooster; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Chicago 



174 



Margaret E. McConnell 1985- 

Assistant Director of Development for 
Special Support Programs; B.A., M.Ed., 
Westminster College 

Karen E. Evans 1985- 
Director of Annual Giving 
B.A., The College of Wooster; 
M.B.A., Cleveland State University 

Nancy Nord Bence 1985- 
Assistant Director of Annual Giving 
B.S.. Gettysburg College 

Mary Schlicter Ward 1986- 
Assistant Director of Annual Giving 

B.A., Gettysburg College 

Carol Kefalas 1984- 

Director of Public Relations 

B.A., M.A., University of Iowa; Ph.D., 

University of Georgia 

Robert B. Kenworthy 1965- 

Associate Director of Public Relations 

Marguerite Plank 1986- 

Interim Assistant Director of Public 
Relations; A. A., Northeast Alabama State 
Junior College; B.A., Berry College 

Robert D. Smith 1965- 
Director of Alumni Relations 
B.S., Gettysburg College; M.S., 
Shippensburg University 

The Faculty 

(1986-1987 Academic Year) 

Charles E. Glassick 1977- 
President and Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., 
Ph.D., Princeton University; D.Sc, University 
of Richmond 

Emeriti 

R. Henry Ackley 1953-1976 
Professor of Music, Emeritus 
B.A., Western Maryland College; Teacher's 
Certificate in Voice, Peabody Conservatory 
of Music 

Albert Bachman 1931-1963 
Professor of Romance Languages, Emeritus 
Ph.D., University of Zurich; Agregation, 
University of Zurich; Ph.D., Columbia University 

Paul Baird 1951-1985 

Professor of Economics, Emeritus 

B.A., M.A., The Pennsylvania State University 



Guillermo Barriga 1951-1981 
Professor of Romance Languages, Emeritus 
B.S., Columbian Naval Academy; M.A., 
Middlebury College; Ph.D., University of Madrid 

Robert L. Bloom 1949-1981 
Professor of History, Emeritus 
B.S., Shippensburg University; M.A., Duke 
University; Ph.D., Columbia University 

Harry F. Bolich 1947-1980 
Professor of Speech, Emeritus 
Sc.B., Sc.M., Bucknell University 

Henry T. Bream 1926-1969 
Professor of Health and Physical Education, 
Emeritus, B.S., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Columbia University 

Mary G. Burel 1970-1986 
Librarian Emerita 
B.A., University of Oklahoma; 
M.S.L.S., Florida State University 

Albert W. Butterfield 1958-1972 
Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 
B.S., United States Naval Academy; M.S., 
University of Michigan 

Glendon F. Collier 1957-1983 
Professor of German and Russian, Emeritus 
B.A., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., 
University of California, Berkeley 

Martin H. Cronlund 1957-1973 

Dean, Emeritus 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Temple University 

Helen H. Darrah 1961-1977 
Professor of Biology, Emerita 
B.S., M.S., University of Pittsburgh 

William C. Darrah 1957-1974 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus 
B.S., University of Pittsburgh; L.H.D., 
Gettysburg College 

Harold A. Dunkelberger 1950-1983 

Professor of Religion, Emeritus 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Lutheran 

Theological Seminary, Gettysburg; Ph.D., 

Columbia University; D.D., Susquehanna 

University 

Lewis B. Frank 1957-1986 
Professor of Psychology, Emeritus 
B.S., Franklin and Marshall College; 
M.A., The Johns Hopkins University 

Edwin D. Freed 1948-1951, 1953-1986 

Professor of Religion, Emeritus 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Lutheran 

Theological Seminary, Gettysburg; 

Ph.D., Harvard University 

175 



C. Robert Held 1954-1955, 1956-1986 
Professor of Classics, Emeritus 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Princeton University 

Caroline M. Hendrickson 1959-1984 

Professor of Spanish Emerita 

A.B., Wellesley College; MA, Columbia University 

Chester E. Jarvis 1950-1980 
Professor of Political Science, Emeritus 
A.B., M.A., University of California, Berkeley; 
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 

Arthur L Kurth 1962-1983 

Professor of French, Emeritus 

B.A., Yale College; Ph.D., Yale University 

M. Scott Moorhead 1955-1981 

Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 

B.S., M.A., Washington and Jefferson College; 

Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Charles E. Piatt 1957-1983 
Professor of Psychology, Emeritus 
A.B., Wittenberg University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Ohio State University 

Ingolf Qually 1956-1982 
Professor of Art, Emeritus 
B.A., St. Olaf College; B.F.A., M.F.A.. 

Yale University 

James H. Richards 1974-1983 

Librarian Emeritus 

B.A., Wesleyan University; B.S.L.S., 

Columbia University; M.A., Wesleyan University 

Norman E. Richardson 1945-1979 

Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus 

A.B., Amherst College; B.D., Yale Divinity School; 

Ph.D., Yale University 

Russell S. Rosenberger 1956-1981 
Professor of Education, Emeritus 
B.S., Geneva College; M.Litt., Ed.D., University 
of Pittsburgh 

Calvin E. Schildknecht 1959-1979 
Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus 
B.S., Gettysburg College; Ph.D., The Johns 
Hopkins University 

Henry Schneider, III 1964-1981 

Professor of German, Emeritus 

A.B., M.A., Ph.D., Princeton University 

W. Richard Schubart 1950-1981 
Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus 
A.B., Dartmouth College; A.M., Columbia 
University 



Walter J. Scott 1959-1984 
Professor of Physics, Emeritus 
B.A., Swarthmore College; M.S., Lehigh 
University 

Jack Douglas Shand 1954-1984 

Professor of Psychology, Emeritus 

B.A., Amherst College; M.A., Harvard University; 

Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Howard Shoemaker 1957-1985 
Professor of Health and Physical Education, 
Emeritus, B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., 
Columbia University 

Charles A. Sloat 1927-1968 
Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus 
B.S., Gettysburg College; M.A., Haverford 
College; Ph.D., Princeton University 

Lillian H. Smoke 1959-1974 

Librarian, Emerita 

B.A., Juniata College; B.S.L.S., Columbia 

University 

Parker B. Wagnild 1937-1976 

Professor of Music, Emeritus 

B.A., St. Olaf College; B.D., Lutheran Theological 

Seminary, Gettysburg; M.S.M., Union Theological 

Seminary; M.A., New York University; Mus.D., 

Thiel College; D.D., Gettysburg College 

Janis Weaner 1957-1985 

Professor of Spanish, Emeritus 

B.A., Mary Washington College of the University 

of Virginia; M.A., New York University 

Conway S. Williams 1949-1980 
Professor of Economics and Business 
Administration, Emeritus 
A.B., Columbia University; M.S., Columbia 
University School of Business 

Waldemar Zagars 1956-1974 
Professor of Economics, Emeritus 
Dr. oec, University of Riga 



176 



Current Faculty 

James Agard 1982- 

Associate Professor of Art, Department 
Chairperson, B.S., The State University of New 
York at New Paltz; M.F.A., Rutgers University 

Abbass Alkhafaji 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Management 
B.Com., University of Baghdad; M.B.A., Bowling 
Green State University; M.S. (2), North Texas 
State University; Ph.D., University of Texas at 
Dallas 

Charlotte E. S. Armster 1984- 

Assistant Professor of German 

B.A., Eastern Michigan University; M.A., 

Middlebury College; Ph.D., Stanford University 

Robert D. Barnes 2 1955- 
Dr. Charles H. Graff Professor of Biology 
B.S., Davidson College; Ph.D., Duke University; 
D.Sc, Davidson College 

CAPT Donna H. Barthle 1985- 
Assistant Professor of Military Science 
B.A., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State 
University 

Edward J. Baskerville 2 1956- 

Professor of English, Department Chairperson 

B.S., Lehigh University; M.A., Ph.D., Columbia 

University 

Neil W. Beach 1960- 

Associate Professor of Biology 

B.S., M.S., Ph.D., University of Michigan 

F. Eugene Belt 1966- 
Associate Professor of Music 
A.B., Western Maryland College; M.A., 
New York University 

Temma F. Berg 1985- 

Assistant Professor of English 
B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Temple University 

Gareth V. Biser 1959- 
Associate Professor of Health and 
Physical Education 
B.S., Gettysburg College; M.S., 
Syracuse University 

A. Bruce Boenau 1957- 
Professor of Political Science 
A.B., Amherst College; A.M., Ph.D., 
Columbia University 

Gabor S. Boritt' 1981- 

Robert C. Fluhrer Professor of Civil War Studies 
B.A., Yankton College; M.A., University of South 
Dakota; Ph.D., Boston University 



Robert F. Bornstein 1986- 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.A. Amherst College; Ph.D., State 
University of New York at Buffalo 

Donald M. Borock 3 1974- 

Associate Professor of Political Science, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

Bruce W. Bugbee 1958- 

Associate Professor of History 

A.B., College of William and Mary; A.M., Ph.D., 

University of Michigan 

Ronald D. Burgess 2 1980- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., Washburn University of Topeka; M.A., 

Ph.D., University of Kansas 

MAJ William H. Campbell 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 
B.S., M.A., University of Southern Mississippi 

A. Ralph Cavaliere 1966- 

Professor of Biology 

B.S., M.S., Arizona State University; Ph.D., 

Duke University 

Janet M. Claiborne 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Health and 

Physical Education 

B.S., East Carolina University; M.S., Florida State 

University; Ed.D., University of North Carolina at 

Greensboro 

John F. Clarke 1966- 

Professor of English 

B.A., Kenyon College; M.A., Stanford University 

Chan L. Coulter 1958- 

William Bittinger Professor of Philosophy, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., University of Iowa; M.A., Ph.D., 

Harvard University 

David J. Cowan 1965- 
Associate Professor of Physics, 
Department Chairperson 
B.S., M.A., Ph.D., University of Texas 

Basil L. Crapster 1949- 
Adeline Sager Professor of History 
A.B., Princeton University; A.M., Ph.D., 
Harvard University 

David L. Crowner 1967- 

Associate Professor of German 

B.A., Pacific Lutheran University; M.A., Ph.D., 

Rutgers— The State University of New Jersey 



177 



Anne E. Culbertson 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Music 

B.Mus., Ohio Wesleyan University; M.Mus., Hartt 

School of Music; D. M.E., Indiana University 

Paul R. D'Agostino 1969- 

Professor of Psychology 

B.S., Fordham University; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Virginia 

Theodore C. Daniels 1954- 

Professor of Physics 

B.A.. Oberlin College; Ph.D., Syracuse University 

Leticia Diaz 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., M.A., Fordham University; 

Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

LTC Thomas S. Dombrowsky 1985- 

Professor of Military Science, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., University of Rhode Island; M.A., Morgan 

State University 

Dorothy R. Donahue 1986- 
Assistant Professor of Spanish 
B.S., Georgetown University; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of New Mexico 

Joseph D. Donolli 1971- 

Associate Professor of Health and 

Physical Education 

B.S., University of Delaware; M.Ed., Temple 

University 

MAJ John H. Earwood 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Military Science 
B.A., M.B.A., North Texas State University 

Charles F. Emmons 1 1974- 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

and Anthropology 

B.A., Gannon College; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Illinois 

Kay Etheridge 1986- 
Assistant Professor of Biology 
B.S., M.S., Auburn University; 
Ph.D., University of Florida 

Fred Exton 1986- 
Assistant Professor of French 
B.A., Haverford College; M.S., 
Georgetown University; Doctorate, 
Universite de Grenoble 

Ann Harper Fender 1978- 

Associate Professor of Economics, 
Department Chairperson 
A.B., Randolph Macon Woman's College; Ph.D., 
The Johns Hopkins University 



George H. Fick 1967- 

Associate Professor of History 

A.B., Harvard University; M.A., University of 

Minnesota; Ph.D., Harvard University 

Kermit H. Finstad 1970- 

Associate Professor of Music 

B.A., St. Olaf College; M.M., The Catholic 

University of America 

David E. Flesner 1971- 
Associate Professor of Mathematics 
A.B., Wittenberg University; A.M., Ph.D., 
University of Michigan 

Jean W. Fletcher 1986- 
Assistant Professor of Economics 
B.S., University of Missouri; A.M., 
Ph.D., Washington University 

Norman 0. Forness 1964- 
Associate Professor of History 
B.A., Pacific Lutheran University; M.A., 
Washington State University; Ph.D., 
The Pennsylvania State University 

Donald H. Fortnum 1965- 
Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., Carroll College (Wisconsin); Ph.D., 
Brown University 

Robert S. Fredrickson 1969- 

Professor of English 

B.A., DePauw University; M.A., University of 

Minnesota; Ph.D., University of North Carolina at 

Chapel Hill 

Robert H. Fryling 1947-50, 1958- 
Professor of Mathematics 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Ph.D., University 
of Pittsburgh 

Robert R. Garnett 2 1981- 

Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., Dartmouth College; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Virginia 

Robert M. Gemmill 1958- 
Associate Professor of Economics 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., University 
of Pennsylvania 

Sandra K. Gill 1984- 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 

and Anthropology 

B.S., Auburn University; M.A., University of 

Alabama; Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Charles H. Glatfelter 1949- 

Franklin Professor of History 

B.A., Gettysburg College; Ph.D., The Johns 

Hopkins University 



178 



Gertrude G. Gobbel 1968- 

Associate Professor of Psychology, 
Department Chairperson 
B.S., The Pennsylvania State University; M.S., 
University of Illinois; Ph.D., Temple University 

Leonard S. Goldberg 1982- 
Assistant Professor of English 
B.A., University of Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Pennsylvania 

Derrick K. Gondwe 1977- 

Associate Professor of Economics 

B.A., Lake Forest College; M.A., University of 

Wisconsin; Ph.D., University of Manitoba 

Laurence A. Gregorio 1983- 

Assistant Professor of French 

B.A., Saint Joseph's College; M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Pennsylvania 

Winston H. Griffith 1978- 

Associate Professor of Economics 

B.Sc, University of the West Indies; M.A., Ph.D., 

Howard University 

Joseph J. Grzybowski 1979- 
Associate Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., King's College; Ph.D., Case Western 
Reserve University 

Louis J. Hammann 1956- 

Professor of Religion, Chairperson of 
Interdepartmental Studies 
B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Yale Divinity 
School; M.A., The Pennsylvania State University; 
Ph.D., Temple University 

Jerome 0. Hanson 1984- 

Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., State University of New York at Fredonia; 

M.A., University of Cincinnati 

J. Richard Haskins 1959- 
Professor of Physics 
B.S., University of Texas; Ph.D., 
Ohio State University 

Peggy Lou Hays 1983- 
Instructor in Management 
B.A., Muskingum College; M.B.A., 
Northwestern University 

John T. Held 1960- 
Associate Professor of Education 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Columbia 
University; M.S., University of Illinois 

Thomas J. Hendrickson 1960- 

Professor of Physics 

B.S., M.S., University of Michigan; Ph.D., 

Iowa State University 



Sherman S. Hendrix 1 1964- 

Associate Professor of Biology, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Florida State 

University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Edmund R.Hill 1961- 

Associate Professor of Economics 

B.Com., McGill University; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Pittsburgh 

Donald W. Hinrichs 1968- 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

and Anthropology, 

B.A., Western Maryland College; M.A., University 

of Maryland; Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Christine Ruane Hinshaw 1986- 

Assistant Professor of History 
B.S., Georgetown University; M.A., 
State University of New York at Binghamton; 
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley 

Nancy J. Hirschmann 1986- 
Instructor in Political Science 
A.B., Smith College; M.A., The Johns 
Hopkins University 

Leonard I. Holder 1964- 

Alumni Professor of Mathematics, 

Department Chairperson 

B.S., M.S., Texas A & M University; Ph.D., 

Purdue University 

Wade F. Hook 1967- 
Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 
A.B., Newberry College; B.D., Lutheran 
Theological Southern Seminary; M.A., University 
of South Carolina; Ph.D., Duke University 

Mary-Garland Jackson 1982- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., Georgetown College; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Kentucky 

Carolyn M. Jacobson 1983- 

Assistant Professor of Management 

A.B., Oberlin College; M.A., Ph.D., Ohio University 

Donald L. Jameson 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., Bucknell University; Ph.D., University of 

North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Gary B. Karshner 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Physics 

B.A., University of California, Berkeley; Ph.D., 

University of Oregon. 



179 



John M. Kellett 1968- 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 

B.S., Worcester State College; M.S., Rutgers— 

The State University of New Jersey; Ph.D., 

University of Florida 

Grace C. Kenney 1948- 

Professor of Health and Physical Education, 

Department Chairperson 

B.S., New York University; M.A., Columbia 

University 

Elizabeth Riley Lambert 1984- 

Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., Duquesne University; M.A., George Mason 

University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

L Carl Leinbach 1967- 

Professor of Mathematics, Chairperson of 

Computer Studies 

B.A., Lafayette College; M.A., University of 

Delaware; Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Branko A. Lenski 1970- 
Associate Professor of French 
Ph.D., New York University 

Jack S. Locher 1957- 

Associate Professor of English 

M.A., University of Chicago; Ph.D., University 

of Pennsylvania 

Rowland E. Logan 1958- 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

A.B., University of California, Los Angeles; M.S., 

Ph.D., Northwestern University 

John H. Loose 1959- 

Professor of Religion 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Lutheran 

Theological Seminary, Gettysburg; M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Chicago 

Dennis N. Lorenz 1986- 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.A., George Washington University; 
Ph.D., Cornell University 

Franklin 0. Loveland 1972- 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

and Anthropology 

A.B., Dartmouth College; M.A., Lehigh University; 

M.A., Ph.D., Duke University 

Carolyn M. Magness 1982- 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

B.A., Merrimack College; M.S., Northern Arizona 

University; M.S., Ph.D., University of New 

Hampshire 



Mohammad G. Majd 1984- 

Assistant Professor of Economics 
M.A., St. Andrews University, United Kingdom; 
M.A., Manchester University, United Kingdom; 
Ph.D., Cornell University 

Richard T. Mara 1953- 

Sahm Professor of Physics 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Ph.D., University 

of Michigan 

Laurence A. Marschall 1971- 

Professor of Physics 

B.S., Cornell University; Ph.D., University 

of Chicago 

Michael Matsinko 1976- 

Associate Professor of Music 
B.S., M.M., West Chester University 

Arthur McCardle 1969- 
Associate Professor of German 
B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Michael J. McTighe 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Religion 

A.B., Brown University; M. Div., Yale Divinity 

School; Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Fredric Michelman 1973- 
Associate Professor of French 
B.S.Ec, University of Pennsylvania; M.A., 
Middlebury College; Ph.D., University of 
California, Los Angeles 

Jan E. Mikesell 1973- 

Associate Professor of Biology 

B.S., M.S., Western Illinois University, Ph.D., Ohio 

State University 

Carey A. Moore 2 1955-56, 1959- 
Professor of Religion, Department Chairperson 
B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, Gettysburg; Ph.D., The 
Johns Hopkins University 

Kenneth F. Mott 1966- 

Associate Professor of Political Science 

A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., Lehigh 

University; Ph.D., Brown University 

Samuel A. Mudd 1958-64, 1965- 
Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Ph.D., 
Purdue University 

Ruediger Mueller 1986- 

Instructor in Management 

Diploma Oekonom, University of Giessen, 

West Germany; M.B.A., Kansas State University 



180 



Charles D. Myers, Jr. 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Religion 
B.A., Duke University; M.Div., Ph.D., 
Princeton Theological Seminary 

James P. Myers. Jr. 1968- 

Professor of English 

B.S., LeMoyne College; M.A., University of 

Arizona; Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 

Katsuyuki Niiro 1972- 

Associate Professor of Economics 

B.A., M.A., University of Hawaii, M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Pittsburgh 

Yukiko Niiro 1986- 

Instructor in Mathematics and Developmental 
Education Specialist in Mathematics Skills 
B.B.A., M.B.A., University of Hawaii 

Norman K. Nunamaker 1963- 

Associate Professor of Music, 
Department Chairperson 
A.B., Bowling Green State University; M.M., 
Ph.D., Indiana University 

Paula Olinger 1979- 

Associate Professor of Spanish 

B.A., University of Wisconsin; M.A., Ph.D., 

Brandeis University 

Bruce L Packard 1971- 
Associate Professor of Education 
B.A., Gettysburg College; Ed.M., Ed.D., 
Temple University 

William E. Parker 1967- 

Associate Professor of Chemistry, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., Haverford College; M.S., Ph.D., University 

of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Gerald R. Patnode 1985- 

Instructor in Management 

B.S., Old Dominion University; M.B.A., Morgan 

State University; M.S., Temple University 

Alan Paulson 1978- 

Associate Professor of Art 

B.F.A., Philadelphia College of Art; M.F.A., 

University of Pennsylvania 

Ruth E. Pavlantos 1963- 

Pearson Professor of Classics, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., College of Wooster; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Cincinnati 

James D. Pickering 1954- 

Professor of English 

A.B., A.M., Wesleyan University; Ph.D., Columbia 

University 



Thane S. Pittman 3 1972- 

Professor of Psychology 

B.A., Kent State University; M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Iowa 

Robert A. Pitts 1986- 

Professor of Management 

B.A., Yale University; M.B.A., Columbia 

University; D.B.A., Harvard University 

Rosemary A. Porter 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Sociology and 

Anthropology 

B.A., Ph.D., Temple University 

Lisa Portmess 1979- 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Queen's University 

Thomas H. Pringle 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics 

B.A., Harvard University; M.S., University of 

California, San Diego; Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Sima Rabinowitz 1983- 

Instructor in Spanish 

B.A., State University of New York at 

Binghamton; M.A., University of Maryland 

William F. Railing 1964- 

Professor of Economics 
B.S., United States Merchant Marine Academy; 
B.A., The Johns Hopkins University; Ph.D., 
Cornell University 

Ray R. Reider 1962- 

Assistant Professor of Health and 
Physical Education 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.Ed., 
The Pennsylvania State University 

Elizabeth M. Richardson 1984- 

Assistant Professor of French 

B.A., Wake Forest University; M.A., Middlebury 

College; Ph.D., New York University 

Janet Morgan Riggs 2 1981- 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Princeton University 

Michael L. Ritterson 1968- 
Associate Professor of German, 
Department Chairperson 
A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; Ph.D., 
Harvard University 



181 



William E. Rosenbach 1984- 

Professor of Management, 

Department Chairperson 

B.S., B.B.A., Texas A & M University; M.B.A., 

Golden Gate University; D.B.A., University 

of Colorado 

CAPT Dennis M. Rourke 1985- 
Assistant Professor of Military Science 
B.A., Arizona State University 

Alex T. Rowland 1958- 

Ockershausen Professor of Chemistry 

B.A., Gettysburg College; Ph.D., Brown University 

Karen Wiley Sandler 1985- 

Assistant Professor of French 
B.A., Principia College; M.A., 
The Pennsylvania State University; 
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 

Teresa A. Sawyer 1984- 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.S., B.A., Purdue University; Ph.D., 
Indiana University 

Virginia E. Schein 1986- 
Associate Professor of Management 
B.A., Cornell University; Ph.D., New 
York University 

Emile 0. Schmidt 1962- 

Professor of English and Director of Theatre Arts 

A.B., Ursinus College; M.A., Columbia University 

Allen C. Schroeder 4 1967- 

Professor of Biology 

B.A., Loyola College; M.S., Ph.D., The Catholic 

University of America 

James F. Slaybaugh 1964- 

Associate Professor of Education, 

Department Chairperson 

A.B., Roanoke College; M.Ed., The Pennsylvania 

State University 

Carol D. Small 1969- 

Instructor in Art 

B.A., Jackson College of Tufts University; M.A., 

The Johns Hopkins University 

Carolyn S. Snively 1982- 

Assistant Professor of Classics 

B.A., Michigan State University, M.A., Ph.D., 

University of Texas at Austin 

Ralph A. Sorensen 1977- 

Associate Professor of Biology 

B.A., University of California, Riverside; Ph.D., 

Yale University 



Frederick A. Speck 1983- 

Assistant Professor of Music 

B.M., M.M., Bowling Green State University, 

D.M.A., University of Maryland 

Patricia Thomas Srebrnik 1984- 
Assistant Professor of English 
B.A., University of Washington; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Michigan 

Janet C. Stavropoulos 1978- 
Associate Professor of English 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Indiana University 

John R. Stemen 1961- 
Associate Professor of History, 
Department Chairperson 
B.A., Yale University; M.A., Ph.D., 
Indiana University 

Mary Margaret Stewart 1959- 
Graeff Professor of English 
A.B., Monmouth College (Illinois); Ph.D., 
Indiana University 

Peter Stitt 1986- 

Professor of English, Editor of 

The Gettysburg Review 

B.A., M.A., University of Minnesota; Ph.D., 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

John C. Stroope 1986- 

Instructor in Management 

B.A., California State University at 

Long Beach; M.A., University of Texas at 

Arlington 

Christine M. Sylvester 3 1981- 
Assistant Professor of Political Science 
B.A., Albertus Magnus College; M.A., Boston 
University; Ph.D., University of Kentucky 

Amie Godman Tannenbaum 1968- 

Associate Professor of French 

A.B., Hood College; M.A., The George Washington 

University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Donald G. Tannenbaum 1966- 

Associate Professor of Political Science 
B.B.A., M.A., City College of the City University 
of New York; Ph.D., New York University 

C. Kerr Thompson 1985- 

Associate Professor of Spanish, 

Department Chairperson 

B.A., Davidson College; M.A., Ph.D., Louisiana 

State University 

Amelia M. Trevelyan 1985- 

Instructor in Art 

B.A., M.A., University of Michigan 



182 



Robert H. Trone 1956- 

Associate Professor of Religion 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Yale Divinity 

School; M.A., Ph.D., The Catholic University of 

America 

Robert M. Viti 1971- 
Associate Professor of French, 
Department Chairperson 
B.A., St. Peter's College; M.A., Ph.D., 
Duke University 

Kerry S. Walters 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 

B.A., University of North Carolina at Charlotte; 

M.A., Marquette University; Ph.D., University of 

Cincinnati 

Dexter N. Weikel 1962- 

Professor of Music 

B.S., Susquehanna University; M.A., The 

Pennsylvania State University; D.M.A., Peabody 

Conservatory of The Johns Hopkins University 

Alexander L. Wijesinha 1984- 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics 
B.S., University of Sri Lanka; M.S., Ph.D., 
M.S. (Computer Science), University of Florida 

John R. Winkeimann 1963- 

Associate Professor of Biology 

B.A., University of Illinois; M.A., Ph.D., University 

of Michigan 

Philip R. Witmer 1983- 

Instructor in Management 

B.A., Greensboro College; M.A., M.B.A., 

University of South Carolina 

Cynthia R. Wohlers 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Classics 

B.A., M.A., University of Iowa; 

M.A., Ph.D., Rutgers— The State University of 

New Jersey 

Kent D. Yager 1986- 

Instructor in Spanish 

B.A., M.A., University of California, 

Santa Barbara 

Robert F. Zellner 1968- 
Associate Professor of Music, 
B.S., West Chester University; M.A., 
Lehigh University 

'Sabbatical leave, Fall semester 1987-88 
2 Sabbatical leave, Spring semester 1987-88 
3 Sabbatical leave, Academic Year, 1987-88 
^Released Time, Academic Year, 1987-88 



Other Instructional and Administrative 
Personnel (1986-87 Academic Year) 

Mary Kay August 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.A., University of Dayton; M.A., George 
Washington University; Ph.D., West Virginia 
University 

Keith A. Barlow 

Adjunct Instructor in Political Science 
B.S., United States Military Academy; 
M.A., University of Pennsylvania 

Mary T. Baskerville 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Interdepartmental 

Studies and English 

B.A., Hunter College; M.A., Ph.D., Columbia 

University 

Lourdes P. Bayola-Mueller 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biology 
B.S., M.S., University of the Phillipines; 
Ph.D., Kansas State University 

William F. Bertrand 

Assistant Wrestling Coach 

B.S., The Pennsylvania State University 

Teresa Bowers 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music 
B.M.E., Susquehanna University; M.M., Ohio 
State University 

Ouane A. Botterbusch 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music 

B.S., Mansfield University; M.M., West Chester 

University 

Lisa Brock 

Fellow-in-Residence in African Studies 

and Minority Programming 

B.A., Howard University; M.A., Northwestern 

University 

Paul S. Burkholder 

Adjunct Instructor in Education 

B.S., Shippensburg University; M.Ed., Western 

Maryland College 

Christian Casassus 

Teaching Assistant in French 
Equivalent of a master's degree, 
University of Toulouse, France 

P. Richard Cooper 

Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.Ed., 
Western Maryland College 



183 



Raymond Cormier 

Adjunct Professor of French 

A.B., University of Bridgeport, A.M., 

Stanford University; Ph.D., Harvard University 

Barbara Jones Denison 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Sociology 
and Anthropology 

B.A., Lebanon Valley College; M.A., University of 
York, England; Ph.D., Northwestern University 

Beatriz C. de Quintero 

Adjunct Instructor in Spanish 
B.A., University of Puerto Rico 

Ellis Diviney 

Assistant Men's Basketball Coach 
B.S., East Stroudsburg University 

Margarita Elorriaga 

Adjunct Instructor in Spanish 
M.A., University of New Mexico 

Steven J. Fishman 

Adjunct Instructor in Political Science 

B.A., Dickinson College; J.D. Dickinson School of 

Law 

Susan Gardiner 

Adjunct Instructor in Management 

B.A., Maryville College; M.B.A., Georgia State 

University 

Judith Glassick 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.A., University of Richmond; M.A., The Catholic 
University of America; Ph.D., University of 
Southern California 

Raymond Gouker 

Assistant Football Coach 

B.A., Shippensburg State University 

Stephen M. Gutting 

Assistant Men's Basketball Coach 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Jean A. Hartzeil 

Adjunct Instructor in English 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Shippensburg 

University 

Carol Heiser 

Admissions Counselor 
B.A., Dickinson College 

Carmelo Hernandez-Dominguez 

Teaching Assistant in Spanish 
Equivalent of master's degree, 
University of Salamanca, Spain 



Lloyd Hogan 

Distinguished Research Professor in Economics 
Ph.B., A.M., University of Chicago 



Jean S. Holder 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of History 
B.S., West Texas State University; M.A. 
The American University 



Ph.D. 



SFC Charles 0. Holmes 

Assistant Instructor in Military Science 

Marilyn Hubbard 

Adjunct Instructor in Spanish and International 
Student Coordinator 

B.A., Monmouth College (Illinois); M.A., Southern 
Illinois University 

Lillian Jackson 

Assistant Instructor in Chemistry 

B.A., Wheaton College (Massachusetts); M.A., 

Bryn Mawr College 

Carlton Johnson 

Assistant Instructor in Physics 

B.A., Lycoming College; M.Ed., Loyola College 

William Jones 

Lecturer in Interdepartmental Studies 

B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; M.A., University 

of Wisconsin; Ed.D., Boston University 

Mark Kirk 

Assistant Football Coach 
B.S., Shippensburg University 

Michael Kirkpatrick 

Assistant Men's Basketball Coach 

B.S., University of Pittsburgh, Johnstown 

Gerard Lawrence 

Assistant Football Coach 

B.A., Shepherd College; M.Ed., George Mason 

University 

Anthony D. Lemelle. Jr. 

Lecturer in Sociology and Anthropology 
B.A., Park College; M.A., California State 
University, Dominguez Hills; Ph.D., 
University of California, Berkeley 

William T. Leslie 

Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics 
B.S., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Shippensburg University 

Ada G. Lewis 

Adjunct Instructor in Management 

B.S., M.Ed., Indiana University of Pennsylvania 



184 



Raymond Luckenbaugh 

Laboratory Instructor in Chemistry 

A.B., Gettysburg College; Ph.D., University 

of Maryland 

Mehrdad Mashayekhi 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Sociology and 

Anthropology 

B.A., Case Western Reserve University; M.A., 

Ph.D., The American University 

SSG Raymond Moody 

Assistant Instructor in Military Science 

Robert C. Nordvall 

Lecturer in Interdepartmental Studies 
B.A., DePauw University; J.D., Harvard Law 
School; Ed.D., Indiana University 

Janet Powers 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Interdepartmental 
Studies and Administrative Coordinator of the 
Area Studies Program; B.A., Bucknell University; 
M.A., University of Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., 
University of Wisconsin 

Phyllis Price 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

SGM Ernest Purnsley 

Assistant Instructor in Military Science 

Jennifer M. Railing 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Management 
LL.B., University of London 

Peter 0. Sandler 

Adjunct Instructor in French 

B.A., Principia College; M.A., University of 

Virginia; M.A., University of North Carolina 

Ulrike Schwentker 

Teaching Assistant in German 
Equivalent of master's degree, 
University of Muenster 

Aubrey L. Shenk 

Assistant Cross Country Coach 
B.A., Juniata College 

Neil Sollenberger 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.M., Hartt School of 

Music 

Anne K. Showalter 

Adjunct Instructor in English and Developmental 
Education Specialist in English Skills 
B.A., Elizabethtown College; M.A., University 
of Iowa 



Sally Sites 

Assistant Field Hockey Coach 
B.A., Baldwin-Wallace College 

SSG Michael Slifko 

Assistant Instructor in Military Science 

Harry Stokes 

Assistant Men's Tennis Coach 
A.B., M.S., Duke University 

Harriet R. Tresham 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 

B.S., Roberts Wesleyan College; M.S., State 

University of New York College at Brockport 

David T. Twining 

Adjunct Instructor in Political Science 

B.S., Michigan State University; M.P.A., Syracuse 

University; M.A., Georgetown University 

Sylvia S. Van Arsdale 

Adjunct Instructor in Education 

B.S., Millersville University; 

M.Ed., Antioch Graduate School of Education 

Carole R. Wagonhurst 

Alcohol Education Coordinator 

B.A., The Pennsylvania State University; M.A., 

Wheaton Graduate School 

Shirley Anne Warshaw 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Political Science 
B.A., M.G.A., University of Pennsylvania; Ph.D., 
The Johns Hopkins University 

Franklin A. Wastler 

Adjunct Instructor in Music 
B.M., University of Miami 

Daniel A. Williams 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Spanish 

A.B., Louisiana State University; M.A., University 

of Maryland; Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University 

Helen J. Winkelmann 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 

B.A., Notre Dame College of Staten Island; M.S., 

University of Michigan 

Michael Youse 
Assistant Soccer Coach 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Jo Ann K. Zeman 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 
B.A., Western Maryland College 



185 



1987-88 Calendar 

FALL SEMESTER 



August 26-28, Wednesday-Friday 

August 29, Saturday 

August 31, Monday 

October 16, Friday at 4:00 p.m. 

October 21, Wednesday at 8:00 a.m. 

October 22, Thursday 

October 24, Saturday 

October 30, Friday 

October 30-November 1, Friday-Sunday 

November 19, Thursday 

November 24, Tuesday at 4:00 p.m. 

November 30, Monday at 8:00 a.m. 

December 11, Friday 

December 14-19, Monday-Saturday 



Orientation 

Registration 

Classes begin 

Mid-semester break begins 

Mid-semester break ends 

Mid-semester reports 

Alumni Homecoming 

Fall Honors Day 

Fall Family Weekend 

Fall Convocation (10:50 a.m. classes cancelled) 

Thanksgiving break begins 

Thanksgiving break ends 

Last day of classes 

Final examinations 



SPRING SEMESTER 



January 11, Monday 

January 12, Tuesday 

February 26, Friday at 4:00 p.m. 

March 7, Monday at 8:00 a.m. 

March 9, Wednesday 

March 31, Thursday at 4:00 p.m. 

April 5, Tuesday at 8:00 a.m. 

April 6, Wednesday 

April 7-9, Thursday-Saturday 

April 15, Friday 

April 15-17 Friday-Sunday 

April 23, Saturday 

April 28, Thursday 

April 29, Friday 

May 2-7, Monday-Saturday 

May 13-14, Friday-Saturday 

May 15, Sunday 



Registration 

Classes begin 

Mid-semester break begins 

Mid-semester break ends 

Mid-semester reports 

Easter break begins 

Easter break ends 

Follow Monday schedule 

Presidential Scholars Weekend 

Spring Honors Day (11:00 a.m. classes cancelled) 

Spring Family Weekend 

Get Acquainted Day 

Last day of classes (follow Friday schedule) 

Reading day 

Final examinations 

Alumni Weekend 

Baccalaureate and Commencement 



186 



Statistical Summary 

Students in College 

1986 Full Time Enrollment 

Fall Semester 



Senior 

Junior 

Sophomore 
Freshman . 



M 

226 
205 
251 
262 

944 



W 

204 
221 
280 
272 

977 



Total 

430 
426 
531 
534 

1921 



Geographic Distribution Matriculated Students 
1986 Fall Semester 



Number 

of 
Students 

Pennsylvania 616 

New Jersey 513 

New York 229 

Maryland 159 

Connecticut 154 

Massachusetts 68 

Virginia 40 

Delaware 23 

Other States 91 

International 

(21 countries) 28 



1921 



Percent 

32.0 

26.7 

11.9 

8.3 

8.0 

3.5 

2.1 

1.2 

4.8 

1j> 

100% 



Student Retention 

Of the students who entered Gettysburg as 
freshmen in September 1982, 72.4% were 
graduated by June, 1986; .9% who had not 
completed the graduation requirements 
continued at Gettysburg; 6.4% were required to 
withdraw from Gettysburg for academic reasons. 



Endowment Funds 

Gettysburg College has benefited over the years 
and continues to benefit from the income of 
funds contributed to the College's Endowment. 
Income from unrestricted endowment funds may 
be used for the general purpose of the College or 
for any special purposes; income from restricted 
endowment funds is used soley for the purpose 
specified by the donor. The generous support of 
the donors listed below has been vital to the 
continuing success of the College. 

(Unrestricted] 

Allhouse Family Endowment Fund In honor of 

William Craig Allhouse '81 and Mrs. Catherine 

Reaser Allhouse '24, and in memory of William 

Kenneth Allhouse '25 and Richard Reaser 

Allhouse '50. 

Alumni Memorial Endowment Fund 

E W. Baker Estate 

Frank D. Baker 

Robert J. Barkley Estate 

Charles Bender Trust 

Fay S. Benedict Memorial Fund 

H. Melvin Binkley Estate 

H. Brua Campbell Estate 

Dr. John Chelenden Fund 28 in honor of John B. 

linn '09. 

Class of 1919 Fund 

Class of 1927 Fund 

Class of 1938, 50th Reunion 

Class of 1939 Fund 

Class of 1971 Fund 

Louise Cuthbertson 

In memory of Arthur Herring, Anna Wiener 

Herring and Louise Cuthbertson. 

Charles W. Diehl, Jr., '29 

Harold Sheely Diehl Estate 

Faculty and Staff Memorial Endowment Fund 

Robert G. Fluhrer, '12 

The Ford Foundation 

Owen Fries Estate 

Richard V. Gardiner Memorial Fund 

The Garman Fund 

A perpetual family memorial. 

The Gettysburg Times 
Mamie Rag an Getty Fund 
Frank Gilbert 
Margaret E. Giles 
Ralph and Katherine M. Gresh 
James H. Gross Annuity 
William D. Hartshorne Estate 
George G. Hatter, '11 
Adam Hazlett, '10 
J. Kermit Hereter Trust 
Ralph E. Heusner Estate 
Joseph H. Himes, '10 

187 



Marion Huey 

John E. Jacobsen Family Endowment Fund 

Edmund Keller Estate 

Caroline C. Knox 

William J. Knox, '10 

Frank H. Kramer, '14 and Mrs. Kramer 

Bernard S. Lawyer, '12 

Harris Lee Estate 

Ralph D. Lindeman Memorial Fund 

The Richard Lewis Lloyd Fund in Memory of 

Arthur C. Carty 

Mr. & Mrs. C. B. McCollough 

Ralph McCreary Estate 

James MacFarlane Fund, Class of 1837 

Dana and Elizabeth Manners Memorial 

G. Bowers Mansdorfer, M.D., 26 

J. Clyde Market, '00, and Caroline 0. Market 

Robert T. Marks 

Fred G. Masters, '04 

A. L Mathias, 26 

John H. Mickley, 28 

In memory of his brother William Blocher 

Mickley. 

Alice Miller 

William J. Miller, Jr. '00 

Thomas Z. Minehart, '94 

Ruth G. Moyer Estate, Professor's Endowment 

Fund 

Bernice Baker Musser 

Helen Overmiller 

Ivy L. Palmer 

Joseph Parment Company 

Mrs. Willard S. Paul, '31 

Andrew H. Phelps 

C. Lawrence Rebuck 

A. E. and M. L Rice 

Mary Hart Rinn 

Nellie G. Royer 

Sarah Ellen Sanders 

Anna D. Seaman 

A. Richard Shay, 28 

Paul R. Sheffer, '18 

Herbert Shimer, '96 
Robert 0. Sinclaire 
Albert T. Smith Memorial Fund 
James Milton Smith Fund 

Anna K. and Harry L. Snyder 

Mary Heilman Spangler 

Charles M. A. Stine, '01 

Harvey W. Strayer, '10 

Leah Tipton Taylor Estate 

Veronica K. To liner Estate 

Vera and Paul Wagner Fund 

Walter G. Warner Memorial Fund (by Bergliot J. 

Warner) 



Leona S. & L. Ray Weaver Memorial Fund 

Richard C. Wetzel 

Jack Lyter Williams, '51 Memorial Fund 

Jeremiah A. & Annie C. Winter Memorial Fund 

Alice D. W rather 

Romaine H. Yagel Trust 

John and Caroline Yordy Memorial Scholarship 

(Restricted) 

Conrad Christian Arensberg Memorial Fund A 
fund established in 1948 by Francis Louis 
Arensberg in memory of his father, a Union 
veteran, for the purchase of Civil War books and 
materials. 

The Rev. Peter C. Bell Memorial Lectureship 
Fund A fund for the establishment of a 
lectureship on the claims of the gospel on college 
men. 

Bikle Endowment Fund A fund to support 
debating, established in 1925 to honor Dr. Philip 
Bikle, Class of 1866, Dean of Gettysburg College, 
1889-1925. 

Joseph Bittinger Chair of Political Science. 

Lydia Bittinger Chair of History. 

Joseph and Lydia Bittinger Memorial Fund A 
fund to support the needs of the library. 

Robert Bloom Fund For Civil War Studies. 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Citron A fund established by 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Citron '47 to endow insurance 
on a 1934 oil painting by Minna Citron. 

Class of 1911 Memorial Trust Fund A fund 
established in 1961, on the fiftieth anniversary of 
the Class, to provide income for the purchase of 
books for the college library. 

Class of 1925 Meritorious Service Award 
Foundation To provide annual alumni awards 
for notable service rendered Alma Mater. 

Thomas Y. Cooper Endowment A bequest to 
Gettysburg College in support of its libraries: (a) 
for acquisitions in literature and American 
History, as a memorial to his parents, Dr. and 
Mrs. Moses Cooper; and (b) for the operating 
budget of the library. 

A. Bruce Denny Fund A fund in memory of A. 
Bruce Denny, Class of 1973, contributed by fellow 
students to purchase library books. 

Luther P. Eisenhart Fund A fund established for 
the use of Emeriti faculty and of widows of 
former members of the faculty in real need of 
assistance. 



188 



Clyde E. and Sarah A. Gerberich Endowment 
Fund A fund established to support a series of 
lectures dedicated to the memory of Dr. Robert 
Fortenbaugh '13. 

Jean Landefeld Hanson Fund A fund established 
in 1971 by family and friends of the late wife of 
former President C. Arnold Hanson, the income 
to be assigned to purposes related to the Chapel 
program as determined by the Chaplain and the 
President of the College. 

The John A. Hauser Executive in Residence 
Fund A fund established by the family and 
friends of John A. Hauser and Gettysburg 
College, the income of which shall be used to 
support a business or governmental executive in 
residence for a limited period of time on an 
annual basis. 

The Harry D. Holloway Memorial Fund A fund to 
be used for purposes of keeping alive on the 
campus of Gettysburg College the Spirit of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

Institutional Self-Renewal Fund A fund initiated 
by Andrew W. Mellon and the William and Flora 
Hewlett Foundations and other donors to provide 
support for research and professional 
development by Gettysburg College faculty and 
staff and to support new or experimental 
academic programs. 

Dr. Amos S. and Barbara K. Musselman Art 
Endowment Fund The income only from this 
fund to be used primarily to support and 
advance knowledge and appreciation of art at 
Gettysburg College. 

Dr. Amos S. and Barbara K. Musselman 
Chemistry Endowment Fund The income only 
from this fund to be used by the Chemistry 
Department in support of the Chemistry program. 
The funds will be used primarily for the purchase 
of laboratory equipment and supplies. 

Musselman Endowment for Music Workshop A 
fund contributed by The Musselman Foundation, 
the income from which is to be used to support 
workshops in music performance and seminars 
in music education. 

Musselman Endowment for Theatre Arts A fund 
contributed by The Musselman Foundation, the 
income from which is to be used to support visits 
to the campus by individuals with expertise in 
the technical aspects of the theatre. 

Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists A 
fund contributed by The Musselman Foundation, 
the income from which is to be used to support 
visits by scientists to the College. 



NEH Fund for Faculty and Curriculum 
Development in the Humanities A fund 
established by a Challenge Grant from the 
National Endowment for the Humanities to 
promote high quality work in the humanities 
through faculty and curriculum development 
activity of particular merit in the humanities. 
This fund is part of the larger Institutional Fund 
for Self-Renewal. 

Keith Pappas Memorial Fund A fund established 
in memory of Keith Pappas 74 to provide an 
award to an outstanding student. 

Paul H. Rhoads Teaching and Professional 
Development Fund A fund established by Paul H. 
Rhoads, Gettysburg College, and others, the 
income from which provides named awards to 
support scholarly research, professional 
development, or the improvement of 
undergraduate instruction by Gettysburg 
College faculty. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture Fund A fund 
contributed by Dr. F. William Sunderman '19 in 
memory of Henry M. Scharf, Class of 1925, to 
establish a lectureship on current affairs. 

James A. Singmaster '98 Fund for Chemistry A 
fund established in 1967 by Mrs. James A. 
Singmaster in memory of her husband for the 
purchase of library materials in chemistry, or in 
areas related thereto. 

Dr. Kenneth L. Smoke Memorial Trust Fund A 
fund created in 1971 to honor the man who in 
1946 established the Department of Psychology 
at Gettysburg College and served as its chairman 
until his death in 1970. The annual income is 
used in part by The College Library to purchase 
library resources in the field of psychology and 
in part by The Psychology Department for special 
departmental needs. 

Earl Kresge Stock Endowment Fund The income 
from a sum of money given by Earl Kresge Stock 
'19 in honor of Helen W. Wagner '06 and 
Spurgeon M. Keeny '14 for their outstanding and 
inspirational teaching ability to be used by the 
English Department, over and above its normal 
budget, in a manner determined by the 
Department to best promote the English 
Language in written form. 

Stoever Alcove Fund A fund established by 
Laura M. Stoever for the support of the library. 

J. H. W. Stuckenberg Memorial Lectureship A 
bequest from Mary G. Stuckenberg in memory of 
her husband to sponsor lectures in the general 
area of social ethics. 

189 



The Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation of 
Gettysburg College A fund established by F. 
William Sunderman 19 to stimulate and further 
the interest in chamber music at Gettysburg 
College through the sponsorship of chamber 
music concerts. 

Waltemyer Seminar Room Fund A fund 
established by Carroll W. Royston '34 and the 
family and friends of Dr. William C. Waltemyer 
'13, former head of the Department of Bible at the 
College, to provide furnishings for and to 
maintain the library in a seminar room in his 
memory. 

Stephen Henry Warner '68 Memorial Fund A two- 
part fund, including: (1) Contributions to 
Gettysburg College in memory of Mr. Warner, the 
income to be used to maintain and support the 
Warner Collection on Vietnam, as well as to 
purchase new books for the library; (2) A 
bequest established by Stephen H. Warner for (a) 
library acquisitions in Asian studies and for (b) 
use as seed money for projects encouraging 
exciting, challenging, and fresh ideas. 

Donald K. Weiser Book Acquisition Fund A fund 
established in honor of Donald K. Weiser '24 for 
the purchase of library books in the field of 
insurance, management, and business 
administration. 

Woman's League Fund for Upkeep and Repair of 
the YMCA Building (Weidensall Hall) An 
endowment bequest of Louisa Paulus. 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Zimmerman Fund A fund 
established in 1931 by Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman 
(1873), from a bequest of Mrs. Zimmerman, who 
died in 1930, to create an endowment in support 
of the annual operating budget of the library. 

John B. Zinn Memorial Fund A fund established 
by friends and former students of Professor John 
B. Zinn, former chairman of the Chemistry 
Department, to provide support for professional 
development and research for professors in 
fields associated with the healing arts. 

John B. Zinn Memorial Fund in Admissions A 
fund established in honor of John B. Zinn, by 
friends and former students to support 
admissions efforts in fields associated with the 
healing arts. 



190 



Academic Advising 23 

Academic Calendar 186 

Academic Honors 55 

Academic Policies and Programs 17 

Academic Purposes 1, 18 

Academic Services and Information 151 

Academic Standing 34 

Academic Standing Committee 34, 151 

Accounting, Courses in 109 

Accident Insurance 158 

Accreditation Inside Back Cover 

Administration, The 172 

Administrative Offices 152 

Admission Policy 154 

Admission Procedure 154 

Admissions, Expenses, and Financial Aid 153 

Advanced Credit and Placement 36, 155 

Advising System 23 

Alcohol and Drug Education 148 

American Studies 106 

Anthropology, Courses in 136 

Anti-discrimination Policy Inside Back Cover 

Army Reserve Officers Training Program 54 

Area Studies 108 

Art, Courses in 65 

Artist in Residence 147 

Asian Studies 106 

Astronomy (See Physics) 

Athletic Facilities 152 

Athletics 150 

Auditing of Courses 31 

Awards 56 

Bachelor of Arts Degree Requirements 25 

Bachelor of Science in Music Education 42 

Band 119,146 

Basic Facts about the College 15 

Bills 156 

Biology, Courses in 69 

Board 156, 157 

Board of Trustees 170 

Bookstore 144, 156 

Business Administration, Courses in (See 

Management) 
Calendar 1987-88 186 
Campus Life 141 
Career Services 148 
Career Opportunities (See Departmental Course 

Introductions) 
Catholic Religious Services 149 
Catholic Student Religious Group 150 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium 44 
Chapel Programs 149 
Chemistry, Courses in 72 
Choirs 118,146 
Classical Studies, Courses in 76 
Classics, Courses in 75 
Classrooms, Laboratories 152 
College Course Requirements 27 



College Store 144, 156 
College Union 144 
Communication Media 147 
Comprehensive Academic Fee 155 
Computer Center 152 
Computer Courses 38, 77 
Computer Facilities 78, 152 
Computer Studies, Courses in 77 
Computers (Student), Connection to College 

Computer 152 
Consortium Exchange Program 44 
Cooperative Program 50 
Correspondence, Listing for 195 
Costs 155 

Counseling Services 147 
Course Changes 31 
Course Numbering System 64 
Courses of Study 63 
Credit System (Credit Hours) 25 
Cultural Activities 146 
Curriculum 22 

Dean of Educational Services 151 
Dean of Student Life 142 
Deans' Lists 55 
Debating Union 147 
Degree Requirements 

Bachelor of Arts 25 

Bachelor of Science in Music Education 

Exemption From 36 
Dental School, Preparation for 51 
Dining Accommodations 143 
Dining Fees 156 
Distribution Requirements 27, 64 
Dormitories 142, 157 
Drama (See Theatre Arts) 
Dramatics 146 
Dual Degree Programs 52 
Early Decision Plan 154 
Economics, Course in 79 
Education, Courses in 83 
Employment Placement Services 43, 148 
Employment Prospects in Teaching 43 
Endowment Funds 187 
Engineering Dual-Degree Programs 52 
English Courses in 85 
Enrollment, Summary of 187 
Environmental Studies and Forestry 

Dual-Degree Program 53 
Expenses 155 
Facilities 151 
Faculty, The 175 
Fees 155 
Financial Aid 158 
Fitness Program 150 
Foreign Study 49 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Dual-Degree Program 53 
Fraternities 143 



42 



192 



Fraternity Houses 143 

French, Courses in 91 

Freshman Advising and Orientation 23 

Freshman Colloquy 22, 27, 64 

Full Time Student 30, 156 

Geographical Distribution of Students 187 

Geography, Courses in 83 

German, Courses in 94 

Gettysburg Theatre Festival 146 

Gettysburgian, The 147 

Government, Courses in (See Political 

Science) 
Grading System 31 
Graduate School Preparation 24 
Graduation 

Requirements for 25 

With honors 55 
Grants 158 
Greek, Courses in 75 
Greek Life 143 
Handicapped Persons 30 
Health and Physical Education, Courses in 96 
Health Center 149 
Health Service 149 
History, Courses in 99 
Honor Code 21,145 
Honor Commission 21,145 
Honors, graduation with 55 
Honorary Fraternities and Societies 16 
Housing Policy 157 
Individualized Study 37 
Infirmary 149 
Insurance, Accident 158 
Insured Tuition Plan 156 
Incomplete, Grade of 33 
Intercollegiate Athletics 150 
Intercultural Advancement 151 
Interdepartmental Studies, Committee on 103 
Interdepartmental Studies, Courses in 103 
Interfraternity Council 145 
Internships 7 
Intramural Sports 150 
Jewish Student Religious Group 150 
Journalism 87, 147 
Language Houses 92, 95 
Latin, Courses in 76 
Lectures 145 
Libraries 151 
Literary Magazine 147 
Literature, Concentration in 85 
Living Accommodations 142 
Loans 159, 165, 167 

Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange 49 
Major Fields of Study 7,28 
Major Requirements 28 
Management, Courses in 108 
Marine Biology Cooperative Program 50 
Mathematics, Courses in 110 
Medical School, Preparation for 51 



Medieval and Renaissance Studies 106 
Mercury, The 147 
Microcomputer Laboratory 152 
Microcomputers, Connection with College 

Computer 152 
Military Science, Courses in 113 
Minor Requirements 29 
Minority Affairs (See Intercultural 

Advancement) 
Music Activities 146 
Music, Courses in 115 
Music Education, Bachelor of Science 

Degree 42 
Newspaper 147 
Off-Campus Study 44 
Office of Career Services 148 
Optional Minor 29 
Orchestra 119,146 
Orientation 23 

Owl and Nightingale Players 146 
Panhellenic Council 145 
Part Time Instructional and Administrative 

Personnel 183 
Part Time Student 155 
Payment of Bills 156 
Peace, War, and World Order Studies 107 
Performing Arts 146 
Personal Property Insurance 158 
Phi Beta Kappa 16, 56 
Philosophy, Courses in 119 
Physical Education, Courses in 96 
Physical Education Requirement 27 
Physics, Courses in 120 
Placement of Graduates 43, 148 
Political Science, Courses in 123 
Portuguese, Courses in 139 
Predental Preparation 51 
Prelaw Preparation 50 
Premedical Preparation 51 
Preprofessional Studies 50 
Preveterinary Preparation 51 
Prizes and Awards (See also Scholarships) 56 
Programming and Student Activities 145 
Provost 151 

Psychology, Courses in 127 
Publications, Student 147 
Radio Station 147 
Readmission of Students 34 
Recreation Programs 150 
Refund Policy 157 
Register of Trustees, Faculty, 

Administration 169 
Registration 31 
Religion, Courses in 130 
Religious Life 149 
Religious, Student Groups 

Catholic 150 

Jewish 150 

Protestant 150 

193 



Repeated Courses 33 

Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) 54 

Reserve Officers Training Corps, Courses 

in 54,113 
Residential Life 142 
Residence Requirements 29 

Retention 187 

Rights and Responsibilities of Students 143 

Room Rents 156 

ROTC, Courses in 113 

Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory Grading 

Option 32 
Schedule Limitations 29 
Scholarships (See Also Prizes and 

Awards) 159 
Scholastic Aptitude Tests 154 
Seminars 37 
Senior Honors 55 
Senior Scholars' Seminar 37 
Social Fraternities and Sororities 143 
Sociology and Anthropology, Courses in 133 
Sororities 143 
Spanish, Courses in 137 
Special Interdepartmental Programs 106 
Special Major 28 
Special Programs, Advisers 

and Coordinators 196 
Special Programs, Advisers 

and Coordinators 
Special Students 155 
Spectrum, The 147 
Speech, Courses in 91 
Sports 150 
Statement of Purpose 1 
Statistical Summary of Students 187 
Student Activities 145 
Student Activities Council 145 
Student Communication Media 147 
Student Conduct 143 
Student Conduct Review Board 144 
Student-Faculty Ratio 7 
Student Financial Aid 158 
Student Government 145 
Student Handbook 143 
Student Insurance 158 
Student Health Service 149 
Student Life 142 
Student Life Council 145 
Student Newspaper 147 
Student Radio Station 147 
Student Retention 187 
Student Senate 145 
Student Services 142 
Student Yearbook 147 
Students, Geographical Distribution 187 
Study Abroad 49 

Summary of Facts about Gettysburg 15 
Summer Theatre 146 



Table of Contents Inside Front Cover 
Teacher Education Programs 39 

Elementary 41 

Secondary 39 

Music Education 42 
Teacher Placement 43 
Theatre Arts and Drama, 

Major in 86 

Courses in 89 

Groups 146 
Transcripts 34 
Transfer Credit 36 
Transfer Students 155 
Tuition 156 

Two Minute Look at Gettysburg 15 
United Nations Semester 48 
Veterinary School, Preparation for 51 
Veterans' Administration Benefits 156 
Visitation Hours Policy 143 
Vocational Counseling 24 
Washington Semester 45 
Wilson College Exchange 49 
Withdrawal from a Course 33 
Withdrawal of Students 34 
Work-Study Program 159 
Writing Center 85 
Writing Policy 26, 37 
WZBT 147 
Yearbook 147 



194 



Listing for Correspondence 

Mailing Address 

Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 

Telephone Number 

Area Code 717/337-6000 

Academic Information 

L. Baird Tipson, Provost of the 
College 

Admissions 

Delwin K. Gustafson, Dean of Admissions 

Alumni Affairs 

Robert D. Smith, Director of Alumni Relations 

Accounting 

Michael S. Malewicki, Chief Accountant 

Career Services 

Deanna S. Forney, Director of Career Services 

Central Pennsylvania Consortium 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Chaplain 

The Rev. Karl J. Mattson, Chaplain 

Church Relations 

Dwight A. Huseman, Director of Church Relations 

College Relations 

Richard Page Allen, Vice President for College 
Relations 



Counseling Services 

William H. Jones, Coordinator of Counseling 

Financial Aid 

Ronald L. Shunk, Director of Financial Aid 

General College Policy and Information 

Carol L Kefalas, Director of Public Relations 

Health. Physical Education, and Athletics 

Robert T. Hulton, Director of Intercollegiate 
Athletics 

Library 

Willis M. Hubbard, Librarian 

Public Relations 

Carol L. Kefalas, Director of Public Relations 

Records and Transcripts 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Student Accounts 

Michael S. Malewicki, Chief Accountant 

Student Affairs 

Susan M. Brady, Dean of Student Life 



195 



Advisers and Coordinators of 
Special Programs at 
Gettysburg College 

Administrative Coordinator of 
Area Studies Program 

Janet Powers, Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Interdepartmental Studies 

Adviser to Minority Students 

Harry Matthews, Dean of Intercultural 
Advancement 

Affirmative Action/Title IX 
Coordinator/Sexual Harassment Officer 

Robert C. Nordvall, Associate Dean of the College 

Coordinator of Cooperative Program 
in Marine Biology 

Sherman Hendrix, Chairperson, 
Department of Biology 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program 
in Engineering 

David J. Cowan, Chairperson, 
Department of Physics 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Sherman Hendrix, Chairperson, 
Department of Biology 

Coordinator of the United Nations' Semester 

Donald M. Borock, Chairperson, 
Department of Political Science 

Coordinator of the Washington Semester 

Donald M. Borock, Chairperson, 
Department of Political Science 



Coordinator of the Washington Economic 
Policy Semester 

Ann Harper Fender, Chairperson, 
Department of Economics 

Coordinator of the Writing Center 

Elizabeth Lambert, Assistant Professor of 
English 

Director of Continuing Education 

G. Ronald Couchman, Assistant Dean of the 
College and Registrar 

Foreign Student Adviser 

Marilyn Hubbard, Adjunct Instructor in 
Spanish/International Student Coordinator 

Foreign Study Adviser 

G. Ronald Couchman, Assistant Dean of 
College and Registrar 

Internship Coordinator for Management 

Judy Hull, Staff Director of Internships, 
Management 

Prehealth Professions Adviser 

Robert C. Nordvall, Associate Dean of the College 

Prelaw Adviser 

Robert C. Nordvall, Associate Dean of the College 



196 



discrimination in its programs, activities, and policies 
against students, prospective students, employees, or 
prospective employees, on account of race, color, 
religion, ethnic or national origin, age, personal 
handicap, or sex. Such policy is in compliance with the 
requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 
1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and all other applicable 
federal, state, and local statutes, ordinances, and 
regulations. Inquiries concerning the application of 
any of these laws may be directed to the Affirmative 
Action Officer at the College or to the Director of the 
Office for Civil Rights. Department of Education. 
Washington, D.C. for laws, such as Title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972 and the Rehabilitation 
Act of 1973, administered by that department. 

Gettysburg College is accredited by the Middle States 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 



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CATALOGUE 1988-1989 






4 


ft 1 







7 






1 A Statement of Purpose 

5 Gettysburg College— The 
Community 

17 Academic Policies and 
Programs 

Academic Purposes, Honor Code, 
Curriculum, Advising System, 
Credit System, Degree 
Requirements, Residence 
Requirements, Registration, 
Grading System, Academic 
Standing, Transcripts, Withdrawal 
and Readmission, Transfer Credit, 
Exemption from Degree 
Requirements, Individualized Study 
and Seminars, Senior Scholars' 
Seminar, Computer Courses, 
Teacher Education Programs, 
Off-Campus Study, Dual-Degree 
Programs, Preprofessional Studies, 
Senior Honors, Deans' Honor Lists, 
Prizes and Awards 

3 Courses of Study 



141 Campus Life 

Student Life, Office of Stude.n 
Residential Life, Greek Life, Dining 
Accommodations, Student Conduct, 
College Union, Student Government, 
Programming and Student 
Activities, Campus 
Communications, Counseling 
Services, Career Services, Health 
Service, Religious Life and Chapel 
Programs, Athletics, Intramurals, 
Recreation and Fitness, Academic 
Services and Information, 
Intercultural Advancement, 
Facilities 

153 Admission, Expenses, and 
Financial Aid 

Admission Policy, Comprehensive 
Academic Fee Plan, Payment of 
Bills, Housing Policy, Refund Policy, 
Insurance, Student Financial Aid 

169 Register 

Board of Trustees, Administration, 
The Faculty, Other Instructional and 
Administrative Personnel, Calendar, 
Statistical Summary, Student 
Retention, Endowment Funds 

193 Index 



The provisions of this catalogue are not 
to be regarded as an irrevocable 
contract between the College and the 
student. The College reserves the right 
to change any provision or requirement 
at any time. This right to change 
provisions and requirements includes, 
but is not limited to, the right to reduce 
or eliminate course offerings in 
academic fields and to add 
requirements for graduation. 



GETTYSBURG April 1988: Volume 78 
Number 5 

GETTYSBURG (USPS 218-120) is 
published monthly in August, 
October and December semi- 
monthly in April by Gettysburg 
College, Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
Second class postage paid at 
Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to Printing Office, 
Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 
17325-1486. 



A Statement of Purpose 
Gettysburg College 

Chartered in 1832 for the express purpose of exerting "a salutary 
influence in advancing the cause of liberal education," Gettysburg 
College is a community committed to the discovery, exploration, 
and evaluation of the ideas and actions of humanity and to the 
creative extension of that heritage. Gettysburg College cherishes 
its place in history as the oldest existing college affiliated with the 
Lutheran Church in America and intends to continue that church 
relatedness. By intent also, Gettysburg College is nonsectarian in 
its instruction and strives to serve students of all faiths. 

To meet its commitment, Gettysburg College seeks foremost to 
establish and maintain an environment of inquiry, integrity, and 
mutual respect. In this setting, the College creates opportunities for 
students to learn specific intellectual skills and to strive for 
breadth of understanding. A rigorous program of undergraduate 
learning in the arts and sciences is complemented by student and 
religious life programs designed to challenge and enrich the 
academic experience. 

Gettysburg College considers its purpose fulfilled if its students 
grow as critically informed, humane, and creative individuals and 
continue to grow in these qualities after they have left Gettysburg. 

The Academic Program 

At the heart of Gettysburg College is the academic program which 
stresses logical, critical thinking and clear writing and speaking. 
Through a curriculum that derives its coherence from the traditions 
of liberal education, faculty introduce students to the assumptions 
and methods of a representative variety of academic disciplines in 
the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities. Students are 
encouraged not only to specialize but also to broaden their 
understanding of the past and present intellectual, social, and 
cultural contexts within which knowledge lives. The academic 
program is designed to provide more than skills and intellectual 
perspective; it places these in a context of humane values such as 
openmindedness, personal responsibility, and mutual respect. 

The Gettysburg faculty is dedicated to the goals of liberal learning, 
committed to professional development that serves and 
exemplifies those goals, responsible for periodic review of the 
curriculum, and eager to teach and learn with students in an open 
and trusting exchange. 

Gettysburg's academic program can reach its full potential only if 
our students continue to have the ability and the inclination to 
profit from an intense liberal arts experience. The academic 



environment is further enriched when such students come from 
many socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds. 

With a coherent curriculum, an able and dedicated faculty, and 
students committed to learning, the academic program seeks to 
free students from narrowness and provincialism and to free them 
for the joys and benefits of conscious intellectual strength and 
creativity. Gettysburg wants its students to learn a wise 
skepticism and a sense of human fallibility, to acquire new 
interests and orientations through liberating experiences of change 
and growth, and to learn to use the skills, knowledge, and values 
of a liberal education in an unending but satisfying search for 
wisdom and fullness of life. 



The Student Life Program 

Students entering college are interested in discovering who they 
are. Because students often face critical decisions about personal 
values, occupational choices, and role identities during their 
college years, the student life program seeks to provide 
opportunities for resolution of these important matters. To assist 
students in weighing available options and making decisions, the 
student life program offers, for example, psychological and career 
counseling and informal seminars on a variety of topics. Personal 
contact with Gettysburg's faculty and administration provides the 
attentive student with a wide range of role models to contemplate. 
Gettysburg's annual lecture series further expands students' 
horizons. 

The College also reveals its commitment to the total development 
of its students by encouraging them to play an important role in 
establishing and enforcing the conditions of campus life. Students 
supervise the academic Honor Code; students participate on 
certain trustee, faculty, and College planning and policy-making 
committees; and students fund and control many student 
activities. 

To supplement what students learn through living on campus and 
participating in student development programs, the College 
provides a full and varied extracurricular program. This program 
encourages students to develop leadership skills by working in 
student government; to deepen their appreciation for the arts by 
participating in concerts, dramatic productions, and other 
performances; to sharpen their writing and speaking skills by 
contributing to College publications or broadcasts; and to enjoy 
the mental and physical self-discipline required by competition in 
intercollegiate, intramural, and recreational athletics. 



The Religious Life Program 

Gettysburg College has partnership agreements with the Central 
Pennsylvania and Maryland Synods of the Lutheran Church in 
America. These relationships and, more specifically, the campus 
religious life program, nurture intellectual values and give 
opportunities for the examination of spiritual and moral values and 
for commitments by those who choose to make them. 

The religious life program of the College is designed to meet the 
needs of this religiously heterogeneous community to worship, to 
study, and to serve. The Chaplains, although they are employed by 
the College and report directly to the President, are called to this 
service by the synods of the Church. They assume primary 
responsibility for corporate worship; they counsel students and 
other campus personnel, help students and faculty plan programs 
to explore theological issues and to reach out to those in need, 
facilitate the work of local churches and denominational groups on 
the campus, and speak prophetically to issues of human justice 
when College values and College practice seem to diverge. 

Gettysburg College best serves the Church through its performance 
as a superior educational institution in which the Church's 
commitments and practices may be tested. 



Summary 

Through its academic program, its student life program, and its 
religious life program, then, Gettysburg College provides for the 
development of the young adult as a whole person— intellectually, 
socially, emotionally, physically, and spiritually. 

Approved by the Gettysburg College faculty: October 8, 1981 
Approved by the Gettysburg College Board of Trustees: 
December 5, 1981 



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The 
Community 



Gettysburg College: 
A heritage of excellence 



v V 



Gettysburg College was 
chartered in 1832 during a time 
in early nineteenth-century 
America when many of the 
nation's strongest liberal arts 
colleges were founded. It is the 
first Lutheran-related college 
established in the United 
States and for more than 150 
years has offered a liberal arts 
education of high quality to 
students of all faiths. At 
Gettysburg, you will find an 
environment that fosters both 
academic and personal 
growth; a highly qualified and 
dedicated faculty; and a 
diversified curriculum that 
offers challenge, opportunity, 
and excitement. 





All of the roads leading to 
Gettysburg College, in the 
historic town of Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania, cross the site of 
the famous Civil War Battle of 
Gettysburg. During those three 
hot July days, fighting 
occurred on the fields and 
ridges within sight of the 
College campus. At that time, 
Pennsylvania Hall (now the 
College administration 
building and listed in the 
National Register of Historic 
Places) served as a hospital 
for both Union and 
Confederate soldiers. It was 
from this building that 
Gettysburg students marched 
to hear Abraham Lincoln give 
his immortal address on 
November 19, 1863. 

Today, Gettysburg College 
borders a 3865-acre National 



Park and lies three blocks 
from the center of town. 
Because of its historic 
significance, beautiful 
countryside, and easy access 
from nearby cities, the town of 
Gettysburg welcomes over a 
million visitors annually 
from all over the world. 
Consequently, it offers 
numerous attractions, shops, 
restaurants, and lodging 
facilities that one would not 
expect to find in a small 
town— even a college town. 

Gettysburg College, like the 
town of which it is a part, has 
grown since its Civil War days. 
It now has a 200-acre campus 
with 52 buildings and seeks to 
limit its enrollment to 1850 
students. 



Gettysburg College believes 
that a liberal arts education 
liberates the minds of students 
so that they can better 
respond to the challenges of a 
contemporary society. 
Therefore, the goals of the 
educational program at 
Gettysburg are to develop your 
capacity to think logically and 
use language clearly; to give 
you a rigorous introduction to 
the assumptions and the 
methods of a representative 
variety of academic 
disciplines; and to acquaint 
you with the range and 
diversity of human customs, 
pursuits, ideas, values, and 
longings. 

Although all courses at 
Gettysburg are designed to 
achieve these goals, the 
Freshman Colloquy in liberal 
learning lays the foundation 
within the curriculum. This 
is a course that strengthens 
reasoning, writing, and 
speaking skills in a small 
class setting while introducing 
all Freshmen to a major issue 
in the liberal arts. 

Ultimately, this type of 
education is the most practical 
of all because it teaches you 
how to approach and solve 
problems critically and 





creatively. Gettysburg believes 
that such an education will 
foster a high sensitivity to 
moral and spiritual values, 
along with a quest for 
knowledge which will continue 
after graduation. 

Although training for specific 
jobs is not seen as a primary 
function of a liberal arts 
education, Gettysburg does 
not ignore your appropriate 
concern about careers. The 
College offers a career 
services program; teacher 
preparation and certification; 
advisory services for prelaw 
and premedical students; 
internship opportunities; and 
concentration in a major field 
as preparation either for 
graduate or professional 
schools, or for work in 
business, industry, 
government, or social 
services. 

Academic programs at 
Gettysburg provide you with a 
broad range of intellectual 
experiences and the individual 
attention you need to make the 
best use of those experiences. 
One of the advantages of an 
education at Gettysburg is the 
availability of small classes, 
especially in more advanced 
courses. A student-faculty 
ratio of 13:1 helps to assure 
close relationships between 



you and your professors. 

You may select a major field 
of study from any one of 25 
academic areas: art, biology, 
chemistry, classical studies, 
computer science, economics, 
English, French, German, 
Greek, health and physical 
education, history, Latin, 
management, mathematics, 
music, music education, 
philosophy, physics, political 
science, psychology, religion, 
sociology and anthropology, 
Spanish, and theatre arts. 
Minors are also available. 

It is possible to have visited 
Gettysburg National Battlefield 
many times without ever 
realizing that it surrounds a 
substantial town of 8,000. And 
at the heart of the town is the 
marvelous campus of 
Gettysburg College. It's an 
ecclectic assemblage of 
Georgian, Greek, Romanesque, 
Gothic Revival and modern 
architecture, plus several 
styles not easily categorized. 
All blend so beautifully that 
the whole 200 acres should be 
designated a national 
architectural monument. 

Excerpt from a recent article in 
the Washington Post. 




Gettysburg lets you take much 
of the responsibility for 
selecting an academic 
program that meets your 
needs and interests. If you 
want to concentrate your 
academic program on a 
particular area of emphasis 
which involves courses in 
several different departments, 
you may design your own 
major. A Special Major can 
cover broad areas such as 
International Studies, or it can 
focus on a specific topic such 
as Community Planning and 
Administration. 

The College's distribution 
requirements assure your 
acquaintance with several 
broad areas of study. After 
you select a major, ample 
opportunity is provided for 



electives in fields of your 
choice. 

You will have a faculty adviser 
to assist you in planning your 
academic program. Academic 
counseling is available, as is 
counseling for nonacademic 
personal matters. Gettysburg 
wants you to succeed, and the 
faculty and staff are dedicated 
to that principle. 

Through membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin and Marshall 
Colleges and through other off- 
campus and cooperative or 
dual-degree programs, 
Gettysburg offers you 
academic opportunities 
beyond its campus. Off- 
campus programs include the 



Washington Semester 
programs with American 
University in government and 
politics, economic policy, 
foreign policy, public 
administration, justice, urban 
studies, journalism, or arts 
and humanities; the United 
Nations Semester at Drew 
University; and cooperative 
programs in marine biology 
with Duke University Marine 
Laboratory or the Bermuda 
Biological Station. Many 
students study each year in 
foreign countries under our 
Study Abroad program. 

Gettysburg has dual-degree 
programs in engineering with 
Pennsylvania State University, 
Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute and Washington 
University in St. Louis. 
In addition, there is a dual- 
degree forestry and 
environmental studies 
program with Duke University. 
Under all of these programs a 
student begins his or her 
college career at Gettysburg 
and completes it at the 
cooperating university, 
earning degrees from both 
institutions. 

Preparation for a career in 
teaching is available through 
the teacher education 
programs. You can become 
certified to teach in elementary 
education, music education, or 
in one of 12 different 
secondary education fields. 



8 



Gettysburg offers all the 
courses necessary for you to 
enter the medical, dental, 
veterinary medicine or law 
school of your choice. Special 
advisers are available to 
assist you in planning your 
curriculum and in applying to 
the appropriate professional 
schools. 

The faculty at Gettysburg is at 
the heart of the College's high 
quality as an academic 
institution. The faculty 
members are highly skilled 
scholars and teachers, and are 
very interested in the 
intellectual development of 
their students. 

The faculty is concerned with 
continually improving their 
teaching skills. In recognition 
of the College's commitment to 
excellence in undergraduate 
teaching, funds for such 
improvement have come from 
grants from two major 
foundations, the National 
Endowment for the 
Humanities, and from the 
College's own resources. 

Teaching occurs most 
obviously in the classroom, 
but it does not stop there. 
As a student, you will be 
encouraged to talk to your 
professors after class and 
during office hours. You will 
have a faculty adviser to turn 
to for advice or simply for 
conversation. 





The relationship between 
students and faculty need not 
end at graduation. Student- 
faculty relations continue on a 
social as well as a scholarly 
level. If you visit the home of a 
faculty member during 
Homecoming Weekend or 
Commencement, you may find 
former students as guests. 



The first blind student 
admitted to medical school in 
the United States in this 
century was a Gettysburg 
graduate. His story was the 
subject of the motion picture 
made for television, "Journey 
From Darkness" and the book, 
White Coat, White Cane. Most 
students do not require the 
special attention from faculty 
and other students that was 
needed to prepare a blind 
student for medical school, 
but when an individual student 
needs such attention, 
Gettysburg tries to provide it. 

While emphasizing the 
teaching of undergraduates, 
the faculty is also concerned 
with scholarly achievement. 
More than 88% hold the 
doctoral degree or the highest 
earned degree in their fields, 
and many publish books and 
articles in scholarly journals. 
These scholarly activities 
assure that faculty members 
keep up with— and contribute 
to— the latest developments in 
their fields. These scholarly 




achievements help to make the 
faculty better teachers. 

Gettysburg's 200-acre campus 
provides excellent facilities for 
all aspects of college life. The 
center of the academic 
facilities is the Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources 
Center. Total library 
collections include 
approximately 300,000 
volumes, 23,000 microforms, 
36,000 government 
publications, 11,900 records, 
and subscriptions to over 
1,300 journals. Musselman 
Library has an automated 
library catalog which is 
accessible through a dozen 
public access computer 
terminals. 



Today a college needs more 
than an excellent library; new 
instructional techniques must 
be available. Gettysburg's 
computer center has a 
sophisticated Burroughs 
computer which permits use 
in every major computer 
language to serve your 
educational needs and a 
microcomputer laboratory 
with Apple and IBM 
microcomputers. The College 
has a modern language 
laboratory, a theatre 
laboratory studio, a 
greenhouse, an observatory 
with a 16-inch telescope, and a 
planetarium with a 30-foot 
dome on which paths of 
planets and stars are 
projected. 




10 




uv 



te 






A 






H D 



Gettysburg is fortunate to 
have both an RCA EMU4 
transmission electron 
microscope (TEM) and a JEOL 
TS20 scanning electron 
microscope (SEM) so that 
students in the sciences can 
do any advanced work for 
which an electron microscope 
is a necessity. In addition, our 
recently renovated chemistry 
building has a full range of 
modern instrumentation 
including a new Fourier 
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 
Spectrometer. 

Fifteen residence halls, 
including several on-campus 
houses for special interests, 
and 11 fraternity houses, 
provide you with many 
housing choices. Eighty-five 
percent of the students live in 
College residences or 
fraternity houses. The College 



dining hall provides meals on 
either a contract or occasional 
basis. 

The College Union Building 
with its many features- 
including bowling alleys and 
an Olympic-size swimming 
pool— is a center of student 
life on the campus. 

Other recreational and athletic 
facilities include two 
gymnasiums, a fieldhouse, a 
stadium with a football field 
and quarter-mile cinder track, 
a physical fitness trail, and 
five additional outdoor athletic 
fields. Both indoor and outdoor 
tennis courts are available. 
A health care team that 
includes a nurse practitioner, 
nurses, and a physician is 
available on a 24-hour basis. 
The Student Health Service is 
both a treatment and a 
resource center, offering you 



immediate care and 
educational services to help 
you make wise choices about 
your health. 

Although many major 
buildings on campus have 
been built in the last 25 years, 
the original campus building- 
Pennsylvania Hall, built in 
1837— has been renovated and 
serves as the center for 
administrative personnel. 
Many other older buildings on 
campus have been renovated 
so that their exteriors retain 
the architectural charm of 
their period of construction 
while the interiors display 
modern facilities. 

For example, there are 
extensive new facilities for the 
fine and performing arts. Brua 
Hall, the recently renovated 
theatre building, accommo- 



11 




dates a 250-seat playhouse 
with a thrust stage and state- 
of-the-art sound and lighting, 
and a laboratory theatre/ 
classroom featuring TV 
recording and monitoring 
equipment. Renovated in 1982, 
Schmucker Hall houses the Art 
and Music departments, and 
contains studios, galleries, 
classrooms, and practice 
rooms, as well as an impres- 
sive 200-seat recital hall. 

A full and diverse program of 
cultural, extracurricular, and 
religious activities is provided 
to enrich your personal and 
academic growth as well as 
to provide enjoyment and 
relaxation. 

Student responsibility is 
encouraged through student 
participation in a number of 



committees, clubs, and other 
organizations. Because 
Gettysburg is a residential 
college, the Student Life 
Council is particularly 
important. Students play a 
vital role in the work of this 
Council, which reviews the 
College's policies for 
residential life and student 
conduct. An elected Student 
Senate is the main 
organization of student 
government. Students also 
play a vital role in the Honor 
Commission, which 
administers the student 
academic Honor Code, and the 
Student Conduct Review 
Board, which handles 
disciplinary cases within the 
student body. 

The College has a full calendar 
of cultural activities. Concerts, 



plays, and lectures occur 
frequently. Student performing 
groups include the Gettysburg 
College Choir, which has 
received international 
recognition, the Chapel Choir, 
the College Marching and 
Symphonic Bands, the 
Gettysburg College-Community 
Chamber Orchestra, various 
ensembles, the Owl and 
Nightingale Players, who 
present three major theatrical 
productions each year, and the 
Laboratory Theatre, which 
performs a dozen one-act 
plays and Otherstage, which 
offers a variety of short 
theatre pieces. 

The College Union is the center 
of student activities on 
campus. Many events such as 
concerts, lectures, films, and 
dances are held in the 
ballroom of the Union. The 
student-operated Bullet Hole, 
also in the Union, is a snack 
bar that serves as an informal 
meeting place for the campus. 




12 




Social events are also 
provided by fraternities and 
sororities. Gettysburg has 11 
fraternities and 7 sororities, 
all of which are nationally 
affiliated. 

In addition to the social 
fraternities and sororities, the 
College has many depart- 
mental, professional, and 
honorary societies. There are 
honorary fraternities or clubs 
for students in 16 different 
academic areas. Gettysburg 
also has a chapter of Phi Beta 
Kappa, the national academic 
honorary fraternity. 

To keep you informed about 
happenings on campus, there 
is the student newspaper, the 
Gettysburgian, the student- 
operated FM radio station, 
WZBT, and a weekly 
announcement sheet, This 
Week at Gettysburg. The 
newspaper and radio station 
offer opportunities to learn 
about all aspects of journalism 
and radio broadcasting. Other 
Gettysburg student 
publications include The 
Spectrum, the College 



yearbook, and The Mercury, a 
journal of student poems, 
short stories, photographs, 
and artwork. 

At Gettysburg all students can 
participate in some supervised 
sport. Depending upon your 
athletic ability, you may 
choose to play on one of the 21 
varsity teams, or to be part of 
an extensive intramural, 
recreation, and fitness 
program. The intercollegiate 
program for men includes 
football, soccer, basketball, 
swimming, wrestling, lacrosse, 
tennis, cross country, 
baseball, golf, and track and 
field. The golf team is open to 
both men and women. There 
are women's teams in field 
hockey, volleyball, cross 
country, basketball, soccer, 
swimming, lacrosse, softball, 
track and field, and tennis. The 
College is a member of the 
Middle Atlantic Conference 
and the Centennial Football 
Conference, and enjoys well- 
balanced athletic rivalries with 
other teams in those groups. 

The Intramural, Recreation, 
and Fitness Program offers a 
large number of activities for 
the entire campus community. 
Some of these activities 
include club rugby, club ice 
hockey, aerobitone, water 
polo, intramural volleyball, an 
outing club, karate, and weight 
lifting. 

Student Life at Gettysburg is 
lively and diverse. There is 
one simple goal for all the 
organized activities on 
campus— to enhance the full 
range of your liberal arts 
education. 

After you take advantage of all 
that Gettysburg has to offer, 
you may wish to pursue 




further graduate study, or 
enter your career field 
immediately. The Career 
Services Office is available to 
provide you with counseling, 
information, and the practical 
skills necessary for setting 
and achieving your future 
occupational goals. This office 
maintains a library that 
includes vocational 
information and information 
about graduate studies, offers 
workshops on resume writing 
and effective interviewing, and 
hosts on-campus employment 
interviews with various 
companies. Its broad range of 
services can help you set and 
achieve the career goals that 
suit your particular skills, 
values, and aspirations. 



13 




Admission to Gettysburg is 
highly selective. It is 
based upon high academic 
achievement in a strong 
college preparatory program, 
SAT results, and personal 
qualities. The College 
welcomes applications from 
students of differing ethnic, 
religious, racial, and economic 
backgrounds and of differing 
geographic settings. 
Applications for admission are 
due no later than February 15 
of your senior year. Offers of 
acceptance are usually sent 
early in April. The College 
complies with the candidates' 
reply date of May 1. 
Applications for Early Decision 
will be considered between 
November 15 and February 1 
of the senior year with 
notification of acceptance 



between December 15 and 
February 15 

Total expenses covering 
comprehensive academic fee, 
room, board, and books and 
supplies are estimated at 
$15,660 for the 1988-89 
academic year. Additional 
costs include personal 
expenses such as laundry and 
clothing, transportation, etc. A 
generous program of financial 
aid is available for students 
who are unable to finance their 
entire education from family 
and/or personal resources. 

The College catalogue cannot 
give the full flavor of Gettys- 
burg. When we ask our 
students "Why did you choose 
to come to Gettysburg?" most 
of them mention the College's 
academic programs, but they 
also talk about the friendliness 



that is Gettysburg. One 
student said it this way: "I felt 
so at home when I visited 
Gettysburg that I knew I 
wanted to go there. It seemed 
the people cared more and 
noticed me more. When you 
don't know anyone, simple but 
meaningful gestures of 
kindness are never forgotten." 

Only by visiting Gettysburg 
can you gain a fuller 
understanding of what a 
Gettysburg education can 
mean to you. As you sit in on a 
class, meet with a professor, 
or talk to students in the Bullet 
Hole, you will begin to 
appreciate all of the ways that 
you can benefit by attending 
Gettysburg. The admissions 
staff can answer any specific 
questions you have about the 
College, but you will also learn 
much from the many informal 
conversations you have during 
your visit. 

You are encouraged to visit 
Gettysburg in order to gain 
your personal impressions of 
the College. If you would like 
to arrange for an appointment, 
please call the Admissions 
Office at (717) 337-6100 or 
1-800-431-0803 between 9:00 
a.m. and 4:30 p.m. on weekdays. 



14 



A two-minute look 
at Gettysburg 

Type of College: Four-year, 
coeducational, liberal arts 
college founded in 1832 and 
affiliated with the Lutheran 
Church in America. 

Location: The College is 
adjacent to the Gettysburg 
National Military Park. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania is 36 
miles from Harrisburg, 55 
miles from Baltimore, 80 miles 
from Washington, D.C., 117 
miles from Philadelphia, and 
212 miles from New York City. 

Enrollment: About 1,850 
students— approximately one- 
half are men and one-half are 
women. 

Campus: 200 acres with 52 
buildings. 

Library: Musselman Library 
with total collections of 
approximately 300,000 
volumes, 23,000 microforms, 
36,000 government publications, 
11,900 recordings and 
subscriptions to over 1,300 
journals. The library seats 800 
students, and has an 
automated library catalog 
accessible through a dozen 
public access terminals, an 
after-hours study, media 
theater, graphics center, and 
language lab. 

Faculty: 147 full time with 88% 
having an earned doctorate or 
the highest earned degree in 
their field. Student-faculty 
ratio is 13.1. 



Academic Calendar: Semester. 

Degree Programs: Bachelor of 
Arts, Bachelor of Science in 
Music Education. 

Majors: Art, biology, chemistry, 
classical studies, computer 
science, economics, English, 
French, German, Greek, health 
and physical education, 
history, Latin, management, 
mathematics, music, music 
education, philosophy, 
physics, political science, 
psychology, religion, 
sociology and anthropology, 
Spanish, and theatre arts. 
Students may develop their 
own inter-departmental or 
inter-disciplinary majors. 
Many optional minors. 



Special Programs: Study 
Abroad, Internships, 
Washington Semester 
(government and politics, 
economic policy, foreign 
policy, public administration, 
justice, urban studies, 
journalism, or arts and 
humanities), United Nations 
Semester, dual-degree 
programs in engineering or 
forestry and environmental 
studies, cooperative program 
in marine biology, certification 
in elementary and secondary 
education, Army R.O.T.C, 
Cooperative College 
Consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin & Marshall 
Colleges. 




15 



Distinctive Features: Sophis- 
ticated Burroughs computer, 
Apple, IBM, and Zenith 
microcomputers; 2 electron 
microscopes— transmission 
and scanning units; Fourier 
Transform Infrared and NMR 
Spectrometers; extensive new 
facilities for fine arts, music, 
and drama; observatory and 
planetarium; greenhouse; 
writing center; extensive 
physical education facilities; 
career services office. 

National Honor Societies: Phi 

Beta Kappa (one of only 18 
chapters in Pennsylvania) and 
honorary or professional 
societies in 16 academic areas. 

Social Life: 12 men's social 
fraternities and 7 women's 
sororities; Student Activities 
Council which sponsors a 
diverse schedule of social 
events. 

Student Activities: Student- 
operated FM radio station; 
yearbook; newspaper; full 
range of musical groups 
including two choirs and 
bands, orchestra, and 
numerous ensembles; Black 
Student Union; theatre groups; 



numerous student special 
interest groups. 

Cultural Activities: Full schedule 
of lectures and concerts 
bringing to campus nationally 
known speakers and 
performers; film series at 
College Union; art exhibits; 
trips to nearby Washington 
and Baltimore to events of 
special interest. 

Sports: Extensive inter- 
collegiate and intramural 
programs with 10 inter- 
collegiate sports for men, 10 
intercollegiate sports for 
women, and 1 coeducational 
sport. The office of 
Intramurals, Recreation, and 
Fitness provides a wide array 
of activities to satisfy various 
interests and levels of skill. 

Student Services: Faculty 
advisers, academic and 
personal counseling, career 
counseling, financial aid 
counseling. 

Residence Halls: Fifteen 
residence halls including on- 
campus special interest 
houses. Some residence halls 
are single sex; others occupied 
by students of both sexes. 





Some student residence areas 
assigned to special interest 
student housing groups. 

Religious Life: Programs for 
students of all faiths 
coordinated through the 
College Chapel. 

Student Government: Students 
assume the major role in 
planning student activities and 
in enforcing rules of 
responsible citizenship. The 
academic Student Honor Code 
gives students responsibility 
for maintaining high standards 
of academic integrity. 

School Colors: Orange and Blue. 



16 



WM 



Academic 

Policies and 

Programs 




Academic Purposes of 
Gettysburg College 



Gettysburg College believes 
that liberal education liberates 
the human mind from many of 
the constraints and limitations 
of itsfiniteness. In order to 
accomplish its liberating 
function, Gettysburg College 
believes that it owes its 
students a coherent curriculum 
that emphasizes the following 
elements: 



1. Logical, precise thinking 
and clear use of language, 
both spoken and written. 
These inseparable abilities are 
essential to all the liberal arts. 
They are not only the practical 
skills on which liberal 
education depends but also, in 
their fullest possible 
development, the liberating 
goals toward which liberal 
education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject 
matter. The curriculum of the 
liberal arts college should 
acquaint students with the 
range and diversity of human 
customs, pursuits, ideas, 
values, and longings. This 
broad range of subject matter 
must be carefully planned to 
include emphasis on those 
landmarks of human 
achievement which have in 
particular shaped the 
intellectual life of the present. 



3. Rigorous introduction to the 
assumptions and methods of a 
representative variety of the 
academic disciplines in the 
sciences, the social sciences, 
and the humanities. The 
curriculum must encourage 
students to recognize that the 
disciplines are traditions of 
systematic inquiry, each not 
only addressing itself to a 
particular area of subject 
matter but also embodying an 
explicit set of assumptions 
about the world and employing 
particular methods of 
investigation. Students should 
recognize that the disciplines 
are best seen as sets of 
carefully constructed 
questions, continually 
interacting with each other, 
rather than as stable bodies 
of truth. The questions that 
most preoccupy academic 
disciplines involve 




18 




interpretation and evaluation 
more often than fact. Students 
should learn that inter- 
pretation and evaluation are 
different from willful and 
arbitrary opinion while at the 
same time recognizing that 
interpretations and 
evaluations of the same body 
of facts may differ drastically 
given different assumptions, 
methods, and purposes for 
inquiry. Human thought is not 
often capable of reaching 
universal certitude. 

These necessary emphases of 
the college's curriculum are 
liberating both in the sense 
that they free students from 
narrowness and provincialism 
and in the sense that they free 
them for the joys and benefits 
of conscious intellectual 
strength and creativity. 



Liberal education should free 
students from gross and 
unsophisticated blunders of 
thought. Once exposed to the 
diversity of reality and the 
complexity and arduousness 
of disciplined modes of 
inquiry, students will be less 
likely than before to engage in 
rash generalization, dogmatic 
assertion, and intolerant 
condemnation of the strange, 
the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a 
sense of human limitations, for 
no human mind can be a 
match for the world's 
immensity. Promoters of 
universal panaceas will be 
suspected as the gap between 
human professions and human 
performance becomes 
apparent. Students will tend 
less than before to enshrine 
the values and customs of 
their own day as necessarily 
the finest fruits of human 
progress or to lament the 
failings of their time as the 
world's most intolerable evils. 





But wise skepticism and a 
sense of human fallibility are 
not the only liberating effects 
of the liberal arts. With effort 
and, in all likelihood, some 
pain, students master difficult 
skills and broad areas of 
knowledge. They acquire, 
perhaps with unexpected joy, 
new interests and orientations. 
In short, they experience 
change and growth. Perhaps 
this experience is the most 
basic way the liberal arts 
liberate: through providing the 
experience of change and 
growth, they prepare students 
for lives of effective 
management of new situations 
and demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis 
for creative work. Creativity is 
rarely if ever the work of a 
mind unfamiliar with past 
achievements. Rather 
creativity is almost always the 
reformulation of or conscious 
addition to past achievement 
with which the creative mind 
is profoundly familiar. By 



19 



encouraging students to 
become responsibly and 
articulately concerned with 
existing human achievement 
and existing means for 
extending and deepening 
human awareness, Gettysburg 
College believes that it is best 
insuring the persistence of 
creativity. 





20 



The intellectual liberation 
made possible through liberal 
education, though immensely 
desirable, does not in itself 
guarantee the development of 
humane values and is 
therefore not the final purpose 
of liberal education. If 
permitted to become an end in 
itself, it may indeed become 
destructive. A major 
responsibility of those 
committed to liberal education, 
therefore, is to help students 
appreciate our common 
humanity in terms of such 
positive values as 
openmindedness, personal 
responsibility, mutual respect, 
empathic understanding, 
aesthetic sensibility, and 
playfulness. Through the 
expanding and diverse 
intellectual activities offered in 
liberal education, students 
may develop greater freedom 
of choice among attitudes 



based on a fuller appreciation 
of our common humanity and 
based on clearer recognition of 
our immersion in a vast, 
enigmatic enterprise. 

The faith of the founders of 
Gettysburg College expressed 
in the charter supports the 
foregoing statement of 
academic purposes. The open 
search to know, tempered by 
humane reflection, 
complements our religious 
heritage. Together, we hope to 
add useful initiative toward 
the creation of a world in 
which diversity is more 
challenging and interesting 
than it is fear-producing; a 
world in which one may hear 
the sad truths reported by 
cynics while hearing, too, tales 
of quiet courage, of grace, of 
beauty, of joy. Then the 
response to the inevitably 
dissonant experiences of living 



may be wiser as a function of 
liberal education. Of course, 
the development of wisdom 
remains an elusive aim. It 
involves realms of experience 
that go beyond the academic, 
and a time span that 
encompasses a lifetime. 
Nevertheless, liberal education 
can be profoundly useful in the 
search for the fullness of life. 

Adopted by the Faculty 
December 1, 1977 




The Honor Code 

A liberal arts program has as 
a basic premise the ideal of 
academic integrity. Gettysburg 
students live and work in a 
college community which 
emphasizes their 
responsibility for helping to 
determine and enforce 
appropriately high standards 
of academic conduct. 

An academic honor system 
was instituted at Gettysburg 
College in 1957 and was 
strongly reaffirmed in 1976. It 
is based upon the belief that 
undergraduates are mature 
enough to act honorably in 
academic matters without 
faculty surveillance and that 
they should be encouraged to 
conduct themselves 
accordingly. At the same time 
the College clearly recognizes 
the obligation placed upon 
each student to assist in 
maintaining the atmosphere 
without which no honor 
system can succeed. 



The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed 
on all academic work 
submitted, states that the 
student has neither given nor 
received unauthorized aid and 
that he or she has witnessed 
no such violation. The 
preservation of the 
atmosphere of independence 
permitted by the Honor Code is 
the responsibility of the 
community as a whole. 
Students must comply with the 
Honor Code both in presenting 
their own work and in 
reporting violations by others. 
No student may enroll at 
Gettysburg College without 
first having signed the pledge. 
A person who would sign the 
pledge with reservation should 
not apply for admission. 

Alleged violations of the honor 
code are handled by an Honor 
Commission elected by the 
students. Decisions of the 
Commission may be appealed 
to a student-faculty- 
administrative board of 
review. 




21 



Curriculum 

The major goals of the 
curriculum are to provide the 
student with the ability to 
think logically and precisely 
and to use language clearly; 
an exposure to broad, diverse, 
subject matter in order to give 
acquaintance with the range 
and diversity of human 
customs, ideas, and values; 
and a rigorous introduction to 
the assumptions and methods 
of a representative variety of 
academic disciplines in the 
sciences, the social sciences, 
and the humanities. The 
Freshman Colloquy with its 
strong emphasis on lucid 
writing, helps students 
sharpen analytic skills 
necessary for college and 
beyond. 

Gettysburg College's 
Distribution Requirements 
assure the student an 
introduction to the variety of 
opportunities offered by a 
liberal arts education. In the 
freshman year in addition to 
the Freshman Colloquy in 
liberal learning, the Gettysburg 
student normally takes 
courses in a variety of fields 
and begins to fulfill 
distribution requirements, 
such as those in foreign 
languages, laboratory 
sciences, social sciences, or 
literature. In the sophomore 
year the student usually 
selects a major and, in 
consultation with a major 
adviser, plans a college 
program which will allow the 
completion of specific 



graduation requirements and 
also provide opportunities for 
the widest possible choice of 
electives. In the last two years 
most students concentrate on 
courses in their major fields or 
a Special Major and 
supplement their programs 
with elective courses. Students 
are expected to complete the 
two-year physical education 
requirement by the end of the 
sophomore year. 



Students majoring in the 
natural sciences usually begin 
such programs in the 
freshman year and follow a 
closely prescribed sequence of 
courses. Students anticipating 
careers in medicine, dentistry, 
or veterinary medicine should 
begin acquiring necessary 
preparatory courses in the 
freshman year. 




22 



The Advising System 

The College believes that one 
of the most valuable services 
which it can render to its 
students is careful counseling. 
Each freshman is assigned a 
faculty adviser to assist in 
dealing with academic 
questions, in explaining 
College regulations, in setting 
goals, and in making the 
transition from secondary 
school to college as smooth as 
possible. Special assistance is 
also available from deans and 
counselors. 

During the first week of the fall 
semester, all new students 
participate in an orientation 
program designed to help them 
become acquainted with the 
College. All entering freshmen 
receive in advance a detailed 
schedule of events of this 
program. During orientation, 
students have individual 
conferences with their 
advisers, take part in 
discussions of college life, and 
engage in other activities 
intended to familiarize them 
with the College. They also 
take achievement and 
placement tests which provide 
the College with valuable 
information concerning their 
educational background and 
academic potential. These 
tests help Gettysburg to 
provide an education suited to 
each student's capacities. 




During the year, freshman 
advisers arrange periodic 
meetings with their advisees 
to review the students' 
progress. Advisers are also 
available at other times to 
discuss unexpected problems 
as they arise. Any changes in 
a freshman's schedule must be 
approved by the adviser. 

When a student chooses a 
major field of study, preferably 
by the end of the sophomore 
year, a member of the major 
department becomes his or her 
adviser and performs 
functions similar to those of 
the freshman adviser, 
including the approval of all 
course schedules. It is the 
responsibility of all students to 
take the initiative in 



discussing their entire 
academic program with their 
advisers and to view that 
program as a meaningful unit 
rather than as a collection of 
unrelated courses. 

A student wishing to change 
the major course of study 
must notify the department in 
which he or she is a major and 
secure the approval of the one 
desired. Juniors and seniors 
making such changes should 
understand that it may be 
necessary to spend more than 
four years in residence in 
order to complete their 
concentration requirements. 
Permission to spend more than 
four years in residence must 
be obtained from the Academic 
Standing Committee. 



23 



Students may confer with their 
faculty adviser, personnel 
from the Career Services 
office, deans, or counselors as 
they consider their options for 
a major, weigh their career 
objectives, choose a graduate 
or professional school, or 
search for employment after 
graduation. 

The College encourages 
qualified students to prepare 
for graduate study, which has 
become a necessity in an 
increasing number of career 
fields. It is important for such 
students to become familiar 
with the requirements of the 
graduate programs in which 
they are interested, as well as 
the qualifications for 
fellowships and assistantships 
within these programs, well in 
advance of their graduation 
from Gettysburg College. 
Above all, they should 
recognize the importance of 
building a superior 
undergraduate academic 
record. 

The Musselman Library/ 
Learning Resources Center has 
a collection of graduate school 
catalogues for student 
reference. Four times a year 
the Graduate Record 
Examination is given on the 
Gettysburg campus for those 
students who plan to enter a 
graduate school. The National 
Teacher Examination is given 
twice. Special advisers assist 
students in planning for the 
legal and health-related 
professions. 




24 



Credit System 

The course unit is the basic 
measure of academic credit. 
For transfer of credit to other 
institutions the College 
recommends equating one 
course unit with 3.5 semester 
hours. The 3.5 conversion 
factor is also used to convert 
semester hours to Gettysburg 
course units for those 
presenting transfer credit for 
evaluation at the time of 
admission or readmission to 
the College. A small number of 
quarter course units are 
offered in Music, Health and 
Physical Education, and 
Military Science. These 
courses may not be 
accumulated to qualify as 
course units for graduation. 
Quarter course units should be 
equated to one semester hour. 





Requirements for the Degree 
of Bachelor of Arts 

The College will confer the 
Bachelor of Arts degree upon 
the student who completes 
satisfactorily the following: 

1) 35 course units, including 
Freshman Colloquy; plus 3 
quarter courses in Health and 
Physical Education; 

2) a demonstration of 
proficiency in written English; 

3) a minimum accumulative 
average of 2.00 and an 
average of 2.00 or better in the 
major field; 

4) the distribution 
requirements; 

5) the concentration require- 
ment in a major field of study; 



25 




Each student is responsible for 
being sure that graduation 
requirements are fulfilled by 
the anticipated date of 
graduation. Normally, students 
will be required to complete 
the degree requirements in 
effect at the time of their 
original enrollment. 



6) a minimum of the last full 
year of academic work in 
residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved 
College program; and 

7) the discharge of all financial 
obligations to the College. 

Quarter course credits do not 
count toward the 35 course 
graduation requirement. 

No course used to obtain a 
bachelors degree at another 
institution may be counted 
toward the requirements for a 
Gettysburg College degree. 

The requirements for the 
degree of Bachelor of Science 
in Music Education are found 
on page 42. 




Writing Policy Since the ability 
to express oneself clearly, 
correctly, and responsibly is 
essential for an educated 
person, the College cannot 
graduate a student whose 
writing abilities are deficient. 
See Item 1 under College 
Course Requirements below. 
Grades on poorly written 
papers, regardless of the 
course, may be reduced 
because of the quality of 
writing; in extreme cases, a 
failing grade may be given for 
this reason. 



26 




College Course Requirements 

Each student must 
successfully complete the 
college course requirements 
listed below. 

1) Demonstration of 
proficiency in written English 
during the first year of 
enrollment. Normally, such 
proficiency is demonstrated by 
passing English 101. For other 
ways to satisfy this require- 
ment, see Exemption from 
Degree Requirement on p. 36. 

2) Freshman Colloquy: a 
required seminar for all 
freshmen designed to 
strengthen reasoning, writing, 
and speaking skills using a 
multidisciplinary theme as a 
focus. 



3) Health & Physical 
Education: 3 quarter courses 
including one semester of 
study in each of the following 
groups: health science, fitness, 
recreational skills. 

Distribution Requirements Each 
candidate for the Bachelor of 
Arts degree must satisfactorily 
complete the following 
distribution requirements. See 
the listing on page 64 or, read 
the departmental material 
under Course of Study for the 
specific courses that fulfill 
each requirement. Any 
requirement may be satisfied, 
with or without course credit, 
by students who can qualify 
for exemption (see page 36). 

1) Foreign Language: 1-4 
courses. The student must 
prove proficiency through the 
intermediate level. Normally, 
proficiency is demonstrated by 
completing the 202 course in 
German, Greek, Latin, 
Portuguese or Spanish; the 
201-202 course sequence in 
French; or other designated 
intermediate level language 
courses. 

2) Arts: 1 course in art, music, 
creative writing, or theatre 
arts. 




3) History/Philosophy: 1 
course in history, philosophy, 
or culture/civilization in 
languages or interdepart- 
mental studies. 

4) Literature: 1 course in 
English, French, German, 
Greek, Latin, or Spanish 
literature. 

5) Natural Science: 2 courses 
in biology, chemistry, or 
physics. The courses must be 
in the same department and 
must include laboratory. 

6) Religion: 1 course on the 
100- or 200-level in religion. 

7) Social Science: 1 course in 
anthropology, economics, 
political science, psychology, 
or sociology. 



27 







8) Non-Western Culture: 1 
course to satisfy the 
distribution requirements 
listed above must be in a 
course which gives primary 
emphasis to African or Asian 
cultures, or to the non- 
European culture of the 
Americas. A student may, 
instead, take a non-western 
course that happens not to 
satisfy any of the other 
distribution requirements. 



Major Requirements Each 
student must successfully 
complete the requirements in a 
major field of study. A major 
consists of from 8 to 12 
courses, depending on the field 
of study, and may include 
certain specific courses as 
determined by the department. 
A department may require 
its majors to pass a 
comprehensive examination. 
Requirements of the various 
majors are listed in the 
departmental introductions 
under Courses of Study. 

The following are acceptable 
major fields of study at 
Gettysburg College: 

Art 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Computer Science 

Economics 

English 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Physical Education 

History 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 

Music Education 

Philosophy 

Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology and Anthropology 

Spanish 

Theatre Arts 



A student will normally file a 
declaration of major with the 
Registrar between May of the 
freshman year and April of the 
sophomore year. A student 
may declare a second major 
no later than the beginning of 
the senior year. 

As an alternative to the major 
fields of study listed above, 
students may declare a 
Special Major by designing 
an interdepartmental 
concentration of courses 
focusing on particular 
problems or areas of 
investigation which, though 
not adequately included within 
a single department or 
discipline, are worthy of 
concentrated study. The 
Special Major shall consist of 
eight to 12 courses, at least 
six of which must be on an 
advanced level. 

Students interested in 
declaring a Special Major are 
urged to consult with the 
Chairperson of the Committee 
on Interdepartmental Studies 
before the end of the 
sophomore year. Special 
Major applications must be 
submitted to the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies for 
its approval no later than the 
end of the third day of classes 
of the applicant's junior year. 



28 




Optional Minor A student may 
declare a minor concentration 
in an academic department or 
area that has an established 
minor program. Not all 
departments have established 
programs. A minor shall 
consist of six courses; no 
more than two of which shall 
be 100-level courses. 
Exceptions to the two 100-level 
course limitation may occur in 



departments offering more 
than one major. Each 
department having a minor 
program stipulates the 
requirements for it. A student 
may not declare a minor in the 
same department in which he 
or she has a declared major. A 
student must maintain a 2.00 
average in the minor field of 
study. 



Residence Requirements 
and Schedule Limitations 

The normal program for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree 
consists of nine courses per 
year with five courses in one 
semester and four in the other. 
Thus, a student will complete 
graduation requirements in 
four years of full-time 
academic work in the 
September through May 
academic year. The last full 
year of academic work must 
be in residence at Gettysburg 
College or in an approved 
College program. Students 
may not complete 
requirements as a part-time 
student during their last 
semester of residence. 

Students proposing to 
complete graduation 
requirements in less than four 
full years, must have their 
programs approved by the 




29 



Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of the Dean 
of Educational Services. Such 
approval should be sought 
at least a year before the 
proposed completion of 
requirements. 



A full-time student for 
academic purposes is one 
carrying a minimum of three 
courses during a semester. No 
student who is a candidate for 
a degree may take fewer 
courses than this without 
permission of the Academic 
Standing Committee. Students 
may not take more than five 
full unit courses per semester 
without the approval of 
the Academic Standing 
Committee. In granting 
approval to take more than 
five courses, the Committee 
requires evidence that the 
student will be able to perform 
at the B level or above in his 
or her courses in the term in 
which over five courses are 
taken. 



Gettysburg College is aware 
that handicapped persons may 
have special needs and is 
willing to make adjustments to 
meet these needs in order to 
make the program accessible 
to them. 

The required quarter courses 
in health and physical 
education and the optional 
quarter courses in ROTC, 
generally taken during the 
freshman and sophomore 
years, are in addition to the 
full course load in each of 
these semesters. These 
courses do not count toward 
the 35 course graduation 
requirement. 



30 




Majors in music and health 
and physical education must 
take quarter courses in 
addition to the normal course 
load. 

Students may take quarter 
courses in applied music over 
the course limit with the 
approval of their advisers and 
of the Music Department. 

A student may audit informally 
any College course with the 
permission of the instructor. 
No charge will be made for 
such an audit and no record of 
auditing will be recorded on 
the student's transcript. 



Registration 

Credit will be given in courses 
for which the student is 
officially registered. The 
Registrar announces, in 
advance, the time and place of 
formal registration. A student 
registering after the appointed 
day will be subject to a late 
registration fee. 

A fee is also assessed for each 
course change after the 
regular registration dates. A 
proposed change must be 
submitted to the Registrar on 
an official course change slip 
after first being approved by 
the instructors involved and 
the student's adviser. Students 



are not permitted to enroll in a 
course for credit later than 
twelve class days after the 
beginning of that semester. 

By formally completing his or 
her registration, the student 
pledges to abide by College 
regulations. 

The Grading System 

Normally courses are graded A 
through F, with these grades 
having the following 
significance: A (excellent); B 
(good); C (fair); D (poor); and F 
(failing). Instructors may 
modify their letter grade with 
plus and minus signs. 




31 




In successfully completing a 
course under this grading 
system, a student earns a 
number of quality points 
according to the following 
scale: 



A+41/3 


C 2 


A 4 


C- 1 2/3 


A- 3 2/3 


D+1 1/3 


B+31/3 


D 1 


B 3 


D- 2/3 


B-2 2/3 


F 


C+21/3 




A student's accumulative 


average is com 


puted by 


summing his or her quality 


points and dividing by the 


number of courses taken. The 


average is rou 


ided to the third 


decimal place. 





The College reserves the right 
to make changes and 
adjustments in the grading 
system even after a student 
enrolls. 

The College also offers a 
Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory 
grading option. This option is 
intended to encourage 
students to be intellectually 
adventurous in choosing 
courses with subject matter or 
approaches substantially 
different from their prior 
academic experience or 
attainment. An S signifies 
satisfactory work, and is given 
if a student performs at the C- 
level or higher; a U signifies 
unsatisfactory work, and is 
given for work below the C- 
level. Courses graded S/U do 
not affect a student's quality 
point average, but a course 
completed with an S grade will 
count toward the total number 
of courses needed for 
graduation. A student may 
elect to take a total of six 
courses on an S/U basis 
during his or her four years at 
Gettysburg College; however, 



32 



no more than two S/U courses 
may be taken in any one year. 
This grading option may not 
be selected for (1) College 
course requirements in written 
English or the Freshman 
Colloquy, (2) distribution 
requirements for graduation, 
and (3) courses taken in a 
student's major field. 
Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases 
where a department specifies 
that a particular course is 
available under the S/U 
grading system only, and in 
cases where the major was 
declared after the course was 
taken and permission is 
granted by the department. 

The only exceptions to the 
two-courses-per-year S/U limit 
are for the basic skills courses 
in Health and Physical 
Education (all of which are 
graded S/U) and for Seniors 





who are enrolled in either 
Education 475 or 477. In 
determining the maximum 
number of S/U courses a 
student may take, the quarter 
course basic skill courses in 
Health and Physical Education 
shall not be counted. Students 
who enroll in Education 475 or 
477 may take an additional 
course under the S/U option 
during the senior year, 
provided that their total 
number of S/U courses does 
not exceed six. 

When a student registers for 
and completes a course which 
he or she has already taken 
at Gettysburg College, 
both the credit and the 
grade previously earned are 
cancelled, but they are not 
removed from the permanent 
record. The credit and grade 
earned in repeating the 
course are counted toward 
the student's requirements. 



A grade of I (Incomplete) is 
issued by the Dean of Student 
Advisement or Dean of 
Educational Services when 
emergency situations, such 
as illness, prevent a student 
from completing the course 
requirements on time. Unless 
the Academic Standing 
Committee extends the 
time limit, an incomplete 
automatically becomes an F if 
it is not removed within the 
first six weeks of the semester 
following the one in which it 
was incurred. 

A student may withdraw from 
a course only with the 
permission of the instructor 
and his or her adviser. A 
student who officially 
withdraws for medical reasons 
receives a W. A student 
withdrawing after the 
drop/add period receives a WP 
(withdraw passing) or WF 
(withdraw failing) according to 



33 



the estimate of the work done 
in the course up to the 
time of withdrawal. Those 
withdrawing from a course 
during the last five weeks of a 
semester will receive a WF. A 
grade of N/F (non-attendance 
failure) will be given for those 
who do not attend the classes 
for a registered course and fail 
to withdraw properly. The 
grades of WF and N/F carry 
quality points and are used in 
computing averages. 

Academic Standing 

A student is expected to 
maintain an academic record 
that will enable him or her to 
complete the requirements for 
graduation in the normal eight 
semesters. Any student who 
falls below the 2.00 minimum 
accumulative average needed 
for graduation will be warned, 
placed on academic probation, 
advised to withdraw, or 
required to withdraw. The 
student who falls below the 
following minimum standard is 





34 



normally advised or required 
to withdraw: 
for freshmen- 1.50 G.P.A. 
and 6 courses completed 
for sophomores - 1.80 
G.P.A. and 15 courses 
completed 

for juniors- 1.90 G.P.A. and 
25 courses completed. 

In addition to these minimum 
standards, a student on 
probation must show 
significant improvement 
during the following semester 
in order to remain at the 
College. Normally, a student 
may not remain at the College 
with three consecutive 
semester averages below 2.00. 

The Academic Standing 
Committee interprets and 
applies these standards on a 
case by case basis at the end 
of each semester. In 
accordance with the 
regulations of the National 



Collegiate Athletic 
Association, a student who is 
advised to withdraw, but 
chooses to remain at the 
institution in an attempt to 
improve his or her academic 
record, may not participate in 
the institution's intercollegiate 
athletic program. 

Transcripts 

Each student is entitled to one 
official transcript of his or her 
record at no charge. Additional 
transcripts are $1.00 per copy. 
Requests for transcripts must 
be in writing and should be 
directed to the Office of the 
Registrar. 

Withdrawal and 
Readmission 

Readmission for students who 
withdraw from Gettysburg 
College is not automatic. The 
procedure for seeking 
readmission depends on the 
student's academic status at 
the time of withdrawal, the 
length of time that has elapsed 
since withdrawal, and the 
reason for withdrawal, as 
described in the sections that 
follow. Normally the Academic 
Standing Committee reviews 
applications for readmission in 
November and April. 

Voluntary Withdrawal A student 
who withdraws voluntarily, 
and is on academic probation 
at the time of withdrawal, 
must submit an application for 
readmission to the Academic 
Standing Committee through 
the Office of Educational 
Services. The Academic 
Standing Committee will 
review the student's 
application, previous record at 
Gettysburg College, activities 
since leaving college, and 
prospects for the successful 



completion of his or her 
undergraduate studies. 

A student who is in good 
academic standing at the time 
of withdrawal and seeks 
readmission within one 
academic year after 
withdrawing does not have 
to submit an application 
for readmission. Instead, 
the student must file with 
the Academic Standing 
Committee, through the Office 
of Educational Services, a 
letter requesting reinstatement 
no less than three weeks prior 
to the beginning of the 
semester that matriculation is 
desired. Any student who 
seeks readmission after one 
year has elapsed must submit 
an application for readmission. 

A student who withdraws 
voluntarily should arrange for 
an exit interview with a member 
of the Educational Services 
staff prior to leaving the 
College. Failure to do so may 
jeopardize the student's 
opportunity for readmission. 
A readmission interview is 





expected and, in some cases, 
required. 

Required Withdrawal A student 
who is required to withdraw 
from the College for academic 
reasons is not eligible for 
readmission until one 
academic year has elapsed. An 
application for readmission 
must be submitted to the 
Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of 
Educational Services. A 
personal interview is required. 



The Academic Standing 
Committee will review the 
student's application, 
recommendations, activities 
since leaving college, and 
prospects for future success. 
Students who have been 
required to withdraw for 
academic reasons and are 
subsequently readmitted will 
be considered ineligible to 
participate in intercollegiate 
athletics during the first 
semester of their return to the 
campus. 




35 




A student who is suspended 
for disciplinary reasons must 
follow this same procedure for 
readmission. A student in this 
category is eligible to apply 
for readmission at the end of 
the time period designated for 
the suspension. 

Medical Withdrawal A student 
whose health is so impaired 
that matriculation cannot be 
continued will be granted a 
Medical Withdrawal, provided 
that a physician, psychiatrist, 
or psychologist confirms in 
writing the seriousness of the 
condition and recommends 
that the student withdraw from 
the College. In such cases the 
Dean of Student Advisement or 
the Dean of Educational 
Services may authorize grades 
of "W" for the courses in 
which the student is currently 
enrolled. A student who has 

36 






been granted a Medical 
Withdrawal does not have to 
fill out an application for 
readmission, but must submit 
to the Academic Standing 
Committee through the Dean 
of Student Advisement a 
written request for 
reinstatement at least three 
weeks prior to the beginning 
of the semester that 
matriculation is desired. A 
letter from his or her attending 
physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist which certifies 
that the student will be ready 
to resume a full academic 
program by a designated time 
is also required. If, based on 
medical considerations, there 
is reason to limit the student's 
course load or physical 
activity, a recommendation for 
such should be noted in this 
letter. Decisions regarding 
reinstatement are the 



responsibility of the Academic 
Standing Committee. 

Transfer Credit 

Students may receive a 
maximum of three course 
credits for work taken at other 
colleges after enrolling at 
Gettysburg if such courses 
have first been approved by 
the chairperson of the 
department concerned and by 
the Registrar. This transfer 
option is not available to those 
who receive transfer credit at 
the time of admission or 
readmission to the College. 
This course credit limitation 
does not apply to Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium 
Courses or to off-campus 
study programs which are 
described beginning at page 
45. Course credit but not the 
grade is transferred to 
Gettysburg if the grade earned 
is a C- or better. Grades as 
well as credit are transferred 
for work done at another 
Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium College, or in 
certain Gettysburg College 
approved programs 
(Washington and U.N. 
Semesters Programs, Lutheran 
Theological Seminary 
Exchange, Duke Marine 
Laboratory, Bermuda 
Biological Station, Center for 
Cross-Cultural Study, Seville, 
Spain, Fall Semester in 
Cologne, Germany, Council for 
International Educational 
Program, Rennes, France, and 
Wilson College Exchange). 

Exemption from Degree 
Requirements 

The College may recognize 
work on the college level 
completed elsewhere by a 
student. This recognition may 
take the form of exemption 




from degree requirements and 
may carry academic credit. 
Students should present their 
requests for such recognition 
to the Registrar. They should 
be prepared to demonstrate 
their competence on the basis 
of their academic record, 
Advanced Placement 
Examination results of the 
College Entrance Examination 
Board, (see page 155) or 
examinations administered by 
the department concerned. The 
decisions on exemption and 
credit rest with the department 
and the Registrar. 

Students may satisfy the 
writing proficiency 
requirement by scoring 
sufficiently high on the Test of 
Standard Written English 
(TSWE) of the College Entrance 
Examination Board. In 1987, 



the College exempted those 
students who scored 58 or 
above on the TSWE. Those 
scoring 53-57 were permitted 
to gain exemption by passing 
a departmental examination 
given on the campus. 

Students may satisfy the 
foreign language requirement 
in a language not regularly 
offered at Gettysburg by 
demonstrating achievement at 
the intermediate level through 
transfer credit, by 
examination, through 
independent study with a 
Gettysburg faculty member, or 
through an approved exchange 
program with the Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium. For 
foreign students, who have 
learned English as a second 
language, the requirement may 
be satisfied with the student's 
primary language. 



Individualized Study and 
Seminars 

There are opportunities in 
most of the departments for 
students to engage in 
individualized study and 
seminars. These opportunities 
are primarily for seniors, but 
other students are frequently 
eligible. In some departments 
participation in this type of 
activity is part of the required 
program of study; in others it 
is optional. Most of these 
courses are numbered in the 
400's under Courses of Study. 

Senior Scholars' Seminar 

The College offers an unusual 
opportunity for its outstanding 
senior students. Each fall, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar, 
composed of selected seniors, 
undertakes a study of a 

37 



contemporary issue which 
affects the future of humanity. 
The issues are often ones 
which could pose a threat to 
the values or existence of 
human society. Past topics 
have included genetic 
engineering, conflict 
resolution, global disparities, 
computers and human 
communication, aging and the 
aged, dissent and 
nonconformity, and 
environmental protection or 
exploitation. 

The two most recent topics 
were human sexuality and 
"imagining peace." The 
seminar on sexuality invited, 
among others, John Money, 
Professor of Medical 
Psychology and Pediatrics at 
The Johns Hopkins University, 
and Howard Jones from 
the Institute of Human 
Reproduction at Eastern 
Virginia Medical School. The 
students who were "imagining 
peace" were able to consult 
with Daniel Ellsberg, who put 
the Pentagon Papers before the 
public; Jonathan Schell, author 
of Fate of the Earth; Robert 
Manoff from the Center for 
War, Peace, and the News 
Media; and Sonia Johnson, 
presidential candidate in 1984. 

In previous years the Senior 
Scholars' Seminar invited 
other authorities of national 
stature to serve as resource 
persons. Persons who have 
visited the seminar include: 
George Wald, Kenneth Boulding, 
Herbert Gans, Paolo Soleri, 
Joseph Fletcher, Leon Kass, 
Stuart Udall, David Freeman, 
Thomas Szasz, Daniel Bell, 
and James Gould. Student 
participants in the seminar 
publish a final report 
based on their findings and 




recommendations. 

The issues are always inter- 
disciplinary in scope and the 
students selected for this 
seminar represent a wide 
variety of majors. 

During their junior year, 
students in the top quarter of 
their class are notified of their 
eligibility and are invited to 
apply to participate in the 
seminar. The Interdepart- 
mental Studies Committee and 
the course directors select 
up to twenty participants 
from as many different 
academic disciplines as 
possible, basing their selection 
on students' interest and 
academic competence. 

Students selected for the 
seminar are expected to 
participate in non-credit, 



informal planning sessions 
with the course directors 
during the spring semester of 
their junior year. The purpose 
of these sessions is to define 
further the seminar topic, to 
select resource persons, and 
to select and compile reference 
material. Students who 
participate in the planning 
sessions during the spring 
semester of their junior year 
and register for the seminar in 
the fall semester of their 
senior year receive two course 
credits upon satisfactory 
completion of their work. 

Computer Courses 

In the tradition of the Liberal 
Arts, Gettysburg College 
emphasizes the inter- 
disciplinary nature of the 
computer as a tool in problem 
solving. A thorough 



38 



understanding of the concepts 
and applications in various 
disciplines is important for 
those students interested in 
pursuing a career in computer 
science. The Biology, 
Chemistry, Economics, 
Management, Mathematics, 
Physics, Political Science, 
Psychology, and Sociology 
and Anthropology Depart- 
ments all offer courses that 
make significant use of the 
computer. In recent years, 95% 
of the graduating students 
have made use of the 
computing facilities in their 
courses at Gettysburg. 

In addition to these courses in 
various departments, the 
College has a Computer 
Studies curriculum of courses 
that cover the concepts that 
are at the core of computer 
science. These courses are 
listed under Computer Studies 
in the Course Descriptions 
section of this catalogue. 
While there are within the 
College over fifty courses that 
utilize the computer (not 
including those in the 
Computer Studies curriculum), 
the following courses offer a 
more concentrated study in the 
use of the computer. 

BIO 341 Biochemistry 

(simulations) 
CHEM 305, Physical Chemistry 

306 
ECON 241 Introductory Economic 
and Business 
Statistics (data 
analysis) 
MAN 353 Cost Accounting 
MATH 21 1 Multivariate Calculus 
MATH 212 Linear Algebra 
MATH 366 Numerical Analysis 
PS 103 Global Politics 
(simulations) 
PSYCH 205 Introduction to 
Statistics and 
Measurement 
PSYCH 305 Experimental Methods 




REL 138 Christian Humanism 
(class bulletin 
board) 

S0C 303 Data Analysis and 
Statistics 

Teacher Education 
Programs 

Gettysburg College education 
programs in secondary school 
subjects, elementary 
education, music education, 
and health and physical 
education are competency 
based and have received 
program approval from the 
Pennsylvania Department of 
Education. The liberal arts are 
central to the College's teacher 
education programs. The 
student planning to teach must 
complete a major in an 
academic department of his or 
her choice. The student fulfills 



all the requirements for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree or for 
the degree of Bachelor of 
Science in Music Education. 
Upon completing a program in 
teacher education, a student is 
eligible for a Pennsylvania 
Certificate, Instructional I, 
enabling him or her to teach in 
the public schools of the 
Commonwealth and other 
states with similar 
requirements. Students who 
pursue teacher certification are 
required to demonstrate 
computer literacy prior to 
admission to the Education 
Semester. Students who are 
seeking their first Instructional 
I Certificate on June 1, 1987, or 
after must have successfully 
completed a Pennsylvania 
Department of Education 
teacher certification exam in 
the following four areas: 
— Basic Skills (writing, 

reading, and 

mathematics) 




General Knowledge 

(social studies, 

literature and fine arts, 

and science) 
Professional Knowledge 

(instructional skills) 
Specialization Area Tests 

(the subject area for 

which candidates are 

seeking certification) 



39 



For more information on the 
Pennsylvania Department of 
Education teacher certification 
exams, contact a member of 
the Education Department. 

Secondary Education Students 
interested in preparing to 
teach academic subjects in the 
secondary schools must 
complete one of the following 
approved programs for 
secondary certification: 
biology, chemistry, physics, 
general science, mathematics, 
English, German, Latin, 
French, Spanish, health and 
physical education, and 
comprehensive social studies. 
These secondary programs 
have been granted program 
approval by the Pennsylvania 
Department of Education. The 
student must complete an 
approved program listed in the 



Handbook for Teacher 
Education, which will, in most 
cases, closely parallel the 
requirements in his or her 
major. Early planning 
beginning in the freshman year 
is essential for all of these 
programs. 

Secondary education students 
are required to engage in pre- 
sident teaching experiences 
in the secondary schools 
during the sophomore and 
junior years. Students serve as 
observers, aides, and small 
group instructors in secondary 
classrooms. These experiences 
are part of the requirements 
for Education 209 (Social 
Foundations of Education) to 
be scheduled in the sophomore 
year, and Education 201 
(Educational Psychology) to be 
scheduled in the junior year. 
For the senior year, the 




student, in consultation with 
his or her major department, 
will select either the fall or 
spring semester as the 
Education Semester. The 
following program constitutes 
the Education Semester. 

Education 303 (Educational 
Purposes, Methods, and 
Educational Media: 
Secondary) 

Education 304 (Techniques of 
Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subjects- 
Biology, English, etc.) 

Education 477 (Student 
Teaching— Secondary two 
courses) 

Note: Only four courses may 
be taken during the Education 
Semester. 

The student seeking admission 
to the secondary education 
program must file an 
application with the Education 
Department by February 15 of 
the junior year. Admission to 
the program is granted by the 
Committee on Teacher 
Education, a body composed 
of faculty from each 
department which has 
students in the secondary 
education program. This 
Committee also determines 
standards for admission to the 
program. Members of the 
Committee also teach 
Education 304 for the students 
of their respective 
departments and observe them 
when they engage in student 
teaching. 

The admission of a student to 
the Education Semester 
depends upon the student's 
academic achievement and a 
recommendation from his or 
her major department. The 
guidelines for evaluating a 
student's academic achieve- 



40 




ment are an accumulative 
grade point average of 2.33 
and a grade point average in 
the major of 2.66. 

Completion of a program in 
secondary education enables a 
student to teach in 
Pennsylvania, and numerous 
other states which have 
similar requirements. 
Numerous states require 
specific scores on portions of 
the National Teacher Exams 
(NTE). See the Education 
Department section for details. 

Students in the program 
leading to certification in 
secondary education shall 
present the six specified 
courses in Education. In 
addition to these six courses, 
students are permitted one 
additional education course 
in individualized study, or 



in an education internship, to 
count toward the Bachelor of 
Arts degree. 

Elementary Education The 

elementary education program 
is distinctive in giving the 
opportunity to concentrate in 
the liberal arts studies and 
complete an academic major, 
thus qualifying for the 
Bachelor of Arts degree. 

Students interested in entering 
the elementary education 
program should consult with 
Mr. Slaybaugh or Mr. Packard 
in the Education Department 
no later than the fall semester 
of the freshman year in order 
to establish a program of 
study. 

The prospective elementary 
teacher should complete the 
following program: 



1) Psychology 101, and HPE 
199 in the freshman year 

2) Education 201, Mathematics 
180 (Basic Concepts of 
Elementary Mathematics) and 
Psychology 225 

3) Education 331, Education 
370 (Elementary School 
Science: Purposes, Methods 
and Instructional Media), 
Education 209, and Psychology 
225 if not completed 
previously. 

4) Education Semester— fall or 
spring of senior year 

Education 475 Elementary 
Student Teaching (2 courses) 

Education 334 Corrective 
Reading 

Education 306 Educational 
Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social 
Studies, Art, and Music. 
Education 306 is a full-time 
field based course. 




Student teaching (Education 
475) and Education 306 consist 
of 10 weeks of full-time 
participation in a public school 
near the College. Education 
334 is taught in a four week 
block and includes a two week 
full-time experience in the 
schools under the direct 
supervision of a reading 

41 



specialist. Thus, twelve weeks 
of full-time student teaching is 
completed. Only four courses 
may betaken during the 
Education Semester. 

Elementary education students 
are required to engage in pre- 
sident teaching experiences 
in the elementary schools 
during the sophomore and 
junior years. Arrangements for 
these experiences are made by 
the Education Department. 
Students serve as observers, 
aides, and small group 
instructors in elementary 
classrooms. 

The student seeking admission 
to the elementary education 
program must file an 
application with the Education 
Department by February 15 of 
the junior year. Admission to 
the program is granted by the 
Committee on Teacher 
Education, a body composed 
of faculty members from the 
Education Department and 
other departments. This 
committee also establishes 
standards for admission to the 
program. 

The admission of a student to 
the Education Semester 
depends upon academic 
achievement and recom- 
mendation of the Committee 
on Teacher Education. Criteria 
for admission include aC+ 
overall average and 
demonstrated competence in 
the education courses 
completed during the 
sophomore year and in the fall 
semester of the junior year. 

Students interested in teaching 
in states other than 
Pennsylvania will find that a 
number of states certify 
teachers who have completed 
a baccalaureate program in 




elementary education at a 
college approved by its own 
state department of education. 
Numerous states require 
specific scores on portions of 
the National Teacher Exams 
(NTE). See the Education 
Department section for details. 

Students in the program 
leading to certification in 
elementary education shall 
present the eight specified 
courses in Education. In 
addition to the eight courses, 
students are permitted 
one education course in 
individualized study, or in an 
education internship, to count 
toward the Bachelor of Arts 
degree. 



Music Education The 

prospective teacher of music 



in the elementary and 
secondary schools should 
complete the program for the 
degree of Bachelor of Science 
in Music Education. This 
requires successful completion 
of 35 courses exclusive of 
courses in applied music. Also 
required are two semesters of 
the basic activities quarter 
courses in health and physical 
education. 

The program includes: 

Music, 12 courses as follows: 
Music Theory, 141, 142,241, 
242,341,342 
Music History and Literature 
Music 144 (Intro, to Music 
History and Literature) 
Music 313 (Music in the 
Medieval, Renaissance 
and Baroque Periods) 



42 



Music 314 (Music in the 

Classical, Romantic 

and Contemporary 

Periods) 
Conducting 
Music 205 (Choral 

Conducting) 
Music 206 (Instrumental 

Conducting) 
Applied Music 
Music 456 (Senior Recital) 
Fifteen to nineteen quarter 
courses. These do not count 
toward the 35 course 
graduation requirements 
and may betaken in 
addition to the 36 courses 
permitted. Consequently, in 
the fall and spring 
semesters the student will 
typically carry four or five 
full courses plus several 
quarter courses in applied 
music. The latter must 
include work in: 
Major performance area 
Piano 
Voice 
Instruments of the Band and 

Orchestra 

Music Education, 5 courses as 
follows: 
Music 320 (Principles and 
Procedures of Teaching 
Music in the Elementary 
School) 
Music 321 (Principles and 
Procedures of Teaching 
Music in the Secondary 
School) 
Music 474 (Student 
Teaching) 
(3 course units) 

Certification Requirements 
Psychology 101 
Education 209 (Social 

Foundations of Education) 
Education 201 (Educational 

Psychology) 

Distribution Requirements 
Electives 



Participation for four years in 
an authorized musical group 
and presentation of a recital in 
the senior year are required. 

The student in the Bachelor of 
Science program should 
consult with the music 
department as early as 
possible in order to arrange a 
four-year program. 

Employment Prospects in Teaching 

Current figures from the 
National Center for 
Educational Statistics indicate 
an increase of 3,370,000 
students in elementary schools 
from 1982 to 1990. There will 
be a need for many more 
elementary and secondary 
teachers in the near future. 



Of the 1987 graduates who 
sought teaching positions in 
elementary education 100% 
were teaching or in education- 
related occupations in the next 
school year, and in secondary 
54%. The average salary for 
1987 graduates reporting this 
information to the College was 
$17,410. 

Teacher Placement The College 
maintains a Teacher Placement 
Bureau to assist seniors and 
graduates in securing 
positions and to aid school 
officials in locating qualified 
teachers. All communications 
should be addressed to the 
Director of the Teacher 
Placement Bureau. 




43 




Off-Campus Study 

College Affiliated Programs 

In order to supplement and 
enhance the regular courses of 
the College, the faculty 
designates certain off-campus 
programs of study as College 
Affiliated Programs. As such, 
these programs are recognized 
as worthy of credit to be 
applied toward the Gettysburg 
College degree. The Academic 
Standing Committee shall 
approve a student's 
participation in a program and 
shall establish regulations and 
standards for the acceptance 
of credits. To qualify a student 



normally must have a 
minimum accumulative grade 
point average of 2.50 and a 
grade point average of 2.67 in 
the major. In affiliated 
programs, both grades and 
credits shall be accepted as if 
they were grades and credits 
earned at Gettysburg College. 



Consortium Exchange Program 

The program of the College is 
enriched by its membership in 
the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium, consisting of 
Dickinson, Franklin and 
Marshall, and Gettysburg 
Colleges. The Consortium 



provides opportunities for 
exchanges by students and 
faculty and for other off- 
campus study. Students may 
take a single course or enroll 
at the "host" college for a 
semester, or a full year. 
Interested students should 
consult the Registrar. 



44 



Washington Semester Gettysburg 
College participates with 
American University in 
Washington, D.C. in a 
cooperative arrangement 
known as the Washington 
Semester. This program 
enables a limited number of 
qualified students in the social 
sciences to engage in a first- 
hand study of American 
government in action. The 
program is divided into 
several distinctive areas. 
Washington Semester, 
National Government and 
Politics focuses on important 
national institutions and the 
interrelationships of the 
various actors in the political 
process. Washington Semester 
in Foreign Policy examines the 




45 



formulation, implementation, 
and consequences of the 
foreign policy of the United 
States. Washington Urban 
Semester concentrates upon 
the operation of the political 
and administrative systems of 
urban America. Washington 
Semester in Public 
Administration studies the 
structure, process, and impact 
of the administrative sector. 
Washington Semester in 
Justice concerns the nature 
and sources of crime and 
violence, the conflicting 
theories and beliefs about 
justice and the impact of 
national policymaking on 
social and criminal justice. 
Washington Semester in 
Journalism provides an 
introduction to the principles, 
ethics, and issues of American 
journalism as it exists in 
Washington, D.C. Washington 



Semester in Arts and 
Humanities gives an intensive 
cultural study of Washington 
with a focus on a particular 
area such as art history, 
foreign culture and language, 
history, religion, literature, 
or the performing arts. 

Students in the Washington 
Semester program participate 
in seminars (two course 
credits), undertake a major 
research project (one course 
credit) and serve an internship 
(one course credit) in a 
congressional, executive or 
political office. The seminars, 
research project, and 
internship provide students 
with several opportunities for 
discussion with members of 
Congress and their staff, 
Supreme Court Justices, 
administration officials, and 
lobbyists. Residence in 
Washington provides a unique 





setting for the conduct of 
political research. 

The Washington Semester may 
betaken during either 
semester of the junior year or 
the fall semester of the senior 
year. To qualify, a student 
must have completed at least 
one course in political science, 
have a minimum accumulative 
average of 2.50, and 3.00 in 
the major, and clearly 
demonstrate ability to work on 
his or her own initiative. Most 
participants major in political 
science, history, sociology, 
and economics, but applicants 
from other areas are 
welcomed. Further information 
may be obtained from the 
Department of Political 
Science. 



46 




The Washington Economic Policy 
Semester Gettysburg College 
participates in this 
cooperative, intercollegiate 
honors program with The 
American University in 
Washington, D.C. The semester 
is designed for students with 
an interest in economics. It 
examines intensively 
economic policymaking from 
both the theoretical and 
practical, domestic and 
international points of view. 
During the semester, students 
are brought into direct contact 
with people who are involved 
in the formulation of economic 
policy. 



The program of study includes 

(1) the Economic Policy 
Seminar (two course credits), 
which encompasses a 
theoretical analysis of 
economic policy problems; 
extensive reading; on site 
discussions with economic 
policy decision-makers; 
preparation of papers; and the 
presentation of alternative 
paradigms that may be used to 
understand economic policy; 

(2) the choice of an internship 
(one course credit) in a private 
or governmental agency 
involved with economic policy, 
or an intensive independent 
research project (one course 
credit); and (3) an elective 
chosen from the courses 
offered by The American 
University. It should be noted 
that the grades received in 
these courses, as well as the 



credit for four courses, will 
appear on the student's 
Gettysburg College transcript. 

This program can be helpful to 
students in several ways. For 
all students, it provides an 
opportunity to dispel the 
mystery surrounding the 
policy-making process, to 
make them better informed 
citizens, and thus to improve 
their understanding of the 
complex interaction between 
the government and the 
economy. For those persons 
who plan to be professional 
economists, it will provide a 
practical introduction to 
learning about the nation's 
important economic 
institutions as well as the 
political considerations that 
influence the translation of 
economic theory into 
government policy. The 
program will allow students to 
become familiar with the basic 
economic issues of the times 




47 




and with the different 
approaches for solving those 
problems. For the person who 
is interested in becoming a 
business economist, lawyer, or 
community organizer, the 
knowledge gained about the 
bureaucracy in Washington 
and how the federal 
government operates will be 
invaluable in his or her career. 

The student should take the 
Washington Economic Policy 
Semester in the fall or spring 
semester of the junior year or 
the fall semester of the senior 
year. To qualify, a student 
must have a minimum 
accumulative grade point 
average of 2.50, a grade point 
average of 3.00 in the major, 
and have demonstrated the 
ability to work on his or her 
own initiative. In addition, 



students wishing to apply for 
this program should have 
completed Economics 103-104, 
241, 243, 245, and Accounting 
153. Most participants major in 
economics or management; 
however, interested applicants 
from other areas are 
encouraged to apply. Further 
information, including the 
application procedure for this 
program, can be obtained from 
Dr. William F. Railing, 
Department of Economics. 



The United Nations Semester 

Students qualifying for this 
program spend a semester at 
Drew University in Madison, 
New Jersey. On Tuesdays and 
Thursdays these students 
commute to the United Nations 
for a survey course in 
international organization 
which consists in part of 
briefings and addresses by 
individuals involved in United 
Nations activities. A research 
seminar also uses the facilities 
of the United Nations 
Headquarters. Other courses to 
complete a full semester's 
work are taken at the Drew 
Campus. 

The United Nations program is 
offered in both the fall and 
spring semesters. Some 
scholarship assistance may be 
available for non-Drew 
University students. 
Application should be made in 
the junior or senior year. 
Students from any academic 
concentration who have taken 
an introductory course in 
political science and who have 
maintained a respectable 
grade point average are 
eligible for nomination. Further 
information may be obtained 
from the Department of 
Political Science. 



48 




Center for Cross-Cultural Study, 
Seville, Spain In addition to the 
other options for study 
abroad, students who have 
satisfied the language 
distribution requirement in 
Spanish may study for one or 
two semesters of their 
sophomore (with permission of 
the Academic Standing 
Committee) or junior year or 
the fall semester of their 
senior year at the Center for 
Cross-Cultural Study in 
Seville, Spain. Both credits 
and grades earned in the 
Center will be transferred to 
the student's college 
transcript. Except as already 
described, requirements for 
participation in this program 
are similar to those described 
under the Study Abroad heading 
below. Students interested in 
studying at the Center should 



consult the Spanish Department. 

C.I.E.E. Program at the 
Universite de Haute 
Bretagne. Rennes, France. 

Juniors and first-semester 
seniors who have completed 
French 301 or its equivalent 
and who have at least a 2.50 
accumulative grade point 
average and a 2.67 average in 
their major may study for a 
semester or an entire 
academic year in the Council 
on International Educational 
Exchange's program at the 
Universite de Haute Bretagne 
in Rennes. Both credits and 
grades will be transferred. 
Financial aid may be applied 
to participation in the 
program. Interested students 
should contact the French 
Department. 

Fall Semester in Cologne, 
Germany. Sophomore through 



first semester seniors with a 
minimum of one year of college 
German or the equivalent are 
eligible. Program is through 
the Northwest Interinstitu- 
tional Council. Both credits 
and grades will be transferred. 
Financial Aid may be applied 
to participation in the 
program. Interested students 
should contact the German 
Department. 



Lutheran Theological Seminary 
Exchange Gettysburg College 
students are eligible to take up 
to four courses at the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary also 
located in Gettysburg. The 
Seminary offers coursework in 
Biblical Studies, Historical 
Theological Studies and 
Studies in Ministry. Interested 
students should consult the 
Registrar. 




49 




Wilson College Exchange 

Gettysburg College offers an 
exchange opportunity with 
Wilson College, an area 
college for women with course 
offerings that supplement 
Gettysburg's offerings in 
communications, women's 
studies, international studies, 
dance and other creative arts. 
Students may take a single 
course or enroll as a guest 
student for a semester or full 
year. 

Marine Biology The biology 
department offers two 
programs for students who 
may be interested in pursuing 
studies in marine biology; one 
program is in cooperation with 
Duke University and the other 
with the Bermuda Biological 
Station. 



The Bermuda Biological 
Station (St. George's West, 
Bermuda) offers courses in 
biological, chemical, and 
physical oceanography during 
the summer. Any course taken 
by a Gettysburg College 
student may be transferred to 
Gettysburg with the grade 
received in the course 
provided prior approval is 
granted by the department. 

Gettysburg College is one of 
a limited number of 
undergraduate institutions 
affiliated with the Duke 
University Cooperative 
Undergraduate Program in the 
Marine Sciences. The program, 
offered at the Duke University 
Marine Laboratory (Beaufort, 
North Carolina), is a ten-week 
semester of courses, seminars, 
and independent investi- 
gations. Studies include the 





physical, chemical, geological, 
and biological aspects of the 
marine environment with 
emphasis on the ecology of 
marine organisms. 

The program is appropriate for 
juniors or students who have 
had 3-4 courses in biology. The 
student receives the equivalent 
of five courses, two of which 
may be used toward the 
minimum eight required in 
biology. The remaining 
courses will apply toward 
graduation requirements. 

Interested students are urged 
to contact the Biology 
Department regarding the 
current curriculum at the 
laboratory and additional 
information regarding the 
program. 



50 



Additional Off-Campus 
Opportunities 

Study Abroad Qualified students 
may study abroad during one 
or two semesters of their 
junior year or the fall semester 
of their senior year. The 
Registrar maintains an 
information file of possible 
programs and stands ready to 
assist students with their 
unique study plans. It is 
important to begin the 
planning process early. During 
the first semester of the 
sophomore year students who 
plan to study abroad should 
discuss with their advisers the 
relationship of their proposed 
course of study to their total 




academic program. An outline 
of the program and a list of 
specific courses with 
appropriate departmental 
approval must be submitted to 
the Academic Standing 
Committee, which gives final 
approval on all requests to 
study abroad. To qualify a 
student normally must have a 
minimum accumulative grade 
point average of 2.50 and a 
grade point average of 2.67 in 
the major. Study abroad 
programs are not limited to 
language majors; students in 
any major field may apply. 
Further information may be 
obtained from the Office of the 
Registrar. 

Special Interest Programs 

Students may petition the 
Academic Standing Committee 
for permission to take courses 
for a semester at another 
college or university which 




offers a program in a special 
interest area not fully 
developed at Gettysburg 
College. Examples of special 
interest areas are Urban 
Studies. Asian Studies, Studio 
Arts, Nutrition, Environmental 
Studies, and Women's Studies. 
Interested students should 
consult the Dean of Student 
Advisement. 

Dual-Degree Programs 

Engineering This program is 
offered jointly with 
Pennsylvania State University 
(PSU), Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute (RPI), and Washington 
University in St. Louis. 
Students spend three years at 
Gettysburg College followed by 
two years at one of these 
universities. Upon successful 
completion of this program, 
the student is awarded the 
Bachelor of Arts degree from 
Gettysburg and the Bachelor of 
Science degree in an 
engineering discipline from 
one of the three affiliated 
universities. The affiliation 
with RPI also offers the 
opportunity for a masters 
degree after three years at RPI. 
Gettysburg students, on their 
own initiative, have also 
completed dual-degree 
programs at non-affiliated 
universities. 

Candidates for this program 
will have an adviser in the 
Physics Department. Normally 
a student will be recommended 
to PSU, RPI, or Washington 
University during the fall 
semester of the junior year. 
Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point 
average in order to be 
recommended except for 
students interested in 
electrical engineering at RPI 



51 



who are required to have a 3.5 
average for recommendation. 

The specific courses required 
for admission by each 
affiliated institution vary and 
students should schedule 
courses in close cooperation 
with the Engineering Adviser 
at Gettysburg. In general, dual- 
degree engineering students 
can expect to take Physics 
111,112,211,215,216; 
Mathematics 111, 112, 211, 
212, 363; Chemistry 111, 112 
and a Computer Science 
course. PSU's requirements 
are more restrictive and 
students who wish to complete 
their requirements at this 
institution may need to attend 
a summer school to be eligible 
for transfer. All dual-degree 
engineering students will have 
to complete the distribution 
requirements of Gettysburg 
while in residence at 
Gettysburg. Because of the 
limited flexibility of the dual- 
degree engineering curriculum, 
students are urged to identify 
their interests in this program 
at the earliest possible time. 

Forestry and Environmental 
Studies The College offers a 
dual-degree program with 
Duke University leading to 
graduate study in natural 
resources and the 
environment. The student will 
earn the bachelor's and 
master's degree in five years, 
spending three years at 
Gettysburg College and two 
years at Duke University's 
School of Forestry and 
Environmental Studies. The 
student must fulfill all the 
distribution requirements by 




the end of the junior year. The 
first year's work at Duke will 
complete the undergraduate 
degree requirements and the 
B.A. will be awarded by 
Gettysburg College at the end 
of the first year at Duke. Duke 
will award the professional 
degree of Master of Forestry 
or Master of Environmental 
Management to qualified 
candidates at the end of the 
second year. 

Candidates for the program 
should indicate to our 
Admissions Office that they 
wish to apply for the Forestry 
and Environmental Studies 
curriculum. At the end of the 
first semester of the third year, 
the College will recommend 
qualified students for 
admission to the Duke School 
of Forestry and Environmental 



Studies. No application need 
be made to the School of 
Forestry and Environmental 
Studies before that time. 
During the first semester of the 
junior year at Gettysburg the 
student must file with the 
Office of the Dean of 
Educational Services a petition 
for off-campus study during 
the senior year. All applicants 
are urged to take the verbal 
and quantitative aptitude tests 
of the Graduate Record 
Examination in October or 
December of their junior year. 

The major program emphases 
at Duke are 1) Forest Resource 
Management, 2) Resource 
Ecology, 3) Water and Air 
Resources, and 4) Resource 
Economics and Policy; 
however, programs can be 
tailored with other individual 
emphases. An undergraduate 
major in natural sciences, 
social sciences, management, 
or pre-engineering is good 
preparation for the programs 
at Duke, but a student with 
other undergraduate 
concentration will be 
considered for admission. All 
students contemplating this 
cooperative program should 
take at least one year each in 
biology, mathematics, 
economics and computer 
science. 

Students begin the program at 
Duke in late August. The 
student must complete a total 
of 48 units, which generally 
takes four semesters. 

Some students may prefer to 
complete the bachelor's degree 
before undertaking graduate 
study at Duke. The master's 



52 



degree requirements for these 
students are the same as those 
for students entering after the 
junior year. All credit 
reductions are determined 
individually and consider both 
the student's educational 
background and objectives. 

Preprofessional Studies 

Prelaw Preparation A student 
planning a career in law 
should develop the ability to 
think logically and to express 
thoughts clearly. In addition, 
the prospective law student 
needs a wide range of critical 
understanding of human 
institutions. These qualities 
are not found exclusively in 
any one field of study. They 
can be developed in a broad 
variety of academic majors. It 
should be noted that a strong 
academic record is required 
for admission to law school. 

The College has a prelaw 
adviser to assist and advise 
students in their consideration 
of the legal profession and to 
aid them in gaining admission 
to law school. A brochure is 
available through the 
Admissions and Career 
Services Offices, describing 
prelaw preparation at 
Gettysburg. Students planning 
a career in law should review 
this brochure. 

Premedical Preparation The 

Gettysburg College curriculum 
provides the opportunity, 
within a liberal arts 
framework, for a student to 
complete the requirements for 
admission to professional 
schools of medicine, dentistry, 
and veterinary medicine, as 
well as several allied health 
schools. Students considering 
a career in one of these fields 
are advised to schedule their 




courses carefully, not only to 
meet the admission require- 
ments for the professional 
schools, but also to provide 
for other career options in the 
event that their original 
choices are altered. The 
following courses will meet the 
minimal entrance requirements 
for most medical, dental, or 
veterinary schools: Biology 
101, 112; Chemistry 111, 112; 
Chemistry 203, 204; Math 107, 
108 or Math 111, 112; Physics 
103, 104 or Physics 111, 112; 



two or three courses in 
English; and a foreign 
language through the 
intermediate level. Since 
completion of these courses 
will also give the student 
minimum preparation for 
taking the national admissions 
examinations for entrance to 
medical, dental, or veterinary 
school, it is advisable to have 
completed or be enrolled in 
these courses by the spring of 
the junior year, when the tests 
ordinarily are taken. While 
most students who seek 
recommendation for admission 
to health professions' schools 
major in either biology or 
chemistry, the requirements 
can be met by majors in most 
other subjects with careful 
planning of a student's 
program. Premedical students 
are encouraged to choose 
electives in the humanities and 



53 



social sciences and to plan 
their programs in consultation 
with their major adviser or a 
member of the premedical 
committee. 

All recommendations for 
admission to health 
professions' schools are made 
by the premedical committee, 
normally at the end of the 
junior year. Students seeking 
admission to these 
professional schools must also 
take one of the following 
national admissions 
examinations: MCAT 
(medical), DAT (dental), VAT or 
GRE (veterinary) or OAT 
(optometry). The Premedical 
Committee is composed of 
members from the 
Departments of Biology, 
Chemistry, Physics, and 
Psychology, with the 
Associate Provost acting as 
chairperson. Because of the 
competition for admission to 
medical school, the premedical 
committee recommends that a 
student maintain a high 
accumulative average (near 
3.50) overall and in medical 
school required courses. 
Generally, students with a 
competitive accumulative 
average and a competitive 
score on the MCAT gain an 
interview at one or more 
medical schools. 

The premedical committee has 
prepared a brochure about 
preparation at Gettysburg for 
the health professions. Copies 
of this are available from the 
Admissions and Provost 
Offices. Students interested in 
the health professions should 
obtain this brochure. 

The premedical committee 
holds periodic meetings to 
explain requirements for 
admissions to health 




professions schools and to 
bring representatives of these 
schools to campus to talk to 
students. In the office of the 
Provost is a collection of 
materials about the health 
professions. It includes 
information about admissions 
requirements, guidebooks on 
preparing for national 
admissions examinations, 
catalogues from many health 
professions schools, and 
reference materials on fields 
such as medicine, dentistry, 
veterinary science, optometry, 
pharmacy, podiatry, physical 
therapy, public health, and 
health care administration. 



Army Reserve Officers Training 
Program The ROTC program 
conducted by the Department 
of Military Science allows a 
student to earn a commission 



as a Second Lieutenant in the 
US Army concurrent with 
academic degree conferral. 
The training received in 
leadership, management and 
human relations provides an 
excellent, highly valued 
foundation for subsequent 
civilian careers. 

The Basic Course covers the 
first two years of the ROTC 
Program. Instruction includes 
the national defense structure, 
military history, orienteering, 
wilderness survival, and 
leadership instruction. The fall 
and spring semesters of both 
years involve one hour of 
classroom instruction and one 
hour of professional 
development lab per week. 
There is no military obligation 
involved with enrollment in the 
Basic Course. 



54 



The Advanced Course covers 
the third and fourth years of 
the ROTC program. Instruction 
includes advanced leadership 
development, group dynamics, 
organization and management, 
small unit tactics and 
administration. Each semester 
entails three classroom hours, 
one professional development 
lab hour per week, and one 
field training exercise per 
semester. In addition, 
Advanced Course cadets are 
paid $100.00 per month. Army 
ROTC also offers scholarships 
on a competitive basis. Eligible 
students may apply for two or 
three-year scholarships which 
pay full tuition and book 
expenses plus $100.00 per 
month. 

The Military Science 
Department offers both a 
4-year and a 2-year program 
towards commissioning. 
Interested students should 
contact a member of the 
Department of Military Science 
for details on both these 
programs. It should be 
remembered that a student 
must have two full academic 
years remaining to participate 
in the Advanced Course and 
must have completed the Basic 
Course or received credit for 
the Basic Course prior to being 
enrolled in the Advanced 
Course. 

Senior Honors 

The College awards the 
following honors to members 
of the graduating class. These 
senior honors are intended for 
students with four years 
residence at Gettysburg 
College, and computations for 
them are based on four years' 
performance. 



1. Valedictorian, to the senior 
with the highest accumulative 
average. 

2. Salutatorian, to the senior 
with the second highest 
accumulative average. 

3. Summa Cum Laude, to those 
seniors who have an 
accumulative average of 3.750 
or higher. 

4. Magna Cum Laude, to those 
seniors who have an 
accumulative average of 3.500 
through 3.749. 

5. Cum Laude, to those seniors 
who have an accumulative 
average of 3.300 through 3.499. 

The Academic Standing 
Committee may grant the 
above honors to students with 
transfer credit if they have 
satisfied the conditions of the 
honor during at least two 



years in residence at 
Gettysburg College and have 
presented excellent transfer 
grades. 

In addition to the above, 
departments may award 
Departmental Honors for 
graduating seniors based upon 
their academic performance in 
a major field of study. 
Departmental Honors are 
awarded to transfer students 
on the same terms as to 
other students since the 
computation for this award is 
not necessarily based on four 
years in residence at 
Gettysburg College. 

Deans' Lists 

The names of those students 
who attain an average of 3.600 
or higher in the fall semester, 
or in the spring semester, are 




55 



placed on the Deans' Honor 
List in recognition of their 
academic attainments. Also, 
those students who attain an 
average from 3.330 to 3.599 
are placed on the Deans' 
Commendation List. To be 
eligible for these honors, a 
student must take a full course 
load of at least four courses, 
with no more than one course 
taken under the S/U grading 
option during that semester 
(except for students taking the 
Education Term who may take 
two courses S/U). 

Phi Beta Kappa 

Phi Beta Kappa elects to 
membership seniors who have 
a distinguished academic 
record in a liberal arts 
program. No more than ten 
percent of the senior class 
may normally be elected. The 
Gettysburg College Chapter of 
Phi Beta Kappa received its 
Charter in 1923 and is one of 
237 chapters of Phi Beta Kappa 
in American colleges and 
universities. 

Prizes and Awards 

The following prizes recognize 
outstanding scholarship and 
achievement. They are 
awarded at a Fall Honors 
Program in October or a Spring 
Honors Convocation held in 
April or May. Grades earned in 
required courses in physical 
education are not considered 
in computations for prizes or 
awards. Transfer students are 
eligible for prizes and awards. 

Endowed Funds 

Betty M. Barnes Memorial 
Award in Biology The income 
from a fund, established by Dr. 
& Mrs. Rodger W. Baier, is 



awarded to a female senior 
student with high academic 
ability preparing for a career 
in biology or medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize 
The income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. Charles 
Baum (1874), is given to the 
sophomore showing the 
greatest proficiency in 
Mathematics. 

John Edgar Baublitz Pi 
Lambda Sigma Awards The 
income fund from a fund 
initiated by John Eberhardt 
Baublitz in honor of his father, 
John Edgar Baublitz (1929) 
who was the first president of 
the Gamma chapter of Pi 
Lambda Sigma, given annually 
to a senior major in business 
administration, a senior major 
in economics and a senior 
major in political science. 

Anna Marie Budde Award The 
income from a bequest from 
Anna Marie Budde, Instructor 
and Assistant Professor of 
Voice 1953-1972, is given to the 
outstanding sophomore voice 
student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Gettysburg 
College Athletic Training Room 
Award The income from a 
bequest from Rose Ann 
Capozzi in memory of her late 
husband, Romeo M. Capozzi, 
is given to the student who 
has demonstrated the greatest 
degree of proficiency in 
Athletic Training Room 
techniques. 

Oscar W. Carlson Memorial 
Award The income from a 
fund contributed by the family 
of Oscar W.Carlson (1921) is 
given to a senior who 
demonstrates excellent 
academic achievement 
through his or her junior year 



in three or more courses in the 
Department of Religion, 
including two courses above 
the 100-level. 

John M. Colestock Student 
Leadership Award The award 
contributed by family and 
friends, is given to a senior 
male student whose optimism, 
enthusiasm, and strength of 
character have provided 
exceptional leadership in 
student affairs. 

Malcolm R. Dougherty Mathe- 
matical Award The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
Columbian Cutlery Company, 
Reading, Pa., in memory of 
Malcolm R. Dougherty (1942), 
is awarded to the sophomore 
who during his or her 
freshman year had the highest 
average in mathematics and 
who is working to earn part of 
his or her college expenses. 




•.ifcW# 



56 



Margaret E. Fisher Memorial 
Scholarship Award The 
income from a fund con- 
tributed by Dr. Nelson F. Fisher 
(1918) in memory of his 
mother, is awarded to a male 
student who excels in one or 
more major sports and who 
achieves the highest academic 
average among winners of 
varsity letters. 

Lena S. Fortenbaugh Memorial 
Prize The income from a fund 
established by the children of 
Lena S. Fortenbaugh (M.A. 
1925) and Robert Fortenbaugh 
(1913), Professor of History at 
the College from 1923-1959, is 
awarded to the senior selected 
by the German Department on 
the basis of outstanding 
achievement in the study of 
German language and culture. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial 
Award A fund established by 
the friends and classmates of 
Holly Gabriel (1978) provides a 
memento and notation on a 
plaque in the office of the 
Sociology and Anthropology 
Department to a senior 
sociology major selected by 
the department who 
demonstrates superior 
academic achievement, 
concern for the welfare of 
others, and the intent to 
continue this service beyond 
graduation. 

Samuel Garver Greek Prize 
The income from a fund, 
contributed by the Rev. Austin 
S. Garver (1869) in memory of 
his father, is awarded to the 
student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek 
during the freshman year. 

Samuel Garver Latin Prize The 
income from a fund, 
contributed by the Rev. Austin 
S. Garver (1869) in memory of 




his father, is awarded to the 
student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin 
during the freshman year. 

Graeff English Prize The 
income from a fund 
established in 1866 is awarded 
to a senior selected by the 
English Department on the 
basis of outstanding 
achievement in the work of 
that Department. 

David H. Greenlaw Memorial 
Prize The income from a fund 
contributed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Ralph W. Greenlaw in memory 
of their son, David H. Greenlaw 
(1966), is awarded to the 
student who has contributed 
most to the technical aspects 
of the College's theatre 
productions. 

Edwin T. Greninger Award in 
History The income from a 



fund contributed by Edwin T. 
Greninger (1941) and a 
certificate are awarded to a 
student selected by the History 
Department on the basis of the 
quality of the student's paper 
written for any of the courses 
in the department. 

John Alfred Hamme A wards 
Two awards, established by 
John Alfred Hamme (1918), are 
given to the two juniors who 
have demonstrated in the 
highest degree the qualities of 
loyalty, kindness, courtesy, 
true democracy, and 
leadership. 

Henry W. A. Hanson 
Scholarship Foundation 
Award The income from a fund 
contributed by College alumni 
in honor of Henry W. A. 
Hanson and in recognition of 
his leadership of and 
distinguished service to 
Gettysburg College and to the 
cause of education in the 
Lutheran Church and the 
nation, is awarded to a senior 
who plans to enter graduate 
school in preparation for 
college teaching. The student 
must have taken the Graduate 
Record Examination. If the 
senior chosen cannot accept, 
the next qualified candidate is 
eligible, and if no member of 
the senior class is chosen, a 
committee may select a 
member of a previous class. 

Harry C. and Catherine 
No ff singer Hartzell A ward 
The income from a fund, 
contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) in 
memory of his parents, is 
awarded to the outstanding 
junior student in the 
Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology. The selection of 
co-recipients may be made at 



57 



the discretion of the 
Department. 

James Boyd Hartzell Memorial 
Award The income from a fund 
contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) and 
his wife, Lucretia Irvine Boyd 
Hartzell, is awarded to a junior 
student majoring in economics 
or in management for 
outstanding scholarship and 
promise in these fields. The 
selection of co-recipients may 
be made at the discretion of 
the Departments of Economics 
or Management. 

James Hamilton and Lucretia 
Irvine Boyd Hartzell Award 
The income from a fund 
contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) and 
his wife is awarded to a 
sophomore student for 
outstanding scholarship and 
promise in the field of History. 



The selection of co-recipients 
may be made at the discretion 
of the History Department. 

Mildred H. Hartzell Prize 
The income from a bequest 
from Mildred H. Hartzell (1926) 
is awarded to a student who 
shows high quality in more 
than scholarship with 
preference being given to a 
member of Alpha Phi Omega, 
the national service fraternity, 
or other such organizations as 
may reflect similar quality and 
ideals. 

Hassler Latin Prize The income 
from a fund contributed by 
Charles W. Hassler, is 
awarded to the best Latin 
student in the junior class. 

John A. Hauser Meritorious 
Prize in Business The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
family of John A. Hauser is 
awarded to an outstanding 




Management major who has 
achieved excellence in both 
academic studies and campus 
leadership while 
demonstrating good character 
and concern for high moral 
standards. 

Rev. George N. Lauffer (1899) 
and M. Naomi Lauffer (1898) 
Scholarship Award The 
income from a fund is given 
each year to a junior who has 
maintained high scholarship 
and who evidences 
outstanding ability and 
Christian character. It is 
understood that the recipient 
will complete the senior year 
at Gettysburg College. 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. 
MacCartney Scholarship 
Award The income from a fund 
established by Michael Alan 
Berk and Kerry MacCartney 
Berk (1975) is given to a 
student on the basis of 
academic excellence, initiative 
shown in a work-study 
program, and contributions to 
the College through leadership 
in campus activities. 

J. Andrew Marsh Memorial 
Awards The income from the 
fund is presented each year to 
the sophomore and junior 
students of Gettysburg College 
who best exemplify the "whole 
person" concept through 
positive attitude, exceptional 
spirit, high standards, and 
notable achievement, both 
curricular and extracurricular. 
Priority is given to candidates 
in the Army ROTC program. 

Military Memorial Prize 
The income from a fund 
contributed by alumni and 
friends of the College is 
awarded to the student who 
has attained the highest 
standing in the advanced 



58 




course of the Reserve Officers 
Training Corps. 

Miller Freshman Prize in 
Physics The income from a 
fund contributed by alumni 
and friends of the College in 
memory of George R. Miller 
(1919) is awarded to a 
sophomore for outstanding 
performance in physics as a 
freshman. The selection of the 
recipient may be made at the 
discretion of the Physics 
Department. 

Miller Senior Prize in 
Physics The income from a 
fund contributed by alumni 
and friends of the College in 
memory of George R. Miller 
(1919) is awarded to a senior 
for sustained outstanding 
performance in physics. The 
selection of the recipient may 
be made at the discretion of 
the Physics Department. 



Franklin Moore Award 
The income from a fund 
contributed by the friends of 
Mr. Moore is given to the 
senior who, during his or her 
undergraduate years, has 
shown the highest degree of 
good citizenship and, by 
character, industry, enterprise, 
initiative, and activities has 
contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the 
prestige of the College. 

Muhlenberg Freshman Prize 
The income from a fund given 
by Dr. Frederick A. Muhlenberg 
(1836) is awarded to the 
freshman taking Greek or Latin 
who attains the highest 
general quality point average. 

Muhlenberg Goodwill Prize 
An illuminated certificate is 
awarded to a senior male 
student "For his growth during 



formative years at Gettysburg 
College in awareness of 
personal responsibility for the 
welfare of all peoples; for a 
degree of achievement in same 
during College years; and in 
the hope of his future 
accomplishment for 
betterment of Community, 
State and Nation." 

William F. Muhlenberg Award 
The income from a fund is 
awarded to two juniors on the 
basis of character, 
scholarship, and proficiency in 
campus activities. 

Nicholas Bible Prize The 
income from a fund con- 
tributed by the Rev. Dr. J. C. 
Nicholas (1894) is awarded to 
the senior who has done the 
best work in advanced courses 
in religion. 

Clair B. Noerr Memorial 
Award An inscribed medal, 
established by Constance 
Noerr (1958) in memory of her 
father, is awarded to a senior 
woman on the basis of 
proficiency in athletics, 
scholarship, and Christian 
character. 

Dr. John W. Ostrom 
Composition Awards The 
income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. John W. 
Ostrom (1926) is awarded to 
the student who achieves 
excellence and demonstrates 
the greatest improvement in 
freshman composition (English 
101) and to the student who 
achieves excellence and 
demonstrates the greatest 
improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English 
Award The income from a 
fund contributed by Dr. John 
W. Ostrom (1926) is awarded 



59 



to the student who has, in the 
judgment of the members of 
the Department of English, 
written the best expository 
essay for an upper level 
English course. 

Keith Pappas Memorial Award 
Notation on a plaque in the 
Office of the Dean of Student 
Life and a certificate is given 
annually as a memorial to 
Keith Pappas (1974), an honors 
graduate who made an 
extraordinary contribution to 
the life of this College and its 
people. This award is to be 
given to a current student who 
most significantly affects the 
College community through 
the quality of his or her 
participation in its functions 
and whose divergent 
contributions give form to 
what is called Gettysburg 
College. 

Jeffrey Pierce Memorial 
Award The income from a 
Memorial Fund established in 
honor of Jeffrey Pierce (1971), 
is awarded annually to that 
male senior who, in the 
judgment of the Department, 
has reached the highest level 
of achievement in the field of 
history. 

Martha Ellen Sachs Prize 
The income from a fund 
contributed by John E. Haas in 
memory of his aunt, a Lecturer 
at the College, is awarded to a 
student exhibiting excellence 
in English composition, with 
consideration given to 
improvement made during the 
year. 

Stine Chemistry Prize 
The income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. Charles M. 
A. Stine (1901), is awarded to a 
senior chemistry major on the 




basis of grades in chemistry, 
laboratory technique, 
personality, general 
improvement in four years, 
and proficiency in chemistry 
at the time of selection. 

Earl Kresge Stock Writing 
Prizes The income from a fund 
contributed by Earl Kresge 
Stock (1919) is awarded to the 
three students who write the 
classroom papers judged best 
in the areas of the humanities, 
the sciences, and the social 
sciences. 

Samuel P. Weaver Scholarship 
Foundation Prizes Prizes 
established by Samuel P. 
Weaver (1904), are awarded to 
the two students writing the 
best essays on an assigned 
topic in the field of 
constitutional law and 
government. 



Earl E. Ziegler Junior 
Mathematics Award The 
income from a fund 
contributed by Phi Delta Theta 
Alumni is given in honor of 
Earl E. Ziegler, Associate 
Professor of Mathematics at 
Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, to the student who is 
majoring in mathematics and 
has the highest average in 
mathematics through the 
middle of the junior year. 

Earl E. Ziegler Senior 
Mathematics Award The 
income from a contribution by 
Earl E. Ziegler, Associate 
Professor of Mathematics at 
Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, is awarded to the 
mathematics major who has 
achieved the highest average 
in mathematics through the 
middle of the senior year. 



60 



Edwin and Leander M. 
Zimmerman Senior Prize The 
income from a fund is given to 
the senior whose character, 
influence on students, and 
scholarship have contributed 
most to the welfare of the 
College. 

John B. Zinn Chemistry 
Research Award The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
family of John B. Zinn (1909), 
who was Professor of 
Chemistry at the College from 
1924-1959, is awarded to the 
senior making the greatest 
contributions in his or her own 
research in Chemistry and to 
the research activities of the 
Chemistry Department. 

Unendowed 

Charles W. Beachem Athletic 
Award The Physical Education 
Department presents a trophy 
in memory of Charles W. 
Beachem (1925), the first 
alumni secretary of the 
College. Based on Christian 
character, scholarship, and 
athletic achievement, the 
award is given to a senior 
student. 

Beta Beta Beta Junior 
Award This award is given to 
a junior Biology major who 
has become an active member 
of Beta Beta Beta. The award 
is based on scholarship, 
character, and attitude in the 
biological sciences. 

Beta Beta Beta Senior 
Award This award is given to 
a senior Biology major who 
has demonstrated academic 
excellence in the biological 
sciences. The award is based 
on scholarship, character, and 
an active participation in the 
Rho Chapter of Beta Beta Beta. 




C. E. Bilheimer Award 
Notation on a plaque and a 
memento are given to the 
senior major in health and 
physical education with the 
highest academic average. 

College President's Award: 
Military Science An engraved 
desk writing set is awarded to 
the outstanding senior in the 
Army ROTC program chosen 
on the basis of academic 
excellence, military 
performance, especially 
leadership ability, character, 
industry and initiative, and 
participation in activities. 

Delta Phi Alpha Prize A book 
on German culture is awarded 
to the outstanding student for 
the year in the German 
Department. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial 
Award An award established 



by the family of Anthony di 
Palma (1956), provides a book 
to the junior having the 
highest marks in history. Other 
things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Sigma 
Chi fraternity. 

French Cultural Counselor's 
Award A book presented by 
the Cultural Counselor of the 
French Embassy is awarded to 
a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

Frank H. Kramer Award The 
award is given by Phi Delta 
Theta fraternity, in memory of 
a former Professor of 
Education, to a senior for the 
excellence of his or her work 
in the Department of 
Education. 

Pennsylvania Institute of 
Certified Public Accountants 
Award This award, sponsored 
by the Pennsylvania Institute 
of Certified Public 
Accountants, is presented to a 
senior selected by the faculty 
of the Management 
Department who has 
demonstrated excellence in the 
area of accounting and who, 
by participation in campus 
activities, shows qualities of 
leadership. Eligibility for this 
award is based on the 
satisfactory completion of a 
substantial number of 
accounting courses. 

Psi Chi Award The award is 
given to a senior psychology 
major, in the spring of his or 
her senior year, who shows 
promise in the field of 
psychological endeavor. Other 
things being equal, preference 
is given to a member of Psi 
Chi. 

Psi Chi Junior A ward An 
award is given to a senior 



61 




psychology major who has 
displayed outstanding 
potential and initiative 
throughout his or her junior 
year. 

Sceptical Chymists Prize To 
encourage the presentation ot 
talks, the prize is awarded by 
the organization to the 
member or pledge who 
delivers the best talk before 
the Sceptical Chymists during 
the year. 

Sigma Alpha lota College 
Honor Award Sigma Alpha 
lota, an international music 
fraternity, gives an award 
each year to a young woman 
in the local chapter who has 
exemplified the highest 
musical, scholastic, and 
ethical standards, whatever 



her class standing. 
Contributions to the local 
chapter of Sigma Alpha lota 
and participation in Music 
Department activities are 
important criteria for 
selection. 

Sigma Alpha lota Honor 
Certificate Sigma Alpha lota 
annually awards in each 
chapter an honor certificate to 
the graduating woman who 
holds the highest academic 
average among music majors. 

Society for Collegiate 
Journalists Award A medal is 
presented to a student who 
has done outstanding work on 
the College newspaper or 
literary magazine or with the 
radio station. 

Dr. George W. Stoner Award 
The income from a fund is 
awarded to a worthy male 
senior accepted by a 
recognized medical college. 

Student Life Council Award 
A citation is awarded to a 
student in recognition of the 
quiet influence he or she has 
exerted for the improvement of 
the campus community. 

Wall Street Journal Student 
Achievement Award The 
award of a silver medal and a 
year's subscription to the Wall 
Street Journal is presented to 
a senior in the Department of 
Economics and to a senior in 
the Department of Manage- 
ment who have shown 
outstanding academic 



achievement in the study of 
finance and economics. 

Charles R. Wolfe Memorial 
Award An award is given by 
Alpha Xi Delta to a graduating 
senior on the basis of 
scholarly endeavor, warmth of 
personality, and dedication to 
the College. 

Marion Zulauf Poetry Prize 
The income from a fund 
established at The Academy of 
American Poets by Sander 
Zulauf (1968) in memory of his 
mother is presented annually 
to that student who writes the 
winning entry in a poetry 
contest sponsored by the 
Department of English. 




62 



Each year the Registrar's Otfice issues a listing 
of courses to be taught during the tall and spring 
semesters and the times they will be taught. 
Since not every course listed in the following 
pages is offered each year, the Announcement of 
Courses should be consulted to obtain the most 
current information about course offerings. 

Usually, courses numbered 100-199 are at a 
beginning level. Intermediate courses are 
numbered 200-299. Courses numbered 300-399 
are at an upperclass level. Courses numbered 
400 and above are advanced seminars, 
internships, and individualized study. 

Courses which are listed with two numbers, e.g., 
Biology 101, 102, span two semesters. For 
courses separated by a hyphen, the first 
numbered course must be taken as a prerequisite 
for the second. Where the two numbers are 
separated by a comma, either of the semesters 
of the course may be taken independently of the 
other. 

The College and distribution requirements for a 
B.A. degree are listed on page 25 and for a B.S. 
in Music Education on page 42. Courses to meet 
the distribution requirements are offered in 
various departments. 

Following is a listing of the courses that may be 
taken to satisfy each of the distribution 
requirements. The department introductions and 
course listings on the following pages indicate to 
a greater degree the specific courses which fulfill 
certain requirements. 



Requirements 

Writing Proficiency 

Freshman Colloquy 
Foreign Language 

Arts 
History/Philosophy 



Literature 



Courses that fulfill the requirement 

English 101 (or exemption 
by examination). 

Freshman Colloquy (FC) 100, but 
taught by professors from various 
departments. 

French 201-202, 205, 206; German 
202; Greek 202; Latin 202 or 203; 
Portuguese 202; Spanish 202, 205, 
206. 

Art (all courses in history and 
theory); English 205; Music 101, 
103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 
110,244,313,314. 
Theatre Arts (all courses) 

Classics 121, 122; Greek 251; Latin 
251; French 310; German 211, 212, 
213; Spanish 310, 311; IDS 101, 102 
206, 211, 227, 228; History (all 
courses except Hist 300); 
Philosophy (all courses). 

Classics 262, 264, 266; French, 
German, Greek, Latin and Spanish 
Literature, but not language or 
civilization courses; IDS 103, 104, 
216, 222, 235, 237, 238, 245, 246, 
247; English (all courses except 
Eng. 101,201,203,205,206,208, 
209, 305 and courses in speech and 
theatre arts). 

Biology 101, 102 or 101, 112; 
Chemistry 101, 102 or 111, 112; 
Astronomy 101, 102; Physics 103, 
104; 111, 112. 

Religion (all 100- and 200-level 
courses) 

Anthropology (all courses); 
Economics 103, 104; Political 
Science 101, 102, 103, 104; 
Psychology 101; Sociology 101. 

Non-Western Culture Anthropology (all courses); Art 
227; Economics 338; French 331; 
Hist 221, 222, 224, 251, 254, 321; 
IDS 227, 228, 235, 237, 238, 245; 
Political Science 263, 265; Religion 
202, 241, 242; Sociology 219. 

Freshman Colloquy 

Required seminar for all freshmen designed to 
strengthen reasoning, writing, and speaking 
skills. Using a multi-disciplinary theme as a 
focus, students will analyze readings, lectures, 
and other presentations through intensive 
writing and class discussion. 



Natural Science 



Religion 



Social Sciences 



64 



Anthropology— See Sociology and Anthropology 

Art 

Associate Professors Agard 
and Paulson (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Trevelyan 
Instructor Small 

Overview 

The Art Department has the following major 
objectives: 

(1) to educate the visual sensibilities beyond the 
routine responses, toward an awareness of the 
visual environment around us, as well as 
cognition of works of art as the living past; (2) to 
study the historical-cultural significance and 
aesthetic structure of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture, and the enduring dialogue between 
continuity and change; (3) to teach the history of 
art and the practice of art as separate but 
interrelated disciplines; (4) to provide the 
interested major with a curriculum which will 
give him or her a foundation for graduate or 
professional study leading to a career in high 
school or college teaching, to commercial art 
and industrial design, or as professional 
painters, sculptors, and printmakers. 

The Department offers to prospective majors a 
flexible program of study in interrelated studio 
and art history courses. It encourages students 
from disciplines other than art to select from 
both types of courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for students concentrating in 
studio art are: Art 141, 145, 146, 120 and courses 
in painting, printmaking, and sculpture, 
additional courses in at least two of these 
disciplines and a minimum of two courses in 
addition to Art 120 in the area of history and/or 
the theory of art. Students are encouraged to 
take additional courses in the discipline of their 
special interest and competence. 

Students intending to concentrate in studio art 
are advised to take Art 141, 145, in their 
freshman year if their interests will lead to an 
emphasis in Painting and Printmaking. Students 
interested in a Sculpture/Painting or 
Sculpture/Printmaking emphasis are advised to 
take Art 141, 145, and 146 in their freshman year. 

For such majors there will be a senior show at 
the end of the second semester of the senior 
year. 



Requirements for majors concentrating in the 
history of art are: a minimum of nine art history 
courses (including Art 120) selected by the 
student, in consultation with the adviser, which 
will meet his or her projected needs and which 
the Department considers to be a coherent 
program; and two basic studio courses in order 
to sharpen visual perception and foster an 
understanding of visual structure. Students 
intending to concentrate in the history of art 
should take Art 111, 112, and 120 in the freshman 
year. Students concentrating in art history must 
take at least two 300-level courses and Art 400. 

Because of graduate school requirements and 
extensive publications in French, German, and 
Italian, students interested in the history of art 
are advised to fulfill their language requirement 
in one of these languages. 

The Art Department reserves the right to keep 
one work by each student from each studio 
course. These selections will become a part of 
the Department's permanent collection. 

Art History and/or Theory of Art Minor 

Students interested in minoring in Art History are 
advised to take the following courses: one (1) 
100-level studio course, one (1) 200-level studio 
course, Art 120 and three (3) 200-level art history 
and/or theory of art courses. Students with an 
acceptable knowledge or background in art 
history may seek an exemption from Art 120. If 
the student is released from Art 120 by the 
instructor, the student must take four (4) 200- 
level art history and/or theory of art courses. 

Art Studio Minor 

Students interested in minoring in Studio Art are 
advised to take the following courses: two (2) art 
history and/or theory of art courses and four (4) 
studio courses. 

Students minoring in either art history and/or 
theory of art or studio art should be reminded 
that not more than two (2) 100-level courses are 
acceptable to fulfill the College's requirements 
for a minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any course in the area of history and theory of 
art may be counted toward the distribution 
requirement in arts. 

Special Facilities 

The new 1,100 sq. foot Schmucker Hall Art 
Gallery displays over ten different exhibitions 



65 



Art 

each year. Included in the gallery calendar are 
works by professional artists, a faculty show, a 
student show, several senior art major shows, 
and numerous theme and specially funded 
exhibitions. 

A collection of approximately 45,000 color slides 
supports the teaching of art history and studio 
classes. Available to students is a corresponding 
collection of 20,000 opaque color reproductions 
of architecture, painting, and sculpture. Art 
museums in Washington, Baltimore, and 
Philadelphia, as well as art exhibits at the 
College, make possible the necessary contact 
with original works of art. 

The Department has presses for relief, surface, 
and intaglio printmaking. For sculpture it has 
both gas and electric welding equipment, air 
power tools for working in wood, stone, and 
plastic, and a small foundry for bronze casting. 

History and Theory of Art 

111,112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Introductory study of the visual arts from 
prehistoric times to the 19th century. Class will 
examine reasons for changes in the content, 
form, and function of two-dimensional and three- 
dimensional art. Exercises in visual analysis of 
individual works develop critical methods. 
Fulfills distribution requirement. Juniors and 
seniors only by permission of instructor. 

Staff 

120 Theory of the Visual Arts 

A course to give the liberal arts student a basic 
approach to visual experience. This is not a 
chronological survey but a study of visual 
elements which relate to art. The emphasis will 
be on painting but other forms of art will also be 
considered. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
Arts. Juniors and seniors only by permission of 
instructor. 

Ms. Small 

201 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome 

An introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of the Classical World explaining the 
cultural and intellectual difference between the 
people of these two civilizations and reflected in 
the Arts of both. Fulfills distribution requirement 
in Arts. Juniors and seniors only by permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 



203 Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in the 
Italian Renaissance 

A survey of the visual arts during the centuries 
that, in many ways, mark the boundary between 
the ancient world and the modern one. The 
course will approach the arts of the period from 
this perspective. Many of the artists and 
monuments included are traditionally 
acknowledged to be among the finest in the 
history of art, including the works of 
Michaelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and 
Titian. A secondary focus of the course will be to 
question and explore the reasons why the art of 
this period is so acclaimed. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 111 or Art 
112 or Art 201 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

205 The Arts of Northern Europe: A.D. 1350-1575 

An analysis of artistic developments in Northern 
Europe from late Gothic times through the 
turbulent period of the reformation. The works of 
many artists (including Jan van Eyck, Claus 
Sluter, Hieronymous Bosch, Hans Holbein and 
Albrecht Durer) will be explored to discover the 
ways in which social, political, and intellectual 
developments are mirrored in the art of that 
period. Fulfills distribution requirement in Arts. 
Prerequisite: Art 201 or any one-hundred level art 
history course or permission of instructor. 
Alternate years. Offered Spring 1988. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

206 European Painting 1700-1900 

Introduction to eighteenth century painters in 
Italy, France, and England and their relationship 
to the Enlightenment. Major emphasis on the 
evolution of painting in France during the 
nineteenth century in relation to the changing 
social, political, and philosophical climate. 
Special attention will be given to impressionism 
and Post-impressionism. Alternate years. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 
111 or Art 112 or Art 120 or Art 201 or permission 
of instructor. 

Ms. Small 

210 Twentieth Century European Painting 

Study of the schools and critical writings 
surrounding the major figures. Such movements 
as Art Nouveau, Nabis, Fauvism, Cubism, 
Futurism, German Expressionism, De Stijl, Dada, 
and Surrealism will be considered. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in Arts. Recommended 
prior courses: Art 111 or Art 112 or Art 120. 

Ms. Small 



66 



221 Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century 
American Painting 

Survey of American painting from the Colonial 
Period to 1900, studied in relationship to 
developments in Europe, and with emphasis on 
the response of art to the changing social and 
technological environment in America. Alternate 
years. Fulfills the distribution requirement 
in Arts. 

Ms. Small 

227 The Native Arts of North America 

A survey of the arts created by the original 
inhabitants of North America emphasizing the 
cultural and religious traditions that formed the 
basis for most of it. Emphasis will be on 
developing an understanding and appreciation of 
the fundamental differences between the arts 
and cultures of native people and those of 
modern western cultures, as well as aspects of 
similarity. The arts and people of every major 
geographical region in North America will be 
examined. Fulfills the distribution requirement in 
Arts and the distribution requirement in Non- 
Western Culture. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

307 The Mannerist and Baroque Periods 
in European Art 

A study of painting, sculpture, and architecture 
in Europe from the first decades after the 
Reformation through their transformation under 
the impact of the Counter-Reformation. Artistic 
developments in Italy will be discussed as well 
as allied approaches in Northern Europe and 
Spain. The works of some of the world's best 
known artists will be examined— including 
Bernini, Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, 
Vermeer, El Greco, Velasquez and Poussin. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in Arts. 
Prerequisites: Art 201 or any one-hundred level 
art history course or permission of instructor. 
Alternate years. Offered Spring 1989. 

Staff 

317 History of Modern Architecture 

Study of the character and development of 
modern architecture and the contributions of 
Sullivan, Wright, Gropius, and Corbusier toward 
creating new environments for contemporary 
society. Alternate years. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 111 or Art 
112 or permission of instructor. 

Staff 

322 Painting in America Since 1900 

Survey of twentieth-century painting. Two basic 
themes of the course are: the changing social 
role of painting as America's self-image develops 



Art 

and the aesthetic role of the eclectic process. 
Fulfills the distribution requirement in Arts. 
Recommended prior course: History 132. 

Ms. Small 



335 History of Modern Sculpture 

Study of the evolution of sculptural forms from 
the nineteenth century through the present 
decade with emphasis on the effects of science 
and technology on man's changing image of man 
and his universe. Alternate years. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in Arts. Prerequisite: Art 
111 or Art 112 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended prior courses: History 317, 
History 318. 

Mr. Paulson 

400 Seminar 

An advanced study of a specific issue in art 
history. Although the approach will vary to some 
extent according to the specific topic, common 
denominators will be a close examination and 
analysis of art objects and a thorough 
investigation of the historical and social 
background. Students will develop skills in 
advanced verbal and visual research, written 
and oral projects, and critiques. Topics will be 
selected according to interest in significant areas 
not otherwise covered in course offerings. Topics 
presently under consideration are: Ruskin and 
the 19th Century; Influence of Japanese Prints on 
Western Painting; American Female Artists since 
1945. Alternate years for one semester. 
Prerequisites: Minimum of 3 art history courses, 
at least one of which is a 300-level course, or 
permission of instructor. 

Mesdames Trevelyan and Small 

Studio Courses 

The purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen 
the sense of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and 
eye; develop the ability to organize visual 
material; and to integrate the intuitive and 
rational into creative activity. Lectures 
accompany basic studio courses when 
necessary to relate theory and practice. 

The Lora Qually Hicks memorial fund, 
established by family and friends in honor of 
Lora Qually Hicks (1971), provides funds for the 
purchase of works created by Gettysburg 
students. 

141 Introduction to Drawing 

An introductory course. Drawing from the model 
and controlled studio problems. Intended to 
promote coordination of the hand and the eye to 



67 



Art 



achieve a degree of technical mastery over a 
variety of drawing tools. Emphasis will be placed 
on line quality, techniques of shading, negative- 
positive relationships, figure-ground 
relationships, form, structure, and an awareness 
of the total field. Offered fall semester only. 
Open to freshmen and sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

142 Introduction to Drawing 

Builds on the knowledge and skills accumulated 
in Art 141. Focuses on a wide range of drawing 
techniques and media. Experimental techniques 
and concepts, mixed-media, and collage will be 
introduced. Subjects will include the model, 
nature, architecture, interiors, and other visually 
interesting situations. Prerequisite: Art 141 or 
permission of instructor. Offered spring semester 
only. 

Mr. Agard 

145 Basic Design (two-dimensional) 

An introductory course to help the student 
develop a capacity to think and work 
conceptually as well as perceptually, and to 
provide a basic discipline with which to organize 
a variety of materials into structural and 
expressive form. Open to freshmen and 
sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

146 Basic Design (three-dimensional) 

An introductory course extending the basic 
disciplines of 141 into the third dimension. 
Projects introduce materials such as clay, 
plaster, wood, and metal. The intent of this 
course is to assist students to organize three- 
dimensional forms. Open to freshmen and 
sophomores only. 

Mr. Paulson 

241 Intermediate Drawing 

Intermediate studio problems: emphasis on 
drawing concepts and the development of 
individual student concerns in a series. 
Prerequisites: Art 141 or permission of instructor, 
and Art 142. Offered spring semester only. 

Mr. Agard 

251 Painting 

Development of a series of paintings according 
to a thematic image. Assigned problems are 
designed to introduce a variety of conceptual, 
procedural, and experimental possibilities. 
Prerequisite: Art 141 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended prior course: Art 322. 

Mr. Agard 



252 Painting 

Development of unique and experimental 
techniques, procedures, images, presentations, 
and textural applications. A series of paintings is 
developed. Alternative concepts and 
methodology are discussed. Students are 
referred to works by artists who have related 
aesthetic interests. Prerequisites: Art 141 or 
permission of instructor and Art 251. Offered odd 
years only. 

255 Introductory Printmaking 

An introductory course in printmaking. The 
creative process as conditioned and disciplined 
by the intaglio techniques. Discussion of past 
and contemporary methods, and the study of 
original prints. Prerequisite: Art 141 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Paulson 

256 Printmaking 

Also an introductory course in printmaking. 
Experimental work primarily concentrating on 
lithography, seriography, and cameo techniques. 
Prerequisite: Art 141. Recommended course: Art 
145. 

Mr. Paulson 

261 Introductory Sculpture 

An introduction to the fundamentals of three- 
dimensional forms and modes of expression 
involving creative problems in the organization 
of space, mass, volume, line, and color. 
Correlated lectures and demonstrations will be 
used to acquaint the student with those aspects 
of sculptural history and theory relevant to 
studio projects. This course is intended for the 
general student as well as the art major. 
Prerequisite: Art 146 or permission of instructor. 
Recommended prior course: Art 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

262 Sculpture 

A program of studio projects (arranged by the 
instructor and the student) concerned with 
developing an individual approach to three- 
dimensional form with concentration in directly 
fabricating techniques involving a series of 
experiments in spacial organization. 
Prerequisites: Art 146 or permission of instructor, 
and Art 261. Recommended prior course: Art 335 

Mr. Paulson 

351 Advanced Painting 

Advanced studio problems: emphasis on painting 
concepts and the development of individual 
student concerns in a series. Prerequisites: Art 
141 or permission of instructor, Art 251, 252, 322. 
Offered odd years only. 

Mr. Agard 



355 Advanced Printmaking 

Experimental printmaking concentrating on 
personal development of one method and 
exploration. Prerequisites: Art 141 or permission 
of instructor, and Art 255, 256. 

Mr. Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture 

Further exploration of individual three- 
dimensional concerns with concentration in one 
media and technique. Prerequisites: Art 146 or 
permission of instructor, and Art 261, 262, 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

Individualized Study 

Provides an opportunity for the well-qualified 
student to execute supervised projects in the 
area of his/her special interest, whether studio 
or history. Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 



Biology 

Professors Barnes, Cavaliere, and Schroeder 
Associate Professors Beach, Hendrix 

(Chairperson), Mikesell, Sorensen, 

and J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professors Etheridge, Hiraizumi, 

and Logan 
Assistant Instructor H. Winkelmann 
Laboratory Instructors Hulsether, Price, 

Reese, Tresham, and Zeman 

Overview 

Courses in the Department are designed to 
provide a foundation in basic biological concepts 
and principles, and the background necessary 
for graduate study in biology, forestry, dentistry, 
medicine, veterinary medicine, and various other 
professional fields. All courses in the Department 
include laboratory work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

A minimum of eight biology courses required for 
a major must include Biology 101, 112, 200, and 
310, but is exclusive of internships. Beyond the 
four above, there are no specific courses 
required for the major. This relative freedom 
permits the attainment of the different 
backgrounds required for various biological 
careers. Specialization at the expense of 
breadth, however, is discouraged. A student, in 
consultation with his or her adviser, should 
construct a broad, balanced curriculum. Every 
program must include at least one course from 



Art / Biology 

each of three areas: one in plant biology (Bio 

202, 204, 217, 300), one in animal biology (Bio 
201, 224, 227), and one in cell and organismal 
physiology (Bio 300, 320, 340, 341). No single 
course may satisfy more than one area. Biology 
101, 112 are prerequisites for all upper-level 
biology courses. Exceptions are made for those 
minoring in biology or by permission of the 
instructor. 

Chemistry 111, 112 and Chemistry 203, 204 are 
required of all majors in Biology. It is desirable, 
but not essential that Chemistry 111, 112 be 
taken in the freshman year and that Chemistry 

203, 204 be taken in the sophomore year. 

Two courses in introductory physics (either 
Physics 103, 104 or Physics 111, 112) are required 
for admission to graduate and professional 
schools, and for the teacher certification 
program in Biology, but this subject is not a 
requirement for the major. 

A minimum competency in statistics and 
calculus is expected of all majors in biology. Any 
deficiency should be rectified with Mathematics 
105 (Applied Calculus) and Mathematics 107 
(Applied Statistics). Students desiring a double 
major with chemistry, mathematics or physics 
must take Mathematics 111, 112 (Calculus of a 
Single Variable). 

A minor in biology includes Biology 101, 112 (or 
Biology 101, 102) and any other four courses in 
the Department which would count toward the 
major provided that all prerequisites are met. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in laboratory 
science may be satisfied by Biology 101, 102, or 
by Biology 101, 112. 

Special Facilities 

Greenhouse, animal quarters, aquarium room, 
environmental chambers, electron microscopy 
laboratory housing both scanning (JEOL JSM 
T20) and transmission (Zeiss EM 109) electron 
microscopes, and research space. 

Special Programs 

Dual degree program in Forestry and 
Environmental Studies with Duke University 
(p. 52). Cooperative programs in Marine Biology 
with Duke University and Bermuda Biological 
Station (p. 50). 



69 



Biology 

101 Introductory Biology 

Designed for science and non-science majors. 
The course includes the chemical nature of 
protoplasm; structure and function of cells; 
cellular energy relationships— photosynthesis 
and respiration, and genetics, three class hours 
and laboratory. 

Mr. Cavaliere and Staff 

102 Contemporary Topics in Biology 

Designed for non-science majors. The course will 
focus on pertinent topics covering contemporary 
problems and solutions in today's world. Three 
class hours and laboratory. Biology 101 is a 
prerequisite for Biology 102. 

Messrs. Hendrix and Mikesell and Staff 

112 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Functional design 
of plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 
evolution, phytogeny, and ecology are also 
covered. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Biology 101 is a prerequisite for Biology 112. 

Mr. Barnes and Staff 

200 Cell Biology 

Structure and function of cell membranes and 
organelles; energy transformation by cells; the 
cell surface; the nucleus and the cell cycle; 
chromosomes and gene expression; cell 
evolution; selected specialized cell types. Three 
class hours and laboratory. 

Mr. Sorensen 

201 Vertebrate Morphology 

Detailed examination of the origins, structures, 
and functions of the organ systems of 
vertebrates. Special attention is given to the 
evolution of major vertebrate adaptations. Three 
class hours and two scheduled laboratories. 
Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

202 Structural Plant Development 

Anatomical approach to the study of higher plant 
structures. The origin and differentiation of 
tissues and organs, environmental aspects of 
development and plant anomalies are studied. 
Six hours a week in class-laboratory work. 
Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Mikesell 



204 Taxonomy of Flowering Plants 

Identification, classification, structural diversity, 
and evolutionary relationships of angiosperms. 
The course includes extensive field work for 
collection of local flora, and methodology and 
principles of related disciplines, e.g., plant 
geography, cytogenetics, and numerical 
taxonomy. Three class hours and 
laboratory-field. 

Mr. Beach 

215 Electron Microscopy 

Introduction to basic theory and practice of 
transmission electron microscopy and scanning 
electron microscopy; techniques of tissue 
preparation and introduction to interpretation of 
animal and plant ultrastructure. Each student 
will be required to complete an independent 
project. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Laboratory fee: $50.00. Prerequisite: Permission 
of instructor. 

Mr. Cavaliere 

217 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant Kingdom 

Synopsis of embryo-producing plants, primarily 
liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, and seed 
plants. Emphasis is on comparative morphology, 
adaptive diversity, and phylogeny. Six hours a 
week in class-laboratory work. Alternate years. 
Offered 1990-91. 

Mr. Mikesell 

224 Vertebrate Zoology 

Introduction to the systematics, distribution, 
reproduction, and population dynamics of 
vertebrates. Field and laboratory emphasis is on 
natural history, collection, and identification. Six 
hours in class, laboratory, or field. Optional trip 
to North Carolina. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

227 Invertebrate Zoology 

Biology of the major free-living metazoan 
invertebrate groups, exclusive of insects, with 
special emphasis on adaptive morphology and 
physiology and on evolution. Six hours a week in 
class-laboratory work. 

Mr. Barnes 

230 Microbiology 

Introduction to the biology of viruses, bacteria, 
fungi, and protists; their morphology, taxonomy, 
reproduction, physiology, genetics, and ecology. 
Isolation, culture, environmental influences, 
biochemical and genetic characterization are 
emphasized in the laboratory. Three class hours 
and laboratory. 

Mr. Hendrix 



70 



300 Plant Physiology 

Physiological processes in vascular plants. Plant 
responses, growth promoting substances, 
photoperiodic responses, water absorption and 
transpiration, mineral nutrition, and general 
metabolic pathways are studied. Three class 
hours and laboratory. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Cavaliere 

305 Ecology 

Principles of ecology, with emphasis on the role 
of chemical, physical, and biological factors 
affecting the distribution and succession of plant 
and animal populations and communities. The 
course includes numerous field trips to a variety 
of local freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Three 
class hours and laboratory-field. 

Mr. Beach 

310 Genetics 

Overview of principles of genetics. Topics 
include: chemical nature of genes; Mendelian 
and non-Mendelian inheritance; gene regulation; 
genetic engineering; molecular evolution and 
population genetics. Three class hours and 
laboratory. 

Mr. Hiraizumi 

320 Developmental Biology 

Survey of the principles and phenomena of 
development at the molecular, cellular, and 
organismal levels of organization. Major 
attention is given to embryonic development in 
multicellular animals. Vertebrates are 
emphasized in the study of organ development. 
Prerequisites: Biology 200, 310. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Sorensen 

325 Animal Behavior 

Study of animal behavior through readings, 
films, discussions, and field and laboratory 
observations. A wide range of phenomena will be 
considered, from simple reflex responses to 
complex social organizations. The role of 
behavioral adaptations in the biology of animal 
species will be emphasized. Three class hours 
and laboratory. Alternate years. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

332 Immunobiology 

Introduction to the vertebrate immune system at 
the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels of 
organization. Antibody structure, antigen- 
antibody interaction, the genetics of antibody 
diversity, the immune response, and 
transplantation reactions are emphasized. 
Prerequisites: Biology 200, 310. Three class hours 
and laboratory. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Sorensen 



Biology 

340 Comparative Animal Physiology 

Regulation of basic physiological processes. 
Unifying principles will be studied using a 
comparative approach. Prerequisite: Biology 200. 
Three class hours and laboratory. 

Ms. Etheridge 

341 Biochemistry 

Introduction to the principles of biochemistry, 
with emphasis on biochemical adaptation. 
Topics include structure and function of 
biomolecules, and organization, regulation, and 
integration of metabolic pathways. Laboratory 
includes an independent project designed by the 
student. Prerequisites: Biology 200 and 
Chemistry 204. Three class hours and laboratory. 

Ms. Etheridge 

Individualized Study 

Independent investigation of a topic of special 
interest to the student normally including both 
literature and laboratory research and carried 
out under the direction of a faculty member 
familiar with the general field of study. The 
results of the investigation will be presented to 
the department. Open to juniors and seniors. A 
single Individualized Study may be used toward 
one of the 8 courses required to fulfill the major. 
Prerequisite: Approval of both the directing 
faculty member and the Department prior to 
registration day. 

Staff 



71 



Chemistry 



Chemistry 

Professors Fortnum and Rowland 

Associate Professors Grzybowski and Parker 

{Chairperson) 

Assistant Professor Jameson 

Assistant Instructors Jackson and Luckenbaugh 

Overview 

Each course offered by the Department provides 
an opportunity for a concentrated study of the 
various principles of classical and contemporary 
chemical knowledge. From the introductory to 
the advanced courses, application is made of 
basic theories and methods of chemical 
investigation. The courses offered by the 
Department utilize lectures, discussions, library 
work, on-line computer literature searching, 
computer assisted instructional programs, 
videotapes/films, and laboratory investigations 
in order to emphasize the concepts that underlie 
the topics covered. Each course, as well as the 
major itself, is designed for the curious and 
interested student. 

The program of the Department is accredited by 
the American Chemical Society. The paths taken 
by majors after graduation are varied; many 
enter graduate work in chemistry. Graduates 
also enter medical and dental schools, industrial 
and government research laboratories, 
secondary school teaching, and other fields such 
as business and engineering. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for a major are 
Chemistry 111, 112 (or 112H), 203, 204, 221, 305, 
306, and 317. Additional offerings within the 
Department may be elected according to the 
interests and goals of the individual student. 
Physics 111 and 112 and mathematics through 
211 are required of all chemistry majors. 
Additional courses in mathematics (212), 
biology, and physics may be recommended for 
those contemplating graduate study in certain 
areas. Junior and senior majors are expected to 
join with staff members in an afternoon seminar 
series which is designed to provide an additional 
opportunity for discussion of current 
developments in the field. 

Approved safety goggles must be worn in all 
laboratories. Prescription glass but not contact 
lens may be worn under safety goggles unless a 
liability waiver is signed. 



For the prospective secondary school teacher the 
Department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Chemistry. Introductory biology is 
required for certification. 

Individualized study and independent laboratory 
work are available in connection with most 
courses. An honors section (112H) of the 
Fundamentals of Chemistry course provides a 
select group of students with such an 
opportunity at the introductory level. During the 
student's junior or senior year the major may 
elect Chemistry 462, a research course in which 
a student can utilize his or her knowledge and 
creativity intensively. Summer research, 
Chemistry 473, between the junior and senior 
year is also offered. 

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 
111, 112 (or 112H) plus four other chemistry 
courses at the 200 level or above. Individualized 
Study courses may not be counted toward the 
optional minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistry courses 
may be used to satisfy the distribution 
requirement in laboratory science: either 101 or 
111 followed by 102, 112 or 112H. (Course credit 
will not be given for more than two introductory 
chemistry courses. Credit will NOT be given for 
both 111 and 101 OR for both 102 and 112.) 

Special Facilities and Programs 

Breidenbaugh Hall which houses chemistry 
classrooms and laboratories was completely 
renovated in 1985. At the same time the 
Department purchased new instrumentation such 
as Fourier Transform NMR Spectrometer, Fourier 
Transform Infrared Spectrometer, and a Gas 
Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer. Chemistry 
majors receive hands on experience with all 
major instrumentation beginning in the 
sophomore year. The Department's library is at 
the disposal of all students. Numerous lectures 
and seminars are sponsored by the Department 
and Sceptical Chymists. These involve resource 
persons from universities, industries, 
government agencies, and professional schools 
and are designed to complement the curricular 
activities of the Department. An annual highlight 
is a three-day visit by an outstanding scholar in 
the field of chemistry. The program is supported 
by The Musselman Endowment for Visiting 



72 



Scientists. Many qualified upper-classmen— 
chemistry majors and others— gain valuable 
experience from serving as laboratory 
assistants. 

101 General Chemistry 

Study of chemical principles with emphasis 
placed on providing the student with an 
understanding of how these principles relate to 
the non-scientist, especially in the areas of 
industry, ecology, health, and philosophy. 
Laboratory experiments are designed to offer a 
"hands-on" familiarity with the principles 
discussed in the lectures. The course is designed 
for students planning to complete only two 
courses in chemistry and who may have limited 
or no previous exposure to chemistry. Three 
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Jameson 

102 General Chemistry 

Review of principles studied in Chemistry 101 
and application to problems of current and 
historical interest. Demonstrations and 
laboratory experiments are designed to illustrate 
and complement the material discussed in class. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 101 or 111. Three lecture 
hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Messrs. Grzybowski and Jameson 

1 1 1 Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Study of atomic structure, theories of bonding, 
stoichiometric relationships, properties of 
solutions and gases, and elementary 
thermodynamics. The laboratory work covers 
quantitative relationships by employing 
titrimetric and gravimetric techniques. This 
course is designed for biology, chemistry, and 
physics majors and others with a secondary 
school background in chemistry and elementary 
mathematics. Course credit is not granted for 
both Chemistry 101 and 111. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Parker 

112 Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of reactions, 
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and theories of 
complex formation. Laboratory work includes 
kinetic studies, qualitative analysis, and the 
application of various instrumental procedures 
to quantitative analysis. Course credit is not 
granted for both Chemistry 102 and 112. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 111. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Fortnum 



Chemistry 

112H Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Designed as an honors seminar for the more 
capable first-year chemistry students. Kinetics, 
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and coordination 
chemistry are among the topics discussed. 
Laboratory work includes experiments in 
kinetics and equilibrium and the application of 
principles from lecture to a project of several 
weeks duration. Emphasis is placed on 
independent work with necessary guidance in 
both the seminar and the laboratory. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 101 or 111 and 
invitation of the Department. Two afternoons. 

Mr. Parker 

203 Organic Chemistry 

Study of the fundamental concepts of the 
chemistry of carbon compounds with emphasis 
on methods of preparation, reaction 
mechanisms, stereochemistry, and the 
application of spectroscopy to problems of 
identification. Prerequisite: Chemistry 112 or 
112A. Three lecture hours, one lab discussion 
hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

204 Organic Chemistry 

Study of the various classes of organic 
compounds, including substitutions in the 
aromatic nucleus, cylic compounds, and natural 
products such as amino acids, carbohydrates 
and peptides. Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. Three 
lecture hours, one lab discussion hour, and one 
laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

221 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy 

Study of the theories and applications of 
ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic 
resonance, and mass spectroscopy are 
discussed in relation to the import of these 
spectroscopic methods in the analysis of 
chemical systems. The scope and limitations of 
each type of spectroscopy are covered. Course 
work includes lectures, discussions, and 
laboratory sessions. The lab periods involve the 
use of spectrometers in the identification of 
organic compounds. Lecture work is 
supplemented by films, videotapes, and 
computer-assisted instructional programs. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 

Staff 



73 



Chemistry 



305 Physical Chemistry 

Study of the principles of thermodynamics and 
kinetic theory as applied to the states of matter, 
chemical reactions, equilibrium, the phase rule, 
and electrochemistry using lectures, readings, 
problems, discussions, and laboratory exercises. 
The computer is used as a tool for solving 
problems and for the reduction of experimental 
data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 112 or 112H, 
Physics 112, mathematics through calculus 
(usually Math 211). Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Fortnum 

306 Physical Chemistry 

Introduction to theories of chemical kinetics, 
quantum mechanics, and statistical 
thermodynamics and their applications to 
chemical systems through the use of problems, 
lectures, readings, discussions, laboratory 
investigations, and projects. The computer is 
used for modeling, simulations, and solving 
problems. Assignments are made so as to 
encourage the individual study of specific related 
physical chemical phenomena. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Fortnum 

317 Instrumental Analysis 

Study of chemical analysis by use of modern 
instruments. Topics include complex equilibria, 
electroanalytical methods, quantitative 
spectroscopy, chromatography, and Fourier 
transform methods. Analytical techniques will be 
studied from both a chemical and an instrument 
point of view. The laboratory will stress 
quantitative analytical procedures and 
laboratory preparations. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours and 
one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Grzybowski 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry 

Study of synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical 
concepts in organic chemistry. Particular 
emphasis is placed on the study of methods used 
to determine organic reaction mechanisms, 
stereospecific reactions, photochemistry, 
pericyclic reactions, and the design of multistep 
syntheses of complex molecules. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours. 

Mr. Jameson 



373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 

Study of valence bond, crystal field, and 
molecular orbital theories; boron chemistry; 
organometallic compounds; structural, kinetic, 
and mechanistic studies of coordination 
compounds. Group theory and symmetry are 
applied to various systems. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours. 

Mr. Parker 

390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Chemistry 

Designed to combine and expand upon the 
laboratory skills learned in the fundamental 
courses of the Freshman and Sophomore years. 
Numerous projects will be pursued in organic 
and inorganic chemistry, utilizing a combination 
of library skills (e.g. on-line computer 
searching), advanced laboratory skills (e.g. inert 
atmosphere techniques, modern separation 
methods, and advanced spectroscopic 
characterizations) and scientific writing skills. It 
is anticipated that this course will prepare a 
student for independent research in the Senior 
year. Prerequisite: Chemistry 221. 

Messrs. Grzybowski and Jameson 

462 Individualized Study: Research 

An independent investigation in an area of 
mutual interest to the student and a faculty 
director. The project normally includes a 
literature survey and a laboratory study. An oral 
report to staff and students and a final written 
thesis are required. A student wishing to enroll in 
this course should consult with the faculty 
director at least two weeks before the end of the 
semester preceding the semester in which this 
course is to be taken. Prerequisites: Chemistry 
390 and permission of the faculty director and 
approval of the chemistry department. Open to 
junior and senior chemistry majors. Offered both 
semesters. 

Staff 

473 Summer Research Internship 

A ten-week independent investigation in an area 
of mutual interest to the student and research 
director. The project normally includes a 
literature survey and a laboratory study. An oral 
report to staff and students and a final written 
thesis are required. A student wishing to enroll in 
this course should consult with a faculty member 
early in the spring semester. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 390 and permission of the research 
director and approval of the chemistry 
department. Open to junior chemistry majors. 

Staff 



74 



Classics 

Professor Pavlantos {Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Snively and Zabrowski 

Overview 

The courses offered are designed to acquaint the 
student with the language, literature, history, 
and civilization of Greece and Rome. These 
societies present a microcosm of all human 
experience. Fulfillment of the human potential in 
spite of adversities and threats to existence was 
the ultimate quest then as it is today. Learning 
how the founders of western civilization dealt 
with such conflicts as the aspirations of youth 
and the compromises of middle age, the claims 
of community and individual rights, the ecstasy 
of love, and the despair of loss can help us 
understand our own thoughts and emotions as 
we confront these age old problems and 
pressures. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, 
and Classical Studies. Required for all majors: 
CI. 121, CI. 122, CI. 400. Additional requirements: 
Latin Major: 7 courses in Latin including 

Lat. 312, beyond Lat. 102, 

Latin 251 
Greek Major: 7 courses in Greek beyond 

Gr. 102, Gr. 251 
Classical Studies 8 courses. The 202 level in 
Major: either Latin or Greek must 

be attained. 

In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201, 
202 or their equivalent is a prerequisite for all 
higher language courses. 

A minor consists of six courses in the 
department including two language courses. No 
more than two courses can be at the 100-level. 

Distribution Requirements 

Latin 201, 202 and Greek 201, 202 may be used to 
meet the College's language requirement. Latin 

203, 204, 303, 306, 308, 309, 311, 401, Greek 203, 

204, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306 and Classics 262, 264, 
266 may be used in fulfillment of the literature 
distribution requirement. Classics 121, 122, Latin 
251 and Greek 251 may be used to fulfill the 
College distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy and Latin 251 and Greek 251 
may be counted toward a major in history. 



Classics 

For prospective secondary school teachers the 
Department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Latin. 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of the Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium, Gettysburg, along with the other two 
member colleges— Dickinson and Franklin and 
Marshall— share membership in both the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens 
and the Intercollegiate Center for Classical 
Studies in Rome. 

Greek 

101. 102 Elementary Greek 

Introduction to the alphabet, inflections, and 
syntax of Attic Greek. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

201. 202 Intermediate Greek 

Designed to increase the student's skill in 
reading texts. Selections from Xenophon's 
Anabasis, some writers of the New Testament 
and other authors are read, with an emphasis on 
grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102 or its 
equivalent. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

203 Plato 

The Apology and Crito, with selections from 
other dialogues. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

204 New Testament Greek 

Introduction to Koine Greek. Selections from the 
New Testament are read with attention to their 
language and content. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

251 Greek History 

Survey of Hellenic civilization from the Bronze 
Age to the Hellenistic period. Papers required. A 
knowledge of Greek not required. Offered 
1988-89. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

301 Homer 

Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey with 
examination of syntax and style. Not offered 
every year. 

Staff 

302 Greek Historians 

Readings in the text of Herodotus or Thucydides. 
Not offered every year. 

Staff 



75 



Classics 



303 Greek Comedy 

An introduction to Greek drama. Selected 
comedies of Aristophanes are read with attention 
to style and metrics. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

304 Greek Tragedy 

Selected plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides. Various plays are also read in English. 
Oral reports required. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

306 Greek Oratory 

Selected orations of Demosthenes and Lysias. 
Not offered every year. 



Individualized Study 

Latin 

101. 102 Elementary Latin 

Introduction to Latin. 



Staff 



Staff 



Ms. Snively 



201, 202 Intermediate Latin 

Designed to increase the student's skill in 
reading texts. Selections from Latin prose and 
poetry are read, with continuing grammatical 
review and analysis. Prerequisite: two years of 
secondary school Latin or Latin 101, 102. 

Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose 

Selections from Roman prose writers and 
intensive review of grammar. Prerequisite: three 
or four years of secondary school Latin or Latin 
201,202. 

Ms. Snively 

204 Roman Poetry 

Extensive reading in Catullus, Ovid, and Horace 
with an examination of poetic forms other than 
epic. Prerequisite: three or four years of 
secondary school Latin or Latin 201, 202. 

Staff 

251 Roman History 

The history of the Republic and Empire. Papers 
required. A knowledge of Latin not required. 
Offered 1989-90. 

Ms. Snively 

303 Cicero 

Selected essays of Cicero, with supplemental 
reading from letters and orations. Supplemental 
reading in English. Not offered every year. 

Staff 



306 St. Augustine 

Selections from Confessions with attention to the 
differences between Late Latin and Classical 
Latin. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

308 Roman Satire 

Selections from Horace, Martial, and Juvenal 
with attention to the changes in language and 
style from the Classical to the Post Classical 
period. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

309 Roman Historians 

Selections from Livy and Tacitus with attention 
to their peculiarities of language and style. Not 
offered every year. 

Staff 



311 Lucretius 

Extensive reading in On the Nature of Things 
with attention to Lucretius' metrical forms, 
science, and philosophy. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

312 Prose Composition 

Designed to increase the student's ability to 
translate from English to Latin, includes a 
thorough grammar review. Not offered 
every year. 

Staff 

401 Vergil 

Study of Vergil's literary style, poetic genius, and 
humanity as seen in the Aeneid. Open to seniors 
and qualified juniors. Not offered every year. 

Staff 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Classical Studies 

121 Survey of Greek Civilization 

Survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc. 
of the Greek polis from its beginning to the 
conquest of Alexander with emphasis on Greek 
concepts which influenced western thought. 
Knowledge of Greek not required. 

Staff 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization 

Survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc. 
of Rome from its founding to the Council of Nicea 
with emphasis on the authority of the state and 
development of a system of law and government 
encompassing the whole Mediterranean. 
Knowledge of Latin not required. 

Ms. Snively 



76 



Classics I Computer Science 



230 Classical Mythology 

Survey of classical mythology with attention to 
the process of myth-making and the 
development of religion. No knowledge of Greek 
or Latin required. 

Ms. Snively 

262-266 Genre Literature 

An examination of the genre literature of Greece 
and Rome in translation. Selected works will be 
studied through analysis of form, structure, and 
content. No knowledge of Greek or Latin 
required. 

262 Ancient Epic 

Study of Homer, Apollonius of Rhodes, and 
Vergil. Offered 1990-91. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

264 Ancient Tragedy 

A study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and 
Seneca. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

266 Ancient Comedy 

A study of Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, and 
Terence. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

400 Senior Seminar 

Content will be determined each year by the 
senior class in consultation with the staff. 
Required of all majors. 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Staff 



Computer Science 

Professors Fortnum and Leinbach {Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Flesner, Magness, and 

K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors Karshner and Wijesinha 
Instructors Leslie and Mueller 

Overview 

The computer science curriculum enables a 
student to undertake a systematic study of that 
approach to problem solving wherein solutions 
are formulated using language representations 
and designs for implementation by algorithms 
operating on data structures within the 
environment of hardware. In the course of this 
study, the student develops the practice of clear 
thinking and logical reasoning while learning to 
analyze information processing tools and 
systems in various areas of application. The 
available courses cover a wide area of computer 
science and the related areas of hardware 
design, information systems, and mathematics. 
In addition, upper-division students may in 
collaboration with staff members, study topics 
not covered by the regular course offerings or be 
involved in on-going projects. 

The major in computer science is designed to 
give students a broad understanding of the 
principles underlying both the theoretical and 
application areas of the discipline. As such it 
provides a firm foundation for those intending to 
do graduate work or to pursue a career in 
computer science. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The major consists of nine courses which include 
a four course core, four computer science 
electives, and one applications course as 
described below. 

COMPUTER SCIENCE CORE: 

CS 105-106: Introduction to Problem Solving and 

Computer Programming I, II 
CS 216: Data Structures 
CS 221: Computer Organization and Assembly 

Language Programming 

COMPUTER SCIENCE ELECTIVES: 

CS 311: Design and Analysis of Algorithms 
CS 324: Principles of Operating Systems 
CS 341: A Survey of Programming Languages 
CS 360: Principles of Database Systems 
CS 371: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 



77 



Computer Science 



CS 373: Interactive Computer Graphics Systems 
CS 450: Individualized Study— Tutorial 
CS 460: Individualized Study— Research 
CS 470: Internship in Computer Science 
Math 371: Discrete Structures and the Theory 
of Computation 

COMPUTER SCIENCE APPLICATIONS COURSES: 
Management 247: Management Information 

Systems 
Math 366: Numerical Analysis 
Physics 241: Fundamentals of Microprocessors 

Prospective majors in computer science are 
required to complete successfully Math 111 and 
112; they are also strongly encouraged to take 
Physics 111 and 112. Moreover, students 
intending to do graduate work in computer 
science are advised to take Math 211 and 212; 
Math 351; Physics 240 and 241; and six computer 
science electives, including Math 371 and CS 311. 

A minor in computer science consists of six 
courses which include the core and two 
computer science electives. 

Facilities 

The Academic Computing Center maintains a 
Burroughs 5920 computer. This computer 
supports several programming languages and 
applications packages. Approximately 90 
terminals distributed in computing clusters, 
academic departments, and faculty offices are 
attached to this computer. Also available for 
student use with this machine are a high speed 
line printer, letter quality output devices, 
graphics terminals, and plotters. This facility is 
available 24 hours a day during the academic 
year. 

The Academic Computer Center and Computer 
Science each maintain Microcomputer 
Laboratories which include over 50 
microcomputers and several output devices. The 
microcomputers include both APPLE and IBM- 
compatible architectures. An extensive library of 
popular word processing, spread sheet, data 
base, and applications software is available for 
student use. The microcomputer facilities are 
open a minimum of 70 hours per week in addition 
to their use for instruction. 

Computer Science also maintains a UNIX-based 
multi-user system for use by students studying 
operating systems and computer architecture as 
well as those doing independent research 



projects. This machine is located in the Computer 
Science area and is completely maintained by 
students. 

105-106 Introduction to Problem Solving and 
Computer Programming I, II 

An introduction to computer science with an 
emphasis on problem solving methodology and 
algorithms. The first course includes structured 
programming, control structures, functions, and 
procedures, files, arrays, and records. The 
second course includes advanced programming 
topics, elementary data structures, machine 
language programming, and some elements of 
computer organization. 

Staff 

216 Data Structures 

An introduction to the major data structures and 
some of their applications. Topics include linear 
lists, sets, queues, stacks, linked lists, string 
processing, trees, graphs, arrays, tables, files, 
and dynamic memory management. Prerequisite: 
Computer Science 106. 

Messrs. Flesner, Leinbach, and Wijesinha 

221 Computer Organization and Assembly 
Language Programming 

Programming at the machine level with an 
emphasis on the logical connection of the basic 
components of the computer and systems 
programs. Topics include machine and assembly 
language programming, basic computer 
operations, hardware organization, systems 
software, and compilers. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 106. 

Messrs. Leinbach and Wijesinha 

31 1 Design and Analysis of Algorithms 

A survey of the basic principles and techniques 
for the development of good algorithms. 
Emphasis is placed on individual development of 
algorithms and an analysis of the results in 
terms of usefulness, efficiency, and organization. 
Topics include design techniques, worst case 
and average case analysis, searching, sorting, 
branch and bound, spanning trees, reachability, 
combinatorial methods, and NP-hard problems. 
Prerequisites: Math 112, Computer Science 216. 
Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Messrs. Leinbach and Wijesinha 

324 Principles of Operating Systems 

A study of the fundamental concepts of 
operating systems. Topics include sequential 
processes, concurrent processes, processor 
management, memory management, scheduling 
algorithms and computer security. Projects will 



78 



Computer Science / Economics 



include the writing of a program to simulate the 
major components of an operating system. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 1988-89. 

Messrs. Lei n bach and Wijesinha 

341 A Survey of Programming Languages 

A study of the fundamental concepts in the 
design of programming languages. These 
concepts include variables, expressions, typing, 
scope, procedures, data types, exception 
handling, and concurrency. Particular 
programming languages will be used as 
examples of different ways for implementing 
these concepts. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Messrs. Lei n bach and Wijesinha 

360 Principles of Database Systems 

A study of the fundamental concepts of database 
systems. Topics include the physical 
organization of databases, indexing techniques, 
and query processing. Particular models to be 
studied include the Entity-Relationship, 
Relational, Network, and Hierarchical Models. 
Class projects will stress the design and 
implementation of a database. Prerequisite: 
Computer Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 
1988-89. 

Messrs. Leinbach and Wijesinha 

371 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 

A study of the process of having machines mimic 
human behavior. Topics include search 
heuristics, knowledge representation, logic, 
natural language processing, rule-based 
systems, and robotics. Appropriate programming 
languages will be used to implement projects. 
Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate 
years. Offered 1988-89. 

Messrs. Leinbach and Wijesinha 

373 Interactive Computer Graphics Systems 

An introduction to the methods and issues of 
constructing interactive graphics packages. 
Topics include graphics input and output 
devices, scan conversion of lines, circles, and 
polygons, clipping, polygon filling, graphics 
primatives, and two and three dimensional 
image processing. Proper interactive sequencing 
is stressed and students will construct a small 
interactive graphics package. Prerequisite: 
Computer Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 
1989-90. 

Mr. Leinbach 



450 Individualized Study: Tutorial 

Study through individualized reading and 
projects of an advanced area of computer 
science by well-qualified students under the 
supervision of a staff member. Possible areas of 
study are software engineering, compiler design, 
expert systems, parallel architecture, image 
processing, or topics in the current literature 
which are of mutual interest to the student and 
the supervising staff member. Prerequisites: 
Computer Science 216 and permission of the 
computer science faculty. 

460 Individualized Study: Research 

Intensive study of a selected topic in computer 
science or a related area by carrying out a 
research project in collaboration with a staff 
member. Prerequisites: Computer Science 216 
and permission of the computer science faculty. 

470 Internship in Computer Science 

Completion of a significant project in computer 
science within an industrial setting, government 
department, or research institute. The project 
must receive prior authorization from a staff 
member, and requires the submission of a 
satisfactory written report upon completion. 
Prerequisites: Computer Science 216 and 
permission of the computer science faculty. 



Economics 

Professor W. F. Railing 

Associate Professors Fender {Chairperson), 

Gemmill, Gondwe, Griffith, Hill, and K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors Fletcher and Kallon 
Adjunct Professor Townsend 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become 
increasingly important for effective participation 
in a complex society. The Department's courses 
present this knowledge, in both historical and 
contemporary contexts, with a focus on 
developing the relevant economic theory and 
identifying, understanding, analyzing, and 
solving social problems. As a social science, 
economics studies how societies organize and 
make decisions for using scarce resources to 
produce and distribute goods and services 
domestically and internationally. Economists 
examine both macro-economic and micro- 
economic problems and consider the 
implications of alternative solutions for 
efficiency, fairness, and growth. Courses in the 



79 



Economics 



department stress the critical thinking skills of a 
liberally educated person: gathering of pertinent 
information, analysis, synthesis, and ability to 
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives. 
However delightful the study of economics for 
the sake of individual understanding, the 
Department also stresses effective oral and 
written communication of the insights achieved 
through study of the discipline. 

In addition to courses in economics, the 
Department also offers courses in introductory 
and intermediate applied statistics and in 
geography. 

The Department's courses are designed to meet 
the College's liberal arts objectives while also 
serving well students who intend to (1) pursue 
graduate study in economics; (2) enter graduate 
professional schools in business administration, 
law, and related areas; (3) pursue careers in 
business, non-profit private organizations, or 
government. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Department requires its majors to take a 
minimum of ten courses: Economics 103-104, 
Management 153, Economics 241, 243, 245, and 
333, and three courses chosen from the 
following: Economics 242, 301, 302, 303, 305, 324, 
325-335, 336, 337, 338, 351, and 352. A student 
may take Mathematics 351-352 in lieu of 
Economics 241-242; both semesters of the 
Mathematics sequence must be completed for 
mathematical statistics to substitute for the 
departmental statistics requirement (Economics 
241). Much, but not all, of the material covered in 
such applied statistics courses as Mathematics 
107, Psychology 205, and Sociology 303 
duplicates that in Economics 241; therefore, 
credit will not be given for more than one of 
these courses. The research methodology basic 
to economics is covered in Economics 241 and 
242; therefore, those students taking one of the 
other applied statistics courses before deciding 
to become an economics major may be required 
to take Economics 242 as well. 

Because of the importance of mathematical 
modelling and statistical testing to the 
application of economics, majors in economics 
are required to demonstrate achievement in 
Mathematics equivalent to one term of calculus. 
This requirement can be satisfied by taking 
Mathematics 105, Mathematics 111, or via 
exemption by examination. The Department 



strongly encourages students who have an 
interest in majoring in Economics to complete 
this mathematics requirement during the first 
year because several 200-level courses have a 
calculus prerequisite. 

A student planning to pursue graduate study in 
economics is encouraged to take Mathematics 
105-106 or Mathematics 111-112 and 
Mathematics 211-212, and Economics 351-352. 

The computer has become an important tool in 
economic analysis. Therefore, the Department 
strongly recommends that its majors take a 
course or courses dealing with the use of the 
computer from among Computer Science 105 or 
211, Management 247. 

The Department offers a minor in Economics, 
which a student can complete by taking 
Economics 103-104, two courses from the 
Department's 200-level offerings, and two 
courses from the 300-level offerings. 
Additionally, a student minoring in Economics 
must demonstrate the same achievement in 
mathematics as required of majors, and must 
achieve a grade point average of 2.0 in courses 
counted toward the minor. 

Economics 103-104 are prerequisites for all 
upper-level courses in the Department except for 
Geography 310 and Geography 320. Under special 
circumstances and upon student application, the 
prerequisites for a course may be waived by the 
instructor. 

The Departmental brochure, entitled HANDBOOK 
FOR MAJORS, contains additional information 
about the Department. Students interested in 
studying economics are urged to obtain a copy 
from the Departmental office. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs 

The Department values intensive and 
independent work by its majors, as well as 
interaction with peers and faculty on topics of 
interest to economists. To encourage and 
recognize high quality work, the Department 
offers Departmental Honors to students who (1) 
satisfactorily complete Economics 400, including 
the Honors Project, during the senior year, and 
(2) earn an acceptable overall and Departmental 
grade point average. Students also can 
undertake Individualized Study. 

Internships involving the application of 
economics are available to qualified students. 



Economics 



Those persons desiring more information should 
contact Dr. Railing. Gettysburg College also 
recognizes the Washington Economic Policy 
Semester at The American University, a program 
that involves both classroom study and an 
internship in Washington, D.C. Page 47 of this 
catalogue contains more information about the 
program; interested students should contact Dr. 
Railing in the spring semester of their sophomore 
year. Several foreign study programs are 
especially interesting for economics students: 
information on these is available from the 
department. 

Distribution Requirements 

A student may satisfy the College distribution 
requirement in social sciences by successfully 
completing Economics 103, 104, and may satisfy 
the non-western culture requirement with 
Economics 338. 

103-104 Principles of Microeconomics- 
Principles of Macroeconomics 

Gives students a general understanding of 
economic systems and economic analysis, with 
emphasis on the operation of the U.S. economy. 
Topics covered in 103 include the price system, 
theory of consumer behavior, theory of 
production, theory of the firm, income 
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro 
aspects of international trade. In the second 
term, topics covered include national income, 
accounting, employment, inflation, monetary and 
fiscal policies, aggregate demand and supply 
analysis, economic growth, and the monetary 
aspect of international economics and 
comparative economic systems. 

Staff 

241 Introductory Economic and Business Statistics 

The nomenclature of descriptive statistics, 
probabilities using the normal, binomial, Poisson 
distributions, the Tchebycheff inequality, 
Chi-square, sampling, estimation of parameters, 
hypothesis testing, linear regression, and 
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104, 
and one of the following: Mathematics 105, 111, 
or the equivalent. Please note that a student 
may not receive credit for both this course 
and Mathematics 107, Psychology 205, or 
Sociology 303. 

Messrs. Hill and Niiro 



242 Intermediate Economic and Business Statistics 

Advanced Statistical Theory applicable to 
economics and business problems. Topics 
included are non-linear regression and 
correlation and the use of transformations; 
multivariate techniques and analysis; Chi-square 
applications; variance analysis; index numbers 
and their use; and time series. Prerequisite: 
Economics 241. 

Mr. Hill 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory 

Further study of classical, neoclassical, 
Keynesian and post-Keynesian economics 
focusing on, along with national income 
accounting, the various theories and policies 
which deal with the generation and maintenance 
of full employment and a stable price level. The 
causes and cures of unemployment and inflation 
are also analyzed. Offered both semesters. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104 and 
Mathematics 101 or its equivalent. 

Messrs. Gondwe and Kallon 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory 

Uses the methodological tools of economics to 
examine consumer and producer behavior and 
economic behavior under different input and 
output market structures, and to analyze the 
implications of such behavior for general 
equilibrium and economic welfare. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103-104, and one of the following: 
Mathematics 105, 111, or the equivalent. 

Ms. Fender and Mr. Griffith 

301 Labor Economics 

Theoretical and empirical study of the 
functioning of labor markets with emphasis on 
wage and employment determination. Topics 
include impacts of legislation, unions, education, 
and imperfect markets; time allocation, 
economics of fertility, wage differences, and 
discrimination; labor relations, collective 
bargaining, and the Phillips curve. Prerequisite: 
Economics 103-104. Recommended: Economics 
245 and Economics 241. 

Ms. Fletcher 

302 Gender Issues in Economics 

An application of microeconomic theory to 
gender issues in our economy. The course will 
explore demographic issues such as fertility and 
divorce, consider the effect of the tax structure 
and other public policies on gender differences in 
labor force participation over time, and examine 
alternative economic paradigms for explaining 
gender discrimination in our society. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104, 



81 



Economics 

Recommended: Economics 245. 



Ms. Fletcher 



303 Money and Banking 

An examination of the role of money, credit, and 
financial institutions in the determination of 
price and income levels. Coverage includes the 
commercial banking system, the Federal Reserve 
System, monetary theory, and the art of 
monetary policy. Emphasis is placed upon 
evaluation of current theory and practice in the 
American economy. Prerequisite: Economics 103- 
104. Recommended: Economics 243. 

Mr. Gemmill 

305 Public Finance 

Concerned with the principles, techniques, and 
effects of government obtaining and spending 
funds and managing government debt. Nature, 
growth, and amount of expenditures of all levels 
of government in the United States are 
considered, along with the numerous types of 
taxes employed by the various levels of 
government to finance their activities. 
Government debt is also considered. 
Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. 

Mr. W. F. Railing 

324 Comparative Economic Systems 

Concerned with a comparative analysis of free 
enterprise economies, centrally planned 
economies, and mixed economies. Primary 
attention is given to the economic aspects and 
institutions of these economic systems, but the 
political, philosophical, and historical aspects 
are also considered. Prerequisite: Economics 
103-104. 

Mr. W. F. Railing 

325-335 Regional Economic History, Growth, and 
Development Seminar 

An intensive examination of one region, using 
the framework of economic analysis and 
political economy to consider economic history, 
growth, and development within the appropriate 
region. Although economic theory provides the 
primary paradigm within which these regions are 
studied, consideration also will be given to the 
historical events that conditioned the economic 
outcomes. Each course will review the pertinent 
theory and focus on application of that theory to 
specific historical events seeking to determine 
the relevance of the theory to our understanding 
of past and present economic conditions. Four 
regions will be studied, one in each of the 
courses: Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, and 
Canada/U.S. 

Messrs. Gondwe, Griffith, Niiro; Ms. Fender 



333 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

A study of the development of economic ideas 
and policies in relation to major forms of social, 
political, and economic problems. Emphasis is 
placed on major contributions to economic 
thought from Plato to Keynes. Prerequisite: 
Economics 103-104. Recommended: Economics 
243, 245. 

Mr. Gondwe 

336 International Economics 

Covers comparative advantage, commercial 
policy, economic integration, balance of 
payments, exchange rates and international 
monetary systems. Prerequisite: Economics 
103-104. 

Messrs. Griffith and Kallon 

337 Introduction to Political Economy 

This course examines the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribution of 
Third World peoples and minorities in the United 
States to the process and continued growth of 
capitalist development. It also examines current 
economic, social, and political issues as they 
relate to, and affect, Third World peoples. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104. 

Messrs. Gondwe and Griffith 

338 Economic Development 

An examination of the economic and non- 
economic factors accounting for the economic 
growth and development of less-developed areas 
of the world. Various theories of economic and 
social growth and development will be analyzed, 
and major policy issues will be discussed. 
Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. Satisfies 
distribution requirement in non-western culture. 

Mr. Gondwe 

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics 
and Business 

An introduction to the application of calculus and 
matrix algebra in economics and business. 
Numerous illustrations of mathematically 
formulated economic models are used to 
integrate mathematical methods with economic 
and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics 
243, 245, and Mathematics 105-106 or 
Mathematics 111-112 and 211-212. 

Mr. Niiro 

352 Introduction to Econometrics 

An introduction to the application of 
mathematical economic theory and statistical 
procedures to economic data. Coverage includes 
the development of appropriate techniques for 
measuring economic relationships specified by 
economic models and testing of economic 



82 



theorems. Prerequisites: Economics 243, 245, 
Mathematics 105-106 or Mathematics 111-112 and 
211-212, and Economics 242, or Mathematics 358. 

Mr. Niiro 

400 Senior Seminar 

Involves study of research methodology and 
application of economic theory to contemporary 
problems in economics. Students prepare and 
discuss research papers on topics in economics. 
Seniors must take this course to qualify for 
Departmental Honors. 

Ms. Fender 

Individualized Study 

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well- 
qualified students through individual reading and 
research, under the supervision of a member of 
the Department's faculty. A student wishing to 
pursue independent study must present a 
proposal at least one month before the end of the 
semester preceding the semester in which the 
independent study is to be undertaken. 
Prerequisites: Permission of the supervising 
faculty member and the Department Chairperson. 
Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

Geography 

310 Cultural. Social, and Physical Geography 
(World Regional Geography) 

A regional approach in the study of the various 
elements that make up the atmosphere, the 
hydrosphere, and the lithosphere and how the 
forces of the interrelationships develop the 
physical environment in first half of course and in 
the second half a systematic regional study of the 
superimposed cultural, social, and economic 
developments and how they evolved in response 
to the limitations imposed by the existence of 
varied environments. This course is designed to 
satisfy the geography requirements for students 
whose objective is teaching in the public schools. 

Mr. Hill 

320 Geography of North America 

Study of North America based on a regional 
approach which is partly physiographic, climatic, 
cultural, economic and political. The sequence of 
study for each region emphasizes the climate, the 
physical structure and landscape which is 
followed by the superimposed economic and 
political developments. Lastly, each region is 
discussed as to the potential possibilities and 
habitable earth. Opportunities for special 
assignments will be given to students. 
Prerequisites: History 131, 132 or Economics 
103-104. 

Mr. Hill 



Economics / Education 

Individualized Study 

(See description following Economics 400) 



Education 

Associate Professors J. T. Held, Packard, 

and Slaybaugh (Chairperson) 
Adjunct Professor Curtis 
Adjunct Instructors Burkholder and 

S. Van Arsdale 

The purposes of the teacher education programs 
are to give the student a thorough background in 
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts 
of instruction, and to provide an opportunity for 
student teaching. 

The Education Department works cooperatively 
with all other departments in the preparation of 
teachers in secondary education, elementary 
education, music education, and health and 
physical education. Students interested in 
pursuing one of these programs will need to 
study carefully the teacher education programs 
on pages 39 to 43. 

201 Educational Psychology 

Study of the development of psychological 
principles of learning, pupil evaluation, and the 
statistics necessary for analyzing test data. 
Repeated in the spring semester. Psychology 101 
recommended as background. 

Staff 

209 Social Foundations of Education 

Study of the professional aspects of teaching, 
the relation of schools to society, the 
organization of state and local school systems, 
the impact of national programs on education, 
including Supreme Court decisions. Sophomore 
course for all secondary and music education 
students. Repeated in the spring semester. 
Includes a unit on computer literacy. 

Messrs. Curtis and Packard 

303 Educational Purposes. Methods, and Educational 
Media: Secondary 

The function of schools in a democracy. 
Emphasis is placed on methods and techniques 
of the teaching-learning process and classroom 
management in secondary schools. The 
underlying principles and techniques involved in 
the use of teaching materials and sensory aids 
are studied. Includes a unit on reading. 
Prerequisites: Education 201 and 209. Repeated in 
the spring semester. 

Mr. J. T. Held 



83 



Education 



304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject 

Secondary subjects including biology, chemistry, 
physics, English, French, Spanish, German, 
Latin, mathematics, health and physical 
education, and social studies. This course is 
taught by a staff member of each department 
having students in the Education Semester. 
Included is a study of the methods and materials 
applicable to the teaching of each subject and 
the appropriate curricular organization. 
Prerequisite: Consent of the major department. 
Repeated in the spring semester. 

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and Instructional 
Media in Social Studies, Art, and Music 

Applying principles of learning and human 
development to teaching social studies in the 
elementary school. Included is the correlation of 
art and music with the teaching of the social 
sciences. A field-based program in an 
elementary classroom and weekly seminars. 
Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, 331, 370, Math 
180. Repeated in the spring semester. Elementary 
education students enroll for this course during 
the Education Semester. 

Ms. Van Arsdale 

331 Foundations of Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts 

An introduction to the theory and problems in 
developmental reading instruction and the 
language arts. Current trends relating to 
recognition of these problems and appropriate 
aids are studied. Designed for elementary and 
secondary teachers. Prerequisite: Education 201. 
Fall semester only. 

Mr. Slaybaugh 

334 Corrective Reading 

A study of the analysis and correction of reading 
disabilities. Survey of tests and materials 
including children's literature as an incentive to 
greater interest in reading are included along 
with a reading internship in the public schools 
under the guidance of a reading teacher. 
Diagnosis and remedial tutoring of school pupils 
who are having reading problems is provided. 
Elementary education students enroll for this 
course during the Education semester. 
Prerequisite: Education 331. Repeated in the 
spring semester. 

Mr. Slaybaugh 

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes, Methods, 
and Instructional Media 

Scientific principles for mastery by the 



elementary pupil in connection with appropriate 
experimental procedures; lecture, demonstration 
classes, and instructional media designed to give 
the prospective teacher a thorough background 
in elementary school science. Prerequisite: 
Education 201. Spring semester only. 

Mr. Slaybaugh 

411 Internship in Teaching Composition 

A teaching internship in a section of English 101. 
Under the supervision of the instructor in that 
section, the intern will attend classes, prepare 
and teach selected classes, counsel students on 
their written work, and give students' papers a 
first reading and a preliminary evaluation. All 
interns will meet regularly with members of the 
English Department to discuss methods of 
teaching composition and to analyze the 
classroom experience. Required of all majors in 
English planning to enroll in the Secondary 
Education Program. Students should register for 
Education 411 in the semester prior to their 
Education semester. 

English Department Staff 

461 Individualized Study— Research 

Offered both semesters. 

471 Individualized Study— Internship 

Offered both semesters. 

475 Student Teaching— Elementary 

Student observation, participation, and teaching 
in the elementary grades under supervision of an 
experienced teacher. Group and individual 
conferences are held for discussion of principles 
and problems. The student will spend the full day 
for 12 weeks in the elementary classroom. This 
course carries two course credits. Prerequisites: 
Education 201, 209, 331, 370, and Mathematics 
180. Repeated in the spring semester. 

Ms. Van Arsdale and Staff 

477 Student Teaching— Secondary 

Student observation, participation, and teaching 
on the secondary school level under supervision 
of an experienced teacher. Group and individual 
conferences are held for discussion of principles 
and problems. Twelve weeks of full-time student 
teaching. This course carries two course credits. 
Prerequisites: Education 201, 209. Repeated in the 
spring semester. 

Mr. J. T. Held 

Basic Concepts of Elementary Mathematics, 
Mathematics 180, is listed under the 
Mathematics Department. 



84 



English 

Professors E. J. Baskerville (Chairperson), 

Clarke, Fredrickson, J. Myers, Pickering, 

Schmidt, Stewart, and Stitt 
Associate Professor Stavropoulos 
Assistant Professors M. Baskerville, Berg, 

Garnett, Goldberg, Hanson, Lambert, 

Srebrnik, and Winans 
Adjunct Instructors Beedle, Dooley, Hartzell, 

and Showalter 

Overview 

The courses offered by the Department are 
designed to train students to express their 
thoughts clearly and effectively through spoken 
and written language and to understand, 
interpret, and assimilate the thoughts and 
experiences of the great writers of English and 
American literature. English is excellent 
preparation for careers in business, teaching, 
law, publishing, journalism, and government 
service and for graduate study leading to 
advanced degrees in English, the ministry, and 
library science. 

The courses in Theatre and Drama offered by the 
Department are designed to train students to 
conceive of the theatrical event as a unity, 
joining its literary and historical values with 
means of expression in production, 
demonstrating the relationship of acting, 
directing, and design with the efforts of 
playwrights both past and present. The study of 
Theatre Arts prepares students for careers in the 
theatre, television, radio, arts administration, 
teaching, and business. 

The Department offers a major in English and 
American literature and a major in theatre arts. 
The Department also offers a minor program in 
each field. 

The Department believes that a well-balanced 
program for a major in English and American 
literature should include (1) knowledge of the 
literary history of England and America; (2) 
training in the application of the techniques of 
literary analysis and the different critical 
approaches to literature; (3) knowledge of the 
characteristics and development of the major 
literary forms or genres; (4) study in depth of the 
work of one author of significance; (5) some 
knowledge of the history of the English language 
and of English as a system. 

The Department also believes that a well- 



English 

balanced program for a major in Theatre Arts 
should include (1) knowledge of the history of 
the theatre from primitive man to the present; (2) 
training in and application of the various 
performance areas of theatre; (3) knowledge of 
the characteristics and development of the 
literary genre known as drama; (4) the 
development of a play from the initial script to 
actual performance. 

The Writing Center 

The Writing Center, staffed by several English 
Department faculty members and specially 
trained Gettysburg College students, is a 
valuable college resource. The Center's staff 
assists students with their writing in the 
following ways: 

— Discusses an assignment in order to clarify 
it or to plan a method of approach 

— Helps in organizing a paper or other piece 
of writing such as letters of application 

— Suggests ways to make troublesome parts 
of a paper more effective 

— Shows ways to correct recurring 
grammatical errors 

The Writing Center is open six days a week. 
There is no charge for this service. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Major in Literature The requirements for the 
major in literature are twelve courses in English 
and American language and literature in addition 
to the first semester of Literary Foundations of 
Western Culture (IDS 103). All majors in literature 
are required to take English 151, 152, 153 and IDS 
103. In addition, to obtain the desired distribution 
of courses, majors must elect the specified 
number of courses from each of the following 
categories: 

I. English Language (1 course): English 208, 
209, 210 

II. English Literary History (2 courses from 
Group A; 2 courses from Group B): 

A. English 331, 334, 337, 338 
B.English 341, 342, 345, 346 

III. American Literary History (1 course): English 
318, 319, 320 

IV. Major Authors (1 course): English 362, 365, 
366, or any seminar devoted to a British or 
American author considered by the 
Department to be of major importance. 

V. Electives (2 courses): English 218, 219, 225, 
323,324.328.329.351,352 



English 



English 101, 110, 201, 203, 205, 206, 305, and 
courses in speech may not be used to fulfill the 
Department's major requirements. Courses in 
theatre arts count only toward the Theatre Arts 
major. 

The Minor in Literature The requirements for the 
minor in literature are six courses. All minors 
must take English 151, 152, and at least three 
courses on the three-hundred level. Writing 
courses, with the exception of English 101, may 
be used to fulfill the Department's minor 
requirements. No more than two courses may be 
at the 100-level. 

The Major in Theatre Arts In addition to English 
151, 152, and IDS 103, majors with a concen- 
tration in theatre arts must take Theatre Arts 105 
and either 203 or 204. They must also elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following categories: 

I. Theatre Arts (3 courses): 1 course from each 
of the following groups: 

A. (Acting) 120, 220, 320 

B. (Design) 115, 155, 255, 355 
C. (Directing) 182, 282,382 

II. Drama (3 courses): English 225, 328, 329, 
365, 366 

III. Electives (2 courses): Any of the theatre arts 
and drama courses listed above and/or 
Theatre Arts 222, 252. 

The Minor in Theatre Arts The requirements for 
the minor in theatre arts are six courses: Theatre 
Arts 105, Theatre Arts 203 or 204; one course in 
Drama (English 225, 328, 329, 365, 366); 2 studio 
courses (Theatre Arts 115, 120, 155, 182, 220, 255, 
282, 320, 355, 382); one course in theatre arts or 
drama (any of the above listed theatre arts or 
drama courses plus Theatre Arts 252). No more 
than two courses may be at the 100-level. 

Elementary and Secondary Education The major 
for students enrolled in the elementary education 
program consists of ten courses, including 
English 151, 152, 153, in addition to the first term 
of Literary Foundations of Western Culture (IDS 
103). Working with the head of the English 
Department, each elementary education student 
designs a major program, following as closely as 
possible the Department's distribution 
requirement. Students planning to teach English 
in the secondary schools are required to take 
English 208 or 209 and either 365 or 366. Speech 
101 is recommended. The Department cooperates 
in offering Education 304, Techniques of 



Teaching and Curriculum of Secondary English, 
and Education 411, Internship in Teaching 
Composition. 

History 131, 132, 203, 204 and Philosophy 203, 

204, 211, 220 are strongly recommended for 
majors. Students planning to do graduate work 
in English should develop proficiency in Latin, 
French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variety 
of fields, such as journalism, law, public 
relations, publishing, radio and television. 
Theatre Arts majors may take internships in 
theatre, radio, television, public relations and 
arts administration. Students who wish to apply 
for internships must secure from their advisers a 
statement of the Department's policy regarding 
application deadline, form of proposal, 
requirements, and grading. 

Distribution Requirements 

All courses offered by the Department, except 
English 101, 201, 203, 205, 206, 208, 209, 305 and 
courses in speech and theatre arts, may be used 
to fulfill the College distribution requirement in 
literature. All Theatre Arts courses and English 

205, 206 may be used to fulfill the College 
distribution requirement in arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors who have shown special promise 
in English will be invited to complete a thesis 
and seminar sequence during their senior year. 
Students taking the program will write a thesis 
during the fall semester under the direction of a 
member of the Department. During the spring 
semester they will participate in an Honors 
Seminar under the direction of the Program 
Director. Only students selected for and 
successfully completing the program will be 
eligible to receive Honors in English. For details 
of the Program, consult the brochure available in 
the English Department. 

101 English Composition 

Aims to develop the students' ability to express 
themselves in clear, accurate, and thoughtful 
English prose. Not limited to freshmen. Repeated 
spring semester. 

Staff 



86 



English 



110 The Interpretation of Literature 

An intensive study of the dominant literary 
types: short story, novel, poem, and drama. The 
course attempts to stimulate a valid appreciation 
and judgment of literature through precise 
critical analysis of selected works truly 
representative of major literary forms. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in literature. Open only 
to freshmen and a limited number of 
sophomores. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

151. 152 Survey of English Literature 

A historical survey of English literature from 
Beowulf to Joyce and Yeats in the twentieth 
century, with some attention to the social, 
political, and intellectual background. Selected 
works will be analyzed in class to familiarize 
students with the techniques of analysis, and 
students will write several short critical papers 
each semester. 

Staff 

153 Survey of American Literature 

A chronological study of American writing from 
colonial days to Emily Dickinson. Primary 
emphasis falls on the Puritans and the American 
Romantics. Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 

154 Modern American Literature 

A survey of American literature from Robinson 
and James to the present. Major figures will 
include Frost, Eliot, Williams, Stevens, Dreiser, 
Fitzgerald, Hemingway, Faulkner, and selected 
contemporary writers. Designed for students not 
majoring in English. 

Staff 

201 Advanced Expository Writing 

An intensive course in advanced rhetorical 
techniques, with particular emphasis on analysis 
of evidence, selection of appropriate style, and 
importance of revision. 

Ms. Stavropoulos and Mr. Pickering 

203 Journalism 

A general introduction to journalism. Students 
can expect to spend their time practicing the 
techniques of writing news copy, feature, sports, 
and editorial articles; composing headlines; 
doing make-up; and working at copy reading and 
rewrite. 

Mr. Baskerville 



205. 206 The Writing of Fiction. Poetry, and Drama 

A workshop in the writing of short stories, verse, 
and plays, with an analysis of models. Either 
course may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in arts. 

Mr. Clarke 

208 Introduction to Linguistics 

Studies the three best-known analyses of English 
grammar: traditional, structural, and generative. 
The theories of grammar and the varying 
attitudes toward language make students aware 
that language in itself is an appropriate object of 
study. 

Ms. Hartzell 

209 History of the English Language 

Provides a historical understanding of the 
vocabulary, forms, and sounds of the language 
from the Anglo-Saxon or Old English period to 
the twentieth century. 

Mr. Baskerville 

210 Theories of Literature 

Undertakes to examine and compare the various 
ways in which literature has been regarded: its 
sources, forms, and purposes. The history of 
critical theory is surveyed, from Plato and 
Aristotle to the present, with emphasis upon the 
modern period and such movements as New 
Criticism, structuralism, deconstruction, and 
feminist criticism. The goal of the course is to 
make students aware of themselves as readers. 

Ms. Berg 

218. 219 The English Novel 

A study of the form and content of the English 
novel as the genre developed in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. English 218 
concentrates on the eighteenth century and 
focuses on novels by Richardson, Fielding, 
Smollett, Sterne, and Austen. Offered 1988-89. 
English 219 is devoted to the nineteenth century 
and includes novels by Scott, Dickens, Eliot, 
Hardy, and others. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Pickering 

225 The Drama of Shakespeare's Contemporaries 

A study, after some attention to the beginnings 
of drama in the Middle Ages, of some of 
Shakespeare's contemporaries, including Kyd, 
Marlowe, Jonson, Tourneur, and Webster, among 
others, to assess their importance in the 
development of English drama. 

Ms. Hertzbach 



87 



English 



226 Introduction to Shakespeare 

A course that endeavors to communicate an 
awareness of Shakespeare's evolution as a 
dramatist and of his importance in the 
development of Western literature and thought. 
Designed for students not majoring in English. 

Mr. Myers 

231 to 260 Studies in Literature 

An intensive study of a single writer, group, 
movement, theme, or period. May be counted 
toward the major. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in literature. Open to freshmen. 

Staff 

305 The Writing of Poetry and Short Fiction: Advanced 

A course open to students who have 
demonstrated that their skills in the writing of 
poetry and fiction might be further developed. 
The goal of each student will be the composition 
of a group of poems or short stories. 
Prerequisite: English 205, 206. 

Mr. Clarke 

318 American Prose of the Colonial and 
Romantic Periods 

A study of the fiction, essays, journals, and 
autobiography written by major American 
writers from the early days to 1860. Although 
Puritan and 18th Century prose will be covered, 
emphasis will be on the masterworks of the 
American Romantics: Cooper, Poe, Emerson, 
Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

319 American Realism 

A study which concentrates on fiction by major 
American writers between 1860 and the early 
Twentieth century. Twain, Howells, James, and 
Crane will receive major emphasis. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

320 American Poetry 

A study of the development of American Poetry 
from 1620 to 1945. Though other writers will be 
studied, emphasis will be placed upon Taylor, 
Whitman, Dickinson, Frost, Eliot, and Stevens. 

Mr. Stitt 

323, 324 Twentieth Century Fiction 

A study of the form and content of a 
representative selection of English and American 
novels and, occasionally, short stories written 
between 1900 and the present. Some 
consideration will be given to the social and 
intellectual context. English 323, devoted to the 
fiction of 1900 to 1940, examines works by 
Conrad, Joyce, Woolf, Lawrence, Hemingway, 



Faulkner, and others. English 324 is devoted to 
fiction from 1940 to the present, and includes 
Updike, Nabokov, Bellow, Pynchon, Cary, 
Fowles, and others. 

Messrs. Garnett and Fredrickson 

328. 329 Twentieth Century Drama 

A study of major dramatists from Ibsen to the 
present and of dramatic movements such as 
realism, naturalism, expressionism, as well as 
Theatre of the Absurd. The first semester 
includes Ibsen, Strindberg, Chekhov, O'Neill, and 
others; the second semester begins after World 
War II and includes Williams, Miller, Osborne, 
Pinter, Beckett, lonesco, Genet, and others. 
Alternate years. 

Mr. Schmidt 

331 Mediaeval Literature 

Sketches the development of Western literature 
from the Patristic Age through the Carolingian 
revival and then concentrates on selected topics 
and themes explored in the literature of the High 
Middle Ages. Anglo-Saxon poetry, Arthurian 
romance, the Tristan and Isolde story, the Grail 
legend, and Malory represent materials always 
dealt with. 

Mr. Baskerville 

334 Renaissance Literature 

Selected works of More, Machiavelli, and 
Castiglione provide a background in basic 
Renaissance ideas as a prelude to a careful 
study of works by Marlowe, Sidney, 
Shakespeare, and Spenser. 

Mr. Baskerville 

337. 338 The Seventeenth Century 

A study of the poetry, prose, drama, and thought 
of the period extending from the last years of 
Elizabeth through the early years of the 
Restoration. The fall semester, stressing 
religious and scientific backgrounds, will 
concentrate on such poets as Jonson, Donne, 
Herbert, and Marvell, as well as such selected 
prose writers as Bacon and Browne. The spring 
semester will begin with poems by Waller, 
Cowley, and Vaughan and then proceed to the 
works of Milton, with emphasis on his 
development as a poet and his relation to his 
age. The spring semester will conclude with the 
reading of selected Restoration plays. 

Mr. Myers and Ms. Stavropoulos 



English 



341. 342 Literature of the Restoration and 
Eighteenth Century 

A critical analysis of the prose, poetry, and 
selected drama written between 1660 and 1798 
with attention to the political, social, and 
intellectual background. English 341, devoted to 
the literature from 1660-1740, concentrates on 
the work of Dryden, Swift, Pope. English 342, 
devoted to the literature from 1740 to 1798, 
concentrates on the work of the mid-century 
poets, Johnson, and Boswell. 

Ms. Stewart 

345. 346 The Nineteenth Century 

A critical analysis of poetry and prose with some 
attention to the historical and intellectual 
background. English 345 explores the literature 
from 1790 to 1830, with some consideration given 
the principal theoretical, psychological, and 
ethical concerns of the major Romantic poets: 
Blake, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Shelley, 
and Keats. English 346 is devoted to the 
literature from 1830 to 1900 and focuses on the 
works of Carlyle, Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, 
Newman, Rossetti, Pater, and on selected fiction. 
Mr. Goldberg and Ms. Srebrnik 

351 Twentieth Century Poetry to 1945 

A study of selected British and American poets 
of the modern period, with attention given to the 
explication of individual poems, as well as to the 
style and method of each poet and to the ways in 
which each responds to the problems and 
themes of his or her cultural milieu. Attention is 
devoted to major figures who flourished before 
1945 with primary emphasis on W.B. Yeats and 
T.S. Eliot; other poets covered include Frost, 
Hopkins, Stevens, and Moore. 

Mr. Garnett 

352 Twentieth Century Poetry since 1945 

A study of American and British poetry since 
1945. Emphasis will be placed upon such older 
writers as Geoffrey Hill, Elizabeth Bishop, 
Richard Wilbur, Robert Penn Warren, James 
Wright, and John Ashbery. Younger writers will 
also be discussed— for example Sharon Olds, 
Rita Dove, Charles Wright, and James Fenton. 

Mr. Stitt 

362 Chaucer 

Examination of a selection of Chaucer's minor 
poems and of five of his major poems (including 
"Troilus and Criseyde" and "Canterbury Tales") 
as the means of assessing the poet's response to 
literary influences and of tracing the develop- 
ment of his original genius. 

Mr. Pickering 



365. 366 Shakespeare 

A course that seeks to communicate an 
understanding both of Shakespeare's relation to 
the received traditions of his time and of his 
achievement as one of the most important 
figures in Western literature. Language, 
characterization, and structure in each of the 
numerous plays will be carefully analyzed. The 
fall semester will focus on the early plays 
through Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida, the 
spring semester on the later plays. 

Mr. Myers 

420 Honors Seminar 

An intensive study of an announced topic under 
the guidance of the Director of the Senior English 
Honors Program. Prerequisite: Successful 
completion of an Honors Thesis. Offered in the 
spring semester. 

Staff 

464 Honors Thesis 

An individualized study project involving the 
research of a topic and the preparation of a 
major paper under the direction of a member of 
the Department. This research and writing will be 
done during the fall semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: By invitation of the Department 
only. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

An individual tutorial, research project, or 
internship under the supervision of a member of 
the staff. A student must submit a written 
proposal to the Department well in advance of 
registration. Prerequisites: Approval of the 
Department and of the directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 



Theatre Arts 

The major in Theatre Arts is described on 
page 86. 

Any theatre arts course may be used to fulfill the 
distribution requirement in arts. 

105 Introduction to Theatre Arts 

An overview of theatre, including its historical 
background, its literary works, its technical 
aspects, and its performance techniques. 
Students will study the theatre of today in 
relation to its predecessors and in terms of its 
modern forms in cinema and television. Students 
will read texts and analyze methods used in 
bringing those works into production. Field trips 



English 

will offer opportunities to critique performances. 

Mr. Hanson 

115 Theatre Production 

A course designed to provide an extensive 
investigation of the historical and contemporary 
trends and practices essential for theatre 
production. The student gains an understanding 
of theatre procedures and acquires a grasp of 
the equipment necessary for the execution of 
scenery, properties, sound and stage lighting. 
This course is a combination of lecture and 
laboratory work and requires backstage 
participation in college productions. Offered each 
year. Fall semester only. 

Mr. Hanson 

120 Fundamentals of Acting 

The study of the theory and technique of the art 
of acting; voice technique for the stage; the use 
of pantomime, including the study of gesture and 
movement. Emphasis will be placed on the 
discipline and control of the body and the voice 
to best serve the actor. Improvisation will be 
employed. In addition, students will be expected 
to perform in scenes for class analysis. 
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

155 Fundamentals of Stage Design 

Basic theories and technique of design for the 
stage. The theory behind the design, and the 
interrelationship of scene design, lighting, 
costumes, and properties. How stage design 
interprets the themes and moods of a play as 
well as identifying period and place will be 
studied. This course will follow a lecture- 
discussion format and involve extensive studio 
work. Students will analyze, create, and execute 
basic designs for the Laboratory Theatre Series 
in association with students in Theatre Arts 182. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 115 and/or permission 
of the instructor. 

Mr. Hanson 

182 Fundamentals of Directing 

The study of the theory and technique of the art 
of the director: how a play is selected; play 
analysis; tryouts and casting; the purpose and 
technique of blocking, movement, and stage 
business. Students are required to direct scenes 
in class and a short play as part of the 
Laboratory Theatre Series. Prerequisite: Theatre 
Arts 155 and/or permission of the instructor. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Schmidt 



203. 204 History of the Theatre 

A survey of the theatre from the primitive to the 
present. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of 
theatre design, production techniques, and 
acting styles to the plays of their periods, and 
the relationship between society and the theatre 
it nurtured. The first semester covers Greek, 
Roman, Medieval, Elizabethan, and Oriental; the 
second semester is devoted to the Italian 
Renaissance, French, Neoclassical, the 
Restoration, and the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and 
Twentieth centuries. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Schmidt 

220 Advanced Acting 

Further study in the theory and technique of the 
art of the actor: the analysis and interpretation 
of a role and the building of a characterization. 
Roles, both comic and tragic, from 
Contemporary, Restoration, Elizabethan, 
Commedia dell'Arte, and Greek theatre will be 
analyzed and performed. Prerequisite: Theatre 
Arts 120 and/or permission of the instructor. 
Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Schmidt 

111 Oral Interpretation of Literature 

An analytical and structural study of recognized 
prose, poetry and dramatic selections which will 
facilitate individual rehearsal and performance 
of the literature. These readings will incorporate 
the Readers Theatre format and emphasis will be 
placed on developing an appreciation for the 
literary work as a complete aesthetic unit. 
Students will be challenged to recognize their 
potential for speaking and reading before an 
audience. The class will employ an ensemble 
approach and present several public 
performances during the semester. 

Mr. Hanson 

252 Studies in Film Aesthetics 

A study of historically significant films, film 
theory and criticism, intended to develop an 
appreciation for film as an art form. Students 
will keep a journal of critical responses to films, 
write short critical papers, and will become 
familiar with writing that has been done 
about films. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

255 Advanced Stage Design 

Examination of historical and contemporary 
theories of scene, lighting, and costume design. 
Students will consider design as the visual 
manifestation of the playwright's concepts. 
Besides designing the same play for proscenium, 
arena, thrust, and profile stages and a period 



90 



English / French 



play for a period other than its own, students 
will complete advanced designs in scene, 
lighting, and costumes and create designs for the 
Laboratory Theatre Series in association with 
students in Theatre Arts 282. Prerequisite: 
Theatre Arts 155. 

Mr. Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing 

Further studies in the theory and technique in the 
art of the director. Students will engage in 
directional analyses of plays representing 
different periods. Particular attention will be 
given to contemporary methods of presentation 
with special emphasis on arena and thrust 
staging. In addition to directing scenes in class, 
students will direct two scenes and a one-act 
play for public presentation, the latter as part of 
the Laboratory Theatre Series. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 155 and 182 and/or permission of 
the instructor. Offered 1987-88. 

Mr. Schmidt 

320 Problems in Acting 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in acting which will culminate in 
an independent study project. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 120 and 220 and/or permission of 
the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

355 Problems in Stage Design 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in design which will culminate in 
an independent study project. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 155 and 255. 

Mr. Hanson 

382 Problems in Directing 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in directing which will culminate 
in an independent study project. Prerequisites: 
Theatre Arts 182 and 282. 

Mr. Schmidt 

Individualized Study 

A production of a major work, a tutorial, or an 
internship under the supervision of a member of 
the staff. A student must submit a written 
proposal to the Department well in advance of 
registration. Prerequisites: Approval of the 
Department and of the directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 

Staff 



Speech 

101 Public Address 

A study of the basic principles of public address. 
Emphasis is placed on developing both a 
theoretical and practical understanding of oral 
communication, through lecture and reading 
assignments, as well as through practice in 
preparing, organizing, delivering, and criticizing 
speeches in class. Repeated spring semester. 

Mr. Hanson 

201 Advanced Public Address 

An analysis of public address as an art form and 
as an important civilizing force in Western 
society. Students will have the opportunity to 
apply concepts and strategies they have learned 
in Speech 101. Prerequisite: Speech 101. 

Mr. Hanson 

French 

Associate Professors Michelman, 
A. Tannenbaum, and Viti {Chairperson) 

Assistant Professors Exton, Gregorio, 
K. Wiley Sandler and Richardson Viti 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Riggs 

Teaching Assistant Despax 

Overview 

Foreign language study not only teaches 
students much about their native tongue, but 
also introduces them to another people's 
language, literature, and customs. This 
awareness of cultural and linguistic relativity is 
one of the hallmarks of a liberal education. 

Introductory French courses develop students' 
skill in spoken and written French and acquaint 
them with the literature and culture of the 
French-speaking world. Language laboratory 
work is mandatory for all beginning students. 
With emphasis on oral/aural proficiency, it 
complements classroom instruction in the 
language. 

Advanced language instruction allows the 
student to reach the higher level of mastery in 
French required in more specialized study and 
usage. In the more advanced literature and 
civilization courses, students study French 
writing and culture in greater depth, thereby 
gaining considerable knowledge of and insight 
into France's past and present achievements in 
all fields of endeavor. Majors (and, indeed, non- 
majors as well) are moreover encouraged to 
study abroad as an inestimable enhancement to 



91 



French 

their understanding of the country, its people, 
and its language. 

Students specializing in French will find that 
their major studies, in addition to their 
humanistic value, afford sound preparation for 
graduate study and for careers in teaching or 
interpreting. A knowledge of French will also be 
invaluable to them in the fields of international 
business and government as well as social work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in French include 
French 301, 302, and seven additional courses 
above the 302 level. Majors must include French 
307, 308 and 309 in their major program. Majors 
are urged to take French 310 in their sophomore 
or junior year. Individualized study may be taken 
only once as part of the minimum requirements 
for the major. These requirements may be 
waived in special cases at the discretion of the 
Department. Majors are encouraged to study in a 
French-speaking country, although this is not a 
Departmental requirement. All majors must take 
at least one course within the Department during 
their senior year. 

Requirements for a minor in French involve a 
total of six courses. For students who begin in 
the 101-102, 103-104, or 201-202 sequences, 202 
will count toward the minor. In addition, students 
must take 205 or 206, 301-302 and two additional 
courses, of their choice, above 302. 

Students who begin in 205 or 206 must take, in 
addition, 301-302 and three other courses above 
302. 

Students who begin on the 300-level must take 
301-302 plus four additional courses above 302. 
As with the major, courses taken abroad may be 
counted toward a minor. 

Students contemplating a minor in French must 
see the department chairperson to receive a 
Handbook for minors and to be assigned a minor 
adviser. 

The prerequisite for entry into all courses above 
the 200-level, with the exception of French 304 
and 400, is French 202 or its equivalent. French 
307 is a prerequisite for majors for all literature 
courses above the 200-level. (However, students 
may take 307 and 308 simultaneously.) 

Prior to their first registration at the College, all 
students receive preregistration materials which 
give detailed instructions on language placement 



and fulfilling the distribution requirement in 
foreign languages. The following courses fulfill 
the distribution requirement in literature: French 
205, 206, 308, 309, 321, 322, 326, 327, 328, 331, 
and 400 where appropriate. 

The distribution requirement in foreign 
languages may be fulfilled by successful 
completion in French of 201-202, 205, 206. The 
equivalent of intermediate achievement may be 
demonstrated by an Advanced Placement 
Examination or a Departmental Qualifying 
Examination given during the initial week of fall 
semester. French 205 or 206 satisfies both the 
foreign language requirement and the literature 
requirement. These courses, which are complete 
as individual units, emphasize intensive reading 
of complete works of literature for 
comprehension and analysis of style. Students 
who qualify and choose this alternative should 
have adequate preparation in reading French 
prose. A student who shows unusual proficiency 
in 201 may, with the consent of the Department 
Chairperson, take 206 and thereby fulfill the 
language and literature requirements. 

French 310 fulfills the distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy and may, under special 
circumstances, satisfy a history major 
requirement. (See "Requirements and 
Recommendations" under History.) 

French 331 fulfills the distribution requirement in 
Non-Western culture as well as in literature. 

Special Facilities 

Language Laboratory in Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources Center. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad, C.I.E.E. Program at the 
Universite de Haute Bretagne, Rennes, France 

La Maison Francaise (The French House) 
Students may elect to live in this separate 
residential unit staffed by a native-speaking 
Assistant. French is the principal language 
spoken in the house and residents help plan and 
participate actively in various French cultural 
activities on campus (see Other Activities below). 

Other Activities 

The Department and La Maison Francaise 
sponsor various activities and organizations 
such as the weekly French Table in the Dining 
Hall, the Cercle Francais (French Club), French 
films, and lectures. 



92 



French 



101-102 French for Beginners 

Elements of speaking, reading, and writing 
French. Language laboratory usage is required. 
Enrollment limited to those who have not studied 
French previously. A student may not receive 
credit for both 101 and 103 or for both 102 and 104. 

Staff 

103-104 Elementary French 

Fundamentals of speaking, reading, and writing 
French. Language laboratory usage is required. 
Enrollment limited to those who have previously 
studied French and who are enrolled according 
to achievement on the Departmental Qualifying 
Examination. A student may not receive credit 
for both 101 and 103 or for both 102 and 104. 

Staff 

201-202 Intermediate French 

Grammar review and practice in oral French in 
the fall semester with stress on reading and 
written expression in the spring. Contact with 
French culture is maintained throughout. 
Enrollment limited to those who have previously 
studied French and who have completed 101-102 
or 103-104, or who are enrolled according to 
achievement on the Department Qualifying 
Examination. 

Staff 

205, 206 Readings in French Literature 

Two objectives of skill in reading French prose 
for comprehension and reading a significant 
amount of French literature of literary and 
cultural merit. Conducted in French, these 
courses differ from French 201, 202 in that they 
emphasize reading for comprehension of 
content. Enrollment limited to those who have 
previously studied French and who are enrolled 
according to achievement on the Departmental 
Qualifying Examination. 

Staff 

301. 302 French Structure, Composition, and 
Conversation 

Review of grammar and syntax at an advanced 
level; exercises in directed and free composition; 
group discussion and presentation of individual 
oral work. Offered every year. 

Staff 

303 Phonetics and Diction 

Study of modern phonetic theory; practice in 
transcription, pronunciation, and diction. 
Laboratory course. Alternate years. Offered 
1988-89. 

Ms. Tannenbaum 



304 Advanced Stylistics 

Intensive practice in the refinement of writing 
skills directed towards a sophisticated and 
idiomatic use of the language. Components of 
course work include composition, translation, 
comparative stylistics, French for use in 
commercial and other correspondence, and work 
in the spoken language. Prerequisite: French 301- 
302. Offered every year. 

Staff 

307 Approaches to Literary Analysis 

Reading and analysis, in their entirety, of 
representative selections of prose, poetry, and 
theatre. This course aims to introduce students 
to interpretive strategies and to make them more 
aware of and competent in the art of reading. 
Offered every year. Prerequisite: French 202 or 
equivalent. This course is required of all majors 
and is a prerequisite for all literature courses on 
the 300-level. 

Staff 

308, 309 Masterpieces of French Literature: Middle 
Ages to 1789; 1789 to Present 

A survey of French literature in two parts, 
through reading and discussion of complete 
works of some of France's most outstanding 
authors. Although major emphasis will be placed 
on the study of these masterpieces, the broad 
outline of French literary history, styles and 
movements will also be covered. Offered every 
year. Prerequisite: For 309, French 307 or 
equivalent. (307 and 308 may be taken 
simultaneously.) Required of all majors. 

Staff 

310 French Civilization 

The manifestation of history, art, economics, 
politics, and sociology in the culture of France. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. Alternate years. Offered 
1989-90. 

Staff 

318 Literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 

Study of early French literary texts: epic poems, 
lyric poetry, plays and romances; sixteenth- 
century prose and poetry. Prerequisite: French 
307 or equivalent. Three hours per week. 
Alternate years or every third year. Offered 
1988-89. 

Ms. Wiley Sandler 

321 Seventeenth Century Theatre 

French drama, comedy, and tragedy of the 
classical period. Corneille, Moliere, and Racine. 
Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. Alternate 



93 



French/German 



years. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Gregorio 

322 The Age of Enlightenment 

A study of the Age of Enlightenment through 
reading and discussion of the representative, 
fiction, non-fiction, and theatre. Prerequisite: 
French 307 or equivalent. Alternate years. 
Offered 1989-90. 

Ms. Tannenbaum 

326 Nineteenth-Century Prose Fiction 

Reading and analysis, through lecture and 
discussion, of nineteenth-century novels and 
short stories of such major authors as Constant, 
Hugo, Sand, Stendhal, Balzac, Flaubert, 
Maupassant, and Zola. Prerequisite: French 307 
or equivalent. Three hours per week. Alternate 
years. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Viti 

327 Contemporary French Theatre 

A study of major trends in modern French 
drama: surrealism, existentialism, the absurd. 
Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. Alternate 
years. Offered 1988-89. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 



328 Contemporary French Novelists and Their Craft 

A study of representative works by major 
twentieth-century French novelists from Gide, 
Proust, and Collette to Butor, Duras, and Robbe- 
Grillet. Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. 
Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

331 La Francophonie 

A survey of the imaginative literatures of such 
French-speaking countries and areas as Africa 
north and south of the Sahara, Canada, Vietnam, 
the West Indies, Louisiana, and others. Aside 
from their intrinsic literary worth, the selections 
will afford a perception of the impact and 
adaptation of French language and culture 
among widely diverse populations of the world. 
Alternate years. Fulfills the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. Prerequisite: 
French 307 or equivalent. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Michelman 

400 Seminar 

An intensive study of a particular aspect of 
French literature, civilization or culture to be 
determined by the instructor. Past offerings 
include: The Art of Emile Zola and The Image of 
Women in French Literature: A Feminist 
Perspective. Prerequisites: Permission of the 
instructor and approval of Department 



Chairperson. Offered every year. 



Staff 



Individualized Study 

Guided readings or research under the 
supervision of a member of the staff. 
Prerequisites: Permission of the instructor and 
approval of the Department Chairperson. 



German 

Associate Professors Crowner, McCardle, 

and Ritterson (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Armster 
Teaching Assistant Kuschel 

Overview 

One of the attributes of a truly liberated 
individual is acquaintance with the language and 
culture of at least one foreign nation. The 
offerings of this department are designed to 
contribute to the attainment of this goal. Apart 
from the values accruing from the mental 
discipline demanded by language learning and 
the practical utilization of such learning in the 
areas of research and technology, international 
trade, diplomacy, teaching, and foreign travel, it 
is hoped that doors will be opened to an 
understanding of the German people and an 
appreciation of their significant contributions to 
the world's cultural heritage. 

Through the use of the foreign language in the 
classroom and correlative audio-lingual drill in 
the laboratory, effort is directed toward the 
development of a reasonable proficiency in 
speaking and listening comprehension as well as 
in reading and writing. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

German 202 or equivalent proficiency is 
considered prerequisite to all higher-numbered 
German courses, unless specified otherwise. 

Major Requirements. A major consists of a 
minimum of nine courses beyond the level of 
German 202, including 251 and 252 (beginning 
with the class of 1991), 301, 302, 321, 322, two 
courses from those numbered 211, 212, 213, and 
two courses from those numbered 323, 324, 325, 
328. Majors preparing to teach German in the 
secondary school must also take Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary German (does not count toward 
German major). 



94 



German 



Majors who take a Study Abroad program may 
count no more than six of those courses toward 
the major and must take at least two German 
literature courses in their senior year. 

Majors who, by the end of the junior year, have 
not demonstrated a satisfactory level of 
competency in the reading, writing, speaking and 
listening comprehension of German, as 
determined by the Department's staff, will be 
assigned such additional work as considered 
necessary and appropriate to the attainment of 
such competency by the end of the senior year. 

Minor Requirements. Minor is offered in German. 
For students beginning at 201 or below, the 
German minor consists of 201-202, 301, 302, and 
any two courses above 202. For students 
beginning at the 301 level, the minor consists of 
301, 302 and any four courses above 202. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following courses may be counted toward 
the distribution requirement in literature: German 
119, 120, 251, 252, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 328. 

The following courses may be counted toward 
the distribution requirement in the area of 
history/philosophy: German 211, 212, and 213; 
and, with the consent of the History Department, 
toward a history major, German 211, 212, and 213. 

The distribution requirement in foreign language 
may be satisfied by completion of German 202 or 
of any 300-level course. 

Special Programs 

Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 

Every Fall semester students are invited to 
participate in the semester study abroad 
program, conducted in Cologne, Germany by the 
German Department. This program is open to all 
students sophomore through first-semester 
senior regardless of major who have completed 
a minimum of one year of college German or the 
equivalent. The student registers for the normal 
course load (4-5 courses); two courses are 
German language courses, the others are taught 
in English from the areas of Political Science, 
Economics/Management, History, Art History 
and Literature. Credit for the two German 
courses is for the 200- or 300- level and 
constitutes the completion of the language 
requirement. Students live with German families 
as regular members of the family. Regular 
Gettysburg College tuition and room and board 



covers all but personal expenses. 

Junior Year Abroad 

Qualified students are encouraged to study 
abroad one or both semesters of their junior 
year. Students can choose from programs 
administered by American institutions at 
universities in Munich, Freiburg, Marburg, 
Heidelberg, Bonn, and elsewhere (see Study 
Abroad). 

German House 

Students may elect to live in a specially 
designated area of a residential unit staffed by a 
native German Assistant. The use of the German 
language is promoted, and residents help plan 
and participate actively in various German 
cultural activities on campus. 

German Language 

101, 102 Elementary German 

Essentials of grammar, composition, 
pronunciation. Course includes oral and written 
work, graded elementary reading, and use of 
audio-visual cultural materials and correlative 
drill in the language laboratory. Prepares for 
German 201, 202. 

201, 202 Intermediate German 

Continuation of the work of German 101, 102. 
Progressively more difficult reading, in class and 
outside, is selected to introduce the student to 
German literature and civilization. Course 
includes use of audio-visual cultural materials 
and correlative drill in the language laboratory. 
Prerequisite: German 102 or its equivalent. 

235 German Conversation 

Intermediate level conversation course with 
emphasis on everyday, applied usage of the 
language for nonliterary purposes. Limited 
enrollment of ten students. Does not count 
toward fulfillment of language requirement. May, 
with departmental approval, count toward minor 
or major. May be taken concurrently with 
German 202. Prerequisite: German 201 or its 
equivalent. 

301 Advanced German 

Designed for advanced work in the language and 
intended for students who have successfully 
completed at least German 202, as well as for 
qualified incoming students. The plan of study 
incorporates extensive reading and intensive 
practice in aural comprehension, oral 
expression, and directed composition. Conducted 
mostly in German. 



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German 



302 Advanced German 

Continuation of exercise in the skills of German 
301. Students will be asked to present oral 
reports and to write resumes and compositions 
on the materials read. Conducted in German. 
Prerequisite: German 301 or demonstrated 
equivalent preparation. 

German Culture Studies 

211. 212 Survey of German Culture to 1945: 
Origins to 1790; 1790-1945 

Study of the cultural history of the German 
people from their beginnings to 1945, including 
an appreciation of their major contributions to 
the world's cultural heritage. This course is 
accepted toward fulfillment of the distribution 
requirement in the area of history/philosophy. 

213 Survey of German Culture Since 1945 

Study of the culture, society, and politics of 
contemporary Germany, East and West, 
including a comparison of the social systems 
and of attempts to deal with the problems of the 
present and future. Assigned readings include 
both critical/analytical and literary works. A 
knowledge of German is not required. This 
course is accepted toward fulfillment of the 
distribution requirement in the area of 
history/philosophy. Alternate years. 

German Literature 

119, 120 German Literature in Translation 

Critical analysis and appreciation of form and 
content of representative German literary 
masterpieces, selected from the literary periods 
from the Middle ages to the present, together 
with an examination of the times and cultural 
circumstances which produced these works. 
Does not count toward a major in German. This 
course is accepted toward fulfillment of the 
distribution requirement in literature. 

251 Interpreting German Literature 

An introduction to how we read and comprehend 
literary prose, poetry, and drama, both for their 
intrinsic qualities and for a clearer 
understanding of their place and time. This 
course aims to develop a sense for the art of 
reading, interpretive strategies for literary study, 
and a valid basis for the appreciation and 
judgment of literature. Students will read, 
discuss, and write about selected literary texts, 
considering in the process a few of the pre- 
eminent critical approaches to literature. 
Conducted mainly in English, with readings in 
German. Prerequisite: German 202 or equivalent. 



This course is required of all German majors, 
beginning with the Class of 1991, and is a 
prerequisite for all literature courses above the 
level of German 252. It is accepted in fulfillment 
of the distribution requirement in literature. 
Offered every year. 

252 Survey of German Literature 

An introductory literature course for students 
who have finished the equivalent of two years of 
college German. Students will analyze selections 
of German literature from the eighth century to 
the present, paying attention to the social, 
political, and intellectual background. Both in 
content and in its use of German, the course 
prepares students for, and is a prerequisite to, 
upper-level literature courses. Classes will be 
conducted in English and German. Prerequisite: 
German 202 or its equivalent. This course is 
accepted in fulfillment of the distribution 
requirement in literature. Offered every year. 

321. 322 The Age of Goethe: 1750-1785: 1785-1830 

Study of German literature of the Enlightenment, 
Storm and Stress, Classicism, and Romanticism, 
with special emphasis on Lessing, Schiller, and 
Goethe. Critical reading and analysis of 
representative works are included. Outside 
reading and reports. Alternate years. 

323, 324 Post-Romantic to Mid-Twentieth-Century 
German Literature: 1830-1900: 1900-1945 

Study of German literature from the 1830s to 
1945, with particular attention in the fall 
semester to Young Germany. Biedermeier, 
Regionalism, Realism, and Naturalism; and 
in the spring semester to Impressionism, 
Expressionism, the New Objectivity, and their 
successors through the end of World War II. 
Critical reading and analysis in class of 
representative works and outside readings and 
reports are included. Alternate years. 

325 German Literature Since 1945 

Study of West and East German literature, 
including Borchert, Boll, Grass, Durrenmatt, and 
Handke. Critical reading and analysis in class of 
representative works and outside reading and 
reports are included. Alternate years. 

328 Goethe's Faust 

Intensive reading and analysis of the work in 
class. Lectures and discussions highlight its 
aesthetic, moral, and ethical values and 
autobiographical significance, together with an 
examination of its modern cultural implications. 
Outside reading and reports. 



96 



400 Senior Seminar 

Intensive study of selected aspects of German 
language, literature, and civilization through 
reading, discussion, oral and written reports. 
Topics will be selected with a view to affording 
students an opportunity to strengthen their 
knowledge in the areas not covered in their other 
course work in the department. 

Individualized Study 

Guided reading or research under the supervision 
of a member of the staff. Prerequisite: Consent of 
the Department. 

Greek— See Classics 



Health and Physical Education 

Associate Professors Biser {Chairperson) 
and Donolli 

Assistant Professors Claiborne and Reider 

Adjunct Instructor Perna 

Coaches: Anderson, Babinchak, Bowers 
(Coordinator of Women's Athletics), 
Breaux, Campo, Drexel, Hulton (Director 
of Intercollegiate Athletics), Janczyk, 
Rawleigh, Riggs, Streeter, and Wright 

Overview 

The Department of Health and Physical Education 
is in harmony with the purposes of our liberal 
arts institution and our philosophy is a holistic 
one. We believe in the Greek ideal of "A sound 
mind in a sound body." The College stresses the 
individual need for total fitness for all students 
through our required courses. Our majors' 
courses offer those students with a particular 
interest in health and physical education a 
rewarding, well rounded, educational and life 
experience. 

A major in Health and Physical Education is an 
excellent preparation for specific areas such as 
state-approved teaching certification in Health 
and Physical Education (K-12), certification in 
athletic training, and allied health careers. With 
proper course selection, students can qualify for 
post graduate work in allied therapy fields such 
as physical, occupational, and recreational 
therapy. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

All HPE majors must satisfy all of the College 
distribution requirements. Psych. 101 and Soc. 
101 are the preferred social science courses. 



German I Health and Physical Education 

Biology is required as the laboratory science. 
Biology (101-112) is preferred but Biology (101- 
102) is acceptable. 

Majors in HPE are required to complete seven 
core courses plus courses in an area of 
concentration. The seven core courses are as 
follows: HPE 112, 116, 117, 214, 218, 309 and 320. 
In addition to taking the core program, all HPE 
majors will select an area of concentration, and 
complete the courses specified. 

a) Allied Health Science Track 

Each student will be required to take the 
following courses: 

HPE 101, 102, 201, 202, 310, 415, 449, Math 107 
or HPE 332 and Chemistry 101, 102 and/or 
Physics 103, 104. It is highly suggested that 
HPE 211, and Biology 200, 224 and Chemistry 
203, 204 be taken by those students 
considering graduate work in allied health 
careers (physical therapy, athletic training, 
exercise physiology, sports medicine, etc.). 

b) Teacher Education Track 

For the student in the teacher certification 
program (K-12) elementary and secondary 
teacher education, the following courses must be 
scheduled: 

HPE 101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302, 211, 230, 332, 
and Education 201, 209, 303, 304, 477. (See 
listings and requirements in the Education 
Department and under Teacher Education 
Programs in this catalog). 

Faculty advisers are available to help in 
counseling, but students have the sole 
responsibility for meeting all major 
requirements. It is important to declare the HPE 
major early in the four year curriculum, as 
failure to do so often means an additional 
semester or two to complete the program. 

There is an additional learning experience that 
our department requires. Each student must 
participate in our intercollegiate program in one 
of the following levels: player, trainer, manager, 
student coach, exercise physiologist, and fitness 
specialist. The above participation must be 
accomplished once each year for the four-year 
program. 

Distribution Requirements 

For non-majors in health and physical education, 
three quarter courses in health and physical 
education are required for a Bachelor of Arts 
degree. These courses are graded only on an S/U 
basis. They are normally taken during the fall 



97 



Health and Physical Education 



and spring semesters of the freshman and 
sophomore years in addition to the general four 
or five course requirement. One semester of 
study yielding one quarter course credit is 
required from each of the three following groups. 
The three group requirement may be taken in 
any order. 

Group l-HEALTH 

HPE 105-Health Science (or Health Credit through 
proficiency testing) 

Group 11-141 FITNESS ACTIVITIES 
Advanced Basketball 
Basketball 
Body Conditioning 
Cardio Fitness 
Endurance Swim 
Indoor Lacrosse 
Jogging 

Mountaineering (Military Science 201) 
Orienteering (Military Science 101) 
Soccer 

Team Handball 
Track and Field 
Tri-athlete Training 
Weight Training 

Group 111-171 RECREATIONAL SKILLS 
Activities for Children 
Advanced Golf 
Advanced Horsemanship** 
Advanced Lifesaving 
Advanced Tennis 
Advanced Volleyball 
Archery 
Badminton 
Beginner's Swim 
Bowling 
Golf 

Horsemanship** 
Outdoor Recreational Skills 
Softball 
Tennis 
Volleyball 

Water Safety Instructor*** 
Wilderness Survival (Military Science 202) 

"Requires extra fee 

***Must have current Advanced Life Saving 
Certification 

A proficiency health knowledge test is offered 
freshmen and transfer students. If the health test 
is passed, the student can elect to take Health 
Credit or substitute a semester of study in any 
other group. If not passed, HPE 105 must be 
taken. 



Students may choose to satisfy Group II or Group 

111 Activities and Skills by HPE 161, Contracts 
(Individualized Program). HPE 161 Contracts can 
be selected to satisfy only one semester of the 
Distribution Requirement. 

Students who are unable to participate in the 
regular programs enroll in HPE 106, Adapted 
Physical Education, which can be substituted 
for courses in any group except HPE 105, 
Health Science, in Group I. 

101, 102. 201, 202. 301. 302 Major Skills 

Skill development and methods and techniques 
of class organization and instruction for the 
following physical education activities: lacrosse, 
field hockey, wrestling, swimming, gymnastics, 
folk-square-social dance, baseball, softball, 
tennis, badminton, elementary school teaching, 
golf, archery, soccer, speedball, elementary- 
junior high-senior high games and recreational 
activities, basketball, volleyball, and track and 
field. This course is for health and physical 
eduction major students. 1 A course each 

Staff 

112 Foundations of Health. Physical Education, 
and Recreation 

Introductory study of the development of health, 
physical education, and recreation programs 
from historical, philosophical, and contemporary 
perspectives. Special emphasis will be placed on 
current controversial issues existing in physical 
education and Athletics as well as on the 
diversity of career options available within the 
Allied Health Sciences. Not offered in 1988-89. 

Ms. Claiborne 

116 Human Anatomy and Physiology I 

An introductory course in Human Anatomy and 
Physiology. Systems of the body will be 
examined with emphasis placed on the 
integration of structure and function. Topics 
covered in laboratory and lecture will be cells, 
connective tissues, skeletal system, muscle 
tissue, nervous system, special senses, and 
circulatory system. 

Mr. Biser 

117 Human Anatomy and Physiology II 

Continuation of the course Human Anatomy and 
Physiology I. Additional systems of the body will 
be studied with emphasis placed on the 
integration of structure and function. Topics 
covered in laboratory and lecture will include 
endocrine regulation, respiration, digestive 
system, nutrition, metabolism, urinary system, 
fluid-electrolyte and pH balance, reproduction, 



98 



and development/inheritance. 



Mr. Biser 



21 1 Personal and Community Health 

A critical look at the relevant health issues of 
this decade. Careful inspection of data 
concerning drugs, human sexuality, marriage 
and family living, old age, pollution, etc. is 
included along with the examination of the 
relationship of personal health problems to the 
community at large. Prerequisites: HPE 116, 117 
or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Reider 

214 Medical Aspects of Sports 

Prepares the prospective coach for the 
prevention and care of injuries. Course includes 
instruction about protective equipment, safety 
procedures, and facilities, as well as preparation 
of the athlete for competition, emergency 
procedures, post-injury care, and medical 
research related to training and athletics. 
Material in the official Red Cross Standard and 
Advanced First Aid courses will be given and 
certificates can be earned. Practical work 
covered includes massage, taping, bandaging, 
and the application of therapeutic techniques. 
Prerequisites: HPE 116, 117 and HPE 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

Messrs. Biser and Donolli 

218 Kinesiology and Applied Physiology 

Study of voluntary skeletal muscles, not only in 
regard to their origins, insertions, actions, and 
interrelationships with the body systems, but 
also with particular emphasis on the essentials 
of wholesome body mechanics. Prerequisites: 
HPE 116, 117 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Donolli 

230 Nutrition and Performance 

An investigation into the area of human nutrition 
focusing upon the nutrients and factors which 
affect their utilization in the human body. 
Emphasis will be placed upon the effects of the 
various nutrients on fitness and athletic 
performance. Topics such as nutritional 
quackery, weight control, and pathogenic 
practices among athletes will be addressed. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Ms. Claiborne 

309 Physiological Responses to Endurance Training 

Serves to acquaint the student with the 
physiological mechanisms that are involved in 
circuit, interval, and aerobic type endurance 
training. The physiology of cardiorespiratory 
and muscular responses will be covered. The 
students will be involved in practical application 



Health and Physical Education 

of the training methods studied. A pre-exercise 
and post-exercise test of significant endurance 
responses will be administered to each student. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Donolli 

310 Principles and Techniques of Adult Fitness 

Designed for students to gain an understanding 
of exercise prescription for healthy adults and 
for those with coronary heart disease risk 
factors. Standard fitness testing techniques will 
be demonstrated in supplemental laboratory 
sessions. All exercise testing and prescription 
considerations will be taught in accordance with 
guidelines established by the ACSM. 
Prerequisite: HPE 309 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Claiborne 

320 Adapted Physical Education and Health Inspection 

Provides instruction and experience in the health 
inspection and observation of the school 
environment and of school children. Specific 
abnormalities of children are studied, and 
exercises are adapted to individuals to allow 
more complete personality development through 
activity. Prerequisites: HPE 116, 117 and HPE 218. 
Messrs. Rawleigh and Reider 



332 Measurement and Evaluation in Health and 
Physical Education 

Concentration on test preparation in the 
cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains, 
application of measurement and evaluation 
optics, analysis of data through the use of 
computers, and participation in field experiences 
with standardized testing. 

Mr. Reider 

415 Advanced Exercise Physiology 

An in-depth study of various factors affecting 
human performance with emphasis on regulation 
of various bodily functions at rest and during 
physical activity. Laboratory activities will 
acquaint the student with equipment and testing 
procedures used in measuring physiological 
parameters. Prerequisite: HPE 218, 309. 

Ms. Claiborne 

449 Introduction to Research 

Study of the various methodological approaches 
used in research. The course provides practice in 
designing research tools and in research writing 
and is helpful for those planning to continue with 
graduate study. Prerequisite: HPE 332 or Math 
107 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Claiborne 



99 



Health and Physical Education/ History 

464 Honors Thesis 

Will provide an opportunity for selected senior 
HPE majors to conduct an original research 
investigation under the direction of a thesis 
committee. Upon completion of a formal thesis, 
each student will orally present the nature and 
results of the study to the entire HPE staff. 
Successful completion of the program will entitle 
the student to receive credit for one course 
which can be applied toward the HPE major. 
Prerequisites: HPE 449 and by invitation of the 
department only. 

Staff 



History 

Professors Boritt, Crapster, and Glatfelter 
Associate Professors Bugbee, Fick, Forness, 

and Stemen (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Hinshaw 
Adjunct Assistant Professors J. Holder 

and Walker 

Overview 

The Department aims to acquaint the student 
with the concept of history as an organized body 
of knowledge which is "the memory of things 
said and done." Mastery within this broad field 
provides an appreciation of history as literature, 
an understanding of our heritage, and a standard 
by which one may thoughtfully evaluate our own 
time. Through classroom lectures and 
discussions, an introduction to research, and 
seminars, the Department encourages the 
student to develop as a liberally educated 
person. Courses which the Department offers 
help prepare students for graduate study and for 
careers in teaching, law, the ministry, public 
service, business, and other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major are nine courses, 
including History 300 (in the sophomore year) 
and one of the senior research seminars. All 
majors must pass at least four additional 
300-level courses chosen from at least two of 
three groups— American, European, or Asian 
history. Senior research seminars— number 401 
to 410— are normally restricted to history 
majors, for whom one is required. A selection 
from the list of seminars is offered each year. 
They provide students with an opportunity to 
work in small groups with a member of the staff 
in the study of a selected topic. Typically 



participants are expected to engage in reading, 
discussion, oral reports, and writing formal 
papers based on individual research. 

The minor in history consists of six history 
courses, of which no more than two may be at 
the 100-level and at least two must be at the 
300-level. One course may be from the list of 
courses from other departments listed below that 
count toward the major. No courses taken S/U 
may be included. 

Greek 251 (Greek History) and Latin 251 (Roman 
History) may be counted toward the nine-course 
requirement for the history major. A student who 
has declared a double major in history and a 
modern language may, with special permission 
from the chairperson of the Department of 
History, count one of the following courses 
toward the nine-course requirement for the 
history major (but not toward the 300-level 
requirement): French 310; German 211, 212, 213; 
Spanish 310, 311. 

Distribution Requirements 

All courses except History 300 are acceptable 
toward fulfilling the distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. 

The following courses meet the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture: 221, 222, 
224,227,228,251,254,321. 

101, 102 History of Europe 

Survey of the major political, economic, social, 
and intellectual developments in Europe from the 
5th century to the present. The first course goes 
from the Germanic invasions of Rome to 1715; 
the second extends from 1715 to the present. 

Mr. Fick and Ms. Hinshaw 

131, 132 History of the United States 

With the dividing point at 1877, a general survey 
of the historical development of the American 
nation from the age of discovery to the present. 
Open to freshmen only. 

Staff 

182 Lincoln on Black and White 

A seminar limited to fifteen freshmen. Considers 
Lincoln and black freedom as well as the 
subjects of politics, statesmanship, mythology, 
and the uses of history. 

Mr. Boritt 

183 The Russian Revolution 

A seminar limited to fifteen freshmen. 



100 



Investigates the Russian Revolution and the 
major interpretations of that Revolution. The 
class will examine monarchist, Marxist, and 
contemporary views of the Russian Revolution 
and its importance for Russian and world 
history. 

Ms. H ins haw 

203. 204 History of England 

Surveys English history from the Anglo-Saxon 
invasions to the present, emphasizing 
institutional, social, and cultural developments. 
Some attention is given to Ireland, Scotland, and 
the overseas empire. The dividing point between 
the two courses is 1714. 

Mr. Fick 

205 The Age of Discovery 

A study of maritime exploration and discoveries 
of the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French, 
and the geographical and technological bases for 
them, concentrating on the period 1400 to 1550. 
Attention is given to settlement of the newly 
discovered lands, to the indigenous cultures, and 
to European perceptions of the Americas. 

Mr. Fick 

215. 216 History of Russia 

Survey of the major political, social, economic, 
and intellectual trends in Russian history. The 
first semester begins with the earliest Russian 
state and ends with the reign of Catherine the 
Great. The second semester covers the years 
from 1801 to the present. 

Ms. H ins haw 

221. 222 History of East Asia 

A survey of East Asian civilizations to 
approximately 1800 in 221 and of East Asian 
political, social, and intellectual developments 
since the Western invasions of the nineteenth 
century in 222. 

Mr. Stemen 

223 United States Relations with East Asia 

Study of the diplomatic, military, and cultural 
relations of the United States with China, Japan, 
Korea, and Vietnam, from the late eighteenth 
century to the present. Such subjects as trade, 
missions, wars, intellectual and artistic 
influence, and immigration will be covered. 

Mr. Stemen 

224 Chinese Thought and Culture 

An intellectual history of China from the 
beginning to the eighteenth century. Readings 
are drawn from philosophy, history, religion, 
poetry, and fiction, and are studied in the context 
of the intellectual and artistic culture of the 



times. 

IDS 227. 228 Civilization of India 

Course description included under 
Interdepartmental Studies. 



History 



Mr. Stemen 



Ms. Powers 



233 Mission, Destiny, and Dream in American History 

An introduction to American history from the 
seventeenth century to the present by focusing 
upon the intertwining themes of the American 
people's belief in their unique mission and 
destiny in the world and their dream of creating 
a just and prosperous society. Students will 
probe the varying manifestations of these 
themes through major events and movements in 
American social, economic, and cultural life and 
in politics and diplomacy. 

Mr. Forness 

235 American Economic History 

Examines the economic development of the 
United States from the colonial period to the 
1960s. Among the topics covered are the 
westward movement, development of 
transportation networks, growth of monetary 
markets and investments, industrialization, and 
the role of government in the economy. Not 
offered every year. Prerequisite: Economics 
103-104. 

Ms. Fender 

236 Urbanism in American History 

An introduction to American history from the 
perspective of urbanism. Beginning with the 
colonial town and continuing to the megalopolis 
of the mid-twentieth century, students will 
investigate the nature of urban life and its 
influence upon the course of American 
development. 

Mr. Forness 

237 War and American Society 

Considers America's wars from the Revolution to 
Vietnam and the opposition to war they have 
evoked. 

Mr. Boritt 

239 Architecture and Society in Nineteenth-Century 
America 

A study of American architecture from the 
neo-classic developments of the late eighteenth 
century to the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and 
his contemporaries at the beginning of the 
twentieth century, focusing upon relationships 
between architectural styles and the changing 



101 



History 

social, economic, and technological factors that 
influenced American culture. 

Mr. Forness 

251 History of the Ancient Near East 

Survey of the history of the Near East to 622 
A.D., concentrating particularly on the major 
civilizations of Egypt and the Fertile Crescent, 
i.e., Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria, as well as 
those of Crete, the Hittites, Persia, and the Indus 
Valley. Secondary attention will be given to 
ancient Near Eastern art and architecture, 
religion, and literature (in translation). 

Mr. Bugbee 

254 History of the Middle East under Arab Influence 

Commencing with the career of Mohammed, 
deals with the history of the Middle East, North 
Africa, Spain and, to some extent, India under 
the impact of Islam. Emphasis will be placed 
upon the Arab Conquest and the early, formative 
centuries of Islamic civilization, as well as upon 
developments— especially under the influence of 
the West— since 1798. Secondary attention will 
be given to Islamic art and architecture, religion, 
literature, and philosophy. 

Mr. Bugbee 

300 Historical Method 

A course designed for history majors which 
introduces the student to the techniques of 
historical investigation, deals with the nature of 
history, and examines the relation of history to 
other fields of study. It also surveys the history 
of historical writing. Prerequisites: Two courses 
in history. 

Mr. Glatfelter 

308 European Social History. 1750 to Present 

An investigation into the lives of European men 
and women in late modern European history. 
Considers the effects of industrialization, 
urbanization, literacy, and the development of 
mass culture on average Europeans and studies 
how these changes transformed their lives. 

Ms. H ins haw 

309 European Women's History, 1789 to Present 

An examination of several key topics in 
European women's history: women in the 
workplace, women in politics, and women in the 
home. The major emphasis will be on the 
experiences of women in Great Britain, France, 
Germany, and Russia in the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 

Ms. H ins haw 



311. 312 Medieval Europe 

A survey of the period from the breakdown of 
Roman institutions in the West to about 1050, 
with special emphasis on the role of the Church, 
the Carolingian age, the Viking invasions, the 
establishment of the German Empire, and the 
beginnings of the struggle between Empire and 
Papacy in 311. History 312 deals with the central 
theme of the rise of a distinct Medieval 
civilization and the emergence of the Western 
monarchies. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fick 

313 Renaissance and Reformation 

Beginning about 1300, treats the gradual decline 
of Medieval civilization, the major theme being 
the transition from "Medieval" to "Modern". It 
ends about the middle of the sixteenth century 
with the establishment of Protestantism and the 
strong movement of reform within the Roman 
Church. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fick 

314 Age of Absolutism 

Beginning with the sixteenth century wars of 
religion, continues with a study of the 
Habsburgs' failure to dominate Europe, the Thirty 
Years' War, the emergence of France to 
predominance, the development of the absolute 
state and "enlightened despotism," the rise of 
new powers by 1700, and economic, cultural, and 
social developments. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fick 

321 Modern China 

A study of Chinese history since the Opium War 
of the nineteenth century, with emphasis on the 
Nationalist and Communist revolutions. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Stemen 

332 American Diplomatic History 

The foreign relations of the United States since 
the American Revolution, with emphasis on the 
twentieth century. 

Mr. Stemen 

335. 336 American Social and Cultural History 

Traces America's major social, religious, artistic, 
and philosophical movements and their 
immediate and long-range impact on American 
life and culture. Beginning with the American 
Revolution, History 335 covers the period to the 
Civil War. History 336 continues from that period 
to the present. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Forness 



102 



341 Colonial America 

Commencing with the European background and 
the Age of Exploration before considering the 
settlement of North America, stresses political 
and constitutional developments to 1763, with 
attention to European rivalries, mercantilism, 
and attempts to achieve intercolonial unity. 
Colonial art, architecture and the American 
Indian are also discussed. 

Mr. Bugbee 

342 Age of the American Revolution 

Begins with a review of colonial beginnings, 
followed by the French and Indian War, which 
set the stage for the disruption of the old British 
Empire. It traces the road to revolution and 
independence, the war itself, the Confederation 
experiment, and the impetus which led to the 
Federal Constitution of 1787. Political and 
constitutional developments are emphasized. 

Mr. Bugbee 

343 Jeffersonian-Jacksonian Era 

Covering the period from the 1790s to the 
Mexican War, treats the development of 
American national life and sectional interests 
under such influences as Jefferson's agrarian 
republicanism and the new democratic 
movements of the Jacksonian period. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr. Forness 

345 Civil War 

The trauma of America from the end of the 
Mexican War to Appomattox, moral judgments in 
history, political culture, economic interests, 
diplomacy, and war. 

Mr. Boritt 

346 Post-Civil War America 

The study of an America attempting to 
reconstruct itself, from 1865 to the 1890's. The 
focus is on the short and long-range effects of 
the Civil War. 

Mr. Boritt 

348 Early Twentieth Century America 

Deals primarily with the major political, 
economic, and social developments in the United 
States from about 1900 to 1945. Some attention 
is given to the role of the United States in the 
world during this period. 

Mr. Glatfelter 

349 The United States Since 1945 

Deals with the major political, economic, and 
social developments in the United States since 
1945, and with the demands made upon the 
United States as a leading world power. 



History/Interdepartmental Studies 

Mr. Glatfelter 

Senior Research Seminars: 
402 Tudor England 



404 Founders of the United States 



405 The U.S. in the 1890s 



Mr. Fick 



Mr. Bugbee 



Mr. Glatfelter 



407 American Diplomacy in the Early Cold War 

Mr. Stemen 

409 European Diplomacy in the Age of the Baroque 

Mr. Fick 



410 Abraham Lincoln 



Mr. Boritt 



411 Europe 1880-1914 

Individualized Study 

An individual tutorial, research project, or 
internship requiring the permission of an 
instructor who will supervise the project. The 
instructor can supply a copy of the statement 
of departmental policy regarding grading and 
major credit for different types of projects. 
Either semester. 

Staff 



Interdepartmental Studies 

Professor Hammann {Chairperson) 
Distinguished Visiting Professor Grinde 
Adjunct Associate Professor Powers 
Lecturers Jones and Nordvall 

The Committee on Interdepartmental Studies 
offers courses and coordinates specialized 
interdepartmental programs. The Committee 
bears responsibility for identifying and 
encouraging interest in Interdepartmental 
Studies courses and programs, such as Asian 
Studies, American Studies, and Medieval and 
Renaissance Studies. (See pages 106-107.) 

Among the opportunities for Interdepartmental 
Studies is the Special Major: a student, with the 
consent of two supervising faculty members 
from different departments, may design a 
coherent program of at least eight courses 
focusing on a particular issue or area not 
adequately included within a single department. 
It may be based on any grouping of courses 
drawn from any part of the curriculum so long as 
the proposed major is coherent, serves a 
carefully defined purpose, and includes at least 



103 



Interdepartmental Studies 



six advanced courses. The Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies has final 
responsibility for approving Special Majors. (See 
page 28.) The Committee also helps to coordinate 
a program in Area Studies, focused each year on 
a different critical area of global interest. (See 
page 108). 

By nature of their objectives and content, 
Interdepartmental Studies courses cross the 
lines of departments and specialized disciplines. 
For example, some of these courses attempt to 
provide the common body of knowledge 
traditionally associated with a liberal education; 
others attempt to integrate the understanding of 
different kinds of subject matter; and still others 
combine methodologies from diverse 
departments and disciplines. Most notably, the 
Senior Scholars' Seminar challenges an invited 
group of seniors, representing as many 
academic departments as possible, to apply their 
skills to the investigation of a problem which 
crosses the boundaries of and demands the 
methods of several disciplines. 

101, 102 Ideas and Institutions of Western Man 

An introduction to the religious, political, and 
philosophical ideas and institutions that 
characterize Western Civilization. During the first 
semester, students read selected documents 
ranging from the Bible and seminal Greek 
thinkers through Luther, Calvin, and other 
figures of the Sixteenth century Reformation. In 
the second term, readings range from documents 
illustrative of the Scientific Revolution of the 
Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries through 
Darwin, Marx, Lenin, and Freud. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 

Staff 

103, 104 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

A study of selected major literary achievements 
of Western culture regarded as philosophical, 
historical, and aesthetic documents including 
authors ranging from Homer and Plato through 
St. Augustine and Dante to Shakespeare, Milton, 
and Goethe. By means of reading and discussing 
complete works of literature the student is 
introduced to those humanistic skills that have 
traditionally distinguished the liberally educated 
person. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
literature. 

Staff 

111, 112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

An introductory study of the visual arts from 
prehistoric times to the nineteenth century. Class 



will examine reasons for changes in the content, 
form, and function of two- and three-dimensional 
art. Exercises in visual analysis of individual will 
develop critical methods. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in arts. 

Ms. Small 

206 Byzantine Civilization 

An introduction to the civilization which radiated 
from Constantinople, the capital of the Roman 
Empire from 330-1453. Its contributions to 
eastern and western Europe are still evident in 
art, law, classical learning, economics, 
Christianity, and bureaucracies. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 
May be counted in the eight-course requirement 
for a religion major. 

Mr. Trone 

21 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

A study of death and dying from a variety of 
perspectives: psychological, medical, economic, 
legal, and theological. Dignity in dying, what 
happens after death, euthanasia, body disposal, 
and other such problems are examined. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy. 
May be counted in the eight-course requirement 
for a religion major. 

Mr. Moore 

215 Contemporary French Women Writers 
(in English) 

An investigation of the "myth of women"— a 
male invention as Simone de Beauvoir pointed 
out— through various twentieth century texts. 
Students will read everything from a novel by 
this century's earliest and most notable French 
woman writer, Colette, to the exposition of Luce 
Irigaray on Freud and Julia Kristeva on the 
feminine in language. All readings and 
discussions will be in English. 

Ms. Richardson 

216 Images of Women in Literature 

Undertakes to examine and compare the various 
ways women have been imagined in literature. 
We will look at how and why images of women 
and men and their relationship to one another 
change, and at how these images affect us. 
Emphasis will be placed on developing the 
critical power to imagine ourselves differently. 
We will concentrate on representative literary 
texts by authors such as Maya Angelou, 
Charlotte Bronte, Joseph Conrad, Charles 
Dickens, William Faulkner, Adrienne Rich, 
Marilyn Robinson, William Butler Yeats. 

Ms. Berg 



104 



Interdepartmental Studies 



227. 228 Civilization of India 

First course: cultural developments from Indus 
Valley Civilization to coming of Muslims, with 
emphasis on Buddhism, evolution of Hinduism, 
and their representation in art and literature; 
second course: historical factors underlying 
Hindu-Muslim antagonism as well as 
contemporary, political and economic problems. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy and the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. Alternate 
years. Offered 1989-90. 

Ms. Powers 

235 Introduction to African Literature 

A survey in English of modern sub-Saharan 
African literature. After an introductory section 
on background and the oral tradition, the course 
will treat the primary themes of this writing, 
many of which bear the stamp of the colonial 
experience and its aftermath. Representative 
novels, plays, and poetry will be read and 
discussed for their artistic value and cultural 
insights. Short papers, mid-term and final 
examinations are required. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in literature and the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture. Alternate 
years. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Michelman 



237. 238 Literature of India 

Study of major Indian literary works in 
translation. First course: Vedic hymns, major 
epics, Sanskrit drama, Gupta love poetry and 
political fables. Second course: Tamil epic and 
lyrics, devotional poetry, Islamic literature, the 
modern novel. Complete works are read from the 
standpoint of religion, history, and aesthetics, 
using criticism from Western and Indian sources. 
Fulfills distribution requirements in literature and 
in Non-Western culture. Alternate years. Offered 
1988-89. 

Ms. Powers 

239 Architecture and Society in Nineteenth-Century 
America 

(See listing under History department) 

244 Introduction to American Folklore 

Begins with discussions of the nature of folklore 
and some sense of history of the discipline, 
including information on current approaches and 
methodologies. This will be followed by material 
on the folk group, the folk process, the folk 
performance, the nature of folk world-views, and 
guidance on doing folklore research. The 
emphasis will then shift to a survey of the 



various folklore genres found in America, from 
the narrative genres of folktale, to folk song, folk 
music, and folk dance. 

Mr. Winans 

245: African and Caribbean Novels 

A study of eight novels: Three from African 
countries in which independence has been 
achieved, two from South Africa, three from 
countries of the Caribbean. Attention will be paid 
to the historical background from which the 
literature has emerged. Fulfills literature and 
non-Western requirements. 

Ms. Srebrnik 

246 Irish Quest for Identity: The Irish Literary Revival 

A study of the culture and history of Ireland as 
reflected in its literature in English c. 1880- 
c.1940. The course will explore how Ireland, 
principally through her writers, succeeded in 
reviving and asserting her unique Gaelic identity 
during the decades immediately preceding and 
following the War of Independence (1916-1921). 
Authors to be studied will include Samuel 
Ferguson, Standish Hayes and Standish James 
O'Grady, Douglas Hyde, Augusta Gregory, W.B. 
Yeats, J.M. Synge, George Russell, James 
Stephens, Sean O'Casey, and James Joyce. 
Fulfills literature requirement. 

Mr. Myers 

247 Maintaining Irish Identity: Modern Irish Literature 

A survey of Irish literature since the 1940s. The 
course will examine how poets, dramatists, and 
writers of fiction have responded to the problems 
of maintaining an Irish identity on a partitioned 
island and in the contemporary world. Special 
attention will be given to the inter-relationship of 
Catholic and Protestant, and rural and urban 
traditions. Authors to be studied will include the 
following: from the drama, Samuel Beckett, Hugh 
Leonard, Brian Friel, Thomas Murphy; from 
poetry, Seamus Heaney, Patrick Kavanagh, 
Austin Clarke, Eilean ni Chilleanain, John 
Montague, Eavan Boland; from fiction, Sean 
O'Faolain, Mary Lavin, Edna O'Brien. Fulfills 
literature requirement. 

Mr. Myers 

250 Criminal Justice 

Overview of the criminal justice system in the 
United States and role in that system of features 
such as police, attorneys, trials, and prisons. 
Major United States Supreme Court cases are 
read to illustrate the nature of legal reasoning 
and criminal justice problems. Not offered every 
year. Offered 1988-89. 

Mr. Nordvall 



105 



Interdepartmental Studies 

260 The Holocaust and the Third Reich 

An intensive study of selected writing (poetry, 
prose, drama), which demonstrate the 
possibilities of literary expressions in response 
to the Holocaust. Students will read various 
writings in English by German and non-German 
writers, including Heinrich BOM, llona Karmel, 
Gunter Grass, and Elie Wiesel. The course will 
also include such films as The Tin Drum, The 
White Rose, and Night and Fog. No knowledge of 
German is required. Does not fulfill literature 
requirement. 

Ms. Armster 

111 Gods. Heroes and Wagner 

A study of the artistic and philosophical thought 
of composer Richard Wagner as expressed in his 
monumental music drama, DerRing des 
Nibelungen. Wagner, a contemporary of Marx 
and in many ways no less revolutionary, 
adapted the myths and legends of the Germanic 
past to dissect European reality of the nineteenth 
century. By utilizing various approaches 
(biographical, mythological, literary, 
political/historical, aesthetic, musical, 
psychological), students and instructor will 
attempt to assess Wagner's position in his own 
age as well as his impact on succeeding 
generations, including that which embraced the 
ideology of national socialism. No knowledge of 
German or background in music is required. 

Mr. McCardle 

301. 302 Literature of Modern Western Culture 

Continues the study of major literary documents 
into the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 
Novels, dramas, and short stories are discussed 
as artistic structures and are seen in their 
relationship to modern culture. Representative 
writers include the French and Russian realists, 
James, Joyce, Kafka, Mann, Camus, Albee, and 
Dickey. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
literature. 

Staff 

320 Human Sexual Behavior 

Discussion of biosexual, sociosexual, and 
psychosexual development in a cultural- 
behavioral setting. Resources from a variety of 
disciplines will be discussed as they relate to the 
present day social-sexual milieu. Seminar 
format. In-depth research investigation required. 

Mr. Jones 

401 Senior Scholars' Seminar: The Future of Humanity 

Seminar for selected senior students addressing 
an important contemporary issue affecting the 
future of humanity. The approach to this issue is 



multi-disciplinary. Authorities of national stature 
are invited to serve as resource persons, and a 
final report is published by the seminar 
participants. The seminar carries credit for two 
courses and must be taken in the fall semester. 
Interested students should consult page 37 of 
this catalogue for admission criteria. 

451 Individualized Study: Tutorial in 
Interdepartmental Studies 

453 Area Studies: Tutorial in 
Interdepartmental Studies 

461 Individualized Study: Research in 
Interdepartmental Studies 

Special Programs 

Asian Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a number of courses 
for students wishing a sound introduction to 
Asian culture as part of the liberal arts 
curriculum. Each Asian Studies course fulfills 
some distribution requirement. These courses 
are presented by members of various 
departments, persons with interests and 
competence in Asian Studies. A student may 
construct a Special Major with concentration in 
Asian Studies. Students wishing to prepare for 
advanced work in Asian Studies will be 
interested in the following course combinations 
supplemented by off-campus Language and Area 
Study programs to which the College has access: 

1. Civilization of India. 

2. An introduction to East Asia including History 
of East Asia and such courses as Religions of 
East Asia and West Asia and Modern China. 

3. The Consortium exchange program by which 
students may take selected courses dealing 
with East Asia or South Asia at Dickinson or 
Franklin & Marshall Colleges. 

4. Any two-semester sequence of courses in 
Asian Studies taken at Gettysburg followed by 
an intensive senior year of work in an Asian 
language and area courses at the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

5. An arrangement whereby students may study 
in India for academic credit through programs 
offered by Associated Colleges of the Midwest 
and the University of Wisconsin (summer plus 
a full year) or the School for International 
Studies and the University of Virginia (one 
semester). Interested students should consult 
Dr. Janet Powers, Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Interdepartmental Studies, for further 
information. 



106 



Asian Studies Courses 

IDS 227, 228 Civilization of India 
IDS 237, 238 Literature of India 
History 221, 222 History of East Asia 
History 223 United States Relations with 

East Asia 
History 224 Chinese Thought and Culture 
History 321 Modern China 
Religion 242 The Religions of East Asia and 

West Asia 

American Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of courses 
analyzing American life and thought, thereby 
providing students with many opportunities for 
creating Special Majors in American Studies. 
Such majors may emphasize behavioral 
analyses, historical perspectives, literary and 
artistic dimensions, or coherent combinations of 
such approaches as they are reflected in courses 
from several departments. For example, Special 
Majors could be designed in the areas of early 
American culture, modern American social 
stratification, ethnicity, or the religious and 
economic values of the American people. 
Students should seek assistance in planning an 
American Studies Special Major from faculty 
members who teach courses in these areas or 
from the Committee on Interdepartmental 
Studies. 

Course offerings suitable for Special Majors in 
American Studies are found under many 
departmental listings. 

Medieval and Renaissance Studies 

Through the curricular offerings of eight 
academic departments and the Interdepartmental 
Studies Program, the College makes available a 
wide range of courses that deal with the 
civilization and culture of the Medieval and 
Renaissance eras. Those eras laid the 
foundations for many modern ideas and values 
in the fields of literature, history, religion, 
political theory, music, art, science, technology, 
commerce, mathematics, and law. For many 
students concerned with a more realistic 
understanding of the rich heritage derived from 
the Medieval and Renaissance world, the vitality 
and creative energy of those eras hold a special 
fascination and add new dimensions for 
comprehending contemporary issues. 

Faculty members teaching courses in these 
areas are associated in the Council on Medieval 
and Renaissance Studies in order to facilitate 
scholarship and course development, to provide 
a forum for the discussion and promotion of 



Interdepartmental Studies 

ideas and common interests, to encourage 
Special Majors, and to sponsor visits by 
students and faculty to museums and cultural 
centers in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and Washington. Special majors in this area 
might deal with the medieval church and the 
arts, medieval literature and philosophy, or the 
ideological and institutional revolutions of the 
Renaissance. Students should seek assistance in 
planning such Special Majors through the 
Council on Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 
Professor George H. Fick, History Department, 
Director. 



Medieval and Renaissance Studies Courses 

Art 111 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Classics: Latin 306 St. Augustine 

English 209 History of the English Language 

English 331 Mediaeval Literature 

English 334 Renaissance Literature 

English 362 Chaucer 

English 365, 366 Shakespeare 

English: Theatre Arts 203 History of the Theatre 

French 308 Masterpieces of French Literature: 

Middle Ages to 1789 
History 203 History of England to 1714 
History 311, 312 Medieval Europe 
History 313 Renaissance and Reformation 
IDS 101 Ideas and Institutions of Western Man 
IDS 103, 104 Literary Foundations of Western 

Culture 
IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization 
Music 313 History of Medieval, Renaissance, and 

Baroque Music 
Philosophy 203 Classical Greek and Roman 

Philosophy 
Philosophy 204 Medieval and Early Modern 

Philosophy 
Religion 220 Church History: to the Eighth 

Century 
Religion 221 History of the Medieval Church 
Religion 327 Monks, Nuns, and Friars 
Spanish 310 Spanish Civilization 

Peace and Global Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a concentration of 
courses in Peace and Global Studies through the 
course offerings of several departments. A 
special major in Peace and Global Studies would 
emphasize such areas of study as global 
interdependence, historical perspectives on 
peace and war, ethical issues of war and peace, 
the dynamics of global problems such as hunger, 
poverty, and human rights abuse, mechanisms 
for resolving global problems peacefully, and 
systems of international law and organization. 



107 



Interdepartmental Studies/Management 

Students who elect this special major would 
enroll in their senior year in IDS 461, 
Individualized Research, in order to synthesize 
the work of the other courses in their special 
major and to pursue a research interest such as 
Conflict Resolution, Global Ecology, the 
Psychology or Sociology of War, or World 
Organizations. Interested students should 
contact the Chairperson of the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies. 

Peace and Global Studies 

Political Science 103 Global Politics 

263 The Politics of Developing 

Areas 
341 International Political 

Economy 
344 U.S. National Security 

Policy 

Economics 324 Comparative Economic 

Systems 
336 International Economics 
338 Economic Development 

History 237 War and American 

Society 
349 The United States Since 
1945 

Classics 121 Greek Civilization 

Military Science 246 American Military 
History 

Philosophy 105 Contemporary Moral 

Issues 

Psychology 221 Basic Dynamics of 

Personality 
225 Developmental Psychology 

Anthropology 220 World Culture 

Area Studies 

Each year the College arranges a program of 
films, lectures, symposia and special events 
focused on an area in the world of critical 
interest. The program has dealt with such topics 
as Central America, Vietnam Ten Years After, 
Struggle in Southern Africa, and The Middle East. 
Often specific courses are available that study 
the area focused on for the year. It is always 
possible for students to enroll in IDS 453 in either 
or both semesters. This tutorial course requires 
participation in the several aspects of the Area 
Studies program and a special project under the 
supervision of a member of the faculty. 

Latin— See Classics 



Management 

Professors Pitts and Rosenbach (Chairperson) 

Associate Professor Schein 

Assistant Professor Jacobson 

Instructors Hays, Mueller, Patnode, Stroope, and 

Witmer 
Adjunct Professor Baird 
Adjunct Assistant Professor J. M. Railing 
Adjunct Instructors Lewis and Radosh 

Overview 

The Department of Management of Gettysburg 
College provides a distinctive curriculum 
designed to engender understanding of the role 
of management in a variety of organizational 
settings: public, private, local, national, and 
international. In order to develop the breadth of 
understanding appropriate for a liberal 
education, the curriculum is integrative. The 
curriculum incorporates the historical and social 
contexts within which managerial decisions are 
made and brings into clear focus the moral and 
ethical dimensions of such decisions. Students 
thus are encouraged and equipped to become 
informed decision-makers who employ carefully 
considered values and the aesthetic and intuitive 
components of leadership as well as the relevant 
analytic and technical skills. Most importantly, 
the curriculum and the manner in which it is 
taught foster the qualities of critical, creative 
thinking; the entrepreneurial disposition to be 
intellectually bold, independent, and innovative; 
the zest for lifelong learning; and the values so 
important to vital and socially responsible 
management in our public and private 
enterprises. 

The Department offers a major in management, 
with three areas of concentration: 
entrepreneurship, human resources, and 
accounting and finance. In addition to its liberal 
arts objectives, the Department's curriculum is 
designed to meet the needs of students who 
intend to enter graduate professional schools in 
business administration and related areas, or to 
pursue a career in public or private enterprises. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Majors in management are required to complete 
eight core courses plus a minimum of three 
courses in one of the three areas of 
concentration. The eight core courses are as 
follows: Economics 103-104, Management 153, 
Economics 241, Management 247, Management 
266, Management 267, and Management 400. 



108 



Each student majoring in management will also 
be required to take at least four courses in one of 
three areas of concentration: entrepreneurship, 
human resources, or accounting and finance. 

Students anticipating a management major are 
encouraged to take Economics 103-104 during 
the freshman year. In addition, management 
majors are required to demonstrate proficiency 
in mathematics by successfully completing 
Mathematics 105 or 111. The mathematics 
requirement should also be completed during the 
freshman year. 

In order to qualify for Departmental Honors in 
Management, a student must 1) satisfactorily 
complete Management 400 during the senior year 
with a grade of A; 2) be recommended by his or 
her adviser; and 3) have earned a 3.3 
departmental grade point average. 

The department offers a management internship 
(Management 473) for selected management 
majors entering their senior year. The internship 
is comprised of an employment experience 
completed during the summer between their 
junior and senior year, and an academic 
component completed during fall semester of the 
senior year. One course credit is awarded for 
successful completion of the internship. 

Additional information regarding the Department 
of Management is contained in Managing Your 
Major: Department of Management Handbook. 
All majors and potential majors are urged to 
obtain a copy of this booklet. 

153 Financial Accounting 

Study of the basic principles, concepts, and 
problems in recording, summarizing, reporting, 
and analyzing financial data. Emphasis is placed 
on reports used by decision-makers both inside 
and outside the firm. 

154 Managerial Accounting 

Study of accounting concepts for planning, 
control, motivation, reporting, and evaluation by 
management of the firm. Prerequisite: 
Management 153. 

247 Management Information Systems 

Integrative systems of people and machines for 
providing information to support the operations, 
management, and decision-making functions in 
an organization. The course examines gathering, 
storing, transmitting, and manipulating data to 
provide timely, accurate, and useable 
information. Prerequisite: Management 266 or 
permission of instructor. 



Management 

253-254 Intermediate Accounting 

Continued and more intensive study of the 
principles, concepts, and theories prevalent in 
accounting. Emphasis is on literature and 
pronouncements of professional accounting 
groups and regulatory agencies. Prerequisite: 
Management 154. 

266 Management and Organization 

The decision-making process concerned with the 
planning, staffing, leading and controlling the 
affairs of organizations in the public and private 
sectors, including profit making as well as not- 
for-profit. Prerequisite: Economics 103-104 or 
permission of instructor. 

267 Business Finance 

Introduction to the principles and practices 
involved in the acquisition and administration of 
corporate funds. Emphasis is placed on financial 
planning, investment analysis, asset 
management, and sources and costs of capital. 
Prerequisites: Management 153 and 266. 

270 Organizational Behavior 

Theory of behavioral science applied to the 
organization with emphasis on the interaction of 
the individual and the organization. Topics range 
from individual attitudes and behavior to 
organizational change. Prerequisite: 
Management 266. 

353 Cost Accounting 

Concepts of cost accumulation and cost analysis 
for decision-making purposes. Emphasis is 
placed on use of these concepts in 
manufacturing concerns and other 
organizations. Prerequisite: Management 154. 

355 Auditing 

Introduction to the objectives, concepts, 
analysis, and procedures underlying the review 
of financial reports prepared by organizations. 
Emphasis is placed on the analysis of internal 
control and the auditor's ethical and legal 
responsibility. Prerequisite: Management 254. 

356 Federal Taxes 

Introduction, history of federal income tax, 
problems of tax bases and rates, economic and 
social implications of taxation, application of 
bases problems through research of regulations 
and preparation of taxes. Prerequisite: 
Management 154. 

357 Not-for-Profit Accounting 

Accounting, budgetary financial control, and 
evaluation procedures for governmental and not- 
for-profit organizations. Emphasis is placed on 



109 



Management 

the basic differences between commercial and 
not-for-profit accounting and on managerial uses 
of information generated by the accounting 
system. Prerequisite: Management 154 or 
permission of instructor. 

360 Organizational Ethics 

Ethical restraints on organizational decisions. 
This course will explore these restraints and try 
to clarify their place in and their effects on the 
decision-making process. The class may employ 
the case study method as appropriate. 
Prerequisite: Management 266. 

361 Marketing Management 

Study of the place of marketing in the world of 
business; the marketing concept; understanding 
consumer buying behavior; marketing planning 
and product policy; sales management; 
distribution strategy; current problems, 
influences, and pressures on marketing. 
Marketing case studies are analyzed and 
discussed. Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. 

363 Business Law 

Law of torts, crimes, contracts, and sale of 
goods as well as how law affects managerial 
decision-making. Historical development of law 
is briefly examined. 

365 Human Resources Management 

Major principles of human resources 
management from the perspectives of both 
organizational demands and individual interests 
as well as from a functional and line 
management point of view. This will be 
accomplished through the study and application 
of theoretical concepts relating to staffing, 
employee performance, compensation, labor 
relations, training and development, as well as 
several special topics of current importance. 
Prerequisite: Management 270 or permission of 
instructor. 

368 Investment: Management 

Investment practices, the risks of investment and 
the selection of appropriate investment media for 
individuals, firms, and institutions. Theories and 
techniques for maximizing investment portfolio 
performance are studied. Emphasis is placed on 
analysis and selection of securities, portfolio 
management, and the operation of securities 
markets. Prerequisite: Management 267 or 
permission of instructor. 

371 Financial Intermediaries 

Functions and portfolios of financial 



intermediaries. Sectoral demand and supply of 
funds, nature and role of interest rates, term 
structure and forecasting, impact of inflation and 
regulation on financial markets, and current 
developments in the financial system are 
studied. Also covered are political, social, and 
ethical implications of the operation of capital 
markets. Prerequisite: Management 267. 

381 Small Business Management 

Study and critical analysis of the principles and 
procedures for establishing, developing, and 
managing a small business. The relevant 
differences between large and small business 
management are examined. Attention is given to 
the personal attributes needed for successful 
entrepreneurship. Prerequisites: Management 
153, Management 266, Management 267, and 
Management 361. 

385 International Management 

Identification, analysis, and evaluation of 
managerial functions and issues in the context of 
an international organization with emphasis on 
problems of adapting to different cultural, legal, 
political, economic, and geographic 
environments. Prerequisite: Management 266. 

386 International Business, Finance. Accounting, 
and Taxation 

Financial planning and capital budgeting in an 
international context. A survey of global 
differences in accounting principles, 
emphasizing problems in comparing financial 
data in an international context. Review of 
contemporary issues in international taxation. 
Prerequisite: Management 267. 

400 Policy and Strategy 

Integrative capstone course dealing with the role 
of senior executives in business enterprises. 
Course focuses on problems of strategy 
formulation, organization design, and 
organization renewal. Required of all seniors. 
Prerequisite: Senior Status. 

410 Senior Seminar 

Investigation of contemporary problems and 
special topics of current importance in the field 
of management. Specific issues to be addressed 
will be determined by the instructor. 
Prerequisites: Senior status and permission of 
instructor. 

473 Internship 

A minimum of six weeks of on-site participation 
in management with a public or private 
enterprise. A student wishing to pursue an 



110 



internship must submit an acceptable proposal 
to the Staff Director of Internships during spring 
semester of the junior year. Prerequisites: Junior 
management major with a minimum 2.0 overall 
and departmental grade point average. 

Individualized Study 

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well- 
qualified students through individual reading and 
research, under the supervision of a member of 
the Department's faculty. A student wishing to 
pursue independent study must present a 
proposal at least one month before the end of the 
semester preceding the semester in which the 
independent study is to be undertaken. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the supervising 
faculty member and the Department. 



Mathematics 

Professors Holder {Chairperson), and Leinbach 
Associate Professors Flesner, Kellett, 

and Magness 
Assistant Professors Golfin and Wijesinha 
Adjunct Instructors Huslak, Leslie, and Y. Niiro 

Overview 

A knowledge of mathematics is an essential part 
of what is meant by a liberally educated person. 
Mathematics is both an art and a science. It 
possesses an inherent beauty and exhibits a 
precision and purity of expression not found to 
the same degree in any other discipline. Beyond 
its intrinsic value, mathematics is indispensable 
in both the physical and social sciences and is 
occupying a position of increasing importance in 
many other fields. The computer has played a 
major role in this broadening use of 
mathematical methods. It is essential that all 
mathematics majors as well as other students 
who will apply mathematics learn how to use the 
computer as a problem-solving tool. 

The mathematics curriculum provides a 
foundation for students who will specialize in 
mathematics or in fields which utilize 
mathematics. By a careful selection of courses a 
student can prepare for graduate study in 
mathematics, for secondary school teaching, or 
for a career in a mathematically related field. 
The curriculum also provides courses 
appropriate for liberal arts students who wish to 
gain an appreciation of mathematics. 



Management / Mathematics 

Requirements and Recommendations 

All majors must complete the following basic 
core of courses. 

THE CORE PROGRAM 

Math 111-112: Calculus of a Single Variable I, II 



Math 211 
Math 212 
Math 321 
Math 331 



Multivariate Calculus 
Linear Algebra 
Analysis I 
Abstract Algebra 



Normally, prospective majors begin with Math 
110 or 111 depending on high school background. 
Advanced placement in Math 112 or 211 is 
possible either by scoring sufficiently high on the 
Advanced Placement Examination (see p. 155) or 
by permission of the department chairperson. 

In addition to taking the core program, all majors 
will select one of the following areas of 
concentration and complete the courses 
specified. 

AREA OF CONCENTRATION 

Computer Science— Math 366, 371, and two 
additional 300-level mathematics courses; CS 216 
and one other 200- or 300-level computer science 
course. 

Management Science— Math 351-352, 362, 354 or 
356 plus Econ 351, 352. 

Physical Science— Math 363, 364, 366, two 
courses chosen from Chem 305, 306, Phys 311, 
312, 319, 330, plus one additional 300-level 
mathematics course. 

Probability & Statistics— Math 351-352, 356, 358, 
and two additional 300-level mathematics 
courses. 

Pure Mathematics— Math 322 or 332, 363, 343 or 
364, plus three other 300-level mathematics 
courses. 

Elementary or Secondary Teaching— Math 343, 
351, the Education Semester, plus two other 300- 
level mathematics courses. 

Other— Students may designate some other 
concentration and propose a coherent sequence 
of six courses to accomplish their objective. At 
least four of the courses must be 300-level 
mathematics courses. The proposal should be 
planned with the help of a faculty member and 
must have the approval of the Mathematics 
Department before being accepted. It must be 
submitted to the Mathematics Department by 
October 15 of the senior year. 



111 



Mathematics 



A minor in mathematics consists of six 
mathematics courses, including 211, 212, and at 
least two 300-level courses. 

COMPUTING REQUIREMENT 

All mathematics majors are required to take 
Computer Studies 105 and should complete it no 
later than the end of their sophomore year. 



101 College Algebra 

Review of basic algebraic concepts as well as 
more advanced topics, including the notion of a 
function; linear, quadratic, polynomial, rational, 
exponential, and logarithmic functions; systems 
of equations. Applications will be drawn from a 
wide variety of fields. Credit is not granted for 
both Mathematics 101 and 110. 

Staff 

105-106 Applied Calculus— Applied Calculus 
and Matrix Algebra 

Concepts and applications of calculus and 
matrix algebra that are particularly important in 
Biology, Economics, Management, and other 
social sciences. Topics include: differentiation 
and integration of algebraic, exponential, and 
logarithmic functions; matrix algebra; linear 
programming; the simplex method; and an 
introduction to differential equations and 
multivariate calculus. Emphasis is on 
applications and problem solving. Credit is not 
granted for both Math 105 and 111. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 101 or the equivalent. 

Staff 

107 Applied Statistics 

Designed for students in the Biological and 
Social Sciences. Topics include descriptive 
statistics, fundamentals of probability theory, 
hypothesis testing, correlation, regression, and 
analysis of variance. An important aspect of the 
course is the use of a statistical package on the 
computer. Credit is not granted for more than 
one of the following: Mathematics 107, 
Economics 241, and Psychology 205. Four lecture 
hours per week. 

Staff 

110 Precalculus 

Preparation for the study of calculus. Includes 
topics from algebra, trigonometry, and analytic 
geometry. The function approach will be 
emphasized. Credit is not granted for both 
Mathematics 110 and 101. Four lecture hours per 
week. 

Staff 



111-112 Calculus of a Single Variable I. II 

Differential and integral calculus of one real 
variable. Topics include introduction to limits, 
continuity, the derivative, the definite integral, 
sequences, series, and elementary differential 
equations. Both theory and applications are 
stressed. No prior experience with calculus or 
computing is assumed. Four lecture hours per 
week. Credit is not granted for both Math 111 
and 105. Prerequisite: Mathematics 110 or 
equivalent. 

Staff 

180 Basic Concepts of Elementary Mathematics 

Designed for future elementary teachers who are 
sophomores and above and have been approved 
for admittance into the program for elementary 
certification. Topics include the number system, 
different bases, number line, use of sets, 
principles of arithmetic, introduction to geometry 
and algebra. 

Mr. J. T. Held 

211 Multivariate Calculus 

Vectors, vector functions, function of several 
variables, partial differentiation, optimization, 
multiple integration, transformation of 
coordinates, line and surface integrals, Green's 
and Stoke's theorems. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
112. Four lecture hours per week. 

Staff 

212 Linear Algebra 

Systems of linear equations, algebra of matrices, 
determinants, abstract vector spaces, linear 
transformation, eigenvalues, and quadratic 
forms. Prerequisite: Mathematics 112 or 
permission of instructor. Four lecture hours per 
week. 

Staff 

321-322 Analysis I. II 

Provides both a rigorous treatment of concepts 
studied in elementary calculus and an 
introduction to more advanced topics in 
analysis. Among the topics studied are: elements 
of logic and set theory, properties of real 
numbers, elements of metric space topology, 
continuity, the derivative, the Riemann integral, 
sequences and series, uniform convergence, 
functions of several variables. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 211 and 212. Mathematics 322 
offered in alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Messrs. Holder and Kellett 

331-332 Abstract Algebra I. II 

A study of the basic structures of modern 



112 



abstract algebra, including groups, rings, fields, 
and vector spaces. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
212. Mathematics 332 offered in alternate years. 
Offered 1988-89. 

Messrs. Flesner and Golf in 

343 Topics in Geometry 

A brief introduction to the history of the 
development of geometries from Euclid to the 
present, with emphasis on the significance of 
non-Euclidean geometries. Topics include 
projective geometry and its subgeometries, from 
affine to Euclidean. Alternate years. Offered 
1988-89. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 

Mr. Flesner 

351-352 Mathematical Statistics and Probability 

Probability, frequency distributions, sampling 
theory, testing hypotheses, estimation, 
correlation and regression, small sample 
distributions, and applications. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 211 and 212. 

Ms. Magness 

354 Topics in Applied Probability 
and Statistics 

Study of an area of applied probability and 
statistics not otherwise in the curriculum. 
Possible subjects include linear modeling, 
stochastic processes, nonparametric statistics, 
and quality control. Prerequisite: Mathematics 
351. Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Kellett and Ms. Magness 

356 Statistical Decision Theory 

An introduction to applied decision theory using 
Bayesian statistics. Topics will include decision 
rules, risk, the likelihood principle, utility and 
loss, prior information and subjective 
probability, Bayesian analysis, and game theory. 
Prerequisite: Mathematics 351 or Economics 241. 
Alternate years. Offered 1988-89. 

Ms. Magness 

362 Introduction to Operations Research 

A study of techniques and tools used in 
mathematical models applied to the biological, 
management, and social sciences. Topics 
selected from the following: optimization, game 
theory, linear and non-linear programming, 
dynamic programming, transportation problems, 
and network analysis. The computer will be used 
extensively. Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 or 
106, and CS 105. Alternate years. Offered 1988-89. 
Messrs. Kellett and Leinbach 

363 Differential Equations and Special Functions 

First order ordinary differential equations, linear 
differential equations of first and second order, 



Mathematics 

series solutions, Fourier series and integrals, 
partial differential equations of physics, 
Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 211, 212. 

Messrs. Holder and Mara 

364 Complex Variables 

Analytic functions, conformal mapping, complex 
integrals, Laurent series, theory of residues, 
potential theory. Prerequisites: Mathematics 
211,212. 

Messrs. Holder and Mara 

366 Numerical Analysis 

Numerical techniques of solving applied 
mathematical problems. A heavy emphasis is 
placed on the interrelation with these techniques 
and the digital computer. Topics to be covered 
are numerical solutions of systems of equations, 
the eigenvalue problem, interpolation and 
approximation, and numerical solutions to 
differential equations. Although emphasis is 
placed on the numerical techniques, 
consideration will also be given to computational 
efficiency and error analysis. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 211, 212. Alternate years. Offered 
1989-90. 

Ms. Magness and Mr. Wijesinha 

371 Discrete Structures and Theory 
of Computation 

A study of the mathematical structures used in 
computer science as well as in many other 
contemporary applications of mathematics 
involving finite and countably infinite sets. 
Topics will include sets, relations, algebraic 
systems, graphs, formal systems, and 
combinatorics. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 
Alternate years. Offered 1989-90. 

Mr. Leinbach 

381. 382 Selected Topics 

Study of some advanced phase of mathematics 
not otherwise in the curriculum. The subject 
matter and the frequency of offering the course 
will be dependent on student interest. Some 
possible areas for study are: point set topology, 
combinatorics, graph theory, partial differential 
equations, differential geometry, and number 
theory. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Pursuit of topics of an advanced nature by well- 
qualified students through individual reading, 
under the supervision of staff members. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the department 
chairperson. 

Staff 



113 



Military Science 



Military Science 

Army ROTC: Military Science 
Professor Dombrowsky {Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Barthle, Campbell, 

Earwood, and Littlejohn 
Assistant Instructors Holmes, Moody, and Slifko 

Overview 

The Department of Military Science offers 
courses which develop a student's ability to 
organize, motivate, and lead others. 

The freshman and sophomore years of military 
science are referred to as the Basic Course. 
There is no military obligation connected with 
enrollment in the courses offered. Completion of 
the Basic Course or credit for the Basic Course is 
required for entrance into the Advanced Course. 

The junior and senior years of military science 
are referred to as the Advanced Course. Men and 
women enrolled in this course agree to a military 
service obligation. The active duty obligation is 
normally 3 years but can be as little as 3 months. 
This obligation should be investigated on an 
individual basis with a Military Science 
Department instructor. Students enrolled in the 
Advanced Course receive $100.00 per month 
during the school year. 

Advanced Course graduates are commissioned 
Second Lieutenants in the US Army, the Army 
Reserve, or the Army National Guard. In addition, 
Advanced Course graduates may also obtain 
educational delays from active duty for graduate 
studies. 

The Military Science program offers a 4-year and 
a 2-year program for commissioning: 

a. The 4-year program— 

1. A college freshman enters the ROTC program 
during the fall semester of the freshman year 
and continues in the program through the senior 
year. 

2. A freshman or sophomore may enter the 
program either during the second semester, 
freshman year or the first semester, sophomore 
year, and through compression of the military 
science courses, be eligible to enter the 
Advanced Course at the beginning of the junior 
year. 

b. The 2-year program— 

1. Successful completion of a six-week Basic 



Camp during the summer between sophomore 
and junior years can qualify individuals for 
placement in the Advanced Course at the 
beginning of the junior year. 

2. Veterans and those who have received military 
training in high school, in college ROTC, or at a 
service school may be granted credit for the 
military science Basic Course and be eligible to 
enter the Advanced Course. 

ROTC scholarships are offered on a competitive 
basis. Eligible students may apply for one, two 
or three-year scholarships which pay full tuition 
and textbook expenses plus $100.00 per month. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

MS 101, 102, 201, 202, and 246 are open to all 
freshmen and sophomores and incur no military 
obligation. MS 301, 302, 311, and 312 are open to 
those junior and senior students who have 
entered the Advanced Course and are seeking a 
commission in the US Army. These courses 
should be taken in sequence. Interested juniors 
and seniors not seeking a commission may 
enroll in the 300-level courses with the 
permission of the department chairperson. 

101 Orienteering 

Study of the art of finding your way with map 
and compass across unknown terrain to a 
preselected destination. Skills involved in 
reading symbols on a topographic map and use 
of the compass will be developed. Practical 
application exercises will be used to enhance 
skills. Meets the college course requirement in 
Health and Physical Education in Group II 
Fitness Activities. 

1 /i Course Credit 

102 Introduction to Military Science 

Study of the organization of the Army and ROTC, 
the military as a profession, customs and 
courtesies of the service, a survey of the U.S. 
defense establishment, and introduction to 
leadership through practical exercises. 

V* Course Credit 

201 Mountaineering 

Study of mountaineering techniques including 
climbing, use of ropes, mountain rescue, rope 
bridging, etc. Meets college course requirement 
in Health and Physical Education in Group II 
Fitness Activities. 

1 A Course Credit 



114 



Military Science/Music 



202 Wilderness Survival 

Study of basic skills and techniques which are 
required to insure survival in a wilderness 
environment. Emphasis will be placed on 
practical application experiences. Meets college 
course requirement in Health and Physical 
Education in Group III Recreational Skills. 

1 /» Course Credit 

246 American Military History 

A survey ot the development and commitment of 
United States Military Forces from the colonial 
period to the present. Emphasis on the evolution 
of strategy and tactics and their impact on US 
military institutions. The course is designed to 
maximize the use of guest speaker professional 
Army historians from the US Army Center for 
Military History (Washington, D.C.) and the US 
Army Military History Institute (Carlisle, PA). In 
addition, the offering will include a terrain study 
of the Gettysburg Battlefield. Priority to Army 
ROTC cadets. Offered in spring semester each 
year. No prerequisites required. Three class 
hours each week, one hour laboratory for ROTC 
cadets only. 

1 Course Credit 

301 Advanced Military Science I 

Study of the principles of leadership and their 
application in both a military and non-military 
environment. The principles of personnel and 
equipment management are also studied. 

1 Course Credit 

302 Advanced Military Science II 

Study of military operations involving various 
elements of the army, to include small unit 
tactics. The student learns through practical 
exercises the basic principles of handling 
tactical units in combat. 

1 Course Credit 

31 1 Advanced Military Science III 

Seminar-lecture with primary emphasis on 
military justice, staff organization, personnel 
and administration, and the Law of Land 
Warfare. 

1 Course Credit 

312 Advanced Military Science IV 

Seminar-lecture primarily designed to prepare 
the student for commissioning. Military problem- 
solving techniques, speaking and writing skills, 
and current military issues are addressed. The 
obligations and responsibilities of an Army 
officer are also stressed. 

1 Course Credit 



Leadership Laboratory 

All ROTC cadets participate in a professional 
development laboratory each Thursday 
afternoon at 4 p.m. This laboratory period is 
designed to provide an understanding of the 
fundamental concepts and principles of Military 
Science and an opportunity to develop 
leadership and management potential. Students 
will develop skills in Mountaineering, Survival, 
and Orienteering. All advanced course and 
scholarship cadets are required to attend one 
weekend of training per semester. This training 
is optional for basic course students. 



Music 

Professor Weikel 

Associate Professors Belt, Finstad, Matsinko, 

Nunamaker {Chairperson), and Zellner 
Assistant Professor Speck 
Adjunct Assistant Professors T. Bowers and 

C. Matsinko 
Adjunct Instructors Baxter and Botterbusch 

Overview 

The Music Department endeavors to introduce 
students to the historical significance of Western 
Music so that they have an understanding of 
their musical heritage and some knowledge of 
current musical trends. Supporting this historical 
knowledge is acquaintance by students with the 
basic elements of music (harmony, counterpoint, 
and form) and discovery of their own abilities 
through direct contact with, and creative 
manipulation of, such material. The music 
curriculum also involves the student in an 
intensive study of applied music. This 
encompasses two aspects: individual and group 
(or ensemble) experience. In the practice room, 
studio, and recital hall the student has an 
opportunity to refine the techniques for musical 
performance. In the ensemble the individual must 
work within a larger social context to achieve a 
common musical goal. The program also 
provides courses for the student who plans to 
enter the field of music education. These 
offerings are based on competencies prescribed 
by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. 
The Music Department offers programs leading 
to a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in 
music and a Bachelor of Science degree with a 
major in music education. 



115 



Music 



Also available are a minor in music and a B.A. 
major in music within the elementary education 
certitication program. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Department requires an audition of all 
candidates proposing to major in music or music 
education. Appointments for such auditions 
should be made through the College Admissions 
Office. Requirements for a major in music leading 
to a Bachelor of Arts degree consist of twelve 
full courses (Music 141, 142, 241, 242, 244, 341, 
342, 313, 314, 205, 206, and 456) plus seven 
quarter-courses in the student's major applied 
area. The major must also participate for four 
years in an authorized ensemble and present a 
recital in the senior year. 

Music majors in the elementary education 
program must meet the same requirements as 
the B.A. candidate with the exception of courses 
341 and 342. 

The successful completion of the program 
leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in 
music education (see page 42) satisfies the 
Certification requirements for teaching music in 
elementary and secondary schools. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in arts may be 
fulfilled by one of the following: Music 101, 103, 
104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 244, 313, 
and 314. 

Performing Ensembles 

All College students are eligible to audition for 
College Choir, Chapel Choir, Band, and 
Orchestra. Band members are eligible to audition 
for Jazz Ensemble, Brass Ensemble, Percussion 
Ensemble, and Clarinet Choir. Music majors and 
choir members are eligible to audition for the 
Chamber Choir. Auditions for all groups are held 
at the beginning of the school year or at other 
times by appointment. 

101 Introduction to Music Listening 

A consideration of the principal music forms 
against the background of the other arts. 
Intensive listening is an essential part of the 
course. Repeated spring semester. 

Messrs. Belt and Mats in ko 



103 The Symphony 

The standard symphonic repertoire presented 
through listening. Attention will be given to 
stylistic changes in that music from the classic 
to the romantic and contemporary periods. 

Mr. Belt 

104 Opera 

Study of standard operatic works. These are 
listened to and discussed as examples of drama 
and music. 

Mr. Finstad 

105 Introduction to Contemporary Music 

Study of the major trends in twentieth century 
music with emphasis on the music of Debussy, 
Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Bartok, and the Avant 
Garde composers. This course is designed for 
students with some musical background. 

Messrs. Belt and Speck 

106 Art Song 

Study of the history, interpretation, and style of 
the art song. Literature will include German, 
French, English, and American Art Songs. 

Mr. Matsinko 

107 Music of the Romantic Era 

Study of the philosophical background for 
nineteenth century music and its stylistic 
features. Extensive listening will be done in the 
areas of orchestral, vocal, and chamber music. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

108 Church Music of J. S. Bach 

Study of compositions written by Bach for use in 
the services of the eighteenth-century German 
Lutheran Church. Baroque style characteristics 
will be investigated and relationship to earlier 
forms and functions will be studied. 

Mr. Weikel 

109 Baroque Music 

Study of Baroque music with some emphasis on 
stylistic comparisons with Baroque art and 
architecture. Included will be a brief background 
of the classical style of the Renaissance as a 
basis for contrast to the romantic style of the 
Baroque. 

Mr. Belt 

1 10 Survey of Jazz 

Study of the roots and styles of jazz and of 
related black culture. Emphasis on listening 
awareness. 

Mr. Belt 



116 



Music 



141 Theory I 

Fundamentals of basic theory, notation, 
and nomenclature; introduction to writing 
skills; basic analytic technique; melodic 
analysis; correlated sight-singing and aural 
perception skills. 

Mr. Speck 

142 Theory II 

Continuation of writing skills; analysis and 
writing of chorales; correlated sight singing and 
aural perception skills; keyboard harmony. 

Messrs. Speck and Weikel 

241 Theory III 

Study of the common practice period; extensive 
written and analytic projects; study of musical 
structure through small forms; correlated sight 
singing and aural perception skills. 

Mr. Weikel 

242 Theory IV 

Study of late romanticism to the present day by 
means of analytic and written projects. 
Correlated sight-singing, aural perception skills, 
and keyboard harmony are included. 

Mr. Speck 

244 Introduction to Music Literature 

Study of the major genres, style periods, and 
composers of Western music. Extensive use of 
recorded materials is included with emphasis on 
the development of aural recognition. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

313 History of Medieval. Renaissance, and 
Baroque Music 

Study of the major forms and styles of music 
and composers from the pre-Christian era 
through the eighteenth century. Extensive use of 
musical examples and recordings is included. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

314 Music in the Classic, Romantic, and 
Contemporary Periods 

Study of the principal stylistic tendencies from c. 
1770 to the present. Extensive listening to, and 
examination of, illustrative materials is an 
essential part of the course. 

Mr. Speck 

341 Theory V 

Study of the capabilities and limitations of the 
standard wind, string, and percussion 
instruments. Included is score study, 
transposition and emphasis on applied 
orchestration projects for laboratory 
performance and critique. 

Mr. Speck 



342 Theory VI 

Study of the structural organization of music. 
Included will be the analysis of the larger forms 
of composition drawn from the standard 
literature of the eighteenth to twentieth 
centuries. 

Mr. Weikel 

205 Choral Conducting 

Development of a basic conducting technique. 
Emphasis is placed upon the choral idiom 
including vocal problems and tonal development, 
diction, rehearsal procedures, interpretation, 
and suitable repertoire for school, church, 
and community. 

Staff 

206 Instrumental Conducting 

Continued development of conducting skills and 
score. This involves interpretation, musical 
styles, balance, intonation, rehearsal 
procedures, and suitable repertoire for large and 
small ensembles. 

Mr. Zellner 

303 Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to the contrapuntal technique of the 
sixteenth century through the study of plainsong 
and early motets. Composition in the small forms 
is a part of the course. Offered on demand. 

Mr. Weikel 

304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to the contrapuntal style of the 
eighteenth century and an analysis of the 
baroque forms with attention to linear motion 
and fundamental harmonic progression. 
Composition in the various forms is required. 

Mr. Weikel 

320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary School 

Study of the methods and materials of teaching 
music in the elementary grades. Various 
approaches to guiding pupils in perception of, 
reaction to, and evaluation of music experience 
are included. Alternate years. 

Ms. Matsinko 

321 Principles and Procedures of Teaching 
Music in the Secondary School 

Study and evaluation of methods, materials, and 
techniques relative to music classes and 
performance groups with a development of a 
personal philosophy of music education. 
Alternate years. 

Staff 



117 



Music 

474 Student Teaching 

Teaching in public schools in cooperation with, 
and under the supervision of, experienced 
teachers. Individual conferences and seminars 
with the College supervisor and supervising 
teacher are required. Offered in spring semester 
only. 

Three Course Units 
Mr. Zellner 

Individualized Study 

Prerequisite: Approval of department and 
directing faculty member. 

Applied Music 

The Department offers instruction in voice, 
piano, organ, and the standard band and 
orchestral instruments. The repertoire is adapted 
to the student's ability. One quarter-course credit 
is given for one half-hour private lesson per 
week, per semester. Some piano and voice 
instruction may be in group classes. 

Students majoring in music who are candidates 
for the Bachelor of Arts degree may take up to 
eight quarter-courses of private instruction, and 
those who are candidates for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Music Education may take 
up to 12 quarter-courses of private instruction at 
no additional cost beyond the comprehensive fee. 

The Department also sponsors various music 
organizations, including the College Choir, 
Chapel Choir, Band, and Orchestra. All college 
students are eligible to audition for any of 
these, either at the beginning of the school year 
or at other times by appointment. 

111-112 Woodwind Instrument Class 

Instruction in the technique of teaching and 
playing woodwind instruments, using the 
clarinet as the basic instrument. 

Two Va Courses 
Mr. Zellner 

113-114 Brass Instrument Class 

Instruction in the technique of teaching and 
playing brass instruments. The trumpet or 
cornet is used as the basic brass instrument. 

Two Va Courses 
Mr. Zellner 

115-116 Stringed Instrument Class 

Instruction and practice in the techniques of 
stringed instruments and the organization of a 
string section. 

Two Va Courses 
Mr. Botterbusch 



117 Percussion Class 

The organization of practical and theoretical 
materials concerning all of the percussion 
instruments, their performance techniques, and 
teaching procedures. 

Va Course 
Mr. Zellner 

121 Voice 

Private instruction in fundamentals of voice 
culture with emphasis upon breath control, 
resonance, tone quality, diction, pronunciation, 
and an appreciation of the best works of 
the masters. Repeated in the spring semester. 
Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per 
semester: $260. 

Va Course 
Mr. Finstad 

122 Voice Class 

Study of vocal techniques using lectures, class 
discussions, and demonstrations. The course 
will have a practical workshop atmosphere: 
practicing basic vocal production with 
emphasis on posture, breath control, diction, and 
vowel formation. Fee for class lessons per 
semester: $260. 

Va Course 
Mr. Finstad 

123 Piano 

Private instruction in the development of the 
necessary techniques for facility in reading and 
interpreting a musical score accurately at the 
keyboard. Literature includes representative 
compositions of various styles and periods. 
Public performance is required of those 
majoring in this area of concentration. Fee for 
one half-hour lesson per week per semester: 
$260. 

Va Course 
Messrs. Matsinko and Belt 

124 Class Piano 

Emphasis on sight-reading, ensemble playing, 
and harmonizing melodies with various types of 
accompaniment as well as playing some of the 
standard piano literature. Fee for class lessons 
per semester: $260. 

Va Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

125 Organ 

Private instruction designed to include literature 
of various periods, sight-reading, hymn-playing, 
chant and anthem accompaniment. Prerequisites: 
satisfactory performance of all major and minor 



118 



scales (two octaves) and a Bach Invention. Fee 
for one half-hour lesson per week per semester: 
$260. 

Vi Course 
Messrs. Weikel and Belt 

127 Band Instrument Instruction 

Private instruction emphasizing the 
fundamentals and repertoire for the performance 
of woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. 
Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per 
semester: $260. 

1 /4 Course 
Ms. Bowers and Messrs. Speck andZellner 

129 Stringed instrument Instruction 

Private instruction emphasizing both the 
fundamentals of string playing and repertory. 
Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per 
semester: $260. 

1 A Course 
Mr. Nunamaker 

131 College Choir 

Performs high quality sacred and secular choral 
literature. In addition to campus concerts and 
appearances in nearby cities, the Choir makes an 
annual concert tour. Oratorios are presented in 
conjunction with the Chapel Choir. Four 
rehearsals weekly, first semester. Three 
rehearsals weekly, second semester. 

No Credit 
Mr. Finstad 

132 Chapel Choir 

Performs standard musical literature with the 
purpose of supporting and assisting the College 
community in the Sunday morning services. The 
Choir appears in nearby cities and makes a short 
tour each spring. Three rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Weikel 

133 Band 

Performs a wide variety of literature for the 
band. After several marching performances the 
symphonic band presents campus concerts and 
a spring tour of Pennsylvania and neighboring 
states. Four rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Speck 

135 Orchestra 

The study and performance of orchestral music 
of all eras. Membership is open to all students of 
qualifying ability. Two rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Nunamaker 



Music / Philosophy 

456 Senior Recital 

Solo presentation of representative literature of 
various stylistic periods of the student's major 
applied area with emphasis on historical 
performance practice. 



Philosophy 

Professor Coulter (Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Portmess 
Assistant Professor Walters 
Adjunct Instructor Kuebler 

Overview 

The departmental objectives are to promote 
inquiry into perennial philosophical questions 
such as the nature of justice, happiness, 
knowledge, and freedom, to produce awareness 
of the answers that have been proposed in 
response to these questions; to teach the tools 
for the analysis of the assumptions and values 
which underlie different intellectual disciplines; 
and to promote the application of philosophical 
analysis to issues of public policy and morality. 
The study of philosophy encourages the student 
to develop the ability to analyze problems, 
understand central issues, and develop 
alternative solutions. It challenges the student to 
reflect upon problems involving values, to 
examine problems in an interdisciplinary way, to 
examine alternative world views and forms of 
knowledge, and to develop an awareness of 
intellectual history. Classes encourage 
discussion and writing. The study of philosophy 
is an integral part of an education in the liberal 
arts tradition. 

A major in philosophy is excellent preparation 
for graduate school or for professional schools 
in almost any field. It is especially good 
background for law and the ministry. It will also 
prove valuable in any occupation which 
demands clear thinking and the ability to 
understand the points of view of other people. 
Individually, philosophy courses will prove 
useful supplements to course work in other 
areas. The Department is interested in assisting 
and encouraging students to design Special 
Majors in which philosophy is an integral part. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Philosophy 101, 105, and 211 have no 
prerequisites. Any 100-level course or 211 is 
recommended as preparation for a 200- or 



119 



Philosophy / Physics 

300-level course, though the instructor may grant 
permission on an individual basis to equivalents 
prepared students. 

A philosophy minor consists of any six courses 
in the Department, only two of which may be 
100-level courses. A philosophy major consists 
of nine courses in philosophy, including 211; at 
least two out of 203, 204, and 220; three 300-level 
courses; and 460 (Senior Thesis). 

Distribution Requirements 

Any course offered by the Department may be 
used to satisfy the distribution requirement in 
History/Philosophy. 

101 Introduction to Philosophy 

A study of selected philosophical texts with the 
aim of developing the students' ability to read 
philosophy and to reflect and comment upon 
philosophical problems. 

Staff 

105 Contemporary Moral Issues 

A study of moral problems facing individuals in 
our society. Selected readings dealing with 
moral disputes in business, politics, international 
affairs, medicine, and social policy will be 
discussed along with the ethical theories which 
the various sides use to make their cases. 

Staff 



203 Classical Greek and Roman Philosophy 

A study of the philosophers and philosophies of 
ancient Greece and Rome. Major emphasis will 
be on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and 
Hellenistic Neoplatonism. 

Ms. Portmess 

204 Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy 

A study of philosophers and philosophies of 
Medieval and Early Modern Europe as these 
reflect the impact of religion and science on the 
traditional problems and assumptions of 
philosophy. Major thinkers to be studied include 
Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, Leibniz, 
Spinoza, Locke, Berkely, Hume, and Kant. 

Mr. Walters 

211 Logic and Semantics 

An introduction to formal logic and a study of 
the uses of language, with particular reference to 
the nature of inference from premises to 
conclusion; rules for deductive inference; 
construction of formal proofs in sentential 
and quantificational logic; the nature of 



language; informal inferences and fallacies; 
theory of definition. 

Mr. Coulter 

220 Nineteenth Century Philosophy 

A study of leading European thinkers of the 
Nineteenth Century, including readings from 
Hegel, Feuerbach, Marx, Mill, Freud, Kierkegaard 
and Nietzche. 

Mr. Walters 

234 Philosophy of Art 

A survey of the major paradigms in the history 
of aesthetic theory (e.g., formalism, imitation 
theory, etc.), with emphasis on the relation of 
aesthetics to other aspects of philosophy. 
Such issues as the nature and function(s) of 
art and the qualifications of a good critic will 
be discussed. 

Mr. Walters 

350, 351, etc. Topics in Philosophy 

Studies of philosophical topics as treated by 
Twentieth Century philosophers. Recent topics 
have been Philosophy of Religion, Analytic 
Philosophy, Ethical Theory, Environmental 
Ethics, Theories of Reality, and Feminism and 
Public Policy. Topics will differ each semester 
and will be announced in advance. Prerequisites: 
Major or Minor in Philosophy, or permission of 
the instructor. 

Staff 

460 Senior Thesis 

An individualized study project involving the 
research of a topic and the preparation of a 
major paper. This will normally be done during 
the fall or spring semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisite: Major or Minor in Philosophy. 

Staff 



Physics 

Professors Haskins, Hendrickson, Mara, 

and Marschall 
Associate Professor Cowan {Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Karshner, Pella, and Swade 



Overview 

Within wide limits, a physics major can be 
tailored to meet the needs and desires of 
individual students. A major in physics is 
appropriate for those who enjoy the subject and 
who have no particular career in mind. It is also 



120 



suitable preparation tor careers ranging trom 
government and law to theoretical physics and 
molecular biology. Gettysburg physics graduates 
have selected a wide range of fields for graduate 
study, including: astronomy; astrophysics; 
biophysics; business; geophysics; 
environmental, electrical, nuclear, and ocean 
engineering; physics; and physiological 
psychology. 

Persons who become physics majors ought to be 
curious about the ways of nature and have a 
strong urge to satisfy this curiosity. Their 
success depends upon their ability to devise and 
perform meaningful experiments, their intuitive 
understanding of the way nature behaves, and 
their skill in casting ideas into mathematical 
forms. No two majors are endowed with 
precisely the same division of these talents, but 
they must develop some proficiency in each. 

Courses in the Department emphasize those 
theories and principles that give a broad, 
unifying understanding of nature and the 
analytical reasoning needed for their use. 
Laboratory training stresses the design of 
experiments, the techniques of precise 
measurement, and the interpretation of data. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The minimum physics major consists of nine 
courses including Physics 111, 112, 213, 240, 310, 
312, 319, 325, and 330. This minimum major is 
more than adequate preparation for physics 
certification for secondary school teaching and 
industrial or government laboratory work. 
Anyone for whom graduate study is a possibility 
should plan to take twelve courses in the 
Department. Students are not permitted to take 
more than twelve courses in the Department 
without the permission of the Department unless 
the thirteenth course is Physics 462. 

All majors must complete mathematics courses 
through Mathematics 212 or its equivalent. Those 
planning to go to graduate school should also 
complete Mathematics 363. Majors are expected 
to exhibit increasing computer competence as 
they progress through the courses in the physics 
curriculum. 

The Department strongly recommends that all 
majors take Physics 462. This course provides a 
research experience in conjunction with a faculty 
member in either physics or astronomy. 

Freshmen who are considering a major in 
physics should enroll in Physics 111, 112 and 



Physics 

Mathematics 111-112, if possible. While it is 
desirable for majors to take this freshman 
program, students may accomplish a full major 
in physics even if they take Physics 111, 112 in 
their sophomore year. 

A minor in physics consists of Physics 111-112, 
213 plus any three courses in Physics beyond the 
100-level. 



Distribution Requirements 

The laboratory science distribution requirement 
may be satisfied by taking one course from 
among Physics 103 or 111 and one course from 
104 or 112, or by taking Astronomy 101 and 102. 

The prerequisites listed below in the course 
descriptions are meant only as guides. Any 
course is open to students who have the 
permission of the instructor. 

Special Facilities 

In addition to the usual laboratories in nuclear 
physics, atomic physics, electronics, and optics, 
the facilities of the department include a 
planetarium and an observatory. The 
observatory features a 16" Cassegrain telescope 
with a computer controlled drive, a UBV 
photometer, and an astronomical spectrometer. 

Computational resources include an Apple ll-e 
equipped introductory laboratory, a variety of 
other microcomputers, and terminals to access 
the College Burroughs 5920 microcomputer. 

Support facilities in Masters Hall include the 
Physics library, a machine shop, and an 
electronics shop. 

Engineering 

The Department administers the Dual-Degree 
Engineering Program with Pennsylvania State 
University, Washington University in St. Louis, 
and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students 
selecting this program take Physics 111, 112, 
213, 215, and 216 and graduate from Gettysburg 
with a major in Physics upon successful 
completion of an engineering degree at 
Pennsylvania State, Washington University in St. 
Louis, or RPI. The Dual-Degree Engineering 
Program is further described on page 51. 

More details about the physics and the Dual- 
Degree engineering program are described in the 



121 



Physics 



Handbook for Students prepared by the Physics 
Department. Majors and prospective majors are 
encouraged to request a copy from the Physics 
Department office. 

Astronomy 101 Solar System Astronomy 

An overview of the behavior and properties of 
planets, satellites, and minor members of the 
solar system. Subjects include: basic phenomena 
of the visible sky, gravitation and orbital 
mechanics, the results of telescopic and space 
research, and theories of the origin and evolution 
of the solar system. This course is designed to 
satisfy the laboratory science distribution 
requirement for non-science majors. Three 
classes and a laboratory. 

Messrs. Karshner and Marschall 

Astronomy 102 Stellar Astronomy 

An overview of current knowledge about the 
universe beyond the solar system from a 
physical and evolutionary standpoint. Subjects 
include: observational properties of stars, 
methods of observation and analysis of light, the 
nature of stellar systems and interstellar 
material, principles of stellar structure and 
evolution, overall structure and development of 
the physical universe. Prerequisite: Astronomy 
101 or permission of the instructor. Three classes 
and a laboratory. 

Messrs. Karshner and Marschall 

103. 104 Elementary Physics 

A general coverage of the fields of classical and 
modern physics with time devoted to areas of 
special interest in biology, fluids, heat, radiation, 
and numerous applications. While particularly 
useful for biology majors, the course will serve 
any student as an introduction to a wide range of 
topics in physics. Prerequisite: Facility in algebra 
and geometry. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr. Cowan 



111 Mechanics 

An introduction to classical mechanics: laws of 
motion and the conservation laws of linear 
momentum, energy, and angular momentum. The 
rudiments of calculus and vector analysis are 
introduced and used throughout the course. 
Students already having credit for 103 or 104 
may register for Physics 111 for credit only with 
the permission of the Department. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 111, which may be taken 
concurrently. Four class hours and three 



laboratory hours. 



Mr. Mara 



112 Heat. Electricity, Magnetism, and Relativity 

Heat and the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, electrostatic fields, currents, 
magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, 
Maxwell's equations, light as a propagating 
electromagnetic disturbance, and the special 
theory of relativity. Prerequisite: Physics 111. 
Four class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Mara 

213 Waves. Optics, and Modern Physics 

An introduction to interference, diffraction, and 
polarization. Principal topic is foundation of 
atomic and nuclear physics including black body 
radiation, photoelectric and compton effect, 
Rutherford's atom, Bohr-Sommerfeld theory, 
spectra, spin, magnetic moments, uncertainty 
principle, radioactivity. Prerequisite: Physics 104 
or 112. Three class hours and one afternoon 
laboratory. 

Mr. Pella 

215 Engineering Mechanics: Statics 

Equilibrium of coplanar and noncoplanar force 
systems; analysis of structures, friction, 
centroids, and moments of inertia. Required for 
engineering students. Prerequisites: Physics 112, 
Mathematics 211. 

Mr. Cowan 

216 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics 

Motion of a particle, translation and rotation of 
rigid bodies, work and energy, impulse and 
momentum. Required for engineering students. 
Prerequisite: Physics 215. Three class hours. 

Mr. Cowan 

240 Electronics 

Principles of electronic devices and circuits 
using integrated circuits, both analog and digital 
including amplifiers, oscillators, and logic 
circuits. Prerequisite: Physics 104 or 112. Two 
class hours and six laboratory hours. 

Mr. Karshner 

241 Fundamentals of Microprocessors 

Basic concepts and principles of microprocessor 
design; Microprocessor programming with a 
view toward interfacing including interrupts, 
memory devices, bus structure and I/O devices. 
Prerequisite: Physics 240 or consent of 
instructor. 

Mr. Karshner 

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics II 

Introduction to quantum mechanics. Potential 



122 



Physics / Political Science 



wells, barriers, one electron atoms, multielectron 
atoms are studied. Other topics include nuclear 
models, decay, and nuclear reactions. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 
Prerequisite: Physics 213. 

Mr. Pella 

312 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Temperature, heat, the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, introductory statistical 
physics; Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and 
Bose-Einstein statistics. Applications to selected 
topics in solid state physics, low temperature 
physics, and other fields are included. 
Prerequisite: Physics 213. Three class hours. 

Mr. Cowan 

319 Classical Mechanics 

Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics for 
upperclass physics majors. Topics include 
equations of motion, non-inertial reference 
systems, conservation laws, clamped and 
coupled oscillators, central force motion, and 
rigid body motion. Prerequisites: Physics 213 and 
Mathematics 211. 

Mr. Marschall 

325 Advanced Physics Laboratory 

A laboratory course with experiments drawn 
from various areas of physics such as optics, 
electromagnetism, atomic physics, and nuclear 
physics with particular emphasis on 
contemporary methods. Error analysis and 
experimental techniques are stressed. 

Mr. Pella 

330 Electricity and Magnetism 

Static electric and magnetic fields, 
electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's equations 
in space, fields in matter, time dependent fields. 
Prerequisites: Physics 112 and Mathematics 363. 
Three class hours. 

Mr. Marschall 

341 Quantum Mechanics 

An introduction to the Schrodinger and 
Heisenberg formulations of quantum mechanics. 
Topics covered include free particles, the 
harmonic oscillator, angular momentum, the 
hydrogen atom, matrix mechanics, the spin wave 
functions, the helium atom and perturbation 
theory. Prerequisite: Physics 310 and 319, 
Mathematics 363. Three class hours. 

Mr. Mara 

342 Relativity: Nuclear and Particle Physics 

Special relativity: includes four vectors, tensor 



analysis, electromagnetic field. Nuclear and 
particle physics at a level requiring quantum 
mechanics are covered including time dependent 
perturbation theory, scattering, Breit-Wigner 
resonance, isospin, and quark model. 
Prerequisite: Physics 341. Three class hours. 

Mr. Pella 

452 Tutorials: Special Topics 

Designed to cover physics or physics related 
topics not otherwise available in the curriculum. 
Open to upperclass physics majors who arrange 
with a staff member for supervision. Possible 
areas of study include advanced electronics, 
medical physics, astrophysics, acoustics, optics. 
Prerequisite: Approval by Department. 

Staff 

462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy 

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a 
research level problem selected by a student in 
consultation with a staff member. Students 
should arrange with a staff member for 
supervision by the end of the junior year. Open 
only to second semester senior physics majors. 
Results of the investigation are reported in a 
departmental colloquium. Prerequisite: Approval 
by Department. 

Staff 

474 Internship 

Research participation during the summer at a 
recognized research laboratory such as Argonne 
National Labs, Department of Energy 
laboratories, or Oak Ridge. Individual students 
are responsible for obtaining acceptance to these 
programs. In most cases students will be 
required to describe their participation in a 
departmental colloquium. Prerequisite: 
Completion of sophomore year and Department 
approval. 

Mr. Cowan 



Political Science 

Professor Boenau (Chairperson) 

Associate Professors Borock, Mott, Sylvester, 

D. Tannenbaum, and Trachte 
Assistant Professor Warshaw 
Instructor Mericle 

Overview 

The Department aims at providing an 
understanding of the study of politics, 



123 



Political Science 

emphasizing the methods and approaches of 
political science and the workings of political 
systems in various domestic, foreign, and 
international settings. 

The program provides balance between the 
needs of specialists who intend to pursue 
graduate or professional training and those who 
do not. Courses offered in the Department help 
prepare the student for careers in politics, 
federal, state, and local government, public and 
private interest groups, business, journalism, 
law, and teaching. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The requirements for a major in political science 
are as follows. Majors in the department are 
required to take a minimum of 10 courses in 
political science. Majors are required to take 
three of the following four introductory courses: 
Political Science 101, 102, 103, or 104. These 
courses are designed to introduce the students to 
the discipline and to the types of issues that are 
important to political scientists. The 100-level 
courses may be taken in any order, and they 
should be completed by the end of the 
sophomore year. Of the remaining seven 
advanced courses (courses at the 200-, 300-, and 
400-level), majors are required to take at least 
one course in three of the following groups: 
American Politics, Comparative Politics, 
International Politics, Political Theory. The 
introductory courses serve as prerequisites for 
advanced courses; nevertheless, the department 
believes that three introductory courses provide 
a firm foundation in the discipline as a whole. 
Therefore it strongly encourages majors to take 
advanced courses in all four of the groups. 
Majors may begin taking advanced courses as 
early as the sophomore year provided they have 
taken the particular prerequisite, or in the case 
of not having the prerequisite, they believe they 
are prepared to do so and have the instructor's 
permission. Courses graded S/U are not 
accepted toward the major. 

Requirements for a minor in political science are 
as follows: successful completion of any two 
100-level courses and any four upper-level 
courses which normally count toward the major, 
provided that they do not all fall into the same 
sub-field. 

Departmental honors in political science will be 
awarded to graduating majors who have 
achieved an average of 3.3 in political science 



courses and who have successfully completed a 
significant research project under the 
supervision of a member of the department. 

In the junior and senior years, majors are urged 
to participate in seminars, individualized study 
and internships. Majors also are encouraged to 
enroll in related courses in other social sciences 
and in the humanities. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any of the following courses may be counted 
towards the College distribution requirements in 
social sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The 
following courses may be counted towards the 
College distribution requirement in Non-Western 
culture: 263 and 265. 

Special Programs 

Qualified students may participate in off-campus 
programs, such as the Washington Semester, 
The United Nations Semester, and study abroad. 



Introductory Courses 

101 American Government 

Examination of the institutional structure and 
policy-making process of national government 
as reflections of assumptions of liberal 
democracy and the American social and 
economic systems. In addition to the legislative, 
executive, and judicial branches of government, 
political parties, interest groups, and elections 
are considered. 

Mr. Mott and Ms. Warshaw 

102 Introduction to Political Thought 

Analysis of political philosophies dealing with 
fundamental problems of political association. 
The course will examine concepts of power, 
authority, freedom, equality, social justice, and 
order as expressed in works of philosophers 
from Plato to Marx. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

103 Global Politics 

Examination of the behavior of nation-states in 
the international system from a micropolitical 
perspective that encompasses such topics as 
nationalism, power, and war as well as from a 
macropolitical perspective that stresses broad 
trends such as political and economic 
interdependence and the effects of 
modernization. 

Mr. Borock 



124 



Political Science 



104 Introduction to Comparative Politics 

Introduction to the structure and processes of 
political institutions in major types of political 
systems, including parliamentary systems, the 
soviet system, and systems in developing 
countries. 

Mr. Boenau 

Comparative Politics 

260 Comparative Parliamentary Systems 

Analysis and comparison of parliamentary 
systems in Europe, Asia, and Commonwealth 
countries, focusing on interest groups, political 
parties, political elites, public participation, 
governmental structures and processes, and 
case studies of political systems in operation. 
Prerequisite: PS 104 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Boenau 

261 Comparative Communist Systems 

Analysis and comparison of the political systems 
of the USSR, Eastern Europe, and China, focusing 
on the role of the communist party, the problem 
of succession, and case studies of political 
systems in operation. Prerequisite: PS 104 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Boenau 

263 The Politics of Developing Areas 

Introduction to the study of political development 
and underdevelopment, including approaches to 
Third World politics; the nature of traditional 
politics; disruptions caused by colonialism and 
imperialism; the reformation of domestic politics; 
contemporary political processes and problems. 
Prerequisite: PS 104 or permission of the 
instructor. 

Mr. Trachte 

265 African Politics 

An examination of the dynamics of political 
change and continuity in independent Africa. 
Topics include colonialism, national liberation 
struggles, imperialism, dependency, institutional 
direction (e.g., parties, the military, the 
bureaucracy) and the politics of economic 
development. Prerequisite: PS 104 or permission 
of instructor. 

Mr. Trachte 



American Government 

220 Urban Politics 

Study of the changing patterns in American 
urban life. Particular attention will be given to 
the governing of urban America in the past, 
present, and future, and the structure of power 
that has affected urban policy decisions. 



Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of the 
instructor. 



Staff 



Til Public Administration 

Study of the politics, structure, and procedures 
of governmental administration. Particular 
attention is given to the administrative process, 
policy-making, and the public responsibility of 
administrators. Prerequisite: PS 101. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

223 U.S. Congress 

Study of the United States Congress focusing on 
theories of representation, nomination and 
electoral processes, internal organization of 
Congress, influences on Congressional policy- 
making, and Congressional interaction with 
other participants in the policy process. 
Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

224 The American Presidency 

Study of the Presidency in the American political 
system, including presidential selection, 
presidential leadership and decision-making, the 
president's advisors, and the role of the 
Presidency in the policy-making process. 
Prerequisite: PS 101 or permission of the 
instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

225 American Constitutional Law 

Study of the judicial process in the United States, 
with particular focus on the Supreme Court and 
its historical role in nation-building, establishing 
principles of federalism and the separation of 
powers, and determining the scope of personal 
and property rights. Prerequisite: PS 101 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Mott 

231 American Parties and Politics 

Examination of political parties, their role in 
democracy, and the nature of the party system in 
relation to other social and political processes. 
Aspects of voting behavior and campaign 
techniques are considered. Prerequisite: PS 101 
or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Mott 

322 Civil Rights and Liberties 

Study of selected problems involving 
interpretations of the Bill of Rights. Attention will 
be given to both the evolution and current 
standing of issues treated by the Supreme Court. 
Prerequisite: PS 101, PS 225, or permission of 
instructor. 

Mr. Mott 



125 



Political Science 



International Politics 

242 United States Foreign Policy 

Examination of the formulation of policy within 
the national government structure, including the 
varying perspectives on goals and objectives; 
the implementation of policy; and the impact of 
policy domestically and internationally. Topics 
include decision-making; the arms race; foreign 
economic policy; military intervention; alliance 
systems; foreign aid; and the East-West/ 
North-South confrontations. Prerequisite: PS 103 
or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Borock 

341 International Political Economy 

Probes the impact of economic factors on the 
international political system and various 
sub-systems. Capitalist, Marxist, and socialist 
economic theories are discussed as well as 
specific relations of trade, production, monetary 
exchange, and economic organization within the 
West, between East and West, and between 
North and South. Prerequisite: PS 103 or 
permission of instructor. 

Staff 

344 U.S. National Security Policy 

Examination of the process by which military 
and political decisions join to form a unified 
policy. Attention will be given to decision- 
making, the identification of national security 
issues, defense spending, strategic policies, the 
impact of technological change, and civilian- 
military relationships. Prerequisites: PS 103 or 
permission of instructor. 

Mr. Borock 

Political Theory 

280 Modern Political Ideologies 

Study of the philosophical content and the role of 
political ideologies in the modern world, with 
emphasis on liberalism, socialism, communism, 
and fascism. The concept of ideology, historical 
development and the intersection and overlap of 
ideologies, and the influence of ideologies on 
political behavior will also be considered. 
Prerequisite: PS 102. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

380 Marxism 

Examination of Marxism through close textual 
analysis of books, polemical tracts, and other 
writings of Marx and Engels, and selected 
readings from the critical literature on Marxism. 
Prerequisite: PS 102. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 



381 American Political Thought 

Study of the development of political thought in 
America from the colonial period to the present. 
In addition to examining individual writers and 
movements, the course will consider the 
relationship of the ideas examined to the broader 
tradition of western political philosophy. 
Prerequisite: PS 102. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

Advanced Courses 

200, 300 Topics in Political Science 

Exploration of an announced topic chosen each 
year or every other year by the department. 

Staff 

400 Seminars 

Advanced study of domestic, foreign, or world 
politics. A common core of reading and written 
reports by each student is provided. Topics differ 
each semester and will be announced in 
advance. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Intensive research on an approved topic 
presented in oral or written reports, under the 
supervision of a member of the department 
faculty. 

Staff 

Internship 

A minimum six weeks of on-site participation in 
administration with a public or private 
organization under the supervision of a member 
of the department faculty. Available during the 
fall or spring semesters or during the summer. 

Staff 

Honors 

Opportunity for highly qualified students to 
participate in a program of original research 
under the supervision of a member of the 
department faculty. Each student will complete a 
thesis and present her or his research to the 
department staff. 

Staff 



126 



Psychology 

Professors D'Agostino, Mudd, and Pittman 
Distinguished Visiting Professor Pallak 
Associate Professor Gobbel (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Bornstein, Lorenz, Riggs, 

and Sawyer 
Instructor Pere 

Overview 

The Department emphasizes experimental 
psychology in all of its course offerings. The 
objective of the Department is to promote 
knowledge of the causes of behavior, with 
emphasis on the formation of a scientific attitude 
toward behavior and appreciation of the 
complexity of human personality. This objective 
is approached by providing a representative 
array of courses in psychology, including 
seminars, special topics, independent reading, 
and independent research, and by providing 
selected opportunities for field work. Direct 
experience with the major methods, instruments, 
and theoretical tools of the discipline is 
emphasized throughout. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other 
courses in the Department. Requirements for a 
major include Psychology 101, 205, 305, 341, one 
of the following laboratory courses 314, 316, 317, 
318, 325, or 336, and, four additional courses in 
psychology. Most laboratory courses have a 200- 
level course as a prerequisite. Majors must earn 
a grade of C or better in both Psychology 205 and 
305. 

It is possible for those who have scored 60 or 
above on the CLEP (College-Level Examination 
Program) General Psychology examination to 
waive the introductory course (Psychology 101) 
and to qualify for advanced placement in the 
department. Write College Entrance Examination 
Board, Box 1822, Princeton, NJ 08540 for 
information about taking the CLEP exam. 

It is recommended that students looking forward 
to admission to graduate school take two 
advanced laboratory courses, one from each of 
the following two groups: (a) 314, 318, 325, and 
(b) 316, 317, 336, and an Individualized Study. 
Experience in the use of the computer and/or 
training in computer science is recommended for 
all majors and is highly recommended for those 
planning to go on to graduate work. Students 
should consult with their advisers for specific 
information on the prerequisites for work at the 



Psychology 

graduate level in the specialized areas of 
psychology. 

Departmental Honors in psychology are awarded 
to graduating majors who, in the combined 
judgment of the staff, have demonstrated 
academic excellence in course work and who 
have completed an Individualized Study. The 
Honors Thesis, open by invitation of the 
Department Staff only, is not required for 
Departmental Honors. 

Distribution Requirements 

Psychology 101 may be used to fulfill the 
distribution requirement in social sciences. 

101 General Psychology 

An introduction to the basic scientific logic, 
facts, theories, and principles of psychology, 
including the study of human motivation, 
learning, emotion, perception, thought, 
intelligence, and personality. Some attention is 
given to the applications of psychology. 
Repeated spring semester. May be used toward 
fulfilling the distribution requirement in the 
social sciences. 

Staff 

204 Human Information Processing 

Starting from theoretical concepts and methods 
surveyed in Psychology 101, the topics of 
sensation, perception, and cognitive processes 
are developed more completely. 

Mr. D'Agostino and Ms. Sawyer 

205 Introduction to Measurement and Statistics 

Descriptive and inferential statistics, including 
nonparametric methods. Measurement theory, 
including reliability and validity, is studied in the 
laboratory as an application of statistics. Credit 
may not be granted for this course and 
Mathematics 107 or Economics 241. Offered each 
semester. Prerequisite: High school algebra. 
Required of all majors. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Sawyer and Mr. Mudd 

210 Behavioral Economics and Social Engineering 

Introduction to behavioral economics and the 
implications of that field for social planning in a 
high mass consumption society. The potential 
contribution of behavioral systems analysis and 
social science research to more effective social 
and economical planning is considered. One 
three hour seminar (arranged) and one group 
field survey are required in the course of the 
semester. Alternate years. 

Mr. Mudd 



127 



Psychology 



212 Industrial and Organizational Psychology 

An introduction to industrial and organizational 
psychology including theory and practice in the 
following areas: personnel, organizational 
behavior and development, training, and the 
place of work in the psychological makeup of 
humans and human society. Equal attention is 
given to theory and applications. Several group 
projects are required in addition to the normal 
examination pattern. Three class hours. Offered 
in alternative years with Psychology 210. 

Mr. Mudd 

214 Social Psychology 

Review of current psychological theory and 
research in social psychology. Topics include 
attitude and behavior change, conformity, 
attraction, interpersonal perception, and 
psychological aspects of social interaction. 

Ms. Riggs and Mr. Pittman 

221 Basic Dynamics of Personality 

An introduction to the major approaches to 
personality, including psychodynamic, 
behavioral, humanistic, and trait models. General 
issues and problems which arise in the study of 
personality are considered, and the importance 
of empirical evidence is emphasized. 

Mr. Bornstein 

225 Developmental Psychology: Infancy and Childhood 

The psychological development of the individual 
from conception to adolescence. Theory, 
methodology, and research are presented in the 
areas of perception, learning, cognition, 
language, social and moral development. 

Ms. Gobbel and Mr. Pittman 

226 Developmental Psychology: Adolescence 

Study of psychological development of the 
adolescent. Topics include research methods, 
physiological changes, cognitive development, 
vocational, social sex-role, and value 
development: Psychology 225 is recommended 
as a prerequisite but not required. 

Ms. Gobbel 

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Introduction to the anatomical and physiological 
bases of human behavior. Topics will include 
sensory physiology, biorhythms and sleep, 
homeostasis, sex, learning and memory, 
language, and mental illness. Emphasis will be 
on developing an ability to conceptualize 
psychological phenomena in biological terms. 

Mr. Lorenz 



305 Experimental Methods 

An introduction to scientific method and 
experimental design. Emphasis is placed on the 
logical development of new ideas, kinds and 
sources of error in experimentation, methods of 
control, design and analysis of experiments, and 
scientific communication. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 101 and Psychology 205. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 
Ms. Riggs and Messrs. D'Agostino and Pittman 

314 Assessment of Personality and Intelligence 

An introduction to the methodological and 
conceptual issues involved in the construction 
and use of personality tests. Following a survey 
of the literature on test development and 
validation, selected personality and intelligence 
tests will be studied in depth. Empirical research 
on each test will be examined. Laboratory work 
will include the development of skills in test 
administration, scoring, and interpretation. Each 
student will also design, conduct, analyze, and 
write up an experiment evaluating some aspect 
of personality test or measure. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 221 and 305. Three class hours and 
the equivalent of three laboratory hours. 

Staff 

316 Perception 

Introduction to sensory and perceptual 
processes in vision. Lectures deal with sensory 
coding, feature detection, figural synthesis, and 
semantic integration. Laboratory work includes 
several minor studies and one major two-person 
group research study on a special topic of the 
students' own choice on some aspect of human 
facial perception. Prerequisite: Psychology 305. 
Three class hours and the equivalent of three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr. Mudd 

317 Memory and Social Cognition 

An introduction to human memory and social 
cognition. Attention will focus on factors known 
to influence the storage and retrieval of social 
information. Errors and biases in human 
judgment will also be examined. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 305. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Mr. D'Agostino 

318 Experimental Social Psychology 

Study of specific content areas in social 
psychology. Current theories and empirical data 
will be used to illustrate experimental designs 
and relevant methodological considerations. 
Laboratory work includes the design, execution, 



128 



and analysis of two original experiments. 
Prerequisites: Psychology 214 and Psychology 
305, or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and the equivalent of three laboratory 
hours. 

Ms. Riggs and Mr. Pittman 

322 Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 
Uses and Abuses 

A survey of the various topics and issues of 
contemporary clinical and counseling 
psychology. Topics covered include 
psychotherapy, diagnosis and psychological 
testing, ethical issues, and research in clinical 
psychology. The course is not a practicum. 
Prerequisite: Psychology 221 or 326. Offered 
spring semester, alternate years. Offered 
1989-90. 

Mr. Born stein 

325 Experimental Developmental Psychology 

An intensive study of one or more areas of 
research in cognitive, social, or language 
development. Emphasis is placed on unique 
characteristics of research with children and/or 
adults across the life span. Laboratory work 
includes the design, execution, and analysis of a 
research project. Prerequisites: Psychology 225 
and Psychology 305. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Ms. Gobbel 

326 Abnormal Psychology 

An introduction to psychopathology and 
abnormal behavior, with particular attention to 
conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues 
involved in the study of abnormal psychology. 
Models of psychopathology and 
psychodiagnosis are discussed with an 
emphasis on the empirical evidence for different 
models. 

Mr. Born stein 

336 Neuropsychology 

Advanced discussion of the topics included in 
Psychology 236 as well as an in-depth treatment 
of brain development and the neurological basis 
of behavior. Prerequisites: Psychology 236 and 
305 or permission of the instructor. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. lor em 

341 History of Experimental Psychology 

A review of the development of psychology to 
the present. Emphasis is on the role of the 
reference, or defining, experiment in setting the 
course of major programs of research in 
psychology over the past century. Two 
demonstration experiments are required. 

Mr. Mudd 



Psychology 

400 Seminar 

An opportunity to work on a selected topic in a 
small group under the guidance of a member of 
the staff. Not offered every semester. The topic 
for a given semester is announced well in 
advance. Enrollment by permission of the 
instructor. May be repeated. 

Staff 

421 Personality Theory: Seminar 

Selected issues in the study of personality are 
examined in detail, with an emphasis on the 
empirical validation of different models and 
concepts in personality. Content of this course 
may vary, with different topics and issues taken 
up in different years. Prerequisites: Psychology 
221 and Junior or Senior status. Meets three 
hours once a week. Alternate years. 

Mr. Bornstein 

Individualized Reading 

Opportunity to do intensive and critical reading 
and to write a term paper on a topic of special 
interest. Student will be expected to become 
thoroughly familiar with reference books, 
microfilms, and scientific journals available for 
library research in the field of psychology. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. May 
be repeated. 

Staff 

Individualized Empirical Research 

Design and execution of an empirical study 
involving the collection and analysis of data in 
relation to some psychological problem under 
the supervision of a staff member. Students are 
required to present an acceptable research 
proposal no later than four weeks following the 
beginning of the semester or to withdraw from 
the course. Research culminates in a paper. 
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. May 
be repeated. 

Staff 

Honors Thesis 

Designed to meet the needs of the clearly 
superior student. During the senior year each 
participant will engage in an original program of 
research under the direction of a thesis 
committee. In addition to completing a formal 
thesis, each student will present and discuss his 
or her research before the entire staff. 
Successful completion of the program entitles 
the student to receive credit for two courses 
which can be applied towards a Psychology 
major. Prerequisite: By invitation of the 
Department only. 

Staff 



129 



Religion 

Religion 

Professors Hammann and Moore 

{Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Trone 
Assistant Professors McTighe and C. Myers 

Overview 

Essential to an understanding of the past and the 
present is a study of the varied religious 
experiences, beliefs, and institutions of 
humankind. The Department offers courses in the 
areas of biblical studies, history of religions, and 
religious thought, all of which investigate the 
complex phenomenon of religion. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

A major consists of 10 courses, 8 within the 
Department and 2 outside of it. Acceptable 
courses outside the Department include: 

Greek 204 New Testament Greek 

Latin 306 St. Augustine 

IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization 

211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

227 Civilization of India 

237 Literature of India 

Hist. 311, 312 Medieval Europe 

313 Renaissance and Reformation 

Music 108 Church Music of J.S. Bach 

Phil. 203 Classical Greek and Roman Philosophy 

Soc. 205 Sociology of Religion 

With the permission of the Department of 
Religion, a student may substitute for the above 
list one or even two courses from other 
departments. Of the 8 courses taken within the 
Department of Religion, at least 3 must be at the 
300-level; and one must be Religion 460 or 470; 
and no more than one 100-level may be included. 
The Department encourages qualified students to 
consider internships and/or overseas study, 
including the junior year abroad. 

The Department's rationale behind course 
numbering is as follows: 

100-level courses are essentially topical and 
thematic. 

200-level courses are surveys which usually take 
a historical approach. The 200-level courses are 
especially appropriate for an introduction to the 
major. Neither 100- or 200-level courses have a 



prerequisite. 

300-level courses are more narrowly focused or 
specialized, often examining in greater detail 
some issue or area treated more generally in a 
previous course. 

Since some upper-level courses are not offered 
every year, students should consult with 
individual instructors when planning their 
programs. Those planning to attend seminary or 
a graduate school in religion should consider 
either a major or a minor in the Department. 

A minor consists of 6 courses, one of which may 
be an approved course outside the Department 
but not in the student's major. Nor may there be 
more than two 100-level courses. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any one of the 100- or 200-level courses will 
fulfill the one-course distribution requirement in 
religion, the difference between 100- and 200- 
level courses being a matter of emphasis rather 
than degree of difficulty or advanced character. 
The following courses meet the distribution 
requirement in Non-Western culture: 202 and 242. 

100- and 200-Level 

105 The Bible and Modern Moral Issues 

An investigation of the relevance of the Bible for 
life in the twentieth century. Some issues studied 
from biblical perspective include sex roles and 
sexual relations, economic inequities and legal 
injustices. Among topics to be covered are 
marriage and divorce, homosexuality, women's 
rights, poverty, war and peace. Three class 
hours. No prerequisites. Open to freshmen and 
sophomores only. Offered every year. 

Mr. Myers 

108 Wisdom Literature 

A comparative study of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs with the 
wisdom literature of the Sumerians, Egyptians, 
Babylonians, and other contemporaries and 
predecessors of the Israelites. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in Non-Western culture. 

Mr. Moore 

113 Women in the Ancient World 

An investigation of the role/s of woman as 
reflected in the myths, legends, epics, law codes, 
customs, and historical records of the 
Sumerians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans. The relevance of some of 
this for contemporary roles and problems is also 
examined. May be counted in the eight-course 



130 



Religion 



requirement for a religion major. 



Mr. Moore 



117 Topics in Biblical Studies 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of Biblical Studies. 
Offered at the discretion of the Department. 

Staff 

127 Topics in History of Religions 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of History of 
Religions. Offered at the discretion of the 
Department. 

Staff 

135 Religion in Fiction 

An examination of the fictional representation of 
religious stories. The works of Lewis, Malamud, 
Olson, Kazantzakis, MacLeish, Lagerkvist, and 
others will be read. 

Mr. Hammann 

137 Topics in Religious Thought 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of Religious Thought. 
Offered at the discretion of the Department. 

Staff 

138 Christian Humanism 

A review of Christian ideas about human dignity, 
potential, and responsibilities by examining 
Christian classics from the Bible to the present in 
order to define the uniqueness of Christian 
humanism. 

Mr. Trone 

139 Catholics, Protestants, and Jews 

A study of mainline religious groups in the U.S. 
The course will consider the particular history 
and distinctive character of the Roman Catholic 
Church, Conservative Judaism, and other groups 
such as the Methodists, Presbyterians, and 
Mennonites. Insofar as possible, the religious 
bodies studied will be represented by 
participants in the life and governance of the 
group. 

Mr. Hammann and Mr. McTighe 

140 Religion and Politics in the Twentieth 
Century U.S. 

A survey of the relationship between religion and 
public life since 1900. Emphasis will be on the 
constitutional framework which guides the 
church-state debate, and on efforts to use 
religion to influence political policies and social 
values. Supreme Court decisions, Martin Luther 
King, Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement, the 



Catholic Worker Movement, and the Moral 
Majority will be included. 

Mr. McTighe 



204 History, Literature, and Religion of the 
Old Testament 

A study of the history, literature, and religion of 
the Hebrews from the age of Abraham to about 
500 B.C. The history and culture of Israel are 
related to those of surrounding nations, with 
special emphasis on the relevancy of 
archeological d