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Full text of "Gettysburg College Catalog"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/gettysbu199293199596gett 



CATALOGUE 1992-1993 




are not to be regarded as an 
irrevocable contract between the 
College and the student. The 
College reserves the right to 
change any provision or 
requirement at any time. This 
right to change provisions and 
requirements includes, but is 
not limited to, the right to 
reduce or eliminate course 
offerings in academic fields and 
to add requirements for 
graduation. 



(.ETTYSBLRG April 1992: 
N'olumc 82 Number 2 

C.KTTYSBL R(. (L M'.> ■j:i»-1-ju) 
published four times a year in 
September, Jan uar\, and semi- 
monthly in April by Gett)sburg 
College, Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
Second class postage paid at 
(;ett)sburg, PA 17325. 



POSTM.\SIF.R: Send address 
( hanges to Getnsburg, Priutiu) 
Ottlte, Gettysburg C(jllege. 
Gettysburg, PA 1732,5-1486. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2 A Statement of Purpose 

5 Gettysburg College — The 
Community 

17 Academic Policies and 
Programs 

Academic Purposes, Honor 
Code, Curriculum, Advising 
System, Credit System, Degree 
Requirements, Residence 
Requirements, Registration, 
Grading System, Transfer Credit, 
Exemption from Degree 
Requirements, Individualized 
Study and Seminars, Academic 
Standing, Transcripts, Withdrawal 
and Readmission, Senior Scholars' 
Seminar, Computer Courses, 
Teacher Education Programs, Off- 
Campus Study, Dual-Degree 
Programs, Preprofessional Studies, 
Senior Honors, Deans' Lists, Phi 
Beta Kappa, Prizes and Awards 



161 Admission, Expenses, 
and Financial Aid 

Admission Policy, Compre- 
hensive Academic Fee Plan, Board, 
Room Rents, Housing Policy, 
Payment of Bills, Refund Policy, 
College Store, Insurance, Student 
Financial Aid 

179 Register 

Board of Trustees, Trustees 
Emeriti, Administration, The 
Faculty, Current Faculty, Other 
Instructional and Administrative 
Personnel, Calendar, Statistical 
Summary, Student Retention, 
Endowment Funds 

207 Index 



65 Courses of Study 



154 CoUege Ufe 

College Life, Office of The 
Dean of College Life, Residential 
Life, Greek Organizations, Dining 
Accommodations, Student Conduct, 
College Union, Student 
Government, Programming and 
Student Activities, Campus 
Communications, Other Activities, 
Career Services, Health Center, 
Student Health Services, 
Counseling Services, Religious Life 
and Chapel Programs, Athletics, 
Campus Recreation, Academic 
Services and Informadon Facilities, 
Intercultural Advancement, Facilities 



A STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: GETTYSBURG COLLEGE 



Chartered in 1832 for the express 
purpose of exerting "a salutary 
influence in advancing the cause of 
liberal education," Gettysburg 
College is a community committed 
to the discovery, exploration, and 
evaluation of the ideas and actions 
of humanity and to the creative 
extension of that heritage. 
Gettysburg College cherishes its 
place in history as the oldest 
existing college affiliated with the 
Lutheran Church in America and 
intends to continue that church 
relatedness. By intent also, 
Gettysburg College is nonsectarian 
in its instruction and strives to serve 
students of all faiths. 

To meet its commitment, 
Gettysburg College seeks foremost 
to establish and maintain an 
environment of inquiry, integrity, 
and mutual respect. In this setting, 
the College creates opportunities 
for students to learn specific 
intellectual skills and to strive for 
breadth of understanding. A 
rigorous program of undergraduate 
learning in the arts and sciences is 
complemented by student and 
religious life programs designed to 
challenge and enrich the academic 
experience. 

Gettysburg College considers its 
purpose fulfilled if its students grow 
as critically informed, humane, and 
creative individuals and continue to 
grow in these qualities after they 
have left Gettysburg. 



The Academic Program 

At the heart of Gettysburg College 
is the academic program which 
stresses logical, critical thinking and 
clear writing and speaking. 
Through a curriculum that derives 
its coherence from the traditions of 
liberal education, faculty introduce 
students to the assumptions and 
methods of a representative variety 
of academic disciplines in the 
sciences, the social sciences, and 
the humanities. Students are 
encouraged not only to specialize 
but also to broaden their 
understanding of the past and 
present intellectual, social, and 
cultural contexts within which 
knowledge lives. The academic 
program is designed to provide 
more than skills and intellectual 
perspective; it places these in a 
context of humane values such as 
open mindedness, personal 
responsibility, and mutual respect. 

The Gettysburg faculty is dedicated 
to the goals of liberal learning, 
committed to professional 
development that serves and 
exemplifies those goals, responsible 
for periodic review of the 
curriculum, and eager to teach and 
learn with students in an open and 
trusting exchange. 

Gettysburg's academic program can 
reach its full potential only if our 
students continue to have the ability 
and the inclination to profit from 
an intense liberal arts experience. 



The academic environment is 
further enriched when such 
students come from many 
socioeconomic and ethnic 
backgrounds. 

With a coherent curriculum, an 
able and dedicated faculty, and 
students committed to learning, the 
academic program seeks to free 
students from narrowness and 
provincialism and to free them for 
the joys and benefits of conscious 
intellectual strength and creafivity. 
Gettysburg wants its students to 
learn a wise skepticism and a sense 
of human fallibility, to acquire new 
interests and orientations through 
liberating experiences of change 
and growth, and to learn to use the 
skills, knowledge, and values of a 
liberal education in an unending 
but satisfying search for wisdom and 
fullness of life. 

The College Life 
Program 

Students entering college are 
interested in discovering who they 
are. Because students often face 
critical decisions about personal 
values, occupational choices, and 
role identities during their college 
years, the college life program seeks 
to provide opportunities for 
resolution of these important 
matters. To assist students in 
weighing available options and 
making decisions, the college life 
program offers, for example, 
psychological and career counseling 



and informal seminars on a variety 
of topics. Personal contact with 
Gettysburg's faculty and 
administration provides the 
attentive student with a wide range 
of role models to contemplate. 
Gettysburg's annual lecture series 
further expands students' horizons. 

The College also reveals its 
commitment to the total 
development of its students by 
encouraging them to play an 
important role in establishing and 
enforcing the conditions of campus 
life. Students supervise the 
academic Honor Code; students 
participate on certain trustee, 
faculty, and College planning and 
policy-making committees; and 
students fund and control many 
student activities. 

To supplement what students learn 
through living on campus and 
participating in student 
development programs, the College 
provides a full and varied 
extracurricular program. This 
program encourages students to 
develop leadership skills by working 
in student government; to deepen 
their appreciation for the arts by 
participating in concerts, dramatic 
productions, and other 
performances; to sharpen their 
writing and speaking skills by 
contributing to College 
publications or broadcasts; and to 
enjoy the mental and physical self- 
discipline required by competition 
in intercollegiate, intramural, and 
recreational athletics. 



The Religious Life 
Program 

Gettysburg College works in 
partnership with five of the Synods 
in Region 8 of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in America. 
These relationships and, more 
specifically, the campus religious 
life program, nurture intellectual 
values and give opportunities for 
the examination of spiritual and 
moral values, and for commitments 
by those who choose to make them. 

The religious life program of the 
College is designed to meet the 
needs of this religiously 
heterogeneous community to 
worship, to study, and to serve. 
Chaplains, although they are 
employed by the College and report 
directly to the President, are called 
to this service by the Synods of the 
Church. They assume primary 
responsibility for corporate 
worship, counsel students and other 
campus personnel, help students 
and faculty plan programs to 
explore theological issues and to 
reach out to those in need, facilitate 
the work of local churches and 
denomination groups on the 
campus, and speak prophetically to 
issues of human justice when 
College values and College practice 
seem to diverge. 

Gettysburg College best serves the 
Church through its performance as 
a superior educational institution in 
which the Church's commitments 
and practices may be tested. 



Summary 



Through its academic program, its 
college life program, and its 
religious life program, then, 
Gettysburg College provides for the 
development of the young adult as 
a whole person — intellectually, 
socially, emotionally, physically, and 
spiritually. 

Approved by the Gettysburg College 
faculty: October 8, 1981 



Approved by the Gettysburg College 
Board of Trustees. December 5, 1 981 



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MlSStLMAS LIBRARY 



THE COMMUNITY 



Gettysburg College: A 
heritage of excellence 

Gettysburg College was chartered in 
1832 during a time in early 
nineteenth-century America when 
many of the nation's strongest 
liberal arts colleges were founded. 
Gettysburg's mission, as expressed in 
its original charter, has remained 
unchanged during the more than 
150 years of its history. Today, as 
then, the College remains firmly 
committed to the principle of 
serving the cause of liberal 
education and changing times by 
providing a community of learning 
committed to discovery, exploration, 
evaluation of ideas and actions of 
humanit)', and to the creative 
extension of that developing 
heritage. At Gettysburg, you will find 
an environment that encourages 
both academic and personal growth, 
a highly qualified and dedicated 
faculty, and a diversified curricukim 
that offers challenge, opportunity, 
and excitement. 



All of the roads leading to 
Gettysburg College, in the historic 
town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
cross the site of the famous Civil 
War Batde of Gettysburg. During 
those three hot July days, fighting 
occurred on the fields and ridges 
within sight of the College campus. 
At that time, Pennsylvania Hall 
(now the College administration 
building and listed in the National 
Register of Historic Places) served 
as a hospital for both Union and 
Confederate soldiers. It was from 
this building that Gettysburg 
students marched to hear Abraham 
Lincoln give his immortal address 
on November 19, 1863. 

Today, Gettysburg College borders 
a 3,865-acre National Park and lies 
three blocks from the center of 
town. Because of its historic 
significance, beautiful countryside, 
and easy access from nearby cities, 
the town of Gettysburg welcomes 
over one-and-a-half million visitors 
annually from all over the world. 
Consequendy, it offers numerous 
attractions, shops, restaurants, and 
lodging facilities that one would not 
expect to find in a small town — 
even a college town. 




Gettysburg College has always 
believed that a liberal arts 
education liberates the minds of 
students so that they can better 
respond to the challenges of a 
contemporary society. Therefore, 
the goals of the educational 
program at Gettysburg are to 
develop your capacity to think 
logically and use language clearly, 
to give you a rigorous introduction 
to the assumptions and the 
methods of a representative variety 
of academic disciplines, and to 
acquaint you with the range and 
diversity of human customs, 
pursuits, ideas, values, and longings. 



The College, like the town of which 
it is a part, has grown since its Civil 
War days. It now has a 200-acre 
campus with over 60 buildings and 
seeks to limit its enrollment to 
approximately 1,900 students. 



Although all courses at Gettysburg 
are designed to achieve these goals, 
the First Year Colloquy in liberal 
learning lays the foundation within 
the curriculum. This is a course that 
strengthens reasoning, writing, and 
speaking skills in a small class 
setting while introducing all first 
year students to a major issue in the 
liberal arts. 



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31 



Ultimately, this type of education is 
the most practical of all because it 
teaches you how to approach and 
solve problems critically and 
creatively. Gettysburg believes that 
such an education will foster a high 
sensitivity to moral and spiritual 
values, along with a quest for 
knowledge which will continue after 
graduation. 

A well-rounded academic 
curriculum has many facets: the 
humanities, the social sciences, the 
fine arts, the sciences. As the world 
around us becomes more 
technologically advanced, we must 
prepare our students to deal with 
those changes by providing the 
proper tools and training. At 
Gettysburg, we recognize the need 
for academic diversity, and thus, 
computing has become a part of a 
student's everyday life. Computers 
are utilized across the disciplines 
for a variety of tasks including word 
processing, statistical analysis, 
graphics, and electronic mail. 



Although training for specific jobs 
is not seen as a primary function of 
a liberal arts education, Gettysburg 
does not ignore your appropriate 
concern about careers. The College 
offers a comprehensive career 
services program, teacher 
preparation and certification, 
advisory services for prelaw and 
premedical students, internship 
opportunities, and concentration in 
a major field as preparation either 
for graduate or professional 
schools, or for work in a variety of 
professions including research, 
business, industry, government, 
social services, and education. 

The academic programs at 
Gettysburg provide you with a 
broad range of intellectual 
experiences and the individual 
attention you need to make the best 
use of those experiences. One of 
the advantages of an education at 
Gettysburg is the availability of 
small classes, especially in more 
advanced courses. A student/faculty 
ratio of 13:1 and an average class 
size of 20-25 students help to assure 



close relationships between you and 
your professors. 

You may select a major field of 
study from any one of 25 academic 
areas: art, biology, chemistry, 
classical studies, computer science, 
economics, English, French, 
German, Greek, health and physical 
education, history, Latin, 
management, mathematics, music, 
music education, philosophy, 
physics, political science, 
psycholog)', religion, sociology and 
anthropology, Spanish, and theatre 
arts. Area studies programs are 
available in African American 
Studies, American Studies, Asian 
Studies, Environmental Studies, 
Latin American Studies, Medieval 
and Renaissance Studies, Global 
Studies, and Women's Studies. 

Gettysburg lets you take much of 
the responsibility for selecting an 
academic program that meets your 
needs and interests. If you want to 
concentrate your academic 
program on a particular area of 
emphasis which involves courses in 



several different departments, you 
may design your own major. A 
Special Major can cover broad areas 
such as International Studies, or it 
can focus on a specific topic such as 
Community Planning and 
Administration. Double majors and 
minors are also available. 

The College's distribution 
requirements ensure your 
acquaintance with several broad 
areas of study. After you select a 
major, ample opportunity is 
provided for electives in fields of 
your choice. 

You will have a faculty adviser to 
assist you in planning your 
academic program. Academic 
counseling is available, as is 
counseling for nonacademic 
personal matters. Gettysburg wants 
you to succeed, and the faculty and 
staff are dedicated to that principle. 

Through membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium 
(with Dickinson and Franklin 8c 
Marshall Colleges) and through 
other off-campus and cooperative 
or dual-degree programs, 
Gettysburg offers you academic 
opportunities beyond its campus. 
Off-campus programs include the 
following: Washington Semester 
programs with American University 
in government and politics, 
economic policy, foreign policy, 
peace and conflict resolution, 
public administration, justice, 
urban studies, journalism, art and 



architecture, arts and humanities; 
the Lutheran College Washington 
Semester; the United Nations 
Semester; and cooperative 
programs in marine biology with 
Duke University Marine Laboratory 
and the Bermuda Biological 
Station. Many students study 
internationally imder our Study 
Abroad program; an extensive 



variety of affiliated and non- 
affiliated programs is available. 

Gettysburg has dual-degree 
programs in engineering with 
Columbia University, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute and 
Washington University in St. Louis, 
in nursing with Johns Hopkins 
University, in Optometry with the 




Pennsylvania College of Optometry, 
and in forestry and environmental 
studies with Duke University. 
Under all of these programs a 
student begins his or her college 
career at Gettysburg and completes 
it at the cooperating university, 
earning degrees from both 
institutions. In addition, an early 
acceptance program leading to a 
Master's degree in Physical Therapy 
from Hahnemann University is 
available. 

Gettysburg offers all of the courses 
necessary for you to enter the 
medical, dental, veterinarv' medicine 
or law school of your choice. Special 
advisers are available to assist you in 
planning your curriculum and in 
applying to the appropriate 
professional schools. 

Preparation for a career in teaching 
is offered through the teacher 
education program. You can 
become certified to teach in 
elementary education, music 
education, or in one of 12 different 
secondar)' education fields. 

Outstanding professors are the very 
heart of Gettysburg's educational 
vision — a vision based on a firm 
commitment to individualized 
instruction which teaches values as 
well as communicates information. 
Through this type of educational 
program, Gettysburg is committed 
to broadly educating leaders who 
can make substantial contributions 
to their disciplines and to society. 



Close intellectual relationships 
between faculty and students have 
long been a Gettysburg hallmark. 
Student/facultv' interaction in small 
classes and on collaborative 
research projects provides 
Gettysburg students with an 
opportunity to enhance their 
intellectual, communication, and 
leadership skills. 

Gettysburg faculty members are well 
prepared to inspire achievement, 
for they themselves have established 
exceptional records of personal and 
professional accomplishment. 
Nearly 95% hold the doctoral 
degree or the terminal degree, and 
many publish books and articles in 
scholarly journals. These scholarly 
activities assure that faculty 
members keep up with — and 
contribute to — the latest 
developments in their fields. 

Gettysburg's 200-acre campus 
provides excellent facilities for all 
aspects of college life. The center of 
the academic facilities is the 
Musselman Library/ Learning 
Resources Center. Total library 
collections include approximately 
330,000 volumes, 23,000 microforms, 
36,000 government publications, 
12,000 records, and subscriptions to 
over 1,400 journals. Musselman 
Library has an automated library 
catalogue which is accessible 
through a dozen public access 
computer terminals in the librar)' 
and any workstadon connected to 
the campus computer network. 



Today a college needs more than 
an excellent library: new 
instructional techniques must also 
be available. Gettysburg's computer 
center currendy has three 
mainframe computers — a VAX 
6210, a Sun4/690, and a PRIME 
9955. In addition, the College has a 
campuswide network with 
connections to both Internet 
and BITNET which allows 
communication between computers 





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on campus with hundreds of 
thousands of computers around the 
world. Network connectivity allows 
sharing of vast amounts of data, and 
collaboration between students, 
faculty, and others at different 
institutions. 

In addition. Computing Services 
maintains five computer labs with 
Apple, IBM, and NeXT computer 
clusters. 



Students also have access to a 
modern language laboratory, a 
theatre laboratory studio, an optics 
laboratory, a greenhouse, a plasma 
physics laboratory, an observatory 
with a 16-inch telescope, a 
planetarium, an RCA EMU4 
transmission electron microscope 
(TEM) , a JEOL TS20 scanning 
electron microscope (SEM), a 
Fourier Nuclear Magnetic 
Resonance Spectrometer, and a 
Fourier Transform Infrared 
Spectrometer. Hands-on use of all 
equipment is encouraged. 

Thirteen residence halls, five on- 
campus houses for special interests, 
and eleven fraternity houses 
provide you with many housing 
choices. Over eighty-five percent of 
the students live in College 
residences or fraternity houses. The 
College dining hall- the Camalier 
Center-provides meals on either a 
contract or occasional basis. The 
recently renovated College Union 
Building with its many features — 
including an Olympic-size 
swimming pool — is the center for 
student life. 






Other recreational and athletic 
facilities include a student activities 
center, two gymnasiums, a 
fieldhouse, a stadium with a football 
field and quarter-mile all-weather 
track, a physical fitness trail, and 
eight additional outdoor athletic 
fields. Both indoor and outdoor 
tennis courts are available. 



The Health Center is both a 
treatment and a resource center, 
offering you immediate care and 
educational services to help you 
make wise choices about your 
health. It is staffed by professional 
counselors, nurse practitioners, 
registered nurses, and a family 
practice physician. 



10 



Gettysburg provides extensive 
facilities for the fine and 
performing arts. Brvia Hall 
accommodates a 250-seat playhouse 
with a thrust stage and state-of-the- 
art sound and lighting, and a 
laboratory theatre/classroom 
featuring TV recording and 
monitoring equipment. Schmucker 
Hall houses the Art and Music 
departments, and contains studios, 
extensive gallery space, a sculpting 
studio, classrooms, and practice 
rooms, as well as an impressive 200- 
seat recital hall. 

A full and diverse program of 
cultural, extracurricular, and 
religious activities is provided to 
enrich your personal and academic 
growth as well as to provide 
enjoyment and relaxation. 

Responsibility and leadership is 
encouraged through student 
participation in a number of 
committees, clubs, and other 
organizations. Because Gettysburg 
is a residential college, the Student 
Life Council is particularly 
important: students play a vital role 
in the work of this Council, which 
reviews the College's policies for 
residential life and student conduct. 
An elected Student Senate is the 
main organization of student 
government. Students also play an 
important role in the Honor 
Commission, which administers the 
academic Honor Code, and the 
Student Conduct Review Board, 
which handles disciplinary cases 
within the student body. 




Concerts, plays, and lectures occur 
daily. Student performing groups 
include the Gettysburg College 
Choir; the Chapel Choir; the 
College Marching, Symphonic, and 
Jazz Bands; the Gettysburg College 
Community Chamber Orchestra; 
various ensembles; the Owl and 
Nightingale Players (who present 
three major theatrical productions 
each year); the Laboratory' Theatre 
(which performs a dozen one-act 
plays) ; and Otherstage (which 
offers a variety of short theatre 
pieces). The College Union 
Building (CUB) is the center of 
student activities on campus; many 



events such as concerts, lectures, 
films, and dances are held in the 
ballroom of the CUB. Also in the 
CUB is a nightclub and a snack bar 
that serve as informal meeting 
places for the campus. 

Social events are also provided by 
fraternities and sororities. 
Gettysburg has eleven fraternities 
and five sororities, all of which are 
nationally affiliated. 



In addition, the College has many 
departmental, professional and 
honorary societies. There are 
honorary fraternities or clubs for 
students in sixteen different 
academic areas. Gettysburg has a 
chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, the 
national academic honorar)' 
fraternity. 

To keep you informed about 
happenings on campus, there is the 
student newspaper, the 
Gettysburgian; the student-operated 
FM radio station, WZBT; and a 
weekly announcement sheet. This 
Week at Gettysburg. The newspaper 
and radio station offer 
opportunities to learn about all 
aspects of journalism and radio 
broadcasting. Other Gettysburg 
student publications include The 
Spectrum (the College yearbook), 
and The Mercury, a journal of 
student poems, short stories, 
photographs, and art work. 




At Gettysburg, all students can 
participate in a supervised sport. 
Depending upon your athletic 
ability, you may choose to play on 
one of the 21 varsity teams, or to be 
part of an extensive campus 
recreation program. At the 
intercollegiate level, the College is a 
member of the Middle Atlantic 
Conference and the Centennial 
Football Conference, and enjoys 
well-balanced athletic rivalries with 
other teams in those groups. 

The intercollegiate program for 
men includes football, soccer, 
basketball, swimming, wrestling, 
lacrosse, tennis, cross country, 
baseball, and track and field. 



There are women's teams in field 
hockey, volleyball, cross country, 
basketball, soccer, swimming, 
lacrosse, softball, track and field, 
and tennis. The golf team is open to 
both men and women. 

The Campus Recreation Program 
offers a large number of activities 
for the entire campus community. 
These activities include club 
rugby, club ice hockey, 
aerobitone, water polo, intramural 
volleyball, a cycling club, karate, 
and weight lifting. 



12 



Student Life at Gettysburg is lively 
and diverse. There is one simple 
goal for all of the organized 
activities on campus — to enhance 
the full range of your liberal arts 
education. 

After you take advantage of all that 
Gettysburg has to offer, you may 
wish to pursue further graduate 
study or enter your career field 
immediately. The Career Services 
Office is available to provide you 
with counseling, information, and 
the practical skills necessary for 
setting and achieving your future 
occupational goals. This office 
sponsors an organized alumni 
networking program, maintains an 
extensive library that includes 
vocational and graduate school 
information, sponsors job and 
career fairs with other colleges, 
offers workshops on resume writing 
and effective interviewing, and 
hosts on-campus employment 
interviews with various companies. 
Its broad range of services can help 
you set and achieve the career goals 
that suit your particular skills, 
values, and aspirations. 




13 



Admission to Gettysburg is highly 
competitive. It is based upon high 
academic achievement in a strong 
college preparatory program, SAT 
or ACT results, and personal 
qualities. The College welcomes 
applications from students of 
differing ethnic, religious, racial, 
and economic backgrounds, and of 
differing geographic settings. If 
Gettysburg is your first choice, you 
are encouraged to apply for Early 
Decision admission. Applications 
for Early Decision will be 
considered between November 15 
and February 1 of the senior year 
with notification of acceptance 
between December 15 and February 
15. Applications for Regular 
Decision admission are due no later 
than February 15 of your senior 
year. Offers of acceptance are 
usually sent early in April. The 
College complies with the 
candidates' reply date of May 1 . 



Total expenses covering 
comprehensive academic fee, room, 
board, and books and supplies are 
estimated at $21,965 for the 1992-93 
academic year. Additional costs 
include personal expenses such as 
laundry and clothing, 
transportation, etc. A generous 
program of financial aid is available 
for students who are unable to 
finance their entire education from 
family and/or personal resources. 

We understand how important your 
college choice is to you, and we 
want you to make a wise decision. 
For that reason, we invite you to 
visit Gettysburg as part of your 
college selection process. As you 
observe a class, meet with a 
professor, or talk to students, you 
will begin to appreciate all of the 
ways that you can benefit by 
attending Gettysburg. The 
admissions staff can answer any 
specific questions you have about 
the College, but you will also learn 
much from the many informal 
conversations you have during 
your visit. 



At Gettysburg, the interview is 
strongly encouraged. You can 
arrange an interview and a campus 
tour by calling the admissions office 
at (717) 337-6100 or 1-800-431- 
0803. During the academic year, 
the admissions office is open from 
9:00 to 5:00 on weekdays and 
from 9:00 to 12:00 on Saturday; 
summer hours are between 8:00 
and 4:30 weekdays. 




We think that the more you know 
about us, the more you will like 
Gettysburg College. 



14 



A two-minute look at 
Gettysburg 

Type of College: Four-year, 
coeducational, college of liberal arts 
and sciences founded in 1832. 

Enrollment: About 1,900 students 
(approximately one-half are men 
and one-half are women), 
representing nearly 40 states and 25 
foreign countries. 

Location: The College is adjacent 
to the Gettysburg National Park. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania is 36 miles 
from Harrisburg, 55 miles from 
Baltimore, 80 miles from 
Washington, D.C., 117 miles from 
Philadelphia, and 212 miles from 
New York City. College Van Service 
to and from area transportation 
centers is available. 

Campus: 200 acres with over 60 
buildings. Beautiful campus with 
excellent facilities. 

Library: Musselman Library with 
total collections of approximately 
330,000 volumes, 23,000 
microforms, 36,000 government 
publications, 12,000 recordings, 
and subscriptions to over 1 ,400 
journals. The library seats 800 
students, and contains a media 
theater, a graphics center, a 
language lab, and an automated 
library catalogue accessible through 
a dozen public access terminals in 
the library or through any 
microcomputer connected to the 
campus network. 




Academic Information: 

Student/Faculty ratio of 13:1 with 
an average class size of 20-25 
students. 154 full-time faculty with 
94% of the permanent faculty 
having a doctorate or the highest 
earned degree in their fields. One 
of only 19 chapters of Phi Beta 
Kappa in Pennsylvania. Honorary 
or professional societies in 16 
academic areas. Academic Honor 
Code in effect since 1957. 

Academic Calendar: Semester. 

Degree Programs: Bachelor of 
Arts, Bachelor of Science in Music 



Education, Bachelor of Arts or 
Bachelor of Science in Biology, 
Chemistry, Applied Mathematics, 
and Physics. 

Majors: Art, biology, chemistry, 
classical studies, computer science, 
economics, English, French, 
German, Greek, health and physical 
education, history, Latin, 
management, mathematics, music, 
music education, philosophy, 
physics, political science, 
psychology, religion, sociology and 
anthropology, Spanish, and theatre 
arts. Double majors, special majors, 
and minors are also available. 



15 




Area Studies Programs: African 
American Studies, American 
Studies, Asian Studies, 
Environmental Studies, I>atin 
American Studies, Medieval and 
Renaissance Studies, Global Studies, 
and Women's Studies. 

Special Programs: Study Abroad; 
Internships; Washington, D.C. 
Semester (government and politics, 
economic policy, ethical issues and 
public affairs, foreign policy, public 
administration, justice, urban studies, 
journalism, art and architecture, arts 
and humanities) ; United Nations 
Semester; dual-degree programs in 
engineering, nursing, optometry, or 
forestry and environmental studies; 
cooperative program in marine 
biology; certification in elementary 
and secondary education; premedical; 
and prelaw counseling. Cooperative 
College Consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin &: Marshall Colleges. 

Distinctive Features: VAX 6210 
and Sun4/690 mainframe 
computers; campus-wide computer 
network with connections to 
Internet and BITNET; Apple, IBM, 
and NeXT microcomputer clusters; 
state-of-the-art science facilities 
including two electron microscopes 
(transmission and scanning units) 



Fourier Transform Infrared and 
NMR Spectrometers, an optics 
laboratory, greenhouse, 
planetarium, observatory, and a 
plasma physics laboratory; extensive 
facilities for fine arts, music, and 
drama; writing center; a 
comprehensive physical education 
complex; and a career services office. 

Cultural Activities: Nearly 1,200 
cultural events within a four-year 
period. Full schedule of lectures, 
concerts, and plays, bringing to 
campus nationally known speakers 
and performers; film series at College 
Union; art exhibits; trips to nearby 
Washington, D.C. and Baltimore to 
events of special interest. 

Social Life: Student Activities 
Council which sponsors a lively and 
diverse schedule of social and cultural 
events; eleven fraternities and five 
sororities, all nationally afilliated. 

Student Activities: Student-operated 
FM radio station; yearbook; newspaper; 
full range of musical groups including 
choirs, bands, a community orchestra, 
and numerous ensembles; Black 
Student Union; theatre groups; special 
interest groups; over 40 clubs and 
community service organizations; over 
600 leadership positions. 



Athletics: All intercollegiate sports 
played at the Division III level. 
Extensive intercollegiate programs 
with 10 sports for men, 10 sports for 
women, and one coeducational 
sport. The Campus Recreation 
Office provides a wide array of 
intramural activities to satisfy 
various interests and levels of skill. 

Student Services: Faculty advisers, 
academic and personal counseling, 
tutorial services, career counseling, 
financial aid counseling, health 
center. 

Residence Halls: Over 85% of the 
student body lives on campus in 
eighteen residence halls, including 
special interest houses and 
apartment complexes. 

Religious Life: Lutheran related. 
Programs for students of all faiths 
coordinated through the College 
Chapel, including a Catholic 
Council and a Hillel. 

Student Government: Students 
assume the major role in planning 
student activities and in enforcing 
rules of responsible citizenship 
through the Student Senate, 
Student Life Council, Student 
Judiciary Review Board, Student 
Activities Council, and the Honor 
Commission. 

School Colors: Orange and Blue. 



^ 








ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROGRAMS 



17 



Academic Purposes of 
Gettysburg College 

The faculty of Gettysburg College 
has adopted the following statement 
of the College's academic purposes. 

Gettysburg College believes that 
liberal education liberates the 
human mind from many of the 
constraints and limitations of its 
finiteness. hi order to accomplish 
its liberating function, Gettysburg 
College believes that it owes its 
students a coherent curriculum that 
emphasizes the following elements: 

1 . Logical, precise thinking and 
clear use of language, both spoken 
and written. These inseparable 
abilities are essential to all the 
liberal arts. They are not only the 
practical skills on which liberal 
education depends but also, in their 
fullest possible development, the 
liberating goals toward which 
liberal education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject matter. 
The curriculum of the liberal arts 
college should acquaint students 
with the range and diversity of 
human customs, pursuits, ideas, 
values, and longings. This broad 
range of subject matter must be 
carefully planned to include 
emphasis on those landmarks of 
human achievement which have in 
particular shaped the intellectual 
life of the present. 



3. Rigorous introduction to the 
assumptions and methods of a 
representative variety of the academic 
disciplines in the sciences, the social 
sciences, and the humanities. The 
curriculum must encourage students 
to recognize that the disciplines are 
traditions of systematic inquiry, each 
not only addressing itself to a 
particular area of subject matter but 
also embodying an explicit set of 
assumptions about the world and 
employing particular methods of 
investigation. Students should 
recognize that the disciplines are best 
seen as sets of carefully constructed 
questions, continually interacting 
with each other, rather than as stable 
bodies of truth. The questions that 
most preoccupy academic disciplines 
involve interpretation and evaluation 
more often than fact. Students should 
learn that interpretation and 
evaluation are different from vwllful 
and arbitrary opinion while at the 
same time recognizing that 
interpretations and evaluations of 
the same body of facts may differ 
drastically given different 
assumptions, methods, and 
purposes for inquiry. Human 
thought is not often capable of 
reaching universal certitude. 

This necessary emphasis of the 
College's curriculum is liberadng in 
that it frees students from narrow 
provincialism and allows them to 
experience the joys and benefits of 
conscious intellectual strength and 
creativity. 




Liberal education should free 
students from gross and 
unsophisticated blunders of 
thought. Once exposed to the 
diversity of reality and the 
complexity and arduousness of 
disciplined modes of inquiry, 
students will be less likely than 
before to engage in rash 
generalizadon, dogmatic assertion, 
and intolerant condemnation of the 
strange, the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a sense of 
human limitations, for no human 
mind can be a match for the world's 
immensity. Promoters of universal 
panaceas will be suspected as the 
gap between human professions 
and human performance becomes 
apparent. Students will tend less 
than before to enshrine the values 
and customs of their own day as 
necessarily the finest fruits of 
human progress or to lament the 
failings of their time as the world's 
most intolerable evils. 



18 



But wise skepticism and a sense of 
human fallibility are not the only 
liberating effects of the liberal arts. 
With effort and, in all likelihood, 
some pain, students master difficult 
skills and broad areas of knowledge. 
They acquire, perhaps with 
unexpected joy, new interests and 
orientations. In short, they experience 
change and growth. Perhaps this 
experience is the most basic way the 
liberal arts liberate: through providing 
the experience of change and growth, 
they prepare students for lives of 
effective management of new 
situations and demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis for 
creative work. Creativity is rarely if 
ever the work of a mind unfamiliar 
with past achievements. Rather 
creativity is almost always the 
reformulation of, or conscious 
addition to, past achievement with 
which the creative mind is 
profoundly familiar. By 
encouraging students to become 
responsibly and articulately 
concerned with existing human 
achievement and existing means for 
extending and deepening human 
awareness, Gettysburg College 
believes that it is best to ensue the 
persistence of creativity. 




The intellectual liberation made 
possible through liberal education, 
though immensely desirable, does 
not in itself guarantee the 
development of humane values and 
is therefore not the final purpose of 
liberal education. If permitted to 
become an end in itself, it may 
indeed become destructive. A major 
responsibility of those committed to 
liberal education, therefore, is to 
help students appreciate our 
common humanitv in terms of such 



positive values as open-mindedness, 
personal responsibility, mutual 
respect, empathic understanding, 
aesthetic sensibility, and playfulness. 
Through the expanding and diverse 
intellectual activities offered in 
liberal education, students may 
develop greater freedom of choice 
among attitudes based on a fuller 
appreciation of our common 
humanit)', and based on clearer 
recognition of our immersion in a 
vast, enigmatic enterprise. 



The faith of the founders of 
Gettysburg College expressed in the 
charter supports the foregoing 
statement of academic purposes. 
The open search to know, 
tempered by humane reflection, 
complements our religious 
heritage. Together, we hope to add 
useful initiative toward the creation 
of a world in which diversity is more 
challenging and interesting than it 
is fear-producing; a world in which 
one may hear the sad truths 
reported by cynics while hearing, 
too, tales of quiet courage, of grace, 
of beauty, of joy. Then the response 
to the inevitably dissonant 
experiences of living may be wiser 
as a function of liberal education. 
Of course, the development of 
wisdom remains an elusive aim. It 
involves realms of experience that 
go beyond the academic, and a time 
span that encompasses a lifetime. 
Nevertheless, liberal education can 
be profoundly useful in the search 
for the fullness of life. 




19 



The Honor Code 

A liberal arts program has as a basic 
premise the ideal of academic 
integrity. Gettysburg students live 
and work in a college community 
which emphasizes their 
responsibility for helping to 
determine and enforce 
appropriately high standards of 
academic conduct. 

An academic honor system was 
instituted at Gettysburg College in 
1957 and was strongly reaffirmed in 
1976 and 1991. It is based upon the 
belief that undergraduates are 
mature enough to act honorably in 
academic matters without faculty 
surveillance and that they should be 
encouraged to conduct themselves 
accordingly. At the same time the 
College clearly recognizes the 
obligation placed upon each 
student to assist in maintaining the 
atmosphere required for an honor 
system to succeed. 



The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed on 
all academic work submitted, states 
that the student has neither given 
nor received unauthorized aid and 
that he or she has witnessed no 
such violation. The preservation of 
the atmosphere of independence 
permitted by the Honor Code is the 
responsibility of the community as a 
whole. Students must comply with 
the Honor Code both in presenting 
their own work and in reporting 
violations by others. No student may 
enroll at Gettysburg College 
without first having signed the 
Pledge. A person who would sign 
the Pledge with reservation should 
not apply for admission. 

Alleged violations of the Honor 
Code are handled by an Honor 
Commission elected by the 
students. Decisions of the 
Commission may be appealed to a 
student-faculty-administrative 
board of review. 



20 



Curriculum 



The major goals of the curriculum 
are set out in the Academic 
Program section of the College's 
Statement of Purpose on page 2 
and in the longer statement of the 
Academic Purposes of the College 
on page 17. 

The First Year Colloquy, with its 
strong emphasis on lucid writing, 
helps students sharpen analytic 
skills necessary for college and 
beyond. Gettysburg College's 
distribution requirements assure 
the student an introduction to the 
variet)' of opportimities offered by a 
liberal arts education, hi the first 
year, in addition to the First Year 
Colloquy in liberal learning, 
Gettysburg students normally take 
courses in a variety of fields and 
begin to fulfill distribution 
requirements, such as those in 
foreign languages, laboratory 
sciences, social sciences, or 
literature, hi the sophomore year 
students usually select a major and, 
in consultation with a major adviser, 
plan a college program which will 
allow the completion of specific 
graduation requirements and also 
provide opportunities for the widest 
possible choice of electives. In the 
last two years most students 
concentrate on courses in their 
major fields and supplement their 
programs with elective courses. 
Students are expected to complete 
three quarter courses of the 
physical education requirement by 
the end of the sophomore year. 




Students majoring in the natural 
sciences usually begin such 
programs in the first year and 
follow closely a prescribed sequence 
of courses. Students anticipating 
careers in medicine, dentistry, or 
veterinary medicine should begin 
acquiring necessar\' preparatory 
courses in their first year. 



The Advising System 

The College believes that one of 
the most valuable services it can 
render to its students is careful 
counseling. Each first year student 
is assigned a faculty adviser to 
assist in dealing with academic 
questions, in explaining College 
regulations, in setting goals, and 
in making the transition from 
secondary school to college as 
smooth as possible. Special 
assistance is also available from the 
Dean of First Year Students. 

During the first week of the fall 
semester, all new students 
participate in an orientation 
program designed to help them 
become acquainted with the 
College. All entering first year 
students receive in advance a 
detailed schedule of events of this 
program. During orientation, 
students have individual 
conferences with their advisers, take 
part in discussions of college life, 
and engage in other activities 
intended to familiarize them with 
the College and the academic 
opportunities available to them. 
They also take placement tests 
which provide the College with 
valuable information concerning 
their educational backgrounds and 
academic potential. 




During the year, students should 
arrange periodic meetings with 
their faculty advisers. In addition, 
these advisers are available to 
discuss unexpected problems as 
they arise. Any changes in a first 
year student's schedule must be 
approved by the adviser. Students 
may also seek help from the Dean 
of First Year Students. 

Sophomores may continue their 
advising relationship with their First 
Year adviser or they may select 
another facult)' member in a field of 
study they anticipate as their major. 
It is important that sophomores 
consult regularly with an adviser. 
The Associate Deans of Academic 
Advising are available to offer 
assistance in the selection of advisers 
or to discuss any academic issues. 

When a student chooses a major 
field of study, which must be done 
no later than the beginning of the 
junior year, a member of the major 



department becomes his or her 
adviser and performs functions 
similar to those of the first year 
adviser, including the approval of 
all course schedules. It is the 
responsibility of all students to take 
the initiative in discussing their 
entire academic program with 
their advisers and to view that 
program as a meaningful unit 
rather than as a collection of 
unrelated courses. A student 
wishing to change the major 
course of study must notify the 
department in which he or she is a 
major and secure the approval of 
the department he or she desires 
to join. Juniors and seniors 
making such changes should 
iniderstand that it may be 
necessary to spend more than four 
years in residence in order to 
complete their concentration 
requirements. Permission to spend 
more than four years in residence 
must be obtained from the 
Academic Standing Committee. 



22 




Credit Sj^tem 



The College encourages students to 
prepare for graduate study, which 
has become a necessity in an 
increasing number of career fields. 
It is important for such students to 
become familiar with the 
requirements of the graduate 
programs in which they are 
interested, as well as the 
qualifications for fellowships and 
assistantships within these 
programs, well in advance of their 
graduation from Gettysburg 
College. Above all, they should 
recognize the importance of 
building a superior imdergraduate 
academic record. 

The Career Services Office and the 
Musselman Library/ Learning 
Resources Center have a collection 
of graduate school catalogues for 
students' reference. Four times a 
year the Graduate Record 



Examination is given on the 
Gettysburg campus for those 
students who plan to enter a 
graduate school. The National 
Teacher Examination is given twice 
a year. Special advisers assist 
students in planning for the legal 
and health related professions. 

Students may confer with their 
adviser, an Associate Dean of 
Academic Advising, Career Services, 
or faculty members as they consider 
their options for a major, weigh their 
career objectives, choose a graduate 
or professional school, or search for 
employment after graduation. 



The course unit is the basic 
measure of academic credit. 
Students may complete the 35 
course unit graduation requirement 
through any combination of full or 
half unit courses. For transfer of 
credit to other institutions the 
College recommends equating one 
course unit with 3.5 semester hours. 
Because of the extra contact hours 
involved, each laboratory science 
course is more than acceptable in 
terms of the expectations of a 4.0 
semester hour course. The College 
uses the 3.5 conversion factor to 
convert semester hours to 
Gettysburg course units for those 
students presenting transfer credit 
for evaluation at the time of 
admission or readmission. Half unit 
courses should be equated to 2 
semester hours. The College offers 
a small number of quarter course 
units in Music and Health 8c 
Physical Education. These courses 
may not be accumulated to qualify 
as course units for graduation. 
Quarter course units should be 
equated to one semester hour. 



23 




Requirements for the 
Degree 

The College confers three 
undergraduate degrees: Bachelor of 
Arts (BA), Bachelor of Science(BS), 
and Bachelor of Science in Music 
Education (BSME). The general 
graduation requirements are the 
same for all degree programs as 
follows: 

1) 35 course units, including First 
Year Colloquy; plus three quarter 
courses in Health and Physical 
Education (two quarter courses for 
BSME); 



2) a demonstration of proficiency 
in written English; 

3) a minimum accumulative GPA of 
2.00 and a GPA of 2.00 in the major 
field; 

4) the distribution requirements; 

5) the concentration requirement 
in a major field of study; 

6) a minimum of the last year of 
academic work as a full-time student 
in residence at Gettysburg College or 
in an approved College program; and 

7) the discharge of all financial 
obligations to the College. 



Quarter course credits do not count 
toward the 35 course unit 
graduation requirement. 

No course used to obtain a 
bachelors degree at another 
institution may be counted toward 
the requirements for a Gettysburg 
College degree. 

The specific major requirements for 
each degree are different. The 
requirements for the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Music 
Education are found on page 41. 
The major requirements for the 
Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor 
of Science are found in the 
departmental introductions in the 
Courses of Study section of this 
catalogue beginning on page 66. 
The Bachelor of Science degree is 
offered in Biology, Chemistry, 
Mathematics, and Physics. 

Each student is responsible for 
being sure that graduation 
requirements are fulfilled by the 
anticipated date of graduation. 
Normally, the College requires 
students to complete the degree 
requirements in effect at the time 
of their original enrollment. 

Writing Policy Since the ability to 
express oneself clearly, correctly, 
and responsibly is essential for an 
educated person, the College 
cannot graduate a student whose 
writing abilities are deficient. See 
Item 1 under College Course 
Requirements below, histructors 
may reduce grades on poorly written 



24 




papers, regardless of the course, and 
in extreme cases, may assign a failing 
grade for this reason. 

College Course Requirements 

Each student must successfully 
complete the college course 
requirements listed below. 

1 ) Demonstration of proficiency in 
written English during the first year 
of enrollment. Normally, such 
proficiency is demonstrated by 
passing English 101. For other ways 
to satisfy this requirement, see 
Exemption from Degree 
Requirement on page 32. 

2) First Year Colloquy: a required 
seminar for all first year students, 
designed to strengthen reasoning, 
writing, and speaking skills using a 
multi-disciplinary theme as a focus. 

3) Health & Physical Education: 
three quarter courses including one 
semester of study in each of the 
following groups: health/wellness, 
fitness, recreational skills (two 
quarter courses for BSME). 



Distribution Requirements 

Each candidate for the degree must 
satisfactorily complete the following 
distribution requirements. See the 
listing on page 66 or read the 
departmental material under 
Course of Study for the specific 
courses that fulfill each 
requirement. Any requirement may 
be satisfied, with or without course 
credit, by students who can qualify 
for exemption (see page 32). 

1) Foreign Language: one to four 
courses to prove proficiency 
through the intermediate level. 
Normally, proficiency is 
demonstrated by completing the 
202 course in German, Greek, 
Latin, Portuguese, or Spanish; the 
201-202 course sequence in French; 
or other designated intermediate- 
level language courses. 

2) Arts: one course in art, music, 
creative writing, or theatre arts. 

3) History/Philosophy: one course 
in history, philosophy, or 
culture/civilization in languages or 
interdepartmental studies. 

4) Literature: one course in 
literature in the original language 
or in English translation. 

5) Natural Science: two courses in 
astronomy, biology, chemistry, or 
physics. The courses must be in 
the same department and must 
include a laboratory. 




6) Religion: one course on the 100- 
or 200-level in religion. 

7) Social Science: one course in 
anthropology, economics, political 
science, psychology, or sociology. 

8) Non-Western Culture: one 
course to satisfy the distribution 
requirements listed above must give 
primary emphasis to African or 
Asian cultures, or to the non- 
European culture of the Americas. 
A student may also take a non- 
western course that happens not to 
satisfy any of the other distribution 
requirements. 



25 



Major Requirements: Each student 
must successfully complete the 
requirements in a major field of 
study. A major consists of 8 to 12 
courses, depending on the field of 
study, and may include specific 
courses determined by the 
department. A department may, in 
addition, require related courses in 
other departments. A department 
may require its majors to pass a 
comprehensive examination. 
Requirements of the various majors 
are listed in the departmental 
introductions under Courses of 
Study. 

The following are major fields of 
study at Gettysburg College: 

Bachelor of Arts: 

Art 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Computer Science 

Economics 

English 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Physical Education 

History 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 




Philosophy 

Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology and Anthropology 

Spanish 

Theatre Arts 

Bachelor of Science: 

Biology 
Chemistry 
Mathematics 
Physics 



Bachelor Of Science 
in Music Education: 

Music Education 

A student must file a declaration of 
major with the Registrar before 
registering for the junior year. A 
student may declare a second major 
as late as the beginning of the 
senior year. 



26 



Special Major 

As an alternative to the standard 
major fields of study offered in 
departmental disciplines, students 
mav declare a special major by 
designing an interdepartmental 
concentration of courses focusing 
on particular problems or areas of 
investigation which, though not 
adequately included within a single 
department or discipline, are 
worthy of concentrated study. 

Students intending to pursue a 
special major must submit a 
proposal for their individual plan of 
study to the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies. The 
proposed program must be an 
integrated plan of study that 
incorporates coursework from a 
minimum of two departments or 
fields. A special major must include 
a total of ten to twelve courses, no 
fewer than eight of which must be 
above the 100-level; three or more 
courses at the 300-level or above; 
and a 400-level Individualized Study 
course which is normally taken 
during the senior year. 
Individualized Study allows students 
to pursue independent work in their 
areas of interest as defined by the 
proposal and resulting in a senior 
thesis demonstrating the 
interrelationships among the fields 
comprising the special major. The 
proposal must be signed by two 
faculty members (from two different 
departments among those 
represented in the list of courses to 




be taken), one of whom will ser\e as 
the student's primary academic 
adviser. 

After consulting with the 
interdepartmental studies 
chairperson and the prospective 
sponsors/ advisers, students should 
submit their proposals during the 
sophomore year. The latest a 
student may submit a proposal is 
mid-term of the first semester of his 
or her junior year. The proposal 
will consist of an application form, 
obtainable from the IDS 
chairperson, and a narrative 
describing the academic purpose of 



the program. The narrative must 
include a specific and detailed 
explanation of the particular 
problem or area of interest which is 
the focus of the proposal, 
statements indicating why the 
student wishes to pursue this 
interest and why the student's goals 
cannot be accomplished through a 
regular major, and a clear and 
coherent explanation of how the 
courses included in the 
proposal constitute an integrated, 
in-depth study of the problem or 
interest. It is often possible to build 
into a special major a significant 
component of off-campus study. 



27 



Normally, to be accepted as a 
special major, a student should have 
a 2.3 overall GPA. Students should 
be aware that a special major 
program may require some 
departmental methods or theory 
courses particular to each of the 
fields within the program. 

A student may graduate with 
Honors from the special major 
program. Honors designation 
requires a 3.5 GPA in the Special 
Major, the recommendation of the 
student's sponsors, the satisfactory 
completion of an interdisciplinary 
Individualized Study, and the public 
presentation of its results in some 
academic forum. 

Optional Minor Students may 
declare a minor concentration in 
an academic department or area 
that has an established minor 
program. Not all departments offer 
minor programs. A minor shall 
consist of six courses, no more than 
two of which shall be 100-level 
courses. Exceptions to the two 100- 
level course limitation may occur in 
departments offering more than 
one major. Each department having 
a minor program stipulates the 
requirements for it. Students may 
not declare a minor in the same 
department in which they have a 
declared major. Students must 
maintain a 2.00 average in the 
minor field of study. 




Residence Requirements 
And Schedule Limitations 

The normal program consists of 
nine courses per year, with five 
courses in one semester and four in 
the other. Thus, a student will 
complete graduation requirements 
in four years of full-time academic 
work in the September-through- 
May academic year. The last full 
year of academic work must be in 
residence at Gettysburg College or 
in an approved College program. 
Students may not complete 
requirements as part-time students 
during their last semester of 
residence. 

Students proposing to complete 
graduation requirements in less 
than four full years must have their 
programs approved by the Academic 
Standing Committee through the 
Office of Academic Advising. Such 
approval should be sought at least a 
year before the proposed 
completion of requirements. 



A full-time student for academic 
purposes is one carrying a 
minimum of three courses during a 
semester. No student who is a 
candidate for a degree may take 
fewer courses than this without 
permission of the Academic 
Standing Committee. 

Students may not enroll in the 
equivalent of six or more full unit 
courses per semester without the 
approval of the Academic Standing 
Committee. In granting approval to 
take six courses, the Committee 
requires evidence that the student is 
in good academic standing and will 
be able to perform at an above 
average academic level during the 
semester of heavy enrollment. Any 
course enrollment above five in full 
or half unit courses represents an 
overload and results in an extra 
course fee. 



28 



The required quarter courses in 
health and physical educadon, 
generally taken during the first and 
second years, are in addition to the 
full course load in each semester. 
These courses do not count toward 
the 35-course graduation 
requirement. 

Majors in music and health and 
physical education must take quarter 
courses in addition to the normzil 
course load. Other students may take 
quarter courses in applied music over 
the normal load with the approval of 
their advisers and of the Music 
Department at an additional charge. 

A student may audit informally any 
College course with the permission 
of the instructor. No charge will be 
made for such an audit and no 
record of auditing will be recorded 
on the student's transcript. 

Gettysburg College is aware that 
physical and learning disabled 
persons may have special needs and 
is committed to making 
adjustments in order to make the 
program accessible to them. 




29 



Registration 



Students must be officially 
registered for a course in order to 
earn academic credit. The Registrar 
announces the time and place of 
formal registration. By formally 
completing his or her registration, 
the student pledges to abide by 
College regulations. 

Also students may enroll in a course 
for credit during the first 12 class 
days after the beginning of the 
semester. A proposed change must 
be submitted to the Registrar on an 
official course change slip after first 
being approved by the instructors 
involved and the student's adviser. 
Students are not permitted to 
enroll in a course after the 12 day 
enrollment period. 

Many departments establish limits 
to class enrollments in particular 
courses to insure the greatest 
opportunity for students to interact 
with their instructors and other 
students. As a result, students 
cannot be assured of enrollment in 
all of their first choice courses 
within a given semester. 



The Grading System 

Normally courses are graded A 
through F, with these grades having 
the following significance: A 
(excellent); B (good); C (fair); D 
(poor); and F (failing). Instructors 
may modify their letter grades with 
plus and minus signs. 

In successfully completing a course 
under this grading system, a student 
earns a number of quality points 
according to the following scale. 






A+ 


4 1/3 


C 


2 


A 


4 


c- 


1 2/3 


A- 


3 2/3 


D+ 


1 1/3 


B+ 


3 1/3 


D 


1 


B 


3 


D- 


2/3 


B- 


2 2/3 


F 





C+ 


2 1/3 







A student's accumulative average is 
computed by summing his or her 
quality points and dividing by the 
number of courses taken. The 
average is rounded to the third 
decimal place. 

The College reserves the right to 
make changes and adjustments in 
the grading system even after a 
student enrolls. 




The College also offers a 
Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory grading 
option. This option is intended to 
encourage students to be 
intellectually adventurous in 
courses with subject matter or 
approaches substantially different 
from their prior academic 
experience or attainment. An S 
signifies satisfactory work, and is 
given if a student performs at the C- 
level or higher, a U signifies 
unsatisfactory work, and is given for 
work below the C- level. Courses 
graded S/U do not affect a 
student's quality point average, but 
a course completed with an S grade 
will count toward the total number 
of courses needed for graduation. A 
student may elect to take a total of 
six courses on an S/U basis during 
his or her four years at Gettysburg 
College; however, no more than two 
S/U courses may be taken in any 
one year. This grading option may 
not be selected for: ( 1 ) College 
course requirements in written 
English or the First Year Colloquy, 



30 



(2) distribution requirements for 
graduation, and (3) courses taken 
in a student's major field. 
Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases where a 
department specifies that a 
particular course is available under 
the S/U grading system only, and in 
cases where the student declares the 
major after taking the course. A 
student must choose the S/U 
grading option during the first 12 
class days of the semester. 

The quarter course basic skill 
courses in Health and Physical 
Education (all of which are graded 
S/U) shall not count in 
determining the maximum number 
of S/U courses a student may take. 
Students who enroll in Education 
476: Student Teaching may take an 
additional course under the S/U 
option during the senior year, 
provided that their total number of 
S/U courses does not exceed six. 

When a student registers for and 
completes a course which he or she 
has already taken at Gettysburg 
College, both the credit and the 
grade previously earned are 
canceled, but they are not removed 
from the permanent record. The 
credit and grade earned in 
repeating the course are counted 
toward the student's requirements. 

A grade of I (Incomplete) is issued by 
the Dean of Academic Advising 
when emergency situations, such as 
illness, prevent a student from 
completing the course 




requirements on time. Unless the 
Academic Standing Committee 
extends the time limit, an 
incomplete automatically becomes 
an F if it is not removed within the 
first six weeks of the semester 
following the one in which it was 
incurred. 

A student may ivithdraw from a course 
only with the knowledge and advice 
of his or her adviser and the 
instructor. A student who officially 
withdraws for medical reasons 
receives a W. A student withdrawing 
after the drop/add period receives 



a WP (withdraw passing) or WF 
(withdraw failing) according to the 
estimate of the work done in the 
course up to the time of withdrawal. 
Those withdrawing from a course 
during the last five weeks of a 
semester will receive a WF. A grade 
of NF (non-attendance failure) will 
be given for those who do not 
attend the classes for a registered 
course and fail to withdraw 
properly. The grades of WF and NF 
carry quality points and are used 
in computing averages. 



31 



Transfer Credit 



After enrolling at Gettysburg, 
students may use a maximum of 
three course credits toward the 
degree for work taken at other 
colleges if such courses have first 
been approved by the chairperson 
of the department concerned and 
by the Registrar. Course credit, but 
not the grade, transfers to 
Gettysburg if the grade earned is a 
C- or better. This transfer option is 
not available to those who receive 
three or more transfer course 
credits at the time of admission or 
readmission to the College. 

This course credit limitation does 
not apply to Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium Courses or to 
individually arranged off-campus 
study programs approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. 

Both credit and grades transfer for 
work done at another Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium College, 
or in certain Gettysburg College off- 
campus affiliated programs 
described beginning on page 42. 




32 



Exemption from Degree 
Requirements 

The College may recognize work on 
the college level completed 
elsewhere by a student. This 
recognition may take the form of 
exemption from degree 
requirements and may carry 
academic credit. Students should 
present their requests for 
exemption to the Registrar. They 
should be prepared to demonstrate 
their competence on the basis of 
their academic record, Advanced 
Placement Examination results of 
the College Board (see page 169), 
or examinations administered by 
the department concerned. The 
decisions on exemption and credit 
rest with the department and the 
Registrar. 

Students may satisfy the writing 
proficiency requirement by scoring 
sufficiently high on the Test of 
Standard Written English (TSWE) 
of the College Board. In 1991, the 
College exempted those students 
who scored 58 or above on the 
TSWE. Those scoring 53-57 were 
permitted to gain exemption by 
passing a departmental 
examination given on the campus. 

Students may satisfy the foreign 
language requirement in a 
language not regularly offered at 
Gettysburg by demonstrating 
achievement at the intermediate- 




level through transfer credit, by 
examination, through independent 
study with a Gettysburg faculty 
member, or through an approved 
exchange program with the Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium. 
International students who have 
learned English as a second language 
may satisfy the requirement with their 
primary language. 

Individualized Study 
and Seminar 

There are opportunities in most of 
the departments for students to 
engage in individualized study and 
seminars. These opportunities are 
primarily for seniors, but other 
students are frequently eligible. In 
some departments participation in 
this type of activity is part of the 
required program of study; in 
others it is optional. Most of these 
courses are numbered in the 400's 
under Courses of Study. 



Academic Standing 

Students are expected to maintain 
an academic record that will enable 
them to complete the requirements 
for graduation in the normal eight 
semesters. To be in good academic 
standing a student must have at 
least a 2.00 accumulative average, a 
2.00 average for the semester, a 2.00 
average in the major field of study 
by the end of the junior year and 
during the senior year, and be 
making appropriate progress in 
acquiring the credits and 
completing the various 
requirements for graduation. 
Students who do not meet these 
standards will be given a warning, 
placed on academic probation, 
placed on dismissal alert, or be 
dismissed from the College. 

The student who falls below the 
following minimum standard is 



considered to not be making 
sadsfactory progress and is either 
placed on dismissal alert or is 
dismissed: 

For first year students - 1 .50 
GPA and 6 courses completed 

For sophomores - 1 .80 GPA and 
15 courses completed 

For juniors - 1.90 GPA and 25 
courses completed 

In addition to these minimum 
standards, a student on probation 
must show significant improvement 
during the following semester in 
order to remain at the College. 
Normally, a student may not remain 
at the College with three 
consecutive semester averages 
below 2.00. 

Students receiving some forms of 
financial aid must maintain certain 
progress toward achieving a degree 
in order to remain eligible for such 
aid. See the Financial Aid section of 
this catalogue for a more complete 
discussion of appropriate progress. 

In accordance with the regulations 
of the National Collegiate Athletic 
Association, a student who is on 
dismissal alert status may not 
participate in the institution's 
intercollegiate athletic program. 




33 



Transcripts 



The College supports students in 
their candidacy for graduate or 
professional school admission or in 
their search for appropriate 
employment by providing a 
responsive transcript service. 
Requests for transcripts must be in 
writing and should be directed to the 
Office of the Registrar. This office 
prepares transcripts twice a week on 
Tuesdays and Fridays. There is no 
charge for this service unless special 
handling is requested. 




34 



Withdrawal and 
Readmission 



Readmission for students who 
withdraw from Gettysburg College is 
not automatic. The procedure for 
seeking readmission depends on the 
suident's academic status at the time 
of withdrawal, the length of time that 
has elapsed since withdrawal, and the 
reason for withdrawal, as described 
in the sections that follow. Normally, 
the Academic Standing Committee 
re\iews applications for readmission 
in the second week of November and 
the second week of April; all 
supporting materials should be 
submitted to the Office of Academic 
Advising by the beginning of 
November and the beginning of April. 

Voluntary Withdrawal 

A student who is in good academic 
standing at the time of withdrawal 
and seeks readmission within one 
academic year after withdrawing 
does not have to submit an 
application for readmission. 
Instead, the student must file with 
the Academic Standing Committee, 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising, a letter requesting 
reinstatement and providing an 
account of the activities during his 
or her absence from the College. 
This letter should be sent by 
November 1 or April 1. Any 
student who seeks readmission after 
one year has elapsed must submit 
an application for readmission. 
Students who desire to be 
considered eligible for financial aid 




upon return must complete all 
financial aid applications by the 
normal financial aid deadlines and 
notify the Financial Aid Office of 
their intentions to return. 

A student who withdraws voluntarily 
should arrange for an exit interview 
with a member of the academic 
advising staff prior to leaving the 
College. A readmission interxiew is 
desirable, and in some cases 
required, depending on the 
circumstances surrounding the 
student's withdrawal. 

A student who withdraws voluntarily 
and is on academic probation at the 
time of withdrawal must submit an 
application for readmission to the 
Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising. The Academic Standing 
Committee will review the student's 
application, previous record at 
Gettysburg College, activities since 
leaving college, and prospects for 
the successful completion of his or 
her undergraduate studies. 



Dismissal 

A student who is dismissed from the 
College for academic reasons is not 
eligible for readmission until one 
academic year has elapsed. Students 
who have been dismissed from the 
College for academic reasons for a 
second time are not eligible for 
readmission. An application for 
readmission must be submitted to 
the Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising. A personal interview is 
required. The Academic Standing 
Committee will review the student's 
application, recommendations from 
an employer and three Gettysburg 
College faculty members, activities 
since leaving college, and prospects 
for future academic success at the 
College. To be eligible for 
readmission, a dismissed student 
must also have completed at least 
one course at an accredited 
institution and have earned a grade 
of B or higher. 

A student who is suspended for 
disciplinary reasons must follow this 
same procedure for readmission 
except that he or she is not required 
to take course work elsewhere. A 
student in this category is eligible to 
apply for readmission at the end of 
the time period designated for the 
suspension. 



35 



Medical Withdrawal 

A student whose health is so 
impaired that matriculation cannot 
be continued will be granted a 
Medical Withdrawal provided that a 
physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist confirms in writing the 
seriousness of the condition and 
recommends that the student 
withdraw from the College. In such 
cases an Associate Dean of Academic 
Advising may authorize grades of 
"W" for the courses in which the 
student is currently enrolled. A 
student in good academic standing 
who has been granted a Medical 
Withdrawal does not have to fill out 
an application for readmission, but 
must submit to the Academic 
Standing Committee, through the 
Office of Academic Advising, a 
written request for reinstatement at 
least three weeks prior to the 
beginning of the semester that 
matriculation is desired. A letter 
from his or her attending physician, 
psychiatrist, or psychologist which 
certifies that the student will be 
ready to resume a full academic 
program by a designated time is also 
required. If, based on medical 
considerations, there is reason to 
limit the student's course load or 




physical activity, a recommendation 
for such should be noted in this 
letter. A personal interview with a 
member of the Counseling Services 
or Health Services staff may also be 
required. A student on academic 
probation who has been granted a 
Medical Withdrawal must submit an 
application for readmission along 
with the aforementioned letter. 
Decisions regarding reinstatement 
are the responsibility of the 
Academic Standing Committee. 
Students who have withdrawn for 
medical reasons and who intend to 
return are subject to the same 
procedures for financial aid as are 
matriculated students; it is 
imperative to be in touch with the 
Financial Aid Office during absence 
from campus. 



Senior Scholars' Seminar 

The College offers a unique and 
valuable opportunity for its 
outstanding senior students. Each 
year the Senior Scholars' Seminar, 
composed of selected seniors, 
undertakes a study of a 
contemporary issue which affects 
the future of humanity. The issues 
are always timely and often 
controversial. Past topics have 
included genetic engineering, 
conflict resolution, global 
disparities, computer and human 
communication, aging and the 
aged, dissent and nonconformity, 
imagining peace, human sexuality, 
and environmental protection or 
exploitation. 

During the 1990-91 academic year 
consultants from Canada, Great 
Britain, and all parts of the United 
States helped students in the 
seminar explore 'The Concept of 
the Hero in Historical and 
Contemporary Perspective." In 
1991-92 the eighteen Senior 
Scholars' Seminar students not only 
brought outside experts to campus, 
but also traveled to other highly 
selective liberal arts colleges to do 
research on "Creating and 
Sustaining Intellectual Community 
in the Liberal Arts College." 



In previous years the Senior 
Scholars' Seminar invited other 
authorities of national stature to 



36 




serve as resource persons. Persons 
who have visited the seminar 
include George Wald, Kenneth 
Boulding, Herbert Gans, Paolo 
Soleri, Joseph Fletcher, Leon Kass, 
Stuart Udall, David Freeman, 
Thomas Szasz, Daniel Ellsberg, 
Jonathan Schell, Daniel Bell, and 
James Gould. Student participants 
in the Seminar publish a final 
report based on their findings and 
recommendations. 

The issues explored in the Seminar 
are always interdisciplinary in 
scope, and the students selected for 
this seminar represent a wide 
variety of majors. 

Early in the second term of the 
junior year, qualified students are 
invited to apply for admission to the 
course. After the members of the 
class have been selected through a 
process of interviews, they begin to 
plan the course with two faculty 
directors and become active 
participants in the entire academic 
process. The Senior Scholars' Seminar 
is assigned two course credits. 



Computer Courses 

In the tradition of the Liberal Arts, 
Gettysburg College emphasizes the 
interdisciplinary nature of the 
computer as a tool in problem- 
solving. A thorough understanding 
of the concepts and applications in 
various disciplines is important for 
those students interested in 
pursuing a career in computer 
science. The Biology, Chemistry, 
Economics, Management, 
Mathematics, Physics, Political 
Science, Psychology, and Sociology 
and Anthropology Departments all 
offer courses that make significant 
use of the computer. In recent 
years, 95% of the graduating 
students have made use of the 
computing facilities in their courses 
at Gettysburg. 

In addition to these courses in 
various departments, the College 
has a Computer Science curriculum 
of courses that cover the concepts 
that are at the core of the 
discipline. These courses are listed 
under Computer Science in the 



Course Descriptions section of this 
catalogue. While there are over fifty 
courses that utilize the computer 
(not including those in the 
Computer Science curriculum), the 
following courses offer a more 
concentrated study in the use of the 
computer. 



BIO 260 
CHEM 305, 
306 
ECON 103 

ECON 241 



MAN 247 

MATH 1 1 1 

MATH 211 

MATH 212 
MATH 366 
PS 103 
PS 215 

PSYCH 205 

PSYCH 305 

SOC 303 



Biostatistics 
Physical Chemistry 

Principles of 

Microeconomics 

Introductory 

Economic 

and Business 

Statistics 

Management 

Information Systems 

Calculus of a Single 

Variable 

Multivariable 

Calculus 

Linear Algebra 

Numerical Analysis 

Global Politics 

Political Science 

Research Methods 

Introduction to 

Statistics 

Experimental 

Methods 

Data Analysis and 

Statistics 



Teacher Education 
Programs 

Gettysburg College education 
programs in secondary school 
subjects, elementary education, 
music education, and health and 
physical education are competency 
based and have received approval 
from the Pennsylvania Department 
of Education. The liberal arts are 
central to the College's teacher 
education programs. Students 
planning to teach must complete a 
major in an academic department 
of their choice and fulfill all the 
requirements for the Bachelor of 
Arts degree or the Bachelor of 
Science degree. Upon completing a 
program in teacher education, 
students are eligible for a 
Pennsylvania Certificate, 
Instructional I, enabling them to 
teach in the public schools of the 
Commonwealth and other states 
with similar requirements. Students 
who pursue teacher certification are 
required to demonstrate computer 
literacy prior to admission to the 
Education Semester. A minimum 




of forty hours of observation and 
participation in schools is required 
prior to acceptance into the 
Education Semester. Students who 
are seeking an Instructional I 
Certificate must have successfully 
completed the National Teachers' 
Exams (NTE) in the core battery 
(general knowledge, 
communication skills, and 
professional knowledge) and 
specialty area (the subject area for 
which candidates are seeking 
certificadon). For more 
informadon on the exams, contact 
a member of the education 
department. 



Secondary Education 

Students interested in preparing to 
teach academic subjects in the 
secondary schools must complete 
one of the following approved 
programs for secondary 
certification: biology, chemistry, 
physics, general science, 
mathemadcs, English, German, 
Latin, French, Spanish, health and 
physical education, or 
comprehensive social studies. These 
secondary programs have been 
granted program approval by the 
Pennsylvania Department of 
Education. The student must 
complete an approved program 
listed in the Handbook for Teacher 
Education, which will, in most cases, 
closely parallel the requirements in 
his or her major. Early planning 
beginning in the first year is 
essendal for all of these programs. 



38 



Secondar)' education students are 
required to engage in a minimum 
of forty hours of pre-student 
teaching experiences in the 
secondar)' schools during the 
sophomore and junior years. 
Students serve as observers, aides, 
and small group instructors in 
secondary classrooms. These 
experiences are part of the 
requirements for Education 209 
(Social Foundations of Education) 
and Education 201 (Educational 
Psychology). For the senior year, 
students, in consultation with their 
major department, will select either 
the fall or spring semester as the 
Education Semester. Student 
teaching experiences are completed 
at a school district near the College, 
or the student may elect to apply to 
student teach abroad or in other 
alternative sites. The following 
program constitutes the Education 
Semester. 

Education 303 (Educational 
Purposes, Methods, and 
Educational Media: Secondary) 

Education 304 (Techniques of 
Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subjects) 

Education 476 (Student Teaching- 
two courses) 

Note: Only these four courses may 
be taken during the Education 
Semester. 

The student seeking admission to 
the secondary education program 




must file an application with the 
education department by December 
15 of the junior year. Admission to 
the program is granted by the 
Committee on Teacher Education, a 
body composed of faculty members 
from each department which has 
students in the secondary education 
program. This committee also 
determines standards for admission 
to the program. Members of the 
committee also teach Education 304 
for the students of their respective 
departments and observe them 
when they engage in student 
teaching. 



The admission of a student to the 
Education Semester depends upon 
the student's academic achievement 
and a recommendation from his or 
her major department. The 
guidelines for evaluating a student's 
academic achievement are an 
accumulative grade point average of 
2.33 and a grade point average of 
2.66 in the major. The successful 
applicant will have earned a "C" 
grade or higher in all education 
courses. The student will also be 
evaluated on such professional 
traits as responsibility, integrity, 
enthusiasm, and timeliness. 



39 



Evaluation of a student's 
communications skills will be done 
in the form of a writing sample 
which a student submits at the time 
of application for entrance into the 
Education Semester. 

Students in the program leading to 
certification in secondary education 
shall present the six specified 
courses in education, hi addition to 
these six courses, students are 
permitted one additional education 
course in individualized study, or in 
an education internship, to count 
toward the Bachelors degree. A 
minor in secondary education 
consists of successful completion of 
these six courses. 



Elementary Education 

The elementary education program 
is distinctive in giving students the 
opportunity to concentrate on 
liberal arts studies and complete an 
academic major, thus qualifying for 
the Bachelor of Arts degree. 

Students interested in entering the 
elementary education program 
should consult with the education 
department no later than the fall 
semester of the first year in order to 
establish a program of study. 

The prospective elementary teacher 
should complete the following 
program: 

1) Economics 103, Psychology 101, 
World History, and HPE 199 during 
the first year. 

2) Educadon 180, Music, Art, a 
course in child development. 
Education 201, and a course which 
is quantitative in nature. 




Student teaching (Education 476) 
and Education 306 consist of 10 
weeks of full-time participation in a 
public school near the College. 
Opportunities for student teaching 
abroad and in alternative sites also 
exist. Education 334 is taught in a 
five-week block and includes a two- 
week, full-time experience in the 
schools under the direct supervision 
of a reading specialist. Thus, twelve 
weeks of full-time student teaching 
are completed. Only these four 
courses may be taken during the 
Education Semester. 



3) Education 209, Education 331, 
Educadon 370, World Geography. 



4) Education semester (fall or 
spring semester during the senior 
year) composed of Education 334, 
306, and 476 (worth two courses) . 



40 



Elementary education students are 
required to engage in pre-student 
teaching experiences in the 
elementary schools during the 
sophomore and junior years. 
Students serve as observers, aides, and 
small group instructors in elementary 
and middle school classrooms. 

The student seeking admission to 
the elementary education program 
must file an application with the 
education department by 
December 15 of the junior year. 
Admission to the program is 
granted by the Committee on 
Teacher Education, a body 
composed of faculty members from 
the education department and 
other departments. This committee 
also establishes standards for 
admission to the program. 

The admission of a student to the 
Education Semester depends upon 
the student's academic achievement 
and a recommendation from his or 
her major department. The 
guidelines for evaluating a student's 
academic achievement are an 
accumulative grade point average of 
2.33 and a grade point average of 
2.66 in the elementary education 
program and its related courses 
(history, geography, economics. 



child development, and the 
education courses) . The successful 
applicant will have earned a "C" 
grade or higher in all education 
courses. The student will also be 
evaluated on such professional 
traits as responsibility, integrity, 
enthusiasm, and timeliness. 
Evaluation of a student's 
communications skills will be done 
in the form of a writing sample 
which is submited at the time of 
application for entrance into the 
Education Semester. 

Students interested in teaching in 
states other than Pennsylvania will 
find that a number of states certify 
teachers who have completed a 
baccalaureate program in 
elementary education at a college 
approved by its own state 
department of education. Numerous 
states require specific scores on 
portions of the National Teacher 
Exams (NTE). See the Education 
Department section for details. 

In addition to the courses listed, 
students are permitted one 
education course in individualized 
study, or in an education internship, 
to count toward the Bachelor of Arts 
degree. A minor in elementary 
education consists of successful 




completion of six courses offered by 
the education department 
(Education 201, 209, and 476 are 
required). The student then 
designates three of the following five 
courses to complete the minor: 
Education 180, 306, 334, 331, 370. 
All eight courses must be successfully 
completed for teacher certification 
in elementary education. 



Music Education 

The prospective teacher of music in 
the elementary and secondary 
schools should complete the 
program for the degree of Bachelor 
of Science in Music Education. This 
requires successful completion of 
35 courses exclusive of courses in 
applied music. Also required are 
two semesters of the basic activities 
quarter courses in health and 
physical education. 




The program includes: 

Music, twelve courses as follows: 
Music Theory, 141, 142, 241, 

242,341,342 
Music History and Literature 
Music 244 (hitro. to Music 

History and Literature) 
Music 313 (Music in the 

Medieval, Renaissance and 

Baroque Periods) 
Music 314 (Music in the 

Classical, Romantic and 

Contemporary Periods) 
Conducting 

Music 205 (Choral Conducting) 
Music 206 (Instrumental 

Conducting) 



Applied Music 

Music 456 (Senior Recital) 
Fifteen to nineteen quarter 
courses. These do not count 
toward the 35 course graduation 
requirements and may be taken 
in addition to the 40 courses 
permitted. Consequently, in the 
fall and spring semesters the 
student will typically carry four 
or five full courses plus several 
quarter courses in applied 
music. The latter must include 
work in: 

Major performance area 
Piano 
Voice 

histruments of the Band 
and Orchestra 

Music Education, five courses as 

follows: 

Music 320 (Principles and 
Procedures of Teaching 
Music in the Elementary 
School) 

Music 321 (Principles and 

Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Secondary School) 



Music 474 

(Student Teaching) 
(three course units) 

Certification Requirements 
Psychology 101 
Education 209 (Social 

Foundations of Education) 
Education 201 (Educational 

Psychology) 

Distribution Requirements 

Electives 

Participation for four years in an 
authorized musical group and 
presentation of a recital in the 
senior year are required. 

The student in the Bachelor of 
Science program should consult 
with the music department as early 
as possible in order to arrange a 
four-year program. 



42 



Ninth Semester Education 
Program 

Gettysburg College students who 
demonstrate academic ability but 
cannot finish certification 
requirements within four years may, 
with approval by the Teacher 
Education Committee, return to 
campus for a consecutive ninth 
semester to complete their student 
teaching and certification 
requirements. This semester, which 
would include only work in 
education, would be provided at 
cost (1992 cost: $1,250) to these 
recent Gettysburg College 
graduates. Interested students 
should consult with a faculty 
member about this option. 

Teacher Placement 

The College maintains a Teacher 
Placement Bureau to assist seniors 
and graduates in securing positions 
and to aid school officials in 
locating qualified teachers. All 
communications should be 
addressed to the Director of the 
Teacher Placement Bureau. 

Ejnployment Prospects in 
Teaching 

The projected annual demand for 
new hiring of all teachers is 
expected to rise from 233,000 in 
1990 to a high of 243,000 in the 
year 2000, according to the 
National Center for Education 




Statistics. Demand will be greatest at 
the elementary school level. Of the 
reporting 1991 Gettysburg College 
graduates who sought teaching 
positions in elementary education, 
85% were teaching or in education- 
related occupations during the 
following academic year. Of the 
reporting secondary education 
graduates, 67% were so employed. 
The reported average salary for 
these 1991 Gettysburg College 
graduates was $21 ,900. 



Off-Campus Study 

College Affiliated Programs 

In order to supplement and 
enhance the regular courses of the 
College, the faculty designates 
certain off-campus programs of 
study as College Affiliated 
Programs. As such, these programs 
are recognized as worthy of credit 
to be applied toward the Gettysburg 
College degree. In affiliated 
programs, both grades and credits 
shall be accepted as if they were 
grades and credits earned at 
Gettysburg College. Currently, any 
student with sophomore status who 
is in good social and academic 
standing may apply for permission 
to study off-campus in any program 
approved by the college. A student 
wishing to study abroad should 
petition through the Office of Off- 
Campus Studies; those who wish to 
study off-campus in the United 
States should petition through the 
Office of the Registrar. The 
Academic Standing Committee 
shall approve a student's 
participation in a program and shall 
establish regulations and standards 
for the acceptance of credits. 



43 



Consortium Exchange Program 

The program of the College is 
enriched by its membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium 
(CPC) consisting of Dickinson, 
Franklin and Marshall, and 
Gettysburg Colleges. The 
Consortium provides opportunities 
for exchanges by students and 
faculty, and for other off-campus 
study. Students may take a single 
course or enroll at a Consortium 
College for a semester, or a full 
year. A course taken at any 
Consortium College is considered 
as in-residence credit. Interested 
students should consult the 
Registrar. 

Courses of unusual interest to 
Gettysburg students offered at the 
other CPC schools include those 
listed under the following 
programs: 




DICKINSON 

American Studies 

Anthropology 

Archaeology 

East Asian Studies (includes 

Chinese and Japanese language) 
Environmental Studies 
Geology 

Italian Studies (includes language ) 
Judaic Studies(includes language) 
Russian and Soviet Area Studies 

(includes language) 



FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL 

American Studies 

Anthropology 

Asian Studies 

Astronomy 

Dance 

Geosciences 

Italian 

Linguistics 

Russian Studies (includes 

language) 
Science, Technology and Society 



44 




Lutheran College Washington 
Semester (Ethical Issues and 
Public Affairs). Gettysburg College, 
in partnership with Lenoir-Rhyne 
College, Luther College, 
Muhlenberg College, Roanoke 
College, Susquehanna University, 
Thiel College, and the Luther 
Institute in Washington, D.C., runs 
full academic programs during the 
fall and spring semesters of each 
academic year, and a two month 
internship program during the 
summer. Students live together in 
an apartment complex that houses 
students from other colleges who 
are also studying in Washington, 
D.C. During regular semesters 
students earn four course credits by 
taking a two-credit internship (in 
their area of interest) and two 
seminars. One of the seminars is 
entitled "Ethical Issues and Public 
Affairs" and the other is a special 
topics seminar created each year. In 
1991-1992, the special topic was 
"Religion and Food Distribution." 
Additionally, there are a variety of 
field trips to important political, 
cultural, social, and religious 



organizations. Service Learning 
projects are also part of the 
experience. The Lutheran College 
Washington Semester is 
recommended for juniors, but 
sophomores and seniors may apply. 
Information may be obtained from 
Dr. Donald Hinrichs, Department 
of Sociology and Anthropology, or 
by writing Dr. Nancy Joyner, 
Director, The Lutheran College, 
Washington Consortium, 226 East 
Capitol Street, Washington, D. C. 
20003. 

Washmgton Semester Gettysburg 
College participates with American 
University in Washington, D.C. in a 
cooperative arrangement known as 
the Washington Semester. This 
program enables a limited number 
of qualified students in the social 
sciences to engage in first-hand 
study of American government in 
action. The program is divided into 
several distincdve areas. Washington 
Semester, National Government and 
Politics focuses on important 
national institutions and the 
interrelationships of the various 



actors in the political process. 
Washington Semester in Foreign Policy 
examines the formulation, 
implementation, and consequences 
of the foreign policy of the United 
States. Washington Semester in Peace 
and Conflict Resolution examines 
conflict resolution theory, history, 
methodologies, and skill 
development and forces that move 
in the directions of conflict or 
peace. Washington Urban Semester 
concentrates upon the operation of 
the political and administrative 
systems of urban America. 
Washington Semester in Public 
Administration studies the structure, 
process, and impact of the 
administradve sector. Washington 
Semester injustice is concerned with 
the nature and sources of crime 
and violence, the conflicting 
theories and beliefs about justice, 
and the impact of national 
policymaking on social and criminal 
justice. Washington Semester in 
Journalism provides an introduction 
to the principles, ethics, and issues 
of American journalism as it exists 
in Washington, D.C. Washington 
Semester in Arts and Humanities gives 
an intensive cultural study of 
Washington with a focus on a 
particular area such as art history, 
foreign culture and language, 
history, religion, literature, and the 
performing arts. 

Students in the Washington 
Semester program participate in 
seminars (two course credits), 
undertake a major research project 



45 



M 



(one course credit) and serve an 
internship (one course credit) in a 
congressional, executive, or political 
office. The seminars, research 
project, and internship provide 
students with several opportunities 
for discussion with members of 
Congress and their staff. Supreme 
Court Justices, officials, and 
lobbyists. Residence in Washington 
provides a unique setting for the 
conduct of political research. 

The Washington Semester may be 
taken during either semester of the 
junior year or the fall semester of 
the senior year. To qualify, a 
student must have completed at 
least one course in political science, 
have a minimum accumulative 
average of 2.50, and 3.00 in the 
major, and clearly demonstrate 
abilit)' to work on his or her own 
initiative. Most participants major in 
political science, history, sociology, 
and economics, but applicants from 
other areas are welcomed. Further 
information may be obtained from 
the Department of Political Science. 



The Washington Economic PoUcy 
Semester Gettysburg College 
participates in this cooperative, 
intercollegiate honors program 
with American University in 
Washington, D.C. The semester is 
designed for students with an 
interest in economics. It intensively 
examines economic policymaking 
from theoretical, practical, 
domestic, and international points 
of view. During the semester, 
students are brought into direct 
contact with people who are 
involved in the formulation of 
economic policy. 

The program of study includes (1) 
the Economic Policy Seminar (two 
course credits), which encompasses 
a theoretical analysis of economic 
policy problems; extensive reading; 
on-site discussions with economic 
policy decision-makers; preparation 
of papers, and the presentation of 
alternative paradigms that may be 
used to understand economic 
policy; (2) the choice of an 
internship (one course credit) in a 
private or governmental agency 
involved with economic policy, or 
an intensive independent research 
project (one course credit); and (3) 
an elective chosen from the courses 
offered by American University. It 
should be noted that the grades 
received in these courses, as well as 
the credit for four courses, will 
appear on the student's Gettysburg 
College transcript. 




This program can be helpful to 
students in several ways. For all 
students, it provides an opportunity 
to dispel the mystery surrounding 
the policy-making process, to make 
them better informed citizens, and 
thus to improve their 
understanding of the complex 
interaction between the 
government and the economy. For 
those persons who plan to be 
professional economists, it will 
provide a practical introduction to 
learning about the nation's 
important economic institutions as 
well as the political considerations 
that influence the translation of 
economic theory into government 
policy. The program will allow 
students to become familiar with 
the basic economic issues of the 
times and with the different 
approaches for solving those 
problems. For students who are 
interested in becoming business 
economist lawyers or community 
organizers, the knowledge gained 
about the bureaucracy in 



46 



Washington and how the federal 
government operates will be 
invaluable in their careers. 

Students should take the 
Washington Economic Policy 
Semester in the fall or spring 
semester of the junior year or the 
fall semester of the senior year. To 
qualify, a student must have a 
minimum accumulative grade point 
average of 2.50, and have 
demonstrated the ability to work on 
his or her own initiative. In 
addition, students wishing to apply 
for this program should have 
completed Economics 103-104, 241, 
243, and 245. Most participants 
major in economics or 
management; however, interested 
applicants from other areas are 
encouraged to apply. Further 
information, including the 
application procedure for this 
program, can be obtained from Dr. 
William F. Railing, Department of 
Economics. 

The United Nations Semester 

Students qualifying for this 
program spend a semester at Drew 
University in Madison, New Jersey. 
On Tuesdays and Thursdays these 
students commute to the United 
Nations for a survey course in 
international organization which 
consists in part of briefings and 
addresses by individuals involved in 
United Nadons acdvities. A 
research seminar also uses the 
facilities of the United Nations 
Headquarters. Other courses to 




complete a full semester's work are 
taken at the Drew Campus. 

The United Nadons program is 
offered in both the fall and spring 
semesters. Some scholarship 
assistance may be available for non- 
Drew University students. 
Application can be made in the 
junior or senior year. Students from 
any academic concentration who 
have taken an introductory course 
in political science and who have 
maintained a respectable grade 
point average are eligible for 
nomination. Further information 
may be obtained from the Office of 
the Registrar. 

Center for Cross-Cultural Study, 
Seville, Spain The College offers 
two special opUons for study 
abroad at the Center for Cross- 
Cultural Study in Seville, Spain. The 
first option is for students who have 
completed Spanish 301. These 
students may, with permission of 
the Academic Standing Committee, 
study at the Center for one or two 
semesters of their sophomore or 



junior year, the fall semester of 
their senior year, or during the 
summer session. The second option 
is for students who have completed 
Spanish 104 or its equivalent. This 
option allows students to complete 
their language distribution 
requirement and literature 
distribudon requirement while 
studying at the Center. In both 
programs, credits as well as grades 
earned at the Center will be 
transferred to the student's college 
transcript. Financial aid may be 
applied to participation in the 
program during the regular 
academic year. Students interested 
in studying at the Center should 
contact the Spanish Department. 

The Foreign Student Study 
Center, The University of 
Guadalajara, Mexico Students 
who have completed Spanish 301 or 
its equivalent may study for one or 
two semesters of their sophomore 
or junior year or the fall semester of 
their senior year at the University of 
Guadalajara's Foreign Student 
Study Center. Courses offered 



47 



include language, Mexican 
literature, history, culture, art, and 
political science. Both credits and 
grades will be transferred. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participadon in the program during 
the regular academic year. 
Interested students should contact 
the Spanish Department. 

Center for Global Education 

The College participates in three 
programs of the Center for Global 
Education in Cuernavaca, Mexico: 
Program in Global Community, 
Social Policy and Human Services 
in Latin America, and Women and 
Development: Latin American 
Perspectives. Each program involves 
four courses over a semester 
including an intensive Spanish 
course. The Global Community 
program includes a component of 
living in a rural village. The Social 
Policy and Human Services 
program deals with social justice 
issues, development and models of 
education and social work. Students 
in the Women and Development 
program study in Nicaragua and 
Guatemala in addition to Mexico. 
For more information students 
should contact the College's 
Coordinator of Global Studies or 
the Off-Campus Studies Office. 

C.LE.E. Program at the 
Universite de Haute Bretagne, 
Rennes, France Juniors and first- 
semester seniors who have 
completed French 301 or its 
equivalent may study for a semester 




or an entire academic year in the 
Council on International 
Educational Exchange's program at 
the Universite de Haute Bretagne in 
Rennes. Both credits and grades will 
be transferred. Financial aid may be 
applied to participation in the 
program. Interested students should 
contact the French Department. 

Institute for American 
Universities Program in Aix-en- 
Provence A one-semester or one- 
year program intended for non- 
majors. Students who have 
completed 101-102 or 103-104 at 
Gettysburg may fulfill (he language 



requirement in the fall semester at 
Aix. Students who have already 
satisfied the language requirement 
will take more advanced courses in 
French language, literature, and 
civilization during the fall or spring. 
In addition to their course work in 
French, all students may choose 
approved classes in history, political 
science, management, art, 
philosophy, psychology, and 
literature given in English . Both 
credits and grades will transfer. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program. 
Interested students should contact 
the French Department. 



48 



Kansai University of Foreign 
Studies The College has a 
cooperative agreement with Kansai 
University of Foreign Studies in 
Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan. 

Students may study for a semester 
or a year at the University in a 
program that combines a rigorous 
Japanese Language program with 
lecture courses in the humanities, 
social sciences, and business which 
are conducted in English. Both 
credits and grades will be 
transferred. Financial aid may be 
applied to this particular program, 
hiterested students should contact 
Dr. Katsuyuki Niiro in the 
Economics Department. 

Fall Semester in Cologne, 
Germany Sophomore through 
first semester seniors with a 
minimum of one year of college 
German or the equivalent are 
eligible to participate in the Fall 
semester program in Cologne, 
Germany. A student may satisfy the 
distribution requirement in 
language in one semester and will 
take additional courses taught in 
English from other liberal arts areas 
(some of which also satisfy different 
distribution requirements). This is 
a fall semester program co- 
sponsored by the Pennsylvania 
Colleges in Cologne Consortium. 
Both credits and grades are 
transferred. Financial Aid may be 
applied to participation in the 
program. Interested students should 
contact the German Department. 




College Year in Athens, Greece 

The program is open to 
sophomores, juniors, and seniors 
(although the majority of students 
are of junior level) majoring in 
humanities or social sciences; 
approximately one third of the 
students at College Year are Classics 
majors. The language of instruction 
is English. The courses offered are 
mainly concerned with Greece, 
from ancient through Byzantine to 
modern times, and with the Near 
East. The categories of subject 
matter include history, literature, 
art and archaeology, philosophy, 
anthropolog), classical Greek and 



Latin languages, and modern 
Greek. Students who plan to attend 
College Year for an academic year 
receive preference in admission, 
but applications for one semester 
will also be considered. College 
Year is incorporated under 
American law as a non-profit, 
educational institution managed by 
a Board of Trustees. Both credits 
and grades will be transferred. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program. 
Interested students should contact 
the Department of Classics or the 
Department of Philosophy. 



Off-Campus Study Program In 
Zimbabwe The college offers each 
fall semester an off-campus studies 
program in Zimbabwe, Africa. The 
program is open to sophomores 
and juniors (and also seniors, on a 
space-available basis) who have at 
least a 2.75 GPA. Four courses will 
be taught jointly in Harare by 
Gettysburg College faculty and 
faculty from the University of 
Zimbabwe and other national 
institutions. Field trips outside of 
Harare and homestays are integral 
parts of the study program. 
Students are paired with 
counterparts — typically, students 
from the University of Zimbabwe. 
Housing will be at the YMCA and at 
other international hostels in 
Harare. Regular Gettysburg 
College fees for tuition, room, and 
board cover all costs (including 
round trip airfare), except books 
and personal expenses. The Fall 
1992 program will be conducted by 
the Coordinator of African 
American Studies, and will offer the 
following courses: African 
Literature, History' of Southern 
Africa, African Environmental 
Science, and African Political 
Economy, hiterested students 
should contact the Coordinator of 
African American Studies. 

Intercollegiate Center for 
Classical Studies in Rome, Italy 

The Center is open to students 
majoring in Classics, classical 
history, archaeology, or art histor)' 
with a concentration in classical art. 




The program lasts for one semester 
and is offered during the fall and 
the spring. The Center provides 
vmdergraduate students with an 
opportunity to study Greek and 
Latin literature, ancient historv' and 
archaeology, and ancient art in 
Rome. A Managing Committee, 
elected by the member institutions, 
has arranged with Stanford 
University for the Stanford 
Overseas Studies Office to 
administer the Rome Center. The 
faculty is chosen from persons 
teaching in universities and 
colleges in the United States and 
Canada. The language of 
instruction is English. Both credits 
and grades will be transferred. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program. 
Interested students should contact 
the Department of Classics. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary 
Exchange Gettysburg College 
students are eligible to take up to 
four courses at the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary also located 



in Gettysburg. The Seminary 
offers coursework in Biblical 
Studies, Historical Theological 
Studies, and Studies in Ministry. 
Interested students should consult 
the Registrar. 

Wilson College Exchange 

Gettysburg College offers an 
exchange opportunity with Wilson 
College, an area college for women, 
with course offerings that 
supplement Gettysburg's offerings 
in communications, women's 
studies, international studies, 
dance, and other creative arts. 
Students may take a single course or 
enroll as a guest student for a 
semester or a full year. 

Marine Biology The Biology 
Department offers two programs for 
students interested in pursuing 
studies in marine biology; these 
programs are in cooperation with 
Duke University and the Bermuda 
Biological Station. 



50 



The Bermuda Biological Station 
(St. George's West, Bermuda) offers 
courses in biological, chemical, and 
physical oceanography during the 
summer. Any course taken by a 
Gettysburg College student may be 
transferred to Gettysburg together 
with the grade, provided prior 
approval is granted by the Biology 
Department. 

Gettysburg College is one of a 
limited number of undergraduate 
institutions affiliated with the Duke 
University Cooperative 
Undergraduate Program in the 
Marine Sciences. The program, 
offered at the Duke University 
Marine Laboratory (Beaufort, 
North Carolina), is a ten week 
semester of courses, seminars, and 
independent investigations. 
Studies include the physical, 
chemical, geological, and 
biological aspects of the marine 
environment with emphasis on the 
ecology of marine organisms. 

This program is appropriate for 
jimiors or students who have had 
three to four courses in biology. 
Students receive the equivalent of 
five courses, two of which may be 
used toward the minimum eight 
required in biology. The remaining 
courses will apply toward 
graduation requirements. 




Additional Off-Campus 
Opportunities 

Study Abroad Qualified students 
may study abroad during one or two 
semesters of their junior year or the 
fall semester of their senior year. 
The Office of Off-Campus Studies 
maintains an information file of 
recommended programs and stands 
ready to assist students with their 
unique study plans. It is important 
to begin the planning process early. 
During the first year, or at least by 
the first semester of the sophomore 
year, students who plan to study 
abroad should discuss with their 
advisers the relationship of their 
proposed course of study to their 
total academic program. An outline 
of the program and a list of specific 
courses with appropriate 
departmental approval must be 
submitted to the Academic 
Standing Committee, which gives 



final approval on all requests to 
study abroad. To qualify, a student 
must be in good social and 
academic standing. Study abroad 
programs are. not limited to 
language majors; students in any 
major field may apply. Further 
information may be obtained from 
the Office of Off-Campus Studies. 

Special Interest Programs 

Students may petition the Academic 
Standing Committee for permission 
to take courses for a semester at 
another college or university which 
offers a program in a special 
interest area not fully developed at 
Gettysburg College. Examples of 
special interest areas are Urban 
Studies, Asian Studies, Studio Arts, 
Nutrition, Environmental Studies, 
and Women's Studies. Interested 
students should consult the Dean of 
Academic Advising. 



51 



Dual-Degree Programs 

Engineering This program is 
offered jointly with Cokimbia 
University, Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute (RPI), and Washington 
University in St. Louis. Students 
spend three years at Gettysburg 
College followed by two years at one 
of these universities. Upon 
successful completion of this 
program, the student is awarded the 
Bachelor of Arts degree from 
Gettysburg and the Bachelor of 
Science degree in an engineering 
discipline from one of the three 
affiliated universities. The affiliation 
with RPI also offers the opportunity 
for a Master's degree after three 
years at RPI. Gettysburg students, 
on their own initiative, have also 
completed dual-degree programs at 
non-affiliated universities. Students 
who qualify for financial aid at 
Gettysburg College will usually be 
eligible for similar aid at the 
engineering affiliate universities; 
this benefit is not available to 
international students. 

Candidates for this program will 
have an adviser in the Physics 
Department. Normally a student 
will be recommended to Columbia, 
RPI, or Washington University 
during the fall semester of the 
junior year. Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point 
average in order to be 
recommended, except for students 
interested in electrical engineering 
at RPI who are required to have a 
3.5 average for recommendation. 




The specific courses required for 
admission by each affiliated 
institution vary and students should 
schedule courses in close 
cooperation with the Engineering 



Adviser at Gettysburg. In general, 
dual-degree engineering students 
can expect to take Physics 111, 112, 
213, 319, 330; Mathematics 111, 
112, 211, 212, 363; Chemistrv 111, 



52 



112, and a computer science 
course. All dual-degree engineering 
students will have to complete the 
distribution requirements of 
Gettysburg while in residence at 
Gettysburg. Because of the limited 
flexibility of the Dual-Degree 
engineering curriculum, students 
are urged to identify their interests 
in this program at the earliest 
possible time. 

Nursing The College has a five- 
year program under which students 
spend three years at Gettysburg and 
two at the Johns Hopkins University 
School of Nursing in Baltimore. At 
the end of the fourth year of study, 
students complete requirements for 
a B.A. degree from Gettysburg; at 
the end of the fifth year, students 
will receive a B.S. degree from 
Johns Hopkins University. Students 
interested in this program should 
contact the Dean of First Year 
Students for further information. 

Optometry Pennsylvania College 
of Optometry (PCO) will offer 
admission into the program leading 
to the Doctor of Optometry to 
students from Gettysburg at the end 
of the junior year provided that all 
prerequisites are met. At the 
conclusion of the first year at PCO, 
students will receive the 
baccalaureate degree from 
Gettysburg and, after seven years of 
undergraduate and professional 
study, the Doctor of Optometry 
from the Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry. Students who qualify 




for early admission to the program 
will be recommended by the 
Premedical Committee at Gettysburg 
College and will be required to 
interview at the Pennsylvania College 
of Optometry during the spring temi 
of thejimior year. 

Forestry and Environmental 
Studies In addition to its own 
program in environmental studies, 
the College offers a dual-degree 
program with Duke University 
leading to graduate study in natural 
resources and the environment. 
Students will earn the Bachelor's 
and Master's degree in five years. 



spending three years at Gettysburg 
College and two years at Duke 
University's School of the 
Environment. Students must fulfill 
all the distribution requirements by 
the end of the junior year. The first 
year's work at Duke will complete 
the undergraduate degree 
requirements and the B.A. will be 
awarded by Gettysburg College at 
the end of the first year at Duke. 
Duke will award the professional 
degree of Master of Forestry or 
Master of Environmental 
Management to qualified candidates 
at the end of the second year. 



53 




Candidates for the program should 
indicate to our admissions office 
that they wish to apply for the 
forestry and environmental studies 
curriculum. At the end of the first 
semester of the third year, the 
College will recommend qualified 
students for admission to the Duke 
School of the Environment. No 
application need be made to the 
School before that time. During the 
first semester of the junior year at 
Gettysburg, the student must file 
with the Office of the Dean of 
Academic Advising a petition for 
off-campus study during the senior 
year. All applicants are urged to 
take the verbal and quantitative 
aptitude tests of the Graduate 
Record Examination in October or 
December of their junior year. 

The major program emphases at 
Duke are 1 ) Ecotoxicology and 
Environmental Chemistry; 2) 
Resource Ecology; 3) Water and 
Air Resources; and 4) Resource 
Economics and Policy. Programs, 
however, can be tailored with 
other individual emphases. An 



imdergraduate major in one of the 
natural or social sciences, 
management, or pre-engineering 
is good preparation for the 
programs at Duke, but students 
with other undergraduate 
concentrations will be considered 
for admission. All students 
contemplating this cooperative 
program should take at least one 
year of courses in each of the 
following: biology, mathematics 
(including calculus), economics, 
statistics, and computer science. In 
addition, organic chemistry is a 
prerequisite for the Ecotoxicology 
program and ecology for the 
Resource Ecology program. Please 
note that this is a competitive 
program and students are 
expected to have good quantitative 
analysis and writing skills. 

Students begin the program at Duke 
in late August and must complete a 
total of 48 units, including a 
Master's degree project, which 
generally takes four semesters. 

Some students may prefer to 
complete the Bachelor's degree 
before undertaking graduate study 
at Duke. The Master's degree 
requirements for these students are 
the same as those for students 
entering after the junior year. All 
credit reductions are determined 
individually and consider both the 
student's educational background 
and objectives. 



Preprofessional Studies 

Prelaw Preparation Students 
planning a career in law should 
develop the ability to think 
logically, analyze critically, and to 
express verbal and written ideas 
clearly. In addition, the prospective 
law student needs a wide range of 
critical understanding of human 
institutions. These qualities are not 
found exclusively in any one field of 
study. They can be developed in a 
broad variety of academic majors. It 
should be noted that a strong 
academic record is required for 
admission to law school. 

The College has a prelaw adviser to 
assist and advise students in their 
consideration of the legal profession 
and to aid them in gaining 
admission to law school. A brochure 
is available through the Office of 
Admissions and the Office of the 
Provost that describes prelaw 
preparation at Gettysburg. Students 
planning a career in law should 
review this brochure. 

Preparation for Health 
Professions The Gettysburg 
College curriculum provides the 
opportunity, within a liberal arts 
framework, for students to complete 
the requirements for admission to 
professional schools of medicine, 
dentistry, and veterinary medicine, 
as well as several allied health 
schools. Students considering a 
career in one of these fields are 
advised to schedule their courses 



54 



carefully, not only to meet the 
admission requirements for the 
professional schools, but also to 
provide for other career options in 
the event that their original choices 
are altered. The following courses 
will meet the minimal entrance 
requirements for most medical, 
dental, or veterinary schools: Biology 
101, 112; Chemistry 111, 112; 
Chemistry 203, 204; Math 1 1 1 and 
112 (for schools requiring a year of 
mathematics) or Math 111, 112 (for 
schools requiring a semester of 
mathematics); Physics 111, 112; two 
or three courses in English; and a 
foreign language through the 
intermediate level. Math 105-106 
may be substituted for Math 111 in 
any of the mathematics 
requirements. Since completion of 
these courses will also give the 
student minimum preparation for 
taking the national admissions 
examinations for entrance to 
medical, dental, or veterinar)' school, 
it is advisable to have completed or 
be enrolled in these courses by the 
spring of the junior year when the 
tests ordinarily are taken. While 
most students who seek 
recommendation for admission to 
health professions" schools major in 
either biolog)' or chemistr)', the 
requirements can be met by majors 
in most other subjects with careful 
planning of a student's program. 
Premedical students are encouraged 
to choose electives in the humanities 
and social sciences and to plan their 
programs in consultation with their 
major advisers or a member of the 
Premedical Committee. 




All recommendations for admission 
to health professions' schools are 
made by the Premedical Committee, 
normally at the end of the junior 
year. Students seeking admission to 
these professional schools must also 
take one of the following national 
admissions examinations: MCAT 
(medical), DAT (dental), VMAT or 
ORE (veterinary) or OAT 
(optometry). The Premedical 
Committee is composed of members 
from the Departments of Biology, 
Chemistry, Physics, and Psychology 
with the Dean of First Year Students 
acting as chairperson. Because of the 
competition for admission to 
medical school, the Premedical 



Committee recommends that a 
student maintain a high 
accumulative average (near 3.50) 
overall and in medical school 
required courses. Generally, students 
with a competitive accumulative 
average and a competitive score on 
the MCAT gain an interview at one 
or more medical schools. 

The Premedical Committee has 
prepared a brochure about 
preparation at Gettysburg for the 
health professions. It is available 
from the admissions office and the 
Dean of First Year Students. Students 
interested in the health professions 
should obtain this brochure. 



55 



Hahnemann University's Graduate 
School of Physical Therapy will offer 
early acceptance (fall of the senior 
year) to students from Gettysburg 
College who meet the criteria for 
admission into the Entry-Level Masters 
Degree Program. Students may major 
in any department, although a major 
in Biology or Health and Physical 
Education is most common. 
Regardless of major, eight science 
courses in three different departments 
(Biology, Chemistry and Physics) are 
required. Students who are eligible for 
early admission to the program will be 
recommended by the Premedical 
Committee at Gettysburg College and 
are required to interview at 
Hahnemann University during the 
fall semester of the senior year. 

See also information about the 
College's Cooperative Programs in 
Nursing with Johns Hopkins 
University and in Optometry with 
Pennsylvania College of Optometry 
on page 52. 

A student group, the Pre-Health 
Professions Society, holds periodic 
meetings to explain requirements 
for admission to health professions 
schools and to bring representatives 
of these schools to campus to talk to 
students. In the office of the Dean 
of First Year Students is a 
collection of materials about the 
health professions. It includes 
information about admissions 
requirements, guidebooks on 
preparing for national admissions 
examinations, catalogues from 



many health professions schools, 
and reference materials on fields 
such as medicine, dentistry, 
veterinary science, optometry, 
pharmacy, podiatry, physical 
therapy, public health, and health 
care administration. 

Army Reserve Officers Training 
Program An Army ROTC program 
is conducted by the Department 
of Military Science at Mount Saint 
Mary's College, Emmitsburg, 
Maryland. The Military Science 
Department offers programs 
towards commissioning as a 
Second Lieutenant. Students 
already enrolled in the Army 
ROTC program previously 
offered at Gettysburg may 
complete this program at Mount 
Saint Mary's College. 



Senior Honors 



The College awards the following 
honors to members of the 
graduating class. These senior 
honors are intended for students 
with four years' residence at 
Gettysburg College; grade point 
average computations are based on 
four years' performance. 

1. Valedictorian - - to the senior with 
the highest accumulative average. 

2. Salutatorian - - to the senior with 
the second highest accumulative 
average. 

3. Summa Cum Laude - - to those 
seniors who have an accumulative 
average of 3.750 or higher. 

4. Magna Cum Laude - - to those 
seniors who have an accumulative 
average of 3.500 through 3.749. 

5. Cum Laude - - to those seniors 
who have an accumulative average of 
3.300 through 3.499. 

The Academic Standing Committee 
may grant the above honors to stu- 
dents with transfer credit if they have 
satisfied the conditions of the honor 
during at least two years in residence 
at Gettysburg College and have 
presented excellent transfer grades. 

In addition to the above, departments 
may award Departmental Honors for 
graduating seniors based upon their 
academic performance in a major 
field of study. Departmental Honors 
are awarded to transfer students on 
the same terms as to other students 
since the computation for this award 
is not necessarily based on four years 
in residence at Gettysburg College. 



56 



Deans' Lists 

The names of those students who 
attain an average of 3.600 or 
higher in either semester are 
placed on the Deans' Honor List 
in recognition of their academic 
achievements. Also, those students 
who attain an average from 3.300 
to 3.599 are placed on the Deans' 
Commendation List. To be eligible 
for these honors, students must 
take a full course load of at least 
four courses, with no more than 
one course taken under the S/U 
grading option during that 
semester (except for students 
taking the Education Term who 
may take two courses S/U). First 
year students who attain an 
average of 3.000 to 3.299 are 
placed on a First Year Recognition 
List for commendable academic 
performance in their first or 
second semester. 




Phi Beta Kappa 



Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is 
the oldest Greek-letter society in 
America and exists to promote 
liberal learning, to recognize 
academic excellence, and to 
support and encourage scholars in 
their work. The Gettysburg College 
chapter was chartered in 1923 and 
is today one of 242 Phi Beta Kappa 
chapters in American colleges and 
universities, nineteen of which are 
in Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg 
chapter elects to membership about 
5 to 10% of the senior class, who 



have distinguished academic 
records, and exhibit high moral 
character and intellectual curiosity. 
Election to Phi Beta Kappa is 
perhaps the most widely recognized 
academic distinction in American 
higher education. 



Prizes and Awards 

The following prizes recognize 
outstanding scholarship and 
achievement. They are awarded at a 
Fall Honors Program in October or 
a Spring Honors Convocation held 
in April or May. Grades earned in 
required courses in physical 
education are not considered in 
computations for prizes or awards. 
Transfer students are eligible for 
prizes and awards. 



57 



Endowed Funds 

Betty M. Barries Memorial Award in 
Biobgy: The income from a fund, 
established by Dr. and Mrs. Rodger 
W. Baier, is awarded to a senior 
student with high academic ability 
preparing for a career in biolog)' or 
medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize: The 
income from a fund contributed by 
Dr. Charles Baum (1874) is given to 
the sophomore showing the 
greatest proficiency in mathematics. 

John Edgar Baublitz Pi Lambda Sigma 
Awards: The income from a fund 
initiated by John Eberhardt 
Baublitz in honor of his father, 
John Edgar Baublitz (1929), who 
was the first president of the 
Gamma chapter of Pi Lambda 
Sigma, is given annually to a senior 
major in economics, a senior major 
in management, and a senior major 
in political science. 

Anna Marie Bndde Award: The 
income from a bequest from Anna 
Marie Budde, Instructor and 
Assistant Professor of Voice (1953- 
1972), is given to the outstanding 
sophomore voice student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Gettysburg College 
Athletic Training Room Award: The 
income from a bequest from Rose 
Ann Capozzi in memory of her late 
husband, Romeo M. Capozzi, is 
given to the student who has 
demonstrated the greatest degree 
of proficiency in Athletic Training 
Room techniques. 




Oscar W. Carlson Memonal Award: 
The income from a fund 
contributed by the family of Oscar 
W. Carlson (1921) is given to a 
senior who demonstrates excellent 
academic achievement through his 
or her junior year in three or more 
courses in the Department of 
Religion, including two courses 
above the 100 level. 

John M. Colestock Student Leadership 
Award:'Y\\e award, contributed by 
family and friends, is given to two 
senior students whose optimism, 
enthusiasm, and strength of 
character have provided exceptional 
leadership in student affairs. 

Malcolm R. Dougherty Mathematical 
Award: The income from a fund 
contributed by the Columbian 
Cutlery Company, Reading, Pa., in 
memory of Malcolm R. Dougherty 
(1942), is awarded to the 
sophomore who during his or her 
first year of college had the highest 
average in mathematics and who is 
working to earn part of his or her 
college expenses. 



Margaret E. Eisher Memorial 
Scholarship Aiuard: The income from 
a fund contributed by Dr. Nelson F. 
Fisher (1918) in memory of his 
mother, is awarded to two students 
who excel in one or more major 
sports and who achieve the highest 
academic average among winners of 
varsity letters. 

Lena S. Eortenbaugh Memorial Prize: 
The income from a fund established 
by the children of Lena S. 
Fortenbaugh (M.A. 1925) and Robert 
Fortenbaugh (1913), Professor of 
Historv' at the College from 1923- 
1959, is awarded to the senior 
selected by the German Department 
on the basis of outstanding 
achievement in tlie study of German 
language and culture. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial Award: A fund 
established by the friends and 
classmates of Holly Gabriel (1978) 
provides a memento and notation on 
a plaque in the office of the 
Sociology and Anthropology 
Department to a senior sociology 
major, selected by the department, 
who demonstrates superior academic 
achievement, concern for the welfare 
of others, and the intent to continue 
this service beyond graduation. 

Samuel Carver Greek Prize: The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
the Rev. Austin S. Carver (1869) in 
memory of his father, is awarded to 
the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek during 
the first year of college. 



58 



Samuel Garver Latin Prize: The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
the Rev. Austin S. Garver (1869) in 
memory of his father, is awarded to 
the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin during 
the first year of college. 

Graeff English Prize: The income 
from a fund established in 1866 is 
awarded to a senior selected by the 
English Department on the basis of 
outstanding achievement in the 
work of that department. 

David H. Greenlaw Memorial Prize: 
The income from a fund 
contributed by Mr. and Mrs. Ralph 
W. Greenlaw in memory of their 
son, David H. Greenlaw (1966), is 
awarded to the student who has 
offered exceptional contributions 
to the College's theatre program. 

Edwin T. Greninger Award in History: 
The income from a fund contributed 
by Edwin T. Greninger (1941) and a 
certificate are awarded to a student 
selected by the History Department 
on the basis of the quality of the 
student's paper written for any of the 
courses in the department. 

John Alfred Hamme Awards: Two 
awards, established by John Alfred 
Hamme (1918), are given to the 
two juniors who have demonstrated 
in the highest degree the qualities 
of loyalty, kindness, courtesy, true 
democracy, and leadership. 




Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President 
Emeritus, Leadership Award: The 
income from a fund contributed by 
his wife, Anne Keet Hanson, 
friends and alumni, in honor of 
Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President 
of Gettysburg College from 1961- 
1977, is awarded to a student who 
has achieved at least a 3.0 average 
in his or her major through the 
middle of the junior year and has 
demonstrated significant 
leadership abilities in one or more 
areas of college life as determined 
by the faculty. 



Henry W. A. Hanson Scholarship 
Foundation Award: The income 
from a fund contributed by 
College alumni in honor of Henry 
W. A. Hanson, and in recognition 
of his leadership of and 
distinguished service to Gettysburg 
College and to the cause of 
education in the Lutheran Church 
and the nation, is awarded to a 
senior who plans to enter graduate 
school in preparation for college 
teaching. The student must have 
taken the Graduate Record 
Examination. If the senior chosen 



59 



cannot accept, the next qualified 
candidate is eligible, and if no 
member of the senior class is 
1 chosen, a committee may select a 
member of a previous class. 

Harry C. and Catherine Noffsinger 
Hartzell Aiuard: The income from a 
fund, contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) in 
memory of his parents, is awarded 
to the outstanding junior student in 
the Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology. The selection of co- 
recipients may be made at the 
discretion of the Department. 

James Boyd Hartzell Memorial Award: 
The income from a fund 
contributed by James Hamilton 
Hartzell (1924) and his wife, 
Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell, is 
awarded to a junior student 
majoring in economics or in 
management for outstanding 
scholarship and promise in these 
fields. The selection of co- 
recipients may be made at the 
discretion of the Departments of 
Economics and Management. 

Jam£s Hamilton and Lucretia Irvine Boyd 
Hartzell Aiuard: The income from a 
fund contributed by James Hamilton 
Hartzell (1924) and his wife is 
awarded to a sophomore student for 
outstanding scholarship and promise 
in the field of history. The selection 
of co-recipients may be made at the 
discretion of the History 
Department. 



Mildred H. Hartzell Prize: The income 
from a bequest from Mildred H. 
Hartzell (1926) is awarded to a 
student who shows high quality in 
more than scholarship, with 
preference being given to a 
member of Alpha Phi Omega, the 
national service fraternity, or other 
such organizations as may reflect 
similar quality and ideals. 

Hassler Latin Prize: The income from 
a fund contributed by Charles W. 
Hassler is awarded to the best Latin 
student in the junior class. 

John A. Hauser Meritorious Prize in 
Business: The income from a fund 
contributed by the family of John A. 
Hauser is awarded to an 
outstanding Management major 
who has achieved excellence in 
both academic studies and campus 
leadership while demonstrating 
good character and concern for 
high moral standards. 

The Grace C. Kenney Award: The 
income from a fund contributed by 
Grace C. Kenney, an educator for 39 
years at Gettysburg College, is given 
to a junior or senior student selected 
by the combined staff of the Health 
and Physical Education Deparmient 
and the athletic programs. First 
preference will be given to a student 
who has participated in health and 
physical educaUon studies, 
intramural or athletic programs, and 
has demonstrated the highest 
academic accomplishments and 
leadership skills. 




Rev. George N. Lauffer (1899) and M. 
Naomi Lauffer (1898) Scholarship 
Award: The income from a fund is 
given each year to a junior who has 
maintained high scholarship and 
who evidences outstanding ability 
and character. It is understood that 
the recipient will complete the 
senior year at Gettysburg College. 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. MacCartney 
Scholarship Award: The income from 
a fund established by Michael Alan 
Berk and Kerry MacCartney Berk 
(1975) is given to a student on the 
basis of academic excellence, 
initiative shown in a work-study 
program, and contributions to the 
College through leadership in 
campus activities. 

J. Andrew Marsh Memorial Aiuards: 
The income from the fund is 
presented each year to the 
sophomore and junior students of 
Gettysburg College who best 
exemplify the "whole person" 
concept through positive attitude, 
exceptional spirit, high standards, 
and notable achievement, both 



60 



curricular and extracurricular. 
Priority is given to candidates in the 
Army ROTC program. 

Military Memorial Prize: The income 
from a fund contributed by alumni 
and friends of the College is 
awarded to the student who has 
attained the highest standing in the 
advanced course of the Reserve 
Officers Training Corps. 

Miller First Year Prize in Physics: 
The income from a fund 
contributed by alumni and friends 
of the College in memory of 
George R. Miller (1919) is 
awarded to a sophomore for 
outstanding performance in 
physics as a first year student. The 
selection of the recipient may be 
made at the discretion of the 
Physics Department. 

Miller Senior Prize in Physics: The 
income from a fund contributed by 
alumni and friends of the College in 
memor)' of George R. Miller (1919) 
is awarded to a senior for sustained 
outstanding performance in physics. 
The selection of the recipient may 
be made at the discretion of the 
Physics Department. 

Franklin Moore Award: The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
friends of Mr. Moore is given to the 
senior who, during his or her 




undergraduate years, has shown the 
highest degree of good citizenship 
and, by character, industry, 
enterprise, initiadve, and activities, 
has contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the presuge of 
the College. 

Muhlenberg First Year Prize: The 
income from a fund given by Dr. 
Frederick A. Muhlenberg (1836) is 
awarded to the first year student 
taking Greek or Latin who attains 
the highest general quality point 
average. 



Muhlenberg Goodvhll Prize: A 
certificate is awarded to two senior 
students "For growth during 
formadve years at Gettysburg 
College in awareness of personal 
responsibility for the welfare of all 
peoples; for a degree of 
achievement in same during 
College years and in the hope of 
future accomplishment for 
betterment of Community, State 
and Nation." 



61 



William F. Muhlenberg Aiuard: The 
income from a fund is awarded to 
two juniors on the basis of 
character, scholarship, and 
proficiency in campus activities. 

Nicholas Bible Prize: The income 
from a fund contributed by the 
Rev. Dr. J. C. Nicholas (1894) is 
awarded to the senior who has 
done the best work in advanced 
courses in religion. 

Clair B. Noerr Memorial Award: An 
inscribed medal established by 
Constance Noerr (1958) in 
memory of her father is awarded to 
two seniors on the basis of 
proficiency in athletics, 
scholarship, and character. 

Dr. John W. Ostrom Composition 
Awards: The income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. John W. Ostrom 
(1926) is awarded to the student 
who achieves excellence and 
demonstrates the greatest 
improvement in first year 
composition (English 101), and to 
the student who achieves excellence 
and demonstrates the greatest 
improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English Aiuard: 
The income from a fund 
contributed by Dr. John W. 
Ostrom (1926) is awarded to the 
student who has, in the judgment 
of the members of the Department 
of English, written the best 
expository essay for an upper-level 
English course. 




Vivian Wickey Otto Award: An award 
contributed by Vivian Wickey Otto 
(1946) through the Woman's 
General League of Gettysburg 
College is given to a student at the 
end of his or her junior year who 
plans to enter full-time Christian 
service work. 

Keith Pappas Memorial Award: 
Notation on a plaque in the Office 
of the Dean of College Life and a 
certificate is given annually as a 
memorial to Keith Pappas (1974), 
an honors graduate who made an 
extraordinary contribution to the 
life of this College and its people. 
This award is to be given to a 
current student who most 
significantly affects the College 
community through the quality of 
his or her participation in its 
functions and whose divergent 
contributions give form to what is 
called Gettysburg College. 

Jeffrey Pierce Memorial Award: The 
income from a memorial fund 
established in honor of Jeffrey 
Pierce (1971) is awarded annually 



to the two seniors who, in the 
judgment of the History 
Department, have reached the 
highest level of achievement in the 
field of history. 

Martha Ellen Sachs Prize: The income 
from a fund contributed by John E. 
Haas in memory of his aunt, a 
Lecturer at the College, is awarded 
to a student exhibiting excellence 
in English composition, with 
consideration given to improvement 
made during the year. 

The Captain Michael D. Scotton (1982) 
Aiuard: The income from a fund 
established by David R. and Sally R. 
Scotton, parents of Michael D. 
Scotton, is awarded to an ROTC 
junior cadet who demonstrates 
extracurricular and academic 
achievement and attributes for an 
Army Officer's commission. 

Stine Chemistry Prize: The income 
from a fund contributed by Dr. 
Charles M. A. Stine (1901) is 
awarded to a senior chemistry 
major on the basis of grades in 
chemistry, laboratory technique, 
personality, general improvement 
in four years, and proficiency in 
chemistry at the time of selection. 

Earl Kresge Stock Writing Prizes: The 
income from a fund contributed by 
Earl Kresge Stock (1919) is awarded 
to the three students who write the 
classroom papers judged best in the 
areas of the humanities, the 
sciences, and the social sciences. 



62 



Samuel P. Weaver Scholarship 
Foundation Prizes: Prizes established 
bv Samuel P. Weaver (1904) are 
awarded to the two students writing 
the best essays on an assigned topic 
in the field of constitutional law 
and government. 

Earl E. Ziegler Junior Mathematics 
Award: The income from a fund 
contributed by Phi Delta Theta 
Alumni is given in honor of Earl E. 
Ziegler, Associate Professor of 
Mathematics at Gettysburg College 
from 1935-1968, to the student who is 
majoring in mathematics and has the 
highest average in mathematics 
dirough the middle of the junior year. 

Earl E. Ziegler Senior Mathematics 
Award: The income from a 
contribution by Earl E. Ziegler, 
Associate Professor of Mathematics 
at Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, is awarded to the mathematics 
major who has achieved the highest 
average in mathematics through the 
middle of the senior year. 

Edwin and Leander M. Zimmerman 
Senior Prize: The income from a 
fund is given to the senior whose 
character, influence on students, 
and scholarship have contributed 
most to the welfare of the College. 

John B. Zinn Chemistry Research Aivard: 
The income from a fimd 
contributed by Frances and John 
Zinn in honor of John B. Zinn 



(1909), who was Professor of 
Chemistry at the College from 1924- 
1959, is awarded to the senior 
making the greatest contributions in 
his or her own research in chemistry 
and to the research activities of the 
Chemistry Department. 

Unendowed Awards 

Charles W. Beachem Athletic Award: 
The Physical Education 
Department presents a trophy in 
memory of Charles W. Beachem 
(1925), the first alumni secretary' of 
the College. Based on character, 
scholarship, and athletic 
achievement, the award is given to a 
senior student. 

Beta Beta Beta Junior Award: This 
award is given to a junior Biology 
major who has become an active 
member of Beta Beta Beta. The 
award is based on scholarship, 
character, and attitude in the 
biological sciences. 

Beta Beta Beta Senior Aivard: This 
award is given to a senior Biology 
major who has demonstrated 
academic excellence in the 
biological sciences. The award is 
based on scholarship, character, 
and an active participation in the 
Rho Chapter of Beta Beta Beta. 

C. E. Bilheimer Award: Notation on a 
plaque and a memento are given to 
the senior major in health and 
physical education with the highest 
academic average. 



Esther Brandt Chemistry or Biology 
Award: An award contributed by Mr. 
and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberr)' in honor of Esther 
Brandt is given to a junior or a senior 
who has demonstrated academic 
excellence through the highest grade 
point average in the declared major 
of Chemistry or Biology. 

Archie and Flo Butler English Award: 
An award contributed by Mr. and 
Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Archie and 
Flo Buder is given to a junior or 
senior with a declared English major 
who has demonstrated academic 
excellence through the highest 
grade point average in English. 

College President's Award: Military 
Science: An engraved desk writing set 
is awarded to the outstanding 
senior in the Army ROTC program 
chosen on the basis of academic 
excellence, military performance, 
especially leadership ability, 
character, industry and inidative, 
and participation in activities. 

Delta Phi Alpha Prize: A book on 
German culture is awarded to the 
outstanding student for the year in 
the German Department. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial Award: 
An award established by the family of 
Anthony di Palma (1956) provides a 
book to the junior having the highest 
marks in history. Other things being 
equal, preference is given to a 
member of Sigma Chi fraternity. 



63 



Julius Eno Physics Prize: Aii award 
contributed by Julius Eno, Jr. is 
awarded to the outstandingjunior 
majoring in physics. 

French Cultural Counselor's Award: A 
book presented by the Cultural 
Counselor of the French Embassy is 
awarded to a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

R. M. Hoffman Family Aivard: An 
award in memory of Gett)'sburg 
businessman R. M. Hoffman is 
given to an outstanding student in 
the Economics Department and to 
an outstanding student in the 
Management Department. 

Frank H. Kramer Award: The award is 
given by Phi Delta Theta Fraternity, 
in memory of a former Professor of 
Education, to a senior for the 
excellence of his or her work in 
the Department of Education. 

Pennsylvania Institute of Certified 
Public Accountants Award: This 
award, sponsored by the 
Pennsylvania histitute of Certified 
Public Accountants, is presented to 
a senior selected by the faculty of 
the Management Department who 
has demonstrated excellence in the 
area of accounting and who, by 
participation in campus activities, 
shows qualities of leadership. Eligibility 
for this award is based on the 
satisfactory completion of a substantial 
number of accounting courses. 



Psi Chi Award: The award is given to 
a senior psychology major, in the 
spring of his or her senior year, who 
shows promise in the field of 
psychological endeavor. Other 
things being equal, preference is 
given to a member of Psi Chi. 

Psi Chi Junior Award: An award is 
given to a senior psychology major 
who has displayed outstanding 
potential and initiative throughout 
his or her junior year. 

Society for Collegiate Journalists Award: 
An award is presented to a student 
who has done outstanding work on 
the College newspaper or literar)' 
magazine or with the radio station. 

Dr. George W. Stoner Aivard: The 
income from a fund is awarded to a 
worthy senior accepted by a 
recognized medical college. 

Sigma Alpha Iota College Honor Award: 
Sigma Alpha Iota, an international 
music fraternity, gives an award each 
year to a student in the local chapter 
who has exemplified the highest 
musical, scholastic, and ethical 
standards, whatever the class standing. 
Contributions to the local chapter of 
Sigma Alpha Iota and participation in 
Music Department activities are 
important criteria for selection. 

Sigma Alpha Iota Honor Certificate: 
Sigma Alpha Iota annually awards 
in each chapter an honor certificate 
to the graduating senior who holds 
the highest academic average 
among music majors. 



Student Life Council Award: A citation 
is awarded to a student in recognition 
of the quiet influence he or she has 
exerted for the improvement of the 
campus community. 

Wall Street Journal Student 
Achievement Award: The award of a 
paperweight and a year's subscription 
to the Wall Street Journal is presented 
to a senior in the Department of 
Economics and to a senior in the 
Department of Management who 
have shown outstanding academic 
achievement in the sRidy of finance 
and economics. 

Charles R. Wolfe Memorial Award: 
An award is given by Alpha Xi 
Delta to a graduating senior on the 
basis of scholarly endeavor, warmth 
of personality, and dedication to 
the College. 

Marion ZuUiuf Poetry Prize: The 
income from a fund established at 
The Academy of American Poets by 
Sander Zulauf (1968) in memory of 
his mother is presented annually to 
that student who writes the winning 
entry in a poetry contest sponsored 
by the Department of English. 











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■ 89 







Courses 
of Study 



COURSES OF SlUDV 

66 



Each year the registrar's office issues a listing of courses 
to be taught during the fall and spring semesters and 
the times they will be taught. Students should consult 
this announcement of courses to obtain the most 
current information about course offerings since the 
College does not offer every course listed in the 
following pages each year. 

Usually, courses numbered 100-199 are at a beginning 
level. Intermediate courses are numbered 200-299. 
Courses numbered 300-399 are at an upperclass level. 
Courses numbered 400 and above are advanced 
seminars, internships, and individualized study. 

Courses which are listed with two numbers, e.g.. Biology 
101,102, span two semesters. For courses separated by a 
hyphen, the first numbered course must be taken as a 
prerequisite for the second. Where the two numbers are 
separated by a comma, either of the semesters of the 
course may be taken independendy of the other. 

The College and distribution requirements for the 
degree are listed on page 24 and for a B.S. in Music 
Education on page 41. Courses to meet the distribution 
requirements are offered in various departments. 

Following is a listing of the courses that satisfy' each of 
the distribution requirements. The department 
introductions and course lisdngs on the following 
pages indicate to a greater degree the specific courses 
which fulfill certain requirements. 

Requirements Courses that fulfill the requirement 

Writing Proficiency English 101 (or exemption by 
examination). 

First Year Colloquy First Year Colloquy (FC) 100, 
but taught by professors from 
various departments. 



Health and 
Physical Educadon 



Any HPE quarter course. 



Foreign Language 



Arts 



French 201-202, 205, 206; 
German 202; Greek 202; Latin 
202 or 203; Portuguese 202; 
Spanish 202, 205, 206. 

Art (all courses in history and 
theory); English 205; Music 101 
through 109, 141, 244, 313, 314 or 
four semesters of applied music 
instruction with departmental 
permission. 

Theatre Arts (all courses except 
ThA214, 328, 329). 



History/Philosophy Classics 121, 122; Greek 251; 
Latin 251; French 311, 312; 
German 211, 212, 213; Spanish 
310, 31 1 ; IDS 206, 211, 227, 228; 
Latin American Studies 140; 
History (all courses except Hist 
300); Philosophy (all courses). 

Literature African American Studies 216; 

Classics 262, 264, 266; French, 
German, Greek, Latin and 
Spanish Literature, but not 
language or civilization courses; 
IDS 103,104, 235, 237, 238, 246, 
247; English (all courses 
except Eng. 101, 201, 203, 205, 
206, 208, 209, 305 and courses in 
speech and most theatre arts) . 
Theatre Arts 214, 328, 329. 
Women's Studies 216, 217, 218, 
219. 

Natural Science Biology 1 1 , 1 02 or 1 1 , 1 1 2; 

Chemistry 1 01, 102 or 111, 112; 
Astronomy 101, 102; 
Physics 101, 102, 111, 112. 

Religion (all 100- and 200-level courses) 

Social Sciences Anthropology (all courses); 

Economics 103, 104; Political 
Science 101, 102, 103, 104; 
Psychology 101; Sociology 
(all courses except Sociology 
302,303). 

Non-Western African American Studies 1 30, 

Culture 216, 233; Anthropology (all 

courses except Anth 102); Art 
227, 233, 234; Economics 326, 
337, 338; French 331; Hist 
221,222,224,271,272,321; 
IDS 227, 228, 235, 237, 238, 276, 
285, 288, 289; Political Science 
263, 270, 271; Religion 108, 242, 
245; Sociology 219; Women's 
Studies 218. 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 



67 



First Year CoUoquy 



Professor Donald W. Hinrichs, Director 

This required seminar, which employs common 
requirements and content for all first year students, is 
designed to strengthen reasoning, writing, and 
speaking skills. Using a multi-disciplinary theme as a 
focus, students analyze readings, films, and other 
presentations through intensive writing and 
discussion. Previous themes for the Colloquy were 
"Social Justice," "Revolution," and "Knowing"; the 
current theme is "Trading Eyes: Exploring 
Alternative Visions." 

Over 30 instructors from a wide variety of disciplines 
teach the Colloquy in sections of no more than 16 
students each. Students take the Colloquy in either 
the fall or spring term. 

African American Studies 

African American Studies Program Advisory Council: 
Professors F.M. Chiteji (Coordinator), C. F. Emmons 
(Sociology), L. Diaz (Spanish), G.F. Fick (History), 
N. O. Forness (History), F. Michelman (French), S.R. 
Johnson (English), R.B. Winans (English). 

African American studies is an interdepartmental 
program which focuses on an examination and 
analysis of African American experiences, 
institutions, and perspectives. (African American 
Studies is here broadly defined as the study of 
peoples of Africa and the African diaspora) . 
Gettysburg College offers courses in African 
American studies for all students wishing to become 
aware of the history, cultures, and societies of Black 
people worldwide. These courses are offered by 
members of a variety of academic departments and 
taught by persons with interest and background in 
African American studies. Subject to the approval of 
the Coordinator of African American studies as a 
minor field of concentration. 

African American studies emphasizes the social 
sciences and humanities, and may include a range of 
courses as well as opportunities for independent and 
off-campus study. 

The College offers a minor field in African American 
studies. An African American studies minor consists of 
any six courses including African American studies 
130. Students with a minor concentration in African 



American studies are able to go to law school, medical 
school, and graduate school in varied disciplines, or 
may obtain employment in business, education, 
government, and social service organizations. Others 
may choose to maintain their involvement with African 
and American concerns and causes. 

Courses suitable for an African American studies 
concentration are listed under many departmental 
offerings. A student wishing to have additional 
information on a minor in African American studies 
should consult Professor Frank M. Chiteji, 
Coordinator of African American Studies. 

African American Studies Courses 

130 Introduction to African American Studies 

Considers the African American within the broader 
context of the African diaspora. Students are 
introduced to a broad range of themes in their 
historical context, from the African origin to the 
formation of African American societies and cultures 
in the African diaspora. Other themes include the 
enslavement of Africans, the rise and fall of slavocracy, 
and the era of the Civil Rights struggles. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in non-western culture. 

Mr. Chiteji 

216 African American Literature An overview of 

African American literature, from the slave narrative 

to contemporary fiction. The course will focus on the 

ways that African American literature is both inside 

and outside the traditional canon of American 

literature. Students will look at how African American 

literature reflects the African American experience, 

and at different definitions of "black aesthetics." The 

course also includes such writers as Phyllis Wheatley, 

Frederick Douglas, Charles Waddell Chestnutt, Nella 

Larsen, Zora Neale Hurston, Margaret Walker, 

Charles Johnson, and Toni Morrison. Fulfills the 

literature requirement. 

Ms. Berg 

233 Southern Africa: History, Conflict and Change 

Introduces students to a dynamic and yet conflict- 
ridden part of the African continent. It also provides 
students with the historical context which would 
enable them to view the unfolding events in the 
region in their proper perspective. The course starts 
with the characteristics of the pre-colonial societies 
and the nature of their early contact with the 
European setflers in the seventeenth century, the 
triumph of the white immigrants over the indigenous 
Africans, the emergence of South Africa as a regional 



68 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 



economic power, and the social contradictions that 

have come to characterize what is now called the 

Republic of South Africa. A subject of special 

attention will be the internal and external opposition 

to racial oppression. Fulfills the distribution 

requirement in non-western culture. 

Mr. Chiteji 

History 

233 Mission, Destiny and Dream in American 

History An introduction to American history from 

the seventeenth century to the present by focusing 

upon the intertwining themes of the American 

people's belief in their unique mission and destiny in 

the world and their dream of creating a just and 

prosperous society. Students will probe the varying 

manifestations of these themes through major events 

and movements in American social, economic, and 

cultural life and in politics and diplomacy. 

Mr. Fomess 

236 Urbanism in American History 

An introduction to American history from the 
perspective of urbanism. Beginning with the colonial 
town and continuing to the megalopolis of the mid- 
twentieth century, students will investigate the nature 
of urban life and its influence upon the course of 

.\merican development. 

Mr. Fomess 

238 African American History Focuses on aspects 
of the African American experience from the 
seventeenth century to the present; special attention 
will be given to the slave experience; emancipation and 
reconstruction; racial attitudes; the northward 
migration of African Americans in the twentieth 
century; and the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's 
and 1960's. 

Mr. Birkner 

271, 272 African History and Society History 271 
starts from the earliest evolution of humankind. The 
course examines the history of Africa through the 
millennia of the Stone Age to the rise of and decline of 
the states and societies of Africa in the ancient and 
medieval world. Students will also examine state 
formations, Mrica's relationship to the world economy, 
and the European era of exploration, conquest and 
colonization. History 272 continues from the 1880's 
and the events and processes leading to decolonization 
and the post-colonial developments. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in non-western culture. 

Mr. Chiteji 



335, 336 American Social and Cultural History 

Traces America's major social, religious, artistic, and 
philosophical movements and their immediate and 
long-range impact on American life and culture. 
Beginning with the American Revolution, History 335 
covers the period to the Civil War. History 336 continues 
from that period to the present. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fomess 

Economics 

326 African Economic History Examines intensively 
Africa, using the framework of economic analysis and 
political economy to consider economic history, 
growth, and development within Africa. 

Mr. Kallon 

337 Introduction to Political Economy and the 
African Diaspora Examines the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribution of 
Third World people and minorities in the United 
States to the process and continued growth of 
capitalist development. It also examines current 
economic, social, and political issues as they relate to, 
and affect. Third World peoples. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Gondwe 

338 Economic Development Examines the 
economic and non-economic factors accounting for 
the economic growth and development of less- 
developed areas of the world. Various theories of 
economic and social growth and development will be 
analyzed, and major policy issues will be discussed. 
Prerequisites: Y.conom\c^ 103, 104. Satisfies distribution 
requirement in non-Western Culture. 

Mr. Gondwe 

Political Science 

263 The Politics of Developing Areas Introducdon 
to the study of political underdevelopment, including 
approaches to Third World politics; the nature of 
traditional politics; disruptions caused by colonialism 
and imperialism; the reformation of domestic politics; 
contemporary political processes and problems. 
Prerequisite: PS 104 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Gaenslen 

ReUgion 

140 ReUgion and PoUtics in the Twentieth Centiuy 
U.S. A survey of the relationship between religion 
and public life since 1900. Emphasis will be on the 
constitutional framework which guides the church- 
state debate, and on efforts to use religion to 
influence political policies and social values. Supreme 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES / ART 



69 



Court decisions, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil 

Rights Movement, the Catholic Worker Movement, 

and the Moral Majority will be included. 

Mr. McTighe 

223 Religions in the U.S. An investigation of the 
religious history of the American people from the 
seventeenth century to the present. This course will 
focus upon the varieties of American religious 
experiences. It will explore the Protestant, Roman 
Catholic, and Jewish traditions along with indigenous 
movements such as Mormonism and Christian Science. 

Mr. McTighe 

224 The ReUgions of Black Americans An 

examination of the religious traditions of Black 
Americans from "slave religion" to the present. The 
course will concentrate on the religious beliefs of 
African Americans and the ways those beliefs have 
been used to develop strategies to achieve freedom 
and justice. The general approach of the course will 
be historical. Among the subjects to be covered will 
be the influence of African religion, African 
American religious nationalism, Pentecostalism, 
spirituals and gospel music, and the Civil Rights 
Movement. To be offered in alternate years. 

Mr. McTighe 

321 Martin Luther King, Jr. Half-credit course. An 
examination of the religious thought and civil rights 
activity of Martin Luther King, Jr. The course will 
investigate the religious sources and effectiveness of 
King's strategy of nonviolent resistence. King's major 
civil rights campaigns, his protest against the Vietnam 
War, and his work for economic justice will be 
evaluated. Special attention will be paid to the theology 
which provides the foundation for King's work. 
Prerequisite: One course in a related subject (such as 
Religion 140, Religion 224, or an African American 
Studies course), or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. McTighe 

Sociology 

209 Racial and Ethnic Relations Comprehensive 
study of ethnic and minority relations. Theoretical 
perspectives include immigration and assimilation, 
prejudice and discrimination, and the structure of the 
ethnic community. The study of African American, 
European immigrant, and Asian American 
communities is emphasized. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Emmons 



Art 



Professor Paulson (Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Agard 
Assistant Professor Trevelyan 
Instructor Small 
Adjunct Professor Annis 

Adjunct Instructors Chapman-Ainge, Hanley, Ramos, 
and Winship 

Overview 

The art department has the following major 
objectives: (1) to educate the visual sensibilities beyond 
the routine responses, toward an awareness of the 
visual environment around us, as well as cognition of 
works of art as the living past; (2) to study the 
historical cultural significance and aesthetic structure 
of architecture, painting, and sculpture, and the 
enduring dialogue between continuity and change; 
(3) to teach the history of art and the practice of art as 
separate-but-interrelated disciplines; (4) to provide 
the interested major with a curriculum which will give 
him or her a foundation for graduate or professional 
study leading to a career in high school or college 
teaching, to commercial art and industrial design, or 
as a professional painter, sculptor, or printmaker. 

The department offers to prospective majors a flexible 
program of study in interrelated studio and art history 
courses. It encourages students from disciplines other 
than art to select from both types of courses. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for students concentrating in studio 
art are as follows. 

1) Art 141, 145, 146, 120, and either 210, 322, 335, or 
318. 

2) At least one course each in painting, printmaking, 
and sculpture. 

3) Additional courses in at least two of the three 
disciplines listed in #2, or photography. 

4) A minimum of two additional courses in the area of 
history and/or theory of art. 111 and 112. Students 
are encouraged to take additional courses in the 
discipline of their special interest and competence. 

5) Participation in the senior show at the end of the 
second semester of the senior year. 

Students intending to concentrate in studio art are 

advised to take the following courses. 

A) Art 141 and 145 in their first year of college if their 

interests will lead to an emphasis in painting and 

printmaking. 



70 



ART 



B).\rt 141, 145, and 146 in their first year of college if 
their interests will lead to an emphasis in 
sculpture/painting or sculpture/printmaking. 

C) Art 120 and 210 or 322 or 335 in the first year of 
college or sophomore year. 

Requirements for majors concentrating in the history 
of art are as follows. 

1) Art 120 and a minimum of eight additional courses 
in art history. These courses must include at least 
two (2) 300-level courses and Art 400. They will be 
selected by the student in consultation with the 
adviser, in order to meet his or her projected 
needs and to construct a coherent program. 

2) Two basic studio courses in order to sharpen visual 
perception and foster an understanding of visual 
structure. 

Students intending to concentrate in the history of 
art should take Art 111, 112, and 1 20 in the first year 
of college. 

Students interested in minoring in studio art are 
advised to take the following courses. 

1 ) Four studio courses. 

2) Two art history and/or theory of art courses. 

Students interested in minoring in art history are 
advised to take the following courses. 

1) Art 120. 

2) Three additional art history and/or theory of art 
courses. 

3) One 100-level studio course. 

4) One 200-level studio course. 

N. B. Students minoring in either art history and/or 
theory of art or studio art should be reminded that no 
more than two 100-level courses are acceptable to 
fulfill the College's requirements for a minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any course in the area of history and theory of art 
may be counted toward the distribution requirement 
in arts. 

Special Facilities 

The new 1,660 sq. foot Schmucker Hall Art Gallery 
displays over ten different exhibitions each year. 
Included in the gallery calendar are works by 
professional artists, a faculty show, a student show, 
several senior art major shows, and numerous theme 
and specially funded exhibitions. 



A collection of approximately 45,000 color slides 
supports the teaching of art history and studio classes. 
Available to students is a corresponding collection of 
20,000 opaque color reproductions of architecture, 
painting, and sculpture. Art museums in Washington, 
D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia, as well as art 
exhibits at the College, make possible the necessary 
contact with original works of art. 

The department has presses for relief, surface, and 
intaglio printmaking. For sculpture it has both gas 
and electric welding equipment, air power tools for 
working in wood, stone, and plastic, a small foundry 
for bronze casting, and heavy lifting beams and hoists. 

History and Theory of Art 

111, 112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Introductory study of the visual arts from prehistoric 

times to the nineteenth century. Class will examine 

reasons for changes in the content, form, and 

function of two-dimensional and three-dimensional 

art. Exercises in visual analysis of individual works 

develop critical methods. Fulfills distribution 

requirement. Juniors and seniors only by permission 

of the instructor. „. „ 

Staff 

120 Theory of the Visual Arts 

A course to give the liberal arts student a basic 

approach to visual experience. Class examines factors 

which relate to the making of art, functions of art, 

and viewer relationships with art including methods 

of analysis. In addition to class lectures and 

discussions, sessions of hand-on experience assist 

students in understanding the processes of making 

visual imagery. Fulfills distribution requirement in the 

arts. Juniors and seniors only by permission of the 

instructor. 

Ms. Small 

201 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome 

An introduction to the painting, sculpture, and 
architecture of the classical world, focusing on 
cultural and intellectual differences between the 
people of these two civilizations as reflected in the arts 
of both. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Juniors and seniors only by permission of the 
instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

202 Arts of the Middle Ages 

Survey of the arts of the Medieval period and their 
development from the Roman catacomb through the 



ART 



71 



high Gothic cathedral. Analysis of art as a reflection 
of changing political and social conditions in Europe, 
with particular emphasis on liturgical arts in the 
Middle Ages. Fulfills distribution requirement. 
Recommended prior course: Art 11 1 or Art 201. 

Mr. Ramos 



205 The Arts of Northern Europe: A.D. 1350-1 575 

A study which places emphasis on the relationship 

between painting and the changing social, political 

and philosophical climate of France and England in 

the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and in the 

web of ties between the two countries. Alternate years. 

Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: 

Art 111 or Art 1 1 2 or Art 1 20 or Art 201 or permission 

of the instructor. ,, r. ,, 

Ms. Small 

206 European Painting 1700-1900 

Introduction to eighteenth century painters in Italy, 

France, and England and their relationship to the 

Enlightenment. Major emphasis on the evolution of 

painting in France during the nineteenth century in 

relation to the changing social, political, and 

philosophical climate. Special attention will be given 

to impressionism and postimpressionism. Alternate 

years. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 

Prerequisite: Art 11 1 or Art 1 1 2 or Art 1 20 or Art 201 or 

permission of the instructor. ,. „ ,, 

^ Ms. Small 



227 Arts of the First Nations of North America 

A survey of the arts created by the original inhabitants of 
North America, emphasizing the cultural and religious 
traditions that formed the basis for most of it. Emphasis 
will be on developing an understanding and 
appreciation of the fundamental differences between 
the arts and cultures of native people and those of 
modem Western cultures, as well as aspects of similarity. 
The arts and people of every major geographical region 
in North America will be examined. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in the arts and the 
distribution requirement in non-Westem culture. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

303 Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in the 
Italian Renaissance 

A survey of the visual arts during the centuries that in 

many ways mark the boundary between the ancient 

world and the modern one. The course will approach 

the arts of the period from this perspective. Many of 

the artists and monuments included are traditionally 

acknowledged to be among the finest in the history of 

art, including the works of Michelangelo, Leonardo 

da Vinci, Raphael, and Titian. A secondary focus of 

the course will be to question and explore the reasons 

why the art of this period is so acclaimed. Fulfills 

distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 

111 or Art 112 or Art 201 or permission of the 

instructor. ,, ^r- 

Ms. irevelyan 



210 Twentieth Centiuy European Painting 

Study of the schools and critical writings 
surrounding the major figures. Such movements as 
Art Nouveau, Nabis, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, 
German Expressionism, De Stijl, Dada, and 
Surrealism will be considered. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Recommended prior 
courses: Art 1 1 1 or Art 112 or Art 120. 

Ms. Small 

215 German Art from Middle Ages to Today 

(See description for Fall Semester in Cologne, 
Germany under Department of German.) 

221 Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century American 
Painting 

Survey of American painting from the Colonial 
Period to 1900, studied in relationship to 
developments in Europe, and with emphasis on the 
response of art to the changing social and 
technological environment in America. Alternate 
years. Fulfills the distribution requirement in the arts. 

Ms. Small 



307 The Mannerist and Baroque Periods in 
European Art 

A study of painting, sculpture, and architecture in 

Europe from the first decades after the Reformation 

through their transformation under the impact of the 

Counter Reformation. Artistic developments in Italy 

will be discussed as well as allied approaches in 

northern Europe and Spain. The works of some of 

the world's best known artists will be examined — 

including Bernini, Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, 

Vermeer, El Greco, Velasquez, and Poussin. Fulfills 

distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 

201 or any 100-level art history course or permission 

of instructor. Alternate years. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

317 History of Modem Architecture 

Study of the character and development of modem 
architecture and the contributions of Sullivan, Wright, 
Gropius, and Corbusier toward creating new 
environments for contemporary society. Alternate years. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: 
Art 1 11 or Art 1 12 or permission of the instructor. 



72 



ART 



322 Painting in America Since 1900 

Survey of twentieth-century painting. Two basic themes 

of the course are the changing social role painting as 

America's self-image develops and the aesthetic role of 

the eclectic process. Fulfills the distribution 

requirement in the arts. Recommended prior course: 

History 132. 

Ms. Small 

335 History of Modem Sculpture 

Study of the evolution of sculptural forms from the 
nineteenth century through the present decade with 
emphasis on the effects of science and technology on 
man's changing image of man and his universe. 
Alternate years. Fulfills the distribution requirement 
in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 1 1 1 or Art 112 or 
permission of the instructor. Recommended prior 
courses: History 317, History 318. . 



400 Seminar 

An advanced study of a specific issue in art history. 

Although the approach will vary to some extent 

according to the specific topic, common denominators 

will be a close examination and analysis of art objects 

and a thorough investigation of the historical and 

social background. Students will develop skills in 

advanced verbal and visual research, written and oral 

projects, and critiques. Topics will be selected 

according to interest in significant areas not otherwise 

covered in course offerings. Topics presently under 

consideration are: Ruskin and the Nineteenth Century, 

Influence of Japanese Prints on Western Painting, 

American Female Artists since 1945. Alternate years for 

one semester. Prerequisites: Minimum of three art 

history courses, at least one of which is a 300-level 

course, or permission of the instructors. 

Ms. Trevelyan, Ms. Small 



141 Introduction to Drawing 

An introductory course. Drawing from the model and 
controlled studio problems. Intended to promote 
coordination of the hand and the eye to achieve a 
degree of technical mastery over a variety of drawing 
tools. Emphasis will be placed on line quality, 
techniques of shading, negative-positive relationships, 
figure-ground relationships, form, structure, and an 
awareness of the total field. Offered fall semester only. 
Open to first year students and sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

145 Basic Design (two-dimensional) 

An introductory course to help the student develop a 

capacit)' to think and work conceptually as well as 

perceptually, and to provide a basic discipline with 

which to organize a variety of materials into structural 

and expressive form. Open to first year students and 

sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

146 Basic Design (three dimensional) 

An introductory course extending the basic 

disciplines of 141 into the third dimension. Projects 

introduce materials such as clay, plaster, wood, and 

metal. The intent of this course is to assist students in 

organizing three-dimensional forms. Open to first 

year students and sophomores only. 

Mr. Paulson 

251 Introduction to Painting 

Development of a series of painungs according to a 

thematic image. Assigned problems are designed to 

introduce a variety of conceptual, procedural, and 

experimental possibilities. Prerequisite: Art 141 or 

permission of the instructor. Recommended prior 

course: Art 322. 

Mr. Agard 



Studio Courses 

The purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen the 
sense of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and eye; 
develop the ability to organize visual material; and to 
integrate the intuitive and rational into creative 
activity. Lectures accompany basic studio courses 
when necessary to relate theory and practice. 

The Lora Qually Hicks memorial fund, established by 
family and friends in honor of Lora Qually Hicks 
(Class of 1971), provides funds for the purchase of 
works created by Gettysburg students. 



252 Intermediate Painting 

Development of unique and experimental 

techniques, procedures, images, presentations, and 

textural applications. A series of paintings is 

developed. Alternative concepts and methodology are 

discussed. Students are referred to works by arfists 

who have related aesthefic interests. Prerequisites: Art 

141 or permission of the instructor and Art 251. 

Mr Agard 

255 Introductory Printmaking 

An introductory course in printmaking. The creative 
process as conditioned and disciplined by the intaglio 
techniques. Discussion of past and contemporary 



ART / BIOLOGY 



73 



methods, and the study of original prints. Prerequisites: 

Art 141 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Paulson 

256 Printmaking 

Also an introductory course in printmaking. 
Experimental work primarily concentrating on 
lithography, seriography, and cameo techniques. 
Prerequisite: Art 141. Recommended course: Art 145. 

Mr. Paulson 

261 Introductory Sculpture 

An introduction to the fundamentals of three- 
dimensional forms and modes of expression involving 
creative problems in the organization of space, mass, 
volume, line, and color. Correlated lectures and 
demonstrations will be used to acquaint the student 
with those aspects of sculptural history and theory 
relevant to studio projects. This course is intended for 
the general student as well as the art major. 
Prerequisite: Art 146 or permission of the instructor. 

Recommended prior course: Art 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

262 Sculptvu-e 

A program of studio projects (arranged by the 
instructor and the student) concerned with 
developing an individual approach to three- 
dimensional form, with concentration in direcdy 
fabricating techniques involving a series of 
experiments in spacial organization. Prerequisites: Art 
146 or permission of the instructor, and Art 261. 

Recommended prior course: Art 335. ,, „ , 

Mr. Paulson 

263 Clay 

264 Metal 

265 Wood 

341 Intermediate Drawing 

Intermediate studio problems: emphasis on drawing 

concepts and the development of individual student 

concerns in a series. Prerequisites: Art 141 or 

permission of the instructor, and Art 142. Offered 

spring semester only. 

Mr. Agard 

351 Advanced Painting 

Advanced studio problems: emphasis on painting 
concepts and the development of individual student 
concerns in a series. Prerequisites: Art 141 or 
permission of the instructor, Art 251, 252, 322. 
Offered odd years only. ^^ ^^^^^ 



355 Advanced Printmaking 

Experimental printmaking concentrating on 

personal development of one method and 

exploration. Prerequisites: Art 141 or permission of 

the instructor, and Art 255, 256. 

Mr. Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture 

Further exploration of individual three-dimensional 

concerns with concentradon in one media and 

technique. Prerequisites: Art 146 or permission of the 

insu-uctor, and Art 261, 262, 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

Individualized Study 

Provides an opportunity for the well-qualified student 

to execute supervised projects in the area of his or 

her special interest, whether studio or history. 

Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 

Biology 

Professors Barnes, Cavaliere, and Hendrix 
Associate Professors Beach, Berardi, Mikesell, 

Sorensen (Chairperson), and J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professors Etheridge and Hiraizumi 
Associate Instructor H. Winkelmann 
Laboratory Instructors Armor, Hulsether, Price, 

Reese, and Zeman 

Overview 

Courses in the department are designed to provide a 
foundation in basic biological concepts and 
principles, and the background necessary for 
graduate study in biology, forestry, dendstry, 
medicine, veterinary medicine, and other 
professional fields. Most courses in the department 
include laboratory work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The biology department offers both a Bachelor of 
Arts (B.A.) and a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree 
for the major. 

B.A. requirements: 

A minimum of eight biology courses, including 
Biology 101, 112, 309, and 310, are required of all 
majors. Internships are excluded. Beyond these four, 
no specific biology courses are required. Every 
program must include at least one course from each 
of three areas: plant biology (Bio 202, 204, 217, 
300), animal biology (Bio 201, 220, 224, 227, 325), 



7T 



BIOLOGY 



and cell and organismal physiology (Bio 300, 332, 
340, 341). No single course may satisfy more than 
one area. This relative freedom permits the 
attainment of the different backgrounds required for 
various biological careers. Specialization at the 
expense of breadth, however, is discouraged. 
Students, in consultadon with their advisers, should 
construct a broad, balanced curriculum. Biology 101 
and 112 are prerequisites for all upper-level biology 
courses. Exceptions are made for those minoring in 
biology or by permission of the instructor. 

Chemistry 111 and 112 are required of all majors. It is 
desirable, but not essential, that Chemistry 111 and 
1 1 2 be taken in the first year. Physics 111, 112, and 
Math 111 are also required. 

B.S. requirements: 

In addition to the courses noted above, the B.S. 
degree requires Individualized Study (Biology 460), 
and Chemistry 203, 204. (Although not required. 
Math 112 is recommended.) 

A minor in biology includes Biology 101, 112 (or 
Biology 101, 102) and any other four courses in the 
department (provided that all prerequisites are met) 
which would count toward the major. 

All courses taken to sadsfy the requirements for the 
B.A. or B.S. degree or for the minor must be taken 
using the A-F grading system. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribudon requirement in laboratory science 
may be satisfied by Biology 101, 102 or by Biology 
101, 112. 

Special Facilities 

Greenhouse, animal quarters, aquarium room, 
instrument room, environmental chambers, electron 
microscopy laboratory housing both scanning (JEOL 
JSM T20) and transmission (Zeiss EM 109) electron 
microscopes, herbarium, and research laboratories. 

Special Programs 

Dual-degree programs in forestry and environmental 
studies with Duke University, nursing with the Johns 
Hopkins University, and optometry with Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry (page 52). Cooperative 
programs in marine biology with Duke University and 
the Bermuda Biological Stadon (page 49). 



101 Introductory Biology 

Designed for science and non-science majors. The 
course includes the chemical nature of protoplasm; 
structure and funcUon of cells; photosynthesis and 
respiradon; genedcs. Three class hours and laboratory. 

Staff 

102 Contemporary Topics in Biology 

Designed for non-science majors. The course will 

focus on pertinent topics covering contemporary 

problems and solutions in today's world. Three class 

hours and laboratory. Biology 101 is a prerequisite for 

Biology 102. 

Staff 

112 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Functional design of 
plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 
evolution, phylogeny, and ecology are also covered. 
Three class hours and laboratory. Biology 101 is a 
prerequisite for Biology 112. 

Mr. Barnes 

201 Vertebrate Morphology 

Detailed examination of the origins, structures, and 
functions of the organ systems of vertebrates. Special 
attention is given to the evolution of major vertebrate 
adaptations. Three class hours and two scheduled 
laboratories. Alternate years. Offered 1991-92. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

202 Structural Plant Development 

Anatomical approach to the study of higher plant 

structures. The origin and differentiation of tissues 

and organs, environmental aspects of development, 

and plant anomalies are studied. Six hours a week in 

class-laboratory work. 

Mr. Mikesell 

204 Taxonomy of Flowering Plants 

Idendfication, classification, structural diversity, and 

evolutionary relationships of angiosperms. The course 

includes extensive field work for collecdon of local 

flora, and methodology, and principles of related 

disciplines: plant geography, cytogeneUcs, and 

numerical taxonomy. Three class hours and 

laboratory-field. 

Mr. Beach 



210 Human Physiology 

Systems of the body will be studied with emphasis on 
the integradon of structure and function. Topics 
include endocrine regulation, respiration, nutrition. 



BIOLOGY 



75 



metabolism, fluid electrolyte and pH balance, 
reproduction, development/inheritance, and the 
digestive and urinary systems. This course is designed 
specifically for students entering fields of allied 
health; it does not count toward the biology major. 

Mr. Biser 

215 Electron Microscopy 

Introduction to basic theory and practice of 

transmission electron microscopy and scanning 

electron microscopy; techniques of tissue preparation 

and introduction to interpretation of animal and 

plant ultrastructure. Each student will be required to 

complete an independent project. Six class hours in 

laboratory. Laboratory fee: $50.00. Prerequisite: 

Permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Cavaliere 



reproduction, physiology, and ecology. Isolation, 
culture, environmental influences, identification, and 
biochemical characterization are emphasized in the 
laboratory. Three class hours and laboratory. 

Mr. Hendrix 

260 Biostatistics 

Designed for students in biology who plan to engage 

in individualized study and/or research. Topics 

include the nature of biological data and the 

statistical procedures to analyze them. Special 

attention given to experimental design and 

hypothesis testing. Three class hours. A student may 

not receive credit for both this course and 

Mathematics 107, Psychology 205, Sociology 303, or 

Economics 241. 

Mr. Hiraizumi 



217 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant Kingdom 

Synopsis of embryo-producing plants, primarily 
liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, and seed plants. 
Emphasis is on comparative morphology, adaptive 
diversity, and phylogeny. Six hours a week in class- 
laboratory work. 

Mr. Mikesell 

220 Animal Embryology 

Survey of the phenomena and principles of animal 

development. Major attention is given to embryonic 

development in multicellular animals. Vertebrates are 

emphasized in the study of organ development. Six 

hours a week in class-laboratory work. Alternate years. 

Offered 1991-92. 

Mr. Sorensen 

224 Vertebrate Zoology 

Introduction to the systematics, distribution, 
reproduction, and population dynamics of vertebrates. 
Field and laboratory emphasis on natural history, 
collection, and identification. Six hours in class, 
laboratory, or field. Optional trip to North Carolina. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

227 Invertebrate Zoology 

Biology of the major free-living metazoan invertebrate 

groups with special emphasis on adaptive morphology 

and physiology and on evolution. Six hours a week in 

class-laboratory work. 

Mr. Barnes 

230 Microbiology 

Introduction to the biology of viruses, bacteria, fungi, 
and protists; their morphology, taxonomy. 



300 Plant Physiology 

Physiological processes in vascular plants. Plant 

responses, growth promoting substances, 

photoperiodic responses, water absorption and 

transpiration, mineral nutrition, and general 

metabolic pathways are studied. Three class hours 

and laboratory. 

Mr. Cavaliere 

305 Ecology 

Principles of ecology, with emphasis on the role of 

chemical, physical, and biological factors affecting 

the distribution and succession of plant and animal 

populations and communities. The course includes 

numerous field trips to a variety of local freshwater 

and terrestrial habitats. Three class hours and 

laboratory-field work. 

Mr Beach 

309 CeU Biology 

Structure and function of cell membranes and 

organelles; energy transduction by cells; 

chromosomes and gene expression; the cell cycle; 

selected specialized cell types. Three class hours and 

laboratory. Prer^flMWite.- Chemistry 112. ., ^ 

Mr. Sorensen 

310 Genetics 

Overview of principles of genetics. Topics include 

chemical nature of genes, Mendelian and non- 

Mendelian inheritance, gene regulation, genetic 

engineering, molecular evolution and population 

genetics. Three class hours and laboratory. 

Prerequisite: Biology 309. 

Mr. Hiraizumi 



76 



BIOLOGY/ CHEMISTRY 



325 Animal Behavior 

Study of animal behavior through readings, films, 

discussions, and field and laboratory observations. A 

wide range of phenomena will be considered, from 

simple reflex responses to complex social 

organizations. The role of behavioral adaptations in 

the biology of animal species will be emphasized. 

Three class hours and laboratory. Alternate years. 

Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

332 Immunobiology 

Introduction to the vertebrate immune system at the 
molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Antibody 
structure, antigen-antibody interaction, the genetics 
of antibody diversity, the immune response, and the 
bases of self/ non-self discrimination are emphasized. 
Prerequisites: Biology 309, 310. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Sorensen 

340 Comparative Animal Physiology 

Regulation of basic physiological processes in 

animals. Unifying principles will be studied using a 

comparative approach. Prerequisite: Biology 309. 

Three class hours and laboratory. 

Ms. Etheridge 

460 Individualized Study - Research 

Independent investigation of a topic of special interest 
to the student, normally including both literature and 
laboratory research, directed by a faculty member 
familiar with the general field of study. The results of 
the investigation will be presented to the department. 
Open to juniors and seniors. A single Individualized 
Study may be used toward one of the eight courses 
required for the B.A. degree. Prerequisite: Approval of 
both the directing faculty member and the 
department prior to registration. Staff 

471, 473 Individualized Study - Internship 

Independent internship experience under the direct 
supervision of professional personnel in a variety of 
biology-related areas. Internship may be arranged by 
the department or the student. Must combine 
practical work experience with an academic 
dimension. Library research paper on a subject 
related to the experience is required. Prerequisite: 
Approval of both the supervisor and the department. 



Chemistry 



Professors Fortnum and Rowland 
Associate Professors Grzybowski and 

Parker (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professor Jameson 
Assistant Instructors Boylan, Fox, and Gregory 

Overview 

Each course offered by the department provides an 
opportunity for a concentrated study of the various 
principles of classical and contemporary chemical 
knowledge. From the introductory to the advanced 
courses, application is made of basic theories and 
methods of chemical investigation. The courses 
offered by the department utilize lectures, discussions, 
library work, on-line computer literature searching, 
computer-assisted instructional programs, 
videotapes/films, and laboratory investigations in 
order to emphasize the concepts that underlie the 
topics covered. Each course, as well as the major itself, 
is designed for the curious and interested student. 

The program of the department is approved by the 
American Chemical Society. The paths taken by majors 
after graduation are varied; many enter graduate work 
in chemistry. Graduates also enter medical and dental 
schools, industrial and government research 
laboratories, secondary school teaching, and other 
fields such as business and engineering. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for the Bachelor of 
Arts degree are Chemistry 111, 112 (or 11 2H), 203, 
204, 221, 305, 306, and 317. Students who complete 
these basic eight courses along with Chemistry 373, 
Research (Chemistry 462 or 473), and one 
additional chemistry course may choose to receive a 
Bachelor of Science degree. Physics 111 and 112 and 
Mathematics through 211 are required of all 
chemistry majors. Additional courses in mathematics 
(212), biology, and physics may be recommended 
for those contemplating graduate study in certain 
areas. Junior and senior majors are expected to join 
with staff members in an afternoon seminar series 
which is designed to provide an additional 
opportunity for student discussion of current 
developments in the field. 

Approved safety goggles must be worn in all 
laboratories. Prescription glass may be worn under 
safety goggles. Contact lenses may not be worn unless 
a liability waiver is signed. 



CHEMISTRY 



77 



For the prospective secondary school teacher the 
department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Chemistry. Introductory biology is 
required for certification. 

Individualized study and independent laboratory 
work are available in connection with some courses. 
An honors section (112H) of the Fundamentals of 
Chemistry course provides a select group of students 
with such an opportunity at the introductory level. 
During the junior or senior year, majors may elect 
Chemistry 462, a research course in which a student 
can utilize his or her knowledge and creativity 
intensively. Summer research. Chemistry 473, is 
encouraged strongly. 

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 111, 
112 (or 112H), plus four other chemistry courses at 
the 200 level or above. Individualized Study courses 
may not be counted toward the optional minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistry courses may be 
used to satisfy the distribution requirement in laboratory 
science: either 101 or 1 1 1 followed by 102, 1 12 or 11 2H. 
(Course credit will not be given for more than two 
introductory chemistry courses. Credit will nothe 
given for both 1 1 1 and 101 or for both 102 and 112.) 

Special Facilities and Programs 

Breidenbaugh Hall, which houses chemistry classrooms 
and laboratories, was completely renovated in 1985. 
Since that time the department has purchased new 
instrumentation such as a Fourier Transform NMR 
Spectrometer, a Fourier Transform Infrared 
Spectrometer, a UV-visible Spectrometer, and a Gas 
Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer. Chemistry majors 
receive significant hands-on experience with all major 
instrumentation beginning in the sophomore year. 
The department's library is at the disposal of all 
students. Numerous lectures and seminars are 
sponsored by the department and the chemistry club, 
j Sceptical Chymists. These involve resource persons 
I from universities, industries, government agencies, and 
! professional schools, and are designed to complement 
ii the curricular activities of the department. An annual 
] highlight is a three-day visit by an outstanding scholar 
in the field of chemistry. The program is supported by 
The Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists. 
Many qualified upperclass students — chemistry majors 
and others — gain valuable experience from serving as 
laboratory assistants and tutors. 



101 General Chemistry 

Study of chemical principles with emphasis placed on 
providing the student with an understanding of how 
these principles relate to the non-scientist, especially 
in the areas of industry, ecology, health, and 
philosophy. Laboratory experiments are designed to 
offer a "hands-on" familiarity with the principles 
discussed in the lectures. The course is designed for 
students planning to complete only two courses in 
chemistry and who may have limited or no previous 
exposure to chemistry. Three lecture hours and one 
laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Schoolcraft 

102 General Chemistry 

Review of principles studied in Chemistry 101 and 
application to problems of current and historical 
interest. Demonstrations and laboratory experiments 
are designed to illustrate and complement the 
material discussed in class. Prerequisite: Chemistry 
101 or 111. Three lecture hours and one laboratory 
afternoon. 

Ms. Schoolcraft 

111 Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Study of atomic structure, theories of bonding, 

stoichiometric relationships, properties of solutions 

and gases, and elementary thermodynamics. The 

laboratory work covers quantitative relationships by 

employing titrimetric and gravimetric techniques. 

This course is designed for biology, chemistry, and 

physics majors and others with a secondary school 

background in chemistry and elementary 

mathematics. Course credit is not granted for both 

Chemistry 101 and 111. Three lecture hours and one 

laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Parker 

112 Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of reactions, 

equilibrium, electrochemistry, and coordination 

chemistry. Laboratory work includes kinetic studies, 

qualitative analysis, and the application of various 

instrumental procedures to quantitative analysis. 

Course credit is not granted for both Chemistry 102 

and 112. Prerequisite: Chemistry 111. Three lecture 

hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr . Fortnum 

1 12H Fundamentals of Chemistry 

Designed as an honors seminar for the more 
capable first year chemistry students. Kinetics, 
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and coordination 



78 



CHEMISTRY 



chemistry are among the topics discussed. 
Laboratory work includes experiments in kinetics 
and equilibrium and the application of principles 
from lecture to a project of several weeks' duration. 
Emphasis is placed on independent work with 
necessary guidance in both the seminar and the 
laboratory. Prerequisites: Chemistry 101 or 111 and 
invitation of the department. Two afternoons. 

Mr. Parker 

203 Organic Chemistry 

Study of the fundamental concepts of the chemistry 

of carbon compounds with emphasis on molecular 

structure, reacdon mechanisms, stereochemistry, and 

the applicadon of spectroscopy to problems of 

idendfication. Prerequisite: Chemistry 112 or 112H. 

Three lecture hours, one lab discussion hour, and 

one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

204 Organic Chemistry 

Study of the various classes of organic compounds, 
incltiding substitutions in the aromatic nucleus, cyclic 
compounds, and natural products such as amino 
acids, carbohydrates and peptides. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one lab 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

221 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy 

Study of the theories and applications of ultraviolet, 

infrared, 'H and '^C nuclear magnetic resonance, 

and mass spectroscopy are discussed in relation to 

the importance of these spectroscopic methods in 

the analysis of chemical systems. The scope and 

limitations of each type of spectroscopy are covered. 

Course work includes lectures, discussions, and 

laboratory sessions. The lab periods involve the use 

of spectrometers in the identification of organic 

compounds. Lecture work is supplemented by fdms, 

videotapes, and computer-assisted instructional 

programs. Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 

Mr. Rowland 

305 Physical Chemistry 

Study of the principles of thermodynamics and kinedc 
theory as applied to the states of matter, chemical 
reacdons, equilibrium, the phase rule, and 
electrochemistry using lectures, readings, problems, 
discussions, and laboratory exercises. The computer is 
used as a tool for solving problems and for the 
reducUon of experimental data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 
112 or 112H, Physics 112, mathematics through 



calculus (usually Math 21 1). Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon . 

Mr. Fortnum 

306 Physical Chemistry 

Introduction to theories of chemical kinetics, 

quantum mechanics, and statistical thermodynamics 

and their applications to chemical systems through 

the use of problems, lectures, readings, discussions, 

laboratory investigations, and projects. The 

computer is tised for modeling, simulations, and 

solving problems. Assignments are made so as to 

encourage the individual study of specific related 

physical chemical phenomena. Prerequisite: 

Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours, one discussion 

hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Schoolcraft 

317 Instrumental Analysis 

Study of chemical analysis by use of modern 

instruments. Topics include complex equilibria, 

electroanalytical methods, quantitative spectroscopy, 

chromatography, and Fourier transform methods. 

Analytical techniques will be studied from both a 

chemical and an instrumental point of view. The 

laboratory stresses quantitative analytical procedures. 

Prerequisites: Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture 

hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Gnybowski 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry 

Study of synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical 

concepts in organic chemistry. Particular emphasis is 

placed on the study of methods used to determine 

organic reaction mechanisms, stereospecific 

reactions, photochemistry, pericyclic reactions, and 

the design of multistep syntheses of complex 

molecules. Prerequisites: Chemistry 204 and 221. 

Three lecture hours. 

Mrjameson 

373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 

Study of valence bond, crystal field, and molecular 
orbital theories; boron chemistry; organometallic 
compounds; structural, kinetic, and mechanistic 
studies of coordination compounds. Group theory 
and symmetry are applied to various systems. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours. 

Mr. Parker 

390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Chemistry 

Designed to combine and expand upon the 
laboratory skills learned in the fundamental courses of 



CHEMISTRY/ CLASSICS 



79 



the first two years. Numerous projects will be pursued 
in organic and inorganic chemistry, utilizing a 
combination of library skills (e.g. on-line computer 
searching), advanced laboratory skills (e.g. inert 
atmosphere techniques, modern separation methods, 
and advanced spectroscopic characterizations) , and 
scientific writing skills, h is anticipated that this course 
will prepare a student for independent research in the 
senior year. Prerequisite: Chemistry 221 . 

Mr. Gnybowski 

462 Individualized Study: Research 

An independent investigation in an area of mutual 

interest to the student and a faculty director. The 

project normally includes a literature survey and a 

laboratory study. An oral report to staff and students 

and a final written thesis are required. A student 

wishing to enroll in this course should consult with 

the faculty director at least two weeks before the end 

of the semester preceding the semester in which this 

course is to be taken. Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and 

permission of the faculty director and approval by 

the chemistry department. Open to junior and 

senior chemistry majors. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

473 Summer Research Internship 

A funded ten-week independent investigation in an 

area of mutual interest to the student and research 

director. The project normally includes a literature 

survey and a laboratory study. Oral reports to staff 

and students and a final written thesis are required. 

A student wishing to enroll in this course should 

consult with a chemistry department faculty member 

early in the spring semester. Prerequisites: Chemistry 

390 and/or permission of the research director and 

approval by the chemistry department. 

Staff 



Classics 



Associate Professor Snively (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Cahoon and Zabrowski 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Ginge 

Overview 

The courses offered are designed to acquaint the 
student with the language, literature, history, and 
civilization of Greece and Rome. These societies 
present a microcosm of all human experience. 
Fulfillment of human potential in spite of adversities 
and threats to existence was the ultimate quest then, 
as it is today. Learning how the founders of Western 
civilization dealt with such conflicts as the aspirations 
of youth and the compromises of middle age, the 
claims of community and individual rights, the 
ecstasy of love, and the despair of loss can help us 
understand our own thoughts and emotions as we 
confront these age-old problems and pressures. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, and 
Classical Studies. Required for all majors: CI. 121, 
CI. 122, CI. 400. Additional requirements: 



Latin Major: 



Greek Major: 

Classical Studies 
Major: 



Latin 251; seven courses in Latin 
beyond Lat. 102, and including 
Ladn 312 

Greek 251; seven other courses in 
Greek beyond Gr. 102 
8 courses. The 202 level in 
either Latin or Greek must be 
attained. 



In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201 and 
202 or their equivalents are prerequisites for all 
higher language courses. 

A minor consists of six courses in the department 
including a minimum of two language courses. 

Distribution Requirements 

Latin 201, 202, or 203, and Greek 201, 202 may be 
used to meet the College's language requirement. 
Latin 203, 204, 303, 306, 308, 309, 311, 401, Greek 
203, 204, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, and Classics 262, 
264, 266 may be used in fulfillment of the literature 
distribufion requirement. Classics 121,122, Latin 251, 
and Greek 251 may be used to fulfill the College 
distribution requirement in history/ philosophy, and 
Latin 251 and Greek 251 may be counted toward a 
major in history. 



80 



CLASSICS 



For prospective secondary school teachers the 
Department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Latin. 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. 
The program of the Center has been approved as a 
Gettysburg College affiliated program. The 
Department of Classics encourages its majors to 
spend a semester at the Center in Rome. For details, 
see Study Abroad, The Intercollegiate Center for 
Classical Studies in Rome, Italy, (page 49). 

College Year in Athens, Inc. has also been approved 
as a Gettysburg College affiliated program. Students 
interested in ancient, Byzanfine, or modern Greece 
are encouraged to spend a semester or a year at 
College Year. For details, see Study Abroad, College 
Year in Athens, Greece, (page 48). 

Through the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens. 

Greek 

101, 102 Elementary Greek 

Introduction to the alphabet, inflections, and syntax 

of Attic Greek. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

201, 202 Intermediate Greek 

Designed to increase the student's skill in reading 

texts. Selections from Xenophon's Anabasis, some 

writers of the New Testament, and other authors are 

read, with an emphasis on grammar. Prerequisites: 

Greek 101, 102 or its equivalent. 

Mr. /.abrowski 

203 Plato 

The Apology and Crito, with selecdons from other 

dialogues. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

204 New Testament Greek 

Introduction to Koine Greek. Selections from the 
New Testament are read with attention to their 
language and content. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 



251 Greek History 

Survey of Hellenic civilization from the Bronze Age to 
the Hellenistic period. Papers required. A knowledge of 
Greek not required. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

301 Homer 

Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey with examination 

of syntax and style. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Snively 

302 Greek Historians 

Readings in the text of Herodotus or Thucydides. Not 

offered every year. 

Staff 

303 Greek Comedy 

An introduction to Greek drama. Selected comedies 

of Aristophanes are read with attention to style and 

metrics. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

304 Greek Tragedy 

Selected plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. 

Various plays are also read in English. Oral reports 

required. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

306 Greek Oratory 

Selected orations of Demosthenes and Lysias. Not 
offered every year. 



Individualized Study 



Latin 

101, 102 Elementary Latin 

Introduction to Latin. 



Staff 
Staff 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 



201, 202 Intermediate Latin 

Designed to increase the student's skill in reading 

texts. Selections from Latin prose and poetry are 

read, with continuing grammatical review and 

analysis. Prerequisite: Two years of secondary school 

LaunorLaUn 101, 102. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose 

Selections from Roman prose writers and intensive 

review of grammar. Prerequisite: Three or four years of 

secondary school Latin or Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Snively 



CLASSICS 



81 



204 Roman Poetry 

Extensive reading in Catullus, Ovid, and Horace with 

an examination of poetic forms other than epic. 

Prerequisite: Three or four years of secondary school 

Latin or Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Cahoon 

251 Roman History 

The history of the Republic and Empire. Papers 

required. A knowledge of Latin not required. 

Alternate years. Offered 1993-94. 

Ms. Snively 

303 Cicero 

Selected essays of Cicero, with supplemental reading 

from letters and orations. Supplemental reading in 

English. Not offered every year. 

^ Staff 

306 St. Augustine 

Selections from Confessions vAth attention to the 

differences between Late Latin and Classical Latin. 

Not offered every year. 

Ms. Cahoon 



308 Roman Satire 

Selections from Horace, Martial, and Juvenal with 
attention to the changes in language and style from 
the Classical to the Post Classical period. Not offered 

every year. 

Staff 

309 Roman Historians 

Selections from Livy and Tacitus with attention to 

their peculiarities of language and style. Not offered 

every year. 

Ms. Snively 

311 Lucretius 

Extensive reading in On the Nature Of Things with 

attention to Lucretius' metrical forms, science, and 

philosophy. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

312 Prose Composition 

Designed to increase the student's ability to translate 

from English to Latin, includes a thorough grammar 

review. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

401 VergU 

Study of Vergil's literary style, poetic genius, and 

humanity as seen in the Aeneid. Open to seniors and 

qualified juniors. Not offered every year. 

Staff 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Classical Studies 

121 Survey of Greek Civilization 

Survey of the the politics, history, literature, art, etc. 
of the Greek polls from its beginning to the conquest 
of Alexander, with emphasis on literary texts and on 
Greek concepts which influenced Western thought. 
Knowledge of Greek not required. 

Ms. Cahoon 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization 

Survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc. of 
Rome from its founding to the Council of Nicea, with 
emphasis on the material culture of an empire 
encompassing the whole Mediterranean. Knowledge 



of Latin not required. 



Ms. Snively 



230 Classical Mythology 

Survey of classical mythology with attention to the 
process of myth-making and the development of 
religion. No knowledge of Greek or Latin required. 

Ms. Snively, Mr. Zabrowski 

262-266 Genre Uterature 

An examination of the genre literature of Greece and 
Rome in translation. Selected works will be studied 
through analysis of form, structure, and content. No 
knowledge of Greek or Latin required. „ „ 

262 Ancient Epic 

Study of Homer, Apollonius of Rhodes, and Vergil. 

Offered 1993-94. 

Ms. Cahoon 

264 Ancient Tragedy 

A study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and 
Seneca. Offered 1991-92. ^^ .. 

266 Ancient Comedy 

A study of Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, and 

Terence. Offered 1992-93. 

Ms. Cahoon 

270 Ancient Drama (Half Unit Course) 

Study, direction, and performance of an ancient 

Greek or Roman play. The course will include the 

study both of several other plays by the same author 

(for context and background) and also of recent 

pertinent secondary material. Students will interpret, 

cast, direct, choreograph, and rehearse the play. The 

final performance will be presented to the entire 

campus community at the end of the semester. Not 

offered every year. 

Ms. Cahoon 



82 



CLASSICS / ECONOMICS 



281 Ancient Greek Political Theory and Practice 

Using Plato's Republic and Laws and Aristotle's Politics 

as primar)' sources, the course will investigate the 

nature of ancient Greek political theory and the 

notion of the Ideal State, whether conceived of as 

timocratic, monarchial, or democratic. In the 

practical order, actually functioning Greek city-state 

constitutions will be examined, as preserved in the 

writings of Aristotle, Xenophon, and the Oxyrhyncus 

Historian. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabroivski 

400 Senior Seminar 

Content will be determined each year by the senior 

class in consultation with the staff. Required of all 

majors. 

Staff 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Computer Science - See Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Economics 

Professors Fender (Chairperson), Gondwe and Railing 
Associate Professors Fletcher, Gemmill, and K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors M. Golfin and Kallon 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become increasingly 
important for effective participation in a complex 
society. The department's courses present this 
knowledge in both historical and contemporary 
contexts, with a focus on developing the relevant 
economic theory and identifying, understanding, 
analyzing, and solving social problems. As a social 
science, economics studies how societies organize 
and make decisions for using scarce resources to 
produce and distribute goods and services 
domestically and internationally. Economists 
examine both macro-economic and micro-economic 
problems and consider the implicadons of 
alternative solutions for efficiency, fairness, and 
growth. Courses in the department stress the critical 
thinking skills of a liberally educated person: 
gathering of pertinent information; analysis; 
synthesis; and ability to perceive, create, and choose 
among alternatives. However delightful the study of 
economics for the sake of individual understanding, 
the department also stresses effective oral and 
written communication of the insights achieved 
through study of the discipline. 



In addition to courses in economics, the department 
also offers courses in introductory and intermediate 
applied statisdcs and in geography. 

The department's courses are designed to meet the 
College's liberal arts objectives while also serving well 
students who intend to (1) pursue graduate study in 
economics; (2) enter graduate professional schools 
in management administration, law, and related 
areas; (3) pursue careers in business, non-profit 
private organizations, or government. 

Requirements and Reconunendations 

Economics majors in the classes of 1991-1993 have the 
option of fulfilling either the requirements given in 
this paragraph or those that follow for the classes of 
1994 and beyond. The requirements for students 
graduadng between 1991-1993 are Economics 103- 
104; Management 153; Economics 241, 243, 245, 333; 
and three courses chosen from the following: 
Economics 242, 301, 302, 303, 305, 324, 325-332, 336, 
337, 338, 351, and 352. A student may take 
Mathemadcs 351-352 in lieu of Economics 241-242; 
both semesters of the mathemadcs sequence must be 
completed for mathematical statistics to substitute for 
the departmental statistics requirement. Much, but 
not all, of the material covered in such applied 
statistics courses as Mathematics 107, Psychology 205, 
and Sociology 303 duplicates that in Economics 241; 
therefore, credit will not be given for more than one 
of these courses. The research methodology basic to 
economics is covered in Economics 241 and 242; thus, 
students taking an applied statistics course outside the 
economics department before deciding to become 
economics majors may be required to demonstrate via 
examination proficiency in the content of Economics 
241 or may be required to take Economics 242. 

Economics majors graduating in 1994 or thereafter 
must fulfill the following departmental requirements: 
Economics 103, 104, 241, 243, 245, 333; either 
Management 153 or Economics 242; and at least 
three additional economics courses at the 300 level or 
above (excluding 460), with two or more of these 
from among 301, 303, 336, 351, 352, 401, 402, and 
403. The department strongly urges students to 
include one 400-level course among their electives. 

Because of the importance of mathematical 
modelling and statistical testing to the application of 
economics, majors in economics are required to 
demonstrate achievement in mathematics equivalent 
to one term of calculus. This requirement can be 



ECONOMICS 



83 



satisfied by taking Mathematics 105-106 or 
Mathematics 111 or by exemption via examination. 
The department strongly encourages students who 
have an interest in majoring or minoring in 
economics to complete this mathematics 
requirement during the first year because several 
200-level courses have a math prerequisite. 

The department faculty advises any students planning 
to pursue graduate study in economics to take 
Mathematics 1 1 1-112, Mathematics 21 1-212, and 
Economics 351-352. Regardless of their plans upon 
graduation, all students will find more options open 
to them if they are familiar with the use of computers 
in economic analysis. Therefore, we urge economics 
majors to take a course or courses dealing with the use 
of computers, in addition to the departmental courses 
that require computer work. The department offers a 
minor in economics, which a student can complete by 
taking Economics 103, 104; two courses from among 
Economics 241 , 242, 243, 245; and two courses 
numbered 301 or above. Additionally, a student 
minoring in economics must demonstrate the same 
achievement in mathematics as required of majors, 
and must achieve a grade point average of 2.0 or 
above in courses coimted toward the minor. 

Economics 103, 104 are prerequisites for all upper- 
level courses in the department except Geography 310. 
Under special circumstances, a student may petition 
the instructor of a course for a waiver of course 
prerequisites. 

The departmental brochure. Economics Department 
Handbook, contains additional information about the 
department and about the opportunities which the 
study of economics provides. Copies are available in 
the department office, Glatfelter 111, and from 
department faculty members. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs The 

economics department values intensive and 
independent work by its students, as well as their 
interaction with peers and faculty members on 
collaborative economics projects. To encourage and 
recognize high quality work, the department offers 
departmental honors to students who (1) 
satisfactorily complete one course from among 
Economics 401, 402, 403; (2) earn an acceptable 
overall and departmental grade point average; (3) 
complete a senior project (Economics 460) that 
builds upon the 400-level course, and is deemed of 
high quality by the project supervisor. 



Internships involving the application of economics are 
available to qualified students. Those persons desiring 
more information should contact Dr. Railing. 
Gettysburg College also recognizes the Washington 
Economic Policy Semester at American University, a 
program that involves both classroom study and an 
internship in Washington, D.C. Page 45 of this 
catalogue contains more information about the 
program. Interested students should contact Dr. 
Railing in the spring semester of their sophomore 
year. Several foreign study programs are especially 
interesting for economics students; information is 
available from the department and from the registrar. 

Distribution Requirements 

A student may satisfy the College distribution 
requirement in social sciences by successfully 
compleung Economics 103, 104, and may satisfy the 
non-Western Culture requirement with Economics 
326, 337, or 338. 

103, 104 Principles of Microeconomics — 
Principles of Macroeconomics 

Principles of Microeconomics gives students a 

general understanding of economic systems and 

economic analysis, with emphasis on the operation 

of the U.S. economy. Topics covered in 103 include 

the price system, theory of consumer behavior, 

theory of production, theory of the firm, income 

distribution, welfare economics, and the micro 

aspects of international trade. In Economics 104, 

topics covered include national income accounting, 

employment, inflation, monetary and fiscal policies, 

aggregate demand and supply analysis, economic 

growth, the monetary aspect of international 

economics, and comparative economic systems. 

Staff 

241 Introductory Economic and Business Statistics 

Covers the nomenclature of descriptive statistics, 
probabilities using the normal, binomial, Poisson 
distributions, Chi-square, sampling, estimation of 
parameters, hypothesis testing, linear regression, and 
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103,104, and 
one of the following: Mathematics 105-106, 111, or 
the equivalent. Please note that a student may not 
receive credit for both this course and Mathemafics 
107, Psychology 205, or Sociology 303. 

Ms. M. Golfin, Mr. Niiro 

242 Intermediate Economic and Business Statistics 

Considers advanced statisfical theory and the use of 
computers in data analysis. Topics included are 



84 



ECONOMICS 



ANOVA; multiple regression and the determination 
of model acceptability; time series and forecasting; 
index numbers; nonparametric methods; and 
decision theory. Prerequisite: Economics 241. 

Ms. M. Golfin 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory 

Studies further classical, neoclassical, Keynesian, and 
post-Keynesian economics focusing on national income 
accounting, the various theories and policies which 
deal with the generation and maintenance of full 
employment and a stable price level. The causes and 
cures of unemployment and inflation are also analyzed. 
Offered both semesters. Prerequisites: Economics 
103,104 and Mathematics 111 or its equivalent. 

Mr. Gondwe, Mr. Kallon 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory 

Uses the methodological tools of economics to 

examine consumer and producer behavior and 

economic behavior both individual and collective 

under different input and output market structures, 

and to analyze the implications of such behavior for 

general equilibrium and economic welfare. 

Prerequisites: Economics 103,104, and Mathematics 

105-106 or 111, or the equivalent. 

Ms. Fender 

300 Personal Finance 

This course accomplishes two purposes: (1) the 
consideration of how individuals might react 
analytically to financial constraints they face 
(incomes, prices, opportunities) in order to provide 
for their own material security (living costs, medical 
care, education, retirement); and (2) an insight into 
the important social issues of a mixed economy, such 
as that of the United States, by understanding 
individual decision-making more clearly. Items 
covered will include the meaning of financial 
security, both individually and collectively, the 
development of financial goals and the use of 
personal budgets to achieve goals, the proper use of 
credit, the nature and use of insurance for 
protection and saving, housing, income earning 
assets, and estate planning. In addition, current 
social issues will be considered. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Railing 

301 Labor Economics 

Studies theoretically and empirically the functioning 
of labor markets with emphasis on wage and 
employment determination. Alternative theoretical 



models are examined. Topics include time 
allocation, wage differences, discrimination, 
investment in education, mobility and migration, 
impacts of legislation, unions and labor relations, 
and imperfect markets. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 
104, and 245. Recommended: Economics 241. 

Ms. Fletcher 

302 Gender Issues in Economics 

Applies microeconomic theory to gender issues in 

our economy. The course will explore demographic 

issues such as fertility and divorce, consider the effect 

of the tax structure and other public policies on 

gender differences in labor force participation over 

time, and examine alternative economic paradigms 

for explaining gender discrimination in our society. 

Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. Recommended: 

Economics 245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

303 Money and Banking 

Examines the role of money, credit, and financial 

institutions in the determination of price and 

income levels. Coverage includes the commercial 

banking system, the Federal Reserve System, 

monetary theory, and the art of monetary policy. 

Emphasis is placed upon evaluation of current 

theory and practice in the American economy. 

Prerequisites: E,conom\c^ 103, 104. Recommended: 

Economics 243. 

Mr. Gemmill 

305 Public Finance 

Concerns the principles, techniques, and effects of 
government obtaining and spending funds and 
managing government debt. Nature, growth, and 
amount of expenditures of all levels of government 
in the United States are considered, along with the 
numerous types of taxes employed by the various 
levels of government to finance their activities. . 

Government debt is also considered. Prerequisites: I 

Economics 103,104. 

Mr. Flailing 

324 Comparative Economic Systems 

Concerns a comparative analysis of free enterprise 

economics, centrally planned economies, and mixed 

economies. Primary attention is given to the 

economic aspects and institutions of these economic 

systems, but the political, philosophical, and 

historical aspects are also considered. Prerequisites: 

Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Railing 



ECONOMICS 



85 



325-332 Regional Economic History, Growth, and 
Development Seminar 

Examines intensively one region, using the framework 
of economic analysis and political economy to 
consider economic history, growth, and development 
within the appropriate region. Although economic 
theory provides the primary paradigm within which 
these regions are studied, consideration also will be 
given to the historical events that conditioned the 
economic outcomes. Each course will review the 
pertinent theory and focus on application of that 
theory to specific historical events seeking to 
determine the relevance of the theory to our 
understanding of past and present economic 
conditions. Four regions will be studied, one in each 
of the courses: Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, and 
Canada/U.S. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Gondwe, Mr. Kallon, Mr. Niiro, Ms. Fender 

333 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

Studies the development of economic ideas and 

policies in relation to major forms of social, political, 

and economic problems. Emphasis is placed on 

major contributions to economic thought from Plato 

to Keynes. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104. 

Recommended: Economics 243, 245. ,, ^ , 

Mr. Gondwe 

336 International Economics 

Covers comparative advantage, commercial policy, 

economic integration, balance of payments, 

exchange rates, and international monetary systems. 

Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104, and 245. 

Mr. Kallon 

337 Introduction to Political Economy and the 
African Diaspora 

Examines the origins and development of capitalism 
and the contribution of Third World peoples and 
minorities in the United States to the process and 
continued growth of capitalist development. It also 
examines current economic, social, and political 
issues as they relate to, and affect, Third World 
peoples. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Gondwe 

338 Economic Development 

Examines the economic and non-economic factors 
accounting for the economic growth and 
development of less-developed areas of the world. 
Various theories of economic and social growth and 
development are analyzed and major policy issues 
discussed. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. Satisfies 
distribution requirement in non-Western culture. 

Mr. Gondwe 



341 Environmental Economics 

Provides a foundation for the application of 

microeconomic theory to environmental issues. 

Students will examine national and international 

policy debates related to natural resource u.se and 

environmental protection. Economic theory is used 

to evaluate alternative environmental policies. Issues 

studied include global warming, deforestation, air 

and water quality, and natural resource depletion. 

Pr^^^Misito; Economics 103, 104. 

Ms. Fletcher 

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics and 
Business 

Introduces the application of calculus and matrix 
algebra to economics and business. Numerous 
illustrations of mathematically formulated economic 
models are used to integrate mathematical methods with 
economic and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics 
243, 245, and Mathematics 1 1 1-112 and 21 1-212. 

Mr. Niiro 

352 Introduction to Econometrics 

Introduces the application of mathematical 
economic theory and statistical procedures to 
economic data. Coverage includes the development 
of appropriate techniques for measuring economic 
relationships specified by economic models and 
tesdng of economic theorems. Prerequisites: 
Economics 243, 245, Mathematics 111-112 and 21 1- 
212, and Economics 242, or Mathematics 358. 

Mr. Niiro 

401 Advanced Topics in History of Economic 
Thought and Competing Paradigms of 
Economic Analysis 

Investigates the different perspectives in economics. 
The course focuses on the concept that economics, as 
a social science, is rich in diversity and contending 
perspectives through which students can view 
questions which economics asks, and therefore the 
types of answers which are generated. More 
specifically, the course will consider the Neoclassical 
paradigm, including Keynesian Economics and 
Monetarism, and the New Classical Economics, as the 
mainstream perspecdves which will be compared with 
Marxism and Radical Polidcal Economy, Neo- 
Austrian Economics, and the Schools of Public 
Choice and Institutional Economics. These will be 
contrasted by tracing the historical evoludon of 
different perspecdves and then focusing on the 
theories and methods of contemporary paradigms. 
Prerequisite: Economics 333. 

Staff 



86 



ECONOMICS / EDUCATION 



402 Advanced Topics in Theoretical and Applied 
Macro- and Monetary Economics 

Examines particular topics in macroeconomics and 
monetary' theory and applications, under the 
assumption that the student is familiar with the basic 
theor)'. The particular focus of the seminar will 
rotate depending upon the expertise of the faculty 
person teaching it, among topics such as the new 
neoclassical theory, rational expectations and 
economic behavior, monetary issues in international 
trade and economic development, econometric 
studies of money, regulation and banking safety. 
Prerequisites: Economics 243 and/or 303 and/or 336. 

Staff 

403 Advanced Topics in Theoretical and AppUed 
Microeconomics 

Considers special topics in microeconomic theory and 
applications based upon the assumption that the 
student is familiar with the basic theory. The particular 
focus will vary with the instructor conducting the 
seminar, from among topics such as the new house- 
hold economics, industrial organization and public 
policy, game theory, information costs-structure- 
behavior, production and cost functions, welfare 
economics, and the micro aspects of international trade. 
Prerequisites: Economics 245 and/or Economics 336. 

Staff 

460 Senior Thesis 

Involves the student in pursuit of a research or other 
investigative project which is presented to the adviser 
via a written paper and to the public via an oral 
presentation at the completion of the project. The 
student explores the topic of the thesis in Economics 
401 or 402 or 403, then further develops it the 
following semester in independent work under the 
supervision of the instructor for the prior 400-level 
course. Prerequisite: Economics 401 or 402 or 403. 

Individualized Study 

hivolves topics of an advanced nature pursued by 
well-qualified students through individual reading 
and research, under the supervision of a member of 
the department's faculty. A student wishing to 
pursue independent study must present a proposal at 
least one month before the end of the semester 
preceding the semester in which the independent 
study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites: Permission of 
the supervising faculty member and the department 
chairperson. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 



Geography 310 Physical and Human Geography 

Studies of the location and causes of the distribution 

of various kinds of economic activities, as well as 

some of the adverse environmental consequences of 

a number of these activities. Topics include basic 

place name geography; weather and climate; 

population trends and characterisUcs; technology 

and economic development; the role of agriculture; 

the economic geography of energy; and the city. 

Open to first year students only by permission of the 

instructor. ,, ,, ^ ,^ 

Ms. M. Golfin 

Education 

Associate Professors Brough (Chairperson), Hofman, 

and Packard 
Director of Field Experiences and Instructor S. Van 

Arsdale 
Adjunct Professors Curtis and Williams 

The purposes of the teacher education programs are 
to give students a thorough background in 
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts of 
instruction, and to provide an opportunity for 
student teaching. 

The education department works cooperadvely with 
all other departments in the preparadon of teachers 
in secondary education, elementary educadon, music 
educadon, and health and physical educadon. 
Students interested in pursuing one of these programs 
will need to study carefully the teacher educadon 
programs as described elsewhere in this catalogue. 

A student teacher seeking teacher ceruficadon may 
also choose to minor in educadon. A minor in 
secondary education consists of six courses: 
Educadon 201, 209, 303, 304, and 476 (worth two 
courses). A minor in elementary education consists 
of six courses. Education 201, 209, and 476 are 
required for the minor. The student then designates 
three of the following five courses to complete the 
minor: Education 180, 306, 331, 370 or 334. 
Compledon of all eight courses is required for 
teacher cerdfication in elementary educadon. 

180 Methods and Concepts of Mathematics 
Instruction 

Designed for future elementary teachers who are 
sophomores and above and are seeking elementary 



EDUCATION 



87 



teaching certification. Topics include the number 

system, different bases, number line, use of sets, 

principles of arithmetic, introduction to geometry, 

and algebra. Curriculum materials and strategies are 

included. Spring Semester only. 

Ms. Hofman 

201 Educational Psychology 

Study of the development of psychological principles of 
learning, pupil evaluation, and the statistics necessary 
for analyzing test data. Repeated in the spring semester. 
Psychology 101 recommended as background. 

Mr. Packard 

209 Social Foundations of Education 

Study of the professional aspects of teaching, the 
relation of schools to society, historical and 
philosophical development of American education, 
the organization of state and local school systems, 
and the impact of national programs on education, 
including court decisions. Repeated in the spring 
semester. Includes a unit on computer literacy. 

Mr. Williams, Ms. Brough 

303 Educational Purposes, Methods and 
Educational Media: Secondary 

The function of schools in a democracy. Emphasis is 
placed on methods and techniques of the teaching- 
learning process and classroom management in 
secondary schools. The underlying principles and 
techniques involved in the use of teaching materials 
and sensory aids are studied. Includes a unit on 
reading. Prerequisites: Education 201 and 209 and 
acceptance into the Education Semester. Repeated 

in the spring semester. 

Ms. Hofman 

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject 

Secondary subjects including biology, chemistry, 

physics, English, French, Spanish, German, Latin, 

mathematics, health and physical education, and 

social studies. This course is taught by a staff member 

of each department having students in the Education 

Semester. Included is a study of the methods and 

materials applicable to the teaching of each subject 

and the appropriate curricular organization. 

Prerequisites: Consent of the major department and 

acceptance into the Education Semester. Repeated 

in the spring semester. 

Staff 



306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social Studies, 
Art, and Music 

Applying principles of learning and human 
development to teaching social studies in the 
elementally school. Included is the correlation of art 
and music with the teaching of the social sciences. A 
major portion of the course is devoted to the 
development and teaching of a social studies unit in 
conjunction with the student teaching experience. 
Prerequisites: Education 180, 201, 209, 331, 370 and 
acceptance into the Education Semester. Repeated in 
the spring semester. Elementary education students 
enroll for this course during the Education Semester. 
Ms. Brough, Ms. Van Arsdale 

331 Developmental Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts 

An introduction to the theory, problems, and 

approaches to developmental reading instruction 

and the language arts. Current trends relating to the 

acquisition of language and reading skills are 

studied. Children's literature and its relation to the 

learning process are explored. Designed for 

elementary and secondary teachers. Prerequisite: 

Education 201. Fall semester only. 

Ms. Brough 

334 Corrective Reading 

A study of the analysis and correction of reading 
disabilities. Survey of tests and materials including 
children's literature as an incentive to greater 
interest in reading are included along with a reading 
internship in the public schools under the guidance 
of a reading teacher. Diagnosis and remedial 
tutoring of school pupils who are having reading 
problems is provided. Elementary education students 
enroll for this course during the Education 
Semester. Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, and 331 
and acceptance into the Education Semester. 
Repeated in the spring semester. 

Ms. Brough, Ms. Van Arsdale 

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes, 
Methods, and Instructional Media 

Scientific concepts for mastery by the elementary 
pupil in connection with appropriate experimental 
procedures; inquiry approach, curriculum 
integration, individualization, and instructional 
media designed to give the prospective teacher a 
thorough background in elementary school science. 
Prerequisite: Education 201. Fall semester only. 

Ms. Hofman 



ss 



EDUCATION / ENGLISH 



411 Internship in Teaching Composition 

A teaching internship in a section of English 101. 
Under the supervision of the instructor in that 
section, the intern will attend classes, prepare and 
teach selected classes, counsel students on their 
written work, and give students' papers a first 
reading and a preliminary evaluation. All interns will 
meet regularly with members of the English 
department to discuss methods of teaching 
composition and to analyze the classroom 
experience. Required of all majors in English 
planning to enroll in the secondary education 
program. Students should register for Education 41 1 
in the semester prior to their Education Semester. 

English Department Staff 

461 IndividnaUzed Study — Research 

Offered both semesters. 

471 Individualized Study — Internship 

Offered both semesters. 

476 Student Teaching 

Student observation, participation, and teaching 
under supervision of an experienced and certified 
teacher. Group and individual conferences are held 
for discussion of principles and problems. The 
student will spend the full day for 12 to 15 weeks in 
the classroom. This course carries two course credits. 
Prerequisites: All required education courses and 
acceptance into the Education Semester. Repeated 
in the spring semester. 

English 

Professors E. Baskerville, Fredrickson (Chairperson), 

Myers, Schmidt, Stewart, and Stitt 
Associate Professors Garnett, Goldberg, Lambert, 

Stavropoulos, and Winans 
Assistant Professors Berg, Hanson, Johnson, and 

Larsen 
Instructor Henry 

Adjunct Associate Professor M. Baskerville 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Howe and Love 
Adjunct Instructors Beedle, Clarke, Cozort, Hartzell, 

Saltzman, Young, and Zerbe 

Overview 

The courses offered by the department are designed 
to train students to express their thoughts clearly 
and effectively through spoken and written language 
and to understand, interpret, and assimilate the 



thoughts and experiences of the great writers of 
English and American literature. English is excellent 
preparation for careers in business, teaching, law, 
publishing, journalism, and government service, and 
for graduate study leading to advanced degrees in 
English, the ministry, and library science. Majors 
have also enrolled in graduate programs in business, 
urban planning, social work, public administration, 
and others. 

The courses in theatre and drama offered by the 
department are designed to train students to conceive 
of the theatrical event as a unit, joining its literary and 
historical values with means of expression in 
production, demonstrating the relationship of acting, 
directing, and design with the efforts of playwrights 
both past and present. This is accomplished through 
the students' work in the theatre program's 
productions which include Mainst^e offerings in the 
Kline Theatre as well as studio presentations in the 
Stevens Theatre and Otherstage works-in-progress 
(see p. 159). The study of theatre arts prepares 
students for careers in the theatre, arts administration, 
teaching, and business. 

The department offers a major in English and 
American literature and a major in theatre arts. The 
department also offers a minor program in each field. 

The department believes that a well-balanced 
program for a major in English and American 
literature should include (1) knowledge of the 
literary history of England and America; (2) training 
in the application of the techniques of literary 
analysis and the different critical approaches to 
literature; (3) knowledge of the characteristics and 
development of the major literary forms or genres; 
(4) study in depth of the work of one author of 
significance; and (5) some knowledge of the history 
of the English language and of English as a system. 

The department also believes that a well-balanced 
program for a major in theatre arts should include 
(1) knowledge of the history of the theatre from 
primitive man to the present; (2) training in and 
application of the various performance areas of 
theatre; (3) knowledge of the characteristics and 
development of the literary genre known as drama; 
and (4) the development of a play from the initial 
script to actual performance. 



ENGLISH 



89 



The Writing Center 

The Writing Center, staffed by several English 
department faculty members and specially trained 
Gettysburg College students, is a valuable college 
resource. The Center's staff assists students with their 
writing in the following ways: 

-Discusses an assignment in order to clarify it or to 

plan a method of approach 
-Helps in organizing a paper or other piece of 

writing such as a letter of application 
-Suggests ways to make troublesome parts of a paper 

more effective 
-Shows ways to correct recurring grammatical errors 

The Writing Center is open six days a week. There is 
no charge for this service. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Major in Literature 

The requirements for the major in literature are twelve 
courses in English and American language and 
literature in addition to the first semester of Literary 
Foundations of Western Culture (IDS 103). All majors 
in literature are required to take English 150,151,152, 
153,154, and IDS 103. In addition, to obtain the 
desired distribution of courses, majors must elect one 
course from each of the following categories: 

I. English Language and Literary Theory 

(1 course): English 209, 210. 
II. Topics in English Literary History 
(3 courses; 1 from each group): 

A. Medieval, Renaissance: English 310 to 319. 

B. 17th and 18th Centuries: English 320 to 329. 

C. 19di and 20th Centuries: English 330 to 339. 
III. Topics in American Literary History (1 course): 

English 340 to 349. 
rV. Major Authors (1 course): English 362, 365, 366 
or any seminar devoted to a British or American 
author deemed by the department to be of 
major importance. 
V. Seminar (1 course): English 401-404, 420. 

English 420, the Honors Seminar, is reserved for 
students admitted to the Departmental Honors 
Program. 

English 101,110, 201, 203, 205, 206, 305, and courses 
in speech may not be used to fulfill the department's 
major requirements. Courses in theatre arts count 
only toward the theatre arts major. 



The Minor in Literature 

The requirements for the minor in literature are six 
courses. All minors must take three courses of the 
Survey of English and American Literature sequence 
(English 150-154), and at least three advanced 
courses, two of which must be on the 300 or 400 
level. Writing courses, with the exception of English 
101, may be used to fulfill the department's minor 
requirements. 

The Major in Theatre Arts 

Majors in theatre arts must take IDS 103 and theatre 
arts 105, 203, 204, and 214. They must also elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following categories: 
I. Theatre Arts (3 courses): 1 course from each of 
the following groups: 

A. (Acung and Dance) 120, 163, 220, 307, 320, 
377. 

B. (Design) 115, 155,255,311,355,381. 

C. (Direcdng) 182, 282, 382. 

II. Drama (3 Courses): English 226, 365, 366, 
Theatre Arts 328, 329, Classics 264, 266, French 
327, German 335, Spanish 313. 
III. Electives (2 courses): Any of the theatre arts and 
drama courses listed above and/or Theatre Arts 
222, 252, Art 238, 239, Spanish 315. 

The Minor in Theatre Arts 

The requirements for the minor in theatre arts are six 
courses: Theatre Arts 105, Theatre Arts 203 or 204; one 
course in Drama (English 226, 365, 366, Theatre Arts 
214, 328, 329); 2 studio courses (Theatre Arts 115, 120, 
155, 163,182, 220, 255, 282, 307, 311, 320, 355, 377, 381, 
382); one course in theatre arts or any of the above 
listed theatre arts or drama courses plus Theatre Arts 
252. No more than four courses may be at the 100-level. 

Elementary and Secondary Education 
The major for students enrolled in the elementary 
education program consists of ten courses, in 
addition to the first term of Literary Foundations of 
Western Culture (IDS 103). Working with the 
chairperson of the english department, each 
elementary education student will design a major 
program following as closely as possible the 
department's distribudon requirement for the 
major. Students planning to teach English in the 
secondary schools are required to take English 209 
and either 365 or 366. Speech 101, IDS 104, and 
either Theatre Arts 328 or 329 are strongly recom- 
mended. The department cooperates in offering 
Education 304, Techniques of Teaching and 



90 



ENGLISH 



Curriculum of Secondary English, and Education 
411, Internship in Teaching Composition. Students 
planning to do graduate work in English should 
develop proficiency in Latin, French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variety of 
fields, such as journalism, law, public relations, 
publishing, radio, and television. Theatre arts majors 
may take internships in theatre, radio, television, 
public relations, and arts administration. Students 
who wish to apply for internships must secure from 
their advisers a statement of the department's policy 
regarding application deadline, form of proposal, 
requirements, and grading. 

Distribution Requirements 

All courses offered by the department, except 
English 101, 201, 203, 205, 206, 209, 305, and 
courses in speech and theatre arts, may be used to 
fulfill the College distribution requirement in 
literature. English 205, 206, and all theatre arts 
courses except 328 and 329 may be used to fulfill the 
College distribution requirement in arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors who have shown special promise in 
English will be invited to complete a thesis and 
seminar sequence during their senior year. Students 
taking the program will write a thesis during the fall 
semester under the direction of a member of the 
department. During the spring semester they will 
participate in an honors seminar under the direction 
of the program director. Only students selected for 
and successfully completing the program will be 
eligible to receive honors in English. For details of 
the program, consult the brochure available in the 
english department. 

101 English Composition 

Aims to develop the student's ability to express 

themselves in clear, accurate, and thoughtful English 

prose. Not limited to first year students. Repeated 

spring semester. 

Staff 

110 The Interpretation of Literature 

An intensive study of the dominant literary types: 
short story, novel, poem, and drama. The course 
attempts to stimulate a valid appreciation and 
judgment of literature through precise critical 
analysis of selected works truly representative of 
major literary forms. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in literature. Open only to first year 



students and a limited number of sophomores. 
Offered both semesters. 



Staff 



150, 151, 152 Survey of English Literature 

A historical survey of English literature from Beowulf 

through the twentieth century, with some attention 

to the social, political, and intellectual backgrounds 

of the periods under investigation. Selected works 

will be discussed in class to familiarize students with 

various methods of literary analysis, and students will 

write several short critical papers each semester. 

Staff 

153, 154 Survey of American Literatiu"e 

A chronological study of American writing from 

colonial days through the present, with some 

attention to the social, political, and intellectual 

backgrounds. Primary emphasis during the first half 

of the sequence falls on the Puritans and American 

Romantics; the second half surveys writers from the 

Romantics forward, including such figures as 

Chopin, James, Williams, Stevens, Faulkner, Hughes, 

as well as selected contemporary writers. 

Staff 

201 Advanced Expository Writing 

An intensive course in advanced rhetorical 
techniques, with particular emphasis on analysis of 
evidence, selection of appropriate style, and 
importance of revision. 

Ms. Stavropoulos, Mr. Gametl 

203 Journalism 

A general introduction to journalism. Students can 

expect to spend their time practicing the techniques 

of writing news copy, feature, sports, and editorial 

articles; composing headlines; doing make-up; and 

working at copy reading and rewrite. 

Ms. Henry 

205, 206 The Writing of Fiction, Poetry, and 
Drama 

A workshop in the writing of short stories, verse, and 
plays, with an analysis of models. Either course may 
be used to fulfill the distribution requirement in arts. 

Ms. Larsen 

209 History of the Elnglish Language 

Provides a historical understanding of the 

vocabulary, forms, and sounds of the language from 

the Anglo-Saxon or Old English period to the 

twentieth century. 

Mr. Baskerville 



ENGLISH 



91 



210 Theories of Literature 

Undertakes to examine and compare the various 

wars in which literature has been regarded: its 

sources, forms, and purposes. The history of critical 

theory surveyed, from Plato and Aristole to the 

present, with emphasis upon the modern period 

and such movements as New Criticism, 

structuralism, deconstruction, and feminist 

criticism. The goal of the course is to make students 

aware of themselves as readers. 

Ms. Berg 

226 Introduction to Shakespeare 

A course that endeavors to communicate an 

awareness of Shakespeare's evolution as a dramatist 

and of his importance in the development of 

Western literature and thought. Designed for 

students not majoring in English. 

Mr. Myers 

231 to 260 Studies in Literature 

An intensive study of a single writer, group, 

movement, theme, or period. May be counted 

toward the major. Fulfills distribution requirement 

in literature. Open to first year students. 

Studies offered in 1991-92 included Personal History: 

Autobiography, Diaries, and Letters; and The 

Nineteenth Century Novel. 

Staff 

305 The Writing of Poetry and Short Fiction: 
Advanced 

A course open to students who have demonstrated 
that their skills in the writing of poetry and fiction 
might be further developed. The goal of each 
student will be the composition of a group of poems 
or short stories. Prerequisites: English 205, 206. 

Ms. Larsen 

310-319 Topics in Medieval and Renaissance 
Literature 

A variety of authors, themes, genres, and movements 
will be studied, ranging from Anglo-Saxon poetry 
and prose through Shakespeare's works. Several 
sections, each dealing with a different subject, will be 
offered each year. 

Mr. Baskeruille, Mr. Myers, Ms. Stavropoulos 

320 - 329 Topics in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth- 
Century Literature 

A variety of authors, themes, genres, and 
movements will be studied, ranging from Donne 
and Herbert through Johnson and Boswell. Several 



sections, each dealing with a different subject, will 
be offered each year. 

Ms. Lambert, Mr. Myers, Ms. Stavropoulos, Ms. Stewart 

330 - 339 Topics in Nineteenth- and Twentieth- 
Century Literature 

A variety of authors, themes, genres, and movements 
will be studied, ranging from Blake, Wordsworth, 
and Coleridge through Yeats, Eliot, Woolf, and 
selected contemporary writers. Several sections, 
each dealing with a different subject, will be offered 
each year. 

Ms. Berg, Mr. Gamett, Mr. Goldberg, Ms. Johnson 

340 - 349 Topics in American Literature 

A variety of authors, themes, genres, and movements 
will be studied, ranging from colonial writers 
through selected contemporary authors. Several 
sections, each dealing with a different subject, will 
be offered each year. 

Mr. Fredrickson, Mr. Stitt, Mr. Winans 

Topics offered in 1991-92 included Metaphysical and 
Baroque Literature, Restoration and Early 
Eighteenth-Century Literature, Victorian Aesthetics, 
American Realism, Twentieth-Century American 
Fiction, Epic to Romance, Mid to Late Eighteenth- 
Century Literature, Studies in the Eighteenth- 
Century Novel, British Writers Between Wars, 
Contemporary American Poetry, and Twentieth- 
Century Fiction Since 1940. 

362 Chaucer 

Examination of selection of Chaucer's minor 

poems and of five of his major poems (including 

"Troilus and Criseyde" and "Canterbury Tales") as 

the means of assessing the poet's response to 

literary influences and of tracing the development 

of his original genius. 

Mr. Baskeruille 

365, 366 Shakespeare 

A course that seeks to communicate an 

understanding both of Shakespeare's relation to the 

received traditions of his time and of his 

achievement as one of the most important figures in 

Western literature. Language, characterization, and 

structure in each of the numerous plays will be 

carefully analyzed. English 365 will focus on the early 

plays through Hamlet and Troilus and Cressida. 

English 366 on the later plays. 

Mr. Myers 



92 



ENGLISH / THEATRE ARTS 



401, 402, 403, 404 Seminar 

Intensive studies of announced topics in Medieval 
and Renaissance literature, in seventeenth- and 
eighteenth-century literature, in nineteenth- and 
twentieth-century literature, and in American 
literature. Prerequisite: Senior standing in the major 
or departmental permission. 



Staff 



420 Honors Seminar 

An intensive study of an announced topic under the 
guidance of the Director of the Senior English 
Honors Program. Prerequisite: Successful completion 
of an honors thesis. Offered in the spring semester. 

Staff 

Seminars offered in 1991-92 included Manners, 
Mistresses, and Mayhem; Romantic Aesthetic 
Thought; and Mark Twain in Literature and Film. 

464 Honors Thesis 

An individvialized study project involving the 
research of a topic and the preparation of a major 
paper under the direction of a member of the 
department. This research and writing will be done 
during the fall semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisites: By invitation of the department only. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

An individual tutorial, research project, or internship 
under the supervision of a member of the staff. A 
student must submit a written proposal to the 
department well in advance of registration. 
Prerequisite: Approval of the department and of the 
directing faculty member. Offered each semester. 

Staff 

Theatre Arts 

The major in theatre arts is described, page 89. 
Any theatre arts course may he used to fulfill the 
distribution requirement in arts. 

105 Introduction to Theatre Arts 

An overview of theatre, including its historical 

background, its literary works, its technical aspects, 

and its performance techniques. Students will study 

the theatre of today in relation to its predecessors 

and in terms of its modern forms in cinema and 

television. Students will read texts and analyze 

methods used in bringing those works into 

production. Field trips will offer opportunities to 

critique performances. 

Mr. Hanson, Ms. Howe 



115 Theatre Production 

A course designed to provide an extensive 
investigation of the historical and contemporary trends 
and practices essential for theatre production. The 
student gains an understanding of theatre procedures 
and acquires a grasp of the equipment necessary for 
the execution of scenery, properties, sound, and stage 
lighting. This course is a combination of lecture and 
laboratory work and requires backstage participation 
in college productions. 

Mr. Hanson 

1 20 Fundamentals of Acting 

The study of the theory and technique of the art of 
acting; voice technique for the stage; the use of 
pantomime, including the study of gesture and 
movement. Emphasis will be placed on the discipline 
and control of the body and the voice to best serve the 
actor. Improvisation will be employed. In addition, 
students will be expected to perform in scenes for 
class analysis. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Howe 

155 Fundamentals of Stage Design 

Basic theories and technique of design for the stage. 

The theory behind the design, and the 

interrelationship of scene design, lighting, costumes, 

and properties. How stage design interprets the 

themes and moods of a play as well as identifying 

period and place will be studied. This course will 

follow a lecture-discussion format and involve 

extensive studio work. Students will analyze, create, 

and execute basic designs for the Laboratory Theatre 

Series in association with students in Theatre Arts 

182. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 115 and/or permission 

of the instructor. ,, ,, 

Mr. Hanson 

163 Introduction to Dance 

An overview of the history and development of 
modern dance with emphasis on the early pioneers 
(Duncan, Denis-Shawn, Humphrey, Weidman, 
Hawkins, Cunningham), intended to develop an 
appreciation of dance as an art form. The study of 
form and technique and the physical application 
thereof. Emphasis will he placed on the discipline 
and control of the body to best serve the dancer. 

Staff 

182 Fundamentals of Directing 

The study of the theory and technique of the art of 
the director; how a play is selected; play analysis; 
tryouts and casting; the purpose and technique of 



THEATRE ARTS 



93 



blocking, movement, and stage business. Students 
are required to direct scenes in class and a short play 
as part of the Laboratory Theatre Series. Prerequisite: 
Permission of the instructor. ^^ ^^^^ .^^ 

203, 204 History of the Theatre 

A survey of the theatre from the primitive to the 
present. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of 
theatre design, production techniques, and acting 
styles to the plays of their periods, and the 
relationship between society and the theatre it 
nurtured. The first semester covers Greek, Roman, 
Medieval, Elizabethan, and Oriental; the second 
semester is devoted to the Italian Renaissance, 
French, Neoclassical, the Restoration, and the 
eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. 

Mr. Schmidt 

214 Survey of Dramatic Literature 

An overview of dramatic literature from the Greeks 

to the present. Play structure is analyzed, and 

comparisons made between methods of executing 

plot, development of character, and theme. 

Contents includes plays from the Greek and Roman 

periods, medieval, Elizabethan and seventeenth 

through twentieth centuries. Emphasis will be 

placed on written analysis. 

Ms. Howe 

222 Advanced Acting 

Further study in the theory and techniques of the art 
of the actor, the analysis and interpretation of acting 
roles, and the building of characterization. Roles, 
both comic and tragic, from Contemporary 
Restoration, Elizabethan, Commedia dell'Art, and 
Greek theatre will be analyzed and performed. 
Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 120 and/or permission of 
the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

222 Oral Interpretation of Literature 

An analytical and structural study of recognized 

prose, poetry, and dramatic selections which will 

facilitate individual rehearsal and performance of 

the literature. These readings will incorporate the 

Readers Theatre format and emphasis will be placed 

on developing an appreciation for the literary work 

as a complete aesthetic unit. Students will be 

challenged to recognize their potential for speaking 

and reading before an audience. The class will 

employ an ensemble approach and present several 

public performances during the semester. 

Mr. Hanson 



252 Studies in Film Aesthetics 

A study of historically significant films, film theory, 

and criticism intended to develop an appreciation 

for film as an art form. The students will keep a 

journal of critical responses to films, write short 

critical papers, and will become familiar with writing 

that has been done about films. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

255 Advanced Stage Design 

Examination of historical and contemporary theories 
of scene, lighting, and costume design. Students will 
consider design as the visual manifestation of the 
playvvright's concepts. Besides designing the same 
play for proscenium, arena, thrust, and profile stages, 
and a period play for a period other than its own, 
students will complete advanced designs in scene, 
lighting, and costumes, and create designs for the 
Laboratory Theatre Series in association with students 
in Theatre Arts 282. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 155. 

Mr. Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing 

Further studies in the theory and technique in the 

art of the director. Students will engage in 

directional analyses of plays representing different 

periods. Particular attention will be given to 

contemporary methods of presentation, with special 

emphasis on arena and thrust staging. In addition to 

directing scenes in class, students will direct two 

scenes and a one-act play for public presentation, the 

latter as part of the Laboratory Theatre Series. 

Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 155 and 182 and/or 

permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

307 Theatre Arts Practicum - Acting 

A practical learning experience in acting. During a 
seven-week period, students will perform in three 
children's theatre productions and will also 
participate in three mainstage productions as part of 
Gettysburg Theatre Festival's summer program. 
Students are afforded the opportunity of working 
alongside professional actors and under professional 
direcdon before discriminating audiences. 
Commedia dell 'Arte improvisational techniques are 
employed in the creation and rehearsals of the 
children's theatre offerings. A study of the works of 
the authors represented on the mainstage, analyses 
of the literary and theatrical aspects of the works to 
be produced, as well as discussions sessions and 
workshops with the professional actors and directors 
are included in class work. ^^^_ ^^^^.^^ 



94 



THEATRE ARTS / SPEECH 



311 Theatre Arts Practicum - Technical 

A practical learning experience in technical theatre. 
During a seven-week period students will participate 
in the varied technical aspects of mounting three 
mainstage productions as well as three productions 
offered by the Theatre for Children as part of the 
Gettysburg Theatre Festival's summer program. 
Hands-on experience will be gained from the 
construction, painting and placement of sets, 
hanging and running of stage lights, and the 
construction and gathering of properties and 
costumes. A study of the theatrical aspects of the 
works to be produced and analyses of the concepts 
and techniques employed in this production and 
others of a similar nature (both contemporary and 
historical) are integral aspects of the course. 

Mr. Hanson 

320 Problems in Acting 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in acting which will culminate in an 
independent study project. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 
120 and 220 and/or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

328, 329 Twentieth-Century Drama 

A study of major dramatists from Ibsen to the present 
and of dramatic movements such as realism, 
naturalism, expressionism, as well as Theatre of the 
Absurd. The first semester includes Ibsen, 
Strindberg, Chekhov, Shaw, Pirandello, Odets, 
O'Neill, and others; the second semester begins after 
World War II and includes Williams, Miller, Osborne, 
Pinter, Beckett, lonesco. Genet, and others. Fulfills 
the literature requirement and does not fulfill the art 
requirement. 

Mr. Schmidt 

355 Problems in Stage Design 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in design which will culminate in an 
independent study project. Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 
155 and 255. 

Mr. Hanson 

377 Theatre Arts Practicum - Acting (Advanced) 

An advanced practical learning experience in acting 
for students who have demonstrated that their skills 
in performing before the public (both young and 
old) might be further developed. Students will 



continue work begun in Theatre Arts 307; they v«ll 
be expected to produce mature and advanced work 
and undertake a broader range of roles and more 
complex ones. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 307. 

Mr. Schmidt 

381 Theatre Arts Practicum-Technical (Advanced) 

An advanced practical learning experience in 
technical theatre for students who have demonstrated 
that their skills in the technical aspects of theatre 
might be further developed. Students will continue 
work begun in Theatre Arts 31 1 and will be expected 
to undertake more advanced assignments in set 
construction, stage lighting, costumes, and 
properties. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 31 1. 

Mr. Hanson 

382 Problems in Directing 

A course designed for students who have 
demonstrated the skill and talent to undertake 
further studies in directing which vnll culminate in 
an independent study project. Prerequisites: Theatre 
Arts 182 and 282. 

Mr. Schmidt 

Individualized Study 

A production of a major work, a tutorial, or an 
internship under the supervision of a member of the 
staff. A student must submit a written proposal to 
the department well in advance of registration. 
Prerequisites: Approval of the department and of the 
directing faculty member. 

Speech 

101 Public Address 

A study of the basic principles of public address. 
Emphasis is placed on developing both a theoretical 
and practical understanding of oral communication 
through lecture and reading assignments, as well as 
through practice in preparing, organizing, 
delivering, and criticizing speeches in class. 

Mr. Hanson 

201 Advanced Public Address 

An analysis of public address as an art form and as an 
important civilizing force in Western society. 
Students will have the opportunity to apply concepts 
and strategies they have learned in Speech 101. 
Prerequisite: Speech 101. 

Mr. Hanson 



ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES / FRENCH 



95 



Environmental Studies 



French 



Gigi Berardi, Coordinator 

Environmental Studies is an interdisciplinary program 
that studies the interdependence of the human being 
and the natural environment, investigating the nature 
of that relationship and the forces affecting 
environmental quality. According to the program 
currently under development, students can minor in 
Environmental Studies. Within the minor, students 
will be able to focus on (1) policy issues concerning 
environmental management and conservation; or 
(2) on biogeography; or (3) on physical and 
technological aspects of environmental management. 

Together with the Environmental Studies 
Coordinator, the Environmental Studies Committee 
(ESC), consisting of faculty members in Biology, 
Chemistry, Physics, Philosophy, and Economics, 
directs the program. 

Students may ask any member of the ESC to 
supervise independent study or research in areas 
such as environmental ethics, environmental impact 
assessment, hazardous waste disposal siting, or 
environmental policy legislation. 

211, 212 Environmental Science 

A study of the impact of humans on their natural 
environment, with an emphasis on ecological 
principles. Human population growth; energy 
utilization and dependence; deforestation and 
agricultural practices; air and water pollution; 
climate change and declining biodiversity. 

Recommendations 

In addition to Environmental Studies 211 and 212, 
the ESC recommends the following courses for 
students interested in environmental studies: 
Biology 300: Plant Physiology 
Biology 305: Ecology 

Economics 341: Environmental Economics 
Geography 310: Physical and Human 

Geography 
IDS 240: Energy — Production, Use, and 

Environmental Impact 
Philosophy 105: Contemporary Moral Issues 
Philosophy 356: Topics in Philosophy — 

Environmental Ethics 
Sociology 203: World Population 

Some of these courses carry prerequisites. 



Professor Viti 

Associate Professors Gregorio, Michelman, A. 

Tannenbaum {Chairperson), and Richardson Viti 
Assistant Professor Arey 
Instructor Faucon 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Exton 
Teaching Assistant LeBournault 

Overview 

Foreign language study not only teaches students 
much about their native tongue, but also introduces 
them to another people's language, literature, and 
customs. This awareness of cultural and linguistic 
relativity is one of the hallmarks of a liberal education. 

Introductory French courses develop students' skills 
in spoken and written French and acquaint them 
with the literature and culture of the French- 
speaking world. Language laboratory work is 
mandatory for all beginning students. With emphasis 
on oral/aural proficiency, it complements classroom 
instruction in the language. 

Advanced language allows the student to reach the 
higher level of mastery in French required in more 
specialized study and usage. In the more advanced 
literature and civilization courses, students study 
French writing and culture in greater depth, thereby 
gaining considerable knowledge of and insight into 
France's past and present achievements in all fields 
of endeavor. Majors (and, indeed, non-majors as 
well) are moreover encouraged to study abroad, 
either in the College-sponsored programs at the 
Universite de Haute Bretagne in Rennes or at the 
Institute for American Universities in Aix-en- 
Provence, or in another approved program, as an 
inestimable enhancement to their understanding of 
the country, its people, and its language. When 
students choose the College-sponsored course of 
study in Rennes or Aix, both credits and grades are 
transferred and financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program. 

Students specializing in French will find that their 
major studies, in addition to their humanistic value, 
afford sound preparation for graduate study and for 
careers in teaching or interpreting. A knowledge of 
French will also be invaluable to them in the fields of 
international business and government as well as 
social work. All courses offered in the department are 
conducted in French. 



'.)() 



FRENCH 



Requirements and Recommendations 

The French major curriculum is made up of two 
sequences: 

1) A group of ^f? required courses - 301, 302, 307, 
308, 309 - which, unless there is a valid basis for 
exception, should be taken first and in the order 
presented above (although 307 and 308 may be 
taken simultaneously) ; 

2) A set of /our electives chosen from among the 
other departmental offerings on the 300 and 400 
levels. 

All majors, and especially those planning study 
abroad or on certification in secondary education, 
are urged to take 31 1 or 312 or both, if possible. 
Individualized study may be taken only once as part 
of the minimum requirements for the major. These 
requirements may be waived in special cases at the 
discretion of the department. Majors are encouraged 
to study in a French-speaking country, although this 
is not a departmental requirement. All majors must 
take at least one course within the department 
during their senior year. 

Requirements for a minor in French involve a total of 
six courses. For students who begin in the 101-102, 103- 
104, or 201-202 sequences, 202 will count toward the 
minor. In addition, students must take 205, 301-302, 
and fti;o additional courses, of their choice, above 302. 

Students who begin in 205 must take, in addition, 
301-302 and three other courses above 302. 

Students who begin on the 300 level must take 301- 
302 plus /ot/r additional courses above 302. As with 
the major, courses taken abroad may be counted 
toward a minor, subject to the approval of the 
department chairperson. 

Students contemplating a minor in French must see 
the department chairperson to receive a handbook 
for minors and to be assigned a minor adviser. 

Students who have completed the language 
requirement and who wish to continue in French, 
but do not contemplate either a major or minor, 
may take 205, 301, 302, 307, 308, or 309. Permission 
of the department chairperson is required for entry 
into all other courses. French 307 is a prerequisite 
for majors and minors for all literature courses above 
the 200 level (however, students may take 307 and 
308 simultaneously). 



Prior to their first registration at the College, all 
students receive preregistration materials which give 
detailed instructions on language placement and 
fulfilling the distribution requirement in foreign 
languages. The following courses fulfill the 
distribufion requirement in literature: French 205, 
307, 308, 309, 318, 321, 322, 326, 327, 328, 331, and 
400 where appropriate. 

The distribution requirement in foreign languages 
may be fulfilled by successful completion in French 
of 201-202, 205. The equivalent of intermediate 
achievement may be demonstrated by an advanced 
placement examination or the Departmental 
Placement Examination given during the First Year 
Orientation. No student may continue French at 
Gettysburg unless he/she has taken the Departmental 
Placement Examination. French 205 satisfies both the 
foreign language requirement and the literature 
requirement. This course emphasizes intensive 
reading of complete works of literature for 
comprehension and analysis of style. Students who 
qualify and choose this alternative should have 
adequate preparation in reading French prose. A 
student who shows unusual proficiency in 201 may, 
with the consent of the department chairperson, 
take 205 and thereby fulfill the language and 
literature requirements. French 331 fulfills the 
distribution requirement in non-Western culture as 
well as in literature. 

Special Facilities 

Language Laboratory in Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources Center. 

Special Programs 

See Study Abroad, C.I.E.E. Program at the Universite de 
Haute Bretagne, Rennes, France and Institute For 
American Universities Program in Aix-en-Provence. 

La Maison Fran(aise (The French House) 
Students may elect to live in this separate residential 
unit staffed by a nadve-speaking assistant. French is 
the principal language spoken in the house and 
residents help plan and participate actively in various 
French cultural activities on campus (see Other 
Activities below) . 

Other Activities 

The department and La Maison Frangaise sponsor 
various activities and organizations such as the 
weekly French table in the Dining Hall, the Cercle 
Fran^ais (French Club), French films, and lectures. 



FRENCH 



97 



101-102 French for Beginners 

Elements of speaking, reading, and writing French. 
Language laboratory usage is required. Enrollment 
limited to those who have not studied French 
previously. A student may not receive credit for both 
101 and 103 or for both 102 and 104. 



Staff 



103-104 Elementary French 

Fundamentals of speaking, reading, and writing 
French. Language laboratory usage is required. 
Enrollment limited to those who have previously 
studied French and who are enrolled according to 
achievement on the Departmental Placement 
Examination. A student may not receive credit for 
both 101 and 103 or for both 102 and 104. 



Staff 



201-202 Intermediate French 

Grammar review and practice in oral French in the 
fall semester, with stress on reading and written 
expression in the spring. Contact with French culture 
is maintained throughout. Enrollment limited to 
those who have previously studied French and who 
have completed 101-102 or 103-104, or who are 
enrolled according to achievement on the Depart- 
mental Placement Examination. Successful 
completion of 201 is a prerequisite for entry into 202. 

Staff 

205 Readings in French Literature 

Two objectives of skill in reading French prose for 

comprehension and reading a significant amount of 

French literature of literary and cultural merit. This 

course differs from French 201, 202 in that it 

emphasizes reading for comprehension of content. 

Enrollment limited to those who have previously 

studied French and who are enrolled according to 

achievement on the Departmental Placement 

Examination. ^ ^^ 

Staff 



301, 302 French Structure, Composition, and 
Conversation 

Applied grammar and syntax at an advanced level; 

exercises in directed and free composition; group 

discussion and presentation of individual oral work. 

Extensive use of film. Offered every year. Staff 



303 Phonetics and Diction 

Phonetic theory, practice, and transcription. 

Intensive training in pronunciation and diction. 

Intended for majors/minors prior to foreign study. 

Alternate years. 

Ms. Tannenbaum 



304 Advanced Stylistics 

Intensive practice in the refinement of writing skills 

directed towards a sophisticated and idiomatic use of 

the language. Components of course work include 

composition, translation, comparative stylistics, 

French for use in commercial and other 

correspondence, and work in the spoken language. 

Prerequisites: French 301-302. ^ ^^ 

^ Staff 

307 Approaches to Literary Analysis 

Reading and analysis, in their entirety, of representa- 
tive selections of prose, poetry, and theatre. This 
course aims to introduce students to interpretive 
strategies, and to make them more aware of and 
competent in the art of reading. Offered every year. 
Prerequisite: French 202 or equivalent. This course is 
required of all majors and is a prerequisite for all 

literature courses on the 300 level. 

Staff 

308, 309 Masterpieces of French Literature: 

Middle Ages to 1789; 1789 to Present 

A survey of French literature in two parts, through 

reading and discussion of complete works of some of 

France's most outstanding authors. Although major 

emphasis will be placed on the study of these 

masterpieces, the broad outline of French literary 

history, styles, and movements will also be covered. 

Offered every year. Prerequisite: For 309, French 307 

or equivalent (307 and 308 may be taken 

simultaneously). Required of all majors. 

Staff 

311 French Civilization I 

Study of French history from the time of the Gauls to 
1945, as seen through such cultural manifestadons as 
literature, cinema, and the arts. Focus is on specific 
areas of historical interest (the age of Louis XFV, the 
Revolution, etc.) in a chronological framework. 
Prerequisite: French 301 or equivalent. Alternate years. 

Staff 

312 French Civilization II 

Study of French history and contemporary culture 
from 1945 to the present, as seen through multiple 
cultural manifestations (journalism, cinema, the arts, 
television, etc.). Emphasis is on contemporary 
lifestyles and attitudes, politics and culture. 
Prerequisite: French 301 or equivalent. Alternate years. 

Staff 



98 



FRENCH / GERMAN 



318 Literature of the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance 

Study of early French literary texts: epic poems, lyric 

poetry, plays, and romances; sixteenth-century prose 

and poetry. Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. 

Alternate years or every third year. 

Staff 

321 Seventeenth-Century Theatre 

French drama, comedy, and tragedy of the classical 

period. Corneille, Moliere, and Racine. Prerequisite: 

French 307 or equivalent. Alternate years. 

Mr. Gregorio 

322 Eighteenth-Century French Literature 

An examination of the Age of Enlightenment 

through lecture and discussion of representative 

works of fiction, non-fiction, and theatre by such 

authors as Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, and 

Beaumarchais. Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. 

Alternate years. 

Ms. Tannenbaum 



populations of the world. Alternate years. Fulfills the 

distribution requirement in non-Western culture. 

Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. 

Mr. Michelman 

400 Seminar 

An intensive study of a particular aspect of French 

literature, civilization, or culture to be determined by 

the instructor. Past offerings include The Art of 

Emile Zola and The Image of Women in French 

Literature: A Feminist Perspective. Prerequisites: 

Senior or Junior majors/minors; permission of the 

instructor and approval of department chairperson. 

Offered every year. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Guided readings or research under the supervision 

of a member of the staff. Prerequisites: Permission of 

the instructor and approval of the department 

chairperson. 

Staff 



326 Nineteenth-Century Prose Fiction 

Reading and analysis, through lecture and 

discussion, of nineteenth-century novels and short 

stories of such major authors as Constant, Hugo, 

Sand, Stendhal, Balzac, Flaubert, Maupassant, and 

Zola. Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. 

Alternate years. 

Mr. Viti 

327 Contemporary French Theatre 

A study of major trends in modern French drama: 
surrealism, existentialism, the absurd. Prerequisite: 
French 307 or equivalent. Alternate years. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

328 Contemporary French Novelists and Their 
Craft 

A study of representative works by major twentieth- 
century French novelists from Gide, Proust, and 
Colette to Butor, Duras, and Robbe-Grillet. 
Prerequisite: French 307 or equivalent. Alternate years. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

331 La Francophonie 

A survey of the imaginative literatures of such 
French-speaking countries and areas as Africa north 
and south of the Sahara, Canada, Vietnam, the West 
Indies, Louisiana, and others. Aside from their 
intrinsic literary worth, the selections will afford a 
perception of the impact and adaptation of French 
language and culture among v^ridely diverse 



German 



Associate Professors Armster (Chairperson), Crowner, 

McCardle, and Ritterson 
Instructor Lill 
Teaching Assistant Zientek 

Overview 

One of the attributes of a truly liberated individual is 
acquaintance with the language and culture of at least 
one foreign nation. The offerings of this department 
are designed to contribute to the attainment of this 
goal. Apart from the values accruing from the mental 
discipline demanded by language learning and the 
practical utilization of such learning in the areas of 
research and technology, international trade, 
diplomacy, teaching, and foreign travel, it is hoped that 
doors will be opened to an understanding of the 
German people and an appreciation of their significant 
contributions to the world's cultural heritage. 

Through the use of the foreign language in the 
classroom and correlative audio-lingual drill in the 
laboratory, effort is directed toward the development 
of a reasonable proficiency in speaking and listening 
comprehension as well as in reading and writing. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

German 202 or equivalent proficiency is considered 
a prerequisite to all higher-numbered German 
courses, unless specified otherwise. 



GERMAN 



99 



Major Requirements. A major consists of a minimum of 
nine courses beyond the intermediate language 
level, including 251 and 252; 301, 302 (or 303, 304); 
two courses from those numbered 211, 212, 213; and 
two courses from those numbered 328, 331, 333, 335. 
Majors preparing to teach German in secondary 
schools must also take Education 304, Techniques of 
Teaching and Curriculum of Secondary German 
(does not count toward German major) . 

Majors must spend at least one semester studying in 
an approved program in a German-speaking country. 
Majors who take a study abroad program may count 
no more than six of those courses toward the major 
and must take at least two German literature courses 
in their senior year. 

Majors who, by the end of the junior year, have not 
demonstrated a satisfactory level of competency in the 
reading, writing, speaking, and listening comprehension 
of German, as determined by the department's staff, will 
be assigned such additional work as considered 
necessary and appropriate to the attainment of such 
competency by the end of the senior year. 

Minor Requirements. A minor is offered in German. 
For students beginning at 201 or below, the German 
minor consists of 201, 202 (or equivalent 
intermediate coursework in Cologne), 301, 302 (or 
equivalent advanced coursework in Cologne), and 
any two courses from those numbered 211, 212, 213, 
235, 251, 252, 328, 331, 333, and 335. For students 
beginning at the 301 level, the minor consists of 301, 
302 (or equivalent advanced coursework in Cologne) 
and any four courses from those numbered 21 1, 212, 
213, 235, 251, 252, 328, 331, 333, and 335. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in foreign language 
may be satisfied by completion of German 202 or any 
300-level course. 

Any of the following courses may be used to fulfill 
the distribution requirement in literature: German 
119, 120, 251, 252, 328, 331, 333, 335. 

German 21 1, 212, or 213 may be used to fulfill the 
distribution requirement in the area of history/ 
philosophy. With the consent of the history 
department, these same courses may be counted 
toward a history major. 



Special Programs 

Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 

Every fall semester students are invited to participate in 
the semester study abroad program conducted by the 
German department in Cologne, Germany. This 
program is open to all students, sophomore through 
first-semester senior, regardless of major, who have 
completed a minimum of one year of college German 
or the equivalent. The student registers for the normal 
course load (4-5 courses). Two courses are German 
language courses from the following offerings: 

203, 204 Intermediate German; 

281, 282 German Grammar and Conversation; 

303, 304 Advanced German. 

The others are taught in English from the areas of 
political science, economics, management, history, art 
history, and literature. These include the following: 
Art Hist. 215 German Art from the Middle Ages 
to Today; 
Economics 271 Comparative Economic Systems; 
Pol. Sci. 273 Aspects of the Social Structure of 
the Federal Republic of Germany. 

Credit for the two German courses is for the 200 or 
300 level and constitutes the completion of the 
language requirement. Students live with German 
families as regular members of the family. Regular 
Gettysburg College tuition, room, and board cover 
all but personal expenses. 

Junior Year Abroad 

Qualified students are encouraged to study abroad 
one or both semesters of their junior year. Students 
can choose from programs administered by 
American institutions at universities in Munich, 
Freiburg, Marburg, Heidelberg, Bonn, and 
elsewhere (see Study Abroad). 

German House 

Students may elect to live in a specially designated 
area of a residential unit staffed by a native 
German assistant. The use of the German language 
is promoted, and residents help plan and 
participate actively in various German cultural 
activities on campus. 

German Lat^uage 

101, 102 Elementary German 

Essentials of grammar, composition, pronunciation. 
Course includes oral and written work, graded 
elementary reading, and use of audiovisual cultural 
materials and correladve drill in the language 
laboratory. Prepares for German 201, 202. „ „ 



100 



GERMAN 



201, 202 Intermediate German 

Continuation of the work of German 101, 102. 
Progressively more difficult reading is selected to 
introduce the student to German literature and 
civilization. Course includes use of audio-visual 
cultural materials and correlative drill in the 
language laboratory. Prerequisite: German 102 or its 
equivalent. ^^^^ 

235 German Conversation 

Intermediate-level conversation course with 
emphasis on everyday, applied usage of the language 
for nonliterary purposes. Limited enrollment often 
students. Does not count toward fulfillment of 
language requirement. May, with departmental 
approval, count toward minor or major. May be 
taken concurrently with German 202. Prerequisite: 
German 201 or its equivalent. „ ,„ 

301 Advanced German 

Designed for advanced work in the language and 
intended for students who have successfully 
completed at least German 202 as well as for 
qualified incoming students. The plan of study 
incorporates extensive reading and intensive practice 
in aural comprehension, oral expression, and 
directed composition. Conducted mosdy in German. 

Staff 

302 Advanced German 

Continuation of exercise in the skills of German 301. 

Students will be asked to present oral reports and to 

write resumes and compositions on the materials 

read. Conducted in German. Prerequisite: German 

301 or demonstrated equivalent preparation. „ ^r 

otaJJ 

German Culture Studies 

211, 212 Survey of German Culture to 1945: 
Origins to 1790, 1790-1945 

Study of the cultural history of the German people 
from their beginnings to 1945, including an 
appreciation of their major contributions to the 
world's cultural heritage. Either of these is accepted 
in fulfillment of the distribution requirement in the 
area of history/ philosophy. „ ^^ 

213 Survey of German Culture Since 1945 

Study of the culture, society, and politics of contem- 
porary Germany, including a comparison of the 
social systems and of attempts to deal with the 
problems of the present and future. Assigned 
readings include both critical/analytical and literary 
works. A knowledge of German is not required. This 



course is accepted in fulfillment of the distribution 

requirement in the area of history/ philosophy. 

Alternate years. „ .. 

Staff 

German Literature 

1 19,120 German Literature in Translation 

Critical analysis and appreciation of form and content 
of representative German literary masterpieces, 
selected from the literary periods from the Middle 
Ages to the present, together with an examination of 
the times and cultural circumstances which produced 
these works. Does not count toward a major in 
German. This course is accepted in fulfillment of the 
distribution requirement in literature. „ ^ 

251 Interpreting German Literature 

An introduction to how we read and comprehend 
literary prose, poetry, and drama, both for their 
intrinsic qualities and for a clearer understanding of 
their place and time. This course aims to develop a 
sense for the art of reading, interpretive strategies for 
literary study, and a valid basis for the appreciation 
and judgement of literature. Students will read, 
discuss, and write about selected literary texts, 
considering in the process a few of the preeminent 
cridcal approaches to literature. Conducted mainly in ■ 
English, with readings in German. Prerequisite: I 

German 202 or equivalent. This course is required of 
all German majors, and is a prerequisite for all 
literature courses above the level of German 252. It is 
accepted in fulfillment of the distribution 
requirement in literature. Offered every year. „ ^^ 

252 Survey of German Literature 

An introductory literature course for students who 
have finished the equivalent of two years of college 
German. Students will analyze selections of German 
literature from the eighth century to the present, 
paying attention to the social, political, and 
intellectual background. Both in content and in its 
use of German, the course prepares students for, and 
is a prerequisite to, upper-level literature courses. 
Classes will be conducted in English and German. 
Prerequisite: German 202 or its equivalent. The 
course is accepted in fulfillment of the distribution 
requirement in literature. Offered every year. „ „ 

328 Goethe's Faust 

Intensive reading and analysis of the work in class. 
Lectures and discussions highlight its aesthetic, moral, 
and ethical values and autobiographical significance, 
together with an examination of its modem cultural 



implications. Outside reading and reports. 



Staff 



GERMAN / HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION 



lUl 



331 Narrative Literature 

A course in German prose narrative, represented 
primarily in writings from the early eighteenth 
century to the present. Works read will reflect 
particularly the development of German narrative 
since the emergence of the modern novel and 
Novelle. Readings are in German; the course is 
conducted in German and English. Prerequisite: 
German 251 or permission of the department. „ r. 

333 Lyric Poetry 

A study of German Lyric poetry from the earliest 
examples to the works of contemporary poets. Class 
discussions of the readings will concentrate on the 
interrelations of form, content, and idea. The course 
will also consider the historical place of works by 
major figures. Readings are in German; the course is 
conducted in German and English. Prerequisite: 
German 251 or permission of the department. „ „ 

335 German Drama 

Reading and critical analysis, through discussion and 
lecture, of representative dramas from the eighteenth 
century to the present. Included may be works by 
Lessing, Schiller, Goethe, Kleist, Buchner, Hebbel, 
Hauptmann, Brecht, Durrenmatt, Frisch, Braun, 
Hacks, and others. Readings are in German; the course 
is conducted in German and English. Prerequisite: 
German 251 or permission of the department. „ „ 

400 Senior Seminar 

Intensive study of selected aspects of German language, 
literature, and civilization through reading, discussion, 
and oral and vmtten reports. Topics v«ll be selected 
with a view to affording students an opportunity to 
strengthen their knowledge in the areas not covered in 



their other course work in the department. 



Staff 



Individualized Study 

Guided reading or research under the supervision of 
a member of the staff. Prerequisite: Consent of the 
department. 



Staff 



Greek — 5^^ Classics 



Health and Physical Education 

Associate Professors Biser (Chairperson), Claiborne 
and Donolli 

Assistant Professors Headley and Reider 

Adjunct Instructors Cantele, Cookerly, Ford, 

Hancock, Lev^s, Lottes, Perna, Showvaker, Staub, 
Sterner, B. Streeter, and C. Wright. 

Coaches: Campo, Drexel (Women 's Coordinator, 
Assistant Athletic Director), janczyk, Kirkpatrick, 
D. M. Reich (Director of Campus Recreation), 
Petrie, Pfitzinger, Rawleigh (Assistant Athletic 
Director), Reich, Riggs, Streeter, Wilson, Winters 
(Director of Intercolle^ate Athletics), 
Wawrousek, D. Wright (Assistant Athletic 
Director). 

Overview 

The Department of Health and Physical Education is 
in harmony with the purposes of our liberal arts 
institution and our philosophy is a holistic one. We 
believe in the Greek ideal of "a sound mind in a 
sound body." The College stresses the individual 
need for total fitness for all students through our 
required courses. Our majors' courses offer those 
students with a particular interest in health and 
physical education a rewarding and well rounded 
educational and life experience. 

A major in health and physical education (HPE) is 
an excellent preparation for specific areas such as 
state-approved teaching certification in health and 
physical education (K-12), certification in athletic 
training, and allied health careers. With proper 
course selection, students can qualify for post 
graduate work in allied therapy fields such as 
physical, occupaUonal, and recreafional therapy. The 
College has recently entered into an agreement with 
Hahnemann University Graduate School for early 
acceptance of selective Gettysburg graduates who 
meet the criteria for admission into the entry-level 
Master's Degree Program in Physical Therapy. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

All HPE majors must satisfy all of the College 
distribution requirements. Psych. 101 and Soc. 101 
are the preferred social science courses. Biology 101 
and 112 are required of all students in the major and 
should be taken during the first year of college. 

Majors in HPE are required to complete seven core 
courses plus courses in an area of concentration. The 
seven core courses are as follows: HPE 112, 209, Biology 



102 



HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION 



210, HPE 214, 218, 309, and 320. In addition to 
taking the core program, all HPE majors will select an 
area of concentration, and complete the courses 
specified. 

a) Allied Health Science Track: Each student will be 
required to take the following courses: HPE 
101,102, 201, 202, 310, 361, 415, 449, Math 107 or 
HPE 332 and Chemistry 101, 102 and/or Physics 
101, 102. It is highly suggested that HPE 21 1 and 
Biology 224, 309 and Chemistry 203, 204 be taken 
by those students considering graduate work in a 
allied health careers (physical therapy, athletic 
training, exercise physiology, sports medicine, etc.). 

b) Teacher Education Track: For the student in the 
teacher certification program (K-12) elementary 
and secondary teacher education, the following 
courses must be scheduled: HPE 101, 201, 202, 
301, 302, 211, 230, 332, and Education 201, 209, 
303, 304, 476. (See listings and requirements in 
the education department and under teacher 
education programs in this catalog) . 

Faculty advisers are available to help in counseling, 
but students have the sole responsibility for meeting 
all major requirements. It is important to declare the 
HPE major early in the four year curriculum, as 
failure to do so often means an additional semester 
or two to complete the program. 

The department strongly recommends that all HPE 
majors complete an internship in order to gain 
practical experience and insights into a specified 
area of interest in the field. Internships may be taken 
during the summer months or during the regular 
academic year. Applied experiences may be arranged 
in such settings as sports medicine, physical therapy, 
adult fitness, cardiac rehabilitation, or sports 
administration. Grading is contracted between the 
student and the faculty sponsor on an A-F or S/U 
basis and is determined by the sponsor and the 
cooperating internship supervisor. 

There is an additional learning experience that the 
department requires. Each student must participate 
in our intercollegiate program in one of the 
following levels: player, trainer, manager, student 
coach, or laboratory assistant. The above 
participation must he accomplished once each year 
that the student is enrolled in the program. 

Distribution Requirements 

For non-majors in health and physical education, 
three quarter courses in health and physical 
education are required for graduation (two quarter 



courses for Bachelor of Science in Music Education). 
These courses are graded only on an S/U basis. They 
are normally taken during the fall and spring 
semesters of the first year of college and sophomore 
year in addition to the general four or five course 
requirement. One semester of study yielding one 
quarter course credit is required from each of the 
three following groups. 
Group I - HEALTH/WELLNESS 
HPE 107 - Wellness Lifestyles (This course looks at 
the individual from an emotional, 
intellectual, occupational, physical, social, 
and spiritual perspective. Emphasis is on 
self-responsibility in living a wellness 
lifestyle). 
Group II - FITNESS ACTIVITIES 

Basic Karate 

Body Conditioning (Aerobics, Anaerobics, Weight 
Training) 

Aerobics 

Cardio-Respiratory Fitness* 

Fitness Swim 

I n tro-To-Dan ce * * 

Running &: Jogging (Self-Paced) 

Swimnastics 

Tri-Athlete Training 

Water Polo 

(These courses are designed to improve cardio- 
respiratory fitness) . 

*For Obese Students 

**Requires Extra Fee 
Group III - RECREATIONAL SKILLS 

Activities for Children 

Archery 

Badminton 

Basketball 

Beginner's Swim 

Golf 

Horsemanship** 

Indoor Lacrosse 

Indoor Soccer 

International Games 

Lifeguarding** 

Racquetball 

Scuba** 

Skiing** 

Softball 

Tennis 

Volleyball 

Water Polo 

(These activities are designed for the 
development of teaching Life Time Skills). 

** Requires Extra Fee 



HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION 



103 



Students may choose to satisfy Group II or Group III 
activities and skills by HPE 161, Contracts 
(Individualized Program). HPE 161, Contracts, can 
be selected to satisfy only one semester of the 
distribution requirement. 

Students who are unable to participate due to 
medical reasons in the regular programs should 
enroll in HPE 106, Adapted Physical Education, 
which can be substituted for courses in any group 
except HPE 107, Health/Wellness in Group I. 

101, 102, 201, 202, 301, 302 Major Skills 

Skill development and methods and techniques of 

class organization and instruction for the following 

physical education activities: lacrosse, field hockey, 

wresding, swimming, gymnastics, folk-square-social 

dance, baseball, softball, tennis, badminton, 

elementary school teaching, golf, archery, soccer, 

speedball, elementary-junior high-senior high games 

and recreational activities, basketball, volleyball, and 

track and field. This course is for health and physical 

education major students. 1/4 course each. 

Staff 

112 Foundations of Health Physical Education, 
and Recreation 

Introductory study of the development of health, 
physical education, and recreadon programs from 
historical, philosophical, and contemporary 
perspectives. Special emphasis will be placed on current 
controversial issues existing in physical education 
and athletics, as well as on the diversity of career 
options available within the allied health sciences. 

Ms. Claiborne 

209 Human Anatomy 

An introductory course in human anatomy. Systems 

of the body will be examined with emphasis placed 

on the integration of structure and function. Topics 

covered in laboratory and lecture will be cells, 

connective tissues, skeletal system, muscle tissue, 

nervous system, special senses, and circulatory 

system. Prerequisites: Biology 101, 112. 

Mr. Riser 



to the community at large. Prerequisites: HPE 209, 

Biology 210 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Reider 

214 Sports Medicine 

Prepares the prospective coach for the prevention 
and care of injuries. Course includes instruction 
about protective equipment, safety procedures, and 
facilities, as well as preparation of the athlete for 
compeUtion, emergency procedures, post-injury 
care, and medical research related to training and 
athletics. Material in the official Red Cross Standard 
and Advanced First Aid courses will be given and 
certificates can be earned. Practical work covered 
includes massage, taping, bandaging, and the 
application of therapeutic techniques. 

Mr. Biser, Mr. Cantele 

218 Kinesiology 

Study of voluntary skeletal muscles, in regard to their 
origins, insertions, acUons, and interrelationships 
with the body systems, with particular emphasis on 
the importance of wholesome body mechanics. 
Prerequisite: HPE 209 or permission of instructor. 

Mr. Donolli 

230 Nutrition and Performance 

An investigation into the area of human nutrition, 
focusing upon the nutrients and factors which affect 
their utilizadon in the human body. Emphasis will be 
placed upon the effects of the various nutrients on 
fitness and athletic performance. Topics such as 
nutriuonal quackery, weight control, and pathogenic 
pracdces among athletes will be addressed. 
Prerequisite: Biology 101. Not offered 1991-92. 

Ms. Claiborne, Mr. Headley 

240 Sport Psychology 

Study of the principles and concepts used in sports 

psychology. The topics of personality and the athlete, 

success strategies of performance, and moUvadonal 

theories will be covered in depth. A history of sports 

psychology and the psychology of play and competition 

will also be stressed. Prerequisite: Psychology 101. 

Mr. Janczyk 



Human Physiology (See Biology 210) 

211 Personal and Community Health 

A critical look at the relevant health issues of this 
decade. Careful inspection of data concerning drugs, 
human sexuality, marriage and family living, old age, 
pollution, etc. is included along with the examina- 
tion of the reladonship of personal health problems 



309 Physiological Responses to Endurance 
Training 

Serves to acquaint the student with the physiological 
mechanisms that are involved in circuit, interval, and 
aerobic type endurance training. The physiology of 
cardio-respiratory and muscular responses will be 
covered. The students will be involved in pracdcal 



104 



HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION 



application of the training methods studied. A pre- 
exercise and post-exercise test of significant endurance 
responses will be administered to each student. 

Mr. Headley 

310 Principles and Techniques of Adult Fitness 

Designed for students to gain an understanding of 
exercise prescription for healthy adults and for those 
with coronary heart disease risk factors. Standard 
fitness tesdng techniques will be demonstrated in 
supplemental laboratory sessions. All exercise tesdng 
and prescripuon consideradons will be taught in 
accordance with guidelines established by the ACSM. 
Prerequisite: HPE 309 or permission of the instructor. 
Ms. Claiborne, Mr. Headley 

320 Adapted Physical Education and Health 

Inspection provides instrucdon and experience in 
the health inspection and observation of the school 
environment and of school children. Specific 
abnormalides of people are studied, and exercises 
are adapted for individuals to allow more complete 
personality and physical development through 
acdvity. A laboratory experience will allow students 
to gain first-hand experience in working with a 
handicapped person. Prerequisites: HPE 209, 218, 
Biology 210, or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Raiuleigh, Mr. Reider 

332 Measurement and Evaluation in Health and 
Physical Education 

Concentradon on test preparadon in the cognitive, 
psychomotor, and affective domains; applicadon of 
measurement and evaluadon opdcs; analysis of data 
through the use of computers; and participadon in 
field experiences with standardized testing. 
Laboratory activides will acquaint students with 
tesdng situadons and procedures in measuring the 
parameters of health and physical education. 

Mr. Reider 

361 Sports Medicine II 

An in-depth look at sports injury evaluadon, 
treatment protocol, and rehabilitadon programs. 
Basic first aid, CPR, and taping procedures are 
assumed. Comparison and analysis of facilides, 
modalides, and treatment/ rehabilitadon programs 
will be accomplished. Professional interacdon with 
doctors and other allied health field professionals is 
required. This course is required for qualificadons to 
sit for the N.A.T.A. Cerdficadon exam. Prerequisites: 
HPE209, 214, Biology 210. 

Mr. Donolli 



415 Advanced Exercise Physiology 

An in-depth study of various factors affecdng human 
performance, with emphasis on reguladon of various 
bodily funcdons at rest and during physical activity. 
Laboratory activides will acquaint the student with 
equipment and tesdng procedures used in measuring 
physiological parameters. Prerequisite: HPE 309. 

Ms. Claiborne, Mr. Headley 

449 Introduction to Research 

Provides a theoredcal basis for conducdng, interpreting, 
and analyzing research in physical education and 
exercise science. The course focuses upon problem 
identification, project planning and instrumentation, 
and data collection which result in a written senior 
diesis presented to HPE faculty. Prerequisite: HPE 332 or 
Math 107 or permission of the instructor. 

Mi. Claiborne 

464 Honors Thesis 

Will provide an opportunity for selected senior HPE 
majors to conduct an original research investigation 
under the direction of a thesis committee. Upon 
completion of a formal thesis, each student will 
orally present the nature and results of the study to 
the entire HPE staff. Successful completion of the 
program will entide the student to receive credit for 
one course which can be applied toward the HPE 
major. Prerequisites: HPE 449 and by invitation of the 
department only. 

Staff 

Requirements for a minor in Health and Physical 
Education 

Requirements for a minor in health and physical 
education involve a total of six courses. Students 
must meet the prerequisite in the natural sciences by 
completing Biology, 101, 102, or 1 12. The following 
five courses are required: HPE 209, 214, 218, 309 
and Biology 210. The student may choose one 
course from the remaining to complete the minor: 
HPE 230, 241, 310, 332, 361, 415. or 449. 



HISTORY 



105 



History 



Professor Boritt 

Associate Professors Birkner, Chiteji, Fick, Forness, 

and Stemen (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Clay and Hardwick 
Adjunct Associate Professor J. Holder 
Adjunct Instructors Jayes and Leighow 

Overview 

The department aims to acquaint students with the 
concept of history as an organized body of 
knowledge which is "the memory of things said and 
done." Mastery within this broad field provides an 
appreciation of history as literature, an 
understanding of our heritage, and a standard by 
which one may thoughtfully evaluate our own time. 
Through classroom lectures and discussions, an 
introduction to research, and seminars, the 
department encourages the student to develop as a 
liberally educated person. Courses which the 
department offers help prepare students for 
graduate study and for careers in teaching, law, the 
ministry, public service, business, and other fields. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major are ten courses, including 
History 109, History 300 (in the sophomore year), 
and one of the senior research seminars. All majors 
must pass at least four additional 300 level courses 
chosen from at least two of three groups: American, 
European, or Asian history. Senior research seminars, 
numbered 402 to 414, are normally restricted to 
history majors, for whom one is required. A selection 
from the list of seminars is offered each year. They 
provide students with an opportunity to work in small 
groups with a member of the staff in the study of a 
selected topic. Typically participants are expected to 
engage in reading, discussion, oral reports, and 
writing formal papers based on individual research. 
The minor in history consists of six history courses, of 
which no more than two may be at the 100 level and 
at least two must be at the 300 level. One course may 
be from the list of courses from other departments 
listed below that count toward the major. No courses 
taken S/U may be included. 

Greek 251 (Greek History) and Latin 251 (Roman 
History) may be counted toward the ten-course 
requirement for the history major. A student who 
has declared a double major in history and a modern 
language may, with special permission from the 
chairperson of the department of history, count one 



of the following courses toward the ten-course 
requirement for the history major (but not toward 
the 300 level requirement): French 310; German 
211, 212, 213; Spanish 310, 311. 

Distribution Requirements 

All courses except History 300 are acceptable toward 
fulfilling the distribution requirement in history/ 
philosophy. 

The following courses meet the distribution 
requirement in non-Western culture: 221, 222, 224, 
227, 228, 251, 254, 271, 272, 321. 

109 Introduction to World History 

An overview of world history to the twentieth 

century. This course identifies separate and 

interconnected old orders and great traditions of the 

world before 1400 A.D. and then investigates major 

transformations of world history from the fifteenth 

to the early twentieth century. It focuses upon ideas, 

technologies, and economic imperatives that have 

shaped political, social, and cultural change. 

Staff 

110 The Twentieth-Century World 

Historical change in the global setting from the 

ascendancy of the pre-First World War empires to 

the present. Topics include technological 

development, imperialism and decolonization, world 

wars, political revolutions, social and economic 

forces, and the reshaping of thought and the arts in 

the diverse cultures of humanity. Prerequisite: History 

109, Introduction to World History. 

Staff 

182 Lincohi 

A seminar limited to fifteen first year students. 

Considers Lincoln and black freedom as well as the 

subjects of polifics, statesmanship, mythology, and 

the uses of history. 

Mr. Boritt 

203, 204 History of England 

Surveys English history from the Anglo-Saxon 
invasions to the present, emphasizing institutional, 
social, and cultural developments. Some attention is 
given to Ireland, Scotland, and the overseas empire. 
The dividing point between the two courses is 1714. 

Mr. Fick 

205 The Age of Discovery 

A study of maritime exploration and discoveries of 
the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and French, and 



106 



HISTORY 



the geographical and technological bases for them, 

concentrating on the period 1400 to 1550. Attention 

is given to settlement of the newly-discovered lands, 

to the indigenous cultures, and to European 

perceptions of the Americas. 

Mr. Fick 

209 Women's History since 1500 

A surxey of the main themes in women's history since 

1500, drawing on a comparative approach to 

incorporate European and American materials. 

Three roughly equal sections will take up work, 

sexuality, and gender in politics. 

Ms. Hardwick 

215, 216 History of Russia 

Survey of the major political, social, economic, and 
intellectual trends in Russian history. The first 
semester begins with the earliest Russian state and 
ends with the reign of Catherine the Great. The 
second semester covers the years from 1801 to the 

P"^^^*^"^' Ms. Clay 

221, 222 History of East Asia 

A survey of East Asian civilizations to approximately 

1800 in 221, and of East Asian political, social, and 

intellectual developments since the Western 

invasions of the nineteenth century in 222. 

Mr. Stemen 

224 Chinese Thought and Culture 

An intellectual history of China from the beginning 
to the eighteenth century. Readings are drawn from 
philosophy, history, religion, poetry, and fiction, and 
are studied in the context of the intellectual and 
artistic culture of the times. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Stemen 

IDS 227, 228 Civilization of India 

Course description included under inter- 
departmental studies. 

Ms. Singh 

231 Great Ideas in Early American History 

An examination of the intellectual currents which 
shaped the character of American culture from the 
colonial period through the Civil War, focusing on 
ideas and forces including Puritanism, the 
Enlightenment, Revolutionary republicanism and 
evolutionary democracy, transcendentalism, and the 
intellectual impetus of social reform. 

Ms. Holder 



233 Mission, Destiny, and Dream in American 
History 

An introduction to American history from the 
seventeenth century to the present by focusing upon 
the intertwining themes of the American people's 
belief in their unique mission and destiny in the 
world and their dream of creating a just and 
prosperous society. Students will probe the varying 
manifestations of these themes through major events 
and movements in American social, economic, and 
cultural life and in politics and diplomacy. 

Mr. Fomess 

236 Urbanism in American History 

An introduction to American history from the 
perspective of urbanism. Beginning with the colonial 
town and continuing to the megalopolis of the mid- 
twentieth century, students will investigate the nature 
of urban life and its influence upon the course of 
American development. 

Mr. Fomess 

238 African American History: a Survey 

Focuses on aspects of the African American 

experience from the seventeenth century to the 

present; special attention will be given to the slave 

experience; emancipation and reconstruction; racial 

attitudes; the northward migration of African 

Americans in the twentieth century; and the Civil 

Rights movement of the 1950's and 1960's. 

Mr. Birkner 

239 Architecture and Society in Nineteenth- 
Century America 

A study of American architecture from the neo- 

classic developments of the late-eighteenth century 

to the work of Frank Lloyd Wright and his 

contemporaries at the beginning of the twentieth 

century, focusing upon relationships between 

architectural styles and the changing social, 

economic, and technological factors that influenced 

American culture. 

Mr. Fomess 

240 History of the American Worker 

An overview of the American worker fi^om 1800 through 

the 1980's, focusing on several broad themes: the 

industrialization of the United States economy and 

workers' responses to this trend; the varied backgrounds 

and characteristics of American workers; employer and 

government policies towards workers; and the impact of 

historical events such as wars and depressions on the 

United States economy and workers. 

Ms. Leighow 



HISTORY 



107 



261 The History of Colonial Latin America 

The history of Latin America from the arrival of 
Columbus to the independence movement in the 
early decades of the nineteenth century. The course 
will explore the building of a colonial order as a 
unique experience of two different societies coming 
together. 

Mr. Betances 



306 Women and Work 

A study of changing definitions of gender and work 
identity. It examines how definitions of "women's 
work" have evolved from pre-industrial to post- 
industrial times in Europe and America. It begins 
with work and gender in household economies, but 
concentrates on the modern period. 

Ms. Hardivick 



262 Modem Latin America 

The formation of Latin American republics, focusing 

upon the interplay between internal processes and 

external influences. Students will examine the Latin 

Americans' struggle for political and cultural 

integradon to overcome their colonial heritage and 

to build national states. 

Mr. Betances 

267 United States-Latin American Relations 

Diplomatic, economic, and cultural relations between 

the United States and Latin America from the colonial 

era to the present. Students will examine the topics of 

cultural stereotypes, military intervention, migration 

and refugee issues, revolutionary change, and trade 

and development from both the Latin and North 

American perspectives. 

Ms. Jayes 

271, 272 African History and Society 

A study of the major themes and events in African 

history from the pre-colonial era to the present. The 

first semester covers traditional societies, state 

formations, Africa's relationship to the world 

economy, and European exploration and conquest. 

The second semester examines the events and 

processes leading to the colonization of Africa and 

subsequent changes in African societies under 

colonial rule, the ways in which Africans responded 

to challenges of colonialism, the rise of African 

nationalist movements, and post-colonial 

socioeconomic and political experiments. 

Mr. Chiteji 

300 Historical Method 

A course designed for history majors which 

introduces the student to the techniques of historical 

investigation, deals with the nature of history, and 

examines the relation of history to other fields of 

study. It also surveys the history of historical writing. 

Prerequisite: Two courses in history. 

Mr. Birkner 



310 History of Early Modem France 

An examination of major themes in French social, 
economic, and cultural history from the reign of 
Francis I and the emergence of the Renaissance state 
to the Revolution with its sweeping away of the order 
associated with that state. The course will concentrate 
on the changing social and economic structures of 
the period as well as on the contemporaneous 
evolution of "popular" and political culture. 

Ms. Hardwick 

311, 312 Medieval Europe 

A survey of the period from the breakdown of 

Roman institutions in the West to about 1050, with 

special emphasis on the role of the Church, the 

Carolingian age, the Viking invasions, the 

establishment of the German Empire, and the 

beginnings of the struggle between Empire and 

Papacy. History 312 deals with the central theme of 

the rise of a distinct medieval civilization and the 

emergence of the Western monarchies. Offered 

alternate years. 

Mr. Fick 

313 Renaissance and Reformation 

Beginning about 1300, treats the gradual decline of 

medieval civilization, the major theme being the 

transition from "medieval" to "modern." It ends 

about the middle of the sixteenth century with the 

establishment of Protestantism and the strong 

movement of reform within the Roman Church. 

Offered alternate years. 

Mr. Fick 

314 Age of Absolutism 

Beginning with the sixteenth century wars of 

religion, continues with a study of the Habsburgs' 

failure to dominate Europe, the Thirty Years' War, 

the emergence of France to predominance, the 

development of the absolute state and "enlightened 

despotism," the rise of new powers by 1700, and 

economic, cultural, and social developments. 

Offered alternate years. 

Mr. Fick 



TU^ 



HISTORY 



316 Transformation of Europe, 1750 - 1850 

All exploration of the major dual transformation in 
modern history — the industrial and democratic 
revolutions. The course will follow the process of 
transformation from the middle of the eighteenth 
century to the 1848 Revolutions, ending with an 
analysis of London's Crystal Palace Exhibition of 
1851. Offered alternate years. 

Ms. Clay 

317 Europe in the Golden Age 

From the Paris Commune of 1871 to the setdement 

of the Great War in 1919. This was an era of rising 

hopes and illusions, and coundess achievements. 

The course will explore those perspectives and 

achievements, and the transformadons in European 

economies, states, foreign relations, and in society 

and thought, that formed the backdrop for the Great 

War, when Europe's "proud tower" collapsed and a 

way of life was nearly destroyed. 

^ ^ Ms. Clay 

318 Europe and Two World Wars 

Studies selected aspects of European history from 
the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 to the 
end of the Second World War in 1945. 

Ms. Clay 

321 Modem China 

A study of Chinese history since the Opium War of the 
nineteenth century, with emphasis on the Nadonalist 
and Communist revolutions. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Stemen 

332 American Diplomatic History 

The foreign reladons of the United States since the 
American Revoludon, with emphasis on the 
twendeth century. 

Mr. Stemen 

335, 336 American Social and Cultural History 

Traces America's major social, religious, ardsdc, and 
philosophical movements and their immediate and 
long-range impact on American life and culture. 
Beginning with the American Revoludon, History 
335 covers the period to the Civil War. History 336 
condnues from that period to the present. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Fomess 

343 Jeffersonian-Jacksonian Era 

Covering the period from the 1790's to die Mexican 
War, treats the development of American naUonal 



life and secdonal interests under such influences as 
Jefferson's agrarian republicanism and the new 
democradc movements of thejacksonian period. 
Not offered every year. 

Mr. Fomess 

345 Civil War 

The trauma of America from the end of the 
Mexican War to Appomattox, moral judgments in 
history, political culture, economic interests, 
diplomacy, and war. 

Mr. Boritt 

348 Early-Twentieth-Century America 

Deals primarily with the major polidcal, economic, and 
social developments in the United States from about 
1900 to 1945. Some attendon is given to the role of the 
United States in the world during this period. 

Mr. Birkner 

349 The United States Since 1945 

Deals with the major polidcal, economic, and social 
developments in the United States since 1945, and 
with the demands made upon the United States as a 
leading world power. 

Mr. Birkner 



Senior Research Seminars: 
402 Tudor England 



Mr. Fick 



407 American Diplomacy in the Early Cold War 

Mr. Stemen 



410 Abraham Lincoln 

412 Eisenhower and His Times 

413 Decolonization in Africa 

414 The Far West before the Civil War 



Mr. Boritt 



Mr. Birkner 



Mr. Chiteji 



Mr. Fomess 



Individualized Study 

An individual tutorial, research project, or internship 
requiring the permission of an instructor who will 
supervise the project. The instructor can supply a 
copy of the statement of departmental policy 
regarding grading and major credit for different 
types of projects. Either semester. 

Staff 



INTERDEPARTMENTAL STUDIES 



109 



Interdepartmental Studies 

Associate Professor Winans 
Adjunct Assistant Professor M. Baskerville 
Adjunct Instructors Powers and Dombrowsky 
Lecturers Jones and Nordvall 
Scholars-in-Residence Ding and Kaijage 

The Committee on Interdepartmental Studies offers 
courses and coordinates specialized 
interdepartmental programs. These may include 
international programs (such as summer study in 
Nicaragua) and global/area studies. 

Among other opportunities for Interdepartmental 
Studies is the special major: a student, with the 
consent of two supervising faculty members from 
different departments, may design a coherent 
program of at least ten courses focusing on a 
particular issue or area not adequately included 
within a single department. It may be based on any 
grouping of courses drawn from any part of the 
curriculum so long as the proposed major is 
coherent, serves a carefully defined purpose, and 
includes no fewer than eight courses above the 100 
level, three or more courses at the 300 level, and a 
400-level individualized study course. The 
Committee on Interdepartmental Studies has final 
responsibility for approving special majors. (See 
page 26 for a fuller description). 

By nature of their objectives and content. 
Interdepartmental Studies courses cross the lines of 
departments and specialized disciplines. For 
example, some of these courses attempt to provide 
the common body of knowledge traditionally 
associated with a liberal education; others attempt to 
integrate the understanding of different kinds of 
subject matter; and still others combine 
methodologies from diverse departments and 
disciplines. Most notably, the Senior Scholars' 
Seminar challenges an invited group of seniors, 
representing as many academic departments as 
possible, to apply their skills to the investigation of a 
problem which crosses the boundaries of, and 
demands the methods of, several disciplines. 

In addition to the courses listed below, courses of an 
interdepartmental nature can be found in this 
catalog under the African-American Studies program 
and the Women's Studies program. 



103, 104 Literary Foundations of Western Culture 

A study of selected major literary works of Western 
culture. Authors included range from Homer and 
Plato through St. Augustine and Dante to 
Shakespeare, Milton, and Goethe. By means of reading 
and discussing complete works of literature, the 
student is introduced to those humanistic skills that 
have traditionally distinguished the liberally educated 
person. Fulfills distribution requirement in literature. 

Staff 

111, 112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 
(See listing under Art Department) 

206 Byzantine Civilization 

A seminar on the civilization that centered on 

Constantinople from its founding as the new capital 

of the Roman Empire in 330 to its capture by the 

Ottoman Turks in 1453. All aspects will be discussed: 

the army and navy, education and scholarship, 

religions, economics, social life, sports, 

administration, art and architecture, and 

international relations. Fulfills the distribution 

requirement in history/philosophy. May be counted 

in the requirements for a religion major. 

Mr. Trone 

211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

A study of death and dying from a variety of 

perspectives: psychological, medical, economic, 

legal, and theological. Dignity in dying, what 

happens after death, euthanasia, body disposal, 

AIDS, and other such problems are examined. 

Fulfills distribution requirement in 

history/ philosophy. May be counted in the 

requirements for a religion major. 

Mr. Moore 

215 Contemporary French Women Writers (in 
English) 

An investigation of the "myth of woman" — a male 

invention as Simone de Beauvoir pointed out — 

through various twentieth-century texts. Students will 

read everything from a novel by this century's earliest 

and most notable French woman writer, Colette, to 

the exposition of Luce Irigaray on Freud and Julia 

Kristeva on the feminine in language. All readings 

and discussions will be in English. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

ITl, 228 Civilization of India 

First course: cultural developments from Indus 
Valley Civilization to coming of Muslims, with 



110 



INTERDEPARTMENTAL STUDIES 



emphasis on Buddhism, evolution of Hinduism, and 
their representation in art and literature. Second 
course: historical factors underlying Hindu-Muslim 
antagonism as well as contemporary political and 
economic problems. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in histon/philosophy and the 
distribution requirement in non-Western culture. 
Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Ms. Powers 

235 Introduction to African Literature 

A survey in English of modern sub-Saharan African 
literature. After an introductory section on 
background and the oral tradition, the course will 
treat the priman themes of this writing, many of 
which bear the stamp of the colonial experience and 
its aftermath. Representative novels, plays, and 
poetry will be read and discussed for their artistic 
value and cultural insights. Short papers, mid-term 
and final examinations are required. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in literature and the 
distribution requirement in non-Western culture. 
Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Michelman 

237, 238 Literature of India 

Study of major Indian literary works in translation. 
First course: Vedic hymns, major epics, Sanskrit 
drama, Gupta love poetry, and political fables. 
Second course: Tamil epic and lyrics, devotional 
poetry, Islamic literature, and the modern novel. 
Complete works are read from the standpoint of - 
religion, history, and aesthetics, using criticism from 
Western and Indian sources. Fulfills distribution 
requirements in literature and in non-Western 
culture. Alternate years. Offered 1991-92. 

Ms. Powers 

239 Architecture and Society in Nineteenth- 
Century America 

(See listing under History Department) 

240 Energy: Production, Use, and Environmental 
Impact 

Conventional as well as alternative energy sources 
are examined with respect to supply, price, 
technology', and environmental impact. U.S. 
consumption patterns are studied and the potential 
of conseiA'ation is addressed. Sample topics include 
nuclear reactors, fossil fuel supply, photovoltaics, air 
pollution, greenhouse effect, and energy efficient 
architecture. Prerequisite: One college science course 
Not offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Cowan 



244 Introduction to American Folklore 

Begins with discussions of the nature of folklore and 
some sense of history of the discipline, including 
information on current approaches and 
methodologies. This will be followed by material on 
the folk group, the folk process, the folk 
performance, the nature of folk world-views, and 
guidance on doing folklore research. The emphasis 
will then shift to a survey of the various folklore 
genres found in America, from the narrative genres 
of folktale, to folk song, folk music, and folk dance. 

Mr. Winans 

246 Irish Quest for Identity: The Irish Literary 
Revival 

A study of the culture and history of Ireland as 
reflected in its literature in English c. 1880-c. 1940. 
The course will explore how Ireland, principally 
through her writers, succeeded in reviving and 
asserting her unique Gaelic identity during the 
decades immediately preceding and following the 
War of Independence (1916-1921). Authors to be 
studied will include Samuel Ferguson, Standish 
Hayes and Standish James O'Grady, Douglas Hyde, 
Augusta Gregory, W. B. Yeats, J. M. Synge, George 
Russell, James Stephens, Sean O'Casey, and James 
Joyce. Fulfills literature requirement. Alternate years. 
Offered 1991-92. 

Mr. J. Myers 

247 Maintaining Irish Identity: Modem Irish 
Literature 

A survey of Irish literature since the 1940's. The 
course will examine how poets, dramatists, and 
writers of fiction have responded to the problems of 
maintaining an Irish identity on a partitioned island 
and in the contemporary world. Special attention 
will be given to the inter-relationship of Catholic and 
Protestant and rural and urban traditions. Authors to 
be studied will include the following: from drama, 
Samuel Beckett, Hugh Leonard, Brian Friel, Thomas 
Murphy; from poetry, Seamus Heaney, Patrick 
Kavanagh, Austin Clarke, Eilean ni Chilleanain, John 
Montague, Eavan Boland; from fiction, Sean 
O'Faolain, Mary Lavin, Edna O'Brien. Fulfills 
literature requirement. Alternate years. Offered 
1992-93. 

Mr. J. Myers 

250 Criminal Justice 

Overview of the criminal jusfice system in the United 
States and role in that system of features such as 
police, attorneys, trials, and prisons. Major United 



INTERDEPARTMENTAL STUDIES 



TTT 



States Supreme Court cases are read to illustrate the 
nature of legal reasoning and criminal justice 
problems. Not offered every year. Offered 1990-91. 

Mr. Nordvall 

254 Vietnam: War and Protest 

An interdisciplinary exploration of the Vietnam War 
(1964-1975), with attention paid to the history of 
Marxism in southeast Asia, French colonialism, the 
military and political history of the American 
involvement, the peace movement in the U.S., and 
the literature generated by the war. Outside speakers 
and audio-visual materials will be used extensively. 

Mr. Dombroiosky and others 

255 Science, Technology, and the Nuclear Arms 
Race 

Study of the effect of technology on the many aspects 
of the Nuclear Arms Race. Coverage includes 
nuclear weapons effects, strategic arsenals, past and 
current attempts at arms control, nuclear 
proliferation, and conflicting foreign and domestic 
policy objectives. Special emphasis will be given 
toward understanding future technological trends. 

Mr. Pella 

260 The Holocaust and the Third Reich 

An intensive study of selected vwitings (poetry, prose, 
drama) which demonstrate the possibilities of literary 
expressions in response to the Holocaust. Students will 
read various writings in English by German and non- 
German writers, including Heinrich Boll, Ilona 
Karmel, Gunter Grass, and Elie Wiesel. The course will 
also include such films as The Tin Drum, The White Rose, 
and Night and Fog. No knowledge of German is 
required. Does not fulfill literature requirement. 

Ms. Armster 

Til Gods, Heroes and Wagner 

A study of the artistic and philosophical thought of 
composer Richard Wagner as expressed in his 
monumental music drama, Der Ring des Nibelungen. 
Wagner, a contemporary of Marx and in many ways 
no less revolutionary, adapted the myths and legends 
of the Germanic past to dissect European reality of 
the nineteenth century. By utilizing various 
approaches (biographical, mythological, literary, 
political/historical, aesthetic, musical, psychological), 
students and instructor will attempt to assess Wagner's 
position in his own age as well as his impact on 
succeeding generations, including that which embraced 
the ideology of national socialism. No knowledge of 
German or background in music is required. 

Mr. McCardle 



276 Sub-Saharan Africa and the External World 

A study of the interaction over time between sub- 
Saharan Africa and the larger world community, with 
particular focus on relationships between sub- 
Saharan Africa and Europe, the Orient, and the New 
World, showing the mutual influence in the 
economic, political, and cultural spheres. Fulfills the 
distribution requirement in non-Western cultures. 

Mr. Kaijage 

285 Chinese Poetry 

A study of Chinese poetry and the understanding it 

gives of Chinese civilization and the Chinese way of 

life. The Chinese have a time-honored poetic tradition 

which this course will examine. Over a hundred 

Chinese poems will be analyzed and appreciated, both 

from a social and historical perspective and from an 

aesthetic perspective. The course will encourage 

reflection on Chinese history, politics, folklore, social 

institutions, and customs. Fulfills the distribution 

requirement in non-Western culture. 

Mr. Ding 

320 Himian Sexual Behavior 

Discussion of biosexual, sociosexual, and psychosexual 
development in a cultural-behavioral setting. 
Resources from a variety of disciplines v«ll be discussed 
as they relate to the present-day social-sexual milieu. 
Seminar format. In-depth research invesdgation 
required. Enrolls seven women and seven men. 

Mr. Jones 

340 Ancient Egypt: Its Language, Literature, Art, 
and History 

A study of Ancient Egypt's culture as reflected in its 
language, literature, and art. Although the student's 
study of the Egyptian language itself will be confined 
to the script, vocabulary, and grammar of the Middle 
Kingdom (c. 2240-1570 B.C.E.), Egypt's literature 
and art from 2900-1100 B.C.E. will be presented in 
their historical context. Fulfills distribudon 
requirement in non-Western culture and may be 
counted toward the requirements for a religion 
major. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Moore 

401 Senior Scholars: The Future of Humanity 

Seminar for selected senior students addressing an 
important contemporary issue affecting the future of 
humanity. The approach to this issue is 
muludisciplinary. Authorides of national stature are 
invited to serve as resource persons, and a final report 
is published by the seminar pardcipants. The seminar 



1 IZ 



INTERDEPARTMENTAL STUDIES 



carries credit for two courses and must be taken in 
the fall semester. Interested students should consult 
page 35 of this catalogue for admission criteria. 

451 Individualized Study: 

Tutorial in Interdepartmental Studies 

453 Area Studies: 

Tutorial in Interdepartmental Studies 

461 Individualized Study: 
Research in Interdepartmental Studies 

Special Programs 
Asian Studies 

Gett)'sburg College offers a number of courses for 
students wishing a sound introduction to Asian 
culture as part of the liberal arts curriculum. Each 
Asian Studies course fulfills some distribution 
requirement. These courses are presented by 
members of various departments, persons with 
interests and competence in Asian Studies. A student 
may construct a special major with concentration in 
Asian Studies. Students should seek assistance in 
planning an Asian Studies special major from faculty 
members who teach courses in this area or from the 
Committee on Interdepartmental Studies. Course 
offerings suitable for special majors in Asian Studies 
are found under many departmental listings. 

American Studies 

Gettysburg College offers a variety of courses 
analyzing American life and thought, thereby 
providing students with many opportunities for 
creating special majors in American Studies. Such 
majors may emphasize behavioral analyses, historical 
perspectives, literary and artistic dimensions, or 
coherent combinations of such approaches as they 
are reflected in courses from several departments. 
For example, special majors could be designed in the 
areas of early-American culture, modern American 
social stratification, ethnicity, or the religious and 
economic values of the American people. Students 
should seek assistance in planning an American 
Studies special major from faculty members who 
teach courses in these areas or from the Committee 
on Interdepartmental Studies. Course offerings 
suitable for special majors in American Studies are 
found under many departmental listings. 

Medieval and Renaissance Studies 

Through the curricular offerings of eight academic 
departments and the Interdepartmental Studies 
Program, the College makes available a wide range 



of courses that deal with the civilizations and cultures 
of the medieval and Renaissance eras. Those eras 
laid the foundafions for many modern ideas and 
values in the fields of literature, history, religion, 
political theory, music, art, science, technology, 
commerce, mathematics, and law. For many students 
concerned with a more realistic understanding of the 
rich heritage derived from the medieval and 
Renaissance worlds, the vitality and creative energy 
of those eras hold a special fascination and add new 
dimensions for comprehending contemporary issues. 

Students are encouraged to construct special majors 
in Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Majors in this 
area might deal with the medieval church and the 
arts, medieval literature and philosophy, or the 
ideological and institudonal revolutions of the 
Renaissance. Students should seek assistance in 
planning such special majors from Professors George 
Fick (History) or Robert Trone (Religion). 

Global Studies/Area Studies 

Gettysburg College offers an array of courses in global 
sUidies through the course offerings of several 
departments and through its yearly Area Studies 
program. Each year the College arranges a program 
of films, lectures, symposia, and special events focused 
on an area in the world of critical interest. The 
program has dealt with such topics as Central America, 
Viemam Ten Years After, and Struggle in Southern 
Africa. Most recendy. Area Studies has focused on the 
Middle East, China in Revolution, Mexico, and Sub- 
Saharan Africa. To enhance the academic offerings in 
these areas of study, the College has had die privilege 
of scholars-in-residence from Israel, China, Mexico, 
and Tanzania. In subsequent years. Area Studies will 
turn to Japan, the former Soviet Union, and Brazil. 
Scholars-in-residence from those areas of the world will 
be offering courses and guiding individualized studies 
for students in their areas of interest. Often specific 
courses are available that study the area focused on for 
the year. It is always possible for students to enroll in 
IDS 453, the Area Studies course, in either or both 
semesters. These tutorial courses require pardcipation 
in the several aspects of the Area Studies program and 
a special project under the supervision of a member of 
the faculty. 

Summer Study in Nicaragua 

Gettysburg College offers a three-week course of 
study in Central America. Two courses are offered 
through Interdepartmental Studies and Spanish, one 
in environmental poliucs, and the other in language 



INTERDEPARTMENTAL STUDIES / LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 



113 



study. The program varies slightly from year to year, 
though it always includes time spent in Leon, a 
"provincial capital" in western Nicaragua. From there 
travel and work are possible in other regions of the 
country. The rest of the stay is spent in Managua. 
Interested students should contact the Chairperson 
of the Committee on Interdepartmental Studies or 
the Chaplain for information on schedule, cost, and 
course offerings. 

Latin — See Classics 



Latin American Studies 

140 Introduction to Latin America 

A study of the peoples and civilization of pre- 
Columbian America, and of the institutions, 
economy, history, and culture of Latin America and 
the Caribbean from the Spanish conquest to the 
present. The course reviews several case studies in 
order to examine how modern Latin America 
responds to underdevelopment in its struggle for 

political and cultural integration. 

Mr. Betances 



Latin American Studies 



Emelio Betances, Coordinator 

Latin American Studies is an interdisciplinary 
program designed to enrich the student's 
understanding of the history and present-day world 
of countries and cultures to our south. By pursuing 
studies on Latin America, students develop greater 
appreciation for, and discernment of, an America 
whose relationship to the United States is of 
increasing significance. The courses in Gettysburg 
and the range of exciting off-campus opportunities 
in Latin America offer the student depth, breadth, 
and a variety of subject areas for special focus. 

Students may choose to create a special major in 
Latin America studies. Numerous possibilities exist 
for combining a special major in Latin American 
Studies with political science, economics, sociology, 
anthropology, Spanish, history, management, 
environmental studies, and other fields. 

Students who choose the option of this special major 
are encouraged to study in Latin America. 
Gettysburg College has three affiliated programs 
through which students can study in Mexico and 
Central America and transfer back both grades and 
credits: (1) a three-week program in Nicaragua 
following the spring semester which offers credit in 
either Spanish or Environmental Studies; (2) a 
semester program at the University of Guadalajara in 
Mexico for students who have completed Spanish 
301; and (3) several semester-long programs in 
Cuernavaca, Mexico, with themes such as Women 
and Development, Global Community, Social Policy, 
and Human Services in Latin America. 

Courses on Latin America include the following: 



History 

261 The History of Colonial Latin America 

The history of Latin America from the arrival of 
Columbus to the independence movement in the early 
decades of the nineteenth century. The course will 
explore the building of a colonial order as a unique 
experience of two different societies coming together. 

Mr. Betances 

262 Modem Latin America 

The formation of Latin American republics, focusing 

upon the interplay between internal processes and 

external influences. Students will examine the Latin 

Americans' struggle for political and cultural 

integration to overcome their colonial heritage and 

to build national states. 

Mr. Betances 

267 United States-Latin American Relations 

Diplomatic, economic, and cultural relations between 

the United States and Latin America from the colonial 

era to the present. Students will examine the topics of 

cultural stereotypes, military intervention, migration 

and refugee issues, revolutionary change, and trade 

and development from both the Latin and North 

American perspectives. 

Ms. Jayes 

Spanish 

311 Latin American Civilization 

Study of the history and culture of Latin America from 
pre-Columbian times to the present. This course fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/ philosophy. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or consent of the 
Department. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

315 An Introduction to Hispanic Cinema 

A study of Hispanic cinema from its inception in 
1896 through the present, with major emphasis on 
films made since the advent of revisionary cinema 
around 1960. The course will focus on the 



114 



LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES / MANAGEMENT 



development and renovation of cinematography, will 
explore the relationship between cinema and other 
forms of artistic expression, and will examine the 
development of Hispanic cinema in the context of 
the historical circumstances of the Hispanic 
countries which have been most active in making 
films. Offered 1993-94. 

324 Latin American Contemporary Prose 

Emphasizes the novel of the "boom" in Latin 
America. Major writers such as Gabriel Garcia- 
Marquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes, Julio 
Cortazar, Juan Rulfo, and Jorge Luis Borges, among 
others, will be read. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or 
consent of the department. Offered 1993-94. 

Management 

Professors Pitts, Rosenbach, and Schein 
Associate Professors Redding (Chairperson) and C. 

Walton 
Assistant Professors Star, Stroope, and S. Walton 
Instructors Seitz and Tracy 
Adjunct Instructor Radosh 

Overview 

The Department of Management of Gettysburg 
College provides a distinctive curriculum designed to 
engender understanding of the role of management 
in a variety of organizational settings: public, private, 
local, national, and international. In order to 
develop the breadth of understanding appropriate 
for a liberal education, the curriculum is integrative. 
The curriculum incorporates the historical and 
social contexts within which managerial decisions are 
made and brings into clear focus the moral and 
ethical dimensions of such decisions. Students thus 
are encouraged and equipped to become informed 
decision-makers who employ carefully<onsidered 
values and the aesthetic and intuitive components of 
leadership as well as the relevant analytic and 
technical skills. Most importandy, the curriculum 
and the manner in which it is taught foster the 
qualides of cridcal, creadve thinking; the 
entrepreneurial disposidon to be intellectually bold, 
independent, and innovative; the zest for lifelong 
learning; and the values so important to vital and 
socially responsible management in our public and 
private enterprises. The department offers a major in 
management, with four areas of concentraUon: 
entrepreneurship, human resources, accoundng and 
finance, and internadonal management. In addidon 
to its liberal arts objectives, the department's 



curriculum is designed to meet the needs of students 
who intend to enter graduate professional schools in 
business administradon and related areas, or to 
pursue a career in public or private enterprises. 

The department reserves the right to limit the 
number of majors in the department. Under 
procedures established by the department, students 
interested in majoring in management may be 
required to make a formal request to the department 
to declare the major. The department will then 
select the students who will be accepted as majors 
according to procedures established by the 
department and made available to students. Students 
interested in receiving a copy of these procedures 
should contact the department. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Majors in management are required to complete 
eight core courses plus a minimum of three courses 
in one of the four areas of concentradon. The eight 
core courses are as follows: Economics 103-104, 
Management 153, Economics 241, Management 247, 
Management 266, Management 267, and 
Management 400. Each student majoring in 
management will also be required to take at least 
three courses in one of four areas of concentradon: 
entrepreneurship, human resources, accoundng and 
finance, or internadonal management. 

Students andcipadng a management major are 
encouraged to take Economics 103-104 during the 
first year. 

In order to qualify for departmental honors in 
management, a student must 1) sadsfactorily 
complete Management 400 during the senior year 
with a grade of B or better; 2) be recommended by 
his or her adviser; and 3) have earned a 3.3 
departmental grade point average. 

The department ofiFers a management internship 
(Man^ement 473) for selected management majors 
entering their senior year. The internship is comprised 
of an employment experience completed during the 
summer between their junior and senior year, and an 
academic component completed during fall semester of 
the senior year. One course credit is awarded for I 

successful compledon of the internship. Addidonal ' 

informadon regarding the Department of Man^ement 
is contained in Manning Your Major: Department of 
Management Handbook. All majors and potendal majors 
are urged to obtain a copy of this booklet 



MANAGEMENT 



TTF 



153 Financial Accounting 

Study of the basic principles, concepts, and problems 
in recording, summarizing, reporting, and analyzing 
financial data. Emphasis is placed on reports used by 
decision-makers, both inside and outside the firm. 

154 Managerial Accounting 

Study of accounting concepts for planning, control, 
motivation, reporting, and evaluation by management 
of the firm. Prerequisite: Management 153. 

247 Management Information Systems 

Integrative systems of people and machines for 
providing information to support the operations, 
management, and decision-making functions in an 
organization. The course examines gathering, storing, 
transmitting, and manipulating data to provide timely, 
accurate, and usable information. Prerequisite: 
Management 266 or permission of instructor. 

253-254 Intermediate Accounting 

Continued and more intensive study of the 
principles, concepts, and theories prevalent in 
accounting. Emphasis is on literature and 
pronouncements of professional accounting groups 
and regulatory agencies. Prerequisites: Management 
154 and permission of the instructor. 

266 Management and Organization 

The decision-making process concerned with the 
planning, staffing, leading, and controlling the 
affairs of organizations in the public and private 
sectors, including profit-making as well as not-for- 
profit. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104 or permission 
of the instructor. 

267 Business Finance 

Introduction to the principles and practices involved 
in the acquisition and administration of corporate 
funds. Emphasis is placed on financial planning, 
investment analysis, asset management, and sources 
and costs of capital. Prerequisites: Management 153 
and 266, and Economics 241. 

270 Organizational Behavior 

Theory of behavioral science applied to the 
organization, with emphasis on the interaction of the 
individual and the organization. Topics range from 
individual attitudes and behavior to organizational 
change. Prerequisite: Management 266 or permission 
of the instructor. 



353 Cost Accounting 

Concepts of cost accumulation and cost analysis for 
decision-making purposes. Emphasis is placed on use 
of these concepts in manufacturing concerns and 
other organizations. Prerequisite: Management 154. 

355 Auditing 

Introduction to the objectives, concepts, analysis, 
and procedures underlying the review of financial 
reports prepared by organizations. Emphasis is 
placed on the analysis of internal control and the 
auditor's ethical and legal responsibility. Prerequisite: 
Management 254 or concurrent enrollment. 

356 Federal Taxes 

hitroduction, history of federal income tax, 
problems of tax bases and rates, economic and social 
implications of taxation, application of bases 
problems through research of regulations, and 
preparation of taxes. Prerequisite: Management 154. 

357 Not-for-Profit Accounting 

Accounting, budgetary financial control, and 
evaluation procedures for governmental and not-for- 
profit organizations. Emphasis is placed on the basic 
differences between commercial and not-for-profit 
accounting and on managerial uses of information 
generated by the accounting system. Prerequisite: 
Management 154 or permission of the instructor. 

360 Organizational Ethics 

Exploration of ethical factors and restraints, 
recognition of ethical dilemmas affecting managerial 
decision-making, and policy in private and public 
sector organizations; examination of a variety of 
ethical issues, such as those relevant to the 
environment, consumer protection, discrimination in 
the workplace, conflict of interest, global economy, 
social responsibility of organizations, and 
professionalism; emphasis on case study method. 
Prerequisite: Management 266 or permission of the 
instructor. 

361 Marketing Management 

Study of the place of marketing in the world of 
business; the marketing concept; understanding 
consumer buying behavior; marketing planning and 
product policy; sales management; distribution 
strategy; current problems, influences, and pressures 
on marketing. Marketing case studies are analyzed 
and discussed. Prerequisites: Economics 1 03, 1 04. 



116 



MANAGEMENT 



363 Business Law 

Legal environment of business and how law affects 
managerial decision-making; introduction to law of 
torts, business crimes, contracts, sales, product 
liability, consumer protection, bankruptcy, leases, 
formation of corporations and partnerships, 
employer-employee rights, en\ironmental 
regulation, intellectual property. Uniform 
Commercial Code; examination of court systems, 
legal process; discussion of international business 
law, governmental regulation of business, 
constitutional issues relevant to business; use of case 
study method where appropriate. Prerequisite: 
Management 266 or permission of the instructor. 

364 Advanced Business Law 

In-depth study of contemporary legal environment of 
business and how law affects managerial decision- 
making. This course provides an examination of the 
Uniform Commercial Code, contracts, sales, 
partnerships, corporations, small business 
organizations, franchises, banking, bankruptcy and 
reorganization, property, international transactions, 
and governmental regulation of organizations. The 
class explores the principles of tort, conu-act, and 
constitutional law. The case study mediod is employed 
as appropriate. Prerequisites: Management 266 and 
Management 363 or permission of the instructor. 

365 Human Resources Management 

Major principles of human resource management 
from the perspectives of both organizational demands 
and individual interests. Basic theoretical and applied 
concepts are covered, including recruitment, selection, 
performance appraisal, labor relations, compensation, 
training, and productivity improvement. Focus is also 
on relevant issues of the decade, such as the 
work/family interface, privacy, cultural diversity, 
workplace discrimination, and legal issues. Project 
work with organizations required. Prerequisite: 
Management 266; Management 270 preferred and 
required if concentrating in human resources. 

368 Investment Management 

Investment practices, the risks of investment, and the 
selection of appropriate invesunent media for 
individuals, firms, and institutions. Theories and 
techniques for maximizing investment portfolio 
performance are studied. Emphasis is placed on analysis 
and selection of securities, portfolio management, and 
the operation of securities markets. Prerequisite: 
Management 267 or permission of die instructor. 



381 Small Business Management 

Study and critical analysis of the principles and 
procedures for establishing, developing, and 
managing a small business. The relevant differences 
between large and small business management are 
examined. Attention is given to the personal 
attributes needed for successful entrepreneurship. 
Prerequisites: Management 153, Management 266, 
Management 267, and Management 361. 

385 International Management 

Examination of problems and opportunities 
confronting business enterprises which operate across 
nadonal borders, with emphasis on adaptation to 
different cultural, legal, political, and economic 
environments. Prerequisites: Management 153 and 266. 

386 International Accounting and Taxation 

Interpretadon of foreign financial statements and 
analysis of accounting, repordng, and disclosure 
practices around the world. Financial repordng in 
the international environment. Review of taxation 
around the world and international tax issues to the 
muldnational firm. Prerequisite: Management 153. 

400 Policy and Strategy 

Integrative capstone course dealing with the role of 
senior execudves in business enterprises. Course 
focuses on problems of strategy formulation, 
organization design, and organizadon renewal. 
Required of all seniors. Prerequisites: Senior status 
plus compledon of all core courses or permission of 
the instructor. 

410 Senior Seminar 

Investigadon of contemporary problems and special 
topics of current importance in the field of 
management. Specific issues to be addressed will be 
determined by the instructor. Prerequisites: Senior 
status and permission of the instructor. 

473 Internship 

A minimum of six weeks of on-site pardcipadon in 
management with a public or private enterprise. A 
student wishing to pursue an internship must submit an 
acceptable proposal to die Staff Director of Internships 
during spring semester of the junior year. Prerequisites: 
Junior management major widi a minimum 2.0 overall 
and departmental grade point average. 

Individualized Study 

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well- 
qualified students through individual reading and 



MANAGEMENT / MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE 



117 



research, under the supervision of a member of the 
department's faculty. A student wishing to pursue 
independent study must present a proposal at least 
one month before the end of the semester preceding 
the semester in which the independent study is to be 
undertaken. Prerequisite: Permission of the supervising 
faculty member and the department. 

Mathematics and Computer Science 

Professors: Holder and Leinbach (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors: DeSilva, Flesner, and Kellett 
Assistant Professors: Golfm, Levine, and Tosten 
Adjunct Instructors: Leslie and Y. Niiro 

Overview 

A knowledge of mathematics is an essential part of 
what it means to be a liberally educated person. 
Mathematics is both an art and a science. It 
possesses an inherent beauty and a purity of 
expression not found to the same degree in any 
other discipline. 

Beyond its intrinsic value, mathematics is 
indispensable in both the natural and social sciences. 
It is occupying a position of increasing importance in 
many other fields. The computer has played a major 
role in this mathematical renaissance. Thus, it is 
essential that mathematics majors, as well as other 
students who will apply mathematics, learn how to 
use the computer as a problem solving tool. 

The mathematics curriculum provides a foundation 
for students who will specialize in mathematics or in 
fields that use mathematics. By a careful selection of 
courses, a student can prepare for graduate study in 
mathematics, for secondary school teaching, or for a 
career in a mathematically-related field. Indeed, a 
major in mathematics provides a good background 
for virtually any career. Recent graduates have found 
careers in government, law, management, medicine, 
and quality control as well as in the more tradidonal 
areas of employment for mathematics graduates. No 
matter what the student's objectives, the curriculum 
provides courses appropriate for the study of 
mathematics within the context of the liberal arts. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers a choice of two degree 
programs, the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of 
Science degrees. The Bachelor of Arts degree is 
designed for the students who are interested in a 
broader application of mathematics. The Bachelor 
of Science degree is designed for the students who 
are interested in exploring the sciences in depth. 



The Bachelor of Arts Program: 

The requirements for a B.A. in mathemaUcs are a 
minimum of ten courses in mathematics and one 
computer science course. The specific requirements 
are as follows: 

CORE: Math 111 (or Math 105-106), Math 112, 
Math 211, Math 212, Math 321, and Math 
331; 
ONE OF: Math 322, or the sequence Math 351, 352: 
PLUS: Completion of 3 addidonal 200- or 300- 

level Math courses, with at least two at the 
300 level; 
PLUS: Completion of CS103 by the end of the 
sophomore year. 

The department offers two courses in addition to 
Math 21 1, 212 at the 200 level. These courses are 
Math 208: "Discrete Structures" and Math 262: 
"Introduction to Operations Research." Either one 
of these courses, but not both, may count towards the 
minimum requirements for the B.A. in mathemaUcs. 

The Bachelor of Science Program: 

In addition to the CORE listed under the Bachelor 
of Arts program, a candidate for the Bachelor of 
Science degree in mathematics must complete the 
following courses: 

Math 363: Differential Equations and Special 
Functions; 

Math 364: Complex Variables; 

Math 366: Numerical Analysis; 

One mathematics elecdve chosen from any of the 

department's 200- or 300-level offerings; 

Either of the sequences: 
Physics 111: Mechanics; 
Physics 112: Heat, Electricity, Magnedsm, and 

Relativity; or 
Chemistry 111, 112: Fundamentals of Chemistry; 

Plus two courses from one of the following groups: 
Biology309, 310, 341; 
Chemistry 305, 306; 
Computer Science 301, 311, 371; 
Physics 310, 319, 325, 330. 

The Computing Requirement: 

All students are required to complete CS-103 or its 
equivalent prior to graduation. It is recommended 
that this course be completed by the end of the 
second semester of the student's sophomore year. 



MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE 



Minor in Mathematics: 

A minor in mathematics consists of six mathematics 
courses numbered 1 i 1 or above. At least two of 
these courses must be at the 300 level. 

105-106 Calculus with Precalculus 

Study of differential and integral calculus with 
precalculus. Topics include basic algebraic concepts, 
equations and inequalities, functions, introduction to 
limits, continuity, the derivative, and the definite 
integral. No prerequisites. 



Staff 



107 Applied Statistics 

Designed for students in the biological and social 

sciences. Topics include descriptive statistics, 

fundamentals of probability theory, hypothesis testing, 

correlation, regression, and analysis of variance. An 

important aspect of the course is the use of a statistical 

package on the computer. Credit is not granted for 

more than one of the following: Mathematics 1 07, 

Economics 241 , and Psychology 205. 

Staff 

111-112 Calculus I, II 

Differential and integral calculus of one real 
variable. Topics include introduction to limits, 
continuit)', the derivative, the definite integral, 
sequences, series, parametric equations, and polar 
coordinates. Applications will be drawn from the 
natural and social sciences. No prior experience 
with calculus is assumed. Four lecture hours per 
week. Students who have received credit for 
Mathematics 105-106 cannot also receive credit for 
Mathematics 111. These students may register in 
Mathematics 112. 

Staff 

208 Discrete Structures 

The study of mathematical structures essential to the 
study of discrete phenomena, with an emphasis on 
an algorithmic approach to problem solving using 
these structures. Topics covered will include sets, 
truth tables, methods of proof (including 
induction), functions, relations, arithmetic in other 
bases, graphs and trees, matrix algebra, elementary 
combinatorics, probability, and Markov chains. 
Examples will be chosen from a variety of disciplines, 
with emphasis on solutions which are algorithmic 
and computational in nature. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 111 or Mathematics 105-106. 

Staff 



211 Multivariable Calculus 

Vectors, vector functions, function of several 

variables, partial differentiation, optimization, 

multiple integration, transformation of coordinates, 

line and surface integrals, and Green's and Stokes' 

theorems. PrCT-^ouMz>; Mathematics 112. ^ y-. 

Staff 

212 Linear Algebra 

Systems of linear equations, algebra of matrices, 

determinants, abstract vector spaces, linear 

transformation, eigenvalues, and quadratic forms. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 21 1 or permission of 

instructor. „ .. 

Staff 

262 Introduction to Operations Research 

A study of techniques and tools used in mathematical 
models applied to the biological, management, and 
social sciences. Topics selected from the following: 
optimization, game theory, linear and non-linear 
programming, dynamic programming, transportation 
problems, and network analysis. The computer will 
be used extensively. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 
Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Ms. DeSilva, Mr. Kellett, Mr. Leinbach 

321-322 Analysis I, II 

Provides both a rigorous treatment of concepts 
studied in elementary calculus and an introduction 
to more advanced topics in analysis. Among the 
topics studied are elements of logic and set theory, 
properties of real numbers, elements of metric space 
topology, continuity, the derivative, the Riemann 
integral, sequences and series, uniform convergence, 
and functions of several variables. Prerequisites: 
Mathematics 21 1 and 212. Mathematics 322 offered 
in alternate years. Offered 1991-92. ,. „ 

331-332 Abstract Algebra I, II 

A study of the basic structures of modern abstract 
algebra, including groups, rings, fields, and vector 
spaces. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. Mathematics 
332 offered in alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Staff 

343 Topics in Geometry 

A brief introduction to the history of the 
development of geometries from Euclid to the 
present, with emphasis on the significance of non- 
Euclidean geometries. Topics include projective 
geometry and its subgeometries, from affine to 
Euclidean. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 

Mr. Flesner 



MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE 



119 



351-352 Mathematical Statistics and Probability 

Probability, frequency distributions, sampling theory, 
testing hypotheses, estimation, correlation and 
regression, small sample distributions, and 
applications. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 

Ms. DeSilva, Mr. Golfin 

354 Topics in Applied Probability and Statistics 

Study of an area of applied probability and statistics 

not otherwise in the curriculum. Possible subjects 

include linear modeling, stochastic processes, 

nonparametric statistics, and quality control. 

Prerequisite: Mathematics 351. Alternate years. 

Offered 1991-92. 

Ms. DeSilva, Mr. Kelktt 

356 Statistical Decision Theory 

An introduction to applied decision theory using 
Bayesian statistics. Topics will include decision rules, 
risk, the likelihood principle, utility and loss, prior 
information and subjective probability, Bayesian 
analysis, and game theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 351 
or Economics 241. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Ms. DeSilva 

363 Differential Equations and Special Functions 

First order ordinary differential equations, linear 
differential equations of first and second order, 
series solutions, Fourier series and integrals, partial 
differential equations of physics, Legendre 
polynomials, and Bessel functions. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 212. 

Mr. Golfin, Mr. Holder 

364 Complex Variables 

Analytic functions, conformal mapping, complex 
integrals, Laurant series, theory of residues, and 
potential theory. Prerequisite: Mathematics 212. 

Mr. Holder, Mr. Leinbach 

366 Numerical Analysis 

Numerical techniques of solving applied 
mathematical problems. A heavy emphasis is placed 
on the interrelation with these techniques and the 
digital computer. Topics to be covered are numerical 
solutions of systems of equations, the eigenvalue 
problem, interpolation and approximation, and 
numerical solutions to differential equations. 
Although emphasis is placed on the numerical 
techniques, consideration will also be given to 
computational efficiency and error analysis. 
Prerequisites: Mathematics 212 and CS 103. Alternate 
years. Offered 1991-92. ^^_ ^^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^.^^^^^ 



381, 382 Selected Topics 

Study of some advanced phase of mathematics not 

otherwise in the curriculum. The subject matter and 

the frequency of offering the course will be 

dependent on student interest. Some possible areas 

for study are point set topology, combinatorics, 

graph theory, partial differential equations, 

differential geometry, and number theory. 

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Staff 

Individualized Study 

Pursuit of topics of an advanced nature by well- 
qualified students through individual reading, under 
the supervision of staff members. Prerequisite: 

Permission of the department chairperson. 

Staff 

Computer Science 

Overview 

The computer science curriculum enables a student 
to study systematic approaches to problem solving 
within the environment of hardware. In the course 
of this study, the student develops the practice of 
clear thinking and logical reasoning while learning 
to analyze information processing tools and systems 
in areas of application. Within this study there is an 
emphasis on the human values associated with 
computing in the modern world. 

The available courses cover a wide area of computer 
science. In addiuon, upper-division students may, in 
collaboration with staff members, be involved in on- 
going research projects or study topics not covered 
by the regular course offerings. 

The major is designed to give students a broad 
understanding of both the theoretical and application 
areas of the discipline. As such, it provides a firm 
foundation for those intending to do graduate work 
or to pursue a career in computer science. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The major consists of nine courses that include a 
four-course core, a capstone course (CS 340), and 
four computer science electives, at least three of 
which must be chosen from group A listed below: 

COMPUTER SCIENCE CORE: 



CS 103 
CS 104 
CS216 
CS221 



Introduction to Computing 
Introduction to Computer Science 
Data Structures 

Computer Organization and Assembly 
Language Programming 



20 



MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE 



SENIOR CAPSTONE COURSE: 

CS 340: Software Systems/Software Design 

COMPUTER SCIENCE ELECTIVES - GROUP A: 

CS 301 : Theory of Computation 

CS 311: Design and Analysis of Algorithms 

CS 324: Principles of Operating Systems 

CS 341 : A Survey of Programming Languages 

CS 360: Principles of Database Systems 

CS371: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 

CS 373: Interactive Computer Graphics Systems 

COMPUTER SCIENCE ELECTIVES - GROUP B 
CS 450: Individualized Study - Tutorial 
CS 460: Individualized Study - Research 
CS 470: Internship in Computer Science 

MGMT 247: Management Information Systems 

MATH 366: Numerical Analysis 

PHY 241: Introduction to Microprocessors 

A minor in computer science consists of six courses 
that include the CORE and two computer science 
electives, at least one of which must be chosen from 
Group A. 

Prospective majors in computer science are required 
to take Math 111 (Calculus) or Math 105-106 
(Calculus with Precalculus) and Math 208 (Discrete 
Structures). They are also encouraged to choose 
courses from among the following: Math 112, 211, 
212, and 331, Philosophy 211, Physics HI, 112, and 

240, and Psychology 204. 

Students intending to do graduate work in computer 
science are advised to take Math 351, Physics 240 and 

241, and six computer science electives including CS 
301 and CS 311. 

Facilities 

The Academic Computer Center maintains a 
campus- wide computing network with terminals 
distributed throughout campus. The network 
supports several programming languages and 
applications packages. The department maintains a 
SUN Sparc station network running the UNIX 
operating system for use by students studying parallel 
processing, operating systems, and graphics, as well 
as for those doing independent research. 

There are also microcomputer laboratories featuring 
bodi NeXT and MS/DOS machines. An extensive 
library of software tools is available for student use 
on these machines. 



103 Introduction to Computing 

Introduction to the use of computers in a variety of 
fields through the use of software tools and 
structured programming. Word processing, 
spreadsheet, and database software tools are taught 
from a perspective that emphasizes the underlying 
principles. The primary focus of the course will be 
structured programming and problem solving. 

Staff 

104 Introduction to Computer Science 

An introduction to computer science with an 
emphasis on problem solving methodology and 
algorithms. Further topics include computer 
organization, data structures, and software 
engineering. Prerequisite: CS 103 or AP credit in 
computer science. 

Staff 

216 Data Structures 

An introduction to the major data structures and 
some of their applications. Topics include linear lists, 
sets, queues, stacks, linked lists, string processing, 
trees, graphs, arrays, tables, files, and dynamic 
memory management. Prerequisites: Computer 
Science 104. 

Staff 

221 Computer Organization and Assembly 
Language Programming 

Programming at the machine level, with an emphasis 
on the logical connection of the basic components of 
the computer and systems programs. Topics include 
machine and assembly language programming, basic 
computer operations, hardware organization, systems 
software, and compilers. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 104. 

Mr. I^nbach, Mr. Tosten 

301 Theory of Computation 

A study of the basic theoretical principles of the 
computational model. Topics covered will include 
finite automata, regular expressions, context-free 
grammars, Turing Machines, Church's Thesis, Godel 
numbering, the halting problem, unsolvability, 
computational complexity, and program verification. 
Prerequisites: Math 208, CS 104. Alternate years. 
Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Levine 

311 Design and Analysis of Algorithms 

A survey of the basic principles and techniques for 
the development of good algorithms. Emphasis is 
placed on individual development of algorithms and 



MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE 



121 



an analysis of the results in terms of usefulness, 
efficiency, and organization. Topics include design 
techniques, worst case and average case analysis, 
searching, sorting, branch and bound, spanning 
trees, reachability, combinatorial methods, and NP- 
hard problems. Prerequisites: Math 112, Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 1993-94. 

Mr. Leinbach, Mr. Levine 

324 Principles of Operating Systems 

A study of the fundamental concepts of operating 
systems. Topics include sequential processes, 
concurrent processes, processor management, 
memory management, scheduling algorithms, and 
computer security. Projects will include the writing 
of a program to simulate the major components of 
an operating system. Prerequisite: Computer Science 
216. Alternate years. Offered 1993-94. 

Mr. Leinbach, Mr. Tosten 

340 Software Systems/Software Design 

A formal approach to the techniques of software 
design and development. An integral part of the 
course is the involvement of students, working as a 
team, in the development of a large software project. 
Implementation of the software project will be in a 
high-level language that supports modularity and 
procedural and data abstraction. Topics include 
formal model of structured programming, modular 
decomposition, information hiding, formal program 
specification techniques, software testing techniques, 
documentation, and user interfaces. Prerequisites: CS 
216, one CS course at the 300 level, and permission 
of the department. 

Mr. Tosten 

341 A Survey of Programming Languages 

A study of the fundamental concepts in the design of 
programming languages. These concepts include 
variables, expressions typing, scope, procedures, data 
types, exception handling, and concurrency. 
Particular programming languages will be used as 
examples of different ways for implementing these 
concepts. Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. 
Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Leinbach, Mr. Tosten 

360 Principles of Database Systems 

A study of the fundamental concepts of database 
systems. Topics include the physical organization of 
databases, indexing techniques, and query processing. 
Particular models to be studied include the Entity- 
Relationship, Relational, Network, and Hierarchical 
Models. Class projects will stress the design and 



implementation of a database. Prerequisite: Computer 
Science 216. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Tosten 

371 Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 

A study of the process of having machines mimic 

human behavior. Topics include search heuristics, 

knowledge representation, logic, natural language 

processing, rule-based systems, and robotics. 

Appropriate programming languages will be used to 

implement projects. Prerequisite: Computer Science 

216. Alternate years. Offered 1993-94. 

Mr. Tosten 

373 Interactive Computer Graphics Systems 

An introduction to the methods and issues of 

constructing interactive graphics packages. Topics 

include graphics input and output devices; scan 

conversion of lines, circles, and polygons; clipping; 

polygon filling; graphics primatives; and two- and 

three-dimensional image processing. Proper 

interactive sequencing is stressed and students will 

construct a small interactive graphics package. 

Prerequisite: Computer Science 216. Alternate years. 

Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Levine 

450 Individualized Study: Tutorial 

Study through individualized reading and projects of 
an advanced area of computer science by well- 
qualified students under the supervision of a staff 
member. Possible areas of study are software 
engineering, compiler design, expert systems, 
parallel architecture, image processing, or topics in 
the current literature which are of mutual interest to 
the student and the supervising staff member. 
Prerequisites: Computer Science 216 and permission 
of the computer science faculty. 

460 Individualized Study: Research 

Intensive study of a selected topic in computer 
science or a related area by carrying out a research 
project in collaboration with a staff member. 
Prerequisites: Computer Science 216 and permission 
of the computer science faculty. 

470 Internship in Computer Science 

Completion of a significant project in computer 
science within an industrial setting, government 
department, or research institute. The project must 
receive prior authorization from a staff member, and 
requires the submission of a satisfactory vmtten report 
upon completion. Prerequisites: Computer Science 216 
and permission of the computer science faculty. 



MUSIC 



Music 



Professors Zellner (Chairperson) and Nunamaker 

Associate Professors Finstad and Matsinko 

Instructor Jones 

Adjunct Professor Weikel 

Adjunct Assistant Professors T. Bowers, Botterbusch, 

and LeVan 
Adjunct Instructors Baxter, Kang, Light, Tranchitella, 

and Swain 

Overview 

The music department endeavors to introduce 
students to the historical significance of Western 
music so that they have an understanding of their 
musical heritage and some knowledge of current 
musical trends. Supporting this historical knowledge 
is acquaintance by students with the basic elements of 
music (harmony, counterpoint, and form) and 
discovery' of their own abilities through direct contact 
with, and creadve manipulation of, such material. 
The music curriculum also involves the student in an 
intensive study of applied music. This encompasses 
two aspects: individual and group (or ensemble) 
experience. In the practice room, studio, and recital 
hall the student has an opportunity to refine the 
techniques for musical performance. In the ensemble 
the individual must work within a larger social 
context to achieve a common musical goal. The 
program also provides courses for the student who 
plans to enter the field of music education. These 
offerings are based on competencies prescribed by 
the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The 
music department offers programs leading to a 
Bachelor of Arts degree in music and a Bachelor of 
Science degree in music education. 

Also available is a minor in music and a major in 
music within the elementary education certification 
program, which leads to a Bachelor of Arts degree. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department requires an audition of all 
candidates proposing to major in music or music 
education. Appointments for such auditions should 
be made through the College admissions office. 
Requirements for a major in music leading to a 
Bachelor of Arts degree consist of twelve full courses 
(Music 141, 142, 241, 242, 244, 341, 342, 313, 314, 
205, 206, and 456), plus six or seven quarter-courses 
in the student's major applied area. The major must 
also participate for four years in an authorized 
ensemble and present a recital in the senior year. 



Music majors in the elementary education program 
must meet the same requirements as the B.A. degree 
candidate, with the exception of courses 341 and 342. 

The successful completion of the program leading to 
the Bachelor of Science degree in music education 
(see page 41) satisfies the certification requirements 
for teaching music in elementary and secondary 
schools. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in arts may be fulfilled 
by one of the following: Music 101, 102, 103, 104, 
105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 141, 244, 313, and 314. 

Performing Ensembles 

All College students are eligible to audition for 
College Choir, Chapel Choir, Band, and Orchestra. 
Band members are eligible to audition for Jazz 
Ensemble, Brass Ensemble, Brass Quintet, Percussion 
Ensemble, and Clarinet Choir. The jazz improvisation 
lab is open to selected Jazz Ensemble members. 
Auditions for all groups are held at the beginning of 
the school year or at other times by appointment. 

101 Introduction to Music Listening 

A consideration of the principal music forms against the 
background of the other arts. Intensive listening is an 
essential part of the course. Repeated spring semester. 
Mr. Baxter, Mr. Matsinko, Mr. Nunamaker, Ms. Light 

102 World Music Survey 

A study of various selected music cultures found 
around the world with particular emphasis on the 
non-Western regions of sub-Saharan Africa, the Mid- 
East, and Asia. Music and music, making activities as 
well as other related arts will be examined in relation 
to the cultural contexts in which they are found. 

Mr. LeVan 

103 The Symphony 

The standard symphonic repertoire presented 
through listening. Attention will be given to stylistic 
changes in that music from the classic to the 
romantic and contemporary periods. 

Staff 

104 Opera 

Study of standard operatic works. These are listened 
to and discussed as examples of drama and music. 

Staff 

105 Introduction to Contemporary Music 

Study of the major trends in twentieth-century music, 



MUSIC 



123 



with emphasis on the music of Debussy, Stravinsky, 
Schoenberg, Bartok, and the Avant Garde composers. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

106 Art Song 

Study of the history, interpretation, and style of the 

art song. Literature will include German, French, 

English, and American art songs. Extensive listening 

assignments are required. 

Mr. Matsinko 

107 Music of the Romantic Era 

Study of the philosophical background for 

nineteenth-century music and its stylistic features. 

Extensive listening will he done in the areas of 

orchestral, vocal, and chamber music. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

108 Women in Music 

The study of women's contribution to music from 

the Middle Ages to the present. 

Ms. Light 

109 Mozart: The Man and His Music 

A study of Mozart's music, with a focus on his life, 

times, and musical analysis. Extensive listening 

assignments required. 

Mr. Matsinko 



206 Instrumental Conducting 

Continued development of conducting skills and 
score. This involves interpretation, musical styles, 
balance, intonation, rehearsal procedures, and 
suitable repertoire for large and small ensembles. 

Mr. Zellner 

241 Theory III 

Study of the common pracdce period; extensive 
written and analytic projects; study of musical 
structure through small forms; correlated sight- 
singing and aural perception skills. 

Mr. Jones 

242 Theory IV 

Study of late-romanticism to the present day by 

means of analytic and written projects. Correlated 

sight-singing, aural percepdon skills, and keyboard 

harmony are included. 

Mr. Jones 

244 Introduction to Music Literature 

Study of the major genres, style periods, and 

composers of Western music. Extensive use of 

recorded materials is included, with emphasis on the 

development of aural recognition. 

Mr. Matsinko 



110 Survey of Jazz 

Study of America's indigenous musical art form 

from early blues and Dixieland through 

contemporary big bands. A "live" jazz quartet is an 

integral part of style analysis. 

Mr. Jones 



303 Sixteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to the contrapuntal technique of the 

sixteenth century through the study of plainsong and 

early motets. Composidon in the small forms is a 

part of the course. Offered on demand. 

Staff 



141 Theory I 

Fundamentals of basic theory, notation, and 
nomenclature; introduction to writing skills; basic 
analydc technique; melodic analysis; correlated sight- 
singing and aural percepdon skills. 

Mr. Jones 

142 Theory II 

Continuation of writing skills; analysis and writing of 

chorales; correlated sight-singing and aural 

perception skills; keyboard harmony. 

Mr. Jones 

205 Choral Conducting 

Development of a basic conducting technique. 
Areas of study include vocal problems and tonal 
development, diction, rehearsal procedures, 
interpretation, and suitable repertoire for school. 



church, and community. 



Staff 



304 Eighteenth-Century Counterpoint 

Introduction to the contrapuntal style of the 

eighteenth century and an analysis of the baroque 

forms, with attention to linear motion and 

fundamental harmonic progression. Composition in 

the various forms is required. 

Staff 

313 History of Medieval, Renaissance, and 
Baroque Music 

Study of the major forms and styles of music and 

composers from the pre-Christian era through the 

eighteenth century. Extensive use of musical 

examples and recordings is included. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

314 Music in the Classic, Romantic, and 
Contemporary Periods 

Stvidy of the principal stylistic tendencies from c. 1770 



24 



MUSIC 



to the present Extensive listening to, and examination 
of, illustrative materials is an essential part of the course. 

Mr. Nunamaker 

320 Principles and Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary School 

Study of the methods and materials of teaching 
music in the elementary grades. Various approaches 
to guiding pupils in perception of, reaction to, and 
evaluation of, music experience are included. 



Alternate years. 



Staff 



321 Principles and Procediu-es of Teaching 
Music in the Secondary School 

Study and evaluation of methods, materials, and 

techniques relative to music classes and performance 

groups, with a development of a personal philosophy 

of music education. Alternate years. 

Staff 

341 Theory V 

Study of the capabilities and limitations of the 

standard wind, string, and percussion instruments. 

Included is score study, transposition, and emphasis 

on applied orchestration projects for laboratory 

performance and critique. 

Mr. Zellner 

342 Theory VI 

Study of the structural organization of music. 
Included will be the analysis of the larger forms of 
composition drawn from the standard literature of 

the eighteenth to twentieth centuries. 

Staff 

474 Student Teaching 

Teaching in public schools in cooperation with, and 
under the supervision of, experienced teachers. 
Individual conferences and seminars with the College 
supervisor and supervising teacher are required. 
Offered in spring semester only. 

Three Course Units 
Mr. Zellner 

Individualized Study 

Prerequisite: Approval of department and directing 
faculty member. 

^plied Music 

The department offers instrucdon in voice, piano, 
organ, and the standard band and orchestral 
instruments. The repertoire is adapted to the student's 
ability. One quarter course credit is given for one half- 
hour private lesson per week, per semester. Some 
piano and voice instruction may be in group classes. 



Students majoring in music who are candidates for 
the Bachelor of Arts degree are endded to eight 
quarter-courses of private instrucdon, and those who 
are candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Science 
in Music Education are entided to 12 quarter-courses 
of private instruction at no additional cost beyond 
the comprehensive fee. 

The department also sponsors various music 
organizations, including the College Choir, Chapel 
Choir, Band, and Orchestra. All college students are 
eligible to audition for any of these, either at the 
beginning of the school year or at other times by 
appointment. 

111-112 Woodwind Instrument Class 

Instruction in the technique of teaching and playing 
woodwind instruments, using the clarinet as the basic 

instrument. 

Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr. Zellner 

1 13-1 14 Brass Instrument Class 

Instruction in the technique of teaching and playing 
brass instruments. The trumpet or cornet is used as 

the basic brass instrument. 

Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr. Zellner 

115-116 Stringed Instrument Class 

Instruction and practice in the techniques of stringed 
instruments and the organization of a string section. 

Two 1/4 Courses 
Mr. Botterbusch 

117 Percussion Class 

The organization of practical and theoretical materials 
concerning all of the percussion instruments, their 
performance techniques, and teaching procedures. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Zellner 

121 Voice 

Private instruction in fundamentals of voice culture, 
with emphasis upon breath control, resonance, tone 
quality, diction, pronunciation, and an appreciation 
of the best works of the masters. Repeated in the 
spring semester. Fee for one half-hour lesson per 

week per semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Finstad 

122 Voice Class 

Study of vocal techniques using lectures, class 
discussions, and demonstrations. The course will 
have a practical workshop atmosphere: practicing 



MUSIC 



125 



basic vocal production with emphasis on posture, 
breath control, diction, and vowel formation. Fee for 

class lessons per semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Finstad 

123 Piano 

Private instruction in the development of the 
necessary techniques for facility in reading and 
interpreting a musical score accurately at the 
keyboard. Literature includes representative 
compositions of various styles and periods. Public 
performance is required of those majoring in this 
area of concentration. Fee for one half-hour lesson 

per week per semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

124 Class Piano 

Emphasis on sight-reading, ensemble playing, and 
harmonizing melodies with various types of 
accompaniment, as well as playing some of the 
standard piano literature. Fee for class lessons per 

semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Matsinko 

125 Organ 

Private instruction designed to include literature of 
various periods, sight-reading, hymn-playing, chant 
and anthem accompaniment. Prerequisites: satisfactory 
performance of all major and minor scales (two 
octaves) and a Bach Invention. Fee for one half-hour 

lesson per week per semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Weikel 

127 Band Instrument Instruction 

Private instruction emphasizing the fundamentals 
and repertoire for the performance of woodwind, 
brass, ana percussion instruments. Fee for one half- 
hour lesson per week per semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 

Ms. Bowers , Mr. Jones, Mr. Kang, 

Mr. Tranchitelle, Mr. Zellner 



131 College Choir 

Performs sacred and secular choral literature. In 
addition to performing on campus and in nearby 
cities, the Choir makes an annual spring concert 
tour. Oratorios are presented in conjunction with the 

Chapel Choir. Four rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Finstad 

132 Chapel Choir 

Performs standard musical literature with the 
purpose of supporting and assisting the College 
community in the Sunday morning services. The 
Choir appears in nearby cities and makes a short 

tour each spring. Three rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Matsinko 

133 Band 

Performs a wide variety of quality literature for the 
band. After home game marching performances, the 
symphonic band presents campus concerts and a 
spring tour of Pennsylvania and neighboring states. 

Three rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Jones 

135 Orchestra 

The study and performance of orchestral music of all 
areas. Membership is open to all students of 

qualifying ability. Two rehearsals weekly. 

No Credit 
Mr. Nunamaker 

456 Senior Recital 

Solo presentation of representative literature of 
various stylistic periods of the student's major 
applied area, with emphasis on historical 
performance practice. 



129 String Instrument Instruction 

Private instruction emphasizing both the 
fundamentals of string playing and repertory. Fee for 
one half- hour lesson per week per semester: $390. 

1/4 Course 
Mr. Nunamaker, Mr. Baxter 



7!) 



PHILOSOPHY 



Philosophy 



Professor Coulter (Chairperson) 

Associate Professor Portmess 

Assistant Professors Ruesga, Walters, and Weiss 

Overview 

The departmental objectives are to promote inquiry 
into perennial philosophical quesdons such as the 
nature of jusdce, happiness, knowledge, and freedom; 
to produce awareness of the answers that have been 
proposed in response to these quesdons; to teach the 
tools for the analysis of the assumpdons and values 
which underlie different intellectual disciplines; and 
to promote the applicadon of philosophical analysis to 
issues of public policy and morality. The study of 
philosophy encourages the student to develop the 
abilit)' to analyze problems, understand central issues, 
and develop altemadve soludons. It challenges the 
student to reflect upon problems involving values, to 
examine problems in an interdisciplinary way, to 
examine altemadve world views and forms of 
knowledge, and to develop an awareness of 
intellectual history. Classes encourage discussion and 
VNTidng. The study of philosophy is an integral part of 
an educadon in the liberal arts tradidon. 

A major in philosophy is excellent preparation for 
graduate school or for professional schools in almost 
any field. It is especially good background for law 
and the ministry. It will also prove valuable in any 
occupadon which demands clear thinking and the 
ability to understand the points of view of other 
people. Individually, philosophy courses will prove 
useful supplements to course work in other areas. 
The department is interested in assisting and 
encouraging students to design special majors in 
which philosophy is an integral part. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Philosophy 101, 103, 105, and 211 have no 
prerequisites. Any 100 level course or 21 1 is 
recommended as preparation for a 200- or 300 level 
course, diough die insUoictor may grant permission on 
an individual basis to equivalendy prepared students. 

A philosophy minor consists of any six courses in the 
department, only two of which may be 100 level 
courses. A philosophy major consists of nine courses 
in philosophy, including 211; at least two out of 203, 
204, and 220; three 300 level courses; and 460 
(Senior Thesis). 



Distribution Requirements 

Any course offered by the department may be used 
to satisfy the distribution requirement in 
history/philosophy. 

101 Introduction to Philosophy 

A study of selected philosophical texts which deal with 
perennial themes such as knowledge, happiness, 
justice, death, and the nature of reality. The goal is to 
develop the ability to read about, reflect on, and 
comment on philosophical issues. 

Staff 

103 Critical Thinking 

An informal logic course designed to help students 
reflect upon and enhance their ability to think 
analytically and creatively. Discussions and exercises 
focus on the techniques characteristic of informal 
logic (classification or arguments, analysis and 
evaluation of arguments, identifying informal 
fallacies, etc.), as well as strategies for intuitive and 
creative diinking. Technical treatment of analytic 
and creative methods will be illustrated by appeals to 
fiction, journalistic pieces, and personal experiences. 

Mr. Weiss 

105 Contemporary Moral Issues 

A study of moral problems facing individuals in our 
society. Selected readings dealing with moral disputes 
in business, politics, international affairs, medicine, and 
social policy will be discussed, along widi the ediical 
theories which the various sides use to make their cases. 

Staff 

203 Classical Greek and Roman Philosophy 

A study of the philosophers and philosophies of 
ancient Greece and Rome. Major emphasis will be 
on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristode, and Hellenistic 
Neoplatonism. 

Mr. Coulter 

204 Medieval and Early Modem Philosophy 

A study of philosophers and philosophies of medieval 
and early modem Europe as these reflect die impact of 
religion and science on die traditional problems and 
assumptions of philosophy. Major Uiinkers to be 
studied include Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, 
Leibniz, Spinoza, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. 

Ms. Portmess 

211 Logic and Semantics 

An introduction to formal logic and a study of the 
formal uses of language, widi particular reference to 



PHILOSOPHY/ PHYSICS 



127 



the nature of inference from premises to conclusion; 
rules for deductive inference; construction of formal 
proofs in sentential and quantificational logic; the 
nature of the language; informal inferences and 
fallacies; and theory of definition. 

Mr. Coulter 

216 Philosophy and Human Nattire 

A study of leading philosophical conceptions of 

human nature. Readings will cover traditional 

Ancient Greek and Judeo-Chrisdan conceptions, 

modern philosophical and scientific conceptions, 

and contemporary perspectives from the 

philosophical anthropology movement. Special 

emphasis v«ll be placed on the question of whether 

there is a distinct human nature. 

Mr. Weiss 

220 Nineteenth-Century Philosophy 

A study of leading European and American thinkers 

of the nineteenth century, including readings from 

Hegel, Feuerbach, Marx, Mill, Kierkegaard, 

Nietzsche, Peirce, and William James. 

Ms. Portmess 

234 Philosophy of Art 

A survey of the major paradigms in the history of 

aesthetic theory (e.g., formalism, 

representadonalism, expressionism, etc.), with 

emphasis on the relation of aesthetics to other 

aspects of philosophy. Such issues as the nature and 

function (s) of art and the qualifications of a good 

critic will be discussed. 

Mr. Ruesga 

350, 351, etc. Topics in Philosophy 

Studies of philosophical topics as treated by 

twentieth-century philosophers. Recent topics have 

been Philosophy of Natural and Social Science, 

Environmental Ethics, Philosophy of Religion, 

Analytic Philosophy, Ethical Theory, Theories of 

Reality, Feminism and Public Policy, and Philosophy 

of Mind. Topics will differ each semester and will be 

announced in advance. Prerequisites: major or minor 

in philosophy, or permission of the instructor. 

Staff 

460 Senior Thesis 

An individualized study project involving the 

research of a topic and the preparation of a major 

paper. This will normally be done during the fall or 

spring semester of the senior year. Prerequisite: major 

or minor in philosophy. 

otajj 



Physics 



Professors Aebersold and Marschall 
Associate Professors Cowan and Pella (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Aldinger, Good, and Luehrmann 
Laboratory Instructors Cooper and Hayden 

Overview 

Within wide limits, a physics major can be tailored to 
meet the needs and desires of individual students. A 
major in physics is appropriate for those who enjoy 
the subject and who have no particular career in 
mind. It is also suitable preparation for careers 
ranging from government and law to theoretical 
physics and molecular biology. Gettysburg physics 
graduates have selected a wide range of fields for 
graduate study, including astronomy; astrophysics; 
biophysics; business; geophysics; environmental, 
electrical, nuclear and ocean engineering physics; 
and physiological psychology. 

Persons who become physics majors ought to be 
curious about the ways of nature and have a strong 
urge to satisfy this curiosity. Their success depends 
upon their ability to devise and perform meaningful 
experiments, their intuitive understanding of the way 
nature behaves, and their skill in casting ideas into 
mathematical forms. No two majors are endowed 
with precisely the same division of these talents, but 
they must develop some proficiency in each. 

Courses in the department emphasize those theories 
and principles that give a broad, unifying 
understanding of nature and the analytical reasoning 
needed for their use. Laboratory training stresses the 
design of experiments, the techniques of precise 
measurement, and the interpretation of data. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The physics department offers both a Bachelor of 
Science and Bachelor of Arts degree for the major. 

B.A. requirements: 

A minimum of nine physics courses including Physics 
111, 112, 213, 240, 310, 312, 319, 325, and 330 are 
required of all majors. This minimum major is more 
than adequate preparation for physics certification 
for secondary school teaching and industrial or 
government laboratory work. Anyone for whom 
graduate study is a possibility should plan to take the 
additional courses described under the B.S. 
requirements below. Students are not permitted to 
take more than twelve courses in the department 
without the permission of the department, unless the 
thirteenth course is Physics 462 (Independent Study). 



28 



PHYSICS 



In addition, all majors must complete mathematics 
courses through Mathematics 212 or its equivalent. 
Majors are expected to exhibit increasing 
competence with computers as they progress 
through the courses in the physics curriculum. 

First year students who are considering a major in 
physics should enroll in Physics 111, 112, and 
Mathematics 111, 112, if possible. Prospective first 
year majors may also wish to consider taking Physics 
101 in the fall semester before taking Physics 111 in 
the spring. While it is desirable for majors to take 
either of these first year programs, students may 
accomplish a full major in physics even if they take 
Physics 111, 1 12 in their sophomore year. 

B.S. requirements: 

in addition to the courses specified above, the B.S. 
degree requires Physics 462 (Independent Study), 
and two additional courses in physics (at or above 
the 200 level). Candidates for the B.S. degree must 
also complete Mathematics 363. Students planning 
to continue graduate work in physics should plan on 
following this course of study. 

Minor: 

A minor in physics consists of Physics 111, 112, 
Physics 213, plus any three additional courses in 
physics beyond the 100 level. 

Distribution Requirements 

The laboratory science distribution requirement may 
be satisfied by taking Physics 101 and 102, Physics 
111 and 112, Physics 101 and 1 1 1 , or by taking 
Astronomy 101 and 102. 

The prerequisites listed below in the course 
descriptions are meant only as guides. Any course is 
open to students who have the permission of the 
instructor. 

Special Facilities 

In addition to well-equipped laboratories in nuclear 
physics, atomic physics, electronics, optics, and 
plasma physics, the facilities of the department 
include a planetarium and an observatory. The 
observatory features a 16" Cassegrain telescope with 
a computer-controlled drive, a UBV photometer, and 
an astronomical spectrometer. 

Computational resources include a microcomputer- 
equipped introductory laboratory, a microcomputer 
resource room, a microvax, two Sun workstations, 
and terminals to access the College mainframe 



computers, a VAX 6210 and a Sun 4/690. In 
addition, the department is networked to all other 
computing resources on campus, including Internet. 

Support facilities in Masters Hall include the physics 
library, a machine shop, and an electronics shop. 

Engineering 

The department administers the Dual-Degree 
Engineering Program with Columbia University, 
Washington University in St. Louis, and Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute. Students selecting this 
program take Physics 111, 112, and 213, and 
graduate from Gettysburg with a major in physics 
upon successful completion of an engineering 
degree at Columbia, Washington University in St. 
Louis, or RPI. The Dual-Degree Engineering 
program is further described on page 50. 

More details regarding the physics and the Dual- 
Degree Engineering Program are described in the 
Handbook for Students prepared by the Physics 
Department. Majors and prospective majors should 
request a copy from the Physics Department office. 

101 Solar System Astronomy 

An overview of the behavior and properties of 
planets, satellites, and minor members of the solar 
system. Subjects include basic phenomena of the 
visible sky, gravitation and orbital mechanics, the 
results of telescopic and space research, and theories 
of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This 
course is designed to satisfy the laboratory science 
distribution requirement for non-science majors. 
Three classes and a laboratory. 

Mr. Marschall 

102 Stellar Astronomy 

An overview of current knowledge about the 
universe beyond the solar system from a physical and 
evolutionary standpoint. Subjects include 
observational properties of stars, methods of 
observation and analysis of light, the nature of stellar 
systems and interstellar material, principles of stellar 
structure and evolution, and the overall structure 
and development of the physical universe. 
Prerequisite: AsXTonomy 101 or permission of the 
instructor. Three classes and a laboratory. 

Mr. Marschall 

101 Introduction to Contemporary Physics 

An introduction to twentieth-century physics providing 
the student vrtth an overview of the fundamental 
principles of classical physics: the theory of relativity 



PHYSICS 



129 



and quantum mechanics. The course includes a 
discussion of the fundamental forces of nature; topics 
in modem optics, including lasers and holography; 
nuclear and atomic physics; elementary particles; 
grand unified theories; and cosmology, including the 
origin and fate of the universe. The course will satisfy 
the laboratory science distribution requirement for 
non-science majors. Does not count toward the major. 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory. 

Mr. Aldinger 

102 Contemporary Physics 

A continuation of Physics 101 designed for the non- 
science major. The course will concentrate on the 
relationship between the physical principles 
developed during the first semester and the world in 
which we live. Topics will include heat and 
thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, optical 
instruments, electricity and circuits, medical 
diagnostics, and radiation effects. Not appropriate 
for students taking Math 112. Prerequisite: Physics 101. 

Three class hours and one laboratory. 

Mr. Good 

111 Mechanics and Heat 

Introduction to classical mechanics and heat: laws of 
motion; conservation of energy, linear momentum, 
and angular momentum; laws of thermodynamics; 
kinetic theory and ideal gas laws. Differential and 
integral calculus is introduced and used. Prerequisite: 
Mathematics 111, which may be taken concurrendy. 
Four class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Cowan 

112 Waves and Electricity and Magnetism 

Electrostatic fields, currents, magnetic fields, magnetic 

induction, and Maxwell's equaUons. Other topics 

include waves, light as a propagadng electromagnetic 

disturbance, and optics. Prerequisite: Physics 111. Four 

class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Cowan 

213 Relativity and Modem Physics 

Special theory of relativity, including four-vector 

notation. Other topics include black body radiation, 

photoelectric and Compton effects, Bohr theory, 

uncertainty principle, wave packets, and 

introductions to nuclear physics and particle physics. 

Prerequisite: Physics 112. Three class hours and three 

laboratory hours. 

Mr. Pella 



240 Electronics 

Principles of electronic devices and circuits using 
integrated circuits, both analog and digital, including 
amplifiers, oscillators, and logic circuits. Prerequisite: 
Physics 112. Two class hours and six laboratory hours. 

Mr. Good 

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics 

Introduction to quantum mechanics. Potential wells, 
barriers, one electron atoms, and multielectron atoms 
are studied. Other topics include nuclear models, 
decay, and nuclear reactions. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. Prerequisite: Physics 213. 

Mr. Cowan 

312 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics 

Temperature, heat, the first and second laws of 

thermodynamics, and introductory statistical 

mechanics of physical systems based on the principle 

of maximum entropy. Topics include the ideal gas, 

Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein "gases," electrons in 

metals, blackbody radiation, low temperature 

physics, and elements of transport theory. Prerequisite: 

Physics 213. Three class hours. 

Ms. Luehrmann 

319 Classical Mechanics 

An intermediate-level course in mechanics for 
upperclass physics majors. Topics include generalized 
coordinate systems, systems of many particles, rigid- 
body dynamics, central forces, oscillations, and the 
formalisms of Lagrange and Hamilton. Prerequisites: 
Physics 213 and Mathematics 211. Three class hours. 

Ms. Luehrmann 

325 Advanced Physics Laboratory 

A laboratory course with experiments drawn from 

various areas of physics, such as optics, 

electromagnetism, atomic physics, and nuclear 

physics, with particular emphasis on contemporary 

methods. Error analysis and experimental 

techniques are stressed. 

Staff 

330 Electricity and Magnetism 

An intermediate course in electromagnetism, 

including vector fields and vector calculus, 

electrostatic field theory, dielectrics, magnetic 

phenomena, fields in matter. Maxwell's equations, 

Laplace's equation and boundary value problems, 

and electromagnetic waves. Prerequisites: Physics 112 

and Physics 319. Three class hours. 

Mr. Aldinger 



130 



PHYSICS / POLITICAL SCIENCE 



541 Quantum Mechanics 

Aji introduction to the Schrodinger and Heisenberg 

formulations of quantum mechanics. Topics covered 

inckide free particles, the harmonic oscillator, 

angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, matrix 

mechanics, the spin wave functions, the helium 

atom, and perturbation theory. Prerequisites: Physics 

310 and 319, Mathematics 363. Three class hours. 

Mr. Aldinger 

452 Tutorials: Special Topics 

Designed to cover physics or physics-related topics 
not otherwise available in the curriculum. Open to 
upperclass physics majors who arrange with a staff 
member for supervision. Possible areas of study 
include advanced electronics, medical physics, 
astrophysics, acoustics, and optics. Prerequisite: 
Approval by department. 

Staff 

462 Independent Study in Physics and 
Astronomy 

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a 
research-level problem selected by a student in 
consultation with a staff member. Students should 
arrange with a staff member for supervision by the 
end of the junior year. Open only to second semester 
senior physics majors. Results of the investigation are 
reported in a departmental colloquium. Prerequisite: 
Approval by department. 

Staff 

474 Internship 

Research participation during the summer at a 
recognized research laboratory such as Argonne 
National Labs, Department of Energy Laboratories, 
or Oak Ridge. Individual students are responsible for 
obtaining acceptance to these programs. In most 
cases students will be required to describe their 
participation in a departmental colloquium. 
Prerequisite: Completion of sophomore year and 
departmental approval. 

Mr. Pella 



Political Science 



Professor Mott (Chairperson) 

Associate Professors Borock and D. Tannenbaum 

Assistant Professors Gaenslen, lannello, Salgado, G. 

Smith, and Warshaw 
Instructor DeClair 

Overview 

The department aims at providing an understanding 
of the study of politics, emphasizing the methods 
and approaches of political science and the workings 
of political systems in various domestic, foreign, and 
international settings. 

The program provides balance between the needs of 
specialists who intend to pursue graduate or 
professional training and those who do not. Courses 
offered in the department help prepare the student 
for careers in politics, federal, state, and local 
government, public and private interest groups, 
business, journalism, law, and teaching. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The requirements for a major in political science are 
as follows. Majors in the department are required to 
take a minimum of ten courses in political science. 
Majors are required to take three of the following 
four introductory courses: Political Science 101, 102, 
103, or 104. These courses are designed to introduce 
the students to the discipline and to the types of 
issues that are important to political scientists. The 
100 level courses may be taken in any order, and they 
should be completed by the end of the sophomore 
year. In the selection of advanced courses (courses at 
the 200, 300, and 400 level), majors are required to 
take Political Science 215 (Political Science Research 
Methods) as sophomores or first semester juniors, 
and at least one course in three of the following 
groups: American Politics, Comparative Politics, 
International Politics, and Political Theory. 

The introductory courses serve as prerequisites for 
advanced courses; nevertheless, the department 
believes that three introductory courses provide a 
firm foundation in the discipline as a whole. 
Therefore it strongly encourages majors to take 
advanced courses in all four of the groups. Majors 
may begin taking advanced courses as early as the 
sophomore year provided they have taken the 
particular prerequisite, or in the case of not having 
the prerequisite, they believe they are prepared to do 
so and have the instructor's permission. Courses 
graded S/U are not accepted toward the major. 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



131 



Requirements for a minor in political science are as 
follows: successful completion of any two 100 level 
courses and any four upper-level courses which 
normally covmt toward the major, provided that they 
do not all fall into the same subfield. 

Departmental honors in political science will be 
awarded to graduating majors who have achieved an 
average of 3.3 in political science courses and who 
have successfully completed a significant research 
project in the senior year. Students wishing to qualify 
for honors are responsible for choosing a faculty 
member to direct the project. A second faculty 
member will act as a reader of the completed work. 
Those who achieve honors are expected to present 
their work in a public forum. 

In the junior and senior years, majors are urged to 
participate in seminars, individualized study, and 
internships. Majors also are encouraged to enroll in 
related courses in other social sciences and in the 
humanities. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any of the following courses may be counted towards 
the College distribution requirements in social 
sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The following 
courses may be counted towards the College 
distribution requirement in non-Western culture: 
263, 270, and 271. 

Special Programs 

Qualified students may participate in off-campus 
programs, such as the Washington Semester, The 
United Nations Semester, and Study Abroad. 

Introductory Courses 

101 American Government 

Examination of the institutional structure and policy- 
making process of national government as 
reflections of assumptions of liberal democracy and 
the American social and economic systems. In 
addition to the legislative, executive, and judicial 
branches of government, political parties, interest 
groups, and elections are considered. 

Mr. Mott, Mr. Smith, 
Ms. lannello, Ms. Warshaw 

102 Introduction to Political Thought 

Analysis of political philosophies dealing with 
fundamental problems of political association. The 
course will examine concepts of power, authority, 
freedom, equality, social justice, and order as expressed 
in works of philosophers from Plato to Marx. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 



103 Global PoUtics 

Examination of the behavior of nation-states in the 
international system from a micropolitical 
perspective that encompasses such topics as 
nationalism, power, and war, as well as from a 
macropolitical perspective that stresses broad trends 
such as political and economic interdependence and 
the effects of modernization. 

Mr. Borock, Mr. Salgado 

104 Introduction to Comparative Politics 

Introduction to the structures and processes of 
political institutions in major types of political 
systems, including parliamentary systems, the Soviet 
system, and systems in developing countries. 

Mr. DeClair, Mr. Gaenslen 

Methodology 

215 Political Science Research Methods 

Introduction to quantitative research methods and 

their application to the study of politics. Topics 

include empiricism, survey research and polling, 

electorial behavior, and public opinion. Special 

attention is given to research design, data collection, 

data processing, and statistical analysis. Prerequisites: 

Completion of three of the following: Political 

Science 101, Political Science 102, Political Science 

103, and Political Science 104, or permission of the 

instructor. 

Mr. DeClair, Mr. Smith 

American Government 
220 Urban PoUtics 

Study of the changing patterns in American urban 

life. Particular attention will be given to the 

governing of urban America in the past, present, and 

future, and the structure of power that has affected 

urban policy decisions. Prerequisite: Political Science 

101 or permission of the instructor. ,, , „ 

Ms. lannello 

223 U.S. Congress 

Study of the United States Congress, focusing on 

theories of representation, nomination and electoral 

processes, internal organization of Congress, 

influences on Congressional policy-making, and 

Congressional interaction with other participants in 

the policy process. Prerequisite: Political Science 101 

or permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 

224 The American Presidency 

Study of the presidency in the American political 



y2 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



system, including presidential selection, presidential 
leadership and decision-making, the president's 
advisors, and the role of the presidency in the policy- 
making process. Prerequisite: Political Science 101 or 

permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Warshaw 



decision-making; the arms race; foreign economic 

policy; military intervention; alliance systems; 

foreign aid; and the East- West/ North-South 

confrontations. Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or 

permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Borock 



225 American Constitutional Law 

Study of the judicial process in the United States, 

with particular focus on the Supreme Court and its 

historical role in nation-building, establishing 

principles of federalism and the separadon of 

powers, and determining the scope of personal and 

property rights. Prerequisite: Political Science 101 or 

permission of the instructor. . , , , 

^ Mr. Mott 

231 Political Parties in American Politics 

Examination of political parties, their role in 
democracy, and the nature of the party system in 
relation to other social and political processes. 
Aspects of voting behavior and campaign techniques 
are considered. Prerequisites: VoXiiicaX Science 101 and 
Political Science 215 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Smith 

232 Public Opinion 

Introduction to the theory of public opinion. Topics 
include opinion formation and the influence of 
political socialization, the impact of political culture 
and mass media on public opinion, the importance 
of public opinion in a democratic society, and public 
opinion research methods. Prerequisites: Political 
Science 101 and Political Science 215 or permission 
of the instructor. 

Mr. Smith 

322 Civil Rights and Liberties 

Study of selected problems involving interpretations 

of the Bill of Rights. Attention vdll be given to both 

the evolution and current standing of issues treated 

by the Supreme Court. Prerequisites: Political Science 

101 and Political Science 225, or permission of the 

instructor. 

Mr. Mott 

International Politics 

242 United States Foreign Policy 

Examination of the formulation of policy within the 
national government structure, including the 
varying perspectives on goals and objectives; the 
implementation of policy; and the impact of policy 
domestically and internationally. Topics include 



341 International Political Economy 

Probes the impact of economic factors of the 
international political system and various sub- 
systems. Capitalist, Marxist, and socialist economic 
theories are discussed, as well as specific relations of 
trade, production monetary exchange, and 
economic organization within the West, between 
East and West, and between North and South. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or permission of the 

instructor. 

Staff 

344 U.S. National Security Policy 

Examination of the process by which military and 
political decisions join to form a unified policy. 
Attention will be given to decision-making, the 
identification of national security issues, defense 
spending, strategic policies, the impact of technological 
change, and civilian-military relationships. 
Prerequisite: Political Science 103 or permission of the 
instructor. Political Science 242 is recommended. 

Mr. Borock 

Comparative Politics 

260 West European Politics 

A study of the government and politics of France, 
Germany, and Great Britain. Analysis of the 
development of their political institutions, the social 
and cultural factors affecting their political systems, 
the alignment of political forces, and the structures 
and processes of decision making. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. DeClair 

263 The Politics of Developing Areas 

Introduction to the study of p>oliticaI development and 
underdevelopment, including approaches to Third 
World politics; the nature of traditional politics; 
disruptions caused by colonialism and imperialism; the 
reformation of domestic politics; and contemporary 
political processes and problems. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 1 04 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Gaenslen 

270 Government and Politics in China 

An introduction to the domestic politics of China, 



POLITICAL SCIENCE 



T33^ 



particularly since 1949. Topics include the historical 
legacy, ideology, political institutions, elite-mass 
relations, the policy process, developmental 
strategies, and efforts at reform. Prerequisite: Political 
Science 104 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Gaenslen 

271 Government and Politics in Japan 

An introduction to post-World War II Japanese 
politics, involving comparison with political patterns 
elsewhere in the industrialized world. Topics include 
the historical legacy, political structures and processes, 
elite-mass relations, and the nature of the connection 
between business and government. Prerequisite: 
Political Science 104 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Gaenslen 

Political Theory 

280 Modem Political Ideologies 

Study of the philosophical content and the role of 

political ideologies in the modern world, with 

emphasis on liberalism, socialism, communism, and 

fascism. The concept of ideology, historical 

development and the intersection and overlap of 

ideologies, and the influence of ideologies on 

political behavior will also be considered. Prerequisite: 

Political Science 102 or equivalent. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

381 American Political Thought 

Study of the development of political thought in 

America from the colonial period to the present. In 

addition to examining individual writers and 

movements, the course will consider the relationship 

of the ideas examined to the broader tradition of 

Western political philosophy. Prerequisite: Political 

Science 102 or equivalent. ,^ t- . 

^ Mr. lannenbaum 



Advanced Courses 

200, 300 Topics in Political Science 

Exploration of an announced topic chosen each year 

or every other year by the department. 

Staff 

400 Seminars 

Advanced study of domestic, foreign, or world 
politics or political theory. A common core of 
reading and written reports by each student is 
provided. Although topics differ each year and will 
be announced in advance, several seminars are 
offered routinely and are listed below. 



401 Executive Policy Making 

Study of the constraints in the presidential policy- 
making process. Included is an examination of the 
bureaucratic, constituent, and congressional impact 
on the development of policy options in executive 
decision making. Students are responsible for a 
major term paper which involves a considerable 

amount of independent research. 

Ms. Warshaw 

403 Gender Discrimination and the Law 

Examination of the process by which the American 
judiciary, particularly the U.S. Supreme Court, 
creates and responds to changing legal, social, 
economic, and cultural patterns between the sexes. 

Mr. Mott 

406 Politics of Poverty 

Consideration of the definitions of poverty and the 

location of the problem within the federal political 

system. Attention is given to competing 

ideologies/ theories of the development of poverty in 

urban areas and corresponding proposals/solutions 

offered by each perspective. 

Ms. lannello 

410 American Black/Feminist Political Thought 

Study of the development of contemporary African- 
American political thought in America. 
Consideration is given to twentieth-century 
contributions by black men and women to political- 
social movements, to mainstream political thought, 
and to the broader tradition of Western political 
philosophy. Prerequisite: Political Science 102 or 
equivalent. Political Science 381 is recommended. 

Mr. Tannenbaum 

Individualized Study 

Intensive research on an approved topic presented 

in oral or written reports, under the supervision of a 

member of the department faculty. 

Staff 

Internship 

A minimum six weeks of on-site participation in 

administration with a public or private organization 

under the supervision of a member of the 

department faculty. Available during the fall or 

spring semesters or during the summer. 

Staff 

Honors 

Opportunity for highly-qualified students to 
participate in a program of original research under 



34 



POLITICAL SCIENCE / PSYCHOLOGY 



the supervision of a member of the department 

faculty. Each student will complete a thesis and 

present her or his research in a public forum. 

Staff 

Psychology 

Professors: D'Agostino, Mudd, and Pittman 

(Chairperson) 
Associate Professor Riggs and Bornstein 
Assistant Professors Arterberry, Cain, Fincher-Kiefer, 

Lemley, Siviy, and Tykocinski 

Overview 

The department emphasizes experimental psychology 
in all of its course offerings. The objective of the 
department is to promote knowledge of the causes of 
behavior, with emphasis on the formation of a 
scientific attitude toward behavior and appreciation of 
the complexity of human personality. This objective is 
approached by providing a representative array of 
courses in psychology, including seminars, special 
topics, independent reading, and independent 
research, and by providing selected opportunities for 
field work. Direct experience with the major methods, 
instruments, and theoretical tools of the discipline is 
emphasized throughout. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other courses 
in the department. Requirements for a major include 
Psychology 101, 205, 305, 341, too advanced 
laboratory courses, one from each of the following 
two groups: (a) 318, 321, 327, 328 and (b) 315, 316, 
317, 336, and three additional courses in psychology. 
Most laboratory courses have a 200 level course as a 
prerequisite. Students may, with the agreement of a 
faculty sponsor, substitute an individualized empirical 
research project for one of the required advanced 
laboratory courses. Majors must earn a grade of C or 
better in both Psychology 205 and 305. 

It is possible for diose who have scored 60 or above on 
the CLEP (College-Level Examination Program) 
General Psychology examination to waive the 
introductory course (Psychology 101) and to qualify for 
advanced placement in the department. Write: College 
Board, Box 1822, Princeton, NJ 08540 for information 
about taking the CLEP exam. 

An individualized study and experience in the use of 
the computer and/or training in computer science 
are highly recommended for those planning to go 
on to graduate work. Students should consult with 



their advisers for specific information on the 
prerequisites for work at the graduate level in the 
specialized areas of psychology. 

Honors Research Program 

This program provides outstanding students with an 
intensive research experience. Invitations for 
participation may be extended to students who have 
a GPA of 3.5 in Psychology 101, 205, and 305. These 
courses should be completed by the end of the 
sophomore year. 

Students in this program will take two advanced 
laboratory courses in the junior year (priority will be 
given at registration), and will enroll in Psychology 450 
(Honors Research) in their senior year (an honors 
thesis may he substituted for Psychology 450-see 
Honors Thesis course description below) . The results 
of these honors research projects will be presented at 
the Spring Undergraduate Research Colloquium. 
Students will also be expected to attend departmental 
colloquia and other departmental events. 

Requirements for Departmental Honors 

Departmental Honors are awarded to graduating 
majors who, in the combined judgement of the staff, 
have demonstrated academic excellence in course- 
work in the major, and who have completed the 
individualized empirical research project, honors 
research, or an honors thesis. 

Distribution Requirements 

Psychology 101 may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in social sciences. 

101 General Psychology 

An introduction to the basic scientific logic, facts, 

theories, and principles of psychology, including the 

study of human motivation, learning, emotion 

perception, thought, intelligence, and personality. 

Some attention is given to the applications of 

psychology. Repeated spring semester. May be used 

toward fulfilling the distribution requirement in the 

social sciences. „ rr 

Staff 

205 Introduction to Statistics 

Introduction to descriptive and inferential statistical 
methods. Laboratory work involves the use of a 
computer software package that allows for the 
application of statistical procedures. Credit may not 
be granted for this course and Mathematics 107 or 
Economics 241. Offered each semester. Prerequisite: 
High school algebra. Required of all majors. Three 
class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Arterberry, Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 



PSYCHOLOGY 



IW 



210 Behavioral Economics and Social Engineering 

Introduction to behavioral economics and the 
implications of that field for social planning in a high 
mass consumption society. The potential 
contribution of behavioral systems analysis and social 
science research to more effective social and 
economical planning is considered in the context of 
a "think tank" course model. One three-hour seminar 
(arranged) and one group field survey are required 
in the course of the semester. Alternate years. 

Mr. Mudd 

212 Industrial and Organizational Psychology 

An introduction to industrial and organizational 

psychology, including theory and practice in the 

following areas: personnel, organizational behavior and 

development, training, and the place of work in the 

psychological makeup of humans and human society. 

Equal attention is given to theory and applications. 

Several group projects are required in addition to the 

normal examination pattern. Three class hours offered 

in alternative years with Psychology 210. 

Mr. Mudd 

214 Social Psychology 

Review of current psychological theory and research 
in social psychology. Topics include attitude and 
behavior change, conformity, attraction, 
interpersonal perception, and psychological aspects 
of social interaction. 

Ms. Riggs, Ms. Tykocinski, Mr. Pittman 

215 Human Cognition 

Introduction to cognitive psychology. Topics covered 

include perception, attention, memory, learning, 

forgetting, language comprehension, reasoning, and 

problem solving. Theories are presented concerning 

cognitive processes and empirical evidence is 

considered that might challenge or support these 

theories. 

Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

216 Sensory Psychology 

An in-depth study of the senses. This course provides 
a background in psychophysics and sensory 
physiology. Early research techniques and problems, 
as well as current experimental research, will be 
discussed. Prerequisite: Psychology 101 or Biology 101. 

Ms. Lemley 

221 Basic Dynamics of Personality 

An introduction to the major approaches to 
personality, including psychodynamic, behavioral, 



humanistic, and trait models. General issues and 

problems which arise in the study of personality are 

considered, and the importance of empirical 

evidence is emphasized. 

Mr. Bomstein 

225 Developmental Psychology: Infancy and 
Childhood 

The psychological development of the individual 

from conception to adolescence. Theory, 

methodology, and research are presented in the 

areas of perception, learning, cognition, language, 

social, and moral development. Students who take 

this course may not take Psychology 227 or 

Psychology 228. 

Ms. Arterbeny, Ms. Cain 

227 Cognitive Development 

The psychological development of the individual 
from conception through adolescence. Theory, 
methodology, and research are presented in the area 
of perception, cognitive, and language development. 

Ms. Arterbeny, Ms. Cain 

228 Social and Personality Development 

The psychological development of the individual 

from infancy to adolescence. Theory, methodology, 

and research are presented in the areas of family and 

peer relationships, motivation, social cognition, 

moral development, and developmental 

psychopathology. Prerequisite: Psychology 227 or 

permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Arterbeny, Ms. Cain 

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior 

Introduction to the anatomical and physiological 

bases of human behavior. Topics will include sensory 

physiology, biorhythms and sleep, homeostasis, sex, 

learning and memory, language, and mental illness. 

Emphasis will be on developing an ability to 

conceptualize psychological phenomena in 

biological terms. 

Mr. Siviy 

305 Experimental Methods 

An introduction to scientific method and 
experimental design. Emphasis is placed on the 
logical development of new ideas, kinds and sources 
of error in experimentation, methods of control, 
design and analysis of experiments, and scientific 
communication. Prerequisites: Psychology 101 and 
Psychology 205. Three class hours and three 
laboratory hours. 

Ms. /Jiggs, Mr. D Agostino, Pittman 



136 



PSYCHOLOGY 



315 Thinking and Cognition 

In-depth examination of the cognitive processes 
involved in language comprehension, problem 
solving, reasoning, and decision making. Current 
research and existing theories will be surveyed. 
Research will be conducted in one of the areas of 
investigation. Prerequisites: Psychology 215, or 
permission of the instructor, and Psychology 305. 
Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Fincher-Kiefer 

316 Perception 

Introduction to sensory and perceptual processes in 
vision. Lectures deal with sensory coding, feature 
detection, figural synthesis, and semantic 
integration. Laboratory work includes several minor 
studies and one major two-person group research 
study on a special topic of the students' own choice 
on some aspect of human facial perception. 
Prerequisite: Psychology 305. Three class hours and 
the equivalent of three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Mudd 

317 Memory and Social Cognition 

An introduction to human memory and social 
cognition. Attention will focus on factors known to 
influence the storage and retrieval of social 
information. Errors and biases in human judgment 
will also be examined. Prerequisite: Psychology 305. 
Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Mr. D 'Agostino 

318 Experimental Social Psychology 

Study of specific content areas in social psychology. 
Current theories and empirical data will be used to 
illustrate experimental designs and relevant 
methodological considerations. Laboratory work 
includes the design, execution, and analysis of two 
original experiments. Prerequistes: Psychology 214 and 
Psychology 305. Three class hours and the equivalent 
of three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Riggs, Ms. Tykodnski, Mr. Pittman 

321 Assessment of Personality and Intelligence 

An introduction to the methodological and 
conceptual issues involved in the construction and 
use of personality tests. Following a survey of the 
literature on test development and validation, 
selected personality and intelligence tests will be 
studied in depth. Empirical research on each test will 
be examined. Each student will also design, conduct, 
analyze, and write up an experiment evaluating some 
aspect of personality test or measure. Prerequisites: 



Psychology 221 and 305. Three class hours and the 
equivalent of three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Bomstein 

326 Abnormal Psychology 

An introduction to psychopathology and abnormal 
behavior, with particular attention to conceptual, 
methodological, and ethical issues involved in the 
study of abnormal psychology. Models of 
psychopathology and psychodiagnosis are discussed, 
with an emphasis on the empirical evidence for 
different models. Prerequisite: Psychology 221. 

Mr. Bomstein 

327 Experimental Cognitive Development 

An intensive study of one or more areas of cognidve 
development. Emphasis is placed on the unique 
characteristics of research with children. Laboratory 
work is conducted in a preschool or day care center. The 
design, execution, and analysis of a research project is 
required. Prerequisites: Psychology 227; Psychology 305. 
Three class hours and three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Arterberry 

328 Laboratory in Social and Personality 
Development 

An intensive study of one or more areas of social and 
personality development, utilizing observational and 
experimental methods. Emphasis is placed on the 
unique characteristics of research with children. 
Laboratory work is conducted in a preschool or day 
care center and includes the design, execution, and 
analysis of a research project. Prerequisites: 
Psychology 228; Psychology 205 and 305. Three class 
hours and three laboratory hours. 

Ms. Cain 

336 Neuropsychology 

Advanced discussion of the topics included in 
Psychology 236, as well as an in-depth treatment of 
brain development and the neurological basis of 
behavior. Prerequisites: Psychology 236 and 305 or 
permission of the instructor. Three class hours and 
three laboratory hours. 

Mr. Siviy 

341 History of Experimental Psychology 

A review of the development of experimental psychology 
to the present Emphasis is on the role of the reference 
experiment in setting the course of major programs of 
research in psychology over the past century. Three 
demonstration experiments are required. 

Ms. Lemley, Mr. Mudd 



PSYCHOLOGY / RELIGION 



T5T 



400 Seminar 

An opportunity to work on a selected topic in a small 
group under the guidance of a member of the staff. 
Not offered every semester. The topic for a given 
semester is annoimced well in advance. Enrollment 
by permission of the instructor. May be repeated. 

Staff 

Individualized Reading 

Opportunity to do intensive and critical reading and 

to write a term paper on a topic of special interest. 

Student will be expected to become thoroughly 

familiar with reference books, microfilms, and 

scientific journals available for library research in the 

field of psychology. Prerequisite: Permission of the 

instructor. May be repeated. 

Staff 

Individualized Empirical Research 

Design and execution of an empirical study involving 
the collection and analysis of data in relation to some 
psychological problem under the supervision of a 
staff member. Students are required to present an 
acceptable research proposal no later than four 
weeks following the beginning of the semester or to 
withdraw from the course. Research culminates in a 
paper. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. May 

be repeated. 

Staff 

Honors Research 

Students in the Honors Research Program will take 

this course in their senior year. The course has two 

components: (a) a research project, similar to that 

described under hi dividual ized Empirical Research, 

in which each student designs and executes an 

empirical study under the supervision of a staff 

member; and (b) an honors seminar in which honors 

students present and discuss their research projects. 

Students may elect to do their research project in 

either the fall or the spring semester. The seminar will 

meet both semesters, and all students will participate 

in all of the seminar meetings. One course credit will 

be given in the spring semester. Prerequisites: 

Participation in the Honors Research Program and 

completion of two advanced laboratory courses. 

Staff 

Honors Thesis 

Designed to meet the needs of the clearly superior 
student. During the senior year each participant will 
engage in an original program of research under the 
direction of a thesis committee. In addition to 



completing a formal thesis, each student will present 
and discuss his or her research before the entire 
staff. Successful completion of the program entitles 
the student to receive credit for two courses which 
can be applied towards a psychology major. 
Prerequisite: By invitation of the department only. 

Staff 

Religion 

Professors Hammann (Chairperson), Moore, and 

Tipson (Provost) 
Associate Professor Trone 
Assistant Professors Kim, McTighe, and C. Myers 

Overview 

Essential to an understanding of the past and the 
present is a study of the varied religious experiences 
and traditions of humankind. The department offers 
courses in sacred texts, historical traditions, and 
religious thought and institutions, all of which 
investigate the complex phenomenon of religion. 

Requirements and Recommendations 
A major consists of ten courses, eight within the 
department and as many as two outside of it. Of the 
eight courses taken within the Department of 
Religion for a major, at least three must be at the 
300 level or above and must include Religion 460. 
No more than two 100 level courses may be 
included. The department encourages qualified 
students to consider internships and/or overseas 
study, including the junior year abroad. 

A minor consists of six courses, one of which may be 
an approved course outside the department but not 
in the student's major. Nor may there be more than 
two 100/200 level courses. 

Classics 230 Classical Mythology 

Greek 204 New Testament Greek 

Latin 306 St. Augustine 

IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization 

211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

227, 228 Civilization of India 

237, 238 Literature of India 

Hist. 311,312 Medieval Europe 

313 Renaissance and Reformation 

Phil. 105 Contemporary Moral Issues 

203 Classical Greek and Roman 
Philosophy 

With the permission of the department, a major or 
minor may substitute courses from other 
departments for those in the above list. 



I :i;s 



RELIGION 



The department's rationale behind course 
numbering is as follows: 

100-level courses dse essentially topical and thematic. 

200-level courses are surveys which usually take a 
historical approach. The 200-level courses are especially 
appropriate for an introduction to the major. Neither 
100-nor 200-level courses have a prerequisite. 

300-level courses are more narrowly focused or 
specialized, often examining in greater detail some 
issue or area treated more generally in a previous 
course. 

Since some upper-level courses are not offered every 
year, students should consult with individual 
instructors when planning their programs. Those 
planning to attend seminary or a graduate school in 
religion should consider either a major or a minor in 
the department. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any one of the 100- or 200 level courses will fulfill the 
one course distribution requirement in religion, the 
difference between 100- and 200 level courses being a 
matter of emphasis rather than degree of difficulty or 
advanced character. Two half-credit courses in the 
department at this level count as one full-credit 
course. The following courses meet the distribution 
requirement in non-Western culture: 108, 242, and 
245. The following courses fulfill the distribution 
requirement in history/philosophy: 220 and 221. 

100- and 200 level 

105 The Bible and Modem Moral Issues 

An investigation of the relevance of the Bible for life 
in the twentieth century. Some issues studied from a 
biblical perspective include sex roles and sexual 
relations, economic inequities, and legal injustices. 
Among topics to be covered are marriage and 
divorce, homosexuality, women's rights, poverty, war, 
and peace. Three class hours. No prerequisites. 
Open to first year students and sophomores only. 

Mr. C. Myers 

108 Wisdom Literature 

A comparative study of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs, with the wisdom 
literature of the Sumerians, Egypdans, Babylonians, 
and other contemporaries and predecessors of the 
Israelites. Fulfills the distribution requirement in 
non-Western culture. 

Mr. Moore 



113 Women in the Ancient World 

An investigation of the role(s) of woman as reflected 
in the myths, legends, epics, law codes, customs, and 
historical records of the Sumerians, Babylonians, 
Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. The 
relevance of some of this for contemporary roles and 
problems is also examined. 

Mr. Moore 

117 Topics in Biblical Studies 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of biblical studies. 
Offered at the discretion of the department 

Staff 

124 Elizabeth to Irene: Women in Christianity I 

A seminar exploring writings by Christian women 
and other informadon about them in laws, 
theologies, biographies, histories, letters, funeral 
eulogies, legends, liturgies, and Chrisdan art from 
the New Testament to the eighth century. This 
course complements Religion 125, 220, 221, IDS 206, 
and may count toward a minor in women's studies. 

Mr. Trone 

125 Theodora to Margery: Women in 
Christianity II 

A seminar exploring wridngs by Chrisdan women 
and other informadon about them in laws, 
theologies, biographies, histories, letters, funeral 
eulogies, legends, liturgies, and Christian art from 
the ninth century to the fifteenth century. This 
course complements Religion 124, 220, 221, IDS 206, 
and may count toward a minor in women's studies. 

Mr. Trone 

127 Topics in History of Religions 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of the history of religions. 
Offered at the discredon of the department. 

Staff 

134 Religion in Cinema 

Study of films that portray the themes and stories 
rooted in religious texts. The method of the course 
will be to compare the cinemadc representation with 
that of the original texts. Such films as Ordet, Jesus of 
Montreal, Wise Blood, The Last Temptation of Christ, The 
Prophet, The Gospel According to St. Matthew, The Ten 
Commandments, and The Robe, will be viewed and 
analyzed. 

Mr. Hammann 



RELIGION 



139 



135 Religion in Fiction 

All examination of the fictional representation of 
religious stories. The works of Lewis, Malamud, 
Olson, Kazantzakis, MacLeish, Lagerkvist, and others 
^i" be read. ^^ Hammann 

137 Topics in Religious Thought 

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, 
writer, or theme in the field of religious thought. 
Offered at the discretion of the department. „ .. 

140 Religion and Politics in the Twentieth 
Centiuy U.S. 

A survey of the relationship between religion and 
public life since 1900. Emphasis will be on the 
constitutional framework which guides the church- 
state debate, and on efforts to use religion to 
influence political policies and social values. 
Supreme Court decisions, Martin Luther King, Jr. 
and the Civil Rights Movement, the Catholic Worker 
Movement, and the Moral Majority will be included. 

Mr. McTighe 

141 ReUgion and Culture in the U.S. 

An examination of the forms religion assumes within 
the cultures of the United States. The course will 
explore how values and attitudes, rooted in religious 
experience and ideology, are expressed in the 
everyday lives of people, in secular institutions, and 
in the popular culture. Films, novels, art, histories, 
sociological analyses, and public policy debates will 
be examined as the forms of this expression. 
f Mr. Hammann, Mr. McTighe 

204 History, Literature, and Religion of the Old 
Testament 

A study of the history, literature, and religion of the 
Hebrews, from the time of Abraham to about 500 B.C. 
The history and culture of Israel are related to those 
of surrounding nations, with special emphasis on the 
relevancy of archeological data. Offered every year. 

Mr. Moore 

205 History, Literature, and Religion of the New 
Testament 

An introduction to the writings of the New 

Testament as they originated in their Greco-Roman 

milieu. Emphasis is on the distinctive purposes and 

main content of each writing. The use of source, 

form, and redaction criticism as tools for the 

academic study of the New Testament is 

demonstrated. Offered every year. 

Mr. C. Myers 



220 Church History To the Eighth Century 

A historical study of all groups who claimed to be 

Christian, from Pentecost to the eighth century. 

Theologies, liturgies, councils, heresies, and the 

outstanding participants are examined with the aid 

of primary documents. Also fulfills the distribution 

requirement in history/ philosophy. 

Mr. Trone 

221 History of the Medieval Church 

A historical study that continues Religion 121 up to 

the fifteenth century. The Latin, Orthodox, and the 

heretical traditions and institutions are included. 

Religion 121 is not a prerequisite for this course. 

Also fulfills the distribution requirement in 

history/philosophy. 

Mr. Trone 

222 Church History: Fifteenth to Twentieth 
Century 

A historical overview of the development of Christian 
beliefs and practices, from the fifteenth century to 
the present. This course will examine the variety of 
ways in which individual believers, congregations, 
and ecclesiastical authorities have articulated what it 
means to be a Christian during different historical 
periods and in different social contexts, from pre- 
Reformation Germany to modern-day Latin America. 

Mr. McTighe 

223 ReUgions in the U.S. 

An investigation of the religious history of the 

American people, from the seventeenth century to 

the present. This course will focus upon the varieties 

of American religious experience. It will explore the 

Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish traditions 

along with indigenous movements such as 

Mormonism and Christian Science. 

Mr. McTighe 

224 The Religions of Black Americans 

An examination of the religious traditions of black 
Americans from slave religion to the present. The 
course will concentrate on the religious beliefs of black 
Americans and the ways those beliefs have been used to 
develop strategies to achieve freedom and justice. The 
general approach of the course will be historical. 
Among the subjects to be covered will be the influence 
of African religion, black religious nationalism, 
pentecostalism, spirituals and gospel music, and the 
civil rights movement. To be offered in alternate years. 

Mr. McTighe 



140 



RELIGION 



225 Native American Ways of Life 

Half-credit course. An exploration of the religions 

or "ways of life" of two groups of Native Americans of 

the U.S. This course examines the fundamental 

understandings about the world and human nature 

which have guided Native American life, and 

explores the role of religion in Native American 

cultures. The place of religion in contemporary 

Native American life will be assessed, and religion's 

role in cultural adaptation and acculturation will be 

studied. The course will focus on two case studies 

drawn from groups representing various regions of 

the country, such as the Iroquois (Eastern), Navaho 

(Southwest), and Lakota (Plains). 

Mr. McTighe 

236 Religions from the Center to the Fringe 

A historical and critical study of recent 
unconventional religious movements primarily in the 
West. Movements such as Baha'i, Jehovah's 
Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, Unification Church, 
ISKCON, Scientology, Ahmadi Islam, and others will 
be considered. The study will aim at understanding 
religious characteristics as well as social effects of 
these movements. 

Mr. Hammann 

242 The Religions of East Asia and West Asia 

Primarily an examination of the varieties of historical 
and contemporary Buddhism and Islam. The class 
will also study some other religious traditions from 
east or west Asia that can be contrasted with 
Buddhism and Islam. Fulfills the distribution 
requirement in non-Western culture. 

Mr. Hammann 

245 Chinese and Japanese Religions 

A general introduction to the major religious 
traditions of China and Japan. The course will 
explore the historical and social contexts of 
Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese and Japanese 
Buddhism, and Shinto, looking at ideologies, major 
figures, rituals, and festivals, and the place of 
traditional religious beliefs and practices in East Asia 
today. We will discuss various ways "religion" is 
characterized in these traditions. Fulfills the 
distribution in non-Western culture. 

Ms. Kim 

301 The Prophets of the Old Testament 

A historical and sociological study of the life and 
times of Israel's prophets as drawn from the Old 



Testament and extra-Biblical sources, with special 
emphasis given to both the importance of prophetic 
interpretations for their own day and to their lasting 
effect upon Judeo-Christian thought. Prerequisite: 
Religion 204 or 205 or permission of the instructor. 
Not offered every year. 

Mr. Moore 

311 Jesus in the First Three Gospels 

An examination of the Jesus tradition as interpreted in 
the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, using the 
techniques of source, form, redaction, and literary 
criticism. Special attention is given to the distinctive 
perspective of each Gospel. Prerequisite: Religion 205 
or permission of the instructor. Not offered every year. 

Mr. C. Myers 

312 The Gospel of John 

An exploration of the thought and content of the 
Fourth Gospel. An effort is made to determine the 
background purposes for writing, and the 
community addressed by John's Gospel. The 
question of its relationship to the Synoptic Gospels 
and to the Epistles of John is also included. 
Prerequisite: Religion 205 or permission of the 
instructor. Not offered every year. 

Mr. C. Myers 

314 The Apostie Paul 

A study of the life, letters, and legacy of this early 
Christian, through a careful consideration of primary 
and .selected secondary sources. Particular attention 
will be given to understanding the Pauline literature 
in its historical context. Ancient and modern 
interpretations of Paul's life and work are also 
treated. Prerequisite: Religion 205 or permission of the 
instructor. Not offered every year. 

Mr C. Myers 

321 Martin Luther King, Jr. 

Half-credit course. An examination of the religious 
thought and civil rights activity of Martin Luther 
King, Jr. The course will investigate the religious 
sources and effectiveness of King's strategy of 
nonviolent resistance. King's major civil rights 
campaigns, his protest against the Vietnam War, and 
his work for economic justice will be evaluated. 
Special attention will be paid to the theology which 
provides the foundation for King's work. Prerequisite: 
One course in a related subject (such as Religion 140 
or 224 or an African American Studies course) or 
permission of the instructor. 

Mr. McTighe 



RELIGION 



141 



323 American Women in a Man's Religious World 

A comparison of how women and men have been 
religious in the U.S., and an investigation of the ways 
the history of religion in the U.S. might be 
reinterpreted to incorporate the experiences of 
women. Special attention will be paid to the spheres in 
which most women have lived out their religious 
commitments (family, church membership, and 
voluntary organizations), religious movements 
founded by women, current efforts to reformulate 
theology, and the question of how incorporating the 
experiences of women might require rethinking what 
is important to include when we write history. This 
course may count toward a minor in women's studies. 

Mr. McTighe 

327 Monks, Nuns, and Friars 

A study of the rules and practices of Christian 

ascetics and orders for men and women, Latin and 

Orthodox, to the fifteenth century. The course will 

also include the art and architecture produced by 

these orders. 

Mr. Trone 

332 History of Christian Thought: Fifteenth to 
Nineteenth Century 

An examination of major works by representative 

theologians from the eve of the Reformation 

through the Enlightenment, includingjulian of 

Norwick, Luther, Calvin, Teresa of Avila, Jonathan 

Edwards, Locke, John Wesley, Kant, Kierkegaard, 

and others. Not offered every year. 

Mr. McTighe 



Staff 
Staff 
Staff 



460 Individualized Study for Majors 
470 Individualized Study and Internships 
474 Summer Internships 

IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization 

For course description see hiterdepartmental Studies. 

Mr. Trone 

IDS 211 Perspectives on Death and Dying 

For course description see Interdepartmental Studies. 

Mr. Moore 

IDS 340 Ancient Egypt: Its Language, Literature, 
Art, and History 

A study of Ancient Egypt's culture as reflected in its 
language, literature, and art. Although the studen's 
study of the Egyptian language itself will be confined 
to the script, vocabulary, and grammar of the Middle 
Kingdom (c. 2240-1570 B.C.E.), Egypt's literature and 
art from 2900-1 100 B.C.E. will be presented in their 
historical context. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
non-Western culture and may be counted toward the 
requirements for a religion major. Prerequisite: 
Permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Moore 



333 Contemporary ReUgious Thought 

Critical study of the primary theological literature of 
nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and 
America. Contrasts and continuity of themes, 
constitutive ideas, and movements in representative 
works by Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Bultmann, 
Tillich, Ruber, Bonhoeffer, liberation and feminist 
theologians, and others are examined for the 
purpose of determining the basic presuppositions 
underlying the various texts. Not offered every year. 

Mr. McTighe 

343 Mythology and Religion 

Mythology and religion have always been 
companions. The course will aim at understanding 
this friendship. Students will familiarize themselves 
with particular mythologies and will try to understand 
them from several critical viewpoints, and to 
appreciate their connection with religious traditions. 

Mr. Hammann 



^2 



SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 



Sociology and Anthropology 

Professors Emmons and Hinrichs (Chairperson) 
Associate Professors Gill, Heisler, and Loveland 
Assistant Professors Potuchek, Rosenberg, and 

Woolwine 
Instructor Lorenz 
Adjunct Associate Professor Floge 

Overview 

Studies in the department are directed toward 
understanding social organization and action and the 
role of culture in shaping human behavior. 
Reflecting the diversit)' of perspectives in sociology 
and anthropology, the courses present a variety of, 
sometimes-conflicting approaches. Some perspectives 
start with individuals in interacdon with each other 
and focus upon how they develop meaningful social 
reladonships, groups, and insdtudons. Other 
approaches focus upon the molding of individuals by 
various insdtudons, groups, and cultures, or upon the 
funcuonal or conflict relationships among various 
classes and subcultures. By emphasizing the sciendfic 
and comparative study of social institutions and 
cultures, the department seeks to have students 
develop an understanding of social realities, and to 
increase their competence in dealing critically and 
constructively with social problems and programs for 
social change. 

The department's goals are to contribute to the 
liberal arts education at Gettysburg College, to 
provide a solid academic foundation in sociology 
and anthropology for students interested in graduate 
study, to assist students in meeting their academic 
and career needs, and to acquaint all students who 
take our courses with sociological and 
anthropological perspectives. The courses reflect the 
diversity of perspectives in sociology as a discipline 
and cover the core subject matter of the field. 

Majors are prepared for graduate education in 
sociology, urban planning, law, communication, 
criminal justice, social work, criminology, 
anthropology, health care, theology, and library 
science, as well as for careers in teaching, business, 
and fields related to the graduate programs cited. 
The department has a chapter of Alpha Kappa Delta, 
the Sociological Honor Society. Also, the Gettysburg 
Anthropological Society is a club for those interested 
in anthropology. The department emphasizes a 
commitment to experiential education, field trips, 
travel seminars, and internships. A Student-Facult)' 



Liaison Committee operates within the department 
to provide a means to respond to the particular needs 
and interests expressed by the students. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Sociology 101 is a prerequisite for all other sociolog)' 
courses; and Anthropology 103 is considered a 
prerequisite for all other anthropology courses 
except Anthropology 102 and 104 and culture area 
and ethnography courses (Anthropology 211 and 
Anthropology 220, for example). 

Students majoring in the department will take a 
minimum of ten full-credit courses. Before declaring 
a major, a student must earn a grade of C- or better 
in Sociology 101, Introductory Sociology. Students 
must take Sociology 101, 302, 303, 304, 305, 400, and 
Anthropology 103 (may substitute an upper-level 
anthropology course which is not a culture-area 
course with permission). Additionally, students will 
take two electives from the following social process 
and inequality courses: 202, 203, 208, 209, 210, 212, 
213, 217; and one elective from any other course 
offered in sociology or anthropology, including 460, 
but excluding 450's and 470's. 

The department also offers an anthropology track. 
Students in this track will take a minimum often 
courses. Students must take Anthropology 103; one 
culture-area course selected from Anthropology 21 1, 
220, a currently offered course, or Sociology 219; one 
topics course selected from Ajithropology 215, 216, 
or 230; one additional elective in anthropology; and 
Anthropology 400 or 460. Students must also take 
Sociology 101, 302, 303, 304, and one elective from 
Anthropology 102, 104, Sociology 202, 203, 204, 205, 
206, 208, 209, 210, 212, or 217. 

In order to ensure adequate preparation for Sociology 
303, majors must have a background in math through 
Algebra II or its equivalent in high school or through 
the introductory mathematics course at the college- 
level before enrolling in Sociology 303. 

In response to varying needs, interests, and expertise 
of individual students and staff members, the 
department provides means for students to pursue 
independent research and studies through Sociology 
450 and 460, field work application or direct 
experience, and other opportunities to expand 
specialized interests. Sociology 460 is a requirement 
for departmental honors, and students who want to 
be considered for honors should enroll in this course. 



SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 



143 



Students who are not majors in the department may 
minor in either sociology or anthropology. Six 
courses are required for the minor in sociology. 
Students must take Sociology 101, 302, and 304. The 
remaining three courses may be elected from 
departmental offerings, with the exception of 
Sociology 450, 470; no more than two of these three 
electives may be in anthropology. 

Six courses are required for the minor in 
anthropology. Students must take Anthropology 103. 
Three additional courses must be elected from the 
other anthropology offerings (one of these may be 
Anthropology 450, Individualized Study in 
Anthropology). One non-anthropology course must 
be selected from the list of courses that fulfill the 
non-western culture distribution requirement. One 
sociology course must be selected from the 
following: 101, 202, 206, 208, 209, and 302. 

Distribution Requirements 

All full-credit departmental courses except Sociology 
302 and 303 may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in social science. Sociology 219 and all 
courses in anthropology except Anthropology 102 
may be used to meet the non-Western culture 
distribution requirement. 

101 Introductory Sociology 

Study of the basic structures and dynamics of human 
societies, focusing on the development of principles 
and concepts used in sociological analysis and 
research. Topics will include culture, socialization, 
social institutions, stratification, and social change. 

Staff 

202 Wealth, Power, and Prestige 

Examination of social ranking and rating systems. 

Topics include social classes, social mobility, 

economic and political power, and informal prestige 

and fame. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Emmons 

203 World Population 

Examination of the components of population 
composition-fertility, mortality, and migration to 
understand how they interact to produce particular 
population structures and population growth rates. 
The course emphasizes the study of relationships 
between social and demographic variables, and the 
consequences of different population structures and 
population growth rates for societies as a whole and 
for various social groups. Special attention is given to 



the relationship between population dynamics and 
public policy decisions. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Ms. Floge 

204 Sociology of Mass Media and Popular 
Culture 

An analysis of broadcast and print media institutions. 
Perspectives include the "production of culture," 
cultural content analysis, socialization effects, and 
media coverage. A variety of popular culture genres, 
both mass and folk, will be covered, with special 
emphasis on music. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Emmons 

205 Sociology of Religion 

Examination of the relation of religion and society. 

Topics include definitions and theories of religion, 

sociological analysis of historical and contemporary 

religious groups, religious organization and 

behavior, religion and morality, religion and social 

change, sectarianism, and secularization. Prerequisite: 

Sociology 101. 

Mr. Woolwine 

206 Sociology of the FamUy 

An analysis of the family as a social institution. The 
course takes a comparative and socio-historical 
approach to the study of American families, and focuses 
on the ways that families interact with and are shaped 
by other social institutions, particularly the economy. 
Topics include intra-family relations, work-family 
links, and family policy. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Ms. Potuchek 

207 Criminology 

Introduction to and delineation of the field of 
criminology. The course begins with a discussion of 
criminal law and the extent of crime, and continues 
with a comprehensive examination of police, courts, 
and corrections. Theories of crime causation, criminal 
behavior systems, and victimology are also examined. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. Offered every other year. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

208 Community and Urban Life 

Study of communities from a sociological 

perspective, with a major emphasis on urban areas. 

Topics include historical development of cities, 

development of suburbs, urbanism as a unique way 

of life, city planning, metropolitan dynamics, and 

urban problems. Pr^^'^um^.' Sociology 101. 

Not offered regularly. 

Mr. Hinrichs 



144 



SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 



209 Racial and Ethnic Relations 

Comprehensive study ot ethnic and minority relations. 
Theoretical perspectives include immigration and 
assimilation, prejudice and discrimination, and the 
structure of the ethnic community. The study of 
African-American, European-immigrant, and Asian- 
American communities is emphasized. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101. 

Mr. Emmons 

210 Social Change 

Application of theories of social change to 
contemporary trends and changing norms, values, 
and expectations. Emphasis is on a critical 
examination of recent changes in the economy and 
political structure of U.S. society and on the 
assessment of the efforts by social movements to 
direct social change. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Ms. Gill 

212 Sociology of Deviance 

Examination of the concept of deviance and 
exploration of the various sociological theories and 
perspectives for viewing deviant phenomena. 
Sociological, biological, and psychological theories 
of causation are examined. There will be an in-depth 
analysis of alcohol and drug use, variations in sexual 
behavior, pornography, child abuse, homelessness, 
and skid row. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

213 Political Sociology 

Analysis of the role of power and of political 
mstitutions in social systems. Marxian, elitist, pluralist, 
and systems theories of the bases, distribution, and 
uses of power will be examined, along with studies of 
power relationships in organizations, communities, 
nations, and international relations. Attempts to 
change power relationships by mobilizing new bases of 
power and legitimacy are examined. Not offered every 
year. Prerequisite: SocioXo^ 101. 

Ms. Heisler 

217 Gender Roles and InequaUty 

Examination of the patterns of gender stratification 
in American social structures and the impact of sex 
roles on interpersonal interaction. The course 
centers on the various forms of sexual inequality in 
today's world, examining the positions of women 
and men in families, schools, occupations, and 
politics. Topics include socialization, historical and 
crosscultural variation in sex roles, and possibilities 
for change. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Ms. Gill 



218 Sociology of Work and Organizations 

Analysis of economic, social, and organizational 
aspects of the American workforce. Topics include 
industrialization and the historical development of 
the American occupational structure, alienation and 
its solutions, social organization of work, career 
patterns and development, and the future of work and 
workers in America. Special attention is given to the 
organization of occupational groups along class lines 
and changes in the workplace affecting this historical 
stratification of work. fV^r^^uwi/^.- Sociology 101. 

Ms. Gill, Ms. Heisler 

219 Chinese Society 

Sociological and anthropological analysis of China 
and Hong Kong. Major socio-cultural themes in both 
traditional and modern systems are examined, with 
special emphasis on religion, magic, ancestor worship, 
politics, social class, cities, and medicine. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 101 or Anthropology 103. Fulfills the non- 
Western culture requirement. 

Mr. Emmons 

231 Self In Society 

A study of humanistic work in the field of social 
psychology. Topics include the origin and structure 
of the self, social roles, the life world as experienced, 
the reality of everyday life, notions of sincerity and 
bad faith, and differences in male/female perceptions 
of self and morality. Writings will include both 
feminist works and traditional philosophic works. 
Among the latter are included Nietzsche, Sartre, and 
Mead. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Mr. Woolunne 

271 Gay and Lesbian Studies 

Examination of contemporary lifestyles of gays and 
lesbians and the suppxirting social movement In seminar 
format, discussion will focus on the significant historical 
events underiying the movement and shaping gay and 
lesbian identity, the structure of die gay and lesbian 
subculture, current issues facing gays and lesbians, and 
society's response to die emergence of a more visible gay 
and lesbian community. No prerequisites. Half<redit 
course. Offered every other year. 

Mr. Hinrichs 

273 Sociology and Everyday Life 

Exploration of the commonplace, the exotic, and the 
offbeat aspects of everyday social life in American 
society. Topics to be discussed will be determined 
primarily by the interests of students in the class. 
Areas of research can range from the sociology of the 



SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 



T^5^ 



environment, prisons, and organizational behavior to 
the sociology of rock music, auctions, and death. The 
ultimate goal of the course is to help students 
understand their society and sociology by applying 
the sociological perspective to everyday social life. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. Half-credit course. 

Mr. Hinrichs 



400 Seminar 

Intensive culminating experience for sociology-track 

majors. Under the direction of a member of the 

department faculty, students will work to integrate 

their major and their understanding of the 

sociological perspective. 

Staff 



302 Sociological Research Methodology 

Introduction to designing and assessing social 
science research. The goal of this course is to 
develop the student's ability to critically review and 
evaluate social research findings and to prepare the 
student to plan and carry out research. While 
greatest emphasis is devoted to survey research, 
several qualitative and quantitative designs are 
examined, including the experiment, participant 
observation, and evaluation research. Issues of 
sampling, measurement, causality, and validity are 
considered for each technique. Includes laboratory. 
Prerequisite: Sociology 101. Does not fulfill 
distribution requirement in social science. 

Ms. Gill, Ms. Rosenberg 

303 Data Analysis and Statistics 

Treatment of the analysis and reporting of 
quantitative data. The logic of data analysis, statistical 
techniques, and use of the computer will form the 
basis of the course. Includes laboratory. Prerequisite: 
Sociology 302. Does not fulfill distribution 
requirement in social science. 

Ms. Gill, Ms. Rosenberg 

304 The Development of Sociological Theory 

Critical survey of the origins and development of 
modem theories of society in the late nineteenth and 
early twentieth century. The primary focus is on 
theories and theorists who have made significant and 
lasting contributions to our systematic understanding 
of the social world: Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max 
Weber, and George H. Mead. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 
Ms. Heisler, Mr. Woolwine 

305 Contemporary Sociological Theory 

Analysis of post-World War II theoretical 
developments, including functionalism, structural 
theory (Marxist and non-Marxist varieties) , world 
systems theory, exchange theory, network theory, 
phenomenology, ethnomethodology, and feminist 
theories. Prerequisite: Sociology 101. 

Ms. Heisler, Mr. Woolwine 



450, 470 Individualized Study 

Independent study in fields of special interest, including 
internships, outside the scope of regular course 
offerings. The consent of the department is required. 

Staff 

460 Research Course 

Individual investigation of a research topic in 

sociology or anthropology in the student's special area 

of interest under the guidance of a faculty member. 

The topic must be approved by the department. The 

project culminates in written and oral presentations of 

a formal paper to the faculty. This is required for 

departmental honors and is open to juniors and 

seniors only. Students must submit a proposal to the 

department a minimum of one month before the end 

of the semester preceding the proposed study. 

Staff 

Anthropology 

102 Introduction to Human Evolution 

An introduction to evolutionary history of our 
species modern Homo sapiens. Topics to be covered 
include evolutionary theory; primatology; 
paleoanthropology, including human physical and 
cultural remains; human genetics; racial variation; 
and adaptation to varied environments. Does not 
fulfill the non-Western culture requirement. 

Mr. Lorenz 

103 Introduction to Social-Cultural Anthropology 

Comparative study of human social and cultural 
institutions, utilizing a series of ethnographies of 
non-western cultures and data from contemporary 
American society. The concepts, methods, theories, 
and history of the discipline will be discussed. 

Mr. Loveland, Mr. Lorenz 

104 Archaeology of the Prehistoric World 

Survey of ancient sites discovered around the world, 
using archaeological methods and theories to 
examine problems and issues in prehistory. The 
course introduces students to the principles of 
archaeological research, while tracing our 
prehistoric heritage and the processes that led to the 



146 



SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY 



evolution of settled villages, agriculture, and 
eventually ciNilization. Lecture topics range from 
early African human ancestry to the European Stone 
Age, and from Mesopotamia and Eg)pt to Mexico, 
Peru, and the United States. 

Mr. Lorenz 

211 American Indians 

Introduction to the traditional aspects of Native 
American cultures by examples drawn from the 
major culture areas of the Americas. The present-day 
situation of Native Americans will be discussed. No 
prerequisite. 

Mr. Loveland 

215 Psychological Anthropology 

Examination of the influence of culture in shaping 
the personality of the individuals in non-Western 
societies. The course will include the following 
topics: psychoanalytic theory, dreams, cross-cultural 
research, socialization, personality development, 
modal personalitv', mental illness, and the effects of 
social change upon personalit)'. Ethnographic 
examples from a variety of cultures will be utilized. 
Prerequisite: Ai\thro\io\o^' 103. 

Mr. Loveland 

216 Introduction to Medical Anthropology 

Study of systems of belief and knowledge utilized to 
explain illnesses in various cultures and attendant 
systems of curing. Topics discussed include 
hallucinogens, shamanism, curing, sorcery, 
witchcraft, herbal medicines, and the modern 
.American medical system. Ethnographic examples 
are drawn from a variet)' of cultures. Prerequisite: 
Anthropology- 103. 

Mr. Loveland 

220 World Cultures 

Studv of the cultures of Asia, the Pacific, Africa, and 
Native, North, Cenu-al and South America. Class will 
discuss ethnographies and films about a variety of 
socio-economic types, including foraging, 
horticultural, agricultural, and pastoralist sociedes. 
No prerequisite. 

Mr. Loveland 

229 Sport and Society 

.Aji introduction to the field of sport from a social 
science perspective. .-After a brief overview of the 
literature on play and leisure, we will examine the 
role of sports and leisure in other societies such as 
the Rama and Pueblo Indians, Trobriands, the 



Cherokee, and Kickapoo and Tarahumara. In the 
last part of the course we will examine the role of 
sports in American society, looking at factors such as 
class, gender, and ethnicity' as they affect American 
sports. Prerequisite: Anthropology 103 or Sociology- 
101. Not offered regularly. 

Mr. Loveland 

230 New World Archaeology 
Introduction to the prehiston- of the New World, 
focusing on North .\merica. This course will focus 
on the setdement patterns and cultural 
developments of New World peoples. Topics to be 
discussed include peopling of the New World, 
subsistence systems, material culture, economy and 
trade, socio-polidcal organization, and religious 
systems using archaeological data. 

Mr. Lorenz 

400 Anthropology Seminar 

Capstone experience in anthropology-. This seminar is 
devoted to introducing anthropology students to the 
latest thinking in anthropology. Building on an 
historical foundation, this course will provide an 
ovenieyv of die field of socio-cultural andiropology- 
and current anthropological thinking. In addition, 
some current edinographies yvill be read, and students 
yvill do indiyidualized projects in a seminar setdng. 

Mr. Loveland 

450, 470 Individualized Study 

Independent study in fields of special interest 
outside the scope of regular course offerings. The 
consent of the department is required. 

Mr. Loveland 

460 Research Course 

Indiyidual invesdgadon of a research topic in sociology 
or anthropology in die student's special area of 
interest under the guidance of a facult>- member. The 
topic must be approved by the department The 
project culminates in yvritten and oral presentadons of 
a formal paper to die facult)-. This is required for 
departmental honors and is open to juniors and 
seniors only. Suidents must submit a proposal to the 
deparunent a minimum of one month before the end 
of the semester preceding the proposed study. 

Mr. Loveland 



SPANISH 



TTT 



Spanish 



Professor Thompson 

Associate Professors Burgess (Chairperson) and 

dinger 
Assistant Professors Diaz, Luengo, Nanfito, Vinuela, 

Yager, and Zielina 
Instructors Moreno and Sanchez 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Wirth 
Adjunct Instructors Elorriaga, Hubbard, and Moore 
Teaching Assistant Rosa 

Overview 

The ability to speak and understand a language 
other than one's own, and to have insight into the 
artistic and cultural heritage of other peoples of the 
world, is considered an integral part of a liberal arts 
education. The department, through a strong core 
of basic courses, gives students facility in the use of 
spoken and written Spanish and some knowledge of 
its literature and cultural history. The oral-aural 
method of modern language teaching is stressed in 
the classroom. Laboratory facilities in the Library 
Learning Center and other audio-visual equipment 
complement classroom instruction. Regular 
laboratory work will be required of some students 
and advised for others. 

Advanced-level courses in literature and civilization are 
designed to give students an understanding and 
appreciation of the literature and cultures of the 
Hispanic peoples. Students are encouraged to study in 
a Spanish-speaking country, and opportunities are 
offered through study abroad programs with 
approved colleges and through cooperative 
agreements with the Center for Cross-Cultural Study, 
Seville, Spain, and the Foreign Student Study Center at 
the University of Guadalajara in Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Courses in the department provide sound 
preparaUon for graduate study, teaching, or careers 
in government, business, or social work. The 
department works cooperatively with the education 
department in the preparation of Spanish teachers. 
Since the largest minority group in the United States 
is Spanish speaking, the department feels that a 
knowledge of Spanish and an understanding of the 
Hispanic cultures is of increasing importance. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Requirements for a major in Spanish include ten 
courses above the 300 level. Course requirements are 
Spanish 301 and 302 (except for students who 
demonstrate an exceptional command of the Spanish 



language and petition the department to be 
exempted from this requirement), Spanish 304, three 
other 300 level literature courses, Spanish 400, and 
one civilization course. Other courses for the major 
are elective. Spanish majors must spend one semester 
studying abroad in a program approved by the 
department. (Students with extensive previous 
experience living or studying abroad may pedtion the 
department to be exempted from this requirement.) 

Requirements for a minor in Spanish include six 
courses above the 202 level, and must include 
Spanish 301-302 (except for students who 
demonstrate an exceptional command of the 
Spanish language and petition the department to be 
exempted from this requirement), and no more 
than one course from 205 and 245. Students may 
include Spanish 202 for the minor if they have 
begun language study at the elementary or 
intermediate-level at Gettysburg College. 

Distribution Requirements 

Prior to their first registration at the College, all 
students receive pre-registration materials which give 
detailed instructions on language placement and 
fulfillment of the distribution requirement in foreign 
languages. The following courses may be counted 
toward the distribution requirement in literature: 
Spanish 205, 304, 308, 313, 314, 315, 319, 320, 324, 
325, 326, 400. Spanish 310 and 311 fulfill the 
distribution requirement in history/ philosophy. 

The distribution requirement in foreign languages 
may be fulfilled by successful completion of Spanish 
202, 205, 245, or a course at the 300 level or above. 
Achievement equivalent to 202 may be demonstrated 
by an advanced placement examination or a 
departmental placement examination given during 
orientation before the initial week of fall semester. 

Intermediate Program in Seville 

Students may complete the last two semesters of the 
distribution requirement in foreign languages by 
studying for a semester in Seville, Spain. The 
intermediate program includes a two-credit course in 
Spanish language and a two-credit course that 
integrates the study of Spanish literature and 
civilization. This course satisfies the distribution 
requirement in literature. A professor from the 
department leads students on an initial orientation 
tour of Spain and teaches the literature/civilization 
class. Students may live with Spanish families or in 
Spanish student residencias. See listings for Spanish 
251-252 and 253-254. 



148 



SPANISH 



Study Abroad 

Advanced studeiiLs may study at the Center for Cross- 
Cultural Study in Seville, Spain, or at the Foreign 
Student Study Center at the University of 
Guadalajara in Guadalajara, Mexico, both of which 
offer a wide variety of courses in Spanish, including 
literature, history, sociology, political science, and 
management "and more". See Study Abroad, Center for 
Cross-Cultural Study, Seville, Spain, page 46, and Study 
Abroad, Foreign Student Study Center, University of 
Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico, page 46. 

Language and Service Practicum in the 
Hispanic Community 

Students have the opportunity for cross-cultural 
learning experience while serving the local Hispanic 
community. Student projects may include tutoring, 
translating, and helping families adjust to Anglo 
culture. Prerequisite: Spanish 301. Grading option: 
S/U. Receives half course credit. Can be repeated 
once for credit. 

101-102 Elementary Spanish 

Elements of understanding, speaking, reading, and 
writing Spanish. Use of language laboratory is 
required. Enrollment limited to those who have 
never previously studied Spanish. Students cannot 
receive credit for both 101 and 103; 102 and 104. 

Staff 

103-104 Fundamental Spanish 

Fundamentals of understanding, speaking, reading, 
and writing Spanish. Use of language laboratory is 
required. Enrollment is limited to those who have 
previously studied Spanish and who are enrolled 
according to achievement on the Departmental 
Qualifying Examination. Students cannot receive 
credit for both 101 and 103; 102 and 104 

Staff 

201-202 Intermediate Spanish 

Practice in oral and written expression, grammar 
review, readings, and discussions of Spanish writing 
as contact with Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: Spanish 
102 or 104 or consent of the department. 

Staff 

205 Readings in Spanish and Spanish American 
Literature 

Conducted in Spanish with the dual objective of 
comprehension of material and reading of Spanish 
and Latin American literature of cultural and literary 
merit. Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or consent of the 
department. Students whose native language is 
Spanish may not elect this course. 

Staff 



245 Spanish Conversation 

Conversation course beyond the intermediate level 
with emphasis on everyday, applied usage of the 
language for nonliterary purposes. Prerequisite: 
Spanish 202 or consent of the department. 
Enrollment limited to twelve students. This course 
counts toward the minor but does not count toward 
the major. To be offered annually. Students whose 
native language is Spanish may not elect this course. 

Staff 

251-252 Courses in Spanish Language for 

Intermediate-Level Students in Seville, 
Spain 

Practice in oral and written expression, grammar 
review, readings, and discussions of Spanish culture, 
with a particular emphasis on present-day language 
usage and contemporary Spanish society. Offered 
annually in the fall. For intermediate students 
studying at the Center for Cross-Cultural Studies in 
Seville, Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 104 or equivalent; 
concurrent enrollment in Spanish 253-254. Fulfills 
language requirement. One credit each. 

Staff 

253-254 Courses in Spanish Civihzation and 
Literature for Intermediate-Level 
Students in SeviUe, Spain 

An integrated approach to the study of Spanish 
literature and civilization. The courses provide an 
overview of the evolution of Spanish culture from 
prehistoric times to the present, based primarily on 
the cultural characteristics of Andalusia. The courses 
examine the origins of the most representative values 
of Spanish culture in art, literature, and 
contemporary life. Students will visit museums and 
historical sites in Andalusia, and will attend ardstic 
events. Offered annually in the fall. For intermediate 
students studying at the Center for Cross-Cultural 
Study in Seville, Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 104 or 
equivalent; concurrent enrollment in Spanish 251- 
252. Fulfills literature requirement. One credit each. 

301, 302 Spanish Composition and Conversation 

Exercises in directed and free composition; group 
discussion and presentation of individual oral work; 
review of grammar and syntax at an advanced level. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or consent of the 



department. 

303 Spanish Phonology 

Introduction to Spanish phonetic and phonemic 
theory and analysis, applied to improve 
pronunciadon skills. Study of variadon in 
pronunciadon in Spain and Ladn America. 



Staff 



SPANISH 



149 



Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or approval of the 
department. Offered 1993-94. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory. 



Staff 



304 Introduction to Literary Analysis 

hitrodiiction to basic critical approaches to the 
reading of prose fiction, poetry', and drama. 
Through the careful study of works in each genre, 
students will acquire a knowledge of analytical skills 
and critical terminology in Spanish. Offered 
annually. Prerequisite: Two Spanish courses beyond 
Spanish 202 or consent of the department. 

Staff 

308 Literature of the Golden Age 

Masterpieces of different genres of the late-sixteenth 
through the seventeenth centuries. Emphasis will be 
placed on major writers of theater, short prose 
fiction, essay, and poetry. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or 
consent of the department. Offered 1992-93. 

Staff 

309 Current Events in the Hispanic World 

An advanced composition and conversation course 
based on current events in the Hispanic world. 
Students will read articles from a variety of Hispanic 
periodicals and will view Spanish language news 
programs in preparation for class discussion. This 
course can either substitute for Spanish 302 in the 
requirements for the major and minor in Spanish, or 
it can be taken in addition to Spanish 302. The aim 
of the course is both to strengthen students' 
conversation and composition skills and to keep 
students abreast of current affairs in the Spanish- 
speaking world. _ „ 

Staff 

310 Spanish Civilization 

Study of the history and culture of Spain from the 

earliest times to the present. Fulfills the distribution 

requirement in history/ philosophy. Prerequisite: 

Spanish 202 or consent of the department. Alternate 

years. Offered 1993-94. ^ ,, 

Staff 

311 Latin American Civilization 

Study of the history and culture of Latin America from 
pre-Columbian times to the present. This course fulfills 
distribution requirement in history/ philosophy. 
Prerequisite: Spanish 202 or consent of the department. 
Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Staff 



319 Hispanic Theater 

A study of the drama of both Spain and Spanish 
America through the ages. The focus of the course will 
vary from semester to semester, based on such aspects 
as literary period, common theme, historical 
development, and dramatic theory. Prerequisite: Sp2ims\\ 
304 or consent of the department. Offered 1993-94. 

Staff 

314 Cervantes 

A study of the masterpiece, Don Quijote de la Mancha, 

as well as some Novelas ejemplares and entremeses or 

one-act plays. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of 

the department. Offered 1993-94. ^ ^^ 

^ Staff 

315 An Introduction to Hispanic Cinema 

A study of Hispanic cinema from its inception in 

1896 through the present, with major emphasis on 

films made since the advent of revisionary cinema 

around 1960. The course will focus on the 

development and renovation of cinematography, will 

explore the relationship between cinema and other 

forms of artistic expression, and will examine the 

development of Hispanic cinema in the context of 

the historical circumstances of the Hispanic 

countries which have been most active in making 

films. Offered 1993-94. ^ ^^ 

Staff 

313 Nineteenth-Century Literature in Spain and 
Latin America 

Studies in the essay, the novel, the short story, the 

drama, and poetry according to the essential literary 

movements (romanticism, costumbrismo, realism, 

naturalism, modernism) of the nineteenth century in 

Spain and Latin America. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or 

consent of the department. Offered 1992-93. ^ ^^ 

Staff 

320 Lyric Poetry 

A study of Spanish lyric poetry through the ages. The 
course will concentrate on the interrelationship of 
form, content, and idea, noting major influences 
upon the poetry of each period. Appreciation is 
considered a major goal of this course and much 
poetry will be read orally and discussed. Alternate 
years. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of the 
department. Offered 1992-93. 

324 Latin American Contemporary Prose 

Emphasizes the novel of the "boom" in Latin 
America. Major writers such as Gabriel Garcia- 
Marquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes, Julio 
Cortazar, Juan Rulfo, and Jorge Luis Borges will be 



150 



SPANISH / WOMEN'S STUDIES 



read. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of the 
department. Offerea 1993-94. ^^^rr 

325 Generation of '98 and Pre-Civil War 
Literature 

Studies in the essay, poetry, prose fiction, and drama 
of" the major writers of the late-nineteenth and early- 
twentieth centuries in Spain. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 
or consent of the department. Alternate years. 
Offered 1993-94. staff 

326 Post-Civil War Literature of Spain 

A study of the major literary trends and works in 
Spain, beginning with the resurgence of Spanish 
literature in the 1940's and continuing to the 
present day. Prerequisite: Spanish 304 or consent of 
the department. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Staff 

351 Introduction to Spanish Linguistics 

Introduction to linguistic theories, methods, and 

problems as applied to Spanish. Some attention will 

be given to typical areas of investigation, such as 

Spanish dialectology, sociolinguistics, bilingualism. 

Prerequisite: Spanish 302 or approval of the 

department. Offered 1992-93. 

Staff 

400 Senior Seminar 

Directed and specialized studies in Spanish and Latin 
American literatures from the medieval period to the 
present. This course is to be taken by seniors during 
the final semester in order to complete their 
undergraduate work in Hispanic literatures. 
Prerequisite: Limited to seniors except with permission 
of die department. Offered in the spring of every year. 

Staff 
Portuguese 

101-102 Elementary Portuguese 
Elements of understanding, speaking, reading, and 
writing Portuguese. Course includes oral and written 
work, graded elementary reading, and use of audio- 
visual cultural materials and correlative drill in the 
language laboratory. 

Staff 

201-202 

Practice in oral and written expression, grammar 
review, readings, and discussions of Portuguese 
writing as contact with the culture of countries where 
Portuguese is spoken. Prerequisite: Portuguese 102 or 
its equivalent. 

Staff 



Women's Studies 



Theatre Arts - See English 



Women's Studies Program Advisory Council 
Professors Armster, Berg, Cahoon, Cain, Gill, 
Hardwick, Johnson, Light, Olinger, Potuchek 
(Coordinator), Powers, Small, D. Tannenbaum, 
Trevelyan, and Richardson Viti 
Assistant Provost Floge, Ms. Beck, Ms. McCaskill, Ms. 
Moyer (Readers' Services Librarian), Ms. Sprague, 
Ms. Thomas (Associate Director of Development) , Ms. 
Vogel 

Overview 

The objective of women's studies is to encourage 
students to analyze the roles, perspectives, and 
contributions of women. Through the examination 
of women's past history, present condition, and 
future possibilities, students come to understand 
gender as a cultural experience. In women's studies 
courses, students learn a number of methods for 
examining, as well as strategies for modifying, the 
conditions that affect all of our lives. 

Women's studies emphasizes cross-cultural 
perspectives and analysis. Through an array of 
interdisciplinary courses and of courses that focus on 
gender within particular disciplines, women's 
studies seeks to integrate women and feminist 
scholarship into all levels of the curriculum. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Six courses are required for the minor in women's 
studies. Students must take Women's Studies 120 and 
Women's Studies 400. Two additional courses must be 
from the list of core courses. The remaining two 
courses may be drawn from any of the following: ( 1 ) 
core courses, (2) affiliated courses, and (3) approved 
courses of individualized study in women's studies. 
Prospective minors in women's studies are 
encouraged to discuss their plans with a women's 
studies faculty member as soon as possible in their 
academic careers. Students minoring in women's 
studies are strongly advised to take Women's Studies 
120 in die first or second year of study and Women's 
Studies 400 in the senior year. 

Core Courses: 

120 Introduction to Women's Studies 

A study of the perspectives, methodologies, and 
findings of the new scholarship in various disciplines 
on women. We will look at how women have 
influenced and been affected by such issues as 
family, language, creativity, and labor. The course is 
taught by an interdisciplinary team of instructors. 

Staff 



WOMEN'S STUDIES 



151 



216 Images of Women in Literature 

An examination of the various ways women have been 

imagined in literature. We will look at how and why 

images of women and men and of their relationships 

to one another change, and at how these images affect 

us. Emphasis will be placed on developing the critical 

power to imagine ourselves differendy. Fulfills 

literature requirement. 

Ms. Berg 

217 Famous French Femmes Fatales 

Today women are attempting to demystify the 

feminine condition, for, as the late Simone de 

Beauvoir observed, the "mythe de la femme" is a male 

invention. Literary images of women have, 

understandably, been a major focus of this 

investigation. Thus, this course will examine some 

famous French women, from the Princess of Cleves to 

Emma Bovary, and scrutinize them from the 

perspective of feminist criticism. Fulfills literature 

requirement. 

Ms. Richardson Viti 

218 Images of Women in Contemporary Indian 
Literature 

A study of the evolving images of women in 
contemporary Indo-Anglian literature. The course will 
address such topics as the novel as an imported genre, 
differences between the ways in which men and 
women read and write, and Pan-Indian themes in 
non-vernacular literature. Fulfills literature and non- 
Western requirements. 

Ms. Singh 

219 Contemporary Women Writers: Cross- 
Cultural Perspectives 

An examination of the novels and short stories of 

authors from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds, with 

emphasis on the Third World. Particular attendon will 

be given to the ways in which these writers represent 

the female experience. The class will examine works 

written from 1965 to the present. Fulfills literature 

requirement. 

Staff 

300 Feminist Theories 

An exploration of various feminist theories about 

women — about their experiences, their 

representations, and their relative positions in diverse 

societies. Contemporary and earlier works will be 

discussed in order to evaluate and synthesize the 

multiple approaches to feminist theories. 

Women's Studies 120. 

Staff 



320 Practicum in Feminist Theory and Collective 
Action 

An examinadon of the reladonship between feminist 

theory and community acdon. The course combines 

weekly seminar meeUngs with student internships in 

organizaUons that use collecdve acdon to pursue change 

in societal condidons for women. Readings from 

feminist theory of organizadons, collecdve acdon, and 

social policy are used as a basis for discussion and 

analysis of students' internship experiences. Prerequisites: 

Women's Studies 120 and one other core women's 

studies course (or permission of the instructor) . 

Staff 

350 Women, Family and Public Policy 

An examinadon of the effects of public policy both 

on women's family roles and on the interaction of 

those roles with other aspects of women's lives. The 

course focuses primarily on industrialized nations 

and examines such policies as birth control and 

abortion, maternity benefits, family allowances, 

childcare, housing policies, and social assistance. 

Prerequisite: Women's Studies 120. 

Ms. Potuchek 

351 Women in Nazism 

An examinadon of the effects of Nazism on women, 
primarily (but not exclusively) in Germany beginning 
in the 1920s and extending to post-war dmes. The 
course focuses on women's perspectives as exhibited 
in historical and literary documentation. 

Ms. Armster 

400 Issues in Feminist Theory and Methods 

The capstone course in women's studies. This course 

focuses on the variety of theories and methods in 

women's studies scholarship by examining a pardcular 

issue from a number of different feminist perspectives. 

Topic for 1991-92: Intersecdons of Inequality: Race, 

Class, and Gender. Prerequisites: 'Women s Studies 120 

and two other women's studies courses. 

Staff 



152 



WOMEN'S STUDIES 



(See appropriate departmental listings for 
descriptions of the following courses.) 

Art 400 Seminar in Art History 

Economics 302 Gender Issues in Economics 

History 209 Women's History Since 1500 

History 306 Women and Work 

IDS 215 Contemporary French Women Writers 

Political Science 209 Feminist Theory in American 
Politics 

Religion 323 American Women in a Man's 
Religious World 

Sociology 217 Gender Roles and Inequality 



Affiliated Courses: 

Art 227 Arts of the First Nations of North America 

Classics 121 Survey of Greek Civilization 

Classics 264 Ancient Tragedy 

English 333 Victorian Aesthetics 

History 204 History of England Smce 1603 

History 310 History of Early Modem France 

Music 108 Women and Music 

Political Science 407 American Black/Feminist 
Political Thought 

ReUgion 113 Women in the Ancient World 

ReUgion 124 Elizabeth to Irene: Women in 
Christianity I 

Religion 125 Theodora to Margery: Women in 
Christianity II 

Religion 156 Women in Buddhism 

Sociology 206 Sociology of the Family 



TM 



College Life 



The College recognizes that students develop 
intellectually, emotionally, physically, socially, and 
spiritually. The Office of the Dean of the College, an 
administrative division within the College, has as its 
central purpose the provision of an environment, 
programs, and ser\ices which enhance the students' 
liberal education. Under the direction of the dean, 
the Office of the Dean of the College, College 
Union, Residence Life, The Women's Center, Greek 
Organizations, Counseling Ser\ices, Career Services, 
Health Ser\'ices, and the Chapel Programs compose 
the division. 

Office of The Dean of the College 

The Office of the Dean of the College strives to help 
students see that the events in their lives out of the 
classroom directly influence their in-class experiences 
and achievements. This is accomplished by providing 
a variety of programs and services. The college life 
staff assists students in the following: 

Information. Students require information about 
many opportunities available to them. The Office of 
the Dean of the College answers student questions 
about the College, or, when appropriate, will refer 
students to the proper source for information. 

Advisement. Members of the staff work with various 
student organizations, providing them with guidance 
and training in leadership skills. 

Living Accommodations. The many opportunities for 
on-campus living are administered through the 
Office of the Dean of the College. An undergraduate 
residence life staff is directly supervised by two 
professional, live-in Assistant Directors of Residence 
Life. The overall area of Residence Life reports to the 
Associate Dean of the College. 

Change. Any healthy educational institution must 
continually undergo change. Students often provide 
the invaluable input which leads to change in 
policies, programs, and services. By working 
cooperatively with administrators, students have 
successfully initiated changes in residential options, 
dining options, informal educational programs, 
facilities, and numerous rules and regulations. 

Publications. On an annual basis, the Dean of the 
College staff works with students in publishing the 



Student Handbook. The College Union Staff advises 
the publication of the yearbook, the Spectrum. 

Research. In order to improve its services and 
programs, the Office of the Dean of the College 
often collects data on student needs, attitudes, and 
evaluations. Recently, research has been conducted 
on living accommodations, residence hall visitation 
options, dining plan options, room reservation 
procedures, and alcohol use. 

Discipline. The Dean of the College is responsible for 
the non-academic discipline of students. Staff 
members work with the faculty and student members 
of the Student Conduct Review Board to uphold the 
regulations of the College and to protect the rights 
of the individual. 

Residential Life 

Residential life at Gettysburg College has a major 
impact on the total development of the sttident. The 
residential environment (persons, policies, and 
facilities) promotes the formation of a community and 
encourages a style of life that is conducive to the 
development of respect for the individual and the 
society in which one lives. During a student's 
experience at Gettysburg College, decisions are made 
concerning personal values, occupational choices, 
one's identity', personal responsibility, and a philosophy 
of life. The residential program attempts to provide 
opportunities for examining these areas of concern. 

Recognizing the influence of the environment on 
development, Gettysburg College requires all 
students (unless married or residing with their 
families) to live on campus. Exemptions from this 
requirement are granted only by the associate dean 
of the college. 

Assistant directors of residence life are professional, 
live-in staff members who direcdy select and supervise 
the student staff of resident coordinators and resident 
advisers. The student staff participates in an ongoing 
training program, developed by the assistant directors 
of residence life, which enables them to help other 
students adjust to the college environment. The 
residence hall staff provides a variety of educational 
and social programs that enhance the educational 
and social development of all residence hall students. 
Students living in residence halls also have the 
opportunity to work with members of the faculty and 
administration in setting regulations which apply to 
all College residences. 



155 



Gettysburg College offers a variety of options in living 
environments. The students may choose to live in 
one of eleven residence halls varying in occupancy 
from 35 students to 219 students. There are also 
coeducational and single sex hall options. Each of 
the residence halls has a different visitation policy. 
The visitation policies are as follows: 

Option A — Open Visitation from 1 AM - 1 2 

midnight, Sunday through Thursday. 10 
AM - 2 AM, Friday and Saturday 

Option B — Open Visitation from 10 AM -12 

midnight, Sunday through Thursday. 24 
hours, Friday and Saturday 

Option C — Open Visitation, 24 hours, Sunday 
through Saturday. 

Another living opportunity exists in the area of 
Special Interest Housing. This option is for students 
who wish to live together and work on a project of 
mutual interest throughout the academic year. 

Also included as an optional living environment is 
the opportunity for sophomore, junior, and senior 
men to live in a fraternity house on or near the 
campus. 

Most of the student rooms are double occupancy; 
however, a few single rooms are available and some 
rooms are large enough for three or four people. 
Each student is provided with a single bed and 
mattress, a dresser, and a desk and chair. Students 
provide their own pillows, bedding, spreads, study 
lamps, and vsdndow curtains. Card-operated washers 
and dryers are available on the campus for student 
use. Each student room in residence halls is 
equipped with a telephone and cable TV service. The 
use of refrigeration units is permitted in student 
rooms; those units may have a capacity of not more 
than three cubic feet. Rental units are available from 
an independent firm. Cooking units are not 
permitted in individual student rooms. 

Greek Organizations 

Greek organizations have a long and rich tradition at 
Gettysburg College. The first national organization 
was formed for men on campus in 1852. National 
sororities were first formed on campus in 1937. 
Currently, there are eleven social fraternities and five 
social sororities. 



The fraternities, which have individual houses either 
on or near the campus, offer an alternative living 
option to their members. The sororities do not have 
houses but each has a chapter room in a central 
location which serves as a meeting and socializing 
place for the group. 

In addition to providing a social outlet for their 
members, Gettysburg's fraternities and sororities 
serve the campus and community with beautification 
campaigns, blood drives, Christmas parties for local 
children, and other philanthropic activities. 

The goals of the Greek system are to instill in its 
individual members the qualities of good citizenship, 
scholarship, service, and respect for oneself and 
others. Any student interested in joining a Greek 
organization is required to have a 2.0 GPA. 

Dining Accommodations 

The Gettysburg College Dining Hall, the Camalier 
Center, offers a variety of dining options for every 
student. Students can select from four plans: 20 meals 
per week, any 14 meals per week, any 10 meals per 
week, or any 7 meals per week. All first year students 
are required to enroll in the 20-meal plan for their 
first year at Gettysburg. All on-campus residents of 
non-apartment-style residence halls are required to 
enroll in at least the minimum dining plan each 
semester (any 7 meals per week) . Cooking is not 
allowed in the residence hall rooms, so students are 
urged to select a plan which enables them to eat the 
majority of their meals in the dining hall. Dining hall 
hours of service are as follows: Breakfast, 7:15 AM- 
10:15 AM; Continental Breakfast, 10:15 AM-1 1:00 AM; 
Lunch, 11:15 AM-2:00 PM; Dinner, 4:30 PM-7:15 PM. 
The Bullet Hole (College snack bar) offers a cash 
equivalency program daily from 2:00 PM to 9:00 PM 
for students who prefer that alternative. (Hours 
subject to change.) Initiated members of fraternities 
living in non-apartment-style College residence halls 
must enroll in at least the minimum dining plan. Off- 
campus students can also purchase a meal plan to 
accommodate their schedule. 

Student Conduct 

Every community has certain regvilations and 
traditions which each member is expected to abide 
by and uphold. Perhaps a college campus 
community, even more than others, depends upon 
members who are mature and have a sense of 
responsibility. Only in such a community of 



156 



responsible citizens can there be an atmosphere 
established which will contribute to the liberal arts 
education. 

Consequently, the student who fails to support the 
objectives of Gett\'sburg College forfeits his or her 
right to continue to attend the College. The College 
reserves the right to dismiss any student whose 
conduct is detrimental to its welfare or whose 
atutude is antagonistic to the spirit of its ideals. Such 
an individual forfeits all the fees which he or she has 
paid. Living groups or organizations formally 
approved by the College are subject to the same 
regulations as individual students. 

Believing that it is sensible and proper for all students 
to be fully aware of their obligations and 
opportunities as Gettysburg College students, the 
College publishes a statement entided "The Rights 
and Responsibilities of Students." This document is 
the result of discussions and conclusions reached by 
the student-facultv-administrative committee It deals 
with such questions as the academic, citizenship, and 
governance rights and responsibilities of students. It 
is published annually in the Student Handbook. 

The Student Conduct Reviezv Board and the Office of 
the Dean of the College handle student violations of 
College policies, including individual or group 
violations of College rules. In working to preserve the 
ideals and objectives of Gettysburg College, the 
judicial system does not necessarily stress the 
administration of punishment, but rather the 
promotion of education. Gettysburg College, as a 
liberal arts institution, provides a learning experience 
both in and out of the classroom. By aiding and 
protecting this educational environment, the judicial 
system helps students realize their potential as 
mature responsible citizens. 

The Student Conduct Review Board consists of 
students and faculty members, and is advised by 
administrative members of the Office of the Dean of 
the College. 

Before a student decides to apply for entrance into 
Gettysburg College, he or she should be aware of the 
rules governing student conduct. A complete copy of 
the rules and regulations may be obtained by writing 
to the associate dean of the college. 



College Union 

The College Union is the center of student activities 
and an informal laboratory for experimental 
learning. Through a myriad of services and 
activities, the Student Activities Council and College 
Union offer many opportunities for students to 
become involved in planning and participating in 
campus activities. Assistance with the development 
of interpersonal and leadership skills, as well as 
working with faculty members, administrators, and 
students to initiate a well-balanced program of 
cultural, educational, recreational, and social 
activities are the priority of the College Union staff. 
Among the many services provided by the 
professional and student staff of the College Union 
are information about the campus and community 
activities, ticket sales, travel information, lost and 
found, and newspaper subscription services. 

Hours of Operation 

College Union 

Monday thru Friday 8 AM to 1 AM 

Saturday 9 AM to 1 AM 

Sunday noon to midnight 

Games Area 
Monday thru Sunday noon to 1 1 :30 PM 

Located in the College Union are meedng rooms; 
campus scheduling; recreational facilities, including 
a pool; the College Store; showcases; a 1 ,000-seat 
ballroom; and the Bullet Hole (snackbar). The Plank 
Student Acdvides Center is an informal gathering 
place for students to meet with their student 
organizations, relax, study, and listen to music. 
Pinball machines, a large screen TV, billiards, and 
electronic games are located here. 

A campus nightclub, The Dive, is located in the 
College Union. It features a state-of-the-art sound 
system, food service, wide screen television, a video 
system, and a dance floor. The layout of the club 
allows for flexible floor space to accommodate a 
variety of special activities. 

Student Activities and Organizations 
The Plank Student Activities Center serves as the 
primary resource and advisory center for student 
activities programs and student organizadons. It is 
establishing itself as the resource center for all 
student organizations, where many of these 
organizations have offices (i.e.. Student Senate, 
Student Activides Council, Black Student Union, 



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Panhellenic and Interfraternity Council, Hillel, 
Honor Commission, Gettysburgian, Spectrum, and 
WZBT Radio). The games area, student lounges, 
and meeting spaces are also available. 

Student Activities Council 

While the facilities and services offered by the 
College Union contribute largely toward making it a 
comfortable place for students, the Student Activities 
Council (SAC), a student-run programming board, 
provides meaningful and enjoyable cultural, 
educational, recreational, and social activities which 
complement the curricukun at Gettysburg College. 
All such events are supported by student-controlled 
funds. The Student Activities Council is composed of 
the following committees: publicity, entertainment, 
concert, Bullet Hole/Dive, and special events. 
Representatives from other student organizations 
provide suggestions and help implement a diverse 
programming schedule. 

Leadership Development Program 
The leadership development program provides 
student leaders with two retreats each year, held at 
the beginning of fall and spring semesters, as well as 
monthly workshops. Topics have ranged from time 
and stress management to empowerment and vision 
setting. Each year, the leadership development 
program establishes a theme. Students have the 
chance, in retreats and workshops, to share ideas 
with each other and to experientially practice the 
topics discussed. Resources are available in the 
College Union and student activities offices for 
student leaders to utilize. The overall goal of the 
leadership development program is to provide a 
common basis for student leaders to discuss common 
issues and to help prepare them to develop a more 
active role on campus and in the community. 

Student Government 

Students participate in College governance by 
serving on various College, class, and faculty 
committees; as well as in the Student Senate, 
residence hall associations, and Greek organizations. 

Student Senate 

The Gettysburg College Student Senate works in 
cooperation with the trustees, administration, and 
faculty to bring to the campus community a well- 
organized, democratic form of student government. 
It represents the student view in formulating policies 
while working to promote cooperation among all 
constituencies of the College. 



The Student Senate is composed of four executive 
officers, twenty class senators, and many dedicated 
committee members. Under the recently passed 
Constitution, the four standing committees of the 
Senate are Academic Policy, Budget Management, 
Public Relations, and Student Concerns. Students 
can also serve on various faculty and trustee 
committees. 

The Senate ensures student representation as 
Gettysburg College strives to maintain its heritage of 
excellence as one of the finest liberal arts institutions 
in the United States. 

Student Life Council 

The Student Life Council is an organization 
composed of members of the student body, faculty, 
and College administration. This Council has 
responsibility for studying matters and developing 
policies pertaining to student life and student 
conduct. Business may be brought to the Council or 
legislation proposed by any member of the College 
community. Major issues are debated in Student 
Senate and in faculty meetings before resolution by 
the Council. The Council makes recommendations 
to the President, who accepts, rejects, or refers them 
to the Board of Trustees prior to implementation. 

The Honor Commission 

The Honor Commission is a student organization 
which is authorized by the constitution of the Honor 
Code. The Commission is composed often students, 
aided by four case investigators, six faculty advisers, 
and an adviser from the College administration. Its 
function is to promote and enforce the Honor Code 
at Gettysburg College, to secure the cooperation of 
students and faculty to these ends, and to adjudicate 
allegations of Honor Code violations. 

Interfraternity Council 

An important part of the responsibility for governing 
fraternities at Gettysburg College is assumed by the 
Interfraternity Council (IPC), an organization 
composed of an executive board, the President, and 
a representative from each social fraternity. This 
Council formulates and administers general 
regulatory policies by which fraternities must abide. 
It serves as the representative of the social fraternal 
groups to the student body, the College, and the 
community of Gettysburg. During the school year 
the IPC sponsors a variety of campus social and 
community service activities. 



158 



Panhellenic Council 

Important responsibility for governing the sorority 
system at Gettysburg College is assumed by the 
Panhellenic Council, to which each sorority elects 
two student representatives. This Council establishes 
and enforces the Panhellenic "rush" regulations and 
functions as a governing body in matters involving 
sororities and intersororit)' relations. 

Programming and Student 
Activities 

In addition to the programs sponsored by the 
Student Activities Council and College Union staff, 
the College offers many other major activides which 
are sponsored by campus groups. Among these are 
the Performing Arts Committee and Convocadon 
Committee, as well as various dramatic and musical 
organizations. 

The Lecture Program, sponsored by a faculty lecture 
and performing arts committee, brings well-known 
scholars and outstanding figures in public life to 
campus each year. In this way, the College extends 
the student's view beyond the confines of the College 
community. In addidon to the general lecture series, 
the following special lectures are given regularly. 

The Robert Fortenbaugh Memorial Lectures : 
An endowment provided by Clyde E. (Class of 191 3) 
and Sara A. Gerberich supports a series of lectures 
and other programs in the Department of History. 
Each year an authorit) on the Civil War period has 
lectured on a topic related to those years. These 
public lectures are presented in November to 
coincide with the anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's 
Gettysburg Address. 

Musselman Visiting Scientist A fund provided by the 
Musselman Foundation in honor of Dr. John B. 
Zinn, former chair of the chemistry department, 
supports an annual three-day visit by a renowned 
scientist to the chemistry department. 

Stuckenberg lecture: A bequest from Mary G. 
Stuckenberg in memorv' of her husband, the Rev. J. 
H. W. Stuckenberg, enables the College to sponsor a 
lecture in the area of social ethics. 

Bell Lecture: A fund from the estate of the Rev. Peter 
G. Bell (Class of 1860) was given to the College to 
establish a lectureship on the claims of the gospel 
ministry on college men. The main object of this 



fund is "to keep before the students of the College 
the demand for men of the Christian ministry and 
the condition of the age qualifying that demand." 

Norman E. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fiind: 
A fund established to commemorate the outstanding 
contributions made to the College by Norman E. 
Richardson, Professor of Philosophy, from 1945 to 
1979, supports each year an event that stimulates 
reflection on inter-disciplinarv' studies, world 
civilization, the philosophy of religion, values, and 
culture. 

The Henry M. Scharf Lecture on Current Affairs: A fund 
provided by Dr. F. William Sunderman (Class of 
1919) in memory of Henry M. Scharf alumnus and 
member of the College's Board of Trustees from 
1969 to 1975, is used to bring a recognized authority 
or scholar to the campus each year to speak on a 
subject of timely interest. 

The College encourages students to experience and 
to participate in various perfonning arts and 
provides an opportunity for those with special talent 
to develop and share that talent. 

Performing Arts Committee: Each year recognized 
professional groups and individuals present to the 
campus performances of dance and drama, as well as 
vocal and instrumental music. 

The Gettysburg College Choir: It appears at special 
services and concerts on campus. Each year it makes 
a concert tour, presenting concerts in churches and 
schools. Choir members are selected on the basis of 
ability, interest, and choral balance. 

Chapel Choir: During the year it performs at chapel 
services, special services, and concerts. Members are 
selected on the basis of ability and willingness to 
meet the rehearsal and service requirements. 

Band: The "Bullet" Marching Band begins its season 
with a band camp in preparation for performances at 
football games, festivals, and parades. At the 
conclusion of the marching band season, the College 
Symphonic Band begins its rehearsals. In addition to 
home concerts, there is an annual tour through 
Pennsylvania and neighboring states. 

The offering of small ensembles remains a vital 
segment of the overall instrumental program. 
Clarinet choir, brass ensemble, jazz ensemble and 
others are open for membership to band members 
and meet on a weekly basis. 



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Gettysburg College/Community Chamber Orchestra: 
The orchestra performs concerts throughout the 
academic year. Membership is open to all students 
who have the necessary proficiency. Auditions are 
held at the beginning of each school year. 

The Sunderman Chamber Music Concerts: The 
Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation, established 
by Dr. F. William Sunderman (Class of 1919) to 
"stimulate and further the interest of chamber music 
at Gettysburg College," each year sponsors important 
campus performances by distinguished and 
internationally-recognized chamber music groups. 

The Owl and Nightingale Players: Each year this 
distinguished group of performers stage three major 
productions under the leadership of the College's 
theatre faculty. The program is a varied one: each 
four-year cycle usually includes plays by Shakespeare, 
Shaw, Moliere, and O'Neill, as well as Broadway 
musicals and works by contemporary dramatists. All 
productions are offered in the handsome 245-seat 
Kline Theatre which features a thrust stage and is 
located in Brua Hall. 

Laboratory Theatre: Lab Theatre produces a dozen 
one-act plays each year, many of which are new and 
some of which are the work of campus playwrights. 
All works are given in the exciting Stevens 
Laboratory Theatre in Brua Hall, where the seating 
can be rearranged to provide staging in the round, 
thrust, profile, and frontal, hi addition, senior 
theatre arts students utilize the theatre for staging 
thesis productions for their major. 

Otherstage: In addition to sharing the facilities of the 
black box Stevens Theatre, this troupe performs its 
short plays at other areas both on campus and in the 
community. Their work encompasses lunchtime 
theatre, street theatre, and children's theatre. 

In each of the theatre groups, students are afforded 
the opportunity of gaining experience in all areas of 
theatre, from acting and directing to scene design, 
lighting, and costuming. 

Gettysburg Theatre Festival: Now in its twenty-second 
season of offering cultural stimulation as well as 
refreshing entertainment to both campus and 
community, the Gettysburg Theatre, with its 
company of professional performers, provides the 
focus for the Theatre Practicum. These are college 
credit courses: students herein enrolled serve in 
supporting roles and assist in the technical aspects of 



the Theatre's life. The company offers an interesting 
balance of modern classics, Broadway and off- 
Broadway hits, and avant garde works not generally 
performed in summer theatre. All works are 
performed in the air-conditioned Kline Theatre. In 
addition, the company operates a Theatre for 
Children, which offers a series of hoixr-long plays for 
young people on the lawn adjacent to Brua Hall. 

Artist-in-Residence: During the year, the College invites 
professional performing artists to the campus for 
one-month residencies. Drawn from music, theatre, 
dance, and fine arts, the artists-in-residence work 
with interested and talented students in workshops as 
well as in rehearsals and, ultimately, in performance. 

Campus Communications 

Every community needs to keep its members in 
contact with each other and with the rest of the 
world. On the Gettysburg campus, student 
communication media not only inform the members 
of the commiuiity, but also afford students an 
opportunity to express their ideas effectively and to 
learn the practical necessities of producing 
newspapers, radio broadcasts, magazines, and 
yearbooks. 

The Getty sburgian: The College newspaper is staffed 
completely by students who are responsible for 
editing, feature writing, news writing, layout, 
personnel management, subscription management, 
and circulation. This weekly newspaper carries news, 
feature articles, and editorials concerning activities 
on and off campus. 

The Mercury: The poems, short stories, and 
illustrations published in The Mercury are contributed 
by students. The student editorial staff encourages 
creative writing within the campus community. 

The Spectnim: A pictorial essay of life on campus is 
featured in the College yearbook. Staffed by 
students, the yearbook offers the opportunity for 
creativity in design, layout, photography, and 
writing. The Spectnim covers the full academic year, 
including commencement weekend. It is mailed to 
graduating seniors and offered to underclass 
students early in the fall semester. 

WZBT: The College radio station (91.1 megacycles) 
has been the voice of the campus for many years. 
WZBT operates as a noncommercial, educational FM 



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radio station over the public airwaves and under 
FCC regulations. The station is student staffed and 
broadcasts a variety of programs from its fully- 
equipped studios. WZBT is organized like a 
professional radio station and offers positions for 
announcers, disc jockeys, newscasters, engineers, 
and music librarians, as well as jobs in production, 
continuity, and advertising. A student executive 
committee supervises the daily operation of the 
station, and a Board of Overseers composed of 
students, facult\' members, and administrators 
establishes general policy for the station. 

Other Activities 

Debate Society: The Debate Societ)' is committed to 
developing reasoning and argumentative skills 
through intercollegiate debate as well as through the 
sponsoring of campus forums and discussions. 
Student members offer workshops in reasoning and 
argument, and volunteer their services as 
moderators, devil's advocates, and discussion leaders 
for various campus organizations. 

Student Activities Council: The Student Activities 
Council provides the leadership for organizing and 
promoting a variety of student-initiated activities on 
campus and has a primary role in the programming for 
special weekends such as Homecoming and the Fall 
Family Weekend. It also functions as a programming 
board by supporting and coordinating the programs 
and activities of other campus organizations. 
Membership is open to all interested students. 

Opportunities for students to pursue their special 
interests also exist through the long list of campus 
clubs and organizations. The list includes Amnesty-, Art 
Society, Bicycling, Black Suadent Union, GCTV, GECO 
(Gettysburg Environmental Concerns Organization), 
Rugby Club, and International Club. Various other 
opportunities are available in departmental and 
professional clubs and honorary societies. 



Career Services 



The Career Services Office at Gettysburg College 
helps Gettysburg students make informed career 
decisions, and then act effectively with regard to 
those decisions. Career Services also seeks to 
promote an active interest in Gettysburg College 
students among organizations and individuals 
beyond the campus community. 

The process of developing a career during the 
college years is implemented through several 
activities, each essential to the ultimate success of the 
individual. These essential activities are self- 
assessment, career exploration, experiencing career 
alternatives, and the actual implementation of the 
job or graduate school search. Ideally, initial 
discovery and expansion of interests and skills occurs 
during the first year, when exposure to the many 
facets of college life begins. More focused self- 
assessment might begin as students contemplate the 
career implications of their choice of an academic 
major during the sophomore year. During the junior 
year and the summers immediately before and after, 
students may develop a more precise knowledge of 
and interest in a particular career field, perhaps 
through a summer job, internship, or volunteer 
experience. Plans for the actual job or graduate 
school search, which can take place throughout 
senior year, may begin to be made at this time. 

The Career Services Office assists students with all of 
these career development phases. We help students 
assess their skills, interests, and values, match these to 
the career fields most appropriate to them, and then 
train students in how to conduct an effective job or 
graduate school search. Since most individuals will 
change jobs and even careers a number of times 
during the course of their working lives, this kind of 
background and training will be useful in the future. 

Individual career counseling for students is always 
available with our professionally-trained staff A 
special First Step Session workshop, an interactive 
computer program (DISCOVER), and informafion 
on the career paths of various academic majors at 
Gettysburg are available to students beginning to 
conduct career self-assessment. Our Career Library 
is stocked with books, monographs, and directories 
which provide students with up-to-date information 
on possibilities within the world of work. A special 
resource at Gettysburg is the Gettysburg Alumni 
Information Network (GAIN), a group of alumni 



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who have volunteered to provide our students with 
career information, and who are readily accessible to 
our students. Career Coffee Hours, which bring 
alumni of various academic majors back to campus 
to talk with students, are hosted throughout the year. 
We also host a Graduate School Day during which 
students meet with representatives from a variety of 
professional and graduate programs, and a Social 
Change & Community Service Career Fair for 
students interested in careers in those areas. 

To help students conducting a serious graduate 
school or job search, the Career Services Office 
offers workshops on "Resume Writing", "Effective 
Interviewing", "Summer Jobs", "The Art and Science 
of Job Hunting", and "Graduate School Search 
Techniques." We also have an active on-campus 
recruiting program, as well as three large off-campus 
job fairs. 

Career Services also conducts a follow-up study of each 
graduating class to learn more about post-graduate 
experiences. Over the past several years, our career 
services students have pursued a wide range of post- 
college occupations, including accoimtant, teacher, 
management trainee, research technician, marketing 
representative, account executive, budget analyst, 
financial planner, congressional aide, personnel 
assistant, social worker, and assistant editor. Graduates 
also pursue advanced study in fields such as physical 
therapy, athletic training, law, medicine, religion, 
psychology, genetics, college administration, 
international affairs, and politics. Examples of 
organizations where graduates obtained employment 
were Arthur Andersen & Co., Federal Government, 
Deluxe Check Printers, March of Dimes, Sports 
Medicine Association, U.S. House of Representatives, 
Pmdential, Merck & Co., TRW, and AETNA Life &: 
Casualty. Examples of educational institutions 
attended include Boston College, Tufts University, 
Georgetown University, Pennsylvania State University, 
Dickinson School of Law, Johns Hopkins University, 
and Rutgers University. 

The process of getting a job, which is only one part 
of the whole career development process, takes 
intelligence and planning, and each individual 
student at Gettysburg must learn it at his or her own 
pace, and with individual questions in mind. We 
have the resources and professional expertise to help 
students, and encourage them to visit us at any point 
in their college careers. 



Health Center 



The Gettysburg College Health Center is dedicated 
to the delivery of personalized primary health care. 
The health center contains both health and 
coimseling services in order to maintain both 
physical and emotional well-being. Illness care and 
health promotional activities are possible through 
the inclusion of a wellness model for health care. 

Wellness can be defined as an ongoing process of 
personal involvement in life-style behavior that 
promote physical, emotional, intellectual, and 
spiritual well-being. Students are encouraged to take 
an active role in their health care by making 
appointments at the health center and becoming 
more-informed health care consumers. 

The health center maintains a strict policy of 
confidentiality. Only with the patient's written 
consent can any health record or health-related 
information be shared outside of the health center. 
The contents of the health record are not 
incorporated into the official college record. 

Gettysburg College has an HfV/AIDS policy which 
covers students, faculty, staff, and administration. The 
purpose of this policy is to support the confidential 
needs of the individuals with HFV/AIDS, as well as 
maintain the safety of the campus community. Copies 
of this policy, which is reviewed annually, are available 
in the Student Handbook and the personnel office. 

Student Health Services 

The Student Health Services component of the 
health center offers a variety of illness, wellness, and 
health educational services for students. The 
professional staff includes adult and family nurse 
practitioners, family physicians, registered nurses, 
medical assistants and an administrative assistant. All 
of these individuals specialize in college health- 
related issues. The nurse practitioners are registered 
nurses with advanced training and certification in 
the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of minor 
acute and stable chronic illness. Together, the health 
care providers offer the following health services: 

— ^Assessment and treatment of minor acute illness 

(colds, flu, sprained ankles, etc.) 
— Maintaining stable chronic illness (such as 

diabetes and asthma) 
— Immunizations (Tetanus, MMR) 



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— Allerg)' injections 

— Women's health care (PAP smears and treatment 

of vaginal infections) 
— Contraceptive services 
— Health education 
— Weight management 
— Stress management 
— Exercise recommendations 
— Athletic physicals 
— Nutrition guidance 

A limited number of in-house laboratory evaluations 
can be performed (throat and urine cultures, mono 
and pregnancy tests) during a health visit. The cost 
of the visit to the health center for evaluation, some 
lab work, and some medications, is covered by 
tuition and fees. Any additional lab work, 
immunizations, x-rays, medications, ER visits, or 
phvsician referrals are the financial responsibility of 
the student. All students are strongly encouraged to 
have health insurance coverage. An accident 
insurance policy covers all students after their private 
insurance stops, but does not include x-rays or 
hospitalizations for non-accident-related illnesses. 

Health historv' and physical examination forms are 
required for each new student prior to registration. 
All students must have the following immunizations: 
1) tetanus immunization within 10 years; 2) 
tuberculin skin test within one year; 3) measles, 
mumps, and rubella (MMR) at 15 months and 
second booster (since 1980) before entering college 
and/or documented immune titre. 

All patients are seen in the health center by 
appointment only. Walk-in services are for minor 
emergencies. For after-hours health care 
emergencies, students are encouraged to go directly 
to the Gettysburg Hospital Emergency Department, 
conveniently located six blocks from campus. 

The importance of the provision of health education 
and wellness information to individual patients and 
small groups cannot be overstated. Student groups 
are actively involved in the policy-making and 
outreach efforts of the health center to better 
integrate vital health information into the campus 
communitv. 



Counseling Services 



W'ith the goal of promoting the emotional well-being 
of all members of the Gettysburg College 
Communitv, the counseling services staff located in 
the health center, offers a number of services and a 
wide variet)' of programs. These activities are 
concerned with helping students grow to become 
effective, self-directing adults. This goal is achieved 
through teaching students the skills necessary to deal 
with their personal problems and feelings so that 
they can benefit as much as possible from their 
educational experience. 

Through individual counseling, the College's 
professional counselors work with students in a 
confidential relationship, teaching them how to 
approach their problems and how to resolve them. 
Some of the types of things students talk to 
counselors about are their morals and values, 
academic pressure, study habits, concerns about 
their sexuality, relationship issues, drug-related 
issues, problems with friends and roommates, their 
goals and plans, difficulties at home, feelings of 
depression and lack of motivation, and how to 
become the kind of person they want to be. While 
much coimseling involves solving problems and 
changing, its focus is often simply helping a student 
to better understand himself or herself. 

The College, through the counseling services, 
provides the campus community with a program of 
alcohol and drug education which includes 
prevention programming, help for problem users, 
group support for recovering persons and for adult 
children of alcoholics, and awareness presentations. 
Campus health education is also provided by 
CHEERS (College Healthy Environment Education 
for Responsible Students), which is made up of 
student peer educators. The drug education 
coordinator is available to the campus community to 
develop and maintain appropriate educational 
programs and to coimsel with individuals. 

Counseling services also offers a number of topic- 
oriented group experiences which teach skills that 
students can use to improve their experiences on 
campus and to assist them when they leave 
Gettysburg. Group experiences that are regularly 
offered are designed to teach assertiveness and 
communication skills, improve relaxation, enhance 
study habits, deal with eating disorders, build self- 
esteem and cope with separation. Other group 



T^3^ 



experiences are created based on campus need and 
interest. For students interested in self-help, an 
audio and video tape library is available in the 
counseling office. A wellness resource room, located 
in the west end of the health center, contains a wide 
variety of health care and life-style pamphlets, 
brochures and booklets which are available for 
student use. 

When appropriate, the counseling services also 
functions as an information and consulting service 
working with students and others on a variety of 
campus programs and projects to promote a healthy 
environment. Members of the counseling staff teach, 
conduct research, and work closely with the faculty, 
administration, and parents on issues of student 
concern. 

All counseling semce activities are free, confidential, 
and available to Gettysburg College students. It is the 
desire of counseling staff members that their services 
complement the College academic program. It is 
also their hope that, for many students, the 
counseling service will be an integral part of their 
educational experience. 

Religious Life and Chapel 
Programs 

The Gettysburg College Chapel Program offers 
students opportunities to grow in the understanding 
and practice of their own religious traditions, to 
appreciate the religious traditions of others, and to 
better understand and integrate the relationship 
between faith, reason, and daily life. With attendance 
completely voluntary, the Chapel Program attracts 
students and faculty members of various religious 
backgrounds, provides spiritual nurturing, and assists 
in the exploration of religious disciplines. 

Corporate worship is an important part of Chapel 
offerings. Students from a variety of traditions join 
together in worship at Christ Chapel each Sunday. 
Led by the College chaplain, the service often 
features noted speakers. The Chapel choir offers 
anthems and liturgical music, and students often 
assist in the worship. In addition to the College 
chaplains, a Roman Catholic priest and a Catholic 
laywoman are Catholic campus ministers available 
for students. Each Sunday evening mass is 
celebrated. A Quaker service is held in Glatfelter 
Lodge on Sunday mornings, and the Christian 
Science community gathers on a regular basis. 



Moreover students are also welcomed in the various 
churches of the Gettysburg community, and local 
ministers participate in chapel worship throughout 
the year. Each week there is a Wednesday evening 
candlelight communion service in Christ Chapel, a 
Thursday evening candlelight mass, and a noontime 
Eucharist. A Rabbi is regularly on campus to advise 
Hillel, and serve as a counselor to students of the 
Jewish faith; he also teaches a course on Judaism in 
the religion department. 

Student leadership and participation is a key focus of 
Chapel ministries. The Chapel programs are 
coordinated by the Chapel Council-a voluntary group 
of students. Committees of the Chapel Council 
include the Worship and Music Committee which 
plans services for Christ Chapel, the Lecture 
Committee, which sponsors outstanding speakers, and 
the Social Justice Committee, which examines a 
commitment to peace and human rights issues. Pre- 
seminary students meet to support each other while 
exploring Church professions. Hillel, a common 
interest group for persons interested in Jewish culture, 
meets for social activities and a deeper appreciation of 
Judaism. The Catholic Campus Ministry meets weekly 
to plan programs of interest to Catholic students. The 
Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship and Fellowship of 
Christian Athletes meet for fellowship and renewal. 
The Lutheran Student Movement is part of the 
national organization of Lutheran college students. 

Center for Public Service: The Gettysburg Center for 
Public Service sponsors service/learning awareness 
trips involving students, faculty, and staff Recent 
trips have included visits to New York City, 
Washington, D.C., Arizona, Nicaragua, Mexico, and 
South Carolina, and several Native American 
reservations in the Midwest and Arizona. 

An active Community Services Program includes 
Adopt a Grandparent and Outreach, which involves 
students with the aged and mentally handicapped; 
Volunteers for Youth and Tutoring; which encourages 
students to support youth in the Gettysburg 
community; a local Habitat For Humanity chapter; 
work with migrant farm workers, recycling and other 
opportunities to serve and help people. 



164 



Athletics 



The College has an extensive program of 
intercollegiate and intramural athletics for men and 
women. It is possible for all students to participate in 
some supervised sport; for those with particular 
athletic skills and interests, a full array of varsity 
teams are available. For all students, the possession 
of a College idendfication card guarantees free 
admission to all regular season intercollegiate 
contests. 

Intercollegiate Athletics. Gettysburg College maintains 
membership in the National Collegiate Athledc 
Association, the Eastern Collegiate Athletic 
Conference, and the Middle AUantics State Collegiate 
Athletic Conference. In football, Gettysburg 
participates in the Centennial Football Conference, 
which includes Dickinson College, Franklin and 
Marshall College, Johns Hopkins University, 
Muhlenberg College, Swarthmore College, Western 
Maryland College, and Ursinus College. 

The intercollegiate program includes teams for men, 
teams for women, and one athletic team for which 
both men and women are eligible. The breakdown is 
as follows: 









AD 




Men 


Women 


Students 


FaU 


Cross Country 


Cross Country 






Football 


Field Hockey 






Soccer 


Soccer 
Volleyball 




Winter 


Basketball 


Basketball 






Swimming 


Swimming 






Wrestling 






Spring 


Baseball 


Lacrosse 


Golf 




Lacrosse 


Softball 






Tennis 


Tennis 






Track and 


Track and 






Field 


Field 




Campus Recreation 





The Office of Campus Recreation is dedicated to 
complementing the academic goals of Gettysburg 
College by providing a variety of recreational 
activities for all students, faculty members and staff 
members. Programs include intramural sports, 
aerobics/fiUiess, sports clubs, and informal recreation. 

Intramural sports include a wide range of team, 
individual, and dual sports. Team sports include 



Softball, flag football, basketball, floor hockey, 
indoor and outdoor soccer, volleyball, and three-on- 
three basketball. Individual and dual events include 
tennis, table tennis, wrestling, swimming, cross 
country, golf, home run derby, bench press, mini- 
triathalon, and wiffle ball. 

FiUiess activities are the fastest growing portion of the 
campus recreation program. Aerobics classes held 
daily are designed to meet the needs of all students by 
offering high impact and low impact classes. Tone and 
stretch classes, and aqua aerobics, are also offered. 

The sport club program is another growing segment 
of the campus recreation program. These clubs are 
designed so that anyone of any skill level may 
participate. Sport clubs currently active on campus 
include men's rugby, men's ice hockey, tae kwon do, 
cuong nhu, cycling, boxing, men's volleyball and 
women's rugby. 

The campus recreation office tries also to provide as 
much time as possible for informal recreation. 
Activity areas include a swimming pool, basketball 
courts, tennis courts, weight room with Nautilus and 
free weights, a fitness room with stationary bikes and 
stairmasters, and a multi-purpose area within the 
Bream/ Wright/ Hauser Athletic Complex for a 
variety of recreational activities. 

Academic Services and 
Information 

The Office of Academic Advising, located on the 
second floor of the College Union, offers support in 
many areas of academic life. Working in conjunction 
with the individual student's adviser, the associate 
deans assist students in making educational plans and 
solving academic problems. In addition, the first year 
student orientation and advising programs are 
administered by this office. Dean's Lists, academic 
deficiencies, withdrawals and readmissions, and 
petitions to the Academic Standing Committee are 
processed by this office. Peer tutoring and learning 
disabilities counseling is also available here. 

The Provost of the College, whose office is in 
Pennsylvania Hall, handles matters pertaining to 
faculty and academic programs. An associate provost 
supplies information concerning affirmative action. 
The registrar and off-campus study office maintain 
information about study abroad opportunities. 



lb£) 



Intercultural Advancement 

The aim of the Office of Intercultural Advancement 
(located in the Intercultural Resource Center) is to 
promote cultural diversity on campus. The 
department's goal is to stress academic excellence 
among African American students, African students, 
and other groups, and to provide culturally-diverse 
programs and workshops. The Intercultural 
Resource Center contains materials for genealogical 
research for all ethnic groups, with an emphasis on 
African American families. 

The Dean of Intercultural Advancement coordinates 
all programming, functions, and administrative 
duties within the department, while the Assistant 
Dean provides academic advising to students and 
serves on the Academic Standing Committee. 

The Center provides math tutoring to African 
American, African, and IRC-affiliated students. 
Besides achieving academic excellence, students are 
encouraged to participate and take leadership roles 
in campus activities and clubs. 

The Office also encourages students to establish 
links with the Gettysburg community. The Center 
established MYEI (Minority Youth Education 
Institute), which enables minority school children in 
grades 7-12 to interact with College students and to 
learn about their heritage. 

All members of the campus community are encouraged 
to participate in culturally-diverse activities sponsored 
or co-sponsored by the office with other academic 
departments and the Black Student Union. 

Financial Aid 

Details about financial aid procedures are found in 
the Student Financial Aid section of this catalog. 

Facilities 

Gettysburg College has a 225-acre campus with 60 
buildings that provide excellent facilities for all the 
College programs. These buildings range from the 
original, historic, Pennsylvania Hall (Old Dorm), 
constructed in 1837 and listed on the National 
Register of Historic Places, to the modern 
Musselman Library/Learning Resources Center that 
was cited for its excellent design by the American 
Institute of Architects. 



Academic Facilities 

The Library: The College library collection is housed in the 
Musselman Library/ Learning Resources Center, 
completed in 1981, and in two departmental libraries: 
Chemistry in Breidenbaugh Hall and Physics in Masters 
Hall. Total collections are approximately 330,000 
volumes, 23,000 microforms, 36,000 governmental 
publications, 12,000 records, and extensive slide, 
filmstrip, and other instructionzd media. The library 
subscribes to over 1,400 journals. An automated system 
provides users with enhanced access to the library catalog 
through computer terminals. 

The College's library uses the Interlibrary Delivery 
Service which allows Gettysburg College to borrow 
materials quickly from 200 academic and research 
libraries. The library is able to order and receive 
materials from most of these libraries via telefacsimile. 
The library also maintains cooperative arrangements with 
the Associated College Libraries of Central 
Pennsylvania, PALINET (Pennsylvania Library 
Network), and the Central Pennsylvania Consortium. 

Classrooms, Laboratories:. The following classroom and 
laboratory facilities serve the College. 





Academic 


Special 


Building 


Departments 


Features 


Brua Hall 


Theater Arts 


Kline Theatre 
Stevens laboratory 
Theatre 


Glatfelter Hall 


Computer Science 


Microcomputer 




Economics 


laboratories 




English 






Management 






Mathematics 






Sociology 






Anthropology 




McKnight Hall 


French 


Language 




German 


laboratory in 




Spanish 


Musselman Library 




Portuguese 




Schmucker Hall 


Art and Music 


Art Studios, gallery, 
extensive slide 
collection, recital 
hall, practice rooms 



Weidensall Hall Classics 

Education 
History 
Philosophy 
Religion 



White House 
Breidenbaugh 



Political Science 
Chemistry 



Fourier Transform 
Infrared, Fourier 
Transform NMR, UV- 
visible and Gas 
Chromatograph- Mass 
Spectrometers, 
research laboratories, 
library 



166 



Masters Physics 



McCrearv 



Observatory 



Biology 
Psychology 



Hatter Planetarium, 
optics laboratory 
Plasma physics 
laboratory, library 

Electron microscopes, 
research laboratories, 
greenhouse, acquarium 
room, herbarium 

Sixteen-inch Casse- 
grain telescope 



Computing Services 

Computer Labs: Glatfelter Hall houses four computer 
labs that house a total of 31 MS-DOS personal 
computers, 9 NeXT workstations, and 21 Apple 
Macintosh computers. In addition, there are 10 IBM 
personal computers and 16 Apple Macintosh 
computers on the second floor of Musselman Library. 
Laser printers are available in Glatfelter Hall and 
Musselman Library for student printing. For the 
research needs of faculty members and students, a VAX 
6210 and a SUN 4/690 server allow students to access 
mainframe applicatiotis. A variety' of educational and 
course-related software packages are available in all 
public computing labs through the campus network. 

Computer Network on Campus: The College has 
completed the initial phase of its computer network 
that will electronically link all academic campus 
buildings and the residence halls. The new network 
will provide state-of-the-art data communications 
capabilities for the more than 2,500 students, faculty 
members and staff members. The campus is linked to 
Internet and Bitnet which allows communication and 
information sharing between computers on the 
Gettysburg College campus and thousands of 
computers across the country and throughout the 
world. Network connectivity allows sharing of vast 
amounts of data, and collaboration between students, 
members of the faculty, and others at different 
institutions. The campus network also provides access 
to the library's card catalog system. By use of 
Internet, users also have access to libraries in the 
United States and in many foreign countries. 

Computer Store: Computing Services sells computing 
hardware and peripherals to students, faculty members, 
and staff members of the College at educational prices, 
which result in discounts of up to fifty percent off 
suggested retail prices, through the College store. The 
store carries machines from the Apple and IBM lines, 
as well as NeXT computers. The store also sells 
printers, diskettes, and other peripheral equipment. 



Computer Training: Computing Services provides a series 
of training sessions throughout the year for sntdents, 
faculty members, and staff members on hardware, 
software, and networking. These sessions are free. 
Topics range from "Introduction to WordPerfect" to 
"Spreadsheet Concepts" to "Creating Dynamic Resumes. 
A help line for students who have comptiting-related 
questions is also available. In addition, student 
assistants are available in the computing labs at night 
and on weekends to answer questions and provide 
limited training. 

Athletic Facilities 

The Bream/ Wright/Hauser Athletic Complex and the 
Eddie Plank Student Activities Center contain the 
College's indoor athletic facilities. These facilities 
include seven regulation basketball courts, four indoor 
tennis courts, a 1/1 1 mile chem-turf track, fitness 
rooms for training and aerobics, a sports medicine 
center, classrooms, and a conference/library room. In 
addition, the swimming pool of Olympic dimensions, 
located in the College Union, is used for varsity 
swimming competition and intramural and 
recreational swimming. 

Outdoors, the campus offers several athletic field 
areas: Musselman Staditim, with the football field and 
a quarter-mile cinder all-weather track; a baseball 
field; two areas for soccer and lacrosse; Memorial 
Field, for women's field hockey and lacrosse; a 
women's softball field; and the intramural areas which 
contain eight tennis courts, and numerous soccer, 
football, and hockey fields. In addition, fourteen 
intercollegiate tennis courts are also available. 

Student Services 

Located near the residence halls are the College 
Union, the health center, and Christ Chapel. 

Administrative Offices 

Pennsylvania Hall, the original College building, after 
complete renovation, provides modern offices and 
facilities for administrative personnel. Other offices are 
in the College Union. The Admissions Office is housed 
in Eisenhower House, which served as the office of 
General Dwight D. Eisenhower during his years in 
Gettysburg. 

Other Facilities 

On campus is the home of the College President. 
College maintenance services are centered in the West 
Building. The College owns several houses adjacent to 
the campus which are used as offices and as centers 
for special programs. 



MM 



Admission, 
Expenses and 
Financial Aid 



res 



Admission Policy 



Gettysburg College students come from a wide 
variety of backgrounds and secondary school 
programs. The College encourages applications from 
students of differing ethnic, religious, racial, 
economic, and geographic settings. 

The admissions staff encourages applications from 
students who have demonstrated a capacity for 
academic achievement, responsiveness to intellectual 
challenge, eagerness to contribute their special 
talents to the College community, and an awareness 
of social responsibility. Such persons give promise of 
possessing the ability and the motivation which will 
enable them to profit from the many opportunities 
that the College offers. 

Since the competition for admission is highly 
competitive, the admissions staff gives careful 
consideration to each application. Its decisions are 
based on three categories of evidence described below. 

Evidence of high academic achievement as indicated by the 
secondary school record. The College considers grades 
in academic courses, quality and distribution of 
subjects, and rank in class as highly significant parts 
of the applicant's credentials. Participation in 
accelerated, enriched, and advanced placement 
courses is desirable. The College regards superior 
facility in the use of the English language and an 
understanding of fundamental mathematical 
processes as essential to a successful college 
experience. It also assumes graduation from an 
approved secondary school. 

Evidence of ability to do high quality college ivork as 
indicated by aptitude and achievement test results. The 
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) of the College Board or 
the test results of the American College Testing (ACT) 
program are required of all candidates. Applicants 
submitting the SAT should ensure the reporting of the 
subscore of the Test of Standard Written English 
(TSWE), since those results are used for placement 
purposes in English. Achievement tests are suggested, 
but not required, to complete an application. 

Evidence of personal qualities There is high interest in 
individuals of character who will contribute in 
positive ways to the College community. Such 
contributions should be appropriate to the talents of 
each student, whether these be leadership in campus 
programs, involvement in the welfare of others, 



expression of artistic creativity, or the quiet pursuit 
of scholarly excellence. In estimating such qualities, 
the College relies on what students say about 
themselves; the confidential statements from 
secondary school principals, headmasters, and 
guidance counselors; and on personal appraisals by 
its alumni and friends. Essentially, any evidence of in- 
depth involvement in secondary school activities 
and/or participation in community affairs (especially 
volunteer services) is favorably considered in the 
final decision-making process. 

Admission Procedure 

Students interested in Gettysburg College should 
submit an application during the fall of their senior 
year and no later than February 15. A nonrefundable 
fee of $35 must be sent with the application. 
Although not required, a visit to the campus and an 
interview with a member of the admissions staff is 
strongly recommended. Students considering a major 
in art, music, or physical education should make their 
interest known when requesting an interview, so that 
arrangements can be made for an appointment with 
a member of the department concerned. Seniors 
should plan their visits before February 1 and juniors, 
after April 1 . 

Offers of Acceptance 

Early Decision. Students for whom Gettysburg is a first 
choice are strongly encouraged to apply for Early 
Decision admission. The application will be 
considered between November 15 and February 1 of 
the senior year. Those students accepted under this 
program are obligated to enroll at Gettysburg College 
and to withdraw applications submitted to other 
institutions. Notification of the decision on admission 
will be made between December 15 and February 15. 
Payment of a nonrefundable advance fee of $200 is 
required to validate this offer of acceptance. 

Although the Early Decision applicant should take 
the SAT in the junior year, scores from the 
October/November testing date of the senior year 
will also be considered. Those students submitting 
applications for Early Decision who are not offered 
acceptance at that time will automatically be 
considered for Regular Decision admission upon 
receipt of subsequent semester grades and test scores 
from the senior year. 

Regular Decision. To be assured of maximum 
consideration, students must present applications by 
February 15. Most offers of acceptance will be 



iby 



announced by early April after the receipt of 
November, December, or January SAT results and 
senior year first semester grades. Results for the SAT 
or ACT taken prior to the senior year may be used to 
satisfy test requirements. 

Payment of a nonrefundable advance fee of $200 is 
required to validate the offer of acceptance. Since 
Gettysburg College subscribes to the principle of the 
Candidate's Reply Date, students have until May 1 to 
make their decision and pay the advance fee. 

Students offered acceptance under either Early 
Decision or Regular Decision admission are expected 
to maintain their academic record, pass all their 
senior courses, and earn a secondary school diploma. 

Admission with Advanced Credit and Placement 

Students who have taken college-level courses in 
secondary school and wish to be considered for 
advanced credit or placement must take advanced 
placement tests of the College Board. All entering 
students who submit a score of four or higher on 
these tests shall receive two course credits for each 
tested area toward the 35-course graduation 
requirement, with the exception of the Mathematics 
Calculus AP examination, for which one course 
credit shall be given. Students submitting a score of 
three may receive, at the discretion of the 
appropriate department, credit or advanced 
placement. Course credit for advanced placement 
will be lost if a student takes the equivalent course at 
Gettysburg. Students who have completed advanced- 
level or honors courses may be considered for 
advanced placement. 

Those high school students who have taken regular 
courses at the college level in regionally-approved 
junior or senior colleges may receive credit for these 
courses if there has been no duplication of high 
school units and college credits. This credit must be 
approved by the chairperson of the academic 
department involved. 

Gettysburg College recognizes the quality of the 
International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma in the 
admissions process. In addition, the College awards 
two course credits in each subject area for Higher 
Level examination scores of five or higher. Credit for 
a Higher Level score of four will be given at the 
discretion of the department. 



See the section on Residence Requirements and 
Schedule Limitations for information about the 
planning of the academic program of students who 
plan to complete their graduation requirements in 
less than four full years. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

A transfer student may be admitted at the beginning 
of any semester. He or she must present a regular 
application, including secondary school records and 
SAT or ACT results, and an official transcript from 
all colleges and universities attended. All transfer 
students must be entitled to an honorable dismissal 
without academic or social probation from the 
college from which they transfer and must be 
recommended for transfer by the Dean of the 
college previously attended. A transfer candidate is 
expected to visit the campus for an interview. 

Gettysburg College requires sound academic 
performance in previous college work for students 
who seek admission as a transfer student. Credit is 
granted for individual courses passed with a grade of 
C or better at approved institutions, provided that 
these courses fit reasonably well into the Gettysburg 
curriculum. Academic credit for courses transferred 
is granted tentatively until the student has 
satisfactorily completed one year of work at 
Gettysburg College. All transfer students must satisfy 
all requirements for the degree for which they are 
candidates. 

Admission as a Special Student 

A high school graduate, not a candidate for a 
degree, may apply for admission as a 
nonmatriculated student. Normally, such a student 
may enroll in a maximum of two courses. Permission 
to take more than two courses must be secured from 
the Provost. 

Taking courses as a special student requires 
permission of the instructors of the courses involved, 
as well as filing an application for special student 
status with the admissions office. A special student 
who may later wish to become a candidate for a 
degree must submit an application under regular 
admissions procedures. Special students have the 
same classroom duties and privileges as regular full- 
time students, but no promise is made in advance 
that the special student will be admitted as a 
candidate for the degree. 



170 



Comp rehensive Academic Fee Plan 

Gettysburg College charges a comprehensive 
academic fee covering the two semesters of the 
academic year. NOT included in this fee are books 
and supplies, some private lessons in music, and 
optional off-campus courses. 

Payment of the comprehensive fee entides a student 
to register for and receive a grade in a total of 36 
course credits and in the required quarter courses in 
Health and Physical Education (HPE). Students may 
enroll in five courses during any semester without an 
extra charge. Three required HPE quarter courses 
may be taken without charge at any time. 

The fee applies to each full-Ume student. For 
purposes of the comprehensive academic fee, a full- 
dme student is one registering for at least three, but 
not more than five, courses per semester (except for 
required HPE quarter courses) . Any additional 
course registration beyond five requires additional 
charges of $1,550 per full course or $390 per quarter 
course. Majors in Health and Physical Education and 
Music may take some quarter courses above the five- 
course limit at no additional charge (see the 
departmental listings for details). Part-time 
matriculating students will be charged $1,950 per 
course. 

1992-93 Fees 

Comprehensive Academic Fee $ 17,650 

Board 

College Dining Hall 20 meals per week $ 1 ,895 
(Rates for reduced meal plans of 7, 10, 
and 14 meals per week are available 
from the Business office) 

Room Rents 

Costs for all College living facilities $ 1 ,920 

Single room $ 2,700 

Apartment $ 2,500 

Estimate of Total Expenses for an Academic Year 

Comprehensive Academic Fee $ 17,650 

Board $ 1,895 

Residence Hall Room $ 1,920 

Books and Supplies $ 500 

$ 21,965 

This tabulation does not include personal expenses 
such as clothing, laundry, spending allowances, 
fraternity dues, and transportation. 



Special Student Fees 

Any student who is not a candidate for a degree will 
be charged at the rate of $1,550 per course or $390 
per quarter course. 

Board Policy 

First year students must participate in the full board 
plan (20 meals per week). All students living in the 
College residence halls are required to participate in 
at least the seven-meals-per-week plan. 
The following exceptions apply: 

- Those living in apartment-style residence halls. 

- Those living off-campus or at home. 

- Those who are roommates of Residence 
Coordinators. 

Housing Policy 

All first year students are expected to room in the 
College's residence halls, and preference is given 
them in securing dormitory space. Fraternity 
housing is available to students following their first 
year. When the residence halls have been filled, 
permission for off-campus housing may be granted 
to a limited number of students who have applied 
through a procedure administered by the Dean of 
College Life. Students who have withdrawn from the 
College and are approved for readmission or who 
are returning from off-campus study are expected to 
occupy any vacancy which may exist in a College 
residence hall. 

Payment of BiUs 

Checks should be made payable to Gettysburg 
College and sent to the Accounting Office, 
Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA 17325-1483 by 
the dates oudined below. 

The College operates on a two-semester calendar. An 
itemized statement of charges for each semester is 
mailed approximately one month before the 
payment due date. First semester charges are due on 
August 1 ; second semester charges are due on 
December 10. The College has an optional monthly 
payment plan which runs from June 1 to March 1 
(see Payment Plans). 

Delinquent accounts unll be subject to a late payment charge 
at the rate of 1% per month. This late charge will be 
waived for Guaranteed Student Loan amounts 
processed by the College prior to due dates for 
payments. Students and parents are responsible for 
collection costs on any accounts placed for collection. 



171 



The advance payment of $200 made under either 
the Early or Regular Acceptance plans is credited to 
the reserve deposit account. While the student is 
enrolled, this non-interest-bearing account remains 
inactive. The reserve deposit is activated after the 
student graduates or withdraws from school. At that 
time, reserve deposit funds are transferred to the 
student's account receivable to satisfy any unpaid 
bills, including room damage, fines, lost library 
books, NSF checks, unpaid phone bills, unpaid 
College store charges, etc. After applying the reserve 
deposit to the student's account, if a credit balance 
exists, it will be refunded or credited against a 
college loan. 

Every continuing student in the College is required 
to pay $200 by March 1st, which will be applied 
toward the student's first semester College bill in 
June. No refunds of this fee will be made after the 
date of Spring Registration. 

Veterans' Administration Benefits 

Gettysburg College has made the necessary 
arrangements whereby eligible veterans, dependents, 
and members of the military may receive monthly 
payments from the Veterans' Administration in 
accordance with the appropriate laws and 
regulations. Students requiring any forms to be 
completed by the College concerning these benefits 
should contact the Office of the Registrar. 

Payment Plan 

The College has an optional monthly payment plan for 
those who wish to make installment payments over a 
ten-month period. The first installment is due June 1. 
There is a $35 non-refundable fee for enrollment in 
this plan. Contact the Accounting Office for details. 

There are other privately-operated payment plans, 
some of which include certain insurance coverage. 
The College is most familiar with Knight Tuition 
Payment Plans, 855 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 
021 16. Information about these plans is mailed to all 
new students. 

Refund Policy 

A student who withdraws from the College will be 
entitled to a refund according to the schedule below. 
The date of withdrawal will be the date the student 
has filed the completed withdrawal form with the 
Office of Academic Advising. 



Comprehensive Academic Fee. 

1 to 14 days after registration 80% 

15 to 21 days after registration 60% 

22 to 28 days after registration 40% 

29 to 35 days after registration 20% 

Over 35 days after registration none 

Room none 

Board Prorated Weekly 

Optional insurance is available through A.W.G. 
Dewar, Inc., which supplements the College's refund 
for a student who withdraws as a result of a serious 
illness or accident. 

Required Withdrawal for Disciplinary Reasons 
A student who is required to withdraw for disciplinary 
reasons will forfeit all fees (except board, if refund 
requirements are met) which he or she has paid. 

If a student or the student's parents or guardian feel 
that the individual circumstances of the student 
warrant an exception to the refund policy, an appeal 
may be made to the Treasurer, Gettysburg College. 

Reduction of financial aid obligations and advances 
will receive priority in the payment of refunds. The 
unused reserve deposit balance will be refunded 
approximately six weeks after the student's 
graduation or withdrawal, provided that the student 
has no outstanding loans or debts to the institution. 

College Store 

The College store is operated on a cash. Master 
Card/Visa, or College charge basis. Students may 
charge books, supplies, and miscellaneous items. A 
student's balance must not exceed $500. College 
charges must be paid within 20 days. Unpaid College 
store charges will be added to the student's account 
receivable and be subject to a 1 % late payment charge. 

Accident Insurance 

Upon payment of the Comprehensive Academic Fee, 
each student receives coverage under an accident 
insurance policy. Information concerning the 
coverage provided by this insurance is made available 
at the time of registration or in advance if requested. 

Personal Property Insurance 

The College does not carry insurance on personal 
property of students and is not responsible for the loss 
or damage of such property. Students are encouraged 
to provide their own personal property insurance. 



172 



Student Financial Aid 



Although charges made by colleges and universities 
have risen sharply in recent years, the fact remains 
that in most institutions the fees paid by a student or 
a student's parents cover only a portion of the total 
cost of a student's education. In private institutions 
the remainder comes from endowment income and 
gifts from sources such as alumni, businesses, 
foundations, and churches. 

Gettysburg College recognizes the primary 
responsibility of the student and his or her parents to 
provide as much as possible toward the total cost of 
the student's college education. Since an education 
is an investment which should yield lifelong 
dividends, a student should be prepared to 
contribute to it from his or her own earnings, both 
before entering and while in college. 

Gettysburg College has a program of financial aid for 
worthy and promising students who are unable to 
finance their education from personal and/or family 
resources. Access to such aid is considered a privilege, 
not a right. The qualifications for assistance, in 
addition to need, are academic ability, academic 
achievement, and promise of contribution as a student 
and citizen. The amount of aid in any particular case is 
based upon the financial need of the student. 

The College participates in the College Scholarship 
Service (CSS) and requires all applicants to file pages 
1 to 4 of the Financial Aid Form (FAF). All Financial 
Aid Forms should be sent to the College Scholarship 
Service, Princeton, New Jersey 08541. The College 
also requires that enrolled students submit notarized 
copies of the parents' and student's most recent U.S. 
Individual Income Tax Returns (Form 1040) direcdy 
to the Office of Financial Aid to verify income data. 
Applicants for admission must submit tax forms when 
the $200 admissions deposit is paid, or by May 1. 

A prospective student seeking financial aid should 
forward pages 1 to 4 of the FAF to the CSS as soon as 
possible after applying for admission, but no later 
than February 1 . A student already enrolled who has 
previously had some form of aid should secure a 
renewal application from the Office of Financial Aid 
and should request his or her parents to complete 
this form. The renewal applicadon should be 
forwarded to the CSS no later than March 15. 



Financial aid is awarded in the form of grants, loans, 
or a combination of these. All financial aid awards 
are made for one year only. The Director of 
Financial Aid will consider a request for renewal and 
will act on the basis of the applicant's record as a 
student and campus citizen as well as his or her 
continuing financial need. 

Satisfactory Progress Guidelines for Renewal 
of Financial Aid 

A student is expected to maintain an academic record 
that will enable him or her to complete the 
requirements for graduation in the normal eight 
semesters. Any student who falls below the 2.00 
minimum accumulative average needed for graduation 
will be warned, placed on academic probation, placed 
on dismissal alert, or dismissed. Additionally, it is 
expected that each student will condnue to make 
normal or satisfactory progress toward the completion 
of degree requirements. The student who falls below 
the following minimum standard is considered to not 
be making satisfactory progress and is normally advised 
or required to withdraw: 

for first year students - 1 .50 GPA and 6 courses 
completed 

for sophomores - 1.80 GPA and 15 courses 
completed 

for juniors - 1.90 GPA and 25 courses 
completed. 

In addition to these minimum standards, a student 
on probation must show significant improvement 
during the following semester in order to remain at 
the College. Normally, a student may not remain at 
the College with three consecutive semester averages 
below 2.00. 

The Academic Standing Committee interprets and 
applies these standards on a case-by-case basis at the 
end of each semester. Following the decision of that 
committee, the Office of Financial Aid may be required 
to review the student's progress as it relates to the 
renewal of financial assistance for subsequent terms. 

The recipients of Stafford Student Loans and other 
programs of financial assistance through federally 
subsidized Title IV Programs are also subject to 
minimum progress standards. In addition, students 
who are recipients of grant funds from their home 
states are typically required to successfully complete 
a minimum of 24 credits per year to maintain 
continued eligibility for those grants. Conditions of 
those grants are included in the notice to the 
student. 



1/3 



Applications for financial aid, of those students who 
demonstrate financial need, are reviewed to 
determine eligibility for the following forms of 
assistance available from Gettysburg College. 

Gettysburg College Grant Awarded to students who, in 
addition to financial need, evidence good academic 
ability and academic achievement. These grants are 
renewable as long as the recipient continues to 
demonstrate need, and maintains a sound academic 
record. Normally, such grants are combined with 
loans and/or student employment in order to meet 
the student's financial need. In cases of students who 
demonstrate exceptional talent, skills, and abilities, 
need may be satisfied entirely with grant funds. 

Lutheran College Grant: Awarded to Lutheran 
students. In addition to financial need, consideration 
is given to academic ability and achievement. 

Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant: A grant 
program funded by the Federal Government and 
administered by the College. The program is 
designed to assist students from low-income families. 

Gettysburg College Loan: A loan program made 
available by Gettysburg College. 

Perkins Student Loan: A loan program funded by the 
Federal Government and administered by the 
College. 

College Work-Study Program: Employment program 
funded by the Federal Government and the College. 

Grants need not be repaid, but the College hopes 
that recipients v«ll recognize that they have incurred 
an obligation and will therefore subsequently 
contribute as they can to help insure that the 
benefits which they enjoyed will be available to 
others. 

Approximately forty percent of Gettysburg College 
students receive financial assistance in some form 
from the College. About sixty percent of the 
Gettysburg College student body receives aid from 
the College or other sources. 

Rules governing all types of financial aid are stated in 
the Financial Aid Agreement that is enclosed with 
the Notification of Financial Aid. 



Endowed Scholarships (Grants-in-aid) 
Student Aid 

All students who apply for financial assistance and 
are determined to have financial need will be 
considered for these scholarships (grants-in-aid). 
Recipients are selected by the College. 

Though the College administers scholarships 
restricted to members of a particular sex, the 
discriminating effect of these awards has been 
eliminated in the overall administration of the 
financial aid program through use of other funds 
made available by the College. 

George H. (1949) and Janet L. Allamong Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established by George 
H. Allamong and Janet L. Allamong is awarded to one 
or more worthy and promising students. 

Frederic S. Almy, Sr. Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund created by his son in memory of a man 
who did not have the opportunity to attend college; 
for a deserving and financially needy student. 

Ruth C. Apple Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established in honor of their mother by members 
of the Apple family of Sunbury, Pennsylvania, to be 
awarded to promising but needy students with a 
preference to those from Snyder, Union, or 
Northumberland Counties in Pennsylvania, especially 
those with skills and aspirations in the performing arts. 

Richard A. Arms Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund contributed by the Class of 1924 in memory of 
the Chair of the Mathematics Department (1920- 
1963) is awarded to a worthy student. 

Dr. Joseph B. Baker (1 901) and Rena L. Baker Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund donated by the 
Woman's General League of Gettysburg College is 
given to a needy and deserving student in the music 
department. 

William Balthaser (1925) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by William Balthaser is awarded to 
needy and promising students. 

Dr. Ray Alfred Barnard (1915) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund provided by Dr. Barnard is given 
to a male student from the Central Pennsylvania 
Synod who is preparing for the Lutheran ministry. 



174 



The Rev. Sydney E. Buteman (1887) Scholarship Fund: 
The income from the fund is awarded to a needy 
ministerial student. 

Admiral William W. Behrensjr. Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by the family of 
Admiral William W. Behrens (Hon 74) is awarded to 
one or more worthy and promising students entering 
the final year of undergraduate study and preparing 
for a career in public service. 

Belt Hess-Quay Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund provided by Effie E. Hess Belt (1898) in 
commemoration of several relatives is awarded as 
follows: first preference is given to a member of 
Grace Lutheran Church, Westminster, Maryland; 
second preference to any other resident of Carroll 
County, Maryland who is pursuing theological 
studies at the College; and third preference is given 
to any deserving student. 

Helen A. andjam^s B. Bender Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is granted on the basis of 
need and ability, preference being given to residents 
of Adams County, Pennsylvania majoring in 
economics and/or management. 

Jesse E. Benner (1907) and Minerva B. Benner Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest is used to aid 
worthy students, preferably preministerial students. 

Burton F. Blough Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund contributed by a former trustee is used to aid 
needy and deserving students. 

Jean Aument Bonebrake Presidential Scholarship Fund: A 
fund established by Roy Bonebrake (1928) in 
memory of his wife, the income of which shall be 
awarded to promising and worthy students in need 
of scholarship aid, with preference given to students 
who possess excepfional academic abilities and 
outstanding promise. 

Harry F. Borleis (1925) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest is used to assist needy and deserving 
students. 

Charles E. Bowman (1923) Scholarship Trust Fund: The 
income from a bequest to be used to assist needy and 
deserving students. 

Elsie Paul Boyle (1 912) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a gift by Elsie Paul Boyle is awarded to a needy 
and worthy student, preference given to a Lutheran 



from Weatherly, located in Carbon County, 
Pennsylvania. 

Henry T. Bream (1924) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by alumni and friends of the 
College in honor of Henry T. Bream, Professor of 
Health and Physical Education, 1926-1969, is awarded 
to a needy and deserving male scholar-athlete. 

Lavem H. Brenneman (1936) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund provided by Lavem H. 
Brenneman (1936), former Chairman of the Board 
of Trustees of the College, and his wife, Miriam, in 
honor of their son, James (1950); daughter-in-law, 
Mary Jane (1950); granddaughter, Kathleen (1984); 
and grandson, Stephen (1987) is to be awarded 
annually to needy and deserving students. 

Randall Sammis Brush (1973) Memorial Scholarship: The 
income from a fund contributed by family and 
friends in memory of Randall Sammis Brush is 
awarded to a needy and deserving student 
particularly proficient in the study of history. 

Edward B. Buller (1923) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by the Lutheran Church of 
the Good Shepherd, Pearl River, New York, and 
friends in honor of the Rev. Edward B. Buller is 
awarded to a deserving student, preference being 
given to a student from Good Shepherd congregation. 

Cambridge Rubber Foundation Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund given by the Foimdation is 
awarded to a qualified male student. First preference 
is given to an employee or relative of an employee of 
Cambridge Rubber. Second preference is given to a 
resident of Adams County, Pennsylvania, or Carroll 
County, Maryland. 

Dr. Anthony G. Ciavarelli (1913) Scholarship Foundation: 
The income from a scholarship established by Dr. 
Anthony G. Ciavarelli is awarded annually to a 
student (or students) who demonstrates superior 
character, industry, serious academic purpose, and 
financial need. Preference is to be given to a student 
preparing for the medical profession. If there are no 
students who demonstrate financial need (who are 
preparing for the medical profession), then the 
income may be used to aid other students who 
demonstrate financial need. If there are no students 
who demonstrate financial need, then the College 
may use the income for any purpose it determines. 



T75^ 



Class of 1 903, George S. Rentz Memorial Fund: The 
income from the fund is used in support of the 
College scholarship program. 

Class of 1913 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1913 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1916 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving 
sophomore. 

Class of 1917 Schmucker-Breidenbatigh Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The income from the fund is 
awarded to a needy and deserving student or 
students. 

Class of 1918 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1 920 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1 921 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1927 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1 933 Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by members of the Class of 1933 is 
awarded to needy and promising students. 
Preference is given to students who, beyond 
academic and personal qualifications, are 
descendants of members of the Class of 1933. 

Class of 1936 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 

Class of 1937 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to worthy and promising students 
who are determined to be in need of scholarship 
funds. Preference will be given to students who 
intend to enter a field of service focused on 
developing greater understanding between our 
nation and other parts of the world and majoring in 
political science, economics, or history. 

Class of 1 938 Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 



Class of 1 939 Scholarship Fund: The fund was 
established in honor of past President Dr. Henry W. A. 
Hanson and former Dean Dr. Wilbur E. Tilberg. The 
income is awarded to needy and deserving students. 

The Fmsl M. and Agnes H. Cronlund Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The fund was established in 
memory of Ernst Magnus and Agnes HofTsten 
Cronlund by their children Ernest and Shirley, 
Eleanor, Martin (1929) and Rebecca, Raymond 
(1933) and Lillian. The income is awarded to needy 
and promising students. 

Anita Conner Derry and Thomas James Faulkener 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
contributed by Ellis Derry (1939) and Peggy Derry is 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising students 
who are determined to be in need of scholarship funds. 
First preference is given to the family or descendants of 
Anita Conner Derry or Thomas James Faulkener and 
then to students majoring in mathematics, computer 
science, or physical sciences. 

W. K. Diehl (1886) Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a fund created by Norman E. Diehl in memory of his 
father, W. K. Diehl, D.D., is used to provide 
scholarships to needy and deserving students. 

Clayt (1 948) and Adele Dovey Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by Mr. and Mrs. 
Clayton C. Dovey, Jr. is awarded to one or more worthy 
and promising students with preference being given to 
a needy and deserving scholar-athlete pursuing a 
major field of study in biology or economics. 

Chris Fbert (1965) Memorial Fund: The fund was 
established in memory of Chris Ebert by his father 
and mother. The income is awarded annually to a 
needy student. First preference is given to a student 
who is pursuing a career in teaching or majoring in 
mathematics, and/or participating in intercollegiate 
wrestling; second preference is given to a student 
who is studying for the ministry. 

The Charles L. "Dutch " Eby (1933) Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a fund established by the family 
and friends of Charles L. Eby is awarded to needy 
students. Preference is given to students who, 
beyond academic and personal qualifications, are 
residents of south central Pennsylvania and have 
demonstrated leadership ability through active 
participation and excellent performance in 
extracurricular activities. 



17b 



Jacob C. Eisenhart arid Rosa Bott Eisenhart Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established by the J. 
C. Eisenhart Wall Paper Company is awarded to a 
deserving Lutheran preministerial student. 

The Divight D. Eisenhower Scholarship: Established by 
the Eisenhower Society in honor of the thirty-fourth 
President of the United States, a former resident of 
the community of Gettysburg and a friend and 
trustee of the College. The Society is dedicated to the 
preservation of the qualities and ideals of Dwight D. 
Eisenhower and the contributions which he made to 
world peace. The income from the fund is awarded to 
needy students who exemplify superior qualities of 
honesty, integrity, and leadership. Additional monies 
have been contributed to the fund through the R. M. 
Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund. 

Clarence A. Eyler (1880) and Myrtle B. Eyler Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a bequest is awarded to a 
worthy Lutheran preministerial student. 

Annie C. Felty Scholarship Fund: The income from the 
fund is given to a needy and deserving student. 

H. Keith and Dorothy S. Fischer Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is awarded to a first year 
student and may be continued up to four years. 
Preference will be given to pre-medical students or 
students majoring in natural science. 

Wilbur H. Fleck (1902) Memorial Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest is awarded to a graduate cum 
laude of the Protestant faith of the Wyoming 
Seminary. 

Donald D. Freedman, M.D. (1944) and Richard S. 
Freedman, D.V.M. (1973) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is awarded to a junior or 
senior, with preference given to students who are 
pursuing the study of medicine, dentistry, or 
veterinary medicine and participating in varsity 
athletics. 

David Garbacz (1964) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by Gerald G. Garbacz and 
his family is awarded to students who, beyond 
academic and personal qualifications, pursue a 
major in economics. 

L>r. Daniel F. Garland (1888) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fimd is awarded to a deserving 
ministerial student. 



Richard W. Gaver (1966) Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a fund contributed by Dr. and Mrs. 
Leo J. Gaver in memory of their son is awarded to a 
worthy student, preference being given to a 
premedical student. 

Gettysburg College Alumni Association Scholarship Fund: 
Formerly the Gettysburg College Alumni Loan 
Program of 1933, the Gettysburg College Alumni 
Association Scholarship Fund was established in 
1984. The income from the fund is to be awarded 
annually. Preference shall be given to sons or 
daughters of alumni in accordance with criteria 
established by Gettysburg College. 

Loma Gibb Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established by the Gibb Foundation in memory of 
the Foundation's founder is awarded to needy 
students who have demonstrated good academic 
ability as well as the willingness to contribute to the 
Gettysburg campus community in other ways. 

Charles E. and Mary W. Glassick Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by the Board of 
Trustees in honor of the President and Mrs. Glassick is 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising students. 

Dr. and Mrs. James E. Glenn Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund contributed by J. Donald Glenn 
(1923) in memory of his parents is awarded to a 
worthy student preparing for the Christian ministry 
or the medical profession. 

Gordon-Davis Linen Supply Company Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a fund contributed by the 
Company is awarded to a deserving student. 

Grand Army ojthe Republic Living Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund donated by the 
Daughters of Union Veterans is awarded to a needy 
and deserving student, preferably the descendant of 
a Union veteran. 

The Dr. H. Leonard Green Scholarship Fund: The 
income from this fund, established by the family and 
friends of Dr. H. Leonard Green, is awarded to 
worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship funds, with preference given to students 
majoring in religion or philosophy. 

Ida E. Grover Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
bequest is awarded to a needy and deserving student. 



YJT 



The Merle B. and Mary M. Hafer Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest from the estate of Mary M. 
Hafer is awarded to a deserving student, preferably 
one preparing for the Christian ministry. 

John Alfred Hamme (1918) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund given by Mr. Hamme is awarded 
to a deserving student. 

Marie H. Harshman Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest made by Marie H. Harshman is awarded 
to a Lutheran student preparing for the ministry. 
Preference is given to a student who intends to enroll at 
the Lutheran Theological Seminary of Gettysburg. 

The Robert W. Hemperly (1947) Memorial Fund: The 
fund was established in memory of Dr. Hemperly by 
Mr. and Mrs. G. M. Easley. The income is awarded 
annually to one or more needy students of high 
academic ability and outstanding personal 
qualifications, preference being given to a student 
preparing for a career in medicine or dentistry. 

The Rev. Clinton F. Hildebrand, Jr. (1920) and Mrs. 
Clinton F. Hildebrand, Jr. Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund is used to aid worthy preministerial 
students. 

Edgar L. Hildebrand (1928) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by Louis O. Hildebrand 
as a memorial to his son Edgar L. Hildebrand is 
awarded each year to worthy students of the College. 

The Pearl Hodgson Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a bequest from Pearl Hodgson to the York and York 
County Sub League of the Woman's League of 
Gettysburg College and established by the Woman's 
League of Gettysburg College in honor of Pearl 
Hodgson is awarded annually to needy and deserving 
students. 

Dr. and Mrs. Leslie M. Kauffman Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund donated by Dr. Leslie M. (1890) 
and Nellie G. Kauffman is awarded to a deserving 
student, preference being given to students of 
Franklin County, Pennsylvania, or preministerial or 
premedical students. 

Spurgeon M. Keeny and Norman S. Wolf Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund contributed by Dr. 
Spurgeon M. Keeney (1914) and his son, Spurgeon 
M. Keeney, Jr., in honor of the Reverend Norman S. 
Wolf is awarded to one or more worthy students. 



Hon. Hiram H. Keller (1901) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Mr. Keller, a former trustee, 
is granted on the basis of need and ability, preferably to 
applicants from Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 

Alvan Ray Kirschner Scholarship Fund: The fund was 
established by Mr. and Mrs. C.J. Kirschner in 
memory of their son who lost his life in World War I. 
The income from the fund is awarded to two 
students, preference being given to applicants from 
Hazleton and vicinity. 

Klette Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established by Dr. Immanual Klette (1939) and 
friends in honor of Mrs. Margaret Klette is awarded 
to a student (or students) whose activities evidence 
an innovative accomplishment and potential in the 
promotion of human betterment. 

Kathleen M. and Samuel W. Knisely (1947) Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund established by Dr. 
and Mrs. Samuel W. Knisely is awarded to students 
majoring in, or intending to major in, biology or 
chemistry who show promise for contribtuions to 
their chosen field of study. 

The Rev. Frederick R. Knubel (1918) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund given by John 
McCullough (1918) in memory of his classmate, is 
awarded to an outstanding senior ministerial student 
who has financial need. 

Charles L. Kopp (1909) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest of the estate of Grace Shatzer Kopp is 
awarded to one or more worthy or promising 
students majoring in the humanities. 

Bernard S. Laivyer (1912) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest shall be awarded to needy and 
deserving students, preference to be given first to 
members or former members of St. Mary's Evangelical 
lAitheran Church, Silver Run, Maryland, and second to 
members or foiTner members of Evangelical Lutheran 
Churches in Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

Clarence Gordon and Elfie Lealhertrum Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a fund given by the Leathermans is 
awarded to a deserving preministerial student. 

The Rev. H.J. H. Lemcke(1860) Memorial Scholarship 
Fund: The income from a fund given by Ruth 
Evangeline Lemcke in memory of her father is 
awarded to worthy male students who are graduates 
of Pennsylvania secondary schools. 



178 



Frank M. Long (1936) Memorial Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund is given in memory of Frank M. 
Long to worthy students. 

Kenneth C. Lundeen (1966) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by James and Diana 
Topper in honor of Kenneth Lundeen is awarded to 
one or more deserving and promising students who 
may be in a pre-law curriculum. 

The Lutheran Brotherhood Fund for Lutheran Students: 
The income from a fund established by The 
Lutheran Brotherhood to be awarded to one or 
more worthy and promising Lutheran students who 
demonstrate financial need. 

Charles B. McCollough, Jr. Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a fund provided by Charles B. 
McCollough (1916) and Florence McCollough in 
memory of their son, and by H. R. Earhart in 
memory of his grandnephew, is awarded to one or 
more worthy male students. 

The Robert McCoy Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by the family and friends of Robert 
McCoy is awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 

William R. McFlhiney (1936) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund provided by William R. and 
Pauline McElhiney to be awarded annually and to be 
divided equally among needy and deserving students 
who demonstrate an interest in the College band 
and the College choir. 

Mahaffie Scholarship Fund: A fund initiated by Ralph 
Mahaffie 1922 in honor of his brother James Eugene 
Mahaffie 1916, the income of which will be awarded 
to worthy and promising students in need of 
scholarship funds. 

Charles H. May (1904) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by Mr. May is awarded to deserving 
male students from York County, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. John F. Meisenhelder (1897) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Dr. Meisenhelder is 
awarded to a deserving student. 

Janes S. Melber (1983) Memorial Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established by Theodore W. and 
Lucile M. Melber in memory of their daughter is 
awarded to worthy and promising students for the 
study of music in Great Britain. If such students 



cannot be identified, junior or senior music students 
may receive the award. 

Forrest L. Mercer (1908) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by Forrest L. Mercer is awarded to a 
deserving and needy student. 

J. Flsie Miller (1 905) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by Mr. Miller is awarded to a 
preministerial student. 

Robert H. Miller (1938) and PaulD. Miller (1940) 
Brazilian Scholarship Fund: The income from the fund 
will be awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students who are in need of scholarship funds. 
Recipients will be selected by the College, and 
preference will be given to (1) a Gettysburg College 
student who wishes to go to Brazil for a semester or 
year of study at an accredited Brazilian federal or 
state university; (2) a Brazilian student studying at 
Gettysburg College; or (3) a graduating student from 
one of the American schools in Brazil who plans to 
enroll at Gettysburg College. 

Miller-Dewey Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
bequest by the Rev. Adams B. Miller (1873) is 
awarded to a deserving student. 

Rev. William J. Miller (1903) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Mary Willing Miller is 
awarded to worthy young persons. Preference is given 
to students preparing for the Lutheran ministry and 
especially to those from Tabernacle Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Charles D. Moyer (1937) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by Charles D. Moyer, his 
family, and friends is awarded to worthy and promising 
students in need of scholarship aid. Preference is given 
to students who can contribute to the ethnic and 
intercultural environment of the College. 

Musselman Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established by the Musselman Foundation, to be 
awarded to a deserving student, with preference 
given to sons or daughters of employees of the 
Musselman Fruit Product Division, Pet Incorporated. 

Albert C. and Linda Neumann Fndowment Fund: The 
income from a fund established by Albert C. 
Neumann (1964) is awarded to one or more worthy 
and promising students, with preference given to 
students with an interest in pursuing a career in the 
health sciences. 



r/y 



John Spongier Nicholas (1916) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by John Spangler Nicholas is 
awarded to a member of the junior or senior class of 
sterling character and high intellectual ability in the 
field of biology, preferably zoology. 

Henry B. Nightingale (1917) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is awarded to worthy students 
who have successfully completed their first two years at 
the College. 

Patrick F. Noonan (1965) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from the fund established by Patrick and Nancy 
Noonan will be awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students who are in need of scholarship 
aid. Preference will be given to the student or 
students who, beyond academic and personal 
qualifications, are majoring in management and 
have demonstrated leadership ability through active 
participation and excellent performance in 
extracurricular activities. 

Nellie Oiler and Bernard Oiler Memorial Scholarship Fund: 
The income from a bequest by Ida R. Gray in 
memory of her daughter and son-in-law is awarded to 
a deserving student, preference being given to a 
lAitheran applicant from Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. 

One in Mission Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by the One in Mission Campaign of 
the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is 
awarded to worthy and deserving students, with 
preference for students who are Lutheran. 

Lovina Openlander Scholarship Fund: The income from 
the fund is awarded to needy and deserving students. 

Thomas O. Oyler Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fimd provided by Thomas O. Oyler, Sr., and his wife, 
Janet B. Oyler, in honor of their children, Thomas O. 
Oyler, Jr., Jane A. Oyler, Jerome P. Oyler, William J. 
Oyler (1977), and Susan T. Oyler (1985), to be 
awarded annually to a deserving Pennsylvania student 
whose major is Management or German, with elective 
courses in the other field of study. 

C. Fugene Painter Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by C. Eugene Painter (1933) is 
awarded to one or more worthy and promising 
students, with preference given to students majoring 
in chemistry. 



The Lillian M. and William H. Patrick, Jr. (1916) 
Scholarship Award: The income from a bequest by 
William H. Patrick, Jr. is awarded on a competitive 
basis to students with musical ability. 

Hugo Paul Family Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a bequest from C. Gloria Paul is awarded to a 
capable, needy, and deserving student, to complete 
his or her college education. 

Willard S. Paul Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund conuibuted in his honor by friends of the 
College on the occasion of President Paul's retirement 
and thereafter awarded to a deserving student. 

Earl G. Ports (1923) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund provided by Horace G. Ports (1925) in 
memory of his brother is awarded to a worthy 
student, preferably in the field of physics. 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl C. Rasmussen Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund donated by the Reverend Carl 
C. (1912) and Alma L Rasmussen is awarded to a 
deserving student. Preference is given to a student 
preparing for the ministry in the Lutheran Church. 

Rev. ClayF. Rice (1911) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by Minnie Catherine Rice in 
honor of her husband. Rev. Clay E. Rice, is awarded 
to a student preparing for the ministry. 

John S. and Luene Rice Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund provided by Ellen F. and Luene Rice, 
which is to be awarded to students of exceptional 
academic ability and outstanding promise of 
contributions to the College. 

James A. Rider (1942) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by James A. Rider is awarded 
to worthy and deserving students in financial need. 
Preference is to be given first to dependents of active 
employees of Thermos Industries, Inc., of Raleigh, 
North Carolina; second, to students who compete in 
intercollegiate athletics; and third, to students who 
may be orphans. 

Lawrence F. Rosl (1917) Fund: The income from a 
fund established by Jeanne Preus Rost in memory of her 
husband, Lawrence E. Rost, is awarded to deserving 
students, descendants of Charles A Rost, Red Lion, York 
County, Pennsylvania, being given first consideration. 



T80 



Philip P. Rudhnrt Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
bequest by Emma Bennix in memory of her brother 
is awarded to deservdng male students. 

Mary Sachs Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
established as a memorial to Mary Sachs is awarded to a 
needy and deserving student, preference given to a 
student in management whose interests aire in retailing. 

Charles Samph,Jr. Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a fund established by the friends and family of 
Charles Samph, Jr. is awarded to one or more worthy 
and promising students, with preference given to 
students who are involved in the campus Greek 
system, in the Reserve Officers Training Corps, and 
who major in mathematics. 

Andrew C. Schaedler Foundation Scholarship: The 
income from a fund established as a memorial to 
Andrew C. Schaedler is awarded to worthy and needy 
students from Central Pennsylvania who graduated 
from a high school located in Dauphin, Lebanon, 
Cumberland, York, Franklin, Lancaster, Perry, Mifflin, 
Adams, Northumberland, or Huntingdon Counties. 

Calvin L. Schlueter Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a bequest by Calvin F. Schlueter is awarded to needy 
and promising students. 

Gregory Seckler (1965) Memorial Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund given by Mr. and Mrs. J. M. 
Arnold, Sr. in memory of Gregory Seckler is awarded 
to a deserving student, preference being given to an 
English major. 

Ralph E. Sentz (1949) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund provided by Ralph E. Sentz, loyal 
alumnus and member of the Board of Fellows of 
Gettysburg College, and his wife, Veronica, to be 
awarded annually to needy and deserving students, 
preference being given to those with disabilities. 

Samuel Shaulis (1 954) Memorial Scholarship: The 
income from a fund established by Barry B. Wright 
(1955) and the other friends and family of Samuel 
Shaulis is awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students, with preference given to 
students who, beyond other academic and personal 
qualifications, have a special interest in 
extracurricular activities. 

Joseph T. Simpson/Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship 
Fund: A fund established by the friends and 
colleagues of Joseph Simpson, the income of which 
shall be available to worthy and promising students 



in need of scholarship aid, with preference given to 
those students with exceptional leadership ability. 

Edgar Fahs Smith (1874) Scholarship: The income from 
a fund provided by Margie A. Smith in honor of her 
father, Edgar Fahs Smith, is given to a student 
recommended by the Chemistry Department. 

Mary Ann Ocker Spital Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest is awarded to a qualified male 
student. 

Edward J. Stackpole Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a fund contributed by the friends of General 
Stackpole is awarded to a deserving student, 
preference being given to a student in American 
history interested in the Civil War. 

The Rev. Milton H. Stine (1877) and Mary J. Stine 
Memorial Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
provided by Dr. Charles M. A. Stine (1901) in memory 
of his parents is awarded to a preministerial student. 

Earl K. Stock Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
bequest from Earl K. Stock (1919) is awarded to one 
or more needy and deserving students. 

Bob (1 933) and Betty Stockberger Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is awarded to needy and 
promising students. 

F. Stroehmann Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by the family of F. Stroehmann is 
awarded to one or more needy and deserving 
students. 

Dr.J.H.W. Stuckenberg Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a bequest by Dr. Stuckenberg is awarded to a 
qualified student. 

Surdna Foundation Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a gift of the Surdna Foundation is awarded to 
students of exceptional academic ability and 
outstanding promise of contribudons to the College. 

Warren L. Swope (1943) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by Warren L. Swope, a 
career diplomat, is awarded to a qualified student, 
preference being shown to students of American 
parentage who have spent a significant portion of 
their pre-coUege years abroad. 

Raymond A. Taylor 1937 Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by Dr. and Mrs. Raymond A. 
Taylor is awarded to one or more worthy and 
promising students. 



lor 



William J. (1929) and Ruth Krug Thomas (1928) 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund given by 
the Thomases in gratitude for the contribution the 
College has made toward the enrichment of their 
lives, to be given to worthy students, preferably 
English majors. 

Colonel Waller K. Thrush Fund: The income from a 
fimd provided by the estate of Edna L. Thrush in 
memory of her husband, Walter K. Thrush (1919), to 
assist a student who is a member of ATO Fraternity 
endeavoring in the field of engineering, the recipient 
to be chosen by the Trustees of the College. 

Robert and Donna Tillitt Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
Tillitt is awarded to one or more needy and 
deserving students who have an interest in music. 

Martin L. Valentine (1912) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Martin L. Valentine is 
awarded to a needy and deserving student majoring 
in chemistry. 

Lloyd Van Doren Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by Tempie Van Doren is awarded to 
one or more needy and deserving students. 

Parker B. Wagnild Scholarship Fund: The income from 
a fund contributed by alumni and friends of the 
Gettysburg College Choir is given to needy and 
deserving music students. 

The John G. Walbom (1937) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund provided by John G. Walborn is 
given to needy and deserving students, preferably 
those majoring in economics or management. 

The Stuart Warrenfeltz Memorial Fund: The income 
from a bequest by Ethel Warrenfeltz McHenry in 
memory of her son Stuart Warrenfeltz is awarded to a 
worthy young man, preference being given to students 
from Funkstown, Washington County, Maryland. 

Dr. Rufus B. Weaver (1862) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Dr. Weaver is awarded to 
deserving students. 

The Rev. David Sparks Weimer and Joseph Michael 
Weimer/Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Fund: A fund 
initiated by Mrs. Ralph Michener, daughter and sister 
of David and Joseph Weimer, the income of which 
will be awarded to worthy and promising students in 
need of scholarship aid. 



Senator George L. Wellington Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a bequest by Mr. Wellington is awarded 
to a deserving Lutheran preministerial student. 

Mary F. Werner Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
bequest to Gettysburg College from the estate of 
Mary E. Werner is awarded to a preministerial 
student, with preference given to students from Glen 
Rock, Pennsylvania, or York County, Pennsylvania. 

Richard C Wetzel Scholarship: The income from a fund 
contributed by Richard C. Wetzel is awarded to a 
deserving and needy student. 

Stella Moyer Wible (1927) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund established by Helen A. Moyer is 
awarded to worthy and promising students with an 
outstanding record of academic achievement. 

Bertram M. Wilde Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by members of the family of 
Bertram M. Wilde is awarded to worthy and 
promising students, with preference given to 
students who have demonstrated superior character 
and industry as well as diverse interests and active 
participation in extracurricular as well as academic 
affairs. 

Jeremiah A. Winter and Annie C. Winter Memorial 
Scholarship Fund: The income from a fund 
contributed by Amelia C. Winter in memory of her 
parents is granted to a needy and deserving student. 

Woman 's League Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by the Woman's General League of 
Gettysburg College to be awarded to needy and 
promising students. 

Barry B. Wright (1955) Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a fund contributed by Barry B. Wright is 
awarded to a student or students, with preference 
being given to disadvantaged students from the 
inner-city. 

Peter W Wright Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
fund established by Peter W. Wright is awarded to 
one or more worthy students, with preference being 
given to students who have an interest and 
involvement in extracurricular activities and are 
members of Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity. 

John T Ziegler(1952)D.D.S. Scholarship Fund: The 
income from the fund is awarded to worthy and 
promising students, with priority given to those who 



182 



have achieved the highest academic record, and 
preference given to students who have completed at 
least two years of course work and plan to enter the 
dental profession. 

John B. '/Ann Scholarship Fund: A fund established by 
friends and former students of Professor John B. Zinn, 
former Chairman of the Chemistry Department, to 
provide support for promising students who 
demonstrate need, with preference given to students 
preparing for fields associated with the healing arts. 

Loan Funds for Students 

The Rev. Edward I. Morecraft (1 924) Memorial Loan 
Scholarship Fund: This fund was established by the St. 
James Lutheran Church of Stewart Manor, Long 
Island, in memory of its former pastor. 

Milton T. Nafey and Mary M. Nafey Student Fund: A 
bequest from the estate of Mary M. Nafey provides a 
fund for student loans. 

Eva R. Pape Student Loan Fund: A loan program made 
available by a bequest from the estate of Eva R. Pape 
of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to be assigned to 
students of high promise and financial need. 

The Charles H. Rothfuss and Martha Huffman Rothfuss 
Ij)an Scholarship Fund: This fund was contributed by Dr. 
E. Lloyd Rothfuss (1916) in memory of his parents. 

Other Aid for Student Scholarships 

AAL Lutheran Campus Scholarship: Aid Association for 
Lutherans makes available scholarship funds each 
year to assist needy students who hold membership 
with the Association. Selection of recipients is made 
by the College. 

Frank D. Baker Scholarship Fund: An award available to 
aid worthy students in immediate need. Selection of 
recipients is made by the College. 

R. M. Hoffman Memorial Scholarship Fund: The income 
from a trust established by Margaret L. Hoffman in 
memory of her father is awarded annually as part of 
the Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Program. 

Lutheran Brotherhood Lutheran Senior College Scholarship: 
The scholarships are awarded to Lutheran students 
who will begin their first year of post-secondary study 
at Gettysburg College. Recipients are selected by 
Gettysburg College on the basis of scholastic 
achievement, religious leadership, and financial need. 



Lutheran Brotherhood Members' Scholarship Program: 
Established to assist Lutheran Brotherhood members 
attending accredited post-secondary institutions. 
Information is available from Lutheran Brotherhood, 
625 Fourth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota 
55415. 

Frank L. Daugherty (1922) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a trust established by Frank L. 
Daugherty is awarded to a deserving York County 
resident who would not otherwise be able to attend 
Gettysburg College for a lack of finances. The 
recipient is selected by the College. 

W. Emerson Gentzler (1925) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a trust established by W. Emerson 
Gentzler is awarded to deserving students, with 
preference given to members in good standing of one 
of the 4-H Clubs of York Coimty, Pennsylvania. 

Christian R and Mary E. Lindback Foundation Scholarship 
Fund: The scholarship is awarded preferentially to 
residents of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, or 
Maryland who are of high character and ability. 

Guy L. Moser Fund: Mr. Guy L. Moser established a 
trust fund to support grants to students from Berks 
County, Pennsylvania who are majoring in history or 
political science and who rank in the upper third of 
their class. Applications for these grants should be 
made directly to Mr. Richard V. Grimes, Hamilton 
Bank, 515 Penn Street, Reading, Pennsylvania 19603. 

Charlotte L. Noss Scholarship Fund: The income from a 
trust established by Charlotte Noss is awarded to a 
deserving female student from York County, 
Pennsylvania who will not otherwise be able to attend 
Gettysburg College for a lack of finances. The 
recipient is selected by the College. 

The Ernest D. Schwartz (1916) Scholarship Fund: The 
income from a fund established in memory of Ernest 
D. Schwartz is awarded to a needy and worthy student. 
The recipient is selected by the College. 

Weaver-Bittinger Classical Scholarship: The income from 
a trust created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907) is awarded 
to a needy and deserving student(s) who has 
demonstrated outstanding academic achievement. 
Recipients are selected by Gettysburg College. 

Weaver Classical-Natural Science-Religion Scholarship: The 
income from a trust created by Rufus M. Weaver 
(1907) is awarded to a deserving student pursuing a 



classical, natural science, or religion course of 
instruction. Recipients are selected by Gettysburg 
College. 

Rufus M. Weaver Mathematical Scholarship: The income 
from a trust created by Rufus M. Weaver (1907) is 
awarded to deserving students pursuing a 
mathematical course of instruction. Recipients are 
selected by Gettysburg College. 

State and Federal Grant Programs 

Pell Grant: A federal grant program to enable 
students to attend colleges and universities; awarded 
by the Department of Education. 

Pennsylvania Higher Education Grant: An award given 
to students who are residents of Pennsylvania, 
selected on the basis of financial need. Information 
on these scholarships should be acquired from the 
secondary school counseling office. 

There are other states with scholarships and/or grant 
programs. The states which have most recently made 
grant awards to students attending Gettysburg College 
are Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Ohio, Rhode 
Island, Vermont, West Virginia, and the District of 
(Columbia. Further information may be available at 
secondary school counseling offices. 

State and Federal Loan Programs 

Stafford ((kiaranleed) Student Loan: This education 
loan program enables students to borrow direcdy 
from a bank, credit union, savings and loan 
association, or other participating lender. Students 
may borrow up to $2,625 during each of the first and 
sophomore years, and $4,000 during each of the 
junior and senior years, with a maximum aggregate 
limit of $17,250 for undergraduate study. The 
interest rate is 8% during the first four years of 
repayment and 10% beginning with the fifth year. 
Repayment of the principal and interest begins six 
months after completion of college. 

Parent Loan for Undergraduate Study: Parents of 
dependent undergraduate students may borrow up 
to $4,000 per academic year through this federally 
sponsored program. Total borrowing may not 
exceed $20,000, and the repayment period can be 
from five to ten years, beginning sixty days after the 
first loan is advanced. However, subject to bank 
approval, loan principal can be deferred until after 
the student's completion of schooling if the interest 
is paid regularly. Applications for PLUS loans may be 
obtained at a participating lender. 



PHEAA-HELP Loans: This program of higher 
education loans through the Pennsylvania Higher 
Education Assistance Agency can provide a total of 
$10,000 per student, per year. The program offers a 
"package" of student loans and parent loans which are 
available to both Pennsylvania residents and 
nonresidents who are attending a Pennsylvania 
college. Interest rates may vary from 8% on student 
loans of up to $4,000 per year to 12% on the parent 
loan portion. The repayment of loans may extend 
over a maximum of ten years. Application materials 
are available through PHEAA-HELP in Harrisburg 
and the Office of Financial Aid at Gettysburg College. 

PLATO Loan Program 

The College has affiliated with PLATO through 
University Support Services of Herndon, Virginia. 
Loans of $1,500 to $25,000 per year are offered to 
students and/or parents. Repayment of principal and 
interest normally begins within thirty days of 
borrowing, but student loans can be deferred 
(repayment of interest only) while enrolled in 
College. Applications are available through the Office 
of Financial Aid. 

Other Education Loans 

In addition to PHEAA-HELP and PLATO, there are 
other student/ parent loan plans for education. One 
such option is EXCEL through Nellie Mae and the 
Education Resources Institute. EXCEL offers loans 
of up to $20,000 per year, with a maximum twenty- 
year repayment period. 

A similar plan is offered through TERI Loans. Both 
programs are based in Massachusetts, but are 
national in scope. More information is available 
through the Office of Financial Aid. 

Tuition Payment Plans 

See page 170 in the Comprehensive Academic Fee 
Plan section. 

Financial Aid for Off-Campus Study 

Financial aid is available for programs of off<ampus 
study (both domestic and study abroad) which are 
approved by the Academic Standing Committee. 
College Grant and Loan funds will normally be 
awarded for a maximum of two semesters of offcampus 
study through College-affiliated programs only. 

International students are not eligible to receive 
College-funded financial aid for study abroad, except 
as documented to meet academic program 
requirements. 




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15D 



Board Of Trustees'" 
1992-93 Academic Year 



CHARLES E. ANDERSON (1984) 
CHAIRPERSON 

Retired. ITT Corporation 
Wilton, Connecticut 

DONNA L. SHAVUK (1985) 
VICE CHAIRPERSON 

Director, Office of Women in Higher Education 
American Council on Education 
Washington, DC 

THOMAS C. NORRIS (1974-1986) (1988) 
SECRETARY 

Chairman, President & CEO 
P. H. Glatfelter Co. 
Spring Grove, Pennsylvania 

S. BRIAN AVNET (1989) 
Chief Executive Officer 
Gold Mountain Entertainment 
Los Angeles, California 

PATRICL^ C. BACON (1991) 
Patricia Bacon Enteriors, Owner 
Sausalito, California 

HENRYS. BELBER, II (1989) 

President 8c Chief Executive Officer 
Trico Construction Co., Inc. 
Devon, Pennsylvania 

CLYDE O. BLACK, II (1980) 

Attorney 

Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania 

JAMES H. BRENNEMAN (1988) 

Vice President, Operations 8c Planning 
Bell Atlantic Enterprises 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

*LAVERN H. BRENNEMAN (1962-1974) 

(1976-1988) 
Retired 

York Shipley, Inc. 
York, Pennsylvania 

CHARLES A. CAMAUER,JR. (1985) 
Real Estate Developer 
W^ashington, DC 



HERB CUNTON (1991) 

Asst. VP, Sovran Financial Corp. 
Bethesda, Maryland 

*RALPH W. COX (1972-1984) 

Retired 

Connecticut General Life Insurance Co. 

Savannah, Georgia 

DAVID EISENHOWER (1990) 

Historian 

Berwyn, Pennsylvania 

BRUCE S. GORDON (1983) 
Vice President-Marketing 
Bell Adantic 
Arlington, Virginia 

DORIS G.HAAS (1991) 

Arendtsville, Pennsylvania 

JAMES F. HARGREAVES (1990) 
Senior Vice President 
Butcher 8c Singer, Inc. 
Johnstown, Pennsylvania 

JOYCE S. HERSHBERGER (1988) 
Williamsport, Pennsylvania 

ROBERT D. HERSHEY, JR. (1990) 

New York Times Reporter 
Washington, DC 

H. SCOTT HIGGINS (1989) 
Executive Vice President 
Lehman Management Co., Inc. 
New York, New York 

KRISTINE F. HUGHEY (1986) 

Attorney 

Media, Pennsylvania 

EDWIN T.JOHNSON (1991) 

Chairman, Noble Lowndes/Johnson 
Newtown, Pennsylvania 18940 

ROBERT S.JONES, JR. (1988) 
Senior Vice President 
The Equitable 
New York, New York 



187 



WILLIAM T. KIRCHHOFF (1988) 
Executive Vice President 
Cleveland Brothers Equipment Co., Inc. 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

LEWIS E. LEHRMAN (1990) 

Chairman 

L. E. Lehrman and Company 

New York, New York 

NANCY R. LETTS (1989) 

Teacher 

Strath Haven High School 

Wallingford, Pennsylvania 

E. JAMES MORTON ( 1 99 1 ) 

Chairman &: Chief Executive Officer 
John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co. 
Boston, Massachusetts 

ALBERT C. NEUMANN, M.D. (1986) 
Foimder and Medical Director 
The Neumann Eye Institute 
Deland, Florida 

THOMAS C. NORRIS (1974-1986) (1988) 
Chairman, President & Chief Executive Officer 
P. H. Glatfelter Co. 
Spring Grove, Pennsylvania 

PHIUP I. PARSONS (1986) 
President 
Perfect Pinch, Inc. 
Chicago, Illinois 

RICFLVRD E. PATTERSON (1988) 
Research Associate 
E. I. Dupont de Nemours 
Deepwater, New Jersey 

PAUL R. ROEDEL (1987) 

Chairman & Chief Executive Officer 
Carpenter Technology Corporation 
Reading, Pennsylvania 

FREDERICK H. SETTELMEYER (1985) 

Vice President 

The Boston Company 

Boston, Massachusetts 

JOHN W. SHAINUNE (1989) 

Senior Assistant to the President 



California State University 
Long Beach, California 

F. BARRY SHAW (1987) 

President & Chief Executive Officer 
Wenger's Feed Mill, Inc. 
Rheems, Pennsylvania 

BRUCE R. STEFANY (1986) 

President & Chief Executive Officer, Chubb 
Securities Corporation 
Senior Vice President, Chubb Life America 
Concord, New Hampshire 

*F. WILLIAM SUNDERMAN, M.D. (1967-1979) 

Director 

Institute for Clinical Science 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

JAMES R. THOMAS (1981-1987) (1989) 

President &: Chief Executive Officer 
Best Foods Baking Group, CPC 
Fairfield, New Jersey 

DENNIS H. TYLER (1988) 
Subschool Principal 
Robinson Secondary School 
Fairfax, Virginia 

JAMES M. UNGLAUBE (1988) 

Director, Colleges & Universities 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 
Chicago, Illinois 

DEBRA A. WALLET (1990) 

Attorney 

Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

BARBARA TURNER WHITE ( 199 1 ) 

Executive Vice President 
Turner-White CommunicaUons, Inc. 
Wayne, Pennsylvania 

BARRY B. WRIGHT (1986) 

President 

Metropolitan Personnel Services, Inc. 

Washington, DC 

' -''' The dates following the names indicate years of previous 
service and the beginning year of present service on the 
Board of Trustees. 

*Honorary Life Trustees 



188 



Trustees Emeriti 



DANIEL J. ANDERSEN 

Washington, DC 

ALBERT R. BURKHARDT 

Baltimore, Maryland 

MARGARET BLANCHARD CURTIS 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

CHARLES W. DIEHL, JR. 

York, Pennsylvania 

WILUAM S. EISENHART, JR. 

York, Pennsylvania 

CHARLES H. FALKLER 

York, Pennsylvania 

PAUL L. FOLKEMER 

Linthicum Heights, Maryland 

MILLARD E. GLADFELTER 

Jenkintown, Pennsylvania 

HENRY W. GRAYBILL, JR. 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

ANGEUNE F. HAINES 

Lutherville, Maryland 

ROBERT D. HANSON 

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

ALFRED L. MATHIAS 

Cockeysville, Maryland 

HOWARD J. McCARNEY 

Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

PAUL M. ORSO 

Millersville, Maryland 

JAMES A. PERROTT 

Baltimore, Mar)'land 

SAMUEL A. SCHRECKENGAUST,JR. 

Lemoyne, Pennsylvania 

HERMAN G. STUEMPFLE, JR. 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 



JAMES I. TARMAN 

State College, Pennsylvania 

DONALD K. WEISER 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

CHARLES W. WOLF 

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 

IRVIN G. ZIMMERMAN 

Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 

Administration 
(1990-1991 Academic Year) 

President 

Gordon A. Haaland 1 990- 

A.B., Wheaton College; 

Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo 

Janet Morgan Riggs 1 99 1 - 

Assistant to the President 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Princeton University; 
Ph.D., Princeton University 

Salvatore Ciolino 1971- 

Director for Instutional Analysis 

B.A., State University of New York at Geneseo; 

M.S., State University of New York at Albany; 

D.Ed., Nova University 

Charles W. Winters 1 989- 

Director of Intercollegiate Athletics 

B.S., M.Ed., Bowling Green State University 

JohnW. Campo 1985- 
Head Coach/ Baseball 
Assistant Coach/Football 
B.S., University of Delaware; 
M.S., Queens College of the City 
University of New York 

Michael P. Cantele 1990- 
Athletic Trainer Certified 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.S., Old Dominion University 

Joseph D. Donolli 1971- 
Athletic Trainer Certified 
B.S., University of Delaware; 
M.Ed., Temple University 



JW 



Doreen M. Drexel 1984- 
Coordinator of Women's Athletics 
Head Coach /Women's Volleyball 
B.S., M.S., Frostburg State University 

Henry Janczyk 1987- 
Head Coach /Lacrosse 
B.A., Hobart College; 
M.A., Albany State University 

Robert B. Kenworthy 1965- 
Director of Sports Information 

Michael T. Kirkpatrick 1989- 

Head Coach/Women's Basketball 

Head Coach/Women's Softball 

A.A., Community College of Allegheny - Boyce 

Campus; B.S., University/ of Pittsburgh at Johnstown 

Deirdre M. Reich 1989- 
Director of Campus Recreation 
B.S., Old Dominion University; 
M.S., University of Kentucky 

George R. Petrie 1989- 
Head Coach/ Basketball 
Head Coach/Golf 
B.A., Lebanon Valley College; 
M.Ed., University of Utah 

WiUiam H. Pfitzinger 1991- 
Head Coach/Women's Tennis 
B.S., Roanoke College 

Michael K Rawleigh 1 985- 

Head Coach/Swimming 

B.A., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 

M.S., Western Maryland College 

Joseph J. Reich 1989- 
Assistant Coach/Football 
Assistant Coach/Lacrosse 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

J. Edward Riggs, Jr. 1984 
Head Coach/Track and Field 
Head Coach/Cross Country 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.Ed., Western Maryland College 

Barry H. Streeter 1975- 
Head Coach/Football 



B.A., Lebanon Valley College; 
M.S., University of Delaware 

Todd D. Wawrousek 1 990- 
Head Coach/Women's Soccer 
B.S., University of Pittsburgh; 
M.Ed., Alfred University 

David H. Wilson 1989- 

Head Coach/Wrestling 

Assistant Coach/Lacrosse 

B.A., Bowdoin College; 

M.S., United States Sports Academy 

David W.Wright 1986 

Head Coach/Soccer 

Head Coach/Tennis 

B.S., State University of New York at Cortland; 

M.A., Brigham Young University 

Provost 

L. Baird Tipson 1987- 

Provost and Professor of Religion 

A.B., Princeton University; 

M.Ph., Ph.D., Yale University 

David L. Crowner 1967- 
Acting Assistant Provost 
B.A., Pacific Lutheran University; 
M.A., Ph.D., Rutgers- 
State University of New Jersey 

LilianeHoge 1990- 

Assistant Provost 

B.A., City College of New York; 

M. Phil., Ph.D., Columbia University 

G. Ronald Couchman 1 967- 

Registrar 

B.A., Gettysburg College 

Marilyn Hubbard 1990- 

Coordinator of Off-Campus Studies and 

International Student Affairs 
B.A., Monmouth College (Illinois); 
M.A., Southern Illinois University 

Anne B, Showalter 1989- 
Dean of Academic Advising 
B.A., Elizabethtown College; 
M.A., University of Iowa 



190 



Timothy M. Dodd 1990- 
Associale Dean of Academic Advising 
M.A., Fordham University; 
ABD, University of Pittsburgh 

Dennis R. Aebersold 1 989- 
Associate Provost for Computing 
B.S., Occidental College; 
Ph.D., Brown University 



David T. Hedrick 1972 
Special Collections Librarian 
B.A., Emory and Henry College; 
M.A., University of Denver 

Anna Jane Moyer 1961- 
Readers' Sei"vices Librarian 
A.B., Susquehanna University; 
M.S.L.S., Drexel University 



Michael D. Martys 1990- 

Director of Technical Operations (Computing) 

B.S., M.S., Illinois Institute of Technology 

Dean F. Duncan 1991- 

Director of Information Technology 

B.A., M.U.A., The University of 

North Carolina at Charlotte; 
Ph.D., Emory University 

William P. Wilson 1979- 

Software Support Coordinator (Computing) 

B.A., Gettysburg College; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Connecticut 

TodM. Maki 1989- 
Micro Support Coordinator (Computing) 
Diploma, Duluth Business University; 
B.S., University of Wisconsin - Superior 

Jeanne D. Kostishack 1990- 

Writer, Editor in Information Technology 

(Computing) 
B.A., University of Pittsburgh 

Gail P. Rankin 1990- 

Computer Store Manager 

B.A., University of New Hampshire 

David P. Stemour 1986- 
Systems Specialist (Computing) 
Diploma, Computer Learning Center 

Martha M. Myricks 1 99 1 - 

Microcomputer Support/Training 
B.A., San Francisco State University 

Wdlis M. Hubbard 1983- 

College Librarian 

B.A., Monmouth College (Illinois); 

M.S., University of Illinois; 

M.A., Southern Illinois University 



Frances H. Playf oot 1971- 
Assistant Readers' Services Librarian 
B.A., The George Washington University; 
M.S.L.S., Shippensburg University 

Lee Alan Krieger 1 989- 

Technical Services Librarian 

B.A., M.L.S., University of Pittsburgh 

S. Katherine Johnson 1989- 
Assistant Technical Services Librarian 
A.S., B.S., Ferrum College; 
M.S., Columbia University 

E. Carolyn White 1988- 

Circulation Librarian/Assistant Director, 

Instructional Media Services 
B.A., University of Pittsburgh; 
M.A., Middlebury College; 
M.L.S., State University of New York at Albany 

H.Wayne Wolfe 1985- 

Director, Instructional Media Services 

A.F.A., B.S., Ferrum College; 

M.S., Radford University 

XiaofengZhu 1990- 

Systems and Automated Services Librarian 
B.S., Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 
M.L.I.S., Columbia University 

Peter Stitt 1986- 

Editor 

THE GETTYSBURG REVIEW 

Professor of English 

B.A., M.A., University of Minnesota; 

Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 

Emily W.Ruark 1991- 

Managing Editor 

THE GETTYSBURG REVIEW 

B.A., University of North Carolina at Greensboro 



lyi 



Jeffery B. Mock 1991- 
Assistant Editor 
THE GETTYSBURG REVIEW 
B.A., University of Iowa; 
M.F.A., University of Alabama 

Frederick D. Opie 1 99 1 - 
Dean of Intercultural Resources 
B.S., Syracuse University 

Brian L. Haynes 1991- 

Assistant Dean of Intercultural Resources 

M.S., Ohio University; 

Ph.D., Ohio University 

Admissions/Financial Aid 

Delwin K- Gustafson 1 967- 

Dean of Admissions 

B.A., Augustana College (Illinois); 

J.D., University of Nebraska Law School 

Daniel A. Dundon 1 972- 

Associate Dean of Admissions 

B.A., State University of New York at Buffalo; 

M.A., Eastern Michigan University 

GaU Sweezey 1983- 
Associate Dean of Admissions 
B.A., Allegheny College 

Darryl W.Jones 1985- 
Assistant Dean of Admissions 
B.A., Pennsylvania State University 

Heather Baker 1990- 
Admissions Counselor 
B.A., Franklin and Marshall College 

Susan C.HiU 1991- 
Admissions Counselor 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Karen Long 1988- 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

B.A., Siena College 

JillK-Trott 1990- 

Assistant Director of Admissions 

B.S., College of William and Mary 

David E. Trott 1988- 
Assistant Director of Admissions 
B.A., Gettysburg College 



Ronald L. Shunk 1983- 
Director of Financial Aid 
B.A., M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

Bryan Zerbe 1989- 

Assistant Director of Financial Aid/ 

Admissions Counselor 

B.A., Gettysburg College 

Julie L. Ramsey 1981 
Acting Dean of the College 
B.A., Denison University; 
M.A., Indiana University 

Dennis Murphy 1990- 

Associate Dean of the College 

B.A., Saint Francis College (Pennsylvania); 

M.S., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 

Ed.D., Indiana University 

Margaret-Ann Marshall 1986- 
Associate Dean of the College 
B.A., Texas Women's University; 
M.A., Hood College 

Robert C. Nordvall 1972- 
Acting Dean of First Year Students 
B.A., DePauw University; 
J.D., Harvard Law School; 
Ed.D., Indiana University 

Deborah M. Wailes 1 99 1 - 
Director of Career Services 
B.A., Wilmington College; 
M.H.S., Lincoln University 

Eugene Durkee 1 990- 
Assistant Director of Career Services 
B.A., Rutgers College, Rutgers University; 
M.T.S., Boston University of Theology 

Frederick Kinsella 1 99 1 - 

Director of Student Health Services 

B.S., Wagner College; 

M.S., Wagner College; 

Post-Master's Certificate, University of Virginia 

William H. Jones 1 964- 
Coordinator of Counseloring 
B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; 
M.A., University of Wisconsin; 
Ed.D., Boston University 



192 



Frances Parker 1980- 

Counseling Psychologist 

B.A., M.A., University of Kentucky 

Harriet Barriga Marritz 1 989- 
Counselor/Drug Education Coordinator 
B.A., Lafayette College; 
M.S., Millersville University of Pennsylvania 

Christine R. Lottes 1990- 
Health Education/Lecturer in HPE 
and Drug and .Alcohol Education 
B.S., Valparaiso University; 

M.S., West Chester State University of Pennsylvania; 
Ed.D., West Virginia University 



Michael S. Malewicki 1976- 

Assistant Treasurer 

B.A., Gettysburg College 

M.S., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania; 

M.B.A., Mt. St. Mary's College 

Katherine C. McGraw 1988- 

Controller 

A.A., Harrisburg Area Community College; 

A.B., Grove City College 

Thomas Phizacklea 1982- 

Director of Personnel/Director of Auxiliary Services 
B.A., University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown; 
M.B.A., Mt. St. Mary's College 



James C. Hultine 1990- 
Director of the College Union 
B.S., M.A., University of Iowa 

Gail Jones 1990- 

Assistant Director of the College Union 

B.S., Lebanon Valley College; 

M.S., Temple University 

Thomas S. Dombrowsky 1991- 
Director of Greek Life 
B.A., University' of Rhode Island 
M.A., Morgan State University 

Claudia A. Karkula 1 989- 

Assistant Director of Residence Life 

B.Ed., M.Ed., University^ of Missouri at Columbia 

Susanne E. Nicholson 1991- 
Assistant Director of Residence Life 
B.S., James Madison University 
M.S., Miami University 

Karl J. Mattson 1977- 

Chaplain 

B.A., Augustana College (Illinois); 

B.D., Augustana Theological Seminary; 

S.T.M., Yale Divinity School 

Treasurer 

William P. Van Arsdale 1 985- 

Treasurer 

B.S., Villanova University; 

M.Ed., Antioch Graduate School of Education 



Timon K Linn 1 985- 
Director of Safety and Security 

Martin L. Crabill 1986- 
Director of Physical Facilities 

College Relations 

Gary L. Lowe 1978- 

Vice President for College Relations 

B.S., Denison University" 

M.S. Miami University 

AnnH. Neitzel 1987- 
Director of Development 
B.A., Ohio Wesleyan University 

Daniel H. Comber 1991- 
Director of Annual Giving 
B.A., University' of Vermont 

TUghman H. Moyer IV 1991- 
Associate Director of Annual 
Giving/Phonathon Director 
B.A., Pennyslvania State University 

Paula Thomas 1991- 

Associate Director of Development/Corporate and 

Foundation Grants 
B.A., University of Pennsylvania 

Gary D. Ragnow 1 990- 

Associate Director of Development/Director of Gift 

Planning 
B.A., University' of Omaha; 
J.D., University of Nebraska Law School 



l\J3 



Michael W. Howard 1989- 
Associate Director of Gift Planning 
B.A., University of Maryland 

Constance R. HeUand 1 99 1 - 
Associate Director of Gift Planning 
B.A., Miami University; 
M.A., Miami University; 
J.D., University of Dayton 

Robert L. Mothersbaugh 1990- 
Campaign Field Coordinator 
B.S., Pennsylvania State University 

William T. Walker, Jr. 1 989- 
Director of Public Relations 
B.A., M.A., University of Virginia 

Mary Frances Donley 1 989- 
Associate Director of Public Relations 
B.A., Lehigh University; 
M.S., Carnegie Mellon University 

JeroldWikoff 1984- 
Senior Editor 
B.A., Stanford University; 
M.A., Stanford University; 
Ph.D., Stanford University 

Susan Bryant 1989- 

Assistant Editor in Public Relations 

B.A., Bryn Mawr College; 

Francais Diplome, International School of Geneva 

Robert D. Smith 1965- 

Director of Alinnni Relations 

B.S., Gettysburg College; 

M.S., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 



The Faculty 

(1991-1992 Academic Year) 

Gordon A. Haaland 1 990- 

President and Professor of Psychology 

A.B., Wheaton College; 

Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo 

L. Baird Tipson 1987- 
Provost and Professor of Religion 
A.B., Princeton University; 
M.Ph., Ph.D., Yale University 

Emeriti 

R. Henry Ackley 1953-1976 

Professor of Music, Emeritus 

B.A., Western Maryland College; Teacher's 

Certificate in Voice, Peabody Conservatory of Music 

Paul Baird 1951-1985 
Professor of Economics, Emeritus 
B.A., M.A., Pennsylvania State University 

Guillermo Barriga 1951-1981 

Professor of Romance Languages, Emeritus 

B.S, Columbian Naval Academy; M.A., Middlebury 

College; Ph.D., University of Madrid 

F. Eugene BeU 1966-1988 
Professor of Music, Emeritus 
A.B., Western Maryland College; 
M.A., New York University 

A. Bruce Boenau 1957-1991 
Professor of Political Science, Emeritus 
A.B., Amherst College; 

A.M., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Jay P. Brown 1947-1988 

Bursar, Emeritus 

Certificate, American Institute of Banking 

Mary G. Burel 1970-1986 
Librarian Emerita 

B. A., University of Oklahoma; 
M.S.L.S., Florida State University 

Albert W. Butterfield 1958-1972 
Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 
B.S., United States Naval Academy; 
M.S., University of Michigan 



iy4 



John F.Clarke 1966-1989 

Professor of English, Emeritus 

B.A., Kenyon College; M.A., Stanford University 

Glendon F. CoUier 1957-1983 
Professor of German and Russian, Emeritus 
B.A., Franklin and Marshall College; 
M.A., University of California, Berkeley 

Theodore C. Daniels 1954-1987 

Professor of Physics, Emeritus 

B.A., Oberlin College; Ph.D., Syracuse University 

Helen H. Darrah 1961-1977 
Professor of Biology, Emerita 
B.S., M.S., University of Pittsburgh 

Harold A. Dunkelberger 1 950-1 983 

Professor of Religion, Emeritus 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Lutheran Theological 

Seminary, Gettysburg; Ph.D., Columbia University; 

D.D., Susquehanna University 

Lewis B. Frank 1957-1986 
Professor of Psychology, Emeritus 
B.S., Franklin and Marshall College; 
M.A., Johns Hopkins University 

Edwin D. Freed 1948-1951, 1953-1986 

Professor of Religion, Emeritus 

B. A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Lutheran Theological 

Seminary, Gettysburg; Ph.D., Harvard University 

Robert H. Fryling 1947-50, 1958-87 
Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.S., Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Charles H. Glatfelter 1 949- 1 989 
Professor of History, Emeritus 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Gertrude G. Gobbel 1 968- 1 989 
Professor of Psychology, Emerita 
B.S., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.S., University of Illinois; 
Ph.D., Temple University 

Roland E. Hansen 1 973-1 989 

Business Manager, Emeritus 

B.A., Nebraska Wesleyan University 



J. Richard Haskins 1959-1988 

Professor of Physics, Emeritus 

B.S., University of Texas; Ph.D., Ohio State University 

John T. Held 1960-1988 

Professor of Education, Emeritus 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Columbia University; 

M.S., University of Illinois 

CaroUne M. Hendrickson 1 959-1 984 

Professor of Spanish, Emerita 

A.B., Wellesley College; M.A., Columbia University 

Thomas J. Hendrickson 1 960- 1 988 
Professor of Physics, Emeritus 
B.S., M.S., University of Michigan; 
Ph.D., Iowa State University 

Wade F. Hook 1967-1989 

Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Emeritus 
A.B., Newberry College; B.D., Lutheran Theological 
Southern Seminary; M.A., University of South 
Carolina; Ph.D., Duke University 

Robert T. Hulton 1957-1989 
Director of Intercollegiate Athletics and 

Professor of Health and Physical Education, Emeritus 
B.A., Grove City College 

R. Eugene Hummel 1957-1987 

Coach and Professor of Health and Physical 

Education, Emeritus 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Columbia University 

Chester E. Jarvis 1 950-1 980 
Professor of Political Science, Emeritus 
A.B., M.A., University of California, Berkeley; 
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 

Grace C. Kenney 1 948-1 987 

Professor of Health and Physical Education, Emerita 

B.S., New York University; M.A., Columbia University 

Arthur L. Kurth 1962-1983 

Professor of French, Emeritus 

B.A., Yale College; Ph.D., Yale University 

Jack S. Locher 1957-1987 
Professor of English, Emeritus 
M.A., University of Chicago; 
Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 



ly^ 



Nancy C. Locher 1 968-1 989 
Dean of Student Advisement, Emerita 
B.A., Mary Baldwin College; 
M.A., University of North Carolina 

Rowland E. Logan 1 958-1 988 
Professor of Biology, Emerita 
A.B., University of California, Los Angeles; 
M.S., Ph.D., Northwestern University 

Richard T. Mara 1953-1 989 
Professor of Physics, Emeritus 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.S., Ph.D., University of Michigan 

Edward F. McManness 1 970-1 988 
Director of the College Union, Emeritus 
B.S., M.S., East Texas State University; 
M.B.A., Mt. St. Mary's College 

M. Scott Moorhead 1955-1981 

Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus 

B.S., M.A., Washington and Jefferson College; 

Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Ruth E. Pavlantos 1963-1988 
Professor of Classics, Emerita 
B.A., College of Wooster; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

James D. Pickering 1 954-1 988 
Professor of English, Emeritus 
A.B., A.M., Wesleyan University; 
Ph.D., Columbia University 

IngolfQuaUy 1956-1982 
Professor of Art, Emeritus 
B.A., St. Olaf College; B.F.A., M.F.A., Yale University 

James H.Richards, Jr. 1974-1983 
Librarian Emeritus 

B.A., Wesleyan University; B.S.L.S., Columbia 
University; M.A., Wesleyan University 

RusseU S. Rosenberger 1956-1981 
Professor of Education, Emeritus 
B.S., Geneva College; 
M.Litt., Ed.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Calvin E. Schildknecht 1 959-1 979 
Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus 
B.S., Gettysburg College; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 



Henry Schneider, III 1964-1981 

Profes-sor of German, Emeritus 

A.B., M.A., Ph.D., Princeton University 

W. Richard Schubart 1950-1981 
Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus 
A.B., Dartmouth College; A.M., Columbia University 

Walter J. Scott 1959-1984 

Professor of Physics, Emeritus 

B.A., Swarthmore College; M.S., Lehigh University 

Jack Douglas Shand 1954-1984 

Professor of Psychology, Emeritus 

B.A., Amherst College; M.A., Harvard University; 

Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Howard Shoemaker 1 95 7- 1 985 
Professor of Health and Physical Education, 

Emeritus 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.A., Columbia University 

James F. Slaybaugh, Jr. 1 964- 1 989 
Professor of Education, Emeritus 
A.B., Roanoke College; 
M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

Charles A. Sloat 1927-1968 
Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus 
B.S., Gettysburg College; M.A., Haverford 
College; Ph.D., Princeton University 

Parker B. Wagnild 1937-1976 

Professor of Music, Emeritus 

B.A., St. Olaf College; B.D., Lutheran Theological 

Seminary, Gettysburg; M.S.M., Union Theological 

Seminary; M.A., New York University; Mus.D., Thiel 

College; D.D., Gettysburg College 

Janis Weaner 1 957-1 985 

Professor of Spanish, Emerita 

B.A., Mary Washington College of the University of 

Virginia; M.A., New York University 

Dexter N. Weikel 1 962- 1 988 

Professor of Music, Emeritus 

B.S., Susquehanna University; 

M.A., Pennsylvania State University; D.M.A., Peabody 

Conservatory of Johns Hopkins University 



I9b 



Conway S. WiUiams 1949-1980 

Professor of Economic^ and Business 

Administration, Emeritus 

A.B., Columbia University; 

M.S., Columbia University School of Business 

Richard K. Wood 1969-1990 

Director of Academic Computing, Emeritus 

B.A., Earlham College; 

M.S. (2), University of Wisconsin 

Waldemar Zagars 1956-1974 
Professor of Economics, Emeritus 
Dr. oec. University of Riga 

Current Faculty 

James Agard 1982- 

Associate Professor of Art 

B.S., The State University' of New York at New Paltz; 

M.F.A., Rutgers Universit)' 

Randolph R. Aldinger 1989- 
Assistant Professor of Physics 
B.S., Arizona State University; 
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin 

Marie-Jose Arey 1988- 
Assistant Professor of French 
B..\.. M.A., University of Florida; 
Ph.D., Duke University 

Charlotte E. S. Armster 1 984- 

Associate Professor of German, Department Chairperson 
B.A., Eastern Michigan University; M.A., Middlebury 
College; Ph.D., Stanford University 

Martha E. Arterberry 1989- 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

B.A., Pomona College; Ph.D., University of Minnesota 

Robert D. Barnes 1955- 
Dr. C:harles H. Gratf Professor of Biology 
B.S., Davidson College; Ph.D., Duke University; 
D.Sc, Davidson College 

Edward J. Baskerville 1956- 

Professor of English 

B.S, Lehigh University'; M.A., Ph.D., Columbia University 

NeUW. Beach 1960- 

Associate Professor of Biology 

B.S., M.S., Ph.D., University of Michigan 



Gigi M. Berardi 1991- 

Associate Professor of Environmental Studies 

and Biology 
B.A., University of California, San Diego; 
M.S., Ph.D., Cornell University 

Temma F. Berg 1 985- 

Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Temple University 

Emelio Betances 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Latin American Studies 
B.A., Adelphi University; M.A., Ph.D., Rutgers -The 
State University of New Jersey 

Michael J. Birkner 1978-79, 1989- 
Associate Professor of History 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

Gareth V. Biser' 1959- 

Associate Professor of Health and Physical 

Education, Department Chairperson 
B.S., Gettysburg College; M.S., Syracuse University 

GaborS. Boritt 1981- 

Robert C. Fluhrer Professor of Civil War Studies 
B.A., Yankton College; M.A., University of South 
Dakota; Ph.D., Boston University 

Robert F, Bomstein' 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

B.A., Amherst College; 

Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo 

Donald M. Borock 1974- 

Associate Professor of Political Science 

B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

Judith A. Brough 1989- 
Associate Professor of Education, 

Department Chairperson 
B.S., Ed.M., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; Ed.D., State Universit)' of New York at 
Buffalo 

Bruce W. Bugbee 1958- 
Associate Professor of History 
A.B., College of William and Mary; 
A.M., Ph.D., University of Michigan 



197 



Ronald D. Burgess 1980- 

Associate Professor of Spanish, Department Chairperson 

B.A., Washburn University of Topeka; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Kansas 

LesUe Gaboon 1988- 

Assistant Professor of Classics 

A.B., M.A., Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley 

Kathleen M. Cain 1990- 

Assistant Professor of Psychology 

A.B., College of the Holy Cross; 

A.M., Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana 

Champaign 

A. Ralph Cavaliere 1966- 
Professor of Biology 
B.S., M.S., Arizona State University; 
Ph.D., Duke University 

Frank M. Chiteji 1988- 

Associate Professor of History/ Coordinator of African 

American Studies 
B.A., University of San Francisco; 
M.A., Ph.D., Michigan State University 

Janet M. Claiborne 1985- 

Associate Professor of Health and Physical Education 

B.S., East Carolina University; M.S., Florida State 

University; Ed.D., University of North Carolina at 

Greensboro 



Paul R. D'Agostino 1969- 
Professor of Psychology 
B.S., Fordham University; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

Edward G. DeClair 1 99 1 - 

Instructor in Political Science 
B.A., University of South Florida; 
M.A., Florida State University 

Carolyn M. DeSUva 1982- 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 

B.A., Merrimack College; M.S., Northern Arizona 

University; M.S., Ph.D., University of New Hampshire 

LeticiaDiaz 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., M.A., Fordham University; Ph.D., University of 

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

ShuUnDing 1988-89; 1991- 

Distinguished Visiting Professor in Inderdepartmental 

Studies 
B.A., Beijing Foreign Languages Institute; 
M.A., China Academy of Social Sciences 

Heidi Dobson 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

B.S., A.B., University of California, Berkeley; 

M.S., University of California, Davis; 

Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley 



Cadierine B. Clay 1989- 
Assistant Professor of History 
B.A., Carleton College; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Chan L. Coulter 1958- 

William Bittinger Professor of Philosophy, 

Department Chairperson 
B.A., University of Iowa; 
M.A., Ph.D., Harvard University 

David J. Cowan' 1965- 

Associate Professor of Physics 

B.S., M.A., Ph.D., University of Texas 

David L. Crowner 1 967- 
Associate Professor of German and 

Acting Assistant Provost 
B.A., Pacific Lutheran University; M.A., Ph.D. 
Rutgers-State University of New Jersey 



Shirley J. Echard 1988- 

Assistant Professor of Music 

B.A., Knox College; M.M., New England Conservatory 

of Music; D.M.A., Catholic University of America 

Charles F. Enunons 1974- 

Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 

B.A., Gannon College; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Illinois 

Kay Etheridge' 1986- 
Assistant Professor of Biology 
B.S., M.S., Auburn University; 
Ph.D., University of Florida 

Alain Faucon 1989- 

Instructor in French 

Diplome d'Etudes Universitaires Generales, 

Licence en Anglais, Mention Fran^ais Langue 

Etrangere, Universite de Haute-Bretagne, 

Rennes, France 



198 



Ann Harper Fender 1978- 

Professor of Economics, Department Chairperson 
A.B., Randolph Macon Woman's College; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

George H. Pick 1967- 

Associate Professor of History 

A.B., Hanard University; M.A., University of 

Minnesota; Ph.D., Harvard University 

Rebecca Fincher-Kiefer 1988- 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.S., Washington College; 
M.S., Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Kermit H. Finstad 1970- 

Associate Professor of Music 

B.A., St. Olaf College; 

M.M., Catholic University of America 

David E. Hesner 1971- 
Associate Professor of Mathematics 
A.B., Wittenberg University; 
A.M., Ph.D., University of Michigan 

Jean W. Fletcher^ 1986- 
Associate Professor of Economics 
B.S., University of Missouri; 
A.M., Ph.D., WashingtonUniversity 

Norman O. Fomess 1 964- 

Associate Professor of History 

B.A., Pacific Lutheran University; M.A., Washington 

State University; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

Donald H. Fortnum 1965- 
Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., Carroll College (Wisconsin); 
Ph.D., Brown University 

Robert S. Fredrickson 1 969- 

Professor of English, Department Chairperson 

B.A., DePauw University; 

M.A., University of Minnesota; 

Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



Robert R. Gamett 1981- 
Associate Professor of English 
B.A., Dartmouth College; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

Robert M. GemmiU 1958- 
Associate Professor of Economics 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., University of Pennsylvania 

Sandra K. GUI 1984- 

Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 
B.S., Auburn University; M.A., University of Alabama; 
Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Leonard S. Goldberg 1982- 

Associate Professor of English 

B.A., University of Michigan; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 

Andrew S. Golfin, Jr. 1 987- 
Assistant Professor of Mathematics 
A.B., Dartmouth College; 
Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 

Margaret Golfin 1988- 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

B.S., State University of New York College at 

Brockport; M.S., Carnegie-Mellon University; 

Ph.D., Cornell University 

Derrick K. Gondwe' 1977- 

Professor of Economics 

B.A., Lake Forest College; M.A., University of 

Wisconsin; Ph.D., University of Manitoba 

Timothy N. Good 1990- 

Assistant Professor of Physics 

B.S., Dickinson College; 

M.S., Ph.D., University of California, Irvine 

Laurence A. Gregorio 1983- 

Associate Professor of French 

B.A., Saint Joseph's College; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania 



Fritz Gaenslen 1991- 
Assistant Professor of Political Science 
B.A., Miami University (Ohio); 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Michigan 



Joseph J. Grzybowski^ 1979- 
Associate Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., King's College; 
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University 



lyy 



Louis J. Hanunann 1956- 

Professor of Religion, Department Chairperson 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Yale Divinity School; 

M.A., Pennsylvania State University; 

Ph.D., Temple University 

Jerome O. Hanson 1984- 

Associate Professor of English 

B.A., State University of New York at Fredonia; 

M.A., University of Cincinnati 

Julie Hardwick 1991- 

Assistant Professor of History 

B.A., Nottingham University; 

M.A., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; 

M.A., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Samuel A. E. Headley 1 99 1 - 

Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education 
B.A., Birmingham University; M.Sc, King's College 
(London); Ph.D., Temple University 

Barbara Schmitter Heisler 1 989- 

Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 

B.G.S., Roosevelt University; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Sherman S. Hendrix 1 964- 

Professor of Biology 

B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., Florida State 

University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

HoUy G.Henry 1990- 
Instructor in English 
B.A., Bucknell University 

Donald W. Hinrichs 1 968 

Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, 
Department Chairperson 

B.A., Western Maryland College; M.A., University of 
Maryland; Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Kazuo Hiraizumi 1987- 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

B.S., Stanford University; 

Ph.D., North Carolina State University 

Helenmarie Hofman 1991- 

Associate Professor of Education 

B.S., M.Ed., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 

Ph.D., University of Minnesota 



Leonard L Holder 1964- 
Alumni Professor of Mathematics 
B.S., M.S., Texas A & M University; 
Ph.D., Purdue University 

Kathleen P. lanneUo 1990- 

Assistant Professor of Political Science 

B.A., University of Arizona; 

M.A.(2), Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

Donald L. Jameson 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

B.S., Bucknell University; 

Ph.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Suzaime R. Johnson 1 990- 

Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., State University of New York at Stony Brook; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Virginia 

John W.Jones 1989- 
Instructor in Music 
B.S., Lebanon Valley College; 
M.Ed., Towson State University 

Frederick J. Kaijage 1 99 1 - 

Distinguished Visiting Professor of Global Studies 
B.A., University of East Africa, University College 

Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) ; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Warwick (England) 

Kelfala M. KaUon 1987- 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

B.A., Methodist College; Ph.D., University of Virginia 

JohnM. KeUett 1968- 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 

B.S., Worcester State College; M.S., Rutgers-State 

University of New Jersey; Ph.D., University of Florida 

BokinKim 1989- 
Assistant Professor of Religion 
B.A., M.A., Won Kwang University; 
M.A., Ph.D., Temple University 

Elizabeth Riley Lambert 1984- 
Associate Professor of English 
B.A., Duquesne University; 
M.A., George Mason University; 
Ph.D., University of Maryland 



200 



Deborah Larsen 1989- 

.\.ssistaiit Professor of English 

B.A., Mundelein College; 

M.A., Western Washington University 

L. Carl Leinbach' 1967- 

Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science, 

Department Chairperson 
B.A., Lafayette College; M.A., University of Delaware; 
Ph.D., University of Oregon 

Catherine E. Lemley 1991- 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.S., Columbus College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Northeastern University 

David B. Levine 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Computer Science 

B.A., Swarthmore College; 

A.M., Ph.D., Dartmouth College 

Klaus LiU 1990- 

Instructor in German 

Erstes und Zweites Staalsexamen in 

Deutsch und Sozialwissen-Schaften 

KarlG. Lorenz 1991- 

Instructor in Sociology and Anthropology 

B.A., University of Colorado at Boulder; 

M.A., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

Franklin O, Loveland 1972- 

Associate Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 
A.B., Dartmouth College; M.A., Lehigh University; 
M.A., Ph.D., Duke University 

Mia K. Luehrmann 1 99 1 - 

Assistant Professor of Physics 

B.A., Dartmouth College; M.Sc, Ph.D., University 

of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

Enrique Luengo 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); 

Profesor of Spanish and Spanish American 

Literatures, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); 

M.A., University of Michigan; Ph.D., University 

of California, Los Angeles 

PunamMadhok 1991- 

Instructor in Art 

B.F.A., Visva-Bharati University (India); 

M.A., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 



Laurence A. MarschaU 1971- 

Professor of Physics 

B.S., Cornell University; Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Michael Matsinko 1976- 

Associate Professor of Music 

B.S., M.M., West Chester University of Pennsylvania 

Arthur McCardle 1969- 

Associate Professor of German 

B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Michael J. McTighe' 1 986- 

Assistant Professor of Religion 

A.B., Brown University; M. Div., Yale Divinity School; 

Ph.D., University of Chicago 

Fredric Michelman 1973- 

Associate Professor of French 

B.S.Ec, Universit)' of Pennsylvania; M.A., Middlebury 

College; Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

JanE. MikeseU 1973- 
Associate Professor of Biology 
B.S., M.S., Western Illinois University; 
Ph.D., Ohio State University 

Carey A. Moore 1 955-56, 1 959- 

Amanda Rupert Strong Professor of Religion 

B.A., Gettysburg College; 

B.D., Lutheran Theological Seminary, Gettysburg; 

Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Jessica Moreno 1990- 

Instructor in Spanish 

B.A., National Autonomous University of Nicaragua 

Kenneth F. Mott 1966- 

Professor of Political Science, Department Chairperson 
A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; M.A., Lehigh 
University; Ph.D., Brown University 

Samuel A. Mudd 1 958-64, 1 965- 
Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.S., Ph.D., Purdue University 

Charles D. Myers, Jr. 1 986- 

Assistant Professor of Religion 

B.A., Duke University; 

M.Div., Ph.D., Princeton Theological Seminary 



ZUl 



James P. Myers, Jr. 1 968- 

Professor of English 

B.S., LeMoyne College; M.A., University of Arizona; 

Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 

Jacqueline C. Nanfito 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., Saint Mary's College of Notre Dame; 

M.A., University of Michigan; 

Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Katsuyuki Niiro 1972- 
Associate Professor of Economics 
B.A., M.A., University of Hawaii; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Norman K. Nvmamaker 1963- 
Professor of Music 

A.B., Bowling Green State University; 
M.M., Ph.D., Indiana University 

Paula Olinger 1979- 
Associate Professor of Spanish 
B.A., University of Wisconsin; 
M.A., Ph.D., Brandeis University 

Bruce L. Packard 1971- 
Associate Professor of Education 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
Ed.M., Ed.D., Temple University 

William E. Parker 1 967- 
Associate Professor of Chemistry, 

Department Chairperson 
B.A., Haverford College; M.S., Ph.D., University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

Alan Paulson 1978- 

Professor of Art, Department Chairperson 
B.F.A., Philadelphia College of Art; 
M.F.A., University of Pennsylvania 

Peter J. Pella 1987- 

Associate Professor of Physics, Department Chairperson 

B.S., United States Military Academy; 

M.S., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 

Ph.D., Kent State University 

Thane S. Pittman 1972- 

Professor of Psychology, Department Chairperson 

B.A., Kent State University; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Iowa 



Robert A. Pitts 1986- 

Professor of Management 

B.A., Yale University; M.B.A., Columbia University; 

D.B.A., Harvard University 

Lisa Portmess' 1979- 

Associate Professor of Philosophy, 

Coordinator of Global Studies 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Queen's University 

Jean L. Potuchek 1988- 

Assistant Professor of Sociology and 

Anthropology/ Coordinator of Women's Studies 
A.B., Salve Regina College; 
A.M., Ph.D., Brown University 

WiUiam F. Railing 1964- 

Professor of Economics 

B.S., United States Merchant Marine Academy; 

B.A., Johns Hopkins University; 

Ph.D., Cornell University 

Rodney R. Redding 1989- 
Associate Professor of Management, 

Department Chairperson 
B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University; CPA 

RayR. Reider 1962- 

Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education 

B.A., Gettysburg College; 

M.Ed., Pennsylvania State University 

Janet Morgan Riggs 1981- 
Associate Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Princeton University 

Michael L. Ritterson 1968- 
Associate Professor of German 
A.B., Franklin and Marshall College; 
Ph.D., Harvard University 

William E. Rosenbach 1984- 

Harold G. Evans Professor of Eisenhower Leadership 

Studies 
B.S., B.B.A., Texas A & M University; M.B.A., Golden 
Gate University; D.B.A., University of Colorado 

Pamela J. Rosenberg 1990- 

Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 
B.A., Beloit College; M.A., University of New 
Hampshire; Ph.D., Cornell University 



^:uz 



Alex T. Rowland 1958- 

Ockershausen Professor of Chemistry 

B.A., Gettysburg College; Ph.D., Brown University 

G. Albert Ruesga 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 

B.Sc, Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

ReneSalgado 1990- 

Assistant Professor of Political Science 

B.A., Universidad Nacional de Nicaragua; M.A., 

University of Essex; M.A., University of South 

Carolina; Ph.D., University of Maryland, Baltimore 

Jose Sanchez 1990- 

Instructor in Spanish 

Licenciatura en Filologia Anglo germanica, 

Universidad de Cadiz 

Virginia E. Schein' 1986 
Professor of Management 
B.A., Cornell University; Ph.D., New York University 

Emile O. Schmidt 1962- 

Professor of English and Director of Theatre Arts 

A.B., Ursinus College; M.A., Columbia University 

Tracy A. Schoolcraft 1991- 
Assistant Professor of Chemistry 
B.S., George Washington University; 
Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University 

David S. Seitz 1989- 

Instructor in Management 

B.S., University of Delaware; 

B.S., M.B.A., York College of Pennsylvania; CMA 

Stephen M, Siviy 1990- 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
B.A., Washington and Jefferson College; 
M.S., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 
Ph.D., Bowling Green State University 

Carol D. SmaU 1969- 

Instructor in Art 

B.A., Jackson College of Tufts University; 

M.A., Johns Hopkins University 

Gregg W.Smith 1989- 

Assistant Professor of Political Science 

B.A., Grand Valley State University; M.A., Saint 

John's College (Santa Fe); M.A., Western Michigan 

University; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 



Carolyn S. Snively 1982- 

Associate Professor of Classics, Department Chairperson 

B.A., Michigan State University; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin 

Ralph A. Sorensen 1977- 

Associate Professor of Biology, Department Chairperson 

B.A., University of California, Riverside; 

Ph.D., Yale University 

Harold Star 1988- 

Assistant Professor of Management 

B.A., McGill University; 

M.B.A., Ph.D., Concordia University 

Janet C. Stavropoulos 1978- 
Associate Professor of English 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Indiana University 

John R. Stemen 1961- 

Associate Professor of History, Department Chairperson 

B.A., Yale University; M.A., Ph.D., Indiana University 

Mary Margaret Stewart 1 959- 
Graeff Professor of English 
A.B., Monmouth College (Illinois); 
Ph.D., Indiana University 

Peter Stitt' 1986- 

Professor of English, Editor of The Gettysburg Reviexu 
B.A., M.A., University of Minnesota; Ph.D., University 
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 

JohnC.Stroope 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Management 

B.A., California State University at Long Beach; M.A., 

University of Texas at Arlington; 

Ph.D., University of North Texas; CPA 

Amie Godman Tannenbaum 1968- 
Associate Professor of French, Department Chairperson 
A.B., Hood College; M.A., George Washington 
University; Ph.D., University of Maryland 

Donald G. Tannenbaum 1966- 

Associate Professor of Political Science 

B.B.A., M.A., City College of the City University of 

New York; Ph.D., New York University 

C. Kerr Thompson 1985- 

Professor of Spanish 

B.A., Davidson College; 

M.A., Ph.D., Louisiana State University 



iCUO 



Rodney S. Tosten 1 990- 

Assistant Professor of Mathematics and 

Computer Sciences 
B.A., Gettysburg College; M.S., West Virginia 
University; Ph.D., George Mason University 

Kay B.Tracy 1990- 

Instructor in Management 

B.S., University of Southwestern Louisiana; 

M.B.A., Drury College 

Amelia M. Trevelyan 1 985- 

Assistant Professor of Art 

B.A., M.A., University of Michigan; 

Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Robert H. Trone 1956- 

Associate Professor of Religion 

B.A., Gettysburg College; B.D., Yale Divinity School; 

M.A., Ph.D., Catholic University of America 

Orit E. Tykocinski 1 99 1 - 

Instructor in Psychology 

B.A., B.A., M.A., Tel-Aviv University (Israel) 

Miguel Vinuela 1988- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., M.A., California State University, Fresno; 

Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Elizabeth Richardson Viti 1 984- 

Associate Professor of French 

B.A., Wake Forest University; M.A., Middlebury 

College; Ph.D., New York University 

Robert M. Viti^ 1971- 
Professor of French 
B.A., St. Peter's College; 
M.A., Ph.D., Duke University 

Kerry S. Walters 1985- 

Assistant Professor of Philosophy 

B.A., University of North Carolina at Charlotte; M.A., 

Marquette University; Ph.D., University of Cincinnati 

Charles Walton 1989- 

Associate Professor of Management 

B.S., Auburn University; M.A., East Tennessee State 

University; Ph.D., Florida State University; CPA 

Spring J. Walton 1990- 

Assistant Professor of Management 

B.S., University of Missouri; 



M.A., East Tennessee State University; 
J.D., University of Maryland School of Law 

Shirley A. Warshaw 1 987- 

Assistant Professor of Political Science 
B.A., M.G.A., University of Pennsylvania; 
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University 

Dennis M. Weiss 1991- 
Assistant Professor of Philosophy 
B.A., Emory University; 
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin 

Robert B. Winans 1 987- 
Associate Professor of English, 

Chairperson of Interdepartmental Studies 
B.A., Cornell University; 
M.A., Ph.D., New York University 

John R. Winklemann 1963- 
Associate Professor of Biology 
B.A., University of Illinois; 
M.A., Ph.D., University of Michigan 

David E. Woolwine 1 99 1 - 

Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology 

B.A., St. John's College; 

M.A., Ph.D., Princeton University 

KentD. Yager^ 1986- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., M.A., University of California, Santa Barbara; 

Ph.D., University of New Mexico 

Charles J. Zabrowski 1987- 

Assistant Professor of Classics 

A.B., Canisius College; M.A., University of Toronto; 

Ph.D., Fordham University 

Robert F. Zellner 1968- 
Professor of Music, Department Chairperson 
B.S., West Chester University of Pennsylvania; 
M.A., Lehigh University 

Maria Zielina 1991- 

Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., California Lutheran University; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara 

1 On leave. Fall semester 1992-93 

2 On leave. Spring semester 1992-93 

3 On leave, Academic Year 1992-93 



Other Instructional and 
Administrative Personnel 
(1991-92 Academic Year) 



Dennis R. Aebersold 

Adjunct Professor of Physics 
B.S., Occidental College; 
Ph.D., Brown University 

Norman L. Annis 

Adjunct Professor of Art 

B.A., University of Northern Iowa; 

M.F.A., University of Iowa 

Lois Armor 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Thomas L. Bachman 

Part-time Assistant Women's Soccer Coach 
B.S., West Chester University of Pennsylvania 

Mary T. Baskerville 

Adjunct Associate Professor of English 

B.A., Hunter College; M.A., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Rob Bass 

Adjunct Instructor in Art 

Philip Bassi 

Part-Time Assistant Football Coach 

B.S., U.S. Naval Academy; 

M.S.A., Central Michigan University 

Garth Baxter 

Adjunct Instructor in Music 
B.A., Pepperdine University; 
M.A., California State University, Northridge 

Patricia A. Beedle 

Adjunct Instructor in English 
B.A., M.A., Creighton University 

Duane A. Botterbusch 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music 
B.S., Mansfield University of Pennsylvania; 
M.M., West Chester University of Pennsylvania 

Teresa Bowers 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music 
B.M.E., Susquehanna University; 
M.M., Ohio State University 



Mary Jo Boylan 

Assistant Instructor in Chemistry 
B.S., Allegheny College 

Dale G. Bruce 

Part-ume Assistant Men's Lacrosse Coach 
B.S., University of Maryland 

Harry M. Buck 

Adjunct Professor of Religion 

A.B., Albright College; M.Div., United Theological 

Seminary; Ph.D., University of Chicago 

HoUy L. Cantele 

Part-time Cheerleading Advisor/ Coach 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Michael P. Cantele 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and 
Physical Education 
B.A., Gettysburg College; 
M.F., Old Dominion University 

Rayelenn Sparks Casey 

Adjunct Instructor in English 

B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; M.A., 

Simmons College; M.A., Gallaudet College 

Janice B. Chapman-Ainge 

Adjunct Instructor in Art 
B.A., Hood College 

Ian B. Clarke 

Adjunct Instructor in English 
B.A., University of Virginia; 
M.F.A., University of Iowa 

Holly L. Cookerly 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical Education 
B.S., Pennsylvania State University 

P. Richard Cooper 

Laboratory Instructor in Physics 

B.A., Gettysburg College; 

M.Ed., Western Maryland College 

Casey Counseller 

Co-Head Golf Coach 

Christine A. Cozort 

Adjunct Instructor in English 

B.A., Brown University; M.A., University of Virginia 



^\JU 



Anne Craft 

Adjunct Instructor in First Year Colloquy 
B.A., Westminster College 

Dennis M. Csensits 

Graduate Assistant, Men's Basketball Program 
B.S., Allentown College of Saint Francis De Sales 

Robert E. Curtis 

Adjunct Professor of Education 
B.S., Ed.M., University of Rochester; 
Ed.D., Cornell University 

Ana M. Diez 

Adjunct Instructor in Spanish 

Diploma, Escuela Univesitaria de Profesores, 

Universidad de Cantabria; Licenciada, Facultad 

de Filolgia; Seccion Hispanicas, Universidad de Sevilla 

Ellis L. Diviney 

Part-time Assistant Men's Basektball Coach 
B.S., East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania 

Thomas S. Dombrowsky 

Adjunct Instructor in Interdepartmental Studies 
B.A., University of Rhode Island; 
M.A., Morgan State University 

Margarita Elorriaga 

Adjunct Instructor in Spanish 

M.A., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 

Thomas Flaherty 

Assistant Men's Basketball Coach 

B.S., East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania 

Liliane P. Floge 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Sociology 

and Anthropology 
B.A., City College of New York; 
M. Phil., Ph.D., Columbia University 

Glenn E. Ford 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Health and 

Physical Education 
B.S., M.Ed., Shippensburg University of 
Pennsylvania; Ed.D., University of Maryland 

Mary M. Fox 

Assistant Instructor in Chemistry 
B.S., Towson State University 



Josephine Freund 

Chapel Organist 

Judy Gemby 

Part-Time Assistant Women's Basketball Coach 
B.S., East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania 

I. Birgitte Ginge 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Classics 

B.S., B.A., Ph.D., Odense University, Denmark 

Lisa I. Gregory 

Assistant Instructor in Chemistry 
B.A., Gettysburg College 

Peggy S. Hancock 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical Education 

B.A., University of Arkansas; 

M.S., University of Central Arkansas 

Lynn Hanley 

Adjunct Instructor in Art 
B.F.A., Wayne State University 

Jean A. Hartzell 

Adjunct Instructor in English 

B.A., Gettysburg College; 

M.A., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Michael Hayden 

Laboratory Instructor in Physics 

B.S., University of Maryland, College Park 

Jean S. Holder 

Adjunct Associate Professor of First Year Colloquy 
B.S., West Texas State University; 
M.A., Ph.D., American University 

Jeanine Howe 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of English 

B.F.A., Otterbein College; 

M.F.A., Carnegie-Mellon University 

Marilyn Hubbard 

Coordinator of Off-Campus Studies and International 

Student Affairs and Adjunct Instructor in Spanish 
B.A., Monmouth College (Illinois); 
M.A., Southern Illinois University 

Barbara Hulsether 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 

B.S., Utica College of Syracuse University 



zuu 



Janice L. Jayes 

Adjunct Instructor in History 
B.A., Mt. Holyoke College; 
M.S., Georgetown University 

William Jones 

Lecturer in Interdepartmental Studies 

B.A., Eastern Nazarene College; 

M.A., University of Wisconsin; Ed.D., Boston University 

Grace S. Kang 

Adjunct Instructor in Music 
B.S., University of Rochester 

Jean N. Kuebler 

Adjunct Instructor in First Year Colloquy 
B.A., Dickinson College 

Ghislaine Le Boumault 

French Teaching Assistant 

Licence de Lettres Modernes-Mention 

Frangais Langue Etrangere; 

Maitrise de Frangais Langue Etrangere, 

Universite de Haute-Bretagne, Rennes, France 

Thomas P. Leff 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., M.F.A., Case Western Reserve University 

Susan R. Leighow 

Adjunct Instructor in History 
B.S., Bloomsburg University; 
M.A., Kutztown University 

William Leslie 

Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics and Computer 

Science 
B.S., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 
M.Ed., Shippensburg University 

Richard K. LeVan 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music 
B.A., University of South Florida; 
M.A., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; 
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 

Debora A. Lewis 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical Education 

Leslie Light 

Adjunct Instructor in Music 

B.A., Dickinson College; 

M.M., Peabody Conservatory of Johns Hopkins University 



Jeffrey Little 

Assistant Football Coach 

B.S.Ed., Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 

Christine R. Lottes 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical 

Education/Wellness 
B.S., Valparaiso University; 
M.S., West Chester University of Pennsylvania; 
Ed.D., West Virginia University 

Paul A. Love 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of English 

B.A., M.A., Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles 

Dorothy C. Moore 

Adjunct Instructor in Spanish 

B.A., M.A., California State University, Fresno 

Donald L. Muench 

Adjunct Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science 

B.S., St. John Fisher College; M.S., 

St. John's University; D.A., Idaho State University 

Yukiko Niiro 

Adjunct Instructor in Mathematics and Computer Science 
B.B.A., M.B.A., University of Hawaii 

Robert C. Nordvall 

Lecturer in Interdepartmental Studies 

B.A., DePauw University; J. D., Harvard Law School; 

Ed.D., Indiana University 

Joseph J. Pecatis 

Part-Time Assistant Wresding Coach 

B.S., Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania 

Elizabeth Pema 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical Education 
B.S., Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania 

William H. Pfitzinger 

Part-Time Head Women's Tennis Coach 
B.S., Roanoke College 

Janet M. Powers 

Adjunct Associate Professor of Interdepartmental Studies 
B.A., Bucknell University; M.A., University of 
Michigan; M.A., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin 

Phyllis Price 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 
B.A., Gettysburg College 



2U/ 



Jerome Radosh 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Management 
B.S., Pennsylvania State University; 
J.D., Catholic University of America; 
M.A., Mount Saint Mary's College 

Camilla Rawleigh 

Assistant Swimming Coach 

B.A., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 

Alden H. Reese 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 
A.B., Hood College 



Kathy L. Showvaker 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical 

Education/Wellness 
B.A., M.A., Western Maryland College 

Michael R. Spangler 

Part-Time Assistant Track & Field Coach 
B.A., Susquehanna University 

Nancy Stemen 

Adjunct Instructor in First Year Colloquy 
B.S., Millersville University of Pennsylvania; 
M.A., University of Delaware 



Lee P. Rentzel 

Part-Time Assistant Baseball Coach 
B.S., Pennsylvania State University; 
M.A., Western Maryland College 

Elena Rosa 

Spanish Teaching Assistant 
Licenciatura en Filologia Hispanica, 
Universidad de Sevilla 

Charles Saltzman 

Adjimct Instructor in English 

A.B., Harvard College; M.A.T., Harvard Graduate 

School of Education 

Theodore J. Sawchuck 

Part-Time Assistant Football Coach 
B.S., University of Akron 



Barbara Streeter 

Assistant Softball Coach 
B.A., Lebanon Valley College 

Norma Swain 

Adjunct Instructor in Music 
B.S., Radford University; 
M.M., West Virginia University 

Christopher L. Tranchitella 

Adjunct Instructor in Music 

B.A., Western Maryland College; 

M.M., Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester 

Sylvia S. Van Arsdale 

Adjunct Instructor in Education 

B.S., Millersville University; 

M.Ed., Antioch Graduate School of Education 



John Schmid 

Graduate Assistant, Assistant Football Coach 
B.S., Ursinus College 

Nosson Schreiber 

Adjunct Instructor in Religion 
Bachelor and Masters of Talmudic Law, 
Ner Israel Rabbinical College; 
M.S., Johns Hopkins University 

Aubrey L. Shenk 

Assistant Cross Country Coach 
B.A., Juniata College 

Anne K. Showalter 

Adjunct Instructor in First Year Colloquy 
B.A., Elizabethtown College; 
M.A., University of Iowa 



Matthew Verdirame 

Part-Time Assistant Men's Lacrosse Coach 

B.A., Gettysburg College; 

M.A., State University of New York at Stony Brook 

Greogry T. Vogel 

Graduate Assistant, Men's Soccer Coach 
B.A., Alfred University 

Todd Wawrousek 

Part-Time Head Women's Soccer Coach 
B.S., Millersville University; 
M.A., Alfred University 

Dexter N. Weikel 

Adjunct Professor of Music 

B.S., Susquehanna University; 

M.A., Pennsylvania State University; 

D.M.A., Peabody Conservatory of Johns Hopkins 

University 



208 



Frank B. Williams 

Adjunct Associate Protessor of Education 
B.A., M.A.T., Wesleyan University; 
Ed.D., University of Pennsylvania 

Helen J. Winkelmann 

Associate Instructor in Biology 

B.A., Notre Dame College of Staten Island; 

M.S., University of Michigan 

John Winship 

Adjunct Instructor in Art 
B.A., Middlebury College 

Petra S. Wirth 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of Spanish 

B.A., Old Dominion University; 

M.A., Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 

Cindy T. Wright 

Adjunct Instructor in Health and Physical Education 
B.S., State University of New York at Cordand; 
M.S., University of Utah 

Francis A. Young 

Adjunct Assistant Professor of English 
B.A.(2), M.A., Ph.D., University of Maryland, 
College Park 

Jo Ann K. Zeman 

Laboratory Instructor in Biology 
B.A., Western Maryland College 

Michael J. Zerbe 

Adjunct Instructor in English 
B.S., James Madison University; 
M.T.S.C, Miami University (Ohio) 

Una Zientek 

German Teaching Assistant 

Erstes Staatsexamen in Englisch und 

Franzosisch 



209 



GETTYSBURG COLLEGE 
Office of the Provost 

Calendar for 1992-93 
Fall Semester 



August 27-30, Thursday-Sunday 
August 31, Monday 
October 2, Friday 
October 2-4, Friday-Sunday 
October 12-13, Monday-Tuesday 
October 17, Saturday 
October 21, Wednesday 
November 13, Friday 

November 24, Tuesday at 5:00 p.m. 
November 30, Monday at 8:00 a.m. 
December 1 1 , Friday 
December 12, Saturday 
December 13-19, Sunday-Saturday 



Orientation and registration 

Classes begin 

Fall Honors Day 

Fall Family Weekend 

Reading days 

Alumni Homecoming 

Mid-semester reports 

Fall Convocation (11:00 a.m. classes 

cancelled) 
Thanksgiving break begins 
Thanksgiving break ends 
Last day of classes 
Reading day 
Final examinations 



Spring Semester 



January 18, Monday 

January 19, Tuesday 

March 9, Tuesday 

March 10, Wednesday at 5:00 p.m. 

March 22, Monday at 8:00 a.m. 

March 26, Friday 

April 9, Friday 
April 24, Saturday 
May 4, Tuesday 
May 6, Thursday 

May 7, Friday 

May 8-14, Saturday-Friday 

May 23, Sunday 

June 4-6, Friday-Sunday 



Registration 

Classes begin 

Mid-semester reports 

Spring recess begins 

Spring recess ends (Follow Friday 

schedule) 
Spring Honors Day (11:00 a.m. classes 

cancelled) 
Good Friday (classes cancelled) 
Get Acquainted Day 
Follow Thursday schedule 
Last day of classes (Folloiu Friday 

schedule) 
Reading day 
Final examinations 
Baccalaureate and Commencement 
Alumni Weekend 



210 



Statistical Summary 

Students in College 

1991 Full-Time Enrollment 

Fall Semester 

M W Total 

Senior 243 257 500 

Junior 258 252 510 

Sophomore 255 262 517 

First Year .J04 _287_ 591 

1060 1058 2118 

The above enrollment includes 90 students who were 
studying off campus. 

Geographic Distribution Matriculated Students 1991 
Fall Semester 





Number 






Of 






Students 


Percent 


Pennsylvania 


584 


27.5 


New Jersey 


474 


22.3 


New York 


281 


13.2 


Connecticut 


203 


9.6 


Maryland 


186 


8.8 


Massachusetts. 


83 


3.9 


Virginia. 


56 


2.6 


Florida 


26 


1.2 


Delaware 


23 


1.7 


Other States 


171 


8.0 


International (29 countries 


38 


1.8 



2125 



100.0 



Student Retention 



Of the students who entered Gettysburg as first year 
students in September 1987, 73.1% received their 
degree within four years; an additional 6.5% of the 
class continued at Gettysburg. Thirty-nine students 
(6.5% of the class) were required to withdraw from 
Gettysburg for academic or disciplinary reasons; six of 
these students returned and continued at Gettysburg. 



Endowment Funds 



Gett)'sburg College has benefitted over the years and 
continues to benefit from the income of funds 
contributed to the College's Endowment. Income 
from unrestricted endowment funds may be used for 
the general purpose of the College or for any special 
purposes; income from restricted endowment funds 
is used solely for the purpose specified by the donor. 



The generous support of the donors listed below has 
been vital to the continuing success of the College. 

(Unrestricted) 

Allhouse Family Endowment Fund: In honor of William 
Craig Allhouse (1981) and Mrs. Catherine Reaser 
Allhouse (1924), and in memory of William 
Kenneth Allhouse (1925) and Richard Reaser 
Allhouse (1950). 

Alumni Memorial Endowment Fund 

Jackson Anderson (1977) and Laurene Anderson {1977) 

E. W. Baker Estate 

Frank D. Baker 

Robert J. Barkley Estate 

Charles Bender Trust 

Fay S. Benedict Memorial Fund 

H. Melvin Binkley Estate 

H. Brua Campbell Estate 

Dr. John Chelenden Fund (1928) in honor of 
JohnB. Zinn(1909) 

Class of 191 9 Fund 

Class of 1926, 60th Reunion Fund 

Class of 1 971 Fund 

Louise Cuthbertson: In memor)' of Arthur Herring, 

Anna Wiener Herring and Louise Cuthbertson. 

Charles W. Diehljr. (1929) 

Harold Sheely Diehl Estate 

Faculty and Staff Memorial Endownment Fund 

Robert G.Fluhrer (1912) 

The Ford Foundation 

Walter B. Freed Estate 

Owen Fries Estate 

Richard V. Gardiner Memorial Fund 

The Carman Fund: A perpetual family memorial. 

The Gettysburg Times 

Mamie Ragan Getty Fund 

Frank Gilbert 

Margant E. Giles 

Ralph and Katherine M. Gresh 

James H. Gross Estate 

William D. Hartshome Estate 

George G Hatter (1911) 

Adam Hazlett (1910) 

J. Kermit Hereter Trust 

Ralph E. Heusner Estate 

Joseph H. Himes(1910) 

Marion Huey 

John E. Jacobsen Family Endowment Fund 

Bryan E. Keller Estate 

Edmund Keller Estate 

Caroline C. Knox 

William J. Knox (1910) 

Frank H. Kramer (1914) and Mrs. Kramer 



211 



Harris Lee Estate 

Ralph D. Linderman Memorial Fund 

The Richard Lewis Lloyd Fund in Memory of Arthur C. Carty 

Robeii T. McClarin Estate 

Ralph McCreary Estate 

James MacFarlane Fund, Class of 1837 

Dana and Elizabeth Manners Memorial 

J. Clyde Market (1900) and Caroline O. Market 

Robert T . Marks 

FredG. Masters ( 1 904) 

A.L.Mathias(1926) 

John H. Mickely (1928): In memory of his brother 

William Blocher Mickely. 
Alice Miller 

Thomas Z. Minehart (1894) 

Ruth G. Moyer Estate, Professor's Endoiument Fund 
Bemice Baker Musser 
Helen Overmiller 
Ivy L. Palmer 
Joseph Parment Company 
Andrew H. Phelps 
C. Laurrence Rebuck 
Mary Hart Rinn 
Sarah Ellen Sanders 
Robert and Helene Schubauer Estate 
Anna D. Seaman 
A. Richard Shay (1928) 
Paul K Sheffer(1918) 
Herbert Shimer( 1896) 
Robert O. Sinclair 
Albert T. Smith Memorial Fu nd 
James Milton Smith Fund 
Anna K. and Harry L. Snyder 
Mary Heilman Spangler 
Harvey W. Strayer 
Leah Tipton Taylor Estate 
Veronica K. Tollner Estate 
Vera and Paul Wagner Fund 

Walter G. Warner Memorial Fund ( by BergliotJ. Wagner) 
Leona S. & L. Ray Weaver Memorial Fund 
Richard C. Wetzel 

Jack Lyter Williams (1951) Memorial Fund 
Alice D. Wrather 
Romaine H. Yagel Trust 
George L. Yocum Memorial Fund 
John and Caroline Yordy MejnorialFund 

(Restricted) 

Conrad Christian Arensberg Memorial Fund: A fund 
established in 1948 by Francis Louis Arensberg in 
memory of his father, a Union veteran, for the 
purchase of Civil War books and materials. 



Florence Arensberg Conservation /Restoration Fund: A fund 
established to restore works of art and historic objects. 

Athletic Endowment A fund established for the athletic 
department to be used for discretionary purposes. 

The Rev. Peter C. Bell Memorial Lectureship Fund: A fund 
for the establishment of a lectureship on the claims of 
the gospel on college men. 

Bickle Endoiument Fund: A fund to support debating, 
established in 1925 to honor Dr. Philip Bickle (1866), 
Dean of Gettysburg College, 1889-1925. 

Joseph Bitlinger: Chair of Political Science. 

Lydia Bittinger: Chair of History. 

Joseph and Lydia Bittinger Memorial Fund: A fund 
established to support the needs of the history and 
political science departments. 

Blavatt Family Lecturship: A fund to establish the Blavatt 
Family Lecture Series in Political Science. 

Robert Bloom Fund: For Civil War Studies. 

Mr. &" Mrs. Thomas Citron: A fund established by Mr. & 
Mrs. Thomas Citron (1947) to endow insurance on a 
1934 oil painting by Minna Citron. 

Class of 1911 Memorial Trust Fund: A fund established 
in 1961, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Class of 
1911, to provide income for the purchase of books for 
the College library. 

Class of 1 925 Meritorious Service Award Foundation: To 
provide annual alumni awards for notable service 
rendered Alma Mater. 

Thomas Y. Cooper Endowment: A bequest to Gettysburg 
College in support of its libraries: (a) for acquisitions 
in literature and American history, as a memorial to 
his parents. Dr. and Mrs. Moses Cooper; and (b) for 
the operating budget of the library. 

A. Bruce Denny Fund: A fund in memory of A. Bruce 
Denny (1973), contributed by fellow students to 
purchase library books. 

Luther P. Eisenhari Fund: A fund established for the use 
of emeriti faculty and widows of former members of 
the faculty in real need of assistance. 

Eisenhoioer Memorial Celebration Fund: A fund established 
by the Eisenhower Society to support an appropriate 
ceremony in honor of President Eisenhower on or 
about his birthday on October 14 every year. 



212 



Harold G. Evans Chair in Eisenhozver Leadership Studies: 
A fund established to foster an educational program 
in leadership. 

Clyde E. and. Sarah A Gerberich Endowment Fund: A fund 
established to support a series of lectures dedicated 
to the memory of Dr. Robert Fortenbaugh (1913). 
This fund is also supported by a matching gift from 
the Hewlett Foundation to support the Robert 
Fortenbaugh Memorial Lecture. 

Gettysburg Revieiu Fund: \ iund established to provide 
annual support for the Gettysburg Review. 

Russell P. Getz Memorial Fund: A fund established for 
the support of the music department. 

Jean Landefeld Hanson Fund: A fund established in 
1971 by family and friends of the late wife of former 
President C. Arnold Hanson, the income to be 
assigned to purposes related to the Chapel program 
determined by the Chaplain and the President of the 
College. 

The John A. Hauser Executive-in-Residence Fund: A fund 
established by the family and friends of John A. 
Hauser and Gettysburg College, the income of which 
shall be used to support a business or governmental 
executive-in-residence for a limited period of time 
on an annual basis. 

The Harry D. Holloway Memorial Fund: A fund to be 
used for purposes of keeping alive on the campus of 
Gettysburg College the Spirit of Abraham Lincoln. 

KarlF. Irvin Trust Fund: A fund established from the 
corpus of this trust and treated as restricted 
endowment, paying the income to the Annual Fund 
in Mr. Irvin's name. 

William R Kenan, Jr. Endowment Fund for Teaching 
Excellence: A fund established to support high quality 
and effective teaching. 

Dr. and Mrs. Frank Kramer Oriental Art Fund: A fund to 
support and advance the study of East Asian art and 
related topics. 

MNC Management Curriculum: A fund by the 
Maryland National Foundation to provide financial 
support for the Management Program. 

Mansdorfer Chair in Chemistry: An endowed chair 
which provides funds for faculty salaries, research 
needs, payment for research assistants, and travel for 
conferences. 



Dr. Amos S. and Barbara K. Musselman Art Endowment 
Fund: A fund to support and advance knowledge and 
appreciation of art at Gettysburg College. 

Dr Amos S.and Barbara K. Musselman Chemistry 
Endowment Fund: A fund to support the chemistry 
program. The funds will be used primarily for the 
purchase of laboratory equipment and supplies. 

Musselman Endowment For Music Workshop: A fund 
contribiued by the Musselman Foundation to 
support workshops in music performance and 
seminars in music education. 

Musselman Endowment For Theatre Arts: A fund 
contributed by the Musselman Foundation to 
support visits to the campus by individuals with 
expertise in the technical aspects of the theatre. 

NEH Distinguished Teaching Professorship in the 
Humanities /Ed and Cindy Johnson: A fund established 
to provide salary enhancements, travel, library 
purchases, clerical support, and faculty replacement 
salaries for various instructional departments. 

Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists: A fund 
contributed by the Musselman Foundation to 
support visits by scientists to the College. 

NEH Fluhrer-Civil War Chair: Contributed by the 
National Endowment for the Humanities and the 
Robert Fluhrer estate to establish a Civil War Chair 
in the history department. 

NEH Fund for Faculty and Curriculum Development in the 
Humanities: A fund established by a Challenge Grant 
from the National Endowment for the Humanides to 
promote high quality work in the humanides 
through faculty and curriculum development acdvity 
of particular merit. This fund is part of the larger 
Institutional Fund for Self-Renewal. 

NEH Senior Scholars ' Seminar: A fund established to 
support the Senior Scholars' Seminar from the 
Nauonal Endovmient for the Humanides. 

One in a Mission Program Fund: An appeal throughout 
the Central Pennsylvania Synod to provide addidonal 
endowment funds to enhance the church-related 
mission of the College. 

EdredJ. and Ruth Pennell Trust Foundation: A fund to 
be used to purchase new materials in the fields of 
polidcal science, management, and economics. 



TTT 



Political Science Research /Development A fund 
established by Elmer Plischke to assist faculty in the 
political science department in research activities. 

Paul H. Rhoads Teaching and Professional Development 
Fund: A fund established by Paul H. Rhoads, 
Gettysburg College, and others, the income from 
which provides named awards to support scholarly 
research, professional development, or the 
improvement of undergraduate instruction by 
Gettysburg College faculty. 

Norman F. Richardson Memorial Lectureship Fund: A 
fund which will support each year an event which 
stimulates reflection on interdisciplinary studies, 
world civilization, the philosophy of religion, values, 
and culture. 

Henry M. Scharf Lecture Fund: A fund contributed by 
Dr. F. William Sunderman (1919) in memory of 
Henry M. Scharf, (1925), to establish a lectureship 
on current affairs. 

Louis and Claudia Schalanoff Library Fund: A fund 
used for the purpose of purchasing books and other 
publications for the chemistry library at Gettysburg 
College. 

James A. Singmaster (1898) Fund for Chemistry: A fund 
established in 1967 by Mrs. James A. Singmaster in 
memory of her husband for the purchase of library 
materials in chemistry, or in areas related thereto. 

Dr. Kenneth L. Smoke Memorial Trust Fund: A fund 
created in 1971 to honor the man who in 1946 
established the department of psychology at 
Gettysburg College and served as its chairman until his 
death in 1970. The annual income is used in part by 
the College library to purchase library resources in the 
field of psychology and in part by the psychology 
department for special departmental needs. 

Stoever Alcove Fund: A fund established by Laura M. 
Stoever for the support of the library. 

/. H. W. Stuckenberg Memorial Lectureship A bequest 
from Mary G. Stuckenberg in memory of her 
husband to sponsor lectures in the general area of 
social ethics. 



The Sunderman Chamber Music Foundation of Gettysburg 
College: A fund established by F. William Sunderman 
1919 to stimulate and further the interest in 
chamber music at Gettysburg College through the 
sponsorship of chamber music concerts. 

Waltemyer Seminar Room Fund: A fund established by 
Carroll W. Royston (1934) and the family and friends 
of Dr. William C. Waltemyer (1913), former head of 
the Bible department at the College, to provide 
furnishings for and to maintain the library in a 
seminar room in his memory. 

Stephen Henry Warner '68 Memorial Fund: A two-part 
fund, including (1) contributions to Gettysburg 
College in memory of Mr. Warner, the income to be 
used to maintain and support the Warner Collection 
on Vietnam, as well as to purchase new books for the 
library; (2) a bequest established by Stephen H. 
Warner for library acquisitions in Asian studies, and 
for use as seed money for projects encouraging 
exciting, challenging, and fresh ideas. 

Donald K. Weiser Book Acquisition Fund: A fund 
established in honor of Donald K. Weiser (1924) for 
the purchase of library books in the field of insurance, 
management, and business administration. 

Woman 's League Fund for Upkeep and Repair of the 
YMCA Building (Weidensall Hall): An endowment 
bequest of Louisa Paulus. 

Dr. and Mrs. Jeremiah Zimmerman Fund: A fund 
established in 1931 by Dr. Jeremiah Zimmerman 
(1873), from a bequest of Mrs. Zimmerman, who 
died in 1930, to create an endowment in support of 
the annual operating budget of the library. 

John B. Zinn Memorial Fund in Admissions: A fund 
established in honor of John B. Zinn by friends and 
former students to support admissions efforts in 
fields associated with the healing arts. 

John B. Zinn President Discretionary Institutional and 
Faculty Institutional Development Fund: A fund 
established to provide support for research and 
professional development by Gettysburg College 
faculty and staff; to support new or experimental 
academic programs and also to support professional 
development and research for professors in fields 
associated with the healing arts. 



SPRING 1990 



Gettysburg 

Tk Gettysbur£R^iew 




A quarterly journal with a strong national 
following, The Gettysburg Review is published by 
Gettysburg College. Among its advisory and 
contributing editors are author and humorist 
Garrison Keillor; poets Richard Wilbur, 
Donald Hall, and Rita Dove; and novelist Ann 
Beattie. The Gettysburg Revieiu received the 
awards for "Best New Journal" and "Best 
Journal Design" from the Council of Editors 
of Learned Journals in 1988. Students serve 
the Journal in a number of ways through 
internships, work-study, and volunteerism. 



tt: 






Index 



ZiO 



INDEX 



Academic Advising 21,164 

Academic Calendar 209 

Academic Counseling 6, 21, 164 

Academic Honors 55 

Academic Purposes 2,17 

Academic Services and Informadon 164 

Academic Standing 34 

Academic Standing Committee 34,164 

Accounting, Courses in, 114-115 

Accident Insurance 171 

Accreditadon 221 

Adjunct Faculty 204 

Administradon, The 188 

Administrative Offices 166 

Admission Office 13 

Admission Policy 168 

Admission Procedure 168 

Admissions, Expenses, and Financial Aid 168-183 

Advanced Credit and Placement 169 

Advising System 21 

AIDS Policy 161 

African-American Studies 67-69 

Alcohol and Drug Education 162 

American Studies 112 

Anthropology, Courses in 142 

And-discriminadon Policy 221 

Army Reserve Officers Training Program 55 

Area Studies 112 

Art, Courses in 69-73 

Art Gallery 70 

Ardst in Residence 159 

Asian Studies 112 

Astronomy (See Physics) 

Athledc Facilides 166 

Athledcs 15, 164 

Audiung of Courses 28 

Awards 56-63 

Bachelor of Arts Degree Requirements 23 

Bachelor of Science in Music Education 41 

Band 125, 158 

Basic Facts about the College 14 

Bills 170 

Biology, Courses in 73-76 

Boarding Costs and Policy 170 

Board of Trustees 1 86 

Bookstore 156, 171 

Business Administration, Courses in 

(See Management) 
Calendar 1992-93 209 
Campus Life 154 
Career Services 6,12,160 
Career Opportunides 

(See Departmental Course Introducdons) 



Catholic Religious Services 163 

Catholic Student Religious Group 157, 163 

Center for Global Education 47 

Central Pennsylvania Consortium 43 

Chapel Programs 10, 163 

Chemistry, Courses in 76-79 

Choirs 125, 158 

Classics, Courses in 79-82 

Classrooms, Laboratories 165-166 

Clubs and Organizations 160 

College Affiliated Programs 42 

College Course Requirements 24 

College Life 154 

College Store 156,171 

College Union 9, 156 

Communication Media 159-16+0 
Community 4 

Comprehensive Academic Fee 1 70 
Computing Services 166 
Computer Courses 36,119-121 
Computer Facilities 120,166 
Computer Network 166 
Computer Science, Courses in 1 19-121 
Consortium Exchange Program 43 
Cooperative Programs 7, 43-50 
Correspondence, Listing for 221 
Costs 13, 170 
Counseling Services 162 
Course Changes 29 
Course Load Regulations 27 
Course Numbering System 66 
Course Requirements 24 
Courses of Study 66 
Credit System (Credit Hours) 22 
Cultural Activities 15,158 
Curriculum 20 
Dean of the College 154 
Deans' Lists 56 
Debating Union 160 
Degree Requirements 
Bachelor of Arts and 
Bachelor of Science 23 
Bachelor of Science in Music Education 41 
Exemption From 32 
Dental School, Preparation for 53-55 
Dining Accommodations 155 
Dining Fees 170 

Distribution Requirements 24, 66 
Dive (Nightclub) 156 
Dormitories 154-55 
Drama (See Theatre Arts) 
Dramatics 159 
Dual Degree Programs 



INDEX 



^rrr 



(See Engineering, Forestry, Nursing, 

and Optometry) 
Early Decision Plan 13, 168 
Economics 82 

Economics, Courses in 83-86 
Education, Courses in 86-88 
Employment Placement Services 42, 160 
Employment Prospects in Teaching 42 
Endowment Funds 210-213 
Engineering Dual-Degree Programs 

(See also Physics) 51,128 
English, Courses in 88-92 
Enrollment, Summary of 14, 210 
Environmental Studies Program 95 
Environmental Studies and Forestry 

Dual-Degree Program 52-53 
Expenses 170-71 
Facilities 165 
Facts About College 1 4 
Faculty, The 193-208 
Fees 170-171 
Financial Aid 172 
Fitness Program 162 
Foreign Study 46-49 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Dual-Degree Program 52-53 
France, Program in 47 
Fraternities 10, 155 
Fraternity Houses 9,155 
French, Courses in 95-98 
First Year Advising and Orientation 21 
First Year Colloquy 6, 20, 24, 67 
Full Time Student 27, 170 
Geographical Distribution of Students 210 
Geography, Courses in 86 
German, Courses in 98-101 
Germany, Program in 48, 98 
Gettysburg Theatre Festival 159 
Ge ttysburg Review 212 
Gettysburgian, The 159 
Global Studies 112 
Government, Courses in 

(See Political Science) 
Grading System 29-30 
Graduate School Preparadon 22 
Graduadon 

Requirements for 23 

With honors 55 
Grants 173 
Greece, Program in 48 
Greek, Courses in 79-80 
Greek Organizations 155 
Handicapped Persons 28 



Health Center 9, 161 

Health and Physical Education, Courses in 101-104 

Health and Physical Education Requirement 23, 24, 

101-102 
Health Professions 

Preparation for 53-55 
Health Services 161-62 
History, Courses in 105-108 
Honor Code 10,15,19,157 
Honor Commission 10,19,157 
Honors, Graduation with 55 
Honorary Fraternities and Sociedes 15, 160 
Housing Policy 170 
Individualized Study 32 
Insurance, Accident 171 
Incomplete, Grade of 30 
Intercollegiate Athletics 164 
Intercultural Advancement 165 
Interdepartmental Studies, Courses in 109-1 13 
Interfraternity Council 157 
Internships 

(See Department Course Listings) 
Intramural Sports 164 
Italy, Program in 49 
Japan, Program in 48 
Jewish Student Religious Group 163 
Journalism 90, 159 
Laboratory Theatre 10, 1 59 
Language Houses 96, 99 
Latin, Courses in 79, 80-81 
Latin American Studies 113 
Leadership Development Program 157 
Lectures 158 
Libraries 8, 14,22, 165 
Literary Magazine 159 
Literature, Concentration in 88, 89 
Living Accommodadons 154—155 
Loans 172-173, 183 

Lutheran College Washington Semester 44 
Lutheran Theological Seminary Exchange 49 
Major Fields of Study 6, 25 
Major Requirements 25 
Managemen t. Courses in 114—117 
Management, Selecdon of Majors 114 
Marine Biology Cooperadve Programs 49-50 
Mathematics, Courses in 117-119 
Medical School, Preparadon for 52, 53-55 
Medieval and Renaissance Studies 112 
Mercury, The 159 
Mexico, Program in 46-47 
Microcomputer Laboratory 1 66 
Minor Requirements 27 
Minority Affairs 



^18 



INDEX 



(See Intercultural Advancement) 
Music Activities 158-159 
Music, Courses in 122-125 

Music Education, Bachelor of Science Degree 41 
Newspaper 159 

Nicaragua, Program in 112-113 
Nightclub 156 

Ninth Semester Education Program 42 
Nursing, Dual-Degree Program 52 
Off-Campus Study 7,42 
Off-Campus Programs 7, 42 
Office of Career Services 160-161 
Office of the Dean of the College 154 
Optional Minor 27 
Optometry 

Dual-Degree Program 52 
Orchestra 125, 159 
Orientation 21 

Owl and Nightingale Players 10, 159 
Panhellenic Council 158 
Part Time Instructional and 

Administrative Personnel 204-208 
Part Time Student 169 
Payment of Bills 170-171 
Performing Arts 10,158-159 
Personal Property Insurance 171 
Phi Beta Kappa 56 
Philosophy, Courses in 126-127 
Physical Education, Courses in 101-104 
Physical Education Requirement 101-102 
Physical Therapy 

Preparadon for 53, 101 
Cooperative Program 8, 53, 101 
Physics, Courses in 127-130 
Placement of Graduates 42,160-161 
Political Science, Courses in 130-134 
Portuguese, Courses in 150 
Predental Preparation 53-54 
Pre-Health Professions Society 53-55 
Prelaw Preparadon 53 
Premedical Committee 54 
Premedical Preparadon 53-55 
Pre-Physical Therapy Preparation 53, 101 
Preprofessional Studies 53 
Preveterinary Preparadon 53 
Prizes and Awards 

(See also Scholarships) 56 
Probadon and Dismissal 32-33, 34 
Programming and Student Activides 158 
Provost 164 

Psychology, Courses in 134-137 
Publicadons, Student 159 
Radio Stadon 159-160 



Readmission of Students 34 
Recreadon Programs 164 
Refund Policy 171 

Register of Trustees, Faculty, Administradon 18&-208 
Registration 29 
Religion, Courses in 137-140 
Religious Life 163 
Religious, Student Groups 
Catholic 163 
Jewish 163 
Protestant 163 
Repeated Courses 30 
Required Courses 24 

Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) 55 
Residendal Life 154-155 
Residence Requirements 27 
Retendon 210 

Rights and Responsibilides of Students 155-156 
Room Rents 170 

Sadsfactory/Unsadsfactory Grading Opdon 29-30 
Schedule Limitations 27-28 
Scholarships 

(See Also Prizes and Awards) 172-182 
Scholasdc Apdtude Tests 168 
Science Facilides 165-66 
Seminars 32 
Senior Honors 55 
Senior Scholars' Seminar 35-36 
Social Fraternides and Sororides 155 
Sociology and Anthropology, Courses in 142-146 
Sororides 10, 155 
Spanish, Courses in 147-150 
Spain, Program in 46, 147 
Special Interdepartmental Programs 112-113 
Special Major 26 

Special Programs, Advisers and Coordinators 220 
Special Students 169 
Spectrum, The 159 
Speech, Courses in 94 
Sports 164 

Statement of Purpose 2 
Stadstical Summary of Students 210 
Student Activides 156-157 
Student Activides Council 1 60 
Student Clubs and Organizadons 1 60 
Student Communicadon Media 159-160 
Student Conduct 155-156 
Student Conduct Review Board 154, 156 
Student - Faculty Rado 6,14 
Student Financial Aid 172 
Student Government 15,157-158 
Student Handbook 154 
Student Health Services 161-162 



INDEX ^^^ 



Student Insurance 171 

Student Life 154 

Student Life Council 10, 157 

Student Newspaper 159 

Student Radio Station 159-160 

Student Retention 210 

Student Senate 156 

Student Services 166 

Studen t Yearbook 1 59 

Students, Geographical Distribution 210 

Study Abroad 50 

(See also listing for individual countries) 
Summary of Facts about Gettysburg 1 4 
Summer Study in Nicaragua 112-113 
Summer Theau-e 92,159 
Table of Contents 1 
Teacher Education Programs 8, 37 

Elementary 39-40 

Secondary 37-39 

Music Education 41 
Teacher Placement 42 
Theatre Arts 

Major in 88 

Courses in 93-94 

Groups 159 
Transcripts 33 
Transfer Credit 31 
Transfer Students 169 
Tuition 13, 170 
Tuition Payment Plans 171 
Two Minute Look at Gettysburg 14 
United Nations Semester 46 
Veterinary School, Preparation for 53 
Veterans' Administration Benefits 171 
Visitation Hours Policy 155 
Vocational Counseling 22,160 
Washington Economic Policy Semester 45 
Washington Semester 45-46 
Wilson College Exchange 49 
Withdrawal from a Course 30 
Withdrawal of Students 34 
Woman's Studies, Courses in 150 
Work-Study Program 1 73 
Writing Center 89 
Writing Policy 23-24,32 
WZBT 159-160 
Yearbook 1 59 



^'20 



Advisers and Coordinators of Special 
Programs at Gettysburg College* 

Adviser to Minority Students 

Frederick D. Opie, 

Acting Dean of Intercultural Advancement 

Af finnative Action/Title IX 
Coordinator/Sexual Harassment Officer 

Liliane P. Floge, Assistant Provost 

Contact Person for Continuing Education 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Contact Person for the United Nations' Semester 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Coordinator of Cooperative Program in Marine 
Biology 

A. Ralph Cavaliere, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Engineering 

David J. Cowan, Department of Physics 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in 
Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Gigi Berardi, Environmental Studies 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Nursing 

A. Ralph Cavaliere, Department of Biology 

Coordinator of Dual-Degree Program in Optometry 

A. Ralph Cavaliere, Department of Biology 



Coordinator of Lutheran College Washington 
Semester 

Donald W. Hinrichs, Chairperson, 
Department of Sociology and Anthropology 

Coordinator of the Washington Semester 

Kenneth F. Mott, Chairperson, 
Department of Political Science 

Coordinator of the Washington Economic 
Policy Semester 

William F. Railing, Department of Economics 

Coordinator of the Writing Center 

Elizabeth Lambert, Assistant Professor of English 

Foreign Student Adviser and Foreign Study Adviser 

Marilyn Hubbard, Adjunct Instructor in Spanish/ 
Coordinator of Off-Campus Studies and International 
Student Affairs 

Handicapped Students and Employees 
Coordinator of Access Policies ■< 

Liliane P. Floge, Assistant Provost 

Internship Coordinator for Management 

Judy Hull, Staff Director of Internships, Management 

Prehealth Professions Adviser 

Robert C. Nordvall, Acting Dean of First Year Students 

Prelaw Adviser 

C. Spring Walton, Department of Management 



*See also section Listing for Correspondence 
on next page. 






^2ZI 



Listing for Correspondence* 

Mailing Address: 

Gettysburg College 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 

Telephone: 

Area Code 717/337-6000 

Academic Information 

L. Baird Tipson, Provost 

Admissions 

Delwin K. Gustafson, Dean of Admissions 

Alumni Affairs 

Robert D. Smith, Director of Alumni Relations 

Accounting 

Katherine McGraw, Controller 

Career Services 

Deborah M. ^Vailes, Director of Career Services 

Church Relations 

KarlJ. Mattsoa, Chaplain 

College Relations 

Gary L. Lowe, Vice President for College Relations 



Counseling Services 

William H.Jones, Coordinator of Counseling 

Financial Aid 

Ronald L. Shunk, Director of Financial Aid 

General College Policy and Information 

William T. Walker, Jr., Director of Public Relations 

Healtii, Physical Education, and Atiiletics 

Charles W. Winters, Director of Athletics 

Library 

Willis M. Hubbard, Librarian 

Public Relations 

William T. Walker, Jr., Director of Public Relations 

Records and Transcripts 

G. Ronald Couchman, Registrar 

Student Accounts 

Katherine McGraw, Controller 

Student Affairs 

Julie L. Ramsey, Interim Dean of the College 



*See also section. Advisers and Coordinators of 
Special Programs at Gettysburg College on the prior 
page. 



Gettysburg College does not engage in illegal 
discrimination in its programs, activities, and policies 
against students, prospective students, employees, or 
prospective employees, on account of race, color, 
religion, ethnic or national origin, age, personal 
disability, or sex. Such policy is in compliance with 
the rpoi'irements of Tide VII of the Civil Rights Act 
of 190'i, Fitie IX of the Education Amendments of 
1972, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and all other 
appUcable federal, state, and local statutes, 
ordinances, and regulations. Inquiries concerning 



the application of any of these laws may be directed 
to the Affirmative Action Officer at the College or to 
the Director of the Office for Civil Rights, 
Department of Education, Washington, D.C. for 
laws, such as Tide IX of the Education Amendments 
of 1972 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 
administered by that department. 

Gettysburg College is accredited by the Middle 
States Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. 



CATALOGUE 1993-1994 




e provisions of this catalogue 
are not to be regarded as an 
irrevocable contract between the 
College and the student. The 
College reserves the right to 
change any provision or 
requirement at any time. This 
right to change provisions and 
requirements includes, but is 
not limited to, the right to 
reduce or eliminate course 
offerings in academic fields and 
to add requirements for 
graduation. 



GETTYSBURG April 1993: 
Volume 83 Number 2 

GETTYSBURG (USPS 218-120) is 
published four times a year in 
September, January, and semi- 
monthly in April by Gettysburg 
College. Gettysburg, PA 17325. 
Second class postage paid at 
Gettysburg, PA 17325. 



POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to Gettysburg, Printing 
Office, Gettysburg College, 
Gettysburg, PA 17325-1486. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2 A Statement of Purpose 

5 Gettysburg College — The 
Community 

17 Academic Policies and 
Programs 

Academic Purposes, Honor 
Code, Curriculum, Advising 
System, Credit System, Degree 
Requirements, Residence 
Requirements, Registration, 
Grading System, Transfer Credit, 
Exemption from Degree 
Requirements, Individualized 
Study and Seminars, Academic 
Standing, Transcripts, Withdrawal 
and Readmission, Senior Scholars' 
Seminar, Computer Courses, 
Teacher Education Programs, Off- 
Campus Study, Dual-Degree 
Programs, Preprofessional Studies, 
Senior Honors, Deans' Lists, Phi 
Beta Kappa, Prizes and Awards 



167 Admission, Expenses, 
and Financial Aid 

Admission Policy, Compre- 
hensive Academic Fee Plan, Board, 
Room Rents, Housing Policy, 
Payment of Bills, Refund Policy, 
College Store, Insurance, Student 
Financial Aid 

185 Register 

Board of Trustees, Trustees 
Emeriti, Administration, The 
Faculty, Current Faculty, Other 
Instructional and Administrative 
Personnel, Calendar, Statistical 
Summary, Student Retention, 
Endowment Funds 

215 Index 



65 Courses of Study 



153 College Ufe 

College Life, Office of The 
Dean of College Life, Residential 
Life, Greek Organizations, Dining 
Accommodations, Student Conduct, 
College Union, Student 
Government, Programming and 
Student Activities, Campus 
Communications, Other Activities, 
Career Services, Health Center, 
Student Health Services, 
Counseling Services, Religious Life 
and Chapel Programs, Athletics, 
Campus Recreation, Academic 
Services and Information Facilities, 
Intercultural Advancement, Facilities 



A STATEMENT OF PURPOSE: GETTYSBURG COLLEGE 



Chartered in 1832 for the express 
purpose of exerting "a sahitar\' 
influence in advancing the cause of 
liberal education," Gettysburg 
College is a community committed 
to the discover)', exploration, and 
evaluation of the ideas and actions 
of humanity and to the creative 
extension of that heritage. 
Gett}'sburg College cherishes its 
place in history as the oldest 
existing college affiliated with the 
Lutheran Church in America and 
intends to continue that church 
relatedness. By intent also, 
Gettysburg College is nonsectarian 
in its instruction and strives to serve 
students of all faiths. 

To meet its commitment, 
Gettysburg College seeks foremost 
to establish and maintain an 
environment of inquiiy, integrity, 
and mutual respect. In this setting, 
the College creates opportunities 
for students to learn specific 
intellectual skills and to strive for 
breadth of understanding. A 
rigorous program of undergraduate 
learning in the arts and sciences is 
complemented by student and 
religious life programs designed to 
challenge and enrich the academic 
experience. 

Gett>'sburg College considers its 
purpose fulfilled if its students grow 
as critically informed, humane, and 
creative individuals and continue to 
grow in these qualities after they 
have left Gettysburg. 



The Academic Program 

At the heart of Gettysburg College 
is the academic program which 
stresses logical, critical thinking and 
clear writing and speaking. 
Through a curriculum that derives 
its coherence from the traditions of 
liberal education, faculty introduce 
students to the assumptions and 
methods of a representative variety 
of academic disciplines in the 
sciences, the social sciences, and 
the humanities. Students are 
encouraged not only to specialize 
but also to broaden their 
understanding of the past and 
present intellectual, social, and 
cultural contexts within which 
knowledge lives. The academic 
program is designed to provide 
more than skills and intellectual 
perspective; it places these in a 
context of humane values such as 
open mindedness, personal 
responsibility, and mutual respect. 

The Gettysburg faculty is dedicated 
to the goals of liberal learning, 
committed to professional 
development that serves and 
exemplifies those goals, responsible 
for periodic review of the 
curriculum, and eager to teach and 
learn with students in an open and 
trusting exchange. 

Gettysburg's academic program can 
reach its full potential only if our 
students continue to have the ability' 
and the inclination to profit from 
an intense liberal arts experience. 



The academic environment is 
further enriched when such 
students come from many 
socioeconomic and ethnic 
backgrounds. 

With a coherent curriculum, an 
able and dedicated faculty, and 
students committed to learning, the 
academic program seeks to free 
students from narrowness and 
provincialism and to free them for 
the joys and benefits of conscious 
intellectual strength and creativity. 
Gettysburg wants its students to 
learn a wise skepticism and a sense 
of human fallibility, to acquire new 
interests and orientations through 
liberating experiences of change 
and growth, and to learn to use the 
skills, knowledge, and values of a 
liberal education in an unending 
but satisfying search for wisdom and 
fullness of life. 

The College Life 
Program 

Students entering college are 
interested in discovering who they 
are. Because students often face 
critical decisions about personal 
values, occupational choices, and 
role identities during their college 
years, the college life program seeks 
to provide opportunities for 
resolution of these important 
matters. To assist students in 
weighing available options and 
making decisions, the college life 
program offers, for example, 
psychological and career counseling 



and informal seminars on a variety 
of topics. Personal contact with 
Gettysburg's faculty and 
administration provides the 
attentive student with a wide range 
of role models to contemplate. 
Gettysburg's annual lecture series 
further expands students' horizons. 

The College also reveals its 
commitment to the total 
development of its students by 
encouraging them to play an 
important role in establishing and 
enforcing the conditions of campus 
life. Students supervise the 
academic Honor Code; students 
participate on certain trustee, 
faculty, and College planning and 
policy-making committees; and 
students fund and control many 
student activities. 

To supplement what students learn 
through living on campus and 
participating in student 
development programs, the College 
provides a full and varied 
extracurricular program. This 

I program encourages students to 
develop leadership skills by working 
in student government; to deepen 
their appreciation for the arts by 
participating in concerts, dramatic 
productions, and other 
performances; to sharpen their 
writing and speaking skills by 
contributing to College 
publications or broadcasts; and to 
enjoy the mental and physical self- 
discipline required by competition 

i in intercollegiate, intramural, and 
recreational athletics. 



The Religious Life 
Program 

Gettysburg College works in 
partnership with five of the Synods 
in Region 8 of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in America. 
These relationships and, more 
specifically, the campus religious 
life program, nurture intellectual 
values and give opportunities for 
the examination of spiritual and 
moral values, and for commitments 
by those who choose to make them. 

The religious life program of the 
College is designed to meet the 
needs of this religiously 
heterogeneous community to 
worship, to study, and to sewe. 
Chaplains, although they are 
employed by the College and report 
directly to the President, are called 
to this service by the Synods of the 
Church. They assume primary 
responsibility for corporate 
worship, counsel students and other 
campus personnel, help students 
and faculty plan programs to 
explore theological issues and to 
reach out to those in need, facilitate 
the work of local churches and 
denomination groups on the 
campus, and speak prophetically to 
issues of human justice when 
College values and College practice 
seem to diverge. 

Gettysburg College best serves the 
Church through its performance as 
a superior educational institution in 
which the Church's commitments 
and practices may be tested. 



Summary 



Through its academic program, its 
college life program, and its 
religious life program, then, 
Gettysburg College provides for the 
development of the young adult as 
a whole person — intellectually, 
socially, emotionally, physically, and 
spiritually. 

Approved by the Gettysburg College 
faculty: October 8, 1981 



Approved by the Gettysburg College 
Board of Trustees: December 5, 1981 





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THE COMMUNITY 



Gettysburg College: A 
Heritage of Excellence 

Gettysburg College was chartered in 
1832 during a time in early 
nineteenth-century America when 
many of the nation's strongest 
liberal arts colleges were founded. 
Gettysburg's mission, as expressed 
in its original charter, has remained 
unchanged during the more than 
150 years of its history. Today, as 
then, the College remains firmly 
committed to the principle of 
serving the cause of liberal 
education and changing times by 
providing a community of learning 
committed to discovery, 
exploration, evaluation of ideas and 
actions of humanity, and to the 
creative extension of that 
developing heritage. At Gettysburg, 
you will find an environment that 
encourages both academic and 
personal growth, a highly qualified 
and dedicated faculty, and a 
diversified curriculum that offers 
challenge, opportimity, and 
excitement. 



All of the roads leading to 
Gettysburg College, in the historic 
town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 
cross the site of the famous Civil 
War Battle of Gettysburg. During 
those three hot July days, fighting 
occurred on the fields and ridges 
within sight of the College campus. 
At that time, Pennsylvania Hall 
(now the College administration 
building and listed in the National 
Register of Historic Places) served 
as a hospital for both Union and 
Confederate soldiers. It was from 
this building that Gettysburg 
students marched to hear Abraham 
Lincoln give his immortal address 
on November 19, 1863. 

Today, Gettysburg College borders 
a 3,865-acre National Park and lies 
three blocks from the center of 
town. Because of its historic 
significance, beautiful countryside, 
and easy access from nearby cities, 
the town of Gettysburg welcomes 
over one-and-a-half million visitors 
annually from all over the world. 
Consequently, it offers numerous 
attractions, shops, restaurants, and 
lodging facilities that one would not 
expect to find in a small town — 
even a college town. 

The College, like the town of which 
it is a part, has grown since its Civil 
War days. It now has a 200-acre 
campus with over 60 buildings and 
seeks to limit its enrollment to 
approximately 1,900 students. 




Gettysburg College has always 
believed that a liberal arts 
education liberates the minds of 
students so that they can better 
respond to the challenges of a 
contemporary society. Therefore, 
the goals of the educational 
program at Gettysburg are to 
develop your capacity to think 
logically and use language clearly, 
to give you a rigorous introduction 
to the assumptions and the 
methods of a representative variety 
of academic disciplines, and to 
acquaint you with the range and 
diversity of human customs, 
pursuits, ideas, values, and longings. 



Although all courses at Gettysburg 
are designed to achieve these goals, 
the First Year Colloquy in liberal 
learning lays the foundation within 
the curriculum. This is a course that 
strengthens reasoning, writing, and 
speaking skills in a small class 
setting while introducing all first 
year students to a major issue in the 
liberal arts. 

Ultimately, this t)pe of education is 
the most practical of all because it 
teaches you how to approach and 
solve problems critically and 
creatively. Gettysburg believes that 
such an education will foster a high 
sensitivity to moral and spiritual 
values, along with a quest for 
knowledge which will continue after 
graduation. 

A well-rounded academic 
curriculum has many facets: the 
humanities, the social sciences, the 
fine arts, the sciences. As the world 
around us becomes more 
technologically advanced, we must 
prepare our students to deal with 
those changes by providing the 
proper tools and training. At 
Gettysburg, we recognize the need 
for academic diversity, and thus, 
computing has become a part of a 
student's everyday life. Computers 
are utilized across the disciplines 
for a variety of tasks including word 
processing, statistical analysis, 
graphics, and electronic mail. 

Although training for specific jobs 
is not seen as a primary function of 




a liberal arts education, Gettysburg 
does not ignore your appropriate 
concern about careers. The College 
offers a comprehensive career 
services program, teacher 
preparation and certification, 
advisory services for prelaw and 
premedical students, internship 
opportunities, and concentration in 
a major field as preparation either 
for graduate or professional 
schools, or for work in a variety of 
professions including research, 
business, industry, government, 
social services, and education. 

The academic programs at 
Gettysburg provide you with a 
broad range of intellectual 
experiences and the individual 
attention you need to make the best 
use of those experiences. One of 
the advantages of an education at 
Gettysburg is the availability of 
small classes, especially in more 
advanced courses. A student/ faculty 
ratio of 12:1 and an average class 
size of 20-25 students help to assure 
close relationships between you and 
your professors. 



You may select a major field ot 
study from any one of 26 academic 
areas: art, biochemistry and 
molecular biology, biology, 
chemistry, classical studies, 
computer science, economics, 
English, French, German, Greek, 
health and physical education, 
history, Latin, management, 
mathematics, music, music 
education, philosophy, physics, 
political science, psychology, 
religion, sociology and 
anthropology, Spanish, and theatre 
arts. Area studies programs are 
available in African-American 
Studies, American Studies, Asian 
Studies, Environmental Studies, 
Latin-Ainerican Studies, Medieval 
and Renaissance Studies, Global 
Studies, and Women's Studies. 

Gettysburg lets you take much of 
the responsibility for selecting an 
academic program that meets your 
needs and interests. If you want to 
concentrate your academic 
program on a particular area of 
emphasis which involves courses in 
several different departments, you 



may design your own major. A 
special major can cover broad areas 
such as international studies, or it 
can focus on a specific topic such as 
community planning and 
administration. Double majors and 
minors are also available. 

The College's distribution 
requirements ensure your 
acquaintance with several broad 
areas of study. After you select a 
major, ample opportunity is 
provided for electives in fields of 
your choice. 

You will have a faculty adviser to 
assist you in planning your academic 
program. Academic counseling is 
available, as is counseling for 
nonacademic personal matters. 
Gettysburg wants you to succeed, 
and the faculty and staff are 
dedicated to that principle. 

Through membership in the Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium (with 
Dickinson and Franklin &: Marshall 
Colleges) and through other off- 
campus and cooperative or dual- 
degree programs, Gettysburg offers 
you academic opportunities beyond 
its campus. Off-campus programs 
include the following: Washington 
Semester programs with American 
University in government and 
politics, economic policy, foreign 
policy, peace and conflict resolution, 
public administration, justice, urban 
studies, journalism, art and 
architecture, arts and humanities; 
the Lutheran College Washington 



Semester; the United Nations 
Semester; and cooperative 
programs in marine biology with 
Duke University Marine Laboratory 
and the Bermuda Biological 
Station. Many students study 
internationally imder our study 
abroad program; an extensive 
variety of affiliated and non- 
affiliated programs is available. 



Gettysburg has dual-degree 
programs in engineering with 
Columbia University, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute and 
Washington University in St. Louis; 
in nursing with Johns Hopkins 
University; in optometry with the 
Pennsylvania College of Optometry, 
and in forestry and environmental 
studies with Duke University. 




Under all of these programs a 
student begins her or his college 
career at Gettysburg and completes 
it at the cooperating university, 
earning degrees from both 
institutions. In addition, an early 
acceptance program leading to a 
Master's degree in Physical Therapy 
from Hahnemann University is 
available. 

Gettysburg offers all of the courses 
necessary for you to enter the 
medical, dental, veterinary medicine 
or law school of your choice. Special 
advisers are available to assist you in 
planning your curriculum and in 
applying to the appropriate 
professional schools. 

Preparation for a career in teaching 
is offered through the teacher 
education program. You can 
become certified to teach in 
elementary education, music 
education, or in one of twelve 
different secondary education fields. 

Outstanding professors are the very 
heart of Gettysburg's educational 
vision — a vision based on a firm 
commitment to individualized 
instruction which teaches values as 
well as commimicates information. 
Through this type of educational 
program, Gettysburg is committed 
to broadly educating leaders who 
can make substantial contributions 
to their disciplines and to society. 

Close intellectual relationships 
between faculty and students have 



long been a Gettysburg hallmark. 
Student/faculty interaction in small 
classes and on collaborative 
research projects provides 
Gettysburg students with an 
opportunity to enhance their 
intellectual, communication, and 
leadership skills. 

Gettysburg faculty members are well 
prepared to inspire achievement, 
for they themselves have established 
exceptional records of personal and 
professional accomplishment. Over 
95% hold the doctoral degree or 
the terminal degree, and many 
publish books and articles in 
scholarly journals. These scholarly 
activities assure that faculty 
members keep up with and 
contribute to the latest 
developments in their fields. 

Gett)'sburg's 200-acre campus 
provides excellent facilities for all 
aspects of college life. The center of 
the academic facilities is the 
Musselman Library/ Learning 
Resources Center. 

Total library collections include 
approximately 330,000 volimies, 
23,000 microforms, 36,000 
government publications, 12,000 
records, and subscriptions to nearly 
2,000 journals. Musselman Library 
has an automated library catalogue 
which is accessible through a dozen 
public access computer terminals in 
the library and any workstation 
connected to the campus computer 
network. 



Today, a college needs more than 
an excellent library: new 
instructional techniques must also 
be available. Gettysburg's computer 
center currently manages four 100+ 
mips multiprocessor Sun servers 
(including one transputer equipped 
Sun for parallel processing work), 
two VAX/VMS computers, a 
microvax H, a VAX 11/ 750, a micro 
environment of over 620 IBM, 
Zenith, and Apple microcomputers. 




75 NeXT and Sun workstations, and 
a campus-wide fiber optic backbone 
connecting academic buildings, 
administrative offices and residence 
halls. In addition, the College is 
connected to PREPnet which in 
turn provides full access to NREN, 
Internet and BITnet. This wide 
area network allows the sharing of 
vast amounts of data, and 
collaboration between students, 
faculty, and others at different 
institutions around the world. 



Students have access to a modem 
language laboratory, a theatre 
laboratory studio, an optics 
laboratory, a greenhouse, a plasma 
physics laboratory, an obsewatory 
with a 16-inch telescope, a 
planetarium, an RCA EMU4 
transmission electron microscope 
(TEM), aJEOL TS20 scanning 
electron microscope (SEM), a 
Fourier Nuclear Magnetic 
Resonance Spectrometer, and a 
Fourier Transform Infrared 
Spectrometer. Hands-on use of all 
equipment is encouraged. 

Eighteen residence halls (including 
special interest houses), and eleven 
fraternity houses provide you with 
many housing choices. Over 85% of 
the students live in College 
residences or fraternity houses. The 
College dining hall- the Camalier 
Center-provides meals on either a 
contract or occasional basis. The 
recently renovated College Union 
Building with its many features — 
including an Olympic-size 
swimming pool — is the center for 
student life. 




Other recreational and athletic 
facilities include a student activities 
center, two gymnasiums, a 
fieldhouse, a stadium with a football 
field and quarter-mile all-weather 
track, a physical fitness trail, and 
eight additional outdoor athletic 
fields. Both indoor and outdoor 
tennis courts are available. 



The health center is both a 
treatment and a resource center, 
offering you immediate care and 
educational services to help you 
make wise choices about your 
health. It is staffed by professional 
counselors, nurse practitioners, 
registered nurses, and family 
practice physicians. 



10 



Gettysburg provides extensive 
facilities for the fine and 
performing arts. Brua Hall 
accommodates a 250-seat playhouse 
with a thrust stage and state-of-the- 
art sound and lighting, and a 
laboratory theatre/classroom 
featuring TV recording and 
monitoring equipment. Schmucker 
Hall houses the art and music 
departments, and contains studios, 
extensive gallery space, a sculpting 
studio, classrooms, and practice 
rooms, as well as an impressive 200- 
seat recital hall. 

A full and diverse program of 
cultural, extracurricular, and 
religious activities is provided to 
enrich your personal and academic 
growth as well as to provide 
enjoyment and relaxation. 

Responsibility and leadership is 
encouraged through student 
participation in a number of 
committees, clubs, and other 
organizations. Because Gettysburg 
is a residential college, the Student 
Life Council is particularly 
important: students play a vital role 
in the work of this council, which 
reviews the College's policies for 
residential life and student conduct. 
An elected Student Senate is the 
main organization of student 
government. Students also play an 
important role in the Honor 
Commission, which administers the 
academic Honor Code, and the 
Student Conduct Review Board, 
which handles disciplinary cases 
within the student body. 




Concerts, plays, and lectures occur 
daily. Student performing groups 
include the Gettysburg College 
Choir; the Chapel Choir; the 
College Marching, Symphonic, and 
Jazz Bands; the Gettysburg 
College/Community Chamber 
Orchestra; various ensembles; the 
Owl and Nightingale Players (which 
presents three major theatrical 
productions each year) ; the 
Laboratory Theatre (which 
performs a dozen one-act plays) ; 
and Otherstage (which offers a 
variety of short theatre pieces). The 
College Union Building (CUB) is 
the center of student activities on 



campus; many events such as 
concerts, lectures, films, and dances 
are held in the ballroom of the 
CUB. Also in the CUB is a nightclub 
and a snack bar that serve as 
informal meeting places for the 
campus. 

Social events are also provided by 
fraternities and sororities. 
Gettysburg has eleven fraternities 
and five sororities, all of which are 
nationally affiliated. 



Gettysburg College offers many 
departmental, professional and 
honorary societies. There are 
honorary fraternities or clubs for 
students in sixteen different 
academic areas. Gettysburg has a 
chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, the 
national academic honorary 
fraternity. 

To keep you informed about 
happenings on campus, there is 
the student newspaper, The 
Gettystmrgian; the student-operated 
FM radio station, WZBT; a monthly 
events calendar, and a weekly 
announcement bulletin. This Week 
at Gettysburg. The newspaper and 
radio station offer opportunities to 
learn about all aspects of journalism 
and radio broadcasting. Other 
Gettysburg student publications 
include The Spectrum (the College 
yearbook) , and The Mercury, a 
journal of student poems, short 
stories, photographs, and art work. 




At Gettysburg, all students can 
participate in a supervised sport. 
Depending upon your athletic 
ability, you may choose to play on 
one of the 22 varsity teams, or to be 
part of an extensive campus 
recreation program. At the Division 
III intercollegiate level, the College 
is a member of the Centennial 
Conference, and enjoys well- 
balanced athletic rivalries with 
other conference teams. 

The intercollegiate program for 
men includes football, soccer, 
basketball, swimming, wrestling, 
lacrosse, tennis, cross country, 
baseball, and track and field. The 
intercollegiate program for women 
includes field hockey, volleyball. 



cross country, basketball, soccer, 
swimming, lacrosse, Softball, track 
and field, and tennis. The golf and 
cheerleading teams are open to 
both men and women. 

The campus recreation program 
offers a large number of activities 
for the entire campus community. 
These activities include club rugby, 
club ice hockey, aerobitone, water 
polo, club volleyball, a cycling club, 
karate, weight lifting, and a wide 
variety of intramural teams and 
other activities. 



12 



Student Life at Gettysburg is lively 
and diverse. There is one simple 
goal for all of the organized 
activities on campus — to enhance 
the full range of your liberal arts 
education. 

After you take advantage of all that 
Gettysburg has to offer, you may 
wish to pursue further graduate 
study or enter your career field 
immediately. The career services 
office is available to provide you 
with counseling, information, and 
the practical skills necessary for 
setting and achieving your future 
occupational goals. This office 
sponsors an organized alumni 
networking program, maintains an 
extensive library that includes 
vocational and graduate school 
information, sponsors job and 
career fairs with other colleges, 
offers workshops on resume writing 
and effective interviewing, and 
hosts on-campus employment 
interviews with various companies. 
Its broad range of services can help 
you set and achieve the career goals 
that suit your particular skills, 
values, and aspirations. 




13 



Admission to Gettysburg is highly 
competitive. It is based upon high 
academic achievement in a strong 
college preparatory program, SAT 
or ACT results, and personal 
qualities. The College welcomes 
applications from students of 
differing ethnic, religious, racial, 
and economic backgrounds, and of 
differing geographic settings. If 
Gettysburg is your first choice, you 
are encouraged to apply for Early 
Decision admission. Applications 
for Early Decision will be 
considered between November 15 
and February I of the senior year 
with notification of acceptance 
between December 15 and February 
15. Applications for Regular 
Decision admission are due no later 
than February 15 of your senior 
year. Offers of acceptance are 
usually sent early in April. The 
College complies with the 
candidates' reply date of May 1 for 
those students accepted under 
Regular Decision admission. 

Total expenses covering 
comprehensive academic fee, room, 
board, and books and supplies are 
estimated at $23,460 for the 
1993-94 academic year. Additional 
costs include personal expenses 
such as laundry and clothing, 
transportation, etc. A generous 
program of financial aid is available 
for students who are unable to 



finance their entire education from 
family and/or personal resources. 
Monthly payment plans are 
available to all students. 

We understand how important your 
college choice is to you, and we 
want you to make a wise decision. 
For that reason, we invite you to 
visit Gettysburg as part of your 
college selection process. An 
interview and a campus tour is 
strongly recommended. 

You can arrange an interview and a 
campus tour by calling the 
admissions office at (717) 337-6100 
or I-800-43I-0803. During the 
academic year, the admissions 
office is open from 9:00 to 5:00 on 
weekdays and from 9:00 to 1 2:00 on 
Saturdays; summer hours are 
between 8:00 and 4:30 weekdays. 




Two-Minute Look at 
Gettysburg 

Type of College: Four-year, 
coeducational college of liberal arts 
and sciences founded in 1832. 

Enrollment: About 1,900 students 
(approximately one-half are men 
and one-half are women), 
representing nearly 40 states and 25 
foreign coimtries. 

Location: The College is adjacent 
to the Gettysburg National Park. 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania is 36 miles 
from Harrisburg, 55 miles from 
Baltimore, 80 miles from 
Washington, D.C., 117 miles from 
Philadelphia, and 212 miles from 
New York City. The Gettysburg 
College van service to and from 
area transportation centers and 
area cities is available. 



We look forward to welcoming you 
to Gettysburg College. 



14 



Campus: 200 acres with over 60 
buildings. Beautiful campus with 
exceptional facilities. 

Library: Musselman Library with 
total collections of approximately 
330,000 volumes, 23,000 
microforms, 36,000 government 
publications, 12,000 recordings, 
and subscriptions to nearly 2,000 
journals. The library seats 800 
students, and contains a media 
theater, a graphics center, a 
language laboratory, and an 
automated library catalogue 
accessible through computer 
terminals in the library or through 
any microcomputer connected to 
the campus network. 

Academic Information: 

Student/ faculty ratio of 12:1 with 
an average class size of 20-25 
students. 151 full-time faculty with 
over 95% of the permanent facultv 
having a doctorate or the highest 
earned degree in their fields. One 
of only 19 chapters of Phi Beta 
Kappa in Pennsylvania. Honorary 
or professional societies in 16 
academic areas. Academic Honor 
Code in effect since 1957. 

Academic Calendar: Semester. 

Degree Programs: Bachelor of arts, 
bachelor of science in music 
education, bachelor of arts or 
bachelor of science in biochemistry 
and molecular biology, biology, 
chemistry, applied mathematics, 
and physics. 

Majors: Art, biochemistn. and 
molecular biology, biology, 
chemistr)', classical studies. 




computer science, economics, 
English, French, German, Greek, 
health and physical education, 
history, Latin, management, 
mathematics, music, music 
education, philosophy, physics, 
political science, psychology, 
religion, sociology and 
anthropology, Spanish, and theatre 
arts. Double majors, special majors, 
and minors are available. 

Area Studies Programs: African- 
American Studies, American 
Studies, Asian Studies, 
Environmental Studies, Latin- 
American Studies, Medieval and 



Renaissance Studies, Global Studies, 
and Women's Studies. 

Special Programs: Extensive study 
abroad programs; internships; 
Washington Semester (government 
and politics, economic policy, 
ethical issues and public affairs, 
foreign policy, public 
administration, justice, urban 
studies, journalism, art and 
architecture, arts and humanities) ; 
United Nations Semester; dual- 
degree programs in engineering, 
nursing, optometry, or forestry and 
environmental studies; cooperative 
program in marine biology; 



15 




iMMsrmhmJrSi^aiU^ 



certification in elementary and 
secondary education; premedical 
and prelaw counseling. Cooperative 
college consortium with Dickinson 
and Franklin &: Marshall Colleges. 

Exceptional Facilities: State-of-the- 
art science facilities including two 
electron microscopes (transmission 
and scanning units), Fourier 
Transform Infrared and NMR 
Spectrometers, an optics laboratory, 
greenhouse, planetarium, 
observatory, and a plasma physics 
laboratory; extensive facilities for 
fine arts, music, and drama; writing 
center; a comprehensive physical 
education complex; a career 
services office; College Union 
Building, a student activities center; 
and a center for public service. 

Computing Environment: Extensive 
computing facilities include four 
100+ mips multiprocessor Sun 
servers, including one transputer 
equipped Sun for parallel 
processing work; two VAX/VMS 
computers, a microvax II and a 
VAX 1 1/750; over 28 gigabytes of 
memory; a microenvironment of 
over 620 IBM, Zenith, and Apple 
microcomputers; 75 advanced 
NeXT and Sun workstations; a wide 
area network connection to 
PREPnet which in turn provides full 



access to NREN, Internet, BITnet, 
and the Pittsburgh Super Computer 
Center. 

Cultural Activities: Nearly 1 ,200 
cultural events within a four-year 
period. Full schedule of lectures, 
concerts, and plays, bringing to 
campus nationally known speakers 
and performers; an extensive film 
series; art exhibits; trips to nearby 
Washington, D.C. and Baltimore to 
events of special interest. 

Social Life: Student Activities 
Council (SAC) which sponsors a 
lively and diverse schedule of social 
and cultural events; eleven 
fraternities and five sororities, all 
nationally affiliated. 

Student Activities: Student- 
operated FM radio station; 
yearbook; newspaper; literary 
magazine; full range of musical 
groups including two choirs, 
marching, symphonic and jazz 
bands, a college/community 
orchestra, and numerous 
ensembles; black student union; 
international student club; theatre 
groups; special interest groups; over 
60 clubs and community service 
organizations; over 600 leadership 
positions. 



Athletics: All intercollegiate sports 
played at the Division III level 
within the Centennial Conference. 
Extensive intercollegiate programs 
with ten sports for men, ten sports 
for women, and two coeducational 
sports. The campus recreation 
office provides a wide array of 
intramural activities to satisfy 
various interests and levels of skill. 

Student Services: Faculty advisers, 
academic and personal counseling, 
tutorial services, career counseling, 
financial aid counseling, health 
center. 

Residence Halls: Over 85% of the 
student body lives on campus in 
eighteen residence halls, including 
special interest houses and 
apartment complexes. 

Religious Life: Lutheran related. 
Programs for students of all faiths 
coordinated through the College 
Chapel, including a Newman 
Association and a Hillel. 

Student Government: Students 
assume the major role in planning 
student activities and in enforcing 
rules of responsible citizenship 
through the Student Senate, 
Student Life Council, Student 
Judiciary Review Board, Student 
Activities Council, and the Honor 
Commission. 

School Colors: Orange and blue. 



ACADEMIC POLICIES AND PROGRAMS 



17 



Academic Purposes of 
G ettysburg College 

The faculty of Gettysburg College 
has adopted the following 
statement of the College's academic 
purposes. 

Gettysburg College believes that 
liberal education liberates the 
human mind from many of the 
constraints and limitations of its 
finiteness. In order to accomplish 
its liberating function, Gettysburg 
College believes that it owes its 
students a coherent curriculum that 
emphasizes the following elements: 

1. Logical, precise thinking and 
clear use of language, both spoken 
and written. These inseparable 
abilities are essential to all the 
liberal arts. They are not only the 
practical skills on which liberal 
education depends but also, in their 
fullest possible development, the 
liberating goals toward which 
liberal education is directed. 

2. Broad, diverse subject matter. 
The curriculum of the liberal arts 
college should acquaint students 
with the range and diversity of 
human customs, pursuits, ideas, 
values, and longings. This broad 
range of subject matter must be 
carefully planned to include 
emphasis on those landmarks of 
human achievement which have 
shaped the intellectual life of the 
present. 



3. Rigorous introduction to the 
assumptions and methods of a 
representadve variety of the 
academic disciplines in the sciences, 
the social sciences, and the 
humanities. The curriculum must 
encourage students to recognize that 
the disciplines are traditions of 
systematic inquiry, each not only 
addressing itself to a particular area 
of subject matter but also embodying 
an explicit set of assumptions about 
the world and employing particular 
methods of investigation. Students 
should recognize that the disciplines 
are best seen as sets of carefully 
constructed questions, continually 
interacting with each other, rather 
than as stable bodies of truth. The 
questions that most preoccupy 
academic disciplines involve 
interpretation and evaluation more 
often than fact. Students should 
learn that interpretation and 
evaluation are different from willful 
and arbitrary opinion while at the 
same time recognizing that 
interpretations and evaluations of 
the same body of facts may differ 
drastically given different 
assumptions, methods, and purposes 
for inquiry. Human thought is not 
often capable of reaching universal 
certitude. 

This necessary emphasis of the 
College's curriculum is liberating in 
that it frees students from narrow 
provincialism and allows them to 
experience the joys and benefits of 
conscious intellectual strength and 
creativity. 




Liberal education should free 
students from gross and 
unsophisticated blunders of 
thought. Once exposed to the 
diversity of reality and the 
complexity and arduousness of 
disciplined modes of inquiry, 
students will be less likely than 
before to engage in rash 
generalization, dogmatic assertion, 
and intolerant condemnation of the 
strange, the new, and the foreign. 
Students will tend to have a sense of 
human limitations, for no human 
mind can be a match for the world's 
immensity. Promoters of universal 
panaceas will be suspected as the 
gap between human professions 
and human performance becomes 
apparent. Students will tend less 
than before to enshrine the values 
and customs of their own day as 
necessarily the finest fruits of 
human progress or to lament the 
failings of their time as the world's 
most intolerable evils. 



18 



But wise skepticism and a sense of 
human fallibility are not the only 
liberating effects of the liberal arts. 
With effort and, in all likelihood, 
some pain, students master difficult 
skills and broad areas of knowledge. 
They acquire, perhaps with 
unexpected joy, new interests and 
orientations. In short, they 
experience change and growth. 
Perhaps this experience is the most 
basic way the liberal arts liberate: 
through providing the experience 
of change and growth, they prepare 
students for lives of effective 
management of new situations and 
demands. 

The liberal arts provide a basis for 
creative work. Creativity is rarely if 
ever the work of a mind unfamiliar 
with past achievements. Rather 
creativity is almost always the 
reformulation of, or conscious 
addition to, past achievement with 
which the creative mind is 
profoundly familiar. By 
encouraging students to become 
responsibly and articulately 
concerned with existing human 
achievement and existing means for 
extending and deepening human 
awareness, Gettysburg College 
believes that it is best to ensue the 
persistence of creativity. 




The intellectual liberation made 
possible through liberal education, 
though immensely desirable, does 
not in itself guarantee the 
development of humane values and 
is therefore not the final purpose of 
liberal education. If permitted to 
become an end in itself, it may 
indeed become destructive. A 
major responsibility of those 
committed to liberal education, 
therefore, is to help students 
appreciate our common humanity 
in terms of such positive values as 



open-mindedness, personal 
responsibility, mutual respect, 
empathic understanding, aesthetic 
sensibility, and playfulness. 
Through the expanding and diverse 
intellectual activities offered in 
liberal education, students may 
develop greater freedom of choice 
among attitudes based on a fuller 
appreciation of our common 
humanity, and based on clearer 
recognition of our immersion in a 
vast, enigmatic enterprise. 



The faith of the founders of 
Gettysburg College expressed in the 
charter supports the foregoing 
statement of academic purposes. 
The open search to know, 
tempered by humane reflection, 
complements our religious 
heritage. Together, we hope to add 
useful initiative toward the creation 
of a world in which diversity is more 
challenging and interesting than it 
is fear-producing; a world in which 
one may hear the sad truths 
reported by cynics while hearing, 
too, tales of quiet courage, of grace, 
of beauty, of joy. Then the response 
to the inevitably dissonant 
experiences of living may be wiser 
as a function of liberal education. 
Of course, the development of 
wisdom remains an elusive aim. It 
involves realms of experience that 
go beyond the academic, and a time 
span that encompasses a lifetime. 
Nevertheless, liberal education can 
be profoundly useful in the search 
for the fullness of life. 




19 



The Honor Code 

A liberal arts program has as a basic 
premise the ideal of academic 
integrity. Gettysburg students live 
and work in a college community 
which emphasizes their 
responsibility for helping to 
determine and enforce 
appropriately high standards of 
academic conduct. 

An academic honor system was 
instituted at Gettysburg College in 
1957 and was strongly reaffirmed in 
1976 and 1991. It is based upon the 
belief that undergraduates are 
mature enough to act honorably in 
academic matters without faculty 
surveillance and that they should be 
encouraged to conduct themselves 
accordingly. At the same time the 
College clearly recognizes the 
obligation placed upon each 
student to assist in maintaining the 
atmosphere required for an honor 
system to succeed. 



The Honor Pledge, reaffirmed on 
all academic work submitted, states 
that the student has neither given 
nor received unauthorized aid and 
that he or she has witnessed no 
such violation. The preservation of 
the atmosphere of independence 
permitted by the Honor Code is the 
responsibility of the community as a 
whole. Students must comply with 
the Honor Code both in presenting 
their own work and in reporting 
violations by others. No student may 
enroll at Gettysburg College 
without first having signed the 
Pledge. A person who would sign 
the Pledge with reservation should 
not apply for admission. 

Alleged violations of the Honor 
Code are handled by an honor 
commission elected by the 
students. Decisions of the 
commission may be appealed to a 
student-faculty-administrative board 
of review. 



20 



Curriculum 



The major goals of the curriculum 
are set out in the "academic 
program" section of the College's 
Statement of Purpose on page two 
and in the longer statement of the 
Academic Purposes of the College 
on page seventeen. 

The First Year Colloquy, with its 
strong emphasis on lucid writing, 
helps students sharpen analytic skills 
necessary for college and beyond. 
Gettysburg College's distribution 
requirements assure the student an 
introduction to the variety of 
opportunities offered by a liberal 
arts education. In the first year, in 
addition to the First Year Colloquy 
in liberal learning, Gettysburg 
students normally take courses in a 
variety of fields and begin to fulfill 
distribution requirements, such as 
those in foreign languages, 
laboratory sciences, social sciences, 
or literature. In the sophomore year 
students usually select a major and, 
in consultation with a major adviser, 
plan a college program which will 
allow the completion of specific 
graduation requirements and also 
provide opportunities for the widest 
possible choice of elecUves. In the 
last two years most students 
concentrate on courses in their 
major fields and supplement their 
programs with elective courses. 

Students are expected to complete 
three quarter courses of the physical 
education requirement by the end 
of the sophomore year. 




Students majoring in the natural 
sciences usually begin such 
programs in the first year and follow 
closely a prescribed sequence of 
courses. Students anticipating 
careers in medicine, dentistry, or 
veterinary medicine should begin 
acquiring necessary preparatory 
courses in their first year. 



The Advising System 

The College believes that one of the 
most valuable services it can render 
to its students is careful counseling. 
Each first year student is assigned a 
faculty adviser to assist in dealing 
with academic questions, in 
explaining college regulations, in 
setting goals, and in making the 
transition from secondary school to 
college as smooth as possible. 
Special assistance is also available 
from the dean of first year students. 

During the first week of the fall 
semester, all new students 
participate in an orientation 
program designed to help them 
become acquainted with the 
College. All entering first year 
students receive in advance a 
detailed schedule of events of this 
program. During orientation, 
students have individual 
conferences with their advisers, take 
part in discussions of college life, 
and engage in other activities 
intended to familiarize them with 
the College and the academic 
opportunities available to them. 
They also take placement tests 
which provide the College with 
valuable information concerning 
their educational backgrounds and 
academic potential. 




During the year, students should 
arrange periodic meetings with 
their faculty advisers. In addition, 
these advisers are available to 
discuss unexpected problems as 
they arise. Any changes in a first 
year student's schedule must be 
approved by the adviser. Students 
may also seek help from the dean of 
first year students. 

Sophomores may continue their 
advising relationship with their first 
year advisers or they may select 
another faculty member in a field of 
study they anticipate as their major. 
It is important that sophomores 
consult regularly with an adviser. 
The associate deans of academic 
advising are available to offer 
assistance in the selection of 
advisers or to discuss academic 
issues. 

When students choose a major 
field of study, which must be done 
no later than the beginning of the 



junior year, a member of the major 
department becomes their adviser 
and performs functions similar to 
those of the first year adviser, 
including the approval of all course 
schedules. It is the responsibility of 
all students to take the initiative in 
discussing their entire academic 
program with their advisers and to 
view that program as a meaningful 
unit rather than as a collection of 
unrelated courses. Students wishing 
to change their major course of 
study must notify the department in 
which they are majoring and secure 
the approval of the department he 
or she desires to join. Juniors and 
seniors making such changes 
should understand that it may be 
necessary to spend more than four 
years in residence in order to 
complete requirements for the 
major. Permission to spend more 
than four years in residence must 
be obtained from the Academic 
Standing Committee. 



22 




Credit System 



The College encourages students to 
prepare for graduate study, which 
has become a necessity in an 
increasing number of career fields. 
It is important for such students to 
become familiar with the 
requirements of the graduate 
programs in which they are 
interested, as well as the 
qualifications for fellowships and 
assistantships within these 
programs, well in advance of their 
graduation from Gettysburg 
College. Above all, they should 
recognize the importance of 
building a superior undergraduate 
academic record. The career 
services office and the Musselman 
Library/Learning Resources Center 
have a collection of graduate school 
catalogues for students' reference. 
Four times a year the Graduate 
Record Examination (GRE) is given 
on the Gettysburg campus for those 



students who plan to enter a 
graduate school. The National 
Teacher Examination (NTE) is 
given twice a year. Special advisers 
assist students in planning for the 
legal and health related professions. 

Students may confer with their 
advisers, an associate dean of 
academic advising, career services, 
or faculty members as they consider 
their options for a major, weigh 
their career objectives, choose 
graduate or professional schools, 
or search for employment after 
graduation. 



The course unit is the basic 
measure of academic credit. 
Students may complete the 35- 
course unit graduation requirement 
through any combination of full or 
half unit courses. For transfer of 
credit to other institutions the 
College recommends equating one 
course unit with 3.5 semester hours. 
Because of the extra contact hours 
involved, each laboratory science 
course is more than acceptable in 
terms of the expectations of a 4.0 
semester hour course. These 
courses are identified with the 
symbol "LL" (lecture/lab) on the 
course title line. The College uses 
the 3.5 conversion factor to convert 
semester hours to Gettysburg 
course imits for those students 
presenting transfer credit for 
evaluation at the time of admission 
or readmission. Half unit courses 
should be equated to 2 semester 
hours. The College offers a small 
number of quarter course units in 
music and health &: physical 
education. These courses may not 
be accumulated to qualify as course 
units for graduation. Quarter 
course units should be equated to 
one semester hour. 



23 




Requirements for the 
Degree 

The College confers three 
undergraduate degrees: bachelor of 
arts (BA), bachelor of science (BS), 
and bachelor of science in music 
education (BSME). The general 
graduation requirements are the 
same for all degree programs as 
follows: 

1) 35 course units, including First 
Year Colloquy; plus three quarter 
courses in health and physical 
education (two quarter courses for 
BSME); 



2) a demonstration of proficiency in 
written English; 

3) a minimum accumulative GPA of 
2.00 and a GPA of 2.00 in the major 
field; 

4) the distribution requirements; 

5) the concentration requirement in 
a major field of study; 

6) a minimum of the last year of 
academic work as a full-time student 
in residence at Gettysburg College or 
in an approved College program; and 

7) the discharge of all financial 
obligations to the College. 



Quarter course credits do not count 
toward the 35-course unit 
graduation requirement. 

No course used to obtain a 
bachelor's degree at another 
institution may be counted toward 
the requirements for a Gettysburg 
College degree. 

The specific major requirements for 
each degree are different. The 
requirements for the degree of 
bachelor of science in music 
education are found on page 41. 
The major requirements for the 
bachelor of arts and the bachelor 
of science are found in the 
departmental introductions in the 
"Courses of Study" section of this 
catalogue beginning on page 66. 

Each student is responsible for 
being sure that graduation 
requirements are fulfilled by the 
anticipated date of graduation. 
Normally, the College requires 
students to complete the degree 
requirements in effect at the time 
of their original enrollment. 

Writing Policy Since the ability to 
express oneself clearly, correctly, 
and responsibly is essential for an 
educated person, the College 
cannot graduate a student whose 
writing abilities are deficient. See 
Item 1 under "college course 
requirements" below. Instructors 
may reduce grades on poorly 
written papers, regardless of the 
course, and in extreme cases, may 



24 




assign a failing grade for this 
reason. 

College Course Requirements 

Each student must successfully 
complete the college course 
requirements listed below. 

1 ) Demonstration of proficiency in 
written English during the first year 
of enrollment. Normally, such 
proficiency is demonstrated by 
passing English 101. For other ways 
to satisfy this requirement, see 
"Exemption from Degree 
Requirement" on page 32. 

2) First Year Colloquy: a required 
seminar for all first year students, 
designed to strengthen reasoning, 
writing, and speaking skills using a 
multi-disciplinary theme as a focus. 

3) Health & Physical EducaUon: 
three quarter courses including one 
semester of study in each of the 
following groups: health/wellness, 
fitness, recreational skills (two 
quarter courses for BSME). 



Distribution Requirements 

Each candidate for the degree must 
satisfactorily complete the following 
distribution requirements. See the 
listing on page 66 or read the 
departmental material under 
"Course of Study" for the specific 
courses that fulfill each 
requirement. Any requirement may 
be satisfied, with or without course 
credit, by students who can qualify 
for exemption (see page 32). 

1) Foreign Language: one to four 
courses to prove proficiency 
through the intermediate level. 
Normally, proficiency is 
demonstrated by completing the 
202 course in German, Greek, 
Japanese, Latin, Portuguese, 
Russian or Spanish; the 201-202 
course sequence in French; or 
other designated intermediate-level 
language courses. 

2) Arts: one course in art history or 
theory, music, creative writing, or 
theatre arts. 

3) History/Philosophy: one course 
in history, philosophy, or 
culture/civilization in languages or 
interdepartmental studies. 

4) Literature: one course in 
literature in the original language 
or in English translation. 

5) Natural Science: two courses in 
astronomy, biology, chemistry, or 
physics. The courses must be in the 
same department and must include 
a laboratory. 




6) Religion: one course on the 100- 
or 200-level in religion. 

7) Social Science: one course in 
anthropology, economics, political 
science, psychology, or sociology. 

8) Non-Western Culture: one 
course to satisfy the distribution 
requirements listed above must give 
primary emphasis to African or 
Asian cultures, or to the non- 
European culture of the Americas. 
A student may also take a non- 
western course that happens not to 
satisfy any of the other distribution 
requirements. 



25 



Major Requirements: Each student 
must successfully complete the 
requirements in a major field of 
study. A major consists of eight to 
twelve courses, depending on the 
field of study, and may include 
specific courses determined by the 
department. A department may, in 
addition, require related courses in 
other departments. A department 
may require its majors to pass a 
comprehensive examination. 
Requirements of the various majors 
are listed in the departmental 
introductions under "Courses of 
Study". 

The following are major fields of 
study at Gettysburg College: 

Bachelor of Arts: 

Art 

Biology 

Chemistry 

Classical Studies 

Computer Science 

Economics 

English 

French 

German 

Greek 

Health and Physical Education 

History 

Latin 

Management 

Mathematics 

Music 

Philosophy 




Physics 

Political Science 

Psychology 

Religion 

Sociology and Anthropology 

Spanish 

Theatre Arts 

Bachelor of Science: 

Biochemistry and Molecular 

Biology 
Biology 
Chemistry 
Mathematics 
Music Education 
Physics 



A student must file a declaration of 
major with the registrar before 
registering for the junior year. A 
student may declare a second major 
as late as the beginning of the 
senior year. 



26 



Special Major 

As an alternative to the standard 
major fields of study offered in 
departmental disciplines, students 
may declare a special major by 
designing an interdepartmental 
concentration of courses focusing 
on particular problems or areas of 
investigation which, though not 
adequately included within a single 
department or discipline, are 
worthy of concentrated study. 

Students intending to pursue a 
special major must submit a 
proposal for their individual plan of 
study to the Committee on 
Interdepartmental Studies. The 
proposed program must be an 
integrated plan of study that 
incorporates coursework from a 
minimum of two departments or 
fields. A special major must include 
a total of ten to twelve courses, no 
fewer than eight of which must be 
above the 100-level; three or more 
courses at the 300-level or above; 
and a 400-level individualized 
study course which is normally 
taken during the senior year. 
Individualized study allows students 
to pursue independent work in 
their areas of interest as defined by 
the proposal and resulting in a 
senior thesis demonstrating the 
interrelationships among the fields 
comprising the special major. The 
proposal must be signed by two 
faculty members (from two 
different departments among those 
represented in the list of courses to 




be taken), one of whom will serve as 
the student's primary academic 
adviser. 

After consulting with the 
interdepartmental studies 
chairperson and the prospective 
sponsors/ advisers, students should 
submit their proposals during the 
sophomore year. The latest 
students may submit a proposal is 
mid-term of the first semester of 
their junior year. The proposal will 
consist of an application form, 
obtainable from the interdepart- 
mental studies chairperson, and a 
narrative describing the academic 



purpose of the program. The 
narrative must include a specific 
and detailed explanation of the 
particular problem or area of 
interest which is the focus of the 
proposal, statements indicating 
why the student wishes to pursue 
this interest and why the student's 
goals cannot be accomplished 
through a regular major, and a 
clear and coherent explanation of 
how the courses included in the 
proposal constitute an integrated, 
in-depth study of the problem or 
interest. It is often possible to build 
into a special major a significant 
component of off-campus study. 



27 



Normally, to be accepted as a 
special major, a student should have 
a 2.3 overall GPA. Students should 
be aware that a special major 
program may require some 
departmental methods or theory 
courses particular to each of the 
fields within the program. 

A student may graduate with 
honors from the special major 
program. Honors designation 
requires a 3.5 GPA in the special 
major, the recommendation of the 
student's sponsors, the satisfactory 
completion of an interdisciplinary 
mdividualized study, and the public 
presentation of its results in some 
academic forum. 

Optional Minor Students may 
declare a minor concentration in 
an academic department or area 
that has an established minor 
program. Not all departments offer 
minor programs. A minor shall 
consist of six courses, no more than 
two of which shall be 100-level 
courses. Exceptions to the two 100- 
level course limitation may occur in 
departments offering more than 
one major. Students may not 
declare a minor in the same 
department in which they have a 
declared major. Students must 
maintain a 2.00 average in the 
minor field of study. Although a 
certain number of courses 
constitute a minor field of study, all 
courses in the minor field will be 
considered in determining the 
minor average. 




Residence 
Requirements And 
Schedule Limitations 

The normal program consists of 
nine courses per year, with five 
courses in one semester and four in 
the other. Thus, a student will 
complete graduation requirements 
in four years of full-time academic 
work in the September-through- 
May academic year. The last full 
year of academic work must be in 
residence at Gettysburg College or 
in an approved College program. 
Students may not complete 
requirements as part-time students 
during their last semester of 
residence. 

Students proposing to complete 
graduation requirements in less 
than four full years must have their 
programs approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising. Such approval should be 
sought at least a year before the 



proposed completion of 
requirements. 

A full-time student for academic 
purposes is one carrying a 
minimum of three courses during a 
semester. No student who is a 
candidate for a degree may take 
fewer courses than this without 
permission of the Academic 
Standing Committee. 

Students may not enroll in the 
equivalent of six or more full unit 
courses per semester without the 
approval of the Academic Standing 
Committee. In granting approval to 
take six courses, the Committee 
requires evidence that the student is 
in good academic standing and will 
be able to perform at an above 
average academic level during the 
semester of heavy enrollment. Any 
course enrollment above five in full 
or half unit courses represents an 
overload and results in an extra 
course fee. 



28 



The required quarter courses in 
health and physical education, 
generally taken during the first and 
second years, are in addition to the 
full course load in each semester. 
These courses do not count toward 
the 35-course graduation 
requirement. 

Majors in music and health and 
physical education must take 
quarter courses in addition to the 
normal course load. Other students 
may take quarter courses in applied 
music over the normal load with the 
approval of their advisers and of the 
music department at an additional 
charge. 

A student may audit informally any 
College course with the permission 
of the instructor. No charge will be 
made for such an audit and no 
record of auditing will be recorded 
on the student's transcript. 

The College offers a limited 
opportunity for students to register 
for and complete a course of study 
during the summer. Primarily these 
are individualized study or 
internship courses and are 
arranged through academic 
departments. 

Gettysburg College is aware that 
physical and learning disabled 
persons may have special needs and 
is committed to making 
adjustments in order to make the 
program accessible to them. 




29 



Registration 



Students must be officially 
registered for a course in order to 
earn academic credit. The registrar 
announces the time and place of 
formal registration. By formally 
completing his or her registration, 
the student pledges to abide by 
College regulations. 

Also students may enroll in a course 
for credit during the first twelve 
class days after the beginning of the 
semester. A proposed change must 
be submitted to the registrar on an 
official course change slip after first 
being approved by the instructors 
involved and the student's adviser. 
Students are not permitted to 
enroll in a course after the twelve 
day enrollment period. 

Many departments establish limits 
to class enrollments in particular 
courses to insure the greatest 
opportunity for students to interact 
with their instructors and other 
students. As a result, students 
cannot be assured of enrollment in 
all of their first choice courses 
within a given semester. 



The Grading System 

Normally courses are graded A 
through F, with these grades having 
the following significance: A 
(excellent); B (good); C (fair); D 
(poor); and F (failing). Instructors 
may modify their letter grades with 
plus and minus signs. 

In successfully completing a course 
under this grading system, a student 
earns a number of quality points 
according to the following scale. 



A+ 


4 1/3 


C 


2 


A 


4 


C- 


1 2/3 


A- 


3 2/3 


D+ 


1 1/3 


B+ 


3 1/3 


D 


1 


B 


3 


D- 


2/3 


B- 


2 2/3 


F 





C+ 


2 1/3 







A student's accumulative average is 
computed by summing his or her 
quality points and dividing by the 
number of courses taken. The 
average is rounded to the third 
decimal place. 

The College reserves the right to 
make changes and adjustments in 
the grading system even after a 
student enrolls. 




The College also offers a 
satisfactory /unsatisfactory grading 
option. This option is intended to 
encourage students to be 
intellectually adventurous in 
courses with subject matter or 
approaches substantially different 
from their prior academic 
experience or attainment. An S 
signifies satisfactory work, and is 
given if a student performs at the C- 
level or higher, a U signifies 
unsatisfactory work, and is given for 
work below the C- level. Courses 
graded S/U do not affect a 
student's quality point average, but 
a course completed with an S grade 
will count toward the total number 
of courses needed for graduation. A 
student may elect to take a total of 
six courses on an S/U basis during 
his or her four years at Gettysburg 
College; however, no more than two 
S/U courses may be taken in any 
one year. This grading option may 
not be selected for: (1) College 
course requirements in written 
English or the First Year Colloquy, 



30 



(2) distribution requirements for 
graduation, and (3) courses taken 
in a student's major field. 
Exceptions may be made with 
regard to the major in cases where a 
department specifies that a 
particular course is available under 
the S/U grading system only, and in 
cases where the student declares the 
major after taking the course. A 
student must choose the S/U 
grading option during the first 
twelve class days of the semester. 

The quarter course basic skill 
courses in health and physical 
education (all of which are graded 
S/U) shall not count in 
determining the maximum number 
of S/U courses a student may take. 
Students who enroll in Education 
476: Student Teaching may take an 
additional course under the S/U 
option during the senior year, 
provided that their total number of 
S/U courses does not exceed six. 

When a student registers for and 
completes a course which he or she 
has already taken at Gettysburg 
College, both the credit and the 
grade previously earned are 
canceled, but they are not removed 
from the permanent record. The 
credit and grade earned in 
repeating the course are counted 
toward the student's requirements. 

A grade of I {Incomplete) is issued by 
the dean of academic advising 
office when emergency situations, 
such as illness, prevent a student 
from completing the course 




requirements on time. Unless the 
Academic Standing Committee 
extends the time limit, an 
incomplete automatically becomes 
an "F" if it is not removed within 
the first six weeks of the semester 
following the one in which it was 
incurred. 

A student may luithdraiu from a course 
only with the knowledge and advice 
of the instructor and his or her 
adviser. A student who officially 



withdraws for medical reasons or 
withdraws after the drop/add 
period receives a "W" (withdraw) 
from the course. If a student 
withdraws from a course during the 
last five weeks of the semester, he or 
she will receive an "F" (failure) in 
the course. The designation "W" is 
not used in computing averages. 



Transfer Credit 



31 



After enrolling at Gettysburg, 
students may use a maximum of 
three course credits toward the 
degree for work taken at other 
colleges if such courses have first 
been approved by the chairperson 
of the department concerned and 
by the registrar. Course credit, but 
not the grade, transfers to 
Gettysburg if the grade earned is a 
C- or better. This transfer option is 
not available to those who receive 
three or more transfer course 
credits at the time of admission or 
readmission to the College. 
This course credit limitation does 
not apply to Central Pennsylvania 
Consortium courses or to 
individually arranged off-campus 
study programs approved by the 
Academic Standing Committee. 
Both credit and grades transfer for 
work done at another Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium College, 
or in certain Gettysburg College off- 
campus affiliated programs 
described beginning on page 42. 







32 



Exemption from 
Degree Requirements 

The College may recognize work on 
the college-level completed 
elsewhere by a student. This 
recognition may take the form of 
exemption from degree 
requirements and may carry 
academic credit. Students should 
present their requests for 
exemption to the registrar. They 
should be prepared to demonstrate 
their competence on the basis of 
their academic record, Advanced 
Placement Examination results of 
the College Board (see page 169), 
or examinations administered by 
the department concerned. The 
decisions on exemption and credit 
rest with the department and the 
registrar. 

Students may satisfy the writing 
proficiency requirement by scoring 
sufficiently high on the Test of 
Standard Written English (TSWE) 
of the College Board. In 1992, the 
College exempted those students 
who scored 58 or above on the 
TSWE. Those scoring 53-57 were 
permitted to gain exemption by 
passing a departmental 
examination given on the campus. 

Students may satisfy the foreign 
language requirement in a 
language not regularly offered at 
Gettysburg by demonstrating 
achievement at the intermediate- 
level through transfer credit, by 




examination, through independent 
study with a Gettysburg faculty 
member, or through an approved 
exchange program with the Central 
Pennsylvania Consortium. 
International students who have 
learned English as a second 
language may satisfy the 
requirement with their primary 
language. 

Individualized Study 
and Seminar 

There are opportunities in most of 
the departments for students to 
engage in individualized study and 
seminars. These opportunities are 
primarily for seniors, but other 
students are frequently eligible. In 
some departments participation in 
this type of activity is part of the 
required program of study; in 
others it is optional. Most of these 
courses are numbered in the 400's 
under "Courses of Study". 



Academic Standing 

Students are expected to maintain 
an academic record that will enable 
them to complete the requirements 
for graduation in the normal eight 
semesters. To be in good academic 
standing a student must have at 
least a 2.00 accumulative average, a 
2.00 average for the semester, a 2.00 
average in the major field of study 
by the end of the junior year and 
during the senior year, and be 
making appropriate progress in 
acquiring the credits and 
completing the various 
requirements for graduation. 
Students who do not meet these 
standards will be given a warning, 
placed on academic probation, 
placed on dismissal alert, or be 
dismissed from the College. 

The student who falls below the 
following minimum standard is 



considered not to be making 
satisfactory progress and is either 
placed on dismissal alert or is 
dismissed: for first year students - 
1.50 GPA and six courses 
completed; for sophomores - 1 .80 
GPA and fifteen courses completed; 
for juniors - 1.90 GPA and twenty- 
five courses completed. 

In addition to these minimum 
standards, a student on probation 
must show significant improvement 
during the following semester in 
order to remain at the College. 
Normally, a student may not remain 
at the College with three 
consecutive semester averages 
below 2.00. 

Students receiving some forms of 
financial aid must maintain certain 
progress toward achieving a degree 
in order to remain eligible for 
such aid. See the "Financial Aid" 
section of this catalogue for a more 
complete discussion of appropriate 
progress. 

In accordance with the regulations 
of the National Collegiate Athletic 
Association (NCAA), a student who 
is on dismissal alert status may not 
participate in the institution's 
intercollegiate athletic program. 




Transcripts 



The College supports students in 
their candidacy for graduate or 
professional school admission or in 
their search for appropriate 
employment by providing a 
responsive transcript service. 
Requests for transcripts must be in 
writing and should be directed to 
the Office of the Registrar. This 
office prepares transcripts twice a 
week on Tuesdays and Fridays. 
There is no charge for this service 
unless special handling is requested. 




34 



Withdrawal and 
Readmission 



Readmission for students who 
withdraw from Gettysburg College 
is not automatic. The procedure for 
seeking readmission depends on 
the student's academic status at the 
time of withdrawal, the length of 
time that has elapsed since 
withdrawal, and the reason for 
withdrawal, as described in the 
sections that follow. Normally, the 
Academic Standing Committee 
reviews applications for readmission 
in the second week of November 
and the second week of April; all 
supporting materials should be 
submitted to the Office of 
Academic Advising by the 
beginning of November and the 
beginning of April. 

Voluntary Withdrawal 

A student who is in good academic 
standing at the time of withdrawal 
and seeks readmission within one 
academic year after withdrawing 
does not have to submit an 
application for readmission. 
Instead, the student must file with 
the Academic Standing Committee, 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising, a letter requesting 
reinstatement and providing an 
account of the activities during his 
or her absence from the College. 
This letter should be sent by 
November 1 or April 1 . Any 
student who seeks readmission after 
one year has elapsed must submit 
an application for readmission. 
Students who desire to be 




considered eligible for financial aid 
upon return must complete all 
financial aid applications by the 
normal financial aid deadlines and 
notify the financial aid office of 
their intentions to return. 

A student who withdraws voluntarily 
should arrange for an exit interview 
with a member of the academic 
advising staff prior to leaving the 
College. A readmission interview is 
desirable, and in some cases 
required, depending on the 
circumstances surrounding the 
student's withdrawal. 

A student who withdraws voluntarily 
and is on academic probation at the 
time of withdrawal must submit an 
application for readmission to the 
Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising. The Academic Standing 
Committee will review the student's 
application, previous record at 
Gettysburg College, activities since 
leaving college, and prospects for 
the successful completion of his or 
her undergraduate studies. 



Dismissal 

A student who is dismissed from the 
College for academic reasons is not 
eligible for readmission until one 
academic year has elapsed. Students 
who have been dismissed from the 
College for academic reasons for a 
second time are not eligible for 
readmission. An application for 
readmission must be submitted to 
the Academic Standing Committee 
through the Office of Academic 
Advising. A personal interview is 
required. The Academic Standing 
Committee will review the student's 
application, recommendations from 
an employer and three Gettysburg 
College faculty members, activiues 
since leaving college, and prospects 
for future academic success at the 
College. To be eligible for 
readmission, a dismissed student 
must also have completed at least 
one course at an accredited 
institution and have earned a grade 
of "B" or higher. 

A student who is suspended for 
disciplinary reasons must follow this 
same procedure for readmission 
except that he or she is not 
required to take course work 
elsewhere. A student in this 
category is eligible to apply for 
readmission at the end of the time 
period designated for the 
suspension. 



35 



Medical Withdrawal 

A student whose health is so 
impaired that matriculation cannot 
be continued will be granted a 
medical withdrawal provided that a 
physician, psychiatrist, or 
psychologist confirms in writing 
the seriousness of the condition 
and recommends that the student 
withdraw from the College. In such 
cases an associate dean of academic 
advising may authorize grades of 
"W" for the courses in which the 
student is currently enrolled. A 
student in good academic standing 
who has been granted a medical 
withdrawal does not have to fill out 
an application for readmission, but 
must submit to the Academic 
Standing Committee, through the 
Office of Academic Advising, a 
written request for reinstatement at 
least three weeks prior to the 
beginning of the semester that 
matriculation is desired. A letter 
from his or her attending physician, 
psychiatrist, or psychologist which 
certifies that the student will be 
ready to resume a full academic 
program by a designated time is 
also required. If, based on medical 
considerations, there is reason to 
limit the student's course load or 




physical activity, a recommendation 
for such should be noted in this 
letter. A personal interview with a 
member of the counseling services 
or health services staff may also be 
required. A student on academic 
probation who has been granted a 
medical withdrawal must submit an 
application for readmission along 
with the aforementioned letter. 
Decisions regarding reinstatement 
are the responsibility of the 
Academic Standing Committee. 
Students who have withdrawn for 
medical reasons and who intend to 
return are subject to the same 
procedures for financial aid as are 
matriculated students; it is 
imperative to be in touch with the 
financial aid office during absence 
from campus. 



Senior Scholars' 
Seminar 

The College offers a unique and 
valuable opportunity for its 
outstanding senior students. Each 
year the Senior Scholars' Seminar, 
composed of selected seniors, 
undertakes a study of a 
contemporary issue which affects 
the future of humanity. The issues 
are always timely and often 
controversial. Past topics have 
included genetic engineering, 
conflict resolution, global 
disparities, computer and human 
communication, aging and the 
aged, dissent and nonconformity, 
imagining peace, human sexuality, 
and environmental protection or 
exploitation, and the concept of 
the hero. 

In 1991-92 the eighteen Senior 
Scholars' Seminar students not only 
brought outside experts to campus, 
but also traveled to other highly 
selective liberal arts colleges to do 
research on "Creating and 
Sustaining Intellectual Community 
in the Liberal Arts College." During 
1992-1993, the seminar focussed on 
a timely topic, in an election year, 
"Media, Power, and Contemporary 
Presidential Politics". 



In previous years the Senior 
Scholars' Seminar invited other 
authorities of national stature to 
serve as resource persons. Experts 
who have visited the seminar 



36 




include George Wald, Kenneth 
Boulding, Herbert Gans, Paolo 
Soleri, Joseph Fletcher, Leon Kass, 
Stuart Udall, Da\'id Freeman, 
Thomas Szasz, Daniel EUsberg, 
Jonathan Schell, Daniel Bell, and 
James Gould. Student participants 
in the seminar publish a final 
report based on their findings and 
recommendations. 

The issues explored in the seminar 
are always interdisciplinary in 
scope, and the students selected for 
this seminar represent a wide 
variety of majors. The seminar is 
team-taught by two professors of 
different departments. 

Early in the second term of the 
junior year, qualified students are 
invited to apply for admission to the 
course. After the members of the 
class have been selected through a 
process of interviews, they begin to 
plan the course with two faculty 
directors and become active 
participants in the entire academic 



process. The Senior Scholars' 
Seminar is assigned two course 
credits. 

Computer Courses 

In the tradition of the liberal arts, 
Gettysburg College emphasizes the 
interdisciplinary nature of the 
computer as a tool in problem- 
solving. A thorough understanding 
of the concepts and applications in 
various disciplines is important for 
those students interested in 
pursuing a career in computer 
science. The biology, chemistry, 
economics, management, 
mathematics, physics, political 
science, psychology, and sociology 
and anthropology departments all 
offer courses that make significant 
use of the computer. In recent 
years, 95% of the graduating 
students have made use of the 
computing faciHties in their courses 
at Gettysburg. 



Also, most of the First Year 
Colloquy courses require a four 
week training session in the use of 
microcomputers. These training 
sessions provide an introduction to 
WordPerfect, electronic mail, the 
campus computer network and 
computerized information system, 
and tools to use the Internet to 
access information at campuses and 
other sites across the country and 
aroimd the world. 

In addition to these courses in 
various departments, the College 
has a computer science curriculum 
of courses that cover the concepts 
that are at the core of the 
discipline. These courses are listed 
under computer science in the 
"Course Descriptions" section of 
this catalogue. 



Teacher Education 
Programs 

Gettysburg College education 
programs in secondary school 
subjects, elementary education, 
music education, and health and 
physical education are competency 
based and have received approval 
from the Pennsylvania Department 
of Education. The liberal arts are 
central to the College's teacher 
education programs. Students 
planning to teach must complete a 
major in an academic department 
of their choice and fulfill all the 
requirements for the bachelor of 
arts degree or the bachelor of 
science degree. Upon completing a 
program in teacher education, 
students are eligible for a 
Pennsylvania Certificate, 
Instructional I, enabling them to 
teach in the public schools of the 
Commonwealth and other states 
with similar requirements. Students 
who pursue teacher certification are 
required to demonstrate computer 
literacy prior to admission to the 
Education Semester. A minimum 




of forty hours of observation and 
participation in schools is required 
prior to acceptance into the 
Education Semester. Students who 
are seeking an Instructional I 
Certificate must have successfully 
completed the National Teachers' 
Exams (NTE) in the core battery 
(general knowledge, 
communication skills, and 
professional knowledge) and 
specialty area (the subject area for 
which candidates are seeking 
certification). For more 
information on the exams, contact 
a member of the education 
department. 



Secondary Education 

Students interested in preparing to 
teach academic subjects in the 
secondary schools must complete 
one of the following approved 
programs for secondary 
certification: biology, chemistry, 
physics, general science, 
mathematics, English, German, 
Latin, French, Spanish, health and 
physical education, or 
comprehensive social studies. These 
secondary programs have been 
granted program approval by the 
Pennsylvania Department of 
Education. Students must complete 
an approved program listed in the 
Handbook for Teacher Education, 
which will, in most cases, closely 
parallel the requirements in their 
major. Early planning beginning in 
the first year is essential for all of 
these programs. 



38 



Secondary education students are 
required to engage in a minimum 
of forty hours of pre-student 
teaching experiences in the 
secondary schools during the 
sophomore and junior years. 
Students serve as observers, aides, 
and small group instructors in 
secondary classrooms. These 
experiences are part of the 
requirements for Education 209 
(Social Foundations of Education) 
and Education 201 (Educational 
Psychology). For the senior year, 
students, in consultation with their 
major department, will select either 
the fall or spring semester as the 
Education Semester. Student 
teaching experiences are completed 
at a school district near the College, 
or the student may elect to apply to 
student teach abroad, in an urban 
setting, or in other alternative sites. 
The following program constitutes 
the Education Semester: 

Education 303 (Educational 
Purposes, Methods, and 
Educational Media: Secondary) 

Education 304 (Techniques of 
Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subjects) 

Education 476 (Student Teaching- 
two courses) 

Note: Only these four courses may 
be taken during the Education 
Semester. 

The student seeking admission to 
the secondary education program 
must file an application with the 




Education Department by 
December 15 of the junior year. 
Admission to the program is 
granted by the Committee on 
Teacher Education, a body 
composed of faculty members from 
each department which has 
students in the secondary education 
program. This committee also 
determines standards for admission 
to the program. Members of the 
committee also teach Education 
304 for the students of their 
respective departments and observe 
them when they engage in student 
teaching. 



The admission of a student to the 
Education Semester depends upon 
the student's academic achievement' 
and a recommendation from his or 
her major department. The 
guidelines for evaluating a student's i 
academic achievement are a 
minimum accumulative grade point 
average of 2.33 and a grade point 
average of 2.66 in the major. The 
successful applicant will have 
earned a "C" grade or higher in all 
education courses. The student will 
also be evaluated on such 
professional traits as responsibility, 
integrity, enthusiasm, and 



39 



timeliness. Evaluation of a 
student's communications skills will 
be done in the form of a writing 
sample which a student submits at 
the time of application for entrance 
into the Education Semester. 

Students in the program leading to 
certification in secondary education 
shall present the six specified 
courses in education. In addition to 
these six courses, students are 
permitted one additional education 
course in individualized study, or in 
an education internship, to count 
toward the Bachelors degree. A 
minor in secondary education 
consists of successful completion of 
these six courses. 



Elementary Education 

The elementary education program 
is distinctive in giving students the 
opportunity to concentrate on 
liberal arts studies and complete an 
academic major, thus qualifying for 
the bachelor of arts degree. 

Students interested in entering the 
elementary education program 
should consult with the education 
department no later than the fall 
semester of the first year in order to 
establish a program of study. 

The prospective elementary teacher 
should complete the following 
program: 

1) Economics 103, Psychology 101, 
World History, and HPE 199 during 
the first year. 

2) Education 180, music, art, a 
course in child development, 
Education 201, and a course which 
is quantitative in nature. 

3) Education 209, Educadon 331, 
Education 370, World Geography. 

4) Education semester (fall or 
spring semester during the senior 
year) composed of Education 334, 
306, and 476 (worth two courses). 




weeks of full-time participation in a 
public school near the College. 
Opportunities for student teaching 
abroad, in an urban setting, and in 
alternative sites also exist. 
Education 334 is taught in a five- 
week block and includes a two- 
week, full-time experience in the 
schools under the direct supervision 
of a reading specialist. Thus, twelve 
weeks of full-time student teaching 
are completed. Only these four 
courses may be taken during the 
Education Semester. 



Student teaching (Education 476) 
and Education 306 consist of 10 



40 



Elementary education students are 
required to engage in pre-student 
teaching experiences in the 
elementary schools during the 
sophomore and junior years. 
Students serve as observers, aides, 
and small group instructors in 
elementary and middle school 
classrooms. 

The student seeking admission to 
the elementary education program 
must file an application with the 
education department by 
December 15 of the junior year. 
Admission to the program is 
granted by the Committee on 
Teacher Education, a body 
composed of faculty members from 
the education department and 
other departments. This committee 
also establishes standards for 
admission to the program. 

The admission of a student to the 
Education Semester depends upon 
the student's academic achievement 
and a recommendation from his or 
her major department. The 
guidelines for evaluating a student's 
academic achievement are a 
minimum accumulative grade point 
average of 2.33 and a grade point 
average of 2.66 in the elementary 
education program and its related 
courses (history, geography. 



economics, child development, and 
the education courses) . The 
successful applicant will have 
earned a "C" grade or higher in all 
education courses. The student will 
also be evaluated on such 
professional traits as responsibility, 
integrity, enthusiasm, and 
timeliness. Evaluation of a 
student's communications skills will 
be done in the form of a writing 
sample which is submitted at the 
time of application for entrance 
into the Education Semester. 

Students interested in teaching in 
states other than Pennsylvania wdll 
find that a number of states certify 
teachers who have completed 
baccalaureate programs in 
elementary education at colleges 
approved by its own state 
department of education. 
Numerous states require specific 
scores on portions of the National 
Teacher Exams (NTE). See the 
"Education Department" section for 
details. 

In addidon to the courses listed, 
students are permitted one 
education course in individualized 
study, or in an education internship, 
to count toward the bachelor of arts 
degree. A minor in elementary 
educadon consists of successful 




completion of six courses offered by 
the education department 
(Education 201, 209, and 476 are 
required). Students then designate 
three of the following five courses to 
complete the minor: Education 180, 
306, 334, 331, 370. All eight courses 
must be successfully completed for 
teacher certification in elementary 
education. 



Music Education 

The prospective teacher of music in 
the elementary and secondary 
schools should complete the 
program for the degree of bachelor 
of science in music education. This 
requires successful completion of 
35 courses exclusive of courses in 
applied music. Also required are 
two semesters of the basic activities 
quarter courses in health and 
physical education. 

The program includes: 

Music, twelve courses as follows: 
Music Theory, 141, 142, 241,242, 

341,342 
Music History and Literature 
Music 244 (Intro, to Music 

History and Literature) 
Music 313 (Music in the 

Medieval, Renaissance and 

Baroque Periods) 
Music 314 (Music in the 

Classical, Romantic and 

Contemporary Periods) 
Conducting 

Music 205 (Choral Conducting) 
Music 206 (Instrumental 

Conducting) 




Applied Music 

Music 456 (Senior Recital) 
Fifteen to nineteen quarter 
courses. These do not count 
toward the 35 course graduation 
requirements and may be taken 
in addition to the 40 courses 
permitted. Consequently, in the 
fall and spring semesters the 
student will typically carry four 
or five full courses plus several 
quarter courses in applied 
music. The latter must include 
work in: 

Major performance area 
Piano 
Voice 

Instruments of the band and 
orchestra 

Music Education, five courses as 
follows: 

Music 320 (Principles and 
Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Elementary School) 
Music 321 (Principles and 
Procedures of Teaching Music 
in the Secondary School) 



Music 474 
(Student Teaching) 
(three course units) 

Certification Requirements 
Psychology 101 
Education 209 (Social 

Foundations of Education) 
Education 201 (Educational 

Psychology) 
Education 303 (Educational 

Purposes, Methods and 

Educational Media: 

Secondary) 

Distribution Requirements 
Electives 

Participation for four years in an 
authorized musical group and 
presentation of a recital in the 
senior year are required. 

The student in the bachelor of 
science program should consult 
with the music department as early 
as possible in order to arrange a 
four-year program. 



42 



Ninth Semester Education Program 

Gettysburg College students who 
demonstrate academic ability but 
cannot finish certification 
requirements within four years may, 
with approval by the Teacher 
Education Committee, return to 
campus for a consecutive ninth 
semester to complete their student 
teaching and certification 
requirements. This semester, which 
would include only work in 
education, would be provided at 
cost (1993 cost: $1,650) to these 
recent Gettysburg College 
graduates. Students who elect this 
option will graduate before 
finishing certification requirements. 
Thus, students who elect to student 
teach during the Ninth Semester 
Option will receive certification, but 
will not be eligible to declare a 
minor in education. Interested 
students should consult with a 
faculty member about this option. 

Teacher Placement 

The College maintains a Teacher 
Placement Bureau to assist seniors 
and graduates in securing positions 
and to aid school officials in 
locating qualified teachers. All 
communications should be 
addressed to the Director of the 
Teacher Placement Bureau. 

Employment Prospects in Teaching 

The projected annual demand for 
new hiring of all teachers is 
expected to rise from 233,000 in 
1990 to a high of 243,000 in the 




year 2000, according to the 
National Center for Education 
Statistics. Demand will be greatest at 
the elementary school level. Of the 
reporting 1991 Gettysburg College 
graduates who sought teaching 
positions in elementary education, 
85% were teaching or in education- 
related occupations during the 
following academic year. Of the 
reporting secondary education 
graduates, 67% were so employed. 
The reported average salary for 
these 1991 Gettysburg College 
graduates was $21 ,900. 



Off-Campus Study 

College Affiliated Programs 

In order to supplement and 
enhance the regular courses of the 
College, the faculty designates 
certain off<ampus programs of 
study as College affiliated programs. 
As such, these programs are 
recognized as worthy of credit to be 
applied toward the Gettysburg 
College degree. In affiliated 
programs, both grades and credits 
shall be accepted as if they were 
grades and credits earned at 
Gettysburg College. Currently, any 
student with sophomore status who 
is in good social and academic 
standing may apply for permission 
to study off-campus in any program 
approved by the college. A student 
wishing to study abroad should 
petition through the Office of Off- 
Campus Studies; those who wish to 
study off-campus in the United 
States should petition through the 
Office of the Registrar. The 
Academic Standing Committee 
shall approve a student's 
participation in a program and shall 
establish regulations and standards 
for the acceptance of credits. 



43 



Consortium Exchange Program 

The program of the College is 
enriched by its membership in the 
Central Pennsylvania Consortium 
(CPC) consisting of Dickinson, 
Franklin and Marshall, and 
Gettysburg Colleges. The 
Consortium provides opportunities 
for exchanges by students and 
faculty, and for other off-campus 
study. Students may take a single 
course or enroll at a Consortium 
College for a semester, or a full year. 
A course taken at any Consortium 
College is considered as in- 
residence credit. Interested students 
should consult the registrar. 

Courses of unusual interest to 
Gettysburg students offered at the 
other CPC schools include those 
listed under the following 
programs: 

DICKINSON 

American Studies 

Anthropology 

Archaeology 

East Asian Studies (includes 

Chinese and Japanese language) 
Environmental Studies 
Geology 

Italian Studies (includes language ) 
Judaic Studies(includes language) 
Russian and Soviet Area Studies 

(includes language) 




FRANKLIN AND MARSHALL 

American Studies 

Anthropology 

Asian Studies 

Astronomy 

Dance 

Geosciences 

Italian 

Linguistics 

Russian Studies (includes 

language) 
Science, Technology and Society 



Lutheran College Washington 
Semester (Ethical Issues and Public 
Affairs) . Gettysburg College, in 
partnership with Lenoir-Rhyne 
College, Luther College, Muhlenberg 
College, Roanoke College, 
Susquehanna University, Thiel 
College, and the Luther Institute in 
Washington, D.C., runs full academic 
programs during the fall and spring 
semesters of each academic year, and 
a two month internship program 
during the summer. Students live 
together in an apartment complex 
that houses students from other 
colleges who are also studying in 
Washington, D.C. During regular 



44 




semesters students earn four course 
credits by taking a two-credit 
internship (in their area of interest) 
and two seminars. One of the 
seminars is entided "Ethical Issues 
and Public Affairs" and the other is 
a special topics seminar created 
each year. In 1992-1993, the special 
topic was 'The Ecological Crisis". 
Additionally, there are a variety of 
field trips to important polidcal, 
cultural, social, and religious 
organizations. Service learning 
projects are also part of the 
experience. The Lutheran College 
Washington Semester is 
recommended for juniors, but 
sophomores and seniors may apply. 
Information may be obtained from 
Dr. Donald Hinrichs, Department of 
Sociology and Anthropology, or by 
writing Dr. Nancy Joyner, Director, 
The Lutheran College Washington 
Consortium, 226 East Capitol Street, 
Washington, D.C. 20003. 

Washington Semester Gettysburg 
College participates with American 
University in Washington, D.C. in a 
cooperative arrangement known as 



the Washington Semester. The 
program is divided into several 
distinctive areas. For students 
interested in Government, Politics, 
and Law, the Washington Semester, 
National Government and Politics 
focuses on important national 
institutions and the 
interrelationships of the various 
actors in the political process. 
Washington Semester in International 
Politics and Diplomacy examines the 
formulation, implementation, and 
consequences of the foreign policy 
of the United States. Washington 
Semester in Peace and Conflict 
Resolution examines conflict 
resolution theory, history, 
methodologies, and skill 
development and forces that move 
in the directions of conflict or 
peace. Washington Semester in Justice h 
concerned with the nature and 
sources of crime and violence, the 
conflicting theories and beliefs 
about justice, and the impact of 
national policymaking on social and 
criminal justice. Washington Semester 
in American Politics: Public Law is 
designed for prelaw students and 



examines the major institutions and 
principal actors that determine 
federal judicial policy for the nation. 

For students with an interest in 
economics, business, and trade, 
there is a Washington Semester in 
Economic Policy which provides for a 
study of the macro and micro 
economic policy-making process in 
both the international and domestic 
spheres. Washington Semester in 
International Business and Trade offers 
an opportunity to study in a city 
which contains offices of seventy-five 
percent of all multinational 
corporations, and over two hundred 
foreign-owned companies. 

Communications and the fine arts 
are also represented by two 
additional programs. Washington 
Semester in Journalism provides for 
the study and practice of journalism 
in the "news capital of the world," 
and the Washington Semester in 
Museum Studies and the Arts offers an 
exploration of the worlds of art and 
architecture. 

Typically, students in the 
Washington Semester program 
participate in seminars (two course 
credits) , undertake a major 
research project (one course credit) 
and serve an internship (one course 
credit). 

The Washington Semester may be 
taken during either semester of the 
junior year or the fall semester of 
the senior year. To qualify, a 
student must have a minimum 



45 



t 


■i^ 




r 


J -: . - . 



accumulative average of 2.50, and 
3.00 in the major, and clearly 
demonstrate ability to work on his 
or her own initiative. Further 
information may be obtained from 
the appropriate department. 

The Washington Economic Policy 
Semester Gettysburg College 
participates in this cooperative, 
intercollegiate honors program 
with American University in 
Washington, D.C. The semester is 
designed for students with an 
interest in economics. It intensively 
examines economic policymaking 
from theoretical, practical, 
domestic, and international points 
of view. During the semester, 
students are brought into direct 
contact with people who are 
involved in the formulation of 
economic policy. 

The program of study includes ( 1 ) 
the Economic Policy Seminar (two 
course credits), which encompasses 
a theoretical analysis of economic 
policy problems; extensive reading; 
on-site discussions with economic 



policy decision-makers; preparation 
of papers, and the presentation of 
alternative paradigms that may be 
used to understand economic 
policy; (2) the choice of an 
internship (one course credit) in a 
private or governmental agency 
involved with economic policy, or 
an intensive independent research 
project (one course credit); and (3) 
an elective chosen from the courses 
offered by American University. It 
should be noted that the grades 
received in these courses, as well as 
the credit for four courses, will 
appear on the student's Gettysburg 
College transcript. 

This program can be helpful to 
students in several ways. For all 
students, it provides an opportunity 
to dispel the mystery surrounding 
the policy-making process, to make 
them better informed citizens, and 
thus to improve their 
understanding of the complex 
interaction between the 
government and the economy. For 
those persons who plan to be 
professional economists, it will 
provide a practical introduction to 
learning about the nation's 
important economic institutions as 
well as the political considerations 
that influence the translation of 
economic theory into government 
policy. The program will allow 
students to become familiar with 
the basic economic issues of the 
times and with the different 
approaches for solving those 
problems. For students who are 




interested in becoming business 
economist lawyers or community 
organizers, the knowledge gained 
about the bureaucracy in 
Washington and how the federal 
government operates will be 
invaluable in their careers. 

Students should take the 
Washington Economic Policy 
Semester in the fall or spring 
semester of the junior year or the 
fall semester of the senior year. To 
qualify, a student must have a 
minimum accumulative grade point 
average of 2.50, and have 
demonstrated the ability to work on 
his or her own initiative. In addition, 
students wishing to apply for this 
program should have completed 
Economics 103-104, 241, 243, and 
245. Most participants major in 
economics or management; 
however, interested applicants from 
other areas are encouraged to apply. 
Further information, including the 
application procedure for this 
program, can be obtained from Dr. 
William F. Railing, Department of 
Economics. 



46 



The United Nations Semester 

Students qualifying for this 
program spend a semester at Drew 
University in Madison, New Jersey. 
On Tuesdays and Thursdays these 
students commute to the United 
Nations for a survey course in 
international organization which 
consists in part of briefings and 
addresses by individuals involved in 
United Nations activities. A 
research seminar also uses the 
facilities of the United Nations 
Headquarters. Other courses to 
complete a full semester's work are 
taken at the Drew Campus. 

The United Nations program is 
offered in both the fall and spring 
semesters. Some scholarship 
assistance may be available for non- 
Drew University students. 
Application can be made in the 
junior or senior year. Students from 
any academic concentration who 
have taken an introductory course 
in political science and who have 
maintained a respectable grade 
point average are eligible for 
nomination. Further information 
may be obtained from the Office of 
the Registrar. 

Center for Cross-Cultural Study, 
Seville, Spaui The College offers 
two special options for study abroad 
at the Center for Cross-Cultural 
Study in Seville, Spain. The first 
option is for students who have 
completed Spanish 301. These 
students may, with permission of 
the Academic Standing Committee, 




study at the Center for one or two 
semesters of their sophomore or 
junior year, the fall semester of 
their senior year, or during the 
summer session. The second option 
is for students who have completed 
Spanish 104 or its equivalent. This 
option allows students to complete 
their language distribution 
requirement and literature 
distribution requirement while 
studying at the Center. In both 
programs, credits as well as grades 
earned at the Center will be 
transferred to the student's college 
transcript. Financial aid may be 
applied to participation in the 
program during the regular 
academic year. Students interested 
in studying at the Center should 
contact the Spanish Department. 

The Foreign Student Study Center, 
The University of Guadalajara, 
Mexico Students who have 
completed Spanish 301 or its 
equivalent may study for one or two 
semesters of their sophomore or 
junior year or the fall semester of 
their senior year at the University of 



Guadalajara's Foreign Student 
Study Center. Courses offered 
include language, Mexican 
literature, history, culture, art, and 
political science. Both credits and 
grades will be transferred. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program during 
the regular academic year. 
Interested students should contact 
the Spanish Department. 

Center for Global Education 

The College participates in three 
programs of the Center for Global 
Education in Cuernavaca, Mexico: 
Program in Global Community, 
Social Policy and Human Services 
in Latin America, and Women and 
Development: Latin American 
Perspectives. Each program involves 
four courses over a semester 
including an intensive Spanish 
course. The Global Community 
program includes a component of 
living in a rural village. The Social 
Policy and Human Services 
program deals with social justice 
issues, development and models of 
education and social work. Students 



47 



in the Women and Development 
program study in Nicaragua and 
Guatemala in addition to Mexico. 
For more information students 
should contact the College's 
Coordinator of Global Studies or 
the Off-Campus Studies Office. 

Interdisciplinary Study Abroad 
Program in England This program 
offers a fall semester abroad for 
fifteen juniors and seniors who 
would like to pursue 
interdisciplinary and disciplinary 
studies in the humanities and social 
sciences. Moving between London 
and Colchester, the program will 
give these students the opportunity 
to experience two sides of British 
culture: the urban and the 
provincial. The program begins in 
September with a four-week 
intensive interdisciplinary seminar 
in London. This seminar will be 
taught each year by the program's 
resident director, a Gettysburg 
College faculty member who will 
accompany the students throughout 
the entire program. At the 
beginning of October, the students 
will move on to the University of 
Essex in Colchester, where they will 
be enrolled as visiting students for 
the ten-week fall term. Students will 
take a full course load (normally 
four courses), be taught by British 
faculty, and be housed with British 
and other international students. 
Students will receive one Gettysburg 
College course credit for the 
September seminar in London and 
three course credits for the four 




ten-week courses taken at the 
University of Essex. Thus the entire 
program will earn each student four 
Gettysburg College course credits. 
Both grades and credits will be 
transferred. Financial aid may be 
applied to the program. Interested 
students should visit the Office of 
Off-Campus Studies. 

C.LE.E. Program at the 
Universite de Haute Bretagne, 
Rennes, France Juniors and first- 
semester seniors who have 
completed French 301 or its 
equivalent may study for a semester 
in the Council on International 



Educational Exchange's program at 
the Universite de Haute Bretagne 
in Rennes. Both credits and grades 
will be transferred. Financial aid 
may be applied to participation in 
the program. Interested students 
should contact the French 
Department. 

Institute for American Universities 
Program in Aix-en-Provence A one- 
semester or one-year program 
intended for non-majors. Students 
who have completed 101-102 or 
103-104 at Gettysburg may fulfill the 
language requirement in the fall 
semester at Aix. Students who have 



48 



already satisfied the language 
requirement will take more 
advanced courses in French 
language, literature, and civilization 
during the fall or spring. In 
addition to their course work in 
French, all students may choose 
approved classes in history, political 
science, management, art, 
philosophy, psychology, and 
literature given in English . Both 
credits and grades will transfer. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program. 
Interested students should contact 
the French Department. 

Kansai University of Foreign 
Studies The College has a 
cooperative agreement with Kansai 
University of Foreign Studies in 
Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan. 

Students may study for a semester 
or a year at the University in a 
program that combines a rigorous 
Japanese Language program with 
lecture courses in the humanities, 
social sciences, and business which 
are conducted in English. Both 
credits and grades will be 
transferred. Financial aid may be 
applied to this particular program. 
Interested students should contact 
Dr. Katsuyuki Niiro in the 
Economics Department. 

Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 

Sophomore through first semester 
seniors with a minimum of one year 
of college German or the equivalent 
are eligible to participate in the Fall 
semester program in Cologne, 




Germany. A student may satisfy the 
distribution requirement in 
language in one semester and will 
take additional courses taught in 
English from other liberal arts areas 
(some of which also satisfy different 
distribution requirements) . This is 
a fall semester program co- 
sponsored by the Pennsylvania 
Colleges in Cologne Consortium. 
Both credits and grades are 
transferred. Financial Aid may be 
applied to participation in the 
program. Interested students 
should contact the German 
Department. 



College Year in Athens, Greece 

The program is open to 
sophomores, juniors, and seniors 
(although the majority of students 
are of junior level) majoring in 
humanities or social sciences; 
approximately one third of the 
students at College Year are Classics 
majors. The language of instruction 
is English. The courses offered are 
mainly concerned with Greece, 
from ancient through Byzantine to 
modern times, and with the Near 
East. The categories of subject 
matter include history, literature, 
art and archaeology, philosophy, 
anthropology, classical Greek and 



Latin languages, and modern 
Greek. Applications from students 
who plan to attend College Year for 
an academic year or for one 
semester will be considered. 
College Year is incorporated under 
American law as a non-profit, 
educational institution managed by 
a Board of Trustees. Both credits 
and grades will be transferred. 
Financial aid may be applied to 
participation in the program. 
Interested students should contact 
the Department of Classics or the 
Department of Philosophy. 

Off-Campus Study Program In 
Zimbabwe The college offers each 
fall semester an off-campus studies 
program in Zimbabwe, Africa. The 
program is open to sophomores 
and juniors (and also seniors, on a 
space-available basis) who have at 
least a 2.75 GPA. Four courses will 
be taught jointly in Harare by 
Gettysburg College faculty and 
faculty from the University of 
Zimbabwe and other national 
institutions. Field trips outside of 
Harare and homestays are integral 
parts of the study program. 
Students are paired with 
counterparts — typically, students 
from the University of Zimbabwe. 
Housing will be at the YMCA and at 
other international hostels in 
Harare. Regular Gettysburg 
College fees for tuition, room, and 
board cover all costs (including 
round trip airfare), except books 
and personal expenses. The Fall 
1992 program will be conducted by 




the Coordinator of African 
American Studies, and will offer the 
following courses: African 
Literature, History of Southern 
Africa, African Environmental 
Science, and African Political 
Economy. Interested students 
should contact the Coordinator of 
African American Studies. 

Intercollegiate Center for Classical 
Studies in Rome, Italy The Center is 
open to students majoring in 
Classics, classical history, 
archaeology, or art history with a 
concentration in classical art. The 
program lasts for one semester and 
is offered during the fall and the 
spring. The Center provides 
undergraduate students with an 
opportimity to study Greek and 
Latin literature, ancient history and 
archaeology, and ancient art in 
Rome. A Managing Committee, 
elected by the member institutions, 
has arranged with Stanford 
University for the Stanford Overseas 
Studies Office to administer the 
Rome Center. The faculty is chosen 



from persons teaching in 
universities and colleges in the 
United States and Canada. The 
langviage of instruction is English. 
Both credits and grades will be 
transferred. Financial aid may be 
applied to participation in the 
program. Interested students 
should contact the Department of 
Classics. 

Lutheran Theological Seminary 
Exchange Gettysburg College 
students are eligible to take up to 
four courses at the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary also located 
in Gettysburg. The Seminary offers 
coursework in Biblical Studies, 
Historical Theological Studies, and 
Studies in Ministry. Interested 
students should consult the 
Registrar. 

Wilson College Exchange 

Gettysburg College offers an 
exchange opportunity with Wilson 
College, an area college for women, 
with course offerings that 
supplement Gettysburg's offerings 



50 



in communications, women s 
studies, international studies, 
dance, and other creative arts. 
Students may take a single course or 
enroll as a guest student for a 
semester or a full year. 

Marine Biology The Biology 
Department offers two programs for 
students interested in pursuing 
studies in marine biology; these 
programs are in cooperation with 
Duke University and the Bermuda 
Biological Station. 

The Bermuda Biological Station 
(St. George's West, Bermuda) offers 
courses in biological, chemical, and 
physical oceanography during the 
summer. Any course taken by a 
Gettysburg College student may be 
transferred to Gettysburg together 
with the grade, provided prior 
approval is granted by the Biolog)' 
Department. 

Gettysburg College is one of a 
limited number of undergraduate 
institutions affiliated with the Duke 
University Cooperative 
Undergraduate Program in the 
Marine Sciences. The program, 
offered at the Duke University 
Marine Laboratory (Beaufort, 
North Carolina), is a ten week 
semester of courses, seminars, and 
independent investigations. Studies 
include the physical, chemical, 
geological, and biological aspects of 
the marine environment with 
emphasis on the ecology of marine 
organisms. 




This program is appropriate for 
juniors or students who have had 
three to four courses in biology. 
Students receive the equivalent of 
five courses, two of which may be 
used toward the minimum eight 
required in biology. The remaining 
courses will apply toward 
graduation requirements. 

Additional Off-Campus 
Opportunities 

Study Abroad Qualified students 
may study abroad during one or two 
semesters of their junior year or the 
fall semester of their senior year. 
The Office of Off-Campus Studies 
maintains an information file of 
recommended programs and stands 
ready to assist students with their 
unique study plans. It is important 
to begin the planning process early. 
During the first year, or at least by 
the first semester of the sophomore 
year, students who plan to study 
abroad should discuss with their 
advisers the relationship of their 
proposed course of study to their 
total academic program. An outline 



of the program and a list of specific 
courses with appropriate 
departmental approval must be 
submitted to the Academic 
Standing Committee, which gives 
final approval on all requests to 
study abroad. To qualify, a student 
must be in good social and 
academic standing. Study abroad 
programs are not limited to 
language majors; students in any 
major field may apply. Further 
informadon may be obtained from 
the Office of Off-Campus Studies. 

Special Interest Programs 

Students may petition the Academic 
Standing Committee for permission 
to take courses for a semester at 
another college or university which 
offers a program in a special 
interest area not fully developed at 
Gettysburg College. Examples of 
special interest areas are Urban 
Studies, Asian Studies, Studio Arts, 
Nutrition, Environmental Studies, 
and Women's Studies. Interested 
students should consult the Dean of 
Academic Advising. 



51 



Dual-Degree Programs 

Engineering This program is 
offered jointly with Columbia 
University, Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute (RPI), and Washington 
University in St. Louis. Students 
; spend three years at Gettysburg 
College followed by two years at one 
of these universities. Upon 
. successful completion of this 
I program, the student is awarded the 
! Bachelor of Arts degree from 
I Gettysburg and the Bachelor of 
I Science degree in an engineering 

discipline from one of the three 
, affiliated universities. The affiliation 
j with RPI also offers the opportunity 
for a Master's degree after three 
years at RPI. Gettysburg students, 
on their own initiative, have also 
completed dual-degree programs at 
non-affiliated universities. Students 
who qualify for financial aid at 
Gettysburg College will usually be 
eligible for similar aid at the 
engineering affiliate universities; 
this benefit is not available to 
international students. 

Candidates for this program will 
have an adviser in the Physics 
Department. Normally a student 
will be recommended to Columbia, 
RPI, or Washington University 
during the fall semester of the 
junior year. Students must have a 
minimum of a 3.0 grade point 
average in order to be 
recommended, except for students 
interested in electrical engineering 
at RPI who are required to have a 
3.5 average for recommendation. 




The specific courses required for 
admission by each affiliated 
institution vary and students should 
schedule courses in close 
cooperation with the Engineering 



Adviser at Gettysburg. In general, 
dual-degree engineering students 
can expect to take Physics 111, 112, 
213, 319, 330; Mathematics 111, 
112, 211, 212, 363; Chemistry 111, 



52 



112, and a computer science 
course. All dual-degree engineering 
students will have to complete the 
distribution requirements of 
Gettysburg while in residence at 
Gettysburg. Because of the limited 
flexibility of the Dual-Degree 
engineering curriculum, students 
are urged to identify their interests 
in this program at the earliest 
possible time. 

Nursing The College has a five-year 
program under which students 
spend three years at Gettysburg and 
two at the Johns Hopkins University 
School of Nursing in Baltimore. At 
the end of the fourth year of study, 
students complete requirements for 
a B.A. degree from Gettysburg; at 
the end of the fifth year, students 
will receive a B.S. degree from the 
Johns Hopkins University. Students 
interested in this program should 
contact the Dean of First Year 
Students for further information. 

Optometry Pennsylvania College 
of Optometry (PCO) will offer 
admission into the program leading 
to the Doctor of Optometry to 
students from Gettysburg at the end 
of the junior year provided that all 
prerequisites are met. At the 
conclusion of the first year at PCO, 
students will receive the 
baccalaureate degree from 
Gettysburg and, after seven years of 
undergraduate and professional 
study, the Doctor of Optometry 
from the Pennsylvania College of 
Optometry. Students who qualify 




for early admission to the program 
will be recommended by the 
Premedical Committee at 
Gettysburg College and will be 
required to interview at the 
Pennsylvania College of Optometry 
during the spring term of the 
junior year. 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

In addition to its own program in 
environmental studies, the College 
offers a dual-degree program with 
Duke University leading to graduate 
study in natural resources and the 
environment. Students will earn the 
Bachelor's and Master's degree in 



five years, spending three years at 
Gettysburg College and two years at 
Duke University's School of the 
Environment. Students must fulfill 
all the distribution requirements by 
the end of the junior year. The first 
year's work at Duke will complete 
the undergraduate degree 
requirements and the B.A. will be 
awarded by Gettysburg College at 
the end of the first year at Duke. 
Duke will award the professional 
degree of Master of Forestry or 
Master of Environmental 
Management to qualified candidates 
at the end of the second year. 



53 




Candidates for the program should 
indicate to our admissions office 
that they wish to apply for the 
forestry and environmental studies 
curriculum. At the end of the first 
semester of the third year, the 
College will recommend qualified 
students for admission to the Duke 
School of the Environment. No 
application need be made to the 
School before that time. During the 
first semester of the junior year at 
Gettysburg, the student must file 
with the Office of the Dean of 
Academic Advising a petition for 
off-campus study during the senior 
year. All applicants are urged to 
take the verbal and quantitative 
aptitude tests of the Graduate 
Record Examination in October or 
December of their junior year. 

The major program emphases at 
Duke are 1 ) Ecotoxicology and 
Environmental Chemistry; 2) 
Resource Ecology; 3) Water and Air 
Resources; and 4) Resource 
Economics and Policy. Programs, 
however, can be tailored with other 
individual emphases. An 



undergraduate major in one of the 
natural or social sciences, 
management, or pre-engineering is 
good preparation for the programs 
at Duke, but students with other 
undergraduate concentrations will 
be considered for admission. All 
students contemplating this 
cooperative program should take at 
least one year of courses in each of 
the following: biology, mathematics 
(including calculus), economics, 
statistics, and computer science. In 
addition, organic chemistry is a 
prerequisite for the Ecotoxicology 
program and ecology for the 
Resource Ecology program. Please 
note that this is a competitive 
program and students are expected 
to have good quantitative analysis 
and writing skills. 

Students begin the program at 
Duke in late August and must 
complete a total of 48 units, 
including a Master's degree project, 
which generally takes four 
semesters. 

Some students may prefer to 
complete the Bachelor's degree 
before undertaking graduate study 
at Duke. The Master's degree 
requirements for these students are 
the same as those for students 
entering after the junior year. All 
credit reductions are determined 
individually and consider both the 
student's educational background 
and objectives. 



Preprofessional Studies 

Prelaw Preparation Students 
planning a career in law should 
develop the ability to think 
logically, analyze critically, and to 
express verbal and written ideas 
clearly. In addition, the prospective 
law student needs a wide range of 
critical understanding of human 
institutions. These qualities are not 
found exclusively in any one field of 
study. They can be developed in a 
broad variety of academic majors. It 
should be noted that a strong 
academic record is required for 
admission to law school. 

The College has a prelaw adviser to 
assist and advise students in their 
consideration of the legal 
profession and to aid them in 
gaining admission to law school. A 
brochure is available through the 
Office of Admissions and the Office 
of the Provost that describes prelaw 
preparation at Gettysburg. Students 
planning a career in law should 
review this brochure. 

Preparation for Health 
Professions The Gettysburg 
College curriculum provides the 
opportunity, within a liberal arts 
framework, for students to complete 
the requirements for admission to 
professional schools of medicine, 
dentistry, and veterinary medicine, 
as well as several allied health 
schools. Students considering a 
career in one of these fields are 
advised to schedule their courses 



54 



carefully, not only to meet the 
admission requirements for the 
professional schools, but also to 
provide for other career options in 
the event that their original choices 
are altered. The following courses 
will meet the minimal entrance 
requirements for most medical, 
dental, or veterinary schools: 
Biology 101, 112; Chemistry 111, 
112; Chemistry 203, 204; Math 1 1 1 
and 112 (for schools requiring a 
year of mathematics) or Math 111, 
112 (for schools requiring a 
semester of mathematics) ; Physics 
111, 112; two or three courses in 
English; and a foreign language 
through the intermediate level. 
Math 105-106 may be substituted for 
Math 11 1 in any of the mathematics 
requirements. Since completion of 
these courses will also give the 
student minimum preparation for 
taking the national admissions 
examinations for entrance to 
medical, dental, or veterinary 
school, it is advisable to have 
completed or be enrolled in these 
courses by the spring of the junior 
year when the tests ordinarily are 
taken. While most students who seek 
recommendation for admission to 
health professions' schools major in 
either biology or chemistry, the 
requirements can be met by majors 
in most other subjects with careful 
planning of a student's program. 
Premedical students are encouraged 
to choose electives in the humanities 
and social sciences and to plan their 
programs in consultation with their 
major advisers or a member of the 
Premedical Committee. 




All recommendations for admission 
to health professions' schools are 
made by the Premedical Committee, 
normally at the end of the junior 
year. Students seeking admission to 
these professional schools must also 
take one of the following national 
admissions examinations: MCAT 
(medical), DAT (dental), VMAT or 
ORE (veterinary) or OAT 
(optometry) . The Premedical 
Committee is composed of members 
from the Departments of Biology, 
English, Chemistry, and Physics with 
the Dean of First Year Students 
acting as chairperson. Because of the 
competition for admission to 
medical school, the Premedical 



Committee recommends that a 
student maintain a high 
accumulative average (near 3.50) 
overall and in medical school 
required courses. Generally, students 
with a competitive accumulative 
average and a competidve score on 
the MCAT gain an interview at one 
or more medical schools. 

The Premedical Committee has 
prepared a brochure about 
preparadon at Gettysburg for the 
health professions. It is available 
from the admissions office and the 
Dean of First Year Students. Students 
interested in the health professions 
should obtain this brochure. 



55 



Hahnemann University's Graduate 
School of Physical Therapy will 
offer early acceptance (fall of the 
senior year) to students from 
Gettysburg College who meet the 
criteria for admission into the 
Entry-Level Masters Degree 
Program. Students may major in 
any department, although a major 
in Biology or Health and Physical 
Education is most common. 
Regardless of major, eight science 
courses in three different 
departments (Biology, Chemistry 
and Physics) are required. Students 
who are eligible for early admission 
to the program will be 
recommended by the Premedical 
Committee at Gettysburg College 
and are required to interview at 
Hahnemann University during the 
fall semester of the senior year. 

See also information about the 
College's Cooperative Programs in 
Nursing with the Johns Hopkins 
University and in Optometry with 
Pennsylvania College of Optometry 
on page 52. 

The Premedical Committee holds 
periodic meetings to explain 
requirements for admission to 
health professions schools, to bring 
representatives of these schools to 
campus to talk to students, and to 
explore issues of interest to the 
medical professions. In the office of 
the Dean of First Year Students is a 
collection of materials about the 
health professions. It includes 
information about admissions 
requirements, guidebooks on 



preparing for national admissions 
examinations, catalogues from 
many health professions schools, 
and reference materials on fields 
such as medicine, dentistry, 
veterinary science, optometry, 
pharmacy, podiatry, physical 
therapy, public health, and health 
care administration. 

Senior Honors 

The College awards the following 
honors to members of the 
graduating class. These senior 
honors are intended for students 
with four years' residence at 
Gettysburg College; grade point 
average computations are based on 
four years' performance. 

1. Valedictorian — to the senior with 
the highest accumulative average. 

2. Salutatorian — to the senior with 
the second highest accumulative 
average. 

3. Summa Cum Laude — to those 
seniors who have an accumulative 
average of 3.750 or higher. 

4. Magna Cum Laude — to those 
seniors who have an accumulative 
average of 3.500 through 3.749. 

5. Cum Laude — to those seniors 
who have an accumulative average 
of3.300 through 3.499. 

The Academic Standing Committee 
may grant the above honors to stu- 
dents with transfer credit if they 
have satisfied the conditions of the 



honor during at least two years in 
residence at Gettysburg College and 
have presented excellent transfer 
grades. 

In addition to the above, departments 
may award Departmental Honors for 
graduating seniors based upon their 
academic performance in a major 
field of study. Departmental Honors 
are awarded to transfer students on 
the same terms as to other students 
since the computation for this award 
is not necessarily based on four years 
in residence at Gettysburg College. 

Deans' Lists 

The names of those students who 
attain an average of 3.600 or higher 
in either semester are placed on the 
Deans' Honor List in recognition of 
their academic achievements. Also, 
those students who attain an average 
from 3.300 to 3.599 are placed on 
the Deans' Commendation List. To 
be eligible for these honors, students 
must take a full course load of at 
least four courses, with no more 
than one course taken under the 
S/U grading option during that 
semester (except for students taking 
the Education Term who may take 
two courses S/U). First year students 
who attain an average of 3.000 to 
3.299 are placed on a First Year 
Recognition List for commendable 
academic performance in their first 
or second semester. 



56 



Phi Beta Kappa 



Phi Beta Kappa, founded in 1776, is 
the oldest Greek-letter society in 
America and exists to promote 
liberal learning, to recognize 
academic excellence, and to 
support and encourage scholars in 
their work. The Gettysburg College 
chapter was chartered in 1923 and 
is today one of 242 Phi Beta Kappa 
chapters in American colleges and 
universities, nineteen of which are 
in Pennsylvania. The Gettysburg 
chapter elects to membership about 
5 to 10% of the senior class who 
have distinguished academic 
records and exhibit high moral 
character and intellectual curiosity. 
Election to Phi Beta Kappa is 
perhaps the most widely recognized 
academic distinction in American 
higher education. 

Alpha Lambda Delta 

Alpha Lambda Delta is a national 
society that honors academic 
excellence during a student's first 
year in college. It has 213 chapters 
throughout the nation. The 
purposes of Alpha Lambda Delta 
are to encourage superior academic 
achievement among students in 
their first year in college, to 
promote intelligent living and a 
continued high standard of 
learning, and to assist women and 
men in recognizing and developing 




meaningful goals for their roles in 
society. Alpha Lambda Delta 
membership is open to Gettysburg 
students who attain a grade point 
average of 3.50 or higher during 
their first year at Gettysburg. 



Prizes and Awards 

The following prizes recognize 
oiustanding scholarship and 
achievement. They are awarded at a 
Fall Honors Program in October or 
a Spring Honors Convocation held 
in April or May. Grades earned in 
required courses in physical 
education are not considered in 
computations for prizes or awards. 
Transfer students are eligible for 
prizes and awards. 



57 



Endowed Funds 

Betty M. Barnes Memorial Award in 
Biology: The income from a fund, 
established by Dr. & Mrs. Rodger 
W. Baier, is awarded to a senior 
student with high academic ability 
preparing for a career in biology or 
medicine. 

Baum Mathematical Prize: The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
Dr. Charles Baum (1874), is given 
to the current junior showing the 
greatest proficiency in mathematics. 

John Edgar Baublitz Pi Lambda Sigma 
Awards: The income from a fimd 
initiated by John Eberhardt 
Baublitz in honor of his father, 
John Edgar Baublitz (1929) who 
was the first president of the 
Gamma Chapter of Pi Lambda 
Sigma, is given annually to a senior 
major in economics, a senior major 
in management, and a senior major 
in political science. 

Anna Marie Budde Award: The 
income from a bequest from Anna 
Marie Budde, Instructor and 
Assistant Professor of Voice 1953- 
1972, is given to the outstanding 
sophomore voice student. 

Romeo M. Capozzi Athletic Training 
Room Award: The income from a 
bequest from Rose Ann Capozzi in 
memory of her late husband, 
Romeo M. Capozzi, is given to the 
student who has demonstrated the 
greatest degree of proficiency in 
Athletic Training Room techniques. 




Oscar W. Carlson Memorial Award: 
The income from a fund, 
contributed by the family of Oscar 
W. Carlson (1921), is given to a 
senior who demonstrates excellent 
academic achievement through his 
or her jimior year in three or more 
courses in the Department of 
Religion, including two courses 
above the 100-level. 

John M. Colestock Student Leadership 
Award: The award, contributed by 
family and friends, is given to the 
senior student whose optimism, 
enthusiasm, and strength of 
character have provided exceptional 
leadership in student affairs. 

Malcolm R Dougherty Mathematical 
Award: The income from a fimd, 
contributed by the Columbian 
Cutlery Company, Reading, Pa., in 
memory of Malcolm R. Dougherty 
(1942), is awarded to the current 
sophomore who during his or her 
first year of college had the highest 
average in mathematics and who is 
working to earn part of his or her 
college expenses. 



Margaret E. Fisher Memorial 
Scholarship Atvard: The income from 
a fund, contributed by Dr. Nelson 
F. Fisher (1918) in memory of his 
mother, is awarded to a student 
who excels in one or more major 
sports and who achieves the highest 
academic average among winners of 
varsity letters. 

Lena S. Fortenbaugh Memorial Prize : 
The income from a fund, established 
by the children of Lena S. 
Fortenbaugh (M.A. 1925) and 
Robert Fortenbaugh (1913), 
Professor of History at the College 
from 1923-1959, is awarded to the 
senior selected by the German 
Department on the basis of 
outstanding achievement in the study 
of German language and culture. 

Holly Gabriel Memorial Award: A fund 
established by the friends and 
classmates of Holly Gabriel (1978) 
provides a memento and notation 
on a plaque in the office of the 
Sociology and Anthropology 
Department to a senior sociology 
major selected by the department 
who demonstrates superior academic 
achievement, concern for the welfare 
of others, and the intent to continue 
this service beyond graduation. 

Samuel Garver Greek Prize: The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
the Rev. Ausdn S. Garver (1869) in 
memory of his father, is awarded to 
the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Greek during 
the first year of college. 



58 



Samuel Gamer Latin Prize : The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
the Rev. Austin S. Garner (1869) in 
memor\' of his father, is awarded to 
the student who has made the 
greatest progress in Latin during 
the first year of college. 

Graeff English Prize : The income 
from a fund established in 1866 is 
awarded to a senior selected by the 
English Department on the basis of 
outstanding achievement in the 
work of that Department. 

David H. Greenlaw Memorial Prize : 
The income from a fimd, 
contributed by Mr. and Mrs. Ralph 
W. Greenlaw in memory of their 
son, David H. Greenlaw (1966), is 
awarded to the student who has 
offered exceptional contributions 
to the college's theatre program. 

Edwin T. Greninger Award in History: 
The income from a fund 
contributed by Edwin T. Greninger 
(1941) and a certificate are awarded 
to a student selected by the History 
Department on the basis of the 
quality of the student's paper 
written for any of the courses in the 
department. 

John Alfred Hamme Awards : Two 
awards, established by John Alfred 
Hamme (1918), are given to the 
two jimiors who have demonstrated 
in the highest degree the qualities 
of loyalty, kindness, courtesy, true 
democracy, and leadership. 




Dr. Carl Arnold Hanson, President 
Emeritus, Leadership Award : The 
income from a fund contributed by 
his wife, Anne Keet Hanson, friends 
and alumni, in honor of Dr. Carl 
Arnold Hanson, President of 
Gettysburg College from 1961-1977, 
is awarded to a student who has 
achieved at least a 3.0 average in 
his/her major through the middle 
of the junior year and has 
demonstrated significant leadership 
abilities in one or more areas of 
college life as determined by the 
faculty. 



Henry W. A. Hanson Scholarship 
Foundation Award: The income 
from a fund contributed by College 
alumni in honor of Henry W. A. 
Hanson and in recognition of his 
leadership of and distinguished 
service to Gettysburg College and to 
the cause of education in the 
Lutheran Church and the nation, is 
awarded to a senior who plans to 
enter graduate school in 
preparation for college teaching. 
The student must have taken the 
Graduate Record Examination. If 
the senior chosen cannot accept. 



59 



the next qualified candidate is 
eligible, and if no member of 
the senior class is chosen, a 
committee may select a member 
of a previous class. 

Harry C. and Catherine Noffsinger 
Hartzell Award : The income from a 
fund, contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) in 
memory of his parents, is awarded 
to the outstanding junior student in 
the Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology. The selection of co- 
recipients may be made at the 
discretion of the Department. 

James Boyd Hartzell Memorial Award : 
The income from a fund, 
contributed by James Hamilton 
Hartzell (1924) and his wife, 
Lucretia Irvine Boyd Hartzell, is 
awarded to a junior student 
majoring in economics or in 
management for outstanding 
scholarship and promise in these 
fields. The selection of co-recipients 
may be made at the discretion of 
the Departments of Economics and 
Management. 

James Hamilton and Lucretia Irvine 
Boyd Hartzell Award: The income 
from a fund, contributed by James 
Hamilton Hartzell (1924) and his 
wife, is awarded to a sophomore 
student for outstanding scholarship 
and promise in the field of History. 
The selection of co-recipients may 
be made at the discretion of the 
History Department. 



Mildred H. Hartzell Prize: The income 
from a bequest from Mildred H. 
Hartzell (1926) is awarded to a 
student who shows high quality in 
more than scholarship with 
preference being given to a 
member of Alpha Phi Omega, the 
national service fraternity, or other 
such organizations as may reflect 
similar quality and ideals. 

Hassler Latin Prize : The income 
from a fund, contributed by Charles 
W. Hassler, is awarded to the best 
Latin student in the junior class. 

John A. Hauser Meritorious Prize in 
Business : The income from a fund, 
contributed by the family of John A. 
Hauser, is awarded to an 
outstanding Management major 
who has achieved excellence in 
both academic studies and campus 
leadership while demonstrating 
good character and concern for 
high moral standards. 

The Grace C. Kenney Award: The 
income from a fvmd, contributed by 
Grace C. Kenney, an educator for 39 
years at Gettysburg College, is given 
to a junior or senior student selected 
by the combined staff of the Health 
and Physical Education Department 
and the athletic programs. First 
preference will be given to a student 
who has participated in Health and 
Physical Education studies, 
intramural or athletic programs, and 
has demonstrated the highest 
academic accomplishments and 
leadership skills. 




Rev. George N. Lauffer (1899) and M. 
Naomi Lauffer (1898) Scholarship 
Award : The income from a fund is 
given each year to a junior who has 
maintained high scholarship and 
who evidences outstanding ability 
and character. It is understood that 
the recipient will complete the 
senior year at Gettysburg College. 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. MacCartney 
Scholarship Aioard : The income 
from a fund, established by Michael 
Alan Berk and Kerry MacCartney 
Berk (1975), is given to a student 
on the basis of academic excellence, 
initiative shown in a work-study 
program, and contributions to the 
College through leadership in 
campus activities. 

J. Andrew Marsh Memorial Awards : 
The income from the fund is 
presented each year to the 
sophomore and junior students of 
Gettysburg College who best 
exemplify the "whole person" 
concept through positive attitude, 
exceptional spirit, high standards, 
and notable achievement, both 
curricular and extracurricular. 



60 



Miller First Year Student Prize in 
Physics : The income from a fund, 
contributed by alumni and friends 
of the College in memor)' of George 
R. Miller (1919), is awarded to a 
sophomore for outstanding 
performance in physics as a first 
year student. The selection of the 
recipient may be made at the 
discretion of the Physics 
Department. 

Miller Senior Prize in Physics : The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
alumni and friends of the College 
in memory of George R. Miller 
(1919), is awarded to a senior for 
sustained outstanding performance 
in physics. The selection of the 
recipient may be made at the 
discretion of the Physics 
Department. 

Franklin Moore Award : The income 
from a fimd, contributed by the 
friends of Mr. Moore , is given to 
the senior who, during his or her 
undergraduate years, has shown the 
highest degree of good citizenship 
and, by character, industr)', 
enterprise, initiative, and activities 
has contributed the most toward 
campus morale and the prestige of 
the College. 

Muhlenberg First Year Student Prize : 
The income from a fund, given by 
Dr. Frederick A. Muhlenberg 
(1836), is awarded to the first year 
student taking Greek or Latin who 
attains the highest general quality 
point average. 




Muhlenberg Goodwill Prize: A 
certificate is awarded to a senior 
student "For growth during 
formative years at Gettysburg 
College in awareness of personal 
responsibility for the welfare of all 
peoples; for a degree of 
achievement in same during 
College years and in the hope of 
future accomplishment for 
betterment of Community, State 
and Nation." 



William F. Muhlenberg Award : The 
income from a fund is awarded to 
two juniors on the basis of 
character, scholarship, and 
proficiency in campus activities. 

Nicholas Bible Prize: The income 
from a fund, contributed by the 
Rev. Dr. J. C. Nicholas (1894), is 
awarded to the senior who has done 
the best work in advanced courses 
in religion. 



61 



Clair B. Noerr Memorial Award : An 
inscribed medal established by 
Constance Noerr (1958) in memory 
of her father, is awarded to a senior 
on the basis of proficiency in 
athletics, scholarship, and 
character. 

Dr. John W. Oslrom Composition 
Awards : The income from a fund, 
contributed by Dr. John W. Ostrom 
(1926), is awarded to the student 
who achieves excellence and 
demonstrates the greatest 
improvement in first year 
composition (English 101) and to 
the student who achieves excellence 
and demonstrates the greatest 
improvement in advanced 
composition (English 201). 

Dr. John W. Ostrom English Award : 
The income from a fund, 
contributed by Dr. John W. Ostrom 
(1926), is awarded to the student 
who has, in the judgment of the 
members of the Department of 
English, written the best expository 
essay for an upper level English 



Vivian Wickey Otto Award: An award 
contributed by Vivian Wickey Otto 
(1946) through the Woman's 
General League of Gettysburg 
College is given to a student at the 
end of his or her junior year who 
plans to enter full-time Christian 
service work. 




Keith Pappas Memorial Award: 
Notation on a plaque in the Office 
of the Dean of the College and a 
certificate is given annually as a 
memorial to Keith Pappas (1974), 
an honors graduate who made an 
extraordinary contribution to the 
life of this College and its people. 
This award is to be given to a 
current student who most 
significantly affects the College 
community through the quality of 
his or her participation in its 
functions and whose divergent 
contributions give form to what is 
called Gettysburg College. 

Jeffrey Pierce Memorial Award : The 
income from a memorial fund 
established in honor of Jeffrey 
Pierce (1971), is awarded annually 
to a senior who, in the judgment of 
the Department, has reached the 
highest level of achievement in the 
field of history. 



Martha Ellen Sachs Prize : The 
income from a fimd, contributed by 
John E. Haas in memory of his 
aunt, a Lecturer at the College, is 
awarded to a student exhibiting 
excellence in English composition, 
with consideration given to 
improvement made during the 
year. 

The Captain Michael D. Scotton (1982) 
Award : The income from a fund, 
established by David R. and Sally R. 
Scotton, parents of Michael D. 
Scotton, is awarded to a junior 
student who demonstrates a high 
degree of extracurricular activity 
and diligence to his/her academic 
work. The recipient will be selected 
in consultation with the Head 
Coaches of Women's and Men's 
Cross Country, Women's and Men's 
Track, and the Athletic Director. 

Stine Chemistry Prize: The income 
from a fund, contributed by Dr. 
Charles M. A. Stine (1901), is 
awarded to a senior chemistry 
major on the basis of grades in 
chemistry, laboratory technique, 
personality, general improvement 
in four years, and proficiency in 
chemistry at the time of selection. 

Earl Kresge Stock Writing Prizes: The 
income from a fund, contributed by 
Earl Kresge Stock (1919), is 
awarded to the three students who 
write the classroom papers judged 
best in the areas of the humanities, 
the sciences, and the social 
sciences. 



62 



Samuel P. Weaver Scholarship 
Foundation Prizes: Prizes established 
by Samuel P. Weaver (1904) are 
awarded to the two students writing 
the best essays on an assigned topic 
in the field of constitutional law and 
government. 

Earl E. Ziegler Junior Mathematics 
Award : The income from a fund, 
contributed by Phi Delta Theta 
Alumni, is given in honor of Earl E. 
Ziegler, Associate Professor of 
Mathematics at Gettysburg College 
from 1935-1968, to the student who 
is majoring in mathematics and has 
the highest average in mathematics 
through the end of the junior year. 

Earl E. /Jegler Senior Mathematics 
Award : The income from a 
contribution by Earl E. Ziegler, 
Associate Professor of Mathematics 
at Gettysburg College from 1935- 
1968, is awarded to the mathematics 
major who has achieved the highest 
average in mathematics through the 
middle of the senior year. 

Ediuin and Leander M. Zimmerman 
Senior Prize : The income from a 
fund is given to the senior whose 
character, influence on students, 
and scholarship have contribvited 
most to the welfare of the College. 

John B. Zinn Chemistry Research 
Award: The income from a fund, 
contributed by Frances andjohn 
Zinn in honor of John B. Zinn 
( 1909) , who was Professor of 
Chemistry at the College from 1924- 



1959, is awarded to the senior 
making the greatest contributions in 
his or her own research in Chemistry 
and to the research activities of the 
Chemistry Department. 

Unendowed 

Charles W. Beachem Athletic Award : 
The Department of Health and 
Physical Education presents a 
trophy in memory of Charles W. 
Beachem (1925), the first alumni 
secretary of the College. Based on 
character, scholarship, and athletic 
achievement, the award is given to a 
senior student. 

C. E. Bilheirner Award .Notation on a 
plaque and a memento are given to 
the senior major in health and 
physical education with the highest 
academic average. 

Esther Brandt Chemistry or Biology 
Award: An award, contributed by 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. 
Loel Rosenberry in honor of Esther 
Brandt, is given to a junior or a 
senior who has demonstrated 
academic excellence through the 
highest grade point average in the 
declared major of Chemistry or 
Biolog). 

Archie and Flo Butler English Award: 
An award, contributed by Mr. and 
Mrs. Walter Brandt and Ms. Loel 
Rosenberry in honor of Archie and 
Flo Butler, is given to a jtmior or 
senior with a declared English major 
who has demonstrated academic 
excellence through the highest 
grade point average in English. 



Delta Phi Alpha Prize: A book on 
German culture is awarded to the 
outstanding student for the year in 
the German Department. 

Anthony di Palma Memorial Award: 
An award, established by the family 
of Anthony di Palma (1956), 
provides a book to the junior 
having the highest marks in history. 
Other things being equal, 
preference is given to a member of 
Sigma Chi fraternity. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower Society /R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Prize in 
Economics : The income from a 
fund, provided by the R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Trust 
through the Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Society in memory of Gettysburg 
businessman, R. M. Hoffman, is 
awarded annually to the student 
writing the best quantitative paper 
or project (with ptiblic policy 
implications) in economics. 

Dwight D. Eisenhower Society /R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Prize in 
Management : The income from a 
fund, provided by the R. M. 
Hoffman Family Memorial Trust 
through the Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Society in memory of Gettysburg 
businessman, R. M. Hoffman, is 
awarded annually to the outstanding 
senior in each of the Management 
Department's four concentrations. 

Julius Eno Physics Prize: An award, 
contributed byjtilius Eno, Jr., is 
awarded to the outstanding junior 
majoring in physics. 



63 



French Cultural Counselor's Award : A 
book presented by the Cultural 
Counselor of the French Embassy is 
awarded to a senior for outstanding 
achievement in French. 

Gettysburg College Award in Athletics : 
An award is given by the President 
of the College to a student who 
excels in one or more major sports 
and who achieves the highest 
academic average among winners of 
varsity letters. 

Gettysburg College Award in History : 
An award is given by the President 
of the College to the senior who, in 
the judgment of the Department, 
has reached a high level of 
achievement in the field of history. 

Gettysburg College Student Leadership 
Award: An award is given by the 
President of the College to a senior 
student whose enthusiasm, energy, 
and contributions in student affairs 
demonstrated outstanding 
leadership. 

Frank H. Kramer Award : The award 
is given by Phi Delta Theta 
fraternity, in memory of a former 
Professor of Education, to a senior 
for the excellence of his or her 
work in the Department of 
Education. 

Pennsylvania Institute of Certified 
Public Accountants Aiuard : This 
award, sponsored by the 
Pennsylvania Institiue of Certified 
Public Accountants, is presented to 
a senior selected by the faculty of 



the Management Department who 
has demonstrated excellence in the 
area of accounting and who, by 
participation in campus activities, 
shows qualities of leadership. 
Eligibility for this award is based on 
the satisfactory completion of a 
substantial number of accounting 
courses. 

Psi Chi Award : The award is given to 
a senior psychology major, in the 
spring of his or her senior year, who 
shows promise in the field of 
psychological endeavor. Other 
things being equal, preference is 
given to a member of Psi Chi. 

Psi Chi Junior Award: An award is 
given to a senior psychology major 
who has displayed outstanding 
potential and initiative throughout 
his or her jimior year. 

Dr. George W. Stoner Award: The 
income from a fund is awarded to a 
worthy senior accepted by a 
recognized medical college. 

Sigma Alpha Iota College Honor 
Award: Sigma Alpha Iota, an 
international music fraternity, gives 
an award each year to a student in 
the local chapter who has 
exemplified the highest musical, 
scholastic, and ethical standards, 
whatever the class standing. 
Contributions to the local chapter 
of Sigma Alpha Iota and 
participation in Music Department 
activities are important criteria for 
selection. 



Sigma Alpha Iota Honor Certificate : 
Sigma Alpha Iota annually awards 
in each chapter an honor certificate 
to the graduating senior who holds 
the highest academic average 
among music majors. 

Student Life Council Award: A 
certificate is awarded to a student in 
recognition of the quiet influence 
he or she has exerted for the 
improvement of the campus 
community. 

Wall Street Journal Student 
Achievement Aivard : The award of a 
paperweight and a year's 
subscription to the Wall Street 
Journal is presented to a senior in 
the Department of Economics and 
to a senior in the Department of 
Management who have shown 
outstanding academic achievement 
in the study of finance and 
economics. 

Charles K Wolfe Memorial Award : An 
award is given by Alpha Xi Delta to 
a graduating senior on the basis of 
scholarly endeavor, warinth of 
personality, and dedication to the 
College. 

Marion Zulauf Poetry Prize : The 
income from a fund, established at 
The Academy of American Poets by 
Sander Zulauf (1968) in memory of 
his mother, is presented annually to 
that student who writes the winning 
entry in a poetry contest sponsored 
by the Department of English. 



n ^^^a""^ 



L-i 



Mjl I 




COURSES OF STUDY 

66 



Each year the registrar's office issues a listing of courses 
to be taught during the fall and spring semesters and 
the times they will be taught. Students should consult 
this announcement of courses to obtain the most 
current information about course offerings since the 
College does not offer every course listed in the 
following pages each year. 

Usually, courses numbered 100-199 are at a beginning 
level. Intermediate courses are numbered 200-299. 
Courses numbered 300-399 are at an upperclass level. 
Courses numbered 400 and above are advanced 
seminars, internships, and indi^^dualized study. 

Courses which are listed with two numbers, e.g., Biolog)' 
101,102, span two semesters. For courses separated by a 
hyphen, the first numbered course must be taken as a 
prerequisite for the second. Where the two numbers 
are separated by a comma, either of the semesters of 
the course may be taken independently of the other. 

The College and distribution requirements for the 
degree are listed on page 24 and for a B.S. in Music 
Education on page 41. Courses to meet the distribution 
requirements are offered in various departments. 

Following is a listing of the courses that satisfy each of 
the distribution requirements. The department 
introductions and course listings on the following 
pages indicate to a greater degree the specific courses 
which fulfill certain requirements. 

Requirements Courses that fulflll the requirement 

Writing Proficiency English 101 (or exemption by 
examination). 



Health and 
Physical Education 



Any HPE quarter course. 



First Year Colloquy 



Foreign Language 



Arts 



First Year Colloquy (EC) 100, 
but taught by professors from 
various departments. 

French 201-202, 205; 
German 202; Greek 202; 
Japanese 202; Latin 202 or 203; 
Portuguese 202; Russian 202; 
Spanish 202, 205. 

Art (all courses in history and 
theory); English 205; IDS 267; 
Music 101 through 110, 141, 244, 
313, 314 or four semesters of 
applied music instruction with 
departmental permission. 
Theatre Arts (all courses except 
ThA214, 328, 329). 



History/Philosophy Classics 121, 122; Greek 251; 
Latin 251; French 3 11, 3 12; 
German 211, 212, 213; Spanish 
310, 311; IDS 206, 211, 227, 228; 
Latin American Studies 140; 
Histon.' (all courses except Hist 
300); Philosophy (all courses). 



Literature 



Natural Science 



Religion 



Social Sciences 



Non-Western 
Culture 



African American Studies 216; 
Classics 262, 264, 266; French, 
German, Greek, Latin and 
Spanish Literature, but not 
language or civilization courses; 
IDS 103,104, 235, 237, 238, 246, 
247; English (all courses 
except Eng. 101, 201, 203, 205, 
206, 208, 209, 305 and courses in 
speech and most theatre arts) . 
Theatre Arts 214, 328, 329. 
Women's Studies 216, 217, 219. 

Biology 101, 102 or 101, 112; 
Chemistry 101, 102 or 111, 112; 
Astronomy 101, 102; Physics 101, 
102or llLor 111, 112. 

(all 100- and 200-level courses) 
IDS 267. 

Anthropology (all courses); 
Economics 103, 104; Political 
Science 101, 102, 103, 104; 
Psychology 101; Sociology 
(all courses except Sociology 
302, 303). 

African American Studies 130, 
233; Anthropolog)' (all courses 
except Anth 102); Art 227; 
Economics 326, 337, 338; 
French 331; Hist 221, 222, 224, 
271, 272, 321; IDS 227, 228, 235, 
237, 238, 285, 312; Mus 102; 
Political Science 263, 270, 271, 
362; Religion 108, 241, 242, 245; 
Sociology 219. 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 



67 



First Year Colloquy 



Professor Neil Beach, Director 

This required seminar, which employs common 
requirements and content for all first year students, is 
designed to strengthen reasoning, writing, and 
speaking skills. Using a multi-disciplinary theme as a 
focus, students analyze readings, films, and other 
presentations through intensive writing and discussion. 
Previous themes for the Colloquy were "Social Justice," 
"Revolution," and "Knowing"; the current theme is 
"Trading Eyes: Exploring Alternative Visions." 

Over 30 instructors from a wide variety of disciplines 
teach the Colloquy in sections of no more than 16 
students each. Students take the Colloquy in either 
the fall or spring term. 

African-American Studies 

African-American Studies Program Advisory Coimcil 
Associate Professors Frank Chiteji, Coordinator 
(African American Studies, History) , George Pick 
(History), Frederick Michelman (French), Robert 
Winas (English), Liliane Floge (Sociology, Associate 
Provost). Assistant Professors Deborah Barnes 
(English) Edward DeClair (Political Science) Maria 
Zielena (Spanish). Parker Johnson, Dean, 
Intercultural Resource Center 

Overview 

African-American Studies is an interdepartmental 
program which focuses on an examination and analysis 
of African-American experiences, institutions and 
perspectives. (African-American Studies is here broadly 
defined as the study of peoples of Afiica and the 
African diaspora) . Gettysburg College offers courses in 
African-American Studies for all students wishing to 
become aware of the history, cultures and societies of 
Black people worldwide. These courses are offered in a 
variety of academic departments and taught by persons 
with interest and background in African and African 
American Studies. Subject to the approval of the 
Coordinator of African-American Studies students can 
declare African American Studies as a special major or 
minor field of concentration. 

The African-American Studies emphasizes the social 
sciences and humanities, and may include a range of 
courses as well as opportimities for independent and 
off-campus study. 



Requirements and Recommendations 

The Program offers a minor field of concentration and 
a special major in African-Atnerican Studies. Students 
wishing a minor field of concentration are required to 
complete six courses which must include African 
American Studies 130 and 401. Four others may be 
taken from any of the following: African American 
Studies 216, 217, 233; History 238, 271, 272; Economics 
337; English 250, 349; Religion 224 and Sociology 209 

Students may also elect to have a special major in 
African American Studies which can be done in coop- 
eration wdth the Interdepartmental Studies. Those 
wishing a special major shovild consult the 
Coordinator of the program. 

Students with a minor or a special major of concentra- 
fion in African American Studies are able to go to law 
school, medical school, and graduate school in varied 
disciplines, or may obtain employment in business, 
education, government, and social service organiza- 
tions. Others may choose to maintain their involvement 
with African and American concerns and causes. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following courses meet the distribution require- 
ment in non-Western Culture: African American 
Studies 130, 233, Interdepartmental Studies 235, 312, 
History 271, 272 and Economics 238. 

Course Offerings 

African American Studies 

130 Introduction to African-American Studies. 

Considers the African American within the broader 
context of the African Diaspora. Students are 
introduced to a broad range of themes in their 
historical context, from the African origin to the 
formation of African American sociefies and cultures 
in the African diaspora. Other themes include: the 
enslavement of Africans, the rise and fall of slavocracy, 
and the era of the Civil Rights Struggles. 

Mr. Chiteji 

152 Sociology of Black Consciousness: The 
Caribbean and the United States. A study of the 
sociology of Black consciousness which has swept 
Africa and its Diaspora in the twentieth century. 
Special attenfion will be given to the United States and 
the Caribbean. This course examines the Garvey 
movement, the Harlem Renaissance and the Pan 
African movement, and the nature of African 
American/African Caribbean cooperation. This course 
also introduces students to the sociology of black 



68 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 



political though and to the role played by the United 
States in fostering the growth of black consciousness. 

Ms. Brodber 

216 African American Literature. An overview of 
African American literature, from the slave nanative to 
contemporary fiction. The course will focus on the ways 
that African American literature is both inside and 
outside the traditional canon of American literature. 
Students will look at home African American literature 
reflects the African American experience, and at 
different definitions of "Black Aesthetics." The course 
also includes such writers as Phyllis Wlieately, Frederick 
Douglas, Charles Waddell Chestnutt, Nella Larsen, Zora 
Neale Hurston, Margaret Walker, Charles Johnson, and 
Toni Morrison. Fulfills the literature requirement. 

Ms. Berg 

217 Slavery and the Literary Imagination. Study of 
various forms of discourse on American chattel 
slavery — authentic emancipatory narratives written by 
ex-slaves; slave narratives recorded by WTA writers; 
socio-historical essays; neo-slave narrative written by 
contemporar)' novelists; poetry, ballads, spirituals and 
folklore. Students will examine the experiences of the 
middle passage, chattel slavery, and emancipation as 
it has been described by African American writers. 
This course will include primary works by Olaudah 
Equiano, Frederick Douglas, Harriet Jacobs, Octavio 
Butler, Sherley Anne Williams, Charles Johnsoti, Toni 
Morrison, David Bradley, and Ernest Gains. 

Ms. Barnes 

233 Southern African: History, Conflict and Change. 

It introduces students to a dynamic and yet conflict- 
ridden part of the African continent. It also provides 
students with the historical context which would 
enable them to view the infolding events in the region 
in their proper perspective. The course starts with the 
characteristics of the pre-colonial societies and the 
nature of their early contact with the European 
settlers in the 17th century, the triumph of the white 
immigrants over the indigenous Africans, the rise 
emergence of South Africa as a regional economic 
power, and the social contradictions that have come 
characterize what is now called the Republic of South 
.\frica. A subject of special attention will be the 
internal and external opposition to racial oppression. 

Mr. Chiteji 



400 African American Studies Seminar. 

Topics will vary each year. 



Mr. Chiteji 



Economics 

326 African Economic History. Examines 
intensively Africa, using the framework of economic 
analysis and political economy to consider economic 
history, growth, and development within Africa. 

Mr. Kallon 

337 Political Economy of The African Diaspora. 

Examines the origins and development of capitalism 
and the contribution of Third World people and 
minorities in the United States to the process and 
continued growth of capitalist development. It also 
examines current economic, social, and political 
issues as they relate to, and effect. Third World 
peoples. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Gondwe 

338 Economic Development. Examines the 
economic and non-economic factors accoimting for 
the economic growth and development of less- 
developed areas of the world. Various theories of 
economic and social growth and development will be 
analyzed, and major policy issues will be discussed. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 1043. Satisfies 
distribution requirement in non-Western Culture. 

Mr. Gondwe 

English 

250 Harlem Renaissance and Chicago 
Renaissance. This course defines, examines, and 
differentiates between two important African i\merican ■ 
literary^ movements — the Harlem Renaissance and the ■ 
Chicago Renaissance — through the major fiction, 
poetr\', and prose writers of the period. j 

Ms. Barnes I 

349 Major Contemporary African-American 
Women Writers. This course will explore the social, 
cultural, and domestic concerns of the contemporary 
African American Women. Students will examine the 
impact of integration on the Black women's self- 
conception, self-expression, and autonomy. The 
course will place critical emphasis on race, gender, 
and class as these influence the Black woman's role as 
culture-bearer in the novels of .\lice Walker, Morrison, 
Naylor, Shange, Marshall, Bambara, and Butler. 

Ms. Barnes 

History 

233 Mission, Destiny and Dream in American 
History. An introduction to American history from 
the seventeenth century to the present by focusing 
upon the intertwining themes of the American 
people's belief in their unique mission and destiny in 
the world and their dream of creating a just and 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES 



69 



prosperous society. Students will probe the varying 
manifestations of these themes through major events 
and movements in American social, economic, and 
cultural life and in politics and diplomacy. 

Mr. Fomess 

236 Urbanism in American History. An intro- 
duction to American history from the perspective of 
urbanism. Beginning with the colonial town and con- 
tinuing to the megalopolis of the mid-twentieth centuiy, 
students will invesdgate the nature of urban life and its 
influence upon the course of American development. 

Mr. Fomess 

238 African American History. Focuses on aspects 
of the African American experience from the 17th 
century to the present; special attention will be given 
to the slave experience; emancipation and recon- 
struction; racial attitudes; the northward migration of 
African Americans in the 20th century; and the Civil 
Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. 

Mr. Birkner 

271, 272 African History and Society. History 271 
starts from the earliest evolution of humankind, the 
course examines the history of Africa through the 
millennia of the Stone Age to the rise of and decline 
of the states and societies of Africa in the ancient and 
medieval world. Students will also examine state 
formations, Africa's relationship to the world 
economy, and European era of exploration, conquest 
and colonization. History 271 continues from the 
1880s and the events and processes leading to 
decolonization and the post-colonial developments. 

Mr. Chileji 

335, 336 American Social and Cultiu-e History. 

Traces America's major social, religious, artistic, and 
philosophical movements and their immediate and 
long-range impact on American Revolution, History 
335 covers the period to the Civil War. History 336 
continues from that period to the present. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Fomess 

Interdepartmental Studies 
235 A survey in English of modem sub-Saharan 
African literature. After an introductory section on 
background and the oral tradition, the course will 
treat the primary themes of this writing, many of 
which bear the stamp of colonial experience and its 
aftermath. Representative novels, plays and poetry 
will be read and discussed for their artistic value and 
cultural insights. 

Mr. Michelman 



312 Ancient Egypt: Its Language, Literature, Art 
and History. A study of Ancient Egypt's culture as 
reflected in its language, literature, and art. Although 
the student's study of the Egyptian language itself will 
be confined to the script, vocabulary and grammar of 
the Middle Kingdom (c.2240-1570 B.C.E.), Egypt's 
literature and art from 2900-1 100 B.C.E. will be 
presented in their historical context. Fulfills distribu- 
tion requirement in non-Western culture and may be 
counted toward the requirements for a religion major. 

Mr. Moore 

Music 

102 World Music Survey. A study of various selected 
music cultures found around the world with particular 
emphasis on non-Western regions of sub-Saharan 
Africa, the mid-East, and Asia. 

Staff 

Political Science 

263 The Politics of Developing Areas. Introduction 
to the study of political imderdevelopment, including 
approaches to Third World politics; the nature of 
traditional politics; disruptions caused by colonialism 
and imperialism; the reformation of domestic politics; 
contemporary political processes and problems. 
Prerequisites: PS 104 or permission of Instructor. 

Staff 

Religion 

140 Religion and Politics in the Twentieth Centiuy 
U.S. A survey of the relationship between religion 
and public life since 1900. Emphasis will be on the 
constitutional framework which guides the church- 
state debate, and on efforts to use religion to 
influence political policies and social values. Supreme 
Court decisions, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Ci\il 
Rights Movement, the Catholic Worker Movement, 
and the Moral Majority will be included. 

Staff 

223 ReUgions in U.S. An investigation of the 
religious history of the Ainerican people from the 
seventeenth centuiy to the present. This course will 
focus upon the varieties of American religious 
experience. It will explore the Protestant, Roman 
Catholic, and Jewish traditions along with indigenous 
movements such as Mormonism and Christian Science. 

Staff 

224 Religions of Black Americans. An examination 
of the religious traditions of Black Americans from 
"slave religion" to the present. The course will concen- 
trate on the religious beliefs of African Americans and 
the ways those beliefs have been used to develop 



70 



AFRICAN AMERICAN STUDIES / ART 



strategies to achieve freedom and justice. The general 
approach of the course will be historical. Among the 
subjects to be covered will be the influence of Africa 
religion, African American religious nationalism, 
Pentecostalism, spirituals and gospel music, and the 
civil rights movement. To be offered in alternate years. 

Staff 

321 Martin Luther King, Jr. Half-credit course. An 
examination of the religious thought and civil rights 
activity of Martin Luther King, Jr. The course will 
investigate the religious sources and effectiveness of 
King's strategy of nonviolent resistance. King's major 
civil rights campaigns, his protest against the Vietnam 
War, and his work for economic justice will be 
evaluated. Special attention will be paid to the 
theology which provides the foundation for King's 
work. Prerequisite: One course in a related subject 
(such as Rel 140, Rel 224, or an African American 
Studies course), or permission of the instructor. 

Staff 

Sociology 

209 Racial and Ethnic Relations in America. 

Comprehensive study of ethnic and minority relations. 
Theoretical perspectives include immigration and 
assimilation, prejudice and discrimination, and the 
structure of the ethnic community. The study of 
African American, European immigrant, and Asian 
American communities is emphasized. Prerequisites: 
Sociology 101. 

Mr. Emmons 

Individualized Study An individual tutorial, research 
project, or internship requiring the permission of an 
instructor who will supervise the project. The 
instructor can supply a copy of a statement of 
departmental policy regarding grading and major 
credit for different types of projects. Either semester. 

Staff 

Art 

Professor Paulson 

Associate Professors Agard, Trevelyan (Chairperson) 
Instructor Small 
Adjunct Professor Annis 

Adjunct Instructors Blair, Hanley, Ramos, and 
Winship 

Overview 

The art department has the following major 
objectives: (1) to educate the visual sensibilities 
beyond the routine responses, toward an awareness of 
the visual environment around us, as well as cognition 



of works of art as the living past; (2) to study the 
historical cultural significance and aesthetic structure 
of architecture, painting, and sculpture, and the 
enduring dialogue between continuity and change; 
(3) to teach the history of art and the practice of art 
as separate-but-interrelated disciplines; (4) to provide 
the interested major with a curriculum which will give 
her or him a foundation for graduate or professional 
study leading to a career in high school or college I 

teaching, to commercial art and industrial design, or j 
as a professional painter, sculptor, or printmaker. 

The department offers to prospective majors a flexible 
program of study in interrelated studio and art history 
courses. It encourages students from disciplines other 
than art to select from both types of courses. 

Requirements and Reconmiendations 

Requirements for students concentrating in studio 
art are as follows. 

1) Art 141, 145, 146, 120, and either 210, 322, 335, or 
318. 

2) At least one course each in painting, printmaking, 
and sculpture. 

3) Additional courses in at least two of the three 
disciplines listed in #2, or photography. 

4) A minimum of two additional courses in the area of 
historv' and/or theory of art, 1 1 1 and 112. Students 
are encouraged to take additional courses in the 
discipline of their special interest and competence. 

5) Participation in the senior show at the end of the I 
second semester of the senior year. 

Students intending to concentrate in studio art are 
advised to take the following courses. 

A) Art 141 and 145 in their first year of college if their 
interests will lead to an emphasis in painting and 
printmaking. 

B) Art 141, 145, and 146 in their first year of college if 
their interests will lead to an emphasis in 
sculpture/painting or sculpture/printmaking. 

C) Art 120 and 210 or 322 or 335 in the first year of 
college or sophomore year. 

Requirements for majors concentrating in the history 
of art are as follows. 

1) Art 120 and a minimum of eight additional courses 
in art history. These courses must include at least 
two (2) 300-level courses and Art 400. They will be 
selected by the student in consultation with the 
adviser, in order to meet his or her projected needs 
and to construct a coherent program. 



ART 



71 



2) Two basic studio courses in order to sharpen visual 
perception and foster an understanding of visual 
structure. 

Students intending to concentrate in the history of 
art should take Art 111, 112, and 120 in the first year 
of college. 

Students interested in minoring in studio art are 
advised to take the following courses. 

1 ) Four studio courses. 

2) Two art history and/or theory of art courses. 

Students interested in minoring in art history are 
advised to take the following courses. 

1) Art 120. 

2) Three additional art history and/or theoiT of art 
courses. 

3) One 100-level studio course. 

4) One 200-level studio course. 

N. B. Students minoring in either art history and/or 
theory of art or studio art should be reminded that no 
more than two 100-level courses are acceptable to 
fulfill the College's requirements for a minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

Any course in the area of history and theoi^ of art 
may be counted toward the distribution requirement 
in arts, with the exception of History of the Cinema, 
which does not. 

Special Facilities 

The new 1,660 sq. foot Schmucker Hall Art Gallery 
displays over ten different exhibitions each year. 
Included in the gallery calendar are works by 
professional artists, a faculty show, a student show, 
several senior art major shows, and numerous theme 
and specially funded exhibitions. A collection of 
approximately 45,000 color slides supports the 
teaching of art history and studio classes. Available to 
students is a corresponding collection of 20,000 
opaque color reproductions of architectiue, painting, 
and sculpture. Art museums in Washington, D.C., 
Baltimore, and Philadelphia, as well as art exhibits at 
the College, make possible the necessary contact with 
original works of art. The department has presses for 
relief, surface, and intaglio printmaking. For 
sculpture it has both gas and electric welding 
equipment; air power tools for working in wood 
stone, and plastic; two kilns for ceramic arts; a small 
foundry for bronze casting; and heavy lifting beams 
and hoists. 



History and Theory of Art 

111, 112 Ideas and Events Behind the Arts 

Introductory study of the visual arts from prehistoric 
times to the nineteenth century. Class will examine 
reasons for changes in the content, form, and function 
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional art. 
Exercises in visual analysis of individual works develop 
critical methods. Fvilfills distribution requirement. 
Juniors and seniors only by pemiission of the instructor. 

Ms. Small 

120 Theory of the Visual Arts A course to give the 
liberal arts student a basic approach to visual exper- 
ience. Class examines factors which relate to the 
making of art, functions of art, and viewer relation- 
ships with art including methods of analysis. In 
addition to class lectures and discussions, sessions of 
hand-on experience assist students in understanding 
the processes of making visual imagery. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. Juniors and 
seniors only by permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Small 

201 Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome An intro- 
duction to the painting, sculpture, and architecture 
of the classical world, focusing on cultural and 
intellectual differences between the people of these 
two civilizations as reflected in the arts of both. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. Juniors 
and seniors only by permission of the instructor. 

Staff 

202 Arts of the Middle Ages Survey of the arts of 
the Medieval period and their development from the 
Roman catacomb through the high Gothic cathedral. 
Analysis of art as a reflection of changing political and 
social conditions in Europe, with particular emphasis 
on liturgical arts in the Middle Ages. Fulfills distribu- 
tion requirement. Recommended prior course: Art 
III or Art 201. 

Mr. Ramos 

205 The Arts of Northern Europe: A.D.1350-1575 

An analysis of artistic developments in Northern 
Europe from late Gothic times through the turbulent 
period of the Reformation. The works of many arUsts 
including Jan Van Eyck, Claus Sluter, Hieronymous 
Bosch, Hans Holbein and Albrecht Durer will be 
explored to discover the ways in which social, political 
and intellectvial developments are mirrored in the art 
of that period. Fulfills distribution requirement in 
Arts. Prerequisite: An 201 or any one-hundred level art 
history course or permission of instructor. Alternate 
years. Offered Spring 1994. 

Staff 



72 



ART 



206 European Painting 1700-1900 Introduction to 
eighteenth centun' painters in Italy, France, and 
England and their relationship to the Enlightenment. 
Major emphasis on the evolution of painting in France 
during the nineteenth century in relation to the 
changing social, political, and philosophical climate. 
Special attention will be given to impressionism and 
post-impressionism. Alternate years. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art I II or Art 112 
or Art 120 or Art 201 or permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Small 

210 Twentieth Century European Painting Study of 
the schools and critical writings surrounding the major 
figures. Such movements as Art Nouveau, Nabis, 
Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, German Expressionism, 
De Stijl, Dada, and Surrealism will be considered. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. Recom- 
mended prior courses: Art 1 1 1 or Art 1 1 2 or Art 1 20. 

Ms. Small 

215 German Art from Middle Ages to Today (See 
description for Fall Semester in Cologne, Germany 
imder Department of German.) 

217 History of Modem Architecture Study of the 
character and development of modern architecture 
and the contributions of Sullivan, Wright, Gropius, 
and Corbusier toward creating new environments for 
contemporar)' societ)'. Alternate years. Fulfills 
distribution requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 
II I or Art 1 12 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Annis 

221 Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century American 
Painting Survey of American painting from the 
Colonial Period to 1900, studied in relationship to 
developments in Europe, and with emphasis on the 
response of art to the changing social and 
technological environment in America. Alternate 
years. Fulfills the distribution requirement in the arts. 

Ms. Small 

227 Arts of the First Nations of North America A 

survey of the arts created by the original inhabitants of 
North America, emphasizing the cultural and religious 
traditions that formed the basis for most of it. Emphasis 
will be on developing an imderstanding and appre- 
ciation of the fundamental differences between the arts 
and cultures of Native people and those of modem 
Western cultures, as well as aspects of .similarity. The 
arts and people of every major geographical region in 
North America will be examined. Fulfills the distri- 
bution requirement in the arts and the distribution 
requirement in non-Western culture. 

Ms. Trevelyan 



238 History of Cinema: 1919-Post World War I A 

svir\'ey of movie making from its inception as a 
medium to the Post World War II era. This course 
does not fulfill the distribution requirement in Arts or 
any requirements for the Art major or minor. 

Ms.Hanley 

239 History of Cinema: Post World War Il-Present 

A survey of movie making from the Post World War II 
era to the present. This course does not fulfill the 
distribution requirement in Arts of any requirements 
for the Art major or minor. 

Ms. Hartley 

303 Painting, Sculpture and Architectiu"e in the 
ItaUan Renaissance A suney of the visual arts 
during the centuries that, in many ways, mark the 
boundary between the ancient world and the modern 
one. The course will approach the arts of the period 
from this perspective. Many of the artists and 
monuments included are traditionally acknowledged 
to be among the finest in the history of art, including 
the works of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, 
Raphael, and Titian. A secondary focus of the course 
will be to question and explore the reasons why the 
art of this period is so acclaimed. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in the arts. Prerequisite: Art 1 1 1 or Art 1 12 
or Art 201 or permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Trevelyan 

307 The Mannerist and Baroque Periods in 
European Art A study of painting, sculpture, and 
architecture in Europe from the first decades after 
the Reformation through their transformation under 
the impact of the Counter Reformation. Artistic 
developments in Italy will be discussed as well as allied 
approaches in northern Europe and Spain. The 
works of some of the world's best known artists will be 
examined — including Bernini, Caravaggio, Rubens, 
Rembrandt, Vermeer, El Greco, Velasquez, and 
Poussin. Fulfills distribution requirement in the arts. 
Prerequisite: Art 201 or any 100-level art history course 
or permission of instructor. Alternate years. 

Staff 

318 Post-Modem Art A critical examination of the 
art forms and issues which identify' the current post- 
modern phase of twentieth-century art. Past and 
current u.sages of the terms "modern" and "avant- 
garde" will be explored in the context of 
contemporary modes of visual expression, art 
criticism, communications technology and cultural 
pluralism. Prerequisite : two courses in art history 
and/or theon or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Annis 



ART 



73 



322 Painting in America Since 1900 Survey of 
twentieth-century painting. Two basic themes of the 
course are the changing social role painting as 
America's self-image develops and the aesthetic role of 
the eclectic process. Fulfills the distribution requirement 
in the arts. Recommended prior course: History 132. 

Ms. Small 

400 Seminar An advanced study of a specific issue in 
art history. Although the approach will vary to some 
extent according to the specific topic, common 
denominators will be a close examination and analysis 
of art objects and a thorough investigation of the 
historical and social background. Students will develop 
skills in advanced verbal and visual research, written 
and oral projects, and critiques. Topics will be selected 
according to interest in significant areas not otherwise 
covered in course offerings. Topics presently under 
consideration are: Ruskin and the Nineteenth Century, 
Influence of Japanese Prints on Western Painting, 
American Female Artists since 1945. Alternate years for 
one semester. Prerequisites: Minimum of three art 
history courses, at least one of which is a 300-level 
course, or permission of the instructors. 

Ms. Trevelyan, Ms. Small 

Studio Courses 

The purpose of all studio courses is to sharpen the sense 
of sight; coordinate mind, hand, and eye; develop the 
ability to organize visual material; and to integrate the 
intuitive and rational into creative activity. Lectures 
accompany basic studio courses when necessary to relate 
theory and practice. The Lora Qually Hicks memorial 
fund, established by family and friends in honor of Lora 
Qually Hicks (Class of 1971 ) , provides funds for the 
purchase of works created by Gettysburg students. 

141 Introduction to Drawing An introductory 
course. Drawing from the model and controlled 
studio problems. Intended to promote coordination 
of the hand and the eye to achieve a degree of 
technical mastery over a variety of drawing tools. 
Emphasis will be placed on line quality, techniques of 
shading, negative-positive relationships, figure-ground 
relationships, form, structure, and an awareness of the 
total field. Offered fall semester only. Open to first 
year students and sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard 

145 Basic Design (two-dimensional) An intro- 
ductory course to help the student develop a capacity to 
think and work conceptually as well as perceptually, and 
to provide a basic discipline with which to organize a 
variety of materials into structural and expressive form. 
Open to first year students and sophomores only. 

Mr. Agard, Ms. Hartley 



146 Basic Design (three dimensional) An 

introductoiy course extending the basic disciplines of 
141 into the third dimension. Projects introduce 
materials such as clay, plaster, wood, and metal. The 
intent of this course is to assist students in organizing 
three-dimensional forms. Open to first year students 
and sophomores only. 

Mr. Paulson 

251 Introduction to Painting Development of a 
series of paintings according to a thematic image. 
Assigned problems are designed to introduce a 
variety of conceptual, procedural, and experimental 
possibilities. Prerequisite: Kn 141 or permission of the 
instructor. Recommended prior course: Art 322. 

Mr. Agard, Mr. Winship 

252 Intermediate Painting Development of unique 
and experimental techniques, procedures, images, 
presentations, and textural applications. A series of 
paintings is developed. Alternative concepts and 
methodology are discussed. Students are referred to 
works by artists who have related aesthetic interests. 
Prerequisites: Art 141 or permission of the instructor 
and Art 251. 

Mr Agard 

255 Introductory Printmaking An introductory 
course in printmaking. The creative process as 
conditioned and disciplined by the intaglio 
techniques. Discussion of past and contemporary 
methods, and the study of original prints. Prerequisites: 
Art 141 or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Paulson 

256 Printmaking Also an introductory course in print- 
making. Experimental work primarily concentrating on 
lithography, seriography, and cameo techniques. 
Prerequisite: Art 141. Recommended course: Art 145. 

Mr. Paulson 

261 Introductory Sculpture An introduction to the 
fundamentals of three-dimensional forms and modes 
of expression involving creative problems in the 
organization of space, mass, volume, line, and color. 
Correlated lectures and demonstrations will be used to 
acquaint the student with those aspects of sculptural 
history and theory relevant to studio projects. This 
course is intended for the general student as well as 
the art major. Prerequisite: Art 146 or permission of the 
instructor. Recommended prior course: Art 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

262 Sculpture A program of studio projects 
(arranged by the instructor and the student) con- 
cerned with developing an individual approach to 



74 



ART / BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/ BIOLOGY 



three-dimensional form, with concentration in directly 
fabricating techniques involving a series of 
experiments in spacial organization. Prerequisites: Ail 
146 or permission of the instructor, and Art 261. 
Recommended prior course: Art 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

263 Ceramics An introduction to earth (clay), the 
most basic of materials as a medium for personal 
three-dimensional expression. The material will be 
approached as a tectonic structural medium as it is 
used by the potter but in an intellectual and poetic 
sculptural application. 

Mr.Paulson 

265 Photography 

An introductory course in photography with a 
concentration on camera usage, design theory, and 
darkroom techniques as tool of the Black and White 
creative process. Additional emphasis on origins, 
evolution and relationship of the photographic image 
to contemporary materials and methods. Prerequisite 
Art 141 or 145 or Permission of instructor. 

Mr. Blair 

341 Intermediate Drawing Intermediate studio 
problems: emphasis on drawing concepts and the 
development of individual student concerns in a 
series. Prerequisites: P^i 141 or permission of the 
instructor, and Art 142. Offered spring semester only. 

Mr. Agard 

351 Advanced Painting Advanced studio problems: 
emphasis on painting concepts and the development 
of individual student concerns in a series. Prerequisites: 
Art 141 or permission of the instructor, Art 251, 252, 
322. Offered odd years only. 

Mr. Agard 

355 Advanced Printmaking Experimental 
printmaking concentrating on personal development 
of one method and exploration. Prerequisites: Art 141 
or permission of the instructor, and Art 255, 256. 

Mr. Paulson 

361 Advanced Sculpture Further exploration of 
individual three-dimensional concerns with concen- 
tration in one media and technique. Prerequisites: Art 146 
or permission of the instructor, and Art 261, 262, 335. 

Mr. Paulson 

Individualized Study Provides an opportunity for the 
well-qualified student to execute supervised projects in 
the area of his or her special interest, whether studio 
or history. Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 



Biochemistry and 
Molecular Biology 



Ralph Sorensen and William Parker, Coordinators 

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology is an interdisci- 
plinary program that studies the biology and chemistry 
of the strtictures and chemical reactions within cells by 
using contemporary' methods of biochemical analysis, 
recombinant DNA technology, and molecular biology. 

Students may major in Biochemistry and Molecular 
Biology by completing the following courses: 

Biology 101: Introductory Biology 
Biology 112: Form and Function in Living Organisms 
Biology 309: Cell Biology 
Biology 310: Genetics 
Biology 351: Molecular Genetics 
Chemistn,' 111: Fundamentals of Chemistry 
Chemistr)' 112: Fundamentals of Chemistry 
Chemistry 203: Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 204: Organic Chemistry 
Chemistry 305: Physical Chemistry 
Chemistry 317: Instrumental Analysis 
Chemistry 333: Biochemistry 
Chemistry 334: Biochemistry 
Mathematics 111: Calculus I 
Mathematics 112: Calculus 11 
Physics 111: Mechanics and Heat 
Physics 112: Waves and Electricity and Magnetism 
Biolog)' 460 or Chemistry 460: Individualized Study - 
Research 

Together with the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 
Coordinators, the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 
Committee (BMBC), consisting of faculty members in 
Biology and Chemistry, directs the program. 

Individualized Study projects (Biology or Chemistry 
460) may be directed by any member of the BMBC. 
Otherwise, the project requires the approval of the 
BMBC. 



Biology 



Professors Barnes, Cavaliere, Hendrix, and Mikesell 
Associate Professors Beach, Etheridge, Sorensen 

(Chairperson), and J. Winkelmann 
Assistant Professors Hiraizumi and James 
Laboratory Instructors Armor, Hulsether, Price, 

Reese, H.Winkelmann, and Zeman 



BIOLOGY 



75 



Overview 

Courses in the department are designed to provide a 
foundation in basic biological concepts and principles, 
and the background necessary for graduate study in 
biology, forestry, dentistry, medicine, veterinary 
medicine, and other professional fields. Most courses 
in the department include laboratory work. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The biology department offers both a Bachelor of 
Arts (B.A.) and a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree 
for the major. 

B.A. requirements: 

A minimum of eight biology courses, including 
Biology 101, 112, 309, and 310, are required of all 
majors. Internships are excluded. Beyond these four, 
no specific biology courses are required. Every 
program must include at least one course from each 
of two areas: plant biology (Bio 202, 204, 217, 300) 
and animal biology (Bio 201, 220, 224, 227, 325). No 
single course may satisfy more than one area. This 
relative freedom permits the attainment of the 
different backgrounds required for various biological 
careers. Specialization at the expense of breadth, 
however, is discouraged. Students, in consultation 
with their advisers, should construct a broad, 
balanced curriculum. Biology 101 and 112 are 
prerequisites for all upper-level biology courses. 
Exceptions are made for those minoring in biology or 
by permission of the instructor. 

Chemistry 111 and 112 are required of all majors. It is 
desirable, but not essential, that Chemistry 1 1 1 and 
1 12 be taken in the first year. Physics 111, 112, and 
Math 111 (or Math 105-106) are also required. 

B.S. requirements: 

In addition to the courses noted above, the B.S. 
degree requires Individualized Study (Biology 460), 
and Chemistry 203, 204. 

A minor in biology includes Biology 101, 112 (or 
Biology 101, 102) and any other four courses in the 
department (provided that all prerequisites are met) 
which would count toward the major. 

All courses taken to satisfy the requirements for the 
B.A. or B.S. degree or for the minor must be taken 
using the A-F grading system. 

Distribution Requirements 

The distribution requirement in laboratory science may 
be satisfied by Biology 101, 102 or by Biology 101, 112. 



Special Facilities 

Greenhouse, animal quarters, aquarium room, 
instrument room, environmental chambers, electron 
microscopy laboratory housing both scanning (jEOL 
JSM T20) and transmission (Zeiss EM 109) electron 
microscopes, herbarium, and research laboratories. 

Special Programs 

Dual-degree programs in forestry and environmental 
studies with Duke University, nursing with the Johns 
Hopkins University, and optometry with Pennsylvania 
College of Optometry (page 52). Cooperative pro- 
grams in marine biology with Duke University and the 
Bermuda Biological Station for Research (page 49). 

101 Introductory Biology Designed for science and 
non-science majors. The course includes the chemical 
nature of protoplasm; structure and function of cells; 
photosynthesis and respiration; genetics. Three class 
hours and laboratory. 

Staff 

102 Contemporary Topics in Biology Designed for 
non-science majors. The course covers selected bio- 
logical topics and focuses on contemporary problems 
and their possible solutions. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Biology 101 is a prerequisite for Biology 102. 

Staff 

112 Form and Function in Living Organisms 

Designed for science majors. Functional design of 
plants and animals is emphasized. Aspects of 
evolution, phylogeny, and ecology are also covered. 
Three class hours and laboratory. Biology 101 is a 
prerequisite for Biology 112. 

Staff 

201 Vertebrate Morphology Detailed examination 
of the origins, structures, and functions of the organ 
systems of vertebrates. Special attention is given to the 
evolution of major vertebrate adaptations. Three class 
hours and two scheduled laboratories. Alternate years. 
Offered 1991-92. 

Mr. Winkelmann 

202 Structural Plant Development Anatomical 
approach to the study of higher plant structures. The 
origin and differentiation of tissues and organs, envi- 
ronmental aspects of development, and plant anomalies 
are studied. Six hours a week in class-laboratory work. 

Mr. Mikesell 

204 Taxonomy of Flowering Plants Identification, 
classification, structural diversity, and evolutionary 
relationships of angiosperms. The course includes 
extensive field work for collection of local flora, and 



76 



BIOLOGY 



methodology, and principles of related disciplines: 
plant geography, cytogenedcs, and numerical 
taxonomy. Three class hours and laboratory-field. 

Staff 

210 Human Physiology Systems of the body will be 
studied with emphasis on the integration of structure 
and function. Topics include endocrine regulation, 
respiration, nutrition, metabolism, fluid electrolyte 
and pH balance, reproduction, development/ 
inheritance, and the digestive and urinary systems. 
This course is designed specifically for students 
entering fields of allied health; it does not count 
toward the biology major.A student may not receive 
credit for both this course and Biology 340. 

Mr. Biser 

215 Electron Microscopy Introduction to basic 
theory and practice of transmission electron 
microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; 
techniques of tissue preparation and introduction to 
interpretation of animal and plant ultrastnicture. Each 
student will be required to complete an independent 
project. Six class hours in laboratory. Laboratory fee: 
$50.00. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Cavaliere, Mr. Hendrix 

217 An Evolutionary Survey of the Plant Kingdom 

Synopsis of embryo-producing plants, primarily 
liverworts, mosses, fern allies, ferns, and seed plants. 
Emphasis is on comparative morphology, adaptive 
diversity, and phylogeny. Six hours a week in class- 
laboratory work. 

Mr. Mikesell 

220 Animal Embryology Surxey of the phenomena 
and principles of animal development. Major atten- 
tion is given to embryonic development in multi- 
cellular animals. Vertebrates are emphasized in the 
study of organ development. Six hours a week in class- 
laboratory work. Alternate years. Offered 1991-92. 

Mr. Sorensen 

223 Parasitology An introduction to the general prin- 
ciples of parasitism with emphasis upon the epidemi- 
ology, taxonomy, morphology, and physiology of the 
major groups of animal parasites of humans and 
animals. 

Mr. Hendrix 

224 Vertebrate Zoology Introduction to the system- 
atics, distribution, reproduction, and population dy- 
namics of vertebrates. Field and laboratory emphasis 
on natural history, collection, and identification. Six 
hours in class, laboratory, or field. Optional trip to 
North Carolina. 

Mr. Winkelmann 



227 Invertebrate Zoology Biology of the major free- 
living metazoan invertebrate groups with special 
emphasis on adaptive morphology and physiology and 
on evolution. Six hours a week in class-laboratory work. 

Staff 

230 Microbiology Introduction to the biology of 
viruses, bacteria, fiingi, and protists; their morphology, 
taxonomy, reproduction, physiology, and ecology. 
Isolation, culture, environmental influences, identifica- 
tion, and biochemical characterization are emphasized 
in the laboratory. Three class hours and laboratory. 

Mr. Hendrix 

260 Biostatistics Designed for students in biology 
who plan to engage in individualized study and/or 
research. Topics include the nature of biological data 
and the statistical procedures to analyze them. Special 
attention given to experimental design and hypothesis 
testing. Three class hours. A student may not receive 
credit for both this course and Mathematics 107, 
Psychology 205, Sociology 303, or Economics 241. 

Mr. Hiraizumi 

300 Physiology of Plant Adaptations Major 
structural systems, physiological processes and 
adaptations of plants to their environment. Topics 
include growth regulatory substances, photoperiodic 
responses, water balance, nutrition, plant defense 
mechanisms, and the responses of plants to environ- 
mental changes. Prerequisites: One year of Biology 
(Biology lOI, 112, or 102). One year Chemistry 
recommended. Three hours lecture and laboratory. 

Mr. Cavaliere 

305 Ecology Principles of ecology, with emphasis on 
the role of chemical, physical, and biological factors 
affecting the distribution and succession of plant and 
animal populations and communities. The course 
includes numerous field trips to a variety of local 
freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Three class hours 
and laboratory-field work. 

Staff 

309 Cell Biology Structure and function of cell 
membranes and organelles; energy transduction by 
cells; chromosomes and gene expression; the cell 
cycle; selected specialized cell types. Three class 
hours and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chemistry 112. 

Mr. Sorensen 

310 Genetics Overview of principles of genetics. 
Topics include chemical nature of genes, Mendelian 
and non-Mendelian inheritance, gene regulation. 



BIOLOGY/ CHEMISTRY 



77 



genetic engineering, molecular evolution and 
population genetics. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Prerequisite: Biology 309. 
f Mr. Hiraizumi 

' 325 Animal Behavior Study of animal behavior 
through readings, films, discussions, and field and 
laboratory observations. A wide range of phenomena 
will be considered, from simple reflex responses to 
complex social organizations. The role of behavioral 
adaptations in the biology of animal species will be 
emphasized. Three class hours and laboratory. 
Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

! Mr. Winkelmann 

332 Immunobiology Introduction to the vertebrate 
immune system at the molecular, cellular, and 
organismal levels. Antibody structure, antigen- 
antibody interaction, the genetics of antibody 
diversity, the immune response, and the bases of 
self/non-self discrimination are emphasized. 
Prerequisites: Biology 309, 310. Three class hours and 
laboratory. Alternate years. Offered 1992-93. 

Mr. Sorensen 

340 Comparative Animial Physiology Regulation of 
basic physiological processes in animals. Unifying 
principles will be studied using a comparative 
approach. Prerequisite: Biology 309. Three class hours 
and laboratory. A student may not receive credit for 
both this course and Biology 210. 

Ms. Etheridge 

351 Molecular Genetics Study of the basic 
mechanisms of information storage and retrieval 
from DNA and RNA. Topics include genome 
organization and the regulation of gene expression 
in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; mechanism of DNA 
replication and recombination; molecular basis of 
mutation; retroviruses and oncogenes. 

Mr. James 

460 Individualized Study - Research Independent 
investigation of a topic of special interest to the 
student, normally including both literature and 
laboratory research, directed by a faculty member 
familiar with the general field of study. The results of 
the investigation will be presented to the department. 
Open to juniors and seniors. A single Individualized 
Study may be used toward one of the eight courses 
required for the B.A. degree. Prerequisite: Approv3\ 
of both the directing faculty member and the 
department prior to registration. 

Staff 



47 1 , 473 Individualized Study - Internship 

Independent internship experience under the direct 
supervision of professional personnel in a variety of 
biology-related areas. Internship may be arranged by 
the department or the student. Must combine 
practical work experience with an academic 
dimension. Library research paper on a subject 
related to the experience is required. Prerequisite: 
Approval of both the supervisor and the department. 

Chemistry 

Professors Fortnum and Rowland 

Associate Professors Grzybowski, Jameson, and 

Parker (Chairperson) 
Assistant Professors Holland and Schoolcraft 
Assistant Instructors Englerth and Gregory 

Overview 

Each course offered by the department provides an 
opportunity for a concentrated study of the various 
principles of classical and contemporary chemical 
knowledge. From the introductory to the advanced 
courses, application is made of basic theories and 
methods of chemical investigation. The courses 
offered by the department utilize lectures, discussions, 
library work, on-line computer literattire searching, 
computer-assisted instructional programs, 
videotapes/films, and laboratory investigations in 
order to emphasize the concepts that underlie the 
topics covered. Each course, as well as the major itself, 
is designed for the curious and interested student. 

The program of the department is approved by the 
American Chemical Society. The paths taken by majors 
after graduation are varied; many enter graduate work 
in chemistry. Graduates also enter medical and dental 
schools, industrial and government research 
laboratories, secondary school teaching, and other 
fields such as business and engineering. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The eight basic courses required for the Bachelor of 
Arts degree are Chemistry 111, 112 (or 112H),203, 
204, 221, 305, 306, and 317. Students who complete 
these basic eight courses along with Chemistry 373, 
Research (Chemistry 462 or 473), and one additional 
chemistry course may choose to receive a Bachelor of 
Science degree. Physics 111 and 112 and Mathematics 
through 211 are required of all chemistry majors. 
Additional courses in mathematics (212), biology, and 
physics may be recommended for those contem- 
plating graduate study in certain areas. Junior and 
senior majors are expected to join with staff members 



78 



CHEMISTRY 



in an afternoon seminar series which is designed to 
provide an additional opportunity for student 
discussion of current developments in the field. 

Approved safety goggles must be worn in all 
laboratories. Prescription glass may be worn under 
safety goggles. Contact lenses may not be worn unless 
a liability waiver is signed. 

For the prospective secondary school teacher the 
department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Chemistry. Introductory biology is 
required for certification. 

Individualized study and independent laboratory work 
are available in connection with some courses. An 
honors section (112H) of the Fundamentals of 
Chemistry course provides a select group of students 
with such an opportunity at the introductory level. 
During the junior or senior year, majors may elect 
Chemistry 462, a research course in which a student 
can uulize his or her knowledge and creativity 
intensively. Summer research, Chemistry 473, is 
encouraged strongly. 

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 111, 
112 (or 112H), plus four other chemistry courses at 
the 200 level or above. Individualized Study courses 
may not be counted toward the optional minor. 

Distribution Requirements 

The following combinations of chemistry courses may 
be used to satisfy the distribution requirement in lab- 
oratory science: either 101 or 1 1 1 followed by 102, 1 12 
or 1 12H. (Course credit will not be given for more than 
two introductory chemistry courses. Credit will not be 
given for both 1 1 1 and 101 orfor both 102 and 112.) 

Special Facilities and Programs 

Breidenbaugh Hall, which houses chemistry and 
biochemistry classrooms and laboratories, was recently 
renovated. In the past several years the department 
has purchased new instrumentation such as a Fourier 
Transform NMR Spectrometer, a Fourier Transform 
Infrared Spectrometer, a diode array UV-visible 
Spectrometer, a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectro- 
meter, a Waters HPLC with diode array detector, and 
a high speed centrifuge. Chemistry majors receive 
significant hands-on experience with all major 
instrumentation beginning in the sophomore year. 
The department's library is at the disposal of all 
students. Numerous lectures and seminars are 
sponsored by the department and the chemistry club. 
Sceptical Chymists. These involve resource persons 



from universities, industries, government agencies, and 
professional schools, and are designed to complement 
the curricular activities of the department. An annual 
highlight is a three-day visit by an outstanding scholar 
in the field of chemistry. The program is supported by 
The Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists. 
Many qualified upperclass students — chemistry majors 
and others — gain valuable experience from serving as 
laboratory assistants and tutors. 

101 General Chemistry Study of chemical principles 
with emphasis placed on providing the student with an 
understanding of how these principles relate to the 
non-scientist, especially in the areas of industry, 
ecology, health, and philosophy. Laboratory 
experiments are designed to offer a "hands-on" 
familiarity with the principles discussed in the lectures. 
The course is designed for students planning to 
complete only two courses in chemistry and who may 
have limited or no previous exposure to chemistry. 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Schoolcraft 

102 General Chemistry Review of principles studied 
in Chemistry 101 and application to problems of 
current and historical interest. Demonstrations and 
laboratory experiments are designed to illustrate and 
complement the material discussed in class. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 101 or 111. Three lecture hours 
and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Schoolcraft 

111 Fundamentals of Chemistry Study of atomic 
structure, theories of bonding, stoichiometric 
relationships, properties of solutions and gases, and 
elementary thermodynamics. The laboratory work 
covers quantitative relationships by employing 
titrimetric and gravimetric techniques. This course is 
designed for biology, chemistry, and physics majors 
and others with a secondary school background in 
chemistry and elementary mathematics. Course credit 
is not granted for both Chemistry 101 and 111. Three 
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Parker 

112 Fundamentals of Chemistry Study of kinetics 
and mechanisms of reactions, equilibrium, electro- 
chemistry, and coordination chemistry. Laboratory 
work includes kinetic studies, qualitative analysis, and 
the application of various instrumental procedures to 
quantitative analysis. Course credit is not granted for 
both Chemistry 102 and 112. Prerequisite: Chemistry 
111. Three lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr . Fortnum 



CHEMISTRY 



79 



112H Fundamentals of Chemistry Designed as an 
honors seminar for the more capable first year 
chemistry students. Kinetics, equiHbrium, electro- 
chemistry, and coordination chemistry are among the 
topics discussed. Laboratory work includes experi- 
ments in kinetics and equilibrium and the application 
of principles from lecture to a project of several 
weeks' duration. Emphasis is placed on independent 
work with necessary guidance in both the seminar and 
the laboratory. Prerequisites: Chemistry 101 or 111 and 
invitation of the department. Two afternoons. 

Mr. Parker 

203 Organic Chemistry Study of the fundamental 
concepts of the chemistry of carbon compounds 
with emphasis on molecular structure, reaction 
mechanisms, stereochemistry, and the application of 
spectroscopy to problems of identification. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 112 or 112H. Three lecture hours, one lab 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

204 Organic Chemistry Study of the various classes 
of organic compounds, including substitutions in the 
aromatic nucleus, cyclic compounds, and natural pro- 
ducts such as amino acids, carbohydrates and peptides. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one 
lab discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Rowland 

221 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy Study 
of the theories and applications of ultraviolet, infrared, 

H and ■^C nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass 
spectroscopy are discussed in relation to the impor- 
tance of these spectroscopic methods in the analysis of 
chemical systems. The scope and limitations of each 
type of spectroscopy are covered. Course work includes 
lectures, discussions, and laboratory sessions. The lab 
periods involve the use of spectrometers in the identifi- 
cation of organic compounds. Lecture work is supple- 
mented by films, videotapes, and computer-assisted 
instructional programs. Prerequisite: Chemistry 203. 

Mr. Rowland 

305 Physical Chemistry Study of the principles of 
thermodynamics and kinetic theory as applied to the 
states of matter, chemical reactions, equilibrium, the 
phase rule, and electrochemistry using lectures, read- 
ings, problems, discussions, and laboratory exercises. 
The computer is used as a tool for solving problems 
and for the reduction of experimental data. 
Prerequisites: Chemistry 1 12 or 1 12H, Physics 1 12, 
mathematics through calculus (usually Math 211). 
Three lecture hours, one discussion hour, and one 
laboratory afternoon 

Mr. Fortnum 



306 Physical Chemistry Introduction to theories of 
chemical kinetics, quantum mechanics, and statistical 
thermodynamics and their applications to chemical 
systems through the use of problems, lectures, 
readings, discussions, laboratory investigations, and 
projects. The computer is used for modeling, 
simulations, and solving problems. Assignments are 
made so as to encourage the individual study of 
specific related physical chemical phenomena. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours, one 
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Schoolcraft 

317 Instnmiental Analysis Study of chemical analysis 
by use of modem instruments. Topics include complex 
equilibria, electroanalytical methods, quantitative 
spectroscopy, chromatography, and Fourier transform 
methods. Analytical techniques will be studied from 
both a chemical and an instrumental point of view. 
The laboratory stresses quantitative analytical 
procedures. Prerequisites: Chemistry 204 and 221. Three 
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Mr. Gnybowski 

333 Biochemistry Detailed study of the structure and 
function of macromolecules as they pertain to living 
organisms. Emphasis on bioenergetics, metabolic 
pathways and current topics. Prerequisite: Chemistry 204. 
Three lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Holland 

334 Biochemistry Detailed examination of primary 
and secondary metabolic pathways in microbes, plants 
and animals. Similarities and differences between 
organisms will be thoroughly discussed. Application to 
metabolic disorders, viral/bacterial illnesses and medi- 
cal advances in the treatment of the above conditions 
will be incorporated into this course. Laboratory work 
includes an independent research project. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 333 or permission of the instructor. Three 
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. 

Ms. Holland 

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry Study of 
synthetic, mechanistic, and theoretical concepts in 
organic chemistry. Particular emphasis is placed on 
the study of methods used to determine organic 
reaction mechanisms, stereospecific reactions, 
pericyclic reactions, and the design of multistep 
syntheses of complex molecules. Prerequisites: 
Chemistry 204 and 221. Three lecture hours. 

Mr Jameson 

373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Study of 
valence bond, crystal field, and molecular orbital 
theories; boron chemistry; organometallic 



80 



CHEMISTRY/ CLASSICS 



compounds; structural, kinetic, and mechanistic 
studies of coordination compounds. Group theory 
and symmetry are appHed to various systems. 
Prerequisite: Chemistiy 305. Three lecture hours. 

Mr. Parker 

390 Advanced Laboratory Techniques in 
Chemistry Designed to combine and expand upon 
the laboratory skills learned in the fundamental 
courses of the first two years. Numerous projects will 
be pursued in organic and inorganic chemistry, 
utilizing a combination of library skills (e.g. on-line 
computer searching), advanced laboratory skills (e.g. 
inert atmosphere techniques, modem separation 
methods, and advanced spectroscopic 
characterizations) , and scientific writing skills. It is 
anticipated that this course will prepare a student for 
independent research in the senior year. Prerequisite: 
Chemistry 221. 

Mr. Jameson 

460 Individualized Study - Research An 

independent investigation in an area of mutual 
interest to the student and a faculty director. The 
project normally includes a literature survey and a 
laboratory study. An oral report to staff and students 
and a final written thesis are required. A student 
wishing to enroll in this course should consult with 
the faculty director at least two weeks before the end 
of the semester preceding the semester in which this 
course is to be taken. Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and 
permission of the faculty director and approval by the 
chemistry department. Open to junior and senior 
chemistry majors. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

473 Summer Research Internship A funded ten- 
week independent investigation in an area of mutual 
interest to the student and research director. The 
project normally includes a literature survey and a 
laboratory study. Oral reports to staff and students 
and a final written thesis are required. A student 
wishing to enroll in this course should consult with a 
chemistry department faculty member early in the 
spring semester. Prerequisites: Chemistry 390 and/or 
permission of the research director and approval by 
the chemistry department. 

Staff 

Classics 

Associate Professors Snively (Chairperson) and 

Zabrowski 
Assistant Professor Cahoon 
Adjunct Assistant Professor Ginge 



Overview 

The courses offered are designed to acquaint the 
student with the language, literature, history, and 
civilization of Greece and Rome. These societies 
present a microcosm of all human experience. 
Fulfillment of human potential in spite of adversities 
and threats to existence was the ultimate quest then, 
as it is today. Learning how the founders of Western 
civilization dealt with such conflicts as the aspirations 
of youth and the compromises of middle age, the 
claims of commimity and individual rights, the 
ecstasy of love, and the despair of loss can help us 
understand our own thoughts and emotions as we 
confront these age-old problems and pressures. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, and 
Classical Studies. Required for all majors: CI. 121, 
CI. 122, CI. 400. Additional requirements: 
Latin Major: Latin 251; seven courses in Latin 

beyond Lat. 102, and including 

Latin 312 
Greek Major: Greek 251; seven other courses 

in Greek beyond Gr. 102 
Classical Studies 8 courses. The 202 level in 

Major: either Latin or Greek must be 

attained. 

In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201 and 
202 or their equivalents are prerequisites for all 
higher language courses. 

A minor consists of six courses in the department 
including a minimum of two language courses. 

Distribution Requirements 

Latin 201, 202, or 203, and Greek 201, 202 may be 
used to meet the College's language requirement. 
Latin 203, 204, 303, 306, 308, 309, 31 1, 401, Greek 
203, 204, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306, and Classics 262, 
264, 266 may be used in fulfillment of the literature 
distribution requirement. Classics 121,122, Latin 251, 
and Greek 251 may be used to fulfill the College 
distribution requirement in history/philosophy, and 
Latin 251 and Greek 251 may be counted toward a 
major in history. 

For prospective secondary school teachers the 
Department cooperates in offering Education 304, 
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Latin. 

Special Programs 

Through a cooperative arrangement under the 
auspices of the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 



CLASSICS 



81 



Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. 
The program of the Center has been approved as a 
Gettysburg College affiliated program. The 
Department of Classics encourages its majors to 
spend a semester at the Center in Rome. For details, 
see Study Abroad, The Intercollegiate Center for 
Classical Studies in Rome, Italy, (page 49). 

College Year in Athens, Inc. has also been approved 
as a Gettysburg College affiliated program. Students 
interested in ancient, Byzantine, or modern Greece 
are encouraged to spend a semester or a year at 
College Year. For details, see Study Abroad, College 
Year in Athens, Greece, (page 48). 

Through the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, 
Gettysburg College shares membership in the 
American School of Classical Studies in Athens. 

Greek 

101, 102 Elementary Greek Introduction to the 

alphabet, inflections, and syntax of Attic Greek. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

201, 202 Intermediate Greek Designed to increase 
the student's skill in reading texts. Selections from 
Xenophon's Anabasis, some writers of the New Testa- 
ment, and other authors are read, with an emphasis on 
grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102 or its equivalent. 

Mr. Zabroxvski 

203 Plato The Apology and Crito, with selections from 
other dialogues. 

Mr. Zalfrowski 

204 New Testament Greek Introduction to Koine 
Greek. Selections from the New Testament are read 
with attention to their language and content. Not 
offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

251 Greek History Survey of Hellenic civilization 
from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period. Papers 
required. A knowledge of Greek not required. 
Alternate years. Offered 1994-95. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

301 Homer Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey 
with examination of syntax and style. Not offered 
every year. 

Ms. Snively 



303 Greek Comedy An introduction to Greek 
drama. Selected comedies of Aristophanes are read 
with attention to style and metrics. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

304 Greek Tragedy Selected plays of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, and Euripides. Various plays are also 
read in English. Oral reports required. Not offered 
every year. 

Staff 

306 Greek Oratory Selected orations of 
Demosthenes and Lysias. Not offered every year. 



Individualized Study 



Staff 
Staff 



302 Greek Historians Readings in the text of 
Herodotus or Thucydides. Not offered every year. 



Staff 



Latin 

101, 102 Elementary Latin Introduction to Latin. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

201, 202 Intermediate Latin Designed to increase 
the student's skill in reading texts. Selections from 
Latin prose and poetry are read, with continuing 
grammatical review and analysis. Prerequisite: Two 
years of secondary school Latin or Latin lOI, 102. 

Ms. Cahoon, Ms. Snively 

203 Roman Prose Selections from Roman prose 
writers and intensive review of grammar. Prerequisite: 
Three or four years of secondary school Latin or 
Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Snively 

204 Roman Poetry Extensive reading in Catullus, 
Ovid, and Horace with an examination of poetic 
forms other than epic. Prerequisite: Three or four 
years of secondary school Latin or Latin 201, 202. 

Ms. Cahoon 

251 Roman History The history of the Republic and 
Empire. Papers required. A knowledge of Latin not 
required. Alternate years. Offered 1993-94. 

Ms. Snively 

303 Cicero Selected essays of Cicero, with supple- 
mental reading from letters and orations. Supple- 
mental reading in English. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

306 St. Augustine Selections from Confessions with 
attention to the differences between Late Latin and 
Classical Latin. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Cahoon 



82 



CLASSICS 



308 Roman Satire Selections from Horace, Martial, 
and Juvenal with attention to the changes in 
language and style from the Classical to the Post 
Classical period. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

309 Roman Historians Selections from Livy and 
Tacitus with attention to their peculiarities of 
language and style. Not offered every year. 

Ms. Snively 

311 Lucretius Extensive reading in On the Nature Of 
Things with attention to Lucretius' metrical forms, 
science, and philosophy. Not offered every year. 

Staff 

312 Prose Composition Designed to increase the 
student's ability to translate from English to Latin, 
includes a thorough grammar review. Not offered 
every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

401 Vergil Study of Vergil's literary st)'le, poetic 
genius, and humanity as seen in the Aeneid. Open to 
seniors and qualified juniors. Not offered every year. 

Staff 



Individualized Study 



Staff 



Classical Studies 

121 Survey of Greek Civilization Survey of the the 
politics, history, literature, art, etc. of the Greek polls 
from its beginning to the conquest of Alexander, 
with emphasis on literary' texts and on Greek 
concepts which influenced Western thought. 
Knowledge of Greek not required. 

Ms. Cahoon 

122 Survey of Roman Civilization Survey of the 
politics, history, literature, art, etc. of Rome from its 
founding to the Coimcil of Nicea, with emphasis on 
the material culture of an empire encompassing the 
whole Mediterranean world. Knowledge of Latin not 
required. 

Ms. Snively 

125 Introduction to Classical Archaeology An 

examination of the goals and methods of classical 
archaeology through a survey of sites of Greco-Roman 
civilization. The course will begin with Bronze Age 
sites in the Greek world, examine selected settlements 
of geometric, archaic, and classical Greece, then look 
at cities of Italy and the Roman empire, and end with 
a site of the Late Antique period. The importance of 
techniques such as archaeological survey will be 



considered, and the antiquities market and other 
issues of archaeological patrimony will be discussed. 

Ms. Snively 

230 Classical Mythology Survey of classical 
mythology with attention to the process of myth- 
making and the development of religion. No 
knowledge of Greek or Latin required. 

Ms. Snively, Mr. Zabrowski 

262-266 Genre Literatiu-e An examination of the 
genre literature of Greece and Rome in translation. 
Selected works will be studied through analysis of 
form, structure, and content. No knowledge of 
Greek or Latin required. 

Staff 

262 Ancient Epic Study of Homer, ApoUonius of 
Rhodes, and Vergil. Offered 1993-94. 

Ms. Cahoon 

264 Ancient Tragedy A study of Aeschylus, 
Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca. Offered 1994-95. 

Staff 

266 Ancient Comedy A study of Aristophanes, 
Menander, Plautus, and Terence. Offered 1995-96. 

Ms. Cahoon 

270 Ancient Drama (Half Unit Course) Study, 
direction, and performance of an ancient Greek or 
Roman play. The course will include the study both of 
several other plavs by the same author (for context and 
background) and also of recent pertinent secondary 
material. Students will interpret, cast, direct, choreo- 
graph, and rehearse the play. The final performance 
will be presented to the entire campus community at 
the end of the semester. Offered 1993-94. 

Ms. Cahoon 

281 Ancient Greek Political Theory and Practice 

Using Plato's Republic d^nd Laws and Aristotle's Politics 
as primary sources, the course will investigate the 
nature of ancient Greek political theory and the 
notion of the Ideal State, whether conceived of as 
timocratic, monarchial, or democratic. In the 
practical order, actually functioning Greek city-state 
constitutions will be examined, as preserved in the 
writings of Aristode, Xenophon, and the Oxyrhyncus 
Historian. Not offered every year. 

Mr. Zabrowski 

400 Senior Seminar Content will be determined 
each year by the senior class in consultation with the 
staff. Required of all majors. 

Staff 



CLASSICS / ECONOMICS 



83 



Individualized Study 

Staff 

Computer Science - See Mathematics and 
Computer Science 

Economics 

Professors Fender (Chairperson), Gondwe and Railing 
Associate Professors Fletcher, Gemmill, and K. Niiro 
Assistant Professors M. Golfin and Kallon 

Overview 

A knowledge of economics has become increasingly 
important for effective participation in a complex 
society. The department's courses present this 
knowledge in both historical and contemporary 
contexts, with a focus on developing the relevant 
economic theory and identifying, understanding, 
analyzing, and solving social problems. As a social 
science, economics studies how societies organize 
and make decisions for using scarce resources to 
produce and distribute goods and services 
domestically and internationally. Economists 
examine both macro-economic and micro-economic 
problems and consider the implications of alternative 
solutions for efficiency, fairness, and growth. Courses 
in the department stress the critical thinking skills of 
a liberally educated person: gathering of pertinent 
information; analysis; synthesis; and ability to 
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives. 
However delightful the study of economics for the 
sake of individual understanding, the department 
also stresses effective oral and written communication 
of the insights achieved through study of the 
discipline. In addition to courses in economics, the 
department also offers courses in introductory and 
intermediate applied statistics and in geography. 

The department's courses are designed to meet the 
College's liberal arts objectives while also serving well 
students who intend to (1) pursue graduate study in 
economics; (2) enter graduate professional schools in 
management administration, law, and related areas; 
(3) pursue careers in business, non-profit private 
organizations, or government. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

Economics majors in the classes of 1991-1993 have the 
option of fulfilling either the requirements given in 
this paragraph or those that follow for the classes of 
1994 and beyond. The requirements for students 
graduating between 1991-1993 are Economics 103- 
104; Management 153; Economics 241, 243, 245, 333; 
and three courses chosen from the following: 
Economics 242, 301, 302, 303, 305, 324, 325-332, 336, 



337, 338, 351, and 352. A student may take 
Mathematics 351-352 in lieu of Economics 241-242; 
both semesters of the mathematics sequence must be 
completed for mathematical statistics to substitute for 
the departmental statistics requirement. Much, but 
not all, of the material covered in such applied 
statistics courses as Mathematics 107, Psychology 205, 
and Sociology 303 duplicates that in Economics 241; 
therefore, credit will not be given for more than one 
of these courses. The research methodology basic to 
economics is covered in Economics 241 and 242; thus, 
students taking an applied statistics course outside the 
economics department before deciding to become 
economics majors may be required to demonstrate via 
examination proficiency in the content of Economics 
241 or may be required to take Economics 242. 

Economics majors graduating in 1994 or thereafter 
must fulfill the following departmental require- 
ments: Economics 103, 104, 241, 243, 245, 333; 
either Management 153 or Economics 242; and at 
least three additional economics courses at the 300 
level or above (excluding 460), with two or more of 
these from among 301, 303, 336, 351, 352, 401, 402, 
and 403. The department strongly urges students to 
include one 400-level course among their electives. 

Because of the importance of mathematical modeling 
and statistical testing to the application of economics, 
majors in economics are required to demonstrate 
achievement in mathematics equivalent to one term 
of calculus. This requirement can be satisfied by 
taking Mathematics 105-106 or Mathematics 111 or by 
exemption via examination. The department strongly 
encourages students who have an interest in majoring 
or minoring in economics to complete this mathe- 
matics requirement during the first year because 
several 200-level courses have a math prerequisite. 

The department faculty advises any students planning 
to pursue graduate study in economics to take 
Mathematics 1 1 1-112, Mathematics 21 1-212, and 
Economics 351-352. Regardless of their plans upon 
graduation, all students will find more options open 
to them if they are familiar with the use of computers 
in economic analysis. Therefore, we urge economics 
majors to take a course or courses dealing with the 
use of computers, in addifion to the departmental 
courses that require computer work. The department 
offers a minor in economics, which a student can 
complete by taking Economics 103, 104; two courses 
from among Economics 241, 242, 243, 245; and two 
courses numbered 301 or above. Additionally, a 
student minoring in economics must demonstrate 
the same achievement in mathematics as required of 



84 



ECONOMICS 



majors, and must achieve a grade point average of 2.0 
or above in courses counted toward the minor. 

Economics 103, 104 are prerequisites for all upper- 
level courses in the department except Geography 
310. Under special circumstances, a student may 
petition the instructor of a course for a waiver of 
course prerequisites. 

The departmental brochure, Economics Department 
Handbook, contains additional information about the 
department and about the opportunities which the 
study of economics provides. Copies are available in 
the department office, Glatfelter 111, and from 
department faculty members. 

Honors, Internships, Special Programs The 

economics department values intensive and indepen- 
dent work by its students, as well as their interaction 
with peers and faculty members on collaborative 
economics projects. To encourage and recognize high 
quality work, the department offers departmental 
honors to students who (1) satisfactorily complete one 
course from among Economics 401, 402, 403; (2) earn 
an acceptable overall and departmental grade point 
average; (3) complete a senior project (Economics 
460) that builds upon the 400-level course, and is 
deemed of high quality by the project supervisor. 
Internships involving the application of economics are 
available to qualified students. Those persons desiring 
more information should contact Dr. Railing. 
Gettysburg College also recognizes the Washington 
Economic Policy Semester at American Universit)', a 
program that involves both classroom study and an 
internship in Washington, D.C. Page 45 of this 
catalogue contains more information about the 
program. Interested students should contact Dr. 
Railing in the spring semester of their sophomore 
year. Several foreign study programs are especially 
interesdng for economics students; information is 
available from the department and from the registrar. 

Distribution Requirements 

A student may satisfy the College distribution require- 
ment in social sciences by successfully completing 
Economics 103, 104, and may satisfy the non- Western 
Culture requirement with Economics 326, 337, or 338. 

103, 104 Principles of Microeconomics' Principles 
of Macroeconomics Principles of Microeconomics 
gives students a general understanding of economic 
systems and economic analysis, with emphasis on the 
operation of the U.S. economy. Topics covered in 103 
include the price system, theory of consumer behavior, 



theory of production, theory of the firm, income 
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro aspects 
of international trade. In Economics 104, topics 
covered include nadonal income accounting, 
employment, inflation, monetary and fiscal policies, 
aggregate demand and supply analysis, economic 
growth, the monetary aspect of international 
economics, and comparative economic systems. 

Staff 

241 Introductory Economic and Business Statistics 

Covers the nomenclature of descriptive statistics, 
probabilities using the normal, binomial, Poisson 
distributions, Chi-square, sampling, estimation of 
parameters, hypothesis testing, linear regression, and 
correlation. Prerequisites: ¥.conom\cs 103,104, and one 
of the following: Mathematics 105-106, 111, or the 
equivalent. Please note that a student may not receive 
credit for both this course and Mathematics 107, 
Psychology 205, or Sociology 303. 

Ms. M. Golfin, Mr. Niiro 

242 Intermediate Economic and Business Statistics 

Considers advanced statistical theory and the use of 
computers in data analysis. Topics included are 
ANOVA; multiple regression and the determination 
of model acceptability; time series and forecasting; 
index numbers; nonparametric methods; and 
decision theory. Prerequisite: Economics 241. 

Ms. M. Golfin 

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory Studies 
further classical, neoclassical, Keynesian, and post- 
Keynesian economics focusing on nadonal income 
accoundng, the various theories and policies which 
deal with the generadon and maintenance of full 
employment and a stable price level. The causes and 
cures of unemployment and inflation are also analyzed. 
Offered both semesters. Prerequisites: Economics 
103,104 and Mathemadcs 111 or its equivalent. 

Mr. Gondwe, Mr. Kallon 

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory Uses the 

methodological tools of economics to examine con- 
sumer and producer behavior and economic behavior 
both individual and collective under different input 
and output market structures, and to analyze the 
implications of such behavior for general equilibrium 
and economic welfare. Prerequisites: Economics 103,104, 
and Mathemadcs 105-106 or 1 1 1, or the equivalent. 

Ms. Fender 

300 Personal Finance This course accomplishes two 
purposes: ( 1 ) the consideration of how individuals 
might react analytically to financial constraints they 



ECONOMICS 



85 



face (incomes, prices, opportunities) in order to 
provide for their own material security (living costs, 
medical care, education, retirement); and (2) 
development of an insight into the important social 
issues of a mixed economy, such as that of the United 
States, by understanding individual decision-making 
more clearly. Items covered will include the meaning 
of financial security, both individually and collective- 
ly, the development of financial goals and the use of 
personal budgets to achieve goals, the proper use of 
credit, the nature and use of insurance for protection 
and saving, housing, income earning assets, and 
estate planning. In addition, current social issues will 
be considered. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Railing 

301 Labor Economics Studies theoretically and 
empirically the functioning of labor markets with 
emphasis on wage and employment determination. 
Altemadve theoretical models are examined. Topics 
include time allocation, wage differences, discrimina- 
tion, investment in education, mobility and migration, 
impacts of legislation, unions and labor relations, and 
imperfect markets. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104, 
and 245. Recommended: Economics 241. 

Ms. Fletcher 

302 Gender Issues in Economics Applies micro- 
economic theory to gender issues in our economy. 
The course will explore demographic issues such as 
fertility and divorce, consider the effect of the tax 
structure and other public policies on gender 
differences in labor force participation over time, 
and examine alternative economic paradigms for 
explaining gender discrimination in our society. 
Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. Recommended: 
Economics 245. 

Ms. Fletcher 

303 Money and Banking Examines the role of 
money, credit, and financial institutions in the deter- 
mination of price and income levels. Coverage 
includes the commercial banking system, the Federal 
Reserve System, monetary theory, and the art of 
monetary policy. Emphasis is placed upon evaluation 
of current theory and practice in the American 
economy. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 
Recommended: Economics 243. 

Mr. Gemmill 

305 Public Finance Concerns the principles, 
techniques, and effects of government obtaining and 
spending funds and managing government debt. 
Nature, growth, and amount of expenditures of all 
levels of government in the United States are 



considered, along with the numerous types of taxes 
employed by the various levels of government to 
finance their activities. Government debt is also 
considered. Prerequisites: Econom\cs 103,104. 

Mr. Railing 

324 Comparative Economic Systems Concerns a 
comparative analysis of free enterprise economics, 
centrally planned economies, and mixed economies. 
Primary attention is given to the economic aspects 
and institutions of these economic systems, but the 
political, philosophical, and historical aspects are 
also considered. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Railing 

325-332 Regional Economic History, Growth, and 
Development Seminar Examines intensively one 
region, using the framework of economic analysis and 
political economy to consider economic history, 
growth, and development within the appropriate 
region. Although economic theory provides the pri- 
mary paradigm within which these regions are studied, 
consideration also will be given to the historical events 
that conditioned the economic outcomes. Each course 
will review the pertinent theory and focus on appli- 
cation of that theory to specific historical events 
seeking to detennine the relevance of the theory to 
our understanding of past and present economic 
conditions. Four regions will be studied, one in each of 
the courses: Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, and 
Canada/U.S. Prerequisites: Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Gondwe, Mr. Kallon, Mr. Niiro, Ms. Fender 

333 History of Economic Thought and Analysis 

Studies the development of economic ideas and 
policies in relation to major forms of social, political, 
and economic problems. Emphasis is placed on 
major contributions to economic thought from Plato 
to Keynes. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104. 
Recommended: Economics 243, 245. 

Mr. Gondwe 

336 International Economics Covers comparative 
advantage, commercial policy, economic integration, 
balance of payments, exchange rates, and inter- 
national monetary systems. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104, and 245. 

Mr. Kallon 

337 Introduction to Political Economy and the 
African Diaspora Examines the origins and 
development of capitalism and the contribution of 
Third World peoples and minorities in the United 
States to the process and continued growth of 
capitalist development. It also examines current 



86 



ECONOMICS 



economic, social, and political issues as they relate to, 
and affect. Third World peoples. Prerequisites: 
Economics 103, 104. 

Mr. Gondwe 

338 Economic Development Examines the eco- 
nomic and non-economic factors accounting for the 
economic growth and development of less-developed 
areas of the world. Various theories of economic and 
social growth and development are analyzed and 
major policy issues discussed. Prerequisites: Economics 
103, 104. Satisfies distribution requirement in non- 
Western culture. 

Mr. Gondwe 

341 Environmental Economics Provides a founda- 
don for the application of microeconomic theory to 
environmental issues. Students will examine naUonal 
and intemadonal policy debates related to natural 
resource use and environmental protection. Economic 
theory is used to evaluate alternative environmental 
policies. Issues studied include global warming, 
deforestadon, air and water qualit)', and natural 
resource depletion. Prerequisites: Y.conoxn\cs 103, 104. 

Ms. Fletcher 

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics and 
Business Introduces the application of calculus and 
matrix algebra to economics and business. Numerous 
illustrations of mathematically formulated economic 
models are used to integrate mathematical methods 
with economic and business analysis. Prerequisites: 
Economics 243, 245, and Mathematics 111-112 and 
211-212. 

Mr. Niiro 

352 Introduction to Econometrics Introduces the 
applicadon of mathemadcal economic theory and 
statisdcal procedures to economic data. Coverage 
includes the development of appropriate techniques 
for measuring economic relationships specified by 
economic models and testing of economic theorems. 
Prerequisites: Economics 243, 245, Mathematics 111-112 
and 21 1-212, and Economics 242, or Mathemadcs 358. 

Mr. Niiro 

401 Advanced Topics in History of Economic 
Thought and Competing Paradigms of Economic 
Analysis Investigates the different perspectives in 
economics. The course focuses on the concept that 
economics, as a social science, is rich in diversity and 
contending perspectives through which students can 
view questions which economics asks, and therefore 
the types of answers which are generated. More 
specifically, the course will consider the Neoclassical 



paradigm, including Keynesian Economics and 
Monetarism, and the New Classical Economics, as 
the mainstream perspectives which will be compared 
with Marxism and Radical Political Economy, Neo- 
Austrian Economics, and the Schools of Public 
Choice and Institutional Economics. These will be 
contrasted by tracing the historical evolution of 
different perspectives and then focusing on the 
theories and methods of contemporary paradigms. 
Prerequisite: Economics 333. 

Staff 

402 Advanced Topics in Theoretical and Applied 
Macro- and Monetary Economics Examines 
particular topics in macroeconomics and monetary 
theory and applications, under the assumption that 
the student is familiar with the basic theory. The 
particular focus of the seminar will rotate depending 
upon the expertise of the faculty person teaching it, 
among topics such as the new neoclassical theory, 
rational expectations and economic behavior, 
monetarv' issues in international trade and economic 
development, econometric studies of money, 
reguladon and banking safety. Prerequisites: 
Economics 243 and/or 303 and/or 336. 

Staff 

403 Advanced Topics in Theoretical and Applied 
Microeconomics Considers special topics in 
microeconomic theory and applications based upon 
the assumption that the student is familiar with the 
basic theor)'. The particular focus will vary with the 
instructor conducting the seminar, from among 
topics such as the new house-hold economics, 
industrial organization and public policy, game 
theory, information costs-structure-behavior, 
production and cost functions, welfare economics, 
and the micro aspects of international trade. 
Prerequisites: Economics 245 and/or Economics 336. 

Staff 

460 Senior Thesis Involves the student in pursuit of 
a research or other investigative project which is 
presented to the adviser via a written paper and to 
the public via an oral presentation at the completion 
of the project. The student explores the topic of the 
thesis in Economics 401 or 402 or 403, then further 
develops it the following semester in independent 
work under the supervision of the instructor for the 
prior 400-level course. Prerequisite: Economics 401 or 
402 or 403. 

IndividuaUzed Study Involves topics of an advanced 
nature pursued by well-qualified students through 
individual reading and research, under the 



ECONOMICS / EDUCATION 



87 



supei-vision of a member of the department's faculty. 
A student wishing to pursue independent study must 
present a proposal at least one month before the end 
of the semester preceding the semester in which the 
independent study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites: 
Permission of the supervising faculty member and 
the department chairperson. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

Geography 310 Physical and Human Geography 

Studies of the location and causes of the distribution 
of various kinds of economic activities, as well as some 
of the adverse environmental consequences of a 
number of these activities. Topics include basic place 
name geography; weather and climate; population 
trends and characteristics; technology and economic 
development; the role of agriculture; the economic 
geography of energy; and the city. Open to first year 
students only by permission of the instructor. 

Ms. M. Golfin 

Education 

Associate Professors Brough (Chairperson), Hofman, 

Packard and Williams; 
Director of Field Experiences and Instructor S. Van 

Arsdale; 
Adjimct Professor Curtis. 

The purposes of the teacher education programs are 
to give students a thorough backgroimd in educational 
philosophy and theoretical concepts of instruction, 
and to provide an opportunity for student teaching. 

The education department works cooperatively with 
all other departments in the preparation of teachers 
in secondary education, elementary education, music 
education, and health and physical education. 
Students interested in pursuing one of these programs 
will need to study carefully the teacher education 
programs as described elsewhere in this catalogue. 

A student seeking teacher certification may also choose 
to minor in education. A minor in secondary educa- 
tion consists of six courses: Education 201, 209, 303, 
304, and 476 (worth two courses). A minor in element- 
ary education consists of six courses. Education 201, 
209, and 476 are required for the minor. The student 
then designates three of the following five courses to 
complete the minor: Educadon 180, 306, 331, 370 or 
334. Compledon of all eight courses is required for 
teacher certification in elementary education. A 
student who elects to student teach during the Ninth 
Semester Option (described elsewhere in this 
catalogue) is not eligible for a minor in education. 



180 Methods and Concepts of Mathematics 
Instruction Designed for future elementary 
teachers who are sophomores and above and are 
seeking elementary teaching certification. Course 
includes: teaching mathematics based on recent 
research efforts which deal with topics such as early 
number, geometry, rational number, multiplication 
and division concepts; development of estimation 
strategies and processes; inOuence of gender/ 
minority-related variables on mathematics 
performance; impact of calculators and computers; 
and children's development of mathematics 
concepts. Curriculum materials and strategies are 
included. Spring Semester only. Prerequisite: EDUC 
201 or permission of instructor. 

Ms. Hofman 

201 Educational Psychology Study of the 
development of psychological principles of learning, 
pupil evaluation, and the statistics necessary for 
analyzing test data. Repeated in the spring semester. 
Psychology 101 recommended as background. 

Mr. Packard 

209 Social Foundations of Education Study of the 
professional aspects of teaching, the relation of 
schools to society, historical and philosophical 
development of American education, the organization 
of state and local school systems, and the impact of 
national programs on education, including court 
decisions. Repeated in the spring semester. Includes a 
imit on computer literacy. 

Mr. Williams, Ms. Brough 

303 Educational Purposes, Methods and 
Educational Media: Secondary The function of 
schools in a democracy. Emphasis is placed on 
methods and techniques of the teaching-learning 
process. The course includes: examination of content; 
foundations for approaches other than didactic; 
interdisciplinary connections; reading in the content 
areas; development of lesson plans and a major unit of 
study; logistics of classroom management; needs of 
special students in secondary schools; and uses of 
evaluation. Prerequisites: Education 201 and 209 and 
acceptance into the Education Semester. Repeated in 
the spring semester. 

Ms. Hofman, Ms. Brough 

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of 
Secondary Subject Secondary subjects including 
biology, chemistry, physics, English, French, Spanish, 
German, Latin, mathematics, health and physical 
education, and social studies. This course is taught by 
a staff member of each department having students 



EDUCATION / ENGLISI 



in the Education Semester. Included is a study of the 
methods and materials applicable to the teaching of 
each subject and the appropriate curricular 
organization. Prerequisites: Consent of the major 
department and acceptance into the Education 
Semester. Repeated in the spring semester. 

Staff 

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and 
Instructional Media in Social Studies, Art, and 
Music Applying principles of learning and human 
development to teaching social studies in the 
elementary school. Included is the correlation of art 
and music with the teaching of the social sciences. A 
major portion of the course is devoted to the 
development and teaching of a social studies unit in 
conjunction with the student teaching experience. 
Prerequisites: Education 180, 201, 209, 331, 370 and 
acceptance into the Education Semester. Repeated in 
the spring semester. Elementary education students 
enroll for this course during the Education Semester. 
Ms. Brough, Ms. Van Arsdale 

331 Developmental Reading Instruction and the 
Language Arts An introduction to the theory, 
problems, and approaches to developmental reading 
instruction and the language arts. Current trends 
relating to the acquisition of language and reading 
skills are studied. Children's literature and its 
relation to the learning process are explored. 
Designed for elementary and secondary teachers. 
Prerequisite: Education 201. Fall semester only. 

Ms. Brough 

334 Corrective Reading A study of the analysis and 
correction of reading disabilities. Survey of tests and 
materials including children's literature as an 
incentive to greater interest in reading are included 
along with a reading internship in the public schools 
under the guidance of a reading teacher. Diagnosis 
and remedial tutoring of school pupils who are 
having reading problems is provided. Elementary 
education students enroll for this course during the 
Education Semester. Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, 
and 331 and acceptance into the Education 
Semester. Repeated in the spring semester. 

Ms. Brough, Ms. Van Arsdale 

370 EJementary School Science: Purposes, 
Methods, and Instructional Media Study of 
scientific concepts for mastery by elementary pupils. 
The course emphasizes science process skills and the 
inquiry-based approach; child development and its 
relation to learning science concepts; examination of 
science programs; multidisciplinary science; 
evaluation techniques; individualization (including 



issues related to gender, culture and special needs), 
and instructional media designed to give the 
prospective teacher a thorough background in 
elementary school science. Prerequisite: Education 20 
or permission of instructor. Fall semester only. 

Ms. Hofma\ 

411 Internship in Teaching Composition A 

teaching internship in a section of English JOl. Unde 
the supervision of the instructor in that section, the 
intern will attend classes, prepare and teach selected 
classes, counsel students on their written work, and 
give students' papers a first reading and a preliminar 
evaluation. All interns will meet regularly with 
members of the English department to discuss 
methods of teaching composition and to analyze the 
classroom experience. Required of all majors in 
English planning to enroll in the secondary educatioi 
program. Students should register for Education 411 
in the semester prior to their Education Semester. 

English Department StUj 

461 Individualized Study — Research Offered botl 

semesters. 

47 1 Individualized Study — Internship Offered 
both semesters. 



476 Student Teaching Student observation, 
participation, and teaching under supervision of an 
experienced and certified teacher. Group and 
individual conferences are held for discussion of 
principles and problems. The student will spend the 
full day for 12 to 15 weeks in the classroom. A weekl 
seminar is required. This course carries two course 
credits. Prerequisites: All required education courses 
and acceptance into the Education Semester. 
Repeated in the spring semester. 



English 



Professors E. Baskerville, Fredrickson (Chairperson), 

Myers, Schmidt, Stewart, and Stitt 
Associate Professors Berg, Garnett, Goldberg, 

Hanson. Lambert, Larsen, and Winans 
Assistant Professors, Barnes, Bingham and Johnson 
Adjunct Associate Professor M. Baskerville 
Adjunct Assistant Professors Howe and Love 
Adjunct Instructors Beedle, Clarke, Cozort, Craft, 

Hartzell, and Saltzman 

Overview 

The courses offered by the department are designed i 
train students to express their thoughts clearly and 
effectively through spoken and written language and 



E:nglish 



89 



to understand, inteqjret, and assimilate the thoughts 
and experiences of the great writers of English and 
American literature. English is excellent preparation 
for careers in business, teaching, law, publishing, 
journalism, and government service, and for graduate 
Wudy leading to advanced degrees in English, the 
ministry, and library science. Majors have also enrolled 
in graduate programs in business, urban planning, 
iocial work, public administradon, and others. 

Fhe courses in theatre and drama offered by the 
department are designed to train students to conceive 
if the theatrical event as a unit, joining its literary and 
listorical values with means of expression in produc- 
ion, demonstrating the relationship of acting, 
iirecting, and design with the efforts of playwrights 
ioth past and present. This is accomplished through 
'he students' work in the theatre program's produc- 
ions which include Mainstage offerings in the Kline 
fheatre as well as studio presentations in the Stevens 
theatre and Otherstage works-in-progress. The study 
)f theatre arts prepares students for careers in the 
heatre, arts administration, teaching, and business. 

rhe department offers a major in English and 
^erican literature and a major in theatre arts. The 
lepartment also offers a minor program in each field. 

^he department believes that a well-balanced 
>rogram for a major in English and American litera- 
Mre should include (1) knowledge of the literary 
listory of England and America; (2) training in the 
pplication of the techniques of literary analysis and 
he different critical approaches to literature; (3) 
nowledge of the characteristics and development of 
he major literary forms or genres; (4) study in depth 
f the work of one author of significance; and (5) 
ome knowledge of the history of the English 
inguage and of English as a system. 

he department also believes that a well-balanced 
rogram for a major in theatre arts should include 
1) knowledge of the history of the theatre from 
rimitive man to the present; (2) training in and 
pplication of the various performance areas of 
leatre; (3) knowledge of the characteristics and 
evelopment of the literary genre known as drama; 
nd (4) the development of a play from the inifial 

ript to actual performance. 

Tie Writing Center 

he Wridng Center, staffed by several English 
epartment faculty members and specially trained 
ettysburg College students, is a valuable college 



resource. The Center's staff assists students with 
their writing in the following ways: 

-Discusses an assignment in order to clarify it or to 

plan a method of approach 
-Helps in organizing a paper or other piece of 

writing such as a letter of application 
-Suggests ways to make troublesome parts of a paper 

more effective 
-Shows ways to correct recurring grammatical errors 

The Writing Center is open six days a week. There is 
no charge for this service. 

Requirements and Recommendations 

The Major in Literature 

The requirements for the major in literature are 
twelve courses in English and American language and 
literature in addition to the first semester of Literary 
Foundadons of Western Culture (IDS 103). All majors 
in literature are required to take English 150,151,152, 
153,154, and IDS 103. In addidon, to obtain the 
desired distribution of courses, majors must elect one 
course from each of the following categories: 
I. English Language and Literary Theory 

(1 course): English 209, 210. 
II. Topics in English Literary History 

(3 courses; 1 from each group): 

A. Medieval, Renaissance: English 310 to 319. 

B. 17th and 18th Centuries: English 320 to 329. 

C. 19th and 20th Centuries: English 330 to 339. 
III. Topics in American Literary History (1 course): 

English 340 to 349. 
rV. Major Authors (1 course): English 362, 365, 366 
or any seminar devoted to a British or American 
author deemed by the department to be of 
major importance. 
V. Seminar (1 course): English 401-404, 420. 

English 420, the Honors Seminar, is reserved for 
students admitted to the Departmental Honors 
Program. 

English 101,110, 201, 203, 205, 206, 305, and courses 
in speech may not be used to fulfill the department's 
major requirements. Courses in theatre arts count 
only toward the theatre arts major. 

The Minor in Literature 

The requirements for the minor in literature are six 
courses. All minors must take two courses of the 
Survey of English and American Literature sequence 
(English 150-154), and at least four advanced courses, 
two of which must be on the 300 or 400 level. Writing 
courses, with the exception of English 101, may be 
used to fulfill the department's minor requirements. 



90 



ENGLISH 



The Major in Theatre Arts 

Majors in theatre arts must take IDS 103 and theatre 
arts 105, 203, 204, and 214. They must also elect the 
specified number of courses from each of the 
following categories: 
I. Theatre Arts (3 courses): 1 course from each of 
the following groups: 

A. (Acting and Dance) 120, 163, 220, 307, 320, 377. 

B. (Design) 115, 155, 255, 311, 355, 381. 

C. (Directing) 182, 282, 382. 

II. Drama (3 Courses): English 226, 365, 366, 
Theatre Arts 328, 329, Classics 264, 266, 
French 327, German 335, Spanish 313. 
III. Electives (2 courses): Any of the theatre arts and 
drama courses listed above and/or Theatre Arts 
222, 252, Art 238, 239, Spanish 315. 

The Minor in Theatre Arts 

The requirements for the minor in theatre arts are six 
courses: Theatre Arts 105, Theatre Arts 203 or 204; one 
course in Drama (English 226, 365, 366, Theatre Arts 
214, 328, 329); 2 studio courses (Theatre Arts 1 15, 120, 
155, 163,182, 220, 255, 282, 307, 311, 320, 355, 377, 
381, 382); one course in theatre arts or any of the above 
listed theatre arts or drama courses plus Theatre Arts 
252. No more than four courses may be at the 100-level. 

Elementary and Secondary Education 
The major for students enrolled in the elementary 
education program consists of ten courses, in addition 
to the first term of Literary Foundations of Western 
Culture (IDS 103). Working with the chairperson of 
the English department, each elementary education 
student will design a major program following as 
closely as possible the department's distribution 
requirement for the major. Students planning to 
teach English in the secondary schools are required to 
take English 209 and either 365 or 366. Speech 101, 
IDS 104, and either Theatre Arts 328 or 329 are 
strongly recommended. The department cooperates 
in offering Education 304, Techniques of Teaching 
and Curriculum of Secondary English, and Education 
411, Internship in Teaching Composition. Students 
planning to do graduate work in English should 
develop proficiency in Latin, French, or German. 

English majors may take internships in a variety of 
fields, such as journalism, law, public relations, 
publishing, radio, and television. Theatre arts majors 
may take internships in theatre, radio, television, 
public relations, and arts administration. Students 
who wish to apply for internships must secure from 
their advisers a statement of the department's policy 
regarding application deadline, form of proposal, 
requirements, and grading. 



Distribution Requirements 

All courses offered by the department, except English 
101, 201, 203, 205, 206, 209, 305, and courses in 
speech and theatre arts, may be used to fulfill the 
College distribution requirement in literature. 
English 205, 206, and all theatre arts courses except 
328 and 329 may be used to fulfill the College 
distribution requirement in arts. 

Senior Honors Program 

English majors who have shown special promise in 
English will be invited to complete a thesis and seminar 
sequence during their senior year. Students taking the 
program will write a thesis during the fall semester 
under the direction of a member of the department. 
During the spring semester they will participate in an 
honors seminar under the direction of the program 
director. Only students selected for and successfully 
completing the program will be eligible to receive 
honors in English. For details of the program, consult 
the brochure available in the English department. 

101 English Composition Aims to develop the 
student's ability to write in clear, accurate, and 
thoughtful English prose. Not limited to first year 
students. Repeated spring semester. 

Staff 

110 The Interpretation of Literature An intensive 
study of the dominant literary types: short story, 
novel, poem, and drama. The course attempts to 
stimulate a valid appreciation and judgment of 
literature through precise critical analysis of selected 
works truly representative of major literary forms. 
Fulfills distribution requirement in literature. Open 
only to first year students and a limited number of 
sophomores. Offered both semesters. 

Staff 

150, 151, 152 Survey of English Literature A 

historical survey of English literature from Beowulf 
through the 20th century, with some attention to the 
social, political, and intellectual backgrounds of the 
periods tmder investigation. Selected works will be 
discussed in class to familiarize students with various 
methods of literary analysis, and students will write 
several short critical papers each semester. 

Staff% 

153, 154 Survey of American Literature 

A chronological study of American writing from 
colonial days through the present, with some 
attention to the social, political, and intellectual 
backgrounds. Primary emphasis during the first half 



ENGLISH 



91 



of the sequence falls on the Puritans and American 
Romantics; the second half surveys writers from the 
Romantics forward, including such figures as Twain, 
Chopin, James, Williams, Stevens, Faulkner, Hughes, 
as well as selected contemporary writers. 

Staff 

201 Advanced Expository Writing An intensive 
course in advanced rhetorical techniques, with 
particular emphasis on analysis of evidence, selection 
of appropriate style, and importance of revision. 

Ms. Larsen 

203 Journalism An introduction to journalism, the 
course offers basic skills in writing news and feature 
stories, sports and specialty stories, and editorials. 
Students develop an understanding of what makes 
news; how to conduct an interview; and how to write 
follow-up stories. As part of the course, students are 
required to submit articles to The Gettysburgian. Trips 
to newspaper offices in this area are offered. 

Mr. Baskerville 

204 The Writing of Non-Fiction Prose: The 
Literature of Travel This is a workshop in the 
writing of highly literary non-fiction prose that 
explores a sense of place; the course welcomes 
service/learning students and/or those who travel 
or who wish to travel. By Permission of Instructor. 

Ms. Larsen 

205, 206 The Writing of Fiction, Poetry, and 
Drama A workshop in the writing of short stories, 
verse, and plays, with an analysis of models. Either 
course may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in arts. 

Ms. Larsen 

209 History of the English Language Provides a 
historical understanding of the vocabulary, forms, 
and sounds of the language from the Anglo-Saxon or 
Old English period to the 20th century. 

Mr. Baskeniille 

210 Theories of Literature Undertakes to examine 
and compare the various ways in which literature has 
been regarded: its sources, forms, and purposes. The 
history of critical theory surveyed, from Plato and 
Aristotle to the present, with emphasis upon the 
modern period and such movements as New 
Criticism, structuralism, deconstruction, and feminist 
criticism. The goal of the course is to make students 
aware of themselves as readers. 

Ms. Berg 



216 Images of Women in Literature An 

examination of the various ways women have been 
imagined in literature. We will look at how and why 
images of women and men and of their relationships 
to one another change, and at how these images 
affect us. Emphasis will be placed on developing the 
critical power to imagine ourselves differently. 

Ms. Berg 

226 Introduction to Shakespeare A course that 
endeavors to commimicate an awareness of Shake- 
speare's evolution as a dramatist and of his importance 
in the development of Western literature and thought. 
Designed for students not majoring in English. 

Mr. Bingham, Mr. Myers 

231 to 260 Studies in Literature An intensive study 
of a single writer, group, movement, theme, or period. 
May be counted toward the major. Fulfills distribution 
requirement in literature. Open to first year students. 

Courses in this category offered in 1992-93: 

248 The 19th-century Novel This course explores 
the dialectical relationship between romanticism and 
realism in British literature from the beginning of 
the 19th century through the first decade of the 20th 
century. Includes Sir Walter Scott, Mary Shelley, 
Charles Dickens, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot, 
Elizabeth Gaskell, and Oscar Wilde. 

Ms. Berg 

250 Harlem Renaissance and Chicago Renaissance 

This course defines, examines, and differentiates 
between two important African American literary 
movements — the Harlem Renaissance and the 
Chicago Renaissance — through the major fiction, 
poetry, and prose writers of the period. 

Ms. Barnes 

305 The Writing of Poetry and Short Fiction: 
Advanced A course open to students who have 
demonstrated that their skills in the wrifing of poetry 
and fiction might be further developed. The goal of 
each student will be the composition of a group of 
poems or short stories. Prerequisites: English 205, 206. 

Ms. Larsen 

310-319 Topics in Medieval and Renaissance 
Literature A variety of authors, themes, genres, and 
movements will be studied, ranging from Anglo- 
Saxon poetry and prose through Shakespeare's 
works. Several sections, each dealing with a different 
subject, will be offered each year. 



92 



ENGLISH 



Courses in this category offered in 1992-93: 

311 Metaphysical and Baroque Literature 

Examining literature often mistermed "metaphysical," 
this course will consider the philosophic, religious, 
and cultural upheavals of that time as background for 
the great aesthetic changes that evolved through at 
least two distinctive st)'les, the metaphysical (or 
manneristic) and the high baroque. 

Mr. Myers 

312 Epic to Romance We shall read texts ranging 
from Beowulf, Roland, and the Nibelungenlied through 
the romances of Chretien de Troyes and Marie de 
France to the final summary work of Arthurian 
legend. Sir Thomas Malory's Morte Darthur. 

Mr. Baskeruille 

314 Renaissance Drama A study, after some atten- 
tion to the beginnings of drama in the Middle Ages, 
of some of Shakespeare's contemporaries, with special 
attention to Marlowe, Jonson, Webster, Middleton. 

Mr. Bingham 

320 - 329 Topics in 17th and 18th Century 
Literature A variety of authors, themes, genres, and 
movements will be studied, ranging from Donne and 
Herbert through Johnson and Boswell. Several 
sections, each dealing with a different subject, will be 
offered each year. 

Courses in this category offered in 1992-93: 

321 Restoration and 18th-Century Literature 

Focusing on literature written between 1660 and 
1743, this course examines dominant literary forms 
and modes and explores such issues as the education 
of women and marriage; changing social behavior; 
and growing consumerism. 

Ms. Steiuart 

325 Studies in the ISth-Century Novel In the 18th 
century novels were "a new species of writing." In this 
course we will read several 18th century novels and 
examine the particular social conditions and 
philosophical ideas that give impetus to the so-called 
"rise of the novel." We will also examine the 
autobiographical impulse, in its several forms, that 
informed the early novels. 

Ms. Lambert 

326 Autobiography: Defining the Self in the 18th 
and 20th Centuries As a genre, autobiography (and 
its sister, biography) came into its own in the 18th 
century. We will study the autobiographies of several 
18th century men and women to see how and in what 
ways they "defined" themselves in the context of 18th 



century life and society. Then we will read modem auto 
biographies to examine the ways the form has changed. 

Ms. Lambert 

330 - 339 Topics in 19th and 20th Century Literature 

A variety of authors, themes, genres, and movements 
will be studied, ranging from Blake, Wordsworth, and 
Coleridge through Yeats, Eliot, Woolf, and selected 
contemporary writers. Several sections, each dealing 
with a different subject, will be offered each year. 

Courses in this category offered in 1992-93: 

331 Romanticism: Knowing and Creativity In this 
course, we will attempt to define various ways in which 
the principal British Romantic writers tried to define 
knowledge and creativity, to understand each in terms 
of the other, and to blur the distinctions between them. 

Mr. Goldberg 

332 British Writers, 1918-1939 A Study of the litera- 
ture of the two decades between the two great Euro- 
pean wars of the first half of the 20th century, including 
poetry, fiction, and non-fiction. Writers to be studied 
include Eliot, Yeats, Auden, Woolf, Waugh, and Greene. 

Mr. Gamett ' 

336 Charles Dickens The best of Dickens, the worst 
of Dickens; the wisdom of Dickens, the foolishness of 
Dickens; the Dickens of Light, the Dickens of 
Darkness; the hopeful spring and discontented winter 
of Dickens: in short, Charles Dicken's career traced 
through six or eight novels. 

Mr. Gamett 

339 The Birth of Modernism This course takes an 
interdisciplinaiy look at the literature and culture of 
the transition from Victorianism into Modernism, 
1880 through 1920. Besides studying literature, we 
will explore Freud's theory of the unconscious and its 
effect on the literature and art of the period. 
Prerequisite. ENG 152 

Ms. Johnson 

340 - 349 Topics in American Literature A variety of . 
authors, themes, genres, and movements will be 
studied, ranging from colonial writers through selected 
contemporary authors. Several sections, each dealing 
with a different subject, will be offered each year. 

Courses in this category offered in 1992-93: 

343 American ReaUsm & Natiu-aUsm American 
fiction from the late 19th century to the early 20th 
century including works by James, Howells, Dreiser, 
Chopin, and Wharton with emphasis placed on the 
role of the heroine. 

Mr. Fredrickson 






ENGLISH 



93 



344 Contemporary American Poetry A study of 
American poetry written since World War II by such 
poets as Elizabeth Bishop, Stanley Kunitz, James 
Wright, Charles Wright, Denise Levertov, and Sharon 
Olds. The class will be visited by some of the poets. 

Mr. Stitt 

347 Contemporary American Fiction A study of the 
form, content and diversity in Ainerican fiction since 
the 1940's, drawing on a selection of novels and short 
stories by such writers as Updike, Nabokov, Carver, 
Bellow, Pynchon, and others. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

349 Major Contemporary African American 
Women Writers This course examines the cultural, 
social, and domestic concerns of African American 
women in the literature of Alice Walker, Toni 
Morrison, Gloria Naylor, Paule Marshall, Terry 
McMillan, and Toni Cade Bambara. 

Ms. Barnes 

362 Chaucer Examination of selection of Chaucer's 
minor poems and of five of his major poems 
(including "Troilus and Criseyde" and "Canterbury 
Tales") as the means of assessing the poet's response 
to literary influences and of tracitig the development 
of his original genius. 

Mr. Baskeruille 

365, 366 Shakespeare A course that seeks to 
commimicate an understanding both of 
Shakespeare's relation to the received traditions of 
his time and of his achievement as one of the most 
important figures in Western literature. Language, 
characterization, and structure in each of the 
numerous plays will be carefully analyzed. English 
365 will focus on the early plays through Hamlet and 
Troilus and Cressida. English 366 on the later plays. 

Mr. Myers 

401, 402, 403, 404 Seminar Intensive studies of 
annoimced topics in Medieval and Renaissance 
literature, in I7th and 18th century literature, in 19th 
and 20th century literature, and in American litera- 
ture. Prerequisite: Senior standing in the major or de- 
partmental permission. 

Seminars offered in 1992-93: 

401 Radical Drama: Ideology and Power in the 
Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre An exploration 
of how Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre functioned 
reflectively and subversively during the Renaissance. 
Participants will choose for research purposes one of 



the era's significant dramatists, investigating that 
writer's life and works and submitting a critical essay 
examining issues and ideas relating the playwright to 
the seminar's focus. 

Mr. Myers 

402 Seminar: Life Writing This course examines 
letters, journals, memoirs, and biographies — forms 
Virginia Woolf has designated as "life writing" — in 
the 18th centuiy but focuses primarily upon 
biography as a new literaiy form. 

Ms. Stewart 

403 The Fiction and Poetry of Thomas Hardy 

This seminar studies the literary work of Thomas 
Hardy, one of the few artists to receive critical 
acclaim in both the novel and poetry. We will cover 
material culled from each of the six decades of 
Hardy's literary career. Prerequisite: ENG 152. 

Ms. Johnson 

404 Honors Seminar: Feminine/Feminist 
Aesthetics This course looks at theoretical 
approaches to feminine/feminist aesthetics. Issues of 
gender and genre are discussed. We examine the 
links between aesthetics and politics and the ways in 
which literature shapes us at the same time that we 
shape literature. Texts to be studied include 
Charlotte Lennox's The Female Quixote, Elizabeth 
Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, and Alice Walker's 
The Color Purple. 

420 Honors Seminar An intensive study of an 
announced topic under the guidance of the Director 
of the Senior English Honors Program. Prerequisite: 
Successful completion of an honors thesis. Offered 
in the spring semester. 

Staff 

464 Honors Thesis An individualized study project 
involving the research of a topic and the preparation 
of a major paper under the direction of a member of 
the department. This research and writing will be 
done during the fall semester of the senior year. 
Prerequisites: By invitation of the department only. 

Staff 

Individualized Study An individual tutorial, 
research project, or internship under the supervision 
of a member of the staff. A student must submit a 
written proposal to the department well in advance 
of registration. Prerequisite: ATpTpYO\?L\ of the 
department and of the directing faculty member. 
Offered each semester. 

Staff 



94 



THEATRE ARTS 



Theatre Arts 



The major in theatre arts is described, page 89. 
Although theatre arts courses (except 214, 328 and 
329) may be used to fulfill the distribution 
requirement in arts, students are urged to take one 
of the following: TA 105, 115, 163, 203, 204. and 252. 

105 Introduction to Theatre Arts An overview of 
theatre, including its historical background, its 
literarv' works, its technical aspects, and its 
performance techniques. Students will study the 
theatre of today in relation to its predecessors and in 
terms of its modern forms in cinema and television. 
Students will read texts and analyze methods used in 
bringing those works into production. Field trips will 
offer opportunities to critique performances. 

Mr. Hanson, Ms. Howe 

115 Theatre Production A course designed to 
provide an extensive investigation of the historical and 
contemporary trends and practices essential for 
theatre production. The student gains an understand- 
ing of theatre procedures and acquires a grasp of the 
equipment necessary for the execution of scenery, 
properties, sound, and stage lighting. This course is a 
combination of lecture and laboratory work and re- 
quires backstage participation in college productions. 

Mr. Hanson 

120 Fundamentals of Acting The study of the 
theoiy and technique of the art of acting; voice 
technique for the stage; the use of pantomime, 
including the study of gesture and movement. 
Emphasis will be placed on the discipline and control 
of the body and the voice to best serve the actor. 
Improvisation will be employed. In addition, students 
v«ll be expected to perform in scenes for class 
analysis. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Ms. Hozue 

155 Fundamentals of Stage Design Basic theories 
and technique of design for the stage. The theory 
behind the design, and the interrelationship of scene 
design, lighting, costumes, and properties. How stage 
design interprets the themes and moods of a play as 
well as identifying period and place will be studied. 
This course will follow a lecture-discussion format and 
involve extensive studio work. Students will analyze, 
create, and execute basic designs for the Laboratory 
Theatre Series in association with students in Theatre 
Arts 182. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Hanson 

163 Introduction to Dance An overview of the 
history and development of modern dance with 



emphasis on the early pioneers (Duncan, Denis- 
Shawn, Humphrey, Weidman, Hawkins, 
Cunningham), intended to develop an appreciation 
of dance as an art form. The study of form and 
technique and the physical application thereof. 
Emphasis will he placed on the discipline and control 
of the body to best serve the dancer. 

Staff 

182 Fundamentals of Directing The study of the 
theory and technique of the art of the director; how a 
play is selected; play analysis; tryouts and casting; the 
purpose and technique of blocking, movement, and 
stage business. Students are required to direct scenes in 
class and a short play as part of the Laboratory Theatre 
Series. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

203, 204 History of the Theatre A survey of the 
theatre from the primitive to the present. Emphasis is 
placed on the relevance of theatre design, production 
techniques, and acting styles to the plays of their 
periods, and the relationship between society and the 
theatre it nurtured. The first semester covers Greek, 
Roman, Medieval, Elizabethan, and Oriental; the 
second semester is devoted to the Italian Renaissance, 
French, Neoclassical, the Restoration, and the 
eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. 

Mr. Schmidt 

214 Survey of Dramatic Literature An overview of 
dramatic literature from the Greeks to the present. 
Play structure is analyzed, and comparisons made 
between methods of executing plot, development of 
character, and theme. Contents includes plays from 
the Greek and Roman periods, medieval, Elizabethan 
and seventeenth through twentieth centuries. 
Emphasis will be placed on written analysis. Fulfills 
the literature distribution requirement and does not 
fulfill the arts requirement. 

Ms. Howe 

220 Advanced Acting Further study in the theory 
and techniques of the art of the actor, the analysis 
and interpretation of acting roles, and the building 
of characterization. Roles, both comic and tragic, 
from Contemporary Restoration, Elizabethan, 
Commedia dell'Art, and Greek theatre will be 
analyzed and performed. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 
120 and/or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

222 Oral Interpretation of Literature An analytical 
and structural study of recognized prose, poetry, and 
dramatic selections which will facilitate individual 
rehearsal and performance of the literature. These 



THEATRE ARTS 



95 



readings will incorporate the Readers Theatre format 
and emphasis will be placed on developing an appreci- 
ation for the literary work as a complete aesthetic unit. 
Students will be challenged to recognize their potential 
for speaking and reading before an audience. The class 
will employ an ensemble approach and present several 
public performances during the semester. 

Mr. Hanson 

252 Studies in Film Aesthetics A study of historically 
significant films, film theory, and criticism intended to 
develop an appreciation for film as an art form. The 
students will keep a journal of critical responses to 
films, write short critical papers, and will become 
familiar with writing that has been done about films. 

Mr. Fredrickson 

255 Advanced Stage Design Examination of 
historical and contemporary theories of scene, 
lighting, and costume design. Students will consider 
design as the visual manifestation of the playwright's 
concepts. Besides designing the same play for 
proscenium, arena, thrust, and profile stages, and a 
period play for a period other than its own, students 
will complete advanced designs in scene, lighting, 
and costumes, and create designs for the Laboratory 
Theatre Series in association with students in 
Theatre Arts 282. Prerequisite: Theatre Arts 155. 

Mr. Hanson 

282 Advanced Directing Further studies in the 
theory and technique in the art of the director. 
Students will engage in directional analyses of plays 
representing different periods. Particular attention 
will be given to contemporary methods of presenta- 
tion, with special emphasis on arena and thrust 
staging. In addition to directing scenes in class, 
students will direct two scenes and a one-act play for 
public presentation, the latter as part of the 
Laboratory Theatre Series. Prerequisites: Theatre Arts 
182 and/or permission of the instructor. 

Mr. Schmidt 

307 Theatre Arts Practicum - Acting A practical 
learning experience in acting. During a seven-week 
period, students will perform in three children's 
theatre productions and will also participate in three 
mainstage productions as part of Gettysburg Theatre 
Festival's summer program. Students are afforded the 
opportunity of working alongside professional actors 
and under professional direction before discriminat- 
ing audiences. Commedia dell'Arte improvisational 
techniques are employed in the creation and 
rehearsals of the children's theatre offerings. A study 
of the wor