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11^ TkititI 

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librarg of ttje ©ifainitg Srijool 


from the library of the late 

Dean of the School, 1878-1900 

IQ October 1Q05 


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The Geborim that were of okL—QiMms v\. 4 


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New rORK 

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There was a line of '' Highplaces " nmning from the p3nramids 
of Gizeh through Philistia, Bamah,^ Salem, Shiloh, Beth 
Shems, Moab,— to Bel's Tower at Babylon. They were sacred 
to Bal or Bel (El) the Sun. In Syria, Moab, and Mesopota- 
mia they built temples on elevations natural or artificial. 
Salamah is said to have built one bamah (highplace) to Ka- 
mos in Moab, and another to the " King " (Malak, Moloch) 
among the Ammonites. The bamoth were probably the old- 
est highplaces and temples of the Asarim, Asarielites, or 
Syrians. The Great Highplace was at G^baon.* There Bel- 
Saturn * met * his worshippers on Saturn's Day. 

Mse (Masses, or Moses ^ was of the race of the Chaldaeans. 
The Chaldaean Mithra had his Seven Bays, and Moses his 
Seven Days. The other planets which circling rotmd the sun 
lead the dance as round the King of heaven receive from him 
with the light also their powers ; while as the light comes to 
them from the sun so from him they receive their powers 
that he pours out into the Seven Spheres of the Seven Planets 

> The city was upon a hill ; and still another asoent up to the Highplace. — 1 Sam. 
ix. 13, 14, 25 ; X. 5. 

< The abode of lahoh was on the Bamah at Gabaon.— 1 Ghron., zri. 80. 

* Alohim, the Semite doaL 

* Numb., xxiii. 4, Id 

* The Chaldaeans considered fire and light each as haying the two genders, like Bel, 
Hithia, As (Ash), Alahlm, Asar. Conseqaently, Simon Magus lets the Divine female 
fire be severed from the Male Fire, jost as Genesis, ii 21-28 severs the Woman-fire 
(Ashah, Aishah, Ids) from the Masoaliue Adam (Adon, Lnnns). Alahim (Elohim) is 
the SpizitaB Divine, a dnal prinoipiam in Genesis, i. 1, 2 ; and in the male-female fike 
of Simon's theory Spirit is the God.— Hippolytos, vi. 18 ; John iv. 24. Thus the 
aerered pairs are Bel and Beltis, Mithra and Mithraitis, Adon and Dana6, Adam and 
Damia (KerCs), As and Isis, Asar and Sahra or Sarah, Menes (Men) and Men6, Am6n 
and Mona, Lnnns and Luna : Q . Grenesis, i ii is from the Chaldaean. 


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of which the sun is the centre.^ The ancient world was one of 
fire, gnosis, civilisation, and inferences which resulted in re- 
ligious systems that, although externally and nominally dis- 
tinct, were founded in one common philosophy — the distinc- 
tion between spirit and matter. Spiritus means breath, from 
spiro, to breathe. Spiritus as the breath of life was considered 
fire ; but it is an unknown quantity in the oriental philosophy, 
intended to express the abstract idea, "life." It cannot be 
proved to correspond to any idea that can be grasped by the 
mind, since the word (meaning breath of life) designates a 
status, — not an entity but only a result. Life is a condition, a 
state, a result of previous conditions. Therefore the use of 
the word pneuma or spiritus to indicate a certain thing is un- 
authorised. The ancients invented a term for life, which, 
since vitality is a result, a state of matter, fails to express 
what it was coined to express, — a substance, an entity. 

The birth of man is entirely owing to nature, which has 
made provision for it. Like the grass, we are bom from a 
parentage,^ not from a philosophy or a theology. Since Nat- 
ure is the authority for human existence the human thought 
should be based on facts, and not on oriental substitutes for 
truth. The past teaches us human errors. The theory of spir- 
it and matter pervaded the orient from the time of the early 
Ghebers down through the Christian centuries. The idea of 
spirit as a Cause is found in all the great oriental religions. 
We find it in those of El, Bel, lao, and lahoh, — in the Seven 
Kays of the Chaldaean Mithra and the Seven Days of Genesis. 
From the Sun came fire and spirit.^ This was the astronom- 

' Julian, Oratio 4. 135. 

* The life of the embryo animal reprodncea very exactly that of the cellnlar tissues 
of the plants. The form is sketched and marked out in the first times of the evolution. 
— Dareste, p. 103. Let man catch some germ diseases, and he will soon recognise that 
he is a part of nature. 

" Diodor. Sia 1 11. p. 15. Wesseling. Cyrus swore by Mithra (Rawlinson, Seventh 
Monarchy, 637 ; Xenophon, Cyropaedia, viii 3. § 53) as the Jews did by lah.— Exodus, 
xvii 16. 


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ical religion of the ChaldaeanB^ Jews, Persians, Syrians, Phoe- 
nicians and Egyptians. 

The records of the Jews contain the literature of the fire- 
worship. We trace this people back to a most interesting 
source tiie city of the Achabara then occupied by a race of 
mighty warriors called the Kheta (Hetha) who defended them- 
selves later against Bamses tiie Great. It stood in the moun- 
tains west of the Dead Sea where Chebron, one of the oldest 
cities of Judah (now called Hebron), stands. The word Acbar 
means 'mighty,' and the Egyptians knew the Achabara by 
that name, for at an early period they never entirely conquered 
them. From the word Cabar or Gabar (also meaning ' mighty *) 
comes the word Gteber or Oheber which (as the Eheta of Ehe- 
bron were fireworshippers) was in time used to denote the an< 
cient people who were, like all the Old Canaanites, very much 
controlled by that form of religion. — Genesis, xxii. 7 ; Deut. 
v. 24. 

Gur subject is what a Greek dramatist called ' the immor- 
tal light of fire,' with which we propose to connect the * Ca- 
naanite fires in the land of Seth.' The results of a supposed 
action of solar heat or spirit upon the earth-forms of matter 
are plainly seen in the Oriental Philosophy. It has therefore 
appeared absolutely indispensable in this treatise to provide 
the reader with the facts, evidences,^ and criticism requisite to 
enable the student of the records of the past to understand 
the ancient utterances to which his attention is directed. Be- 
fore the works of Movers,* of the author of * Supernatural Re- 
ligion,' and of the author of * Antiqua Mater ' no such treatise 
as the present could have been readily prepared. The extracts 
given further on are translations that deliver the very spirit of 

> The proper names in the Hebrew Bible have been read withoat the points, be- 
cause these were not in existence in the centuries before onr era. 

' Movers is qnoted by GSerfaard in his Grieohisohe My thologie, and has been praised 
by Theodore Parker. Chwolsohn quotes Movers in his work on the Ssabians.— Mas- 
pero, too, quotes Movers. 


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the orient, breathing that essence of the oriental philosophy 
that was associated with the fire of the King Sun. 

The red-hot ' Diyine Gonception holds the first place t — Chaldaean Grade. 

The Chaldaean held that all things are the progeny of One 
Fire, that the Primal Fire did not enclose his power within 
matter by works but by mind, for the Architect (the Logos) of 
the fiery world is the Mind of mind. C!onsequently " the Fire- 
heated Ennoia holds the first rank, and afterwards comes the 
first of the immaterials or spirituals. So, too, the soul was 
held to be, by the Power of the Father, bright fire ; remains 
immortal, and is the mistress of life. Compare Genesis, ii. 7. 
Moreover the Chaldaean Logos was the Father - begotten 
Light, for he alone, having gathered from the power of the 
Father the flower of mind, is able to understand the Paternal 
Mind (— Proklus, in Timaeum, 242, Cory, 263, 264 ; Hermes 
Trismegistus, I. 6 ; Jeremiah, li. 7, 13). Like a Jew, Simon 
the Gittite held the intelligible, mind-perceived, and visible 
nature of Fire ; that the beginning of all things is boundless 
Fire.' And the Hindu sage declared that when the Divine 
Being formed out of the waters the Spirit, He looked on it, 
and its mouth opened like an egg: out of its mouth pro- 
ceeded the Word, and from the Word came forth Fire ! 

Graduated at Harvard in 1845. 

1 Primal Oonoepfioii, CreatiTc Mind, heated by fiie (piirithalp6s). For God is the 
life of all things in conception.— Fhilo, Legal Allegories, 1. 29. The sonl is life or has 
life.— Jnstin Martyr, Dial, p. 86w 

> Matthew, iii. XL 

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Sfibit akd Mattbb in thb Bast, 9 

Abraham, Aud, and thb Iaudi op Araba, 49 

Tms AsARiANS IN Egypt, 82 

Ibis in Phcenicia, 225 

The Gross, Grown and Scbptrb, 817 

Before Antioch, 860 

The Nazarbnes, 488 

The Great Archangel of the Ebionttes, 688 

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** The people of the land the Benl Khitt"— Gen. xxill. 7. 
Hftladu&Jiumfidbtf kximgth.— DBurmnoN lli gid 


Page 158, line 31, strike oat the first either. 

Page 178, line 11, read Hor-em-sat 

Page 179, read ** having left the Sacred Tmolns.*' '* Nemos 
Bacchi, TmoU vineta."— Ovid, Past, ii 815. 

Page 241, line 8, for Kassistis read Kassiotis. 

Page 676, line 8, for yooantnr read yooatnr. 

Page 724, line 12, for Capids, read Copido.— Ovid, Past, ii 468. 
Dione aooompcuiied by the little Capido oame to the Enphrates and 
sat by the Palestine water. For Palestina read Palestine. 

Page 750, line 27, for Iteoos read lesons. 

Page 807, line 8. It is nowhere stated that Simon Magos was 
cmcified. Acts associates Simon Magna with Naxorene Apostoloi ; 
bat this does not help to date the origin of the first account of the 

Page 818, line 14, for thereapeutai read therapentai. 

Page 893, Jndenohristenthnm, one word. 
' Page 992, line 81, no comma after the word Samaritan. 

Page 1001, lines 83, 84, and page 1002, lines 11-38. In the 
beginning of the second centory the Syriac Version of I. Chronicles 
▼. 2, read: From Jndah shall King Messiah go oat: Min laada 
nephoq Malka Meshihal Shiloh, in Gen xliz. 10, meant the 
Messiah The man who wrote that oonld not have sapposed that 
Ghristas had already come. —Isaac Prager, De Versione Syriaca, pages 
19, 45. Observe that this verse in the Peshito contains in the second 
century an addUion to the original Hebrew passage I That is the 
point. He makes this addition, jast as Philo might have done, who 
mentions no lesn. 

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'* The people of the land the Beni Khat."— Gbn. xxiii. 7. 
Malaohia mimedbar kadmoth.— Dbutebom. iL 26. 

Once the valley of the Jordan was a series of lakes, and the 
Dead Sea of far greater extent than now. The waters of the 
Gulf of Akabah covered the entire Wady el Arabah to the Dead 
Sea, and the salt rocks of Jebel Usdum were formed in the 
sea's bed. The waters of the Jordan Valley did not flow down 
into the Gulf of Akabah after the land had emerged from the 
sea.^ The whole of Palestine rose up from under the waters 
in the Miocene period. The Dead Sea in the Pluvial period 
had a length of nearly 200 English miles from north to south 
at the time when its surface was at a higher level than that of 
the Mediterranean at the present day. This Pluvial period 
extended from the Pliocene through the Glacial period down 
to recent times. The Lebanon throughout the year was snow- 
clad over its higher elevations, while glaciers descended into 
some of its valleys. The region of the Hauran, lying at its 
southern base, was the site of several extensive volcanoes,^ 
while the district around and the Jordan VaUey were invaded 
by floods of lava.^ During the time that the shores of the Gulf 
of Suez were depressed 200 feet (or more) lower than at present, 
those of the Gulf of Akabah experienced a like submergence.^ 
The region about Sadem (Sodom) was the abode of the Lotan 

1 Alohim said : Let the dry appear. — Gen. L 9. 

^ The laya patches reach from Northern Palestme to Aden, and the Red Sea is a 
vast crevasse of plutonio depression.— R F. Burton, in Acad., p. 48. 
»Gen. xix. 24,25. 
* Edward Hull, Mount Seir. 

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Arabs. ^ And Genesis supposes Lot to have seen the volcanic 

Between Hermon and Sinai lay a country occupied by a con- 
siderable number of tribes, among the most southerly being 
the Adites (Auditae,^ or Oaditae) and Midianites ; among those 
to the north being the Kananites of Aoho (Ako, Akko) and T3rre, 
and also the Amorites. The Bible describes the Phoenicians in 
the north as Kananites, in the south as Pelestim or Philistians. 
The land Caleb (Egyptian Khalebu) was near the district of 
the Katti (Kheth or Keth) at Hebron, while the Khatti (Eatti 
Kheta) extended to the south as far as the country of the lower 
Buthen ^ (Arad) and Idumea (Mt. Seir, Edom). The land of 
Eanan took in the country between the Mediterranean and 
the sea of Tiberias, from Hermon (Chermon) down to lebus. 
Hebron, and Arad. Eanaan begat Ehat (Kheth).— Gen. x. 16. 
Over all this region Adonis (Saturn) was adored under various 
names by the fire-worshippers ; for they called Dionysus Adon 
(Adonis) in the Lebanon, Adoni and Adonai in Jerusalem, Sat, 
Set, in PhiUstia and Seb or Sabi ' in Arabia. Euripides, Herod- 
otus, and Movers leave no doubt upon the point.* There was 
a strong desire on the part of the mountaineers of Jerusa- 
lem in the second century B.C., to get possession of Kanan. 
Genesis, ix. 25-27, curses Kanan, and declares him to be the 
servant of Shem and lapet. It carries out this disposition of 
the Son of Cham (the Hot) by taking possession of Kananite 
territory'' from the surroundings of Sidon and Tyre, all they 
could get of the Khatti territory, the lebusite, Amorite, 
Gergashite, Choite (Acho, Acre), Arak or Arukaanl and, Beth 

> G«n. xix. 15, SO. 

* Oompare Gen. xiii. 10, with xiz. 17. 24, 2S. 

> Asa (Esan) married Audah, daaghter of Ailon the Khethite (Khittite), and lived 
in Mt. Seir in Edom (Adom). — Qen. xxxvi 1, 2, 8. 

« Osiander mentions an Arab deity Rnda. 

* See also Genesis, x. 7. The Arabs oalled Elronos Adon and Seb. Kronos is the 
Hebrew Karan * to shine.* Herakles, King o£ Fire, was called Apis on the Nile, Kronos 
in Arabia.— Nonnns, Dionysiao zl 898. Also oalled AmmSn.— -xl. 892. 

* Dnnlap, Vestiges^ 199, 901. * Arabica gens oalls me Adoneum.'—Aasonins, Ep. 
30. Aasonins identifies Adoneos with Dionysus, Adonis, and Osiris. And Nonnus 
evidently holds the same view. The Phcsnicians proclaimed Caserns a deity. —Movezs, 
120, quotes Easebins, de Laud. Constant, c. 18. Osiris was declared to have been a man 
by Enhemerism ; and Ensebius held OnsSrus to have been a man. 

7 Grenesis, xii. 3, plainly indicates the intention to take the country. Kanan could 
not have become a Son of Cham until after the Kananites had emigrated into and 
colonized the Delta. 


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8an, Samaria and Eannel to the southern part of the Dead Sea ; 
and Judas Makkabeus took Asdod and Askalon. It was an old 
Phoenician tradition that Saturn had granted the Land of the 
South to the God Taut, and Taut appears to have got a good 
share of it, even so far south as Egypt. The Phoenician Taut 
is the Egyptian Tat, Tot, Thoth. A more recent tradition, in 
Genesis, ix. 25, 26, of priestly origin, opens the Chananite ter- 
ritory to conquest by the Jews. 

The climate of ancient Palestine was always of varied char- 
acter owing to the variation of level in different spots, but its 
hills and mountains, together with the wooded character of the 
country at an early period, must have made most of it a toler- 
able abode for man. In January, 1884, at Jerusalem the snow 
fell to a depth of over two feet all over the country. Such a 
fall had not occurred for five years. In the most ancient period 
the woods must have kept the snow longer on the ground to 
feed the streams of the country, so that it was in all prob- 
ability better watered than since its woods have been cut down.* 
It is possible that Arad may in the time of Bamses II. have had 
water for a moat around the town. Of early Arabia we know 
but little except its worship of Saturn, Eronos, Dionysus and 
Aphrodite Ourania, and in the sketches of ancient Judea we 
are introduced to Adon (lachoh) the Lebanon life-god and to 
Ashera (the Syrian Venus), Sarah. 

Without going too deep into geology it may be said that 
marine shells are found in the stratifications around the Dead 
Sea, that salt water ran from the Salt Sea down the Valley of 
Akabah past Petra and Acharon's tomb ^ to the Bed Sea at the 
Gulf of Akabah,^ that hills formed by the coral insect are found 
some way inland in Arabia,* that the Bed Sea once was 
broader than now, that the shores were once under water,* that 
the land has risen ^ (the water subsided), that the Isthmus 
of Suez was all deep water, and that formerly Egypt had 
waterfalls besides the cataracts of the Nile. Egypt has been 
^rradually drying up. The prodigious water- worn ravines in 
the clifis of the Nile valley show this ; and there are remark- 

1 The LabaiKni was o&oe snow-oUd ihronghoni the year.— Hall, Mount Seir, 18S, 
and pp. 121, 129, 138, 184. 

« Aharon ; Ahron, Aaron : from Achar and Chares, meaning * Son.* 

* Hull, Mt. Seir. 

« Niebnhr, Voyage in Arable, L 244. 

^ B. H. Barton, Land of Midian, passioL ^ 

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able evidences of the Nile having been habitually some 60 feet 
above its present level, thus filling up the whole valley at all 
times of the year. That its stream was fed by local rains 
throughout its course is seen by the deep gorges in the cliflfs, 
often a mile long, and ending in dried-up waterfalls. In the 
history of the Faium the same drying up is seen.^ Arabia 
anciently was less dried up than to-day, and appears to have 
been the heart of the Semite raoe.^ 

From B.C. 2000-450, the time of Herodotus, the Arabians 
of Audah,* the Chanania or Kananites, the Tyrians, the tribe 
of laudah (Jews), Israelites, Philistians and Egyptians wor- 
shipped idols. 

Ancient religion appears as a matter of organization, 
priestly theory, and manipulation, coupled with the supersti- 
tions of the multitude ; and these in time became somewhat 
systematized under the efforts of the priesthoods. These, in 
turn, became the leading castes, as in Egypt ; and as religion 
reduced to a system requires gradations of rank as well as a 
constant attendance at the temples, a jobbing goes on with the 
people to obtain oflferings to support the priest caste, while 
claims are made on the king for lands for the temples, and it 
ends by the pharaoh, the priests and the military holding all 
the landed property in Egjrpt, while in the Arabian Desert the 
sheiks or patriarchs wander from place to place with their 
families, their slaves, their cattle, horses, camels, and supersti- 

Meanwhile great temples to the Sungod and the Moongod- 
dess * (Binah, Venah) have been erected. Nature is carefully 

» Petrie, Pyramids, 149. 

' Renan, Hist. Peuple Israel, I., 10. In the earliest Semite period we may suspect 
that the alphabet may perhaps not have been completed. That p and b were modified 
by subsequent additions to the alphabet may be assumed, or else these letters were 
changed in the pronunciation. Phud varies into pephuka, showing an early recognition 
of the close relations of p and ph (f). So g, k, ch were originally modifications of one 
sound ; thus we have the district Kabul in Palestine, and the name Chaboio and GebaL 
T, d, and th are, between Egyptian and Hebrew, in constant interchange, being modi- 
fications of one original sonnd. 

« Compare Wright, Chr. in Arabia, 2-6. The Arabian peninsula is considered by 
Niebuhr an immense pile of mountains encircled by a belt of arid, flat ground extending 
from Sues around the whole peninsula to the mouth of the Euphrates, and continued 
on the north by the province of Petra and the deserts of Syria.— lb. 11. 

* W. U. RoAcher^s Lexicon der griechischen und rtfmischen Mythologie confirms 
the view that Aphrodite was the great Asiatic moon-goddess, like Astarte and Artemis, 
and is the * Queen of heaven.' See '' Academy/* August 15, 1885, p. 106. 


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attended to by the priests, the stars are gazed at, the constel- 
lations formed and numbered, and a system of the aniverse 

Genesis starts from Ghaldaism. Compare Gen. xy. 7 ; Sep- 
tnagint psalm xix. ; Philo, Who is Heir, 46, 48, and Change of 
Scripture Names, 8. Phoenicians and Sjrrians name Kronos 
El, Bel and Bolaten. The God El ^ was the primal God of 
the Semite race known to the Hebrews as Hael (Hel), the 
Greek Aelios and Helios. The Cretan Gkxl Abel (Abelios) is 
in Babylon Bel, the Bal, Abel, or Habol of the Jews, the Greek 
Apollon, Cretan Apellon. The Tower of Bel at Babylon with 
its seven stages is duplicated in the Syrian and Hebrew-Ghe- 
ber High Places and in the Pyramids of Egypt, — ^without 
however the seven stages of BePs tower at Babylon ; BePs 
temples were on the High Places. The Sacred Number 7 was 
everywhere from the Euphrates to the Nile. Bel and Istar 
were among the Hebrews Bal and Astarta, Astarta too in 
Egypt. Ash (fire, life) becomes Asara, Azara, Ashera in Judaea 
and Phoenicia, Aisah in Genesis, and Isis in Ptolemaic GreeL 
Isis came out from Phoenicia into Egypt, and the Assyrian 
Asar becomes Asar in Hieroglyphs, and the Ptolemaic Osiris, — 
the name Surya in India. A ' Tomb of Osiris ' was at Abydos, 
where the nobles of Egypt were buried, the kings of Syria 
were buried in the 'High Places' of the Sun. From all this 
it is evident that Babel was as much the centre of the Semite 
Beligion as Constantinople or Mecca are centres of Moham- 
medanism. Only that when the Priests of the Jewish Temple 
in the Second Century before our era compiled or wrote the 
Hebrew Old Testament they substituted the God of fire, life, 
and rain instead of Bal (Baal), abused the Chaldaean stargazers 
(2 Kings, xxiii.), and left out as much of the religion of Baby- 
lon as they possibly could.^ For Bel and Astarta, As and 
Aisah, or Osiris and Esi (Isis), they wrote Adam and Eua 
(Heuah), because they did not choose to surrender the doc- 

> Fk xix. 1. The Hebrew Names El, EUh (in Hebrew letters Alh), Alba, Elohim 
(Albim) are translated ^ Grod ' in the English Bible. 

' Jeremiah, li. 7, 53. Adonai lahoh is translated Lord, Adon and Bel also Lord. 
Adonis *Lord' among the Phoenicians and name of BoL—Hesychius ; Movers, I. 10&. 
Balan ^onr Lord.' Adni ^my Lord.* Hoi Adon ! Ah Lord I They snbtiliter celebrate 
the slain Adon, and his resurrection. — Movers, 194, 208 ; Hieronymos, ad Ezekiel, viii. 
750. Adonis lives ! Kronos has a Son, named Kronos. — Movers, L 186 ; Sanohoniathon, 


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trine of divine dualism (Apasson and Taantha, Hermathena, 
Ghoclimah and Bena, Adon and Vena, Bel and Beltis, Osar 
and Asherah) in the primal Creator. It would not do to give 
up the rib of GeneBis, ii. 22, 23. What would have become of 
the '^ Mother of all that Uve " t The theory of dualism re- 
quired the two sources (the male and the female) as late as 
the time of Simon Magus and the haeretical or independent 
opinions. A man in those days was required to believe in the 
* Great Mother/ else he was an unusual heretic. — Gen. ii. 20- 
22, iii. 20 ; Proverbs, viii. 1, 30. Like Brahma, Adam gives 
names to the animals. 

Bel was regarded as the " Lord of the world who dost 
dwell in the temple of the Sun." — Sayce, Hibbert Lect., p. 101. 
So the Septuagint, Arabic and Vulgate copies of the nineteenth 
Psalm say : Li the sun lahoh has placed his tabernacle I The 
Semite and Sabian population thought alike. The conjunction 
of the ideas fire and Ught with life was offset by their oppo- 
sites darkness and death. As surely as the Babylonians and 
Jews both had the Flood-legend, and the Sacred Seven, and 
the Adonis-myth, the doctrine of a bisex first cause and the 
theory of precosmical powers, just as certainly the Babylonian 
Bel was the God of life (lachi, lachoh, lahoh, lad, and loue or 
Jove), since Bel was the Babylonian Creator (the Demiourgos), 
and out from the Unknown Darkness spoke the word of Ught 
and life. 

The Chaldaeans had the mysterious Name Llo, the Jews 
had the unspeakable word Ihoh (the tetragramaton ; in which 
the h, or f^, was read a) and the Phoenicians had " trina littera " 
and the mysterious Name Llo, the lad of the Chaldaeans. Thus 
the mysterious ineffable Name at Jerusalem, consisting of four 
letters, stands between the equally mysterious lad on the Eu- 
phrates and the lad of the Phoenicians. Now since the Jewish 
Temple sought to ahaorl the other High Places, and as the 
kingdom of Hebron preceded that of Jerusalem, a new and 
unknown Name was not likely to captivate the priesthoods of 
the " Bamoth Bal " unless it was revered also in Babylon and 
Phoenicia ; there is reason to infer that lad and lahoh (mean- 
ing life. Eternal Life) are merely shortened forms from the 
Hebrew roots chiah and hiah (chaiah and haiah) " to live.'* 

To exhibit the connection between the Mysteries and the 
religions of the East it is only necessary to quote Plato's 


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Phaedms, which closely resembles Biblical and even modem 
Turkish doctrine, as follows: For if it were merely that 
mania is an eyil, it would be well spoken ; but now the great- 
est benefits come to us by means of mania given by divine be- 
stowal. For both the Prophetess at Delphi and the holy 
ladies at Dodona have done many fine things for Greece, 
Iirivately and publicly, when in a state of frenzy, but when in 
a sober state of mind little or nothing. The ancients who 
gave the names did not regard Mania as anything disgrace- 
ful or a reproach. The ancients testify that Mania is as much 
superior to discretiofei, what comes from Gkxl to that which is 
from men, as prophesy is more perfect and estimable than 
augury, or one name than the other, or the work of one to the 
performance of the other. Let us not therefore prefer a sane 
man to one who is moved by an inspiration. 

Every soul is immortal ; for that which is always moved is 
immortal ; but what moves something else and is moved by 
something else, when it has a cessation of movement its life 
ceases. That, then, which moves itself, since it does not leave 
itself, never ceases being moved but is the source and begin- 
ning of motion for the others that are being moved. And Be- 
ginning is unborn.^ For all that is bom must be bom from 
Beginning, but (the Arche) itself from none ; for if a Begin- 
ning should be bom from anything, then it would not be a 
Beginning. Since, then, it is unborn (uncreate), it must be in- 
destructible also. For if a Beginning should perish, it will 
neither be bom from anything nor anything else from it, if in- 
deed all things must be bom from a Beginning (an. Arche). 
So, then, the Beginning (Arche) of motion is the very thing 
that moves itsdf: and this can neither perish nor be bom, or 
both all heaven and all genesis collapsing would stop and 
never would there again be (that) whereby what is moved shall 
be bom. Since what is moved by itself, has been seen to be 
immortal, one will not hesitate to say that this very thing is 
the quality of soul : that having its impulse (motion given to 
it) from without is soulless, but that which is moved from 
within, of itself, has a soul, since this is the nature of soul. 
And if this is so, that there is nothing else that itself moves 
itself except soul, of necessity the soul (life) must be unborn 

1 CompAre the first words of €(enesu i. 1 : In the BeginniBg, Elohim hore. Here we 
■ee the jiixt«po«itioii of Maaes and Plato. 


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and immortal. Therefore we have said enough respecting 
athanasia.^ Plato then goes on to argue that a soul gets a 
body when it has lost its wings (that is, in the fall of man from 
paradise). While it remains perfect it soars aloft and governs 
th^ universe. This is not essentially different from Semite 
ideas. Plato then gets on the subject of the millennium as 
connected with the Mysteries.^ Next, he enters more fully in- 
to the joys of the Initiated in the Mysteries, pure and blessed, 
in company with " that happy choir " in company with Zeus 
(Bel) and other Gods, beholding the pure light and the blessed 
visions seen in those Mysteries,* that, according to Cicero, 
gave a promise of dying with a better hope. Therefore Plato 
had been instructed in the Oriental Mysteries, and his specu- 
lations are about as closely connected with the Mysteries of 
the Syrian and Egyptian Semites and with Hebrew opinions 
(such as we find in the Bible) as we could expect of one ini- 
tiated into the Mysteries that Plutarch ( de Iside), Ezekiel, 
Isaiah and Irmiah ^ describe. Plato held the theory of spirit 
and matter, as representing two opposites. So did the Per- 
sians, Jews, the Jordan Ascetics, and Mani. But no evidence 
of the existence of such an entity as spirit can be shown. 
The Jews held fire was spirit ; but fire is the product of mat- 
ter, the friction of two pieces of wood, or flint and steel. 

1 Immortality. 

* Plato, PhaedruB, cap. xzyiii. xxix. p. VL Stallbaam. Jadgment too, and pim< 
ishment in Hades. 

»Ibid. pp.97, W. 

* Irmiaho, Jeremiah. 

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** clidhr ydp iffrat oMm ip 0Ap yivwis, acal fd/ififAa rov Smt rh yw6iupw»** 

The Egyptians and Greeks had the doctrine of ' spirit/ ^ The 
basis of Dualism consists in these words : 

Learn what the mind perceives, for it exists apart from mind.* 

The indictment in this case charges that the Hebrew writ- 
ings of the Jews are based upon the recognition of the phi- 
losophy called dualism, that is, the doctrine of ' spirit and mat- 
ter.' We shall prove in this chapter that this is the doctrine 
that underlies the entire Old Testament. The doctrine of the 
Egyptians concerning the first principles inculcates the origin 
of all things from the unit with different gradations to the 
many, which again are held to be under the supreme govern- 
ment of the One. And God produced Matter from the mate- 
rial (substance) of the divided Essence, which being of a vivi- 
fie nature the Creator (Demiourgos) took it and made from it 
the harmonious and imperturbable spheres.' 

The expression that SEKing is knowing * and believing, may 
be thus illustrated. The Latin word to see is nidi, the Greek 
is oida (I know), the Hebrew is ida (whence we have dath, 
KNOwledge); supernal knowledge, spiritual insight, superior 
science, are expressed in Greek by gnonai, in Sanskrit by 
jnana (guana, gnonai, gnosis) : in Latin, we have NOU-i, in Eng- 
lish, I KNOW. The Sanskrit tieda (the veda) is then the same 

1 Plutarch, de Iside, 89, 40. 

'Hanthane to noQton, tpei noon ex9 nparkeL Cknnparo the *A7in^ the *No 
thing ' in the doctrine of the Kabalah. 

* Hermetic FragmentB ; Cory, p. 286. 

* Moees, Aaron, Nadab, Abioha, and Seventy of the Anoientt, the noblee, saw the 
AlaM of Isazel (Israel). —Ezodns, xziy. 9, 10, 11. 


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root as the Greek oida and the Hebrew ida, meaning gndsis, 
vidh, uideo, video, uiasen^ vnst, uisdom xdsum (visum). The 
Hebrews were gnostics ; ^ for gnosis is older than Christianity 
as a separated tendency of Judaism.^ The ty koX woXXd (one 
and many) both belong to existence or onsia, which thus com- 
bines unity and plurality. The one (the unit) exists and par- 
takes of being.* 

The perfect states are ideal forms and ousia.— Julian, in Solem, 184. 

In an indictment for dualism it must be shown in what the 
dualism consists and the parties against whom dualism is 
charged. Plato speaks of the ousia, the essence of simple ab- 
stract existence, which is the vital force of deity in the abstract, 
the cause of causes. The religion of the orient was based 
upon two principles. These principles are spirit and matter. 
The fire principle was in the sun, and the spirit was in the 
sun, according to Diodorus, L 7, 11, p. 15 ; compare Matthew, 
iii. 11 ; 2 Peter, iii. 10, 11. 

There is spirit in man, and the breath « of Sadi gi7e8 intelligence.— Job, 
xxxii. a 

lahoh thy Alah, a fire that eats is he 1 

la hoh Alahik, ash akalah hoa ! — Deuteronomy, iv. 24. 

Oshah malachio ruachoth, masartio ash lahat. — Psalm, civ. 4. 

He makes his angels spirits, his ministers a fiame of fire t~Ps. civ. 4. 

la'hoh, thy Alah, is fire that consumes ! He makes his 
angels spirits, Abrahm and LHT (Lot) dwelt in and near the 
fire-district, Laht or Lot. Lot is then the name of a burnt dis- 
trict, not of a man. 

The nature of Osiris-Dionysus consists of fire and spirit.* 

» 1 Samuel, ii. 8 ; Isaiah, xlvii 10. Hebrew text. . ** There is in man a third faculty 
which I call simply the faculty of apprehending the Infinite, not only in religion, but 
in all things ; a power independent of sense and reason, a power in a certain sense con- 
tradicted by sense and reason, but yet, I suppose, a very real power, if we see how it 
has held its own from the beginning of the world, how neither sense nor reason have 
been able to overcome it, while it alone is able to overcome both reason and sense." — 
Max Mnller, Science of Religion, p. 14. Mr. Max MOller here gives the exact defi- 
nition of the gnSsis, and, in a lateral way, gives it the benefit of an endorsement, of 
which it Rtands in great need. 

«Nork, Real-W5rterbnoh, ii 95, 99, 100; 3 Samuel, ii 8, Septuagint. 

> Plato ; MUller, Hist. Lit, ii. 240, ed. 1858. Onsia is the fiery spiritual form, the 
vital essence, or being: 

* pnenma, neshamath. 

• Diodorus, L 11. 

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lachoh is the breath of life ; the feminine spirit is called Ena 
and Asah,^ and, in the Midrask Babbah, Asat.^ The deities of 
the oriental world mostly represent the spirit, or life, in the 
sun and moon. Flato says that the most high Qod is in the 
fiery essence.' The new fire of Vesta was lighted in March.^ 

Whitheraoerer tbe spirit wm to go.~Esekiel, 1. 20. 

And the SPIBIT entered into me.— Exekiel, ii. 2. 

Reasonably then the mind-peroeiyed (the intelligible)* does not go forth to 
OS ; sorelj not the sinolb,* which is set above the oosia : ^ for this too belongs 
to dlTlne gnosis to behold, whence the most supernal of the real elements that 
are mentally perceived by ns we declare as mind-perceived * and as the real es- 
sence,' that really is. For Plato bringing the souls up to this place supposes in 
it the Onsia absolute, and visible only to the ruler of the souL — Damaskins, 
cap. 113. 

In treating of the Mind-perceived primal entities (or pow- 
ers) we are reminded of the ancient saying ; 

*' For every nature of the first principles *^ lies far from oar senses below.'* 

The latin yerb, uro, urere, nssi, nstnm, has a very respectable 
antiquity. It connects with AB, Ares, and Areia (Hera) mean- 
ing fire, in Phoenicia, Armenia, Moab, Israel, Arabia, Ur (Oari§ 
the city of the Firepriests) of the Chaldees, mentioned in Abra- 
hamic story ; appears in the names Ar (of Moab) ABimmon 
and Ariel, and in the name of the fire-altar ABa.^^ It is the same 
with our word <ish (ashes). It begins with the Sanskrit and 
Semitic root as (fire, life), appears in the Hebrew as or ash 

> So Simon Magaa held. The Egyptian Aso. 

•Midrash Rabba, paraaha 32: m^TK mn flKyT tHKHI 

* Jnrtin ad Gxmoe, V. 

« It was the first month.— Macrolnaf, I ziL 0. July was the fifth, Angost the sixth 

• Tfr4vMLtor, that which is the mar. 
f the easenoe, or ideal substance 

• own*. The onsia is the place of forms. A mind-perceived world, a mind-per- 
ceived Snn, and a mind-peroeiyed rb Sr belong to gnOsis and the early Kabalah. So, 
too, the deities of Italy were the mind-perceived, ghosUy, forms of Etruscan Grods. 

>0 the first of things, the first elements, tbe beginnings, or primal powers. — Compare 
CokMsiaas, i 15, 16, la 

" Onr fire, imitating the action of divine fire, destroys whatever bsiongs to matter, 
in the sacrifice, and purifies what is brought to it and looses it from the bonds of mat- 
ter and owing to its pore nature renders it suitable for the Qods to partake of.— 
Ismblichus, de Mysteriia 

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" fire," Asah, Aso, Aifiah, Isah, Isis, and terminates at the fire- 
altar of the Phoenician, Etruscan or Soman in nssi and usta. 

For the mortal that approaches the Fire shall have light from God J — Chal- 
dean Oracle. 

And said Eliaho to the people : I alone am left a prophet to la^hoh, and the 
Nabiai (prophets) of Habol ^ (Apollo) 450 men. 

And you shall call on the name of your God (B61, or Abol) and I will call on 
the name lachoh. And be it, the Elohim who responds by FIRB, he is the 
Blohim!— 1 Kings, xviii. 22, 24. 

Then fell down fibb of lachoh. ~1 Kings, xviii. 88. 

Kebir is a name of fire. The Gebirs' are the fire-worship- 
ers, and the Cabiri are the seven spirits of fire.* Compare the 
Arabian idol Hheber,' and the Ghebers at Hebron. 

Bacchantum ritn flagrantes circuit aras. — Ovid, Met. yii 258. 
Circulates around the burning altars like the Sun-worshippers. 

la'hoh yonr Alah is a consuming fire.— Deut. iv. 24. 

To the Gk>d who is in the fire, who is in the water, who entered the universe, 
who is in the annual herbs and who is in the regents of the forests/ to this 
God ^ be roTerenoe, to him be reverence. — ^The Swetaswatara IJpanishad, cap. 
ii. 17. B. Boer. 

He whose head is the fibb, whose eyes are the moon and the sun, whose 
ears the quarters, whose revealed word * the Vedas, whose vital air the mind, 
whose heart the universe, from whose feet the earth, is the inner Soul of all be- 
ings. — Mundaka IJpanished, mund. iL, 1, 4, Boer. 

We have heard his voice out of the midst of the firb. — Deuteronomy, v. 

That which in thee sees and hears is the Logos* of the Lord.— Hermes Trism. 

I am that which is the seed of all existing things.— The Bhagavad-Git&, 
cap. X. 

God was the Logos. This was in the beginning with the God and all 

» Proclus in Tim. 65. 

' 7V'^T\ may also be read Havol and EvSL Epnl and Val are names of Apollo. 
Hobal is Saturn of the dying year.— Movers, PhOnizier, 86, 268, 287 1, 448. 

* Mankind, p. 579. 

* Rev. 1 4 ; iv. 5. 

« Univ. Hist, xviii 387. Dunlap, Vestiges, p. 73. The Arab idol Hheber is at the 
Gheber altar of the Solar Firegod. 

* The trees. So Yishnn, Krishna, Adam. Magna Saoerdos Arboris.— Juvenal, 
vL 544. 

^ Logos. Adonis. 

B Revelation in India ; not to the Jews in this instance. 

» The Word. 

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things oame into existence through the Logos, and without him not a thing was 
bom ; what came to exist in him is Life. And in him the Boa was bom, the 
Eoa. Life. This is the Eoa, Mother of all living things, common Natore.— 
Perataean Gndsis.* 

The oldest Dionysus was the fire-god Molooh.^ 
Where Qod*s baochic FIRB leaps.— Boripides, Ion, 1125. 

The fireworship in the Herakles-temple at Gades was, ac- 
cording to Phoenician custom, conducted without an image ;' 
this was the case in Jerusalem. He is the spirit in nature, the 
Breath of life. The philosophy of the ancient world was ad- 
hered to by both polytheists and monotheists. Egyptians^ 
and Hindus, in spite of polytheism, believed in One God 
supreme, the doctrine of the primal unity of the spirit was held 
in the Mysteries of the Chaldean Adonis, the Jewish Ia*hoh- 
Adoni, the Arab Dionysus - lacchos, the Egyptian Osiris : and 
the frog-headed deities of Egypt pointed to water as the medi- 
um in which the spirit was supposed to operate ; for the spirit 
was formed out of the waters.* 

The region of the Chaldaeans was the nurse of the ancient 
philosophy/ The Mosaic philosophy is Chaldaean.'^ The 
Jewish religion is a form of the Dionysus-worship ; and Ado- 
nis, Adonai, Osiris, Dionysus, all are the Sun, the source of 
rain, as the Hindus regarded him. The vine was attributed 
to Noa'h,^ Dionysus, Osiris* and lacchos, while, according to 
Josephus, enormous clusters of grapes were depicted above 
the Gate of the temple of Ia*hoh at Jerusalem. From the 
Caucases first, afterwards from the Semites, came wine. The 
Greeks got it from the Semites.^^ Spirit heis neither fiesh nor 

> Hippolytns, ▼. 16. Eioa is Eva. The tipper hemiephere of the earth that we in- 
habit was called Venus ; Proserpine is in the lower hemisphere. Venus mourns at cer- 
tain periods of the year for the Adonis that belongs to her, as Snn and Lover. 

* Movers, 8?i. 374, 876, 361. Here we come upon the Ghebers and ^Hebers. Com- 
pare Chebron or 'Hebron. See also Dnnlap, SOd. L 160 ; Dr. Paul Haupt, Sintfluth- 
berioht, p. 4 ; for Kebir meaning fire. 

« Movers, p. 76. 

4 Philip Smith, Ano. Hist, of the East, p. 196. Harper. 

* Wattke, Gresch. d. Heldenth. II., 296. In Gnosis, i 3, the spirit moves on the 
&oe of Uie waters. Compare Psalm Ixv. 9, 10. 

• Ammian, lib. xxiii 6, 25 ; Pomponios Mela, p. 206. 
» Movers, 890, 891. 

B Koch, meaning Descent of rain. 

• Lenormant, les Origines, IL 289, 247, 250 ; Diodor. Sic. L 15. 
» Lenormant, IL 251. 

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bones.^ From the spirit issaed light and water, and from the 
water matter settled. The serpent, in the mysteries, indicated 
darkness, the earth, death and the tomb. He has his hole in 
the ground and is found in the oave of Ahriman.^ As spirit, 
he pointed to the resurrection. 

Berashith bara Alohim eth ha-Bhemaim wa ha-aras.*— Gen. i. 1. 

At first this was water, flaid. Pra^pati, the Lord of oreatares, haxing be- 
come wind, moved on it. — The Taittirtja Samhitft.^ 

ua roach Alohim merachefet 61 phani hamaim.-— Gen. 1. 2. 

And the wind * of God flitted above npon the surfaces of the waters.— Gen- 
esis, i. 3. 

He (Pra^pati) saw this earth, and, becoming a boar, he took it np.*— The 
Taittirtym Samhitft. 

Here we have again the spirit and matter philosophy, the 
philosophy of the orient. The power of Isis was respecting 
Matter, which takes and receives light and darkness, day and 
night, fire and water, life and death, beginning and end.^ 

Of all objects in the created world water existed first when as jet there was 
neither devatah, nor man, nor animal, nor star, nor other heavenly bodj.** 
The whole universe was dark and water. In this primeval water Bbagavat in 
a masculine form reposed.* 

It is plain that the Jews in the 2d century had the Hindu 
opinions at hand, and Josephus said that the Jews were a sect 
of the Brahmans. 

No mortal lives by the breath that goes up and by the breath that goes 
down. We live by another, in whom both repose. 

Well then, I shall tell thee this mystery, the eternal word (Brahman), and 
what happens to the Self, after reaching death. 

Some are bom again as living beings, others enter into stocks and stones, 
aooording to their work and aooording to their knowledge. 

1 Ltike, xjdv. 89; 1 Cor. iL 10, 11, 12; iii 16; xv. 44. 

• Esekiel, viU. 8, 10. 

s Erats. Compare the Homeric adverb i^aiti eraiEah, (in Hebrew) meaning to 

• Max MiUler, India, What can it, p. 187. 

• Spirit (ipiro, to blow). The Spirit is Wind— Acts, iL a Rnaoh, Rndra. 

• Lifted it on his task from beneath the waters. The whole world was involved in 
darkncM and submerged in water.— Maurice, Hist Hind. L pp. 407, 410. 

1 de Idde, 77. Here we have the A and O. The Moon is the Mother of the Gods. 
The Egsrptians represented their deities floating on the waters. 

• Maurice, Hist. Hind., I 407. 

• Ibid., 407. 


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Bat he, the Highest Pwton, who wakes in ni while we art aaleep,^ ahaping 
one lovelj sight after another, he indeed ia called the Light,* he ia called Brah- 
man, he alone is called the Immortal. All worlds are founded on it, and no one 
goes beyond. This is that I 

He (Brahman) cannot be reached by speech, by mind, or by the eye. He 
cannot be apprehended except by him who says, He n.'— The Vedanta. Max 
M Oiler, 2^. 

There is an imbroken conidnnity between the most modem and 
the most ancient phases of Hindu thought extending over 
more than three thousand years.^ This remark is applicable 
to the Hebrew mind as well. 

The Stoics defined the essence of the divinity as intelligent 
and fiery spirit, without a form, capable of changing into what 
it wills, and making itself like and united to all things. God, 
being a globe of fire, is intelligence and the soul of the world ; 
he is the mind of the world, and idea is the bodiless essence in 
the conceptions and exhibits of the God. Hence the Stoics 
regarded Bacchus, who is the water-god and the fire-god, as 
Ood of light, Nutritive and Generative spirit. The male-female 
^irit of Mithra was adored : 

There went out a fire from la'hoh and deroured them.—LcTiticns, z. 2. 
Whose fire is in Sion and whose furnace in Jerusalem. — Isaiah, xxzi 0. 
quia dominus est spiritns. — Origen in Numb. cap. xxziiL 
God is spirit.— John iv. 24. 
pneuma 4 Theoe. — John, It. 24. 

Centum araa posuit vigilemque saeraverat ignem.—Virgtt Aen. ir. 199. 
Tet know the nntransitoriness of That from which this All is unfolded.— 
Bhagavad-Gitd, ii 7. LoHnser. 

God was regarded as Mind ; also as male-female.' The recog- 
nition of Gk>d'as the intellectual principle, wholly distinct 
from matter, which presides over creation is seen in Anax- 
agoras and Thales.'^ For the nature^ which admits neither 

1 Compare Pharaoh^s dream of the fat kine. 
'GSen. i 3, compexed. 
* So Ezodai iii 14 I am what I am. 

'Hermes, L 9. The Babylonian Ea Is king of the oeeaa. lah site kiag mpon the 
floods. —Pi. zxix. la 

•TheGothieTlo^llMoe; Tlosim Crete. 
^Kenrick, Egypt, L S87 ; Cicero, N.D. L la 

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color nor form and is not tangible, the undoubted ruler of the 
soul, is beheld by the mind alone.^ 

Mithra is the divine fire of the Persians and the Moabite 
or Jewish Ariel.^ Mithra stands on a lion, is Ariel. The lion 
of Judah is then the lion of Babylon and Persia. Apollo is 
Mithra, and the lion is his emblem for Croisos sent a golden 
lion to Delphi ; thus the lion is the Persian-Babylonian-Jew- 
ish-Egyptian emblem of Adonis, Mithra Apollo and Bacchus. 
It is the emblem of Horus in Egypt. Mithra is bom from a 
CAVE^ Dec. 25th, Christmas ! Apollo in the cave of Bacchus.^ 
Hear Plato : 

The man in the cave is liberated from ohains, he turns from shadows to the 
images and the light t He ascends from the cavern underground to the Sun. — 
Plato, Bepublic, vii. o. 18. 

The High priest and 24 priests bowed down before the ris- 
ing Sun,* who is the water the light, and the fire ! Mithra and 

Thej impart the Mysteries of Mithra in oaves In order that, sunk in the 
Darkness, they may look up to the splendid and serene light. — Julius Firmi- 
cus, 5. 

Slaying the children in the valleys under the clefts of the rocks. — Isaiah, 
IviL 5. 

They adored Mithra under the names " ZetcsSelioS'Serapis,*' 
for Lepsius found in Gebel Dochan, on the peninsula of Mt. 
Sinai, a temple with this inscription ; and dedicated by Ha- 
drian.^ The Church Historian ' cannot prevent himself from 
drawing a comparison between the cross in the temple of Sera- 
pis and the attribute of the Eedeemer.^ Serapis was wor- 
shipped in Hadrian's temple as Seir Anpin (the Sun), the 
Second Person of the Kabbala, the Redeemer Mithra who in 
Babylon raises up the souls from the darkness of Hades to the 

> Origen 0, Cels. vi p. 495. 

« Ar = fire. Ari = lion, 

3 Jastin, cam Trypho, p. 82, edition 1551. 

* DiodoruB Sia III 198. See Isaiah, adv. 7 ; Ivii. 5 ; Jor. xix. 5. Mithra wa» said 
to have been born from a rock — Jnstin Martyr, p. 83. 

* Ezekiel, viii 16. 

* Lepsiiu, letter^ p. 288. Seir Anpin has the two sexes, like Zeoa of the Orphics. 
» Sokratee, v. c 17. 

«Nork, Bibl. MythoL n. 282, note. 

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light of heayen and the eternal life of Apollo, Bdl Mithra, 

She did not know that I (laohoh) gave (Jerusalem) her com and wine and 
oil, and multiplied her silver and gold ; but ahe made silver and golden (things) 
to the she-Baal. I— Septnagint, Osea, ii. 8. 

Zahab oed leBdl : thej made gold for Bdl I~Hoeea ii. 10. 

In the Eosmogony of Berosns, Belos formed the stars, the 
son, the moon and the five planets. lank the Arab lach 
(laehi " he lives "), the Hebrew lachoh (" I am ") was repre- 
sented as a Horse surrounded by seven images. It is the Arab 
Dionysus ; for Herodotus credits the Arabians with the opin- 
ion " that Dionysus and the Ourania * are the only God." So 
As and Asah, Euas and Issa-Isis. 

Among the Elohim none like thee, Adoni I I will confess to thee, O Adoni, 
my Elah, with all mj heart, and will honor thy name to etemitj, for thon hast 
snatched mj soul from the lowest Hades. — Psalm, Ixxrvi 8, 12, 18. 

We think then God a blessed living being and immortal and beneficient 
towards men. — Plutarch, de Stoic. Bepognant., 88. 

On the third tablet jou will know whence shall be the harvest of wiue, 
where the Lion and the Virgin are. And on the fourth who is the ruler of the 
grape-bunch, where, drawing sweet nectar, with painted hand Ganjmede lifts 
a cup. 

As thus the Qod spoke, the vine-loving maid ran turning round her eyes. 
And by the presaging wall beheld the first triangular tablet, as old as the end> 
less world, presenting in one what the Lord Ophion ' did, whatever aged Ero- 
nos performed, when, cutting the Father's male ploughs, he ploughed a child- 
bed water, Sowing unsown backs of a daughter-producing sea. — Nonnus, xii. 

Eretrians and Magnesians presenting the God * with the first-fruits of men ' 
as Giver of fruits. Father of his chUdren, giving birth and loving man.— Plu- 
tarch, de Pythiae orao. 17. 

You shall not kindle FiRB in all your dwellings on the Seventh day.* — Exo 
das, XXXV. 8. 

1 Heracles- Arohal as Bacbel ; the female Apollo, Le. Minerva. Gold is SoFs color ; 
diver is luna'a. 

'According to Maorobias, L xii. 11, Venus is in Taurus. This is the location of 
Ins, according to Krichenbaner, Theogony and Astronomy, 197 1 

* The Divine TVlBdom, Herakles the Logos. See John, L 1. 

* Apollo Hebdomaios. 
•So ExoduB, xiii 12, 18. 

* Our forefathers upon certain frequent plagues in the district, following a certain 
ancient tupentUion^ made a oostom to observe that day which by the Jews is called the 
Sabbaton. — Samaritan EpUtle^ Josephns, xii 7. 


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The Seventh day was sacred to Saturn, El» lachoh, Apollo and 
the Arabian Dionysus, whom the Titans tore into seven pieces. 

And he put oat the inextingnishahle divine fire of breftken. 
Honoring Helios and Baoohus and at the same time Zan. — Nonnus, xxiv. 
ea, 67. 

Thee I invoke, the Lord of Life and Light— The Shdh N^eh. 

Heat is a mode of motion ; but to say what a thing is in 
iUelf is always attended with difficulty, since the nature of 
things is not yet fully understood. In drawing sudden infer- 
ences there is risk, as in the case of spirit and matter. Spirit 
means nothing appreciable, nor are we to greater advantage 
with the expression matter. Neither is a scientific definition, 
although the term matter is a tolerable, superficial designa- 
tion. Matter is proteus-like in its forms, and in its states of 
organization it is hard to say whether or not it ends in a vital 
appearance or eaposUion of motion and apparently vital aspects. 
The question arises whether what the ancients chose to call 
spirit is not rather an aspect of some of the organizations of 
matter or substance, a result worn as a signal of the vitalized 
aspects rather than a separate entity apart from physical ma- 
terial substance. Here we are arrived at the limits of human 
knowledge, if not at the limit of human capacity ; and the 
problem of what life is may be left for a subsequent age to 
determine ; only, so far as our present thesis is concerned it 
seems as if the dogma, the formula, ' spirit and matter ' was, in 
the ancient world, or might have been, a hasty generalization, 
particularly as a division into things that have life and things 
without life, owing to our limits, is not easily established to- 
day. The incomplete condition of gndsis and science in the 
world of two thousand years ago is therefore an assumption 
that has a chance of being correct. The mental condition of 
the system-makers and theorists of that day seems to us to 
have been truly unscientific, founded in mere surmises and 
baseless conjectures regarding spirits, and, of course, spirit. 
The only definition of spirit is breath, and breath was re- 
garded as the symbol of life, whereas, like heat, it resolves 
itself, under some aspects, into a mode of matter in motion. 
So far as we know, no life is observed apart from substance, 
from some stage or form of material organization. But the 
ancients in their superstitions gave forms to souls, and to all 


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Boris of spiritual beings of the imagination, snch as Gods and 
Goddesses, demons, etc. Examine Etruscan drawings found 
in their tombs, the descriptions of beings that the imagination 
only has conceived. This shows the power of the imagination 
to create untruth, to personify unverities, such as seven devils 
entering a human being. From the point of view of accurate, 
scientific observation, the orient will not bear examination. 
Omne vivum ex vivo is the result of all human observation of 
animal flesh, or of human. Under certain forms of organiza- 
tion is there not a tendency to the distillation, secretion, of the 
nervous strings or telegraphs that primarily transmit sensa- 
tion, and (by the reflex action) a repetition of the cerebral mod- 
ification of sensation? Is not thought a reflected modified 
sensation repeated, by physical effort, in the brain ? The 
repetition of the tnuige that sensation impresses on the brain ? 
In dreams, this can occur ; but in fainting (bloodlessness in 
the brain) never ! 

Herodotus regarded all the dark-skinned population extend- 
ing from Nubia across Southern Arabia to India as Aethio- 
pians ; ^ Desvergers,^ Wright and Heeren * describe the Aethio- 
pians and Arabs as masters of the commerce of India, while 
Winwood Beade * states that Arabia was enriched by the mo- 
nopoly of the trade between Egjrpt and the Malabar coast. 
Lucian tells us that the Indi rose at dawn to pray to the 
Sun, kissed their hand facing the east, and greeted the Helios 
with dancing. The Bible tells us that David danced before 
la'hoh, that the Jewish temple faced the rising sun and Job 
speaks of looking upon the sun and moon and kissing the 

Hang them op to la'hoh, facing the Son.— Nnmberi, zzr. 4. 
Whom some eall Son, others Jore. — Serrias, Ad Aeneid, i. 729. 
In the snn lalioh has set his tent.—Psalm, ziz. 4. Septnagint.* 

Eronos is the spirit in the sun ; Venus is the feminine spiritus 
in luna. Plut€u:ch says that all things are bom from Eronos 
and Yenus.'^ Nonnus mentions Eronos as lancing rain. The 

>H«odotea,iii«7, 96. 

* Desrergen, Abyvinie, 7. 

> Heeren, Hisk Rea., iii 407-40a 
« B&irtjidom of Kaa, 97. 
» Job, xxxri 27. 

* The Vulgate mjt the Mune. 
' Plntarch, Lode, €0. 

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Kabbala Denudata speaks of the Dew of the Seir, which is the 
moisture of the Sun ; for Seir Anpin (Serapis) is the Sun, the 
source of fire, heat, spirit, water, light and life. The Babylo- 
nians and Hindus adored heat, water and earth. Pythagoras 
held that heat is the principle of life, that God is spirit and 
fire, that fire is the soul of the world and the source of all 

He shall baptise you with holy spirit and with fire.— Matthew, iii. 11. 

The Sun, Adonis, appears as the spirit, Eros, and Bacchus, the 
source of the soul. The fable of Cupid and Psyche has all the 
characteristics of a Platonic myth. The Orphics, like the 
Essenes, held that the soul descended into the body as into a 
prison. Plutarch confirms this by expressing the same view.* 
A bas-relief of the Louvre represents Prometheus modelling a 
human figure, other finished forms are by his side, and Athena, 
fons naturae, fons omnium, imparts life to them by placing 
the symbolic butterfly on their heads. The Magi taught that 
the soul is immortal,^ and Egypt believed it. 

The lAO of the Chaldeans and Phoenicians (Movers I. 639, 
552) is the mysterious name of Dionysus and the Hebrew deity 
lao. Since the Bomans had vestals who vowed in chastity to 
watch the eternal fire, and the Hebrews had an eternal fire to 
watch that was never suffered to go out on the altar of la'hoh, 
is not Plutarch's question pertinent when he inquires : 
" Why it has been forbidden both to speak and to ask and to 
name the God, whether he is male or female,^ who is charged 
with saving and preserving Bome ? " ^ As the four-letter name 
of the Jewish Jehovah (Ihoh) was ineffable, and the word 
Adoni or Adonai spoken instead in the Jewish mysteries, it is 
but reasonable to presume that the Boman priesthood were 
quite up in the lacchic Kabbalist mysteries, as much as in the 
Bacchic mysteries ; for the two ** traditions " seem to be one, 
just as they appeared to Plutarch eighteen centuries ago.' And 
this is not all ; for in a chapter on Vows (nedarim *) there is 

1 CoUignon, Essai snr lefl mon. greos et romains, 880, 839, 858 ; Dunlap, Yeitiges, 
155, 169, 170, 177, 195, 196. 222, 281 ; Dnnlap, SCd, I. 187, 188. 

3 Spiegel, Vendidad, 16, 82 ; Theopompns, apnd Diogenes Laertins. 

* The Orphic hymn : Almighty Zeus is male, Almighty Zeiia is female !— Gen. iL 281 
« Plutarch, Qnaest. Boman. 61. 

» ibid. Quaest. Conviv. iv. 6 ; ix. 14, 4. 

* LevitioQs, zzviL 2, 8, 4. 


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mention of vows of males and females ; and the priest must 
appraise the value of a vow according to the age and sex of 
those who devoted themselves. As it is said by Origen that 
the eunuch has devoted himself to God, a similar self-devotion 
may have earlier existed, on the part of women, so very an- 
ciently as prior to Herodotus ; for Philo mentions the Eunuchs 
in his time as does Juvenal, and Lucian places them within 
the temple precincts of the Syrian God and Gknldess a century 
later. It is not intended here to overlook the Mosaic statute 
that prohibits a eunuch from attending the Congregations; 
only to remark that Isaiah, Ivi. 3, 4, 6, gives the eunuchs ^ a 
very high position in the Church. Consequently a temple- 
devot, hardly a vestal, and even a sacred devadassi, may have 
once graced the temples of Babylonia, Syria or Palestine.' 
Dr. Movers shows that the vestals were in the temples of 
Diana all through Southern Europe and Asia Minor. The 
castum cubile belonged to the religions before Christ, and 
Christian monachism carried out the doctrine, handed down 
inferentially by Plutarch, to mortify the flesh ; for he says 
that " Matter is what first is subject to being bom, corruption 
and the other changes."' Saint Paul spoke about this cor- 
ruption putting on incorruption ; but this is implied in the 
old doctrine pf metempsychosis, k aXXo (juhjv del ylvofuyov, and 
long previously was the doctrine of the Bacchic, Chaldaean 
and Mithriac Solar self-denying inspiration. Like the gnosis, 
eastern monachism began long before Judaism and Chris- 
tianity, in which we see only the after part of the insurrection 
of the spirit against " the doings of the body." The politician 
Josephus indeed says of the justice of the Essenes, that they 
owed it neither to Greeks nor Barbarians, but it was theirs 
from anciently} In the morning-land the Sun is associated 
with fire, water and spirit, which is the flatus or breath of 
life,* The spirit is the associate of water, and moves on the 

1 Sarisixn. Ladan De Dea Syria 43, 50, mentions the Bnnnohs at the sanotoary at 
Byblns in the second centnry of onr era. 

« Movers, Phdnizier, S60, 079 ; 1 Samnel, xxiii 7. 

* Plntaroh, de plaoitis philosoph. L ix. 1. Bromios and Siva create and destroy, 
to recreate in other forms. ** But how can the same man be both immortal and mor- 
tal ** asks De Vita ContempUiiTa, 1, when speaking of the Demigods. Daring to con- 
neoi Uoense with the Blessed and Divine Powers, if those thrice blest and free from all 
passion madly in love consorted with mortal women.— ibid. 1. see Gknesis, vL 4. 

* Josephns, Ant. xviii 2. 
» Acta, ii. 1, 2, & 

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face of the waters.^ In the waters Brahm& placed a qnicken- 
ing seed. It is associated to moisture ; hence the serpent 
working in the wet ^ is the emblem of the spirit. The hus- 
bandman had closely observed nature and well knew the con- 
ditions under which the phenomena of life and growth are 
exhibited in young plants. 

This is the truth : Ab from a blazing fire ' in thousand wajs similar sparks 
proceed, so O beloved, are produced liring souls of various kinds from the in- 
destructible, and thej also return to him. 

He is verily luminous, ^ without form, spmrr, he is without and within, 
without origin, without life, without mind, he is pure and greater than the in- 
destructible one.* 

From this * are produced life, mind and all the organs, sther, air, light, 
the water, the earth the support of all. 

He whose head is the flre, whose ejes are the moon and the sun, whose ears 
the quarters,^ whose revealed word the Vedas, whose vital air the mind, whose 
heart the universe, from whose feet the earth, is the inner soul of all beings. 

From him is produced the fire whose fuel is the sun, from the moon, 
Parjanja, the annual herbs on the hearth ; children are born from the wife, 
MANY creatures are produced from the spirit 

From him proceed the seven senses, the seven flames, the seven kinds of 
fuel, the seven sacrifices, these seven places ^ in which the vital airs move that 
sleep in the cavity * and that, always seven, are ordained. 

Thence all the seas and mountains ; from him proceed the rivers of every 
kind, thence all the annual herbs, the juice by which, together with the ele- 
ments, the inner body '^ is upheld. 

Spirit alone is this all, the works, austerity I Whoever knows this supreme 
immortal Brahma as dwelling in the cavity, breaks, O gentle youth, the bonds of 
ignorance. — ^The Mundaka Upanishad of the Atharva Veda.'* 

And the Lord is the spirit 1—2 Corinth., iU. 17. 

1 Gen. i 2. The priest shall take holt watbb in an earthen veneL— Nombeis, 
v. 17. 

« Genenis, L2,28;ii6,7, 8;iiil; Plutarch, de Uide, 11, 18, 26, 87, 89, 47. 
Hence Baoohus i« Hues, the Moist, Damp, DiphuCs ! The Aigives evoked him from 
the too/er.— Plutarch, de Iside, 85. 

'Father, Lord, Abadon ! Abdon ! Abaddon I 

4John,i. 4. 

* the neutral brahman. 

* Brahma. 

^ the four quarters of the universe. 

* the places of the seoies. 

* of the heart. 

i« the subtile body, according to the Vedanta, consisting of the three sheaths of 
intellect, of the mind, and life. 

" Second Mundaka, Ist section. We have made the part oonoeraing the birth of 
children UtB striking than in the original passage, Bibl. Ind. 156. 

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The ohariot of Yislmii (Bacchus, buried in Apollo's shrine) 
is very large and richly carred. On these chariots images 
of the God are adored.^ Here we have snn-chariots, like 
those of the Hebrews mentioned in 2 Kings, xxiii XL 

The Egyptian regarded the beetle as double-gendered and 
self-producing. On a coin of Magnesia occurs the type of a 
Hermaphrodite. The idea of an original self -complete nature 
in which the distinction of sex has not yet been developed was 
characteristic of the cultus of Oybele, and is known to have 
been an Asiatic, not a Greek thought.' The divine being has 
both principles, the masculine and the feminine, united in 
itself, like the source of light ; * it divides and unites them 
again to create, or OroA can bring forth something with his 
own procreative power. Bhavani is the feminine principle 
separated into a Goddess, Maia, the Love that from eternity 
dwells with Gkxi She is spouse of the creative Light-prin- 
ciple, becomes Mother of the three Gods and, again, their 
common wife, so that the great world-principle continues one 
and the same throughout the succession of formations. Those 
three Gods and their feminine parts, Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, 
become again with their Lady one form ; they are hermaph- 
rodite and receive the names of Bhavani as surname.^ Com- 
pare the Adam (Sun, Mithra) as spiritus vitae (containing in 
himself the souls of all the Israelites) before the Issa (the Isis 
rib) was parted from him. 

In the banning it existed alone, the spirit ; nothing beside Him active or 
at rest. He thought : I will let the Worlds issue from me : He let them fg^ 
forth : Water, light, what is transitory, and the waters. Water was abore the 
firmament which bears it. Then he formed out of the waters the spirit (the 
Pomsha). He looked upon it and its mouth opened like an egg ; out of its 
month proceeded speech and from the speech fire ! Aitareja-Aranjaka Upan- 
ishad. From him who is, from this immortal cause who exists for the reason 
and does not exist for the senses Pomsha the divine Son of Brahma is bom. 
He remained in the egg of gold for the si>ace of a divine year, and by the single 
effort of his thought divided it in two. Having divided his body into two 
parts, Kara, fhe spirit divine, became half male half female, and, uniting him- 
self to this female x>art, the immortal Goddess Nari, He procreated Yira].* 

1 Allea's India 880 ; Boohaaan, Mynore. 

* Joorn. Hellenie Stodiea, IIL 54; Jahn in Leipz. Verhandl. 1861. 

* Wie der LiohtqaelL 

« Nork, Braminen uad Rabbinen, 346. Ma, ICaia, Vena, Venus are the Lunar 
16 principle. 

* Belonging to the Rig Veda. 

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Y4k, the Wisdom, ^ is the feminine Logos ^ the supreme and 
universal soul, the active power of Brahma. She says : I up- 
hold both the sun and the ocean, the firmament and fire . . . 
I pervade heaven and earth. I bore the father^ on the head of 
this/ and my origin is in the midst of the ocean ; and there- 
fore do I pervade all beings and touch this heaven with my 
form. Originating all beings, I pass like the breeze ; I am 
above this heaven, beyond this earth ; and what is the Great 
One, that am I.* When He prepared the heavens there was I. 
When he described a ball (or circle) on the face of the abyss : * 
when he fixed the clouds above: when he made stable the 
fountains of the deep: when he laid down for the sea his 
statute and the waters did not go beyond the words : when he 
defined the foundations of the earth. And I was by him, the 

The " Monad being there first, where the Paternal M(mad 
svbsista " indicates the Father and the Son.^ When the Monad 
(the Son) is extended and this extension generates Two,* we 
have the Adam and the Eua, the Dionysus and the Eua. For 
the Duad (the Isis Mother) is the maternal cause which is doub- 
le, having received spirit and matter from the Father. For 
the Duad sits by this and glitters with inteUectual sections, to 
govern all things and to arrange each.'® From the Two Prin- 
ciples the Orphic egg appears, which is the Duad of the nat- 
ures male and female contained in it." From this egg; issues 
Arich Anpin the Phanes,'^ the, New Light. For from this tiiad 
the Father has mixed every spirit.'^ All things are governed 
in the bosoms of this triad. '^ 

>Proverb«,viii. 1,2, 30. 

* Speech, the Word, A.thena. 
» Heaven. 

* Spirit, Miud in the Wateri. 

• The Sanhita of the first Veda. Colehrooke, BssayB, pp. 16, 17. 

1 Am9n, ptDXj ^^ Creative Mind (the Now«).— proverbs, viii 27-90. 

• Dnnlap, Vestigea, pp. 179, 226, 229; P^roolnsin Eno. 27. 
•ProclusinEno. 27. 

»«Proclu8 in Plat. 376; Cory, Ano. Fragm. 245. 

" Damaskina ; in Cory, Ano. Fragments, 286, 320. The Venah ahall be called 
Mother.— The Sohar, m. 290 a ; Gelinek, Frank, die KabbaLa, 187. The Chochmah 
is Father, the Venah is Mother, as it is said ; am TVenah tekara.— Sohar, III. 290 a. 

19 Dnnlap, Vestiges, pp. 249, 250 ; Orpheos, Argonantika, 16. 

I'Lydos de Mensibns, 20. Cory, Ancient Fragments, 245. 

"ibid. 20. 

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Moaldiog first the Oenerio Mao, in whom is, they mj, the male and female 
sez, He afterwards makes the species, the Adam.— Philo. Legal AUeg. IL 4. 

And the God oast upon the Adam an ecstasy, and he slept ; and He took 
one of his ribs and filled in flesh in its place. What is spoken respecting this is 
mythical-— Philo. Legal AUeg. IL 7. 

In the time of the CsBsars the Moon-god at 'Harran (Garrhae) 
in Mesopotamia was androgyne.^ lacchos is male and fe- 
male, and diphues.' 

The epithets Bluoptfw, Si^^wJ?, Swnrcx^vijs have been said in a 
qnite recent work of M. Lenormant to refer to light and dark- 
ness ; but they appear equally expressive of that two-sexed- 
ness, belonging to Vishnu and the consort of Rhea, ascribed 
in the Levant to the Hermaphrodite Adonis-Osiris-Dionysus 
in the moon. A recent work by Lenormant shows that the 
Lebanon Yenus is the Lnage of Jealousy mentioned by Eze- 
kiel as a piece of sculpture in the portico of the Jerusalem 
Temple. Adonis died, was mourned and rose the third day. 
The spirit was regarded as hermaphrodite ! Did not a sacti 
emanate from the Hermes-Adonis in Hades! The luna in 
Hades is Proserpina; but Venus is the crescent (vena), 
daughter and rib of Sol-Saturnus, the Venah (Binah, B is V) 
the "Daughter of God" mentioned in Jewish philosophy. 
Now we come to the two-gendered Bol of the Babylonians 
and the remarkable manliness of the Homeric Goddess of 
Wisdom, who later appears, with the ball on her head, as 

The Wisdom which is man and woman t— Hermes, 1. 80. 
The Wisdom the Daughter of God is also male and father. — Philo Jadaens, 
de Prof. 9. 

The Egyptians supposed that the world consisted of a mascu- 
line and feminine nature. They engraved a scarabaeus for 
Athena and a vulture for Hephaistos, since these were regard- 
ed as hermaphrodite ; ^ like Men, Lunus-luna, Adam Kadmon 
and Brahma. 

The holj image of Athena (Minerya, the Isis or feminine holj spirit) fell 
from heaven : and a lamp of gold Eallimachus made for the female God. And 

* >Chwolsohn. Seahier, I. 899, 408. 
•Gerhard, Gr. MythoL p. 458. 

« Cory, Anc. Fragm. p. 286. from HorapoUo. The doad is the oomhine of the 
Hale and feminine Fire that Simon Magns propounded. 

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filling it with oil, they wait antll the same daj of the next year: and that oil is 
enough for the lamp ' daring the interrening time, irhioh shinea equally by day 
and by night. It has a wiok of Karpathian flax, which la the only flax that is 
not .consumable by fire. A braas palm-tree over the lamp going up to the roof 
draws off the smoke.* 

Compare Prometheus, Artemis and Minerva as fire deities. 
And it is said as follows : lodama having been consecrated to 
the female God^ went in at night into the temple and to her 
Athena appeared and on the chiton (tunic) of the female Qod 
there was the head of Medusa the Gorgon ; and lodama, as she 
looked on it, was made stone. And on this account a woman, 
placing, every day, fire upon the altar of lodama, announces 
as many as three times in the Boeotian tongue that lodama 
lives and asks for fire.* Compare the " fire-bom Dionysus " 
and the fire that ever burned upon Apollo's altar.^ Is not 
lodama a form of Ashah (the feminine vital fire of Huah in 
Genesis, ii. 23) ? This Ashah or Aufhah (with the later vowel 
point put in) is the Mother of all, like Athena. They call the 
Moon the Mother of the world and think that she has a male- 
female nature, because being filled by the sun and becoming 
pregnant, she sends forth again the generative germs into the 
air and scatters them about. ' 

From him who is,^ from this immortal cause who exists for 
the reason and does not exist for the senses, Purusha^ the 
divine son of Brahma is bom. He remains in the egg of gold 
for the space of a divine year, and by the single effort of his 
thought divided it in two. . . . Having divided his body 
into two parts, Nara the Spirit divine became half male and 
half female (like Adam Hermaphroditus), and, uniting himself 
to the immortal Goddess Nari (his female part), became the 
father of Yiraj. In the temples Nara was typified as bull, Nari 

> The virgina took their Umpn, and went forth to meet the Bridegroom. — ^Matthew, 

XXV. I. 

« Panamiai, i 26, 7. 

* Athena, the spirit divine, i^ ^ifrv- ^« ^'^^ lodama it significant of some con- 
nection with Adam and Damia perhaps ; although Adam, if not connected with Kad- 
mos, would appear to be Mithra Adamatos, Inviotns. 

* Pansanias, ix. 84, 2. 

* Apollo and Bacchus are the same God — Hacrobins, p. 299, ed. bipont ; see 
Sophokles, Antigone, 1126, and Boripidee, PhoeniMae, 227, 228. 

* Plataroh, de Iside, 48. 

V See Exodus, iii. 14 ; vi 8. 

* The Spiritns, the Spirit as lafe-prinoip^ 

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as heifer. This usage was general, as Dionysas was so repre- 
sented and Astarte, not to mention Osiris^ Apis, the Minotaur 
and the Mukerinos-Heifer (Isis) in Herodotus. In the case of 
Adam Kadmon ^ of the Jewish Kabalah we know that the 
Monad becomes a duad. Here we have the lingam in the 
yoni, the primitive hermaphrodite uniting the two sexes, 
Mahadeva and Bhavani, Isvara and Isi, representing, in the 
popular worship of Siva, the Great Being, Author of all things 
and the form or Universal Mother,^ whose union gave birth to 
the Trimurti or trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. The unity 
in which the duality resides is the source and beginning of all 
creation. The lingam and yoni are in mystic union. This is 
the primal principal, "I'unit^ et le tout." No temples were 
raised to this neutral unity ,^ except in Babylonia to Lunus- 
Luna. Zeus is male and female ^ in the Orphic hymns. The 
word man is used for the Monad from the one ; * woman for the 
Tj vypa iftwrvi the moist element, Huah or Hue, Isah or Isis. The 
divine Hermaphrodite or Hermathena (Bel-Achad, o 17 3€(k) is 
Chadmus, Kadmus, Dionysus diphues or 'hadmus (Adam) be- 
fore the Woman (Ishah, Isis) or lunar (lunar rib, crescent) 
principle was taken out of him. This is the Mighty Mother in 
Phrygia, the " Huah Mother of all that live," " Venus, Original 
Mother of our race," the Minerva or Mother of the Gods. 
This is the worship 

'AvtotSkos Zc^t 

Kal Ad acol Bpo/Jy icol IlaXA^ /idfiw Mp^. 

— Nonnos, xzyii. 62, 68, 69. 

1 Who ia Brahma the Son of the neutral miit, brahman in the neater gender. ** La 
cioyanoe k la nature androgjme de la divinity fat imagin6e pftr lee Indoaa poar ezpliquer 
la difference dee eexet et lear myBt^ri^une nnion/* The Haah (Ena, Eve) being the 
moist, for Dionysas is called HnSs, is the Binah or Venah bom from the foam of the 
sea, the Aphrodite of Askalon and the Phoenician BCroath. 

*ayi\fiMra ht t§ 0709 AtonJvov km 'Bx^tnif, 'AfpoAtni Tt «d Mi^nip B^mv cal.Tvxi|.— 
Paasanias, ii 11, S. 

* das brahman, r^ ^tor. 

* Donlap^a Vestiges, pp. 145, 146. To Blohim the Seven altars were raised by 
Balaam ; which corresponds to Apollo Hehdomaios^ both altars being homed. 

^ •yowircpor : they were trained to serve what is, which also is better than Good and 
more absolnte than the ONS and more first-causal than the Monad.— Fhilo de vita con- 
templativa, 1. 


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of the Great Isis Mother of the Gods, of Sarah who is Wisdom^ 
of Eua or Hue the Mother of all that live,^ of Pessinimtia the 
Mother of the Gods ; for, as the Hindus said : 

To me the only Gods are water and earth ! — Konnas, xzi. 261. 

dAX* d/iCif fi\¥ iramts 05«p ical Tata yiyour^ ! — Iliad, vii. 09. 

Bat maj ye all become Water and Earth ! — Lucian, Jupiter Tragoedus, 19. 

The Egyptian priests of most note, hallowing water of purifi- 
cation, take it from the place where the Ibis has drunk.^ Hin- 
dus and Greeks had " holy water ; " it was used at funerals. 
The Hindus also had progaschita or extreme expiation with 
consecrated oil.* 

The largest part of the Jews lived in Babylonia, where Bel- 
Mithra was worshipped. Their religion was the religion of 
High- Asia, India and Arabia — ^the fireworship.* In the '* Life " 
of Josephus it is declared that the Jews are a sect of the Hiiidu 
philosophers, the Kallanoi. Kalanus was a gymnosophist who 
returned with Alexander from India and burned himself alive. 
The soul was regarded as a bright fire, immortal and mistress 
of life.* Kalanus evidently took this view of the subject ; for, 
by his self-sacrifice, he anticipated by near three and one half 
centuries St. Paul's doctrine : 

Bj the «pm^ye slay the doings of the body. — Romans, viii. 18. 

If I deliver my body to be burned.— 1 Cor. xiii. 3. 

The spirit as large as the thumb dwells always in the heart of men. — Hindu 
Kaivalya Upanishad. 

Divine without form is the spirit pervading the internal and external of 
beings, unborn, without breath, without heart, shining elevated above the high- 

> Philo, legal alleg. II. 21. Sara-isnati (Sarasvati) is the Primal Wisdom. As 
Vaeh (Vox, Word, Logos, Minerva) she is the Queen, conferrer of wealth, the pos- 
sessor of laiowledge, omnipresent and pervader of all beings. —Compare Colebrooke, 
Relig. of the Hindus, 16. Henoe one may infer Fortuna Minerva, as will appear later. 
Sarasvati is a Hindu river-name ; which does not oonfliot with the lonar Sara*h as a 
source of water. 

s Genesis, iiL 20. Rhea (from A^ to pour out water) having first received the pow- 
ers of all things in her ineffable bosom pours forth perpetual generation upon every- 
thing. She is the lunar Dios Rhea, Alma Mater. See Eua or Eve, as the Nurse of the 
entire world.— Dunlap, SSd. IL 125 ; Bwald, Abodah Sarah, p. 80S. 

* de Iside, 75. 

* JacolUot. Voyage an pays des brames, 807, 810. 

» DunUp's Vestiges, 108-118; Movers, L 81, 150, 2T», 800, 801, 80S, 883-887, 858, 
860, 872, and all of his chapter ix.; Deuteron. iv. 24 ; 2 Kings, iiL 27 ; Dent. v. 28-26 ; 
Ezekiel, i; Dan. vii. 9, 10. 



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est and unalterable. Ont of him eomes the breath of life, the mind and all 
8ense& — Hindu Mundaka Upanishad. 

The Generator of men as well as of hearen and earth, entering into the 
womb, procreates. — ^The Big Veda.' 

Consider how man is formed in a mother's bodj. . . . Who has made the 
bones hard ?— Hermes Trismegistns, y. 6.* 

Thou dost not know the waj of the spirit,— the BONES in the womb of a 
woman enceinte.— Ecclesiastes, xi. 5. 

Spirit is God-— John, ir. 34. 

Spirit has not flesh and bones.— Luke, zziv. 89. 

Labor not for the food that perishes. — John, yi. 27. 

The life is more than the mbat.— Luke, vii. 38. 

All living creatures are the dwelling of the Self who lies enveloped in matter, 
who is immortal and spotless.' That Self is hidden in the heart of the creature.^ 
— Vedio Hymu. 

The Pythagoreans were ascetic.^ The flesh is sin.* 

Everj genesis having two causes, the most ancient philosophers and poets 
preferred to give heed to the better exclusively. — Plutarch, de defeotn orac. 48. 

Sensual, having not the spirit. — Jude, 19. 

In iniquity I was formed, and in sin my mother warmed me (into being).— 
Psalm, li. 7. 

Life and death are as it were the essence of genesis. — Hermes, xi. 3. 

The spirit is contaminated by the very nature of body. — Origen c. Gels. vi. 

And Moses (Masds) descended from the mountain to the ])eople, and sancti- 
fied the people and they washed their clothes. And he said to the people : Be 
ready for the third day ! Do not go to a woman I — Exodus, xix. 14. 15. 

Labor not for the food that perishes. — John, vi. 37. 

For when the mind wiIkB on high and is initiated into the mysteries of the 
Lord it esteems the body a wicked and hostile thing. — Philo, Legal Allegories, 

Spiritum contaminatum jam natura corporis. — Origen c. Gels, vi 504. 

Let not then the sin control in your mortal body unto obedience to the de- 
sires thereof. — Bomans, vi. 13. 

For when we were in the flesh the passions of the sins that were by the 
Law worked in our members so as to bear fruit unto death. — Romans, vii. 5. 

» Wilson, n. 84. 


s Max MtOler, Lidia, what can it do, p. 104. 

* ibid. 247. According to the Veda, the soul (life) is eternal, bnt the body of all 
creatures is perishable.- ibid. 104. The life comes from the sun, and the Hindus and 
Hebrews agreed in this doctrine. — Compare Wnttke, ii. 813 ; 1 Samuel, xxv. 39 ; Numb. 
XXV. 4 ; Ihmcker, H. 103 ; Bhagavat Purana ; Wnttke, ii 268, 838 ; Job, xviii 5 ; Sep- 
toagint and Yalgate psalms, xix. 4. 

•Giote, Plato, L p. 0; Plot, de Liide, 5, 10. 

• de Iside, 27-46 ; Gen. vi. 3, 8, 5, 6. 

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The will of the flesh is deftth, bat the will of the spirit is life and peaoe. — 
Rom., viii 6. 

On acoonnt of the weakness of joor flesh.— Romans, yL 19. 

Condemned the sin in the flesh. — Romans, viiL 4. 

Those who are in flesh do mind the things of the FLESH, bat those in 
SPIBIT mind what are affairs of the spirit. — Romans, yiii 5. 

You are not in FLESH bat in spirit, if indeed God's pneama dwells in yon. 
— Romans, viii. 9. 

All FLESH in which is the spiritos vitae. — Genesis, tI. 17. 

Into his nostrils the breath of the lives. — Genesis, ii. 7. 

Zeus himself in matter is the snn and Hera herself in matter 
is luna.^ From India to the Mediterranean, the oldest form of 
philosophy, after the belief in spirits, was dualism. The spirit 
or " breath of life " was regarded as residing in the blood.'^ 
By the blood we are joined to God, who is spirit ; the animal 
(life) is intermediate between the spirit and the body.^ The 
pure fluid (akasha), which has emanated from the Great All, 
and is the soul, comes to unite itself through the blood with 
the body.'* The names Zeus, Jupiter, Brahma, Nara, Nereus, 
Poseidon, Abrahm, Dionysus, lacchos, IHOH were names of 
the spiiit 

Spirit of life from the God.— Rev. xL 11. 

Sio dam eum vocamus spiritum, corpus tamen illnm non dioimos. — Origen 
c. Celsum, vL p. 504. 

Dens Verbum corpus non esse potest 

Neo Ignis ille corpus est qui Deus esse dicitnr. — ibid., vi. 

Unless one be bom of water and spirit he cannot see the Kingdom of the 
heavens. — John. iii. 5. 

Bacchus-Osiris- Adonis is the life-giving Water. Three bear 
witness, spirit, water, hlood? We may add also fire ; for Dio- 
nysus was represented carrying up the divine fire to heaven.^ 
Dionysus, like Posidon, went under the wave of the sea.' 

1 Flntarch, Qnaest. Roman, 77. Bondppa is the Holy City of Artemis and 
Apollo.— Strabo, 739. 

3 Genesis, i 80 ; ix. 4, 5 ; xxxviL 21 ; Leviticus, zvii 14 ; Dent xii. 28 ; Gen. ii. 7. 

> Origen, n. p. 298, ed Genebrard, Paris, 1619. 

« Jaoolliot, la Bible dans Tlnde, 181, quotes Ramatsarier; Revelation, zi 11 ; 
1 Sam. XXV. 29. Blood contains all the mysterious secrets of existence no living being 
can exist without. — Ramatsarier ; Ids Unveiled, II. 567. 

» 1 John, V. 8. 

• Pausanias, L 20, 8. Hephaistos, Phatha, Patah, the Oreator-spiritns, Vulkan. 
Some of the Eleans name the altar of HephaiBtos that of Areian Jupiter ('Apttov A«^).— 
PAUsanias, v. 14, 6. 

7 Homer, Iliad, vL 185. 


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Tour blood of jonr liyea — Genesis, ix. 5. 

The flesh with its life, its blood.— Genesis, iz. 4. 

The spirit and the water and the blood, and the three testify to the oiTE. > 

Like a brahman, ' A-brahm ' required a son. Like a brah- 
man he prepared to bum him alive on a hastily built altar as 
a holocaust to the most, high source of all life.^ According to 
Brahman precedent in the laws of Manu, Sara'h consented 
that Abrahm should enter into an arrangement with her maid,^ 
which is popularly supposed to fully account for the origin of 
the Shemal-worshippers, the lahTnaelUes, K any should object 
that a Brahman from Ur^ should have at least set fire to 
SaraTi's mortal coil instead of burying her, Jacolliot states 
that the Hindu Chshatrias formerly mummified their dead.' 
And Abram bought a Khattite cave at Hebron to put her in. 
The Jews are in one case, however, mentioned as burning the 
bodies and burying the bones.* Schliemann, at Mukenai, 
found the bodies laid away scorched by flames. The sacred 
element had touched them with its purifying power. 

According to Jeremiah, vii. 21, 22, blood oflferings were not 
divinely commanded. According to the Samaveda, says Jacol- 
liot,' it is murder to shed blood except as an offering. Li com- 
paring the Jewish religion with the Hindu, Leviticus, xvii. 
3, 4, offersi, a positive testimony. The verses show that the 
Hebrews were under the sway of this chief brahman doctrine. 
The Brahmans were not allowed " to feed on the flesh of liv- 
ing creatures that assist the labors of men." ' The Egyptians 
slay no cattle except for sacrifice. — Herodotus, ii. 41. (^^iya is 
the only God to whom animal sacrifices were offered.* 

1 The ONE first osnse, or the one pneoma, the one life.~l John, ▼. 8. 

> The Chaldaeans regarded the loal m fire. The Persians said : earth to earth, 
ashes to ashes, fire to fire !— Danlap, 89d, L 63. Abaram (from Bara, oreare) seems to 
hare been Either to many of the Gk>iim.— Gen. xvii. 2, 4. Abar, to be strong. Abir 
( Aber) means * Mighty.' Compare the name Abiram.— Numbers, xxri. 9, 13. 

> Gen. zri 1, 2. Hagar is Semele to the Ismaelite SemaL 
< Uro •• to bum." 

» Jacolliot, Voyage an pays des brahmes, p. 811. 

• 1 Sam., xxxi. 12, 13. 

"* Bible dans rinde, 185. Who slaughters an ox has stricken down a man.— Isaiah, 
Izri. 8. Compare slaying a man and oastrating an ox.— Gen. xlix. 6. Hebrew text. 

•Strabo, 712, 15: oamibus vesoi animalium quae hominnm opera adjuvant: 
oJrrt CTwf r o iwt oWir loi^or, oirrf n vwiipwm. oSw oue(ac vo^ovffi JxriiaMU.— Herodotus, iii 

•Laesen, 1921 

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Whatever man of the house of Israel who shall have killed a joong bull 
or lamb or goat in camp, or shall have killed it oatside bejond the camp, and 
does not bring it unto the ostium of the Tabernacle of the Congregation to offer 
it, a corban, before the face of the Tabernacle to la'hhoh (the God of life), 
blood shall be imputed to that man, he has shed blood ; and the man shall 
be cut off from the midst of his people. — Levit, X7ii. 3,4, 5. 

It was bloodshed to kill these animals, except for sacrifice to 
the source of all life ; perhaps originally there were no blood- 
oflferings ; but these were offered to the God of Life.* 

For the life of the flesh is in the blood.— Levit. xvH. 11. 

The Pythagoreans abstained from animal food. The Egyp- 
tian priests abstained from eating cows, goats, sheep and 
fish ;^ the Nazarene Therapeuiae from animals^ always. 

oh f«a /corol^vorrcf. — Philo, quod o. p. liber, § 12. 

Not sacrificing living creatures.— Philo, § 12. 

Onlj on religious occasions is it allowed to kill animals and to eat their 
flesh ; Brahma created them for the preservation of the life-spirit ; and this 
npirit devours * all that is movable or immovable. He created animals for sac- 
rificial-offering, and the sacrificial- offering for the augmentation of the universe. 
— Nork, Real-Worterbuch, iii. 317.» 

Daniel and his companions abstained entirely from living 
creatures.^ From the above extracts and authorities it is clear 
that there was an entire agreement in this doctrine between 
India, Judea, Jerusalem and Egypt. Lassen and JacoUiot 
have held that the Hindu law is prior to the Jewish ; in other 
words, that the Hindus have not borrowed from the West. 

In the beginning, was one spirit by whom all has been pro- 
duced.^ Brahma Narayana floats upon the waters.® The Sun 
is the Breath of life.* Spirit was in the sun ^® and in the sea- 

» €ren. iv. 4 ; Acts, xviL 25. 

a Origen, a Celsum, V. pp. 485, 487. 

» Philo, VitiCont, 9. 

* This great fire will eat ua up.—DetUeronom. v. 22, 28. 

* qnotea Majer, Brahm. p. 175. 

* Origen, o. Gels. vii. part 11. p. 507. 

^ Wnttke, n. 293 ; quotes one of the oldest cosmogonies of the Vedas. Spirit is 
the God — John, iv. 24. The Son is Brahma.— Wattke, IL 29S. Ood is the Son and 
full Moon. — Metrodoros, de SenaoniboB, 18. 

•Wuttke, II. 800. 

•Ibid. 11801,802. 

"DiodoruB,!. IL 

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Among all works, the highest is the perception of the * ' spirit.** This is the 
preferable in all sciences; for it leads to immortalitj.— Mana, xii 85. Recog- 
nizing him who is the breath of life and whose raj is in all beings, a man be- 
comes a Wise Man, one whose action is confined within himself, one content in 
himsell Throngh troth we must grasp the ** spirit,'* through complete oogni- 
tion,' and bj penance and by abstinence.— Mnndaka-Upanishad, III. 1. 

Since the deity itself became the first created matter, the 
world was an ensouled body.* The problem how the material 
world had its origin out of that pure spirit, and how that came 
in contact with it, has produced the whole gnosis.^ For the 
Supreme King of the universe dwells in inaccessible light 
and cannot be approached except by mediating intermediate 
spirits ; this was the dogma of nearly the entire orient, not in 
Egypt only, as lamblichus ^ showed, but also among the Chal- 
deans, Persians and Indi.' 

God who art pure spirit, the principle of aU things, the Master of the world, 
it is by thj orders that I rise and go to mix in the trouble of the world! — 
Hindu Prayer at Sunrise.* 

Thus we show that " spirit and matter" was the dualism of the 
ancient philosophy in the Bible, in India, Judea, and every- 

Thousand-headed, thousand-eyed, thousand-footed was Purusha ; round 
about the whole world he stood forth about 10 fingers. 

Purusha is this All, what has been and will be to come, he also reigns over 
the realm of immortality which becomes great through food. 

So far reaches his greatness, and yet more than that is he ; one fourth of 
him is all beings ; three fourths of him is the kingdom of heaven. 

To three fourths Purusha mounted up,^ a fourth of him stayed here ; then 
he stepped out to the sides to the realm of the eaters and those that eat not. 

In the beginning was Viraj, out of Viraj sprung Purusha." 

1 Gnosis. 

*NoTk, Btahmanen und Rabbinen, 945. 

•Chwolsohn, L 726. 

* lambliohus, de myst. Aegypt riii 
•Chwolflohn, I. 782. 

•Jaoolliot. Christna et le Christ, S7. JaooUiot reads *'God who art a pure 
spirit." God is tpirit^ not a sphit. Siva enfin on Nara, o'est h dire TEsprit divin, 
est le principe qui preside k la destruction et It la reoonstitation.— JaooUiot, les Fils de 
Dieo, 13. 

' Compare ** Dionysas carrying np Hephaistos into heaven."— Pausan, I. 20, 3. 

• Given from Pnrasha-sukta before Rv. 10, 90. in Heinrich Zimmer, Altindiscbes 
Leben, p. 217. 


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With Viraj in the beginning, compare what St. John says 
of the Logos, that it was in the beginning, that life was in it. 
The purusha is the spiritus vitae. This bears out John, i. 3, 
in the idea that all things were made through it. We have 
the same idea in Isaiah : 

Thus said the El Ia*hoh who created ipara) the heavens and moves them, 
spreading out the earth and its productions, having given life to the people on 
it and spirit ' to those that walk thereon. — Isaiah, xlii 5. 

Zens is beginning, Zeus is the things between, and from Zeus all things 
originate.*— Plutarch, de defectu orao. 48. 

If then Judea exhibits Brahman and Chaldean influences in 
its sacred books, was there no Gymnosophist or Budhist in- 
fluence at work upon the Gyjnnoprophets,' the Nazers, Nazo- 
renes, the Baptists, the Essene and Christian anchorites? 
Epiphanius here comes to our aid, asserting that ''the 
Nazarenes were hefore Christ and knew not Christ."* Philo 
gives^us the letter of Calanus to Alexander, and mentions the 
gymnosophists sleeping on the ground according to their an- 
cient usage.' Ibn Sln& (died in 1037) relates that the 'Hane- 
fites (whom he mentions right after the Sabians) derive them- 
selves from the Religion of Abraham and assert that he was 
one ot their people.* One sees in these 'Hanefites the Harrd- 
nianSy who sought to legitimatize themselves before the Ma- 
hommedan authorities, by any real or fictitious biblical char- 
acter (?) It is also possible that by these Ssabians believing 
on ' Ahraham ' the Brahmans are meant, of whom many Mo- 
hammedans asserted, misled by similarity of name, that they 
are followers of the patriarch Abraham.' It is much more 
probable that Abraham is Brahma ; and that the Christians are 
the ones misled by too slavish a credence of Jewish fables. 

Plutarch asks why, on the lanuary Ides, flute-players are 
permitted to go about the city, wearing women's dresses. 

* Rnacb, breath from on high ; pnenma ss holy spirit 

' Compare Rev. i. 18. The Hindn Vach, in the tme senice of the " Word," chdms 
to uphold the san and the ocean — Colebrooke, Relig. of the Hindus, 16. So Proverbs, 
viu. 1, 24-30. 

>! Samuel, xix. 20, 24; John, vi. 14 ; Deuteron. xviiL 15, 18. 

* Epiphanius, L 121. 
•Philo de Somniis, IL 8. 

* Chwolsohn, I. 32a 

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Probably becanse the Mysteries of Herakles were then celebra- 
ted. Among the Hindus abstinence from women was in many 
cases required, as on the day of the Newmoon and Fullmoon, 
and on the 8th and 14th days of the month.^ According to 
Josephus, the Hebrews consecrated the tabernacle on the New- 
moon ; ^ probably because Osiris entered Selene on the New- 
moon of Phamenoth, the beginning of spring. A brahm&n 
was indispensable to every solemn offering, even to the little 
Newmoon and Fullmoon offerings.^ This is just what was 
the case among the Jews/ as Brahm&ns. 

The Newmoons and stated feasts !— Isaiah, i. 13, 14. 

Faustus says that Christ's power dwelt in the sun, his wisdom 
in the moon. Horus, Adibudha, Krishna and Christ (among 
the Manicheans) each had the sun and moon for his eyes. The 
Jews blew the trumpet on the newmoon, poured out libations 
and offered burnt sacrifices. And for this duty the Zaim^ 
Luim ^ or Leuites were assigned to do just what the Brahmans 
did in India. They ministered to la'hoh, Lord of Life, accord- 
ing to Exodus, iii. 14 ; xxxviii. 21 ; xl. 15 ; Jeremiah, xxxiii. 18. 
Hence the Jews were the Brahmans of Palestine, as Josephus 
said, worshipping Brahma, whom, for their own political pur- 
poses, they chose to regard as Ab (Father) Ram (Most High) 
which title is not unsuitable to the Most High of the Hindu 
Gods. King states that the words brahma and abrahm have 
the same numerical yalue/ The root is bar (creare) ; allied to 

1 Wnttke, GeBchiohte d. HeidenthumB, IL 866; Lusen, HL 355. 

In the Resurrection, they neither many nor are married, bat are as Angels in the 
beaTen. — ^Matthew, xziL 80. 

These are those that have not been defiled with women ; for they are TiBonf.— 
Rer. xiv. 4, 5. 

And the people stood near, having kept themsdves pore from connection with 
women and having abstained from pleasures, exoept the necessary pleasures of eating, 
having been pnrified by baths and Instral water-sprinklings for three days, and besides 
having washed their clothes dean, all clothed in white among them. — Philo, Ten 
Commandments, 11. See Exod. xiz. 14, 15. 

' Joeephns, Ant. iii. 9, p. 88. Colon iae, anno 1091. 

* Dr. Martin Hang, Brahma und die Brahmanen, p. 9. MUnchen, 1871. 

4 1 SanL XX. 5 ; Amos, viii 5 ; 3 Kings, iv. 23 ; 1 Chron. xxiii 81 ; Psalm, Ixxxi 
3 ; Isa. Ixvi 23 ; Ezekiel, xlv. 17 ; xlvi 1 ; Hosea« ii. 11 ; Josephns, Ant iii 10. 

A Numbers, xvi. 9, priests of Bos (whom the Hebrews called Bl, Elah) a name of 
Situm in the orient, the €rod of Ilium, the Hebrew Blioun. 

• C. W. King, The Gn5stics, 18. 

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iubar a sunbeam and bhri to produce.^ The Sun is Brahma, 
Zeus and Apollo ! The Numerical Kabalah of the Jews identi- 
fies, by the letter numbers, Abrahm with Brahma. Abrahm and 
Brahma are both names connected with the Ghebers ; and it 
is significant that the early Mohammedan chronicles mention 
the rulers of Cabul as Guebres or Infidels. — Newall, Highlands 
of India, 238. The Mohammedan was a later religion and 
regarded as infidels the unconverted to its creed. But the fire- 
worship reached from the Mediterranean and the Jordan to 
Persia, Ejwhmere, and the Brahmans of India. " For see, the 
Bibles which you call Holy contain myths too, over which you 
are accustomed to laugh when you hear others relating them." 
— Philo, on Confusion of tongues, 2. " Nearly all or the most 
of the giving of the Law is allegorical." — ^Philo, On Joseph, 6. 
Abrahm was identified with the mythic Bel Saturn of the 
Semites. Abrahm and Israhel (Saturn, according to Philo) were 
found among the mythic kings of Damaskus. The Moham- 
medan Arabians regarded Abrahm as the Saturn in the Caaba, 
the Hobal who was derived out of Syria, who was represented 
as an Old Man with seven arrows or fates of destiny in his 
hand. Mohammed destroyed the idol, saying: Our Ancient 
(Our Sheik) they represented as conjuring with the arrows; 
what then has Abraham to do with the arrows ?—Pococke, 
Specimen Hist. Arab. p. 980.^ Josephus, Ant. I. 8, represents 
him as instructing the Egyptians in astronomy; Movers states 
that Bel-Saturn passed for the Inventor of astrology.® The 
seven arrows, like the seven lamps of the Jewish Sacred 
Candlestick, of course referred to the Seven Planet Bays. The 
temple of Saturn among the Sabians was sexagonal, made of 
black stone, hung with black curtains. His image was that of a 
black old Hindu who has an axe in his hand ; also he was repre- 
sented with a rope by which he draws a bucket out of a well ; 
then again as a man reflecting earnestly upon the old Hidden 
Wisdom ; also as a worker in wood ; finally, as a King riding 
on an elephant. It was the custom of the Sabians to come on 
Saturday into Saturn's temple dressed in black. Their prayer 
is to this eflfect : Sanctified be Thou, O God, in whom the 

1 bharami means the *^ bearing of me/^ — A. H. Sayoe, Science of Lang. IT. 153. 
To derive Brahma's name from brih, to strain in prayer, instead of from bhri, to pro- 
duce, to bear, is straining a point ; since Brahma is Creator, 

« Movers, I. 86, 87. 


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EtU indwells, who does not the Good, because He is the Mis- 
fortune and the reverse of good luck, who when he comes into 
connection with beauty thereby makes it ugly, who looks on 
the Fortilnate and thereby makes him unlucky. — ^Dimeshqi ; 
in Chwolsohn, IL 384. Markion regarded the God of the Old 
Testament as the fearful God ; and Job, ii. 1, mentions Satan 
as one of the Sons of the God. Osiris-Iachoh is in heayen and 
in Hades. Psalm cxxxix. 8, locates this Sabian Deity in 
Hades, Isaiah, xIt. 7, makes him the Creator of Darkness and 
Light. In the treatise De Iside, Isis wears black when Osiris 
dies, when a pestilence occurs Typhon's bad animals are car- 
ried into darkness and threatened or slain, and Ezekiel, viii. 
10, 12, 14, shows what the Jewish priests did in the darkness, 
incensing Satan-Typhon, and mourning Adonis-Osiris. It is 
quite probable that the Arabs regarded Saturn as Deathgod. 
Homer puts him in Hades, and the Egyptians made him Earth- 
god, i.e. Subterranean. 

From an early period Egyptian philosophy would naturally 
be more subject to Babylonian and Syrian influences than to 
Grecian, before the time of the Ptolemies. As might be ex- 
pected, their Hermes was not the Grecian, but the Phoenician 
Hermes (Taaut, Tat, Thoth), which last, Thoth, was in our 
copies of Plato spelled Theuth.^ This Egyptian - Phoenician 
wisdom appears in the Old Testament, and, in Proverbs viii. 
30, by the name Amon, as well as Chochmah. Whether the 
Psalms of D5d^ are the divine compositions of Dod, Tot, Thoth, 
or Taut, remains to be seen. M. Menard, in various passages, 
recognizes " habits of thought which are not Grecian '' in the 
Books of Hermes Trismegistus ; but he adds that, " initiated 
into philosophy by Greece, the orient could give it only what 
it possessed, the exaltation of the religious sentiment." * This 
is ignoring the dualism and gnosis of Egypt, Israel, Arabia 
and Syria, not to mention Mesopotamia. But under the Ptole- 
mies, it would not be strange if Grecian ways of thinking had 
exerted some influence, especially in the expressions. The 

1 PhilebuB, cap. yiii p. 186c— Stallbanm. 

s Orelli, Smohon. p. 34, has Ad5do0, King of the Gods. Another Phoenician God 
is KhrosSr who is the Phoenician Vnlkan, the Egyptian Patah. Ptah.— ibid. IS, 10. 
See Genesis, iy. 22. The art of wozking metals was carried from Phoenicia to Egypt by 
the ThSthTant— Sanohoniathon, pp. 18, 20, 88. Bnt the Semitic Dand (d -- 1) makes 
Tant in ^srptian. 

* Menard, Herm^ pi ziL 

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first thing one notices in Hermes Trismegistus is the Greek 
Tot oKTa, meaning the real existences; for Plato calls matter 
TO /bi^ ov, that which has no real existence : which is akin to the 
Hindu idea that there is nothing but Brahma; all else is 

Before entering on the mythology of the Book of Gtenesis it 
is requisite to refer to the theology of which it forms a part ; 
for the entire Hebrew, Phoenician, Babylonian or Egyptian 
theology is not given in the first chapters of (Jenesis. There 
is something wanting that preceded Gtenesis i. 1 in other cos- 
mogonies. Hermes Trismegistus ought to supply this. He 
says : One time, my thought being upon ra 6vra (the divine 
entities and essences) and my mind being exceedingly raised 
up to a height (of contemplation) and my corporeal sensations 
hamng been svbdv/ed ... I seemed to hear some one of 
exceeding size, of indeterminate proportion, calling my name 
and saying to me '* What do you wish to hear and see and what 
by Tnental conception to learn and to know." ^ I say. Who are 
you thent I indeed, says he, am the Poimander, the mind 
of the " absolute power,* and I know what thou wishest and am 
present with thee everywhere. I say, I wish to know the in- 
telligible ENTTFIES,^ and by mind to comprehend their nature, 
and to KNOW the God, This, I said, I want to hear. Again he 
says to me : Have in thy mind whatever you wish to learn and 
I will teach thee. 

Saying this, he was changed in the ideal form, and straight- 
way all things were opened to me in a moment and I see a 
sight without bounds, and " all things " having become light 
more pleasant and joyous ; and seeing I was enraptured ; and a 
little after there was a sunken darkness in part become fright- 
ful and drear, crookedly terminated, so that I seemed to see 
the darkness changed into a certain j^t^irf nature (<^v<rts) imspeak- 
ably stirred up and giving out smoke as if from a fire, and a 
certain sound, filling, unutterable, mournful : then a cry from 
it was emitted not in accord, as I conjectured, — the voice of 
LIGHT. From this light went out a certain holy logos upon 
the " nature," and pure fire sprung up from the liquid " nature,** 
into the height and it was light and piercing and energetic 
at the same time. And the air, being buoyant, followed the 



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breath of life (the Spirit), itself rising, as far as the fire, from 
earth and water, so that it seemed to hang down from it. And 
earth and water stayed by themseWes mixed up so as not to be 
discerned from the water; and they were being moved* by 
means of the pneumatic logos laid (or put) upon (them), so 
that the sound was audible.' This is not wholly Greek ; for the 
logos-doctrine was Hindu and Chaldean: probably Ionian, 
Egyptian and Pythagorean before it was Platonic doctrine; 
and the Cry of Minerva, although it is in Pindar, must have 
been a Syro- Phoenician conception, else why is it found in 
Proverbs, viii, and in the Poimander of Hermes? 

With the exception of Joshua's claim to the north ^ as far 
as Hamath, the description of the Jewish borders in the Book 
of Joshua is nearly identical with the territory occupied by 
the Jews b.c. 140-84. The Book of Daniel is said to date 
about B.C. 160. It possibly may be somewhat later. Of 
course, the compilation of which it is a part can be no older 
than its latest book; and the books of Moses have the ap- 
pearance of having been prefixed to all the rest, Joshua form- 
ing a sort of introduction to the history of the Jews settled 
along the Jordan from south to north. In Syria, Arabia and 
Egypt everywhere we find Dionysus worshipped. Why 
should we not expect to find the same among the Israelite 
Moloch worshippers ? For Moloch is Dionysus.^ The Jewish 
state, at least so far as relates to the Makkabees, was entirely 
7iein ; it was the starting of a new dynasty, as the result of 
being freed from the dominion of the successors of Alexander 
the Great. Under these circumstances we find priest-kings ; 
for the Makkabees were Highpriests : and such a one is men- 
tioned, Malchizedek, in Salem. We find in the Pentateuch 
the late Hebrew, so late as not to be distinguished from other 
Hebrew writings, as to language. We find some prohibitions 
of the distinguishing marks of the Adonis-Osiris-Dionysus 
usages, introduced into the Pentateuch, to separate the cir- 

1 The Breath of Life (the Spirit) of Alahim moTed itself on the faces of the waters. 
— €reii. i 2. There is a reference here to the Ionian philosophy of Tbales, which is the 
Oriental philosophy. Philo, de profugis, 458, calls the Wisdom the Daughter of God, 
while Ptoverha, Till 1 (39, 30) and Pindar, Olympiad, va , mention her exceedingly 
great Cbt. 

'Hermes Trismeg., Poimander. 

' based on hope probably. 

« Morera, PhOnixier, 825 ff, 371 «^ 438. 

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cumcised (the initiated) from the profane ; but these changes 
are small compared with what was retained. Then, too, the 
absence of. the least mention of the resurrection in the Books 
of Moses has a very Saddukean aspect. Suppose now that 
neither Jacob nor Joseph had gone into Egypt, that the 
history of the Kings of Israel, Judah and Idumea partially 
perished in the period when Antiochus oppressed Israel or got 
reduced in some way to the scanty notices preserved in script- 
ure, but that it was decided to make an imposing genealogical 
tree for these Arab fire-worshippers out of whom the strategy 
of Judas and the talents of his successors had created a na- 
tion — ^were the scribes of that shrine of flame unable, at the 
close of the second century before Christ, to locate the imagin- 
ings of their Arabian fancy anywhere they wished, in Egypt, 
Arabia or Syria, and instead of letting Typhon kill Osiris, to 
write that the Jealous Qan, or (Ken) killed Abel (who is the 
lamented Bel- Adonis), or that the Ohebers in Israel had come 
by the most roundabout way out of Egypt, which took them 
40 years to accomplish, and instead of going home to Cheb- 
ron, Ghebron, or Hebron * preferred to make oflf to the east of 
the Dead Sea for the purpose of getting rid of their Gheber 
name and to call themselves Ebers (those who came from 
over the Jordan) ? By ignoring Hebron for Jerusalem^ it is 
plain that 'Exodus* and Deuteronomy and Joshua were 
penned at Jerusalem. The bahr Jusuf, an artificial arm of 
the Nile, afforded the scribe an opportunity to get on the 
track of Joseph in Egypt, and the story told to account for 
his being there at all came within the daily experience of 
captives taken prisoners and sold as slaves in oriental coun- 
tries as well as in Greece and Italy. The theory on which 
oriental names of cities are held to indicate the former exist- 
ence and residence of ancestors of that name, and which will 
be indicated further on where the 12 tribes of Israel are 
mentioned, is almost euhemerism.^ In this manner, Israel is 
found in Izrael ^ and loseph in the names of the bahr lusuf , 
the Arab idol Asaf, the Mt. Saf-ed and Supha (Numbers, xxi. 

» Chebron, Kebir, Oebar, Gebardo, Ghebron. 

s The cities and towns often bore deity-names, like Ann, Son^m, eta As Enhem- 
ems said that the Gods had been men, it was easy in these snn-named places lo find a 
patriarch almost anywhere in order to render a fiction credible. Gaba might suggest 
laqab, lakob. 

' Izrael is Jezreel in the English Bibla 


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14), more especially taken from the story of a historical 
loseph about B.c. 225 in the dd century ; mentioned in Jahn's 
Hebrew Commonwealth, 210 ; Josephus, Ant. xii. chap. 4, 2. 

The Egyptians had their attention drawn to the 7 planets, 
the Great Lights, well-known to Egyptian astronomers. The 
Syrian took notice of Saturn-day (Saturday) because (accord- 
ing to the priests of El) Saturn was the Greatest God, the 
Adonis,* Osiris, Abel,- or Bel, who went under earth quite 
early and reigned in the world of souls.* Saturday was the 
great day of Kab, Keb, Koub, lakouph, Kouph, or lakab 
(Jacob), who was chief of the Kabiri, their El-Satumus.* 
There was in the Holy of Holies a Candlestick with 7 lamps, 
a symbol of the Adon-Alohim, who hallowed the 7th day and 
presided over these Seven wandering Bulers, or Planets. The 
priest well knew that the Moon (to whom great attention was 
early paid in Chaldea, Syria, and Egypt, particularly on the 
New moons, as in Jerusalem) made a lunation in twenty-eight 
days, one-fourth of which is the number Seven ! Now the 
Pharisees believing in Spirit, believed in Angels as spirits. 
The intelligent Saddukees declined the superstition. 

Plutarch distinctly asserts that Dionysus is Adonis. In 
proof of this he adduces the mitre worn by the Jewish high- 
priest, his fawn-skin dress, the bells depending from it, the in- 
carved thyrsus exhibited on parts of the prominent, elevated, 
structure facing the people, the buskins and the dbums ; for 
these, he says, suit no other Gk>d but Dionysus.* 

Ka2 o&roi wpovKvwov^i r^ ^\i^. — Septnagint, Ezekiel, yiil. 16. 
Begin to mj God with drams. — Judith, xtL 1. 

The fawn-skin indicates stag-slaying Dionysus, as do the bus- 
kins. The tinkling of bells on the dress of the Jewish high- 

> Adoni ( Adonai) wu the Deity-name in the Hebrew text, and AdonU is the name 
of the Syrian f eetivals : they occurred in autumn and at other times. Adonii slain by 
the Boar ngnifiea the fmiU out off in their ripeness.— Movers, 206. 

The constellation of the Boar rose aboat the time of Libra in the antamn. 

*Abela=>Abelios=sApoUo. The Egyptisns had the Abel Misraim, Mourning 

'The Sadukees held that there is neither resurrection, angel, nor pneoma (Spirit). 
—Acta, xxiiL 8. 

« Great SahaOth.— Gallaeus, Sibylline Books, 17&-1S0; Plutarch, Quaest. Cony. 
671 B. p. 816. 

•Plutarch, Quaest. Conriy. iv. 5, 6. So Moverii, p. 284. 

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priest points to spring, as does the .paschal lamb, in the ver- 
nal joy. The shower-bath of blood poured on the chief priest 
annually was the symbol of the renewed life of all flesh, and 
the circumcision pointed to the same thing. Adonai or 
Adonis was, then, the Young Dionysus who was mourned in 
Syria (which included Judea, and at times was a part of the 
power of Egypt). K the Bacchic branch was mighty through 
Greece ^ it was because it was mighty in Sjrria ; and the Jews 
still carry the palm branch ; like the Persians, who bore the 
bundle of twigs. The Arab worship of Dionysus and the 
name of the Arab Sun-festival in September, Ashurah, point 
as distinctly to the Dionysus-Mithra-worship in Suria, Assu- 
ria and Asher as the wailing of the women of Asher for the 
Onlybegotten points to the Death of Adonis in autumn and 
the Grave of Bacchus. 

The initiated ^ of iDAean Jupiter, 

Having completed ' the raw- eaten feasts, 

And having clothing all of white,* 

I avoid the race of mortals ; 

Not having been brought near a grave I — Porphjrj, de Abst. iv. 

The names of the Thracian Orpheus and Musaeus carry us 
back to the dusky period from which all sacred history starts. 
The name Moses, or, as it is written, MsE (Mase),^ designating 
as it does many of that name, originally meant a mythic per- 
sonage. Mases is an ancient Greek town mentioned by Strabo, 
376, and Pausanias, 197 ; similar names are Amasia a city of 
Pontus in Asia Minor, Musia* (Mysia), Masion, a name of a 
mountain near to Armenia, and Masa.'' Some may prefer to 
connect it with Mosia meaning redeemer, others with maase, 

1 Earipides, Bacchae, 308. 

« Wiien the Egyptian Israelites are initiated into the Egyptian Mysteries they are 
purified and warned to keep away from the women. — Exodus, xix. 11, 14, 15. 

So in the Mysteries of the Bona Dea (Isis) men were excluded. In fact, the men 
and women of the Jews were kept apart at religious serrices. 

•TeletCs, complete. 

* The Magi wore white in hostility to Darkness and Hades.— Plutarch, Qaaest. 
Bom. xxvL 

* Compai^ Mas (Gen. x. 28), Mt. Masius. under which Nisihis lay, the river Masa 
near hy, the Masian Arahs (the Masei of Ptiny) :— Ghwolsohn, L 443 ; also Mesa an 
Arah melech.'<^ Kings, ill 4. 

* Musaeus. Orpheus is Apollo^s son.— Qerhard, Grieoh. MythoL § 681. 6 o ; 
Pindar, pyth. iv. 176, 1T7. 

» Gen. XXV. 14. 

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meaning start/ ; but Plntaroh gives ns the mythic name Masses, 
who is apparently no other than Mase (Moses) himself. As 
this name is connected with much that is mysterious as well as 
apparently miraculous, and as he is expressly stated to have 
been learned in all the Wisdom of the Egyptians, his treatise 
is based on the Mysteries and is evidently an inspiration or 
revelation from their hidden wisdom. Some have connected 
him, floating in an ark on water, with Dionysus, Osiris, and 
Noah.^ But his horns ^ point to the crescent, to Dionysus and 
Hermes or Mithra. Genesis points to the life of the Egyptian 
priests just as it was known to be in later times.^ The allies 
of Saturn were called Eloeim (C^n^X), the Jewish priests were 
the Loim or Luim (Levites), and Dionysus Luios or Luaios (as 
Nonnus has the name ; from luo to free, to redeem) might have 
called his priests redeemers of the souls from Hades. 

There is among the Orphic rhapsodies in circulation a cer- 
tain theology about what the mvid perceives, which philoso- 
phy the philosophers expound, putting Time in the place of 
the one beginning of all things and Aether and chaos instead 
of the TWO ; but counting the Egg instead of the absolute ex- 
istence (to ov), and making this the first triad. But in the 
second triad are now reckoned the pregnant and all-containing 
Egg, the God or the Tunic of fire or the Clovd ; for Phanes (is 
bom, or) leaps forth from these. This then is the Mind, the 
Father and Power. The third triad is the Metis, the Erikapaios 
(as Power), the Phanes himself as Father.* The Egg is the 
Bacchic symbol of the Deity containing and comprehending 
all things within himself ; and, from this, Phanes appears as 
first-bom Light, Metis (Mind) and Ericapaeus (Arich Anpin). 
Here we have something akin to the doctrine of the Kabalah 
starting in the Dionysus Zagreus worship of the Orphic theo- 
logians ; and, soon, alongside of the Phanes notion we have the 
light springing up at the command in Gen. i. 4, and the God 
of thunder and rain,' Sabaoth Adonaios of the Jewish Sibylline 
Book, with Christos* his Angel-king. The finding all these 

> Naoh, Nooh, Annakoa. " The Moarning for AnnakoB ** in Phrygia, in a drought, 
lesfc all should be destroyed ! 

^ ComiitnB. Aron (fnK) means an ark. 

» Movers, Phoenizier, 112, US. 

« Damaskius, cap. 123. p. 358. 

» Gen ix. 13-17. 

<King was the epithet of Apollo.— Eusebius, Praep. Ev. iii. 15; Eallimachns, 

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inheritancoB of an earlier gnosis associated intimately with 
Orphic and Platonic ideas a number of centimes before our 
era, even approaching the source of the earliest Kabbala-no- 
menclature, and not wholly at variance with some of its funda- 
mental doctrines, such for instance, as the theory of ^faiher 
and a mother as the two primal principles, ought to make any- 
body hesitate to ascribe any of the Oriental Gnosis to an in- 
spired origin; for it is plain here that philosophy inspired 
religion. The Kabbalists spoke of Adam as two-fold in sex. 
So Phanes is male and female. Two-fold in nature is Eros. 
Immortal Zeus is male, immortal Zeus is female * say the 
Orphic writers.* 

Ztv Mttrrtf fA^yurrtt KeAxun^f, oiBtpi rtdmf, — Homer. 

Zeo8< most honored, greatest, enveloped in dark oloads,' dwelling in the 
burning.— niad, ii. 412. 

Nil praeter nubes et coeli namen adorant — Javenal, xiv. 97. 
Nothing besides clouds and heaven's deity the Jews adore.— Juvenal. 

Orpheus means dark. It is certain that he was merely an 
invented personage, as has been already emphatically stated 
by Aristotle.* Homer and Hesiod have known nothing of him, 
and the decision of Herodotus, that all poets that are held to 
be older than these two are really later, is evidence that, even 
if he has not denied the existence of an Orpheus, he has at 
least perceived that the pretended Orphic poems are fabrica- 
tions. The so-called Orphic traditions spoke of an inborn sin- 
fulness of mankind who sprung from the ashes of the Titans, 
the foes of the Gk)ds; of a migration of souls in a circuit 

Hymn to Apollo, 78, 111 ; Homer, n. i. 890; Dmilap, Vcstigea, 244. The wm is the 
emblem of the Logos, acoording to Philo. Aflfirming the son to be the ofTspring pro- 
ceeding perpetually from Apollo, who is eternal and who perpetually brings him forth. 
— Plutarch, de Pyth. Oraa 4d. Some regarded Apollo and the Sun not as two Gods, 
but one. —ibid. 13. 

1 Orphic FrBgraents. 

« The Spartan " Sioa," the Semitic no — fulgor. Bios is the "shining," a far nearer 
and better derivation than Djaush " codum.** From zio comes 2Seu ; making the diph- 
thong by quick speaking the io as eu. 

> A strong resemblance here to the Clouds of heaven and the God of heaven, the 
object of Jewish worship according to Juyenal, zit. 96, 97 ; and Nehemiah, i 5. Gene- 
sis, ix. 16. Here is an allusion to Indra's thunder-bolts, the storm and the rainbow af- 
ter it. The bow in the cloud is the sign of a ooTcnant between Alohim and the earth. 
—Gen. ix. 18. 

« G. F. Schoemann, Grieoh. Alt. II. p. 830 ; Cic. de nat deor. L 88, 107, mit m. 


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throQgli earthly bodies into which they were banished as into 
a prison in order to expiate the old iaolt and then, purified, 
obtain better dwellings upon the stars ; of the punishment of 
the unpurifiedy and of the necessity of a purification through 
religious consecrations and emplojdng the means of grace 
which through Orpheus have been revealed ! Even one sort 
of the Orphics, which is but a sordid and caricatured imitation 
of the earlier Orphic character, gave out that they were in- 
vested with the power by the Qods ^ of making good, by offer- 
ing and conjurations, all sins that one has himself committed 
or that come from the forefathers by descent, and to ward off 
their punishment without gre^t discomfort and trouble, nay, 
even with pleasure and festivities.^ But among the better sort 
of the initiated persons were admitted after certain prescribed 
purifications and their mutual practices of religion, whereby 
the Orphic doctrines found their expression, partly in forms 
of prayer, partly too in expositions of the holy traditions,^ 
called Mysteries, not only because only the initiated could 
take part in them but also because they, both the ritual and 
the theological expositions which then t-ook place, had a hid- 
den, mystical meaning. The expression, with which these 
Orphic dedications * and religious practices were usually desig- 
nated, is TcXcny (telete '), Consecration to Dionysus (the Sun, 
Mithra, Saviour) in the Mysteries. 

The march of thought was with navigation to the west. 
From Kadam (in Chaldee), Eedem (in Hebrew), the light went 
out to the western peoples, and the emigration was from As- 
sjrria and Syria. The period preceding the year B.C. 32 is, 
historically,* dark.'' With the year B.C. 32 the more decided 
influence of the Babylonian studies in the history of the Jewish 
traditional scripture begins to spring up. This influence is 
evidenced by distinct historical data.^ The greatest part of 
the " traditions " respecting the Law must have been built up 

1 Bxodns, xz. 5. 

> Sohoemann, 830. 831, 83a What a parallel to the sale of indcdgenoes in Lather's 

* initiations. 

• G. F. Sohoemann, Griech. Alt IL p. 833. 

* Josephns, Ant ziiL 5, 9, carries backnhe three Jewish sects at least as far as 
B.C. 150-145. 

^ Foerst, Knltor and Literatar der Jaden in Asien, 9. 

• ibid, la 

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prior to this period.^ In b.o. 32 Hilel came from Babylon into 
Palestine and established there the study of the Law in con- 
nection with the Tradition.^ Now, if the Schools of the Phari- 
sees had been occupied in making commentaries and '' tradi- 
tions " for two thirds of a century previous, they must have 
already accumulated a large amoimt of them in the year 32 
before our era. The Mishna collections of Hilel and Chijja no 
longer exist ; but that mishnas or " precepts of the Tradition " 
must have formerly existed appears from many Haggada-works 
which quote mishna-coUecfcions that cannot be found.^ The 
Babylonian teachers already had their Traditions or Mishna- 
precepts long before Jehuda ha Nasi. In Babylonian high 
schools the '* Law with the Traditions " was taught as the sum 
of the then Jewish theology long before the dissolution of the 
Jewish state.* 

Some of the greatest teachers of Palestine were Babylo- 
nians ; as Ezra, Hilel, E. Nathan, E. Chijja.* In Babylon the 
seeds of the most kinds of Jewish literature were sown. There 
the germs of the Jewish religious philosophy and the Mid- 
rash-development had their origin. The Jews in Spain, in 
Maghreb, in Italy, about the year 900 after Christ, were only 
the inheritors of the Jewish mind and the science of Babylo- 
nia, which a thousand yeai^ before had been developed and 
perfected upon the banks of the Euphrates. The Je^idsh 
Literature in Babylonia is the introduction to the entire Jew- 
ish literature.* The high school at Nehardea was the oldest of 
the Jewish schools of learning in Babylonia. The first traces 
of the efficiency of this school at Nehardea are found about 
188 after Christ.' But we find that Abba the priest and E. 
Samuel both went to Palestine to pursue the study of the 
" Traditions " under Jehuda the Nasi,* and Abba after his re- 
turn sent Law questions to Jehuda ha Nasi for his opinion.* 

One of the most distinguished of the academies after the 

» ibid. 11. 
« ibid. 12. 
» Pueret, 20, 21. 

• ibid. 5; Mark, vii »-18; Dunlap, 85d, IL 87. 
» Fuerst, 11. 

• ibid. 2, 3» 11. 
-> ibid. 88, 91. 

• A.D. 160-180. 

• Fnerst, 92. 

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destraction of Jerusalem was the School of Tiberias in GkJilee, 
which St. Jerome mentions as still existing in the fifth cen- 
tury.* The doctors' of this school early in the sixth century 
%greed to revise the sacred text and issue an accurate edition 
of it. This is the present Hebrew text, the text according to 
the Masoretic Tradition.* In the first quarter of the fourth 
century B. losef sought to recover many a meaning of the Old 
Hebrew which was lost.^ From 200 to 250 after Christ the 
Jewish Liturgy had already for some centuries gone through 
a process of development and refining.* But the Prophetical 
Books equally with Matthew postulate spirit as the life-prin- 
ciple, and fire as its representative. — Matthew, iii. 11 ; Exodus, 
iii. 2, 14 ; Gen. i. 2 ; Luke, i. 35 ; .1 Kings, iii. 3, 4 ; xviii. 24 ; 
2 Kings, ii. 16 ; Judges, vi. 21, 22 ; 1 Sam. x. 10. 

Thus, as we have seen, the sources of Judaism are in the 
Oriental Philosophy. This philosophy postulated an inven- 
tion of which the orientals could not prove its existence. The 
dual philosophy was that of the Asiatic world, as well as 
Europe. It was certainly the doctrine of India anciently ; for 
the theory that Brahma is the spirit, and that all else is non- 
existence, mere deception of the senses, appearance and not 
reality, is clearly posterior to and dependent on the previous 
dogma of two principles, spirit and matter. The Hebrew 
Syrian, like the Babylonian, held fast to the doctrine of dual- 
ism in Palestine.' The Syrian philosophy of dualism (in the 
sun and moon) of the spirit has prevailed from the sea of 
Kyprus, the shores of Syria and the mountains of Judah to 
the Bay of Bengal. This doctrine dominates all the rest of this 
work, although it fails to explain the constitution of the uni- 

In the third century, not far from a.d. 231, Fire that once 
was held in the greatest honor, as on the Jewish altar in the 
days of the Old Testament, had in some degree lost its sig- 
nificance and religious influence among the Persians. It had 
been an essential part of the Persian religion to maintain per- 

1 Jerome, pref. ad comment in lib. paralipomendn. 

* Compare Home's Introduction, I. 201 ; Dunlap. SOd, L 907. 
» FueiBt, p. 153L 

* ibid. 59. 

» Pisalm, xxxi 5 ; Job, xxzii. 8 ; zxxiii. 4. In the 8th century of our era, a Hindu 
draniA opeus with an address to the Supreme Light, the One Eternal and Invariable 
God !— Wilson's Hindu Drama, 325. 

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petnally upon the fire altars the saored flame and to see that it 
never went out. — Geo. Bawlinson, Seventh Gr. Oriental Mon- 
archy, p. 55. The Jews in Leviticus vi. 13 held that the fire 
on the altar must never go out. Compare Levit. vii. 5, ix. 24 ; 
see however 1 Sam. iii. 3. Artaxerxes then caused the sacred 
Zoroastrian Fire to be rekindled on the altars where it was 
extinguished and restored to the hierarchy of the ancient Magi 
their former influence in religion. — Bawlinson, ib. pp. 55, 57. 
As another proof of the practical identification of the Old Tes- 
tament Judaism with the Mithra religion of Cyrus (Eurus), it 
is found in Isaiah, xlv. 1, 15, and elsewhere in the pages of 
this work. 

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"He his delivered ub from the power of Darkneas.'* — Gem. xxxii. 34; 
G0LO8& i. 12. 

*' I swore bj the blood-besprinkled Aad and bj the pillars of Sair.** — Old 
Araktaw Poet. 

The Arabians adored Dionysus and Onrania, which are 
Abrahm and Sarah (Sarach, Sahra) Asar and Ashera, Istar, 
Astarta, Elel and Alilat, Euan and Eua, Adonis and the Binah, 
Venus. Aud wte adored with human sacrifices ; and by add- 
ing ano (us, our) we get the word Adano, Adan, Adon the Sun, 
the Lord. Audah was his hmd. I Audah makes laudah (nn^n^), 
the h being read an a by St. Jerome. The Jews anciently 
were in Babylonia called laudi. Taqab (from achab, to love) 
means the Lover, and he loves Lrach (Luna), who is euhemer- 
ised as Rachel. Sarah was the name of the Arabian crescent. 
'* Monotheism is necessarily euhemerist in the judgments which 
it passes upon the mythologic religions. Not comprehending 
anything of the primitive divinisation of the forces of nature, 
which was the source of all mythology, it has only one way of 
giving a meaning to these grand constructions of the ancient 
genius ; it is to see in them an embellished history and succes- 
sions of deified men."— Renan, Hist. Peuple Israel, 8d ed. p. 
60. " Deified men build the first cities, invent the arts, and 
lay down the conditions of civilised life."— ib. 70, 71. Nimrod 
was one of the Gods of Harran. — ib. 76. Abrahm came out of 
Aur of the Kasdim. The Firegod was identified with the Sun- 
god Samas, Shems.— Sayce, p. 183. The Firegod of Ur was 
Ab (Father) Ram (Most High), in other words Abrahm ; Brah- 
ma in Lidia. Izchaq (Isaak) is a remodeling of the word 
Zachaq, to laugh. The Arab raingod S&kia caused nature to 
smile, and Sarach (the Saracen land) to laugh right out. Sakia 
was adored by the tribe Ad (Aud, the laudi). The Gods, said 


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Euhemerus, had once been men. So Osiris and Isis, Abrahm 
and Sarah. Genesis calls Eye Aisah, and Josephns calls her 
Issa. She was Adam's rib, and the rib has a mythological 
affinity to the moon-crescent. "The Coming of Isis out of 
Phoenicia." — Plutarch, de Iside, 50. * On each side a figure 
of Isis 20 feet high, with the moon over Her head.' — Egypt, 
Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land, I. p. 132. The word 
Zarach means the Morning-red, and Serach, the sunrise.^ The 
Obstetrix delivers herself on the point in Gen. xlvi. 12, xxxviii. 
30, by binding deep scarlet on the hand that first was put 
forth. The deity name Asaph and the town Saphir suggest a 
patriarch loseph, just as the Aaqabara at Chebron suggest a 
patriarch laqab, or as the town Saue suggests Esau. We find 
in Genesis a number of Arab tribe-names put down as Pat- 
riarchs. The Shammah appear as Ishmael, the Agraei or 
Hagarenes as Hagar, the Bawalla as Eaual or Beuel, the Sa- 
rakens (Sarakenoi) as Sarach, etc. The Assyrians called the 
Jews laudi, from laudah or leudah, Judaea -See Schrader, 
188, 257, 286. The policy of the Jews was to keep up relations 
with the great Saracen-Ismaelite nation. — Gen. xvii. 20. The 
Nabatheans (Nabaioth. — Gen. xxv. 13) were the people of Petra, 
and the Son of Ishmael. — Wright, Chr. in Arabia, 9 ; Gen. xxv. 
13. Everywhere was sun and fire worship. Israel had the 
Bamoth Bol (the High Places of the Sun or Saturn. — Jer. iii. 
2 ; iv. 11) and the Bamoth Aun. — Hosea, x. 8. The Jews and 
Nabathites^ were allied in opposition to the Syrian power of 
the Seleucidae. — Jervis, G^n. p. 382. The fire under its differ- 
ent appearances was called, as God personified among the 
Chaldaeans and Assyrians, Azar, a name which is preserved 
among the New Persians, and which softens into Asar.^ 

The inscriptions of Thothmes HI. mention the names of the 
inhabitants of Upper Euthen which his majesty had taken in 
the hostile city Megiddo (Makeda, or Makheta perhaps, as the 
consonants of the two names would in Egyptian be identical) ; 

* Pharez, from Phar, to make to shine, the Snn at Daybreak. 

« The Nabathaean ia true Arabian.— R. P. Burton (in the * Academy'') p. 47. 
Nazara and Nabathaeans are the same. — Burton, Midian, 11. 15. Nazorines dwelt in 
wastes and deserts and particularly in a certain region in the Desert called Nabathaea 
and Idumea.— Renan, Vie de J^sus, 95; Epiphanius, L 121 ; Dunlap, S5d, IL 10, 11, 
16, 38, 34 ; Matthew, iii. 1. The Ascetics were beyond the Jordan in the first centuries 
of our era.— Kenan, Jesus, 5th ed. 90, 97 ; Luke, i 80. 

» Hovers, I. 340, 841. 


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moreover we mast not believe too much all that the Egyptians 
told as their side of the story, which the modern Egyptologists 
have exhibited a tendency to magnify. Bmgsch represents 
Kedescha as referring to Eadesh on the Orontes, and Maketha 
as Megiddo, although the Bible places Kadesh and Arad very 
far to the south near Edom, on the border of the Desert. We 
have in this catalogue, whether correct or not, cities of the 
extreme south in Judea, mingled in with names of such towns 
as Libnah, Lachish, Achzib, Makkeda within the Nahren ^ dis- 
trict, the river district of central and west Palestine west and 
southwest of Jerusalem, also in tolerable proximity to the 
Aaaqbaron (Ehebron-Hebron*'^ on the east and the Aasphaar 
(Saphir, further west and bearing northwest towards Azotus), 
as well as Eglon which last is still in the Nahren (the Biver 
district) of Palestine. Other towns not far off show that 
Thothmes TTT. campaigned in the neighborhood of Maketa. 

* In Hebfew Mdn or Mdin is either Midimn or Medina.— 1 Chron. i 82. Bat Mdn 
is Maden, the Kadians or Midianitas, the Midian of Jadges, ri. 88 ; viL 13, 24 t 3iid* 
isnites were on the eastern arm of the Bed Sea, proximate to the Amalekites. Egypt 
had wars with both tribes. When Heinrich Brugsoh finds the names Nahma, Sathama, 
Dasratta, Mitanl, in Egyptian hieroglyphs we should read the Semitic names nahrena 
(rirer district), Satama (a name oomponnded of Set, and like Saturn), Dusares (a name 
of Osiris in Arabia), and Mtn (3ladian or Midian), the Eg>'ptian t — d, in Mitanl The 
river district was near Lachish, west of the Khatti of Hebron. The Mitani or Mid- 
ianites fought both Hebrons (Hebrews) and Egyptians. The Egyptologues have been 
deceived by the word ntihren^ which means any river district ; in this case between the 
Sorek and Besor rivers. The Egyptian armies needed water in expeditions against the 
Khatti mountaineers in the * cities of Hebron.' How the Pharah^s forces could leave 
all the nations of Palestine in their rear and march over the snow-dad Lebanon to 
Karohemish on the northern Euphrates might puzzle a Moltke, for the Aaaqabaara of 
Kheth (the Mighty Khatti) were never conquered by Ramses. The name Karukamasha 
is that of a people living on a river south of Moab ; or else the tribe of Massa ; or the 
eastern Kara ; and has nothing to do with Asia Minor, Karohemish, or Mesopotamia. 
DusarPs (a Grecianism for Dusarat) was worshipped in the Desert east of Moab ; and 
the Midianites came through Moab into Israel and camped in the valley of Jezreel. 
Now, on their repulse, they made a stand at Karkor beyond Jordan (Judges, viii 10-21), 
and this Kark-ir was not probably remote from Kerak, the district where the river 
Keraki ran. Karak or Kerak is then the first syllable of the word karuka-masha. 
Judges, ii 13; vi 83; yiL 8, 9, 12, 24; viii. 10, 11, seems to, in conjunction with the 
Massa tribe on the River Keraki to the east, settle the locality of the Karukamasha ! 

3 Compare Kabar, Kabi (Josephus, Ant xx. 8, 11), and Keb the Egyptian Saturn. 
Jeremiah, xxvi. 22, gives us Aakabor. Tanit (Ourania) is the Qaeen of heaven (Jer. vii 
18). See Baethgen, Semit. Rel p. 56. In Tanit the essential nature (being, existence) 
of the Deity himself is manifested, — comes into appearance, is visible. — Baethgen, 
p. 56. She is called the face of Bal (pen Bal).— ibid. 58. Take the name Peniel, or 
Pend; the face of El. Kamos is a form of Bal— Baethgen, 15, 19. Tanit is the face 
of Bal, and is Astarte, Queen of heaven (in Judges, il. 13) ; the Israel worship Bal and 
Her, as the Midianites did Set, Bal, Astarta and probably Dusares. 


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Take Bera, Ain, Ishpar (Saphir), laqob-aal (as Bmgsch trans- 
literates it), the Aaaqabaara of Qebron, Khebron-Hebron, and 
they all confirm the indicated position of Thothmes HL in the 
Hebrew Nahrena. But ' the waters of strife ' around Kadesh 
directly point to the Southern Kadesh in the Negeb. See 
Ezekiel, xlvii. 19; xlviii. 28. Thothmes mentions the Negebu 
and the Luthen (Lot) in the midst of it. Thothmes III. must 
have been master of the region attributed to the tribe Simeon 
because 1 Chronicles, iv. 41, says that people from Kham for- 
merly lived there. The Pharaoh had set up his tablet in 
^ Nahrena to enlarge the frontiers of Eam. — Birch, Statist. Table, 
p. 30. Yet the Pharaoh's officer in the next line mentions the 
tablets of Kara in Philistia. Gador itself (1 Chron. iv. 39, 40) 
is within the River District, Nahren, northwest of Gerar, while 
Kadesh (Genesis, xiv. 7) is Ain-mi-Saph-at, situated on the 
Amalekite border and near the Amorites. Now, as the prophet 
charges the Jews with a descent from the Amorites and Khe- 
ta (Hittites), Thothmes III. in following the river to Maketa 
refreshed his troops, got in between the confederates of the 
Kheta king, met the Aasaphaar and came near getting a glimpse 
of the Aaaqabaar at Khebron surrounded by a moat filled with 
water supplied from mountain forests and springs. It lay be- 
tween the head waters of two streams that may also have con- 
tributed to fill its moat. If then it is assumed that the Lotan 
tribes of Edom, with the Amalekites, were the Lmjoer Kuthen, it 
seems to follow that the Upper Ruthen were the Amorites of 
the Aaaqbaar, the Khebron mountaineers, Hebrons, Hebrews. 
Brugsch-Bey, G^schichte Aegyptens, p. 333, gives laqob-Aal 
as the name of a people in Palestine ; but, as in Egyptian the 
same letter cmi be read both as 1 and as r, Aaqabaara stands 
for Aqbar and Cabar, both meaning * mighty ' ; and therefore 
Chebaron (Chebron, Hebron) was the city of the great (aa, in 
Egyptian) and ' mighty ' (Acbar and Cabar, in Semitic) Gabarim. 
lacob (Aaqab) represents Hebron versus Esau, Edom ^ (Idu- 
means) or the Arabs of the plains. 

First, we have the word * Gupt ' in Ai-gupt-os (Egypt), then 
we have ' Kobt,' Kopt, the Kopts being among the most ancient 
peoples of Egypt. The t would seem to be a termination of 
place ; leaving Keb and Kebo to soften into Kef a. A. H. 
Sayce places Kaphtor in the Delta of Egypt, and mentions 

1 Psalm, cyiiL 9 ; cxxxvii 7 ; Izzziii 6. 


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Kelt as a name of Phoenioia. Eeb means to '^ go down/* and 
Keft the Low Country (" going down " to Egjrpt), like Canaan. 
The Hebrew b changes to v, p, and ph, so that in these pro- 
nunciations the permutation of Akoub, or lakonb, into Akouph 
and Khufu is accounted for. E^ab/ Keb, and Kub ' were, ap- 
parently, names of the ancient Saturn in mythology. Although 
Dr. C. H, Comill follows the Septuagint in reading Lub for 
Kub, yet the Septuagint Isaiah is very different from the 
Hebrew Isaiah ; and, therefore, the Septuagint can be of no 
authority at all in the verse Ezekiel, ra. 5. Besides, the 
translators of the Revised Version adhere to the reading 
Kub. Adding the termination of place, t, we have Kub-t, or 
Kopt, Kaph-t-oer, ' Ghreater Phoenicia.* Ideler, Handbuch, 
n. 504, has Kebt. As forms of the name, we give from the 
Septuagint, by way of illustration, " the sons of Achiba," " the 
sons of Akouph,'* " the sons of AUtaba,** " the sons of Akbos.'* 
—1 Esdras, ed. Tischendorf, v. 30, 31, 38. Here we see that 
the name varies from Akab to Kab, Keb, Kob, Akkub, Koub, 
Kouph, and Khufu. If we add the land of lakoub, the extent 
that might be given to Koub's country at one time or another 
becomes apparent. The statements in Maspero, Hist. An- 
cienne, 3d edition, pp. 604, 605, refute both the Septita^nt 
Ezekiel, xxx. 6 and Comill's substitution of Lub for Kub ; as 
there is no reason to think that Nabu-koudour-oussour (Nebu- 
chadnezzar IL) extended his arms as far as the border of Lybia, 
especially as he was beaten ; the Greek-Egyptian fleet in the 
Egyptian service having beaten the Phoenician fleet in the 
service of the Chaldaeans ; the Egyptian army of OuhabrA took 
Sidon by assault. — Maspero, 605. In fact Herodotus, II. 61, 
mentions the Karu (the Philistian Karu, not the Carians of 
Asia Minor, — see 1 Kings, xviii. 28) " who live in Egypt.*' The 
author has a Syriac Bible in which Ezekiel, xxx. 6, reads in 
the following order : " Kushia, and Phutia, and Lubia, and all 
Arabia, and Kub and Sons of the land of the covenant." This 
reading of Lubia and Kub together in the same verse is 
against Dr. Comill's substitution of Lub for Kub. St. Jerome 
has " Ethiopia, et libya et lydi et omne reliquum vulgus : et 
Cub et filii terre federis cum eis gladio cadent." St. Jerome 
lived at Bethlehem 34 years, from 386-420. In 392-404 he 

> See Gab.— 3 Sam. xxi. 18. Graba.— Joshua, xzi 17. laqab.— Gen. xxx. 
* Gonb.— 2 Sam. xzL la 

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published the Vulgate edition of the Old Testament. So that, 
between the Peschito and St. Jerome, Kub is sustained. The 
names Khufu and Gupt (in Aiguptos) are related, apparently. 

The Hebrew Beth Shemes (Beth Shems) is the Temple of 
the Sun.* The Hebrews worshipped the fire of the Sun (com- 
pare Numbers, xxv. 4 ; xxxiv. 26), the Deity of the sun being 
supposed to be in it, and to go round with it.* Numbers men- 
tions Azan (Asan) a solar name, since we find Beth San,^ the 
Sun's temple, Asana (the Spartan name of the Sun's Goddess 
Athana, Minerva, Mene Orphea), Sonne, the Sister of Apollo 
(Bel, Bal, Abel, Abelios) ; Azania (Arcadia), Zan (Zeus), Zano 
(Juno), lason (Jason), San the Assyrian God,* Sandan Herakles, 
Shun (Sun) in Mandshu-Tartar, Shanah (a solar year ; sanah) 
in Hebrew, and Asanet Spouse of Joseph and Daughter of Phre 
or Ptah-Phre (Patah-Phar) the Sun-priest of Ptah the Crea- 
tive Fire of the Sun. Compare San-ar (Senaar) in the East. 
—Gen. xi. 1, 2, 4. 

Moses (M-8-e) took with him the bones of loseph,' and thej took their 
journey from Sakoth, and camped in Atam (city of Tamns, Thammuz, in 
Atuma).— Exodus, xiii. 19, 20. Hebrew. 

In Tyre the ashes of the God, with the burned bones, were 
preserved,* Herakles was burned in a tunic of fire. The sepul- 
chre of Herakles was shown at Tyre where the fire was burned.' 
A man of the House of Loi married a daughter of Loi.^ The 
Elonm, EloezVw, were the priests of Saturn. Eloi is the Hebrew 
God ; El Satumus, the Phoenician El, Elronos. lagab (lacob) 
is Keb (Saturn). Kebir means fire, Kabir -- the Sun. The 
Seven Kabiri (Cabiri) are the Seven Spirits of Fire,* about the 
Throne of Mithra-Kronos. Sabos is the Arabian Dionysus 

1 Judges, i. 83 ; 1 Samuel, tl 0, 12, 19. 

a Platarch, de Iride, 41 ; HoTers, PboenicianB, 444 ; 2 Kings, xxiii. 11. 

» 1 Sam. xxxi, 10. Compare the Hebrew proper names Asan (1 Chron. ii 25), Has- 
san, Asena (2 Esdras, ii 50. Greek), Sani (I Chron. vi. 28. Greek), Saniel, a Jewish 
angel. Beth-San.— Joehna, xvii 16. There was the temple of Astarte, the Moon. 
Asanus was king at Jerasalem. — Josephus, Ant viii. 6. Saniel is mentioned. — Gal- 
laens, Sibylline Books, p. 274. ^ 

* Johannes Brandis, Historische GJewinn, eto. p. 104. 

* Seph, Seb, Sev is a name of Satnm. 

• Movers, 357. 

7 Movers, a57 ; Clementine Reoogn. X. 24. 
" Exodns, ii 

• Rev. iv. 5 ; V. 6. 

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(Asaf). The Talmud calls IcMseph Sarapis.^ Sarapis is the 
name of him who orders the universe.^ Sarapis is Dionysus, 
Hades, and Osiris.' In E^ypt, Saturn's name was Sev and 
Seb. Osar-siph is priest of Osiris-Seph. losef is consequently 
a name of Sarapis, Asaf, Sabos, and Sev (also Seph, or Sef). 
The Stoic and Peripatetic could say that God is the " Inde- 
fatigable Sun and Full-Moon.'' Metrodorus, de Sensionibus, 
cap. 18, says that they were right in so sajring. Herodotus 
iii. 8 distinctly states that the ancient Arabians regarded 
" Dionysus and the Ourania * as the Only God." So that, like 
Israel, Isiri, and Usiri-Osiris, we are brought back again and 
again, like the Arabian Dionysus in the times before Herod- 
otus, to Sarach, the Saracen Moon-crescent. Adonis is the 
Greatest of Gods, and Father of Adam (Epigeios) and Eua 
(Luna) in the Mysteries so called.^ Persians and Magi divide 
Zeus (low, lovis, love) into two parts, transferring his essence 
(nature) into the sex of both man and woman.* Josephus 
says: Our Legislator telling some things very properly in 
enigmas, but speaking others in allegories with solemnity.^ 
Herodotus knows no Law of Mase or of Mases, Moses, or 
Masses. The Saracen crescent was kept sacred (adored) in 

Dionysus is the First Ancestor. — Nonnus, xxvii. 341 ; xxiv. 
49. So was Adamatos (ha Adam ha Gadol.— Josh. xiv. 15) 
the Son of Dios. Kronos called Israel by the Phoenicians 
had an Onlybegotten Son whom they called leud. — Porphyry ; 
Euseb. Pr. Ev. I. x. According to St. Paul all Christians are 
of the seed of Abraham,' consequently entitled to know that 

> Talmad, Tract ATodasaia, p. 43; Dnnlap, SOd, I. 168. 

« de Iflide, 39. 

» ibid. 38. 

< The CelestiAl Yeniu, Vena, Lnnns-Lmia. 

• Mover*, 191, 542-544 ; OreUi, Sanchon, 20, 34. 

• Firmicaa, de Errore prof, rel 5 ; Preller, Greek Mythol. I. 409. Adam is a 
doad. Eve in him. The Egsrptian myth claimed that Osiris was in Isis, the Hebrew 
Issa and Ashah (Ishah) ; the Babylonian held that the Sungod proceeded from the 
Mother, who is the superior nature. Compare Kubele, the Mighty Mother. 

"* Josephus, Antu preface, L 1. 

• Isaiah, i la 

• GaUtians, iiL 28 f. Forms in Ab are Aohiab, EHab, 1 8am. zvi 6, Merab, 1 Sam. 
zviii 17, Abid, 1 Sam. iz. 1, Abiasar, Joshua, zrii 3. Rama (in the district of 
Suph). 1 Sam. iz. 5, Ab-ram was connected with the Gheber worship (the fire wor- 
ship) at Ehebron and built an altar there to the Fire of Life, lachoh, God of life, the 
Chidn.— Gen. ziii. 18. Delitzsch (speaking of the word Abah : No. 18, pages 17-21 of 


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Asar^ was Osiris in Phoenicia and to see Osiris in Israel. We 
may be said to enjoy some of the privileges of the ancient 
Syro- Arabians or Saracens; but "if you are circumcised^ 
Christ will do you no good."* Since, then, **the Wisdom, 
the Daughter of God, is also male and father " ^ the spirit 
in Sin (Lunus-Luna) is of both genders ; for Sin is the 
male-female Moon-god.^ The temple of the Moon-god in 
Kharran ' (Harfan) was undoubtedly copied elsewhere. Nico- 
las of Damaskus in the fourth of his narrations tells us that 
Abrames was king of Damaskus, a stranger, who came with 
an army from the land called Khaldea, which is beyond Baby- 
lon. . . . And of the Abrames yet, even now, the name is 
magnified in the Damaskus district, and a village, from him, 
is shown, called Abram's residence.^ Terach's name appears 
(Renan, Israel, p. 90) to have been discovered by the scribe in 
the name Trachonitis — the transjordan district. Moab, Edom, 
Ammon, Israel, Eanaan spoke the same language as a result 
of a common origin (Benan, Israel, 99). Laban and laqab 
speak together (apparently the same language — Gen. xxxi. 
43), and laqab tells his brethren to bring stones for a cove- 
nant I These were the Arabs/ lachab's name (compare lachi, 
lacche) could well mean the Life-father Dionysus, who was 
worshipped (as Herodotus says) by the Arabs, together with 
Ourania, as the Only God. But the Hagarenes (1 Chron. v. 

his AMyrisohes WQrterbnch, Ente Lieferang) mentions (1) Father in the sense of be- 
getter, nsed of men and gods ; (2) Father in the sense of forefather, ancestor ; (3) 
Father as a title of reverence and afieotion, in an address to the moon-god. —Prof. 
David G. Lyon, Vol xiil American Orient Soc. p. dzviL In an address, then, to the 
Moon-god he oonid have been called Father, an appellation suited to the Assyrian 
Shamas as well as to Zens and the Babylonian AUah Sin or Lunus. The Ammonites, 
Moabites and Idnmeans regarded Abram as their common father.— Renan, 92, 9& 

1 The God SAr is mentioned (Am. Orient Soa p. clzvL) on pages 64-66 of the ex- 
cnrsns of Delitzsch ; according to Prol Lyon of Cambridge. In India we have 
Snrya, the Sun ; in Snr, Syria, we have the land of the Sun. ^Knfi^M Atarid. 
—Joshua, zviL 2. The name of Osiris is written Aiar in andent hieroglyphs. -De 
Roug^,— Recherches, 49. Therefore the name Asar went down from Canaan into 

« Gal. V. 2, a 

a Philo, de profngis, 458 ; Dnnlap, Vestiges, 228, 229. 

* See Sayce, Hibbert Lectures, 1887, p. 164, 73, 74, 88, 90, 249. According to 
Genesis, xi 27, 29, 82 compared with xziv. 10, 15, 29, Kharan (Harran, Carrhae) 
was Labcm*B home. Laban was a god and ordered the temple of the Moon-god at Har- 
ran to be rebuilt— Sayce, ibid. 249. 

* ibid. 168. On the Moon-god, in general, see Sayce, 155, 156. 

* Josephus, Ant. I vii. 2. 


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10), Hagarainiy were in the land of Baaben (Galaitis) and ran 
their mares among the Ishmaelites as far as the desert of 
Pharan.— 1 Chron. i 31 ; Gen. xtL 7-15 ; xxi 20. The same 
difficulty occurs with Akhab's name as with Khufu's in 
Egypt. Akab or Eeb is the root of the names Akhab and 
ELhufu. Both are deity names of Saturn. The king was palled 
by a deity name. 

Starting, then, from Harran (Carrhae) in Aram (Mesopota- 
mia) and employing the name of the Aramean Father (Ab- 
Aram, Ab Bam, or Bal Bam) the scribe got along (using the 
right of the migrant Arab) as far as the Bahr Lut at Sadem or 
Sodom. Drawing one line from this place across Arabia from 
north to south nearly to Medina, and another from Sadem to 
Eadimah on the Persian Gulf we shall then have before us the 
vast Arabian province of Nejd (Najd) with the Beni Eheibar 
(Ehaybar, as B. F. Burton spells it) near Medina (to the west) 
and the small tribe of the Beni Ukbah ^ further north in Mid- 
ian, not far from el Muweylah, on the eastern coast of the Bed 
Sea, below the Gulf of Akabah. Drawing another line from 
the foot of the Dead Sea, to Ezion Geber ((jhtbar or Akbar) at 
the head of the Gulf of Akabah and further on down to Me- 
dina we thus enclose a space extending from this point Akaba 
eastward to the Persian Gulf at Eadimah, while it reaches from 
Medina (far to the south) to the Sea of Lot (the Dead Sea). 
This is the sphere of lacob, or, as the scribe calls him, laqab. 
Observe that the Beni Eheibar (compare the names Akbar 
and Eabar) are a tribe of Jews very ancient and indomitable ; 
next to them on the east come the tribe of Harb ^ ( a warlike 
tribe), next the Shammah and the Anazeh (Aneyzeh) ranging 
over the Arabian Desert from south-west to north-east and 
sometimes going nearly to Damascus. In the midst of Arabia 
Deserta we have the Agubeni and Bhabeni, and, near Petra, 
the town Gubba. In describing the antiquity of Abrahm, 
Isaac (Ischaq) and lacob the scribe goes back to Mesopotamia 
in the case of Abrahm, to the Beni Sakr perhaps and Azaka, 
or else to Gerar and to Sekun among the Peleti at Gerar in 

> Burton, Land of Midian, I 30, 40. Jabel UkbiO.— Bnrton, IL 183. El-AkibU.— 
ilnd. 184, 188. 

' Ei^Iel, XXX 5, Hebrew, mentioiu the nation Harb. Barton, Land of Miduun, L 
77, mentions Jebel H»rb. It is chiefly the sheik of the tribe of Harb that annoys the 
caravans.— Niebohr, IL 45. 


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Philistia for Ischaq, to the Desert of Arabia for laqab (Ja- 
cob), Lotan (Lot), Esaa (Saue, Atuma, Idumea), Hagar, Ish- 
mael (the Shammah), to Egypt and Syria (west of the Jordan 
and north of Jerusalem) for Asar (Osar, Osiris, Isiri, Ousir) 
and Isarel (Israel), and to Nabathea for the patriarch Nabioth. 
Geography, euhemerism and mythology therefore lie at the 
base of the patriarchal theory. Moreover the scribe applied 
the doctrine that the name of a place was the name of its foun- 
der. The Ludians had heard that Askalos built Askalon— 
Movers, I. p. 17. It is this principle that was followed in the 
scribes' use of Akabar (meaning great, mighty) to indicate a 
forefather lakab (laqab). The Aakabara are the Mighty, a 
name peculiarly suitable to the Beni Kheibar as a tribe of 
Jews in Arabia ; and the name Kheibar can readily be derived 
from Akabar. 

In regard to Ezion Geber (Gabar) the name "Giant's shoul- 
derblade " is probably an afterthought, noway connected with 
the original name. El-Akabah means the city of the Descent} 
Judges, vii. 24, puts the Madianite expeditions as high to the 
north as the Dead Sea and even north of Jerusalem. In later 
times the district of Madian was reckoned as part of the prov- 
ince of Medina.'* The Ma'^zah reach from Madian to Wady 
Mus^ of Petra. They occupy the greatest part of the Hismd 
and the northern Harrah,^ joining on, geographically, to the 
Harb country. In Southern Madian (Midian) the Harb Beda- 
win (on the eastern side of the Sharm) are jealous and hostile.* 
On the north, the Ma'^zah meet the hostile Beni Sakr, to the 
eastward they find the Anezah, and the BuwaM are their foes.* 
The province of Nejd is of vast extent ; it includes all the in- 
terior of Arabia between the southern and eastern provinces 
(previously mentioned in Niebuhr, Voyage en Arabic, II. 51- 

1 Burton, Midian, L 234. Akab — heel. 

* ibid. I. 123. It would almost seem as if there had at one time been some connec- 
tion between the Beni Amr in Midian and Kerak in Syria. — Judges, zi 22, 28^ See 
Burton, Midian, L 164, 167. The Beni Kheibar are Jews, or Jewish : so that their 
name (as a variant of Akbar, Gabar) is to be taken into account in tracing the Biblical 
narrative of the tribe of laqab. As to the Karukamasha of the Kamak inscriptions, 
it will be treated further on. 

* Burton I. 335, 386. Among them are the Beni Snbut or Sabt, whom Wallin sus- 
pects to be of Jewish origin from their name. The Beni Ukbar occupied North Midian 
(Midian proper) between DiCmah and Shamah (Syria).— ibid. L 168, 295; II. 11, 12, 15. 

« Burton, L 184. 

* Burton, L 816, 835. 


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137) and the Syrian Desert.^ The Nejd is divided into two 
great districts: El Ared, which borders on Oman, and El 
Kherje, which touches laman. In El Ared the prophet Abd 
ul Wahheb was bom at El Aijaene.'' In the north of the 
Syrian Deserty south-east of the Dead Sea, was Suphah ; but 
see Numbers, xxiii. 14, which tends to place Saphem more to 
the north. 

Wahab be Suphah wa-«th na*halim ArnoD. — Nambera. xxL 14. 
Balaq went oat to meet Balam to a citj of Moab on the border of Aranen 
(Amon) at the end of the border. —Numbers, xxii. 86. 

It was not too far for the Oahab Arabs to go to reach Suphah.' 
Niebuhr connects the Anaesse (Aneyse Arabs) with the name 
Hanassi and the Baruch Anzah. He says that the Jewish 
Beni Kheibar ruled this country for more than twelve centu- 
ries. The Jews in the environs of Medina do not travel on the 
Sabbath. These Jews live in the midst of vast deserts. The 
country north-east of Medina is called Kheibar, and these 
Jews are known as the Beni Kheibar. One of their tribes is 
the Anaisse.^ The Wahabi Arabs occupied Mecca and Medina 
in 1803-4.' The Semite nomads, says Benan,* particularly 
fancied the land of Aus (Us, Uz) the place of abode of the 
Anezis, the country of Terach (Trachonitis), the region of 
Damaskus, and the south of Palestine where the Kauanites 
had not yet penetrated; and, probably, like the Arabs (and 
Egyptians), they had an aversion to the sea, as they never ap- 
proached the coast. In Arabia, where the Hebrews appear to 
have settled as early as the time of the Babylonian Captivity, 
there is some reason for supposing that the Jewish religion 
was professed by the kings of laman as far back as B.C. 129, 
and it is certain that the Jews were very numerous there in 
the fifth and sixth centuries after Christ, that they had kings 
of their own religion, that they were engaged in extensive 

> Niebuhr, IL 187. 
« IL 139-141. 

* 1 Chron. xyiii 3 ; xix. 6, 16. 
« Niebuhr, H 45-47. 

* Bnrton, IL 14a Of oonrae, the Wahabi in Suphah are separated by two thon- 
§and yean or more from Mehemet Ali^s Wahabees ; but, the Oahabi name already ex- 
isted before the Book of Numbers was written ; how otherwise could the quotation 
have been made ? 

* Benan, Israel, 90. 

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wars and severely punished the Christians. According to the 
testimony of Niebuhr there are still in the district of Chaibar 
in Hedjas in Western Arabia some tribes of independent Jews 
who are governed by their emirs or sheiks and live a nomad 
life. Their name is Beni Chabar.^ 

Speaking of the Arab tribes, Ghillany (Menschenopfer der 
Hebraer, p. 119) says that the settled and wandering tribes 
had their especial deities, but that the conceptions of these 
deities did not differ. The Gods were fundamentally every- 
where the same. Men were everywhere in Arabia offered up 
as victims. The worship of Moloch or Saturn ruled in this 
land thoroughly. The deity had here a six-coijiered black 
temple, the priests were clad in black ; offerings were made to 
him on the Seventh Day, Saturday. As God of war they gave 
him a red temple, and offered up to him a warrior in blood- 
besprinkled clothes, who was pitched into a pool ; the heaven- 
ly image of Moloch was the planet Saturn, as God of war he 
was Mars. See Gesenius, Jesaia, 11. 337, 344, 345. Bol (Baal) 
has among the ancients been very frequently declared to be 
Saturn, or both Saturn and Sol, but they called him * the An- 
cient ' rather than Saturn.^ lahoh is the Phoenician lao. The 
Phoenician lao is the Only-bom Son of Saturn, the Ki-onos 
revealing himself. — Ghillany, p. 437. " The God called lao 
among the Jews." — Diodorus Sic. I. 94. The Chaldeans called 
Dionysus Iao. — Ghillany, p. 435 ; Movers, I. 547. lao and 
lahoh are originally one and the same Being, the ideas con- 
nected with them are the same. Iao is shortened from lahoh, 
and is the Sun.— Movers, I. 554 ; Ghillany, 435, 437, 438. laqab 
is Herakles-Dionysus, and Herakles is Satum-Kronos. The 
Phoenician Iao is the Only-begotten Sun of Saturn, the revealed 
(sich offenbarender) Kronos, the Highest God, the Name not 
to be uttered, like the Jewish lahoh I It is known only to the 
Initiated! Ghillany, 439, declares the hanging in Numbers, 
XXV. 4, a sacrifice to the Sun ! To speak strictly, the Egyptians 
and Hebrews observed their Deity in the sun. But the Old 
Testament is far richer in passages showing lahoh to be Sat- 
urn. Like Saturn in Phoenicia, Osiris in Egypt is represented 
with many eyes (Ghillany, 441), and Mithra has thousand eyes. 
Osiris, like Saturn, is connected with the color black. 

1 Jahn, Hist. Hebrew Commonwealth, 421. 
« Movers, I. 185, 263. 


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There lies between the Bahr Lnt (the Sea of Lot) and the 
Elanitic Gulf (the Ghilf of Akabah) a valley, a continuation of 
the geological depression of the bed of Jordan and the Dead 
Sea, mnning down to the Gulf of Akabah * at Ezion Geber. 
The Midianite range originally began at Moab, ran down on 
the east of the Ghor, past Mount Hor, down along the east side 
of the aforesaid Gulf that washes the eastern shores of the 
peninsxda of Sinai,* and perhaps was extended further in 
Arabia. G and K were nearly identical sounds in Arabic and 
consequently in ancient Hebrew. The Hebrew kab means 
Mourning, aqabah means fraud, and aqab = to lay snares ; the 
name laqab is more intimately connected with 'fraud/ 'trick ' 
and lunar love ; both significations being used by the Hebrew 
scribe in writing laqab's history.* The Midianite region was 
mentioned by the classical writers under the names Nabathaea 
and Nabataea.* Southeast of the country of the Nabathaeans 
we come to the Agub-eni. The relations of the land of Koub to 
the land of lakoub were near.' Did the tribe of lakoub reach 
to the Agub-eni and Bhaabent f According to Genesis, xxviii. 
2, 10, 14, lakoub crossed the entire North Arabian Desert from 
Beer Sheba to Mesopotamia. Gtenesis, xxix. 1, would carry 
him to the Persian Gulf at Eadimah.* So that the Agu- 

I Akabah means descent ; keboa means the San*s descent in the west ; Kab means 
to become extinct. Keb, like Saturn, sinks below the earth's snr&u>e. Like Osiris and 
Tmn, laqab's name is aUied to that of the setting snn. laqab means literally to *' be- 
come extinct,'* he *^ whose snn shall set,** kaboa.— Deateronomy, xvl 6. In Gen. 
xxxii 22, 96, he, as light, fights Darkness, the fiend Typhon, who lives in a cavity in 
the earth. 

< With settlements in the Sinaite peninsula oompare the names Jcbel Ukbal and 
El AkabiL That the*e two name$ existed when Genesis was written we do not affirm. 
Bnt ** lakab ^ could be formed from others jlist like them. 

* laqab threatens to go down to Hades.— Gen. xxxvii. S5. He does go there.— Gen. 
xlix. 83 ; L 11. He has the number 12 sacred to him ; refers to the signs of the zodiac, 
Leo, Gemini and Scorpio.- Gen. xlix. 5, 0, 17, 28. Saturn was also Sol, descending to 
Hades as Adon-Osiris-Asar-Asarel (Israel). Homer, Iliad, v. 721, and xiv. 204, puts 
Saturn down in Hades and calls him *' Mighty.** Thou goest to the manrions of 
Hades beneath the recesses of the earth.— Iliad, xxil 482. The E61ios Pha6th9n took 
their life away. — Odyssey, xxii. 888. Ck>nsequently the Oabir laukab (the Gabar), 
when he descends to the Hades is the Saturn (Sol) under earth, the Keb (Kebo), or 
Seb, of the Egyptians, who mourned him with the abel Misraim. — Gen. 1. 11. 

* Sir Richard Burton*s '' Gold Mines of Midian,** p. 179 ; Hall, Mt. Seir, 208. The 
Jews and Nabathaeans are spoken of as allies against the Syrian power of the Seleu- 
ddae.— Jervis, 882. 

* Ezekiel, xxx. 5. 

* The ancient Kadimah was a celebrated commercial city at the head of the Persian 
Gnlf, in proximity to the Ishmaelite tribes comprised under the confederate title Agraei 


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beni* and lakoub were well acquainted, as it would seem. The 
Jews and Nabatheans were mentioned as allies.^ Genesis im- 
plies more than it says outright.^ Justin Martyr says that the 
prophetic spirit foretold, through Moses, that there will be a 
conflagration of the world ; ^ he (Moses) said thus : Everliving 
fire will descend and consumes down to the Abyss beneath.' 
Genesis, xlix. 1, may have had in view something of the sort ; 
but Numbers, xvi. 30, 33, applied only to Kori, Datan and 
Abiram, and does not confirm Justin M^ekTiyt'B propliecy. Philo 

or Hagar-enes. Josephos, Ant L xiii p. 22, says that the Ishmaellm (Beni Hagar, or 
Shemali) inhabited the ooantry between the Enphrates and the Red Sea. Genesis, 
xvlL 5, 6, 16, 20, xzl 13, describes Abrahm as the Father of the Ishmaelite peoples. 
Bara-am, in Hebrew, means ^creavit nationem,* 'he created the nation.' 

1 Compare the Akub (Ezra, ii 42), the Beni Hagabah (Ezra, ii 46), and the Beni 
Hagab (ii 46). The Akub (Ezra, ii 42), is written, in Hebrew, Aqub. The Naba- 
theans were in the neighborhood of Gilead, the Hanran, parts of Syria adjoining the 
Lebanon, and this line of country is identical with the Desert mentioned in 1 Chron. ▼. 
9-11, 16, 18-21, as the seat of the Hagar tribes of Itar, Nanpish and Nodaubh; the 
Nabatheans and Hagarites occupied this tract in common, for Dionysios (Orb. Descrip. 
954-956) represents the Nabataei and Agraei as inhabiting, with the Ghanlasii, the 
southern foot of Mt. Libanus and the frontier of Syria.— Jer vis. Gen. 382. 

3 ibid. 382. The influence of Nabioth predominated in the Hijaz and Nejd, and 
from the Nile to the Euphrates.— ibid. 883, 384. 

The Agraei (Hagareni), Agubeni and Baabeni, their districts being in this order 
from northwest to southeast, were between 30*^ and 81° latitude.— Ptolemy, Quarta 
Asiae Tabula ; ibid Univ. Geogr., Tabula Aaiae HH.; see A Universal Hist. vol. 18, p. 
333 map and p. 344, which refer to *PtoL in Arabia, edit. Ozon. 1712.' Thus the names 
Hagar, Kub, Agubeni, Baabeni and Ranben (Reuben) are names of Arab tribes. These 
tribes Cknesis describes as persons, not as tribes. Arba (the same name as the district. 
Raab-en) was a Great Man among the (Sun-worshipping) Anakim.— Joshua, xiv. 15; 
XXL 21. 

Ptolemy lived at Alexandria, and used the plan of Marinus of Tyre. One Arabian 
writer regarded Ptolemy as * propago de terra Sem,* descendant of the land Sem. He 
was bom about the middle of the 2d century a.d. 

> The Bbionites attributed to the patriarchs a supernatural origin.— Mackay, Prog- 
ress of the Intellect, II. 362. I# is beyond all doubt that the fundamental character of 
thepre-islamite heathenism was Starworship and that this has never been obliterated : 
at every period we find worshippers of the Sun and other heavenly bodies. Particularly 
they made a distinction of the sexes, as Sungod and Jupiter male. Moon and Venus 
female.— Osiander, in D. M. G., vii. 502, 508. The Sabaeans worshipped the spirits of 
the stars.— Mankind, p. 446. Nork, Hebraisoh-Ohald -Rabbin. Wdrterbuoh, p. 22, 
holds the patriarchs to be deities. 

* EkpurSsis. 

» Justin, Apol. L p. 159. I swore by the blood-streams around And and by the 
stones that by the side of Sair are set up.— Osiander, in D. M. G. vii. 500. The land 
of Aus, where the patriarch Job had his domicil, was in lemen and near Medina.— Osi- 
ander, in Zeitschr., D. M. G. vii. 496. Now lakob oiled a stone, and as a symbolical 
exhibition of the divine presence made it a sort of temple or place of sacrifice. — Gkn. 
xxviii. 18-20. Moreover the Israelites were on such terms with the interior and south- 
em part of Arabia that they introduced an Arab work (Job) into their Bible. 


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Judaeus, however, comes out plainly with the doctrine of Ek- 
purosis,* and so does the New Testament. The Egyptian 
doctrine was that the divine universe of spirit and matter runs 
a round of developments and transformations, till at length all 
forms are reabsorbed into the primary element, whether watery 
or fiery, and the Deity, having thus re-entered into himself, 
after a pause ^ goes forth again into energy and repeats the 
same successive developments and transformations as before.^ 
Keb stands for 8eb,^ Gabal was the Sun-god.' Keb is Sa- 
turn, Akbar. The Jewish angel, Akibeel, as to name, might be 
made to pair with the Phoenician Kubele. The words Gabar, 
Gabor, Khebar, Gheber, Kebar, Acbar mean "mighty," as 
does Ha-Gabar-in or ha-Geberim in (Genesis, vi. 4. The words 
Cabir and Cabiri, like the Semitic-Nabathean Cabar, have the 
same signification. The people of Khebron (Hebron is writ- 
ten with a Greek chi in the Septuagint) were the Aaaqabaar 
the Mighty Ghebers, or Hebrew-Aaqabarou, of Khebron (Heb- 
ron), near the home of Abrahm, Isaac (Ischaq, in Hebrew) and 
laaqab. The orientals could make an impersonation ; and the 
Mighty laaqab personifies (in Genesis, xxxii. 28) the Mighty 
Aaaqbaar of the Aachabaron of the' city Khebron (Hebron) of 
Abrahm, Isaac and laaqab. In Gtenesis, xxxvi. 38, also, we 
find Achbor (rather Aakabor, or Aakbor) the name of a ruler 
in Edom. laaqab then is a supposed founder of the Aaaqbaar, 
Aqabar, or the Cabari of Chebron. Aa, in hieroglyphs, means 
in Egyptian "great," so that Aa-Aqbaar would be perhaps 
an Egyptian adjective prefixed to the name of a Semite tribe in 
the district of Khebron (Hebron), or else the Egyptians may 
have transcribed Hagabar into Aaaqbaar. For the sounds 
k, g, ch, q were readily transmuted one into the other. " Aaaq- 
baar " * and " Aasphaar " seem to be the correct transliteration 

> Bonung out of the world. —3 Peter, iii 7. Acta, iii. 31 preacheathc reCstablish- 
ment of all things. 

* Gen. iL 2. 

» Palmer, Egjrptian Chronicles, I. 2. 

* Lepeins, Trans. Berlin Akad. 1 851. p. 168 ff. 

* Creazer, Symb. I. 259. laaqabel, if snoh a name oonld be fonnd, with Knbele. 
Bat in the Bible we have only laaqab, wibhont el as in Akibeel or in Knbele, the Mighty 
Mother. Mythology, however, can do a great deal in connecting again characters that 
Uterary priests have partially severed. 

* Compare AohsbarC, a town of Upper Galilee.— Josephns, Vita, xxxviL Also the 
Rock of the Achabara (axo^apMr ir^poi^) in Upper Galilee.— Josephns, Wars, IT. zx. 6 
(Josephos, ed. Coloniae, 1691, p. 838). Also Gabara. — ibid. p. 1014. AchabarSn would 


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of two names which some have hitherto persisted in reading 
* Jacobel ' and * Josephel ' when there are no such words to be 
found in the Bible, which does have laaqab and Joseph in 
Exodus, i. 5. Of these names the first corresponds to the 
Aaaqbaron at Khebron; the second, to the district Saphir 
mentioned in Micah, i. 11. Thothmes III., at Maketa, would 
have been in just the position where he might expect to have 
the people of Saphir, Khebron (Hebron), Mareshah, Libnah 
and Lachish all on his hands. The plain of Mamare is in 
the district of Hebron. — Gen. xiii. 18 ; and this was the home 
of the Hebrew patriarchs. — Gen. xxiii. 2. As Euhemerus held 
that the Gods had been men, the Hebrew patriarchs should be 
strictly watched lest a deity creep out of sight in the disguise 
of a patriarch. 

We find the Khabari in Numbers, xxvi. 45, the Khebroni * 
in Numbers, xxvi. 58, and the Hebrew Ghebers in Deuteron- 
omy, V. ,22 23, 26. We are not forced to go very far to find 
the Phoenician fire-altars, for Abrahm^took fire in hand 'and 
came near sacrificing his son Ischak.^ The Arabians were as- 
trologer-astronomers,^ and we know that they were Sun -wor- 
shippers.* But for the geographical relations of Arabia and 
Philistia to Egypt and Phoenicia we may, besides Genesis, 
refer to Jeremiah, ix. 26 ; xxv. 20-24 ; xlvii. 4, 5. The prophet 
first mentions Egypt (Mazrim), leudah (probably Audah, the 
land of Ad formerly), then Adum (Idumea). Later, he enu- 

rdapse into ChebrOn, Hebron. Kabar in Ezekiel, i. 1, is Khobar in the Septnagint. 
Cabira was, in Strabo, a residence of the kings of Pontua.— MoveiB, I. 640 ; Blaa, in 
Zeitachr. D.M.6. ix. S8. Hagabarim, = the Mighty.—Gen. vi. 4. Chebron ( « Che- 
barSn). — See (Jen. xxiii 2. 

1 The Kaati lived at Khebron.—! Ghron. Septnagint, vi. 1, 2, 88, 54, 55, 56. The 
land of Khaleb (Caleb) adjoined the Khebron (Hebron) location. The Khettl— Nehe- 
miah, ix. 8. Septnagint Kibir ia Fire-god. — Sayoe, 181. 

< This is the way the name 'A^pofi was written in the Semite letters DiDSKf prob- 
ably to suggest or subindioate the name Brahma. Little marks (vowel points) came 
into nse at a late period (post Christum), by which, when desired, a name conld be 
made to read somewhat differently, and variations from the original text introduced. 

» Gen. xxii. 6. 

*Gen. xxii. 10; Esekiel, xx. 3L viii 2; Deuteron. iv. 12, 1.5. 2 Kings, xvi. 8. 
There was a fire-city. Sad<?m, named from Sada *a flaming fire.*— Gen. xiii 10; xiv. 
12 ; xix. 24, 29. Abrahm's name is mentioned in connection with this fire-city. Sadef 
in Hebrew means to bum, to pazoh, to dry up. The word Sad^m means, therefore, the 
city of fire. — Gen. xix. 24. 

• Jeremiah, xix. 18 ; 2 Kings, xxiii 4, 8, 11, 12. See Movers, PhOnizier, L 66, 66 ; 
Orelli, Sanchon., p. 8. 

•2King8, xxiii. 5, 11,19; Eaekiel, xx. 28,29. 


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merates all the Arab (Oreb,=Midian), and 'all the kings of 
the land of Anz, Askalon, Gaza, Akaron (the Kara, Ekron), 
Asdod, Aduma, Moab, Ammoniadis, the Phoenicians, Arabians 
and all the sheiks of Harb that dwell in the Desert.* As we 
find Oreb and Sab, two Sari (Lords) of Maden (Midian), 
mentioned in Judges, vii. 25, we may presume that the Mid- 
ianites and Sabians could become members of a confeder- 
ation formed in Syria, Arabia, or the Negeb, for "going down 
into Egypt." The Midianites joined the land of Aud, just as 
they did the land of Mob or Moab ; and the name Arab,^ or 
Aureh, would be a name likely to be given to the peoples east 
of the northern part of the Ked Sea. . This numbering of the 
tribes and their leaders, east of the land of the Pharaohs, has a 
tendency to exhibit, as on a map, Egypt's relations on its east- 
em border ; and the reader will i;iot be led far astray in taking 
it as a hypothetical sketch of the geography of the Hyksos, 
the far-famed invaders of Egypt.^ It should not be difficult to 
detect the nationality of the Hyksos, for Manetho and Herod- 
otus mention Phoenician and Philistian Shepherds, and after 
the taking of Avaris the Egyptian king marches on Simeon^ 
against Sharuhen.^ 

S«maiin and Loi, brothers ; instramenU of violence their swords. — Gen. 
xlix. 5. 

The orientals have been shrewd politicians if poor histori- 
ans, and the Book of Genesis keeps political relations * always 
in sight from the vale of Hebron and the Beni Kheth (Heth) 
to the Mesopotamian Plain or the Beni Kadm in the east, to 
the Bhaubeni (Reuben) and the Agubeni to the south, or the 
Saracens from the Hauran to Beer Sabat and the Delta of 

1 bemedbar. 

^land of Aar (the Eaat, Arar, Anrora); like Tnnep (land of Aton, Atonis, 
Adonifl). So, Sadaph has Sad '^ fire *^ for its root, the Persian- Arabic Sada '* a flaming 
fire.**— Johnson, Persian- Arabic Diet. p. 690. Sad-ad (Shedad the Adite) seems to come 
from this same root. Ad may be compared, in name, with Ata and the Arab God ta. 

*Some Egyptian deities have come from the PhcBnioiana. — Movers, I. 42. Especi- 
ally sQch as have Semite names. 

*Gren. xlix. 5. 

* Wiedemann, Agypi Cksch., 807 ; Joshna, zix. 6. The name resembles Saraohen, 

• Oompare Gen. xxvi 1, 17, 20, 22. Rehoboth was in the Nahren district, close by 
the Geraritica.— (}en. xxvL 22. The whole region from Tyre down was Sethite, fire- 



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Egypt. Eebecca, who represents the eastern parts towards 
Mesopotamia, is adroitly described as in no way satisfied that 
her son should take a wife from among the daughters of the 
Khatti at Khebron (Hethite), and relations are maintained 
with her connections further east.^ Ezekiel, xxx. 5, in the Syriac 
and Hebrew copies, is evidently fully posted on the mixed 
tribes of Northern Arabia' and is confirmed in Genesis, 10th, 
22nd, 25th, and 36th chapters. Sarach covers the whole Sara- 
cen country, assisted by Hagar and the Hagarenes,^ while 
Jeremiah xxx. 18, speaks of Jacob's tents. 

How good are thj tents, O laqob ! 

Thine abodes, Israel I— Numbere, xxiv. 5. 

laqob is here credited with tents, the mode of dwelling in 
the Desert ; but Israel with habitations. Genesis, xlix. 27, re- 
ports Beni Amen (Benjamin) as Arabs given to robbery and 
dividing the spoil. The frequent migrations or changes of 
locality by the tented Arabs would mix them up so as to leave 
their place of abode at a given moment somewhat uncertain. 

In 2 Kings, xxii. 12, 14, the earliest Hebrew text, without 
* points,* gave the name Achabor. Josephus, Wars, II. xx. 6, 
mentions the *Achabara' or Achabari. Khebron (Chebron, 
Hebron) could have been Chabara; and Azin Gabar (which 
was at Ailut on the Gulf of Akabah) may have been Gabara 
(compare Numbers, xxxiii. 35 ; 1 Kings, ix. 26). Between 
these two places, in almost a straight line, lay Mount Saphar 
(Numbers, xxxiii. 23, 24) west of Petra.* Mount Saphar is sup- 
posed to be identical with Mt. Mukra. Bal Khanan ben 
Achabor ruled as Arab sheik not far from Bechaboth of the 
Besor.^ Then we have, on Jenks' Map, Bethagabris or Bato- 
gabra, not far fi'om the River Escol and Remmon (Reman) a 
place that may have supplied the Egyptians with the name 

» Gen. xxvii. 46 ; xxviiL 1-5, 10. 

> The Egyptian Amu ; the Hebrew Amim : from am, peopla 

* Ckn. xxi 20 says plainly that the Beni Hagar were lahmaelite archers. With what 
unanimity the Christian writers speak of the worship of Venus in Arabia. — Osiander, 
in D. M. G. va 49a 

* See Hall, Mt. Seir, p. 97. See the name HaaabaarinL — Joshua, vii. 5. Compare 

* Genesis, xxxvi. d7-89. Garar, Charmah, Kharadah, Earioth, Karkaa, Earek, 
and Ehareb (Horeb), Achor seem to have proscribed the name Eharu for this lower 
country, extending from the Crerar to Mount Hor. 


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'Bemanen.' Aachabaara is then related to Achabor, which 
can as well in Hebrew Euhemerism have been a place or tribe, 
as a man's name.^ 

The Arabs had a most ancient idol Hhebar ^ (read Chebar). 
Take the Hebrew word Kabir and think how many centuries it 
has been in existence — from before Akaron and Aakabaron (Khe- 
bron, Hebron) were — and we shall have to identify laqab with 
the Ehati, the Aakabara, of Eabaron (Kebron, ELhebron), and 
Asaf (Sey, loseph) with the Aasaphara of the City Saphir andnot 
of Mt. Saphar ; for Asaf was a Syrian Gk>d, in the form of man 
and placed on Mt. Safa.^ It must, however, be admitted that 
Tank was adored in Arabia in the form of a Jhorae (the Solar 
Mithra symbol), and that he must have been euhemerised is 
evident from Univ. Hist. vol. 18. p. 884.* If now we add to 
the name of Yauk the Hebrew word Ab (meaning father) we 
shall have Yaukab, father laqab; for lach means '*life" in 
Hebrew ; and as lach was pronoimced Yauk, and the Arabs 
adored Dionysus Urotal, Yaukab (lachoh, lachab) stands a 
chance of being confounded with Dionysus-Iachos. " More 
than two centuries before the date assigned by Egyptologists 
to the Exodus the great Egyptian conqueror Thothmes m. 
inscribed upon the walls of the temple of Kamak the names 
of the cities captured by him in Palestine. Among them are 
Yaqab-el, " Jacob the God,*' and Iseph-el, " Joseph the God." * 
Unfortunately for Mr. Sayce's theory, Thothmes did engrave 
the words Aaaqbaar and Aasaphaar, as one can learn from the 
hieroglyphs given in Mr. GroflTs article in Revue 6gyptolo- 
gique, quatrieme annee, p. 97, where he prints the hieroglyphs 
very distinctly. The Aaakbaar are the Mighty (akbar = great), 
the Aasaphara are the denizens of Saphir ; that is all. Prof. 
W. Robertson Smith had no faith in the reading laqabel and 
lasaphel (Isephel), for he observes that if the Hebrews were 
in arms against Egypt 200 years before the Exodus the whole 

1 Cabar laqab ought to be aa good a fonnation as *' Cabar Zio" in the Codex 
Nasaraeus, HL 61. The * Sons of Gaber * (a dlstriot) are meDtioned in 2nd Esdras, ii. 
30, 2^-25. We find Khabar in 1 Chron. viii 17. Aa in Egyptian meant * mighty,' like 
Oabar in Semitic. Compare the Egyptian names, Aa-kheper-ka, Aakhepra-ra, Set-aa- 
peh-ti, Ra-aakheper-ka-seneba, Aakheper-kara, Aakheper-en-xa. 

« Univ. HiBt. xviii p. 886l 

* ibid. p. 387. Isaiah, zxxvL 23, has the name ben Asal 

* Qnotes Poo. in not. ad spec. hist. Arab. pp. 94, 101, 338, 389, 890. 

* Sayoe, Hibbert Lectures, p. 51 . Acbala, a village in Galilee, near Safed, pos- 
sibly retains the name Aqabel, Gebal, or Keb. 

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story in Exodus i. rests on extremely defective information and 
has little historical value ; and further, that according to this 
identification (of these two names) there were tribes of Jacob 
and Joseph settled in Palestine 200 years before the Exodus. 
If these are the Biblical Jacob and Joseph it will be hardly 
possible to resist the conclusion of E. Meyer (in Stade's Zeit- 
schrift f iir 1866), that the sons of Jacob never were in Egypt, 
and that the name of Jacob originally belonged to a Palestinian 
tribe, one of many out of which the later nation of Israel was 
formed.^ Ezekiel, i. 1, gives us the word Eabar, and obviously 
in the meaning " great." 

Israel dwelt in Satim^ ^ among the Sadim (Sodom) on the 
borders of Moab by the Midianites. Set was the fire-god in 
Kanaan,^ and like Asar, was a Phoenician - Egyptian deity. 
The Hebrews made use of Seth ^ as a great ancestor. The 
Asar became Asara, or Ashera, in the feminine productive 
power. Osiris in the male form : so that the two forms are to 
be found among the Adon-worshippers, the Ghebers of Canaan. 
But the word Adan could be in the Phoenician letters easily 
read as Eden and Adin ; and Adonis-gardens were in existence 
throughout the East ; so that it was an easy transition always 
from such a conception to the idea of an original paradise or 
Garden of the East. The location of this primal source is indi- 
cated as in the easty and was not very closely limited except 
that it was sometimes stated to be in the sides of the north.^ 
The word Adana is the name of a place well to the north in 
Asia Minor, and four rivers, the Phasis, Arasses, Euphrates and 
Tigris in Armenia, were thought to have their headwaters near 
together. But coming down to the south we have the Adonis 
worship in the Lebanon (as too at Byblos) and the tribe of 
Dan in the Lebanon. Then we have Tonach, TunepA, and Dan 
again, further south; and Adana still lower down, nearly 
to the lower part of the Dead Sea. TonacA is Aton or Adon 
with a termination of locality, while Tuneph is the Egyptian 

> W. R. Smith, in Contemporary Rev. October, 1887, p. 508. 

*Septaagint, Sattein ; Hebrew Satim : the Sati or Sethitea. — See Numbers, 

XXT. 1. 

* Joshna, viL 20, Akan, a man's name. 

* Sat (Set) was a Power of the Snn. — Nambers, zxvi 4. Sed means (Shedim) demon. 
Th and t are merely different ways of prononnoing one Semitic letter. So s and sh 

denote what was, at first, one sibilant. 

* Isaiah, xiv. 18 ; Ezdkiel, zzviii 18. 


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name for a district, or place, to the north of Kadesh, which, 
apparently, is mentioned in the Hebrew Joshua, xv. 49, as 
DANah. Tunt^ and Tun^A are good formations from the name 
Don (Adunai) ; and the Egyptian d is and has usually been 
written by t.^ So too was the name Sad or Sed. It was 
as it looks to be, the name of the Canaanite Firegod of the 
Phoenician Sea, and the worshippers of Sad, Sed, Set, or Seth 
seem to have been known in Egypt at an early period as the 
Setou or Sheto.^ Here, then, we have the early status of the 
Palestine Ghebers at Ghebron and elsewhere as Sethites or the 
Children of Seth in the lands of the Dionysus-Adonis wor- 
shippers, extending themselves from Byblus down to Mem- 
phis in Egypt. Here we have the Adanites all the way down 
to the waters of Eg3rpt with their Adanite names dotting the 
land of the Hebrews. "When the Lebanon Venus Ourania (the 
Image of jealousy ^) was represented lying downcast, leaning 
on her hand, and her mantle drawn up partly over her head in 
the portico of the Hebrew Temple at Jerusalem,^ we should 
expect the Adonis worship with the Venus.— Ezekiel, viii. 14. 
But the later Levitical Law forbade Groves near lahoh's tem- 
ple ^ and the Jews made a law against the Arab worship of 
planets and stars.^ ^The assistants of H who is Kronos 
(Saturn, Sol) were called Eloeim ; ' Mase was a Loi,^ therefore 
Mase was an assistant to Satum-£[ronos, who is El. 

In Hebrew, lachi means " he lives." — Deuteronomy, iv. 33. 
In Greek, lacche means God of life. — So Achiah and lach 
(the Arab God lauk the Solar Fire). — Exodus, iii. 14. Achah 
means * to bum.' Ach = a heater, a fire pot. The ideas, fire 
and life, interchanged in Arabia. — Job, xviii. 5. Take then the 
Arab God, lauk. The root is Ach, which, here, is written Uk. 
Whence did Josephus-Manetho obtain the word Hukousos 

1 Compare the name Atoms (for Adonis) in Etruscan. Aden in Semitic means 
the Lord, the Son-god. 

< Kenrick, Egypt, H 284, 248 ; F. Ohabas, Papyr. Magiqoe Harris, pp. 48. 50, 234. 
The name of Seti L is to be compared ?rith the Sati, the Setites, and with Set the deity 
of a Philistine race. 

* lakubel and Kobele may be considered akin to Adon and Venos or Isis in Phce- 
nicia, the Mighty Mother. 

«Exekid, Yiii 3, 5, 14; Gkzette Archeologiqoe, 1875, plate 2a The Lebanon 

» Dent, xvi 21. 

• Deot. xvii 3, 5. Zeitschrift D. M. G. Ill 2Ca 
> Exodne, ii 1. 

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(Ukousos) except from Kush? — Gen. x. 6, 7. Judges, i. 31 
gives us Ako and Akaz-ib. By analogy, A preceded in all 
these names, Ach, lach, lauk, etc. Hence we assume a word 
Achaz or Akush, or Akos = Koze. The words Akhu (light), 
Kho (a native of Akko), Khuh (to live) and Kuh (to live) seem 
related to the root ach or ku fire and life (of the Sun, Diony- 
sus-Iacchos). We know not whether the real name was Hukou- 
S08, or whether the real name was thus disguised or hidden by 
Josephus or Manetho. If, owing to communication by sea, we 
might expect to ^nd Phoenicians in the Delta of Egypt at an 
early period the Karu of the shores near Akaron (Ekron) or 
the Sosim of Arabia could arrive at the Nile quite as soon. 
Zeus Kasius would seem to have been Jupiter Pluvius. At 
any rate, the letters Kas agree with Koz in the soimd of the 
name of the Cushite deity Koze. Kush and Kanaan were sons 
of Cham (Keme, Egypt). — Gen. x. The Hukous may have been 
Arabs, Karu, or Ganaanites. 

We find as a Gheber the name Achaz (2 Chr. xxviii. 25) in 
the Myrothecium, II. p. 682 of Scacci ; also in 2 Kings, xvi. 2, 
3, 19. AchasajoA a district (Josh. xi. 1), Achasib (xix. 29), 
names containing the root of the word Ach or lacchos (God of 
Life, lachi), Achas (Achaz), king in Jerusalem B.C. 743-727 ex- 
hibit, like the Hebrew town lachaz and the name lachoh (or 
lahoh), the name of the Lifegod lacchos at an early period in 
Arabia, Auda, Canaan. At what period was the change of 
name from lacchoh to lahoh ? When the Pentateuch was 
written, that is, probably as late as the Book of Daniel in the 
2nd century B.c. There was no motive to make such an eflFort 
until after Audah or laudah regained its independence of Sy- 
ria. The Bible was the New Constitution of the priesthood 
that was to rule the nation in the time of the Maccabees. 
The Bible describes the previous status ijnder the dualist faith 
during the reigns of the Kings. It was lacchos and Asherah, 
Adamatos and Aisah, Adonis-Iaqab and Isis, Brahma and Sar- 
achena, Abrahm and Sarach. Cosiba, like Achasib contains 
the names of life and fire Ach and lach. One of the ways of 
altering the names was to soften the ch to h ; as in lahaz. 
Koze, the Arab raingod, resembles lachos or lachoz, and Ku- 
zah the Arab Cloudgod. Dionysus is the raingod nursed by 
the rain nymphs, the Apsaras or Hyades. — Preller, I. 415. On 
the Seventh day of the Succoth, according to the Eabbins, God 


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determines how much it must rain in that year. — Hospinianns, 
Fest. Jud. L 63. 

In the rains of Utter aatomn seeing Arktanis I will proclaim Glad Tidinga,* 
For then thirsty earth is married to Zeos's rain. — Nonnos, zUL 291, 292. 

Apion, Chaeremon and others reproached the Jews with 
false statements in their account of their history, and certainly 
with truth, according to the then known works of a Hekataeus, 
Hermippus, Malchus, Eupolemus, Artapanus, Josephus, which 
in. part were full of absurd fabrications and boastings. Owing 
to the high opinion that the Jews had propagated of their 
wisdom, of the high antiquity and preeminence of their peo- 
ple, of their sacred books &c. in such writings, Philo Her- 
renius was now induced to confirm the section on the Jewish 
history in Sanchoniathon with a writer who was an authority, 
who owing to his antiquity and credit could make good a 
claim to credibility equal to that of the sacred scriptures of 
the Jews. The passage so important for the illusory charac- 
ter of his Sanchoniathon is in Porphyry as follows : * Sanchou- 
niathon of Beirut relates Jewish affairs most truly and what 
agrees most with the places and their names, haying received 
the memoranda from Hierombal the priest of Ood the leuo 
(Hebrew leuah) who having dedicated the history to Abibal 
the king of the Beirutians was received by him and those that 
according to him were examiners of the truth. And the times 
of these fell even prior to the Trojan times and come near 
those of Moses as the successors of the Phoenician kings de- 
clare. And Sanchouniathon collecting and composing truth- 
fully in the Phoenician language the entire ancient history 
from the memoranda in the city and the records in the tem- 
ples was bom in the time of Semiramis the Assyrian Queen, 
who is recorded to have lived before the Trojan events or in 
those very times.' We see as well from this passage, which is 
taken from a scripture of Porphyry against the Christian relig- 
ion, as from the preceding words of Eusebius which contain a 
censure upon Porphyry, that Sanchouniathon is put up by 
Porphyry at the expense of the Biblical accounts and his trust- 
worthiness extolled in contrast with that of the Old Testa- 
ment. Sanchoniathon, according to Porphyry has given a 

> We find Dionysus SOtBr, Saviour. —Gerhard, pp. 481, 490. 


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very true account of the Jewish history, for first in him there 
is the greatest conformity with the names and places, with 
those, namely, which also occur in the Old Testament ; second, 
Sanchoniathon has his accounts concerning the Jewish people 
from a Jewish priest of Jehova, the Hierombal, who had dedi- 
cated his history of the Jews to king Abibal of Beirut, which 
has been examined and found trustworthy by him. The period 
both of Abibal and Hierombal is little later than the time when 
the writings of Moses were made and is still prior to the Trojan 
War. As to the Sanchoniathon, he has used the best sources 
and is a primitively ancient witness in the time of Semiramis 
whether she lived before or after the Trojan War. Movers 
holds that Philo Herennius made up this story in order to 
have for his disfigurements of the Jewish history a just as an- 
cient and credible sponsor. Porphyry indicates in the quoted 
passage plainly and positively enough a polemic of Sanchoni- 
athon against the Old Testament history ; for when he, the 
opponent of Jews and Christians, praises Sanchoniathon he 
means that not in things also does Sanchoniathon agree with 
the accounts given in the Old Testament. Why this urgent 
recommendation of Sanchoniathon ? Movers sees in the refer- 
ence to Hierombal a suggestion that Porphyry, in a lost script- 
ure, has sought to cast suspicion upon the Pentateuch, and 
that this writing contained legends of the Phoenicians con- 
cerning the origin of the Hebrews, as follows : Kronos, there- 
fore, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, king of the country, and 
afterwards after the end of his life sanctified into the star of 
Kronos, etc. In this myth what is Phoenician and what is Is- 
raelite are mixed up together, and the intent is to exhibit the 
descent of the Hebrews in the usual way from Saturn, who was 
regarded by the ancients as the Israelite Abrahm, through ety- 
mological and historical combinations as they are current 
among the people. The oldest traditions of the Hebrews were 
also preserved among the Phoenicians and the other peoples 
of the same race.^ Abrahm and Israel were known to be names 
of Saturn which Euhemerism declared to be names of men, 
on the ground that the Gods were deceased men. 

When once the doctrine of Euhemerus ^ was admitted (that 

' Movcra, L 128-180. 

* Menen aod Athothis are Euhemerised deities (MCn and Thoth the Moongod) in the 
Ist dynasty of Kings in Egypt — Oompare Sanchoniathon's Thoth and Palmer, Egyp- 


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* the Qoda * had formerly been men, living on the earth until 
their decease) it disposed effectually of the various Sungods 
and other prominent Deities, names, and impersonations, so 
as logically (but not in fact) to clear a space for Monotheism by 
removing the other Gbds. If from some twenty of these you 
subtract twenty by regarding them as deceased inen you remove 
what stands in the way of the Monotheist idea. Or if one goes 
further and assumes that each Arab tribe had an Ancestor * 
whose name was the name of the tribe, derived from its prim- 
itive founder, we have such an argument as Gtenesis (chapters 
ixv. and xxxvi.) presents in relation to Nabioth, Admah, Adu- 
ma, Ismael (Shemael, Samael), Laban (Sin), Hanoch (Enoch), 
Eeturah (Kuthereia), Hagar, Midian, Massa, Kedar, Teman, 
Itur (letur), Kadmah, etc. The Gods had once been men, and 
the tribes bore names of deceased chieftains. Hence a de- 
scription of these patriarchs could not well be gainsaid, for 
the opponent of scripture would be put to the work ol proving* 
a negative in every instance. As the doctrine of Euhemerus 
was late, it marks a period ; and the scriptures of the Baby- 
lonians, Persians, Eg3rptians and Hebrews have apparently 
come down to us in the latest shape that they assumed.' There 
was only one way of replying to Euhemerism ; that was to 
render it ridiculous in the way that Philo Herennius of Byblus 
adopted. In the Bible, El is a name of the Hebrew Gk)d. 

Movers held that the Highest God of all the Semites, El, was 
originally the same as the one worshipped by the Israelites.^ 
The Levite Narrator no longer wished to know that his fore- 
fathers knew no difference between the form of offering and 
the rituals to Bal and Jehovah.—Nork, Bibl. Mythol. ii, 249.^ 

Satum-Kronos among the Phoenicians and Syrians was 
Highest God and Highest Planet. But he was also regarded 

tian Chron. L 321. Seb, the Eg3rptiaa Batum, appears in the name of the Hebrew city 
SeboA. — Gen, xxvi 33. If we trace Osuris to Syria, why not Seb also? 

> The city Salem had king Salamah, the son of Dand (Tant, God of Wisdom). 
Asah (Gen. ii 23) strongly resembles the Egyptian name Asd, the Edom name Asaa, 
and Sana. — Gen. xiv. 17. Adam is very like the name of the city Adamft.— Gen. ziv. 
3; Joshoa, xix. 80. With Atamu, Tamna, Thamus, Thammuz, compare the Arab 
tribal name Thamnd, Thamndeni 

3 Compare Leviticus, xxvi 88, Deuteronomy, xxriii. 25, 87, 52, 57. Euhemerism 
dates (if we have not forgotten) about b.c. 800. 

s Hovers, I 814, 816. He translates Asar-el 'the fire of Saturn.*— ibid. 840. He 
alio mentions the Herakles-Satum.^Movers, 267. 

* Morers, L 254, 255, 256, 812 ffi 

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as Time itself, the eternal Chronos that was before all things.^ 
So the Ancient of days. — Daniel, vii. 13. The Chthonian 
Hermes has all the appearance of Saturn's Power. Macrobius, 
I. xix. 7, says that Hermes is the Sun. Hobal is the written 
name of Saturn ; yet ha-bal (or hobal) is the name (1 Kings, 
xviii. 22) of Bel (with whom Abel, Apell6n, and Apollo may be 
compared). How then is it that Habal can be Bal, Bel, or 
Apollo, but that Hobal is Saturn ? The reason is that " Bel 
dicitur quadam sacrorum ratione et Satumus et Sol.*' — Ser- 
Tius, ad Aeneid, I. 642. Bel is called, by a certain doctrine of 
the rites (or the priests) both Saturn and Sol. He dies or 
sleeps in winter, in spring he renews his vigor, like Horus, 
Apollo, Habol. " Helios (the Sun) whom they call by the ap- 
pellation Dionysus " ^ is the Winter Sun, Dionysus, Saturn. 
Even Set, in Egypt, seems to have got into the Underworld. 
With Apollo's temple compare Beth Shems, the Sun-temple. — 
1 Samuel, vi. 12. And the Highplace where Samuel officiated. 
— 1 Sam. ix. 12, 14, 19, 27. CJompare the priest's name Shemiah 
or Shemaiah. — 1 Kings, xii. 22 ; 2 Chronicles, xi. 2. The Chal- 
dean Bel was Saturn (Dionysus) in winter, Apollo in spring.* 
Dionysus and Apollo are one and the same.* — Macrobius, I. 
xviii. 1. The Powers manifested in the sun varied with the 
season. The lion is sacred to the sun,' the sun is the emblem 
of the Logos,* and the Logos was called Hermes.' The lion 
was worshipped as Gk>d. — Ezekiel, xli. 18, 19 ; Exodus, xxvii. 31.® 
That the Oldest Bel was a Sun-god, and exclusively the Solar 
God of the Semites seems absolutely probable ; and this con- 
clusion is strengthened by recent remarks by George Bertin, 
as follows : " Like other Assyriologists, I took up the sub- 

> Movers, 256, 261-268 fT. On the Babylonian cylinders he carries the ring of 
eternity. — Movers, 264. The Sidonians placed Time (Chronos) first before ali — Mo- 
vers, 278. He is the ever like to himself — Movers, 96. Time without beginning.— 
Movers, 281. 

3 Maorobinst L xviii. 18. 

' Herodotns mentions Apollo's supposed anger at the interment of a corpse within 
his sacred isle. Serach, Asiris or Israel (El, Hael, Aelios, Helioe) rises out of Dark- 

< Satom^s day (dies Satami, Satnmo die) was Saturday, the Sabbath of the Jews. 
Hence they worshipped Saturn, on Saturday ; or their forefathers did. We regard Set 
as Saturn. 

• Nork, Real-W5rterb. HI. 178. 
•Philo, Dreams, 15. 16. 

f de Iside. 54. Hippolytns, L lia 

• Porphyry, de Abet. iv. p. 54. ed. 1548. Florentiae. 

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ject with a firm belief in the ancient and world-famed astro- 
nomical knowledge of the Ghaldaeans. But, after examining 
a great many texts of all periods, I have been compelled to 
arriTB at the conclusion that the Babylonians never had any 
idea of the celestial movements, but merely registered the phe- 
nomena in the sky together with the events occurring at the 
same time on the earth, in the belief that the same phenomena 
would be always accompanied by the same events." — G. Ber- 
tin, in ' Academy,* March 26, 1887, p. 223. Movers mentions 
Saturn-Moloch, and tells how in Egypt Saturn became Typhon.^ 
" Saturn's Unlucky Star." 

Ab is the month nearly corresponding to July, Tammuz 
(Adonis) is the preceding month ; when Adonis dies. Abime- 
lech is King of Ab (Leo is the Zodiacal sign) who carries 
Proserpina (the Moon-goddess) oflf at about this time, just as 
Proserpina carried away to Aidoneus (Hades) the Sun-god 
Adonis-Tamus in June. Sahra is the Moon ; and St. Jerome 
tells us to read an n an a : we thus get Sarah Luna. After the 
summer solstice the Yecur-god comes from the Northern to the 
Southern hemisphere to the land of ^repetition (Garar) and 
ravishment or carrjdng off (Gurar)' iu the annual revolution of 
the heavens, — the dark region of Pluto. Moreover Ariel, Arab, 
Oreb, Urpha have fire (ar, ur-o) as the foundation of these 
names, and Abrahm is represented as a Gheber. Ishmael with 
his herds resembles Shemal (Apollo, with cattle) the Sabian 
Sungod. It was usual with the Old Arabians to regard Saturn 
and Abram as their progenitor, and while looking upon Saturn 
as their father they claimed Sarach (Asarah, Asherah Venus) as 
their Mighty Mother, for the Moon is the Mother of the 
kosmos, and the poet wrote that " all things are bom of Saturn 
and Venus." Ab meant father, Ab-ram (see Abi-ram in Deu- 
teron. xi. 6) meant father on high, ram (high), Bara^ meant 
Creator, and Abrahm, the Creator of the people (am = people), 
Brahma. The Moon was the place of Osiris and Isis (some- 
what as the Babylonian Sin). Abrahm was, then, the father of 
the Arabs and Hebrews. The Hebrews came from Hebron, 
commonly known as Araba, or Eiriath Araba, the "Arabian 
city." It was a holy place, because Abrahm and Ashera 

1 Hovers, I. 306, 309. Typhon i« Set, and becomes, like Satarn, the tenant of 
gloom beneath the earth.— Uiad, ziy. 203. 

3 Bar the shming ; Abar, the Son. See Bara Gen. xiy. 2. Abaris. 


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(Venus, Sarach) the Mother of the Saracens were buried there. 
In the Scribal period of the Jews, say, about the second cen- 
tury before our era or later, it suited the views of the Scribes 
of the Jewish temple to bring the national literature to book,^ 
and they started with a large reference to their forefathers, 
Abrahm as the parent of the Ishmaelites, laqab as one of the 
pastoral ancestors, and the Bhaabeni (Eauben) as another. 
The Agubeni and Bhaabeni were Arab tribes living in North 
Ai*abia, while Gabah was a city to the north-west, nearer to the 
Jews, being west of Mt. Hor. Gaba or Geba appears as a city's 
name in the tribe of the Beni Amen (Beniamin. lamin. — ^Num- 
bers, XXV. 12), the High place Gbbaon (Gibeon), and very fre- 
quently in Palestine, so that when laqab went prospecting in 
Palestine and Arabia he dropped his name around tolerably 
often. Thus Ezekiel gives us " Kub," in remembrance of the 
Agub-eni, in Arabia. leudah (Judah) is Audah, an Arab tribe 
and district, Mt. Khor (Hor) is nearly east of the land of the 
Kharu, the Nabatheans around Petra are Nabioth, the Bhaa- 
beni Beuben, Gad the Gtadarenes, Asar the people of the 
Tyrian district (Sarra, Aser,=Tyre), Dan (Aden) Eden in the 
Lebanon, named from the Lebanon Adon, Ephraim the district 
Apherema in Samaria, Manasah the tribe of Mt. Carmel an 
elevated tract (nasa = elevated, M-nasa the same), Esau the 
town Saue (compare Aso, Asu, the Devil, Evil Spirit), Lotan the 
tribe of Lot, Hagar the Hagarene tribe, and Ishmael the Shem- 
al worshippers ; all Arabs adoring Shemal (Shem ^ the Sun). 

There was an ancient tradition that the Shepherds of Kush 
had gone down into Egypt ; but the Arabs, being the Children 
of Abrahm, descended into Egypt, so that, by not too lively a 
figure of speech, Abrahm himself may be said to have gone to 
Egypt. But Abrahm's descendants lived, some of them, at or 
near Hebron, and some tarried in Garar (Kharar = to bum up ; 
Khares = Sol. G^rar, the land of the Kharu-Peleti, or Philis- 
tians), therefore they went to Egypt, as one might suppose of 
the Karu^ fire worshippers. 

Assuming then that Philo*s Sanchoniathon is a piece of 
irony, a satire upon the prevailing Euhemerism, as it evidently 
is, there is nothing to prevent the introduction into such a 

1 Biblion, Bible. 

> Samael is the Death angel — Eisenmenger, L 855. 

* See Korah and Korach. — Numbers, xxvi D, 10. 


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pamphlet of matter drawn from Phoenician Mythology and 
current hearsay. Thus Isiris is qualified Inventor of the three 
letters/ and Israel proclaimed as Saturn, El being the name of 
Bel Satum, Asar or Isar being connected immediately with 
Asar (Osiris) and Azar (Mars), the God of Spring, fire, and 
war. The name Israel was doubtless ecurly connected with the 
story of Esau (Asu, Spirit), who among the Phoenicians was 
Mars-Uso,^ as Set was the Deyil in Eg3rpt, the Adversary. 
That this entire combination, elaborated, is brought about 
with the introduction of pectdiar Hebrew and even genuine 
Phoenician views we would as little deny as that it certainly 
could not first be undertaken if the Jews were already a people 
so hated by their neighbors ; in that case certainly no one would 
have done them the honor of bringing their ancestors into so 
close connection with the sacred legend.' As Porphjny boasts, 
the names Israel, lend, Anobret agree in both ; and the Isra- 
elite and Phoenician legends of Abrahm and Eronos in refer- 
ence to the sacrifice of the * Only begotten,' or in the traditions 
of Asn (Esau) and Israel or XTso and Israel, touch one another 
nearly.* The unrevealed first cause (das unoffenbarte XJrwesen) 
or the Old Bel reproduces himself in the Second, who is like 
Him, according to the passages quoted, both in name and idea. 
Bel the Younger was regarded as the Creator,' the Primitive 
Being who in the primitive time gave his Law and was the 
first King among the Semites, as a Manifestation of the Older, 
and consequently his Son.* The Son of Kronos was named 
Kronos."^ The Karthaginian Baal-Herakles is called Son of 
Saturn.^ The idea of the Babylonian Father and Son is by no 
means as late as many might suppose.^ The Lion of Mithra 

1 loM. See MoTen, L 589, 547, 560. Oielli, Sanohon., 40. 

' Oompare the Egyptian Am, a female conspirator with Typ^on against Osiris, 
and the reveiBe of the Hebrew Asa (Oen. it 23), the Egyptian Isis. 
« Meyers, L 181, 182. 

• ibid. 132. 

• Colossians, L 15, 16. 

• Meyers, 367. Hesiod^s Kronoe comes forward in a way that plainly marks him 
as the Oriental Satnm. — ^Meyers, 373. 

"* Orelli, Sanohoniathon, p. 82. 

• Meyers, L 267. 

• ibid. 267. Kronos (Satnm) was called El by the Phoenicians and Syrians. — 
OreUi, Sanchon. Fragmenta, p. 26. El is the Hebrew name for God ; at least, El in 
so translated. — Seryins, ad Aeneid, L 642. Meyers, 185. Kronos (Satnm) had his 
Fathex^B name. — Orelli, p. 82. Here again we haye the Father and Son, as in Babylon. 

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is the symbol of Herakles and is the Lion of Jndah (Bev. v. 6), 
just as the Lion is the SuN (Mithra) in leo, and the Lamb is 
the Sun's si^ in Aries. Now in Rev. i. 13, 16, we have Mithra 
as the Christos (the Sun and Son) in the centre of the Seven 

The reader will be led on to the consideration of the Mithra- 
religion in Palestine^ and Egypt, from the mythology of 
Asar, Serach,^ Israel, to the mythology of Isiris, Osiris, Israel, 
to the philosophy of Saturn in the East, the philosophy of 
light and darkness, and to the Dualism of the Asrielites (Isra- 
elites) in Syria. Attention is drawn to the backgroimd of the 
Israelite picture, the altars of Ariel in Moab and of Sada (the 
living flame of Moloch) in Philistia, to the * Wanderers from 
place to place,' the zOz or Zuzim.^ The Ghebers* of Khebron * 
become the Hebers (Hebraioi) of Hebron, the home of lakoub 
and the Khatti (the Beni Heth), Set^ and the Sethites get 
connected with the Egyptian Set by an Abrahamic migration 
of the Sosim into Egypt, while in Osirian rites the Rising 
(serach), the Resurrection, of Asar from the realm of Darkness 
is taught. The lion was Mithra's emblem and he as Kurios was 

^ With the lion-symbol of Herakles, compare the same lymbol of Mithm, of Izda- 
bar, of Judah*« Lion, and the lion of Phoenicia and Egypt. Sachal was **leo "" in He- 
brew, and Sahel, Satnm^a name, in Arabic. The Lion is the Sun^s house. — Porphyry, 
de antro, xxii The priests of Mithra were called leones.— Tertullian, adv. Mark, L 13. 
Asada was the Messenger of Saturn.— Chwolaohn, Altbab. Lit. 136, 156. 

3 Compare Assarao ; and Assarakns in Homer. The Mythology of the Sunrise. — 
Compare the Hebrew word sfthal in Goldzieher, Mythology of the Hebrews, 93. So 
too sAhar, z&har, s&rach, to shine, be clear, become manifest Seraoh in Hebrew 
ra^ans the Rise of the Sun.— Compare Sarg-on^s name. The name of the daughter of 
Asar is Sarach.— Numbers, xxvi. 46. The vale of Soraq, whence the Syrians may have 
started to invade the Delta. — Judges, xvi 4. 

» Goldriher, p. 53. 

<Rev. G. V. Garland, * Genesis,' p. 280, Oxford and Cambridge. 1878, writes 
*^ Ghebron in the earth of Canaan." 

» Ht^p^v.—l Chronicles, xi. 8, 28; ii. 48. Xo^^p.— 1 Chron. v. 2a X<J^«p.— vii 81, 
33. Ben Geber.— 1 Kings, iv. 13. Geber and the land Kheper.— ibid. iv. 10, 19. Kho- 
bar. —Judges, V. 24. Gabriel presides over fire and the ripening of the fruits. — Bisen- 
menger, Entdektes Judenthum, H. 878, 379. Talmud, tr. iSanhedrin, fol. 95. col. 2. 
This is the Sun^s province. The Sun (Saturn) was the Life-god, lach, the Gabar or 
Cabar, Cheper, Sol Creator, lauk-ab, Jacob. And Grabriel is Herakles King of fire. 

* Compare the name Satnah or Set-an-a, Gen. xxvi 21. Gen. xxvi. 6, 18, show 
this place to have been in the Sethite or Philistian country, whence the €^ Set first 
got into Egypt from Syria. Also Set-im (or Satim).— Numbers, xxv. 1. Setim would 
mean Sethite or City of Set. — Asad means lion, the sign Leo and Hermes. The Arab 
tribe Asad worshipped Hermes.— Chwolsohn, IL 404. Asadoth is city of Asad. — 
Joshua, xiii. 20. 


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sarroanded by the seven planets (Sabaoth), the Lord Sabaoth. 
—Justin, Died., p. 76. Hence he was, like Saturn, God of 
Time and eternity, Buler of the planets, and therefore Seth- 
Hermes. Mithra is the Fire of the Intelligrible Sun, and is the 
Chaldean Logos (Word *). The Sabians derived their religion 
from Seth.* Khebron was a city of the fireworshippers * of 
Sada, Seth, and El Sadi/ . 

As in certain amusements persons were expected to guess 
a word or a story from slight indications half concealed in the 
conversation ' the Semitic author of Genesis has left scarcely 
any traces by which to connect his narrative with the Mys- 
teries ; and yet this method has been selected to introduce the 
readers of scripture to the history of the * Chosen People.' 
The number 7 of the years of Jacob's wooing (a fourth of a 
lunation) and the Egyptian Mourning are all that we have 
given us to connect the Lover with Adonis, Osiris, Cybele and 
Luna.^ The Bible is the utterance of a period of law and 
wide-spread civilisation in the East. It is founded on politics 
and religion, and requires but a correct knowledge of the 
ancient language, philosophy, and Semite history to enable 
us to comprehend the purpose for which it was written,' the 
theology it inculcates, the theocracy it supports, the philoso- 
phy on which it depends, — and particularly the form of causa- 
tion ^ that it teaches. 

1 Movers, Phoenizier, L 390, 891. 553 fT. Jolins Firmious, de Err., 5. The lion 
wu the representation of Mithrs. Apollo, and the Anointed. — 4 Esdras, xil 31, 33 ; 
Rer. ▼. 5. 

« John Jervis- White Jervis, * Genesis,' p. 107 ; Hyde, ReL Vet Persantm, cap. v. 
p. 125 ; Chwolsohn,' Ssabier, L 259. 

s 1 Chron. zL 1-3 ; Gen. xxii. 13, 16 ; Levit. iz. 13 ; z. 1 ; ii 16 ; Ezod. ziz. 18. 

« The Ghebers. 

* See the pons in Gen. zziz. 88-35 ; zzz. 6-20. 

• Irach, Iris, and BaoheL Sarah langhed : Izchaq (Isaak) from Zaohaq, lan^^ter. 

"* The writers of the Bible were the Jewish Scribes, nndonbtedljr interested in 
pntting forth such a narrative as wonld benefit their order. They wrote from mythic 
traditions, or have written what reads in parts like a myth. To listen to their account 
is to take their side, to do jnst what they ezpected yon to do for them and their dom- 
ination. Bat it is not, probably, history, bat made to create a special theological bias 
in favor of the priesthood, — ^in short a partial statement. The ^making of many 
books * (Ecclesiastes, zii 12) looks not so very ancient, and the bells attached to the 
anklets of the Danghters of Sion seem appropriate to a late period of Jewish pros- 
perity.— Isaiah, iii 16. 

•Jer. 1. 5; Gen. L 2; ii 7; vi. 3; Esekiel, i 27. *'In fact, the life of the 
Bedawin, hia appearance and habits, are precisely the same as those of the patriarchs 
of old. Abraham himself, the first of the patriarchs, was a Bedawin, and foar thon- 


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When, then, we find the " Mighty " Jacob (of the Aaqa- 
baara, the Israel Aqbar) led to Mesopotamia from Kebaron 
(Chebron, Hebron) and from there to Memphis, also among 
the Agubeni and the Beni Kheibar as well as other Arabian 
tribes, the Children of the Most High Father Ab Ram repre- 
sented by Gabariel (Gte^briel) the Angel of the Fire and Power 
of Mithra or Kronos, we can see that Moses has already car- 
ried Abram over a vast domain from Aur of the Ghaldaeans 
and does as much for laqab when he is sent to Mesopotamia 
to Laban the Moongod for a wife, or when Israel is described 
as *' going down " to Egypt as Keb. When the temple scribe 
marries the Abrahm to Sara'h (the Sarachens, Sarakeni) and 
to Hagar (the Hagarenes.— Gten. xvi. 7, 10-12 ; xxi. 20, 21), and 
his grandson the Shemalite Ishmael is parent of Nebioth 
(Nabatheans), Kedar, Itur (Ituraea), and Kadimah, the mythic 
Masses is used to father the Arabian prospects of Jerusalem 
in the middle of the 2nd century before our era. laqab the 
Lover also deprives Asu (Idumea, Esau) of its rights, and al- 
though Jerusalem wanted Edom for a long time, she finally 
gets it. These are the children of the Ishmaelites by the 
names of their countries, their towns and their castles. — Gten, 
XXV. 16. There Mases (Masses, or Moses) seems (although 
possibly an ancient mythic Phrygian king) to have proved a 
tolerably far-sighted statesman in the interest of Khebron and 
Jerusalem. He accustomed the Jews in the second half of the 
second century before our era to look forward to a great em- 
pire in Syria and Arabia, extending from the Mediterranean to 
Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf at Kadimah. Did he not 
plant Hagar among the Hagarene Ishmaelites, send laqab 
among the Nabatheans all the way to Chaldaea to marry a 
couple of faces or phases of the moongod Laban, and after- 
wards transport him to the Nile on account of his love for 
Joseph! Mases or Moses had a statesman's views when he 
wanted to enslave Kanaan. — Gen. ix. 25-27. The story is a 
good enough * hieros logos,' but there is considerable politics 
in it. 

The name of the Jews, laudi, is found in E. Schrader, Die 

sand years have not made the slighteftt alteration in the oharaotej: or habits of this 
extraordinary people. Read of the patriarchs in the Bible, and it is the best description 
yon can have of pastoral life in the East at the present day." — Incidents of Travel in 
Egypt, Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land, New York, Hamper, 1837. 


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Eeilinscliriften iind das Alte Testament, p. 188. It comes 
fi'om Aud, the name of the Arabian God with blood-stained 
altars. The country where he was worshipped was called 
Aadah. The I in laudi is a prefix, such as we find in Eremias 
(leremiah), Shemal (Ishmael), Essaioi (lessaioi); but its use 
reminds one of the plural Greek article d. The words laud 
and laudah were in the Hebrew Bible written ^M^^^^ by a 
Hebrew custom of writing" mentioned by St. Jerome. They 
iDTote with a He, but they read it A. This rule turns leud back 
again to laud. 

Gen. xxix, xxx, contains some surprising double entendres ; 
one is very much to our purpose ; xxix. 36, Leah conceives mul 
(again) ; and says ^^ Audah (I will praise) lahoh.'* Ergo, she 
names her last bom son laudah. What was the necessity for 
Leah to name her last son '' I will praise ? '* And, unless 
Moses was present at the apparition of laudah in consequence 
of the parturition of Leah, how could Moses have transmitted 
to us the very words of Leah? Unless we take refuge in a 
miracle, it can be accounted for in this way. This scribe knew 
as well as we do that Aud was the blood-besprinkled Firegod 
of Khebron (Hebron) and for the benefit of the scribes he in- 
troduced the name Aud three times in verse 35, once as the 
adverb (again, still), then in the verb Audah (the ancient name 
of Judaea), and, finally, in laudah " I will praise." Li this way 
Moses accounts for the name of Audah, which seems likely to 
have been the name of Judaea, long before Moses was ever 
heard of. And if a scribe, after these three repetitions, could 
not see what Moses was driving at, he was one of those that 
cannot take a hint. Let the reader notice that i in Hebrew 
is changed in the translation to j in English. 


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*' r^y wphs iawroXiis t^^owroM wKwpia^ rris Ahf^ftrov wphs rks iiwh riis ^vpias Kai 
rrjs *Apafiias 4fi$oXiiSj itrh TlriXjowriou fi4xpit *HXmvwo\4us diik rov ipiifuv.*' 

^* KUfi4yjiP fih^ Tphs iyaroKijif rov fiovfioffrlrov wrofxou KaK9v/i4i^p 8* &ir^ t^s 
ipxodas ^oXoylcLS AfiapiifJ^ 

When we find the names Kub,* Kobt, Kopt, Kouph, and 
Kuphu (Kufu) we know that they are Arabian-Hebrew, and 
can place Cheops-Khufu, the king whose name was found in 
the Great Pyramid. He was an Arabian or Semite by bjpod. 
And as iron has been found, or the evidences of it, as also the 
use of jewelled saws, we have a right to infer that Semites 
built the pyramids of the fourth dynasty. Akab, Gob, Keft, 
Eeb, Akbar and laqab are Semitic names. laqab is said to 
have gone to Egypt. It is not necessary to follow the ruling 
line back as far as Men in Egypt or Sin in Babylon, for both 
are names of the Male Moon, Lunus or Adam of duplicate 
gender. It is enough to find Asar, Asari, names of Osiris at 
Gizeh. The same name Movers finds in Phoenicia. 

When Samuel set up a monument of victory between 
Masephah and San, he called it the * Stone of Azar ' ^ (the As- 
syrian Mars). There was (Joshua, xv. 33) a place between 
Libnah and Asdod called, apparently, Asan and Beth Kar 
(temple of Kar). From Asan we obtain the first syllable of 
Sankara,^ while Ear supplies the rest of the name. This re- 
lieves us from going to Babylonia for the name. Mr. Birch 

1 Koab. 

s Hosea, xiL 4 deriyes the name Israel from Sarah to contend, to fight, and El = €rod 
of Fire. — Gren. zzxii. 28. Asarlana, Asriel, Israel, a name of the War god (Eixodas, 
xiii. 21, 22, idv, 25), Satom and the Sun. The Fire-god Azar was the God of war, and 
Mars was the Sun. — Macrob. I. xvii. 68. 

3 Compare Sangarius, the name of a Eling. — ^Movers, Phdnizier, I. 198. 


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and other E^ptologists have been conyinoed that Sankara is 
Sin^ara or some other Mesopotamian name, being led to this 
by the word nahrena (meaning river district) which they ap- 
plied to the land of the Euphrates and Tigris. But the word 
nahr means any river ; and the district east of Askalon and 
Akaron (Ekron) was the country of the Philistine Earn, 
watered by the Sorek and Besor, which, when the entire coun- 
try was wooded and the trees on the mountains * had not yet 
been cut down, were larger streams than now. Then too the 
Egyptians called the moimtaineers the Bemanen.' Sun, moon, 
and stars, many centuries before the time of Homer, entered 
into the Kanaanite fire-worship as primal elements of it; 
Eephira, Eouf and Khafra were Syrian and Koptic names akin 
to (or identical with) the form lakab or lacopo ; ^ and when Seti 
L or Bamses * advanced along the sea-coast or passed on to the 
Syrian rising ground between Bhinocorura and the southern 
end of the Dead Sea they were vigorously met by the Bamen 
and the Eatti of ludah. After these, further north was the 
then impregnable fortress of lebus, which in B.C. 714 was still 
impregnable. Whether these people had ever entered Egypt 
during or prior to the so-called Hyksos period with other 
Syrians, Philistines, Idumeans, or Arabs cannot be stated with 
positive certainty, but it seems probable that the Sos or 
Zuzim may have got there. That the mountaineers (Bam-en) 
specifically Bamah, ludah and Israel (Isarel, or Azarel) were 
in the Delta prior to the time of Seti I. seems possible, and the 
Amalekites and other Arab peoples must have often got as far 
as the Nile in their forays or migrations. 

But these fire-worshippers carried with them the arks of 
Moloch and Ehiun (Life-god), their Adon,* and they had, like 
the other peoples of the Delta, their Mysteries, which the 
priests instituted. They took with them from Phoenicia, prob- 
ably, a certain knowledge of fixed vocal signs ; and it would 
not be safe to deny to Syria the possession of some sort of 
(Syrian) hieroglyphs, since Manetho gives a preference in 

> Frol Edward Hull, Mt. Seir, pp. 181, 183 : The Lebanon was snow-clad throogh- 
ont the year over its higher elevations, while glaciers descended into some of its val- 
leys. Snow falls now sometimes to the depth of two feet. --Hall, p. 170. 

* Ram =s high. Remanen = Hill-men. Not Armenia. 

* Jacopo and Jacobus. 

* Both Syrian names. 

* Lord of the Chionitae. 

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point of antiquity to the Thinite* (Tanitet) and Mem- 
phite kings; and we have found the Kefa^ as far south as 
Memphis.^ If Maspero has found in the fishermen of Lake 
Menzaleh features like those of the supposed Hyksos-sphinxes, 
broad cheek-bones and daring pouting lips, we will have, per- 
haps, to admit these features to be indicative of a primitive, 
native, stock, that at one period predominated in the Delta. 
But there is also testimony to the entrance of Semites into 
the Delta from the earliest times. See Africanus, the Bible, 
Manetho, Movers, Heeren, Chabas, etc. ** And they two fight- 
ing with the impure beat them : and having slain many they 
pursued them to the borders of Syria."* The account in 
Josephus which puts back the occurrence into the time of 
king Timaus would seem to imply that the attacks upon Lower 
Egypt from Kushen or Goshen were not infrequent in ancient 
times, ol 8c aoKvfjlrax, KaT€XS6vT€i avv roU fuapols iw alyvTrrltay, ovrois 
oFOO'tiDS TOts dv^ponrots irpo<niv€)(&rf(Tav okftc t^ rmv irpo€ifnjfuytay KpdrrfO'iy 
XpwTov (or, better, Kpwraov) <lKuv€a'Sax rots totc ra tovtwv do-c^Si^/yuira 

d€iOfji€vois, Josephus contra Ap. I. p. 1063. The word proeire- 
menon is opposed to touton. Proeiremenon refers to the 
Shepherds driven out to the city lerosoluma; although it 
might possibly be held to mean the invaders in the time of 
king Timaus mentioned on p. 1039. Josephus, it is true, says 
that Manetho wrote these passages * about us,' meaning 'about 
the Jews.' What he says, in this case, claiming to give 
Manetho's words, is * that the aforesaid seemed preferable to 
these last.' The afore-mentioned are either the persons ' of 
obscure race' mentioned at page 1039 (whose kings were 
Semite in name) or ' the Shepherds that went out in the reign 

1 Tanite ; also Abndos, Abydos, Abot According to Ammian, Abudum was a 
town in a remote comer of the Thebais. 

« Movers L 367, 657, mentions Asis (Ariz) the solar Mars in Edessa. We find the 
Sasa archers in the Desert, like Asasel. (Azasel, the Evil Demon.) Joming with 
the word Hak (leader, melik) the word Asos, we get Hak-Asos, Hnkusaos, Hyksos. 

• It is supposed, on the authorities later on quoted and the traditions respecting 
Agenor (the Bal 8am«m ** lord of heaven ") and Kadmns, that the Phoenicians brought 
their knowledge to the Delta with them ; and this is probable from the earlier renown 
of Memphis as well as the superior antiquity of its pyramids. 

The Khati (Hittites) had from remote antiqnity a form of picture-writing which 
was known on the road between Ephesus and Sardis, and also from Kappadokia to the 
*:gean Sea. — Rawliuson, Anc. Egypt, U. 232; A. H. Sayoe, Soc. BibL Archaeology 
for July, 1880. 

* Josephus, contra Apion, I. p. 1054 ; quotes Manetho. There were plainly two 
sets of Shepherds that Manetho had in view. 


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of Tethmosis (t.e. Amosis) to the city called lerosoluma.' So 
that, if either Manetho or Josephus could be trusted, we have 
Semites in each case, instead of natives to the west of the Bed 
Sea and east of the Nile. Therefore, taking Manetho and 
Josephus for g^des, we have only the faces of the so-called 
Hyksos-sphinxes to indicate the existence of Shepherds of 
African tint and feature at Tanis and Bubastis (Zagazi^), 
without reference to date. Josephus charges Manetho with 
taking hold of current invented (mythic) stories and applying 
them to his ancestors at Jerusalem I But, in a controversial 
paper against Apion, Josephus may have felt at liberty to 
take the same license as Manetho did. Josephus said that 
Khaeremon lied, and, if there was any truth in it, it was im- 
possible to separate it. 

Josephus (p. 1053) distinguishes between the ' rule of the 
aforesaid ' men (Syro-Arabs) of obscure race and the * deviltries 
of the Solumites.' \i is not impossible that a Semite raid into 
the Delta followed a raid of a native African race, the Berber- 
Copts from between the Bed Sea and Libya, between dynasties 
6 and 11. The only suggestion for such a conjecture is the so- 
called Hyksos-sphinx face, the name agazy&n (shepherds), and 
the circumstance that Africanus (from whom we get the Ma- 
nethonian clippings) speaks of 'PAo^wwnan Shepherds' in the 
15th and 17th dynasties. The Egyptian Amosis of the 18th 
dynasty married an Ethiopian and drove out the Hyksos. 
Moses, too, married an Ethiopian woman. — ^Numbers, xii. 1. 
Lepsius (Letters, 415) considered it as more than probable 
that the name of Moses was not originally found in the 
Egyptian narrative. Many regarded Jews as the oflFspring of 
the Ethiopians, emigrating when Kepheus ruled. — Tacitus 
Hist., V. 1. 

Satum-Kronos, Ekron (Accaron) on the Mediterranean, Mt. 
Khoreb, the sun (Khares, Cheres), Aqar (1 Chron. ii. 27), Ache- 
ron, Aharon (Acharon, Aaron), Charon, the Kharu (Karu, Phi- 
listians), and the Egyptian kings Ehaires, Akherres, and the 
valley Achor have all the same name as their root, akar^ ok- 

1 Elis had old sonworship, oamely in Olympia where Kzonoe and HelioB had an 
altar m common. There was a tradition that before Apollo's times the Delphic sane- 
toaiy belonged to S^ronos. — ^M. Mayer, die Giganten und Titanen, p. 72. Here we hare 
two Semitic works which tell of Phoenician earliest inflaence in Greeoe, El (in Elis) 
and Karan (Kronos) meaning to shine. To wliioh Ach (in Aohaia) may be added ; for 


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Tiar^ or achar^ the sun, that rises in the morning and goes 
down (keboa) at night, and in winter was fabled to sleep the 
sleep of death, but in spring, in the sign of the Bam, to rise 
from the dead. From Gaza to Ekron, from Garar (Gerar) to 
perhaps further east the Kara lived. The Egyptians called 
Zeus (Amon) the Spiritus.^ Amon is interpreted the invisible 
and hidden. When they invoke and summon him to become 
manifest and visible to them they say Amoun.^ These were 
three forms of the Kamephis, the last one being the Sun ; 
Amon must consequently have been seen in all three of his 
manifestations. Amun-Hor or Horammon is the active and 
generative principle, the seminal principium. He presides 
over misty clouds, rains, exhalations and is the all-saving and 
all-nourishing prime or bloom and temperature of the circum- 
ambient air, the seminal principle. As long as fire remained 
the Seminal principle of arrangement was likewise preserved. 
There are three species in fire, — the coal, the flame, and the 
light.^ The seal of lar (Horus) calls him the "light, fire, 
flame." Ammon is the Creative Mind.' The seal of lar calls 
lar " Ammonios ; " and Proverbs, viii. 30 mentions Amun as 
the Creative Wisdom. Brahma is fire, sun, moon, etc.® Isaiah, 
viii. 8, calls ludah's land Amanu-el. Horus is connected with 
Leo, is the Power of the sun, and has the Lion's head ; "^ he is 
called the cross, redeemer, freer, and he who transports from 
one place to another.* Osiris is the Nile, the Dark Water of 
Hades,^ but his name was originally Asar, Asari, and in the 
Seal of lar it appears as Ousir (Oushir). 

Ach meant fire, and, in Egsrptian, it meant light. Akhn meant light. Khnti, lights. 
Fire and the Chenibim were Satum^a symbols in the Levant— Dtmlap, Vestiges, 116, 
117 ; Movers, L 260. 

1 King Occhoris was ordered by the oracle of Hammon to pnrge Egypt of the lepers 
and to remove that class of man into other lands as hateful to the Gods.— Tacitns, 
Hist. V. 1. Oochmis is evidently a name derived from Achor (Akhar) the name of the 
Kara or Philistians. Achares and Ooohoris are one word. 

> de Iside, 86. 

* ibid. 9. 

< Philo Jud., the World, 15. 

ft Movers, I 268. This is the Logos. 

* Swetaswatara Upanishad, iv. 2. ^ 
T de Iside, 19. 

" Irenaens, L L p. 15. 

* de Iside, 82; Hesiod, Theog. 788-786. Satam*s temple was ontaide the city, in 
Egypt. Beoanse be was too close to the Death-god. He was snbterranean. Osiris at 
his birth was placed by Satnm in the hands of Pamules.— de Iside, 12. The Pamulia 
was the Spring festival in Febnuiry, when Osiris entered the Moon. 

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According to Josephns, Ant. I. vi. 2, the Sons of Cham 
(Ham) possessed the land from Syria and the Mounts Amanus 
and Ldbanus ; then they turned and seized the parts near its 
sea, appropriating them as far as the ocean. Clearly, then, 
Cham extended over Egypt, and Arabia and the Negeb, and 
into Syria as far as Mt. Amanus and the Lebanon. This ex- 
plains how the Phoenicians could be regarded as coming from 
the Bed Sea and rendeijp it possible for the Kanaanites to be 
regarded as the Sons of Cham.^ Under the designation Kanaan 
(Gten. X. 6) we must include the Kharu, Gerar, Philistia, and 
Phoenicia, at least part of it. What is curious, we find in 
Achozath or Akhuzzath {Qen. xxvi. 26) another name suggest- 
ing Hukussos, as if the Hyksos came from the Karu and Gerar. 
Also the name Satanah or Setanah (Qen, xxvi. 21), which, drop- 
ping the termination, ah, appears to be Setan, the district of 

The worship of idols and of the orbs of heaven prevailed in 
Arabia, Egypt, Judah, Israel and Syria, and, while not exclud- 
ing the Mysteries and mythology, interfered with monotheism. 
The country of the Hebrews once passed, with the Assyrians, 
under the name of Philistia. The Philistians, according to 1 
Samuel, xiiL 6, were a powerful people, the Egyptians appar- 
ently gave the name Karu to Philistians, and Sabians were in 
the Sinaite peninsula. The identity of the fundamental theo- 
ries upon which the Phoenician, Philistian, Hebrew and Egyp- 
tian religions were based was recognized by Movers, and is 
evidenced by the Lion-man (the faces of lion and man con- 
joined at the back of the head) represented on the vail of the 
Jewish Temple, by the Cherubim, by the Lion-man of the 
Sphinxes and the Seal of lar-Horus^ of the late Dr. Abbot's 
Egyptian Collection. Then we have the use of linen by the 
linen-robed priests of both Hebrews and Egyptians.* The de- 
scription of the Jewish Tabernacle, while in some respects 
Arabian, is significant of an advanced stage of religious civili- 
sation, especially in dress and ceremonial.^ 

1 1 Chron. iv. 89, 40. Septoftgiot 

s The lion of ladah.— BeT. t. 5. The * Star of laqob.'— Nambera, xxiv. 17. The 
Semite leligionB were astronomioal. 
* Lerit. tI 10 ; 1 Sam. ii. 1& 
« Ezodas, zxv. 4 ; xzvi 1 ; zzxv.-xL; Ezekiel, zxrii 7; Aev. xix. 8, 14. 

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Thou Shalt not * taboo ' * an Adami,* for he is thj brother. 
Thou Shalt not * taboo ' a Masri,' for thou wast an alien in his land.— Deu- 
teron. xxlii. 8. 

Adorn came out in force to drive off the Asarelites (Israelites).* 
The Hyksos entered Egypt as Setites (Sethians), but came out 
from Egypt as Asirians. That seems to result from the Bibli- 
cal data. But 'Asar' and 'Assyrian' (Asur) are, originally, 
from the East and not from Egypt. Numbers, xxi. 14, seems 
to lay claim to the renown of the Hyksos by the lam Suph (the 
sea of reeds) and in Moab ; for to Josephus the Hebrews were 
the Hyksos. Bamses II. was on record at Tanis as the victor 
over the Shasu,' that is, the Sasu or Sos (Bedawin Shepherds), 
and Manetho seems to have recognised these as Phoenicians.. 
The fleet of Bamses 11. engaged the fleets of the Phoenician 
cities.* When Asar (Aser, Asher) stayed in his havens and 
dwelt at the port of the seas"^ we know also that Assur (Syria) 
went down into Egypt, carrying with him his Syrian national 
deity Asar (Ousir, Osiris). In like manner, 

Adad fled, himself and men« Adamaiim (Edomites), of the slaves of his 
father with him to come to Masraim (Egypt) ; and Hadad was a boj, little. 
And thej came up out of Madin (Midian) and went into Pharan,^ and, after 

> Tabd means * to detest.* 

< Places were supposed to be named after the supposed founders. Askalos founded 
Asoalon. Irad, Jared founded Eridu. The cities Adama, Amara, Sadem are men- 
tioned together. — Gen. xIt. 2; Joshua, xix. 86. We may then, perhaps, derive Adam 
from Adama ( Admah), although *" Hadam * may be Kadmah, Kadmus, written with a 
Ch, later softened to h. The Edom-Idumean branch of the Abrahmites is always 
represented as the oldest. — Gen. xxv. 25, 81. Edom is Atuma, and is written Adorn, 
Adum. Audam is formed from And, like Salem from Sal, Sunam or Snnem from Sun : 
vide Shunamite, Sbulamite, Salamah. Adam and Brahma were first; each had his 
sakti Adam is mentioned first, then Seth. — Gen. v. 2, 3. The Sethites were in Moab. 
— Numb. xxiv. 17. Adam (in Hebrew) and Set (Seth) both in Hebrew and Egyptian 
theology were hermaphrodite, being male and female. — G^n. v. 2, 8. The Egyptian 
beetle was the symbol of this condition ; and Plato in his Symposium refers to it as a 
primal status hominis. 

• E!gyptian. 

4 Osirians or Asrielim. — See Numbers, zx. 20, 21, for the name Israel The Asriel- 
ites are mentioned (Asareli, Numbers, zxvi 81) and Asarel (Nehemiah, xii 36). Asar- 
adan.— 2 Esdr. iv. 2. 

• A. Wiedemann, ttgypt. Gesch. 488. 

• ibid 487. 

» Judges, V. 17. *^ Phcenicians first, before they became Bgjrptians."— Palmer, 
Egypt. Chron. I. 60. 

See Aphara.— Judges, viii. 27. Compare Abar (the shining Bar), Barah, 1 Chron. 
viiL 18, Afaron, Gen. xlix. 29, Afarica (Africa), Pars QkhA of light— F. Johnson, 
Persian and Arabic Diet; Freitag, Arab-Latin Lex. 1837, p. 465), Bara (Gen. xiv. 2), 


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that, they took Amu (Amim) from Pharan and came to Masraim to Pharah king 
of Masraim.— 1 Kings, xl 17. 

We see how the Amu made their way into the Nile Delta, com- 
ings from the east (&iro rwy dvaToXa)v wapcycFoiTo), from over the 
lardan, in Medbar, in Arabah, from over against Suph, be- 
tween Phcuran and Taupel and Laban and Chazor^ and Di 
Saab. Judging by the names, Eheth, Ehetoura and Eadesh, 
the Eatti or Eheta must have extended from Ehebron on the 
north to below Kadesh and Arad on the south. 

Thej burj Sarra (Sarah) in Khebron. — Joflephoa, Ant. L 14. 
The Khebron in land louda.*— Septaagint, 1 Cbron. vi. 55. 

The nation of the Israel ^ and the rulers and the priests and 
the Levites did not separate the foreign-bom nations of the 
land and their impurities from the peoples of the Ehananites, 
Ehatti, Ferezi, lebusi, Moabites, Egyptians and Idumeans. 
For they lived with their daughters, both they and their sons, 
and mixed the holy seed (<nr€pfia to ayiov) among the foreign- 
bom peoples of the land. 

And as soon as I beard these things I tore the olotbee and the bolj raiment, 
and plucked out the hair of the head and beard, and sat down gloomy and verj 
sad.— Septuagint, 1 Esdras, viii. 00-68. 

We here notice that the Egyptians and the descendants of 
the Hyksos are spoken of as natives, not foreigners. Compare 
the names Akonb and Akoupha (2 Esdras, ii. 45, 51) with the 
name of Ehufu, builder of the Great Pyramid, and with the 
name of the land of Koub (Ezekiel, xxx. 5). 

The Children of Abrahm by Khetoura were among others, 
Madan, Madian and Souos ; and the Children of Souos were 

Shem-abar (Gren. x^y. 2), Abaris, Pharah (the pharaoh), Pharan (the Desert), PherSn 
(an Egyptian king-name), Phnti-Phar and Phnti-Phant. — Gen. xzziz. 1 ; x\ri, 20. 
The Greek-Phoenician permutation of the letter b into p, ph (f), v, is derived from the 
East Knb and Khnfa are oloeely allied ; like Ater, Oair, Oadr and Osiris. 
» See Judges, iv. 17, 28. 

* 'ritifJitfipmp iv y^ 'Iov8a.* Compare Aada, the name of the Great god of Bostra. — 
S&yce, Hib. Lect. 40S. Andam ooold suggest the land and people of And or Audah. 

* Adan becomes Adam, jost as Madian became Hadiam, 1 Chron. i 82. The n 
Mnmilates with and becomes m. Thus Adam is Adan, the Lord (Aden) who walked in 
the Garden of Aden ( Andonai). — Qen, iii. 8. The Deity was regarded as the pure Life. 
Therefore no dead body could be brought within sacred precincts, death rendered the 
idatioas impure, and, as wool is an animal product, the priests wore linen. 


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Saba ^ and Dadan.^ The prophetes Malchos Kleodemos names 
three sons of Abrahm by Khetoura : Afera, Asoureim and 
lafra. Assyria was named after Asoureim ; the city Afra ^ and 
the land Africa after Afera and lafra, since both marched with 
Herakles to Libya against Antaeus. Their admission to the 
association with Herakles was obtained through the similar- 
ity of Abrahm, Kronos, Herakles.* From Alexandria (the 
medium between the West and East) and the Aethiopic Axum 
the Jewish triumvirate has wandered into the South-Arabian 

I wUl praise {Attdah) ; therefore slie called his name laudah.^Gen. zxix. 

In the cuneiform writing the Jews were named laudi. — 
Schrader, Keilinschr. u. d. Alt. Test. 188. Audah, in Hebrew, 
means * I will praise.' This reveals the original name of Ju- 
dea, the land of Aud. If we follow St. Jerome's dictum " to 
write a * he ' but to read it an a" we will find that Isaiah, xix. 
17, has " laudah's land " instead of Jeudah's land. By a He- 
brew pun, Genesis, xxix. 35, gives us * Audah * as the root of 
the name laudah. Aud*s altar was sprinkled with blood. Sat- 
urn's name was Chion, the Living One. Saturn's altars were 
blood-besprinkled. The horns of lachoh's (lao's) altars were 
blood-besprinkled on Saturn's day. The right ears of Aharon 
and his sons, their right thumbs, their right great toes, and 
their garments were sprinkled with blood. — Exodus, xxix. 12, 
16, 20, 21. For the life of the flesh is in the blood. — Leviticus, 
xvii. 6, 11. Chion was the Achiah asur Achiah, of Exodus, iii. 
14, the Living God of Time, Set or Saturn. Compare Daniel, 
vii. 13. For Chion (like Moloch) was the name of the Living 

Ad (uda, udda) means the light of day. — Schrader, p. 493. 
An altar named Od (Aud). — Joshua, xxii. 34. The land of Ad 

1 Compare the name Saha.— Gen. x. 7; Joh, vi 19. Sabathan.-^os. Ant L 15. 
Sabbathai, a man^s name.— 2 Efldiaa, x. 15. Sabathi the planet Satom. The planet 
Satom ie called Snhel in Arabic. See Moveis, L 200, 392. 

3 1 Chron. i. 82, 88. Arabian Dadanim. — ^Isaiah, zxxi 18. In Geneds, xzr. 3, 
we have the name Sanaob : compare Sana, Sa, and Asan (Eaau). 

' Compare the name Afrah (Jndgee, tL 11), Apharon, Pharah (the name pharaoh), 
Aphara^A; and Apharah.— 1 Sam. xiii. 17. 

* See Movers, T. 86, 87, 415-450. 

B R5soh, Ktfnigin von Saba, 28. 


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runs up to the Dead Sea from the eastern part of Midian. 
* Ad ' or ' And * was perhaps the oldest ^ Arab name. It forms 
part of the names Adan, Adam, Edom (Adom, Gen. xxxvi. 1, 8, 
9), Atam, the Autei of Pliny, the Aadu or Aatu of the hiero- 
glyphs, the Beni Atiyeh of Burckhardt and the Desert of Tih. 
The Beni Adah (Audah) extended from south of Madian 
(Midian) all through the country of Esau in Mt. Heir and in- 
termarried with the Ehati (Gen. xxxvi. 2, 16). Numbers, xxxiii. 
6, 7, 8, mentions their town Atham (Etham) near Egypt ; hence 
the Aatou or Audou of the Egyptian hieroglyphs of the 
papyrus Sallier I and the Beni laudah of ludea (Audah) where 
the Fire-deity Audunaios-Adon was adored. Eamus speaks 
of the blood-besprinkled altars of Aud and the fire-pillars of 
Sair (Seir.— Gen. xxxvi. 1, 8 ; Exodus, xiii. 21, 22 ; xiv. 24). 
They were also called Oadites, and Osiander (Zeitschrift der 
D.M.G. vii.) mentions Wadd (Oad, Ouadd) their God. Ad is a 
very ancient name between Syria and Yemen. — Burton, Qold 
Mines of Midian, 354. Ad^ land was to the north-east of 
Madian city (R. F. Burton, 354). 2 Chronicles, xiii. 22, mentions 
the prophet Ado, and Isaiah, ix. 5, mentions Aud as Father of 
Time (Abi Ad, or Abi Od), that is, Satum-Chronos. The Jews 
were named laudi. Now the Hebrew El and Adon (Tammuz) 
are names of Saturn. The Babylonian Bel (like the Ancient 
of days in Daniel, vii. 9) is the Boundless Time before cre- 
ation, the Unrevealed primal being. — Movers, p. 263. But the 
Old Testament everywhere prefers another Name.— Judges, 
viii. 33. 

The Babylonian Bel is, according to Berosus,' a God of the 
gods, the Creator of all things, even of the sun, the moon, the 
planets, and all other things.^ The Hebrew Bible confirms 
this in speaking of " the incense burned to Bal, to the sun, to 
the moon, to the planets, and to all the host of heaven." * Ac- 
cording to the * Poimander,' God, the Wisdom in which the 
two sexes are united, created first the Word and, through this, 
the world-creating Wisdom that, as God of fire and spirit, cre- 

» UniT. Hist, xviii 370 ; Wright, p. 18. 

* Beromu in den Fragment. Hist. Graea Bd. IL p. 497. Saturn wai an old man 
and « powerfol king. Hia complexion ia blaok.— Chwolaohn, Ssabier, IL 071. 

s Chwolsohn, Saabier, L 7ia 

* 2 Kings, xziiL 5. In the Jewish Kabalah there is an archangel to each of the 
seven plAoets. — Mankind, p. S33. 

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ated the Seven other rulers, namely, the Seven Planets.^ The 
sublime Power of the Unknown Father is the mystical Hep- 
taktis, the Babylonian Sabaoth,'* the Bel lao who is Dionysus 
and Mithra (Mediator) through whom the souls ascend to the 
Father of Mithra. This is his symbol. The Angel Gabriel 
holds the 7 Lamps, the Seven Planets, in his hand, the Sabaoth. 

The Seyen Lamps shall shine. — Namben, yiii. 2. 

Seven Lamps of fire burning before the Throne, that are the Seven Spirits 
of the God.— Be V. iv. 5. 

Mine eyes have seen the King, la'hoh Zabaoth. — Isaiah, vi. 5. 

Sabaoth Adonaios will sit on a Great Throne, — ^is Ariel, the 
Mithra of the Jews. Thei^ follows the Resurrection of the dead I 

Thy dead shaU live, my corpse (too), they shall arise. 
Awake and sing, inhabitants of dostt—Isaiah, xzvi. 19. 

Apollo has the glory on his head, and corresponds to Horns 
the £g3rptian Redeemer and Apoluon of the Revelations, the 
Freer of the soul from Hades. 

The call of the preacher in the Desert : Prepare the way of the Lord of life,^ 
make straight in Arabah a path for our Alah.— Isaiah, zl. 8. 

Who then was this Lord of life. Chion, the living El Saturn ! 
The ark started from Babylonia.^ Babylonia is the land of the 
Gurden of Eden.' The Euphrates, below Babylon, divides 
into two parts, the PisAnu, the Ghich&nu; the third is the 
Tigris, which from just there onwards resumes its earlier in- 
dependent position (independent of the Euphrates) ; the fourth 
is the Euphrates.* Schrader holds that the Hebrews knew lit- 
tle about the Babylonian story, and hebraised, that is, altered 
the account in their own way.^ 

» Chwolsohn, L 755. 

s the Mithraic Lion snrroanded by seven ntars. 

> Adonin, Mithra. Aoh -^ fire, yital fire, and life : hence Achians, Achaians, men 
of life and spirit. 

« Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies, p. 45. 

• ibid. 51, 65, 80 ff. 

• E. Sohrader. Keihnschr. n. das AlteTest. 41 ; Delitzsoh, 45-88. 

f Sohrader, 43, 44 Sohrader, 151, gives Slr'lai as the Assyrian form of the name 
IsraeL Isiri is an Osiris-name ; consequently, Sir'lai woald be only the dropping the 
vowel A, or O, in Asir, Osir, Osar. The Aada or Aatn were the ancient inhabitants 
of the Desert^Chabas, Pastenn, 27, 28 ; Gen. zxxv. 80, 35 ; Judges, vi. 18-1& Ad*B 


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The tenth chapter of Gtenesis mentions the Arakim, the 
Senim and the Choi (Chivites, Hivites) all together, and de- 
clares them Canaanites ; while the Septuagint Judges, iii. 3, 
writes Etuiian instead of the Hebrew Choi, and locates the 
people, there mentioned, on the Lebanon. Now the Canaanites 
extended from Akko (Ako, Acre) to the Lebanon, and that part 
of the range Ijdng directly to the east of Ako was under the 
control of the Akoi : 

HaXlhoi inhabitiiig Mount Lebanon ! '—Hebrew, Jndgee, iii. 8 

St. Jerome's rule, to read the n an A, would give us Achoi 
(rnn), as it stood in the Hebrew text. Moreover, Genesis, 
xxxiv. 2, places Chamor (Hamor) as sheik of the land of the 
Achoi or Choi, having Sichem ben Hamor for bis son. The 
Amorites extended from the Ehati (' Heth at Chebron) north- 
wards, past Mt. Hamoriah (2 Chron. iii. 2). The Hebrews were 
Hebronite mountaineers living in the rear of the littoral Kana- 
nites ; and the Eananite, Nabathean, Philistian, or Midianite- 
Amalekite element, carrying with them the sacred name Asar 
(Osiris, Asur, Asura, Surya), early entered into Egypt. The 
grammatical character of the Egyptian language is found 
nearly all complete in the Syro-aramean languages. Lauth 
says : K one examines the physical formation of the inhabi- 
tants of Egjrpt so far as the material is present in mummies, 
he receives the unavoidable impression that they belonged to 
the same race as the inhabitants of Western Asia, therefore 
sprung from the same stock. Still clearer is this agreement 
exhibited in the language : the further one gets on in the 
knowledge of the Egyptian idiom a so much closer relation- 
ship to the Semitic language is revealed. This circumstance 
does not allow one to think of the Egyptians as autochtho- 
nous. In short, they came in from Asia over the Isthmus of 
Suez. They must have brought with them, besides their for- 
mation and language which point to Asia, also some of the 

altar was -|y (Ad) — Joshua, xxii. 84. It was anofaited with blood.— Exodus, xxix. 12, 
16. Ad's saorifioe is the ram.— Exod. xxix. 15. This was the emblem of Khnuro, 
Amen, and lahoh or laS. Hebrew forms of the name Ad are Ati (1 Chron. iL 30), 
Atiah (NehenL xL 4), Adoa (Ezra, vi 14), and laddua who was high priest B.O. 840. 
Auda was the Great Gk>d of Bostra.— Sayce, Hib. Leei 406. 

1 Jadgea, liL 3, vi. 83, x. 6, 10, It shows that the Khatti of Hebron, not the Chatti 
of Kaichemis, oontrolled the mountains west of *-'he Dead Sea. So Joshna, passim, 
shows little states and cities. 

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stock of primitive sagas into Egypt. In the latest develop- 
ment of the hieroglyphic writing among the Ptolemys and 
Bomans this enigmatic or riddle-sign-writing was wide-spread 
upon public monuments and formed down to my article on the 
subject in the Zeitschrif t for Egyptian language and antiqua- 
rianism (1866) a nearly unconquerable obstacle to the under- 
standing of the text. As soon however as one has surmounted 
these external and merely graphic difficulties such texts are easy 
to imderstand because they are very detailed and expanded. 
On the contrary, the older texts offer a tolerably simple sys- 
tem of writing, while the concise expression reminds one of 
the lapidary style, and the getting at the meaning is the work 
of labor. If this is true of the usual inscriptions, the dark- 
ness increases more than one would suppose in those texts that 
even when they contain no secret doctrine yet have a sort of 
theosophy or philosophy in its nature esoteric, only to be com- 
prehended by the Initiated. To make this evident I cite two 
publications of Edouard Naville : " Texts relative to the myth 
of Horus " and "Litany of the Sun." The first text is exoteric 
and offers few difficulties. But it is different with the other 
publication. It is found in the Kings-graves and consequently 
was only accessible to the priests who at stated times had to 
bring the offering to the dead, on which account the pictural 
representation which here too accompanies the text is much 
more mysterious and apparently has nothing to do with the 
inscription. To what God does this text have reference ? Ex- 
clusively to the Sun-god Ra, the Name that presided over the 
city. In an inscription of the 47th year of King Thutmosis 
TIT, the name Anu is grouped together with Pe-Ra " house of 
Ra." The 75 invocations to Ra really belonged to the esoteric 
doctrine, for a certain Pabesa Reparator of Pe-Ra * presents 
his homage to Ra and says : Homage to thee, Thou that dost 
give light in the region of the grave, enlightening, when thou 
goest up in the eastern heaven, Lofty One ^ in the mysterious 
cella ! O Ra ! hear. O Ra, turn thee round when I repeat the 
list of 75 (invocations) at the judgment place of the Apophis 
(the evil giant-snake) where his soul is put in the fire and his 
body in the glowing oven of Suchet !' 

> San-temple, or Temple-city. 

* GroMmllnDlicber. 

» Lauth, Aui Aegypten^s Vorzeit, 66-6a 

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We remain, so far, in doubt about the third dynasty of 
Manetho and concerning the origin of the materials which 
make it up. We shall nevertheless see, in all probability, that 
the three Memphian families of Manetho made but one for the 
authors of the Turin papyrus.* The Hakkarah table gives as 
nos. 16, 17, 18, 19, Saneferu, Khafuf, Ratatef, Eakhouf.^ Apis 
is the living image of the eternal and incorruptible soul of 
Osiris,® and as the Osiris-religion is the ancient religion of the 
Pyramids^ the reader can judge whether the Ox-bones found 
in Khafra's sarcophagus belonged there. Marietta, Tombes de 
Tancien empire, p. 11, says that ox-bones sometimes are found 
strewn over the floors of the tombs. 

lo Seph . . . hifl first born BuU, honor to him. — Denteronomj, xxxiii. 

Bat it is aU the inTentor*8 work. 

Whence came the graces of Dionysus, with the ozdriving dithyramb.— Pin- 
dar, Ol. xiii. 17-19. 

Seph, or Sev, is a name of Saturn, M-Seph-ah (Mispah) is, 
apparently, a formation formed from Seb, Sep, or Seph. There 
are many forms of it, Suphah, Saba, Safra (Clementine H6mily, 
ii. 1), etc. Compare Saphra, Saophis, Subah, Suphis and 
Suphah or Zubhah. 

Dionysus is the Solar Bay like Ka, Khnum, Adonis,' Osiris, 
Kneph. The Sun was the source of spirit, fire • and water, the 
moon of water and fire. The creation of the world was held 
to be by spirit out of matter. Philo connects the name Noch ^ 
with the Mysteries by the expression nmaios^ (Zadik in He- 

> De Rouge, Beoherches, 25, aa 
« ibid, plate 1. 

> de Iside, 29, 54. 

« Rawlinson, IL 64. ChwoUohn. die Ssahier, I. 401, 403, giyes a front of a Baby- 
loniasi tetnufcyle temple and two military standards, one on each side of a representa- 
tion of ihe Moon, and, farther, mentions a bust of the Ood Lnnns standing with a 
crescent over his shoulders, and in front of him a standard planted in the ground The 
Syrian Men seems to be the type of Lnnus ; at any rate, he is duplex gender, as Lunus 
is. The Moon is the place of Osiris and Isis.— De Iside, 48. 

• In Phrygia, where the worship of Atys and Kubele was established, Menelaus pro- 
poses to Paris to sacrifice to the sun and the earth a white lamb and a black sheep. 
These colors are symbolical.— -Mankind, 500. 

• Herakleitus (&o. 505) threatened the mystagogues with the fire, regarding it as 
spirit in the fire. All things are bom from one fire.— Psellus, 24 ; Plet. 30. The Sa- 
dokee sect denied spirit 


• Gen. vi. 9 ; ix. 24 ; Dunlap, S6d, L 39, quotes Plato. 

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brew) ; also by the pouring of water and the festivals of the 
two equinoxes.^ By the order of their going out from the ark 
he implies the continuance of generation and life ; but by their 
entrance into the ark the absence of productiveness on earth 
was signified : * for the entrance of the Sun-god into the Ark 
signified the hiding and disappearance of water.^ In the Mys- 
teries they bore the box (or ark) in which the vital symbol of 
Dionysus was laid away.* Hence Horus * has his ark, and lar 
has the sphere on his head, carrying the handled cross in one 
hand and the sceptre in the other. The lepidotos of Osiris 
and the phagros and the oxyrynchus swallowed the vital prin- 
ciple, the life of Osiris, which had been thrown into the Nile.* 

Let IsiB (Ase, Asat), my good Mother, crj for me, and Neb-ta (Nepthjs, 

Proserpine), my sister, (that) 
Salvation remain on my south and on my north. ^Papyrus Magique, Ohabos. 

And the robes of Isis,' on the one hand, are variegated in dyes, 
for her power is in reference to Matter which becomes and re- 
ceives all things, light, darkness, day, night, fire, water, life, 

^ Philo, Qaaestiones in Gen. H 45-47. 

« ibid. IL 49. 

s Danlap, SOd, L 86 ; de Iside, 89. The standard of ladah was planted towards 
the sunrise (the resurrection of Osiris). — Numbers, ii 8. Ptah, is the creator-spiritua 
diyinef the divine Intelligenoe. — GhampolUon, pantheon Egyptien. 

4 Eusebius, pr. evang. IL 8. 29. 

* Horns has on his head the urasus or basilisk, the emblem of divine and regal 
power, the serpent diadem. 

* de Iside, cap. 18. Horns is Mars (lar, Ear) the God of Spring ; in one hand he 
holds his emblem, the sparrow-hawk, in the other his spear and ]anze. The sun is the 
body of the Power of the GrOOD. — de Is. 51 . The priests received in Mysteries from the 
ancients, by tradition, all that concerns the end of Osiris. — Diodorus Sik. L 21. p. 24. 
The power of Light is Horus, who is represented white, while Osiris is black (as Hades). 
The Arabians had two sacred idols at Mecca, one white, the other black. The white 
was worshipped when the sun entered the Lamb. The Ammonites brought incense to 
it. The black one was adored when the sun entered Libra (one of the six inferior signs) . 
—Mankind, 496. The While Throne appears in Henoch and in Revelation, xz. 11. 
Compare the White Horse of the Rev. xix. 11, 14. Now Horus is White as Light. 
Osiris (the Logos) is black (de Iside, 59) ; but his robe has not a shade or variation of 
color, but simple light-like unity (of color).— de Iside, 77. The bride of the Lamb 
(Solar Logos in Aries) is clothed in white ; and the Romanist priests, at Easter, wear 
only the alb.— Mankind, 552 ; Rev. xix. 14. The bride is the company of the Initiated, 
in the Persian Mystery. Mithra was for the Persians what the Word or Logos was for 
the Christians.- Ibid. 558. 

"* Compare the robes of the priests and the colors in the Jewish tabernacle. — ^Exo- 
dus, xxvi 1 ; xxviiL 5 Diodorus says that KerSs is earth ; but it is the MoonCi earth, 
for he makes Isis to be DemCtdr. 

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death, begiimiiig, end ; but that (garment) of Osiris does not 
haye a shade/ nor variety of colors, but unity, single, like 
light ; ^ for the Beginning is pure and unmixed, the fibst and 
mentally perceived. Therefore having once accepted these 
things they store them up and cherish them ; for the mentally 
perceived is invisible and cannot be touched ; and they often 
make use of the Isiac (rites). For the things perceived by the 
senses being in use and at hand give many exhibits and aspects 
of them changing sometimes one way and sometimes another ; 
but the mental perception of the Mind-perceived* and Absolute 
and Holy, shining through, like lightning, has allowed the 
soul once at some time to attain to and behold 1 Wherefore, 
Plato and Aristotle call this part of philosophy the epoptic,^ 
since they having by reason ^ outrun these (mere) matters of 
opinion, mixed and of all sorts, spring forth to that Primal and 
Single and Free from matter, and attaining to singly the pure 
truth in regard to It,* as in a celebration of the Mysteries, 
think to have the end of philosophy.' With the Egyptian 
doctrine in the Mysteries, that Osiris is tv awXoxv <^oci3c9, as 
above stated, we may compare the doctrine of Moses that God 
is ty rcnrro fiovov (this unity aloue) ^at embraces all of us and 
earth and sea, which we call heaven and kosmos and the nat- 
ure of the spiritual existences.* And what is this but a speci- 
fic adaptation of that consciousness of the divinity of Nature, 
which is implied in all the religious conscientiousness of the 
Old World? 

As Thebes stood towards the Hyksos Foreigners, such was 
the relation of Apet to Memphis, of the Barn-god Amun to 

* Athik lomim, the Ancient of Days, sat, his raiment snow white !— Daniel, vii. 9. 
White wias the sacred color of the Sons of light. 

•Isaiah, sly. 7; John, riii. 12; Acta, xxii 6. See Genesis, L 8, 4. 

* Isa. xIt. 15. This is Amnn, the Ckmoealed Mosia, AmanueL They i^aoe the 
power of Osiris in the moon. — de Iside, 48. 

* The epopta were admitted to the third, the highest grade of initiation in the Mys- 
teries. It is seeing, Visionary, actual obserration ! 

• Mind, Wisdom. 

• The Norton, the Mind-peroeived unity. 
"* de Iside, 77. 

• Strabo, 761. Horns was white, as in Rev. i. 14. Mlthra was represented as 
JMBoh in Aries, surrounded by the 7 planets.— Compare Rev. iv. 4 ; v. 6 ; Numb., niii. 
1, 3. In the Mithra-Mysteries we find a Horse White, and a White Throne.— Rev. xix. 
U ; xz. 11. All the old myths of Osirianism are revived in such an identical fashion 
tnUUeetually that, put but the ** King " for Osiris, and the general description of the 
one creed is sn accurate description of the other. — Stnart-Glennie in the Momingland, 
p. 377. Horns, as Eling, holds the sceptre and cross.— Seal of lar. Abbot Museum. 



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Asori, Asarel (Israel), Osiris, Asah, Asat, Set, Isis and Issa ; 
for * Isis came out of Phcenicia ' and Israel. The Jews substi- 
tuted, for Asriel, Israel ; and instead of beginning: the Penta- 
teuch with Osariel (Osiris) and Isis, wrote the Adam (the In- 
victus, the Unconquered) and Aisah (Josephus's Issa). For 
Osiris^ is the adamatos, the unsubdued — according to Plu- 
tarch, de Iside, 19, — and rises again from Hades ; for it was 
not possible that he should there be conquered.' He died on 
Athur 17th when the moon was most full. The Pythagoreans 
call it thp day of the antiphraxis (obstruction to the solar light 
reaching th^ moon). And in what are called the obsequies of 
Osiris, cutting the tree they prepared a boat (ark) shaped like 
the moon (compare the prow of the * Dipper ') ; for the moon, 
filled with light from the sun, becomes crescent-shaped when 
the light is cut off from her. But the Apis (compare the bull 
as sacred in High Asia, Persia and Israel), being the ensouled 
image of Osiris, is bom when productive light from the Moon 
rushes out and touches the ripened cow. When the Eharu 
came out from Misraim led by Acharon they too made a holy 
sun-bull of Osiris, the Golden Bull of Menes,^ among the 
Mountains of the Moon,^ on their miraculous march to Choreb, 
Tunep, Caleb, Chebron, and Sal-em. Christianism, like Es- 
senism, is affiliated to the doctrines of the Egyptian, Dionysi- 

> Oompftre Apollo, lemng with Admetos in Hades. Like Horns in the Under- 
world with Osiris. Seb, or Set.— Plat., de Ii«ide, 19, 41, 44, 52, 54, 69. Horns has the 
lion*s head. This representation of Horas-Apollo is in New York at the Historical 
Sooiety^s rooms. De Iside, 19, implies the lion as his representation. 

s The Kara gashed their foreheads in the Monming for Oiiris.— Herodotns, iL 59. 
The Phoraioians of Byblns became eonnchs for his siQce.— Luoian, Syria Dea, 15, 27, 
50 ; Matth. xix. 10-12 ; Mark, x. 29. The Egyptian priests in the Mysteries cautions, 
ly tanght that Osiris is Hades, Dis, Pluto (Dionysus is Hades in Greek Mysteries). 
But, says * de Iside,* Ixxviii., * He is at the furthest possible distance from the earth, 
unpolluted, uncontaminated, and pure from every nature that receives decay and 
death. And for men's souls, here indeed surrounded by (mortal) bodies and emotions, 
there is no communion with the God, except so far as to touch an obscure dream by in- 
telligence through phUosophy ; but when liberated (from the body) they remove inio 
the incorporeal, and unseen, and passionless and holy (pure) this God (Osiris) is to 
them Leader and King depending as it were from Him and (in spiritual intuition) see- 
ing insatiably and desiring a beauty that is not made known to and unspoken to men.' 
— de Iside, 78. The word ' King ' is used of the Redeemer God : Then shall the King 
say (to the righteous) Come ye blessed.— Matthew, xxv. 84. 

> Lepsius, Letters, p. 418. 

4 Lunns, Sin, SinaL Kemi or Kemi-t, la ** terre noire," comme Finterpr^te tr^ 
exactement Plutarque, de Iside, 88. Kem ou kam en copte kame, '' noir.*'— Lenor- 
mant, les ong. IL 195. Observe the B in Kheopa, Keb, Khembes, Khemmis. 


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ac, Chaldaean, Arabian and Jewish Mysteries (see Ezekiel, 
Yiii. 3, 10, 12, 14) with the Jewish doctrine of the Messiah su- 
peradded. The Jewish Mysteries resembled (in the doctrine 
of Darkness) the Osirian.—Ezekiel, viii. 8-12. 

Wherefore, not incorrectly, they tell the myth that the sotd 
of Osiris ^ is eternal and and3ring but that the DeTil often tears 
asnnder his body ^ and makes way with it ; but that Isis roam- 
ing about seeks after it and puts it together again. For the 
divine essence the mentally -perceiyed and good is superior to 
decay and change ; but the images with which the visible and 
corporeal (substance) is stamped by the Mentally-perceived 
Essence, as, too, the conditions, f oims, and likenesses assumed 
by the corporeal (part), just like impressions in wax, are not 
always permanent.^ But to the mind the tunic of skin is, 
symboliccdly, the natural skin, that is, our body (as in Gene- 
sis, iii. 21). For God, making first the Intellect, called it 
Adam ; next he created the outward sense to which he gave 
the name Eua ^ (Life). He gave to the first-formed Woman * 
the name Eua, since She was to be the fountain of universal 
generation in future.* Bishop Hippolytus tells us that the 
Assyrians ' call Life Adonis.^ The Adon was a combination 
of Mind with Life in the abstract. For the Architect of the 
world of fire is Mind of Mind.' The primal fire up above did 
not enclose his power within Matter by works but by Mind.^® 
Incorruptible fire was supposed to perform its workings in the 
heaven,^^ and the soul was supposed to be, by the Father's 
power, a radiant fire.^ 

> The Ra-ka-f, or Kha-f-ra. Osim-LimiM appears in mommy-form, the lonar disk 
upon hia head— Maspero, Gtdde, p. 174. Compare Sour. — Gen. zxr. 18, and Soor 
(Tyre) with Asnr and Otir. 

* ^^the hody of the Good Principle is the snn.**— de Iside, 51. The Sun is father 
of Osiria, hut Osiiis is olosely connected with the moon.— de Iside, 13, 13, 18. 88-^, 40, 
41. He is the Lonar Kosmos. — ihid, 41. 

* de Iside, 54. 

* Philo Jodaeos, Qoaestio I. 58. 

* Issa, Isis, Hebrew Isah, the Lonar Mother of the world, Astarta, as a Spiritoal 
Mind-perceived Lonar erititf^. Spirits withont bodies. — Gen. iii 21. 

•Philo, QoaestioL SO, 

* read Syrians. 
•Hippolytoa, Hh. V. 7. 

*• Proklos in Tbeol. 888 ; in Tim. 157. See Cory, Ano. Fragm. 
" Proklos in Plato, politeia, 3W. Cory. The Orientals did not onderstand elec- 
tricity and lightning. Khot means fire, khoti fires, in Egyptian. 

>* Psell. 28 ; Plet. 11. Here is the poor aothority for the recent assertion that the 

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Qoapropter, qai Materiem rerom esse pnt&mnt 

Ignem fttque ex igni summam cousistere solo 

Magnopere a vera lapsi ratione videntur.— Laoretias, L 636-688. 

Fire and the ehembim in the Levant were symbols of Saturn. 
See Dunlap, Vestiges, 115-117 ; Movers, 154, 269, 260 ; Ezekiel, 
i. 4, 22, 26, 27 ; Daniel, vii. 9, 10. The flaming fire (Sada) 
rolled in upon itself to keep the way to the Tree of Life (the 
Adon) in the Gan Odin (the Garden of Adin) ; for the Ghebers 
of Chebron, Phoenicia, Philistia, and Egypt followed the doc- 
trines of the Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians concerning 
the Garden of the Lord in the sides of the North and the Ghe- 
ber fireworshippers were akin in some things to the Brah- 
mans. Conceive the first plain aspect of the composites fire, 
life, light, in the Semite mind. God being a globe of fire is 
Litelligence and the soul of the world, said Damaskius.* Li 
the Chaldaean doctrine the primal being is considered the 
Creative Mirid, the Intelligence that forms the world. This 
primal being encloses the type, idea and form of the to be cre- 
ated world and produces it out of himself ,^ just as lambli- 
chus^ and, earlier, Plutarch* conceived Amun.' Ammon is 
the Creative Logos. 

Ach, in Hebrew, means fire, heat, burning ; lach (lauchi = 
"he lives") means life, vital fire. Aku (Akko, Acre) was a 
Gheber city, where the fire-worship prevailed. Akuu (in Assy- 
rian) meant " I burned." — Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch., I. 282. In 
Hebrew, Kuh means " burned." In Egyptian akh meant sun 
shedding rays, fire, light and spirit (breath or vital air).^ He- 

disdmilar properties of mind and matter establish the existence of two distinct sub- 
stances. By this little ruse, the preacher assumes that mind is a substatice / He might 
as well have aigued that sound is a substance. Sound and roioe are not substances, 
but, like mind and vitality, are qualities appertaining to matter in certain states of or- 
ganization. The copper ¥rire is a nuterial substance, but the voice and words con- 
veyed by it are unsabstantial ; in a similar way the physique is substance and the mind 
which it exhibits is its tone. 

» Cory, Anc. Fragments. 

a Proklns in Parmenidem, V. p. 47. 

'de Myst. viiL 8. 

* de Tside, 9, 62. 
•Movers, 268. 

• G. Massey, the Natural Gen. IL p. 507. Egypt, vocabulary. When AoharSn 
(Aharon, Aaron) ascended Mt. Chor, or *Hor, he was in Negeb, but still, perhapa, in 
the land of the Karu or Charu.— Compare Numbers, xxxiiL 37-89. He was 128 years 
of age. We have the sun city of Chares. — Jer. xlix. 86. The temple Kur.— Schrader, 
214. Asu (Esau) is Idumea ; and Qarach is an Idumean.— Gen. xxxvL 8. But Qaracli 

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phaistos (Patah, Ptah) is the Vital fire in nature ; his Son, 
Erichthonios, the fire of Hades.^ Achu (compare the Greek 
Auge and khu, the soul as fire) means the glorified.* It is an 
expression (according to Lauth, 94) applied to *' Thoth (Thuti 
with the moon*s crescent on his head) the glorified, endowed 
more than all the glorified," This reminds one of the Mighty 
Angel Gbbariel, lunar angel of the Jews, who takes the place of 
the Logos. He is the " Wisdom in the moon." Philo's re- 
mark, therefore, that "God making Intellect first, called it 
Adam," was the received doctrine of the ancient Egypt, the 
true Kabalah ; for Adam was described as the Wisdom, " horn 
of Mene," the true Menes out of whom issues the Lunar-rib, 
Eua, the feminine spiritus. Now the moon-god was known as 
" Men " throughout Asia Minor,^ Sin (Lunus) in Chaldea. Com- 
pare Genesis, ii. 23, where Adam admits in himself the union of 
the two sexes (as and asah, = Adam and Issa, Isah, Isis), Ais, 
" man," and Ishah (the Woman-principle of life, in fire). 

We find the cities of the priests with the brothers (fratres) 
in their orders, in 2 Chronicles, xxxi. 16. A deity, regarded as 
the pure, holy fire, cannot be approached by the ordinary man ; 
a priest-caste is requisite, to which the preservation of the 
sacred fire-place is entrusted, and which by mortifyings (of the 
flesh) and torments self-inflicted must . make itself worthy of 
the access to the deity and its revelation. We find among the 
Old Canaanites no proper priesthood, but everywhere in Pal- 
estine, according to the Scriptural accounts, where the Chal- 
dean fire-god Moloch was adored.^ 

was bom in the land Kanaan (among the Kharu). — Gen. xxxri. 5. Qargar a city in 
Jadges, yiii 10. Who then are the Karukamaaha ? Syrian Kareki Kamas- worshippers. 
Compare Astor-Kamos. — Schrader, 177. 

i Binck, L 122. 

s Laath, Aus igypt Voneit, p. 94. Kha means *' light.**— Rawlinaon^ Bgypt, n. 
272. " The Heptaktis U no other than SabaSth and the Hebrew God laO " (— lachoh). 
—Movers, Phon, 552. 

The Logos was with the God, and God was the Logos. But in it was Light and 
the light was the life (John, i 4). The baptism of the Logos is in Holy Spirit and fire ! 
— Blatthew, iiL 11. Thy luminOta is with thy brothers the Gods, O Teta '—Pyramid of 
King Teti ; Masp^ro, Beoueil de TraTaux, V. p. 18. Thou dost cry to the Luminoui 
(spirits) : Come to me ! Come to me ! Come towards Hor, him who defends his father 
Osiris ; for Teta is thine Lutiator !— Ibid. V. p. 19. The followers of Monoimus the 
Arabian say that the Beginning of everything is First Man and Son of ' Man,* and that 
the created things, as Mpses says, were not prodnced by the First Man, but by the Son 
of the ' Man,' not by the whole of him but by a part — Hippolytus, x. p. 522. 

» Sayce, in Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch. VIL 2.56. 

* Movers, Phdn. 359. See 1 Kings, xviii 38 ; 2 Kings, i. 12 ; Ezekiel, i. 37. 


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To say, too, that all things are fire, and that no true 

Thing is evidently existing, in the nature of things, bat Fire.' 

— Lukretius, L 691, 602. 
Fire is then the Beginning, because it is the source of all things ; and the End, 
Because, too, into it all things are resolved. 

—Plutarch, placitis phllos., I. iii. 25. 
Adonai, thou hast been our place of abode in generation and in generation, 
before the mountains were brought forth and the earth formed. — Psalm, xc. 1, 2. 

The lion represents fire^ and its force. Hence lions were 
kept in the temple of Horus and, under his name lar, he is 
represented with a lion's head, and called the "light, fire, 
flame ; " Philo ^ held that there were three forms or species in 
fire : the splendor (light), flame, coal, which he calls auge, phlox, 
anthrax. Since the lion is a symbol of the ingneous principle* 
in nature, and since the fire is found in the interior of this 
planet, it in Hades proceeded to the genesis of the world, con- 
taining within itself all the spermatic logoi or causes of genera- 
tion and the life. In Hades ' the fire of Sarapis was believed 
to exist, in lion shape, and the symbolic cherubim have the 
lion's among their four faces. 

The first men in Egypt formerly looking upon the kosmos 
and the nature of things, having been struck with wonder, sup- 
posed that there are Two immortal and primal Gk)ds, one of 
whom they called Osiris, the other, Isis.® This Isis (Greek) is 
the Hebrew Isah,'' whom Josephus calls Issa ; and who is the 
Hebrew Euah,^ the Septuagint Eua,® and the " Eua " in the 
Dionysian Mysteries, as we see elsewhere.^® 

1 Adonai, thou hast been our abode in generation and generation. — Ps. zp. 1. 

* the fiery principle, Mithra, the Vital Fire ; Ar, lar, AiieL The principle of fire is 
doable-gendered in Mitbra, Ptab, the Hebrew Choohmab, Ariob Anpin and Eric^MUos. 
— Dunlap, Vestiges, 228, 250. 

* On the World, 15 ; ed Mangey, H 504, 616. The Stoics held that God himself is 
resolved into fire ; the ekpurSsis is Stoic. — Justin Hart3rr, pp. 142, 143. 

* Lenormant, les origines de Thistoire, I 246, 247. Judges, vi. 21, 23, describes 
Adonai lahoh as fire. 

» In the Depth.— Isaiah, vii 11. The Goddess KerSs was in Hades.— Herodotus, 
n. 122, 128. 

• Diodor. L 11. Assor was regarded in Assyria as a ** king above all gods."*— Sayoe, 
Hih Lect. 122. 

» Gen. a 28. 

• Gen. iii 20. HIH 

• Gen. iv. 1. Sept. 

»« The fast to 'rijr "Bvor.*— Clemens Alex, Cohort ad Gentes, 11, 12; Gerhard, die 
Anthesterieu, p. 204. The Thea pherekarpos of Nonnus, IH 281, the loh-KerCs or 
Lunar bom associated with, and to, the Adam. 

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Small things please good Keres if only they be pore.— OTid, Fast, iT. 412. 

White coverings suit Keres ; put on white garments at the Kerealia. — Ovid, 
Fast, iT. 619. 

Shouting out that Eua!~Glemen8 Alexandrin us, Cohort ad Gentes, 11, 12. 

It is Anua,exclaim8 Achates!— Grid, Fast iii. 607. 

*' And Keres with clamor thej shall call from the roofs ! "—Virgil, Georgios, 

Usus ab^tt Veneris : nee fas animalia mensis.— Ovid, It. 657. 

Some regard Her as Luna since She fills the jear with months.— Ovid, iii. 

But Isis is also Yenns, the Pharadatta or Oiver of fmitful- 
ness.^ Isis, however, is described, in the Euhemerist way, as a 
woman, Osiris is described as a man. She is buried at Mem- 
phis, receives divine honors, and her sepulchre was shown 
down to the time of Diodorus.^ Q^rhard also mentions a Venus 
Proserpina.* Aphrodite's temple, at Memphis was the temple 
of the Moon (Selene, Luna). — Strabo, 807. Consequently Isis, 
Eua, Vena, Venus and Keres are identical, as Luna, in heaven, 
or in Hades. The Mourning for Adonis was performed on the 
roofs, according to Aristophanes, Lysistr. 863 ; Jeremiah, xxii. 
18, has the Hoi Adon. Aristophanes represents the women 
dancing on the roofs, while Jeremiah mentions incense burned 
on roofs to Bal. 

A i)eculiar monotheism was once the foundation of the 
Egyptian Beligion. At Tell-Amarna, Aten is often .styled the 
One Qod, Since the Egyptians admitted that their Osiris- 
Typhon myth formed part of their Mysteries it is impossible 
for the Jews to deny that the very same myth, the Abel-Cain 
story, was a portion of the Mysteries of Jewish hidden wisdom. 
The Apokalypse mentions a great White Throne, also a White 
Horse ! White the Menes bull. White indicated mental per- 
ception concerning Gbds in Egypt.^ The Jews wore tohite, the 
mystic garb.' White were the priests of Osiris, white the 

1 Diodorns, 1. 11, 14. Ta is the Semitic root meaning ^* to give ; ^' da is the Sans- 
krit, Greek and Latin. The Egyptian t has to do the work of d. On the roofs they 
called Aetarte (Ker6s, Venus), poured out inoense to Bal (Bel) and mourned Adonis.— 
Jeremiah, viL 18 ; xxziL 29 ; compare xxii. 18 ; xlviiL 88. 

> Diodor. L 23, p. 25, Wesaeling. As the female names were merely different 
names of the same divinity, it is safe to regard Eua as Keres also. — Compare Diodorus, 
L 25, p. 29, and Gerhard, p. 204. 

> ibid. 201. 

* de Iside, 3. The pure must not be tonohed by what is impure; -de Iside, 4. 
•J. G. Meuschen, p. 294. 

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color of Horus, and white was Mithra's throne. Diodorus Sic- 
ulus relates that the priests received from the tocients in 
hidden mysteries the account concerning the death of Osiris, 
but that once on a time what was " unspoken " was by some 
made public. For they said that the lawful king of Egypt, 
the Osiris, was made way with by his brother, Typhon, who 
was violent and wicked ! A writer of the first century, describ- 
ing the Mysteries of Egypt, says : " For nothing unreasonable, 
nothing mythical, nor the result of superstition, as some think, 
was made the foundation of the Eeligious Services ; but, on the 
one hand, matters having their raison d'etre in ethics and wants, 
on the other, things not devoid of historical and physical re- 
finement. So about the onion. For Diktos, the foster-child of 
Isis, tumbling into the Eiver and perishing as he was gather- 
ing the onions, is to the last degree absurd ; for the priests 
shrink from, and feel disgusted, being on their guard against 
the onion, because it is accustomed to do well and grow lux- 
uriantly oTily when the moon ^ is decreasing ! And it does no good 
to the fasting or the festival-keepers, to the former, because it 
causes thirst, to the latter, it makes those who come near shed 
tears." ^ 

Herodotus seems to have been very much impressed by 
these mysteries of which he only speaks with manifest fear and 
repugnance.' The initiated could not touch upon these subjects 
except with extreme reserve. Herodotus was so affected by 
them that he copied the respectful brevity of the Egyptian 
priests and did not dare to permit himself to speak the name 
of the God of whom the Elhen of Sais concealed the sepulchre. 
The Bitual cites in the number of the greatest mysteries the 
manifestations of forms which took place in the night during 
which the thigh, the two legs and the heel of Osiris were in- 

1 Mene, Selene, Sillah, Zillah. The Bgjrptians made a small image in t.umab shape, 
to indicate Osiris and Isis, and that these Gods are the essence of water and earth. — de 
Iside, 89. The orescent was made of earth and water mixed. Osiris is Eros — de 
Iside, 57. Osiris is the Goodness, the Good principle. Kupris is the primal Mother 
(Baa).— Aeschylus, Septem oontra Thebas, 140, 141. 

' de Iside, 8. Osiris is the Intelligible Sun, Mithra, the Intelligible Light— de 
Iside, 77. With Eg3rptian lunar mysteries compare the new moons of Judah.— Isaiah, 
i. 18, 14 ; Numbers, x. 10. 'Ek «? in^y Aionkrov fipytoi^ — ^Lucian, Dea Syria, 16. 

> Chabas, 102, 108. 

« Chabas, 118, 114 ; Herod. II. 170, 171. With the name Osir, compare Sirah.— 
2 Sam. iii. 26. 


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A great mjstery which should be neither eeen nor heard ; he who performs 
it mast be washed ' and porified ; he most not have drawn near a woman nor 
have eaten meat or fish. — Ritual, cap. 64.^ 

I am Sha,' under the figure of the Sun, seated in the midst of the eye of 
his father. — Papjrrus Magic, yH.* In heaven Ra creates a place of delights, 
the Fields of Aalou, which he peoples with stars. Enbering into repose, Shou 
succeeds him as king, administering the heavenlj affairs with Nout— Lenor- 
mant, I. 452. 

The Egyptians considered the heaven a vast sea, as in Genesis, 
i. 6. The sun goes through the heaven in a bark, of which he 
occupies the centre. The celestial sea which environs all parts 
of our universe has been the theatre of the first divine mani- 

All moisture thej call simplj outflow of Osiris.— de Iside, 86. 

As-BA her mou : 

Osiris (is) on the water.* — Papyrus magique. Ghabas, 119. 

The call of Ia*hoh upon the waters ; El ha kabod makes to thunder.— 
Psalm, xxix. 3. 

lahoh sits upon the flood. 

The voice of the Lord upon the waters. — psalm, xxix. 8, 10. 

Thy waj (is) in the sea, and thj path in the Great Waters, 

And thj footsteps are not known. — psalm, Ixxvii. 19. 

He made Darkness his secret place : his pavilion about him dark waters. — 
psalm, xviii. 11. 

El thunders with his voice. — Job, xxxvii. 5. 

Dionysus was worshipped among the Old Eanaanites and 
Arabians — "where the Bacchic fire of the God leaps forth." 
This FIRE is that of Bal Melkarth or Moloch. The worship of 
this Tyrian Fire-god Herakles (Archal) was carried to Tarz 

> Ezodua, xix. 10, 11, 13 ; I Samuel, zxL 4^ 5. The ''bundle of life** with U*hoh 
(1 Sam. XXV. 29) is the union of the souls with Osiris ! 

* Chabas, Reponse, p. 41. 

* Shu (S^ : the d is ou and a in Hebrew and Egyptian. S and Sh were ex- 
pressed by one and the same letter in Hebrew. The Egyptian Sh it replaced by s. — 
Lanth, Egypt. Chronol. p. 77. Herakles is called S0t^, Saviour ; so are Apollo and 
Abel Zioa the first-begotten Son. 

« Chabas, 96. 

* ibid. 51 , 53. il lui etait donn^ une tftoile an del. — ^ibid. pap. magiqne, 34. Horns 
ifl the Spring, saving all things.— de Iside, 38. Shu is the Son-god. — Rawlinson, I. 
351 ; IL lia 

* The moist nature (phusis) was beginning and the genesis of all things from the 
beginning. — Chaldean Oracle. The Egyptians call the spirit Amon. — de Inide, 37. 
Pkt>veibs, Tiii. 30, mentions this Amon. The San (Osiris, Amon) is full of fire and 
8pirit.~-Diodor. %c. L 11. Horns (the Knrioe) is the light, fire, flame. — Seal of lar 
with the lion's head. 


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(Tarsus) and to Greece. Astarta Moloch-Herakles was identi- 
fied at Tarsus, with Athena. Here we have the Semite fire- 
deities. Astarta with her doves, and Athena-Astarta, or 
Melechet. Melechet is the fire-goddess, the Asah = Fire. — 
Movers, 319. In the Old Canaanite worship the spirit ^ ap- 
pears in the fiame, Astarta is fire-goddess and also the Giver 
of birth (phara-datta or ha-phara-datta) the Bestower of in- 
crease, like Luna, Hekate and Yenus. The sun counted for 
the unit (Achad,^ to Iv, Apollo^, the Moon for the duad (Hek- 
ate, Artemis). These are two great fire-deities. As (Wagen- 
seil, Sota, p. 387) and Asah or Asat (or Ashah, Aishah, Asat, 
Issa, Isis, and Ashat). Hence we learn to know why the great 
enemies of Egypt, the Sheto, were so named : they adored Set 
the God of fire. Astar meant a fire Star, like aster in Greek ; 
hence Astareta, Astarta, Ashtoret, Astarte. The asteres were 
" heaven's bright lights,"^ the "lamprous' rulers" of the great- 
est of poets,* and Astarta was their Arabian and Phoenician 
Queen, the " Queen of heaven " to whom the Israelites used to 
make cakes. luno, regina detim, is the Syrian Queen of 
heaven.' As-iri and As-et (Osiris and Isis), the active As and 
passive As, show the unit dualistically divided into the two- 
fold principle of sex.® 

Sada meant '' fire.*' From Asad (Asat, in place of Asad) we 
derive Asatel,» Setel, Sat,*® Set, Seth God of fire of Tyrians, 
Kananites, Kenites, f hilistians and Egyptians, the God of the 
Hyksos-kings that the Eg3rptians feared as the Devil. Asata 
is Uesata, Hestia, Vesta, Tstia," and Sate. 

1 Ash * fire. — S. Sharp, Hebrew Grammar without points, p. 44 ; Wagenseil, Sota, 
p. 887. Aa, Ash, ** fire," AaC (lua, Isia, Bua), the iouroe of fertiKty, frtTH HBV With 
Pharah-dite, compare phero " to bear," " to bring forth."— Homer'a Athena ooones in a 
fiery chariot, ** the flame-girt bark of the moon. ** 

9 Compare Achates, from Aohad, or KhattL In Fhilistia and Egypt t replaced d. 

* de Iside, 75. 

« Ezekiel, xxxii 8. 

* Shining. 

* Aeschylns, Agamemnon, soliloquy of the watchman. 

^ JerenL, vii 17, 18. Istar&ti is a warlike goddess. — Schrader, Keilin. n. d. A. T. 

* Lauth, Aeg. Vorzeit, L 38, 40. 

* Asatal, at first. Compare Ashtaol (— Joshna, xix. 41) and the Sethite name 
Asaton.— 1 Chron. iv. 11, 13. 

i<i Seth is Bal, Baal, Apollo, BeL Astarte has her emblems the doves.— Dr. A. 
Hilchhoefer, Anfiinge d. Knnst in Grieohenland, pp. 8, 87. 

1^ £s&t, in Ethiopic, means fire, and is&ta '* fire " in Assyrian.— Dr. Paul Haupt, 


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Taking the divine Monad as the starting-point, which 
everywhere impresses us as the Original, the duplex character 
of the principle of sex brings us to the duality of Osiris-Isis, 
just as we have above divided * AS ' the root of the name Life.^ 
In the same way, elohim ^ is divisible into Osiris and Isis, 
Adam and Eua, Man and Woman, As and Asah (Ase, Issa, 

ApoUo * is the Monad. —Plataroh, de Iside, 10. 

If to Ach meaning fire or Akhu " light " we add Abel (Abe- 
lios, Apollo) we obtain Akabel, a name of lakoub, to mate with 

The more wise oonoealing it from the manjr, call '* the change into fikb " 
Apollo, on account of the oneness (nnitj) ; but Phoibus, because it is pure and 
undefiled. — Plutarch, de Ei apud Delphos, 9. 

The Sethites marched out of Egypt with the fire-pillars lead- 
ing the force. Sad is Hermes ; Sada, a flaming fire (John- 
son's Persian Diet. p. 690), and Sadem (Sodom) the Fire-city of 
Genesis, xix. 24. The Egyptians considered fire a living ani- 

Qui ignem Materiem remm esse put&runt— Lukretius, I. 636. 

Those who have supposed that Fire is the elementary substance of things. 

Hermes was named Asad in Arabia. — Univ. Hist, iviii. 379. 
There was an idol of Sad. — ^ibid. 387. The Arab tribe Asad 
adored Hermes. — Chwolsohn, II. 404. Asad means * Lion * and 
the Zodiac sign * Leo.' — Bichardson, Persian Arabic Diet. II. 

Phonology, pp. 1T7, 178, in "Hobraioa," vol. I. Jan. 1885. Syria© Asata "ferer."— 
ibid. L 178. With the Hebrew Asah, Asa (the Issa of Josepbus) and the Hebrew 
Asat *' woman ** we can compare the Assyrian Assatn " wife " (P. Hanpt, 175) and 
the Wife-principle Isi, Eei, or Isis, the moon as Bena, Venah, Venus or Pharahdatta 
the Lunar Wisdom, the feminine principle of vitality. 

» Lautb, auB Aeg3rpten's Vorzeit, I. 40. 

^ Gen. i 1. elohim is dual. 

* Kroisna sent a Golden Lion to Apolla— Herodotus, L 50; Nork, IIL 178. The 
Lion is the Sim*s house. — ^Porphyry, de Antro, xxii. They represented the Lion-man 
on the vail of the Jewish Temple.— Ezekiel, xli 18, 19 ; Exodus, xxv. 18, xxvi 81. 
Hermes is a Power of t^e Sun. Macrob. xyiii xix. 285, 305. Asadoth (Joshua, iii 20) 
looks like a city of Asad, where Sad (Sat, Set, Seth) was the tutelar deity. — The Lion 
sacred to the Sun.— Nork, HI. 178 ; Philo, Somnia, 15, 16. 

* Compare the Asherite name Kabul not far from Kadesh in latitude 83, in Gali- 

* Herodotus, HL 16. Set is ApoUo-Bal, HaboL 


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45 ; I. 432. Zadus (Sad) is the planet Merkury*s name. The 
Lion-man was represented on the vail of the Jewish temple. 
Sad and Seth are names of Hermes as originator of writing 
and science. The lion was adored as God.^ 

Nee ta aliud Vestam quam puram intellige flammam, 

Nataque de flamma corpora nyUa vides. 
Jure igitar Virgo est qaae semina nulla remittit 

Nee capit, et comites virgiuitates babet. — Ovid, Fast vi. 

To Virgil's lines,^ in which Hector delivers the sacra to Aeneas 
together with the potent eternal fire of Vesta we have the re- 
mark of Christopher Landini that the temple was truly great, 
having in the centre an altar ^ on which fire burned on every 
side and watched by two vestals. On the top of the temple 
was the figure of the Virgin which held in arms an Infant. 
To this, Scacchi, an Augustine monk, adds : Deus noster ignis 
consumens est, and considers the figure that of the most holy 
Virgin. For, says he, the Gfentiles received prophetically 
from the divine oracles many things under those veils and 
enigmas, which, in order that they might not be disfigured or 
contaminated among the vulgar, they handed down, involved 
in fables, to the nations to be cherished. But if they should 
not at all have venerated Vesta's statue for that reason, we will 
not have the slightest fear to regard it as an image of the Vir- 
gin Mother of God.* An Etruscan mirror shows Venus (Turan) 
embracing Adonis (Atunis) who is here represented as a Boy 
looking up at her with intense affection.^ 

The Hebrew and Phoenician languages are practically iden- 
tical.* Isaiah xix. 18 exhibits the Hebrew as the language 
of Canaan.' Israel is represented as an Arab sheik, not re- 
mote from the tribes of Ismael, Potiphar bought loseph! 

» Porphyry, Abst. iv. 54. 
« Aeneid, H. 293, 296, 297. 

* Levitioas, tL 13, mentions the eternal fire. The Jewish lion represented the 
Chrifltoa — 4 Esdras, xii 31, 32. They ornamented the temples with leonine open jaw& 
de Iside, 38. 

* Scacchi, Marotheoinm, I p. 48. 

* Dennis, Cities, etc. 429. Turan, Toranns, Tomns. 

* Jos. contra. Ap. I. 22, considers them the same. See the Moabite Stone and the 
Inscription of Eshmunazar. Also Dr. P. Schrdder, Pb5n. Sprache, p. 7 ; BibL Arch. 

"> Mnnk, Palestine, S7, 88. The Canaanites were a civilised and advanced people. 
— ibid. 86. Had chariots of iron. 


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He was a pharaonic officer, a captain of the Egyptian guard. 
These are Egyptian designations not Semitic ! Yet we might 
have expected Semitic ones if the Phoenicians, Syrians, Idu- 
means, Philistines or Hyksos had then been the rulers of 
Egypt. In this case, we should have to admit, as Lepsius 
says, an anachronism which cannot easily find a parallel. The 
captain of the king's body-guard was an Egyptian, Pete- 
phres, or Petphra, and the king himself is always the phara 
(or pharaoh),— titles by no means Semitic, scarcely suited to the 
Hyksos regime. Yet Ph-Rah give Joseph an Egyptian name.* 
" How is it possible that a Semitic king, who, like the six in 
the list of the so-called Shepherd-kings, must undoubtedly 
have borne a Semitic name, would have given Joseph an 
Egyptian name, to do him honor?" Hisvrife's name is Se- 
mitic (being from Assana in 1 Esdras, y. 31, Asan, San, Beth 
San, 8an-Tanis). Petphra (his father in law) was Highpriest 
of Heliopolis, which is an additional and more certain proof 
that the Semitic nation of the Hyksos were not reigning here, 
for they would at first have destroyed all the Egyptian tem- 
ples ; and they would hardly have permitted the worship of 
Ra ' to continue in the neighborhood of Memphis, whose High 
priest must give his daughter to Joseph for a wife, in order to 
show him particular honor and to naturalise him completely.^ 
Therefore the account derived by Josephus out of Manetho is 
worthless. The Egyptians, according to Herodotus, had the 
same disinclination to eat with the Greeks that is mentioned 
in Gtenesis, xliii. 32. If the Shepherds ruled in Egypt how 
could the Shepherds be an abomination ? Therefore, it is ob- 
vious that Exodus here has in view the time of Ahmes or 
Meneptah, or the period when Exodus was written, which was 
late ; unless as early as the time of Alexander the Great, or 
derived from some dim tradition. 

This Isarel (or Israel), when he learns that loseph is still 
living and in Egypt (where Asari, Isiri, Isiris^ or Osiris was 

1 Gen. zH 45. But pmeach, zephoiutth are Hebrew. 


* Lepeiiifl, Letters, 476-479. Since Joeephns (o. Ap. I. 108U, lOSl f.) maintains 
that the Hebrews are the Hyksos, which opinion Dr. G. Seyfiarth held, and regarding 
the whole story as a Hebrew myth or hieros logos, told for the purpose of decorating 
the expulsion of the Setbite Hyksos from Egypt, Zaphnath paneaoh, seems to be best 
translated from the Hebrew : * North, a Revealer.* Seph (lo Seph) is a Diviner of se- 
crets.— Genesis, xli S9; xUf. 15. 

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worshipped), concludes at once to make a forced march to 
Egypt taking with him his flocks and herds (all that the 
Amalekite Shepherd possessed), to see loseph again before he 
died ! ^ It looks like a disguised raid of the Hyksos that is 
here put forward in the historical-novel dress ; for the Ba 
(Pharaoh) is informed that the Israeli are " Shepherds " every 

Wa iamaru al pa-Bah, rah ' zan ebedik gam-anooheuo gam-abothino. 
And tliej said to the king : jxutor of eattle your servants ; both we and our 
fathers I— Gen. xlvil. 8. 

They seek to pass for Arccbs ; not as cultivators of grapes, 
fruit and grain. The Philistine Shepherds (tradition says) fed 
their flocks at Gizeh, opposite Memphis. They were the 
Egyptian abomination, although the Egyptians had cattle. 
The temple scribe, in seeking a remote ancestry for his peo- 
ple, thought first of Saturn (Israel, la Kub) who was king of 
Egypt, next of the Phoenician Isiri or Isiris, then of the Shep- 
herds in Egypt (the Hyksos) ; last of the recent history of 
loseph (who obtained the good will of Ptolemy) : and then 
began his story. After prescribing to lakob ^ the desire to see 
his son, then the drought in Palestine ; he suddenly develops 
his scheme in the significant words : Fear not to go down in- 
to Egypt ; for I wiU there rnake of thee a great nation I The 
Kaphtorim and the Kasluchim were in the mind of the scribe. 
Notwithstanding the Egyptians had retained such an unpleas- 
ant memory of Philistine Shepherds that every being of the 
sort was an abomination to a native Egyptian.* The men (are) 
Shepherds I ^ And the land ludah shall be a terror unto Mis- 
raim ! • This is the Hyksos ! There is no date in Genesis and 
Exodus, nor to the Egyptian dynasties. Hence an undefined 

» Gen. xlv. 28 ; xlvii 1, 4 

3 rah (rdh) means a friend ; a pastor (roia, or raia) ; then the aUUeration of pa 
Rah and rah. It is the novelist style of the eastern writing. 

« Keb is Kronos, Saturn. The Egyptians mourned for him 70 days.— Gen. 1. 8. 
lokab is Saturn. Further on, the scribe compares him with the setting sun.— Homer, 
Iliad, viii. 479 ; Hesiod, Op. et D., 167 ; Pindar, 01. ii 128 ; Gen. 1. 10, 11. 

< Gen. xlvi 34. 

ft haanoshim nd (roi) zan.— Gen. zlvi 32. Though a Shepherd, laqab takes as 
much interest in his tomb as a bom Misraimite would, and had it excavated during his 
lifetime. — Gen. L 5. 

• Isaiah, xix. 17. lacob speaks out the main purpose of the Scribe^s narrative, 
the preservation of Israelite posterity. — Gren. xlvii. 29. 


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vac^eness as to time pervades them. Taylor speaks of the 
sharp Semitic profile of the Hyksos, while, according to Uhle- 
mann, Hyksos and Israelites are represented alike on the 
monuments.^ Osiris * is Asar ^ among the Ghebers of Phoeni- 
cia, the Kefa, Goub and Israel. " The body of Osiris (die lie- 
gende Mnmie) is beheld l3ring in a boat, two eyes above it ! " 

In adjtis habent idolnm Osirldis sepnltam.— Julias FirmiotiB, de Errore, 2. 

We have Saturn as Qt>d of time and eternity in Gtenesis, xxi. 
33, whose day was " Satumo die," Saturday, at the Temple of 
Satnm (El Oulom). 

Satam whom thej also call Snn.— Senriiu, ad Aeneid, I. 729. 
Whom some call Sun. others Jupiter.— Servius, ad Aeneid, I. 729. 
Bel is called Saturn and Sol, owing to a certain theorjr of the rites. — ibid. 

In the sun El has set his tabernacle. — Vulgate psalm xix. 4. 
In the sun he has set his tent. — Septuagint Psalm, xix. 4. 
Hang them up to lachoh, before the sun. — Numbers, xxv. 4. 

Asad means ' Lion ' and the zodiac sign ' Leo ' ; * and the Lion 
is the * hoQse ' of the Sun.* The Arab tribe Asad worshipped 
Hermes* and Asada (the Messenger or Angel of Merkury) 
composed prayers and hymns, Hermes being the Author of the 
services in the temples of Egypt and Arabia.' Hermes, the 
Divine Wisdom, is that * Power of the Sun ' which is the author 
of speech® being the Logos and nearest Planet to the Sun. 
Hermes is consequently the ' el Sadi * * of the Jews, their ear- 

I Taylor, L 148 ; Uhlemann. Israeliten und Hyksos, 76 ; quotes Denon, pL 138. 
Uhlemaim's ealoolatioiM by Fhoenix-peziods, following Taoitos, Ann. vi. 28, woold date 
Ramses IL about &a 1258, and Ahmea-Amosiii about B.O. 1904.— ibid. p. 89. If we 
should happen to consider that the Saites of the 16th or 17th dynasty was the *' Salatis " 
at Memphis, according to /o«^Ata-Maneiho (contra Apion, I.), then the Amosis-Moses 
might be expected to oommenoe the 18th dynasty. Bat our reliance is neither npon 
Jew nor ESgyptian in this case. 

* Osiris replaces Set. The name Asari is written in place of Set in the names Seti 
L, Seti n., and Setnecht. Set is the Kheta God.— Meyer, Set-Typhon, 51-57. 

> The Syrian Lord. See the proper name Asara.— 1 Esdras, L 8L Asar is Osiria— 
Movers, L 43. Sor.— 1 Sam. zv. 7. 

* Richardson, Persian and Arabio Diet. L 482; IL lOS. 

* P o rphyry, de Antro, rrii. 

* Chwolsohn, Ssabier, H 404. 

7 Chwolsohn, Altbab Lit, 186, 166. 

* Macrobins, I. 285, 806. 

* Exodus, yL 8. 

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liest Ancestor Set, or Seth, the God of Phoenicians, Sabians, 
and Egyptians. The Hebrews adored Bal (Mithra who rolls 
round the Wandering Planets), the sun, moon, and the (five) 
planets.^ Consequently their symbolism placed a Gold Candle- 
stick with seven lamps to indicate these Sabaoth. Therefore 
the Jews, like the Babylonians, Persians, Egyptians, were 
Sabians and adored Mithra standing on a Lion. '' The Lion is 
worshipped as God."^ " They worship the Lion, and they or- 
nament the gates of the temples with leonine open jaws."' 
The conjoined heads of * lion and man ' were represented on 
the vail of the temple of the Jews/ The Jewish Lion repre- 
sented the King Christos.' Eroisos sent to Apollo, at Delphi, 
a golden lion.' The priests of Mithra were called ' leones,' " 
as the * leones ' were an order in tlie Persian Mysteries. In 
this and in the next following extract a resemblance to the 
mysteries and theory of early Messianism may perhaps be 


Thou art the Sun-god, thy body is his body, no king is like to 
thee, thou alone art like the Son of Osiris. . . . Thou dost 
rest in the Deep like Osiris. . . . Thou hast entered into 
the realm of heaven. Thou dost accompany the Sungod Ra. 
Thou art united with the Stars and the Moon. Thou dost rest 
in the Deep like Unnofer^ the Eternal. Thy hands move the 
God Tum in heaven and on earth, like the Wandering Stars 
and the fixed Stars. Thou dost remain in the forepart of the 
bark of millions. When the Sun rises in the tabernacle of 
heaven thine eyes behold his splendor. When Tum goes to 
rest on earth thou art in his train. Thou dost enter the Secret 
House before his lord. Thy foot wanders in the Deep. Thou 
remainest in the company of the Gods of the under world ! * 

' 3 Kings, xziii S. 

« Porphyry, de Abst. vr. p. 54. 

» Plutarch, Iside, 88. 

« Exekiel, xlt 18, 19; Exodas, xxriL 81. 

• 4 Esdras, xii. 81, S3 ; Rev. ▼. 5. Ariel means ' God's Lion.* 

• Herodotus, L 50 ; Nork, III. 178. Labo Mion,* labo/A 'flame,' lab 'heart,' leben 
* to live.' ^ 

» TertulUan, adv. Mark, 1. 18. 

• the Good Opener, a title of the rising sun. Un — to open. — ^Massey, II. S9, 90. 

• Brngsoh, U. 89-41. 

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The 8tm is the father of Osiris.* The primitive, primal power 
(Urkraft), the unit, has created all that floats around us : * 

Makes As 3 (Arktoros), Ketil (Orion), and Kimah (Pleiads) and the secret re- 
cesses of Teman.* — Job, ix. 9. 

Let them be for signs and for festirals, and for days and for years.— Gen. L 

The three stars Kappa, Iota, Theta, in the western hand of 
Bootes, formerly, when Alpha Draconis was the Pole Star, in 
descending rather skirted the horizon than absolutely sunk 
beneath it. They must have been invisible, and the whole con- 
stellation disappeared in that low latitude for about three days 
while the Search was going on and the Kananite and Jemsh 
women mourned the Lord. After this period the three stars 
would immediately reappear below and to the eastward of the 
Alpha Draconis. The detachment of Arkturus was an indica- 
tion of the loss of a special conspicuous symbol of Osiris.' 
Precisely at the moment of the heliacal rising of the brilliant 
star Spica, the Alpha of Virgo and near the middle of her 
figure, rose the Alpha (Arkturus) of the Husbandman Bootes. 
In the Aethiopian latitude, more than forty eight and a half 
centuries ago, on the very morning after the acronical depart- 
ure of the last of the stars of Bootes, Aldebar&n rose with 
the vernal Sun, Adni, Adonai, the Loim called ! When they 
shouted " Kejoice, we have found him ; " • the Sun arose with 
the splendid Aldebarfin.'' In this respect Arkturus is practi- 
cally, and to our purpose, the same materially as Bootes, Diony- 
sus,® Adonis, Hunter Orion and Nimrod. 

> Plutarch, de Inde, 13. 

* Nork, I. 2U. Art Baoktmst Bal (Adan) in Semite theory is both Snngod and 
Saturn, like El Eljon and IsraeL The chief seat of the Adonis worship was Phoenicia, 
and Dan was on the coast originally. -^-Gomp. Judg. v. 17. El is Saturn. Hit day is 
Saturday — die Satnrno. 

* Ash, fire. Asat, brightnesa Arkturus near the tail of the Great Bear. Kesil in 
Lenormant, Origines, 347. 331, means the strong, arrogant, man, the Gebar (Giant) of 
the Arabians. 

* *^ Subter praecordia fixa tenetur 
Stella mioans radiis Arkturus nomine daro 

— oui snbjecta fertur 
Spicnm iUustre tenens splendente corpore Virgo.'*— Cioero*s Version of Aratna. 

* de Iside, 18. 

* Osiris Found. 

T John Landseer, Sabaean Bes. 179-184. 

* Orion is compared with Dionysua — Movers, I. 498. Orion is Nimrod.— Nork, 
Wortcrbuch in das A. T. 847. 


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The Star of your Alah.— Amos, ▼. 26. 

Great Osiris, greater Phr6— the Light, Fire, Flame — ^ greater greater lar* 
bom in Epiphi, now very Inminous I 

Thou art the quickly fromthe-sun-coming God.— Seal of lar. 

But the coffin of Osiris was Ofion, at considerable distance from 
Bootes and the Great Bear. After finding Osiris, Isis gives 
him burial. . • . In the innet*most recess where the uninitiated 
cannot approach they kept the idol of Osiris buried; this 
they annually mourn with laments, they shave their heads, in 
order to deplore the pitiable misfortune of the King with the 
deformity of their disfigured heads, beat the breasts, lacerate 
the arms, cut again the scars of former wounds, in order that by 
annual Mournings the grief of the fatal and pitiable murder be 
reborn in their minds. And when they have done these things 
on the appointed days they then feign that they find the re- 
mains of his torn body, and when they have found Osiris, as if 
their griefs had ended they rejoice I ^ Vulcan ^ advised Orion 
to always go through the sea to meet the Sun, and Orion thus 
recovered his sight.* 


May the San, Greatest of the Gods, receive the sonl into his holj hands. — 
Trans. Soo. Bibl. Aroh»ologj. U. 80. 

A swathed Osiris, dweller of the West, Lord of Abot.* — Trans. Soc. Bibl. 
Arch. VIL 354. 

Herakles Sandan was worshipped in Orion, and so, apparently 
was Dionysus.* 

Osiris comes to thee (king Pepi) as Orion ! — Inscription in Pepi*s pjramid. 

The Bridegroom Sun comes as Aden.— Psalm, zix. 4, 6. 

To the meeting of the Great King, 

Bring the shining torches ! 

Their faces towards the east, and they prostrated themselves towards the 
east to the sun. — Ezekiel, viii. 16. 

We have found him (concealed in the arms of the sun). — de Iside, 52. 


1 Honu. 

3 Jul. Firmicns, de Eirore, 2. 

3 Patach. 

• Nork Real-WOrterbuoh, lU 847. 

• Abydos. 

• Movers, 497, 498. 

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SUr-robed Sun,* King of Fire, Chief of the kotmos, 

Helios, loDg-shAdow-oitting Shepherd of mortal life !— Nonniit, zl. 870. 

The Lydian Herakles was, in tlie Persian myth, the Orion 
transferred into the heaven.^ Orion proceeded to the east 
and there the God of the sun is met by him. Osiris descends 
in the west to Sheol, he reappears again in the rising sun 
(Serach). After death, Dionysus rises from Hades to heaven. 
Life, death, resurrection and immortality were there in front 
of the pyramid, with the Sphinx (an emblem of the setting 
Sun, Tum) gazing directly at the coming sunrise I The lion's 
body with a man's head, holding a temple (the emblem of re- 
ligious faith) between his extended f orepaws, guards the scene. 
The intellect of man in the lapse of time never has produced a 
greater symbol in testimony of his belief in a resurrection. 
The pyramid bears evidence, in Lauth*s opinion, of a knowl- 
edge of the 36 decans presiding over thirty-six weeks of ten 
days each. The 36th layer in size and height is distinguished 
from the rest, and something in the color of its casing outside 
may have marked it. Lauth counted 216 layers (to each side, 
probably) ; for he multiplies 36 x 6 = 216, giving six times 
360 days to each side, and to the four sides 24 years of 360 days 
each, — which is, he says, just the duration of the reign of 
Sanefru, according to the Turin papyrus. The black summit 
suggests the night-heaven, which renders visible the distin- 
guishing BiBXH of the decans. 

He thinks that the region was worked to represent the Ely- 
sian Fields and with a conception of the Isles of the Blessed, 
richly watered by a stream brought from the Nile at im- 
mense expense through the primitive rock. Till now two 
grandiose cuts have been uncovered, lined with enormous 
stone blocks. " If one ^ thinks a moment about the statement 
that Cheops rests in the pit * one must, since the sarcophagus 

> Henkles-Mithrm-KroiiOB, 'RiXtov wp^cnm.-— Nonniui, xvii 9. 

> Movers 472. 

* Lauth, p. 147. 

* Herodotos, 11. 124, speaks of the nndergroimd ohamben on the ridge, the 
burial vaults that Khuf o made for himself on the Island, and his canal from the Nile. 
Things most have continued in good condition, at least externally, else Thothmes HI., 
Thothmes IV., and Petnchanu of the 24th dynasty would hardly have felt any interest 
in Gizeh. The casing on the Great Pyramid was intact in the time of Strabo and con- 
tinued so down to the time of the Caliphs, else the Arabs would have found the entrance 
on the north side. 

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in the upper grave-chamber of the Great Pyramid teaches us 
the contrary, come to the opinion that thereby is meant the 
placing his image in stone on the Island of the Field Aalu 
(Elysium) by the great Sphinx." As to the condition of the 
Elysian Field in ancient times we do not care to speak, but 
Mr. Petrie has foimd no pitch in the pinholes of Chufu's sar- 
cophagus in the Great Pyramid ; even if the cover never had 
been fastened in like Khafra's lid the sarcophagus might have 
held an artificial body. Herodotus, 11. 127, distinctly says 
they say that Cheops himself lies in the Island into which his 
channel flows from the Nile. 

The days are coming, dictnm of lahoh, and I wiU cause to spring up to 

A Branch Just, who shall reign King and prosper.— Jeremiah, xxiii. 5. 
Lofty Power or primal branch of the Unknown Father * 
Great honor of nature and affirmation of the Gods, 
Whose right it is to look upon the Father beyond this world 
Thee Latium calls Sol. . . . 

The Nile venerates thee as Serapis, Memphis as Osiris 
Discordant rites (as) Mithra, Pluto, and savage Typhon. 
Thou art Atys too and Boy of the curved and bountiful plough 
And Ammon of sandy Libya and Adon of Byblos. 
Hail true form of the Gods and the Father s face I 
To whom a name of three letters * with the numeral sum 608 
Completes a sacred name, an appellation, and an omen. — Martianus Oapella. 
Helios the Greatest God he sent forth * from himself * in all respects like 
himself.— Julian, iv. p. 182. 

Ke^^heus was called Inflammatus and Flammiger (flame- 
bearer). — Ideler, Stemnamen, p. 43. Zachel (or Zachal) means 
Lion in Hebrew ; while Zuhhel (Suhel is a name in Arabic of 

1 Aman. 

« Ia5. Cham (Sol) is in Semite letters D H (H = 8 ; D = 600). Bel Chamman. 

> he caused to appear, he exhibited. 

* Kub, Konph (Keb, Seb), Khnam, Noam, Kneph, Bel-Saturn. The Holy Mourn- 
ing for Satum-Kronos in Egypt is mentioned by Plutarch, de Iside, S2. Hence he must 
be mourned in his temple. See de lude, 89. The image of Osiris is in lunar shape (de 
Itide, 89), consequently, with homa — Nonnua, iz. 27, 5i. 

Thy little bull has deserted, O Samaria !— Hosea, viii. 5. 

The Uttle bulls of Beth Aon.— Hosea, x. 5. 

Thy God, O Dan, lives !— Amos, viil 14. 

(Moses) beheld the little bull and the music.— Exodus, xxii. 19. 

They were dancing in chomses and singing to the Grolden Bull of Dionysus, as we 
learn from Herodotus was the Arabian religion. 

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the planet Saturn. Kephens was therefore a sign in the 
heavens for Keb, the Kefa, and Khebrons, or Ghebers. Ke- 
phens is the hidden Sun (Saturn), consequently King of the 
Fire-land in the South/ and Kbafu, Chufu, bears his name. 
Petrie discovered the standard^ of Khufu. "No trace of a 
Sphinx in statuary, tablets, or inscription, is to be found until 
the Hyksos period ; and such a form was not common until 
after that."^ We could therefore assume that the Sphinx 
dates the period of the Khufu erections at Gizeh, and that 
they are of Syrian, Semite, origin, the work of the success- 
ors of the conquerors of Memphis. Osiris, Isah (Issa in Jo- 
sephus), human-headed serpents (one an impersonation of 
Herakles), Menes, Athothis, Kenkenes, Semenses, Kabeh, 
Khaires, Kheneres, Benothares* Tot, Taaut, Tahutmes (the 
name, merely) are all, like the Kadmus myth itself, Asiatic and 
Phcenician in character, and we are compelled to see Philis- 
tian, Amalekite, or Phoenician inspiration in the wonderful 
constructions connected with the names Khufu, Khafra and 
the Sphinx, as a result of the invasion of the Kefa,' or the 
Hyksos, and the occupation of Tanis, Xois, Sais, Aun (On) 
and Memphis at a period perhaps not removed by many cen- 
turies from B.C. 200(X-1800. Josephus claims the Hyksos as 
Hebrews, and says: It is clear from the years mentioned, 
reckoning the time, that the so-called Shepherds, our fore- 
fathers, inhabited this province 393 years before Danaos went 
to Argos.' The resemblance in the roots of the words Amen, 
Men ' Men-es, Men-tu (Syrians), Amen (1 Kings, xxii. 26) the 
early civilization and strength of the Kanaanite power, the 
root Asar (Osor, Seir, Ousir) in Osir-is, the early presence of 

> Nork, Real-WOrterbnoh, L 8S2. We can follow in Homer and the myths the 
Descent of Satom to Hades and the rise of Zens to heaven. 

* Petrie, Pyramids and Temples of Giseh, 153. Diodoras Sioolns expressljT^tates 
that Menkanra was a son of KhnfiL-^bid, 156. Who then is Kha-f-ra ? 

» ibid. 157. 

* Benon signifies the son of the Son,— Ben Anni— Gren. xxxt. 18. Benothar-6s 
is the Egyptian form of Ben-Adar. Adar is a name of " Herakles-Mars " and Diony- 

* Pelestaiim from Ki^t5r.— Amos, ix. 7. The Philistians mnst have entered the 
DelU of Egypt. 

* Jos. a Apion, L p. 1041. The Tillage Adan in the Ghreat Plain.— Robinson. Bibl 
Res. n. 319. 

T AmoneL— Codex Nasar. L 56. Menasa name of the San*s buU. Menenis, the 
first legislator. Men and Menti m. Hyksos in the inscriptions.— Say ce. Her. 825. 


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Dionysus Sabos and Seb (Saturn) * in Egypt, the migrations 
of the Phoenicians and Philistians (with their Gods Mentn, 
Atnmu, Turn, Adon, Aton, Adad, Daud, Taaut, Asad, Sada, 
and Set, or Seth) to the west as far as Tunis and Kartago, the 
Phoenician or Philistian royal names Saul-at-is, Hapa Kanana, 
Benon, Arakles* Apapi,^ Staan (Sat, Set-aan), the fact that at 
least two dynasties of the Phoenicians, Philistians, or Hyksos * 
entered Egypt, indicate that Arabs or Kananites once ruled 
in the Delta of Egypt. 

Isis (Hebrew Issa) was buried at Memphis ( — Diodorus, I. 
22. p. 25) just as Sarah was buried at Hebron. According to 
Strabo, 787, the Egyptians derived their geometry, reckoning, 
and arithmetic from the Phoenicians by means of the trade and 
business. Meinecke left out the article before v^os, which 
was required in Strabo's description of the Delta to identify it 
with the island Keft ur (Caphtor). Petrie puts the destruction 
of the temples at Gizeh between dynasties seven and eleven. 
There are two things in the case of Khufu and Khafra that de- 
serve attention ; one is that Herodotus and Diodorus put them 
c^/ferEamsesin. ; thus conflicting with what is supposed to be 
Manetho's meaning : ^ and the other matter is that Herodotus, 
n. 126-128, states that the Egyptians hated these kings and 
spoke evil of them : " Kheopa went to that degree of wicked- 
ness," " every sort of evil was among the Egyptians,* and the 
temples at such a time having been shut up were not opened. 
And the Egyptians through hatred are not very willing to 
name them," but too they call the Pyramids (those) of the 
Shepherd Philistios, who during this time possessed cattle in 

' the Kronofl of the Karn (Syrianu), AkarSn (Ekron), and Ka ri a n s (Caria). 
^ the Phcenioian Archal 

* Apopi and Aphdhis ; or Apophia in E^ypt. the Serpent of Egyptian and Phosni- 
cian mythology. Setach is Egyptian for the solar *'year,** as shanah is *^year'* in 
Hebrew ; Set and San (Snn) being solar names. 

4 see Sayce, L 460, dynasties, zt. and xvii. The Homeric Odyssey, v. 125-137, 
dates Menelaos under the reign of Polybioa at Thebes in Egypt, — a Greek word. 

* No authoritative table of the kings existed.— Rttwlinson, Egypt, L 298. 

* "Daring these 106 years." — Herod. 11. 128. Some considered the Huksos 
(from Hak and sos) to be Arabs. Sos means ** horse** in Hebrew. Sosia means 
**' horse " in Syriac. The Saracens were the Amalekites and their dependencies (inolnd- 
ing the Idnmeans), extending from the banks of the Nile to the Euphrates.— Jerris, 
Genesis, 465. 

' As they were Philistians, or Phcenicians. The Karthaginians, a PhcBnician 
colony, ultimately, before the time of Herodotus, ascended the Nile to Thebes and did 
great injury to the monuments of Egypt 


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these place&" It is not surprising that Enotel, with snch a 
plain charge against the Shepherds, did not hesitate to claim 
the dynasty of Khufn as Hyksos, nor that Manetho made com- 
plaints against the Hyksos, nor that the Bible should say that 
Shepherds were an ahomination to the Egyptians/ nor that Jo- 
sephus should have claimed the Hyksos Shepherds as the ances- 
tors of the tribes of Isiri-Cheopha-Kepheus or lacopo-Israel, 
the Kopt.^ We now have the tribes of Moab, Seir, Idumea, the 
Amalekites, Philistians, Gharu, Amu (Aimim), Sosim (Zozim), 
Ehal, Kadesh, fronting the Egyptian border in Hyksos raids.^ 

I will stretch out mj hand upon the Philiitians and will oat off the Khare- 
tim* and destroy the remnants of the sea coast — Exek. xxv. 16. 

Their children remember their altars and their groTes by the green trees 
upon the high hills. — Jeremiah, xTii. 2. 

1 Geneda, xIyI 34 ; xliii S2. Marieite, 'Kmibei, p. 11, says da oaveaa d*an maa- 
taba : Qaelquefois det ostesments de boeols jonchent le soL 

' The form Qobt appears. Compare the change of b and p in Jacob and Jaoopo. 
Melek of Khafr in Joehoa, xiL 17, points toward the Egyptian Khafra and the Kefa ; 
at least the names are similar. 

' Ptolemy, by the Saracens, is supposed to mean the Edomite tribes in their stretch 
across the neck of the entire Arabian peninsula, from the Arabian to the Persian 
Gnll — Jerris, Gen. 465. 

« The Khari and PhelecL 2 Sam. xz. 28. Kharetim, Peleii and Gati— 2 Chron. 
XT. 18. The Idnmeans are here mentioned with the Cham, Seir and Moab. — Esekiel, 
xxY. 8, 9, 12, 13. The 'sons of Charea' are mentioned.— 1 Esdras, v. 32. Iscob's 
tents extended from the Amon to Gilead. Having thus laid a foundation for connect- 
ing the IdnmeaoB (in E tekie l , xxr. ) with Moab and consequently with the Arab Shep- 
herds (the Hyksos that entered Egypt), we may not safely however quote 

The Sosim in Cham.— Genesis, xiv. 5. Compare Numbers, ii. 82, 36. 
The Aemim (Ommaioi, Amou) in Soah (Sovq) Kiriathaim.— Gen. xiv. 5. 

Genesis, xiv. 17, shows the Valley of SauA to be at the bottom of the Dead Sea in Asau 
(Esau) near Sodom, and (Genesis, xiv. 6, shows the Chorites (worshippers of Chares, 
the Sun) in Seir (Esau) and on Mt. Chor. Gen. xiv. 7, mentions Kadesh and the 
Amalekites. Amalek gave name to the whole race of Aesan.— Jervis, Genesis, 465. 
The turbulent Bedawi tribes about Petra have by some been supposed to be Simeonites 
or other Beni IsraeL They retain not only the distinctive physiognomy but many of 
the customs of the Jews, such as wearing the Pharisaic lovdocks.— R. F. Burton, 
Gold Mines of Midian, p. 823. What Herodotus, II. 138, says about ^ an oracle from 
Bnto ' implies temples and a priesthood in full sway throughout the Delta in the 4th 
dynasty, probably derived from the temples of Syria, Philistia, or Atuma. The 
foreign tyrants (Hyksos) must have appeared to the kings of Upper Egypt in no envi- 
able light, yet on a memorial stone of the time of Amenhotep L a Theban family em- 
ployed in the temple of Amon is represented for six generations back with Semitic 
names. Even the original ancestor is called pet-Baal * servant of BaaL* If we are to 
draw any conclusions from such striking appearances they cannot be in favor of the 
(Josephus) Manethonian tradition.— Brugsch, I. 255, 256. London ed. 


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Spoil all the Philistiaus (and) cut off from Tyre and Zidon every helper that 
remains. — Jer. xlvii 4. 

I will kindle a fire ' in the temples of the Gods of Misraim to bom them 
and make them captives.— Jer. xliii. 12. 

M. Chabas says that neither the monuments nor the papyri 
have delivered the slightest mention relative to the conquest 
of Egypt by the foreign barbarians. The earlier period is 
mythological. Manetho completely divests the time of any 
historical character by making it cyclTcal.' On examining the 
earliest monuments of dynasty XVIII. we are startled by their 
astonishing resemblance to those of dynasty XI., a resem- 
blance which would, had we no historical evidence on the other 
side, justify the leap of the Tablet of Abydos from dynasty 
Xn. to XVm.^ According to the Turin book of the kings the 
reigns towards the end of the 13th dynasty scarcely lasted on 
an average four years, and the existence of collateral dynas- 
ties is very probable.* The Egyptians, not excepting the col- 
lege of priests of the Theban Amon, in the time of the Hyksos 
and the following dynasties gave their children pure Semitic 
names. They did not hesitate to adopt the names of the 
Hyksos kings. There could have been no deep-rooted hered- 
itary enmity against the Syrians, and the Manethonian tradi- 
tion is not easily upheld.' In the inscription on the rock- 
tablet of the twenty-second year of king Aahmes, the Fenekh 
(Phoenicians) are mentioned as a foreign people ^ to whom 

1 Ab. Ash. 

3 Encyol Britannioa, Art Egypt, p. 790 ; Bmgsoh, I. 62. Compare Lanih, Aeg. 
GhronoL 8, 9, tables II, IIL It is agreed by all Egyptologists that the founder of the 
Egyptian state is no legendary personage. He changed the course of the Nile, to gain 
the ground on which Memphis could be boiJt. Was killed by a hippopotamus. *'A11 
this has a distinctly hittorieal aspect ! '* Athothis was a physician and wrote astro- 
nomical books I Is this hi^iorical^ or the mythology of Thoth ? The circumstance that 
dynasties of the Qods were introduced into the lists of the kings and that Mina (Menes) 
leads all t?ie lists adds no credibility to the lists, but suggests the idea that the priests 
tinkered them according to a general plan. Manetho^s numbers aie cyclical — Saal- 
schiilz, p. 80, quotes Boeokh. 

' Encycl. Bzitannica, Art. Egypt. 

« Brugsch, L 196. 

»ibid.L 255. 

« ibid. I. 258, 277. When the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt the Gharu re- 
mained, and though regarded as a foreign people, were evidently on terms of friendly 
intercourse with their new rulers. Thus the first monarch of the eighteenth dynasty, 
Aahmes, the king who expelled the Hyksos, speaks in one of his inscriptions of ^* stones 
drawn by oxen which were brought hither and given over to the foreign people of the 
Fenekh.*' Hence it is plain that in lower Egypt there were, in addition to the Hebrews, 


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stone is delivered. The name Bamses appears to be the Sy- 
rian * ram/ * ramas/ and the name Merira, in Egyptian, bears a 
strong resemblance to Merari in Hebrew. The Shepherds 
were, it is said, expelled by king Ahmes.^ 

In the fourth generation they shall return here, For the dtetress of the 
Amorites is not yet completed.* — Oenesifi, zt. 16. 

When a boy, Baau (Set) rode upon an ass.— Kabbala Denudata, U. 209. 

Typhon (Seth) fled away on an ASS from the battle, for seven days, and 
(then) begat the boys lerusalem and londaeus.— De Iside et Oslride, 31. 

Idumaeus and ludaeus were said to be sons of Semiramis. 
— Stephanas Byzantinus. Esau (Asu, the Eyil Spirit) in- 
eludes the Amjdekites ; Jervis says (Genesis, 466, 467) * the 
names of the sons of Aesau are still legible on this whole tract 
of country from Egypt to the Euphrates, being preserved in 
the national denominations of the great Arab tribes which 
people it at the present day.' There is a tradition that the 
Amalekites anciently conquered Lower Egypt. * Arabian 
tradition is constant in aflirming the flux and reflux of the 
Edomite tribes,^ under the general name of Amalekites 

two distinct populations of Semitic race— the Oham or Fenukh, and the Hyksos or 
Shaso, who were as different from one another as were the Sidonians and the Edoraitee 
to whom they were respectively akin. — I. Taylor, L 151. 

> Sayoe, Herodot., I. 327, 328 ; Chabas, les Pasteurs, 43-47. Aahmes, is Amosis. 
Seti and Ramses are Semitic names. These, like Aahmes, fought against Pelnsium and 
the Philistines. Bat, as Blxodns, ill, states that the Ghehers or Hebrews from Hebron 
(from Abaris ?) built Ramses, and as Ahmes leads the rriiith dynasty while the first 
Ramses begins the xixth dynasty, the Exodus could not have happened in the time of 
Ahmes unless the two dynasties were contemporaneous. Compare ha Bar-im, 2 Sam. 
xz. 14, with the ancient deity name Abar or Bar. 

* This obviously refers to the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt. Because the 
Amorites (and Khatti) were strangers in Egypt, * in a land not their own.* Moreover, 
Ramses II fights the Khatti ! 

* All the melechs (kings, chie&) of Arabia, and all the melechs of Harb that dwell 
in Medbar (the Desert). — Jeremiah, xxr. 24. 

Harb covers Nabathea, Arabia Petraea and Inland Arabia, from Kasim towards 
Medineh and Mecca The Beni Harb composed the main population of the Hijaz, now 
as of old. The Harb nation, as described by Burokhsrdt, is subdivided into, at least, 
twenty great tribes ; distinguished from each other by as many denominations, family, 
diaracteristic, or territorial ; and occupying a tract of country, extending in its great- 
est length north and south, about seven degrees and a half, between Heymediyeh, on 
the borders of Kasim, and Hali on the confines of Yemen ; and in its greatest breadth 
east and west nearly five degrees and a half, from Kasfm to El-Khedheyreh on the 
coast of the Hijaz.— Jervis, Genesis, 192, 384-3S7 ; Dunlap, SOd, L 202 ; Wetzstein, 
8& Garb is derived from kerabh 'war' and kaurdbh 'to fight.'— Jervis, 386. Kie- 


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throughout the entire length of this country/ — Jervis, 471. 
See Ockley's Hist. Saracens, I. 67, 58. 

My sword shall be bathed in heaven, lo it shall come down upon Idumea, and 
upon the people I hare anathemized, to judgment. — Isaiah, xxxiv. 5. 
Thus Asau dwelt in Mt Seir. Asau, EdomI — Qenesis, zxxvi. 8. 

The priestly order in the Delta was in close sympathy with 
if not derived from the temples of Philistia, Syria and the 
Negeb. The Philistians or Phcenidans may have erected the 
pyramids,^ and the Arabs have come in later as Horsemen or 

Prof. A. H. Sayce says ^ that "The name (Dumu-zi) was 
translated by the Semites * Timmuz (or Dimmuz) of the flood ' 
(W. A. L ii. 47, 29), and the solar character of the deity was in- 
dicated by writing his name with ideographs that signified 
* the maker of fire * (tim-hi)" The matter begins to look more 
serious when we find in Josephus, contra Apion, an Egyptian 
king Timaus (Tammuz-Timmuz ?) mentioned by Manetho in 
the 2nd book of his history ; when tio Egyptian king's name, 
resembling Timaus, is found except Manetho's Tamphthis of 
the fourth dynasty. It follows, then, that, by Timaus, Mane- 
tho meant either Tammuz or Tamphthis. In the one case, his 
account of the Hyksos period is confessedly mythic ; in the 
other, Heeren's and Knoters hypothesis is confirmed, that 
the Syrians built the pyramids, entering Egypt at least as 
early as the 4th dynasty. Compare the name of the Hebrew 
priest Merari ^ with that of Merira, an Egyptian Priest-king of 
the Sixth dynasty, whose pyramid has been found within 
about seven years. 

The list of Tunra appears on his tomb * at Memphis. For 

pert^s Map places the * Beni Harb* as far south as towards Meooa, about latitude 22. 
C. Bitter. Berlin, 1852. 

Genesis, xxii. 5 : Et fnit mihi bos et asincis, quasi dioeret Eiauum et lismaelem 
fiiisse sub ipso ; quiu et innueret illorum surculos qui sont serous et ancilla. — Kabbala 
Denudata, IL 209. 

^ They shall remove the corpses of their kings far from Me. — ^Ezekiel, xlii. 9. 
This refers to the burial of the Hebronite-Khethite and Kauauite kiugs in the High 
Places of Judea and Phoenicia. * All the Ung^ of the Khatim * is an expression in 2 
Chronicles, i 17. 

« Sayce, ffibbert Leot 1887, pp. 232, 288. 

s Exodns, yi 16. Ar and Ra are solar names. Mer means ** loved ^* in Egyptian. 

« But Tunra (Don Ra, Aden Ba) mentions Ramses IL of the 19th dynasty. De 
Roug^ does not understand why Tunra leaves out the first five cartouches (beginning 


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some reason he does not begin with Menes,* but skips the first 
five kings that Manetho mentions. Living at Memphis, Tunra 
ought to have known the line of earliest Meniphite kings better than 
the Thebana who lived after the dedruction of the Memphian in- 
citations at Ghizeh;* better than Manetho of Sebennytus who 
lived in the time of Ptolemy 2nd. The priests in the time of 
Seti L, like Manetho, began the list of kings with Mena. They, 
if they had known earlier kings than Mena, would of course have 
mentioned them in their lists ! The fixing upon Mena as the 
first king exposes their hand ; for the Tunra (Sakkarah) list 
begins with the fifth king after Mena, showing that the first 
five king-names were not in the Memphite list, but in another 
list of as late a period, inscribed under a hostile dynasty. 
Manetho has thus limited the line of Egyptian kings to Mena, 
while the Sakkarah monument limits it to Merbaipeu. Mane- 
tho drew up his list of dynasties partly in accordance with the 
Theban records of the 19th dynasty. 

Ever since Kepheos' dwelt in the land of the South. — Nonnns, II. 683. 

Now Abrahm left the neighborhood of Khebron (Hebron) in 
the Mountains of the Amorites above the Khatti and jour- 

with Menes) in the list of Seti L «t Abydos. Perhaps he had not heard of them, or, 
being informed, looked upon the introdnction into the historical annals of snoh names 
as an innoration, or considered these names mythic. 

> Men is the Moongod of Asia Minor. There were more than 1300 ]rearB between 
Mena (Menes) and SolomSn.— Josepbns, Antiq. viii 6, 2. This wonld make Mena 
reign before B.C. 2300. 

s Tnnra*B list has been said to have been leas carefully made. His record dearly 
Tariea from that of Seti L, and is not written with the same hieroglypha Bnt, in spite 
of thifl, Tonra's inaeription wonld not have left ont the names Mena and Teta if it 
was nnivezsally admitted by the priests of Memphis at the commencement of the 19th 
dynasty tiiat Mena, Teta, Atota, Ata. Khetkhet (Kenkenee) pnceded Merba-Mer- 
baipen. Haring got np so near to the head of Seti's list, the probability is that Tnn- 
ra's list wonld have incloded the commencement of it if Seti^s canon had been gener- 
ally confessed to be the tme record at the time Tnnra*s inscription was made. The 
Sakkarah tomb leaves ont a kin^s shield that in the table of Seti stands between 
Merba and Kabeh.— See De Ronge, Becherohes, plates L. XL 

s The Giant constdlated in the North is Kephens. Orion, says the Jewish legend, 
was not drowned during the Deluge. He was so tall that be waded through the waters. 
Og as a remnant of the Giants left his bed in Rabbath (Deut iii 11). The rabbins 
tell how the Giant Og (Aug) escaped destruction during the Deluge because he was so 
tslL-— Massey, IL 245. Aug6 means light ; and Aug*s name shows him to have been 
one of the Sons of Light, the Star- Angels, or Constellationa 

As a mere name, Keph seems to be allied to Kefa, Kouph. Khufu, lakouph, Akub, 
lakoub, and lakab. Thus we haye the terminations in eb and ef, Horeb, Tunep. 
Joehna, xL 1, Aohasaph. 


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neyed thence to the land of the Negeb and settled between Kad- 
esh and Sur. As Sarah hfiul an Egyptian maid, Abrahm's jour- 
ney seemed to be on the direct road to Egypt, just a straight 
route from the Midianites near the Salt Sea at the Ghor, pick- 
ing up the Amalekites on his way, to Egypt. The Khatti, the 
Amu, and the Shasu ^ were, very likely, with him at Eadesh. 
Whether this account of Abrahm's movement to the South 
(Gen. XX. 1) has any sub-reference to the first entrance of the 
Shepherds into Egypt, who knows! At all events these Desert 
people were Shepherds and Nomads (Munk, Palest. 856, 357). 
Kadesh is * Ain-mi-Saphat,' not remote from Beer-Saba (Saba- 
tun t), near the Amalekite country. The Amalek had Egyptian 
slaves, and may have supplied Abrahm with such. 

In tombs of the first three Egyptian dynasties unknown and 
unusual forms of hieroglyphs are common. They look of 
older character. The specimens of their language are too few 
to form an opinion. Certain formulas that later are common 
appear wanting (semblent etre inconnues). The functions of 
the deceased are often peculiar to the period and imtranslat- 
able. All in the writing as well as in the sculpture presents 
something strange to the eye.' 

And the Abrahm (Shepherds) went down into Misraim. 

And then the unspeakably great horning Aither was elevated 
And all the stars are seen : and the Shepherd rejoiced in his heart. — Homer. 
II. viii. 559. 

Abrahm is Father of the Idumeans, the Kub, and the Taqab. 
The Khoubu lacobites got into Egypt. Moving from Abaris 
upon Xois the Shepherds took it and founded there a Xoite 
(Choite?) dynasty 484 years before Aahmes^ (b.c. 1667), that 
is, 2151 B.C. They take Memphis * b.c. 2120. They conquer 
Upper Egypt two years after. Shepherds and Thebans reign 
together * 451 years.* Monuments belonging to the fifth and 

> Shoe. Shasah, in Hebrew mean to rob, plunder, and pillage. Therefore the 
Eg]rptian Shasn were the Amalek. 

> Mariette, Tombes de PAncien Empire, p. IS. 
» See Heeren, Africa, IL 191, 411. 

« From Menefl, B.O. 2224 to 1982 when the Shepherds took Mempbis the Memphite 
line lasted.— Palmer, Egyptian Chron. L 291, 300. 

• Sanlatis rendered the Theban kings tributary.— Joa. oontra Apion, I. 1039. 

* KnOtel, System, 38, 88. If we doubt Manetho (and Josephus puts the stay in 
Egypt at 511 years) it is obvious that Saulatis (19 years), Benon (44), Hapa Kanana 


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sixth dynasties have been f oatid in Memphis and Elephantine ; 
and the colossi of the 13th Theban dynasty have been discoT- 
ered at San^ (Tanis), which Mr. Sayce thinks inconsistent with 
the yiew that the 13th and 14th (Xoite) djmasties were contem- 
poraneous. The Thebans finally succeeded in making them- 
selves masters of all Egypt. Then occurred the first expulsion 
of the foreigners from Egypt after the victorious Thebans had 
penetrated into the Delta. One of the selected temple-lists 
(from the catalogue of 38 Theban kings in Eratosthenes in the 
3d century b.c.) calls Menes a Theban, which shows plainly the 
source from which it was derived.^ Therefore the priests in 
later times had a motive to make as much of a show for The- 
ban antiquity and dynasties as they could, on paper. It looks 
as if, while he excluded the Theban kings that were contempo- 
raneous with Manetho's 21st dynasty at San, very little was 
known to Manetho, except vague traditions, prior to the pyra- 
mid period of the fourth dynasty at Memphis ; and the con- 
quests of Ousirtasen L in Nubia (in the 12th dynasty) have a 
tendency to show that the rule of the Memphian kings above 
Philae had not amounted to much that was permanent in that 
direction previously. In fact, the collapsed fragments of dy- 
nasty names, strewn over pages 466-468 of Sayce's Herodotus, 
in their ruin leave room to suspect more than we perhaps can 
verify in reference to Manetho and the chronographers who 
have made use of him. One thing at least we can get from 
Josephus, and this is his opinion that there were kings in the 
Thebaid, and that considerable forces could be raised : for he 
says that '^ the kings from the Thebaid and from the rest of 
Egypt rose up against the Shepherds."'* Seth, identified with 
Bal and probably with Taut or Tot, the Gk)d of the Hyksosand 
Eananites, is found at Memphis and Lake Moeris. His symbol 
is found immediately after the sparrow-hawk of Horus in the 
local cults, and he is located in Abaris and Tanis. In Lower 
Egypt the Seth-cultus belonged more particularly to Mem- 
phis and the north-eastern Delta. No evidence that it existed 
in Upper Egypt. — ^E. Mayer, Set-Typhon, 47. 

(96), Ankles (40), Stean (50), Ap«pi (61), did not live all that time, and aome consoi- 
entioas individnal may have added another Hyksoe dynasty of the $ame name$ as a pro- 
test against Egyptian chronology in general Vide Sayce^s Herodotus, p. 46(X 

» Sayce, p. 316. 

s Sayce, p. S18. 

* Josephos, contra Apion, 1()4(X 

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In the nature of things, there is every reason to hold that 
there were several invasions by the Syrians and Arabs. Not 
only does " Exodus " indicate a tendency in the direction of 
Egypt on the part of the Arabs, but the proximity of the Karu 
and Karetim (Philistians of Gerar and Accaron, Ekron) invited 
them to enter, following the line of the coast ; and Africanus 
especially mentions the " Phoenician kings " in Memphis. 
Then we have the Menephthah campaign ; and, still later Mr. 
Sayce puts the " recovery of the kingdom from the Phoenician 
Arisu" under TJser-ka-ra Sotep-en-ra Set-nekht Merer Mi- 
Amun, the first king of the twentieth dynasty.^ 

Thebes is the capital of the Middle Empire, and a new 
deity, Amun, the God of Thebes, presides over it. Its princes 
were long the vassals of the legitimate dynasties of Herakle- 
opolis. The first of whom we know, Entef I., claimed to be no 
more than a simple noble. His son, Mentuhotep I., still calls 
himself hor, or subordinate king, and it is not until three gen- 
erations afterwards that Entef IV. throws oflf the supremacy of 
the sovereigns in the north, assumes the title of monarch of 
Upper and Lower Egypt, and founds the Eleventh dynasty. — 
Sayce, Herod., 323-825. 

Manetho held that the fourth Egyptian dynasty was a for- 
eign dynasty.^ August Knotel believed^ that there has been 
but one dog-star period in Egyptian history altogether, the 
known one from B.C. 1322 to a.d. 139, after they had invent- 
ed an intercalary day once in four years ; that, therefore, all 
earlier dog-stai' periods have only an astrological value. The 
Shepherd Philition (Philistion) is a collective name of Phoeni- 
cian or Philistian Shepherds, hence Cheops (Goub, Khufu) and 
Kephren (Khafra) are put forward as Shepherd Kings. The 
hatred which the Egyptians felt towards their pyramids, the 
severe repression of the religion and the oppression of the 
whole people by Cheops (Khufu) and Kephren (Khafra) make 
this seem probable, and Knotel considers the first three dy- 
nasties as the Old Monarchy and Manetho's fourth dynasty the 
first Hyksos-dynasty. Consequently, all the following dynas- 
ties to the twelfth (Shepherd dynasty) were kings of foreign 
origin but who had become completely established in Egypt.* 

» Saj'ce, 469. 

» Heeren, Africa, IL 197, 411. 

' with Boeokh. 

* Knatel, 10, 12. 


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Abrahm means Phoenician Shepherds and Arab nomads. 
Josephus had made up his mind probably, when he replied to 
Apion, that he should endeavor to show that the Hyksos were 
his own Jewish ancestors.^ And, as far north as Hebron, he 
was perhaps correct. Josephus would have accepted almost 
any Phoenician or Chethite Shepherd King as a forefather, it 
is supposed, since he either suspected or well knew that the 
ancestors of the Memphian, Xoite (Choite) and Herakleopoli- 
tan dynasties had been either Phoenicians, Philistians, Earn, 
Amalekites or Arabs. But he had Exodus, i. 11, before him, 
which made it desirable to get a Hyksos^ ancestry a little 
later than the time of Bamses (as the city Bamses mentioned 
in Exodus, i. 11, was not an easy obstacle to get around). 
Hence he wanted something posterior to B.c. 1600-1400 on 
which to rest his argument. 

A perishing Sjriau mj father, and he ' went down * to Misraim. — Deu- 
teronomy, zxTi. 5. 

According to Petrie, p. 209, each of the three greatest pyra- 
mids at Gizeh has a temple on the eastern side of it. The 
ruins of the temples of the Second and Third pyramids still 
remain ; and of the temple of the Great Pyramid the basalt 
pavement and numerous blocks of granite show its site. Ehu- 
fu's temple is more destroyed than the others, the causeway of 
it being larger and more accessible from the plain than are 
the causeways of the* temples of Ehafra and Menkaura. In all 
the tombs of the age of the Pyramids the kings are* called the 
Great Gods ^ and had more priests than any of the original 
deities.* On the walls of the burial chambers of Una, Teta, 
Merira, and Merenra, of the 5th and 6th dynasties, incised in- 

< Dnnlap, yertige^ 965 ; Josephiu a Apioo. 1. 1040, 1041, 1052.' 

s Sayoe, Herod. L 400, gives the Semitic namee : Saites (l9),Bendn (40), Arklei 
(30), Aphdphia (14), >= 108 years. Petne, Tanis, L p. 12, admits that the Hyksos are 
a Semitio people ; so does Josephus. The latter derives his origin from the Khali 
(the Beni 'Heth). — Ezekiel, zri 3. The Arabs dedaoe desoent from the mother'* $ide. 
The Khati bore sway from Khebroa ('Hebron) to Arad on the south, to Oaxa 
(Azah) on the west ; very much as the Sheikh Axari to-day (of a ooontenance somewhat 
Israditish) rules orer nearly the whole of ancient Bdom from Mount Serbal in the 
Sinaitic peninsnla to the neighborhood of the Dead Sea. So that the Khati may have 
been Hyksos, enongfa to suit Exodus and Josephus, and AndalL 

* nuter aa. No incised inscription in the three largest pyramids at Ghiaeh. But 
one on the lid of Menkaura*s oofBn. 

4 Petrie, Pyramids, p. 209. 

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scriptions abound. But the Phoenicians, Philistians, Amalek- 
ites and Shasu poured in, carrying with them the Palestine 
habit of erecting temples on High Places, which in Egypt 
would have to be made artificially, not having such natural 
elevations as those of Gabaon, etc. Diodorus tells us that 
*' although the kings built them for their own burial it hap- 
pened that none of them was interred in the Pyramids. For 
the masses, both on account of severe labor at the works and 
many cruel and violent acts done by these kings, indignantly 
held them to blame, and threatened to tear the bodies to 
pieces and despitefully cast them out of their tombs. And 
therefore when he was dying each directed his relations to 
bury him in an unknown place and secretly." * This is one 
way of concealing what the priests did not choose to tell. 
They were proverbially uncommunicative; and such a story 
about the greatest works of man leads us to suppose a religicnia 
motive for the erection of the two largest pyramids at Gizeh. 
But the king may have been buried in the Great Pyramid. 
As the Bible mentions that the Eananites buried their kings in 
the High Places, it is not unreasonable to assume that around 
Khufu*s Pyramid others would be built. To Saturn and Osiris 
the power over Darkness was ascribed. Osiris-Sihou, Gk)d of 
the star Orion, was conductor of souls in the other world.^ The 
God Aton was at Memphis.' The Semite beheld his Saviour 
in Mithra-Adoni-Ia'hoh. Osiris was the Egyptian Saviour, 
their Light of the world. Typhon is the darkness of night.* 
The Mount' of Adon was near where we see the Dipper.^ 

» Diodor. Sia I. 58, p. 74. 

* Maspero, Guide da Mob^, 161. 

* ibid. 43. Adon aa a mere name was called in Egypt Aten, and Atonis in Italy ; 
(compare Tnnep and Tanis). With Aton compare the name Tonach in Joshua, xxi 
23, 25. The doctrine of Light and Darkness (Bymbolized in the story of Adonis) wan 
familiar to the Egyptians. It was the main theory of the Oriental Philosophy, appear- 
ing not only in the myth of lacchos bat even in the aocoant of paradise. — Gen. i 5- 
16; ii.8,9; iR 15-24; Isaiah, ▼. 20. 

« noota Tenantem.— de Iside, 18. The Hindus fear the spirits of night,~the reign 
of darknesB. 

I form the Light and create Darkness.*— Isaiah, zlv. 7. 

Thou dost fill at daybreak the place of his secret eye in On.— Litany of Shu. — ^Rec- 
ords, X. 189. 

RA conmienced with the earth, and passing through the heaven stops in the region 
of the Depth Hades, in which he seems to wish to stay. — ^Lenormant, les origines, I. 453. 

* Massey, II. 109 ; Isaiah, xiv. 18. The Qiblah of the lezidi and Sabians is the 
pole star. — Chwolsohn, Ssabier, I. 299. 

*The One principle of the universe, according to the Egyptians.— Cory, p. 831. 


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Starting from the ascertained datum of the Menophres-era/ 
according to which in B.c. 1322 the heliacal rising of Sirias 
took place on the first day of Thoth, and reckoning backwards, 
it follows that in the years b.o. 8010-3007 the 9th of Epiphi of 
the lunar year (Wandeljahr) happened on the first of Thoth of 
the fixed year ; which event the Papyrus Ebers marks as oc- 
curring in the 9th year of king Ba-kerh-ra (Bicheris, in Mane- 
tho) of the 4th dynasty, being next but one to Men-kau-ra, and 
next after Batoises, in Manetho's list.' A glance at the Aby- 
dos and Saqqarah lists shows that what Manetho wrote Bat- 
oises the other lists wrote (Tatefra or) Batatef . It shows that 
Eha-f-ra in these ixjoo lists immediately followed Batatef, while 
in Manetho's list Bicheres follows next to Batoises. The vari- 
ations are striking, but the resemblances even more to be 
observed ; for a comparison between the names Tat-ef-ra 
and Kha-f-ra might be instituted, with a resulting suspicion 
against these names as possibly manufactured. Another 
thing is not to be left out of sight. There were many pyra- 
mids besides those Hhree largest ones at Gizeh ; ' but is there 
any evidence that the others, such as the pyramid at Abu 
Boash, or those of Dahshur, had temples annexed to them on 
the east side, as at Gizeh? Mr. Petrie mentions temples to 
the three great pyramids at Gizeh, the remains of them are 
there. These are all that he speaks of. h So with the pyram- 
idal tombs of Pepi and Merenra, no temples' to them that 
we remember seeing mentioned ; Sanefru (Snofru) had no pyr- 
amid and no annexed temple. Khufu had both. The superb 
temples annexed to the three pyramids at Gizeh seem to have 
indicated something more religious than the deification of a 
king or kings ; and the Pitcher and Bam are symbols apper- 
taining to a deity, like Num, Eneph, Seb, Osiris, etc. It is to 
be noted that Ehnoumu-Ehufu (scrawled in red ochre) was 
not written where it could be seen, but in one of the 'chambers 
of construction,* one of the attic spaces left vacant to prevent 
too much weight resting on the ^king's chamber,' and only 
reached by difficult climbing up a perpendicular well. So 
that at the quarry some workman must have written it on one 

1 Lanth has shown that the era of Menophr^ mentioned by Theon, came to an 
end in B.a 132t, and Menophr^t mnst have reigned b.o. 2781.— Sayoe, Her. 850, note. 

s See DUmichen, Die erste bis jetzt au^efundene siohere Angabe Qber die Regier- 
ongszeit eines Sgypt. Kdnigs ans dem alten Reich, pp. 8-16. 

> No temple annexed to the tomb of Teta, first king of the Sixth dynasty. 


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of the blocks while the pyramid was in course of erection, 
otherwise it would have been written or incised in the * king's 
chamber ' or at least some accessible portion of the structure. 
Now the sarcophagus in the Great Pyramid bears no inscrip- 
tion, and is too large not to have been placed in position before 
the roof was put on, as it is nearly an inch too wide for the 
beginning of the ascending passage. — Petrie, Pyramids, p. 
216. It is hardly probable that the scrawls of Ehufu's oval 
may have been intended to represent Bal, who, by a certain 
theory of the priests, was regarded as Saturn (Adon, Eimmon, 
descended to Hades), Osiris, and Sol.^ Still the pyramid's 
temple was located towards the east in order to face the * Sun- 
rise of the Resurrection,' and the North Gate faced Orion. As 
Mena and Teta had their priesthoods, there is no reason why 
every king should not have had his priests. But Mena and 
Teta are open to the suspicion of being names of the Moon- 
god and Tat (Taut, Hermes) ; while Khufu seems to be an 
altered name of Kub (Saturn). This makes the difference be- 
tween the Gizeh names and other kings' names. The Great 
Pyramid was in a graveyard of the priests and nobles. 

Savage Satam (Kronos') devourerof young children, 

Bom from heaven, earth's hollow concealed. — Nonnas, zzvii. 54, 56. 

Khufu's cartouche- was found on the blocks of the Great 
Pyramid, and it is sometimes spelled KJi-f-u (Kefu). But 
Kheops built the vast monument of his religion at a period so 
remote from the time where the certain data of profane his- 
tory begin, that we have no measure with which to estimate 
the width of the abyss which separates the two epochs. The 
Fourth Egyptian dynasty appears in the presence of extreme 
civilization. Khufu marries Sat-t {Sat, with a feminine ter- 
mination t) the daughter of Sanefru (at a period when the 
obelisk was already erected to the Sun). Sate was God of 
Light. Set was the Sun, sada meant fire, flame, el sadi, 
"the mighty" firegod Sat-uranos, Saturn (Earanos, Kronos), 
while Asat (Ashat) is firegoddess Asata, Hestia, IJesata, 
Vesta I Consequently, Sat-t, the daughter (?) of Saneferu and 

1 niad, xiy. 270, 272 mentions ' all the Gods beneath, aiotind Satam,'—* that dwell 
nnder Tartaros.' Compare '•QoAa ascending ont of the earth.*—! Samnel, xxviii. 13. 
The Hebrew here presents evidence of an acquaintance with something resembling the 
Elensinian Mysteries. 

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wife of Ehnfu, has the name of Satis the firegoddess of Syria ; 
for Esat, in Ethippic, and isAtu, in As83nrian, mean "fire." 
The accompanying deities of this period of the Fourth dy- 
nasty are Saad, Set, Taut or Tat, Ehem, Seb (Sey, or Seph), 
Saf, an ancient Gk>dde8s of books and, perhaps, chronology (?), 
at Memphis ; £neph, Ehnom, Hor, Osiris, Apis, etc.; and all 
points to a later period than it has been customary to se- 
lect as the date of the pyramids. In fact, the profile of the 
' hand with the thumb ' is read d and t ; so that Khufu*s 
wife's name was probably Sad-t. Diodorus gives Khufu's 2nd 
successor the name Khabrues (Herodotus gives Chephren) 
which can as well be referred to the Phoenician-Hebrew roots 
cctbar, gheber or chaber, cabir, as to the Egyptian root kheper 
or khopri. Tunra of Memphis, priest, and perhaps author of 
the Sakkarah list of kings, has clearly the name Aton, Atunis 
(Adon Ba) ; he must have lived after Bamses II. in the nine- 
teenth dynasty. 

avpcufCBw Tcycwra, marimpv^* k6K'wo^ ipoCpris. — Nonnns, xxTii. 54, 55. 

Neither the natives nor writers were agreed as to who built 
the Great Pjrramid. Some said that it was constructed by 
Khufu, others that these were erected by other kings, for in- 
stance, the Greatest by Armais, the second being the work of 
Amosis, and the third that of Maron.* Nonnus, Dionysiac, 
xviiL 49, mentions Maron as Chaiioteer of Dionysus-Bromios. 
The tomb of Kronos (Saturn) was in the Caucasus in the 
mountains, where he was represented as the devourer of chil- 
dren.^ Satum-Kronos came into the country of the South 
and gave the entire Egypt to the God Taaut.^ "Kronos, there- 
fore, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, king of the country, 
and subsequently, after the end of his life, established in the 
star of Kronos, having an only-begotten son (by a native 
nymph called Ain Obret ^ whom on this account they called 
leond, the Only -begotten being even now so-called among the 
Phoenicians, when very great dangers befell the country owing 
to war, adorned his son with the regal apparel and, having 

> iBtton in Diodonu, L p. 75, f 64. 

* deraentiiia Hondly, t. 28. 

> Orelli, Sftaohcm, p. 88. 

* An orerflowing spring. 

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erected an altar, sacrificed him as a victim." * We here see 
what was done on Saturn's altars, even in the cities of the 
dead to the wed of the Nile. His temple in Egypt was out- 
side the city limits : compare the location of the Great Pyra- 
mid outside the city limits, in the west, in the mountain. It 
was the common idea of the Gods in Egypt, Phoenicia and 
Babylonia, that they wandered about there during their 
earthly life, taught men useful inyentions and arts, where 
cities and monuments built by them and even the places of 
their birth and death were everywhere shown.^ The Great 
Pjrramid, like the others, faced the iiorth, but its orientation is 
not exact. The setting out of the orientation of the sides 
would not be so difficult.^ The attempt at correct or incorrect 
orientation had its origin in religious views, probably con- 
nected with the relation of Orion to Osiris. Blessed is He 
who comes from the valley of the shadow of death a corpse 
and mummy, yet rises from Sheol in Orion and comes out from 
Orion, preserved, in the east of heaven I 

Kadmah le Shems ! — Ezekiel, viii. 16. 
Seven miles to the southeast from upper Bethhoron is 
Gabaon,* whose conical summit is just hidden by the loftier 
peaks of Benjamin.^ There was the Great Highplace at Ga- 
baon, sacred to the Lord of " lightning and thunderbolt." • 

The Great Waters in Gabaon.— Jeremiah, zli. 12. 

The temples of Mene in the cities of Asia Minor stand nearly 
always on heights.' 

The name Api (Hapi) was already given to the Sacred Sym- 
bol of Water when the oldest pyramids were erected near 
Memphis. The pyramid age precedes the 11th and 12th dy- 
nasties and seems to represent the Philistians or Phoenicians 

» Philo ; in Ensebin a. —Movers, p. 180. The Jews wore called (in Assyrian) landi 
and landaai.— Sohrader, Keilin. n. d. A. T. 188. Compare the name leond, Judab. 
3 Movers, 124. 
> See Petrie. 125, 126, 211, 212. 

* Gibeon. Compare the names lakab, Akabah, Gaba, and Keb, or Kebo, the set- 
ting San. 

* Newman*s Travels, p. 280. 

* Genesis, ix. 14, 16 ; Exodns, xiz. 16; Judges, L 7 : Adoni-besek, the king's name. 
7 Bhia, Beitrftge znr phdnikischen MOniknnde, in Zeitsohr. D. M. G. iz. 8(1. With 

Mene compare the names Ar-mene (Lunar Mt.), Armenia, Harmene (name of a city), 
and Harmonia (Spouse of Kadmns). 

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in Egjrpt. In all the tombs of the pyramid age the kings are 
called Great Oods (nuter aa), and had more priests than any 
of the original deities.' To Ehufu's oval are prefixed the 
creative signs of Saturn, the water jug and the ram. The 
£u/a (probably from Negeb, Philistia, the Bed Sea, or Lower 
Egypt) in name resemble Ehufu and the Kefa.^ The ram be- 
longs to Amen, the water to Osiris, while Kneph (Khnum- 
Khufu) has both signs. Old heavy-kneed Eronos, lancing 
rain, would have both symbob, the water-jug and the ram. 
In the case of the Great Pyramid the ancient and modem 
authorities lead to a doubt whether Ehufu ever was buried 
there.^ The fact that Ehufu's grandson has the hieroglyphs 
ka-ar-u immediately following Ehufu's cartouche suggests 
the reading Ehufu-Earu ; agreeing with what Herodotus said 
about the presence of the Philistine Shepherd and his flocks 
around the pyramids. Ehufu built the Great Pjrramid (per- 
haps as a tomb of Saturn) expecting to be buried in the tomb * 
of Ehnum according to Palestine custom. In the two cham- 
bers of the Great Pyramid there were, according to Edrisi, 
two vessels found ; no body nor any indication of its former 
presence remains, and Ehufu*s sarcophagus is without a lid,^ 
although three pin-holes are seen by which one might be fas- 
tened on. The Second Pyramid has the resin still remaining 
in the pin-holes and a piece of the cement is left sticking in 
the grooves, which show that it hod been fastened strongly, 
while the violence employed to break the sarcophagus so as 
to get the lid off showed that it had been used for something. 
Some bones wehre found in it which proved to be those of an 
ox.' Now the use and occupation of the Second Pyramid, in 
some way, can thus be proved ; but in the circumstance that 
the plug blocks were let down firmly into their places, exclud- 
ing all access, there is no evidence that Ehufu or some one 
else was placed in the sarcophagus now to be seen in the 
Great Pyramid. That the Arabs in the time of the Caliphs 
carried the ox-bones into the Second Pyramid and placed 
them in E3iafra's sarcophagus cannot be maintained because 

> Petiie. 900. 
« Kenriok, IL ISa 

* Petrifi, Pynmi<U, 316 ; Diodonu, L 64, p. 73. 
« Kenriek, I. 103. 

•ibid. I. 108, quotes Belxoni, L 426L When C«mbyM8 killed Apis at Memphis 
the priests buried him seoreUy. 

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Maxiette found ox-bones on the floors of some ancient tombs 
and because the Apis and the Meneuis (Mnevis) were sacred 
and diyine symbols of Osiris-Dionysus, or Hermes, and we 
do not know that the ancient priests did not put them there. 
In this uncertainty it must not be forgotten that the Sphinx 
shows that Gizeh was holy ground, and this is further eyi- 
denced by a temple added to each of the three largest pyra- 
mids; consequently, beyond the fact that Osiris was wor- 
shipped in that locality, we cannot know what the priests did 
with either the first or the second pyramid.^ Petrie makes no 
mention of any resin remaining in the pin-holes of Khufu's 
sarcophagus ; but he found one end lifted up on a pebble, 
which indicates that a secret passage was sought and the peb- 
ble had been brought in from outside,*^ before any smashing 
was done in the pyramid. 

On the high places of ludah incense was burned to the 
* planets, sun, moon, and stars." The high places of Isarel be- 
longed to the Mithra worship and the Osiris worship. On them 
were " all the Bethi ha-bamoth (all the temples of the high 
places)" in the cities of Samaron. — 1 Kingfs, xiii. 32. 

The bamoth Ann (the high places of On), the sin of Isarel, shall be destroyed. 
— Hosea, x. 8. 

Petrie found the fragments of the statues of Khufu and Kha- 
fra at Gizeh. There were Gods (statues) placed in the temples 
of the high-places and they were worshipped there. — 1 Kings, 
iii. 2 ; 2 Kings, xvii. 29, 32. The Bamoth Bal, Beth El and 
Gabaun (Gabaon), were the Hebrew high-places, natural pyra- 
mids ; the greatest was Gkbaun. 

> The quarries of Tonrah and Maaarah (not too far away) were doubtlees employed 
to supply these pyramids with building material, but the earliest inscription Is to 
Anuuds of the 17th or 18th dynasty. No oartonohe corresponding with the names there 
inscribed has been found. — ^Kenrick, L 118. In connection with the victories of the 
Theban dynasty at a later period over the Hyksos it may be here stated that Adolf 
Erman (Aegypten. p. 61) puts Ramses 11. in the ISth century B.C. and Totmes III. in 
the 15th century BwC. The ancient prissts are said to have entered his tomb and rifled 
the mummy of this last king. 

' Showing that ther^ were no broken pieces of stone (used in the oonstruotion of the 
pyramid) then at hand inside, ss there were at a later period after a forcible entrance 
was made. Petrie hence infers that the attempt was made (to open the sarcophagus) 
long prior to the time of Herodotus. This would imply that the 9eerei entrance was 
known to the priests, but not to the public ; Strabo knew the entranoe on the North 
side well. 

3 2 Kings, xxiii. 5, 12. 


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Son <m CUImoii, be bUU; and Ini*h (Moon) in valley Ailoon I^Joehoa, 
X. 12. 

The Egyptian pyramids were high places, probably, of the 
Kefa. The pyramids of Ehafu and Khafra * had temples at- 
tached to them, which cannot fail to remind us of the temples 
of the high-places in the cities of Samaria. But it may be 
said that " a pyramid is always found in a cemetery," and 
that the pyramids are places of burial. So were the high- 
places ; they contained the bodies of the kings. — ^Ezekiel, xliii. 
7. Phoenicia even exported to Egypt the acid used in mum- 
mifying the bodies, the pyroligneous acid mentioned by G. 

There were two especial names of Saturn, the Earth-god 
and Gk)d of Sheol-Hades, deserving some attention in this con- 
nection. They are Seb ^ and Keb.' Kebo is the descending 
(ad Inferos) Sol-Saturn. How far Kebo is connected with the 
Kefa as Tum-worshippers, and how closely Kebo (Kefa) and 
Khufu * are to be connected, may be a question possibly, but 

1 Compare Kephinh, % Cftnaanite town, mentioned in Jofthcut : Bar9th (with 
Abaris), and larim (with Harameias, Hermet, Huram) with Ram, Ramaff and Ramses. 
The entire 3d Egyptian dynasty tias Syrian names. 

> All things are bom from Satom. See Hesiod, Theogony, 788-780, for the Water 
of Life in Hades ! From the abyss below.— Dent, zxxiii. 13. Reb is, acoording to 
Maseey, IL 5, Star-god, as weU as Barth-Gtod. Compare Seba {Qen. x. 7), the names 
Saboe (Dionysns), Sabi, Saba, lo-Seph : also sons of Asonb, Sons of Sonba, Sons of 
Sabie, Sons of Subai, Sons of Safni (—1 Bsdras, v. 80, 31, 83, 84), Asnbah (—2 Chron. 
XX. 31), Wahab in Sufa (— Nnmb. xxi 14), Shnfn, As«ph, Suphis and Seb (Sev, Satnm). 
— ^Records, yL 105. In Syriao, Seb means to be old.— Jervis, Gen. 168. Snpha is 
Satom^sland; also Snphach in 1 Chron. xix. 18. Herodotos and Diodoms ma^e no 
great nse of the dynasty lists. Diodoms makes no pretensions of the sort. In one of 
the chambers of the Great Pyramid is found the shield of Khufu, but, prefixed to it the 
jng and the ram. These are found with the figures of the ram -headed God of Thebes, 
oommonly called Kneph, Knoum, etc. — Kenrick, IL 113. 

« Bmgsoh, Zeitsohr. fUr Agypt. Spraohe, 1881, p. 9; Bgypt, L 27. Dionysus Sabos 
(Saturn, Kronos) was adored in Arabia, and probably at the Water of Saba, Beer 

* compare snch names as Aknb, lakab, Qeb, Kebo, Akibal, Akabos. lakSbus, Ig- 
abas (1 Chron. iv. 9), KebSs, Akbal, Gebal, Kubele, lakouf, Kufu, Akonf, Akkaba, 
AkbSe.— 1 Esdras, y. 81, 88, 89. Keb is Seb.— Lepsius, 1851, Berlin Akademy. Isaac 
Taylor has Kefn. 

Kepheus, wretched son of Palinurus. — Aratus, phainomena. 

For he says that K6pfaeus is Adam. And, too, the bird, tiie Swan who is with 
the Bears, is the pneuma in the kosmos, — a musical being, a sjrmbol of the spirit. — 
HIppolytns, p. 122, Dnncker. Adam is Adonis, Mithra, Osiris ; not to say KCpheus, 
lakonb (lakonb, Kdb), and Khufu. Bal, by a certain doctrine of the priests was both 
Satnm and Sol. Zeus, Hades, Helios and Dionysus were one and the same. 

Saturn was the Qcd of Hades, in Homer, Phoenicia, Israel, and Egypt. He oorre- 


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Suph is a derivative of Seb (Saturn) ; consequently the name 
Khufu in hieroglyphs and the name Suphis in Manetho are 
both forms of the names of Saturn, like Kebes (Phoenician- 
Greek), Khembes and Khemmis * into which Keb and Khem 
have been changed. Petrie found two separate specimens of 
Khufu's standard and a part of his cartouche. Many defects, 
instances of neglect and want of care in finishing the interior 
of the Great Pyramid, surprising in "such a magnificent 
piece of work," were noticed by Petrie. Kneph is, however, a 
God of Hades, like Osiris.* To Khufu's oval are prefixed the 
creative signs of Saturn, the water-jug * and the ram, which also 
belong to Kneph. There is no similar prefix of a determina- 
tive to a king's name in any other instance out of the hundreds 
of names, and thousands of variants, known (Petrie, 152). 
Kneph was the Creative Power, he presided over men, * the 
God who forms on his wheel the divine limbs of Osiris ' — ' the 
sculptor of all men ' (Rawlinson, I. 331). On the monuments 
bearing the name of Khnumu Khufu at Giseh and at Wady 
Maghara, there also occurs, with different titles, the name of 

sponds to Set in Palestine and the Eastern delta of the Nile. To Satnm-Moloch the 
Israelites, Moabites and Phoenicians offered np their children. His name was El in 
Phoenicia, from elah to "go up," " asoend," in the heaven, as the sunrise ; and the Is- 
raelites were, at least at a late period, directed to perform no manual labor on Satur-day, 
Saturn's day t In Egypt, Saturn's temple was erected outside the city. Like the dead, 
he belonged outside ; like the pyramids, his place was towards the sinking sun in the 

G. Massey asserts that "the language of monotheism reaches its climax in the 
hjrmns and addresses to Amen-Ra, the one god, one in all his works and ways." 

Elah is a Talley*8 name in 1 Samuel, xvii 19,— perhaps meaning " ascent ; " the re- 
verse of Turn and Kebo or Keb. 

1 DiodoruB, I. § 64, again alters the name Khemmis to Armaios, Khafra to Amasis 
or AmmSids, and Mukerinos to Inaron : leading to the suspicion that something is con- 
cealed here. Pliny could find out nothing of their history. Here four names, at least, 
are found for the reputed builder of the Great Pjrramid. Diodorus, L 87, «S3, shows 
himself to be no blind follower of Herodotus ; but he puts Khufu and his two succes- 
sors posterior to Remphis. — ^ibid. L 62. Diodorus and Herodotus seem, however, to 
have rather followed the Theban line in some particulars, as the making the greatest 
pyramid builders subsequent to the Theban Sesostris of the 19th dynasty. See Heeren 
Africa, II. 208, as to Diodorus being under Theban influences. 

s Rawlinson, L 829. 

* The water is poured on the wheel with which Kneph forms the divine limbs of 
Osiris. See Isaiah, xliv. 3, xxix. 10. Kneph is the leader of the celestial gods.— Ken- 
rick, I. 803, 314. Kneph is the God of life. The queen is led by the God Kneph and 
the Goddess Hathor, who stretches out to her the key of life, to the puerperal bed. — 
Kenrick, H. 200. Ia*hoh (lachoh) is the potter (—Isaiah, bdv. 8) as Kneph was, in 

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Ehofa himself.^ In the inscription on Hermapion's obelisk 
the Sun is called the Great God and Lord of heaven. Lord of 
Time, Horns (Lord of Light), all which appellations belong 
to Osiris (as Satum-Chronos, or Lunus and Sol). Osiris is the 
Persian Mithra who formerly reigned at Heliopolis. The 
name Khnama-Khufu, ' he who is united with Khufu,' would 
imply the union of the soul of Khufu, ' the fabled builder of 
the pyramids ' with Khnnm — a not imcommon idea in the case 
of the dead united to Osiris. Or it might, taken literally, 
mean that Eronos was incarnate in Khufu. The pitcher and 
ram are Saturn's emblems. See Hesiod, Theogony, 788-786 ; 
Deuteronomy, xxxiii. 18. Saturn's emblem in Arabia was a 
black stone. 

In Egypt there were many tombs of Osiris.' His sufferings 
and death were represented in what were called the Mysteries 
of the night' and it was natural that the Egyptians should 
have his tomb. The Great Pyramid is so placed that its faces 
front the four cardinal points. Hence, if we suppose a square 
whose sides are infinitely prolonged so as to extend to the 
four cardinal points of the world, we shall have an immense 
cross which cuts the circle of the horizon in four places. It 
was in the centre of this cross that the tomb of Osiris was 
placed. This tomb was that of the beneficent Spirit of Nature, 
of Osiris who had been put to death by Typhon. The floor of 
the * King's Chamber ' is very irregular in its level, not only 

> Fetrie, 15d. Of oonne, this is not easily explained. Alihoagli Khufu, Khsfra, 
ind Uen-kanra were deified, and temples stood before their pyramids, yet the word ar- 
chitect (fecit) stands only before Khafa*s name, not before the other two names. But 
if the other two had as much right to make their own tombs as Khufu, why is not the 
fecit prefixed to their names ? The ram * Creator. The pitcher « '* to pour.** Both 
apply to Saturn at the Stjrx.— Hovers, PhOn. 159, may also be compared with Hesiod, 
7S^786; Gen. it 7; Homer, D. rii 99. 

>delside, 20, 21 ; Diodor. I. 21. 

s Mankind, p. 607-609; Herodotus, II. 171. -^ the pyramidal cross. Kneph, 

from some point of view, is the Sun. — Compare Kenrick, Egypt, I. 802, 808, 814, 815 ; 
which identifies him with Saturn and Osiris. See Nork, Beal-Worterbuch, I. 224, IV. 
158. 159. The placing the sides of the pyramids facing the cardinal points is carried 
out in every ancient temple in Asia, even to China. It is the same with the Jewish 
temple. Hosaism, regarding the form of its onltus in general, belongs to the circle of 
the old religions and shares the views of antiquity.— Nork, L 230; Blihr, Symb. I. 
100. If we had all the sources that mention his miracles, Zoroaster^s life would ex- 
hibit surprising parallels to the life of Moses.— Nork, IV. 482, 488. There is a striking 
analogy between the posterior rites of Egyptian sepulture (described by the textes of 
M. DiUnichen) and the **Rituel domestique des fun^railles en Annam** (tradmt par 
M. Lesserteur).— Eugene Bovilloat, in Revue egrptologique, III. p. 194. 


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absolutely, but even in relation to its courses. The floor over 
the undermined part (beneath the coffer) at the West end is 
1\ inches higher in relation to the first course than it is at 
the S.E. comer; and along the South side where it has not 
been mined it varies IJ inches in relation to the first course.^ 
But it was meant for a tomb, not a temple. It faced the 

Ad6d,Dod,«Daoud, Tot, Taut,Th6th, Men, Neith, Neb, Seth, 
Amon, Asar, Osar, Anubis and other deity-names, together 
with the star-gods, show an emigration into Egypt from the 
East, an emigration of religious ideas at the same time. Saba- 
ism poured in. Brugsch, Histoire d'Eg3rpte, I. p. 24, men- 
tions ' Sabians of Pharaoh, priests in monuments of the time 
of the pyramids.' * Anubis is the horizon-ring that indicates 
the sepulchral-worship at the pyramids. The sun is led by 
Anubis from the world of light to darkness and from dark- 
ness again to light. He is Hermes psuchopompos, the body 
watcher of Osiris.* Thebes worshipped in the Bam the Vernal 
Equinox.** The Arab tradition assumes that Sabi, the mythic 
founder of Sabaism, is buried with his father Seth and his 
brother Henoch under the pyramids.^ The ram-headed, 
Ehnum is the Living Breath, the Lord of the distributions of 
water."' Chnemu is Kneph, and Kneph is ram-headed, at 
Thebes, like Zeus and Ammon.^ Chnemu Chufu (the name) 
is already written with the known figure of the ram (Chnemu, 
Kneph).® And the ram is the emblem of lijfe, identifying 
Kneph's vitality with that of Khufu. So that the ram-worship 
was in existence already at the time when the Great Pyra- 
mid was being finished. The Osiris-worship and the worship 

» Petrie, 83. The coffer in the Great Pyramid is not finely wrought.— Petrie, 84. 
The top of the coffer is broken sway all at one comer.— ibid. p. 90. 

^ Compare Tad-ens, a proper name in Homer. 

s KnOtel, Ghnfn, p. 108. Sabn n peraa. 

< KnOtel, p. 105. 

ft ibid. p. 101. The Ram indicates the Dirine Mind and Creator.— ReT. ▼. 6; 
xxii. 8. 

•ibid. p. 108. 

MWd. p. 107, 111. 

•ibid.p. 100, 117. 

• ibid. p. 100. Neith, the Goddess of Sais, was also represented as a female Kneph 
with ram*8 head. KnOtel, 100; quotes Charopoll. Pantheon pL 6. Qnin. Kneph 
(being ungenerate and immortal) is the Supreme First Cause.— Se? de Iside et Osiride, 
21. p. 359. 

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of Phatha (Phtha) of Memphis were very ancient in Egypt.* 
The obelisks that were oldest in Egypt were nothing eke but 
the Two Pillars that the Phoenicians ^ were accustomed to set 
before their temples, and only later worked with Egyptian 
art, according to the custom of the country, until they ap- 
peared as an entirely peculiar Egyptian structure. The obe- 
lisks devoted to Amun-Ba, the mystical Sun-god, exactly cor- 
respond to the Hamfmianim in the Israelite Bal cultus, the 
two pillars in the temple of the Tyrian Herakles.' Kneph is 
the ram-headed Num-Ba.^ The kings worship the Gk>ds of 
the country and build temples to them, and Osiris takes his 
place as the Great Buler of the dead,*^ so that the waterjug 
and ram must refer to the resurrection. 

The name Eha&ah is very like the name of the Hebrew 
city Khafirah.^ Having, therefore, disposed of the Bosim 
(Znzim), the Amim (Amu), and the Sati (Beth), we may put in 
the Sos, to compete with the Achasah or Achasou for the 
right to be regarded in the composition of the name Hyksos. 

The original name of the Chief of the Exodus mentioned 
in Manetho's story has very much the appearance of having 
been Osarsiph. Joseph could not have been the minister 
under a Shepherd (Hyksos) king, else Shepherds could not 
have been said to be the aversion of the Egyptians (G^n. xlvi. 
34). The unfounded opinion that the Hyksos Shepherds were 
the Scythians has long been refuted (Lepsius, Letters, 476, 
478, 479 ; see the Academy, March 24, 1888, p. 211). A Hyk- 
SOS king would not have given loseph an Egyptian name to do 
him honor, because the Hyksos were Arabian or Philistian 
Semites. loseph would hiuitUy have advised his brethren to 
tell Pharaoh that they were Shepherds, if every Shepherd was 
an abomination to the Egyptians to be quarantined in Goshen 
or Kush and kept out of sight. The story looks unreasonable, 
but written, like a novel, with the knowledge of Amalekite tra- 

>KnOtel,101, 114. 

* Like the Jews.— 1 Kings, Tii 15-31 ; 3 Ofaroo. ir. 12. 
» Kndtel, 110, 111. 

*ibid. 114. 

» Rawlinson, IL 84, 85 ; De Rongtf, Recherobes, 47-49, 65. fi^nonm wm adored m 
far aoQth as the Bgyptian border, and at Semneh.— See Maspero, Hist. Ana 98, 113. 
If Kaneph (Kneph) has any relation to the name and land Kanan, with the termina- 
tion In ep (like Tnnep), he would then, perhaps, have to be refptrded as a God of the 
Lowlanders or Oanaanites, Satnm. 

• Joshna, xriii 26, Ha Kheperah. Compare Kabtnu 

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ditions (as in I. Samuel, xxx. 13-15). That the Book of Gene- 
sis is not pure history throughout, but contains a certain 
amount of matter closely allied to folklore, is an opinion for 
which there is a great deal to be said on grounds independent 
of the critical analysis of the sources of the book.^ The first 
and most certain results of modem Biblical study — says Prof. 
W. Bobertson Smith — are that the oldest parts of the Bible 
were parts of a popular literature.' The older account of the 
Exodus presents all the marks of a traditional story from which 
geographical detail has been lost through lapse of time.' 
Oral tradition transmitted through so many centuries could 
hardly preserve a full picture of Egyptian life and institutions 
as they were in the time of loseph or of Moses and at no later 
date.* The Pentateuch represents the Egyptian priesthood to 
us as they were in later times. The Book of Genesis paints 
the life of the priests just as it was known to be in later times.^ 
No sober critic could doubt that the geography of the Exodus 
is real geog^raphy and also of much too detailed a kind to be 
handed down for several centuries by mere oral tradition. 
The geography of the Exodus is not derived from tradi- 
tion but from research ; the names of the stations were known 
to the writer or supplied to him by others.* Compare the 
journey of Joseph into Egypt by caravan in the time of Ptol- 
emy Euergetes/ in the third century before our era. There is 
nothing, that we remember, to hinder the Pentateuch being 
written as late as the Second Century before Christ. The 
Israelites, and probably the population of the districts where 
the Israelites settled, adored El as Moloch (that is, as Asad, 
Saad, Sada).^ It is quite possible that "iiy (Sd) is a perversion 
of Sada the Fire-god Herakles el Sadai ; for Shd means de- 
stroyer, spoiler, and demon, like Satan and Seth or Set. See 
Bodenschatz, HJ. 165, 166. Sthim (Numbers, xxv. 1) may mean 
the Sethim. 

> W. R Smith, in Contomp. Rev. Got. 1887, p. 600. 
•ibid. 601. 

s ibid. 49a We rather think that Bxodai was drawn np after B.C. 165, and later 
than Daniel's prophecies. 
« ibid. 496. 

• Movers, Phoenirier, L 112, 118. 

• Cont. Review, p. 498. 

f Jahn, Hebrew Commonwealth, 196 ; Josephns, Ant xii 8, 4. 

• Movers, I. 83, 3ia Judges, zi 34ff ; Mieah, vi. 7 ; Amos, v. 96 ; Numb. zzv. 4. 

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The Egyptians being voluptnoiiB and lazy in regard to 
labors and slaves to the other pleasures, and that in particular 
which has to do with the love of gain, it happened that they 
were very mad with the Hebrews through envy of their pros- 
perity. For seeing the race of the Israelites flourishing and 
through merit and adaptation to the labors, now distinguished 
on account of the plenitude of wealth, they suspected that they 
increased to their detriment. And of them some had done 
well under loseph but in the course of time had forgotten 
(their obligations), and, the sovereignty having passed to 
another house, were excessively impudent to the Israelites 
and contrived various injuries for them. For they ordered 
them to cut the Nile into many canals and build walls for the 
cities and mounds (elevations above the Eiver) to keep it back 
from overflowing when it went out over them. And building 
up pjrramids they wore out our people.* But the pasturing of 
flocks around the Great Pyramid was in the time of the Shep- 
herd Philitionos.* Exodus, vi. 24, gives Asir I^DK, while the 
third pyramid at Gizeh has surrendered the name of Asar, Osar 
or Ousir (Osiris) on Menkaura^s coffin lid, and Movers I. 43, 
341, finds Asar -^DN in Phoenicia as a deity-name. The name 
Ousir appears on the Seal of lar in the Abbot Egyptian Mu- 
seum in the possession of the Historical Society of New York. 
Chabas (—Papyrus Magique, p. 208) gives us Asarel; for 
the hatchet, in hieroglyphs, stands for El = God. Chabas 
says that the name of Osiris, in hieratic writing, is As-ra. 
But the vowel a is imderstood. Osiris is the element, water 
flife). Compare the "well of Hasarah" (or, reading the n 
by St. Jerome's rule, Asara). — 2 Samuel, iii. 26. See Asur ; — 
Qen. X. 11. and the Beni-Asar. — Joshua, xix. 24. Asrael 
(Azrael), Asar, Osiris, and Osrain are names one of the Arab 
Death-angel and the others of the Gk>d of the Dead. Set was 
worshipped in Philistia ^ and the Delta. Set was Typhon ; 
and Abaris was a Typhonian city. The ancients and chiefly the 
Egyptians held that the Jews worshipped Satumus-Typhon. 

> Joaephiu, Ant. U 5. Anyone oan see that this ipeech of Joaephni is a pare 
pieee of Rhetoric, and that Ul waa entirely ignorant of the etatoii of the Hebrews 
( Abaxa, or Hebronitea) in Egypt at a rery early period, if they ever got there. 

* Herodotus, II. 128. Imagine the wealth ascribed by Josephns to people described 
aa forced by their orerseers to omel labor. 

* A place named after him, Setenah, or the * Well of the Adrenary.* — Gen. xxtI 
2L 8et«SataxL 


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The name Abarah, or Abaris (the Hyksos fort), is so old as to 
have been lost in later times, and according to Lepsius, must 
have been taken from ancient writings. The narratives about 
the Hyksos have a legendary aspect, seemingly popular 
tales in reference to former wars for the possession of Lower 
^^yp^ ; <^d these legends may have acquired shape in times 
subsequent to the wars of Aahmes against the Syrians in the 
Delta and at Memphis.^ That these Syrians should have been 
regarded as intruders, particularly by the natives of Upper 
Egypt, was to be expected. That stories in regard to their 
expulsion should refer to them as lepers ^ and connect their 
* march out ' with the Jewish Commonwealth is not surprising, 
and that the name Mase, Mse, should have been borrowed from 
that Aahmes, Masses, or Amosis, while Miriam's leprosy 
serve . i/O maintain the connection between the Hebrew narra- 
tive and the Egyptian account, at the same time that an oppor- 
tunity was aflforded the Hebrew theologian to plant the flag of 
the Law amid the thunders of Mt. Sinai. The scribe's motive 
was to create a great people under the Law,^ under the priest- 
hood, not under the Kings ; and how render the Law more 
sacred in the eyes of the people than by representing it as 
divinely given amid the clouds on that awful spot amid whose 
desolation there could be found no sustenance for man unless 
miraculously given by the Gk)d of Life, the ever-living *I AM.' 
According to Deuteronomy, xiii. 5, the Hebrews were thought 
to be the Hyksos, and Joseph expressly says so.* But * Exo- 
dus ' makes the Hebrews march from Bamses to Sinai, while 
Josephus (Manetho) lets the Hyksos march from Abarij to 
Jerusalem. Genesis, xlvi. 34, refers to the Hyksos, and is 
against the identification of the Hebrews with the Hyksos. — 
See Boeckh, 292 ; Exodus, i. 11. 

Manetho's " dynasties of Gods " ' are so entirely opposed to 

> Compare Lepsins, Letters from Egypt, drc. 428-427 ; Chabaa, P^tenra, 61. 

> Josephos contra Ap. I, 1062, 1064 ; see Amenophia. 
* Gen. XV. 5, 18; Dent. xiiL 5 ; xxWii. 24. 

« Contra Ap. I, 1052, 1054, 1040. 

i Die Manethoniaohen Gdtterdynaatien ohne Zweifel ana einer aehr apiten Zeit 
hermhren. — Dr. Max Uhlemann, Handbnoh, III. 48. Alte Schriftatellar aprechmi 
geradezn Ton mehreren gleichseitigen Begenten in Aeg3rpten (I«uah, xix. IS). — ibid. 
III. 50 ; Jos. contra Apion, 1. 14. In Manetho^s list of dynasties the PhoBnioian Shep- 
herd kings are given as a separate dynasty although they only spread themaelvee in the 
Delta, never ruled over all Bgypt, and a native dynasty of Theban kings ruled at Thebes 
contemporaneously with them.— Uhlemann, III. 50. But there are Egyptian extracts 


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the idea of a Philistian or Phoenician origin of the Egyptian 
nation that it might perhaps be assumed that his and the other 
priests' hostility to the idea lay at the bottom of his state- 
ments. It must be observed that he never gives the slightest 
hint of a Philistian or Phoenician origin of his nation, nor even 
mentions these peoples before the 15th, 16th, and 17th dynas- 
ties, and then as a late invasion. But he uses a system of dynas- 
ties, beginning with the Gods and going back for ages so as to 
effectually dispose (as far as was in the priests* power) of a 
Phoenician-Philistian-Semite origin ! His article about the 
Hyksos to which Josephus refers (Manetho wrote something 
about the "Hyksos")* was probably conceived in this anti- 
semite spirit. Aware of this, the Jews countered with their 
'ancestors' Seth, Abrahm, lakab and Joseph, — coupled with 
the " Exodus." So that we may, after all, have to do first with 
Egyptian assumption, then with the counter of the Jewish 
Scribes, and finally with the " contra Apion " of Josephus. It 
is somewhat doubtful, on the evidence, what was the Hyksos 
Invasion (as described in Josephus contra Apion, I.). There was, 
it is held, an attack upon Egypt in Meneptha's time, both by 
sea and land, by the allies. But this is a very different story. 
To enter Egypt in the time of the 16th dynasty with an army in 
great force sufficient to overwhelm the natives, it had to be in- 
vaded from Midian, the Red Sea coast, the Delta or by the road 
of the Philistians to Pelusium. Deuteronomy, ii. 9, 10, mentions 
the Lotanese and the great people of the Amim (the Amu). 

I hated Aaati (the Esan, Asa or Sa in Mi Seir and in Idomea).— Malachi, i. 3. 

that seem to show that the 17th dynasty (at Thebes) was subserrient to Apapi, a Hyksos 

Lepeins seems, at one time, to hare regarded the first and second dynasty as oon- 
temporaneons and Menes not as sole raler, since he lets the first two kings of the sec- 
ond dynasty mle with him. — ^ibid III. 94, 95. But these are merely unsupported con- 
jectures. — ^ibid 9S. The tables of Abydos and Kamak have shown by the succession 
of the royal ovals (cartouches) that the kings of the 12th dynasty joined on to the &mUy 
of Menes, and that consequently the 2nd down to the 11th dynasties must have reigned 
coBtemporaneonsly with the fint in different parts of the country, so that we are led to 
suspect that right after Menes eleven different kingdoms were existing in Egypt to- 
gether, which later were united in two and finally in one kingdom. — Ublemann, IIL 95. 
The ten dynasties that Manetho gives reigned before Sesostris (who belongs to the 12th) 
sad together with the Menes family afford a sequence of 184 kings with only their names 
and regnal years given. So Herodotus gives a similar list of 800 from Menes to Sesos- 
tris about whom he knows next to nothing. The entire 7th dynasty reigned but 70 days, 
but bad 70 kinga— ibid 96. 

* Chabaa, Pasteun, p. 99 ; DOmichen, Inscrip. hist pi. 4, 87 et sqq. ; Chabas, p. 17. 


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How could these Arabs or Phoenician Shepherds have got 
across the Nile without an inyitation ? We have to suppose 
that they had friends in the Delta who were hostile to the 
Memphite regime. The Shepherds held Lower Egypt.^ 
Africanus testifies that they were Phoenicians.^ 

The story that Suphis (Khufu) was disdainful (w^wwm/s) to- 
wards the Gods (confirmed by Herodotus and Diodorus) is of 
a piece with the account of the Hyksos, that they were cruel 
to the people and hostile to the temples of the Gods. The 
Wahabee Arabs (0-h-b, Oahab) were in Suphah (to the east 
of the Amonas ; compare Zubah (Suphah), 2 Sam. yiii. 3 ; 1 Sam. 
xiv., 47), as we learn from the Hebrew tradition in Numbers, xxi. 
14, and that region (the desert east of the Amorite border) is 
proximate to the Aimim, the Zuzim and the Amanites (Cham- 
manim). Apapi, the Hyksos leader, selected the Canaanite 
Set, as being his own God, to be worshipped, and ordered 
Baskenen (Ba-Sekenen the Theban sub-king) to do the same. 
The Aimim (Gen. xiv. 5) are not necessarily the same as the 
Amu (Amim.—Deut. ii 9) which means the Arabs. But the 
remoteness of their location, in Moab, would not have pre- 
vented their joining the Amu (Amim) in raids into Egypt, 
since the Midianites extended from Moab to the eastern shores 
of the Bed Sea, while the Amalekites rode from Egypt to the 
Persian Gulf. 


Genesis, xxiv. 36, represents Abrahm ^ as an Arab sheik. 
In the oriental philosophy we have Isis (Ishah, Light), Nabta 
(Nephthys) Darkness. Light is represented by Sarah (Saras- 
vati) ; Darkness, by Kedar (Ketura). The Agarenes are rep- 
resented by Hagar ; the Shamah, by Ishmael. 

Abrahm (Brahma) 

^Lot (Lotan Arabe) 
Ischaq (Isaao, Zachel, Zahel) 

Asa-Esan ' — laqab = steals the primogeniture of 

Esau is the Elder stock ; son of the | *^® Arabian Esau. 

Evil Spirit. The savage jnan of | 

Genesis, zvi. 12, 18. | | 

(Kronos) Israel Negeb 

1 ibid. 29. 
» ibid. 9, 10. 

'Genesis, xxvi B4, mentions Sebo^^ (Seb's town). So, Seb bad been a Syrian 
Deity ! ! S — Sh. See Gesenios, Lexicon S. 

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The Midianites are Ishmaelites ^ (compare Samel, Samael) 
like the Shammah tribe. Here we have a proper genealogy 
of the Arab Hyksos (Idumeans) to begin with. Their diabolic 
character seems to be connected with the words Shemal, Sa- 
mael, Azazel and Asa. The Haks of the Sos (Sasu Arabs) seem 
to have been the Dukes of Edom.^ Nork represents Eetnrah 
as the Aphrodite Melainis, Venus skotia.' laqab steals the 
right attached to primogeniture (the blessing) away from the 
Beni Esau, and seems to have claims on the land of Eub (com- 
pare the Kebt). Abrahm is represented as leader of the 
Shepherds/ and, like the Amalekites, owning slaves. A. H. 
Sayce says : The evidence presented by the Egyptian monu- 
ments is confirmatory of an interesting verse (Numb. xiii. 29) 
where we are told that the Amalekites dwelt southward of 
Judah ; the Hittites, Jebusites, and Amorites '* in the moun- 
tain " ; and the Canaanites by the sea and in the valley of the 
Jordan. The statement is in complete harmony with the in- 
cidental notices of early Palestinian geography which meet us 
elsewhere in the Old Testament.^ Achzib, Akko, and even 
Sidon should have belonged to the tribe Aser, but could not be 
conquered. So that " Joshua " proves incorrect on that point. 
— Munk, Palestine, 226. 

The Madian^ and Amalaq and Beni Eadem^ came up 
against the Isarelim ^ and encamped on them and carried off 
the produce of the land, as far as Qtkza. They were the Shep- 
herds (Judges, vi. 5) and Ishmaelites (Judges, viii. 24).* In 

> Gen. zxzriL 28, 86. The Pbcenidaiis racrifioed ohildren to Satorn-Kronos.— 
Doiiliq), * Vestiges,* p. 207. The PenUns did the same. Amestris did sa The He- 
brews passed them through the fire to Moloch. 

• Gen. zxxri Gen. xxxvi 13, brings Amalek in among the Beni Esau. Compare 
Geo. xiT. 0, 7, which brings in the Amalekites, Chorites, Kadesh, and Aimim ( Amou) ; 
not to mention the Kamkamasha and Chamanites, with Ghamosh the Moabite Ariel. 

>Nork, Real-WOrterbnoh, Art Ketnxa. 

« Gen. ariii 2, .\ 7, 18; xxiv. 86; viu. 18, 27; xx. 14. 

• Academy, Nor. 0. 1888. Hivite is KhSite, being in Hebrew written KhSi 

• Midian, in the plain of Moab.— Gen. zxxri 85 ; Nombern, xxiL 4 ; xxxi 8, 8, 
9, la 

1 Strange to say, the Israelites were in the city Kadesh (where the Kheta were 
when Ramses IL marched against the Khettite (Hittite) king).— Judges, xi. 16, 17. 

• This word Isar is merely, as a proper name^ the Syrian * Asar * pronounced Osar, 
as in the Egyptian name Asar (hieroglyphic) which is Osiris, Hesiri, Onsir, eta Asa- 
lid is the Osiris-angel, the Asarielite AngeL Azrail the Archangel of the lesidi. 

• Genesis, xxxvi 8, 16, Sa And^et.— ibid. 29; Gen. xix. 21 ; xxxvi 2. Lotann 
Arabs; Beni Adah. See Gen. x. 19, for the Kananite and Ishmaelite border. For the 
Hyksos, see Gen. xiv. 2, 8, 6, 7, 12 ; for the extent of the Abrahmidae, ride Gen. xv. 



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one of their raids they got as far north as the Great Plain. 
Madian seems to have carried his ark from Sinai to Moab, and 
to have crossed the Jordan to the Biver Eishon. If Midian- 
ites could penetrate so far in the Syrian-Amorite district, they 
must have associated themselves to the Amu in Saue/ and it 
would have been possible, one would imagine, for such a na- 
tion to have gone from the Gulf of Akabah through Sinaite 
valleys or round the Sinaite peninsula, on their camels,^ into 
Lower Egypt east of the Nile, — certainly if joined by the Amal- 
ekites.^ Abrahm was the Father of the Arabs as well as the 

Abrahm was oircnmoised and Ishmael his son. — Gen. xvii. 26. 
'Abrahm was rich in cattle. — Gen. xiii. 3. 

Genesis, xx. 1, mentions Abrahm (the Shemalite or Ishmaelite 
Arabs) in the South, between Kadesh and Sur (the Wilderness). 
His people were then in the Negeb. 

Thy father was an Amorite, thy mother a Katti.— Esekiel, xvi 8, 4<^. 

The "Shepherds" adored Set' (Sutech), a Palestine deity 
known in the Delta of Egypt. Their kings' names were (ac- 
cording to Julius Africanus) Semitic, Philistian or Phoenician 
names, such as Salatis, Saites, Sataan, Benon, Archies, Apho- 
bis, which correspond to Salad, 1 Chron. ii 30, Set (Seth), 
Benoni, Archal (the Phoenician Herakles), Epaphus (lobab), 

18; XX. 1. Bsan is Idamea.— Gen. xxv. 30; xjlxvL 1, SL Genesis, xxt. 3, makes 
Midian -the child of Abrahm and Ketnra, who resemble Adonis (Osiris, Brahma, Bro- 
mius) and Knthereia (the Benah or Vena). So, too, Asabaq (Esbaq) has a name sug- 
gesting the names Asabonoi, Esebon, 2Seb (Sat or Set), and Dionysus, the Arab fire- 
deity.— Job i 15, 16. 

1 Gen. xiv. 5 ; Nombers, xxi. 26, 28. Abrahm is onr father.— John, yilL 89; Lnke, 
L 78. 

* Judges, viii. 21. 

* See 1 Sam xr. 3, 7 ; xxx. 11, la Amalek is one of the tribes of Asa (Eean) who 
is Eidom (Idnmea). 

* 1 Chronioles, i 89 ff. The Genius (Angel) Bahaq called the world into existenoeL 
— Codex Nasar IL 283 ; Norberg. Bakohos (the Arabian Dionysus, Bak) was, then, 
the Arabian Light of the world ; for Bak, according to Seyffarth, Th. Schr. 4, meant 
* light" in Egyptian, Bhq means splendens and fulgens, and can be read Bak by St. 
Jerome^s rule : h ^ a. 

* The Egyptians regarded Typhon as the Hdiacal kosmos ; and they caD the 
Typhon Set.— de Iside et Osiiride, 41. Hence it is clear that Set was anciently consid- 
ered to be the flame of the fiery sun ; while the moon was the place of Osiris and Isis. 
—de Iside, 48. 


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just as Khufu corresponds to Akoub, Akouph and Kouph, or 
Souphis to Asoube and Souba among Semites. Flanking the 
eastern entrance into Egypt we find the Sapharitae (Mt. 
Sepher) to the north, and the Aakabara at Chebron or away 
oflf to the southeast (compare the Beni Kheibar east of Mid- 
ian), or possibly at the town Khephirah a city of ^ni Amin 
(Joshua, xviii. 24, 26). Speaking of the Hyksos, Josephus's 
Manetho mentions that these did exactly what Deuteronomy, 
ii 34, iii. 6-8, vii. 6, describes the Jews as having done down 
in the neighborhood of Gaza and Gerar. In Egyptian, Hak- 
sos or Hyksos (Tlkussos) means rulers of nomads, rulers of 
Shepherds. The Shasu are the Bedouins. Josephus calls the 
Hyksos " Our Ancestors." The expressions Abaris (compare 
the proper name Abar, 1 Chron. viii. 17. Sept. and Aber, 1 
Chron. iv. 18, Septuagint), Typhon, Shepherds,* and "the 
Shepherds at the city called Jerusalem *' in the narrative ^ of 
Josephus's Manetho show the Hyksos Shepherds to have been 
a coalition of forces Syro- Arabian, such as Mr. Birch had to 
examine in his Observations on the Statistical Table of Kar- 
nak, 14. Palmer (Egypt. Chronicles, II. p. 564) says : Manetho, 
in the passages extracted from him by Josephus, represents 
the Shepherds as not only fortifying Avaris, keeping a force 
near Pelusium ^ (which may be an anticipation), holding Mem- 
phis and reducing the Upper as well as Lower country, with 
the native rulers, to subjection, but also qb "putt{7ig gafrisons 
in sicch plctces as tcere most convenient for the maintenance of 
their supremacy, and for the collection of their dues." In 
Septuagint 1 Chronicles, v. 26, vi. 1, we find the names XajSwp 
and Xc/^pwv (Khabor * and Khebron-Hebron) ; but according to 
Lepsius, who quotes Ewald,* the Hebrew nation originally 
comprised the most south-westerly Semitic tribes and ex- 
tended to the gates of Egypt, therefore to Pelusium or Abaris.* 

I Lepdiu ftnd Bfaspero regarded them as Kashites. — Wiedemann, p. 290; Maspero. 
G«8chichte, p. 167 ff. Set presided oyer the foreign ]and, Phoenicia, Syria, the Desert ; 
aljio Set poMeoaed the red crown of Lower Egypt. —Meyer, 80, 40. The goddesses Anata 
and Avtarta, which pass aa bad natores, are designated ' creatures of Set.*— Meyer, 41. 
These goddesses are Phoenician and Syrian ; like Seth and the Sethitea. 

* Jofl. c. Apion, I. p. 1053. 

> The Kara were not very far from Pelnsinm. They oonld hai^e done it, with (vid 
from their neighbor tribes. 

* Compare Akbar, Akbor, and Aakabara. 

* Gesch. Isr. L 290, 291, d2a 

* Lepsins, Letters, p. 481. 

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According to that, Josephus could easily claim Egsrptian an- 

A perishing Syrian my father and he descended into Egypt 

And he felt apprehensive there with few men. — Deuteronomy, xrvi. 5. 

The Beni Kat (Khat/ Heth) were at Chebroh (Hebron) and 
at Katath.'* Beth Kar was in Philistia* among the Kara. 
Compare Mt. Khares the Mt. of the Sun,* Khareseth, a Sun- 
city in Moab. Manetho's fifteenth* dynasty contains the 
names Arkhles,* Saites, Apophis, Staan (Sataan ?) Aseth, &g? 
Seth is supposed to be a God of the so-called Hyksos, and is 
associated by the Egyptians to Typhon. Aseth may therefore 
have been a Shepherd king, that is, a Seth-worshipper from 
near Kessa and Pelusium-Abaris, a Philistian. Seth was a 
Syrian deity, because he is apparently a ^on of Adonis-Lunus- 
Adam ^ the moon-god, being made in his image which is her- 
maphroditus. Set (Typhon) has partly the appearance (in 
hieroglyphics) of a giraffe and sometimes was represented 
with the head of an ass ; Pleyte considered the form a com- 
bination of ass and gazelle ; he was often represented with 
his companions as changed into goats,* swine and hippo- 
potami.^® Set is the opponent of Osiris and Horus," is also re- 

> Ezekie], xlviL 19, mentionB the * Waters of Strife at Kadeah.* In the grand 
campaign of Ramsefl IIL the fortren of Kadesh was defended by Kheta and Rabu 
from Arba (Ghebron) united against him. In invading the Southern Syria Ramses had 
his rear open to Idnmeans, Amalekites, Nabatheans, Amorites ; while the Libyans 
might attack Egypt on the west 

« Gen. X. 15 ; xxiU. 2, 7, 10, 15, 19 ; Joshua, xix. 15. 

« 1 Samuel, vii. 11. 

^Mt. Chares. — Judges, i. 85. Chares means *sun* in Hebrew. Kur is the Sun. 
KurioB is the Solar Lord. Sohiader reads ")3 (kr) Eur-ra, and translates it Osten 
(East).— Sohrader, Keilms. n. d. Alte Test., 897, 560. Compare Samgar (Samaa, Sara, 
Shems) and Garu (city of Kar the Sun). So, too, Sankara. Sanar, the Snn^s Moun- 
tain, Chermon. 

* According to Mr. Sayce^s Record in his Herodotus, L p. 460. 

* compare the Phoenician Arohal, Herakles. In Cory's Ancient Fragments, p. 11, 
KertOs (K^pTMf), 29 yean, is placed before AsSth, 20 years. The same name, Kerthos, 
is put immediately after Salatis in KndteVs System, pp. 17, 19. It comes near the 
Edretim, Phoenicians, as a Hyksos name. 

^ A mixed multitude made exodus together with the Hebrews. — Exodns, xiL 88. 
" Gen. V. S. le disque lunaire entre les deux yeax mystiques.— Maspero. 

* Asasel's Goat— Ley iticus, xvi 8, 10. 
!• Eduard Meyer, Set-Typhon, 1, 7. 

" ibid. 13-16. 

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garded as the Darkness/ all that is bad, destraotive and 
bated' Set is the God to whom the sea, foreign territory, and 
the desert belong : the crocodile, hippopotamus, and the ass, 
destructive and abhorred creatures, belong to him.^ He also 
appears in the Book of the Dead as pursuer of souls/ Com- 
pare Zagreus as pursuer of souls. Here as everywhere the op- 
position between good and bad gradually develops oat of the 
idea of Light and Darkness, friendly and hostile.' In lower 
Egypt the worship of Seth was only in the Eastern Delta and 
perhaps in Memphis. Tanis and Avaris (at or near Pelusium) 
were two chief seats of his worship. In Tanis he had a great 
temple. In 1862 Mariette exhumed there numerous steles 
having reference to his worship. The north-east Delta was 
from a very early period inhabited by a Canaanite population 
or one intermixed with them. With their chief god Bol 
(Apollo) Set was identified because he was God of the for- 
eigner.* Two Hyksos kings have names compounded with the 
name Set (see Wiedemann, 284, 295), and Apepi IL worships 
Sutech (Set) alone. A son of Bamses 11. is called Set-em-oua, 

> ib. 15, 18-24, 28, 29. Honu and Set are mentioned as two hostile brothers. — ib. 22. 
Sebak, the crooodilo-headed god, is smitten at the prow of the great bark.— Mejer, p. 
27. The hippopotamus is the old Tj^hxKn. Compare the Old Serpent Satan, the 
Deril.— Reyelation, zx. 2. The Egyptians adored '^rphon with the nsages of the Mo- 
loch- worship. —Movers, 865, 867-871. 

« Meyer, 40. 

* ibid. 40. 

« ih. 41, 48, oompare Lerit xyl 8, 10. 

* Meyer, 41. He finally takes the phuse of the Christian DevO, Satan in Hades 
seizing the sonls, derouring the entrails and liring on corpses. The part was assigned 
to chiefly the bad demons of destroying the ignorant and wicked. They are often the 
ienrants of Osiris, Ra and Tom, like the guardians of the gates of the Elysian Field 
Aanr^ (or Aaln), who kill the enemies of Osiris and go about partly at night. This is 
also Hindn superstition. At the moon's fall a swine was offered np and eaten. On 
this day Set in a boar*s form attacked Horns.— Meyer, 42, 43. A type of Typhon is the 
crocodile. As beginning of all evil is Set, so in the magic p^yms Harris the inimical 
crocodile Makai is called ^* Son of Set,** and the goddesses Anata and Astarta, who 
pass for eril-disposed natnres, are designated ** oreatores of Set."— Meyer, p. 41. The 
deceased identifies himself with Set, Osiris, SSthis, and Tnm, in order thereby to scare 
away the erocodfles.— ibid. 48. This arises oat of the doctrine that Apollo-Set (Baal) 
is the God of Darkness in Hades. Through Set they nerer expected to die again.— 
Meyer, 48, 49. 

* Eduard Meyer, p. 47. Outside are the dogs.- Rot. xzii. 15. Like the Jews, the 
Egyptians called the foreigners tep^ (that is, Ooini, OentUen) and dogs. — Eugene Rer- 
illout, Reme EgyptoL 1881. 7, 8, 60. The Egyptian prophet inreighs against Nec- 
taneb IL because his pride* boasting and self-confidence made him forget that God 
alone is the master of the supreme power. — Eugene Rerillout, 1881, p. 60. The Asathi 
of Gaaa worshipped Seth*s name. 


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** Set in the bark."* The two sacred seas of the temple-grounds 
of Edfu bore, one, the name Sche-Hor " Sea of Horus ; " the 
other was called Sche-Chab " Sea of the River Horse." At 
Edfu a festival was kept in memory of the " fight of Horus," 
at which the killing a hippopotamus was undertaken in the 
second sea. At another festival at Edfu an ass was killed, ac- 
cording to inscriptions in the temple.* Horus protects a piece 
of the body of Osiris from the Destroyer, Set-Typhon. Ac- 
cording to Nonnus (I. 156), Typhoeus stole the snowy arms of 
Zeus, the arms of fire. Set was not in the circle of Gods. His 
name was here as everywhere scraped out or changed into 
Thuti or Hor ur.^ Seth, the Sethians say, is a certain divine 
Power. — Theodoret, Haeret. Fab., I. xiv. Cain was the Power 
of Darkness. 

There is one monument which shows Apepi or Apophis to 
have been the last of the SJiepherd Kings,^ and contemporary 
with a certain Ea Sekenen who immediately preceded Ahmes, 
the founder of the eighteenth dynasty. There is another which 
not obscurely intimates that Set or Saites was (as Manetho 
also witnesses) the first of the Shepherd kings, and also gives 
his date as 400 years before some year in the reign of Bamses 
n. Now the only dynasty of Shepherd kings whose names 
Manetho gave began with a 'Saites' and ended with an 
'Apophis,' according to both Africanus and the Armenian 
Eusebius ; so that there are strong grounds for believing that 
the rule of the Shepherds really began and ended with this 
dynasty, to which Manetho assigned 284 years, according to 
both Africanus and the Armenian Eusebius, or, according to 
JosepTius, 250 years and ten months.'' The Hyk-Sos are partly 

1 Meyer, pp. 52, 53. Set is represented as tbe Golden, the doable crown on his 
heftd, killing a serpent in whose neck a knife sticks. Also Set is m6ri R&, beloved of 
R&.— ibid. 53. He was also conceived as brother of Osiris and Horns, that the power 
of Darkness might be conceived as the brother of Light In this point of view his 
wife is Nepthys. Both are represented together in a group in the Louvre, of the time 
of Ramses IL— Meyer, 50, 51. Abel represents the Solar €rood Principle, the Adon 
that dies. 

* Ddmichen, Allgemeine Oesch. I. 49. 

» Meyer, 51, 58. Henoch has ** Sntel" 

* From Bawlinson*s Egypt In vol. II. p. 231 he mentions Herfnoool as a town of 
the Lnten. It sounds like Rhinooolara on the Syrian frontier towards Egypt 

* Rawlinson, IL p. 16. Herodotns, II. 128, expressly mentions the pyramids of 
Khnfn and Khafra in connection with *Hhe Shepherd Philitis.** This name either 
refers to Phoenicians or PhilistineB, or to both ; which would include the Kefa. It is 
assumed that the Phoenician trading posts and cities were along the Philistine sea-coast 


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the Amalekite Arabs, the ShastL In his account of these 
Arabs Manetho has sketched a true likeness of those Amal- 
ekites who made the Jews so forious that they swore — ^the 
hand on the Throne of lach — perpetual war against Amalak ! * 

And lalioh said to M-s-e : Write this memorandum in (a) book and put it 
into lansba's ears : for I with destruction am about to destroy the remembrance 
of Amalaq from underneath the heavens I — Exodus, XTii. 14. 

It is obvious that Amalak was as unpopular in Judea ^ as he 
was in Egypt. Saul smote the Amalek from Choilach south- 
east of the Dead Sea, nearly to the Egyptian border. 

And lahoh did to thee as he spoke through my hand, and lahoh severed 
the government out of thine hand gave it to ihy friend, to Daud. Sinoe jou 
did not listen to the voice of lahoh and did not execute the vehement fury of 
his anger upon Amalaq : on this account hath lahoh done tliis thing to thee 
this day. And lahoh will give also Israel with thee into the power of the 
Pelestim, and to-morrow thou and thy sons (will be) with me (in Hades) : even 
the camp of Israel lahoh shall give into the baud of the Pelestim. And Saul 
hastened and fell at his full length to the ground, and was very much scared at 
the words of Samuel, and his strength left him.— 1 Sam. xvii. £f. 

The priest-power aimed to control the kings, if these were not 
highpriests. It is to be noticed that the letters of Daud*s 
name are Dud, whence it is easy to compare Homer's Tud 
(Tudeus), the eus being only Greek termination syllable added 
to the Semite root Adad, Dud, Tud, Taut, Tot, Thoth, such 
changes as proper names underwent under the vocal rule 
d=t=th. It seems impossible to deny that the sacred scribes 
wrote their history with a will and a political intention. — 
2 Chron. xvi. 12 ; 2 Kings, xxiii. 9 ; 2 Chron. xxi. 11 ; xxxi. 1 ; 
XXXV. 4 ; Ezra, ix. 2 ; Nehem. xiii. 1, 23. 

"Hebron is at once a Hittite and an Amorite town; and 
Ezekiel declares (xvi. 45) that the mother of Jerusalem was a 
Hittite and the father an Amorite. I have always believed, on 
the strength of Numbers, xiii. 22, that Manetho had traditional 
authority for his statement that Jerusalem was built by the 

and on the lower Nile,— extending as far, perhaps, as Karthage. The Philistines were 
foand in battle array at Sonem in the plain of leneel in Sanies time. 

» Exodus, xvil 8-16; Numb. xxiv. 20; 1 Sam. xv. 3, 20. The Hebrows did not 
love the Sheto (Beni Sheth.— Numben*, xxiv. 17) any more than the Egyptians did. 
The Amalekites dwelt in the land of Negeb. 

*The homing wrath of la'hoh against Amalak.— 1 Sam. xxviii 18; see psalm, 
Ixxxiii. 7. 


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Hyksos after their expulsion from Egypt and there is much to 
be said on behalf of the theory of Mariette and others that the 
leaders of the Hyksos were Hittites. However this may be, 
the discovery that Hittites and Amorites were associated in 
Northern Syria confirms the Biblical narrative which assigns a 
colony of Hittites to the south of Judah." * 

Taking into view Mr. Brugsch's favorable opinion of the 
Hyksos, which is the exact opposite of what Josephus, in his 
controversy against Apion, claims to have been the statement 
of Manetho, considering, further, Deuteronomy, xii. 2, 3, which 
bears a striking resemblance to Manetho as quoted by Jose- 
phus, and that a combination or league of the powers between 
Chebron ('Hebron), the Ghor, Madian, el Paran (including 
Amalak) and Egypt would make up an allied array of peoples 
corresponding to the Josephus-Manethonian description of the 
Hyksos, it is not wholly improbable that an Amorite-Khatite- 
Amalekite invasion of Lower Egypt really occurred, of which 
this Hyksos story is the altered remnant. If the difference be- 
tween Hyksos and Amenemhats consists in hair arranged dif- 
ferently, in an unusual type of face in Egypt, in a difference of 
facial appearance on sphinxes, and the difference between the 
use of dark grey or black granite and red,^ it must not be for- 
gotten that loudeans, Philistians (Karu), Amalekites, and 
Phoenicians were the neighbors of Egyi^t, that the names of 
the Hyksos kings are both Egyptian and Semite, that the 
Hyksos kings had hieroglyphic characters, and that when 
Thothmes, Seti I., and Bamses II. replied to the invasions of 
Egypt they marched into the Negeb, to the Wadi Arabah, to Bir 
Saba, and to Zahi (Azah, Gaza), We must further remember 
that the object of Josephus, in his reply to Apion, was to 
identify his ancestors and 'Exodus' with these very Hyk- 
sos who long held Lower Egypt. Then again the Phoeni- 
cians and Hyksos had sphinxes,'^ the Assyrians and Jews their 
sacred bulls. 

> This paraage in the * Academy ' of the date Oct. 23d, 1886, has just been received 
Nov. 2d, after the completion of this chapter. Mr. A. H. Sayoe is the author of the 
passage quoted above. 

' See Petrie, Tanis, L pp. 5, 6, 9, 11. The Araenemhats employed both red and 
bUck granite. — Tanis L pp. 4, 5. The connection with Philistia, the Ehatti, and 
Negeb (the Sonth) is shown in the adoration, by the Hyksos, of Set the fire-god of the 
seaHXMurt from el Arish to Beirut, the Seth of the Hebronites and Jews. 

' Georg Ebers, * Academy,* March 6, 1886, p. 173, mentions a sphinx strongly Phco- 
nidan in character. 


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Now then, here, Uke yonr wife and depart I 

Thejr sent him awajr and his wife and all that he had.— Gen. zii. 19, 20. 

And Abram went np oat of Miaraim and his wife and all (the people) that 
were his, and Lot ' with him, to the Negeb. And Abram was verjr powerful iu 
cattle and silver and gold.* And he went on his locomotions (departures) from 
Negeb to Beth El, to the place where his tent was at first, between Beth-El and 
Hal 1— Gen. ziii 1-4 

This is a very accurate account (according to Josephus*) of 
the removal of the Hyksos from Abaris to Jerusalem. Jose- 
phus claims them as ' our ancestors.* 

And he went whence he came into the Desert — Septnagint, Gen. ziii. 8. 

The Ishmaelites are the Children of Abraham.^ They included 
the Amalekites, Hagarenes' (Agraei) and all the Edomite 
tribes. They were excellent archers, dead shots with either 

The souvenirs of the fourth and fifth dynasties are grouped 
and concentrated, so to speak, around the ancient site of Mem- 
phis ; Ousirtasen I. (12th dynasty) left memorials of himself at 
Abydos, Memphis and Tanis.* The 12th dynasty has left the 
traces of its power ' from the Fai&m to Sinai, from Lower Egypt 
to the heart of Ethiopia. Then Apapi ^ is no barbarian but an 
enlightened prince who has a college of hierogrammatei, sacred 
scribes, learned men. He is the only Shepherd king whose en- 
tire cartouche has come down to us. Mariette has even foimd 
his legend at H&n. We must not forget that with this " Shep- 
herd king " we come upon the finale of the oppression of Egypt 
by a foreign race.' The Egyptian civilization was that of the 

1 The tribe Lotaan (as one of the Edomite tribes) very likely extended to Mesopo- 
tamia. See Gren. zi 81. 

* The plmider of Egypt 

* contra Apion, L 

« Gen. xzT. 12-14, t 

* The drcamstam^ that Hagar wae an Egyptian (Gen. zri 1) shows the intimate 
relations of the Egyptian Delta with the East 

* De Boag^, Beoherches, pp. It. y. tI. Oer ohnn (* great lights*) is the name of the 
prophet of Menkanra (4th dynasty).— De Rong^, 64. Chan may perhaps have had the 
Bgnifioation of * lites,' which the Hebrew chiim means. 

"* Sterile noroendatares np to the moment when the family of Amemhat shall cast 
a new faistre upon the second part of the Andent Empire.— De Bongd, Recherches, p. 

* The name resembles Baba, Bebai, Papi and PepL Apepi subjected to his sway 
36 distrioU of Nnbia.— Sayoe, Her. L 896. 

* Chabas, les Pastenrs, 81, 87. 


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Philistian-Phoenicians, and a strong proof of this besides the 
Semite character of the early names, including Eamses, is that 
the Papyrus Sallier I. reveals that only the " Shepherd king " 
has a council of learned scribes/ while the Theban's council- 
lors are all military leaders.*'* This is in itself evidence that 
the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing began in the North, and the 
circumstance that no early and greatly inferior status of the 
said writing has been discovered seems to point to the importa- 
tion of letters into Egypt from abroad. The two side walls of 
the passage way and the walls of Pepi's burial chamber were 
covered with rich inscriptions. The beauty of the green-col- 
ored inscriptions cut in white stone within his pyramid indi- 
cate the advanced stage of art in the pyramid-builders of the 
sixth dynasty and a completed state of civilization such as 
would not be looked for in the (assumed) early period from the 
commencement of regal power under a Menes to the fourth and 
fifth dynasties. Hence something, some tradition, has failed 
to be recorded in the Egyptian annals, or, if recorded, has per- 
ished, that would have explained this apparent perfection 
withovi g7*owth which is only witnessed in the case of civiliza- 
tion and progress attained in one country and carried to an- 
other. Since there is a tradition of a Phoenician emigration 
and another of the occupation of Memphis by the Arabs or 
Syrians (called Hyksos) we have to ascribe to the Phoenicians 
or Syrians the progress in the arts and the religious organiza- 
tion found to have once existed near Memphis at Gizeh and on 
the border of the desert, just west of the village Saqqarah, as 
well at Abu Boash, among the pyramid builders.^ It is, how- 
ever, an unsettled question what led to the destruction of the 

* Gen. xln. 20, 1. 26 and Exodas, vii 11, mention the ohachamB (an expreedon atill 
in use) and the readers of hieroglyphs, the chartamim. There was nothing to prevent 
a Hebrew writer in the 2nd centnry B.C. using the name Ramses to indicate the locality 
where Ramses XL had left his name and image (compare Genesis, xlviL 11). 

« Chabas, p. 87. 

> The diorite observed by Petrie at Giseh and Abn Roash very likely came from 
Midian, where it was found by R F. Burton (see his Gold Mines of Midian, 161, 358). 
King Soris (recognized asSenofru by De Rong6, Recherches, p. Ill) has the nameSor, 
a form of the name Asar or Sar (pronounced Sor), which is the naftne of Sour (T>Te) 
and Suria. This shows that the kings of the fourth dynasty were of Syrian Origin. 
Rawlinson, 11. 46, considers that Sdris oorrespimds with the ^ Sar * of the Turin Papy- 
rus and the table of Saocarah, and that he is properly identified with Senefru. The 
study of the tombs of Giseh and Saooarah allows the construction of a very extended 
tableau of the Egyptian civilization during the fourth and fifth dynasties.— Bo Rouftf, 
p. 111. 


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temples of Gizeh.^ It may have been the expulsion of the 
Syrians from Memphis, and then the ruin of Gizeh naturally 

When we compare the two largest pyramids at Gizeh 
(Khufu's, 450TV<r feet high, Khafra's 447tV lugh ; Khufu's 746 
feet in breadth at bottom, Khafra's 690 (''oV broad at bottom) 
Ehufu's is the largest, indeed, but the difference in size is not 
so very important in regard to certain ulterior considerations. 
Ehafra's like Menkaura*s pyramid has no grave-chamber above 
the rock !— Petrie, 105, 117, 170. Khufu's has. Petrie's exhibi- 
tion of a cross section of each of these pyramids places the 
distinction between the two before us very clearly. The dif- 
ference of intention in the plan of erection is a radical one. 
If Ehufu's pyramid suggested to Ehafra the idea of rivaling 
it, why did he ncJt imitate the notion of a chamber above the 
rock ? Or if Ehafra's was first built, why should Ehufu have 
deviated in regard to the location above ground of the Eing's 
Chamber ? The size of the pyramid does not appear to differ 
so much as to make it a question of mere fancy. The change 
from the usual custom of burying in the rock must have had a 
more serious reason, one would be apt to think. It may have 
been caused by the need to lessen the superincumbent weight, 
as was the case in regard to the five * chambers of construc- 
tion ' over the * Eing^s Chamber,* or it may have been intended 
for concealment of the body, since in Ehafra's pyramid no 
chambers above ground existed or would be liable to be sus- 
pected in Ehufu's times. Sheet iron was used at Gizeh. — 
Petrie, p. 212. 

Was the Great Pyramid intended to serve as a tomb of 
Saturn or Osiris, or of a king Ehufu or Suphis (Sev, Seb,^ 
Suph) ? Saturn is Earthgod, Hades, Sheol. Eiiufu's emblems, 

I The HykflOB may have been the 4th, 5th, and 6th dynasties at Memphu, and the 
Theban kings have taken their place. Hence the bias of the Egyptians against the 4th 
dynasty is explained. This, however, wonld contradict Manetho, and the pyramids 
precede the Gth dynasty. Theban inflnences haye been exerted to change the aspect of 
the history of Egypt so far as the Memphite dynasties are concerned, and to claim 
^9yp^f<yT the Egyptians except during the time of Arisn and other foreign invaders, 
disposed of as Hylnos. 

« Seb is found in SeboA (SeVs town), the well of Sebah.— Gen. xxvi. 38. S is Sh, 
in Hebrew.— Gesenins, Lexicon, letter S. Petrie regards the Great Pyramid as 
Khnf n^s tomb. 

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the water-jug and ram, rather point to the water of Hades.^ 
Saturn is Ancient of days. 

Thus says the High and Sablime One that inhabits eternity. — Isaiah, lyii. 

There is a certainty that the day of Saturn was kept sacred by 
the Hebrews, and in Egypt Seb must have had his day at 
some time. When it is considered that Lepsius found the re- 
mains of 75 pyramids, it is clear that the object of their 
erection was to serve as places of burial. That this was the 
case in regard to the Great Pyramid admits of no doubt, for 
the lower part of the passage leading to the two funeral cham- 
bers abovQ was blocked up with granite plug-blocks, according 
to Petrie, 166, 167, 215. Four kings* mummies were found, ac- 
cording to Arabian authors, in the two greatest pyramids, be- 
sides other things of value ; ' but the ancient authors, while 
agreed that the pyramids were graves, were not agreed as to 
their builders.' The Great Pyramid is an exception to the usual 
rule of burying in the rock ; for it has in addition two chambers 
for burial above ground ; one still exhibiting the sarcophagus 
that is too large to be taken up the passage way to the * King's 
Chamber.' The references to Saturn (Adonis) as Deathgod ap- 
ply also to the king«.^ Plato puts Thamus* (probably Tamus, 

1 Dentenm. xzziiL 18, tee Hesiod, Theog. 783-786. The identifioation or anion of 
the deceased with Osiris is already aesamed as something completely settled in the old- 
est known copies of the Book of the Dead— Renouf, p. 177. In the 11th dynasty the 
name Osiris is Dot7et put before that of the deceased.— ib. 177. 

« A. Wiedemann, Agypt. Geeoh. p. 179. 

* ibid. p. 180. An examination of Petrie's plate viL of the two large pyramids at 
Gizoh, shows that Khafra^s pjrramid has no chambers above the rook, while the Great 
tVntiiud has two ; the lower one of the two having been built first may have been of 
less account in the estimation of the builders, when it was decided to make the King's 
chamber higher up. The lower chamber had to be closed up to allow the plug-blocks to 
pass it, and was therefore dependent upon such closing, which might occur at any time. 
Not reliable therefore to bury in. 

* The ' Hoi Aden,* the mourning lamentation, was given for the kings.— Jeremiah, 
xxii 18 ; xxxiv. 5. Khnnm^s name, which sppears in (he second *■ chamber of con- 
struction * above the * King^s Chamber,' was used in the royal names of the 13th and 
14th dynasties. A. Wiedemann, Agypt. Gesch. 268, 270. In the Museum at Naples, 
according to Massey, Natural Genesis, L 476, there is an inscription of the time of 
Darius HL, which address Khnnm as Lord of lords whose right eye is the snn's disk, 
whose left eye is the moon. Now Khnum*s name is prefixed to that of Khuf u. The 
water-jar and the ram appear to point to Ostrls and the resurrection ; and the Aaar 
(Osiris) is a very ancient name among the Kanaanites. See Movers, L S41. 

» Plato, Phaedrus, Iviii 274, Ixi 276. 

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Tammnz) back in the time of Thoth-Hermes. The date of the 
invasion of the Hyksos was in the time of King Timaens (Tum 
or Tamuz, probably). Since in the times of the Bomans the 
front door of the Great Pyramid gave ready access to the in- 
terior, and the Great Pyramid had two ventilation channels 
(which the other pyramids did not have) it would seem as if 
the idea that it was one of the tombs of Osiris had some foun- 
dation ! For if it was merely the last resting-place of a king 
why should not Khafra's pyramid and the others have had 
the same ventilation t But the Great Pjnramid alone has it. 
Moreover the top of the sarcophagus may have been fastened 
down with only some bones of Apis left in it, as in Ehafra^s 
pyramid. De Eouge, Researches, 43-60, finds Khufu's relatives 
in the tombs at Gizeh in number sufficient to prove him a 
king.* The Ram was sacred to Hermes (Tat, Thoth) Krioforos. 
The conjunction of Hermes with the Moon (Hermaphroditus) 
gives in the month of the Ram (Aries) new fruitfulness ' to Nat- 
ure. Therefore the water-jug and the ram are merely the 
symbols of Khufu's resurrection perhaps. The paschal lamb 
must have had reference to nature's resurrection, especially as 
it was slaughtered (Rev. v. 6) on the full moon of the Ram 
month. The Adon or Lord returns in the sign Aries. At the 
same time a ram was sacrificed to Zeus Ammon, so sacred was 

> It is not nnoommon to find anownt priests named after the God that they 
serred ; and Khufa most have been a high priest aooording to Egyptian usage. — de 
Iside, 9 ; Herodot. IL 141, 142. A temple stood before Khafra^s pyramid richly fur- 
nished with statues, bowls and vases engraved with his royal name and titles. — Petrie, 
133. The Pyramid of Meydonn and the Great Pyzamid of Sakkarah show that the pyr- 
amids were used as tombs prior to the erection of the Great Pyramid of Khiifu at 
Gizeh. Moreover the Kananite, Amorite and Israelite kings were habitually buried 
in the BamOth Bal (the High Places of the Sun), which custom would of course be 
kept up by the Phoenicians and Philistian Kharu in Eg3rpt. 

< Herodotus, IL 127, says that (as the Egyptian said) Khufn reigned 50 years 
and Diodorufl says that Khembes reigned 50 years. This shows that both authors 
have in mind the same party. A form of Khemmis is Khembin. Khem was there 
worshipped. Khembes was one of the names given to the Builder of the Great Pyra- 
mid. Khem is the creative God, and the form Amun-Khem sometimes occurs. 
Taking Khembes and Khufn (Khnum-Khuf n) each as the Builder of the same Struct- 
ure, has a tendency to show that Khufa is not more a deity than Khembes ; for Dio- 
dorus Siculus, X cap. 68. p. 72, states that * Khembes of Memphis built the Great- 
est Pyramid.* Hecataeus gave Kherobis as the name of Khem*s city, Chemmis.— 
Wbeeler^s Herodotus, L p. 885. Khembes has the appearance of being a name manu- 
factured out of the word Khem ; and the Pitcher and the ram might well suit as sym- 
bols of Khem*s creative attributes. Both names start from the name of a creative 
deity, as their root. 


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formerly the ram to the Egyptians also. It was an atonement- 
festival, otherwise the Egyptians at the Theban Spring-festi- 
val when the ram was slain would not have beaten themselves 
on the breast as expression of the greatest grief. That this 
victim was buried explains yet more clearly its destination to 
be a symbol of the dying year. Just as in the ceremonies at 
the death of the Syrian Adonis, the beating the breasts and 
the mournful bearing of those taking part in the ceremonies 
could in like manner have reference to this dying Lamb. 
The Jews must come in white garments in Spring, a symbol of 
entering pure upon a new period of the Sun. That it was a 
ceremony of expiation is clear from Exodus, xii. 5, 13. No 
uncircumcised person could take part in the paschal offering.^ 

Pherekudes Syrius, b.c. 544, has rov del ifovra (compare 
Plato's TO, 6k del, y^€(rtv 8€ ov/c Ixpv, Plato, Tim. 27 d) the Ever- 
living, from whom issue Chthonos (Adam earthy) and Chthonia% 
(Goddess of Matter), just as Apasson and Taautha issue from 
the Unknown Darkness. From Chronos^ issue Spirit, Fire,* 
Water, which represent the triple nature of the Intelligible. 

Just as the chronological canon of the kings of Egypt com- 
menced with the reign of the Grods, so likewise we find on the 
monuments the cartouches of the Gods drawn in a manner 
analogous to those of the kings. This is to be noted ! The 
cartouches are always simple just like those of the Pharaohs 
belonging to the first dynasties. In the exterior form, then, 
there is no difference between the cartouches of the Gods and 
those of the kings, and this conformity originated in the ha- 
bitual assimilation of the kings to the Gods by the Egyptians 
The kings were sons of the Sun, or claimed the distinction of 
being thus regarded, so that Khuf u, so far as his cartouches 
show, might either have been either a deity-name or a royal 
name, except that his name appears in other tombs near by. 

' Nork, Real-W5rterbuch. iv. 448, 448. Hebrew prophets lived on the High 
Places and Hebrew king^ were buried there. So Khufu was entitled, by Semite cus- 
tom, to be bnried in the High Place of Khnom at Gizeh, both as priest and king. They 
were nsnally buried in the rook below. The people stiU saorifioed and burned incense 
in all the I^gh Places.— 2 Kings, xiL 8 ; xr. 4. Pan, however, the Egyptians regarded 
as the Most Ancient of the Gods, »ap* Atyvrnown M HAf iih> apx<u^r«Tof._Hexodotns, IL 
145. The Eg3rptian Pan is Khem, who is therefore as ancient a God in Egypt as 
Khnnm. He was regarded as a form of the Supreme Crod.— Rawlinson, I. 881, 884. 

s OnlSmus (Time) issues from Aether and Air. 

3 Compare the fire-pillars of the SetiaAs.— Exod js, xiiL 21, 22. 


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The granite blocks bear no inBcription, only the limestones. 
These hierogljrphs, written not engraved, follow no consecu- 
tive order and do not make np veritable inscriptions. Each 
block has its own inscription which is not continued on the 
next block. One might fancy that these blocks formerly com- 
posed a series which had afterwards got displaced, and that 
these materials originally belonged to a monument more an- 
cient than the Great Pyramid. These characters, however, 
were quarry marks merely, made with the object of mentioning 
the name of the king who made use of the quarries. This is 
the opinion of Lepsius. But if so, how did they get into the 
pyramid ? They got into four of the chambers of construction 
in the attic. Col. Vyse, I. 235, 288, says that red quany marks 
were continually found upon the stones that were removed at 
the South front of the Great Pyramid : so that these red marks 
were not confined to the stones walled up in the attic cham- 
bers of construction ; and Col. Vyse found another stone in a 
heap on the North side of the Great Pyramid with the remnant 
of a cartouche that ended like Khufu's oval, followed by the 
worm which in hieroglyphs stands for f. What the worm (or 
serpent) may mean except to indicate a spiritual status * or 
being, is doubtful ; but the jar means water of life, water (of 
Osiris), and Amun's ram signifies Creator, — an allusion per- 
haps to the Arab-Dionysiac idea of creation in Hades, and the 
water in the Deep underneath. These symbols may refer to 
King Khufu as become, or to become, a spiritual being, and 
to be revived and renewed in a resurrection of some kind. 
The Theban Kneph had the ram's head. Lepsius felt sure 
that the red marks were completed on the inaccessible sides 
of the blocks with the red hieroglyphs on them. K these 
marks were numerous (see Vyse, L 235), found on other stones 
of the Great Pyramid besides those in the four highest cham- 
bers of construction, the inference is that king Khufu built 
the pyramid, unless we assume that it may have been com- 
pleted after his death or that the stories had been previously 
used in erecting another tomb for Khufu, — a suggestion which 
even the xmusual formation of the so called * King's Chamber ' 
and * Queen's Chamber ' hardly permits to be made, although 
Khafra's pyramid had not such chambers above the ground, 

> The serpent indiofttes apirit and dirinity ; as in the case of the royal asps ; as a 
letter the worm means 1 


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and its conBtmction is inferior to that of the Great Fjrramid, 
showing less interest in the work. The ventilating passages 
are peculiar to the Great Pyramid, as are the two chambers 
for burial above the foundations of the structure. Such an 
unusual and novel idea mtist have had a motive ; especially as 
clear down in the rock underneath the Great Pyramid a long 
subterranean passage was cut, as usual for a royal tomb.^ 
Manetho would not be disposed to admit that the Great Pyra- 
mid was built by a Phoenician or Philistian king, by a wor- 
shipper of Set. Set-xenoi, Typhonian foreigners, were offered 
up as victims.^ But Set was an older deity in Egypt than 
Asar. Khafra ^ (Kabirah, Cabar) may refer to the Sun (Khopri, 
Kheper) of the Kefa.* Nork says that Kepheus has solar sig- 
nificance, is the Sun veiled or concealed in darkness; like 
Kebo, the setting Sun in the west. Kepheus was son of Agenor 
(Bal), and King of Ethiopia. He appears among the stars as 
father of Andromeda and husband of Kassiepeia. A myth 
mentions Kronos as waylaying Ouranos in a place in the cen- 
tre of the earth.* Kronos has two children, imps of Darkness 
in Hades,® named Typhon (Tuphon)' and Nephthys.^ The 
Phoenician euhemerism disposed of Ptahand Adam (the Moon- 
god Men and Osiris) by mentioning Ptah under the name 
Technites (the Architect, Khnemu) and Adam under the names 
Geinos Autochthon ^ (Earthy, Sprung from earth). The name 
of Asar (Osiris) is found at Gizeh. One would be almost dis- 
posed ^^ to consider Khufu " a euhemerised Saturn, if it were 
not for the circumstance that, according to De Roug^, Res., 
43, 44, he had quite a family. The Egyptian priests did all in 
their power to persuade the common people that the Gods 

1 Rawlinson, Egypt, L 190, 200. 

' Lauth, Aegypt Chronol.. 165. 

s Cabir (?). See the town Kafira,— Kefaemiah, tu. 39 ; Kafita, a district.— 2 Es- 
dras, ii. 25. 

« Compare the formationB Ases-kaf , Shepses-kaf, eta Bat Khafra, can also be 
derived from Kabar, Cabir, Kheper, the Sol-oreator, and Khepra, the beetle. 

• Philo*8 Sanchoniathon, ed. Orelli. p. 34. 

* which is just where Seb-Satom was placed as Earth-god by the Egyptians. 
"* Tuphos — smoke, hence darkness. 

• de Iside, la 

* Sanchon. ; ed. Orelli p. 20. 

*o with the author of ** Mankind.*' Petrie, 106, says that the pitch is stiU to be 
seen in the pin-holes of Khafra's cofTer. 

" lAkub, Kab, Kuph, Khufu : Jacob was mourned 7 days ; as the Adon Ra was 

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who were honored as Osiris, Isis, Horus, Harpokrates, etc., 
had really existed on earth. Their tombs were shown,* their 
memory was honored, the color of their hair and skin de- 
scribed.^ Saturn's tomb is pointed out in the Caucasus;' Sa- 
turn was an ancient king.^ Philo's Sanchouiathon mentions the 
end of Kronos (who is Israel).' The Eretans showed the tomb 
of Zeus, and some one before St. Paul called them liara The 
tombs of the Patriarchs with graves about 26 feet or more 
long to each patriarch were shown to Lepsius. That of Dio- 
nysus was exhibited ; and lakab's (Saturn's probably) is re- 
ferred to in Genesis, 1. 6. Five Egyptian Gods roamed through 
the world in human shape and in other shapes. From them 
sprung other, earthly, gods, mortal, but who on account of 
their benefits to men had acquired immortality. Some of 
them, too, have been kings over Egypt.* Osiris went to the 
Underworld, after his benefits to mankind, and his tomb was 
at Abudos and at Philae. The Oxford author of '' Mankind " 
regarded the Great Pyramid as one of the tombs of Osiris.' 
Euhemerism had a tendency to remove the distinction between 
a God and a king. '* Khufu and Khafra, equally with other 
kings, were hpnored with a special worship."® They were 
still worshipped at a late period.® lakab dug his tomb with 
Egyptian forethought before he went West. His name re- 
minds us of the Semitic Kahar, which is a name (Cabir) of the 
Sun, and means "mighty." Herakles, too, was called the 
Mighty.^ lacob, like Herakles, is connected with the number 

The Son rejoices as » Gabor " to run a race. — psalm, six. t. 

> See de Iside, 20, 21. EVitudly exptmgmg all those that are considered Gods.— de 
laide, 28. 

• Mankind, by a stadent of BaUol OoUege, p. 706. 
« Chwolaohn, Ssabier, I. 400. 

♦Dover's Phon. L 122. 

• EoBebins ; in Orelli, Sanohon. p. 42. 

• Lepsiaa, Gutter d. Vier Elem. p. 215. 
t Mankind, 60S. 

• Mariette, Monuments, 67, 68. 

• Petrie, 158. Senefru was so worshipped. 
!• Aristophanes, Frogs, 429 ed. Bothe. 

" The g becomes k, and k*g; as in the Greek role, ** kappa, gamma, chi.** Akbar 
— Gabar and Cabar. Hence lakab, lacob, Cabir, and, we shaJl also see, Cupido : ac- 
hab — *o loTC ; and agsp-ao, " I love." lachab, the fntnre tense of Gnpido. Petrie, 
84, 106, 107, 216, mentions no pitch in the pin-holes of Khnfn^s sarcophngos, bat he 
mentioiis the |ntch in the fastenings of Khafra's licL Adonis-Osiris — laohab. 

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anims quibns altera fato 
corpora debentur. — Virgil, Aeneid) vi. 713. 

There is a subterranean chamber in the Great Pyramid more 
than a hundred feet below the base. Therefore in remote 
times some tradition existed of a subterranean passage peculiar 
to this Pyramid. According to Herodotus, the tomb of Khufu 
was at so great a depth that it was surrounded by the water of 
the Nile and differed from anything to be seen in the Second 
Pyramid, — a description the more remarkable as it relates to 
the only pyramid that contains chambers in the masonry, and 
cannot apply to any apartment at present discovered in it. A 
passage like that at the Second Pyramid, inclining at an angle 
of 26 degrees, at the distance of forty feet from the base would 
arrive at the depth of 220 feet below the Pyramid. — Vyse, I. 
222. The angle of descent is, according to Rawlinson, I. 199, 
26® 41', leading to a subterranean chamber deep in the rock, 
which measures 46 feet by 27, and is eleven feet high. The 
passage continues 210 feet at this angle through the solid 
rock, when a horizontal passage 27 feet in length leads to the 
subterranean chamber. No sarcophagus was found there, but 
one, it is thought must have been there. — Kawlinson, I. 200. 
The tradition is that Khufu was not buried in the Great Pyra- 
mid. Khufu and Khafra hsbd costly temples on the east side 
of their pyramids adorned with their diorite statues. Con- 
ceive of the absurdity of building temples to two kings who 
(on the testimony of Herodotus and Diodorus) were universally 
hated ! But the later doctrine in the time of Herodotus was 
that the Gods had been men. Menes and Tat were names of 
lunar deities. And as 330 names of kings were read to Herod- 
otus Manetho was not thrown entirely on his own resources. 
For what purpose were the Sabian pilgrimages to these great 
pyramids for centuries after Christ ? Whose star did they 
follow ? The star of Chiun ? — ^Amos, v. 26. Compare the 
Sabian Magi in Matthew, ii. 2, 9. The priests burned incense 
on the High Places to the planets. — 2 Kings, xxiii. 6, 8, 11. 
On the High Places of Bel Saturn the Hebron Ghebers burned 
their sons as offerings to Bal.— Jeremiah, xix. 5. Kronos was 
held to be the Father of Aither and chaos ; but he is passed 
over and a Serpent substituted : 

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Saturn is born tbui Serpent. — ^Damaakiot.* 

ZeoB . . . Aith^i ptumw (dwelling in the burning heaven). — Homer, IL ii. 


Sanefru was at his decease and even to later times divinised 
and honored with commemoratiye services ; but his pyramid 
has not yet been found.' The pyramids of Khufu and Khafra 
are the oldest of those at Gizeh. Then those of Menkaura and 
Abu Boash are supposed to have followed, but we know not 
their date. Menkaura's coffin lid mentions ' Osiris bom of 
Nut, substance of Seb.' But 8eb (Saturn) is the Earth-god ; 
*of the earth, earthy/ like the Adam ( — Ist Corinthians, xv. 47). 
Hosea, iv. 13, 16, ix, 10, x. 8 would seem to suggest that the 
High Places were being destroyed in about the seventh cen- 
tury before our era. They sacrificed to the Fire-God. The 
only evidence in the Great Pyramid (in symbols) points di- 
rectly to Khnum (Eneph), to Saturn, and not less plainly to 
Osiris. The water-jug and ram are Khnum's emblems, and 
indicate that EJiufu was in the bosom of Khnum, Kneph, or 
Osiris, — absorbed. Therefore, owing to these emblems and to 
the inferior location of the third pyramid at Gizeh, we are 
justified in separating the Khnum -Khufu pyramid from the 
rest and regarding it by itself^ in its possible priority ! Petu- 
khanu built a temple at Gizeh and offers to Osiris in the 21st 
dynasty. In the 4th dynasty Menkaura likewise attorns to 
Osiris ; therefore it was built by a Syrian race (vide the Name 
Asar, Osiris), but the Great Pyramid remains dumb to all 
questioning, except its empty sarcophagus, too large for the 
ascending passage ; and the cartouches of Khufu preceded by 
the symbols of Khnum.* The surrounding tombs, however, 
according-to De Rouge, mention the relatives of Khufu. But 
some of the inscriptions mention As-ar and As-at (Isis). Khufu 

« Cory, 8ia 

a De Roog^, 34, 41. 

* KhAfra*a pyramid (the Second pjimmid at Giseh) wonld rank next to the Great 
Pyramid by its accaracy of work both inside and ontude ; and even before the Great 
Pyramid in the work of its coffer. But the lamentably bad stone of its general core 
maaoniy, the rounded and carelessly shaped blocks and the inferior quality of its casing 
■Ume prevent its taking the second place. — Petrie, p. 170. The Great Pyramid has 
upper passages and air channels ; which are not known in other pyramids. — Petrie, p. 


* Another name is found on the blocks in the Pyramid, side by side with those 
bearing the name of Khufu. This other name is th? Fame as that of Khufu, with the 
prefix of two hieroglyphs, a jug and a ram.— Petrie, p. 1.53. 

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could have built the Great Pyramid, as his name appears on 
the blocks.^ The pitcher and ram refer to Kneph and Khnum. 
The words Khnumu-Khufu must therefore imply the resurrec- 
tion of Khufu by the water and the life of Khnum. Khufu by 
descent was a Philistian, since his name is the Syrian Kouph, 
also found as Akouph. But Mr. Petrie, p. 152, says that there 
is no instance of a similar prefix to a king's name, out of the 
hundreds of names and thousands of variants known. 

The forms of the word Acabar and names derived from it 
are to wit: Gabariel, laqab, lakoub, lakouf, Kouph, Khufu. 
The Mighty lakab is Herakles, and Israel. The name Asarel 
also occurs; which is the Jewish form, while Asar is an 
ancient Egyptian form of the Greek name Osiris. laqab is 
Israel ( — Gen. xxxii. 28) and Israel is a name both of Saturn 
and Asari-Osiris. Khufu's name is a form of lacoub's name, 
and laqoub is Israel. The question still arises (since the 
cartouche of the god or the king is precisely the same) was 
E^ufu a god or a king t laqab is then the Mighty Herakles. 
Was not Khufu a deity -name? His pyramid has its temple 
and priests, like the two other large pyramids at Gizeh. So 
they were used for other purposes than merely as tombs. 
The worm following Khufus's cartouche would seem to point 
to a spiritual being ; at least the serpent as a symbol has that 
signification. The lid of the sarcophagus of Khufu may not 
have been fastened on, for Petrie, p. 158, 217, says that in the 
period between the 7th and 10th dynasties during the civil 
wars the lid of the coffer was probably broken off and the body 
of the great builder treated to the spite of his enemies. But 
Mr. Petrie does not tell us on what indications he judges that 
the lid was broken off. He found evidence that the lid of the 
sarcophagus of Khafra's pyramid had been cemented on. We 
know not whether Khufu's coffer held a human corpse, or the 
bones of an ox. 

We have to notice another inscription engraved on a stone 
six inches by four, found in a mound (or heap) on the north 
side of the Great Pyramid, in which there is an addition to 

* In the Moond * chmmber of oonRtmotion/ to which there was no aooeM except by 
breaking a passage through the stone blocks, there is a large cartonche of EJinnmn- 
Khnf a nearly all broken away by Vyse^s forced entrance. — Petrie, 91 , 92. Of course, 
the name was not intended to be seen, being walled in. No name on the sarcophagus ! 
The destroyers of the monuments of the Old Kingdom belong to the 7th-llth dynas- 
ties. -Petrie, 158, 217. 


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a fragrment of Elhofa's cartouche.^ It is a worm (or serpent) 
foUowing Khufu's cartouche. The little chicken is the 
last of the four hieroglyphs in Khufu's oval. If we translate 
the serpent-symbol by Chiun, reading Khufu-Chiun (Khufu 
the Living) we have the serpent as a symbol of eternity and of 
Saturn. At all events, the serpent indicates a spiritual being. 
Compare the Serpent as Saturn.' 

All things are bom from Kronos and Aphrodite. — De Iside, 68. 

Saturn is Set, and presides over the realm of Darkness. 
The Theban Eneph, like Ammon, had the ram's head.^ As 
Khufu's name is connected with the symbol of water, we may 
mention another name of Khufu likewise connected with 
water, — Suphis or lusuph (the bahr lusuph). We have the 
names Asoube,* Asabia,' lasoubos,* and Asoufa,* besides 
loseph. Sev (Seph) is Saturn ; so is Seb. The Nile was said 
(falsely by the priests) to spring out of the ground near Ele- 
phanta, and Deuteronomy, xxxiii. 13, points to water down in 
Hades. So, too, the water-jar and the ram are associated with 
Khufu-Suphis ; while Kneph, the Agatho-daimon is repre- 
sented pouring water on the wheel with which he fashions the 
limbs of Osiris. As regards the red characters and cartouches 
marked on the stones in the construction-chambers above the 
King's Chamber in the pyramid of Khufu, Col. Vyse says that 
hieroglyphs were found on the inner face of a stone in the 
ruins of a temple east of the 2nd pyramid. They have been so 
found in tombs west of the Great Pyramid.* Red quarry 
marks were continually found on the stones that were removed 
at the south front of the Great Pyramid.* The Gods formerly 

> Howard Vyie, L 275. If that worm following Khufu^s oartouche were trans- 
lated as if it were inside taid oartooche, the name would be read Khofnf ; which is the 
way it stands inside the oval in the Tanra inscription at Sakkarah, as given by De 
Roiig6. There is the oval at Wady Magharah. This again spells Khefa. Compare 

<DanUp, Vestigea, 196, 236, 227, 248. 

* Rawlinson, Egypt, I. 327-8*29. Keb is a name of Satom, Seb. Kebt » Copta.— 
Ideler, Handb. IL 504. 

* Septnagint 1 Ohron. iii 20. 

• S^t. 1 Ghron. iv. 85. 

• 1 Bsdras, iz. 80. 

' Vyse, L 255. Amon-Ra of Thebes, who is Khnophis, always appeared with the 
lam's head and presided over the Nile inundation.— Vyse, L 281. 

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reigned in Egypt, dwelling together with the men.* The 
names Menes and Tat are deity-names. Bo that Euhemems 
had not far to go to obtain his theory that the Gods had once 
been men, deceased benefactors. 

Oulomus (Time) the Intelligible God I regard as the sum- 
mit of the intelligibles.^ Bel (Bal) was Saturn and Sol ; he 
was regarded as first king of the Assyrians ( — Movers, I. 185 ; 
Servius, ad Aeneid, I. 729). 

First of the Assyrians Saturn reigned, whom Assyrians named God. 
Primus Assyriorum regnavit Saturnus, quern Assyrii Deum nominavere. — 
Servius, ad Aen., I. 642. 

One general religion (as a state religion) was carried every- 
where from Persia to the Mediterranean. Fire-pillars pre- 
ceded the Assyrian armies ; and the Assyrian star- worship is 
like the Persian. About the middle of the eighth century b.c. 
the Assyrians conquered Palestine.^ Sanchoniathon, p. 24, be- 
sides the Adonis at Byblus, designates him of the Lebanon 
(El Elion.— Gen. xiv. 18, 19) as the Most High God (El Elioun). 
He names him Elioun KoXov/iicFo? "Yi/^mtto? who has dwelt in the 
district of Byblos and in himting was torn in pieces by wild 
beasts, where the reference to the Adonis of Byblos who was 
killed by the tusk of a Boar is plain. As the Most High Gknl, 
he stands in Sanchoniathon chief (zu oberst) in a theogony, 
and is followed by his son Uranos, the Epigeios (Adam, 
* earthy ') united with Ge (Earth *) whom, as before, Saturn 
(Set) usually follows ; whence it is clear that he was regarded 
as first (primal) being, corresponding to the Ancient Bel with 
the Taautha, who is here Berut the Lebanon Venus. Adonis 
had also his hidden ^ name, like IA.O, the mysterious desig- 
nation of the Sim -god Adonis in Macrobius. Especially 
weighty, in reference to this unnamable lao- Adonis, is an 
account in Damaskius, also foimd in Suidas (Atayvcifuuv and 

1 Herodot. U. 144. The name Sahura having been found marked on blocks of 
stone belonging to the northern (the lesser) pyramid at Abosir it was hastily oon- 
clnded that this was Sahnra's tomb. Bat blocks may have been taken from some 
earlier building and built into the pyramid.— Palmer, L 360. 

' Mochas speaks. 

» Movers, I. 64, 66, 70, 71. 

< Bel divides Omoroka into two halves. Of one he makes heaven, of the other, 
earth.— Dnnlap, Vestiges, 152; Mnnter, Bab., 42. Compare Hathor in Mariette, 
Monuments of Upper Bg3rpt, 141. 

* Amnn, the Hidden One. 

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'HpaiaKOi) and Photius (Bibl. p. 343). Damaskios mentions a 
* not to be named * statue, o^S^w ayoA/ia, of Aion * in Alexan- 
dria, adored there Kara fiwrriKtfv SeoKpaaiav (according to mystic 
divinity) both as Osiris and Adonis ; it had something divine 
and astonishing in it, both lovely and fearful to behold ; but 
still the statue had something benignant in its aspect.' If 
one compares these accounts of the Adonis Osiris Aion with 
that of lao Adonis the identity is undeniable ; for the Adonis- 
Eljon of Sanchoniathon appears likewise as an Urwesen (a 
primal being) out of whom, one after the other, the first cos- 
mogonial beings spring, the, primarily united with Ge (Earth), 
Uranos Epigeios (Adam), then the Ancient Saturn (Seth), and 
afterwards the other Phoenician Gods.* If now we consider 
that Aion means Time, we cannot fail to recognize in him the 
Egyptian Nou who is God of Time, and timed the annual del- 
uge. Saturn may well have been regarded as Time (Ophion- 
Satum.—Ezek. viii. 8, 10) the Destroyer * (Sat or Set). With 
this conception suits his name Descent (to Hades), Kebo (Keb, 
Kub, Koub, Kouph, Kuphu, or Khufu), Akabah, lakab.*^ They 
mourned the Hebrew kings with *Hoi Adon.' — Jeremiah, 
xxxiv. 5. The Assyrian Chief priest Nergal Sarezar bore the 
name of his God Nergal Sarezar, and the Assyrians had, in 
common with the Persians and Babylonians, the Great Festi- 
val of Anaitis, also, like the Persians, the institution of the 
Magi which had come with the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, 
and Nergal Sarezar (Jeremiah, xxxix. 3 ; Isaiah, xiv. 31 ; Jer. 
i. 13). The smoke-pillars went before the Assyrian armies as 


* Compare the SerapiB-statae. 

s MoTen, Phdnizier, 544. Typhon has the love of Dettroetkni like Kronoft, for 
Time is the destroying (principle). 

* HerodotuB, IL 124, states that (Kheopa, Khnfu) the Builder of the Great Pyra- 
mid drove into every iniquity, dosing the temples and stopping the sacrifices. In 
other words he acted like the Darkness incarnate. This is not surprising, considering 
his relations to the Adversary Set-Typhon and to Saturn, expelled from heaven, as the 
Fiend. Adonis (Rimmon) in Etades and Areimanios support the change of Set, Saturn, 
into Sathanas, Satan. 

Sent down 'neath earth and barren sea.— Homer, H. xiv. 204. 

iKiitov 'Bip6vw T^ Tv^ra xol r)|y N^^v.— de Iside, 12. 

And from the Saturn were generated the Devil and the Infernal Goddess, Typhon^s 
wife.— de Iside, 12. 

Bamon (2 Kings, v. 18) is Rimmon (Adonis), and Ariman, or Areimanius of the Per- 
sians. Iris and Osiris, having taken a fancy to each other before they were bom, came 
together in utero surrounded by Darkness.— de Iside, 12. 

* Movers, 200 ; Gen. 1. 10. Jacob was mourned 70 days : also, later, 7 days. 

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they did before the Hebrew (or Hyksos) array as it marched 
from the Nile into Palestine. — Exodus, xiii. 21, 22 ; Movers, I. 
70. From the Assyrian and Babylonian religion we may infer 
in many particulars to Egyptian usages. Thus from the He- 
brew, too, we may infer resemblances. If Khufu was the 
Deathgod ; and his priest-king bore his name, then the ven- 
tilating passages and the two chambers above ground (found 
in no other known pyramid) would show a quasi memorial 
aboveground to Seb or Sev ; while a descending passage goes 
down deep in the rock over which the Great Pjrramid was built, 
and leads to a mortuary chamber in the rock below, such as is 
found in all the pyramids. It is 46 feet long and 27 feet 
broad. The passage leading to this subterranean chamber is 
347 feet from the entrance in the side of the Great Pyramid 
and 90 feet below the base of the pyramid. Therefore as 
Kronos was a Phoenician Deity, as the 4th Egyptian dynasty 
was Phoenician, and as the Assyrian and Kanaanite Hebrew 
priest bore the name of his God, the same custom probably 
obtained in Egypt, since, too, the Egjrptian Highpriest was 
also King. — ^De Iside, 9. Coupled with this we have the tradi- 
tion in Herodotos that Khufu was never buried in the Great 

You did not die as Atnmnios died ; ' not Water of Stjx 

Nor flame of Tisiphone, nor Megaira's eye did you see t — Nonnus, xii. 289, 

A " burning'' for Thee : and ** Hoi Adon " their Lament for Thee !— Jere- 
miah, zzxiy. 6. 

Osiris carried the souls of the dead on board the solar bark. — Massej, IL 61. 
Ritual, xvii. 

Lift your eyes to the North. — Ezekiel, viii. 5. 

The Bear reyolves at midnight towards the setting, opposite Orion.' — Theo- 
kritus, xxiv. 10. 

His resurrection through which he obtained power over the Death, that is, 
annihilated the Adversary.' — 

> Tom, Tarans, Tammuz, TimaeuB. ^'PhaethSn tamed chariot to the simsetw*' — 
Nonnus, n. 164. Atum (Adam, Tom) is the Adon descending in the west ! Mundi 
opificem poUioentem snis incrementam generis pxopagandi usqae orbis terminos, et re- 
Burrectionem a mortals nnA cam ipso oorpore ao sanguine, prophetasqae afflantem. — 
Origen contra Celsam, vi. p. 495. Nee in earn (Jadaeoram Deam) snmas impii, cum 
non praedicamas mortaos resuscitaturum unh cum ipsa came et sanguine, at iam sopra 
dictum est For we have not said that this animal body, which is sown in corraption 
and ignominy and infirmity, rises again such as it was sown. — ibid. p. 496. 

» Orion belongs to Horns.— ibid. 21. 

* that is, the Devil, but raised as together with himself . . . instead of Mourn' 


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I am the great constellation Orion, i dwelling In the tolar birthplace in the 
midst of the spirits. — BUual of the Dead, 

Tamas (Thamus, Adonis-Osiris) was b. former king (Timaeus, 
without date) of Egypt who died! They sang the Adoni- 
maoidos (the sufferings of Osiris) and expatiated on his loveli- 
ness — then the lights were extinguished in personation of the 
power of Darkness until the seventh light was reached, which 
was probably not put out, seven being the sacred number of 
the Gk)d of Light. The Egyptians expected Osiris to rise from 
the dead. Osiris is risen from Hades and is present with 
Horus.^ This Mourning for Osiris is the Abel Misraim Mourn- 
ing for lakab Keb,' since Ken (Cain) killed Abel not exactly as 
Typhon killed Osiris.^ So that we are now in the midst of the 
Eefa in Egypt, which is the same word as Akub (lakab Eeb) 
in Egypt. It is the death of Osiris-Eros (the Adonis-Iakab) in 
the Mysteries of Adonis Aqbal and Kubele I Achab (Achob) 
means to "love." Compare also Plutarch, de Iside, 36, 57, 
where Osiris is exhibited as the power of Eros. So laqab 
loves Bachel Irach (Luna). 

The Ai in Aidoneus and A\gupio& implies death. T, is a 
termination only. Guph * only remains, Euph, Kuphu : for K 
is form of O. The door of the Great Pyramid may be regarded 
as 'death's door.' Through it passed Dionysus, lachab 
(Father Life), Herakles (King of fire), Kronos, Adonis, Ead- 
mus, Osiris, Isarel, Joseph, Seb, or Sev. Dionysus in Arabia 
was named Sabi (Sabos). The Apis-buU was the well-formed 
living image of the soul of Osiris. Apis was consecrated 
to the moon. — ^Ammian, xxii. 14. Osiris entered the moon 
at the beginning of Spring. Of course his bull went in 

ing he gave iu the Eaiter hymn.— Athanasins, Festhrief : Lanow, p. 09, 66. Wvor ir- 
$p$tm9mKi -mapuMkiaiw Oviptai.— Diodoma, L 21. In the case of both Aduniii and Osiriii 
the human image was exhibited to the pablic view.— Theokritos, xv. Arsinoe bore the 
ooct, at Alexandria. 

> The Dipper in the ware. Orion set abont the time that Osiris entered his ark 
(November, I-IO).— Hesiod, Works and Days, 576, 577; de Iside, 42. 

* de Iside, 19. Isis told the priests of eaoh district that Osiiis was bnried with 
them, and gave them a donation of one third of the land in retnm for their ministra- 
tions. Therefore they all (eaoh tribe of the priests) supposed that Osiris was buried 
among them, and on the death of the sacred animals set np ^ ro5 Oafpc^ot ir4v9oi '' the 
Honrning for Osiris** (the Abel Misraim) over them also.— Diodoros, L 21. 

s Genesis, L. 11. 

* Diodor. L 21, p. 24. 

» Konb, Khnph, Khofo. 

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with him. Osiris is Dionysus, and the Hebrews had their 

Kronos was moarned as Winter-San. — De Iside, 82. 

Night shining Dionysos, having the form of a BuU, 

With dusky feet entered the houses of Kadmus, 

Brandishing the Kronian frenzied whip of Pan. — Nonnus, xUv. 280. 

They all, Kronos, 8ev, Seb, Asarel, Bel-Saturn, and Keb go 
down to Hades. The Sphinx, with his enigmatic wisdom prob- 
ably taught some of them, such as Herakles, El, and Alah how 
to get out. Alah means to ascend out of Darkness in the 
morning, Serach means Sunrise. 

I know that my Redeemer lives, and at the Acheron shall rise up over the 
dust— Job, xix. 27. 

8eb has the care of the beings of earth.— Lenormant, les Ori- 
gines, I. 452. The tomb of Bel was shown. — Movers, I. p. 256. 
When laqab (Israel-Saturn " will die ") dies, they perform over 
the defunct Saturn the Abel Misraim (the Mourning of the 
Egyptians) ; for Kab means * to die,' to become extinct. So 
instead of Hoi Adon, they cried Ai Kab ; and this expression 
seems to have suggested the word laqab meaning * he will die.' 
Whether or not Osiris took the hint that the Great Sphinx was 
eternally giving, Osiris rose from the dead as Saviour, bring- 
ing souls along with him. We only know that Keb perished, 
the Mighty laqab too went down, Herakles-Kabar (Herakles 
the Mighty) too went down, but rose again like Osiris Sauveur, 
his associate. The wicked were tormented in a certain place 
in Hades. — Plato, Eepublic, 11. 363 D. Kadmos, lacchos, and 
Pan (under earth) are connected as Chthonian Deities. — Ger- 
hard, Griech. Myth. I. pp. 101, 120, 121, 261, 273, 470. All this 
tends to explain those two chambers (the King's and the 
Queen's) in the Great Pyramid ; for laqab is the Asiatic Sun- 
god Herakles (Palaimon the Great Wrestler). — Julius Popper, 
p. 367 ; Genesis, xxxii. 24, 28, 30. Jacob (laqab) appears to be 
the Adon as Adonis the Spring Sun, the Light as opposed to 
the Darkness in which Sabi, Suphis, Seb, laqab, Kab, Koub and 
Kuphu (or Cheops) seem to have been plunged in the Semitic 
religions of Light and Darkness. — Ezekiel, viii. 8-14, 16. The 
passion-lied was sung at Gizeh, Alexandria, Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem. Now the ridiculous lies that the Egyptian priests 
told in order to make a secret of their Great Pyramid prove 


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that they were told on purpose to make a mystery of an im- 
portant rite connected with the Osiris-religion, and that the 
Khufu-stories concealed an Osirian-mystery. They did just 
what Herodotus himself did, — refused to reveal the Mysteries, 
but told hieroi logoi (blessed tales) instead. Osiris is the 
substance of the world, Atmu (Adamus), the Nourisher of all 
beings among the Gods, the beneficent Spirit in the realm of 
spirits. The heavenly ocean Nu obtains from Him its water, 
the wind comes from Him, and Breath of Life is in His nostrils, 
to His content and according to His heart's desire. — ^Inscript. 
on a gravestone. Benouf, Vorlesungen, pp. 203, 204. Osiris 
corresponds exactly to the Jewish lahoh. — Gen. ii. 7. 

O King ot thoee in night 
O AidoneoB, Aidonetui. 

The three Magian kings are in Orion. — ^Mankind, p. 475. Orion- 
Sahou was consecrated to Osiris and by some considered the 
abode of the souls of the blest.^ 

Preserved * is he who oomes out from Orion, preserved ' is Osiris, who comes 
forth out of Orion, the Lord of the vintage, on the fine rraJ(;-Festival (the Ouaga 
festival on the 18th of Thoth). His mother spoke, and there was an heir, his 
father spoke, and the heaven became pregnant, and the Morning-star was born ! 
Oh I Hur-em-taf, Mer^en^a, the heaven became pregnant with thee and with 
Orion, the Morning-star was bom with the Orion. Here an ascension, there an 
ascension, according to the command of the Gods. Thou didst ascend and ap- 
pear on the eastern side of the heaven. Thy^desoent is with that of the Orion 
on the eastern side of the heaven. Te three are there where the Sothis-Star is, 
whose places are holjr, and who conducts jon on a good road in heaven, npon the 
Field of Aara.^ — Inscription on Table lU* and ni^ at Saqqara.^ 

1 Maspero, Hiat. Ano. p. 79. n 

* Osiris Sauvenr descends ad inferos, like Shn and leso. Shu, as a god, is the rep- 
resentative of Wind (later, Breath and Soul), and Wind in its fury is the Typhonian 
tempest — ^Massey, L 325. Compare Acts, ii. 2, 8 ; Matthew, iii 11, 12. The soul is 
itself tiie spirit — Tertollian de Anima, x. ; ESsekiel, xxxviL 5 ; Matthew, x. 20. The 
Sh is an a— See D. Chwolsohn, Ssalner, I. 418. 

s Shu, like Turn, was a deity of the lower world, worshipped by the spirits in 
Hades, and invoked by them. Shu signifies * light * and probably signified originally 
the light of the sun. The word means also * shade,* and Shu is represented black or 
neiu-ly so. Rawlinson, I. 851-355. If Shu and Su are but two different forms of one 
sibilant, as in Hebrew, the root would be So, in Sozo. 

« It is difficult to reject the reading Aaru, because, like Aalu, and * Alusion pedon,' 
the root ar is a name of the Sun. One letter can be read r, or L '* Tum ** is the 
" Lord of Ann (On).** In the Book of the Dead the deceased says : The memory of the 
words of my &ther Tum is in my mouth . . . Seb preserves for me his crown, the 
inhabitants of Ann bow their heads before me. — Lauth, Hgypt Vorzeit, I. 98. Todtenb. 
cap. 74, 82. 

» Zdtschr. far Agyptische Sprache, 1881, heft. L p. 10. Hur (?) in the word ^Mr- 


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Sending up Seirios,^ he did not ameliorate the warmth by night of the 
Blazing, burning, heat. — Nonnus, xiii. 282. 
Whom they call by the appellation Orients Dog ; 
This is, it is true, most brilliant, but it is also a bad sign, 
And, too, brings much burning lieat to wretched mortals. — Homer, II. 
xxii. 31. 

Could they hit Helios or hurt Luna ? ' 

Who could crush Orion's sword with a scimetar, 

Or with mortal darts shoot Bootes ?— Nonnus, 356-358. 

The priests in Babylonia claimed a hallowed antiquity and 
a supernatural origin for the Oannes-writings on the Begin- 
ning (Urgeschichte). — Movers, 93; Genesis entire. That we 
are still in the reign of myth when we come to Kheops-Khu- 
f u-Suphis, appears from the * story ' that Khuf u after a bad 
life writes * the Sacred Book/ while the mythic Moses does the 
same. And Oannes comes in fish shape out of the Eruthraean 
Sea, on the Babylonian coast, and (like Osiris in Egypt) teaches 
men the arts, sciences, letters, how to build cities and temples ; 
teaches them, too, laws and geometry. These mythic inventions 
are all of one family ; for the purpose of all is to preoccupy 
the public mind with sacred " fairy tales." — See Movei-s, 93 ; 
Kenrick, Egypt, 11. 110, 117 ; Herod. 11. 124, 126, 127. Where, 
as in Egypt, the government was in the hands of one class 
alone, that class invents falsehoods to keep men in ignorance, 
to keep the priests in power. The One Principle (principium) 
of the universum was Un)uiown Darkness, according to the 
Egyptians. — Cory, p. 321 ; Gen. i. 2. As Saturn, the Sun was 
the Anax puros, prince of fire, the Hebrew Moloch, Azarael, 
Asriel. The Sim rose (as Suhel, Saturn) out of the lower 
parts of the earth from darkness unto light. — Movers, Phoni- 
zier, I. 207 ; Macrob. Sat. I. 21. Saturn's temple in Egypt was 
outside the city. At Memphis we find the Great Pyramid in 
the desert outside. Typhon-Satum is the Phoenician and 
Egyptian Evil Demon. — Movers, I. 623, 526. The functions of 

em-saf Brogsch considers a very doubtful reading. In the followizig dynasty (vii) Mer- 
em-ra Zaf-em-saf is found in the tablet of Abydos. — Sayoe, Her. p. 466. 

1 The most important of the stars was the Star of Isis, Sirios, named Sopt by the 
Egyptians and Sothis by the Greeks, the Dog-star. Its ascent was b.c. 3010-3007 on 
Epiphi 9th of the Wandering Year, and on Epiphi 9th B.C. 1322, Wandering Year.-— 
DQmichen, 10-13. In the Sacra of Isis the trunk of a pine-tree is cut down, the centre 
of it is artfully removed, and an image of Osiris made from those segments is there 
buried.— Julius, Pirmicus, p. 27 ; Movers, 203. 

3 Helia, or Ilia. Turn's name in preserved in Dum-ah, and Tamuz.— Gen. xxv. 14. 


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king, priest, and prophet were united from the earliest times ; 
Teiresias and Apollo were both called king. — Sophocles, Oe- 
dip. Tyr. 284, with Buckley's Note to page 11. Hades and 
those below the earth are conscious. — Sophocles, Antigone, 
542. Khaba in Hebrew means to be hidden, concealed ; Kha- 
bah, to hide oneself. Amoun, Amon, means in Egyptian what 
is concealed, hidden, the Concealed One. — Pint, de Iside, 9. 
The Sun (Bel, Ammon, Keb, Seb) is both Saturn, Kronos, Ty- 
phon and Sol— Movers, I. 317, 369, 395-6, 409, 435, 439. Am- 
mon-Kheb is consequently the Concealed Light under the 
eai-th. To each of the three pyramids across the Nile, at Gi- 
zeh, there was once a temple adjoining. The Israelites in 
Egypt adored El Saturn as Moloch, who, from his bad side, is 
Typhon. — Movers, I. 369 ; Amos, v. 26 ; 1 Kings, xi. 7 ; Levit. 
xviii. 21. The Great Pyramid was named Khutai * Lights.' 
The top is in light, the base is under the earth. 

Zeus sent down Kronos under earth. — Homer, Iliad, xiy. 204. 

Tartarus is as far below Hades as Heaven is from earth. — 
Homer, II. viii. 16. 

Kronos at a certain Bx>ot in the centre of the earth wajlajs the father. — Eu- 
sebius, Pr. Ev. L x. 29. 

The only Gods are Water and Barth.— Nonnus, xxi. 261. 
And they call Osiris Water I— Hippolytus, v. 7. 

The Turkish women sprinkle the monuments of the dead with 
flowei-s and water. The Hindus make the usual libations of 
water to satisfy the manes of the dead. Adonis is Bel-Saturn, 
the Sun-god who descends to Hades.^ Typhon-Satum is the 
Wicked One.— Movers, I. 626. See, also, Ezekiel, viii. 10-12, 
14, for the rites performed in Darkness. 


*' Earth *s bosom conceals savage Kronos 

Deyoorer of young children, Saturn bom from heaven " — Nonnus, xxvii. 

*' Delivered nnto Death, to the lowest parts of the earth t ^^ — Ezekiel, xxxi. 
14. Septnag. 

1 Movers, 194, 195, 185, 288, 384. Serviat, ad Aen. I. 729. Keb in Hebrew means 

3>Gcah, i 11. HasaL They came to Bal pe Aor and nazarened themselves.— 
Hoaea, ix. 10. 


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Drawing savage Kronos again to Light from subterranean Abjss shall I loose 
the bonds of force ?— Nonuus, II. 337, 888. 

Kronos sitting apart from the beam of the son, and deep Tartarus all 
around.— Homer, Iliad, viiL 479-482, xiv. 274, 279 ; Hesiod, Theog. 851. 

To Kronos (Saturn) the Phoenicians sacrificed every year the 
beloved and only-begotten children. — ^Movers, I. 304 ; Eusebius, 
in Laud. Constant, c. 13. To Saturn as Wicked Demon (Ty- 
phon) the Egyptians offered sacred animals and men in the 
Darkness. — De Iside, 73 ; Movers, 321 ; Hesiod, Theogony, 
736, 744-5 ; Macrobius, I. 7 ; Movers, I. 309. Saturn like Seb 
is an earthgod. — Gerhard, 963, § 1001 d.e. The priest bore the 
name of his God, Kneph-Ehufu. 

Cut off thy Nazar. Raise a lamentation.' 

Sit in the sepulchres and pass the night in vigils. 

He who is not dead must to the departed give offerings, and reverence God 
under earth. —Euripides Phoenissae, 1320. 

Can these bones live ? Adonai, God of life, thou knowest I 

Orion belongs to Horus I The power of the Rain must be mentioned in the 
benediction for the revivification of the dead.' 

The Mourning of Hadad Rimmon in the Valley Magadan.' 


Saturn, the God of the Egyptians and Hebrews, was supposed 
to dwell in the South.* The North was the Gtate where they 
mourned Adon-Osiris. The Lebanon Aphrodite deplored the 
Lord of Light on the North side of the Temple. The Great 
Pyramid was entered through a * hole in the wall ' and all was 
Darkness inside. 

One hole in the wall ! — ^Ezekiel, viii. 7. 
The angle of the entrance shaft of the Great Pyramid points 
nearly straight at the North and fronted Orion, that dips be- 
low the horizon,' the preserver of what rises up ^ from Hades 

1 Jeremiah, vii 29. 
sTahnud, Berachofeb, 26, 83. 

> Zaohariah, xii 11. Nazar is the oonsecrated hair of the Nazers. 
« Movers, Phdn. 284 ; Lydus, de Ostent. 22, p. 800 ; Henoch, Ixxvil 2 ; Habakkuk, 

* A symbol of the " not going under," therefore of immortality.— Lanth, Ana Ae- 
gyptens Voneit, p. 148. Orion in the Star of Horos. — de laide, 21, 22. IsIb gives the 
drug of immortality, raising the body of Horns, against whom the Titans plotted, to 
immortality and giving life to his corpse found in the water. The logoi (souls) and 
eide (forms) and emanations of the God remain in heaven and stars. — Plutarch, de 
Iflide, 59. 

* Osiria is risen. The name of the Orion as the Sahu is also that of the erect 


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(Sheol) that the soul may rise to Heaven. Orion, the symbol 
of the imperishable I ^ From the Went the Sphinx looked 
steadily at the rising Sun (Serach, Osiris) across the pyramidal 
emblems of death to the promise of eternal life ! The stairs up 
to the enclosure around the altar must face the east. — Ezekiel, 
xlvii. 16. The glory of the Qod of Israel came from the East ! 
— Ezek. xliii. 2. 

Who made Kimah (Pleiades) and Kefiil (Orion) and turns to morning the 
shadows of death I —Amos, v. 8. 

Let the Ursa wander drjr, the pole of the Wagon having sunk.— Nonnus, II. 

And together with the Serpent of Aither,' an attendant of the Bear of Arkas,' 

Beholding on high the nightly approach of Tjphon, 

Old Bootes watched with sleepless eyes. — Nonnus, II. 180-182. 

The Dragon separated by the two Bears rolled the light- bringing track 

Of the burning Wain.— Nonnus, I. 252, 253. 

Osiris is called King of eternity. Master of souls, He who ap- 
pears as ram in Mendes, the Sovereign of Amenti. — Maspero, 
Ghiide, 49. Osiris, Isis, and Sib (Seb) envelope the deceased. 
— ^ibid. 142. Osiris-Sdhou, with two little shoots on his coif- 
fure, on which is placed a star with five branches, was God of 
the star Orion. Osiris-SAhou was Conductor of souls in the 
other world. — ibid. p. 161. The Bam-headed sphinxes on 
either side of the avenue to Luxor must be ascribed to Khnum. 
— Loftie, p. 338. The Khnum is represented with a ram's 
head, like Ammon. Khnum signifies the modeler, and the 
God is often seen modeling the world-egg on a potter's wheel. 
He is one of the oldest Egyptian Gods, and worshipped as far 
south as the Cataracts. — Maspero, 167-170. Notwithstanding 
the fine style in which the walls of Pepi's and Merenra's pyra- 
mids in the interior chamber are got up, no temple is attached 
to these pyramids. If this is so, then the pyramids with tem- 

mnminy, the type of the risen dead ! The body of the risen Horas is said to shine in 
tiie stars of the constellation Orion on the bosom of the apper heaven ( — Massey, II. 
436 ; Records, vol. iv. p. 121), raised np to athanasia. — Diodoms, L 25. 

1 The resurrection of the body watf expected by the Egyptians, else they might not 
have embalmed the bodies. The Book of the Dead, cap. 164. 16 (Lanth, L 56) says : 
** Whole is hla flesh and bone as if he were not dead.*^ In the Hebrew psalms, a saving 
of the body seems to have been hoped for. The expectation, in the flesh to see Alah 
(Elah).— Job, xiz. 26. Herodotus says that the embalming was to prevent the worms. 

3 the burning fire-heaven. 

'Near the Wain of Arkas.— Nonnnn, xlii. 200. 


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pies are distingxiished from those without them. At Meidoom, 
" it would appear that the pyramid occupies the only rock." — 
Loftie, p. 206. It was the usage in the Egyptian Mysteries to 
circumcise the Initiated, and the Jews in Egypt could not bear 
the reproach of being uncircumcised.^ The Syrians of Pales- 
tine adopted this rite from Egypt. In the Mourning for Adon- 
is the word Ai means Ah ! Alas ! The Greeks said Ai Adon- 
in ! ^ The Hebrews ^ and Romans * said Hoi. 

I did not learn to sing Ailina,* such as King 

Apollo among Kretans used to shrilly cry, 

Mourning *^ charming Atumnios.'** — Nounus, xix. 182. 

The Lover of Venus was being mourned at Bethlehem ! — St. Jerome, Ep. 
49. ad Paulinum. 

There is not thy like among Gods, Adoni.— Psalm, 86. 8. 

They worship Hermes most of Gods I And they make oath 
only by Him, and say that they are bom from Hermes.^ They 
swore by the Lifegod, the Logos, the Divine Wisdom, as the 
Jews made oath by the throne of lahoh the God of life. Until 
recently in the Lebanon they swore " By Seth." 

To-day, whether sitting by the side of Minos thou too art judge, 

Or yet art in the flowering hall of Bhadamanthus,^ 

Going tender • in the Groves of the Elysian Field. — Nonnus, xix. 189. 

They say that Sarapis is no other than the Pluto, 

And Isis (is) the Persephone. — Plutarch, de Iside, 27. 

O Abode of Aides and Proserpina, O Hermes beneath ! —Sophokles, Elektra, 

Hermes the Conductor is leading me on, and She, the Goddess of the 
Shades !— Oedipus Kolon. 1547. 

And thee, dead,''' She made to live, for Dionysus her brother ! 

' Jervis, Genesis, pp. 296, 297, quotes St Ambrose ; Exodus, xix. 12, 15 ; Joshua, 
V. 7, 9 ; Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptians. Among the Greeks, the circumcision made them 
absurd. A kingdom of cohenim and a holy people. — Exodus, xix. 6. 

3 aiazu, to moum^ to wail. 

»Hoi Aden! 

* Heu, prononnced Hoi, as in German. 

* death songs or dirges, songs of woe. 

* Adamas, Adonis, Atamu, Atmn, Tammnz, Athamas, Tamas (Darkness), To- 
mas, Atman, Adamna. 

"* Herodotus, v. 7. 

" Compare Ar Adamenthe ; Mantas (Plato) and Amenthe ; Adamas a name of 
Plato. ^^ Atamnios is dead." — Nonnas, xii. 239. Gone down to the fire of Phlege- 
thon, 'Hhe Fire (ar) of Maga Adonis," Armagedon. — Compare Rev. xvi. 17. 


I" viKvv^ a dead body. 


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Thoa didst not die ts Atamnios ' died ; neither water of Styx 

Nor Tidphone's flame, nor Hegaira*s eje didst thou see ; 

But till now thoa dost live !— Nonnus, xil. 238 f. 

To thee, Mysteries, Diipolia, Adonia, O Hermft I — Aristophanes, Eiren^, 406. 

Hermes-Kadmilos is the Grecised form of Atys the companion 
and favorite of Kubele.* The beautiful Cythereia does not put 
Adonis away from her bosom when dead.' Hues Attes I The 
Moist Adonis ! Chi Adon, O lacche ; Adonis lives ! The 
quail (salu) that waked Herakles is the sign of His resurrec- 
tion aiid saluatio (Salvation). Therefore the Athenians oflfered 
quails to Herakles. 

Herakles who has gone ont of the Chambers of eartli 

Leaving the nether house of Aidone us.— Euripides, Herk. Furens, 807, 806. 

Aidoneus was called Adamas in the Samothrakian Mysteries. 
Adam was caUed holy, heavenly, horn of Mene. When the 
Bacchi celebrated with mysteries the Dionysus Frenzied they 
were crowned with serpents, — an emblem both of the grave 
and of spirit life. Now Khufu's cartouche is followed by a 
serpent and accompanied by the water-jar. Consequently the 
pyramid of Ehufu and its temple were associated in some way 
with the Mysteries of Osiris. The Highpriest at Delphi 
brought secret offerings to the Grave of Dionysus about the 
time of the shortest day of the year. — Preller, Griech. Mythol. 
I. 427. Compare the Jewish ceremonies in the Darkness, con- 
nected with the mourning for the Adon-Tammuz. — Ezekiel, viii. 

On the dajr when He shaU descend to Hades I will make a Mourning, I will 
make Lebanon mourn. — Ezekiel, xxxi. 15. 

Let the priests weep between the porch and the altar. — Joel, ii. 17. 

Give offerings, and reverence God underearth. — Euripides, Plioenissae, 1320. 

When the Vernal equinox was in the sign of Taurus the con- 
stellation Orion was a stellar image of Horus, who had risen 
from the underworld. Hence the body of the risen Horus is 
said to shine in the stars of the constellation Orion, on the 
bosom of the upper heaven. In the Ritual the reconstructed 

1 Atamnios is the Setting, bnt always Unconqnered (Adamas) Hithra, Osiris, 

« Journal of Hellenic Stud. III. p. 45. 

*Theokritas, Idyl. iii. 50. Akebal or laqabel— Adonis- Atys. 

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and rearisen mummy says : I am the great constellation Orion 
dwelling in the solar birthplace in the midst of the spirits.* 
That is, he rises as Orion, the Star in the East. Every time 
that Orion the conqueror of Darkness rose, the Cross of Au- 
tumn ^ set ; and the Scorpion over it, that had given the death- 
wound to the King in the Osirian mythos, was hurled into 
Hades by Orion, the glorified bod}' of the risen mummy, 
Osiris, the starry symbol of immortality.^ The dead shall 
rise in Osiris I Caught up in clouds to meet the Kurios in the 
air.^ The morning Star is bom. 

O Harem-paf * Ra-mer-en, the heayen was pregnant with thee and with the 
Orion. Here an asoent, there an ascension, as tiie Gods command. Thoa didst 
ascend and appear with the Orion on the east side of the heaven. Thj descent 
is with that of Orion upon the west side of the heaven. Ye three are there 
where the Sothis-star is, whose seats are holy and who leads yon upon a good 
way upon the heaven to the Field of Aaru.— Text * on Table Ilia. 

Cingula cum veheret pelagus procal Orionis 

Bt cum caeruleo flagraret Sirius astro.— Avienus 1375. 
Non longa Aries statione locatuB 

In oonvexa redit, parvo se tramite subter 

Distinct et medio caelam citos ordine currit, 

Ultima chelarum qua braohla qnaque corusco 

Giroulus axe means rutilum secat Oriona. — Avienus, 536. 

Abditnr autem 

Orion redeunte die, turn brachia Kepheus 

Protentasque manus mediamque immergitur alvum.** — ^Avienus, 687. 

Signifer a borea inque australes se gerit umbras, 

Sub medii iam mole poll fera pectora tauri 

Susplcit Orion.— Avienus, 720, 721. 

et, primo cum Scorplus editur ortu 

Orion trepldo terrae petit extima cursu. — Avienus, lldS. 

* The bark of Osiris is placed among the stars not far from Orion and the Dog- 
star. -de Iside, 22. The Egyptians held Orion sacred to Horns, the Dog-star to Isis. 
-de Iside, 28. 

Orion is the star of Horns.— de Iside, 21, 22. Typhon's star is the Bear. 

s The Southern Gross. 

» Mamey, II 4S7. As earth-^m we have Typhon.— Nonnus, i 154, 155. So were 
the Giants regarded.- Batrachomachia, 7 ; Gen. vi. 8, 4, 11, 13. Set was the son of the 
Earth-god Seb (bo described in papyrus Sillier iv. on Mechir 29) and Nat the Ocean of 
Heaven.— Meyer, 50. 

« 1 Thesa iv. 17. The Uak festival was celebrated about the 18th of the month. 
Thoth (August September).— Brugsch, I. 196. 

» This word is doubtful, according to Brngsch. 

• Zeitschr. f Qr Agypt. Spracho, 2881 . Heft L p. 9. 
' Ai Eab, laqab. 

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Aud together with the Aetherial Serpent, an attendant of Arkas the Bear ' 

Beholding on high the nightly approach of Typhon, 

Old man Bootes watched with sleepless eyes : 

Lacifer, Star Hesperus, kept his eye upon an ascension in the 

West ; and leaving the Southern to the Director of bows and arrows 

Kepheus ran round the rainj Gates of Boreas.— Nonnus, IL 180-185. 

When the birthplace was in the sign of the Bull, the Star in 
the East that arose to announce the birth of the babe was 
Orion, which is therefore called the star of Horus. That was 
once, says Massey, the star of the Three Kings, for this is still 
the name of the three stars in Orion's belt ; ^ and in the hiero- 
glyphics a three-looped string is a symbol of the Sahu, that is, 
the constellation Orion.^ Orion was the star of the Three 
Kings which rose to show the time and place of birth in 
heaven some 6,000 years ago, when the vernal equinox was in 
the sign of the BuU.^ 

Coming from the land of Asia, having left the sacred Imolus, 

I dance to Bromius . . . bringing Bromios Boy, God of God, Dionysus 

from Phrygian mountains. 
And leaving the very wealthy lands of the Ludiaus and the Phrygians and the 
Siin-parched plains of the Persians and the Baktrian Walls and the stormy 

land of the Medes, 
Coming upon Arabia Felix and all Asia that lies along the salt sea. — 

Euripides, Bacch». 
One can see Orion near to Gemini 
Extending (his) arms to a great part of heaven 
And rising to the stars with not less extended stride 
Single stars mark out his shining arms 

And his sword is drawn out, pendent, with three transverse (stars). 
But Orion (as to bis) head is immersed in high Olympus. — Manilius, I. 380. 

From the east, a Star with Seven others about it will be 
seen.' — The Sohar. 

I The strength of Orion, and the Bear, which they also call the Wagon, which there 
goes round and watches Orion, bat it alone is free from the baths of Ocean. — Iliad, 
xriii 488. 

' Lardner's Masenm of Science. 

' Ritual, ch. xxiii. Birch. 

* Maflsey, II. pp. 385, 436. The name of Orion as the Sahu is also that of the erect 
mammy, the type of the risen dead. The word means incorporate^ or incorpae ; but 
the Saho constellation showed the mammy on the horizon of the resarrection, the erect 
body of the rinen, reborn Lord ; as the Egyptian mammy the Karast.— Massey, II. 
p. 436. 

« Danlap, SOd, II. p. 2. 

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I am the great constellation Orion, dwelling in the solar birthplace in the 

midst of the spirits. — Ritual.^ 
Orion rose up, no longer in the circling lake 
Did he wash the shiyering ^ footsteps of Taurus who has set. — Nonnus, 

III. 3, 4. 
Osiris comes to thee as Orion. — Inscription from Pepl*s pyramid.^ 

Orion wades through the sea, having his head just above the 
waters. His cosmical setting takes place towards the end of 

The Pleiads and, to the observer, the late-setting Bootes, 
And Arktos (the Bear) which they also call the Wain, 
Which there is turned round and has an eye on Orion,* 
And alone does not take part in the baths of the ocean.* — Homer, Ody«sej, 
V. 272-275. 

Orion is the Mighty Hunter, closely connected with Her- 
akles.® The Lydian Herakles was, according to the Persian 
myth, the Orion transferred to heaven.'^ 

I will ascend on high to the heavens, to the stars of El I will lift my 
throne and will sit on the Mount of Assembly ^ in the remotest parts of the 
North. — Isaiah, xiv. 13. 

We have here the Mount which the North side of the three 
large pyramids of Gizeh (near Memphis) directly fronts. Orion 
held on to the Ark with one hand.' Chares is the Phoenician- 
Hebrew sun's name ; it is the name of Choreb and the Charu 
(Syrians). Charon's boat *® is of the Phoenician standard and 

1 6. Massey, II. 436. When the Vernal equinox waa in the sign of the Bull, the 
coDBtellation Orion was a stellar image of Horus, who had risen from the underworld 
in his glorified body.— ibid. IL 436. Tammuz (Adonis) represented Orion.— Sayce, 
Herodot. I. 403. 

^ referring to the winter season. 

' MaaperO) Recueil des Travaux, V. 172. 

* The highest planet is El-Saturn.— Movers, 287, 310, 311, 313, 315, 316, 819; Dio- 
dor. Sic. IL 39. It is so slow in its movement, that the ass is his symbol. 

* The ocean surronnding the kosmos, in which the snn's bark moved ; according to 
Egyptian Mythology. Nu is "the liquid chaos."— Sayce, Her. I. 341. 

« Movers, 472. This is the Phoenician Archaleus (Har-akal, the fire that eats), the 
Lion-god Ariel. There was a city Herakleopolis in the northeastern part of Egypt 
towards Pelusium. Compare Ptah the Fire-king, the Egyptian Fire in Ezeklel, viii. 2. 

^ Movers, 472. 

8 of the Gods on Olympus (Olumpos, OulCm = time). In EVlen the Garden of the 
Gods thou wast. In the Mount of the holiness of Gods.- Ezekiel, xxviil 13, 14, 16. 

* A Jewish myth : in Massey, IL 246. 

10 It is the bark of Osiris, — the Eigyptian Sun and Saturn, — and Aristophanes lets 
Dionysus go aboard. The ' Herusha ' (Cherusha ?) probably adored Dionysus-CTharcs. 


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wafts the deceased Osiris to Orion. The beautiful star Ganopus 
(Eaneph, Kneph ^), as it sets, casts Orion below the horizon.* 
One of the two largest pyramids has been considered the grave 
of the Agathodemon Kneph.^ Agathodemon is identified with 
the Egyptian Kneph.^ 

Adon who is beloved even in AcharoD.* — TheokrituB, Idyl. xv. 

Adon, who doet send up the shades (to heaven). —Aeschylus, Persai, 628. 

It looks as if the Great Pyramid was the tomb of Kjieph, if 
we notice the water-jar and the ram as symbols of resurrec- 
tion in Orion. 

The Garden of Delights stood near the gate of the Lamb 
(Aries) where the sun was to restore nature at the equinox, just 
as the Serpent is at the opposite gate in Scorpio. Perseus 
(called Chelub), with wings and a sword, stands near the 
Lamb's gate which he opens at his rising.* 

1 Aooording to the Wady-Magharah tablet RawliiLioxi gathers that Khafa made 
two expeditions into the Sinaitio peninsula, one to take poiaession of the mines, on 
which occasion he merely set np his oartoaohe and titles, calling himself ' Khuf u. King 
of Upper and Lower E^pt, the conqoering Homs,^ and another— where he gare hia 
name as Nam Khnfn (Rawlinson^s cartouche here would read Num Khefu) and repre- 
sented himself as striking down some captive in the presence of the God Tahuti, Taaut, 
or Thoth. Nam Khuf u (both names, Cnemu Khuf u) are found in the Great Pyramid, 
and it is now most oommonly held that Khofu, the successor of Seneferu, at a later 
period, assumed the prefix of Num or Khnum, intending thereby to identify himtelf 
with the Ood whom the Greek* called Kneph^ one of the chief objects of worship in 
Upper Egypt. — Rawlinaon, 11. 55. Khem is identified with the Sun, ' engendered by the 
Son,^ ** beyond all doubt he was regarded as a form of the Supreme God and so as self- 
originated. Hence one of his titles was father of his own father.**— Rawl. L 833. S34. 

It was not necessary to do more than set up for effect the cartouche and the pict- 
ure of a warrior striking down one that he holds by his hair. 

Landseer, A.D. 1833, supposed the Osirian rites to have originated about 48 cen- 
turies ago ; for Aldebaran is 67 degrees Eastward of the present place of the Vernal 
Equinox, and 67^ x 72 ~ 4824. It is enough that the locality of the Great Pyramid 
was probably destroyed by a Theban army about the time the Hyksos were driven 
from Memphis. 

> Mankind, 610. 

»Nork, Real-W5rterbuch, L 234; Chwolsohn, Seabier, L 192, 400. After the 
Christian era some of the Sabians found their AgathodaimSn in Seth and their Hermes 
in Idris.— ibid. 641. The Sabians worshipped the Stars and idols.— ibid. 684. Hero 
comes in Mr. Petrie*s description of the destruction of the costly statues in the Great 
P3rramid and associate temples.— Petrie, 136, 187. In B.c. 671-3, the Assyrian king 
Assurbanipal is said to have taken Memphis.— Trans. Soc. Bibl. Arch. VIL 848. 

* Chwolsohn, I. 798. 

* Danaos is mentioned by Nonnus, iv. 254, as Bringer of Water. Dan is one of 
the springs of lardan. The Danaids, water-nymphs located iu Hades. So Adon 
(Adan), like Osiris, went down to Hades, the profundum aquarum.— Deut xxxiii. IS. 

* Mankind, p. 462. 


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'£s *HX^<rior irc8/of . . . ^ip§» /uucdfwp M yaiay. — Qaintns SmyrnaeuB, ill. 

To the Eljsian Field,— to lead to a land of the Blessed.— ibid. iii. 761-2. 

The Egyptian name for paradise is Aahlu or Aalu. The 
Egyptians believed that paradise is an island surrounded by 
a holy stream. Fountains with the sweetest water pour them- 
selves out to all the regions of the earth. According to the 
Persian account of paradise, four great rivers come from 
Mount Alborj, Elborus in the Caucasus range ; two are in the 
north, and two flow towards the south. The river Arduisir 
nourishes the tree of immortality, the holy Hom. In the 
Chinese myth the waters of the garden of paradise issue from 
the fountain of immortality which divides itself into four rivers. 
The Persians held that those who ate the fruits of the one tree, 
Gaokerena, which grew in the sea Vouru-kasha, were rendered 
immortal. They held also that the Serpent, Angro-mainyus, 
got into paradise and created diseases.^ Kejomaras, the first 
man, according to them, left behind him at his death a seed 
from which a bi-sexed tree grew up in which two were united 
in closest union. This, having been formed by Aura-mazda 
into a man of two sexes, bore instead of fruits ten human 
pairs. From the first pair, Mesia and Mesiane, the entire 
human race is descended.'^ If we remember that Prometheus, 
creator of men, was chained to a rock in the Caucasus, bearing 
in mind that Isaiah places the Mount of the Assembly of the 
Gods in the sides of the north ^ and then observe what has just 
been said a few lines above, it will be obvious that the Jews 
also, in their account of the river of Eden that parted into four 
streams, the Phaison,^ the Gihon, the Kiver of Tekrit ^ and the 
Frat * have followed the Persians and placed their paradise in 
the " sides of the north." The Jews closely followed the Per- 
sians in their theory of the end of the world,* and claimed kin 
with them.** Adamas is Pluto ; and the Garden of Darkness is 

» Spiegel, Vendidad, Parg. xxii 24. 

3 Knobel, Grenesifi, p. 83. Ck>mpare the Adam and Eua from one Source. 

» Isa. xiv. 13 : ** towards the stars of Al.'» 

* The Phasia ran by the land'of Koilaoh (Colchis). Gold, pearls and ouyxeB were 
said to be found on the slopes of the Caucasus. — Jervis, Genesis, pp. 61-^. There 
was a river Phasis in Colchis and one in Phasiana of Armenia.— ibid. 63. 

» The TigriB or Khiddekel. 

* the Enphrat-es. 

^ Dunlap, Vestiges, p. 247. 
« Gen. X. 28, 24. 

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the Oarden of Adonis in Hades ; Delitzsoh mentions a Garden 
of Donias, which he locates in Babylon. 

Two numbers have hitherto formed the turning point for 
the chronolgy of the Mosaic period. These are numbers 480 
and 430. The former^ is the number of years between the 
Exodus and the building of the Temple ; the latter is the pe- 
riod assigned to the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt.^ Both 
numbers very early created difficulty, and are partly modified 
and partly refuted by other statements of the Old Testament.^ 
The long contest between the Egyptians and Hyksos men- 
tioned by Manetho occurred during the 17th dynasty from 
Amosis to Tuthmosis III. The former completely broke the 
foreign dominion and drove back the Hyksos to the northern 
part of the Delta ; but it was Tuthmosis who first succeeded in 
sending them out of their last stronghold of refuge, Abaris. 
From this arose the confusion that has so generally prevailed 
concerning these two kings/ Amosis the first king of the 
17th dynasty drove away the Hyksos, and in Josephus con- 
tra Apion, I. 15, the name Tethmosis is inserted in place of 
Amosis, while Syncellus ^ has the phrase " Amosis who is also 
Tethmosis." Amosis is placed by Manetho at the head of the 
dynasty that immediately follows the Hyksos dynasties : hence 
the inference was that he drove them out.^ Amosis as much as 
Tuthmosis might be regarded as the conqueror of the Hyksos. 
Manetho specified the whole time of the residence of the Hyk- 
sos in Egypt, up to their departure from Abaris, to be 511 
years. But it must also have appeared from his narrative, and 
have been a fact specially known to the priests from their his- 
tory, that the real dominion of the Hyksos in Egypt was ter- 
minated by Amosis. If we now subtract the time from Amosis 
to Tuthmosis, which was 80 years, from 511 exactly 430 years 
remain for the dominion of the Hyksos in Egypt.' The Jew- 
ish scribe undoubtedly made the same calculation that Lepsius 
has done. Exodus, xii. 40, therefore teaches us that those 430 
years were put into its text because the tvriter claimed that the 

» I King*, vi 1. 
« ExodiM, zii 40. 

* LepsiiM, Letters^ p. 402. 
« ibid. p. 486. 

* SynoeUot, p. 68 B ; 123 D. 

* Lepnos, p. 422. 
▼ ibid. p. 486i 

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Jews were the Ilyksos. And this very claim Josephus endeavors 
to sustain at a later period.^ The foi-t of Sion was held for 
centuries after this mythical period by the lebusites,^ and the 
passage in Genesis, xiv. 18, 21, must be correspondingly late. 

In the entire period of the kings of Judah and Israel there 
has been an era according to which the Chronicles of Salomon, 
the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah and the Chronicles of the 
Kings of Israel have been put in order. The point of depart- 
ure of this era is the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt.^ Such 
a date could have been arbitrarily selected. 

Rabbinical chronology deviates in a most striking manner 
from every other, and as late as the times of the Persian kings 
it differs no less than about 160 years from the recognised 
numbers. They reckon by the years of the world.^ The Crea- 
tion is placed B.C. 3761, and imtil the time of Joseph they agree 
perfectly with the customary mode of reckoning in the Hebrew 
text. They fix the Flood 1656 years after Adam ; the birth of 
Abrahm 1948 ; Isaac's 2048 ; lacob's 2108 ; Joseph's 2199 ; 
lacob's march ' to Egypt 2238 ; loseph's death 2309. It is only 
ichen they conie to Moses that they immediately deviate about 
210 years 1 Following the precedent of Josephus and others, 
they reckon the 400 years sojourn in Egypt not from the en- 
trance of lacob ® but from the birth of Isaac. They fix the birth 
of Moses at 2368 and his Exodus at 2448 after the Creation. 

But this year 2448 corresponds, says Lepsius, with the year 
B.C. 1314 ( — 1313), and therefore occurs, according to the chro- 
nology of Manetho, in the time of Menephthes, who reigned 

' Dtmlap, Vestiges, 265; Josephus, o. Apion, L Amasis was the liberator of Egypt. 
— Lanth, 147 ; quotes Em. de Boug^. In letting the Hebrews start from Babulun (Old 
Cairo) Josephus follows the Hyksos narrative rather than Exodus, xii. 37. 

« Munk, Palestine, 79 a. 

* Jules Oppert, Salomon et ses Successeurs, p. 10. Even if we admit that the real 
date has been incorrectly transmitted, that it has been fixed apr^s coup (at a later pe- 
riod) by the royal chronologists, it has existed in the spirit of the people, it has been 
forcibly constrained to endare. — Oppert, p. 10. 

* gradually this reckoning was introduced by the Rabbi Hilel Hanasi and probably 
first in the year A.D. 844. 

* Saturn marching into Egypt gave all the Southern land to Taaut, the Qod of the 
Sethi tes, or Phoenicians. — Philo*s Sanchoniathon. 

* Josephus, Ant. II. xv. 2, calculates 430 years from Abrahm^s entrance into Canaan 
to the Exodus. Compare VIII. iii. 1. Of course, this change was not made without a 
motive ! Apion (and probably others) had attacked the Jews ; and perhaps found a 
weak point in their chronological line. Or Josephas et al. may have disoovered one 


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nineteen years. But the year 1314 is exactly the fifteenth year 
of MenephtheSy according to the Manethonic calculation. It 
must be observed here that Lepsius takes his data, at least in 
part, if not altogether, /roz/i Jmephus's quotation from Mamtlio, 
which is open to the usual suspicion attending parts of the 
writings of this most astute man and advocate ; consequently, 
Lepsius stands on no better footing than does Josephus, and 
was bound to come to the same conclusion with him. It is, 
practically, a petitio principii, since Josephus has not yet ^- 
tahlished his own credit. 

The same Rabbinical chronology* places the building of 
Salomon's temple, according to 1 Kings vi. 1, about 480 years 
jrfter the Exodus, therefore 2928 or B.C. 834, the march of 
Shishak against Behoboam 2969, or B.C. 793, etc. These are 
all of them about 165 years too late. The construction of 
Salomon's temple was begun in May B.C. 1014.^ The Rab- 
binical chronology puts the building of the Second temple B.C. 
354. But from here the cat-reci dates ^ are suddenly restored (!). 
Alexander the Great is set down at B.C. 320, only sixteen years 
too late ; and his death at 308. 

The Syrian Era of the Seleucidae began B.c 312, and is 
adopted in the Book of the Makkabees, besides being correctly 
mentioned in the rabbinical chronology. The Seleucidic Era 
retained its correct place, in spite of the universal displace- 
ment in the chain of events. According to that dtsplaccfnent, 
Alexander first began to reign B.C. 320 and died B.C. 308. The 
beginning of the new era, therefore, according to this, happened 
in the reign of Alexander himself, who in reality had been 
dead twenty-one years at the time of the battle of Gaza, which 
occasioned the new era. In consequence of these contradic- 
tions the number was retained, but the evefU was changed to 
agree with it ; for the introduction of the era of Seleucus was 
transferred to Alexander, and connected with an account * of his 
presence in Jerusalem, which is otherwise only mentioned by 
Josephus * and the so-called Barbaras of Scaliger.' 

How is the remarkable displacement of events to be rec- 

* weakened by the remark above of Lepaius, LetteiB, p. 451. See note 4, p. 1S4. 

* according to Oppert, Salomon, p. 96. 

* So Leprios caUfl them. 

* false, of course. 
» Ant. XL viii. b. 

* Thesanros tempp. Buseb. 1658, 11. p. 73. 

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onciled with the true nmnbers ? Lepsius thinks that in the 
time of Eusebius and Theon of Alexandria people could not 
possibly be so completely ignorant of the history of the last 
centuries before Christ as the rabbinical chronology su^Dposed. 
Lepsius seems to have considered that he could get the trtie 
chronological thread in some way ; but this expectation could 
not conscientiously be based upon anything else than an entire 
confidence in the Jewish priesthood, and their strict adherence 
to historical facts, without self-seeking or any personal, clerical 
or national ambition. Lepsius then has recourse to the G^nealo* 
gies. The first column contains, after the Patriarchs from 
Abrahm to Amram, the twelve heads of the people from Moses 
to David, who appear to have been regarded as the represen- 
tations * of 12 generations of 40 years each, and thence to have 
occasioned the calculation of 480 years.^ To show that the 
priesthood was not always respected by the Jews, the Phari- 
sees,^ in B.C. 94, pelted the Highpriest at the altar and declared 
him unworthy of the priesthood. Herodotus, II. 104, gives a 
flat contradiction to Genesis, xvii. 10; which contradiction^ 
shows positively that, according to Herodotos, our Pentateuch 
is later than B.o. 450. 

The statement that the Phoenicians said that they anciently 
lived on the Eruthra Thalassa (the Sea that surrounds Arabia) 
and crossing Syria came to the parts bordering on the Medi- 
terranean * may have been current in B.C. 460, but traditions of 
ancient peoples are not always literally true. The movements, 
in very early times, of the Philistians and Amalekites into 
Egypt, and certain emigrations out of Egypt into the strip of 
Syria that nins from Gaza to Tyre would seem to have been as 

1 We truat that they were not misrepreaentationft. But the unanimity with which 
each generation persUUed in liTing precisely one third of an Egjrptian hanti is striking] j 
suggestive of a preoonoeired plan somewhere. Another instance of persistence men- 
tioned in scripture is that the Kanaanites persisted in staying : which slightly inter- 
fered with the ** totus, teres, et rotnndus" of the Scribal intellectual outline of lakaVs 

* Lepsius, Letters, 464. 

' The Pharisees, who had unbounded influence over the common people, afterwards 
manifested great hostility and caused many embarrassments to the family of Hnrkanns. 
— Jahn, Hist. Heb. Com. p. 268. 

* The " Kolchians and Egyptians and Aithiops alone of all men are circumcised, 
originally, as to ra ai^to.'*— Herod., II. 104. air* ^x^ is the Greek for *' originally.** 

* Compare the Phoenician territory, running from the Mediterranean south-easterly 
to Lasa, and their settlements in Egypt. 


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reliable as any other account derived from Phoenician tradi- 
tion, more especially as they would appear to have carried 
civilisation along" the north shores of Africa, and to Memphis. 
Nonnos evidently thought that Lower Egypt was earlier civ- 
ilised than Upper Egypt, while Lepsius and later authorities 
have ascertained that the civilisation of Meroe came up the 
Nile. Of course the Sabeeans may have come from the Persian 
Gulf, but it was easier for the Philistians to enter the Delta 
and cultivate the Berbers, creating Keft or Kopt settlements 
while teaching the Semite worship of Ghamah (Cham, Sun) and 
Asar (Aser, Osiris, Oseir, Seir), and Kepheus, and founding 

Petrie found at Gizeh a piece of diorite bowl inscribed 
* . . . nofru'; perhaps Senofru : and another piece with the 
standard of Khuf n. It is merely a false door, the inscription 
being: the king's name on the panel over the door, — ^like the 
false doors of the early tombs.' Josephus, from Manetho, 
gives us a king Timaeus whose name cannot be found, unless 
in the name Tamo, or Atima (the first a deity-name, the second 
meaning Edom), or Tamphthis a king's name in Manetho's 
fourth dynasty. After long centuries of Theban sway the 
Egyptians still hated the foreigner. The four dynasties with 
which Manetho ^ filled the interval between the 12th and 17th 
are regarded by most Egyptologists as ruling contempora- 
neously in either three or four places. Manetho*s numbers for 
this period are untrustworthy, and where not false are mis-, 
leading.* De Eoug^ says : * It would seem, that the great 
division ' (into dynasties) ' had not commenced until after the 
sixth dynasty.' The table of Saqqarah indicates this; and 

» Petrie, Pyramids, 153 ; ibid Tanis, L p. 5. 

* From an Bgyptian list, compiled by Eratosthenes bnt copied by Synoellns ont of 
Apollodoms, and from a notice, donbtless taken by SynceUas from the same sonroe, 
that '' the chionographer had oolleoted from Manetho " a certain sum of the years of the 
kings to Nectanebo or Alexander, we see that the genuine work of Manetho was still 
extant and no other mentioned, as late as the year B.C. 141 when Apollodoms ended 
his chronography. Bnt Diodoms who was in Egypt B.C. 60 makes no mention of Ma- 
netho; and Josephns, writing against Apian at Rome (a.d. 81>94) quotes with empha- 
sis *' Manetho himself ; " which seems to imply that the Manetho which has come down 
to modem times is a work of Ptolemy of Mendes who borrowed and altered from Ma- 
n^o. It seems certain that Manetho by his myriads of years dirided among Gods, 
Demigods, Heroes and Kings before and after Menes had obtained more ridicule than 
admiration from Greek readers. Hence the original work of Manetho was superseded 
by the abridgment and re-edition of Ptolemy of Mendea — Palmer, 87-69, et pasadm. 

*Rawlin8on, II., 175. 


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probably in the time of the 19th dynasty it was considered at 
^Thebes to be all one family, from Mena to Neb-ka. 

Neither Herodotus, Diodorus, nor any other ancient writer 
except Manetho mentions the Hyksos.^ Manetho alone knows 
them. And while it is possible that the scribe or scribes that 
wrote Genesis and Exodus may have read Manetho's genuine 
work in the third century B.C., there seems to be no reason for 
assuming that Manetho had ever seen the account of the Exo- 
dus written at Jerusalem. 

" This Manetho, therefore, the one who promised to inter- 
pret the Egyptian history from the * sacred characters,' com- 
mencing by sajring that our ancestors coming in maiiy thau- 
sands into Egypt overpowered the inhabitants, afterwards him- 
self confessing that in a little time later, having lost it, they 
took loudaia (Judea) and, having built Hierosoluma, con- 
structed the Temple ! " ^ Thus Manetho gives an account so 
different from the Jewish as to raise the point whether some 
oriental has not falsified and mystified. He says that " Jo- 
sephus's ancestors " (?) came into the Delta by thousands ; not 
in the patriarch's little band numbering less than a hundred 
persons who came to visit Joseph the Jew in his high estate 
among the 'miserables' of Misraim. The Phoenicians after 
sacrificing to Bol's fire went in, when they came by land, by 
the way of Accaron (Ekron), and Mr. Brugsch's " Khar " or 
" Chari " are as likely to mean the Achari-Phoenicians as any 
.body,^ because Baal-Zebub was Seth (Sada, flaming fire) and was 
the Seth that the Egyptians hated in Akaron,* as they did the 
Typhon ! Compare such Egyptian names as Mena, Atot, Tot, 
Teta, Khufu, Ata, Khaphra, Aten, Aseth, Seti, Setes, Soris, 
Suphis, Chebron, Asaneth (Asaneta) with the Syrian names 
Manes, Atad, Ateta,* Taut, Tat, Akub, lakoub, lakoubos, 
Akbos, Akouph,^ Attai, Autaias, Atten, Kebrene (see Cheph- 
ren), Set, Seth, Asara, Sur, Asebia, Asaph, Asipha, losiph (see 

1 Akasah (Joshua, xv. 16, 17), Akasepb (Joshua, zL 1), Akasib (Josh. xix. 29), 
Khasor (Josh. xi. 1), Khosah (Josh. xix. 20), have a resemblance to ^^Hnkousos,** the 
Hyksos. These are Philistian names ; and from Philistia Egypt was most likely to be 
inyaded in the earliest times. 

s Josephos contra Apion, I. 

' Bragsch. Egypt, L 228. 

« 2 Kings, i. 2. 

» 1 Bsdras, v. 28. 

• ibid. V. 80, 81, 48. 

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Osar-siph), Hebron, Asana, Hassan : they are all Phoenician or 
Sjrrian names. 

Tyre was destroyed* B.C. 332 by Alexander the Great, but it 
was floorishing again in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes and 
his Greek predecessors, B.c. 221-176. Now take Isaiah, xxiii. 
11, 12, 15, 17, and Zachariah, ix. 3, 4, 13 (who mentions the 
roosing of the Sons of Zion against the Sons of Ion, that is, 
Greece) and we will see that the seventy years during which 
Tyre lay deserted ^ subtracted from 832 will give B.C. 262 as 
about the time when T3rre began to be known again as a great 
commercial mart, that is (41 years before the 2nd year of the 
reign of Antiochus the Great) in the first part of the reign of 
Antiochus II., the third successor to Alexander in Syria. In 
Daniel, viii. 21, 22, the rough goat is the Greek king (Alexander 
the Great) and Seleucus Nicator king of Syria is one of the 
four among whom Alexander's provinces were subsequently 
divided.^ From all this it follows that the Jewish historian 
(the prophet Isaiah) whose 23d chapter mentions the resurrec- 
tion of Tyre must have lived later than B.C. 262 ; and probably 
later than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes;^ since Jewish 
dominion over Tyre (Isa. xxiii. 18) could not have been hoped 
for before Jewish independence, B.C. 143. 

We may assume that the success of the Makkabees in the 
second century before Christ entirely changed the prospects of 
the Jews and made it a political necessity for their priests to 
put forward greater claims than before, claims more in accord 
with the new monarchy and better hopes. The policy of the 
state would be aided by a historical statement of the exploits 

> Jahn, Hebr. Commonwealth, p. t60. In the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, 175- 
171 B.C. the Jews, having been so long under the dominion of Grecian monarchs, had 
now become familiar with the cnstoms, the litezatare and the sciences of Greece. They 
had aoqnired a taste for them ; many preferred the Greek manners to their own, and 
even the idolatrous Greek religion to the rational worship of one true Giod. Of this 
class was lesoos, a brother of the high priest Onias the third. He assumed the Greek 
name lason, and had solicited the high priesthood of Antiochus Epiphanes at the com- 
mencement of his reign. The real design of lason^s gymnasium at Jerusalem went to 
the gradual changing of Judaism for heathenism. In 174 at Tyre games were cele- 
brated in the presence of Antiochus Epiphanes in honor of Herakles. See Jahn, pp. 
214, 215. Hence the hostility of the native party at Jerusalem under Mattathias and 
the chasidim in ac. W6. 

« Isa. rxiii 15, 17. 

' Jahn, p. 183. The great horn between the eyes of the rough goat is, apparently, 
Antigonxu. See Jahn, 178 ff. 

* See Daniel, xi. 86, 87, 43, 43, 46; xii 11. 

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of the nation at former periods, showing that the new claims 
now made were not out of proportion to the former position of 
the Jewish people inter ncUiaives. If a good deal is set down on 
paper it is easier to admit it than to controvert it, and while 
encouraging to their own people it stood a small chance of be- 
ing believed by others. To an ardent people thirsting for an 
empire extending up to 'Hamath ^ with an impregnable fortress 
for its capital, a temple replete with the riches of Western 
Asia, and the sacred city of Palestine theirs, it may have 
seemed worth the writing a very large book to aid the accom- 
plishment of their patriotic purpose in the magnifying of the 
kingdom of Daud. And under the circumstances in which he 
was placed, the acute Josephus undoubtedly felt himself ob- 
liged to sustain the hope and faith of his countrymen in Eome. 
Themosis, son of Misphragmuthosis, whom Josephus or Mane- 
tho,'^ contrives to confound with Bamses^ is Thothmes III., son 
of Queen HatasH.^ Josephus states (contrary to the monu- 
ments) that Abaris was not taken, but evacuated in pursuance 
of an agreement with Thothmes, who had driven the Shepherds 
into the north-east comer of the Delta near Pelusium.' 

Osiri Sar aant em Ana (Osiris the Old Prince in Ann). — Book of the Dead, 
Cap. 142 7d.« 

Turn the Lord of Anu.'»— Todtenbuch, 74, 8. 

Suppose, for instance, that M. Naville has found Heroopo- 
lis (in Tuket or Taku,^ Thukot) and inscriptions to the Sungod 
of the South and West, Tum. It does not absolutely follow 
that the place was called pi-tum in the time of the " Seventy." 

1 JoBboa, ziiL 5. Ohamah is the San. Khamath the dty of the sun. 

> ManethOf says Josephus, p. 1052, professed to write merely sayings and popular 
talk abont the Jews. 

9 Jos. a Apion, L 1058. 

4 See Sayce, Herodot. I. p. 460. 

* Jos. o. Apion, L p. 1040. Manetho states that Amenophis and his son, with a 
great force from Aethiopia and the troops of Rampses, or Sethon (as he calls bim), 
routed the Shepherds and Lepers, pursuing them to the borders of Syria. Contra 
Apion,*L 1063, 1054. This may hardly be considered an ^* unvarnished tale,'" even if 
a popular one. The impression it leaves on the mind is that the varnish of Josephus 
was at least as good as the rest. 

• Lauth, Agypt-Vorzeit, p. 88. 

7 ibid. p. 98. The deceased assimilates himself to Turn, the Setting Sun of Ann. 
The superscription of Cap. 75 lets him ** wander towards Ann and stop there.** 

> There is a capital of a nome, called Takh-n-amun.— Sayoe, Her. 814. It is men- 
tioned just before Bubastis and Busiris. 


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The Coptic translation can claim no antiquity of itself, but it 
may affect the date of the Hebrew Ms. of Exodus by showing- 
an agreement between so late a reading as its own and that of 
the Hebrew Ms. Lepsius, Letters, p. 448, says that *' the situa- 
tion of this town (Pithom) cannot easily be mistaken. It has 
long been recognised in the town of Patoumos, of which He- 
rodotus speaks when he says that the eastern Nile canal, which 
was conducted a little above Bubastis, flowed past it, the Ara- 
bian town. It was probably situated opposite Bubastis (Tell 
Basta), on the border of the desert, and at the entrance of the 
Wadi through which the canal is led. The ancient ruins of a 
town are found there under the name of Tell d ICebir, and the 
Itinerarium Antonini places the town of Thoum, which has 
certainly been properly recognised as the ancient town of 
Turn Pa-toumos, exactly in that place, namely, upon the road 
from Heliopolis to Pelusium, on the edge of the desert be- 
tween Yicus Judaeorum (Tell Jehudeh) and Tacasartha (Sal- 
hieh ?). Now if the Coptic translation in the passage which is 
cited from Gen. xlvL 28, writes Pithom in place of Heroonpo- 
lis, as is translated by the Seventy, it does not mean that 
Pithom was believed to be discovered in Heroonpolis, but 
that it was thought better to fix the place at which Joseph 
went to meet Jacob at Pithom rather than at Heroonpolis/* 
The late Dr. Edward Eobinson, as his map furnished to Vol. 
n. of Home's Introduction shows, thought that Patoum was 
at the Western end of the Valley TumeiUt I How then does 
M. Naville contrive to bring Herodotus on his side. Simply 
thus, by a sing^tilar translation ! He renders the Oreek prep- 
osition " para " (whose Jirat meaning is ** alongside of ") near, 
thus altering Herodotus completely. Then he renders " ese- 
chei" (which means "it extends") as if it were estrechex (it 
runs). No wonder that he considers " esechei " a quite unnec- 
essary repetition, and says that the text is cory'upt ; and then 
he corrects the Oreek text to suit himself ! If he had rendered 
Herodotus as he should have been translated, the text was 
good enough I The passage in Herodotus, before it was thus 
metamorphosed, read as follows : And Nekos was son of 
Psammitichus and was king of Egypt ; who first put his hand 
to the canal which stretches into the Bed Sea, which Dareios 
the Persian afterwards dug through: its length is indeed a four 
days voyage, but in width it was dug so that two triremes 


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could sail rowed together. And the water was led into it from 
the Nile, and it was conveyed down, from a little above Bou- 
bastis city, beyond Patoum the Arabian city ; and it extends 
into the Ked Sea. And first indeed the parts of the Egyptian 
plain that are towards Arabia were dug through : and above 
the plain is the mountain stretching to Memphis, in which are 
the stone quarries. Actually, then, the canal was carried along 
the foot of the mountain from west a great (canal) to the east, 
and then stretches into the clefts (passes), inclining from the 
mountain towards the south and the south wind into the Ara- 
bian bay.— Herodotus, 11. 168. Herodotus is therefore very 
far from saying (with M. Naville) " The water is derived from 
the Nile, a little above Bubastis, and it runs into the Red Sea 
near Paturru)8, the Arabian city." Para, with verbs of motion, 
means to go beyond, to pass beyond ; so that Herodotus in- 
tended to say that the canal left Patmim on one side. The 
fourth meaning of para is " beyond." ^ — ^Liddell and Scott, 
Sixth edition, p. 1176. Consequently, as regards the location 
of Pa-toum, Lepsius and Herodotus are both opposed to M. 

Herodotus, I. 193, has just such another use of co-cxcc. (17 
3uof}v^), he says, laiyti. 8^ h aXKov worafjLov ck rov Ev^pi^ccu, where 
i<T€X€i means " it opens into." The preposition para in Greek, 
when used with the accusative case, means " motion along- 
side; " with the accusative there is always a notion of exten- 
sion,— Laddell & Scott, 6th ed. Revised, vapa &lya (Hiad, i. 34) 
means *' along the bank." 

Tum was adored everywhere in North-eastern Egypt as the 
Sun in the West. Tum was not the Lord of Heroopolis .alone, 
but also of Heliopolis. " One now of the chief Gods found in 
Maschutah must yet have given the name to the city to which 
they belonged. That this was not Tum follows from this that 

* A single hoards free life is better f 

Beyond forty years' slavery and captivity : 
wapii vap^vra xfi^tmv 9tc\afiiii koI ^Aojci}. — Rega Thoorios. 
Here we find it preserved in the Modem Greek of Rega. M. Navllle^s mistake began by 
translating vopa ** near,'* when it should have been translated ^^past,** *' beyond/* 
Herodotns says that ^^ the water was carried past Patomos,** not that Patomos is above 
Bubastis, as Naville makes him say. The Hebrew account was written at Jerosalem ; 
conseqaentiy Sacooth is Hebrew, and not Thuku : the scribe need it to indicate an 
Arabian location, like Atam, Atima, Edom. Diospolis would be Turn's city.—Bee 
Naville, Pithom, 17. There could be a SucOth in Midian or Atam (Etham) as well as 
beyond Jordan. 


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there was already in clcme proximity another Pa-Tum, which, 
as we unmistakably know, lay at the entrance of the Valley 
TameiUt. Just so there was already a Pa-Ra that was the 
known Heliopolis. Two cities in Lower Egypt in such imme- 
diate neighborhood could not have the same name. It must 
have been the third God of the temple, Ramses, who has 
given to the city its name Pa-Ramses." ^ Ramses is Heroon- 
polis.^ Atam was on the margin on the Desert.^ Herodotus 
says that the water was carried from the Nile into the canal, 
and it was led^ down^from a little above Bubastis City by 
(past) Patoum the Arabian city. Which gives us to under- 
stand that the canal ran at the base of the hills to the east of 
the Nile and turned off, by Patoum, into the Tumilat valley, 
stretching into the Red Sea. 

M. NaviUe reads the hieroglyphs tkou (with the sign of a 
city added) as meaning " Succoth " in Exodus, xii. 37. What 
is the reason, in this particular instance, for assuming that t 
represents « ? 8k (sak) in Hebrew means " covered." What 
resemblance is there between Sakoth (tents ^) and Naville's tku 
(Thuku)? In Exodus, i. 11 ; xii. 37, Pithom is distinguished 
from Sakoth (Succoth). But NaviUe makes them pretty much 
one place, Succoth (Thuku ? or Thuket ?) being regarded by 
Naville as a district, not a town.^ But what does the Bible 
say? They departed out of Ramesses to Sakoth; they de- 
parted from Sakoth and encamped at Atam on the border of 
the Medbar.^ If Ramesses and Atam (Etham) are names of 
towns, why not Succoth, like the other two ? 

Brugsch, however, besides admitting that Ramses 11. built 
the city '^ Ramses," stated that Ramessu is the father of the 
unnamed princess who found Moses and is the pharaoh of the 
oppression of the Israelites.^ He claimed that this city is the 
residence of Ramses IE., the SAn-Tanis, or New-Tanis ; but, re- 
cently, prefers the situation of Zaru (Tzaru ?) not far from Pe- 
lusium on the right bank of the Eastern arm of the Nile. The 

1 Lepaius, Zeitaobr. fttr Aegypt. Spraohe and Alt 1883, p. 47. 
' Lepsins, ibid. 48, 51. 

• Bxodiu, xiiL 20. 

• Greek Skene. 

• NaTiUe'fl Store-eitj Pithom, 5, 28, 32. 

' Exodoa, xiL 87 ; ziiL 90 ; Komb. xxxiii. 5, 0, 7. 
8 Brogioh, n. p. 99, 853. 

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discovery of inscriptions with the names Thuku, Pi-Tum, and 
Ero in no way establishes the truth of the Exodus account. 
It is the story told about these places that needs verification. 
The Scribe would have been a fool if he had not used the local 
names of the land of Bamses to circumstantiate his narrative 
and give it an aspect of probability. Without this, the com- 
pilation would have failed of its object. 

Josephus maintains the Jewish statement which amalga- 
mated the Exodus of the Beni Israel ^ with the expulsion of 
the Shepherds. The Jews did not like the description given 
of them by Manetho ; and, according to Prof. Lauth, they did 
not gain much by the exchange, " for the Hyksos were to the 
Egyptians the pestilence." The Book of the Exodus contains 
a complete refutation of Manetho's rumors ; it could not have 
been more complete if lorUten /ram a controversial standpoint^ 
and in r^ly to such charges ! When, however, Josephus de- 
clares that Manetho's story is an Egyptian story (falsehood) 
about the Jews, there is considerable reason for thinking that 
Josephus is correct enough in this; for neither the Hyksos- 
story nor the invasion of Egypt in Menephtha's reign have any 
appearance of a resemblance to an egress of a Jewish army of 
Moimtaineers from Hebron or an Exodus of Jews in a large 
body. Manetho seems (if we trust Josephus) to have used 
popular fables and to let the Jews have the benefit of some of 
the Hyksos traditions in a popular and abusive shape, and i>er- 
haps unjustly. The Egyptians were undoubtedly attacked by 
the Hyksos ; the fourth dynasty must be of foreign extraction. 
The testimony of Herodotus and Diodorus points in this di- 
rection, and that of Artapanus supplements the others. Com- 
pare Khafra with the Jewish cities Kafira. 

Josephus, p. 1041, tells another large story about the Shep- 
herds his ancestors having left Egypt 393 years before 
Danaus. — contra Apion, I. The locating Pithom (or Bamses) 
and Sukkoth does not touch a reported departure of the Isra- 
elites from Ban^ses to Sukkoth and Atam, as the story could 
have been made up after the time of Herodotus. The point is, 
is that report true — ^not where is Pithom^ where Ramses and 

> ** which took place 348 years later.** — Lanth, 147. Manetho has certainly not 
mentioned the confonnding of the Exodus with the Expulsion of the Hyksoe. — ibid. 
148. The Hyqsos kings reigned (in round numbors) 200 years, and there was no aeoond 
Hyqsos-dynasty.— ibid. 150. 


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where Sukkoth I Considering that the author of Exodus men- 
tions Pithom in the very first chapter, it is not reasonable to 
suppose that he would replace this name by a different one, 
if he wished to be understood. Josephus starts the Hebrew 
Exodus at Babulon, instead of at Bamses. But Josephus fol- 
lowed the tradition that made the builders of the pyramids to 
be Syrians, for Old Cairo is the Babulon that Cambyses built 
B.O. 626. — Am. Oriental 800. Journal, vol. xiii. p. xv. Proceed- 
ings at Boston, May, 1885. 

According to Wiedemann Set was adored in Egypt.' The 
word Setim (Sheto) is the same as Sethim ; ^ and the Jews 
are Sethites. The Sabians derived their religion from Seth. 
Set (Seth) was worshipped in the land of the Sethim and all 
the way from the Nile to the Lebanon, by Hyksos, Jews, 
Philistans, and transjordans. The effect of the doctrines of 
Euhemerus^ is seen in the human form of Seth in the Jewish 
account; for the doctrine of Euhemerus^ circumscribes that 
of any book in which his doctrine is manifest, particularly 
where Seth is thus euhemerised and declassified^ Euhemerus 
had predecessors in Phoenicia: and what is the beginning 
every list of the Egyptian kings with Mina-Menes, followed 
by Athothis-Teta, but the same kind of Euhemerism as the 
making Adam the Syrian Adonis, the Moon-god followed by 
the Kananite Taut or Thoth (the Syrian Seth-Hermes) his 
immediate successor?^ Josephus dpeaks of the Sethites as 

1 WiedemMD, I 444, 479, 501. 

s oompftre Sadem and Sadim. — Gen. xiy. 3, 8, Hebrew copy. Asatah or Satah.— 
Jndge*, TiL 28. Satd.— Henooh, xxxiL 2. The Oodi of the Osiris-circle are the old- 
ert Md only genuine Egyptian : Seb, Notpe, Osiria, Lna, Set (later identified with 
Uolooh), Ptah, Toi, Hapi (NUe-god).— Kntttel, Syit. d. figypt chronol. p. 87. Ptah, 
H^oa, Hapl-Nil (Agathodaimon), Seb, Knt, Osiria, Isi^ Thondis (Hermes), Typhon, 
Homa-Are8.~Lanth, lg]rptens Vonoit, 49. 

• Brave, famoas or powerful men after death eame to be Gods, and they are the 
▼ery ones that we ace aocnatomed to worship, pray to, and renente.— Cicero, N. D. 1 
^ Have yon not lifted op from the number of mortals all whom yon now have in 
yonr temples, and endowed them with heaven and stars ?— Amobias, I. xxxvi. The 
ettisens of Alabaad* worship Alabandns, by whom that city was built, more solemnly 
than any one of the Noble Goda.— Oioero, N. D. III. 19. Masen (tiie city Zaru) may 
too have had its mythic founder (Masd, Masses, Moses) ; since it was near Abaris and 
Pelosium, the supposed line of some Exodus out of Egypt. 

4 B.C. 820. The Moon was the Mother of the Kosmos.— de Iside, 48. 

•Dnnlap, Vestiges, 370, 271 ff. Ennius translated the Hiera Anagraphs of Buhe- 
mems ; Ensebius, pr. ev., IL 3, refers to it Compare the tombs of the Patciaiohs in 
the Orient 

* So Athothis, in Manetho*t list, follows Menes. '' Those who are held to be Gods 


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one would speak of the descendants of Hermes-Taut. Thoth 
was Governor of earth, moon and Hades (or hell), and Seth 
ruled in Hades as well as on earth. Chabas (Pasteurs, 32) 
mentions Hor-nub and Set-nub, the Golden Horus and the 
Golden Set. Fhilo Judaeus (de Ebrietate, 24) mentions that 
the Egyptian emblem of Tjphos was a Golden Bull ; which 
shows that Semites and Setim (Sethites) had entered Egypt to 
stay. For Set is the Egyptian Set-Typhon. Set is evident- 
ly the Sungod (Meyer, Seth-Typhon, 53), even if connected 
with destructive heat. He was also regarded as flame (fire). — 
Meyer, 53. 

The Sheto mentioned as adversaries of the Egyptians were 
the worshippers of Set ; Set is the burning, destructive. Solar 
force, the red Typhon : * for Asad is Hermes, Sada is a flame of 
fire,^ and Hermes has the very centre of the Seven Circles of 
the Planets, the position of the Logos.^ The flaming fire roll- 
ing in upon itself to keep the way to the Tree of Life ! Seth 
arranged the year,* and means pillar. The Children of Seth 
set up two steles ' on which the science of astronomy was in- 
scribed. The name is allied to Sada ** fire " and Zadus a name 
of Hermes. Shetha means " year," and the Arabs swear * by 
Sheyth,' because of the old worship of Hermes as chief God. 
Hermes, playing pettia with Isis, wins five more days for the 
year. Thoth (Hermes) was the name given to the first month 
of the Egyptian year. Lactantius, a father of the Church, 
living under Constantine, considered the Hermetic Books an 

majonun geotiam will be foand to hare gone henoe from ob to heaven. Inqoire whose 
sepalchres are shown in Greece : remember dnoe thon art initiated what things are 
taught in the Mysteries."— Cicero, Tnsc, L 13. Those who from men have become 
Gods.— Amobius, IH xxxix. Baochns, Herakles, Kadmns, Linus, Zeus, their sepul- 
chres were shown. Herakles, Romulus, iEsculapius, Liber, Aeneas from men became 
Gods. All whom you call Gods were men.— Amobius, liber iv. Consider the very 
Sacra and Hysteria: yon will find the sad ends, fates, funerals of the wretched gods.— 
Min. Felix, a 31. 195. Warbujrton, Divine Legation, L 158, supposed that Euhemer- 
ism was taught in the Mysteries. The Phoenicians proclaimed as gods Melcantharos 
and OusSros, and certain other less honored mortal men.— Movers, 120, 188, 396 ; 
Euseb. de laud, const. 18. 

1 de Iside, 41. 

s Johnson, Persian Did, p. 090. 

« Philo, Quis Heres, 44, 45. 

* Nork, Real-Worterb. IV. 277, 278 ; Jos. Ant. L 3. Nork, Rabbin. Wdrtenbuch, 
565. Gen L 

• From inaccessible sacred books and hidden tablets (steles) which all-wise Hermea 
raised.— Manethon, v. 1, 2. 

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ancient and very venerable authority,* while in the treatise on 
Isis and Osiris *' the Hermaeus " is treated as unquestioned 
authority. Plato tells us that all the wise a^rree that the King 
of heaven and earth is mind? Plato here uses the very word 
which Hermes employs for the Father-mind.^ The priests 
relate the legend that Hermes has been the Inventor of learn- 
ing and the arts. He first articulately divided this common 
speech/ called by a name things that had none,^ invented the 
writings, and arranged what concerns the honors and sacrifices 
of the Gods.* Thus the legend was already quite ancient in 
the time of Diodorus, fifty years before the Christian era. The 
Egyptian Theuth (Hermes) is mentioned in Plato.' Seth was 
a resident of Palestine, for his worshippers are described on 
Egyptian monuments with shorn heads according to the Pal- 
estine usage,^ and with the Arab tuft of hair that Herodotus 
refers to as a characteristic of the Arabian Dionysus-wor- 
shippers. The followers of Seth set up pillars in the Sirian 
land (Siriadis) and were called in Egypt Shetha or Sheto. 
The custom of setting up such pillars existed in Syria. — 2 
Chron. iv. 12. Lucian mentions it in Bublos (Byblus). It was 
also an Egyptian usage in the lands of lebus, Seir and Osiris. 
Set conquered Osiris.'* According to the ancient theology, 
Abaris was a city of Typhon,"^ that is, of Set : The ark of Osiris 

1 Menard. Herm^ p. cL EhremiM or Bremiah (Jeremiah) haa the name of Her- 
mee, Aram, the Supreme. Ck>mpare the name of the city Ammah. — Judges, iz. 41. 
« Plato, PhilebuB, 28 C. 

* Hermes, Poimander, 6. 

* Hermea-Kadmns. 

* Adam does this in Geneda, ii 19, 20 ; Brahma, in India. 

* Diodoms Siculoa, 1 pp. 19, 53 ; de Lnde, 3 ; Orelli, Sanchoniathon, p. 22. Sirina, 
the star of Ins, the sidns Osiridis, was also by Vettias Valens (Salm. Ann. Clim. p 
113) caUed Seth. —Mankind, 696. 

1 As evil demon. Set appears mostly as flame, and in the Ritnal as pnrsuer of souls. 
The deceased must have knowledge, must know the magic sentences, and perceive that 
he is identical with the Deity. Otherwise he ftills under the power of the evil spirits 
and is subject to the new death.— Meyer, 41. Set was, prior to the King Apepi, the 
God of the north-eastern Delta and Syria.~Meyer, 55-58w He was €rod of the so- 
called Hyksoa. 

•Jeremiah, zlL 5; Ezekiel zliv. 20; Levit. xxL 5; Acts, xxi 24; Job, i. 20. 
The Egyptians shaved the head, and some wore wigs. — Dunlap, Sod. 1 76. Radi 
CSapita ob loetmn: '* their heads are shaven for mourning.'*— de Iside, 4. Aset pet 
Chaman (Aset-ef-ha-Amen) is Seti I, father of Ramses-Mer-Amen. 

* Brugsch, L 225, 226. Set is Shemael, Samael ; good or bad, according to race, 

>* Jos. contra Apion, I. p. 1052. With the Abaris (as a name of the Sun) compare 


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was sent through the Tanaitic month of the Nile into the sea, 
which (mouth) even yet (a.d. 50) the Egyptians, for this reason, 
name hated and abominable. The idol of a dead man was 
shown, carried around in an ark, to the Egyptians.^ Joseplius 
mentions the shadow of a Man disposed upon the (boat or) ark 
to intimate that (Osiris) attends the sun on this his everlast- 
ing course.* The Arabs connect the arrival of Noah's ark in 
September in the mountain cloud with the Festival Ashurah 
which was celebrated to the Sun. A ship ascended with the 
Virgin* (Luna, Mene^ or the sign Virgo). Osiris therefore 
enters the Moon's ark at the conjunction of sun and moon, and 
Apis, "the well-formed image of the life of Osiris,"* is the 
Dionysus with horns ; as Pluto and the Devil are similarly 
represented, with the cloven foot. The hippopotamus signifies 
the west, like Oreb and Orphe, Darkness. 

The Kushite race on the Eed Sea, in the North-eastern 
Delta of Egypt, with its swelled faces, its high cheek bones, 
thick lips, Berber countenance, and peculiar sphinxes at Tanis 
and Zagazig are unnoticed by Manetho's successors in chro- 
nology and by himself.* The whole theory of the Egyptian 
religion was, like its progress in civilisation and the arts, its 
conquests in the peninsula of Sinai and Upper Egypt, its doc- 
trine of Light and Darkness in the Osiris religion, its use of 
iron, its jewelled saws and its wonderful creations at Gizeh, 
complete in the 4th dynasty, and nearly all of it in the time of 
Khufu. It must have required a vast series of years, a great 
number of reigns, during a period of which history has little to 

Beth Abarft (beth meaning temple), Beth Barah (Jadg. vii ^), BfrGg, 1 Bsdras, ▼. 19, 
BirSth, 2 Esdr. ii. 25, Barod (Gen. xtI. 14), Bara (Gen. ziv. 2) and the ''Inminons 
Bar,** an ABsyrian deity, inbar ^^annbeam,** Beroe a dty of the Son, BSrouth, BarSth 
(Josh. ix. 17) and Baratu or Bratu a mountain in Phoenicia, and Kadesh Barana 
(Varna). Set^ being Baal, is the Fire-god Molooh Herakles. Aaad or Sada, the Kebir. 
Bar, Barn, ia Set.— Meyer, 47. Henoe Abar, Abaria. 

> de Idde, 18, 17. 

« Jos. c. Apioo, n. 1 ; DnnUp, SQd, L 84. 

* Firmions, 7. The moon contains the body of Oairis which the DctII tore into four- 
teen parts.— de Inde, 8, 18. The tebe is therefore the urn or oofiBn (tafe) of Osiris. 

* de Iside, 29. On Dec. 17th they take out tiie relic which has the form of one 
dead, and is adorned with the white crown. On the 18th, at the 8th hour there is a 
cdebration on board ship, with lamps lighted in 84 vessels carrying Horns, Thot, 
Anubis, Isis, Nephthys, etc 

* For all we know, Hanetho never once mentioned them. The pastors (in African 
aga*zuan) in Josephns contra Apion, I. are SemiteSy not African Kushites, Kopts, or 


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say, to have brought primal conceptions to perfection, even 
under an aboriginal papacy, to have brought the civilisation of 
the priest caste to such a great result in the times between 
Senofru and the reigns of the sixth dynasty. The Nile was the 
great cause of alL The Nile supplied the capital, and the 
priests were the administrators of it ; the people had the faith, 
and the priests directed and instructed it, until Osiris is named 
by Menkaura in the third pjrramid. Time was required to 
learn the use of the metals in Phoenicia, to make chariots of 
iron for war, and it required time to invade the Delta and locate 
there the old Kanaanites. But the question is how near to the 
12th dynasty was the Sixth ! Who has given assurance that 
Manetho is to be followed ? He begins with the results of 
ages ! Wiedemann * holds Manetho responsible for the in- 
credible things that Josephus claims to quote from him. 
When an oriental lied before our era, it was lying of a superior 
sort, it went ahead in the ratio of geometrical progression. 
He talked of cycles extending to 36,525 years.^ Manetho's 
general scheme, being so differently reported, is in reality un- 
known to us ; its details, being frequently contradicted by the 
monuments, are untrustworthy ; and the method of the scheme, 
the general principle on which it was constructed, was so 
faulty, that, even if we had it before us in its entirety, we could 
derive from it no exactor satisfactory chronology.' Diodorus, 
I. 50, says : " The Thebans say that they are the oldest of all 
men ; and that philosophy and astrology were invented among 
themselves first." Their geometry and arithmetic came prob- 
ably from Syria and the Delta. The Phoenicians, and Philis- 
tians (or Arabs) must have early entered the Delta. The Pliil- 
istians or Karu must have entered first because of proximity. 
The Phoenicians and Philistians occupied the entire sea-coast 
of Palestine down to near or about Pelusium. The Hebrew 
language was Phoenician ; and the Phoenician vessels bore the 
Phoenician religion through the Aegaean Sea to Greece and 
the islands. This explains the identity of religion and the 
similarity of the Mysteries from Athens to Egypt. For, in 

1 Wiedemum, ESg. 1. 206. The great year-Dimiben (Jabnahlen) in Maoetho lead to 
the inference that they were designed after Cycles ; what Cycle suited but the Dog- 
star Cyde ?— Boeckh, 90, 91. 

* See Apokatastasis (the final restoration of the heayenly bodies to the point from 
which tbey started).— Palm«r, Egypt Chron II. 427. 

s RawlinsoB, U. p. 9. 

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spite of apparent differences in details, they are fundamentally 
the same/ as far as Karthage.^ 

Sirins rose in the evening in the south of Egypt, described 
a diurnal arc of about an hour and a half and, after appearing 
for a short period, sunk below the horizon. — Mankind, 697. 
In the low latitude of Egypt and Ethiopia the star Sirius 
never became invisible in a solar eclipse ; but the stars of Ursa 
Major, otherwise termed the Ark of Osiris,^ set ; and the last 
of its stars, Benetnasch, returned at the period under discus- 
sion to the Eastern horizon with those in the head of Leo a 
little before the season of the summer solstice. The stars of 
the Husbandman followed at the same hour of sunrise in 
about a month, — ^the chief of them, Ras, Mirach, and Ardunis, 
being very nearly simultaneous in their heliacal rising. The 
stars of Ara (the Altar) * too, which have been supposed to be 
connected with those which record the leading circumstances 
of the Deluge, rise in these -Slthiopian latitudes, while those 
of the Husbandman ^ embellish the Oriental quarter of the 
heavens.* The latter stars of the " Dove " (of the more ancient 
Chaldean planispheres) rise simultaneously with the hand of 
the Husbandman.'' 

Noch put forth his hand and took her. — Gen. viii. 9. 

1 de Iflide, 26. 

3 A pasnage in MacrobioB, I. vii. 14, says that in the worship of Satnm the Roman 
rites (forms and ceremonies) vary from the very religioas nation of the Egyptians. For 
these had not admitted Saturn nor even Scerapis into the arcana of the temples down to 
the death of Alexander of Maoedon. Bat this passage has reference to the slaying of 
the victims and the blood-offerings in the case of the Roman Saturn, it being claimed 
that the Egyptian ofierings were bloodless, only prayers and incense. Bat the Egyp- 
tians did offer blood offerings.— Rawlinson, Anc. Egypt, L 408, 409-411. Macrobius 
lived in the first part of the fifth centnry of our era. The Satomalia were more ancient 
than the city Rome and were celebrated in Greece under the name Kronia. — Macrobius, 
I. vii. 86, 37. 

* Osiris Sahou, our Sinus, consecrated to Osiris and considered by some to be the 
abode of happy soula—Maspero, Hist. Anc. 8d ed. p. 79. The Serpent of the Pole, 
the Serpent of Winter, Ahriman, puts Osiris in the gleaming sarcophagus, the seven 
stars of the Great Bear, and keeps watch over him. This is an approximation to what 
the earlier legend of Light and Darkness must have been. 

* Genesis, viii. 20 ; Noch (Desc^it) built an altar to the Raingod. 

* The annual progress of the stars and succession of the seasons may have origi- 
nated the legend of the Deluge. 

' Landseer, Sabaean Res. 185-187. AuriSn, the Shining. He hunts the She-bear 
(die B&rin), and then is Arkas. Then first, when astronomy had acquired greater com- 
pleteness among the Greeks, they separated Orion into the Dens Solaris and into his 
own constellation. —Nork, IIL 847. This shows Greek indebtedness to the Semites. 


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ManUy Men, Menes and Meneois seem to have been connected 
with the flood. The Vetus Chronicon placed Menes in the first 
year of the canicular period,^ Many will admit what can indeed 
hardly be denied that Manetho made use of a cycle for the 
mjrthical period, and that cycle the dogstar cycle. But if it is 
granted that the prehistoric time has been regarded or ar- 
ranged according to dogstar periods then it must have so 
closed with one ; where now the prehistoric time ceases just 
there the historical begins, and consequently the accord with 
dogstar periods propagated itself in so far as the beginning of 
the last, or the beginning of Menes, was made with the com- 
mencement of a dogstar period. And this explains the first 
15 djmasties of the Runic Cycle in the Old Chronicle (the 16th 
commencing with the Tanis or Menes dynasty) as also the fact 
that Manetho, after his dynasties of supematurals, begins the 
dynasties of kings with Menes.^ 

All things were bom from Eronos and the Assyrian Aph- 
rodite.^ Kronos is 8eb (Saturn). When the ark of Alohim 
got to Aqaron it may have stood in the temple of Kronos at 
Akaron. — See 1 Samuel, v. 10. Ouranos * is the fire-heaven. 
The ancient Eanaanites and Egyptians noticed the stellar fires 
as they shone in a Southern firmament, they beheld the zodi- 
acal light and the comets, incident to the panorama of night, 
as they drew their trains of fire across heaven. They observed 
in this the potency of fire I Somewhere near four thousand 
years ago, or earlier, in a period of considerable civilisation, 

» Seyffarth, ChronoL, 108, 109. 

* 'Both sUttements have only then a reasonable meaning when it is assnmed that a 
dogstar period began with Menes.— Boeokh, 41, 91. The Egyptian priests dated the 
Beginning of the world and of time July 30-22, at the commencement of the dogstar 
period, and it was natnral that priest Manetho should do the same, in accordance with 
the notions jireTailing in the order in regard to dogstar cycleB, the last one of which 
was certainly within calculation. Boeckh says the commencement of the dogstsr 
period does not depend upon a knowledge of a renewal of the period in a.d. 139, but 
could be reckoned any time before from the current movable years. It is of no conse- 
quence whether the dogstar period was openly introduced into Bgypt or already in- 
vented at the time of the Pharaohs, * but we presuppose in Manetho only the theoret- 
ical knowledge of the period.* It is of no consequence to the argument whether 
Manetho knew the great cirde of 25 dogstar periods or not, for Boeckh does not rest 
his proof on this circle. — Boeckh, 91, 92. As to the connection of the Menes-era with 
MCna, Menados, Men, MPnos, etc., see Boeckh, 96, 97. 

* de Iside, 69. Saturn was with Venus Architis first worshipped in Assyria. — Ser- 
▼ias ad Aeneid. i 642 ; Macrob, Sat i. 21. Saturn is the Serpent God (Gory, p. 813) ; 
and therefore an Barth-god. — Nonnus, yi. 155-166. 

* Our Anou. Uro » to bum. Oer means ** great." 


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when the fire-worship existed eversrwhere and superstition 
guided by priests was in full sway, the worship of Dionysus- 
Moloch or Saturn, the devourer of children, prevailed in Syria, 
possibly in Lower Egypt. A Phoenician or Philistian people, 
the Eefa,' bore its flaming altars from Akar5n along the east- 
em shore of the Mediterranean, and following the sun to the 
west, moved into the northern coast of Africa. The land they 
left behind was devoted to the worship of the Sun and Fire, 
and wai^ split into small localities controlled by petty rulers 
and priests. The settlements in the Nile Delta resulted in the 
establishment of a state. Kaphtor or Keft Oer was the child 
of Egypt.^ The Eefa extended themselves as far as what ulti- 
mately became Memphis, and they,^ Fhcenician, Philistine 
and Amalekite Shepherds, fed their flocks in the region where 
the Great Pyramid now stands, bearing upon its blocks the 
name Khufu. Akab, Keb * or Kub (Kouph), died in Decent- 

1 Phcenicia, called Keft by the Phoenioiana, sent Semite colonists to tbe Delta, the 
Isle of Kaphtor.— Prof. A. H. Sayoe, Academy, 1884, p. 851 ; Prof. Jebb, in Encyclo- 
paedia Britannloa, vol. xi p. 90 ; Brugsoh, Egypt, L 222L 

The day that is coming for the spoliation of all the Phelesti, for cutting off from 
Tyre and Sidon every remaining auxiliary ; for la'hoh will waste the Phelesti, the rc- 
ndnnm of the Isle of Kaftor. — Jeremiah, xlvii 4. 

Pbelestii from Kaftor. — Amos, iz. 7. 
Brngsoh, I. 836, reads Keftn (Phcenicians). Keb stands for Seb. — Lepsins, Trans. 
Berlin Akad. 1851, p. 163 ff. 

> Genesis, x. 14. 

> The submission of Upper Egypt to the masters of Memphis was of no recent 
date, but prior to the pyramids. —Chabas, les Ptoteurs en Egypte, p. 6. Chabas, 
Pastears, 10, 11, quotes Busebius, Africanus, and Blanetho. Judges, vi S3, mentions 
a league of the Midianites, Amalekites, and all the Beni Kadm against Israel 

4 Keb, Kepheus, Akbar, Kabir, Konb (comp. KQb in EzekieL, zxx. 5), Kouph, Khnfu. 
The Great Pyramid, according to Manetho, was built by foreigners of the fourth 
dynasty.— Heeren. Res. Africa, 11. 197, 411. Compare the names Akonb (2 Esdras, 
it 45), lakab, Keb, and Kebo, the descending Sun, or Saturn. Kebtu is Coptos.— 
Rawlinson, IL, 139. Kib, a land mentioned in an Assyrian inscription. Asat-em-Kheb 
is a queen*s name. 

Herodotus, II. 137, has almost the tradition in Diodonis, L 64, that Khufu never 
wi^ buried in tbe Great Pyramid, and says that the pyramids of Giseh had attached to 
them in the minds of the people the name of the Shepherd Philition, which points to 
Philistian Kefa. Nothing more mythic can be found than the stories in Herodotus, II. 
ldl-126, that introduce and aooompany his account of the p]rramids. Compare Diod- 
oms, I. 68. Herodotus does not hesitate to let Rhampsinitus (Ramses IIL) precede 

Petrie, p. 216, says that the coffer (sarcophagus) cannot have been put into the 
Oieat Pyramid after the *' King's Chamber ** was finished, as it is nearly an inch wider 
than the beginning of the * ascending passage.' It was put in before the roof of tbe 
pyramid was put on. The kings wore usually buried iu the rock under the pyramid. 
And under the Great Pyramid there is a gallery in the rock. 


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ber.^ Eronos is father of Typhon and Nephthys.* ConBeqnent- 
ly, he went to Hades / ' Kronos is a name of Keb I Movers, 
547, mentions Sabos as one of the names of Dionysus (who is 
the Dionysns Saturn in Hades). 

To explain the name Israel, take the name of Eleasar of 
ICasada, the Jewish patriot, and it has been translated the 
Warrior God, from Asar, or Azar, Mars. Movers, Phonizier, p. 
341, mentions the Phoenician Asar. Mars-Herakles was saluted 
in the rising sun by the Syrians, the Salii, and even by a 
Boman legion, in the month of March. He was called Adar, 
Azar, and Asar. Movers gives the Hebrew letters of Asar ; 
De Boug^, the hieroglyphs. De Boug^, Becherches, p. 46, 
reads the hieroglyphs of Osiris ''Asiri." The names Asar 
(Beni Asr. — Joshua, xix. 24, 28) and Sara (Tyre) show Osiris 
to be a Syrian name. The Bible (1 Sam xiii. 5 ; xxix. 2) says 
that the Philistians had a great army. Phoenician Shepherds 
entered Egypt.^ Josephus quotes Manetho as saying that sos 
meant shepherd and shepherds in the common dialect * of 
Egypt. The Sasu (Shasu) carried bows, and the Shemalites or 
Ishmaelites were capital archers.-— Genesis, xxi. 20. When the 
Syrians,* Kharu,^ or Peleti (Philistians) first emigrated into 
Egypt from the Biver Soreq or the five cities of the Saranim 
(their governors) they carried with them Phoenician and Kan- 
anite usages; the Asari dwelt in the midst of the Eanani 
(Judges, i. 31, 32) for Asar (Osiris) was already in Phoenicia 

1 de Iside, 83, 69. 

* de Idde, 12; and Rev. zx. 1-3. 

* de Iside. 17. 33, 44, 57. Kronos (Satarn Keb) eoming into the eonntry of the 
Sonth g&Te all Egypt to the Phoenician God Taant—Philo^s Sanchoniathon ed. Orelli, 
pp. 38, 39. Israel is a Phoenician name of Kronos. —ibid. p. 42. Israel is also Gabor, 
Akab, lakab, as God of Time. 

* Manetho, according to Jalios Africanns. 

* Jos. contra Apion, I. p. 1040. Abbaros (ibid. I. 1046) was the name of a High- 
priest, consequently, Abar, Bar, the shining, and Abaris (the city) are names of Bel. 

* The tribe of Aser bordered on Sarra (the city Tyre). The Assyrian Assnr was a 
Great King above all €k>d8. — Sayoe, Hib. Lect. 122. Hence Aser, Ousir, Asar, Iriris, 
Asariel and Israel (Sarah included) are all forms (like Esmnn-Acar) of one name Asar 
(Azar, Mart) and Serach. The well of AsanL~2 Sam. iii 96. Asnr, Gen. x. 11. 
Joshua, xviL 2, has the Beni Asriel, and Judges, i 82, the Asarites. Saria.— 2 Sam. 
riiL 17. Compare Zaroh (i.e. Saroh).— Jndges, xiii. 2 ; like Sarra and Zur, names of 

' Kham (Akham), from AkarSn (Ekron) in Philistia on the R. Sorek. I6ab*s 
troops were Kharu and Philistian Peleti.— 2 Sam. xx. 7. It is to be remarked here that 
the name Seba or Sera (xx. 6) suggests the Egyptian theological name Seb, or Sev ; and 
that Bikheri is identical with the Egyptian name Bikheres. 


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and Israel, and the name Isarel is evidently one with Azara, 
Sar-Azar, Asar (Asor. — Josephos, Ant. xiii. 57), Asariel, Isiris, 
Isiri, Asar (1 Chron. vi. 62, Asir (1 Chron. vi. 37), Asiri (a 
name of Osiris), — ^De Rouge, Becherches, p. 49. Baethgen 
(Beitrage zur Semit. Bel. p. 39; Corpus Inscrip. Semit. I.) 
has the words Mlkasr (Melk-Asar) and Mlkastrt (Melkastarta) 
compounds of Asar (Osiris) and Astarte with Moloch (Saturn, 
Set), Milichus. Compare Melkitan and Melkatan ( — Baethgen, 
39) and Tonach (Taanach in Israel) : 

The Meleki fought in Kanan, in Tanak. — Judges, y. 19. 

The Phoenician Shepherds were originally the same sort of 
people perhaps as the Osirians of the Delta, unless where 
the Shasu (the Shepherd Sos) may have imported a different 
element into the Delta or the primitive Berber stock have 
altered the Semite blood of the invaders. In Amathus and in 
Byblos Adonis-Osiris was worshipped. — Baethgen, 43 ; Movers, 
235. Azara is the name of the Persian sanctuary of Artemis. — 
Movers, 341. 

The name Siwa is found applied to the Oasis of Ammon. 
Compare Zio, meaning fulgor (light) in the Codex Nasaraeus, 
Abel Ziua^ (the Great Messenger of Light in the same work), 
and the Greek Zeus, the Spartan Sios (Ziua), or Jupiter Ammon, 
whose temple was in the Oasis aforesaid. The tradition says 
that the Phoenicians came from the Bed Sea. Keb is Saturn. 
Kepheus is Son of Agenor, who is the Phoenician Supreme 
Baal.^ Agenor, father of Phoenix was called Khna, who changed 
his name to Phoinix, according to Philo of Byblos.* 


ThiB Pepi comes upon the seat of Osiris. . . . O Pepi, he, who has given 
thee all life, all force and the eternity, is Ra, as well as thy speech and thy 
body, and thou hast taken the forms of God and dost become * grand grace * 
in the presence of the Gods that reside in the Lake. O Pepi, since thy soul is 

> Abel, the name of a place.— 2 Sam. xx 14, 15. At Abel the Groat, they seem to 
have inqoired of an OTaole.~3 Sam. xx. 18. 

< Sayoe, Herod. L 416 ; Moyers, XL 129-189, 2ia 

s Sayoe, Herod. 2 ; Eaaebius, pnep. ev. i. 10. Kings reigned in Idomea (Aduma) 
before there were any kings over the Beni Isarel (Israel). One was called Aloa, an- 
other, Abfc.— Gen. xxxvi. 81, 40, 41. King Alah.— 2 Kings, xriii. 9. Now, the God El 
of these early religionistB mnit have been the snn (Eli, Elios). We find the Beni Adan 
(Adonis-worsbippers) in 3 Kings, xix. 12. 


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amoxig the Oods, among the Laminons, thj few acts npon their hearts. . . . 
it 18 the magio power of thy book which acta on their hearta, thy name lives on 
earth, thy name endures old upon earth, thou art not destroyed, thou art not 
annihilated forever. — Maspero, Becueil, IM, 161. 

Thou whom Ba has reoeiyed by the hand and whose head the double ' Nine 
Days' of the Gods has lifted, behold he comes to thee as Orion, lo Osiris comes to 
ihee as Orion, master of wine at the time of the good festival Ouaga, him of 
whom his mother has said * be flesh/ him of whom his father has said ' be con- 
ceived in heaven, be delivered in the abyss t ' and who has been conceived 
in heaven with Orion, born in the abyss with Orion. Who lives lives by 
the order of the Gods, thou ' then dost live and thou goest out with Orion • 
from the eastern heaven, thou goest down with Orion from the western heaven 
and Sotbis is the third with ye, She of whom the abodes are pure, and She it is 
who conducts you to the excellent ways of heaven in the Fields of Ailou. — Mas- 
pero, Becueil de Travauz, 172, 178. 


Bejuvenate all his members that he may reach the horison with his father the 

son, that his soul may rise to heaven in the disk of the moon ; that his 

body may shine in the stars of Orion, on the bosom of Nut. — Book of Bespira- 


When this Pepi has sailed towards (the horixon) he keeps himself in the 

eastern part of the heaven,* in his northern part, . . .—Pyramid of Pepi L 

Sin the Moon-god, father of Istar, navigating in the bark. — Lenormant, les 
engines, I. 120. Istar, daughter of the Moon-god Sin (—Trans. Soc. Biblical 
ArchaeoL H. ISO). 

For this god Lunns * is the brother of this Pepi. 
The birth of this Pepi * iS the Morning Star.— Pyramid Pepi L 
I will give to him the Morning Star.''— Apokalypse, ii. 2& 

* Pepi of the 6th dynasty. 

s Orion is the oot&a of Osiris, — ^the coffin of Mithra bom Dea 25th. Orion is Da- 
mooxi, Adonia— Lenormant, Origines de I'histoire, 1 247, 2nd ed. Orion is the star of 
Horufl.— de Inde, 21. The hunter Orion is Nimrod.— Nork, Besl-Wttrterb. IH 278; 
Odyssey, zL 572 ; see Job, 12; ix. 9. Sabians joined the worship of the 7 planets to 
the adoration of the 7 stars of the Great Bear. — Lenormant, II. 123. 

* Bawlinson, Eg. L 867. 

* He rose from darkness into light among the stars. Compare 2 Kings, xxi. 5 ; 
xxiil. 5 ; G. Masp^ro, Beoneil de Travanx, V. p. 26. The three Magian kings are in 
Orion.— Mankind, p 475. 

* le Dien Lnne. Maspero, V. 178. 

* The name Babai oocnrs 2 BMlras, u. 11 ; and Babi, 2 Esdras, vilL 11. Comp. 
Bifal of the 3d Eg]rptian dynasty and Apepi of the 15th The serpent Apap personifies 
Darkness.— Lenormant, L 104. According to Bmgsch, I 115, Hor was honored as *• the 
holy morning star that rose to the west of the land of Punt ^ in Africa. 

"* According to Massey, II. 58, Seb acquired his starry soul as Jupiter, €k)d of the 
mid-region, a morning and evening star. The Egyptian Seb is a god of earth and the 
heaven of day, who declines when Shn uplifts the heaven of night.— Massey, L 522 ; 
quotes Pierret, Pantheon Egyptien, p. 22, plate. 


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Pho^cian religion was typically Semitic, says Mr. A. H. 
Sayce. It centred in the worship of the Sun-god, adored now 
as the beneficent giver of light and life, now as the stem god of 
fire and summer heat, who must be appeased by human sacri- 
fice.^ Each aspect of the Sun-god had its own name and be- 
came a separate divinity. The baneful and beneficent aspects 
of the Sun-god were united in Baal-l^elkarth, the Gk>d and 
King of Tyre.* The various transformations of the Divinity 
and His incomprehensibleness, unity, infinity were as well 
known to the Egyptians as to the Jews.^ 

For the Maker is in all things.— Hermes Trismegistus, XL 0. 

Baal-Agenor, the supreme Baal of Phoenicia,^ is one of the 
Bels ; and, consequently, one of the divine transformations of 
Ea and Set. As Set (Seth) is only one of the transformations 
of Thoth or Tet the Moon-god, and is God of heaven and hell 
he seems to correspond to these three roles of the Egyptian 
Tet, the Phoenician Tat, Taaut. Seth is Bel, and apparently 
had as much title to the crescent and disk as Thoth who 
never leaves Osiris not even in Hades, and is the associate of 
Isis. The emperor Julian secretly supplicated Hermes, who 
was the swifter Intelligence of the world, exciting the move- 
ment of minds.* Bel philosophos is God of letters, as Seth is 
God of astronomy. The entire orient appears to have wor- 
shipped the Saviour Hermes • before our era, under the differ- 
ent names Sadi, Set, Adad, Tat, Thoth, etc., and as Mana 
Shemir the divine Wisdom in the sim and moon. Julian of- 
fered sacrifices to the Moon, who was religiously worshipped 

> Compare the Egyptian Set as Evil Principle, God of darkness, and Death-god. 

s Sayoe, fierod. L 414-416. 

« See Chabas, papyr. mag. 62, 70 f . 

« Sayce, L 415. Saturn is the PhoBnician El. —Movers, PhOnizier, 186. Saturn 
was regarded as an Old King.— Movers, 130, 153; OreUi, Sanchon, 42. So was the 
Phrygian Masses. 

» Ammian, b. xvi ch. v. For Sol is the Mind of the world, pouring forth our 
minds out of himself like sparks.— Ammian, xxi. 1. Hermes is Sol, according to Ma- 
crobius, and Zadus. Hermes was worshipped by the Arab tribe Asad. 

• Sada, and Sadi The word Ramestes on Hermapion*8 obelisk at Rome would 
seem to have contained in itself the words Ramas (Hermes) and Set Stnah, Gen 
xxvi. 21, certainly resembles the name of a Shepherd king Staan. Putting in the 
vowel e, or a, which was not usually written, we have the word Satanah, as Set^s well 
was named. Set is written Sit, in Egyptian occasionally. 


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afc Carrbae,^ the Biblical Charan ' (Haran). Swine were offered 
at one festival to Osiris and the full moon.' Osiris was the 
Gkxl of On in Egypt.* Bacchus * was the Son of Luna.^ Osiris 
is tlie lunar world, the order of nature in the moon.^ Hermes 
was the Lunar Angel ; the name Asad means " lion/' and the 
Arab tribe Asad worshipped Mercury.^ The power of Osiris 
was in the moon.* The same is the case with the Adonis, who 
was the moon's horn and had his Adonis-gardens where they 
ate x>ork.^ The Phoenician Onka was Moongoddess in so far 
as she was regarded as the Sunlight proceeding from the Sun- 
god and given over to the Moon, who pours it out upon the 
sublunar world." The Egyptian religion knows this view. 
The Moon sucks up the light and the powers of the sun,^ im- 
parts them to the world beneath Her, and therefore passed for 
male-female, since She receives and brings forth." Therefore 
Adonis was Lunus, when, like Osiris, he was conjoined with 
luna. Hence the Orphic Athena was Hermes- Athena, and her 
priestess wore a beard. The Asiatic author of the Hiad fully 
understood Her masculine character. 

When God created the primal Adam, he created him of two genders. — 
Beresith Rab. c. 8. 

When God created the primal Adam he created him with two faoes. — Bere- 
sith Rabba. c. a 

hflpiyvvpp yi^> tw rirt f^9 f''.— Plato, Sjrmpodom, ISO E. 

For the nnit (or nnitj) indeed was androgjne then. 

In a notice of the Egyptian Book of the Dead" it is stated 
that a majority of the chapters are of Heliopolitan " origin, the 

1 Ammian, zxiiL ohap. iii 1, 2L 
« Gen. xi. 82 ; xii 4. 
s Herodotai, U. 47, 4a 

* Jo& contra Apion, I. p. 1064. 

• Cioero, N. D. iii 28. 
' de Iside, 41, 43. 

• Riohardflon'i Persian Arabic Dic«. p. 492. Zadns is Sadns. Henoe Sadi, or Seth- 

* de Iside, 48. Osiris represents the Moon.~Lanih, L 45, 4a lacab comes to 
Lsban (Dens Lnnns). — Gen. xxriii 5. 

»• iKuah, Ixvi 17. 
" Deateron. zxxiii. 14. 

•• proceeding from the snn. Dent, xzziil 14. The English version is wrong here. 
»« Movers, Phttnizer, 64a 

" Das Aegyptische Todtenbnch der xviii bis xx. DynasUe ron Edonard Naville. 
The '•Academy," Sept. 10, 1887, p. 172. 
>« at On (Ann) in the eastern Delta. 

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next largest number being due to Hermopolis. One chapter 
only — the ITlst — can with certainty be attributed to Thebes ; 
and this chapter is found but in two documents, namely, the 
Brocklehurst papyrus No. 2, and the twenty-first Boulak 
papyrus. This is the only chapter in the whole Book of the 
Dead which mentions the name of either Thebes or Amen, 
whence M. Naville concludes that it is a Theban interpolation 
and consequently of more recent date than the rest. If the 
God of Thebes and his temples are passed over in silence it is, 
therefore, undoubtedly because the composition of the book 
dated back to an epoch anterior to the worship of Amen. 

Osiris is described as descended, like Herakles and Horus, 
to the place of the departed and his mummy exhibited there. 
But, like the Adon, Darkness could not control the Lord of 
Light, and he rises from the dead. The Hebrew scribe, that 
wrote Moses, comes as near this as he well could in Gen. xxxii. 
28 ; for he parodies the word Asarel (Herakles the Mighty) by 
two Hebrew words, sara El = Israel (God = El ; isara = will 
prevail). Now as the Temple of the Great Pyramid was in the 
cemetery why may not both that and the King's Chamber in the 
pyramid have been useful in the annual ceremony of the death 
of Osiris ! Something of the kind went on to the Tamuz in 
the crypts of the Jerusalem Temple. — ^Ezechiel, viii. 

The Egyptian religion, said Emmanuel de Roug^, compre- 
hends a quantity of local cults. One idea prevails in it, that 
of a God One and primordial.^ There is always and every- 
where one substance that exists by itself and an inaccessible 
God. Chabas considers that he was regarded as the only God 
existing before all things, representing the pure and abstract 
idea of the Divinity, of whom the innumerable Gods of Egypt 
were the attributes or aspects of this " type unique." For the 
enlightened adorer, 'but the names and forms of one same 
Being,' says Maspero. Polytheist in appearance it was essen- 
tially monotheist, says Pierret.* El, Bel, more complete, Beli- 
tan, the Old Bel, whom the Greeks name Kronos, the Bomans 
Saturn (and indeed the planet of this name) claims in Semit- 

I The sacrod pond recalls the dogma of the hamid principle of the origin of the 
world.~P. Gkner, La Mort et le Diable, p. 61 ; Lenormant. Esaai de oommentaire de» 
fragments oosmog. de Berose, p. 222. The circle of waters shut in by the horison seems 
to have suggested the image of a dronlar pond. 

* Reyne Egyptologiqae, IL 46. Iahoh*8 symbol is deroaring fire.— MoTen, 819* 
Deut iv. 21 

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ism before all Gbds the first rank.^ The Hebrew Gkxl is the 
same as the Highest God of all Semites ; for all branches of 
one great family of peoples worship originally, according to 
all historical analogy, one and the same Deity as Highest 
Being. In the oldest historical book of the Hebrews, how- 
ever, he is, as El,' but one Only Ck>d and El has this same 
meaning among all the other Semites. The Babylonian and 
Phoenician El is exactly like the Patriarchal El ; and the El 
that has become the Planet Saturn necessarily belongs to a later 
period. In this second period the idea of the Most High Being 
is joined to the Highest Star which circles round' all the 
Star-courses and in his sphere is enthroned as the Highest 
Being of Light,* according to a probably older view.' It seems 
rather that the Old Bel, Belitan, must have originally been 
the Sun-god of the Semites, for, in the priestly doctrine, 
he was held to be Sol and Saturn also.^ lahoh and Saturn 
change places in the Flood story. lahoh was held to be 
Saturn.' His day is Saturn-day, Saturday. The Arabian 
Dionysus-Iao is lahoh. The Arabs adored Dionysus-Moloch- 
lahoh, who is Abel, Bal, Bel. Bel is both Saturn and Sun 
(Movers, 1. 185). Hence the prophets of Bal contended with 
those of lahoh.— (1 Kings, xviii. 24; Movers, 319.) Merely a 
difference of party and name. Movers, I. 259, gives us Baal- 
Herakles as Son of Saturn. Baal-Saturn was the highest deity. 
— ^Movers, 319. Herakles is Bel Saturn.— Movers, 415 ff. 

Menephthah attacked the same nations over whom the 
Thothmes and Amenophis had established (?) their dominion. 
One of the sculptures at Kamak represents Horus engaged in 
warfare with the Shasu of Kanana. He pursues them towards 
a " fortress of the land of Kanana,'* as the inscription on the 
fortress-front states. Again he attacks the Bemanen or Ra- 

> Hoven, I. 254, 816. The idol of SAtnm is mentioned in MoTert , I 390, 296. Sat- 
urn it El —lahoh.— See MoTera, 254, 299. 

« Compare Gen. xiv. 20, 22 ; rrii. 1 ; xxxr. 11 ; xlviii 8 ; Ezodos, vi a 
s Umbeiaet 

* Liohtwesen ; Orb of Light. 

» Movers, 816. The way El came to be regarded as the Planet Satom Movers at- 
tributes to the Chaldean astrologers at a later period ; he holds that this was not a view 
of great importance generally held in antiquity, and that the Planetary El was not at 
home in Syria and Phoenicia ; stating that the Phoenician Religion had no astrological 
baids. Bat 2 Kings, zxiil 5, 12, shows the worship of the planets in Jerosalem. 

• Compare Movers, L 185, 186. 
» ibid. 293, 294, 297, 299. 



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moth, Butenn^ or Lotanu. Their physiognomy, dress and 
armor are very different from those of the Bhos; they have 
less pointed features, their heads covered with a cap which de- 
scends to protect the back of the neck and is fastened by a 
band, while they wear long garments,' with a girdle at the 
waist and a deep cape over the shoulders. The conqueror leads 
his prisoners in triumph.^ The whole scene is bordered by 
the Nile, marked by the crocodiles with which it is filled. The 
date of the first year of Menephthah is repeated in the hiero- 
glyphics at this place ; a presumption that the scene of the 
events could not be very remote from the Egyptian frontiers. 
The whole finishes with the presentation of the prisoners 
(Lutennu) of the land of Luden (Ludia, Lud, in Arabian. — Eze- 
kiel, XXX. 5) to the Theban triad of Gods, Amen Ba, Maut and 
Chons. In the next scene the king attacks a fortress which 
has been read Otsch or Atet (Eadesh),^ situated in the land of 
Amar or Omar (the Amorite). The people who have been de- 
fending it resemble in features the 8hos,^ in costume the Be- 
manen. TaTien or Token is their name, the Tahai mentioned 
in the Statistical Tablet at Kamak, and who are declared to 
belong to the Botenu or Ludenu.* The Tahai of Tahath are 
mentioned in Numbers, xxxiii. 26, 27. 

The Shdo or Shetin are the subject of another of the great 
historical pictures of the wars of Menephthah^ with the Syrians 
and Arabs. The land of Sana® is Asau (Esau) in Mt. Seir, and 
Oherubu is Mt. Choreb ; Bamses 11. was advancing on Satuma 

I Aradeno. R and L are the nme letton in Egyptian. T lepresente d. Although 
Haapero, a'M, reads the 'hand* D. 

<Like the Syrians, Jews, and Peleti or Philistiana. 

> In a similar way the captive Shos are led in triumph and three of their heads are 
fixed on the back of the royal chariot 

< Birch in Roy. Soc. Lit. 2nd Series, yol 3, p. 885. Chabas reads the 1st hieroglyph 
Kt.— Chabas, papyms magiqne, p. 8, Tableau phonetique L The words Ati and 
Atesh mnst therefore be read Katti and Kadesh. They are names belonging from Che- 
bron to Arad and Kadesh in Negeb (the Sonth). Ramses here met the S5aim and 
Amou and the Chorim in their Mt Seir as far as the plain of Pharan by the desert— 
€Jen. xiv. 5, 6. . 

• StSsim. SCsn, Zoodm (?), Shasn. 

•Kenrick, vol 2, p. 21ft 

»ibid. 219. 

•Birch, Statist Tablet, p. 21. Sanah and SauS.— Gen. ziv. 5, 17. Mr. Birch has 
read Ato, Atet, and Atesh, where, according to Chabas, Khati, Ehatet, and Khadeeh 
should have been written. Kt — kat— Chabas, Pap. mag. 8; — k.— Lanth, Aegypt 
Chronology, p. 68. 

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(Sodom) in the land Atuma or Edom. It is not likely that a 
powerful warrior, at the head of, saj, a few thousand men or 
so, should get beyond the fenced cities of Palestine. He would 
have left all Arabia in his rear, to ruin him. 

Then went Amalak and f ought with Isarel ^ in Raphidim.— Ezodos, xrii 8. 
And Thaiman brought forth Amalek.— Genesis, xzzTi. 12. 

The great necessity for an army moving from the Nile to Pal- 
estine has always been a supply of water, for marching in a 
hot ' country without water is an impossibility. Ramses II., 
so far as is known, never took Ehebron nor lebus, but was 
felt at Makkeda, Libnah, Lachish, in the river district, and 
along the sea-shore ; and his shields were inscribed on the 
rocks just above Akka. There were some strong cities to be 
captured by the seaside ; but, if he could dispose of these, 
the shore route would seem to have been the most likely one 
by all odds for him to have taken. In the first place he would 
be relieved of the harassing attacks of the Bedouins, he would 
avoid the woods of the Bemanen, the Kheta king, although 
sometimes beaten, vxis never entirely syhdued, the Besor and 
Sorek (the Nahrena, the river country) would have supplied 
his troops with water, the cultivated farms of the Kananites 
could have provided them with food ; and, above all, his car- 
touches (in spite of modem misconceptions in taking Hittite 
(Chatti) columns for those of Bamses II.) have never been 
found north of the Nahr el Kelb. Consequently all that has 
been said about his exploits along the Orontes, at Aradus out 
at sea, at Hamath, in Asia Minor, Armenia, or on the Eu- 
phrates at Karchemish has the aspect of modem mistake or 
ori^ital exaggeration. If it was possible for Bamses II. to 
mark his conquests by columns and inscriptions we should 
have found some of his cartouches far north of Acre. It is a 
question if the successes of Seti I. on the coast would have 
encouraged an Egyptian army to force the threatening defiles 
of the snow white Lebanon. As long as the army followed 
the sea-coast it was supported by a fleet. In Zedekiah's time, 
too, Apries took Oaza and Sidon, following the sea-coast. 
The Karukamasa were in thelshmaelite country near enough 

* Compare Seir and Oseiris with Isarel, Israel, Asara. 

s iqadatha — bnmiog. Nara iqadatha ^ fire burning. — Daniel, iii 20. Akliad 
means one, and the son. qd, to bam. Kades, qades.— Numb, xiii 26. 


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to attack Eladesh. There is a Eadesh to the south of Jndea (in 
the Negeb) within the reach of an Egyptian army. Ezekiel 
xlviii. 28, speaks of ' the waters ^ of strife at Kadesh.' There is 
an Arad near to it, there was a Khaleb (Caleb's land) lying 
south and southwest of Hebron (Khebron). Now these are, 
with the exception of a word read by the younger De Bouge 
as Anrata and Aranta (and an unlucky phrase pi-ta-Sa = the 
land of Sa or Esau) about all with which to settle the line of 
march of Bamses 11. ; for, as he did not cut his cartouche at all 
on the Nahr el Kelb but on a rock projecting into the sea it is 
not necessary to prove an alibi for Bamses II. His fleet may 
have reached the spot, or the cartouche may have been cut in 
some other way. The line of march of an Egyptian army not 
closely following the sea-shore would have carried it to Beer 
Saba or Sabatun, next after that to Kadesh, next to Arad, then 
north to Caleb's land in front of Hebron. Sankara can perhaps 
be identified with Asan or Kar. Kerek and the Massa seem 
to be all that is left of Kamkamasha, Nahren means the river 
region from the vale of Gerar across the Besor and Sorek, fol- 
lowing the latter to its head waters, to Libnah and Lachish. 
The probability is that, when Bamses II. reached the two last 
named cities, he began to think of the Ishmaelite archers in his 
rear and the mountains covered with snow in plain sight, and 
the Eheta king's army behind him, or on his flank. The Ara- 
bian tribes could have reached him on camels and their Arab 
steeds, and their archers were to be dreaded. For these reasons, 
the Southern Kadesh would seem to have been the scene of 
strife between the Eheta king of Khebron (Hebron), the Arad 
mentioned to have not been the island of the Mediterranean 
far to the north, the Khalibu not to have been Aleppo but 
Caleb's land, the Aranta not the Orontes but some Araneii near 
the Amon, or further south, which cannot now be placed, Sab- 
atun to have been one of the two places of similar name not 
far from the Eadesh in the South, and Nahren not to be the 
Nahraina of Mesopotamia, but the less noted " river land '* in 
the rear of the Gerar district, whose ports were Gtiza and Asca- 
lou. "When in the face of oriental exaggeration we have to 
choose between two positions, one in which an army is essenti- 

1 The mouniains of Edom, in the time of Bftmset H, may have afforded a supply 
of water for the protection of Kadeah in the Negeb. Fonr feet of snow at Jemaalem 
fell within a few yeart. 


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ally cut off from its base, and another which leaves the same 
army with its commtmications practically preserved or suffi- 
ciently near home to get back somehow, it is safer to decide for 
the latter. It is not to be supposed that Kamses II. would 
march northwards ' leaving in his rear the Arkite (Beka), the 
Khatti (Heth, Hittites), Amorites, Kadesh, the Asenite, Arad, 
the Arouka, Caleb, Hebron, lebus (former Jerusalem), Philistia, 
Israel, Gkdilee, the forts near Lake Gtenesareth, besides Beirut, 
Tyre and Sidon ; the Aranta or Narata, which the Egyptian 
letters seem to read, may be perhaps explained by Arinath, 
Arinata, Bhinocolura, which Bamses IL left far in his rear be- 
fore he approached Sabatun (Sebat) and the Southern Kadesh^ 
or by the river Aran (the Amon) in Moab east of the middle of 
the Dead Sea. This could be reached from the ^inaite Penin- 
sula, where Phoenicians, at all events Egyptians, are said to 
have worked copx)er mines. 

Mr. Birch and other distinguished Egyptologists have for 
many years maintained in print that Thothmes m., Seti I., 
and Bamses II. marched to the Euphrates. They took ' Bema- 
nen ' to mean Armenia, whereas Bam means ' high,' and Bama- 
nen " Highlanders," or people living around the Highplaces. 
The Buten or Botennu (Lotan or Aradenu) they never dreamed 
of deriving from Arad in the extreme south of the tribe of Ju- 
dah or from Lotan. The name of Caleb, when it was chiselled 
into the stones of Kamak they read Aleppo, and the Tahai 
(or Tachai) down in the Desert they mistook for the Dahae 
*in the sides of the North' in defiance of the Book of Num- 
bers, xxxiii. 27. Earukamasha (Karekamasha), notwithstand- 
ing that the names Earek, Massah, Eharu and Ehoreb might 
have given them a hint, they persisted in reading Earchemish, 
Senker (Saengara, Sankara) they fancied to be Shinar (Senar), 
and the word Nahren which means the * river district ' of the 
streams Besor and Sorek, a little east of Askalon, they decided the Mesopotamian Nahraina. The Egyptologists still 
up to a recent period held these opinions. In the following 
table we will set forth some of the coincidences of names, in 

> Egypt attacked Khaikamtui (Carohemish) on the Euphrates in the aerenth century 
B.C.— BKlraa, A.i 28-25. Bat that waa over 4 or 6 centuries later. As to Sankara, 
we have the towna Aaan and Kar ; and Aaan was probably in the land of the Philistian 
Kara, a people frequently named by the Egyptians Akaron (Accaron, E3non) may 
hare supplied the Bgjrptians with the name Kara. 

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this regard, which we have arrived at, and will suggest some- 
times different localities for the reader to select from. 

Egyptian, Hebrew, 

Rnten (Luten, Lutenna), Botennn 

(Palmer, I. 225) Arad ' or Lud in Arabia. Lot, Lotan. 

Chalibu The Caleb district. 

^, , [ Ghebers of Kbebron, Hebron. 

Kheburn ) 

Upper Roten \ ^**"- Mountaineers of the Dead Sea, 

( the Bahr Lut 

Tanep Adana, Danah, or Idna. 

Kharu Akaron, Ekron, to Mt. Khoreb. 

Kheta, Khito Hebronite Khatti, Katti. 

Zahi Azah.— Jer. xxv. 20. Gaza. 

Askaluna Askalon. 

Wawa Oa di Gaza. Anim. 

Sabatun Seba, Sebat ; or Beer-Sheba. 

r Adar (Joeh. xv. 21). Eter, Ether. 
Tar, or Tara -| Ataroth.— Numb, xxxil 84. 

I Atarim.— Numb. xxi. 1-3. 
Narata(See t)m city Aruana. — Records 

of the past, II. p. 27, line 87) . . Anar, Aner ; Narata. 
Kesh Kesh (See 1 Samuel, xxrii. 8 ; j Geshur.— Joshua, xiil 2. Geir. Gez- 

1 Kings, ix. 16) I rites. Mt. Kasius f 

Kates (Kades) Kadesh. 

Karkisa Kirherez . . vel Charakmoba. 

TKiriath Sanah (Debir). Beth Kar. 
8w>kara« i See Asan in the land of the Kar u. 

^ — Joshua, xix. 7. 

* Joshua, xiL 14. Arad 20 miles from Khebron (Hebron, the Khebum) in the 
vicinity of the desert of Kades.— See Nambors, xxi 1-3. Edward Hull, Mt Sehr, p. 
60, 206, finds Jebel Aradeh in southeastern Sinai near the northwestern part of the 
Gulf of Akaba, and southwest from Azin Gabar (Ezion Geber). The name Arad is in 
I Chronicles, viit 15. 

Lud ; Ludia was a town of Arabia Petrae. — Ezekiel, xxx. 5; Jenris, Genesis, 866. 
LOd, a city, and its villages are mentioned. 1 Ghron. viii 13. Septuagint. AMtdv. 
—ibid, i 88. 

3 We find Asan.— 1 Ghronioles, iv. 82 ; vi. 59. Asan and Beth Kar in Joshua, xv. 
42, 48 ; 1 Sam., vii. 11. San.— 1 Sam., vu. 12. 

In the * Nahrena^ of the rivers Besor and Sorek Joshua, xv. has Asanab, Sannanah ; 
and a little further to the east Kiriath-Sanah (otherwise called Debir l^l) not remote 
from the district of Hebron, on the way to it, for an Egyptian force. Jowhna, xv. o8, 

42, 43, mentions three cities named Asan (Ashan) while Jenks's Maps, iv. vi. pp. 83, 

43, mention an Ashan (Asan or Ashanah) and Beth Kar in the same Nahren district 
near the River Besor, and a Kerioth (Joshua, xv. 25) near the Desert of San (or Sin) a 
little west of it, between Beer Saba and Karkaa. Just west of Jerusalem is San, or 


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Egypiian, Eebrnt. 

Aktfith Kerioth, in the Negeb. 

Aapa lopa. Joppa. 

Harinoola Rhinooolur*. 

( Maasah i (1 Chron. 1. 80 and 1 Chron. 
Masah -J ix. 42, Septuaglnt). Wet»Uln, p. 

t 88. 

f The people near the River Kerakl.— 

K«.k«n-h. -I ^':i*r°°^'TiV ■•'?!"'"• 

xlyii. 19. We find Kerekha in 
Cham.— Gen. xiv. 5. 

Pelasta, PnlisU Peleti, PhilitU, PhilisUans. 

Arbena Arohites. 

Katuata KatUth.—Joshua, xix. 15. 

Charebu Khareb, Choreb • Horeb. 

. ^ . . ( Arinath in Phllistia ; or Auran bejond 

Arauata, Anrata ^ ,, ^ ' ,^. 

' Jordan. Or see Ranath ? 

Amana (Araana.— Reoorda of the Past, j Rana, in lat. 81" 40'. 

IL p. 27. line 87) i Ranath. 

Tarteni Atarath; Atarateni ? 

Haaan (1 Sam. rlL 13), not tmr sooth of Mispbah. 1 Chionioles, it. 40-48, states that 
in the Old Time people from Kham formerly lived there ! So Joshius xv. 47 ; Gen. x. 
14, *M. Kow the E^tologists report this inscription : 

Then His Majesty oame to the city (?) of Nina (Khanani) on his return. The H. 
M. set np his tablet in Nahrena to enlarge the frontiers of Kami (Egypt). 

Of course the Egyptians lived at Asan Beth Kar as early as Ramaes IL, and again 
in the time of the earliest Ptolemys. 1 Chronicles, !▼. 40 agrees with the erection 
in Canaan of his Egyptian Ma)esty*s taUet. 

1 Deuteroa ix. 23 ; see Oolenischeff in Zeitsohr. f &r Igypt Sprache, 1882, p. 140. 
Tafel VL No. 270 ; Dunkp, SOd, I. 202, 294 ; Wetsstein, p. 88. The Maasam.— 1 Chron. 
L 25. Sept. 

* Justin Martyr, ppi 88, 70. Ezodos, xril 7, locates Masah towards Choreb (Ho- 
reb). Gen. xxxrii. 25, 28, 86, identifies the Midianites with the Ishmaelites ; and thus 
we haye Masah, Midian, the River Kerahy (Kerach) all near the Ghdr. The Wady 
Kerahy runs from the Ghdr eastward. The names Kerahy or Karak and Masa (joined 
together) would form the name Karokamasha. as applied to the Massah who lived on the 
B. Kerahy. (Genesis, xxxvL 16, puts Duke Qarech among the Beni Elsau in the land of 
the Amu (the mixed peoples of Arabia). SoarA is mentioned with Midian in Arabia. 
— (Sen. XXV. 2. SauS was by the Dead Sea. S0a— Gren. xiv. 17. Asah is the Isis or 
Uesta of Sa. An inscription of Ramses IIL says : * I made destruction of the Sa'ar 
of the tribes of the Shasu ; * where Sa^ar would correspond with the Hebrew Seir and 
the Shasu with the Bedawin of Aduma.— R F. Burton, Grold Mines of Midian, p 178. 
Bxodus, XV. 15, mentions the Dukes of Edom (Esaou), the mighty of Moab and the 
Kanani (Phoenicians) together. 

The position of Kerak was towards the Dead Sea, east of it. —Hull, Ml Seir, 111, 
116, 12a Wetsstein puts Massah to the east of it—Wetsstein, 88. Dr. Robinson 
pkoes Kerak east of the Dead Sea. The Keraku were then alongside the Zuzim in 
Chaman (the Zuz and Sos), the Aimim, and EUau (Sa, Sau6). Here is no question of 
Ghurgamis (Carchemish). Pharaoh Nakn did not reach the Euphrates until &0. 608, 
nearly eight centuries after the time of Ramses the Great— 2 Chron. xxxv. 20. 


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BgypUan. Bebrew. 

Pidasa (pi-U Sa) Sa, 80, Saue, Soach.— GenesiB, xxv. 2. 

Tachennu Tachen.— 1 Chronicles, iv. 82. 

Sharhana Sharachen. 

r perhaps el Kara ? East of Askalon ? 
Sankara J in the watered district of the 

I Nahrena. Beth Kar ! 

rParasim.— tJen. xv. 20. The Peri- 
^^'^"^ S aites ? ** How hast thou broken 

^ forth " in war. 

Kadi, Katti Kheta, Khatti, 'Heth. 

San.— 1 Sam. vii. 12-14 This was a 

Sankara (This name seems to corre- 
spond to the two names San and 

town of the Kara in Philistia; 
and was not in Babylonia, as 
some have supposed. 

One day that Bamses II. had advanced a little to the south 
of Sabatun,^ two Shasu ' came to tell him " Our brethren who 
' are the chiefs of the tribes joined together with the poor 
chief of Kheta sent us to tell his Majesty : We wish to serve 
the Pharaoh, etc. We quit the poor chief of Kheta ; he is in 
the country of Khalep, to the north of the city of Tounep."— 
Maspero, Hist. Anc. 3d ed, p. 220. Observe the words Caleb 
(Khalep), Tounep (Donep, or Dunep, Danah), then the three 
ominous names to the soiUh of Caleb's land^ Saba (Sabat, Sa- 
batun. Bar Seba), Kadesh, and Arad, towns right in the Pha- 
raoh's path if he marched from Sinai or from Sharuhen. . If to 
this the reply should be made ' we have so read in the hiero- 
glyphs,* the words of A. Erman (in his Commentary on the In- 

> Mentioned in the texts of the Vioomte J. de Rouge, Revne ^gyptologique, Troi- 
sifme Ann^e, p. 158. The Egyptian inscriptiona mention Anba (loppa), Satuma 
(Sadem, Sodom), the fortress of the Khira[ba] (Caleb; or Khoreb), Tabachi (Tap- 
puah, or the land of Tob, east of the Jordan), the bow-bearing Shasu (the Amalekites 
and the other Arabs), and the land Sana (Asaa, Esan), Tamneh (Timnath) ; Ghana- 
rota (ChinnerSth) and Baita Sha [u] are merely mentioned as * fortresses which are 
above them as yon go to the land Taohisa.* The Gods of the Khita are Sout or Satech 
(Set), Baal and Astarta. At last we come to the . . . neniu, which looks a good 
deal like the ending of the word Kananion (people of Canaan). When, however, * the 
great chief of the Khita sends to the king of Khatesh (Kadesh) saying : Let ns com- 
bine against Kam/ it becomes plain that the locality is south in Esau or Edom.— See 
Birch, Observations on Statist. Table of Kamak, 21, 23, 29. Mr. Birch read the sign 
for *■ kat * an A, conseqaently he got Atet instead of Katesh. When Thothmes occu- 
pied Tonnep, Khalep and Arad, and besieged Kadesh (Maspero, 204) it is reasonable to 
infer that we have the seat of war among the Beni Heth, the Khati. 

3 Bedouins. Shepherds. 

* Caleb^s land.— Joshua, xv. 13-15. 


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8cription of Una,— Lepsius's Zeitschrift, 1882, p. 1), 'Gewiss 
sind wir duroh die langjahrige Arbeit der Agyptologen, vor 
Allem durch Brogsch's unermiidliches Wirken heute im 
Stande, den Sinn eines leichten Textes mit annahemder 
Sioherheit anzugeben, und im GroBsen und Ganzen werden 
onsere tibereetzongen meist das Richtige treffen. Aber das 
heisst nicht einen Text vebstbhen, wenigstens in der AVissen- 
schaft nioht. Was wilrde man von einem klassischen Pliilo- 
logen denken, der den Cicero iibersetzte and docb keine Ah- 
nnng davon hatte, warum bald Conjunctiv bald Indicativ, bald 
Perfectum bald Impei-fectum steht, ja der sich dieser Unkenn- 
tniss kaom bewnsst ware? Und wer vermag zu leugnen, 
dass wir fUr die Sprache des alten und des mittleren Belches 
noch aof diesem naiven Standponkt stehen ? " may perhaps 
apply ; or these : '' mein Text, der freilich noch an manchen 
Stellen zweifelhaft bleibt." — A. Erman, p. 2. At all events, 
oriental priests have often lied, and may have told a few 
stretchers in this case. 

When Joshua is said to have found so many kings in the 
Mountains of Judah, it is a fair question to what nations they 
belonged. They were, first, Eananiia (Cananites) ; next they 
were people of Tunep, or Danah ; third, they were Amorites 
and the Beni Eheth (Heth') or Ehatti; for 2 Kings, vii. 6, 

The Helek of Isarel has hired against oB the meleks of the Khatti and the 
kings of Misraim to come upon ns. — 2 Kings* vii. 6. 

Thj father Amorite, thy mother a Khatti (Hethite of Hebron).— Exekiel, 
xvi. 8. 

For the King of Khita had come with all the kings of the other peoples, 
with horses and riders which he brought with him in great numbers, and stood 
there ready in an ambush behind the town of Kadesh.* — Egyptian Inscription.^ 

Ezekiel, xvi. 3, locating Jerusalem in Canaan, with the Amor- 
ites and Kheth (Hebron), entirely excludes Carchemis from 
being the Eatti here meant. From Eadesh onwards the land 
of the Eheta lay before the Egyptians — " the land of Kadesh 
in the country of the Amorites." * What we call Dannah or 

1 Genesis, xxiii 2. 8, 10. 

* ThAM Kadesh was in the Negeb (in the South), not on the Orontes.— Gen. xir. 7 ; 

XX. 1. 

s BrogKsh, ii. 5<X 
« ibid., ii. 1& 

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Adana,^ to the north of Kadesh, seems to have been the Tunep 
of the Egyptian inscription. Comparing the march of Seti I. 
from a fort in the land Zalu in the Tanaitic nome to Kanana 
(Canaan), we find him on the ' road of the Philistines/ going 
past Mt. Kasius to the land Zahi (Azahi, Qaza), then to Bi- 
batha (Rechoboth ^ and Bar Seba,^ which brings him to that 
point (Sabatun) which his son, Ramses IL, afterward reached 
in the campaign, whose topography we are now trying to as- 
certain. The story of the Bhasu spies that the Khetha £ing 
was camped in Caleb (ELhalebu), to the north of Adana (or 
Idna), that is, " to the north of Tunep," may, topographically 
regarded, have had no intrinsic improbability in it. It is 
worthy of mention, as a remarkable coincidence, that both 
Bamses II., when he gets to Sabatun, and Bebecca Ischak, 
when she reaches Bar Sabat, were adverse to the Khetha.^ 
Old Ischak sets down the Kheta as Kananites (Lowlanders), 
and packs off the tricky lauqab at once to the great plain of 
Nahraina in Mesopotamia (padan aram), the very district 
where Birch, Hincks, Brugsch, and Bawlinson long ago de- 
cided to send Bamses II. Whether the Scribes of Israel took 
a leaf out of the Egyptian Book of Kings or not need not be 
said, since we have already found, in western Judea, a veritable 
Nahraina (Nahren). But it is remarkable that Ischak should 
have prefeiTed one of the daughters of the Moon-god Laban 
for his son's bride, unless some recollection of the Moon-god 
worship in Charran and Aur of the Chasdim was still cher- 
ished in a family whose progenitor presumably knew some- 
thing concerning the Mysteries of laukabel and Kubele, of 
Adonis and Asarah. There is no doubt that the priests took 

1 Tanep, Tanep, would seem to have been the tranBfigaration of the name Danah 
in Egypt. 

* Soothwefft of Beersheba.— BrngHch, U. 12, 14. 

* Gen. zxTi 23, 23. In the fint year of King Seti the report oame that the sheiks 
of the Shaau had assembled and made a stand in the Und of Khal (Caleb). Bragsch 
speaks of *^ the eastern boundary of the land of the Shasu, marked by the hill-fortress 
of Canaan, near which a stream seems to have fallen into a lake," and says that in the 
great Harris papyrus in the time of Ramessu in., Ka n aan is oalled a fortress of the 
land of Zahi Did this Und then extend as far as the shores of the Dead Sea? — 
Brugsoh, ii. 18. It probably did, for one finds the town Adana upon a modem map, 
with the ancient name probably still adhering to the spot. 

* Gen. xxvi. 22, 23 ; xxvii 46. Chat, Heth, Khita, Kheth. Mareb, in Arabia, Kha- 
leb, Khoreb (Horeb), Taoheba and Tunep illustrate the ending eb. So do Aohsaph, 
Aohzib, Mispah. 


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part in these Mysteries. The abel misraim (Mooming of 
Egypt) was for Osiris ; but Qenesis, 1. 3, 11, states that the 
Egjrptians mourned laukab (Kab, Turn, Osiris) with an abel 
misraim. What makes this seem rather strange is that, ac- 
cording to Josephus, the Hebrews are the Hyksos, whom the 
Egyptians mortally hated and drove out of Egypt, following 
them * to the territory of the Beni Kheth (Heth), at a later pe- 
riod, tinder Bhamses 11. The name of the Kheta has been 
preserved in the names Oath, Kheth (Heth) Katti and Oad 
(Achad,' — so that these Shepherds'* formed aline from Oath 
to Libnah, Makedah, Hebron (Eheth) and down to Arad and 
Eadesh ; there was another lower line across the country from 
Azahi (Oaza) to Eadesh and to Moab, although the frontier of 
Groshen * was a line running from the bottom of the Dead Sea 
at Zoar west to about Oaza. The Shasu and Amu were around 
Kadesh and Sabat, and the Aimin were in Sana (So), and the 
Sosim (Zouzim) in Cham * or Ghaman (Haman, in Oad). So 
that the Campaign of Ramses 11. was, in part, fought among the 
Meleks of the Shasu (Sos), in fact, among the Amalekites 
around Arad and Eadesh in Negeb. Amalak abode in Negeb, 
the Klhatti and the Ebusi • and the Amari ' dwelling in the 
highlands; and the Eanani, settled on the Sea and by the 
shore of the lardan.^ 

From the Eaphratesto the land Chatti (the West-land).— Rammanirar. 

" The Eanani persisted in living in this land " ^^ of Eanaan. 
So did the Amorites. It needed explanation, why there were 

1 The Shasa or Sm. 

* One, the Sun kadem : oompare the name laohado (lohdo). — 1 Chronicles, v. 14. 
« 1 Sam. xrii 15, 2a 

* See Jenkfl, Bible Atlao, Map no. iii. Jost aonth of that line it locates Ooshen. 
The Jews, later, claimed their line to be from the Red Sea to the Sea of the PalastaQ 
(PhilistianB). — Bxodns, xziii. 81. Joshua, i 4, calls the conntry the land of the Kha- 
Um. See 1 Kings, x. 29 ; 8 Kings, yii 6 ; 2 Chron. L 17. Compare the name Achates. 

* We haye seen, in another place, that the Egyptians at some time held a part of 
Kanaan. See, also, Gen. x. 6 ; 1 Chron. iv. 40, 41. 

* lebosites. 

» Amorites. — Ezekiel, xvi 8. 

* Numbers, ziiL 29. If Caleb (Khilibn, Chimbu or Khalebu) was given Hebron 
(Chebron) by Joshua (ziv. 13-15), we have the three names in succession, Kiriath 
Arba, Chebron, Chembu or Calubu ; but Hebron survived. 

»B.c. 812-788.— B. Schrader, Keilins. u. d. A. T. 213,21.5; seel Moses, x. 6. 
The sign which Mr. Birch read A, was read by Cbabas Kt, and by Lauth K The 
word which Birch read Ati is Kat, or Katti, Khet, Kheth, 'Heth. 

i« Joshua, xviL 12 ; Judges, i. 29. 

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Canaanites in the land, in spite of the Jews. The scribe saw 
the contradiction between claims and facts. 

Then goes up Haram, rex of Gazer, to the aid of Laohish. — Joshua, x. 88. 
Thence the horder descends to the sea to the boundary of the laphaleti,* to the 
border of Beth Kharon ^ inferior, and to Gazer. — Joshua, xvi. 8. lausha struck 
them from Kadesh Barnea to Gaza and all the land Gesen up to Gabaon. — 
Joshua, X. 41. 

The whole desert region between Palestine and Egjrpt was 
once far more productive than now and could support a con- 
siderable population. Khafu was represented as a warrior in 
Wady Magharah, Sahura (Sephres) fought the Mentu (Hyksos) 
in the Sinaitic peninsula, as did Ra-n-user, and now we find 
Thothmes III. up at Gaza, Beer Sheba, Kadesh, and fighting 
the Khati, the friends of Abrahm, at Khebron (Hebron). As 
long as they had something to boast of, the Egyptians may 
not have been particular to get the exact names of their foes 
put down in hieroglyphs. 

As in the case of the hostility of Good and Evil, or the 
Great Archangel Israel ^ versus Satan, so we have strained re- 
lations between the Ishmaelites (as Children of Typhon, 
Samael) and the settled population of Israel. So with laqab 
and Asau (the Ismaelites of Saue. — G^n. xiv. 5, 7, 17). The 
scribe assumes that Saue, down in the Arab country to the 
South, had an Ancestor, a Founder of the place or tribe, and 
names him Asau wy, Mars-Typhon. — Exodus, xvii. 8, 16 ; Gen. 
XXV. 2„ 23. Here are **two peoples struggling" like the " So- 
sim in Keme " against the Egyptians. — Gen. xiv. 5. Genesis, 
XXV. 2, mentions a people SuacA, or Sua, with the Midianites, 
Teman, and other Arabs. As tribes sometimes had the same 

1 Clompare the ' Shepherd Philitios * in Herodotas. laphaleti contains Phaletl, 
Philiti. So that Pbilitian (Philistian) Shepherd kings boilt Gizeh ! 

2 Is Beth-Horon the Garo, whence Thothmes proceeded in his first expedition into 
Syria ? Ramses II. is in Zahi (Azah, Gaza, Phili8tia)on his second, Syrian, campaign, 
l^e attack on Aruth (Arad) was followed by the march of Thothmes III. through all 
the land ZahL The tribute of the Ruten contained among other things silyer vases 
with Baal's head on them. They sent also a Syrian bear. With Ruten, compare 
Ruda, the Arab name of a deity. 

» The Achbar- Angel (Exodus, vi 3 ; Judges, xiii. 20, 23) is the Angel-Lord, the 
Archangel Israel (who sees El).— Isaiah, Ixiii. 9 ; Gen. xxii. 11, 12 ; xlviii. 16 ; Exodus, 
iii 2, 4, 14. This Acbar-Angel is the patriarch laqab (—Gen. xxxii. 38) the Arch- 
angel Cabir, the Good Principle (A sari) opposed to Samael-Asan. The change was 
from Al Sadi to Al Alahi Israel.— Exodus, vi. 8 ; Gen. xxxiiL 20 


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name as their Sun (Satum-Kronos), are we to assume that the 
Egyptian deity Shu was the god of the Shuah ? We only 
know that the Shua are mentioned in the same chapter with 
the Ishmaelites (Amalekites).— Gen. xxv. 13, 16, 18, 22, 23, 26 ; 
xxxvi. 11, 12. These were names of the Beni Asau.--Gen. xxxvi. 
11, 15. See Movers, I. 344, 396 ff., 433 f. Uso (or Esau) was 
the Fire-God.— Movers, L 344, 346. The scribe interweaves 
the myth with the story of Esau (Le. Saue). Compare A8= 
Fire in Hebrew. Nork connects Asu with the Chaldean Zoui 
(Saui), arrow. When Typhon was represented in Egypt as the 
Devilish- Adversary of Asari (Osiris) and Usous in Phoenicia 
as the pillar of Evil, what was to hinder the Hebrew scribe 
from likening the Amalekite (Esau) to the Red Demon (Mars) 
that was (assumed to be) the founder of Saue ? Saturn was 
also considered, like Typhon, the Adversary. — Dunlap, Sod, I. 
161, 199 ; Hesiod, Theog. 138. The Egyptian Aso (Queen Aso) 
was one of Typhon's aids in his attack upon Osiris. Soir-Esau 
is alternately Mars and Saturn, Esau being the God of Dark- 
ness and Destruction, like Typhon.— Nork, Hebr.-Chald.-Eab- 
bin.-W()rterbuch, p. 472 ; Genesis, xxxii. 26, 28. As Hupsou- 
ranios (Saturn), Israel contends with the God of Darkness, and 
conquers ! As Light shines in Darkness. — John, i. 6. Saturn 
is the Phoenician mythic Herakles who wrestled with Typhon - 
Antaeus, — and under Esau Samael (the Devil) is understood.^ 
—Movers, I. 396, 397, 433. Since the Ebionites (like Job, ii. 1) 
held that from one source (from a corporeal mixture, outside) 
not from the best change {rpoirq) of the God the Adversary was 
come into existence, the Devil comes from the worst side (or 
phase) of the God. —Gerhard TJhlhom, Hom. und Eecogn. p. 185 ; 
Clem. Hom. xx. 8. Qinah in Edom (Josh. xv. 22). Qin, Cain.* 
Jacob is connected with irach (Eachel) the moon, just as 
Archal (Herakles in Phoenicia) is with Osiris. Osiris was 
represented in human form ( — De Iside, 51) ; so was the Life- 

> Anch sonst wird Esau li&ufig fOr Samael erklfirt : Megilla Amykla fol. 165 ; lal- 
kat Rabeni foL 88, 62 ; Bisenmenger Entdektes Judenthnm, L 624 f., 647 ff. 825 ff.— 
Movers, L 897. The Devil is oonneoted with Matter (mixtnre), oonseqnently with Eua 
the Mother and Matter of Life.— G. Uhlhom, Horn, and Beo., 185; Hom. xx. 8; 
Gtenesis, iiL Hence Asu might be connected with * As ' (fire, life) as a spiritual being, 
which Eua (Eve) was in Jordan, Transjordan, Egyptian and Sabian mythology. Eua 
was named Issa, Aisah ; and Isis came out from Phoenicia. The Ebionites considered 
that the Devil sprung from a source external to the God. So the PeraianB and Hebrews 
may not have thought. — See GeiL xxxiL 24, 26, 28. 

' Qain, from Qinah, a town. 

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Father, Dionysus lach-Ab, Father lacchos. In Hebrew, kab 
means to die, to perish, to become extinct. Kebo means to de- 
scend to Hades. Israel (a name of Saturn " goes down " in that 
direction.— Gen. 1. 2, 6, 7, 11. Keb is Saturn. Kronos was 
mourned as the Winter Sun. — ^De Iside, 32. Keb is Satum- 
Moloch-Kronos. — Compare Brugsch, Zeitschr. £. Agyptische 
Sprache, 1881, p. 5; Sarcophagus of Merenra, Inscription. 
What was easier than to change Ai Kab into lacob ? The tomb 
of Bel (Saturn) was shown. Night-shining Dionysus (in bull's 
form) entered with dusky feet the Houses of Kadmus, bran- 
dishing the Kronian Whip of Pan. — ^Nonnus, xlv. 280. " The 
Apis bull was the well-formed living image of the soul of 
Osiris." Apis was consecrated to the moon. — Ammian, xxii. 
14 Osiris entered the moon at the beginning of Spring. The 
lunar year was naturally extremely sacred for religious rea- 
sons, since it must have been entirely interwoven with the rites 
of Osiris, — Knotel, System, p. 64 Kadmus, lacchos, and Pan 
(under earth) are connected as Chthonian deities. — See Ger- 
hard, Greek Mythol. I. pp. 101, 120, 121, 261, 273, 470. Ai Keb, 
Alas Saturn. Ai Kupt would be read Egypt. Why not Ai 
Kuphu,^ the mourning for Kub. 

The Phoenicians and Hebrews euhemerised their Gt)ds into 
patriarchs. Kronos offers up his Onlybegotten Son to Father 
Ouranos, on the occasion of a pestilence and destruction (of 
life) just as Abrahm prepared to deal with Ischaq, or as the 
king of Moab did actually. Another son, Muth, dying, Saturn 
deifies ; but Phoenicians call him Thanatos and Plouton. When 
then, Job, xix. 27, knows that his Eedeemer lives ^ and at the 
* Acheron * shall rise over the dust, he meant that Hermes who 
was in Hades, and appeared in human shape. — See the Hebrew 
Text of Job for the Hebrew word * Acheron.' 

The Jewish Sacred Books had been destroyed by Antiochus 
Epiphanes, according to Josephus, Ant. xii. 5, 4. When the 
priests in Egypt were in doubt as to who built Thebes, how 
should they know Menes (Men = Lunus) as the Maker of the 
dyke and creator of the space on which Herodotos states that 
Memphis (the Older city) was erected ? — Herod. II. 99. 

» Aeguptos, AegyptuB, Son of Bel *nd Adon of Arabia. The Mooming for the 
Adon, Keb, Kub, Kapha of the Kef a. 

' And centuries prior to Job, the Sphinx, in the graveyard of Memphis, pointed to 
the resurrection of the Sun. It still points to the Unknown, and faces the sunrise 


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Plutarch de Iside, 21, 22, intimates that the theory of Eu- 
hemerus had been applied to Osiris and Isis. The theory 
that the Cknls had been men must have been at least as old 
as the times when Herodotos lived, for some of it was put off 
on him. To show that Khufu had been a man, the priests con- 
cocted the stuff* which Herodotos tells about his daughter and 
his getting short of money, his unpopularity on account of his 
general wickedness in closing the temples which were a source 
of profit to the priests. If Khufu had been a real person,^ 
they would have had something more sensible to tell, if any- 
thing at all was known about him. Then the confusion be- 
tween the two names Khufu and Suphu (Suphis) is just what 
happens between the two names of Saturn (Keb and Seb), for 
the priests strictly kept the consonants K and 8 showing that 
they knew the difference between the names, although they 
applied them indifferently to one mythic person. But the 
unusual prefix of the water-jar and ram to Khufu's cartouche 
seems to settle the question ; for as Petrie says, there is no 
other instance known of any prefix to a king's cartouche. It 
was the distinctive character of the doctrine called Euhemerism 
to describe mythically the life of the Gods when they lived as 
men on earth, and Lepsius was shown in Syria the graves of 
the patriarchs, one, at least, being twenty-five feet or more 
long. Bead the absurd tales put off upon Herodotus about 
E^hufu and Khafra, and call to mind the ox-bones found inside 
Khafra's coffin, not outside on the floor, as elsewhere. Mmetho 
makes the Gods up into dynasties, but in the two lists of kings, 
one in the tomb of Tunra at Sakkarah, the other at Abydos, no 
division at all' appears, but the ovals follow one another in 
Indian file. At Sakkarah, Oval no. 17 reads Khafuf (the hie- 
roglyphs being kh, f, u, f, inside the cartouche), as De Rouge's 
facsimile shows. Another peculiarity of the Great Pyramid is 
that besides the mortuary chamber underground it has what 

1 How ooold people in b.o. 450 remember what Iiappened in the 4th dynasty of the 
Gods ? It is not improbable that the priest Manetho should hare put the early Kara, 
PhiUtian, Peletian, or Philistian kings among the Gods, from some theory or other 
prejadice. Herodotos has the tradition that the Philitian Shepherd pastured his 
flocks near the Great Pyramid. 

* Who descends beneath the hollow earth 
Knows the God-given beginnings of life.— Pindar, ThrSnoi, 8. 
My bone was not hid from Thee when I waa made in secret, 
Curiously wrought in the lowest chambers of the earth.— Fbahn, czxxix. 15. 

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no other pyramid has, the two chambers upstairs aboveground 
and the two to four ventilating channels. Taking the permu- 
tations of the letters k and b, for example (as signs of primi- 
tive vocal sounds) : we have for k, kh ; for b, p, ph, f. Apply- 
ing this rule to the (Saturn) names Keb and Seb, it is clear 
that the narrators, in B.C. 460, adhered with the greatest tenac- 
ity to some form of the consonants of these two deity-names, 
showing that they were conscious of Keb and Seb, when they 
spoke or wrote Khufu or Kheopis and Shufu or Suphis. While 
Seb (Sabe, Sabos, Soba) and Keb are Saturn's names, and are 
the roots of all the variants from them, you never find the in- 
structors of Herodotos and Manetho departing from these two 
primordial names when speaking of Khufu's or Khafra's pyr- 
amid. It is remarkable that no other name is used, but always 
some variant of these two names of the Egyptian Saturn ; for 
Khembes, whether regarded as a form of Kheb or Khem, is 
another name of Saturn. Therefore the sources of Herodotos 
and Manetho interchange Kheb with Seb, in mentioning the 
master of the Great Pyramid, just as the Hebrew scribe might 
have interchanged Akhabar (Kabar) with Asaph (Souphis, 
losaph, or Joseph). It is not meant to deny that the Phoenician, 
Hebrew and Babylonian scribes had the same mythic names, 
more or less, and in this respect were on a par. De Wette 
said that Moses offers us '' eine untergangene Gotter-Mythol- 
ogie," a submerged mythology. — De Wette, Bibl. Dogmatik, 
§ 63, p. 44. At all events, the Hebrew Biblion has enough to 
say about the great Highplaces of Bal, Bel, or Baal to gratify 
the most ardent Kanaanite priest ; and if Baal the Sungod is 
not taken up among the chosen in Genesis, v., it is an evidence 
that it was written after the Greek Habol (Apollo), owing to 
the actions of Antiochus Epiphanes, had become a nuisance in 

How indeed my soul, originally from Apollo, flying down 
to earth entered into a man's body. — ^Lucian, Gallus, 16. A 
particle (portion) of God is lodged in the bodies.— Jos. Wars, 
ni. 8, 5 (HI. 13. Keph. kc. Coloniae, 1691). 

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'* Gelebrtte the Name of the Great King of light, and go to lardana to be 

** tmh rov fimfuv rov *HX/ov 9fdas h^dfjLtHn. ** 

Asar, Asariel, Asriel, Izreel, and Israel were nearly the same 
name. The land of Asariel was the land of the Spirit, that bap- 
tizes with fire ; and '* the souls of the Nazoria who have eaten the 
food of the sons of the world, and have become contaminated, 
shall depart into burning fire with the spirit, the Messiah, and 
twelve (Zodiacal) stellar constellations." — Codex Nazoria, 11. 
252, m. 154. See Matthew, iii. 11, 12. The Codex Nazorians 
were once Jordan Nazorenes. — ^Codex Nazar, I. 34, HE. 190. 

Fires of lahoh Alahi Isaral. — Joshua, xiii. 14. 

* Light, Fire, Flame.*— Seal of lar with the Lion's head. 

* The Angel of Life appeared to him in a flame of fire.'— Exodus, iii. 2. 

* The life is through fire and spirit.'— Plato, Tim. 77. 

' Oh Ariel, Ariel, the city where Daoud ' dwelt. — Isaiah, xxix. 1. 
•The PIBB of la'hoh fell.'— 1 Kings, xviil 38. Messiah shall appear in fire. 
—Cod. Nazar. I. 98, 99. 

* His ministers, fire flaming.' — Psalm, civ. 4. 

*Fire shall perpetually hum on the altar, it shall not be put out.' — Levlt. 
vi. 6. 

' Fire was in the night on the tabernacle in the eyes of all the house of Isa- 
rel.'— Exodus, xL 38. 

Sadef, in Hebrew, meant to bum, and Sada meant (in Persian) 
a flaming fire. This chapter deals with Gheber and Khebaru 
(B3ieberou-Hebrew) altars and traditions. Under the name 
'Hebronim (Khebronites) and Khebarou^ (Gheber Abraha- 

< The Arabic Daond. English David, Gheber Dod, Egyptian Tot ; compare AdddoB, 
the king of the Gods and HaRa the Egyptian Predeoessor of their kings. 

* compare Kebir « fire. Bonaparte was called ^ Saltan kebir * by the Egyptians. 



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mides) the description of the Exodus is now continued into 
Idumea.^ Chebron was an Egyptian king.^ 

I have made you go up out of the hind of Mizarim ^ aud have led jou in the 
desert forty years, to possess the land of the Amori.— Amos, ii. 10. 

Thy father an Amorite, thy mother a Kheti.— Ezekiel, xvi. 8. 

The Amorites were white-skinned, blue eyed, fair haired. — A. H. Sayce, in 
•Academy,' 1888, p. 55. 

In his first expedition into Syria, Thothmes proceeded from 
Garu,^ and went to Gazah, and got to laham (lamnia). Beth 
Khoron may be Garu, judging by the location and the sound 
of Khar, pronounced Khor. Ramses II. is in Zahi (Azah, 
Gaza in Philistia) in his second campaign. He advances on 
Kadesh (Kadytis? also called Ain mi Saphat) keeping a 
good look-out to the south of the town, as the Shasu Arabs 
might be expected on the Pharah's flank to turn him and cut 
him off from his base. He comes to the south of the town 
Sabatun where he is met by two Shasu (Arab spies) from Ka- 
desh to say that the Khethite king is posted to the north of 
Tunep (ledna, Adana, Idna). The Pharah is deceived, and 
suddenly the army of the Khethians debouches from Kadesh 
by the southern gate to attack Bamses. Sabatun is probably 
Beer Sabat, 20 miles south of Hebron (of the Khatti) where the 
Kheta were settled,^ among the Amorites. When the Hebrews 
went to war they shaved the head.* The Sheto (Sethians) wore 
long-sleeved tunics and usually had their heads shorn, except 
a lock which falls over the back of the neck ; and they wore 
mustachios.' The Khethite was posted with his rear at ledna, 
expecting the advance of Ramses by the river Sorek or per- 
haps by the Besor in the Nahrena. Ramses II. followed the 
Besor, for water. The Kanani persisted in living in this land.^ 

1 Adam (Edom) shall be a desolate wildernefw.— lo^l, iiL 19. The desert was bet- 
ter populated at a very early period. Set was the God of the Kheta. Set means ^' fire.** 

3 Josephos, contra Apion, p. 1041. Mat Surra is the Syrian land, mat Kib is the 
land of Kib.— See Schrader, Keil, n. d. A. T. 218. 

* compare the name Mt. Misar. — Psalm xUi. 6 (7). 

* We find the Khaietim (Kharu) and Igor (Egur). — Joshua, xv. 21. A brook Kbarit, 
near Jerusalem. 

» GeneslB, xxiii 2, 10. 
« Ezekiel, zxiz. 18. 
' Kenrick, n. 234. 

•" Joshua, zyii 12 ; Judges, i. 29. Genesis, xiv. 5, mentions Cham (in Moab), and 
Sana (Asu, Esaa) who are Kharu of Mi Khareb (Choreb) in Idumea (Edom). 

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The border detoends to the aea to the boandarj of the Uphaleti * to the 
border of Beth Khttfta^ inferior, and to Gaier.— JothuA, xvi. 8. 

Then goes up Haram, rex Gaxer, to the aid of Laohuh.— Joshua, x. 33. 

laasha struck them from Kadesh Barnea to Gaxa and all the land Gesen up 
to GabaozL— Joflhoa, x. 41. 

The tribute of the Buten (the Arutu of Arad, Arot in Egyptian) 
is horses, chariots (Kananites had iron chariots), rare woods, 
ivory (from Karthage, or the Indus via Arabia), gloves, a Syrian 
bear, porcelain jars, pitch, woods, frankincense, wine, honey, gold 
and silver vases with Bal's head on them. Their tight dresses 
open with a buckle, in the mode of Astarta, and they carry long 
gloves. Baal and Astarta bring us at once to the Phoenician 
Sethian or Kharu.* The tribute of wine, honey and incense 
points to the Hebronites, Kharu, Lower Khatti and Buten 
(Araden). Kadesh is mentioned in connection with waters and 
sieg-es. — ^Ezekiel, xlviii. 19. The attack on Aruth (Arod) was 
followed by the mai'ch of Thothmes III. through all the land 
of 2iahi (the back country of Azah). The Egyptians, under 
Bamses III., are represented attacking a strong city sur- 
rounded by water. This is probably Kadesh, a city of Negeb, 
among the lower Buthen. Pharah goes down, and comes to 
the region to the northwest of Kadesh.* The waters of strife 
at Kades. — Ezekiel, xlvii. 19. Arad was in Negeb.* 

The sons of Cham possessed the land from Syria and the 
Mountains Amanus aud Libanus ; and they turned and seized 
the parts near the sea, appropriating the parts as far as the 
ocean. — Jos. I. vi. 2. It is clear then that by Cham we must 
understand the Negeb (the south) as well as Arabia and 
i^pt ; and the statement can be explained in Gen. x. 6 that 
the Canaanites could be the Beni Cham (for thus Philistia, 
Garar, the Karu, and Phoenicia would be considered Beni 
Cham). The fire-worship reached from High Asia to Egypt. 

< Philitians.—HerodotaB, II. 138. 
> Beth-Horon : Gam ? 

* 1 KingB, xTiii. d5. No camels^ hut horses and Seth-Baal. From the Euphrates to 
the land Chatti. — Ramman irar. Chatti — the West Land. 

* Bragsoh, Egypt, 1st ed. IL 50. In Dan there was a gflded image of Apis or 
Mnenia— 1 Kings, xii. 29 ; 3 Kings, x. 39 ; 3 Chron. xL 15. The Great Plain of lezreel, 
Magadon, TonocA, Nazar-eta were given to the Adonis-worship. Josephus, Wars, iv. 1, 
locates the temple of the Golden Heifer (Neith, Anata, Anaitis) in Galilee ; along with 
Dan's snn-bnlls. Chi Alohik, Don ! — Amos, viii. 14, writes Dan, prononnced Don. 
•The melechi fought in Tonor^ by the waters of Magado. — Judges, ▼. 19. 

^ Numbers, xxxiii 40. Ruda an Arab idoL 


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Kadesh is in the Negeb near the Desert of Sin (Numbers, 
xxxiii. 16, 36, 37). Kadesh was in Idumea (—Numbers, xx. 14, 
22). The Philistian-Kananite border ran from Oaza to Sodom 
on the Dead Sea (—Gen. x. 19). After burning Arad and Khor- 
mah ( — Numbers, xxi. 3) just as in a raid of the Egyptians, the 
Isarelim (Israeli) retreated from Mt. Khor (Hor) in order 
to go around the land of Edom (Aduma, — ^Numb. xxi. 4). 
We learn from 1 Samuel, xxx. 13, 14, that the Amalekites 
raided over Idumea taking Egyptians prisoners. Hence 
the Hyksos in retreating from Egypt into the land of 
Kanan would be likely to have made a detour in order to 
avoid meeting desert riders and raiders. But Deuteronomy, 
ii. 23, mentions that the Phoenicians (the Keft oer, or Kaphto- 
rim) issued from Kaphtor (in Egypt, according to A. H. Sayce) 
and destroyed the Chazorim (the Auim living in Khazorim). 
Going from Hebron ^ or Gaza towards the Egyptian Delta the 
Jewish writers would notice the strongholds Abaris, Magdolon, 
Bameses ^ and Patum : towards the Egyptian sea-coast is San. 
It is not essential that any one of the states ^ in the Delta 
should have all these cities within its ancient limits. It is 
enough to satisfy the requirements of the psalm Ixxviii. 12, 43, 
that between San (Zoan, Zan) and Kameses we have the terri- 
tory most exposed to Syrian and Idumean invasions, and forti- 

< The word Cabar, Cabir, Chebar, Kabar (Ezeldel, i. 1) ; ' Eabeiroi and Ptah.'— 
Herodotas, III. 87. It is here assamed that Exodos was written by Jerusalem aoribes 
at a very late period, posterior to Antiochus Epiphanes ; after the chartams and the 
chachams. Chart (like X^a), the writing material 

3 The city Rameses mast have been in the land of Bameses ; and what place was 
more likely to receive his name than the land jost redeemed by the canal which he 
built ? Set is the Sun and Pire.— Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, IIL 145 ; Ed. Meyer, 
Seth-Typhon, 41, 52. Shid (Sid) is the Sun.— Richardson, I. 583. Sid means Lord.— 
ibid. L 510. Sheta is Chaldee for * year.'— Nork, Heb-Chald-Rabbin. Worterbuch, p. 
565. Korshid (Kur and Shid) is a solar name in Persia. Shed means Lord, Sol, Light. 
— VuUer, IL 491. Shed, in Hebrew, means demon, and Sada ** demon ** in Syriao. So 
that Sad means the Sun's fire that feeds all things ; at the same time. Sad means Mer- 
kury ; Set meaning the Sun-god and also the Demon. Set was God of the Khita, of 
Memphis and Lower Egypt under the Hyksos. The Afirielites left Ramses, under the 
protection of the Fire-god Set, their Setel (Set — El) . Sada means a flaming fire.— John- 
son, Persian Diet p. 690. The Hebrew God bore the name (El Sadi) Sadi (Set, Seth) ; 
and in the Lebanon the oath or affirmation *wa Sheyth' was quite recently heard. 
Persian dualism is distinctly traced in the case of Set, whose name was used for good 
and for bad. Sitar means a spark of fire.— Richardson, Persian- Arabic Diet. L 517. 
The bull is the emblem of TyphOn, with the cloven foot and horns,— the Seth-Typhon. 
Osiris becomes Asrael the Death-angeL Philo, de Ebrietate, 24, mentions the Golden 
Bull as Typhon's emblenL 

^Isaiah, xix. 2, U. 


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fied in some places on the eastern border. Barneses and Patnm 
form the bulwarks towards Ismailia ; Abaris (Pelusium). and 
Magdolon ^ (Migdol), supported in the rear by SAn, are in face 
of the route between Lake Serbonis and the 8ea. Fatum was 
a city of (loshen,* hence called in Herodotus EC. 158, an Ara- 
bian city. Patum (Pithom) was at the entrance of the valley 
TumilAt, where the route from Pelusium to Heliopolis struck 
the road from Heliopolis to Hero and Serapiu.* In going east, 
the name Ramses (Tell el Maschuta) is met on the route to Is- 
malia from Tell el Kebir. In withdrawing an army of Syrians ^ 
from Memphis to Gaza or Hebron the retreat would be by 
Heliopolis to Pelusium, picking up detachments and reserves ^ 
as they fell back to the north and east.^ 

When Israel was a child, then I loved him and called my son ^ out of 
Egypt. — Hosea, xi. 1. 

With a strong hand Ia*hoh made yon go out from Hisraim. — Exodus, xiii. 9. 
In the land of Misraim, field of San.— psalm, Ixxviia. 12. 
Wonderful deeds in the land of Cham (Egypt, Africa). 
Horrors at the Sea of Beeds.— psalm, cvi. 22. 

Who does not think of the ship of the Argonauts which they 
bore on their shoulders, and of the Mosaic Abk of the covenant ^ 

1 Herodotiu, IL 159. The city Kadetih would be the nearest *' Kadutis " that an 
Egyptian general would reach from the Bitter Lakes and Higdol. 

* Cosh, Coahan, Goshen. Sate and Satis are Goddess of light, and Juno (Ino). 
The Arab tribe Asad adored Hermes ; Hermes is the Hermeneutio Logos. — Justin Apol. 
I. zzix. Hermes was represented at Cyllene in Elis by a phallu& — Chassang^s Apol- 
loniua, 265. 

'Lepdos, Zeitsohrift, 1883, p. 45. 

* Phoenicians, Syrians, Idnmeans, etc. Amenemheb^s stele mentions the high 
plains of Oo'an west of Ebaleboo (Caleb).— Brugsch, Ist ed. L 854. 

* How otherwise could they have amounted to 600,000 men ? Exodus, xii 37. 
Set is the Son and Firei— Wilkinson, Anc Egyptians, III 145; Ed. Meyer, Seth- 
Typhon, 41, 52. Set ia God of the Khita and Lower Egypt under the Hyksos, and at 

* with a strong hand (a powerful band), — Exodus, ill 19, — passing between fort 
Magdol and the Mediterranean. — Exod. xiv. 2. The scribe throws the Amalekites upon 
600,000 Isareli debouching from Sinai. — Exod. xviL 8. 

' Matthew, u. 15, quotes this passage out of Hosea and applies it not to Israel but 
to Jesus the Healer ; possibly holding that the prophet^s statement was not to be taken 
literally. Ohabas gives As-ra (Osiris) ; Sa-Rah is probably Asherah. 

* Exod. xxY. 10. Achio drove the wagon of lachoh. — 2 Sam. vL 2, 3. The Arab 
God lank was the Bun and his image (the Snn^s Horse).— Rev. i. 11, 12, 18, 16 ; xix. 
11-13) was surrounded by 7 images,— the 7 SabaSth, or planets. — Exodus xxxv. 81, 87. 
The Arab idol laghnt (a lion) represented the Sun, as life-god. See Univ. Hist, xviii 


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in which the twelve staves of the tribes are kept! Twelve 
points to the twelve signs of the Zodiac or to the twelve months. 
The young Bacchus was with his mother Semele^ put in a 
chest, committed to the sea, which carried it to Brasiae. Aleus 
laid his Daughter, together with the Child bom from het 
by Herakles, in a box and threw it into the sea.^ lason was 
as Child placed in the nighttime in a chest and brought as 
corpse to the Chiron.^ Moses too was placed in the ark and 
set adrift on the Nile to indicate his mythical divine mystery ; 
for the God in the ark is Horus or Taaut-Thoth. These ark 
stories all belong to the theological legends of the priests. 
Anius ^ is, according to Nork, son of the Vine-god Staphylos 
and so is Dionysus himself. And since Rhoo, Mother of Anius, 
is, as some said, the Mother of lason (Jason), both heroes are 
one person. Noah too invented wine, whose Aek contained 
the assurance of the continuance of the races ; and Osiris also, 
whose head swims to Byblus, whose phallus alone escaped the 
destructive fury of Typhon. So the same emblem of Attes 
was carried in a holy box to the Etruscans, which Clemens 
Alexandrinus ^ considers to be that of Dionysus, the Greek 
Osiris.^ The ark that Noah sailed in contained in its mystic 
recess the seeds of future generations.' Consequently the 
lunar ark is indicated. That it was the ark of Sol-Saturn 
(HaBal, Hobal) is evident because Hobal held 7 arrows in 
his hand (representing the 7 planets) of which Saturn was the 
chief Angel, and not only are they referred to by the number 
7 in Genesis, vii. 2, but by the Seven-rayed Candlestick in the 

1 the tradition in PaosaniM, iii. 24. 8. 

* ibid. yilL 4. 6. 

» Tzetz. Lycophr. 570.— Nork, I. 111. 

« Ani i£ the Sun, and name of an Egyptian priest Dionysna is Amadios and Oma- 
dios. Jaaon'^i wife is Medea (Madaia). Regarding priestly government. Exodus, xxx. 
15, suggests the very contribution called Peter^s pence, every house one penny. 

» Protr. p. 13. 

* Nork, L 112. The sun^s cave was sought in the east ; the Magoi learned the 
birth of the Year-god by a starts ascension in the east : i^v a^ripa €>» rp ai^aroA^. The 
Dionysiacs were ithuphallic ceremonies for the Cyllenian Hermes. Set seems originally 
to have been Sol-Hermes. 

7 See, further, Numbers, xvii. 2, 6, 8, with the commentary of Nork, Beal-Wdrterb. 
I. 118, also his comparison of the arks of the Sjnians with the lais-cista, and the 
almonds of Aharon^s rod. Nork^s perception of the sense of the word iy propagare 
and the connection of pp Toluptas with py Adonis-garden is significant of the pur- 
pose of the Garden of E!den and the origin of mankind. Serpents were signs of vital 
nature and productiveness, the propagatio spiritualis of the Kabbala. 


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1818 IN PH(ENICIA. 281 

Holy of Holies at Jerusalem^— Exodus, xxrv. 87. The Arabs 
turned their Deity Aud (Ad. Od, Oad, Wadd) and the Deity 
Abrahm into ancestors (by the doctrine of Euhemerism) ; and 
by turning the suffix (i, oi, im) into a prefix they could make 
the name of the Jews, lavdi. Again, Habal or Hobal was a 
deity-name carried from Syria into Arabia, as the source from 
whom they could get rain.— Universal Hist, xviii 886. The 
Orientals held that " from the sun comes rain." Therefore 
Bal or Bel was the Sol-Saturn, and so was Hobal,—" Osiris 
in the moon '* ; Osiris as a name of the Nile-water. 

The March from Tell-el Maschuta or Kamses to the north 
would be necessary to form a junction with the column coming 
east from Sdn. The Hebrews claim that it was a march of 
troops,* and of course that the Jews were the martial Hyksos 
moving along the sea-shore road towards Palestine. In his 
earlier work Josephus began with the Makkabees in the 2nd 
century. In the "Antiquities," he states that the Hebrew Ex- 
odus was by the way of the city of Latona, the later Babulon.^ 
Leaving out Marnsea and Succoth, he makes a firm stand on Bel- 
sephon as the Hebrew line of march. 

On the march, the Jewish aron (ark) was about three feet 
nine inches long, 2i feet in width and twenty-seven inches in 
height. It was overlaid with gold,* which was the sun's color. 
A camel could easily carry it, like the arks of the Arabian 
tribes. Like the atfah of the Arabs the ark was carefully 
guarded. The Loim' encamped about the mysterious emblem 
in the midst of the camp of the Israelites.^ The Kamak tab- 

' Codex Nazoria, HL 155 mentiona the 7 Stellan in cozmeotion with the Spiiit and 
the MesBiah. — See Rev. i 16. 

* Exodus, xii. 41 ; xiii. 18 ; Nambers, xxxiii. 3. ZabaSth is the warlike hosts. 
The Jews were shaven on top, like Dionysos. — Jeremiah, ix. 94, 25 ; Herodotas, m. 8. 
See the name Agab (a form of the name Acab, Iaqab).~Codex Nazoria, m. 76, vide 
Greba in the Bible, and the Agnbeni in Arabia. 

^ * Josephas, Ant IL 15. 1. See Larsow's map to Athanasins, Festbriefe. The Sep- 
toagint and Josephus do not hesitate to alter the locatioru any more than the modem 
partisans of an Exodus. Babuldn was Old Cairo. — Prof. J. A. Paine, in Am. Orient. 
Soc Journal, May 6, 1886. Babul5n built in B.O. 525 by Cambyses. 
« Exodus, xxxrii 1. 

* Loi is the name of the Highpriest of Amon. — Brugeoh, 11. p. 188. The tents of 
Kinn (Saturn), the star of your God (El Satnmus).— Amos. v. 26. Kin (Cain) looks 
like a form of Kixm (Saturn), Earthgod and Grod of Life under earth. — Gen. iv. 2, 8, 10, 
11, 14 A vagabond that never sees the Sun. — iv. 14. 

* Numbers, i 50, 51 ; ii. 17. They were bound for ' the m&t Chatti, the m&t Achar- 
ri, the mat Surru.*— See R Schrader, Keilins. a. d. A. T. 213, 214 Sur (Zur) was king 


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let represents the Luten or Buten, "races of the Upper 
Euthen, who lived nearest to the Egyptians, and the Pho^- 
cian Khalu of the hinder lands." * According to this, the Arad 
Botennu were nearer to the peninsula of Sinai and to Egypt 
than the Khaleb (Caleb) of the lands behind the Arad position, 
which is the fact. Compare the Ailut in the land of Edom 
(Idumea).^ Amos compares the sortie of the Philitians from 
* Kaf t oer ' to the sortie of the Isarelites from Kaphtor. 

Are you not to me as Beni Kasiim, Beni Isarel I 

Did I not make Isarel go up out of the land Miiraim and Phelestiim from 
Kaphtor ?— ^mos, ix. 7. 

I destroyed the Amorite before them. — Amos, ii. 9. 

What prevents the Beni Kasiim (Hyksos?) from being the 
Sons of Mt. Kasins ? What is in the way of seeking for the 
Shepherd Kings between Oath and Mt. Kasius, among the 
warlike Kesh Kesh and Philistians ? The Akasii or Beni Ke- 
siim would give us one Kesh at least. The following evidence 
will supply the remainder of the Okousos or KasiL 

The names Geshuri and Gez-uri (Akas, Okus, XJkous ??) may 
be related to the name Hukusos. In reference to the point 
who were the Hukoussos (Hyksos) certain proper names should 
be taken into consideration. These are the Kushites of Arabia, 
then Mt. Kasius, Kusi (2 Sam. xviii. 21), Akasaph, Okasah 
(Akasah, Kaleb*s daughter), and the valley Qasis, Joshua, 
xviii. 21. As names are apt, for brevity's sake, to lose their 
first vowel we should, first of all, restore it to Qasis, making 
Aqasis or Akasis (the z being but another s). Here we then have 
Ako&aphy Akasis, Gesur, Okasah, and TJkusos or Hukousos to 
compare together, in order to decide in favor of the Hyksos 
being Phoenicians, Philistians, Kara and Hebrews united with 
the people of Garar (the Kharu) in a raid into Egypt to estab- 
lish a permanent lodgement there. While the name Ukousos 

of Midian. — ^Niunbens xxxi 8. Assnr was the name of both Syria and Assyria, The 
words * blaestone of Babel ' and * ntensils of Assnr ' do not necessarily imply an Egyp- 
tian march to Assyria, for the Phoenicians and Arabs probably brought these things on 
camels to Sarra (Tyre), Arad in the Negeb, Hormah and all Idnmea, whence they 
could have been taken to Aupa, Akko, even to the Jewish canton of Aser, near Tyre. 

1 Bmgsch, I. 319. 

SI Kings, ix. 26; 1 Chron. L 11. Mnnk, Palestine, p. 82, identifies the Philistians 
with the Kaf torim (the Ke&) and Kaslnchim. Go down to Oath of the Philistians. — 
Amos, vi 2. 


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may have been altered in Egryptian pronunciation and writing, 
the name of Kaleb*s daughter Okasah is nearest to it. The 
wars of Bamses II. seem to have been waged against these 
Hebrew and Eanaanite peoples, in the lands of the Katti or 
Elheta. Moreover, we have Okhozath, the name of a friend of 
Abimelech of Gerar, in proximity to Egypt. The name Gkzar 
(Gtezer. — 1 Kings, ix. 16, 17) may be added to Okhosa^A, to get 
at the root of the name hukousos (the Hyksos, or Shepherd 
Kings). The conjunction of the name Amalekites, Philistim, 
Geshuri, Gezeri,* with Gath and the Egyptian Kesh Kesh^ 
shows us who the Hyksos were and their primitive homes, 
whence they entered into Egypt. The Amalekites in 1 Sam 
uel, xxvii. 8 follow the names Geshuri and Gezeri. 

In Exodus, xiii. 18 the Jewish Scribe takes the precaution 
to state that the route of the Exodus lay through the Desert ; 
but Josephus claimed Hyksos ancestry, and changes the line of 
march from liarnses and Succoth to from Babulon (Old Cairo 
or near it) to Baal Sephon, in apparent violation of the narra- 
tive in Exodus xiii. 18. Considering the numerous evidences 
of Jewish animus that are recorded in this work it is allowable 
to fancy that the story of the Exodus is a work of the imagina- 
tion, probably intended to change some accounts of the expul- 
sion of the Hyksos driven out of Egypt, and to represent such 
events, if they ever occurred^ as the Exodus of the Jews.' 

» 1 Sam. xxvii. 1-7, 8, 10. 

s Birch, Statist. Table of Karnak, p. 14. 

* If Jaoob had informed the priests of the pharaoh oonoeming the prophesies of the 
Lcxrd to Abram (Gen. xii 2, 3) and himself (xlvi. 3, 4) that they should become a Great 
Nation, we might oonclade that their retreat out of Egypt would have been more accel- 
erated than their advance into it See Grenesia, xxviiL 3, 13, 14 ; xxxv. 11. Malchos 
Kleodemos the prophet, Jew, Phoenician, or Syrian, names three sons of Abraham^ by 
Khetonra : Af era, Asoureim, lafra. Asonreim gives name to Assyria ; the city Af ra 
and land Africa were named after Afra and lafra, since both marched with Herakles 
to Libya and against Antaeus. They were admitted to companionship with Herakles 
owing to the similarity of Abrahm-Kronos-Heraklea. See Movers, L 86-87, 415-450. 
At Alexandria, the medium between the West and ESast, Afra is turned into the Latin- 
Greek Afrikus, and in the Aethiopio Axum the &ther Abraham, *as Abrahah,' is again 
thrust upon the adventurous sons. From there the Jewish triumvirate has wandered 
into the South- Arabian myths. The transplanting of the remnant of the Kananites 
to Africa is found in Prokopius of Caesarea only as a shadowing forth of the story of 
the emigration of the peoples, from Sidon to Egypt before the victorious Joshua, first 
into Egypt and thence along the North- African coast.— Rtfsch, KOnigin von Saba, 23 ; 
Prokopius de beUo Vandal., II. 10, Ed. Guil. Dindorf, I. p. 450. Among the Children 
of Abrahro by Khetoura were Madan, Madian and Souob ; and the Beni Souos were Saba 
and Dadan. — Gen. x. 7 ; Job, vi 19 ; Isaiah, xxi. 13. Sabathan.— Joe. Ant. L 15. 

They bury Sarra in * Khebron.*— Josephus, Ant., L 14. 


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lahoh brought the Beni Isarel out of the land of Bfisraim by their army 
corps.— Exodus, xii. 51. 

Before the camp of Israel.— Exodus, xiv. 19. 

Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the sea shore. — Exodus, xiv. 80. 

The tent of the Erra (Pha-Ea.») is beheld in the midst of 
the Egyptian camp, and near it is the movable shrine of the 
Great Gods of Egypt. The standard of Amanuel is there. 

This is the first legion of Amon * who bestows victory on King Ramses 11. 
— Brugsch*s translation. 

And they departed from Sakoth and camped in Atham in the edge of Med- 
bar (the Desert). 

And lachoh preceded in a column of cloud before their faces in the daytime 
to lead them on the way, in the night in a pillar of fire to give light to them ; to 
go by day and by night 

And spake laohoh to HasS ' as follows : Say to the Beni Isarel to stop and 
encamp before the Chiroth (Gulfs) between (the fortress) Magdol and the sea, 
opposite Bal Zephon : before it, let them encamp by the sea.— Exodus, xiv. 20, 
21 ; XV. 

lahoh, who made the Beni Isarel ^ go up from the land of Misraim. 

lahoh who made the Beni Isarel go up from the land Sephon » and out of 
all the lands which he expelled them to ; and I will bring them back upon their 
land « which I gave to their fathers.— Jeremiah, xvi. 14, 16. 

The reader will have to remember that whatever evidences 
of a former gradual upheaval of land out of the waters at the 
Isthmus of Suez geology may point out, and whatever may in 
the way of upheavals have been discovered from Akabah 
along the Valley of the Arabah, past Mt. Hor, through the 
Gh6r to the Dead Sea, it is impossible to connect such teach- 
ings of geology with the Biblical Exodus,^ because all such 

1 Compare the words HoroB, ArCs, lar with the lion*8 head. 

3 B.O. 938, Shaehanq, brother of Sargon, was high-priest of Amon and commander 
in chief of the whole Egyptian army. — Bragschf IL, 214, 215. The acoonnt given by 
Captain Ahmes of the storming of Abaris is not to be reconciled with the EiXodus- 
story or the Manethonian fiction. Manetho denies the storming. 

• Amasis, AhmosLs, Ahmes are somewhat similar names. Numbers, iL, 8, 84. 
« Osar Snph, or Osai^L 

• Bel Zephon. lo Saph on Mi Eaaias. 

• Adamah, or Bdom, np to lebns perhaps ? 

^ Rawlinson, II. 184, 185, and Brngsch, IL 355, 256, regard the Hyksos invasion 
as a real oocorrenoe. Brogsoh, U 256, 257, says that the Hyksos kings preserved 
the works of by-gone ages and adorned Tanis. A memorial stone found in Tanis 
belongs to the time of Ramses II., it is said, and bears the inscription : In the 
year 400 on the 4th day of the month Mesori of King Nub ! Fat Ramses IL at 
B.C. 1350 and King Nub's reign at 1750, we then find that (Genesis, xv. 13 puts the 


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1818 IN PHOSNIOIA, 236 

antehistoric changes on the routes from Memphis to Jericho 
cannot be shown to have taken place subsequent to the de- 
scription contained in Exodus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. 
Moreover, the account given, in the Bible, of Sinai,^ is by no 
means at variance with its present condition after all the up- 
heavals have , terminated,^ — the identity is sufficient for the 
purpose of Biblical criticism. It has been said ^ that ' Arabs, 
as everyone knows who has had to do with them, have a re- 
markable facility for making up a story to meet a supposed 
occasion/ Was it ever said Orientals could not lie or that the 
ancient Jews could not ? And are we to strictly swallow all 
the marvels, myths, tropes and figures like Exodus, xix. 4, 
where the Lord ' took them on eagles' wings ' and brought 
them to him ? Could not the Jewish scribes know the whole 
geography of the country from the Dead Sea to Midian, 
Sinai, the Tih plateau, the Amalekite country and the Eg3rp- 
tian border! When the Amalekites had annoyed the Jews 
by ' raids as far north as Ziglag (Zachelach ?) in Dauid's time/ 
and had Egyptian captives, is it supposable that a Jewish 
scribe at the close of the 2nd century before Christ could not 
have described the rather questionable march of the Israelites, 
with the necessary accuracy as to the details of topography, 
over the desert, through Sinai, Atuma and Madian, past Mt. 
Hor into Moab to the Jordan, with all the mythical interpola- 
tions required to assure the Jews that the word of the Lord 

stay of the Hebrews in Egypt at 400 yean, while Ezodns, xii 40 puts the Hebrew 
stay at 430 years (Bnigsoh, IL 250). What is King NaVs date? Is it certain that 
the stone belongs to the time of Bamaes 11.? Does this prove that the Exodns 
ever took place ? Merely nothing at all is yet proved in relation to Hebrew history by 
Nnb's date, supposing it read rightly. Deuteronomy, xii 3 may have been substituted 
by Josephus in place of Manetho. It is just what he quotes Manetho as saying. 

' Bxod. xix. 4, 18. 20. Prol Edward Hull, Mount Seir, 1885, pp. 49, 180, 108, 
mentions that the granites and porphyries are traversed by innumerable dykes of por- 
phyry and diorite both throughout the Sinaitio mountains and those of Bdom and 
Moab ; and he considers it probable that the volcanic rooks which are largely repre- 
sented along the bases of Mt. Hor and of Jebel es Somrah near Es Safieh are contem- 
poraneous with these dykes. 

* Gen. xix. 17, 24, 26, 80. Lnt (Lot) went up out of the Burnt District and dwelt 
in a cave in the mountain range. Hull, Mt Seir, p. 129, says : These caves give egress 
to the torrents which issue forth after rain, and along their walls the rock salt is con- 
stantly melting. Qen. xix. 26 efTeotually shows that the Upheavals preceded the pillar 
of mU, Lot*s wife. The salt was deposited at the bottom of the sea. The upheaval 
took place. Then the rain waters made oaves ; and finally Lot lived in one. Conse- 
quently the Biblical story is later than the geological changes mentioned. 

> Hull, p. 200. 


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was always in the mouth of the priests that served the Ark of 
the Covenant ? The scribes of the Temple were at least as 
able to make up the whole story as modem travellers are to 
prove that it is a narrative of facts ! 

The Aakabara of Khebron, the people of Sadem and Setim ^ 
(Sethim) were Ghebers. The fireworship was also in Ar of 
Moab. Here we have to consider a priestcaste, as in Egypt, 
elevated to supreme power, holding the government of the 
Jewish people entirely in their own hands, determined through 
the power that the superstition and ignorance of the masses 
placed within their grasp to maintain the perpetual sway over 
the mind which universal suflErage always trustingly grants to 
the politicians. The conception of a departure out of Egypt,^ 
lighted up with miracles, loomed upon the scribal fancy, sug- 
gested by the traditions of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty. 
So, like Moses, the scribe leads our imagination from the 
picture of slavery in Egypt to the passage between the waters 
of the lam Suph, the destruction of Pharaoh's army, the trials 
of the desert, the loneliness of Sinai to the giving of the Law 
by the God himself to Moses out of the moimtain cloud upon' 
its summit amid this awful scene of desolation and the grandeur 
of sublimity itself. * Nothing can exceed the savage grandeur 
of the view from the summit of Mount Sinai.' * Forty yeai*8 of 
communion with the God, led solely by the Almighty hand, — 
with the Law always before their eyes, and their dependence 
upon it ground into their souls I Finally they march to Moimt 
Chor which rises 5875 feet above the level of the Dead Sea. 

And Mase sent messengers from Kadesh nnto the King of Adoma (Edom) : 
Thos saith tliy brother Israel : See, we are in the city Kadesh in the extreme 
limit of thy border. And they departed from Kadesh ^ and the Beni Israel went, 

> Numbers, xxt. 1 ; Joel, It. 18. Joel has the ^ river of the Sethim.* Sedim, 
(demons) is not required to be read here. The Arabs prononnoe the sibihmt sh an ordi- 
nary B. — Renan, People Israel, 843. 

* borrowed probably from the * expulsion of the Hyksos * out of Egypt. ' Tbe late 
Professor Palmer arrived at the conclusion that the Lord descended on Jebel MQsa 
(Mount Sinai) and there delivered the tables of the Law to Moses, who in turn delivered 
them to the.people on descending from Ras Snfskfeh. This majestic cliff, rising nearly 
2(X)0 feet at the head of an extensive valley well calculated to afford camping ground for 
the Israelite host, from whence they could behold the display of Divine power, seems 
in all points to answer to the description given in the sacred text of the scene of these 
events.' — HulVs Mount Seir, p. 51. Very likely the Jewish scribes had frequently 
visited Mount Sinai, over 7000 feet above the sea. 

« Hull's Mount Seir, p. 68. 

« Joshua, XT. 23. 


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18IB IN Pn(ENTOIA. 237 

the entire oongregfttion, to Moant Har. and to Mate and Aoharon* spake lahoh 
near the border of the land Edom I— Numbers, xz. ; zxi. 

And to keep this priestcaste in power, the element of cir- 
cumcision (in the Mysteries) was invoked to preserve them a 
distinct and peculiar people. In all Jewish exclusiveness 
lahoh was to be the God for them alone 1 * But the Paulinist 
writer repudiated such a limited view, declaring that God is 
God both of Jew and Gentile. 

I8 he the God of the Jews onlj, and not of the Gentilea ? Aje, of the Gen- 
tiles too, since it is one God who will justify circumcision bj faith, and uncir- 
comoision through the faith t — Romans, iii. 29, 80. 

Let us never forget that we have to do with the writings of 
a caste of priests^ in Judea, whose sacred stories, whatever their 
relation to history, were presumably connected with the in- 
terests of their caste. 

Invitaris ergo per hoc ut ad orientem semper aspicias. — Origen. Ton are 
invited, therefore, through this, always to keep jour eye on the Orient ! ^ 

And near Arsinoe too is the City of the Heroes * and the Kleopatris in the 
comer of the Arabian Gulf that is towards Egypt — Strabo, 805. 

Taking Brugsch's view that Bamses is Abaris (Pelusium), 
Masen, Zaru, etc^ the fleeing Israelim must have marched south 
to Thuku, then to Atam on the edge of the Desert of Idumea 
(Atumu, Edom). Giving up this route they turn* and encamp 
before the Chiroth near Bal Zephon,' and then pass between 
the Sea (iam) of Beeds (the lam Suph) and the Mediterranean,* 
to escape pursuit. In thus fleeing towards Suez, then return- 
ing to the north by some route not mentioned, the scribe draws 
apidure of their distress in order to heighten the aspect of the 

1 Mount Hot, where AharOn died. 
'IrenaeuB, L zxiiL 

* Joshua, xzi 

* literally, to look towards the EaH ! When laqab left Beer Seba on his way to 
Charan in Mesopotamia, he finally reaoheb the Beni Qadm, of whom Laban is one.— 
Gen. zxriii 10 ; zjdx. 1, 4, 5. The name Beni Qadm, says Renan, is nsed of the Sara- 
cens of the oriental desert.— Renan, 817, 832, 837. Bnt in Gen. zzviii 10 ; xxix. 1, as 
far as the Bnphrates is meant 

* Strabo says nothing here about Pa-Tom; although he refers to Herodotos 28 

* Exodus, xiT. 2, 
» ibid. xiv. 2, 9. 

* ibid. xiT. 81, 22. 


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miracle that he describes as the waves pour again ^ over the nar- 
row isthmus between the lake of reeds and the Mediterranean. 
This is strictly in accord with the scribe's plan ; for subse- 
quently he lets them wander in anything but a straight course 
towards Palestine, more as if they were bent on visiting the 
mines of Wady Magharah and exploring Midian than anything 
else, and had time enough (40 years) to do it. As to the at- 
tempted identification of Tuku (Thuku) with Succoth, it is 
enough to quote the words of the Egyptologue Eugene Revil- 
lout : Quant h, Tidentification de Tuku et de Succoth je n*en 
dirai rien ; on a pour T^gyptien nombre d'exemples de t changes 
en s et r6ciproquement. Mais j'avoue que Targumentation est 
moins rigoureuse, etc.* M. Bevillout, therefore, was not yet 
convinced that the identification is completely made out. Now 
as the " tents " of the Arabs were at furthest only just the other 
side of the Suez Canal, a short distance from M. Naville's Thuku 
or Heroopolis, the Hebrew writer really had no occasion to be 
as particular about Thuku as M. Naville has been. Any neigh- 
boring Succoth (Tents) would have answered his purpose 
equally well (for all on the same parallel east of the Nile was 
then Arabia). 

The Egyptian priests abominated the sea and called salt 
the froth of Typhon.^ Typhon's evil influence was observed in 
the inundations at the seaside spot called Baal Zephon (zeph 
= inundare ; zeph = inundation) whom Brugsch calls the Lord 
of the North (zephon = north, north wind). Plutarch speaks 
of Typhon's overpowering force and connects him with marine 
violence/ He is the Adversary, represented with the boar's 
head*^ or with the ass-head. Thus we have Adonis slain by 
the Boar, and Jupiter's sinews cut by Typhon upon Mt. Kasius, 

> ▼. 96. The waves were sometimes so high as to carry vessels across the road at 
that spot. The astate Josephns is careful to let the Israelim go past Bal Zeph9n, but 
he is particular not to say anything aboat their ronto, after leaving BabulSn, nntil the 
ChirSth are reached. Perhaps he had not located Thuku or Atam ! Why then does 
Josephus, instead of following the Exodus from Ramses to SukSth and Atam (as the 
Bible says), begin the Exodus from BabulSh instead of Ramses ? His object was to 
connect the Hebrews directly with the Hyksos, whose capital, Memphis, was near the 
Pyramid of Kheopa at Giieh, and to stick to the line of retreat of these invaders via 
Bal SephOn. 

s The ''Academy,'' April 4, 1885, p. 349. 

* Compare Nonnus, I. 268 ft. They regarded the sea as thrown off from fire as a 
foreign excrement destructive and baneful — de Iside, 7. 

* de Iside, 81, 42. 

* Compare Matthew, viii 32 ; Isaiah, Ixv. 4 ; Ixvi 17. 


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which Nork compares to a solar eclipse. It was on this nar- 
row tongae of land, says Bmgrsch, bounded on one side by the 
Mediterranean, on the other by the Sea ^ of weeds between the 
entrance to the Ehiroth or Gulfs on the west and the sanctuary 
of Baal-zephon on the east that the great catastrophe oc- 
curred ! After the Hebrews, marching on foot, had cleared the 
flats that extend between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake 
Sirbonis, a great wave took by surprise the Egyptians in flank. 
It had happened so before, Diodorus says ; ' the basin being 
long and narrow and the Bog impossible to get out of, owing 
to soft mud and slime, the traveller is exposed to great dan- 
gers. When Strabo was at Alexandria the sea so inundated 
the land around Mt. Kasius that vessels passed over the road 
to Phoenicia ;^ and when the Persian king Artaxerxes marched 
upon Egypt a catastrophe befell his army at the same spot, the 
Galfs.^ So that it was no new idea, to enter a scribe's mind for 
the first time. Strabo says that, being a mixed population of 
Egyptians, Arabs and Phoenicians, the most correct report of 
those who are trusted in regard to the temple at Jerusalem ex- 
hibits the Egyptians as the ancestors of those now called 
loudeans ( JewsX' Credat Judaeus Josephus 1 

The ark is a symbol in the Mysteries of the orientals from 
Egypt to Phoenicia and Greece." The Good Principle' en- 
tered his ark ; the Loim ^ surrounded it. Then the long cara- 
van of more than 600,000 men on foot (or borrowed cam- 
els) moved away to the northeast from the land of Bamses,* 

1 Brugioh, n. S64 uses the word *' lagooDS.** 

* Brngsoh, 361, 365 ; Diodor. i 30 ; xtL 46. 
» strabo, L p. 58. 

* DiodoroB, zvi. 4& Typhofi (the Advenarj) is also the Great Bear that looks 
down upon the golden apples of the Adonis-garden. Mars-Typhon according to Nork, 
was recognised by the Rabbins as Esan (the Phoenician Us9) and was clearly the prin- 
ciple of Darkness (the matter, earthy principle), for he betrays this character by sajring 
"Let me go, for day U breaking.^'' — Oen. xxxiL 24, 25, 26, ^. Aso is also an imp of 
Satan (Seth), who assists in destroying the Crood divinity, Osiris. Typhon was changed 
into a crocodile. — de Iside, 50. 

» Strabo, 760. 

* Inman, Ano. Faiths, I. 283-29L 
"> Agathodemon. 

* Lenites, Eloim. 

* Gen. xlviL 11, to the '* lam Snpl^,*^ the Sea of Weeds, Lake Sirbonis. The heights 
of Allah Sin (Sinai) were in an uninhabitable region ; besides, the Hyksos marched to 
Hebron and Jerusalem, according to Manetho. The Beni Isarel nmrehed out in ocrps 
d'ann^e. — ^Exodus, zii 51. 

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after borrowing the gold and silver jewels of the Egyp- 

According to Josephus the Hebrews are the Hyksos.^ It 
is evident that Josephus and Manetho and Exodus describe 
very different events. The Egyptologists in Europe in some 
instances lay down a ex^nvenient canon of criticism that the 
stations of the Exodus were districts, not cities. M. Bevillout, 
in a recent article in the "Academy,"^ referred to Genesis, 
xlvi. 28, where lacob 

Sent the leudah before his face, to Joseph to signify * before his presence, 
to Gesen, and thejr came to the land Gesen. — Gen. zM. 28. Hebrew. Do not 
fear to descend into Egypt for I will place you there a great people. — Gen. zlvi. 
3. Hebrew. 

The Septuagint Version alters Gen. xlvi. 28, by inserting the 
words in Greek "to meet him in the city of Heroes in the land 
Ramesses ; " and the Coptic has it " to the city Pithom in the 
land of Ramesses." If one admits that Patum is Pithom and 
Pithom Heroopolis, how does this help to show the Exodus 
movement out of Egypt ? The Bible distinctly says that the 
Israelites departed from Ramses to Succoth (or Sokchoth, in 
the Septuagint), and from Succoth to Atham (Othom in the 
Septuagint) on the edge of the Desert.' The object of the 
movement into Egypt is openly confessed to become a great 
people ! We see the national bias in these words. The whole 
is written for Israel's glory ! Egjrptologists cannot help the 
Jewish account much. Dr. Robinson prepared a map that was 
published in Home's Introduction,^ on which Pithom is laid 
down near the " ancient canal " and Atham not far from Suez. 
But Exodus, xiv. 9, rather favors Mr. Brugsch, when it says : 

Hard by the jaws of ha-Chiroth before Bal Zephon. — Exod. ziy. 9. 

> It is not easy to reooncile the Egyptian dielike of foreigners with this reported 
loan. The Egyptians would not eat at the same table with a foreigner. Besides, the 
Hebrew slaves had taskmasters pat over them. Evidently Exodns was written when 
the Jews were bankers. 

It would require a laige amount of capital to move 600,000 men, without counting 
the transportation deficiencies and commiasariat 

* Jos. a Apion, L p. 1063L 
» April 4, 1885. 

* announce him. 

• Exodns, xii 87; ziiL 20. 

• New York, 1862. 

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1818 IN PHCENICIA. 241 

If the Hebrew Bible (Exodns, i. 11) says that the Israelites 
bnilt Pithom and Bamses, what becomes of the inconsistent 
Bevelation in the Septuagint (Exodus, i. 11) that adds to Pithom 
and Bamses the Egyptiari city On, Heliopolis. The object 
VX18 to make aid a atrongercase thnn Revelation had done already ; 
for the Hyhms ruled at On and Memphis. What shall we say 
of the further tradition that they built also Kessa (Katieh ? or 
some place in Kassistis ? \ «That it is doubtful, — but no Beve- 
lation ! We are indebted to the past for our very existence ; 
and, as a physician once said of a fashionable Sulphur Spring, 
we have to swallow the bad, to get the good in it. Mr. Poole 
tells us that ''the true interest /)f this reconstruction^ of the 
map of Eastern Lower Egypt lies in its bearing on the route 
of the Exodus." Before M. Naville attacked Tell-el-Maskutah 
it was uncertain whether the Israelites marched by the Wadi-t- 
Tumeylat, where the site lies, or by the Valley of the Wan- 
derings, parallel to the other wadi but leading from above 
Cairo to Suez. The uncertainty disappears when one looks 
closely into the motive of the Temple Scribes in writing the 
account of the Exodus, which is discredited for many reasons. 
The orientals were great poets and novelists ; and it is not 
surprising that every author who has'attempted to explain the 
Exodus as history comes to grief. In fact, the wanderings of 
the Egyptologists in search of orthodoxy are more striking 
than any marvels that ever occurred during the march of 
Moses ^ for the promised land. 

Josephus says that the Exodus occurred at a time when the 
Assyrians had obtained control in Asia,^ and " fearing the power 
of the Assyrians, for these then controlled Asia," the Hebrews 
settled in Jerusalem.^ There is a choice here between the 14th 

» by M. Naville. 

' Did it ever occur to an Egyp^^^K^ ^^^^ ^ carry an army of 600,000 men on 
foot, not ooonting children (Exodus, xiL 87), without carrying any water along, eating 
quails and manna for sustenance, would be as '* unreasonable" as to *' force a g^reat 
body of people into a space far too small for them and into inevitable conflict with the 
Egyptian garrisons ? " 

3 Jos. a Apion, L p. 1089, 1040; Chwolsohn. die Ssabier, L 838. Joeephns is 
careful to state that King Saulatis foretaw the ftUure power of the Auyrians, — o. 
Apion, 1039. The skill of Josephus in argument would lead him to make this point at 
starting, to use it later as an argument already admitted and accepted ! Did Mdnetho 
state this of Saulatis ? 

* contra Apion, L p. 1040. On p. 10S9, Manetho (according to Josephus) tells us 
that ^* Saulatis dwelt in Memphis, and made the Upper as well as the Lower country 


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and 8tli centuries before our era. In the eig'hth century the 
Assyrian armies were quite active to the west, very much as 
Josephus states. If we take this view, it would bring the Exo- 
dus into the reign of Bocchoris ^ where Lysimachus placed it, 
say about b.o. 725.* But, returning to the Biblical naiTatives, 
the question is whether they are historical fact or scribal fic- 
tion. They make Eber the Ancestor.* But Heber (Eber) can 
be derived from Gheber/ Chebar, Abaris,^ or Ober (over, be- 
yond). A more probable derivation of the word is, 'Hebron 
(once C%ebron) where their Grandmother Sarah was buried.* 
They came somewhere from that neighborhood originally, for 
the on is but a termination \p the root Hebr (in Hebraioi). 
The Exodus account and Josephus's own " wanderings " and 
the March of Moses all have Jerusalem as the point to be 
reached I Does the inspired account give any explanation why 
Jebus was selected by a lot of people who had never heard of 
it, unless perhaps as a place too strong to be taken f To a Jew- 
ish writer at Jerusalem, inside its walls, it might not occur 
that any explanation on that point was necessary. 

The Arabs had a deity Hheber (compare Chebar, Gabar, 
Chebron and Gheber ^ a most ancient idoL* Mount Kasius di- 
vides Egypt from Syria* and Judea,^^ and the Arab Cloud-god " 
was named Kuzah. Koze is Edomite Zeus. Nehemia vii. 63, 
gives ''A<fa>9, a man's name. 

The Arab God KozB, ** the Idnmeans think him God." — Josephus, Ant. 
XV. 9. 

tributary.** This is likely to be the fact ; and this is a great help to understand the then 
condition of Egypt. 

> Bocharis, or Bokkhoris (in Manetho).— Sayce's Herod., L 470; Kntttel, System, 
Pb 100: Laath, Aegypt Chronol. p. 176. has ^^Menopbthis-PherSs-Bokkhoris, Pharao 
dee Bxodus, 1511-1491.'* The inflaenoe of Egyptian and Assyrian students has tended 
towards an early date for the Exodus. 

• August KnOtel puts it B.C. 727. 

• Eber, actually the designation of a district. — KOnig, Lehrgebiludo der Hebriiis- 
ohen Spraohe, p. 21. But Kdnig only says this in reference to the east, not at all in 
reference to Abaris. 

• 2 Samuel, v. 8 ; psalm, six. 4, S. Septuagint The elders of Israel anointed Daud 
at Chebron, 'Hebron. Heber could be construed horn Hebron ! 

• Abaris, Abari/A. 

• Gen. xxiii 2, 8. 

7 6, ch, hh, *h interchange, like k, g, oh. Cabar, Cabir. 

• Univ. Hist, xviii 887. 

• Herodotus, H. 168 ; Strabo, 76a 
«• Strabo, 760. 

" laoohos. 

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1818 IN PH(BmCIA. 243 

Josephiis states that the Hebrews in Egjrpt were forced to 
build Kessa. Kesem (Gk>sh-en) is said to have been the abode 
of the EbrewB (Hebrews) in the mythic period. Judea in 
Strabo's time extended to Mt. E^ius.^ Ahoxith is the Hebrew 
speech,^ and Abaris was the fortified post of the Hyksos on the 
Egyptian frontier. Jerusalem is S€dd, in the Egyptian narra- 
tiTe, to have been attacked from Abaris in Egypt, and the 
Bible account admits that the iuTaders and the native lebus- 
ites had a joint occupation, although it was long before the 
Hebrews got possession of the entire city lebus (Jerusalem). 

The Initiated of Jupiter Easius were in Pelusium.' Abaris 
was also called Typhon ^ because " Typhon cut the sinews of 
Jove on Mt. Easius." ' Achaz reigned at Jerusalem B.a 743- 
727, lochaz, 609-608, Ochozia, 888-887, and Ochozia in Israel, 
B.C. 900-899, — exhibiting proper names based on the name 
EozE (or lacchos) the Arab God of the clouds I That this was 
the Jewish God we are told by Juvenal when he says that the 
Jews adore nothing but the clouds and heaven's divinity. 

They adore nothing but the clonds and heaven's divinity. — Jnv. xiv. 97. 

To Amasah (Mase) in the Desert of Pharan, at Kadesh : 
" Brave the people settled in the land, and cities fortified, 
very great; and, too. Sons of Anak we have seen there. 
Amalak dwells in the land of Negeb, and the Ehatti and 
the labusi and the Amari dwelling in the mountains, and the 
Kanani ' settled on the sea and as far as Jordan's bank." ^ 

1 Strabo, 760. 

* Simonis Intiod. p. 4 ; €ren. xiy. 2 ; 3 Sam. xx. 14. The wonhippen of Setb 
were in Abaris, Pelnaium and Tanis. 

* Chwolflohn, die Ssabier, IL 1 10 ; qaotea Sextoi Bmpirioas. The name Hnksos would 
seem to locate these Scoarges of Egypt not far from Mt. Kasiaa, and the dty Kessa. 

« Seth-Typhon. Seth was the God of the Philistians. In the 280th year of 
Adam, in which Seth was bom, is the year 160 of the Kain.— Syncellns, L p. 16. 

* Jos. a Apion, I. ; Aponodoms, i. 0, 7 ; ApoUonins Bhod. ii 1214 : Mackay, 
Progress, IL 86. Joshna, xv. 16, mentions Aohsa. There are also Achaziah, Chosah, 
and Hakos, or AkSs.~l Chron. xxir. 10 ; xxvi 24. 

Joshua, XV. 4, claims to the River of E!gypt, which is not quite up to Mt. Kasius. 

* (Compare Ml Mas, or Mens Masion with the name MsP, MasS. 

7 Ag6n5r, the Phcenician Bel, or Agnl, appears to have given an impulse to the 
change of the Phoenician Ken (or OgSn) into Kanani *^ lowlanders " ; for the tendency 
was, at one time, to name a people after its deity. We may regard Abel and Ken as 
the two opposites in Palestine dualism. 

» Numbers, xiii 28, 29. 


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Go not ap (into these highlands) for lahoh is not in your midst. ' For the 
Amalaqi and the Kanani are there in yonr front, and jon will fall by the sword. 

And the Amaleqi and the Kanfini who dwelt in th^t monntain came down 
and struck them and pounded them as far as Ohormah.' — Numbers, ziy. ^45. 

And lesous being now aged, and seeing that the cities of 
the Chananites^ were not easily captured, by reason of the se- 
curity of the places in which they were and the strength of 
the walls, which, owing to the natural advantage of the cities, 
the surrounded expected to keep off their enemies from besieg- 
ing them through despair of taking them (for the Chananites, 
learning that the Israeli had made the Exodus out of Egypt to 
their destruction,* were during all that time at work making 
the cities stronger), gathering together the people unto Silo,' 
he orders an assembly . . . He said, declaring that kings 
thirty plus one, having ventured to give them battle, were 
overpowered, and that every army whatever, which trusting in 
its own force entered into action, was destroyed, so that no 
posterity to them remained. As to the cities, since indeed 
some have been taken, others required time and a long siege, 
etc. etc. . . . 

And lesous,* having thus said, found the multitude willing, 
and sent out men to measure their country, giving them some 
skilled geometricians."^ There were such under the Pharohs. 
Egjrptian land-surveyors are mentioned in an inscription on 
the tomb of Seti.^ 

Take up the Ark of the Covenant and cross (the river) before the people. — 
Joshua, iii. 6. 

1 They had left the ark of Inchoh. behind in camp. — ^ibid. xiv. 44. laohoh is a man 
of war. — Exodos, xv. 8. The Book of the Ware of lacAoh. — Numbers, xxi 14. 

3 Hormah. The Phcenioian cities ran from the Mediterranean at Tyre across 
Galilee to the region of Jordan in late times. 

t Joshna, xii 1. There is a good deal of mythoB oonnected with the name of Ramses. 

< Phoenicians, Chna. 

» Shilo. 

* Joshaa-l6sons. 

' Josephns, Ant. v. 1. 20, 21. Josephus takes care to show that the Hebrews knew 
geometry, and he is carefal not to tell that the Jews bad no smith in Israel (1 Sam. 
xiii 19). If at a later period no Israelite oonld obtain a spear or sword except Saul and 
Jonathan, how could the Israelites have gone out of Egypt an armed host ? — ^Elxodns, 
xiii. 18 ; xiv. 8. It would not be strange if the Temple scribes had chosen to see a 
likeness between the names Akonb or lakoub and the i^^3rptian Kouphu the builder of 
the Great Pyramid. Where a political motive is the leading one, it is not probable 
that Asiatics would have chronological scruples ; particularly if one is a fictitious char- 
acter or a deity-name euhemerised. 

« Brugsch, IL 4L 


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1818 IN PHIENICIA. 246 

'' And they began the calnmnies against ns to be sure in 
Egypt.^ And some wishing to favor them undertook to per- 
vert the tmth, not culmiUing the coming of our pivgenitors into 
Egypt as it reaUy happened^ nor speaking irvih abotU the Exodus. 
And they took up many causes of enmity and ill-will. The 
first thing was that our ancestors grew powerful in their coun- 
try and, removing therefrom into their own, were again suc- 
cessful." * These words reveal a great deal. They admit that 
the Jewish story of the Hebrew entrance into Egypt and their 
Exodus from Egypt was already denied in the first century.^ 
Strabo, however, had heard, at Jerusalem or elsewhere, that 
the Moses was one of the Egyptian priests,* that the loudaioi 
(laudi, from Aud, Ad) ^ were descended from the Egyptians,* 
that Judaea (Adah, Adaia) was inhabited by mixed races of 
Arabs, Phoenicians and Egyptians, emd that (as Juvenal said) 
they had no image. As this was about B.C. 50, it was high 
time for Strabo to have heard of it. He holds that the Jewish 
idea of the Deity is " this one (unity) which surrotmds us all 
and earth and sea, which we call heaven and kosmos and the 
essence (phusis) of the intelligible entities." ' A most intelli- 
gible description of Judaism I Theism at the root of the Intel- 
ligible Entities 1 Eather Platonic. 

In endeavoring to connect the Exodus of the Israelite 
laudi (the name laudi is taken from E. Schrader, Die Keilin- 
schriften und das Alte Testament, p. 188) with the Egyptian 
history we must leave out of the account Manetho's narrative 
of the expulsion of the Hyksos. It is only by means of the in- 
terpolations of Josephus that it has appeared to describe the 
Exodus of the Israelites. Manetho never represents the Hyk- 

1 for ^ atytfvnor, a better reading perhaps would he pkviw axf&vr^ ; reading '* in- 
deed in E^gyp^" 

* Joi. contra Apion, L p. 1051. If Manetho had mentioned the EzodoB as described 
in the Old Testament Ensebias wonld not have been silent aboat it. He merely quotes 
Josephus, who claims in his own fiiyor a disputed point. 

' The scribe's national bias appears in the words : Alohim sent me before you to 
place for you a residuum (a posterity) on earth ; and for the living, for yon, unto a 
great liberation !— Oen. zly. 7. That is, for you to live for a great deliverance ! In the 
Satum-Seph religion (the Religion of Sephuia) they adored Suphis or loseph, Sev. 

* Hence Initiated into the Mysteries ; for Moses was learned in all the sophia of the 
Egyptians.— Acts, vil 22. 

* Ad (Od) ; the altar of Ad.— Joshua, xxii 84. 

* Josephus denied this, as we have seen. The circumcision was Egyptian and Arab. 
' Strabo, 760, 761. He here agrees with Exodus and Juvenal The Egyptian 

Eneph represents a similar idea.— Compare Uhlemann, Troth, p. 26; Kenriok, L 814. 


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SOS as the same with the Jews, although Josephus artfully 
slides the words " our forefathers " into the account which he 
has given, apparently on Manetho's authority.* He is quoted 
by Josephus as saying that the Hyksos established them- 
selves in Judaea and built Jerusalem. The main motive of 
Josephus is plainly to be seen in his attempt, in his reply to 
Apion, to win a show of antiquity and former greatness for his 
nation that had always been a subject people, according to 
Tacitus, of Egypt or Mesopotamia, with the exception of the 
period when the Makkabees reigned. The tribes Judah and 
Sumeon are said to have taken Askalon and Azotos,^ but not 
Graza and Akkaron.^ This is the furthest position that Judas 
Makkabaeus reached in his first campaign to the South. Jose- 
phus admits that Jerusalem belonged after the Exodus to the 
Beni Ammon and, later, to the lebusim down to Dauid's time/ 
So that he cannot take much benefit from Manetho's words, 
if they are really his, for Manetho identifies the Hyksos with 
the Beni Ammon, Seirites, or the lebusites. The statement 
of Herodotus* that the Shepherd Philitios (Philistios) kept 
flocks in the regions near the Pyramids in the time of Khufu- 
Kheopha and Khafra-Khephren points directly to the incur- 
sions of the Philistines or Kefa as far as Ghizeh, and evidently 
gives support to the theory of a Phoenician dynasty in Egypt. 
The unpopularity of these Pyramid-builders is attested both 
by Herodotus, 11. 128, and by Petrie's account of the way 
Khufu's and Khafra's statues were smashed.* 

Josephus tried to identify the Jews with the Shepherds of 
Syria, and in this follows the same line of argument that the 
Jewish scripture follows ; but his aim is to make out that the 
Shepherds left Egypt 390 years before Danaus went to Argos : 

1 Kenrick^ IL 158, 159, 267. 
> the name Aseth or Aaoth ? 
» Jos. Ant. V. a, 4. 

• Beniamin.— Jos. Ant. v. 5 ; vii. 8. 1, 2. 

• Herod. H 128. JoeephoB may have falsified whete Maaetho, for once, waa tell- 
ing hiatory. He, however, ohargea him with introducing an interpolcUed king, Amen- 
ophia. — Jos. c. Apion, I. 26. Acoordinff to Manetho, Rameaes ia son of Amenophis. — 
Ibid. p. 1057. Bamaes IL is son of Seti I. Having thns brought Manetho' s exodos to 
the period of Ramses, Josephus rests, content with denying plumply what does not 
suit his purpose. What now is to be said of Khufu, Khafra and Menkara, who are 
placed 2000 years after their time by Herodotus and Diodorus ; so Mr. Sayce says ! 
Bawlinson places the Great Pyramid at about B.G. 2500. 

• Petrie, pp. 186, 217. 


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1818 IN Pn(BNICIA. 247 

which has a mythical aspect.^ And what he maintains con- 
cerning Hiram and Solomon has a similar look. So with Me- 
nander's testimony and that of Dins, as related by Josephus ; 
they are not very convincing. It is far different when he 
quotes Berosus to the campaign of Nabuchodorossar in Syria 
and to the Babylonian Captivity. Here we come to something 
probable, because he is not writing about his own nation, but 

The mere fact that Masa, king of Moab, fought a cam- 
paign against the king of Jerusalem and' overcame lahoh (as 
the Moabite Stone records) refutes the statement (in Joshua, 
xii. 6, 7 ; xiii. 8, 9, 17, 25, and 1 Chronicles, v. 11) that the He- 
brews conquered that territoiy several hundred years previ- 
ously ; ^ for, about B.C. 890, Masa recorded his victory over the 
Jews on the Moabite Stone in an inscription with Tyrian let- 
ters. If Dibon had been given as a possession by Joshua to 
the Jewish tribes of Reuben and Gad, how came Masa (Mesha) 
and his father to be the reigning kings there as late as the 
ninth and tenth centuries before our era t The third part of 
the inscription, which is less legible, mentions a subsequent 
war against the Idumeans.^ This looks more like a Moabite 
territory than a Hebrew possession ! * Jeremiah, xxvii. 3, 
n\entions a king of Moab after Josiah's time, — in spite of the 
pun on Mo-ab. — Genesis, xix. 36, 37. 

In €m early period, from a thousand to two thousand years 
before our era there may have been writing and annals ; but 
the systems of chronology to which they have given rise have 
been influenced by different motives in different minds and 
countries, and sometimes probably by uniform theories that 
tremscended local and national boundaries. The most unreli- 

^ According to Mr. Sayoe, the varietieB of mn aooonnt given in Herodotus, IIL 45, 
regarding Polukrates and the Samians ahow that even in Samoa, where a library had 
once existed, and where Herodotus had every means of procuring information, events 
which had happened hardly a oentnry before were differently reported. It is clear, 
therefore, that the history was handed down by tradition, not in written reoords (see 
ch. 55). So at Athens it was possible for the contemporaries of Herodotas and Thok- 
ndides to doubt which of the two sons of Peisistratos, a century before, was the elder 
(Thuk. i. 20).— Sayoe, Herod. 250, 266. 

• Josh. XV. 1-4. 

» Taylor, Alphabet, I. 210. 

* Especially if we remember that the Hebrew Bible was not complete without the 
Book of Daniel which dates at least as late as the middle of the 2nd century before our 

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able factor at such remote periods was man himself. When 
however we come to a later period, hear Lepsius; " Criticism 
was completely out of their sphere, historical as well as philo- 
logical; and when, nevertheless, we do meet with it, it is 
generally unsatisfactory, and even from the most distinguished 
writers, astonishingly feeble. The school of professional Alex- 
andrian critics is by no means excepted. We find the most 
striking examples of this, particularly in the Christian chro- 
nologists, who were not wanting either in abundance of authori- 
ties, nor in extensive learning and honest intention.^ But we 
have actually seen, from the example of Josephus, as well as 
from earlier and later authors, how the opinion above men- 
tioned, of the identity of the Hyksos with the Jews, really 
gained admittance from various very superficial foimdations, 
and yet Josephus belonged undoubtedly to the most learned 
antiquarians ^ whom we can place under our observation here.' 
" The necessity for an agreement between the Christian-Jewish 
and the Egyptian computation of time produced, towards the 
end of the third, or the beginning of the fourth century, two 
spurious writings : first, the Old Chronicle, which retained the 
Egyptian cyclical point of view, that, namely, of the history of 
the gods, and even ei^tended it, yet in such a manner that the 
means of reduction was suggested by which these large num- 
bers might be compressed into the period assumed as that 
given by Moses for the time since Adam.^ With the same end 
in view the first 15 djmasties of man were transformed into 15 
generations. The next spurious work, the Sothis, professed to 
be Manethonic ; and could do this more easily because a long 
time had elapsed since the genuine history had been lost. This 
writing proceeded upon the same road as the Old Chronicle. 
By means of alterations and abbreviations it reduced the Egyp- 
tian numbers to certain epochs, which were considered as Bib- 
lical, and on the other hand partly abandoned the Cyclical 
basis. Eusebius, who wrote in the fourth century, was deceived 
by both these writings and endeavored to make their state- 

* probably intense partisans, and not wholly without personal motives. 
3 Lepsius is more charitable to Josephus than the author has been. 

'Lepsius, Letters, p. 487. Synoellus, in the 8th century, a.d., follows the false 
Sethis.— ibid. p. 490. Lepsius, p. 494, thinks B.C. 8898 the first year of Menes. Lauth 
locates Menes in Memphis B.O. 4125. 

* Lepsius must assume that Adam^s successors could record events, or else that this 
piece of information was handed down by Arab tradition ! — Lepsius, p. 458. 


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ments agree with the genuine Manethonic lists."' ''The 
arrangements proposed by the Book of Sothis and by Syn- 
cellus agree strictly with those of Eusebius ; they give also 
two national dynasties before the Shepherds ; but it is easy to 
see that the lists of names that they bring to these national 
dynasties do not deserve any confidence." ^ If a nation loses 
its monuments, either through its own fault or through cir- 
cumstances, it will be unable to preserve its history, which 
becomes confused and traditionary, and in place of the purely 
historical account which it has lost, it obtains, at the best, an- 
other principle of internal order; a poetic-mythological, as 
with the Greeks ; a philosophic-mythological, as with the In- 
dians ; or a religious one, as with the Israelites ; but it always 
loses its original value as a reproduction of a series of real 

In Homer's Iliad we find these Phoenician names : Agenor 
(xi. 69), Phoinix (ix. 168), the River lardan in Krete, the R. 
Sangarius in Phrygia, Aphareus the name of a leader, Meriones 
(II. v.), Gargarus (compare the Hebrew name Karkar or Khar- 
khor, Gbra, — Judg. iii. 15 — also Beth Kar), the R. lardan (H. 
vii. 135) ; and the intercourse between Troja and Sidon is shown 
to have been over the broad sea in Iliad vi. 291. In the 
Odyssey, viii. 100, Akroneus appears. Compare Akkaron, Ek- 
ron, the Philistian city. Greek trading with Egypt, Libya 
and Egyptian Thebes is seen in Odyssey iv. 80, 130. Akkaron 
is seen in Joshua, xix. 43. The Hebrew lachi (Life) is likewise 
the source of the Name lacchos. 

lahoh thundered from the heavens. — 2 Samuel, xxiL 14 
Zeus thundered greatly from Ida. — Homer, II. viii. 75. 

Uium,* Kadmus ^ and Phoinix • are names, like Dor, that con- 
nect Syria with Asia Minor, Kyprus, Krete and Greece. The 
Syrian myths were common to the Eilikians,^ who lived north 

> LeprioB, Letters, p. 408. Bohn. 

* Les arrangements proposes par le livre de Sothis et par le Synoelle s'aocordent a 
la rigenenr aveo ceox d^Eoaebe, etc. — Chabas, les Pastenrs, p. 15. 

* LepsioB, Letters, Introd. to the Ghronol. of the Egyptians, p. 868. 

* Compare B, EH. Eli : the city Elaeas at the entranoe of the Dardanelles. 

* Kadmah means *'to the east^' Kadmah. — Gen. xxv. 15. Kadmath. — Joshua, 
xiiL 18. Kadimah, a district, farther east mi kedem *'from the east." 


' Strabo, 626. ** Others in Kilikia and certain ones in Syria make np this particnlar 
myth."-Strabo, 62a 

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of Kyprus, from Tarsus westward. Then we have a migration 
from the Orontes and Kilikia through the countries repre- 
sented by the names Lud, Kar, and Mus, into Phrygia, past 
Tereia and Troia to the Propontis, thence to Thrake, Bceotia 
and Thebes. Phoenician (or Khetian) arts passed up to Kap- 
padokia and the Black Sea,, associated with such Syro-Phcmidan 
and Hebrew ideas as are found in the drama of Iphigenda at 
Taurus : namely, not to touch a corpse, nor even a child-bed, 
nor even lightly with his hands touch a dead body.^ Do not 
shave a spot between your eyes for one dead. — Deuteron. xiv. 1. 
No Hebrew priest was allowed to be contaminated for the 
dead, except in certain cases ; and the Highpriest must not go 
to any corpses of the dead. In the note 1, it will be seen that 
these notions extended from the Black Sea down through Syria 
to India : mater sit immunda per puerperium, and continues 
so for 7 days. — ^Leviticus, xii. 2, 4 ; Lightf oot, 734. 

1 Euripides, Iphig. in Tanr. 881 , 882. If any priest of By bios (in Syria) Bhonld 
look on a corpse he stays away that day from the temple ; and he goes there the next 
day but one after having purified himself. All the relatives of the deceased are impure 
and keep away from the temple for thirty days, when, having shaved their heads, they 
enter it. Before doing this it is unholy for them to enter. — Lucian, de Dea Syria*, 53. 
The Hindus also have this horror at the remain&of all that has be^ alive.— Jacolliot, 
Fakirs, 108. So too the Jewa— Numbers, ix. 6, 7. The Hindus, like the people of 
Tauris and the Syrians, regarded a child-bed as defilement. *^ There comes a new life 
into the world, and in those sacred hours when a mother trembles between this world 
and the next, she is usually treated like a thing, even in the best orthodox Hindu- Pagan 
families. She is put into the worst room, probably, and for days and weeks no one is 
allowed to go near her. The air of the room may be like that of a miniature black-hole 
of Calcutta, and yet there is no attempt made to purify it. She has only coarse food ; 
any touch of this mother by other members of the household is pollution." Rev. 
Joseph Cook, Lecture. Boston Daily Advertiser, March 13, 1888. Nimirum, hae sunt 
magnae et mirae, illae res quas Deus patrat in formatione infantis. — R. Jochanan; 
Wagenseil's Sota, p. 71; Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. 619, 806., Childbi^h makes a woman 
unclean seven days. During her purification, which lasts thirty-three days, she is to 
touch no hallowe<| thing, and is not allowed to visit the Temple. — Leviticus, xii 2, 4 ; 
Epistle of Jeremiah (Baruch, vi. 29) 29. No one oould die or be delivered of an infant 
within the sacred grove of iEsonlapius. — ^Pausanias, TL 27, 2. We now see what defiled 
the Jewish temple, when dead men^s bones were strewn there, as Josephus relates. 
The Hebrew Deity was the Gk>d of Life, not the God of the dead bodies. 

In the Vedic period, on the day when the corpse of a Hindu was burned the rela- 
tives bathed. The following ten days were days of mourning, or, as they were after- 
wards called, dayv of impurity ^ when the mourners withdrew from contact with the 
world After the collection of the ashes, they bathed and offered a ^rftddha to the de- 
parted.— Max Mailer, 234. They stuck to Bal Pour and ate the sacrifices of the dead. 
— Psalm, cvi. 28. The funeral feast was a Babylonian institution. — Epistle of Jere- 
miah, 32. The feasts given to those invited to assist at a /^raddha were sometimes 
very sumptuous, and meat was eaten, even the killing and eating a cow was allowed at 
them.— Max MiiUer, 241, 375, 376 ; Monier Williams, Lid. Wisd. 207, 208, 253-25a 


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Kypros is visible from Bmmanah in Syria, in the Lebanon 
about four hours' distance from Beirut, and on the death of 
one of the family of the emir of the village, the people were 
not permitted to wash their clothes for 40 days. This was the 
custom.^ In most respects the Jew and Moslem did not differ. 
Neither can eat the flesh with any of its blood left in it ; the 
hare defiles the Moslem, and the Jew was forbidden to eat it.' 
Like the Moslems and Hindus, Jacob had four wives. 

The accident is this. He is not pore ; for he is onoleAn.— 1 Samuel, xx. 26. 

Homer mentions Arubas, a Phoenikian from Sidon.' Homer 
also has the name Eebriones (IL viii. 317) which is the Phoeni- 
cian and Hebrew Gabor (and Akbar). Li Rhodes whole layers 
of discoveries have a purely Phoenician character.^ Agenor, 
Assaeus, Phoinix (Hiad, ix. 168) point at once to Phoenicia. 
Kebriones' is formed from Eabar. 

From S3rria in different currents Semites penetrated into 
the peninsula of Asia Minor, the Lydians to the Hermus- 
valley, the Phoenicians to the south coast. The first emigra- 
tion of the Phoenicians from their narrow native land was to 
the shore of the sea of Cyprus (Eupros) to the lands at the 
southern foot of Taurus. They entered by sea and by land ; 
Eilikia, the nearest border-land, became a portion of Phoenicia, 
and in the mountains of Lukia (Lycia) a race related to them, 
the Solumi, firmly established themsel^s. In the regions 
most thickly settled by Phoenicians the races mingled so that 
the true nationality could appear doubtfuL Such mixed races 
were known also to the ancient inhabitants of Asia Minor and 
to them the Karians belonged first. Astura was a Phoenician 
city on the Karian coast opposite Rhodes. Phoenicians and 
Karians are in the oldest history of the peoples of the archipel- 

1 Syria and the Holy Land, pp. 83. 85. See Mensohen, p. 987 ; Levit. xii 2, 4 ; 
xxi. 2, 8; Numb. ix. 6, 7; xix. 11, 13; Buripidea, Alkest., 21, 22, W-IOI; Hippolyt., 

» Syria and the Holy Land, p. 292 ; Levit. xi. 6. 

* Odyaeey, xy. 826. Compare the Hebrew name Arba.— Joehoa, xiv. 15. The 
lion is an Eastern symbol of the Son, Mithra. The fore part of a lion devooring his 
prey is fonnd on the early coinage of the cities of Western Asia Minor, which M. Fran- 
cis Lenormant considers to have been struck in Ionia. — Lenormant, PApulie et la Lu- 
canie, 11. 896-898. 

« Ifilchhoefer, p. 125. 


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ago * indissolubly connected together.^ Homer, Iliad, v. 9, 
has a Trojan named Dar-es. 

The name Dardanus shows that the Assyrian and Syrian 
Herakles (Melicertes, Melcarth), was very anciently known at 
Smyrna and Ephesus, as well as to the Trojans and Jews, by 
his name Adar, which is a name of the Phoenician Herakles- 
Moloch, that of a Jewish month, is retained in two places as 
the name of Dor in Palestine and is identical with the names 
Adar (1 Chron. viii. 3, 15), Adar-melech, Adar's tower (Gen. 
XXXV. 21), DarIus, Dorus and the Dorians. The Phrygian 
Herakles is the Phoenician. He took the city Ilion. Ach, the 
name of the Achaians,' resembles lach, Achis, Agis and Aug, 
means fire in Hebrew, and the Syrians, Hebrews, Moabites and 
Achseans were all Sabian fire worshippers. Dardanus is said 
to have taught the Mysteries of the Mother of the Gods, that 
appear to be the Mysteries of the Kabiri. '' Among the ancient 
population, the Phrygians, Semitic immigremts from the Eu- 
phrates had pushed in, pressing to the west along the Halys- 
valley, especially in the fruitful lowlands of the Hermos- 
stream, where they disappeared among older clans of Pelasgic 
origin. Thus the race of Ludians was formed upon the basis 
of a population related to the Phrygians and Armenians.'' ^ 
The Ludians derived their first dynasty of rulers from Atus, or 
Atys, a deity belonging to the circle of the Mountain-Mother, 
whose worship with its infuriating music filled the whole up- 
land country of Lydia and Phrygia.* 

The Pelopids were by descent Phrygian Thrakians. The 
affinities of the Thrakians lie with the Slavs and Lithua- 
nians on the one side and in other directions with Lranians and 
Greeks.' The line of connection between Phrygian and the 
other Aryan languages would seem to have been Pelasgian, 
Sclavonian, Sarmatian, Turanian, Median. Mr. A. H. Sayce 
says : " The scanty relics of the Aryan languages of Asia Minor 
found in inscriptions and the glosses of Greek grammarians 
belong to the Western division of the (Aryan) family, and thus 

1 Compare E. CnrtiaB, Grieoh. Gesoh. L 48-58. Kadmeia, a oitadel founded by 
KadmnB.— ibid. I. 80, 81. 

• Curtinfl. L 88, 50. 

> Prin^itive Achaians were in Kyprna and in Krete.— ib. L 83. 
« ib. I. 67 ; Rinok, Relig. d. HeUenen, L 121. 
» Cnrtius, I. 67. 

• Academy, Deo. 29, 1888. A. T. Evans ; Aagnst 28, 1884, p. 127. 

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1818 IN PH(ENICIA. 253 

bear out the old traditions which made Lydians, Earians, Mys- 
ians and Phrygians brethren one of the other, which derived 
the Mysians from Thrace (Thrake) and saw in the Phrygians 
the Thracian Briges. The Halys formed the eastern boundary 
of Aryan domination in Asia Minor ; the country beyond was 
possessed by Aiarodians,* certainly by tribes not of the Aryan 
stock." Mr. Sayce remarks that the Medes had not advanced 
from the west so far as Media Bhagiana before the ninth cen- 
tury B.C.' The Pelasgians may be traced step by step to a 
primitive settlement in Media. The Thracians, Getae, Scuthae 
and Sauromatae were so many links in a long chain connecting 
the Pelasgians with Media, the Sauromatae were at least in 
part allied to the Sclavonians, and the Pelasgian was unques- 
tionably most nearly allied to the Sclavonian. The Sclavonians 
originally dwelt in the north of Media in the countries close to 
Assyria, and Sclavonian is the point of transition from the 
Semitic to the Indo-Qermanic lemguages.^ Movers, Phonizier, 
L 20, points to an expansion of the Phoenician race into Thrake 
and the neighboring islands, and the festival of the Adonia was 
celebrated in Macedonia. — ^ibid. 21. Then we find the worship 
of Zahara, Zaretis, or Zaharet, in the north Aegean and in 
Thrake, where the Thrakian Venus was called Zerunthia. — ibid. 
22. The Phoeniciems preceded the Greeks in their settlements 
along the coasts of Asia Minor from Kilikia and Karia to 
Troja and Thrake. 

The Beni Kadm were in arms and pitched their tents in the 
valley Izrael.^ Eadmos was from Samothrake, and, as his name 
shows a Hero equivalent to Hermes.' 

Numenius believed that the wisdom of Greece flowed origi- 
nally from an Eastern source. He referred Plato to Pythag- 
oras, and Pythagoras to the sages of the East.* The Adonis 
worship is traced to Babylon where Hea^ ruled over water and 
Hades.^ Adonis in Hades is Pluto (represented as Bacchus 
with cloven foot and horns), and Zeus sent Iris (the Lunar 

1 from the Kankasas. 

« A. H. Sayoe, IL 71, 72. 

> Dnnlap, Vestiges, p. 328. 

« Judges, vi 33. 

« Gerhard, p. 261. The Hermes-worship oame from Samothrak8.— ibid. 262. 

• Bitter, Hist PhiL ir. 512 ; Basebins, pr. er. ix. 7 ; x. 10 ; xiv. 5. 

' Is it not Ghia, the God of life, lacohos in Hades ? lah or £a I 

•Dnnlap, B6d, L 2a note2; Hesiod, Theog. 783, 786. 


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Goddess Iriah, Rachel) to bring up the subterranean water. 
The Babylonian cylinder in the British Museum, which has 
been said to be a representation of Adam and Eve tempted by 
the Serpent to pluck the apple and eat, may perhaps be a 
Plutonian or Dionysiac * emblem having the horns of Diony- 
sus-Iacchos and the pine-tree as well as the serpent. But as 
the serpent is a chthonian emblem among the Etruskans, the 
scene seems to refer to the Hesperides Ghirden or some gloomy 
spot below, and the two figures may represent the priest and 
priestess in the Mysteries of Proserpine when they disappear 
below ; after which they reappear, and their appearance sym- 
bolises the return of life to the earth, of which the two pine- 
cones at the end of the lowest branches of that most forlorn 
tree may indicate the first budding in the realm of Hades. 
But the horns point to Lunus or Sin, the Osiris-Dionysus. 
This Babylonian cylinder representing the two figures clothed 
cannot indicate Adam and Eve, as both were naked ; as the 
custom was to represent (the spirits) Dionysus and Demeter, 
the mother of every living. As the serpent did not necessarily 
signify the Evil principle, but was a symbol of the spirit in 
the Mysteries ; it is a fair inference that the third chapter of 
Genesis and the whole Pentateuch point to a late period of 
the Dionysus-worship between b.c. 160 and B.C. 86, when it was 
possible to mould the Old Testament religion into a positive 

ei ^ mmit >»/ *9^/>9 

" ra fjLvartov o opyi €VTvxfp lOiov. 

The Two Great Principia, Apasson and Taautha, the Taaut 
(Chochmah) and the Bena, Bel and Mulitta, Adonis and Venus, 
Moloch and Melechet, Amon and Mene (Minerva), Attis and 
Athena, were translated from the Euphrates and the Jordan 
into the Mythologies of Asia Minor, Egypt, Carthage, Greece 
and Italy. Adam and Eua (the Mighty Mother) were incor- 
porated in the Mysteries of the * entire inhabited earth.' The 
oriental philosophy of dualism in the Mysteries before Christ 
became extended beyond Palestine, as Christianism afterwards 
was. Thus in these Mysteries that were carried from Arabia 
to the West we behold the beginning of that unification that 

1 Orpheus is Dionysus Melampons, who founded his own Mysteries. ^Nork, Real- 
W5rtcrbuch, IH p. 850. The clothing is as great an objection to the Dionysus hy- 
pothesis as it is to the supposition that Adam is meant 


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the Boman Empire politically accomplished, that the Christian 
Church aimed at, the Paulinist of Asia contemplated, and Philo 
Judaens forecasted. They all adored Astarta (Aphrodite, with 
Her doves).* — 1 Kings, xi. 33. Adonis is the God of water and 
com.^ The Beni D6n ^ lived in the midst of Adonis-revivals 
and Lebanon reminiscences ; for this tribe dwelt in the Leba- 
non.^ Moses wrote Dan^ as the name in Abrahm*s time,* 
which contradicts Judges, xviii. 29, and thus discredits the 
written account. When in a drought ' Adonis was mourned, he 
was called Bacchus, from the Hebrew Bacoth, Mournings. 

Oreb (n^y) means the West, the dwellers in the West, the 
Hesperides. The an« Ereb, Erebus, is the Tamas ^ of Hades, 
where Orpheus, the Bephaim, and Erebenna Night dwelt. 
Orpheus is the Chthonian Bacchus Liber,® and Libera is the 
Euru-Dike. Kiriath Arba is a city of the Western Palestine, 
the ancient Chebron or 'Hebron. Take the b in Orb (3"iy), 
pronounce it a v, and we have Orva, Orfa, Orf^, Orf^us, the 
Dionysus orphneus.*® Pronounce the Hebrew B, V, in Binah, 
and we get the Boman Venus. 

In the midst of the rock there is a dark oaye 

Towards VieWeH, turned to Erebus.— Homer, Odyssey, xil. 80, 81. 

M. Lenormant exhibits the resurrection-idea in the Diony- 
siac Mysteries in the eighth century before Christ. If then the 
scribes, sitting in the seat of Moses, do not in the Pentateuch 

1 Milchhoefer, Anfftnge der Kaiut in Griechenland, p. 8. 

* Compare peahn, Ixv. 9. 

* Dan, pronounced Don. We give the forms of the name, Adan, Aden, TanorA, 
Atan, Tan, Tanis, AtoniB, Tunis, TunSs ; compare the city names Adana, Danah and 
Taana.— See the Academy, No. 585, p. 102. "Tenedos" (Tan's seat), Atten's abode, 
**wa8 left behind.*' — Quint. Smyr. vi 407. 

< Judges, rdii 27, 38, 29 ; compare Munk, Palestine, p. 88. See Joshua, xiii. 6 ; 
xni la 

* These Danites in the Lebanon or near Ekron and Asdod are likely to have adored 
Bal Adonis and the fair-ankled DanaS, the Venus. — See Ezekiel, viil 5. 

* Genesis, ziv. 14 ; Deuteron. xxziv. 1. 

» Joel, i. 9, 10, 18, 14 ; Zachariah, xii 11. 

* Tamaseion, Tamaseum, the Garden of Hades. 

» P. Nork, Real-Wdrterbuoh, III. 850. 0rphn6 is Darkness. y\^ is dark, evening. 
Oreph in Isaiah, Ixvi 8, means Destroyer, Killer. Darkness belongs in Erebus.— 
Quint. Smym., zii 117. At dark Pluto carried off Proserpina. 

>* from orphnds, dark. The ideas orbus, destitute, empty, bereft, deprived, uidua- 
tus are also connected with Hades and Orpheus. Urpha in New Persian means fire. — 
Nork, Hebr. Wdrterbuoh, p. 21. 

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once mention the resurrection of the dead, while the Prophets, 
Psalms and Job are full of it, indifference to this great Pharisee 
doctrine is undoubtedly owing to the influence of the Sadukean 
opinions at the Court of the Jewish Highpriest, and furnishes 
an approximate date for the Pentateuch. It is rather surpris- 
ing that the Egyptian " Book of the Dead " should unite the 
departed souls with Osiris in heaven, and that Moses, who is 
assumed to have brought the Mysteries out of Egypt, should 
keep his mouth closed tight in regard to the ascension of de- 
parted souls. It is a fact that the eschatology, the doctrine of 
the End of the world,^ appears in Genesis, xlix. 1. 

It is perfectly clear that the great mass of Levitical legisla- 
tion, with the ritual entirely constructed for the sanctuary of 
the ark and the priests of the house of Aaron, cannot have had 
practical currency and recognition in the Northern Kingdom.^ 
The priests could not have stultified themselves by accepting 
the authority of a code according to which their whole worship 
was schismatic ; nor can the code have been the basis of pop- 
ular faith or prophetic doctrine, since Elijah and Elisha had 
no quarrel with the sanctuaries of their nation. Hosea him- 
self, in his bitter complaints against the priests, never up- 
braids them as schismatic usurpers of an illegitimate authority, 
but speaks of them as men who had proved untrue to a legit- 
imate and lofty office. The same argument proves that the 
code of Deuteronomy was unknown, for it also treats all the 
northern sanctuaries as schismatic and heathenish, acknowl- 
edging but one place of lawful pilgrimage for all the seed of 
Jacob.^ Thoughtful and godly men of the Northern Kingdom 
understood the religion of Jehovah* though they knew noth- 
ing of the greater Pentateuchal codes.' 

Who averts his ear from hearing Thorah, even his prayers are abomination. 
— Proverbs, xxviii. 9. 

My flesh also shall live in hope, 

For thou wilt not not leave my sonl in Hades 

Neither wilt thou give thy chabid • to see corruption.— Psalm, xvi. 9, 10. 

1 Acharith bajjomin, the End of the days, the final days.— Gren. xlix. 1. 
« IsraeL 

* W. Robertson Smith, the Prophets of Israel, 118. 

* Ihoh, la'hoh, * the four letters.' 

* W. R. Smith, the Prophets, 118. Deuteronomy, xvii. 14, 15, is not altogether in 
aooord with 1 Samuel, xii. 19. 

* 2 Kings xxiii 7 ; Ovid, Fast iii. 528 ; Lncian, de Dea Syria, 50, 51. 

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The Chasidim were the oasti (chasidi or chasdim) ; the Jewish 
religion requiring self-denial and chastity particularly. The 
Galli or eunuch-priests, according to Isaiah, Ivi. 3, 4, belonged 
to the order of the zadikim or chasidim,^ and performed in the 

The Mysteries of lar/ioh are for those who fear him. — Psalm, zxv. 14. 

Let the praise of him be in the *' qahal *' ' of the chasidim. — Psalm, oxliz. 1. 

They heard a great yoioe from heaven, saying : Come up here t 

And they ascended up to heaven In a olond. — Rev. zi. 12. 

The dead in Ghristos will rise first ; then we who remain alive will be canght 
np with them in the clouds* to meet the Kurios in the air.— Thessalonians, iv. 

Immortal time shall not indeed destroy the family of the blest ! — Quintus 
Smyrn. xiv. 256. 

Clemens Alexandrinus, explaining the passage, in the tenth 
book of Plato, respecting the path of souls over the meadow 
which arrive at their destination on the eighth day, says that 
the seven days correspond to the seven planets, and that the 
road they take afterwards leads them to the eighth heaven, 
namely the heaven of the fixed stars or the firmament. There 
is an eighth door in the cave of Mithra which is on the sum- 
mit of the ladder ' on which are the seven doors of the planets 
through which the souls pass. We have now arrived at the 
eighth heaven, or the firmament.^ The place to which souls 
ascended before the last Judgment was the moon.' The Elysian 
fields were situated beyond the cone of shadow which the 
earth projects when opposite the sun and which the moon tra- 
verses during eclipses. The virtuous soul3 remain in the moon, 
where they are in a condition which is agreeable but not per- 
fectly happy.® Pindar' represents Hades holding the staff 

1 Jennings, Jewish Ant., 263. 

* Lncian, de Dea Syria, 50. 

' Kal5 in Latin, tiaXim in Greek. 

« In the Book of Daniel, the Messiah appears as bar Anos in the dooda 

> laqaVs ladder. 

• Mankind, p. 536. 
f ibid. 555. 

p. 556. Here is the holy city which had the mystic name Jemaalem, which, ac- 
cording to St. Angustine, de oivitate Dei^ XIX. cap. xL, means Vision of Peace. — Man- 
kind, 558. Lncian Verae Hist. IL, 6, 11. describes this city of the happy, the city of 
gold, etc. See Rev. xxi 18 ff. 

» Bom B.C. 523. Prof. Rossi found in the catacombs beyond the Porto Sebastiano 
a fresco representing a man seated at a table between two allegorical figures. On one 


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with which he leads down by the deep hollow way the souls 
to the mansions below. 

Mj bone was not bid from Tbee wben I was made in secret, curiously 
wrongbt in tbe lowest chambers of tbe earth. — Ps. cxxxix. 15. 

There is a certain primal Light blessed, incorruptible, 
boundless, in the power of Buthos (the Deep). But this is the 
Father of all, and is called first " Man ;" but Ennoia (Mind, 
Logos) is His forth-proceeding Son, Son of the (Father) who 
sends him forth, and this is the Son of the " Man," second Man. 
Next after these is the Sacred Spiritus, and under the Spirit 
above were the elements separated, water, the tenebrae, the 
abyss, chaos. — Irenaeus, I. xxxiv. It is plain enough that this 
sort of gnostic * antecosmogony ' preceded the first chapter of 
Genesis, verses 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. The infinite Power is Fire, says 
Simon Magus, and its nature is twofold. Adam is the ^ Man ' 
in the Moon that is at once both male and female ; ^ " for one is 
the blessed nature of the blessed Man on high." '* Adam is al- 
so addressed as the Moon's horn and identified with Adonis- 
Attis.^ He was adored as the Persian Mithra in male and 
female form/ The Naaseni called the " primal Power of all " 
Man, the same as Son of Man ; him they divide into three parts. 
For, say they, the Litelligent belongs to him, and the Psychi- 
cal and the material. And they call him Adamas and consider 
that the Gnosis (knowledge) of him is the beginning of the 
ability to know God ! * Danae is Edem ; ^ which is the name of 
the Adonis-garden or Garden of Adan (Eden) in the sides of 
the North, under Ararat, whence the Phasis, Arases, Tigris and 
Euphrates flow. '*The Samothracians, in the Mysteries per- 

side is the inscription, Irene^ da caldam^ and, on the other, Agape^ misce mihi. The 
banqueter, says RoBsi, in evidently a departed soul partaldng of the eternal feast and 
attended by Irene and Agape. 

» Hippolytus, ▼. 6, S. Duncker, 132, 150 ; Miller, pp. 94, 106. Adam corresponds 
to Satum-Kronoa.— See Palmer, Egypt Chronicles, 435. That is to Alohira.— Gen. i. I. 

a ibid. Duncker, p. 150 ; Miller, p. 106. " Another is the mortal nature below."— 
ibid. p. 150; p. 106. 

« ibid. pp. 150, 168 ; Miller, pp. 106, 119. Dionysus is on the breast of the Dark 
Virgin, Damia, DCmStSr. laoohos is DBmCtCr's Boy and Spoune.— (Jerhard, Gr. 
My thoL § 419. p. 458. Adonis is Son and Husband. 

« Julius Firmious Matemus, de Errore, v. pp. 65, 66; Gerhard, Gr. M. Anhang, 
partn. p. 332. 

» Hippolytus, X. 9. 

• ibid. V. 26. p. 22a Duncker. 


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1818 IN PH(EmCIA. 269 

formed amon^ them, hand down that Adam is primal Man.'* ^ 
The Samothracian Mysteries came from the Orient ;* in that 
ease they are Adonis-mysteries, with which the Adam (Invic- 
tus) is closely connected, like Zagreus bimorphos in Hades ; 
for both Adam and Zagreus are represented in dual nature, 
like Dionysus^ and Amon-Mene. Posaidonios is the Hades 
Watergod (the spiritus in the sea-water), Adam Lunus, Allah 
Sin, Hermes-Aphroditus Adonaios. Zagreus is the Phrygian 
Serpent-God ; ^ compare the Serpent associated in Grenesis with 
Adam's moon-plant,' the holy Hom, or tree of Ufe. The gene- 
sis took place in the moon, according to the ancients ; for it 
was the seat of the four elements. Adonis enters the moon, 
like Adam and Osiris, and is become diphues, like the Kabba- 
list I-ah, lachoh, lao and laoh (the Hebrew tetragrammaton 
7\MV), Adonis was called in Kyprus Ao (the beginning and the 
end, the alpha and omega). Damia (Eua, Demeter) is the name 
of the lunar half of Dionysus.* The Greeks carried their script- 
ures in the box (or ark) of Demeter.^ Kora seems to come from 
Samothrake and Thebes.^ The Arabian Dionysus is Moloch- 
Saturn with offerings of slaughtered men and children. 

Philo's remark that " God, making Intellect * first, called it 
Adam ; afterwards he created Sensation '^ to which he gave 
the name of Life " " appears to be kabalist doctrine. Servius 
tells us that from the moon we got our corpus. Now Isis (in 
Hebrew Asah, Issa, and Aisah ^) is the Moon,^^ where primal 
matter was in watery shape. 

*' Lana regit menses.'* 

For the Life-god '* had entirely closed every uterus of the 'house of Abime- 
lech on account of Sarach the (lunar) wife of Abrahm. — Gen. xx. 18. 

» ibid. ▼. a p. 152. 

« See Gerhard, pp. 496, 446, 428, 430-438, 435, 436, 440, 443, 445, 483, 485, 503, 504, 
506, 518, 140, 142, 382, 891, 484. Demet6r Melaina is the Death-goddess.— ibid. 452, 

* ibid. pp. 503^505. 

« ibid. 435, 502, 504. 

• Compare the man-woman Aphiodit. — Grerhard, pp. 534, 585i. 

• ibid. 441, 451. 


* Divine Mind, Logos. 
10 Sensum. Ena. 

" Philo, Qoaest. i 53. See below. 

13 The point being added. 

» Diodoms Siculus, 1. 10. 

1* Bromios, lacchos, lachoh, la^hoh, laO, and Kneph. 

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Abrahm and Sara'h are brother and sister/ like Osiris and 
Isis.^ The Logos and its Sakti could always be represented 
as brother and sister, like Apollo and Diana or Minerva, or 
Adam and Eua, in the Hermaphrodite or Hermathena. This 
completes the mythological parallelism between Osiris, 
Abrahm, Brahma and Isis, Ishah, Sara'h, Sarasvati. The 
Egyptians held that the legends about Osiris and Isis and all 
their other mythological fables refer either to the stars, their 
appearances and occultations and the periods of their risings, 
or to the increase and decrease of the moon, or to the cycles 
of the sun, or the diurnal and nocturnal hemispheres, or to 
the Kiver.^ Those Egyptian priests, says Lepsius, were 
versed in astronomy, but mysterious and far from commimica- 
tive ; it was only after the lapse of time, and by polite atten- 
tions, that they allowed themselves to be induced to commu- 
nicate some of their doctrines : but still the most part was kept 
concealed.* Plutarch mentions " the philosophy which covers 
up most subjects in myths and tales that have obscure sem- 
blances and manifestations of truth ; this they verily declare 
when they fitly place sphinxes before the temples, as if their 
theology had enigmatic wisdom." ^ This is the philosophy of 
the Jewish chacham ; and it has passed from the synagogue 
to the Church.^ 

In Saturn and Osiris the Syrians beheld the rulers of Dark- 
ness and Light,' and as they dreamed of the Eesurrection of 
Osiris from Hades, the Sphinx (Mithra's emblem) rose above 
the sands pointing beyond the cemetery of the pyramids to the 
ever-recurring mom in the east, — the eternal symbol of the 
Return of Osiris from darkness to light. This consolation of 
the oriental religion has been handed down from Persian, 
Egyptian, Arab, and Jew until it has become^the pillar of the 
Christian faith. In the hall of the martyred Adonis the per- 
fume of myrrh filled the air,^ In the temple at Jerusalem the 
ceremonies of the God's death and mourning were performed,* 

» Gen. XX. 2. 
s Diodoros, I. 13. 
' Prom Chaeremon. 

* Lepsius, Letters, p. 886 ; Strabo, xrii p. 806. 
ft Plutarch de Iside, 9. 

• Whatever has been created is finite, and the finite is inoladed in the infinite. 
"> Gen. i IS, points to the separation between the light and the darkness, 

« P. Gener, la Mort du Diable, p. 62. 
•Eiekiel, viiiS, 6, 14. 

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and when the Magi appeared before the new-bom Child of 
Light they broaght as offerings the Mithra-symbols, gold, 
frankincense, and myrrh ^ to Jerusalem. The ancients seem to 
have founded their hopes of the resurrection of the soul and 
body entirely upon the notion that the Sun ^ returns from the 
region of Darkness and death under the earth's surface. 

According to Josephus ^ the Greeks related that the oldest 
of their Gods were bound in Tartarus. Josephus might have 
added in reference to Osiris and Turn (Atam) that the same 
m3rthology occurred in the case of the Phoenician, Egyptian 
and Oriental Saturn. Take the names Hos, Kronos, Rhea, Seb, 
Maut, lachabel, Kab (Khabal) ^ or Keb, Kubele, Gabal, Dion- 
ysus, Adonis, Eua: these are mostly names of the oldest dei- 
ties. Seb and Saturn were Gods of the earth or infernal dei- 
ties, like Turn, Atamu,* Tammuz, or Adonis. We have the 
Deep couched beneath the earth (Deuteronomy, xxxiii. 13), the 
Abyss of waters (Genesis, i. 2, 7, 9), the subterranean waters 
(Exodus, XX. 4), the giving form to man in the lowest parts of 
earth (Psalm, cxxxix. 16), the description in Job, xix. 24, 26, of 
a redeemer God at the Acheron standing over the dust, the de- 
scription in Hesiod, Theogony, 783-786 of the water at the 
river Acheron, the great oath of the Gods, the many-named 
water beneath the earth, and lastly the hope expressed by 
psalm, xvi. 9, 10, unequivocally and distinctly expressed for 
both soul and body, as in Job, xix. 26. Saturn was earth-god 
in Eg3rpt and in Homer, and we have the right to assume in 
the regions between Greece and Egypt. At any rate Osiris 
was regarded as a Saviour in Egypt, and Tum, like Adonis, 
was considered the Greatest of Gods. Tum was styled * the 
maker of men,' * the Universal Lord,' * the Creator God,' and 
* the great Lord of created beings,' * the producer of the gods.'^ 

< Matthew, ii. 11. 

' Adamatofl, Invictas. 

» contra Apion, IL p. 10T7. 

•Josephus, Vita, 1016. 

* Rawlinson^s Egypt, I. p. 847, gives the hieroglyphs of Atm and Tmmoa, which 
can be read Atam and Tammn (like Tammos). Atam.~Bxodn8, xiii. 20. 

• BawUnion, L 348 ; Records of the Past, u. 181 ; ▼! 52 ; iv. 95 ; yiii. 14a The 
water of Ufe was in Hades the original place of Creation of the world. This feminine 
life was in Syrian philosophy called HaC the moist, or Ena the All-Mother, Rhea in 
Greek. In the Binah (Venns, Mother of all) every life was comprehended. —Rosen- 
roth, Apparatus in libmm Sohar, p. 891. Ha6 Ena is therefore in Gren. iii 20 called 
Mother of every life, of all living. 


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Like Adonis and lao, he was the Sun. Turn's name would 
seem to have been gfiven to the place named Atam in Exodus, 
xiii. 20, since the hieroglyphs corresponding to the letters Aim 
and Trnmu are given in Rawlinson's Egypt as names of Tum ; 
and there is no reason why the vowel a should not have been 
associated with the next preceding consonant, — a rule that has 
been generally followed in reading the Hebrew proper names 
in this work. Nor is there any reason why the Tamus (Tmuz, 
or, more strictly, Atamuz) ^ mentioned in Ezekiel, viii. 14 
should not have been adored by the Hebrews at the North gate 
of the Temple, since the entrance to the pyramids of Gizeh 
faced the north ; moreover, we find the names Asarac, Asour, 
Aser (a tribe near Tyre), and Sarazar (2 King^, xix. 37). Israel 
(altered from lasar and Asarel) is the same name as Asar (Osi- 
ris) with el (the usual termination of angel-names) added. 
Osiris is (with Isis, Issa) one of the first two Gods of Egypt, 
and returns, according to the Mysteries, like Adonis (Adoni, 
Adonai) from Sheol (Hades), and his resurrection from the 
Underworld was supposed to be in and by or through the con- 
stellation Orion. The worship of Tammuz was also known in 
Arabia ^ and his title Adon merely signifies the Lord ; so that 
we can assume a close connection between the polytheism of 
Syria and Egypt when Asar (Osiris) is death-angel, Osrain 
(Azrael) in Egypt, and the Hebrew Sacred Books do not allow 
the pharaoh to deprive the Egyptian priests of their lands (by 
the ministration of loseph) and Joshua^ grants 48 cities to the 
priests and loim (levites). Then we have the Beni Amon be- 
yond Jordan, and Amon, a Jewish king, bears the name of 
Amon the Bamgod of Egyptian Thebes. Osiris is Adonis the 
lover of Venus. laqab means lover in Hebrew ; he loves Lea ^ 
and Bachel, both phases of the moon. Adonis goes to Hades, 
and laqab goes there, and is mourned by the Egyptians ' with 
the Abel Misraim on the floor of Atad.* Now in regard to 

1 hatamuz, in Hebrew text. 

* 360 idols were at Mecca, among others Habal or Hobal, Satnm. Saturn is lao and 
El.— Movers, L 259. El is Elios, Helios, and lahoh. 

»Gen. xU. 46 ; xlvii 23, 26 ; Joshua, xxi. 41. 

* Aelioe — Sun. Dia (Lia, Lea) is Solar goddess Luna. Osiris enters the moon. 
He presides over the lunar world. Et in Binah comprehenditnr omnia vita. — ^Bosen* 
roth, p. 391. Asah means fire. — Movers, L 819. But Asah is the Benah and Eua. — 
Gen. ii 28. 

»Gen.l. 8, 7, 9-11. 

* Atad— Adad, the Sun. Hadad — Hatad here; for the Abel Misraiin is Egypt^s 


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I8I8 IN PH(BmOIA. 268 

Hadam, Adam is by tradition said to have been the Moon*s 
horn ; that is, he must, like Osiris, the Adonis and Herakles, 
have entered the moon. Ezekiel, viii. 3, 5, 12, 14, mentions the 
ceremonies performed in the Dark, in the scenery of the 
Shades, where the descent of the Adon to Hades is symboli- 
cally portrayed, and the services of the dead are performed to 
him,— while at the North gate of th^ Temple lay the image of 
the Lebanon Venus in misery, jealous of the Persephone or 
Proserpina to whom her Lover (Adamatos) has gone down. 
That North Gate of the Great Pyramid and the North Gate of 
the Jerusalem Temple faced in the same direction ! Adon 
beloved in Acheron ! The image of Aphrodite in the Lebanon 
is made with covered head, with a look of sadness, supporting 
her face with the left hand under her covering ; tears are be- 
lieved to distil in the sight of those looking at her. — Macro- 
bius, Sat. I. xxi. 5. This Old Phoenician idol is described by 
Francis Lenormant in the Gazette Arch6ol. 1876, pp. 98, 101, 
plate 26. The figure exactly corresponds to the description 
given by Macrobius, by Lenormant, and by Ezekiel, viii. 14, 
as to its attitude. It is Venus jealous for her Adonis that she 
has possessed ! " Bring back Adonis from ever-flowing Ache- 

The Persian Kaiomaras left at his death a tree of two sexes 
which produced the first pair. The tree was androgyne, like 
Adonis, Adam, and Meshia-Meshiane. The Moon of Hades 
was associated, for Lis (Irach) brings up the water of the Styx 
in a golden pitcher. At Memphis Aphrodite's temple was the 
temple of Selene (Lima), according to Strabo, 807. 

O Daughter of bright-girdled Sun, 

Selenaia, golden-circled Light — Euripides, Phoenissae, 175, 176. 

According to Ammian, Chaldaea was the nurse of the ancient 
philosophy. Athena is from Atten, and is the name of the 
Persian Goddess Anaitis. Li the times of the Caesars the 
Moon-deity (Adam, Adon, Adonis, Sin, Tamus, Lunus) at 
Charran in Mesopotamia was androgyne ^ . Having precon- 
ceived, or prefigured, the Generative Man, in whom they say 

Abel, the Mourning for the Adon (Adonis). Abers death is the death of Bel the Adon, 
Bal-Adon. In Gebal (Byblns), Oabal was Son-god. — Crenzer, Sym. I. 259. Joaephns, 
p. 1016, mentions a place named Khabal It was named after Gabal, the Son. Aka- 
bal, perhaps Saturn's name. 


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is the male and the female gender, afterwards he turns out the 
visible figure Adam. — Philo, Legal Allegories, IL 4. Aiid the 
Monad is divided, which generates two, Adam and Eua. Mi- 
nerva's emblems are the olive, the moon, and the owl. The an- 
cients regarded Athena as syn^hronos (occupying the same 
seat) with Apollo.— Julian, iv. 149. 

Korubas, then, the Great Helios, sharing his throne with the Mother, and 
uniting with Her in creating all things. — Jalian, Oratio, v. 167. 

Seeing the similaritj of Athena to the Mother of the Gods on account of the 
foreseeing (forecasting) resemblance in both the natures {(ohtrius). — Julian, y. 

Bearing the Sacred Light where thej 

All night perform rites to the Goddess. — Aristophanes, Frogs, 417. 

Athena was represented on a sarcophagus with a light in her 
hand. Athena was a feminine Apollo. — Nork, Keal-Worter- 
buch, in. 169. Demeter rises black from Hades, holding 
torches, with the Child lacchos also holding a torch. Com- 
pare the Festival of lights at Sais in Egypt, mentioned in 
Herodotus, ii. 62. The Sacred Tree is cut on that day on 
which the sun comes to the top of the equinoctial circle ; on 
the next day they go around with trumpets, on the third 
DAY the sacred mystical summer first-fruits of the God Gallus 
are cut : after these are the Hilaria Feasts. — Julian, in Matrem 
Deorum, 166, 168. The two principles. Spirit and Matter ap- 
pear in Julian, v. 162, 166. 

Giving to God the beginning of what is according to logos (Power creating 
through Wisdom), bnt not despoiling Matter of the causes necessary to the being 
born. — Plutarch, Defect. Orac, 47. 

The Gnosis of the First both Lord and mentally recognised, whom the 
Female God invites us to seek near Her, since He both is and coexists with 
Her.* The temple's name also announces plainly both gnosis and knowledge 
of the absolute divine being ; for it is called Iseion, as belonging to those about 
to know TO ON (the divine entity), if with wisdom and holily we should enter 
in to the Sacred Mysteries of the God in the feminine nature. — Plutarch, de 
Iside, 2. 

Under the logic of this reasoning the Ashera was certain to be 
found on Bal's altars. The moon borrows her light from the 
sun at the approach of evening and restores it to him again 
in the morning. — Philo, Quaest, in Gen. 90. The moon ob- 

> Ab Simon Magus said. 


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1818 IN Pn(ENICIA. 265 

tains her light from the sun. — Plato, Cratylns, ed. Stallbaum, 
p. 123. The moon is bom of the son, and the rain is produced 
from the moon.^ The Mauicheans held Christ's power to be 
located in the sun, his Wisdom in the moon. The Moon was 
male-female, Sin, Lunus, from Babylon to Egypt. Tuch 
(Zeitschr. D. M. G. iii 153) says that the Arabs at the close of 
the sixth century worshipped the Moon. 

The women wove huts for ABhera. — ^2 Kings, xxiii. 7. 

The oldest symbols of Ashera were a tree, tree-trunk, un- 
worked wood, a living tree, since in its green growth an in- 
stance of physical life was apparent. 

He placed the scnlptore of the Ashera in the temple of which lahoh said 
. . . iD this temple and in Jerusalem ... I will put mj Name to eternity.— 2 
Kings, xzL 7. 

The scribe in this passage is chargeable with making a polit- 
ical allusion ; but Ashera represented the " Mother of every 
living (thing)." Hera in Thespiae was the branch of a tree, 
in Samos it was a sanis (anything made of wood), at Argos a 
long wooden pillar, Artemis was a piece of unhewn wood, 
Athena at Lindus a smoothed pillar, statue, or base. Tertul- 
lian calls the attic Pallas crucis stipes tree of the cross. 
Ceres (Eeres) was a rude stake, without image. Latona at 
Delos was represented by wood not shaped into a statue. 
The Ashera, or some corresponding Qt>ddess in Persia, appears 
at times represented in oval shape. Wherever the Sungod 
(Bal) was adored the Ashera was with him.— Movers, I. 664 ; 2 
Kings, xxiii. 5, 6. The two upright cones * of stone were the 
Asherim of the Old Testament, the symbols of the Goddess of 
fertility (Hapharahdite), which stood at the entrance of the 
Phoenician temples, says Mr. Sayce. The Asherah is a repre- 
sentative of the receptive Power in the world, the Woman- 
power Diana, the Isis or Venus ; and belongs to the Adonis- 
Dionysus-Poseidon worship in the East, — to the mystic lore 
relatiiig to Dionysus-Zagreus and Persephone, to the " Man " 
and " Woman " in Hades (of which the serpent is a symbol), 
to Adam and Harmonia-Eua in the Hesperides-Garden. The 

1 Colebrooke. Relig. of the Hindus, 25i 
* See Movers, 844, 845. 


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isolated monuments were the stone cones or the bare tree- 
trunks which symbolised Asherah, the Goddess of fertility, 
and Baal the Sun-god.^ 

Achab built an altar in the temple of Bol in Samaria and 
made an Ashera.* The identity of the sacred Plant of the 
Assyrian monuments and the asherah of Palestine has been 
claimed by Ferguson and G. Kawlinson.^ On a cylinder of 
hard stone in the British Museum the figures of a man and 
woman can be seen, he wearing the Babylonian turban, seated 
face to face at the two sides of a tree with branches extended 
horizontally : from the lowest two branches two pointed pine 
or cedar cones hang down (at the same level on each side of 
the tree) towards an extended hand of the man on the one side 
and of the female on the other. Behind her a serpent stands 
up on the tip of his tail ^ like some of these guardians depicted 
in Etruscan tombs. Possibly these figures are Dionysus and 
Demeter in Hades ; for the serpent is an indication of some- 
thing spiritual and the Mysteries. In the most ancient Greek 
Mysteries they shouted Eua, simultaneously a serpent was 
shown. — Orelli, Sanchon., p. 14. Taking then the Lord Diony- 
sus-Adonis as Adam ^ and Eua as Persephone, the statue of 
the Binah is Hue (Venah, the All-mother rising from the foam 
of the sea) that is sent every year to bring up the water from 
the sea, having a golden dove on its head, — the " Aphrodite, 
Original Mother of our race," as Aeschylus calls Her, the 
Magna Mater and Ashera, the lana novella. Bacchus was Son 
of Luna • and Nah*s dove returns to the Ark with a lunar em- 
blem in its mouth, the olive-branch of Athena. Semiramis is 
Daughter of Venus ' and Venus is Asah, Issa, Isis, Heue, Hue 
Eua, and Eve. The dual emblem of Bal and Ashera was a 
base with a tree, trunk, or pole rising up from it, the pole 
often rising from the rouifd altar of Bal, a symbolism agreeing 
with that of the Hindus. Manassah set up a graven image of 
Ashera at Jerusalem. 

1 Sayce, Hibbert Leot. 409. In Jadges, vi. 25 an Ashera stood on Baal^s altar.— 
Movers, L 668. 

> 1 Kings, XTi. 82, 28. ihv nnXMvyAvw t^ /ltcA^cy»p.— Numbers, zzv. 8, 5. 

> Lenormant, Origines de rhistoire, L p. 90, note 1. 

« Lenorm. I 90 ; Lajard, Colte de Mithra, plate zvi. na 4. 

* The OnSsis and Theory of all Wisdom, which is Christ— Jnstin, Apologia, XL 
▼iil Christ is the fountain of the Gnosis of God.— Justin, Trypho, 81. 

• Cicero, N. D. iii 28. 
7 Mnnk, 62. 

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Knpris, tlie racers primal Mother, 

Defend :i from thy blood we are bom ! — AetohjrloB, Seven vs. Thebes, 140- 

The Mother, Sophia, through whom the nniverse was completed.— Philo, 
Quod. Det 16. 

The seed of life is much and superabundant in the (Mind) that is mind- 
perceived.— Julian, p. 140. 

In Syria we found the Adon and Binah (Vena), in Greece 
Apollo and Atena. Minerva is the f ontal Intelligence and Lif e.^ 
Her emblem is the moon,^ and the moon is called nature's self- 
seen image/ God's left hand power has control over suste- 
nance, which agnostia called Keres ; its (Hebrew) name is Bena ' 
(Vena). The moon is the rainy source. Hue, Eva. " The moist 
nature, being Beginning and Genesis of all things from the 
beginning, made three bodies, earth, air, and fire.'' • Venus 
(the Eua, Binah) was the Primal Mother of all. They call the 
Moon the Mother of the world ; ' and She declares herself all 
that has been, is, and will be,^ being undoubtedly a form of 
Allah Sin, his sakti.' Sakia Sinha, the Indian Herakles, the 
Lunar Lion, is the active energy '® identified with Budha." 
The light of the moon is given to the Goddess from the sun.^ 
Selene, whom being the last of the revolving bodies this God- 
dess filled (made full) by means of the Wisdom. By which the 
Selene contemplates both the mind-perceived things above the 
heaven and the things under her, adorning Matter (ten hulen) 
with the ideal forms.^ 

> avert. 

« Proverbs, viii 38, 29, SO. 

s the Woman^ Aisah, Iiah, Lub, Sarah 

« Taylor, Eleasinian and Baochio Mysieries, pp. 74, 87; Prokloa in Tim. p. 260; 
Apnleios, Metam. xi 

» Hippolytua, p. 186. 

• Flataroh, de laide, 83, 85, 86 ; Diodonu, L 7, implies this. See Cory, Anc. 

» ibid. 48. 

» ibid. 9. 
• * Compare Grenesis, iL 22, 23. 

1* the Logos, Hermes. Some of the ancient books of Hermes were still existing in 
the time of the Christians. — Cud worth, L 548. They are mentioned in Clemens Alex- 
andrinas, Strom 6, p. 633; Plntarch, de Iside, 57-61. Flntarch mentions them in his 
time.— de Iside, 61. 

»» Upham, p. la 

» Julian, 162. 

" Julian, iv. 150. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Qnare magna Deiim Mater, Materqne ferarum, 

£t uostri Genetrix Haec diota est corporis una. 

Hanc veteres Graiihn docti ceciuere poetae 

Snblimem in curru bijugos agitare leones : 

Aeris in epatio magnam pend«re docentes 

Tellurem ; neque posse in terra sistere terrain. 

Muralique caput summum oinxere corona : 

Eximiis munita locis qu6d sustinet Urbeis : 

Quo nunc insigni per maguas praedita terras 

Horrified fertur divinae Matris iniago. — Lucretius, 11. 609. 

la* hob makes die and live ; makes descend to sheol (Hades) and rise again f 
—1 Sam. ii 6. 

Genesis, ii. 7, describes Ha- Adam as filled with the breath 
of lives by laoh Alahim. During the 130 years when Adam 
was under rebuke he begat spirits (ruachoth) says the Midrash.^ 
The souls are spirits existing under the throne of God.^ Ab- 
rahm, Izchaq and laqob are the spirits. 

My spirit shaU not always strive in Adam (man) because be is also flesb. — 
Gen. vi. 3. 

The Hebrew s&hel signifies to shine bright. Suhel is the planet 
Saturn.^ Zehra means resplendent.* Fatimatu 'z Zehra means 
*the resplendent Fatima/ Muhammed's daughter. Zohar 
means (in Hebrew) * splendor.* In the same way, we have the 
brilliant planet Saturn, called in late Arabic Zuhhel ; Suhel. In 
Egyptian, anciently, 1 and r were apparently expressed by the 
same letter. Consequently Zahel and Zahar are, perhaps from 
the same root. In the later Arab style of writing Saturn's 
name (as planet), ^ is the letter now read hh. But a dot below 
causes it to be read g ; a dot above makes it ch. In Hebrew 
ch softens (in being written) into 'h ; and the h (he) like the 

^ MaimonideSf ob. vii. Friedlilnderf p. 50. 

' Wagenseil, Seta, 72, 73 ; Dnnlap, Sdd, II. 84, added page. MaimonideB suggeBta 
that the Biblical account of Adam is to be taken in a figurative sense.— Friedl&ader, 
p. 64, note. 

> Movers, L 390. Sakia is a deity of the Arab tribe Ad (Aad).— Univ. Hist. vol. 
xviiL 385. Compare the Jews, or ^ laadi^ Izak and leak, in Hebrew, mean ' to poor 
out.' Zaohaq would suit, with Demoniac laaghter. Zachar means to shine. 

4 London * Academy,' Nov. 27, 1886, p. 866. See also Lndwig Ideler, Stemnamen, 
p. 816. In Hebrew, "nnv means candor and candidus, nitidus, color illustriR. The He- 
brew name (of Isaac) is Izchaq pny. — Gen. xvii. 19. Izchaq is interpreted * making to 
langh ' ; which may refer to * shining/ or to the harvest festival of the ingathering. 
Izchaq, the Laugher. 


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Arabic hh must then represent the originally written cA. The 
name SAkia means ' shining* ' ; for in Hebrew we have the 
roots r\^ and rx^, each with the signification candidus, clarus, 
brilliant, shining ; and the root nn:{ (Zachach) meaning shin- 
ing, nitidiLS, in Latin. The Shining Star is Saturn ; izachach 
(izchak) means that " it shall shine " : therefore Izchak is the 
Shining Star of Isaac, whose name is written Izchaq in Hebrew. 
Considering that Saturn (Zachel, Suhel, Zouhhel) was regarded 
as a bad sign (as a baleful planet) and that Asu (Esau) is a 
name of the Evil Spirit (in Idumea) in the Desert, it is in this 
connection to be noted that Isaac (Zachel ?) has one bad son, 
Edom (Zohak), and lakab (Keb) the good boy. Izchaq is then 
Saturn. The Arab relations with Set and Satan have never 
been called in question by the cultivators of Palestine, who 
were aware of the doctrine of Persian Dualism.^ It is clear 
that Abrahm is represented as a people on the move contin- 
ually, between Kadesh and Shur, sometimes at Gerai- on the 
Philistian border. So that he abode in Idumea among what is 
later called the Esati tribes ; and his son is Ishmael. And 
Abrahm went down into Egypt.^ In fact, as the Scribes of 
Genesis taught a monotheist system of some sort (compare the 
7 Archangels, Persian Dualism, Dan. iii. 25, and Job, i. 6^, the 
getting rid of deities would be accomplished by turning them 
into patriarchs. 

With the lahoh Elohim of the Hebrew Bible we may com- 
pare the Mana Babba of the Chaldaean Gnostic Nazarenes or 
Mandaeans. Mana Babba is the Lord of Glory throned in the 
aether of the smNiNG world, through which flowed the Greatest 
Jordan, which is the Biver of the water of life, whence all 
things and plants that dwell in the shining world derive the 
spark of life. As Elohim calls 'Hadam (Adam) into being, so 
Mana created the " First Life," Hayya Kadmaya, and then re- 
tired into the profoundest obscurity ; which idea is conveyed 
in Genesis by the expression : Elohim ended his work which 
he had made, and he rested! The Shining World and the 
Hule of the Chaldaean Nazarenes seem to correspond tolerably 
to heaven and earth in Genesis. Like Adam, or Chadmaeus- 
'Hadmaios, Hayya Kadmaya is the creative, working God, the 

1 Zachariah, iii. 1. 

•Gen. xii. 10; xx. 1; xxxy. 12. 

3 Sons of the Gods, Beni ha-Alohim. 


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Logos proforikoB, but he is not the Demiurgus of these Gnos- 
tics, who is rather the Gahid of the Nazarenes. Hayya £ad- 
maya is the God to whom they pray, and he is often con- 
founded with Mana-Babba. 

From Hayya Kadmaya proceeded the Second Life, Haya 
Tiny ana (their Cain^), and Manda d'Hayya (their Abel), who 
is the ideal of goodness and purity, called Father, Angel- 
king, Beloved Son, Lord of worlds, Good Shepherd, Word of 
Life, Teacher and Saviour, Conqueror of hell and Chainer of 
the Devil ; he dwells with the Father and is the Christ of the 
Mandaite religion. This is Gabriel, the Abel Ziua of the Man- 
daeans; but the Christians sometimes and Jews usually de- 
volved on Michael^ and his angels the task of fighting the 
Devil. Manda d'Hayya, who is also called Adam Kadmaya 
reveals himself through his three sons Hebel, Sethel and Anus, 
which correspond to the Jewish Abel, Seth and Enos. The 
priests at the service dress in a white stola and white turban. 
They have a gold ring on the little finger of the right hand 
with the inscription " The Name of Yaver-Ziua." An olive 
staflF is borne in the left hand, the feet bare. If this is Chal- 
daean and Nazarene, it is also Jewish gnosis, and the Jewish 
Highpriest carried on the front of his turban the name of the 
God of Life Tahoh miT, or, as many prefer to wrongly read the 
" POUR LETTERS," Yahveh. This name corresponds to Zeus and 
Adonis ^ or Adonai. The object of this comparison of Mandaite 
with Jewish is to show that their gnosis is nearly akin ; in 
other words that the Jewish patriarchs in Genesis are merely 
so many gnostic aeons closely agreeing in number with the 
Babylonian precosmogonial Powers. Adam is Dionysus- 
Adon, Hue the Moist, is Bena, Vena, Venus ; Asu (Esau) is 
the Spirit of destruction, Mars Saueh or Shemal-Ishmael, but 
lacob is Cupido. Like as (to breathe), Heuah (Hjn) means to 

> in Hebrew, Kin or Ken. The Mandaite Qneen of hell is named Kin. 

' The Mandaite Abator is the Father of angels, and Gabriel, called also Fetahil, is 
his reflection in the water of chaos. Ptahil is another translation to Fetahil. 

* A Mohammedan historian of the 10th century asserts that in his time the Man- 
daeans kept the Feast of Thammnz, the Babylonian prototype of Adonis. — Edinburgh 
Reriew, Joly, 1880. See Ezekiel, viii. 14, for the Jewish worship of Thammns, and St. 
Jerome, Ep. 49, ad Paulinum for its continuance in the immediate vicinity of the Holy 
Sepulchre in a.d. 886. — Dnnlap, S5d, IL pp. vii. viii 

The Mandaeans consult astrological books to learn what will happen in the new 
year and whether it will be fat or lean. 


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I8I8 IN PH(EN1CIA. 271 

breathe ; Bhe is the yital sensatiotiy breathing, actual life, fall, 
ruin. Max MuUer says * that ab with the meaning " to breathe " 
was not a Semitic root. The Hebrew contains, however, ir^t<, 
tLTi meaning " is," aiti Tl^N meaning " is " (ist, esti, asti), and 
^U^^< meaning female life (asah, asa) coming from as ** fire," "to 
be " ^ n^^ iashah (Isis) to be, to exist (iasah) ; for s and sh are 
one letter in Hebrew. ^H (as) is the verb " to be " in 2 Samuel, 
xiv. 19 ; Micah, vi. 10. Maimonides, in his Guide to the Per- 
plexed LX., states that the verb " to be," in Hebrew, has also 
the signification ** to exist." The fire was regarded as the 
" vital fire " by the Jews, the fire of life, like the expression 
" the breath of life," in Gen. ii. 7 ; Exod. iii. 2, 8, 4, 14. Here 
Fire, existence and supernal life are exhibited in the Great " I 
am," and breathed into Adam as the breath of the lives. In 
philosophical principles (Grundsatze) the Hebrews and Arabs 
were as well off as the Sanskrit-speaking peoples, and some 
writers are suspicious of an Arabian influence anciently exerted 
upon Hindustan. At least, there are some points of resem- 
blance to be met with, in mythology and traditions. 

The Hebrew Supreme Alohim appears in the dual. — 
Gen. i. 1. 

The Generative Man, in whom iB the male and female sex ; afterwards he 
works out the form. — ^Philo, Legal Alleg. IL 4. 

Men, the dual God, was worshipped at Sinope and found 
on coins of Tiberias, Caesarea, Sebaste, and Aelia Capitolina. 
Mene is the Moon. Mn, men, in Egyptian means * to found.' 
The Arabs worshipped the moon. The moon in Egypt is 
male. Menes means the Founder, Mena. The Gods in the 
likeness of men have come down to us (Acts, xiv. 11, 13). The 
moon is bom of the sun, said the Hindus : * and Eua is cer- 
tainly bom of Adam (Adonis) of duplex genus.* As the Hin- 

1 India, What can it teach ns, p. 98. 

* Compare Gen. ii. 23 ; xxxi 29 ; xxxiii. 9. 

3 Golebrooke, Relig. of the Hindns, p. 25. Ammon is father and mother. The 
father engenders himself in Uie womh of the mother and thus becomes at once his own 
father and his own son. — Mariette Bey the Monuments, 5, 24. 

* (jiod lias created the Adam of two faces, afterwards oat hun apart and therefrom 
formed the Ena.— Talmud, Tr. Beracoth, foL 61 ooL 1. see Bodensdiatz, Kirch. Verf. 
d. Jnden, part HL p. 281. €rod has made the Adam so great that he reaches from the 
earth up to the firmament of heaven, or even from one end of the earth as far as the 
other. — ^Talmud Tr. Chagiga, foL 12. coL 1. If Adam is arsenothens, dnplicis natorae, 
why not the Mena (mOnoeides), even if eohemerised into men? We here see the 


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dus had their royal races both Solar and Lunar, there is no 
reason for refusing to Egypt her Solar or Lunar races, de- 
scendants of Menes and Horus. Next to the Royal Gods 
came the Hor-shesu, the successors of Horus.^ The Akkadian 
Sungod had a formidable rival in the Moongod. From the 
Moongod the Chaldaean monarchs traced their descent. 

The moon at the conjunction disappears within the sun.—The Aitar^ja 

The moon having conjunction duly with Helios.— Manethon, Apotelesm. 
iv. 537. 

The moon is born of the sun. Viewing it, say : May the Moon be renewed. 
— Aitareja Brahmana. — Colebrooke, 25. 

'X^¥d^v woiriffOfUyri wphs fi\toy. — Plutarch, Quiest. Rom. 24. 

Sinai is the range of Mts. of Sin, the Babylonian Moongod.^ 
Beginning with the bisexed Sin in Babylonia, we come to the 
bisexed Adam, Dionysus-Ourania, in Arabia, the holy, heav- 
enly, horn of Mene, Men the bisexed Moongod in Asia Minor 
and Syria (compare Mt. Sini and the Hebrew lunar worship 
on the * Newmoons and sacred Sabbaths, seven being a sacred 
fourth of a lunation, — compare the seven years of Jacob), and 
finally to Menes in Egypt. 

Ai6yva'0P 8^ <^cbv fioZvov Kol r^v Ohpavii)» iff^vvrai ^Ivwu 

Dionysus and the Ourania (Aphrodite) they think to be sole God. — Herod- 
otus, lii. 8. 

Dionysus they think is only God and is the Heavenly Venus. — Herodotus, iii. 8. 

Hindu, Egyptian, Babylonian and Hebrew forms of ** Allah Sin" to be identical 
with the Dionysus, lachos, lachoh, lahoh, lad, Adonis, Lnnns, mythological traditions. 
In the Transactions of the Royal Berlin Akademy, 1856, p. 216, Lepsins argues that 
Isis is not a Moon-goddess because the Moon in Egypt was a male deity, Lonus. Bnt 
the same thing occurred in Mesopotamia among the people of ^Harran ; the Sabians 
adored the moon as male-female and as a female (Chwolsohn, IL 28) ; and, like Isis in 
Egjrpt, their Baalti is apparently also Venus. Osiris is Dionysna Dionysus was rep- 
resented with horns ; and Nonnus, a resident of Panopolis in Egypt, expressly says so : 

ravpo^v^ Airfnwroi' ifiiTptSo-oiTO Kfpaonji'.— Nonnus, Dionus. ix. 15. 

jcoi PpiitoK, tvictpdoio ^vTjt Iviaktia 2<Ai}io}«. — Nonnus, Ix. 27. 

They crowned the bull- shaped, horned Dionysus. 

And, a child, the image of the form of well-homed Selene. 

Hermes (the logos) is seated in and goes round with the Selena— de Lude, 41. 

1 Sayce, Herodotus, p. 319. 

' Ck>1ebrooke, p. 24. " The seventh chapter opens with a hymn in which Suryd, 
snmamed Savitri, the wife of the Moon, is made the speaker. . . A very singular 
passage occurs in another place, containing a dialogue between Tama and his twin- 
sister Yamnn^ whom he endeavors to seduce ; but his offers are rejected by her with 
virtuous expostulation." — ibid., 15, 16. 

> Sayoe, Hib. Leot. 4^ 


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Like Alohim he includes both sexes within himself, else he 
could not be the sole cause. Dionysus is Osiris, and he was 
said (de Iside, 43, 50, 51) to enter the moon. When entering 
the Moon, the crescent becomes Lunus, Sin, the Male Moon. 
Adonis entering the Moon loses sex. Hence the Hebrew 
Newmoon worship. Dionysus, Adonis, Osiris, Herakles enter 
the Moon. The city Ur was dedicated to the Moon-god, and 
the Chaldaean priests held the Moon-god to be the father of 
the Sun-god. The Harranites regarded their Moon-deity as 
man and woman.^ The worship of the Moon under the name 
Sin in Harran was very ancient.^ The Jews had the Newmoon 
worship to lahoh^ (Allah Sin). As soon as the Newmoon 
came in, the Temple Gate Nicanor was opened, as on the 
Sabbath. The citizens hurried to the Temple, the priests and 
levites to their posts, and bumt-oflferings were made. A full 
description of the ceremony is given in Bodenschatz, EL p. 
160 (from Lrmdius, Jud. Heiligth., V. c. 8, num. 4). As usual, 
when the he-goat was killed as an oflfering, the priests ate 
nearly all of him. The people came with their thankoflferings 
and their peace-oflferings (Numbers, x. 10). The Sabians had 
the sacrifice of seven male lambs to the planets,* The Jews 
sacrificed seven yearling lambs at the Newmoon. The Sabians 
ate lambs in the last of March (Chwolsohn, II. 23, 24, 75, 76) ; 
the Jews had the feast of the paschal lamb: and the Old 
Syrians were declared to be Sabians. The Jews were, there- 
fore, Sabians.*^ There is one tradition, on the testimony of 
Africanus, that the Hyksos kings were Phoenicians who took 
possession of Memphis and made Abaris in the Sethroite 
nome their chief fortress. 

> Chwolsohn, Ssabier, II. 37, 183. 

» ibid. IL p. 158, 156 ; Norberg, Codex Nazar. L p. 54, 9a 

' Numb, xxviii. 11-15. 

* Chwolaohn, IL 22, 24, 26. Sin was the Moongod of the. Old Sabian religion.— 
Blau, in Zeitsohrift D. M. G. ix, p. 89. Sin could well be named Meneg. 

» Numbers, xxix. 10 ; Chwolsohn, die Ssabier, XL p. 25. As Adam is the holy 
MCnBs horn, he is both Ish-mBnB and Tssa-mBnB.— Gen. IL 23, 24. He is the light 
of Israel, like the Christos of the Manicheans whose power was in the sun, but 
his ¥risdom in the moon. MBn was adored as M6n and MSnS, Lunus and Luna 
in all Asia Minor, in Sinope and Laodicea.— Blau, in Zeitsohrift D. M. G. 88, 80 ; 
Movers, PhOnizier, 649. This MBn-worship followed the coast down past Caesarea 
to the land of Menes, Egypt.— Compare Movers, 649 ; who regards M5n as the sun- 
light proceeding from the moon. Also Mt. Sini (Sinai) and the Satumian Moonwor- 



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And he removed the Mjsteriea (rks r«Xfr&i)from the land, and accomplished 
all the business that his fathers did. And he removed Ana his mother, so that 
she should not be the regent, since she made a sunodos ^ for Ashera. And Asa 
destroyed her places of concealment. — Septuagint, 1 Kings, xv. 13. 

Mysteries are the basis of all religions, not at all in order 
to lock up from the people the door to wisdom or because the 
priesthood wished for the private profit of their caste to use 
the preference of the uninstructed for the mysterious, as the 
frivolous rationalism, drawing an inference from the Christian 
priestcraft to the childish, naive, ancient world, asserts, but to 
heighten the feeling of devotion and awe before the Creator, 
who veils himself in mystery, withdraws himself from the pro- 
fane regards of the sensualist, by the separation of the holy 
from the profane, through the exclusion of the worldling, who 
holds fast to the things of earth, from the service of the Being 
of light. When the eye of the senses is darkened by a deep 
slumber and the body is as if dead, as in Magnetic clairvoy- 
ance, the Father of light lets the true illumination come near,^ 
as lamblichus ^ seeks to explain to Porphyrins that Beholding 
in the light, that at times an invisible spirit floats around the 
sleeper who perceives through another perception than sight, 
just so the Initiated into the divine Mysteries named them- 
selves Enlightened, Uluminati,* and before their reception into 
the band of the saints must become dead to the body, through 
chastity and strict regimen, fasting etc., seek to slay the flesh, 
if they wished to celebrate already in this life a/ spiritual 
resurrection. As the hieroglyphic language of the soul in 
dreams and visions is different from the language of intellect 
so must therefore the hieratic language of the Mystae and of 
sanctified archives of religion differ from our language in 
books, since the former contained the divine Word, owing to a 
higher significance concealed from the profane and only com- 
prehended by the Initiated. Hence only the priest is entitled 
to read in the Law. Astronomy, astrotheology and geometry 
were commonly taught in Egypt. The Egyptians had the 
doctrine of the Transinigration of souls, and they (in the 
Mysteries) taught the unity of God. But the priests declined 

1 meeting. 

* Ezekiel, i 27 ; Psahn, zriil 29 ; zxxvi 10. compare Ovid, Fast. 6^ 6. 
» de Myst. Aegjrpt. sect. 8, cap. 2. 

• In thy light we see the light.— Psalm, xxxvi. 10. 


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I8I8 Iir PHCENIOIA. 275 

to commnnicate this dogma to the masses who owing to their 
earthly conceptions of the Creator were unable to understand 
the language of the Wise. The secret doctrine is based upon 
nature worship to be sure, but in accordance with the Hindu- 
Orphic doctrine that the material world is a copy of the spirit- 
world (kosmos noetos) the ethical side of the cultus (the 
history of the soul) could be attended to as well as the physi- 
cal (the history of the seasons of the year). The astrotheol- 
ogy of the nature-religions transposed heaven and earth, the 
realm of light and the realm of night, into the zodiac through 
whose two hemispheres the souls, compared with the stars, 
wander, led by the clear-shining Dogstar whose heliacal as- 
cension announces in Egypt and Greece the beginning of the 
year, consequently also the commencement of the period of 
circulation (transmigration) of souls. The Dog Sura, Sirius, 
accordingly leads stars and souls in and out of life, or in and 
out of the zodiacal course, hence the Dog is Leader of souls, 
Hermes kunokephalos the psychagogos ^ when he carries them 
into the hemisphere of light ; psychopompos, when he leads 
them in the other solstice or Equinox (Libra) into the dark 
hemisphere. From the moon's gate the soul came upon the 
earth, because the Hule corresponds to the moisture of the 
maternal Night-light. Elysium and Acheron are in the poles ! 
At the end of the Wandering, the soul returned back to its 
Father, the sun, from which it came, through the sun's gate. 
In the Mysteries, therefore, Hermes Leader of souls plays, 
with the sun and moon,^ the most important part. The 
Sacred-herald represented him, the Torchbearer, the sun, the 
Epibomios,^ the moon. Hermes on the dividing lines of the 

> The Chaldaean called the Raiser of the bouIb up to the heaven AnagSgeos. As- 
cendingf and lifting np the aonls to the mind-peroeived world.— Julian, in Solem, p. 
186. The ABoension is made through ZSens-Bel, Bel-Mithra.— Movers, T. p. 553; 
Ptoclns, in Plat. Alcib. Tom. TV. p. 96. This is Metatron lesoa, the Saviour of souls. 
The Unspoken Mystery about which the Chaldaean raved, bringing up the souls 
through him, the God of the Seven Rays.— Julian, V. p. 172. This is the Chaldaean 
laS called SabaSth (from the Seven FUmetary Rays).— Movers, 550 ; Lydus, de Mensi- 
bns, IV. 88, 74. 

* Kneph was the God who made the snn and moon to revolve. — ^RawHnson, Ana 
Bgypt, L 881. Herodotus, II. 104, on the priority of oironmoision evidently contra- 
dicts Genesis, zvii. 10. The Egyptian Sacred Books are older than the oldest parts of 
the Book of Genesis, which paints the life of the priests just as it was known to be in 
later times.— Movers, Phdnider, 112, 113. Visnn is represented as bloe, as Water- 
God and the continnal Benefactor of men, Lord of all Bcinga 

* Gabariel was the Jewish lunar aDgel He was the FireangoL 


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year's season is always between heaven and hell, brings the 
sonls from the upper world to the lower one, but also, through 
night, to light. The first takes place at the autumn equinox 
when the nights lengthen. Therefore the astronomers laid 
down the Styx in the 8th degree of Libra. ^ This was the Old 
Sabian worship before our era. Julian ^ shows that in the 
Mysteries the scheme of the heavenly 'bodies was considered, 
saying that " the Sun is not the centre of the Planets but of 
the THBEE WORLDS, according to the hypotheses in the Mys- 
teries (tcA-cotikols v7ro^€o-€«).'* This view of Julian is consistent 
with the theology of the Osirian Mysteries. 

Brilliant Lords that bring frost and harvest to mortals. — Aeschjlos, Agam., 

All the Teirea (constellations) with which heaven is crowned. — Homer, H. 
xviiL 485. 

The star-gods were regarded as the causes of the orderly 
succession of times and seasons.^ Near Libra the constel- 
lations which rise with it and which bring back winter after 
the fruit harvest are shown. Among these constellations is the 
celebrated Dragon of the pole who guarded the apples of the 
Hesperides, whom the spheres represent as wound round a 
tree like the Serpent of Eve. Lastly, the constellation Ser- 
pentarius, or Pluto and his serpent, who ascends at the same 
time as Libra. The name of this serpent, the serpent of Eve, 
as it is still called by the Persians, or Heua, as it is called in 
the Arabian spheres,^ has been preserved. This is the cele- 
brated Star-serpent spoken of in the Persian cosmogonj^ the 
Serpent who is the mother of winter and whose form Ahri- 
man assumes in order to introduce evil into the world.^ On 
the walls of a rock-temple Krishna is seen trampling on the 
Serpent Kaliga whom he has destroyed,— the Spring-sun as 
Vanquisher of the Winter-serpent.^ The Jews, like the Baby- 

» Nork, Real-W6rterbach, m. 231-283. Art Myeterien. They worshipped the 
astral powers, the planets, Bal, the Sun, Moon, and all the array of the heavens. — 2 
Kings, xxiii 5 flg ; Jer. viiL 2. Beth-Sama8.--2 Kings, xiv. 11. The worship of the 
planets was carried on in the temples of the BamSth BaL The 2 Kings, xiv. 4, reminds 
us of the '* sacred tree " that appears on Assyrian and Persian eaored representations. 

• Jnlian, Oratio iv. p. 148. 
» Mankind, p. 416, 417. 

• Eua, in Genesis, iii 20. 
» Mankind, 465, 466. 

• Nork, Real-Wort. L 817. 

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lonians and other Sabians, appear to have been well acquainted 
with the heavenly host.* The Ass was a sign of autumn. A 
golden he&d of an Ass stood in the Jewish temple and the con- 
stellation of the Ass stood in the sidereal heavens near that of 
Dionysus.^ The Apokalypse mentions Virgo holding the Sun- 
child in her arms ; and in the Garden of Adonis the king comes 
forth from the " Bird-nest " and appears descending from the 
heaven. The ass of the Messias indicated the End of the 
world and the Judgment to come. 

In the Chinese popular religion the Heaven, the highest 
revealed form of the primal-potence that had penetrated the 
primal matter, took the place of the primal-power, which was 
more accentuated in the philosophical conception, in the full 
divine meaning of this idea. The divine essence (Sein) is thus 
a duality. The Heaven, that is, the natural, visible, blue 
heaven'* with the sun and stars is not the pure primitive 
power (Urkraft), but this Power united with the primitive 
matter."* The Urkraft is related to the primal matter as the 
Fire is to the burning material.^ 

All the inhabitants of the Thebais (which, they saidy was the 
most ancient part of Egypt ?) judged it the greatest oath when 
any one swore by the Osiris who lies in Philae.* In the temple 
of Osiris at Philae ' Amun ^ appears fashioning upon a wheel 
or lathe the limbs of Osiris, while the figure of the Nile-god 
stands by and pours water on the wheel. At Elephantine he 
appears working a lump of clay upon the lathe.* In the mys- 
tic chamber of the temple of Philae Amun-Kneph is repre- 
sented turning a potter's wheel and moulding the mortal part 

> 2 Kingi, xvii 16 ; xxi. 3, 5 ; xxiiL 5. 

3 Bahak (compare Bak * Light) is the ^^ GrenioB ** who called the world into exist- 
tenoe. — Codex Nasar. IL 233 Norberg; Genesis, i 3^ 4. 

* Exodus, xxvi. 1, 4, 31. 

« Adolf Wuttke. Hcidenth. ii. p. 25. 

• ibid- iL p. 15. 

* Diodoms, i 22. To swear by my name, Chi laohoh, as they taught my people to 
swear by Bal. — Jeremiah, xii 16. 

7 Monoments at Philae are considered among the latest. 

" The Creative Mind or Logos. The Demioorgic Producer. The description which 
Porphyry gives of Kneph as a human figure, dark blue, with a girdle and sceptre, and 
a rojral feather on his head, accords with the representations of Amun, not of Kneph. 
From his mouth was produced an egg from which Ptah (the Perfecting Litellect, act- 
ing with truth, according to art) sprung. Like Vishnu, he represents Sun and Water. 
He is also identified with Khem, Kneph and Horns.— Kenrick, i 314, 318. 

• Kenrick, Egypt, L 814. 


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of Osiris, the Father of men, out of a Inmp of clay. The hiero- 
glyphical inscription is : " Knum, the Creator, on his wheel 
moulds the divine members of Osiris ^ in the shining house of 
life." ^ This is the same as the Hebrew belief : " Thou, la'hoh, 
our Father art ; we the clay, but thou our potter ; and we 
all (are) the work of thy hands." ^ 

And Ia*hoh Alahim moulded the Adam, dust out of the ground.— Qen. ii. 7. 

The soul from the Edem in like manner too was placed in the Eua (Moon) 
in idea (ideal form without body), but the spirit (is) from the Eloeim. — Hippo- 
lytus, V. 26. 

The same doctrines were in the Greek Mysteries. 

The Garden of Eden ^ was by some placed near the throne- 
of the Lamb, that is, near the sign of the vernal equinox.* 
Others, like Plutarch and Lucian, placed it in the upper part 
of the moon. But Plato in his Phaedo has placed a celestial 
and holy earth above the other which resembles the celestial 
Jerusalem of the Apokalypse.® The moon, however, being the 
place of meeting of Adam and Selene,' at their conjunction, 
and also sinking below the plane of the earth's surface, suits 
best the general mythology of the ancients, for an Adonis- 
garden. We know the worship of Dionysus (Adonis) to be 
older than Homer. The Egyptian Eden of departed souls was 
in the eastern heaven. The Garden of Eden lay to the east 

* the tjrpe of man, the First Man. 

* in the solar diso, *' in the bent anas of the san.**— de Iside, 52. Just as Snefru 
set up at Memphis the greatest piece of sculptore in the gigantic form of the Sphinx 
through the art of Ptah (Hephaistotencton), so his son Chofa used the means of the 
God Chnemu, the Architect.— Lauth, Chronol. 72. 

> Isaiah, bdv. 8. itsar, figulns, formator. —Mankind, p. 786. 

* The Garden of Tamasens is the Garden of Tomas " the Smi: " compare Turn 
** the Setting Sun,** and Thamns the Egyptian Monarch, and Tammus (Adonis). 
Adam (Adamatos) presents the apple to Ena, in the Eleusinian Mysteries. Apples 
were lovers* presents. Persephone in Hades (Sheol) eats the apple of Aidoneus.— Prel- 
ler, L 472. Compare " Maneros " in Egypt, and the ** apples of Bacchus *' who is both 
Osiris and Adonis !— Dnnlap, Sod. L p. 150; Theokritos, iii. xi. xxix.; OhampoUion. 
Egypte, 181 ; Esekiel. viii 1-12. Women sat (on the ground) deploring Thamus — 
Ezekiel, viii. 14. This is all presumably late, since 70 Israelite Elders (Ancients) of 
the Hebrew Senate with lasanios (Jason, lasan) at their head are mentioned.— Eze- 
kiel, viii 11. 

* This Lamb is evidently Aries, placed above the Whale and ascending with it.— 
Mankind, 545. The throne of the Ood and the Lamb will be in it.— Rev. zxii 8. But 
the Lamb represents the Adon living, *^ Adonis lives.** Was dead, and is aUve.^Rev. 
i. 18. Chi Adon ! 

« Mankind, p. 4d2, 566, 680, 681. 
"f Selenia, a town in Kupros-Cyprus. 


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near the Sun's gate, the Equinoctial sign of Aries, and is to 
be found in the celestial heaven.^ 

Nork considers Adah Esau's wife. She is Ade, Ddo, Dem- 
eter the Moongoddess of Hades.^ Jared, in Gen. iv. 18, is 
Airad (Irad) the founder of the ancient city Eridu.^ Movers, 
Phonizier, 471, connects Nimrod, the Mighty Hunter, with 
Orion ; and, according to the Chronicon Faschale, L p. 61, the 
Assyrians said that Ninus the Nebrod taught them to worship 
fire; and they made him their first king after the Deluge.* 
Nimrod was called Ninus by the Greeks.* Orion is Agron 
(the Hunter).* Orion is Mars the God of Fire.' Mars, as 
Spring-sun, is identical with Ha Aur (Horus) as Spring-sun ; 
and Horus enters Orion. Ninus-Sandan is Orion-Nimrod.® 
The Mars-Typhon kills Adonis. Ken (Kont Saturn) kills 
Abel. The Lydian Herakles - Sandan was animal - hunter.* 
Lamos is a son of the Lydian Herakles. — Diodor. Sic. iv. 31. 
The Hunter Adrastus kills Atys the pious brother (Abel), the 
Youth ; and Lamus (the Hunter Adrastus) is, apparently, the 
Lam^cA who kills a man and a Youth in Genesis, iv. 23.^® Ade 
(Adah) is the Babylonian luno,^^ and consequently is Light or 
Pleasure ; while Zilla is Darkness.^ Sair (Osiris) means fire 
like Aud,^^ Sar, Asar, Azar ; and Azorus, Zorus, Zohar, Zaratas 
mean fire: Er (Ar) Zoroaster (Zaratas), or the God (in the 
myth) burned upon a scaflfold for 12 days was a God of the 
Pamphilians, and the Cham or Zaratas was burned through 
the fallen fire of Orion.^* The Lamach of Genesis, iv. 23 ex- 
hibits the use it makes of the mythology. 

1 Baliol College.— Mankind, pp. 462-464, plate zxii. 

s Nork, Bibl. MythoL L 361. Ate was the Goddess of Adiabene, east of the Tigris. 
—Trans. Soo. Bibl. Archaeology, viL p. 260. Movers, L 840, seema to have regarded 
Ada as Hera and Adna. 

> Sayce, Hibbert Lectures, 1887, p. 185; Gen. iv. 17. 

< Movers, 471. 

• Clementine Recognitions, liber iv. cap. 29. 

• Movers, 475, 476. 
' Movers, 473. 

» Movers, 474 ; Gen. x. 8, 9. Hebrew. Nimrod if the Gabor, ** Giant** 

• Movers, 474. 
»• Movers, 477. 
» ibid. 477. 

i> ZUl =3 ombra. Zelem as imago. Zalmnth « umbrae mortis. 

IS See the altar of Ad (And, Od) and the prophetCs Ado.-nJo8hiia, xziL 84; 2 
Chron. xii. 15. Hebrew. 

14 Movers, pp. xviil xix., 388-343, 349. Sair is a name of the Dogstar Sirius. — 
Movers, 478, SSa The fiie-pillais of Sair (Oseiris) !— Movers, 838. Asar is the root ; 

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The (times?) of the Sesa-Hor, jears 18,400 (plus ?). 

The reigns down to Sesn-Hor, years 22,300 (plus ?).— De Boag^ Be- 
cherohes, p. 163. 

The Horshesu can be translated * Servants of Horus ' or * Suc- 
cessors of Horus.' Sesu-Hor, in the singular, is cited in the 
inscription of Tombos (under Totmes I.) as the most remote 
type of human antiquity. The Semites named the Angels 
Sons of God.^ The Sesu-Hor had in the eyes of the Egyp- 
tians a character entirely analogous to that of the first Biblical 
patriarchs ; justified by Osiris, they inhabit the regions of the 
blest destined for the virtuous souls, and the Kituel fun6raire 
shows them to us gathering the abundant harvests produced 
by the celestial fields of Aaru. This information proves that 
the Sesu-Hor are merely human, and we are induced to think 
that under the name of dynasty qf the Manes the Greek lists 
have transmitted to us merely a souvenir of the first Egyp- 
tians.^ The Semites named par excellence their ancestors 
Children of God.« 

Genesis, xi. 2, makes a claim for the origin of the Jews in 
Mesopotamia. Lamech, or Lamach, is the equivalent of the 
name Lamga who is the Moon-god.^ In Sippara (Sepharoim) 
was the God Alamelech (also Adarmelech). This Adarmelech 
is the Sun's Fire, and, since Adar is Mars, the destroying fire.' 
Alamelech is one with Adarmelech, consequently destructive 
in tendency. Shortening Alamelech, and dropping the initial 
vowel (which often happened in time), we should have, instead 
of Alamelech, Lamech the husband of the Babylonian Juno 
(Adah) and a martial character of warlike and murderous 
aims.^ Adar the Warrior, the Sun of the South, the Sun of 
mid-day, like Adar-malik corresponds to the Phoenician and 
Palestine Moloch ; he devours the productions of the earth 
and human victims alone can appease him, who in the month 
of Tammuz (June) kills Dumouzi (Tammuz- Adonis) the Young 

as we have Oasuras, a Phcenioian Gk>d (EnsebinB, Laud. Constant, o. 18 ; Meyers, 120), 
and Oosir in the Seal of lar Ammonios, in the Abbot Egyptian Collection. 

» Gen- vi 2, 3. 

«DeRougd, 163-166. 

3 ibid, 164. See Deuteron. xiv. 1 ; Romans, viii 16 ; 1 Cor. liL 16. 

4 Sayce, Hibbert Lect. 1887, p. 186; Zdtsohiift fOr Keilsohiiftforsohimg, a 47, 


•Movers,!. 410. 

• Genesis, iv. 19, 28, 24 ; v. 80, 8L 

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and gracious Spring Sun.* This was the " Charming Youth " 
from the Lebanon ! 

I have kiUed a man to mj woonding and a Toath to mj oalamitj. — Gen. 
iv. 23. 

Moreover Lamech's two wives are Adah ^ (Light) and Zillah 

There is a complete difference between the two genealogies 
in Genesis iv. and v.; they spring from different sources. 
Nothing is more dry and monotonous in form than that of the 
Sethites, borrowed in chapter v. from the Elohist document ; 
nothing which exhibits to a higher degree the stamp of that 
particular sort of euhemerism that is peculiar to the Bible which 
its rigorous monotheism has breathed into it, and which while 
depriving them as much as possible of their allegorical char- 
acter, reduces to strictly human proportions the heroes of the 
popular tradition whom it accepts while recording the most 
ancient souvenirs received from its ancestors by the people 

Mach means " to destroy." * Al Mach means the Destroyer. 
But Al Amach means * the one who descends ' into the depth,' 
hence Adonis is meani* Lamach has Beauty (Audah, Light) 
as one wife, Sillah (Obscurity, Darkness) as the other. Adonis 
fills these conditions, as Hades,^ and so does Osiris. Genesis, 
iv. 23, therefore represents Lamach as Mars, and lets him 
marry Venus. Aud and Adah (Audam and Ashah) would rep- 
resent fire (Adar, Moloch, la'hoh) and the feminine principle in 

1 LenormaDfc, les Origines deThut. L 256. 

« Ad, Aud. —Univ. Hist. 18, p. 887. 

> Lenormant, les Grig. L 182. Morers, Phoenizier, I. 165, long ago recognized that 
the fact of the equivalence of the duration of the ten antediluvian reigns with ten 
periods of 13 sars established a relation between each of them and one of these periods, 
months or hours of the greatest celestial cycle ; that thus the antediluvian patriarchs 
of Chaldaea had been referred to these solar mansions of the zodiac mazzaldth which the 
infidel Hebrews in the time of the Assyrian influence adored with the sun, moon and all 
the celestial array, and which the Chaldaeans already designated by the figures whose 
nse has come down to us through the intermediation of the Greeks,— Lenormant, I. 

< Seder Leshon, p. 171. 

• ibid. p. 252. 

* In the theology of Eridu, the Sun-god Dumuzi or Tammuz was the offspring of 
Ea and Danldna. — Sayce, 144. 

7 Etana*8 throne was placed in Hade& 

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the moon.^ Adah (Ade) gave birth to Ibal (Adonis) father of 
the tented Arabs* and his brother was loBel, the Apollo.* 
Adah is said to be the luno of Babylon. Adah or Oda means 
* the shining/ according to Nork, Bibl. MythoL L 361. Lamech 
seems to be Lamos son of Vulkan (Ptah, Bal). With Elam, and 
Lamos connect lampo ' to shine ' and lumen, light ; also Lem- 
nos the Sun's isle/ Eill who is Lucifer (compare eial, illumi- 
nare), Hus, and Lampos son of Eos. Anos represents the 
Anasse Arabs. — Gen. v. 7. 

The Giants and Titans were interchanged at an early pe- 
riod.* Genesis, vi. 4, makes hardly an allusion to the War 
of the Titans against Zeus in which Minerva (Athena) was 
engaged, and only states that the Gabarim, Anakes or Anakim, 
were the sons of the * Sons of the Gods ' in the Aither (burning 
heaven), and the Ghibarim of old. The Seven Kabiri are the 
Seven Spirits of fire about Saturn's Throne,* like the Seven 
planet-effigies around the Sun's Horse in Arabia; and the 
myth relates that these Titan Kabiri tore lacchos (the God of 
life) into seven pieces, but that Minerva saved the heart. 
Osiris was torn into twice seven pieces by Typhon.' Osiris is 
Dionysus, is the most primitive conception of the Sun.^ 

Look at the battle-rout of Giants, on walls of stone. — Enripides, Ion, 206. 

Great Giants 
Shining in weapons, holding in hands long spears. — Hesiod, Theog. 185. 

• Ada is, according to Hesychiaa, the Babylonian lono, who is Meleohet, the Sponae 
of Moloch (the Sun, Ptah) ; bnt, as the Hebrews had an altar inscribed Ad (Od), 
Adah is the feminine of that Name. See Joshoa, xxii 34. Aud (Od, or Ad) is then 
the mune of the Fire-god Aoh, laoh, Tank, whose altars were the fire-altars of Moloch 
and blood-besprinkled. — Joshua, xxii. 34 ; Levit. x. 1, 2 ; yi. 13 ; xyii 11 ; Movers, L 
263 ; Lenormant gives a oompomid of Elam and Adon, Lamedon. 

3 Gen. iv. 20 : Ansonius, epigram 30. 

• Gen. iy. 21 : Nork derives Lamech from T«acham or Laham to consume, eat, 
conquer by force, which is in the sense of Gen. iv. 23, 24. Lamia is BeFs daughter. 

« Nork, Wdrterbuch ttber das alte Testament, p. 845. 

• Gerhard. Gr. MythoL § 130. The Giant fables and Titan stories sung among 
the Greeks and some lawless acts of Kronos, and contests of Python against Apollo, 
and Flights of Dionysus, and Wanderings of DSmStCr do not differ from the Osirian 
and Typhonian stories which all are allowed to freely hear in the form of myths. — 
Pint, de Iside, 25. But the science of astronomy was studied by the priests. — de Lude, 

Deuteronomy, iii. 13, calls the Basantis the land of the Rephaim. Aug was the 
last of them, in Astarta's city. We find Aids, 1 Sam. xxxvi 5 ; Agis in Sparta. 

• Rev. iv. 5 ; V. 6. 

T de Iside, 18. The land of Siris.— Josephus, Ant. L 2, 8. 

• de Iside, 85 ; Meyer, Set-Typhon, 17. 


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I8I8 IN Pn(ENIOIA. 283 

Nor did Sons of Titans smite him 

Nor lofty Giants set apon him. — Judith, zri. 7. 

Consequently, the story of the Titans was well known to the 

Patach in Hebrew means door (janua, Eanus, Ptah) and is 
the Hebrew Janus (Patah) that begins the year opening and 
ending the period of time. Simeon (Hebrew, * Semaun ') is 
the Biblical Semo (Herakles) the Phoenician or Samaritan 
pillar-God Bal Hamman (Chamman). The Shoulder-God 
Sechem (S-k-m), the son of the ruttish Ass (Hamor), lets him- 
self be circumcised after an interview with a daughter of lakob. 
Soq means appetite (Nork says, desire) ; hence Isoq, Iskaq 
(Isaac). Agabah meaning 'amorous,' like laqab. Simeon 
requires the circumcision of C!Ihamor, because he was himself 
worshipped with the phallic cultus, for the sun-pillars (the 
chammanim) have reference to the phallus. Justin testifies 
(Apologia, 26) that nearly all Samaritans (Sichem people) 
adore Simon Magus as their first Power of God. Semaun's 
son, lachin, has the name of one of the two Jewish sun-pillars 
(Gen. xlvi. 10), and Zohar (meaning the light of the sun, Sem, 
Semal) is another son. Simeon is represented as a Warrior 
(Gen. xlix. 5, 6) and the Assyrians first erected pillars to Mars 
(Herakles). lamin points to Simeon as the finger- god He- 
rakles Daktulos, for lamin means the right hand. Nork com- 
pares Simeon and Loi (Levi) to Herakles and Apollo to Gem- 
ini.— Nork, iv. 258, 296 ; Gen. xlix. Samson (SmsSn, Semes, 
Hebrew) is the Sun man, the Biblical Herakles. He is son of 
Man(?eA ; so, Adonis is son of Man^. — Nork, iv. 296. Joshua, 
X. 11, mentions the city Asaqah. 

According to tradition Ischaq (Isaac) was buried in Kheb- 
ron, but the Laughing One is the Sun and the stars are said to 
laugh ; Ischaq's name means * he laughs ' or * the laughing.** 
Sakakah (Joshua, xv. 61) could be made Isakak, by prefixing i 
(oV) to the name of the city in the wilderness. Nork has tried 
to connect Izchaq with Zochak (Zohak). Genesis, xxiii. 8, gives 
us the proper name Zochar meaning *splendens.' Zochach 
means shining. Nork mentions the love of the flesh and Aso's 
care for his kitchen as the Darkness in Lzchaq's eyes.^ Izchaq's 

> Goldrieher, Hebrew MythoL 93-96, 278, 279. 

' Genesis, zxvii. 1. 3, 4, 7. Spirit and flesh, spirit and matter is the philosophy.— 
Gen. vi. 3. Nork, Real-Wtfrterbnch II. 307, regards Ischaq as the Biblical Saturn. 


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blindness evidently has reference to the Darkness of night. 
Zo'hak chooses the arch-fiend for his master-cook. Therefore, 
the book Jalkut Chadash (fol. 3) made the singular assertion 
that the sonl of the sweet-toothed Eua, in other words, the soul 
of a woman, had transmigrated into the body of Izchaq. His 
wife is Ehea (Damia, Tamia, Rebecca, Eurudike), Rhea ^ being 
Saturn's wife.^ When Orpheus turns towards the Darkness, he 
loses Rebekah in Hades. Laughter is the predicate of him 
who sits in the heaven, the smiling Srm. The old poet al-A*sha 
says of a blooming meadow that it rivals the sun in laughter. 
In the contest between Day and Night, Night says : Thou dost 
laugh at thy rising.^ Zachar means " to shine ; " Sachar means 
the Dawn. The lover of the flesh follows Abrahm, as Siva fol- 
lows Vishnu, or as the evil Destroyer Saturn {satr = to de- 
stroy, darken, eclipse, obscure) succeeds to Ouranos God of 
Light. So lakab follows Ischak as Jupiter (the lover, achabos, 
iacobus) takes the place of Saturn ; for these all are symbols of 
light and darkness. From the Moon, says Servius on the 
^neid, xi. 54, we get our corpus. For love-matters they in- 
voked the Moon, and Isis (Vesta) presided over these affairs.* 

That you may not corrupt yourselves and make for you a cast, the image of 
any similitude, the copy of Man or Woman. — Deuteron. iv. 16. 

The Man is Adam- Adonis ; the Woman is Issa, Isis, Eve. Isis 
is Venus, and Hathor is frequently designated the goddess 
Sothis (Sirius).' Sirius is the star of Isis. 

An untold amount of mythic intervening stories must have 
existed connecting the Asiatic circle of myths with the Greek 
world, and the latter had their root in the former. In regard 
to this we are too plainly reminded by the form of many 
Greek mythical and legendary complications* that exhibit 
such striking parallels and forms agreeing even to the names, 
that respecting their original identity there is no room for 

I A^, to flow. She iSf of coune, Rhea Kubele, tl\e Mater Sipylene, the Luna, Mother 
of the Gods. 

« Nork, Bibl Mythol, L 889, 840. 

* Goldziher, Mythol. among the Hebrews, 92-95. Zachaq means * to laogh.* 

« Plut de Iside, 52. Hermes and Typhon were intimately associated with the Moon. 
—Pint, de Iside, 8, 18, 18. Achab, in Hebrew, means '*he loved," which reminds one 
of the Eros of Hesiod, the Osiris (of de Iside, 57), and the Hebrew Adonis. 

» Mariette-Bey, Monuments of Upper Egypt, p. 141. 

• Mythen-nnd Sagenoomplexe.— Popper, 308. 


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1818 IN PH(ENICIA. 285 

donbt. Snch a one we find in the instance of Bebecca, mother 
of Jacob and Esau, and Ino ^ the mortal wife of Athamas, 
whose son is doubly identified with Jacob, the wrestling Sun- 
god, even in name; for he is named Palsemon^and at the 
same time Melikertes, which places his identity with the Phoe- 
nician Herkales Melkarth out of all doubt. As first wife of 
Athamas in the Greek Myth is Nephele, the cloud, whose 
original representation was the cow, as we have already seen ; ^ 
but with the cloud goddess whose humidity fructifies the uni- 
versum was united the Moon goddess, as the essence of the all- 
productive Power of Nature, in general, the feminine physical 
production, the symbol of the Mother and Maternity. ,Thus 
in the later development of this mythological idea a compli- 
cated circle of legends were built up whose oflGshoots can still 
be traced in the Grecian Mythology. We should not forget 
that mythological conceptions as ancient as those that lie at 
the foundation of the Bible's Bebecca belong to a world that 
has wholly passed away/ As Athamas (Tamas, Atamu, Ta- 
muz, Adonis, Tum) is a Cthonian or Subterranean deity and 
Solilunar, we can well compare Sakia-Ischaq with Danaus and 
Ischaq the well-digger.^ Zohak is in Old Arabian Historians 
written Ed-Dhahhak, Dahak, and Dechak in Arabic. — Popper, 
279, 293. Dechak means the laugher. — ^Popper, 293. Abrahm 
is connected with the Yima mythus. — ibid. 284, 299. The fall 
of Zohak is a Persian myth drawn from the Indo-Iranian 
natural philosophy. — ibid. 289. Since the Arabic Dechak 
means the laugher and Izchaq in Hebrew means the laughing 
one it would appear that the Old Persian mythus has got into 
the Hebrew Bible ; for Popper, p. 284, says that the Biblical 
Creation-legend is quite late, having been written under the 
monotheist idea. The contrast of Persian dualism appears 
kept up in the Serpent of Eua, Ken and Abel, Izchaq and Is- 

* Ind Leakoihea iB Luna, Rhea, from RheS, to flow. From the moon flow out 
many benefits, especially from a rainy moon. What more natural than that a rainy 
Lnna shoald have a rainy son, Sakia the Arab Raingod I Whence the good luck to 
the farmer, and laughing for joy of heart. Zaq in Hebrew means to poor out, to pour 
down ; zaqaq, to make liquid, to pour out ; but sachaq and saqaq, to laugh. One of 
the religions double entendres in the Hebrew Bible is here detected in the identification 
of Sakia as the root of Ischaq. 

« Palaestra. The Wrestler. 
» Popper, p. 808. 

* Popper, 309. 
•Gen. xxri 18.20. 

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mael, Set and Osiris, Esau and Jacob, (Izchaq and Abimelecli 
in the strife about wells). It certainly was a dry piece of wit 
in the Hebrew scribe to set Abimelech (who here represents 
fire, like the Fire-god Adarmelech, Moloch) and the Eaingod 
(Sakia) at variance over a well of water. The name Tharach 
(Terah, Abrahm's fq-ther) was probably also written Dharach. 
Similar names of the Fire-god are Adar and Adores.* If the 
Arabic Asar or Azar represents Terah it is due to the fact that 
all are names of the Fire-god. Among the Kanaanite, Syrian 
and Arabian races (Yolksstammen) we find several highly 
regarded Gods that mostly, from their names, are fire-kings, 
fire-lords and fire of God, adored in horrible fashion in the 
consuming fiery element through child oflferings and men- 
offerings, fire-purifications and fire-trials,^ very much as Salem 
once attempted to doctor her witches through the experience 
of " a fiery law " of ancient scripture written under a priest 
caste in the orient. What was human life worth in the hands 
of an ancient priestly politician, or human suffering compared 
with the spiritual policy of the Jesuits ! 

Baethgen, p. 54, Schroder (die phon. Sprache, 196), and 
Renan (corpus Inscript. Semit. 146) find a god Asakan, Sek- 
kun. The Biblical Ischaq belongs in Garar (on the way to 
Egypt). Compare Sachor ( — Josh. xiii. 3) Zochar (Gen. xxiii. 
8). That Ischaq is a form of the Arab Sun-god (at Garar. — Gen. 
xxvi. 6) is not wholly improbable. Amos, vii. 9, mentions the 
Highplaces of Ischaq. The Tama-mythus and Zohak-saga are 
said to be the Abrahm-myth and the Isaak-story. Abrahm is 
connected with the Tima-mythus.^ But, as founder of a city 
or as Palestine patriarch, Ischaq's name (like laqab's, with 
Qebron, or Khebron) should be associated with some town 
bearing a similar name, such as Sakaka in Joshua xv. 61. The 
people of Sachaq could then be recognized as the Beni Ischaq, 
of Sakakah. Joshua, xv. 11, 35, supplies the two names Azaqa 
and Sakarona, whose root is Asaq. " While the Mukerinos * is 
a kind father toward the citizens and makes these things his 
business the beginning of evils is his daughter dying, his only 
child in his household. And he grieving exceedingly on ac- 

» Popper, 161 ; Movers, I. 822. 
« Movers, 323. 

* Popper, 284. Azi Dahaka and Zohak (contracted from it) and Izak-Sakia. 

* Mu-kerino8, Saturn et Sol, the Spirit in the Bull Apia. 

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1818 IN PHCENICIA. 287 

count of this thing and wishing to bury his daughter ^ with 
more honor than all the rest, made a hollow wooden cow ^ and, 
having gilded it, buried this daughter, already dead, in the 
inside of it. 

" This Cow therefore was not buried in the earth, but was 
visible even in my time, being in the city Sais, lying in the 
palace in a curiously wrought chapel ; and all sorts of incenses 
they sacrifice before Her every day ; and every night, all night 
long a candle is burned near (Her). And near this Cow in an- 
other chapel stand the images of the concubines ' of Mukerinos, 
as the priests said in the city Sais : for they are wooden colossi 
about twenty in number at most, worked naked : who they are 
I cannot say, ^nore than I have mid. 

**And the 'certain persons' tell about this Cow and the 
Colossi this story : * that Mukerinos was smitten with his own 
daughter' and then violated her. And afterwards they say 
that the girl hung herself for grief ; and he buried her in this 
Cow ; but the mother of the girl cut off the hands of the priest- 
esses * who gave up the daughter to the Father ; ' and now the 
images are mutilated as when alive. But they say these things 
talking humbug, as I think, both regarding the other matters 
and certainly about the hands of the Colossi ; for these things 
we observe even now, that owing to time they have lost the 
hands, which are visible at their feet even yet in my time. 

" And the Cow, as to the other parts, is covered up in purple 
clothing, but She shows the neck and head, having been gilded 
with very thick gold ; and between the horns the Sun's circle 
is there represented in gold. And the Cow is not standing but 
lying on her knees ; in size like a great cow alive. And She is 
borne out from the chapel in each year. When the Egyptians 
beat themselves for the God (Osiris, Bacchus, la'hhoh) not 

1 Iris luna, the Spirit in the moon. Vena. 

* Venna-Uis with cow-horns. Asherah. 

* Each Hinda God had his sacti or female energy. 

* the hiezos logos. 

* Venus, Isis, Tjaksmi, Hathor, lo, Ino. 

* or handmaids. These Saored Tales were meant to excite curiosity, by keeping up 
the Myvtery. 

"* The moon is bom from the Sun— in Hindu philosophy.— Golebrooke, Relig. 
Hindus, p. 25. The number 7 is distinctly hinted at in Gen. xzix. 27, where the word 
PlB^ points to the Seven-day week. No doubt the union of the War Department, Tbe> 
ology, Architecture, and Law in Eoclesiastioal hands was to some extent an injury ; 
but the Scribes had to work, to make things plausible and to influence the public. 


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named by me for such a matter, at that time, then, they bring 
forth the Cow to the light ! For they say, to be sure, that dy- 
ing She asked the Father Mukerinos that, once in every year. 
She should see the Sun." * The holy ark of Amun was carried 
out from the Egyptian temple once in a year, and taken across 
the river.^ The Hebrew ark was borne forth on the March 
equinoctial festival beyond the Bed Sea.^ The Bomans once a 
year extinguished the Fibe at the end of the year. On the 
first of March they kindled the New Fire on the altars of 
Vesta.* " Wake, burning torches ! " lach ! laeche 1 

Adde qu6d aroan^ fieri Novas Ignis in aede 
Dicitnr, et vires fiamma refeota capit — Ovid. 

The fire BhaU ever be burning on the altar ; it shall never go out. — Leviti- 
ons, vi. 18. 

Hence we have the festival of the male-female fire in Osiris- 
Isis represented, as in the Hebrew As-Aisah, as in Apollo and 
Minerva, Amon and Mene, Bakchus and Venus. Vena is the 
moon's Heifer Isis, Keres, Proserpine Soteira. The Egyptians 
robe and adorn a luniform image ; they carried about in pro- 
cession a Gold Cow in a black cotton dress, consideriDg the 
cow a symbol of Isis, Luna and Earth.' Apis is the symbol of 
the life • of Osiris.' Adam-Attis is the lunar hom,^ Osiris in 
the moon. The moon was regarded in India as the Sun's 
daughter ; and Diodorus calls Isis the wife of Osiris and the 
daughter of Saturn.* 

This " holy story " which the priests told Herodotus is not 
to be taken literally more than the " holy story " in Genesis 
about Abrahm ^^ and Sarah ; " both stories refer to the sun and 
moon, Asarah's Cow.^ 

1 Herodotus. IL 129-188. 

> Heeren, 303, 801 ed. Oxford. 

» Exodus, V. 1 ; xii. 17. 

« Hyde, p. 144 

•S5d, I. 77, 187; do Iside, 8a 

• Vital Fire. 

-> Plutarch, Ldde, 20. 

" Holy, heavenly, horn of Mene.— Gtorhard, Griech, Mythol 149 ; Schneidewin, 
philologus, 8, 261 ; Hippolytns, v. 9. The Sabians considered Adam the Lunus-deity.— 
Mankind, p. 464. 

• Diodor. L 13, 24 

!• Bromins, Brahma, Abrahm. 

11 Sarasvati, Lucina, SaracA the Arab Moon -goddess. Compare the name Ehetasira 
with the names Khet (Kheth, Heth) and Asira (Asera, Ashera ; and Asar « Osiris). 
" The Hebrew sacred tale contains some political references to the Arab nations. 


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The Babylonians said that Bel was first bom, who is Kro- 
nos.^ From him was bom Belas and Canaan, and this Canaan 
begat the Father of the Phoenicians. And from this Choum is 
bom a son that by the Oreeks is called Asbolos (Askolos ?) and 
Father of the Aithiopians, but brother of Misraim (who is) the 
Father of the Egyptians/'* Here we begin to note a peculiarity 
of these so called genealogies, that to each city, district or 
country a person is invented who is assumed to have been its 
Ancestor and to have given name to it. Thus Sarach (Sara*h) 
is here assumed to have given name to the Saracens, as Hagar, 
to the Hagareni or Agraei of Arabia.* The Agraei inhabited 
the southern foot of Mount Libanus and the frontier of Syria.* 
The Hagarenes, Agraei or Gerraeans had an emporium called 
Gerra, on the Persian Gulf.' Genesis, xvi. 11, translates Ismael 
(God will listen to) by the verb sama "to hear.'* With 
Ishmael, compare i Shammah, the Arab tribe, named from 
Shama-el, Samael or Shemal, a name of the Sun. The Beni 
Shammah were by the scribe called i Shamaelites.* Ishmael's 
first bom is Nabioth, the Nabatheans. B6ual ^ is the Baualla 
tribe of Arabs.^ Pliny names nearly the whole of Northern 
Mesopotamia Arabia, and says it was inhabited by Arabs, 
among whom he mentions the Bhoali.' The oldest of the 
twelve Hebrew tribes was Arauban, Reuben Araby. Judges, 
viii. 11, mentions the place lagabhah.*® Genesis, x. 30, gives 
us loktan for Ancestor of i (the) Katan or Kahtan Arabs.^^ The 
Assyrians conquered Palestine in the 8th century before Christ 
and the Assyrian starworship is like the Persian.*^ 

1 krona ^ sanbeam. Sol-Satnm. 

> Enaebiai, Praep. Ev. ix. 17. 

s Bee Jervis. Genesis Elucidated, pp. 109, 382, 3S9, 464 ; 1 Chron. ▼. 19. 

* Jervis, p. 382. Compare Sanohoniathon^s Agros. — Orelli, Sanch. p. 20. 
» Jervis, 389, 395, 896; Banich, iii. 22, 28 ; 1 Chron. v. 19. 

• Dnnlap, SSd, L 201-205; Gen. xvi 12. 

* Genesis, xxxvi 10. 
« Sod, I 204, 205. 

• Chwolsohn, Ssabier, I 865, 866 ; Pliny, vi. 9. 

1* Compare Agabos and Aigobolos. Gebal was the son-god.— Oreuzer, Symb. L 
250. The Angel Akibeel has a like name. Kebo is the setting son ; Kebir is fire ; and 
Cabar or Grabar is the Mighty One, Cabir. lagob woold seem to have been lacob and 
Dionysns.— See Dnnlap, Sod, L 160, 164 ; Pausanias, ix. 8, 1. 

" See Josephns, Ant. xiL S 1, where the Gentiles regarding nnfavorably the rekind- 
ling of the Jewish power attacked the Jews in the time of Jndas Makkabens. Jadas fell 
npon the Beni Esan, the Idomeans, whom the Jews always wanted to conquer after the 
2d centnry Scriptures were written. See the prophecy in Gen. xxvii 85, 36, xxxv. 1. 

" Movers, L 64, 66, 70. 


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Za'hel (Zachel ^ was {ch softens to h) possibly the earlier 
Arabian name of the planet Saturn (Jl^O Zuhel. Compare 
Sachelat 1 Kings, i. 9. Baethgen, 54, finds a god Askan. 
Sichaeus the pure corresponds to the Phoenician Agathon 
who is killed with Adonis^ by Adrastus.^ Pygmalion murders 
Elion, Typhon destroys Osiris, Mars kills Adonis, Qen kills 
Abel. Esau is the evil spirit, Asu (Darkness) upon which light 
follows.* Horus succeeds Osiris, Apollo succeeds Aidoneus or 
Pluto! Esau is red (the color of the soil) like Mars-Typhon, 
which is the Devil's color. The Egyptian Queen Aso, one of 
the allies of Typhon against Osiris, has just the same name 
as wy (Asu, or Esau). Plutarch tells the story that Osiris and 
Isis were united in the Darkness (of Hades f ) prior to their exit 
from the maternal alvus ; which is fairly matched by the 
scribe's description of the contest between Esau and laqab 
in Rebecca's womb.^ These twins created such a disturbance 
before they were bom, that Rebecca inquired at all the doors 
of the women if they also in their days had been so unfortu- 
nate as to meet with such suffering, such painful delivery; 
and is said to have spoken: If childbed entails such sufferings, 
then I wish I had never become a mother.* 

Two nations are within thy womb, 

Two manner of people shall be separated from thj bowels. 
And people shall prevail against people, 
And the might/ ' shall serve the younger. — Genesis, xxv. 23. 
Thy brother ® came with subtlety and hath taken away thy blessing. — Gen- 
esis, xxvii. 85. 

Isaiah, xxiv. 23, gives the name of the Moon as Labanah, so that 
Laban is Lunus. Hermes and Luna gave increase to flocks. 

1 Zachelac;^ (a name, perhaps, of a town, where Zahel was the planet) could readily 
be Zeglag, or Zuhhelag. 
« Spring San. 

* Burning heat. 

* Julius Popper, Ursprung des Honotheis mus, 306, 308, 814, 864. 

* Arabah, Raubach, ** Erebenna Nux/* or Nephthys. Edom was always raiding 

* Popper, 829 ; Gen. xxv. 22 ; Medrash Bereaith Rabba, 63. 7. Movers, Phoenizier, 
890, 393, 397, 896, 400, regards Esau as the Evil Principle. The Semitic Bal (Bol) is 
the Sun, but Saturn too, who is the Devil-Hades.— Movers, 180 ; Homer, B. ziv. 203, 
204 ; Servius ad Aeneid, L 729. Satumus is the Autumnal Grod, the yearns fulness, 
and identical with Adonis-Dionysas-Admetns. 

^ Idumean Seir, the Shasn, shall serve *^ the Knb,*' the lakub, or lakoub. 
lakab, the tricky I Kebt is a name of the Old E^ptians.— Ideler, Handbnob, 
n. 504. 


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Now mark what lakab did— Genesis, xxx. 38, 39 ; xxxi. 8. Chab 
(nn) means to do a thing clandestinely,* iachab means one " who 
will do a thing secretly.*' Esau says : iaqabani " he has sup- 
planted me," ^ to the horror ' of the shaking old Izchaq.^ The 
chief of the Seven Kabiri was Kab (Keb) who is Saturn. " Hera- 
kles the Mighty " is a form of Aaaqabaar (the-Mighty laqab) 
who was a Hebron Sungod, or Saturn. Julius Popper (in 1879) 
showed that the Mighty Herakles was laqab the Acbar (Mighty 
One) of Genesis, xxxii. 28. The Sun-chariots stood within the 
precincts of the Jerusalem temple. — 2 Kings, xxiii. 11. Psalm, 
xix. 5 uses the very word (* Gabor,' = Kab, iaqab) of the Mighty 
Sun. We have the Light of Mithra (a young man of high 
stature taller than all the rest— Esdras, v. ii. 43. The Angels 
were always represented taller), the death of Herakles and his 
Bevival, the Death and Resurrection of the Adon Mithra. 
They told the deeds of Herakles (—Virgil, Aen. viii, 287, 288), 
and Aristophanes, Frogs, 429, speaks of " Herakles the Mighty." 
The Turks say Allah acbar, God is mighty ; and the Greeks 
said the same of Herakles,' who is both Saturn and Sol. 
Acabor," a name of the Great Kabir, reminds one of lacob. 
As to old Isaak (Saturn the Ancient) we find the name Sech^m 
near a valley which opens into a plain watered by a fruitful 
stream that rises near the town. The Midrash Babba to Gen- 
esis, xlix. 14, states that lacob (Jacob) is here speaking of his 

Issaohar is an ass of bone, lying between bundles. — Gen. xlix. 14. 

The twelve sons of Israel are twelve cantons. Asar is the ter- 
ritory in the rear and to the south of Sarra (Tyre, Syria) ; Dan 
is a district of west Palestine, or one located in the Lebanon ; 
Bauban is one east of Jordan ; and so on. But the Seven days 
Mourning for lakob are like the Mourning for Adonis, Kebo, 
Saturn, the setting Sun, the chief Cabir. Gabal was a name of 

* Seder Leshon, p. 88. In Syriao ohab also means to love. 
> Gen. xxtIL 35, 86. 

» Gen. xxvii. 83. 

* Laughter ! Seknn ia perhaps a form of Ischaq. 

• Dmilap, S($d, I. p. 95 ; Homer, II xi. 601. Archalens Ib Herakles in Phoenicia, and 
Bachel was his flame. Laban is the Lanus, according to Norlc^ indicated by Uie nnm- 
ber leTen (a qaarter of a lona^ month) and by the nnmber ten.— Gen. xxxi. 41. The 
moon-year formerly consisted of bat ten months.— Nork, Bibl. Mythol. L 849, 850. 

• Jer. xxxvi. 12. 

"> WQnsohe, Midrash Rabba, par. xcviii. p. 487. 

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the Sun-deity,^ the Kebir. The Little Genesis ^ says that lacob 
learned letters, but Esau did not, being a Wild Man and a 

There is a resemblance in plan and idea between the d3rnas- 
ties of Manetho and Genesis. In those of Manetho compared 
with the early patriarchs of Genesis (which seems, as it stands 
to be later than Manetho) we find the Gods named first in order 
by both Manetho and Genesis, the former continuing with the 
demigods and kings, while the Hebrew story stations demi- 
gods and patriarchal rulers next after the Gods. Phaleg 
(supposed patriarch of Phaliga), Rau (the Rawalla tribe of 
Arabs), Nachor (assumed to be the patriarch of Nahraina, 
Terah of Trachonitis, Haran of Harran, Lot of Lotaun, Esau of 
Saue, Abrahm of the Brahman sect (of Kalanus), Kanan 
(Cainan. — Gen. v. 19) of the Kananites, Ischaq, laqab are pre- 
ceded by undoubted deity -names in the first chapter of Gene- 
sis. See Adam, Eua, the Serpent (Typhon), Set, Methuselah, 
Lamach, Audah, Sellah, Anoch (Enoch), labal, lubal, Thuval- 
kan, Nah (Noah). Jacob himself is Herakles (—Julius Popper, 
396-398, 428, 448). Har-m-achu means Herakles in Light.* 
Herakles (as Homer tells us) descended into hell (Hades), 
laqab descended {Jcaboa. — Joshua, x. 27) to Hades.— Gen. xlix. 
33. laqab and loseph both descended after having lived re- 
spectively the sacred numbers 120 and 110 years. The name 
of the early Egyptian king Kab-en-achu (Kabehou) would 
then mean laqab (Herakles) of Light. Akabah, Keb, Keboa 
mean descent ; and laqab is then, like Herakles, Kronos, 
Saturn, Osiris, Dionysus, the Descent of Light I See Isaiah, 
xliv. 6. 

After the Flood-myth (see Menu, Menes, M-nu and Nu) we 
find in the Hebrew text supposed founders of tribes and cities 

» CreuEer, Symb. I. 269. 

3 et didioit Jacob literas, Esaa (Asa) autem non didicit.— Rdnsch, das Bach d. 
Jabilften, pp. 34, 25. Asa means ** Spirit,*' the Evil Spirit, Father of the Idumeans. 

' Job, ii 2. Compare Ashima-el, the Dev-il, for Ishmael. — Gen. xvi. 12. 

* Palaemon is Ino*s son, is a fiendish earth-giant. — Gerhard, Gr. Myth. L p. 428. 
See Mithra (Herakles) as also Moloch.— ibid. IL 832, 388. With Mithra we are at once 
introdaoed to Persian Daalism. The Demon apx>ears in Egypt near the Moon. Com- 
pare Typhon and Isis in Plutarch, de Iside, 18, 38, 45. laqab was an attribute of the 
Sangod. — Popper, 487, 438. He appears in the contest of Mithra against Ahriman, 
laqab versas Asa (the Ahriman side of the Mithra worship), Herakles contra Molooh 
or Palaemon. — See Popper, 487. Ino is the Goddess of Light, that sprang into the sea. 
— PreUer, L 378 ; Odyssey, v. 888. 


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mixed up as Euhemerised patriarclis with Abrahm, Ischaq 
and laqab. See Genesis, iv. 18-21 ; v. 26 ; xxxvi. The Arab- 
Egyptian names Saba, Seb, Asaph, Saf (compare Hasupha. — 
Ezra, ii. 43, Sept., Mt. Sephar.— (Jen. x. 30) also are associated 
with the pages of Genesis. The Great Pyramid was called 
Khuti (Khu-t. — De Roug6, Eecherches, p. 42). In Hebrew, Ach 
means fire. SoAchut (compare Neb-em -achu-t. — De Kouge, 
Rech. p. 67). Har, Horus, descended to Hades ! Har-ach-al-es 
was burned in fire at the evening descent in the west ! Khut, 
fire, light, was the Great Pyramid's name ; and pur, fire, is the 
root of the word puramis, pjnramid, pyre. Hence Khufu's 
cartouche is preceded by the signs of life, the water and the 

eUh hashems. — Gen. zxzii. 27. 
The Son went up. 

wa serach lo hashems.— Gen. zxzii. 82. 
And the San rose to him ! 

Asu (Esau) is Diabolos-Invidia, Ashu the Red Adversary * in 
the Desert, where the scape-goat was sent to the Devil (Aziz, 
or Azazel); hence Cubele (Kubele), or Arabecca, Orebecca, 
the mother of lacob, covered lacob's hands with the skins of 
goats that Old Isaac (Saturn in Hades) should mistake him for 
the Wild Huntsman Asu, Esau, or Kenaz.^ lachab is Cupido, 
Adon, Keb, Saturn. The pillar that he set up on Rachel's 
grave was a sun-pillar, suited better to the Phoenician Archal- 
Harakales (Herakles) ; who, however, sometimes appeared in 
female character and his priests in feminine dress, owing to 
the Lunus-Menes-Mene character of the Hermathene. Com- 
pare the pillar (oiled phallus stone) that Jacob set up on 
another occasion (Gen. xxviii. 17, 18 ; xxxv. 14). DaudorDod 
is declared to be the lunar Herakles by one writer, and Adad 
(the Phoenician Adodos) is the King of the Gods, the SuN. 
laqab, Herakles and Rachel all * wrestle.' — See Genesis, xxx. 8. 
Adonis and Venus suggest love. Agab (in Hebrew, to love), 
agap (in Greek, to love) indicate that in the words laqab (lacob, 
Jacopo) and lacopo we shall meet a Lover of the Lunar Deity, 

> Edom or Adom means '^ red.** 

* Nork, Real-W5rterb. L 478 ; Gren. xxvii 16. He Ib also connected with the Eden- 
story as Hades, Gen5, Grenerator, and fond of delicacies or delights. — Gen. zlix. 30, 
edenim, or edenL Note the Kenazi, in Gren. xy. 19, in relation to Qenaz. 


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Aphrodite ; else how came lacob and lacopo to correspond to 
Hebrew and Greek verbs meaning love ? 

Apollo in the cave of Bakchos was inflamed with love for 
Kubele.* They say that lasion (compare the letters Sion) mar- 
ried Kubele and Keres.* 

be-oreb ' kaboa ha-shems : at evening the Sun dies. — Deut. xvl 6. 
lakab pnt his feet together on the bed, and expired. — Gen. xlix. 33. 

Then began the abel misraim, the Egyptian Mourning. From 
the rising (Serach^ of the sun to the going down' (Kab, Kebo) 
of the same, our theme is Sarach and lakab. Judas Makka- 
beus opened the war by an attack on Esau's Sons, the Idu- 
means, killing and stripping many of them.* 

And lakab heard the remarks of the Sons of Laban, ^ who said : 
lakab has taken all the property of our father, and out of what has been 
our father's he has made aU this credit. And lakab saw the face of the Laban, 
and behold it was not towards him as it was yesterday and to the third day I ! 
— Septuagint Genesis, xxxi. 1, 2. 

In short, Jacob was advised to leave Lebanon without delay .^ 
The scribe rung all the changes on Jacob's name whether as 
the tricky, or the lover, or as the one who makes the * descent * 
to Hades, like Herakles. The Indian Herakles was (according 
to Cicero, N.D. m. 16) named Belus ; Saturn is the mythic 
Herakles of the Phoenicians, Baal-Chon (Bal Chon, Ptah, 
Vulkan) who wrestled with Typhon-Antaeus in the sand (as 
laqab = Isar-el, fighter of Gk)d) contends with Elohim in the 
sand, injures himself, as Herakles once on a time did, and 
receives the other name Isarel (Azar-el, Israel), another Palai- 
mon. — Movers, 396. Baal, who mythically is Herakles, was 

» Diodorus Sikulu», III. 198. 
a ibid. V. 828. 

* Compare orphel. 

* 0>mpare AsaraCf Osar, Osiris, IsareL The Resnrrection of Osiris. 

* Satam is Kebo, the San descending to Hades. Servius, on the iEneid, remarks 
that Bel, by a certain caloolation of the sacred rites or priests, was both Satam and 
SoL Saturn is the concealed Kab or Keb (chab& means to hide, to conceal, to do any- 
thing secretly, and to be concealed). Chahah means to hide one^s sell 

* Josephas, Ant. xii. 8. 1. After gaining their own independence the Jews claimed 
sway over the elder races of Lotaun and Mt. Seir. 

7 Beni Laban in the Lebanon. 

* Gkn. xxxL 8, 5, 9. After getting Laban^s cattle by a trick Jacob says that Elohim 
took them from Laban and gave them to him. This is &talism indeed f 


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also worshipped as Moloch the Firegod. Baal and Herakles 
are Mars. This Mars-Herakles is the Phoftnician Ar, Archal, 
Harakles. — Movers, 400, 401, 432. So much for the Azara (the 
Fire-goddess) of Osiris, Har, Herakles the King of Fire! 
Isarel means (he will prevail over God) Ck>tteskampfer (in 
German) and is the second name of Satom-Herakles among the 
Phoenicians. — Movers, 433. The Hebrew God was the Gheber 
Gkid of fire and Life ! — Deuteron. ix. 10 ; 1 Kings, xviii. 24. The 
God with whom laqab Herakles wrestles is Saturn, God of 
earth, darknessy water and time. After his struggle with Dark- 
ness he comes along at daybreak halting and limping. 

The ancient myth sends laqab (the root of his name in 
Hosea xii. 4 is ' aqab ') from the West to the East, to return 
from the East to the West, to Beth El, the temple of El-Saturn, 
whence he started, the temple of the King of fire Kronos- 
Herakles.^ There was the Golden statue of Apollo and the 
' sacred fire ' at Delphi. ^ The Sungod, the Lydian Herakles- 
Sandan, is said to have been in the service of the Moon, 
Omphale; laqab, in that of Lea and Rachel. Aqab means 
fraud, tricky. He claims to become a great people, and * all 
his brothers are given to laqab for servants.** The Hebrew 
people, formed from tribes or races that adored the Great 
Lights (Lichtmachte der Natur), has preserved their names and 
acts in its oldest memory and has recognized in them its own 
first ancestors, not holding them for what they originally were, 
but regarding them in an entirely diflferent light, having subor- 
dinated and assimilated them even so far as completest want of 
knowledge of its newly won religious point of view. Tho Gods 
of their ancestors became their first fathers, human beings. 
The name of a God became the name of the national patriarch. 
With the growth and success of monotheist idea the notion of 
a God named Israel would of course disappear, but his impor- 
tance as a patriarch of the people Israel would be strengthened.* 
Still, the story of Herakles (vide laqab) conquering Zeus is 
found in Nonnus, Dionys. x. 376, 377. Compare Genesis, xxxii. 
24-30, and Julius Popper, p. 450, who quotes "Hephaistos 
choleuei," the Firegod is lame, halts ! laqab says that he has 

> See Jnliuji Popper, Unpnmg, 896-898. 

• Academy, March 17th, 1888, p. 192. Seth is the Solar fire-god, like ApoUo, the 
Bal Seth, or Baal Seth. Compare 1 Kings, zviii. 24. 
3 Oen. xxTii 87. 
« Popper, 488. Heraldea is located in the snn.— de laide, 41. 


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seen the God (the Babbins make him out Firegod ^ and still 
lives ! Julius Popper has (in places that it is not needful to 
reproduce here) represented how easily popular notions are 
transferred from one to another in the fancy of great masses. 
He holds that Abraham, Ischaq and laqab are not histoiical 
personal beings.^ The difficulties between laqab and Osu 
(Esau) would seem to have been suggested to the Euhemerist 
Hebrew scribe by the passage in Sanchoniathon regarding 
the contest between Hupsouranios and Ouso ; but the sMns 
are referred to both in Gen. xxv. 26, xxvii. 16, and in the case 
of Ouso (Esau?) in Sanchoniathon, pp. 16, 18, ed. Orelli. 
laaqab the Mighty representative of the Aaqbar at Khebron is 
interchanged with Herakles, who is Melkarth ^ and Palaimon. 
The King, Elohim, worked salvation below in the centre of 
the earth.* Saturn (Ouranus) was met in the centre of the 
earth. Herakles was the Saviour, mighty to deliver from 
Hades; where Homer depicts him. This is Mosia,' Osiris, 
Osar, Osar-Sev, the Redeemer from Hades, Adonino "our 
God" of the anazogresis or Resurrection.* Compare Musios 
in the Mysteries of Phrygia. 

MoBgs, that is, the Logos (the Word).— Hippolytos, p. 246. 
Beat breasts and shoat out the Musion (cry, hymn. wail). — Aeschylus, Persai. 
Sterna arasse kai epiboa r6 Musion. — ibid. Persai, 1054. 
Because I am Kurios, thy God, the Holy Israel who saves thee.— Septuagint 
Isaiah, zliii. 8. 

The priestly scribe's aim was political-topographical. He 
turns Ai Kab into lakab (npy'*) which means **to take by the 

1 Popper, 446; Jndges, xiii. 30, 23. See farther, Popper, 869, 373, 878, 398, 444. 

* Popper, 454, 455. 

* W. Robertson Smith, Prophets of Israel, 883. 

* Septuagint psalm Ixxiv. 12. That was where Saturn and Osiris were at work, as, 
too, Seb and Keb. 

^ Moses. 

* Dnnlap, S5d, L 112, 150, 160, 164. Eebo is the Setting Son, and Ai Kabod is 
the Mourning for departed glory. Compare the names (Sebal and Kabul in Syria.—! 
Kings, ix. 13. lakab a deceit. 3p^ means to take by the heel, supplant, defraud. — 
Gen. xxT. 26. Two nations are in thy womb. — Qen. zxr. 23-26. All his brothers are 
given as servants to laqab. — Gen. xxvii. 87. The immoralities of the patriarchs are 
merely imaginary immoralities told with a political aim. The Arab tribes are repre- 
sented as illegitimate kindred resulting from left-handed marriages of the patriarchs. 
The statement that Esau is the elder branch is confirmed by GenesLs, xxxvi. 81, for the 
Arabian kings are there declared to have existed before any king ever reigned over the 
Beni Israel.— Gen. xxv. 23, 81, 88; xxvL 84. 


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heel" and applies this significant meaning to the case of 
Idumea (Edom) which the later Jews wanted, claiming the 
hegemone of Isarel over Esau (Edom), he connects lakab with 
the solar number 12, makes him fight with a " Power " all 
night,^ and gives him the Egyptian Mourning for Adonis- 
Osiris, which lasted seven days.^ The scribe has in his mind 
the subjugation of Edom. His dream of conquest took in Ur 
(through Abrahm), Issachar and Sechem (through the name 
Izchak, Isaac), lezreel (through Israel), Lotan (Lot), and Edom, 
— a quasi messianic dream of Jewish power covering all the 
regions over which Abram, Isaac, Lot, Esau and the Mighty 
Jacob had ever wandered, from the border of Egypt to Dan in 
the Lebanon and the Great City Tyre on the sea-coast of Asar.^ 
These claims are beheld in Joshua and in the description of 
Solomon's vast kingdom, which seems to have been noticed by 
the Jews alone. 

When Euhemerism turned Kadmus ^ into a cook of the king 
of Sidon it could turn the Venus and Fortima of the Jews, the 
Asarah or Ashera, into a very old lady whom they called Sarach 
or Sarah. Her name, however, was Sarra ; ' so that She is the 
Aphrodite of Tyre and the Euphrates as well as Ephraim, to 
whom the city lone was her sacred city. 

Small parties of the Beni Sakker still descend into the Jor- 
dan valley to steal.* Issachar (Ish Sakar) pitches tent on the 
boundary of summer and winter, for his place is appointed to 
him in the Scales at the autumn equinox, where the heliacal 
ascension of the star Libera, the neighbor of the Virgin, to- 
gether with Ophiuchus on the horizon helps to explain the 
myth of the rape of Dina by Sachem ben Chamor (the son of 
the Ass), the Choi or Ophis.' The Lion, Ariman,^ is now be- 

* Axar, Asarel is Mara, the Destroyer. 

> G^n. 1. 3, 10, 11. Compare Khnnm, Ken, Kain. 

> Joshna, xiii 6 ; xiz. 29. 

* Compare " Zaq ziua Lord of Life" (—Codex Nazoria, Norberg, IL 966) with the 
root of Zaqaq in Izohaq, Isaac. Letters coald be changed, for a purpose on the part of 
a Semite scribe. These Gn5stic names are not wholly remote from Genesis and its 

* Bdnsch, die *^ Kleine Genesis,*^ p. 24. Tyre*s name was Sarra ; now, it is Soar. 
With the names Anar, Asirah, etc. compare the mountains of Asir in Arabia. — Dnnlap, 
S9d, L 205. 

* J. S. Buckingham, Travels among the Arab tribes, pp. 87, 88. 
' Choia in Chaldee, Enia, in Hebrew. 

* Osiris, Adonis, Aidonens, Plata Satnm was the &ther of Typhon and Nephthys. 
-de Iside, la 


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come the Ass Typhon, and, as Yama Judge of the dead, holds 
the Scales in his hand with which .the actions of men were 
weighed at the festival Owani Oton. It falls in the same 
month as the Jewish judgment-day, named Day of recollection 
(of sins). And on the astrological sphere of the Persians * one 
actually sees an Old Man (Saturn) with a Scales in his hand.^ 
Hermes is the Son of Bacchus.^ This is Dionysus Zagreus. 
Hermes carries him in his arms, the Son with horns. Hermes 
is the Bain-god lacchos who brings the dead to life. The 
frenzied Bacchants in the Omophagia, crowned with serpents, 
shouted out that Eua, on account of whom the " Wandering " ^ 
immediately followed. With the increase of the Darkness' 
begins the creation of the corporeal world. The Lamb accom- 
panies the resurrection in spring, the Ass® walks oflf with the 
dead when the six dark, wintry signs come on. In the month 
of the Scales, over which the astrologers placed the Venus 
Sicca, not only the Hebrew Feast of Huts but the Babylonian 
Sakea and the Greek Skirrophoria were celebrated to the 
Moon-goddess as Goddess of Water (Aphrodite) and all femi- 
nine nature.' Artemis -Nana- Venus was the great lunar Baby- 
lonian feminine Deity. Under the name Anta or Anata ^ she is 
armed as a female warrior with casque, lance, buckler and 
battle-axe. Her character is Itmar, infernal and warlike. This 
must be a form of Athena with the lance, the female-part of 
Adonis of Babylon, the Androgune. Anahid, Venus, was the ' 
Goddess of the pure water that inundates the earth, and her 
emblem was the dove. Everywhere, in all parts of the vast 
field of its propagation, the worship of Nana-Anat presents at 
the same time two aspects which seem, at first, contradictory. 
This duality of opposites is remarked to the same degree 
among all the feminine divinities of the Euphrato-Syrian re- 

> Scaliger ad Manilium. 

• Nork, Bibl. Mythol. I. 891, 893. 

> Orphens, Argonautika, 57. 

* Keres holding a torch. The 83mibol of Dionysas, the Gndi and the tpiriUii^ is a 
serpent ; which the Gnostics ttansf erred to the Anointed. The Golden Serpent scan- 
dalised Amobios as much, in the Msrsteries of Bacchus at AUmnnt, as the Brazen Ser- 
pent of Hoses in Arabia might have astonished him. 

> The walkers in Darkness have seen a Great Light — Isa. ix. 2. 

* The Ass was represented as Golden ; for Typhon is represented as Grolden BolL 
The manger of the Celestial Asses is mentioned in Nonnns, L 459. 

•> See Nork, I. 392, 898. 

• AnaitiB, Neith. 


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ligions. It is what is expressed by the invocation in the fourth 
act of the Mercator of Plautus : 

Divine AsUrte» of men and gods, the Force, Life, Salvation^ the same too 
who art Destr action, Death, Extinction. 

All the modem savants that have studied the group of relig- 
ions prevailing in the basin of the Tigris and Euphrates, Syria, 
Phoenicia and Palestine, have proved that under names in- 
finitely varied, with traits which by turns make this or that 
side of the fundamental (Conception predominate, it is one 
single and the same feminine divinity that is adored in them. 
She personifies the universal force of mother nature, manifests 
herself in the fecundity of the earth and of humidity, in the 
reproduction of plants and animals and in the celestial bodies 
to which they attributed a beneficent action upon the cycle 
of the perpetual evolutions of life, like the Moon and the 
planet Venus. The female deities are confounded together, 
and are really reduced to but one representing the feminine 
principle of Nature, the humid, passive, and fruitful matter.* 
Nara, the divine spirit, presided over destruction and recon- 

Dennis mentions Menerva-Nortia-Fortuna as Etruscan. 
Minerva is Fortuna. Minerva was represented with the polos 
O on her head.' Fortime was represented with the polos or 
globe O on her head.'* Fortuna primigenia was held to be 
Mother of luno and lupiter Puer (Koros). Tuche was much 
worshipped by the Syrians on the Orontes.' 

•r\npovrr9t rp rvxjf xipafffUL — Isaiah, Izv. 11. 

A terra-cotta from Phoenicia, in the Museum of the Louvre, rep- 
resents Aphrodite- Astarte seated, the head covered with the 
polos, and holding the dove.* The Babylonian goddess with 
the polos on her head was Artemis-Nana.'' The Eleans had a 

» p. Lenormant, Gazette Arch. 1876, pp. 58, 69 ; Lettres AgsyrioL, IL 248. 

> Jacolliot, lee Fila de Diea, 18. 

*Faii8anias, iv. SO, 6. 

* ibid. Yii. 4, 0. A Goddess with a headdress surmounted by the horns and globe. 
—Wilkinson, Modem Egypt, DE. 309. 

» Pausanias, vi 2, 7. The Feast of D6m6t6r Usted 7 days, like the Jewish Feasts. 
•Pausanias, vii 27, 9. 

•F. Lenormant, in the Gazette Archeologique, 1876, p. 188, note 4. 

' Sayoo, 67, 68. 

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gilded image of Fortuna. Tuche's temple is near the naos of 
Aphrodite.^ At Smyrna she was represented with the polos 
(ball) on her head.^ As the Moon is Minerva's emblem For- 
tuna is Mene, Minerva, Athena, Esita,^ Artemis, Hestia. For- 
tuna is mentioned together with Artemis Phosphoros,^ and is 
evidently the Babylonian Nana. Praxiteles made Fortuna's 
image in white marble. She is the ** White Goddess" of 
Spring, like Ino Leukothea, and therefore holds the child 
Plutus in her arms. She ^ is the Goddess Ma (Isis, £ua) and 
Bona Dea,® and, in another point of view probably the Venah. 
Hekate and Hermes gave increase to flocks, but we may sup- 
pose these the Ohthonian Hermes and Luna of the Shades.^ 
Hermes is thus identified with Pluto and Plutus (wealth) con- 
sequently a male Fortune.® Hermes does not leave Osiris 
in Hades, since Hermes too is the Solar Power, and he in- 
structs Isis. Keres is thus Minerva, Atana, Fortuna, Goddess 
of seeds, increase of flocks (like Venus) and wealth ; like Eua 
in the Mysteries of Dionysus. 

Adar was the Herakles of the Babylonians and Assyrians. 
The Arabs had the god Dar and there was a large erection 
called Magdol-Adar.* Nork states^ that Adarmelech is un- 
doubtedly identical with Ares, the Death-bringer Mars, who in 
Syria was called Azor. A king of Moab oflfered up his oldest 
son, his destined successor, on the wall, a sacrifice to Saturn- 
Adonis, or Dionysus Moloch, Asakal the fire that consumes or 
eats.^^ Sakel means bereavement, loss of children. If the a in 

> PftnBamaSf i. 48, 6. 
3 PaiuaniB, iy. 80, 6. 

s See Sate, God of Light, Ishita (Seth), SatU (Jane, Hera), Istia, Sit, Site. 

iPaoBanias, iv. 81, 10. 


• P. Fonoart, p. 88, note 1. 

f Gen. xlix. 28 ; Deateron. xxxiii. 18. 

> Venus was adored as deum potentem et almum, consequently as Lunus-Lnna, or 
Menes. Laevinns adored Venus as mas et f emina NoctUnca, and Philochorns affirmed 
that she was Luna. — Macrobius, QL 8. In the Mysteries of Herakles and Aphrodite, 
the priests wore women^s clothes and the pristesses men^s clothing. 

* Gen. xxxv. 21. Adar is the Dorian, Syrian and Assyrian Herakles. Ador is 
the Babylonian and Adiouru the cuneiform expression of the word. — Lenormant, lea 
Origines, I. 47. 

>• Nork, BibL Mythol. L 27. 

1^ 2 Kings, iii. 27. Athena donned the helmet of Aidoneus in order that Mighty 
Ar?8 should not see her. — Homer, II. v. 845. * Mars-Moloch ' seems to have been the 
Evil One.— Dunlap, Vestiges, 298-301 ff. The Wicked One touches him not.— 1 John, 
V. 18. 

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1818 IN PHCENIOIA. 301 

Sakel were transposed, or the article (ha) were prefixed, the 
Valley of Sakel might be made to read "Valley of Askol." 
There is, consequently, some reason to suspect that, besides 
the Mourning for Aud, children may have been sacrificed to 
Moloch in that valley and their blood sprinkled on his altars. 

Take now thy son, thine only begotten that thou lovest, Izchak, and go 
away for you to the land of Amariah* and offer him there as an offering.^— Gen. 
xxil. 2. 

The first-births of thy sons thou shalt give to Me.^ Goldziher 
says that s&hal signifies to shine bright.* Eeplacing the h by 
a cA, according to nile, we have SacAal as a name of the Sun, 
which we will apply to the name of the brook in Numbers, xiii. 
23. Goldziher considers Isaac, the Laugher, originally the 
Sun.— Goldziher, 92-96. Askalos (a mythic founder, or name 
of the Sun) built Ascalon. — Movers, Phonizier, I. 17. The 
Mysteries of Dionysus Aisac, or Dionysus of the Sacoth or 
Succoth (the booths of Venus), were held in Arabia, and in- 
variably at the period of the vintage. There were several 
forms of the name Askal.^ Nonnus gives us Aisak as chief of 
the homed centaurs. 

Sakia was the Arabian Eaingod ; Seb (Saturn) was in the 
Abyss of Seph.* Zachel ' (Sachel, Phainon) is a name of the 
Arab Saturn;^ for Zachaq means 'to laugh,' in Hebrew. 

1 compare the Amoritename, Mt. Moriah.— Numbers, zxi 81. 

* This ia an offering in the fireworship, like the children offered to Moloch. 
' Exodas, xxii 39. 

4 Goldziher, Mythol. among the Hebrews, 93. 

* If Sachal is not the source whence the name Ischaq is derived, we have Saq zina 
(Saq, the Shining) the Lord of Life.— Codex Nazoria, IL 266 ; also Sachar the Morning 
Light, as opposed to the Darkness of Isohaq^s sightless eyes, and SAlda (the name of 
an Arabian deity whosapplied the Arabs with rain. — Universal Hist. voL 18, p. 385) ; 
and Izohaq dog wells, one of which was called ** Asaq.** — Gen. zxvL 18, 20. Ischaq is 
here directly connected with the Rainwater ! In Hebrew, izaq and zaq mean * to ponr 
out,* * to pour down.'— Ignatius Weitenauer, Seder Leehon (Hierolexicon), pp. 129. 291, 
A. D. 1759; Sirooms, Lexicon Hebraicura, p. 781 ; Gen. xxxv. 14; Leviticas, viii. 15. 
The Hebrew tribe Dan at the sources of the Jordan remind one of Danaus and his wells. 
The Sun was considered the source of rain, and Zachar means * to shine.^ 

* Deut. xxxiii. 18. 

'* As Chilr becomes Hfir, so Charran changed into Harran, and Zachel changed to 
Zahel in latev Arabic, like Rahel and Rachel ; ch softens to h in later Arabic and late 
Hebrew. So Khoreb became, at last, Horeb. Khar (Khor) meaning Sun ; Kharu, 

B Compare Ludwig Ideler, Stemnamen, p. 816. Sakel and Askal have therefore a 
certain resemblance to the more modem name of Saturn, Zahel, A^v, 


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Sachaq also means in Hebrew * to laugh.' While Sachar means 
the Morning. The Dawn (Ushas) siniles, and the Sun laughs ! 
Many Semite verbs which describe joyousness originally de- 
noted to shine. The Hebrew s&hal signifies both 'to shine 
bright/ and * to cry aloud.' SArach denotes * to cry ' in the 
chief representatives of Semitism; but the Arabic has also 
preserved the original sense 'clarus, manifestus fuit.' The 
root of the Hebrew hedAd ' cry of joy ' is the same from which 
Hadad, the name of the Syrian Grod of the shining sun, can be 
derived. So also sAchak * to laugh aloud ' originally expressed 
the idea of brightness, clearness. It follows that the name 
Yischak is a solar epithet. The old poet al-A'scha says of a 
blooming meadow that it rivals the sun in laughter.* So too 
* the Lightning laughed.' The Arabs seem to have adored the 
God of the rainy sky.^ 

He who sits in heavens shall langh. — Psalm, IL 4. 
Habitans in ooelis Ischaq ; Adoni snbsannabit eos. — Ps. ii. 4. 

Zachar (nns) also means * shining,' ' brilliant.' Zachach 
means * shining,' and Zach means nitidus, clarus ; while ziqah, 
np''T» means spark, flame. But " Zchl " is obviously Zachal or 
Zachel, which would represent Bel Saturn. If Izchaq is Sat- 
urn the oath * by Izchaq (Zochak, the Evil Daimon) ' ^ of whom 
the Arabs stood in great fear (his planet, though brilliant, was 
the sign of misfortune) would then (Genesis, xxxi. 42, 53) be 
explained. The oath, " wa iSate " or " wa Set," would be like 
**Wa Satan." 

Issakar is an ass of bone, lying between bundles.— Gen. zlix. 14. 

These bundles are flie range of hills running north and south 
suited to grape culture. And the 12 Sons of Israel are twelve 
districts, turned by the narrative into twelve persons. 

And they set out from Sakoth * to cross the desert, lachoh 
going before them in the dajrtime in a column of cloud, but at 

* Goldzieher, 94, 95. 

3 ZeoB Plnvins, in the tents (Sak5th, or SaooSth). See Goldzieher, Mythol. of 
the Hebrews, 221, 222. Bat Zens is Sun, Dionjsos, and Hades. 

* Compare Saturn as Earthgod, 2iOchar (the shining) as Zagrens, the male prin- 
ciple. See Deateronomy, xxxiii 13, on the Depths of Hades. 

^ tents. Tents of Asherah. Suoooth. 

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1818 IN PH(ENIOIA, 303 

night in a fire pillar,^ as was the case in the Assyrian armies, 
whose Magi carried fire pillars in front of the army. 

The city Fhaliga (Phalega) was near the confluence of the 
Khabor and the Euphrates. — Chwolsohn, Ssabier, I. 312. 
Hence we get a patriarch Phaleg (Peleg) with a pun on his 
name, ^divided.' From the city Alabanda we derive the God 
Alabandus.— Cicero, N. D. iii. 19. Gbds had once been men, 
and gave name to cities. Hence cities could be supposed to 
have founders of the same name as the city. Euhemerism was 
a double ender that could work both ways. 

It was the custom of the Chaldaeans in the time ofJo^ephvs 
to take with them the teraphim when they left home on a jour- 
ney.^ Rachel (Irach-Lima) did this.' It is therefore a late 
custom ! Genesis pays special attention to Idumean relations/ 
We find the town of Elat ' or Alat (Alitta, Alilat, Venus). Lot 
is also mentioned (and the Beni Lot) in the plain of Sedom 
not far from Mt. Seir.* Lht (which means he " burned ") is 
read ' Lat, pronounced Lot. Lot thus represents the " burnt 
district " where lahoh rained fire and brimstone upon the cities 
of the plain at the bottom of the Dead Sea. Volcanic agency ! 
The earlier name Bela was changed to Zar. What induced the 
Jewish scribe to alter it into Zoar? Bal (Bol) is the eastern 
name of Abel-Apollo (Abelios in Krete), the name of labal, 
lubal (Jubal's lyre), or Bel.® Zar (Zur) means fire ; according 
to Movers.— I. 338, 340. The verses Gen. xix. 19-22 were writ- 
ten by a scribe who introduces double meanings. After an 
objectionable story affecting the reputation of Lot's daugh- 
ters, he winds up with two extra double-entendres in the names 
Ben-Omi and Mo-ab. Gen. xxxviii. 29, 30, has two puns on 
the words Perez (rupture) and Zerach (sunrise, exortus) ; which 
are, however, proper names. 

Reuben's district was Araben or Bauben (Araby) beyond 

* EzoduB, xiii 20, 31. Here is a sort of Jewish Diad. 

* Josephos, Ant. xviii. 2. The Mesopotamians earned their gods with them. Ac- 
cording to this inherited castom Rachel (Rahel) decorates the idohi of herself and hus- 
band and takes them along. — Jos. xviii % Gen. xxxi 19, 84. 

s Chwolsohn, Ssabier, II. 153, 154 ff. ; Gen. xzxi 84. 

* Gen. xxxiii 13-16 AT. ; see Amos, viii 12. 1 Maccabees, tI 8. 
» Dent, ii 8. 

* Dent, ii 9. 

^ arsit, ineendit. Write with an H \ read it A, St. Jerome gives this as the mle ; 
to write ** he," and read it a. 

« " Bal Dens dicitHr." ZSr, in Hebrew, means '' little.** 

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Jordan/ losiph's land was the land of Sif (Sev, or Zuph), north- 
west of Jerusalem, in which the Beth El and the Great High 
Place at Gabaon were situated, while Apherema, Apharat 
(Ephrata) and Aphron supply the name of Ephraim^ the 
" fruitful," from pTiarah? 

Aphron ben Zaohar. — Gen. xxiii 8. 

Aphron dwelt in the midst of the Beni Chat, and Aphron the Chati re- 
sponded to Abrahm in the hearing of the Beni Chat.^ — Gen. xxiii 10. 

As the noon-crescent is Issa and Isis, whose star (Oanis, Dog- 
star) portended the rise of the Nile, and as the crescent was 
named Asarah, Sarah, Asira, Siro, Asherah and loh, perhaps 
Aphorite (see pharah) means the fruit-giving. Vena, the Ha 
pharahdite or productive crescent Keres ; so Isis would corre- 
spond to Demeter and Yenus, the Fortuna of the Israel, Aphro- 

Genesis, xli. 51, derives the name Manasah from ruiSy to 
forget. As Jacob's land is always the main point, M-nasa 
(Manasah) is derived from nasa and means the * elevated ' re- 
gion, south of Magadon and TANach, that was called Mt. Car- 
mel. Nasa means to lift or raise up. Also across the Jordan 
Manasah's allotment was the high ground in Gilead between 
Bostra, Astaroth, Abila and Ephron. Sechem (or Sichem) gets 
its name from sechem achad,* meaning part one of loseph's 
fruitful territory ;* and this is confirmed by the Greek^5tKc/Dia, 
lialpcrov^ meaning chosen, preferred. Near this place is a valley 
opening into a fruitful plain that is watered by a stream 

> Compare Rabath Beni Am5n.— S Sam. xii 20. Rabaoh-ah (Arabah, ArabaohoA). 
—Gen. xxvi 35. Rabachah (or Bebekah) has Arab afi&nities in Rebecca. Rauben and 
Rebecca. Moab (fromMaab, in the cuneiform; maab stands for maabous ** granary/^ 
since Selah MerrUl in the Boston Daily Advertiser^ Jan. 10, 1877, mentions ^^ the pro- 
ductive plains of Moab ") which seems not to have been counted as a part of Reuben^ 
possessed great natural fertility. The resources of the soil must have been immense. 

a Gen. xxiii 8. 

» Gen. xli 62. 

4 Compare the Kati mentioned in Gen. xxiii 7 with Numbers, xiii. 29, where the 
Chati, Amori and Ebusi are shown to have dwelt in the mountains at the time of this 
questionable conquest. 

• See Gen. xlviii 23. 

* Asab, Asav, Seb, Ser (Siva), Sabos, the Arab God named Asaph and Asaf 
(Univ. Hist, xviii 861, and the Goddess Saiva).— Compare lo Seph, Asaph, Asaf, and 
Mt. Saf-ed. Also Supha, the trans-jordan district.— Numbers, xxi 14. lusnph or 

"> The Septuagint translation. 


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laia IN PH(ENICIA, 305 

which has its source near the town. Hence the land of 
Sichem is number one. 

loseph is a fruitful bough. — Gen. xlix. 22. 

Gad resembles Achad, a name of the sun, if shortened into 
one syllable. Gad is a district (towards the sunrise) beyond 
Jordan, as we learn from the mention of Kamus-Gad (in the 
Moabite Stone, line 1 *), from the name Dibon-Gad, and from 
Joshua, xii. 6 ; xiii. 9, 17, 24 ; Numbers, xxxii. 3, 6 ; xxxiii. 46, 
46. Moab was written in the Assyrian inscriptions Ma-ab and 
Mo'ab, but is found once written Mab in Deuteronomy, ii. 11, 
Heh'eto without points. We have also the names Moba 
(Karak Moba) and Moph-at in Jeremiah, xlviii. 21. The pun 
on the name in the Lot story shows, as does the Assyrian way 
of writing, that Mab or Moba was the original name. The 
writing by syllables would give Ma-ab or Moab. 

In Genesis, xxxviii. 29, 30, we find two puns on the two 
words Phares and Zara : compare the pun on Shemal turned 
into Ishmael.^ — Gen. xvi. 11. In Genesis, xxix. 32-35, there 
are four puns. Lah (Leah) conceives, brings forth a son 
whom she names Bao-ben (son of seeing), for I*hoh sees (rah) 
my misery. The next son she called Semaon (a favorable 
hearing) because lahoh heard that she was hated. When Loi, 
the third son was bom, she thought her man would stick to 
her (^to'^K Tvh^); therefore she named her son Loi, adhesion. 
When the fourth was bom, she said I will give praise to 
lahoh. Audah means I will praise ; so she called him 
leudah^ (praise). Sebulon means "honor." — Schrader, 149. 
An astonishing source of proper names. These absurd puns 
run on in Genesis, xxx. 6, 8, 11, etc., but it is not necessary to 
repeat all the puns in the Old Testament to instance the pe- 
culiarity and habit. Seth's name is made to turn on the He- 
brew verb " set " to set, or to appoint, and Acabal is the 
Lover ^ of Kubele, the Moon, the Venus and Cupido that Ovid 
noticed on the bank of the Palestine stream. 

1 Isaac Taylor, Alphabet, L p. 208. 

3 Sbemal. a name of the San, here means siniBter, from the left pide, the AdT«r- 
sary,— the Arab Sam&el. Shem& means "heard." 

3 St. Jerome read n An »• And refers to Adonis ; and Andnnaios is the name of 
the month when Adon becomes Saturn. 

* acab, to love. Laban (Lnnus) the father of Kubele ? Kubele is Libanah, the 
Moon. The Moon Mother of the Gods. So is Kubele- Cybele. 

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The motive for writing this fabulous history must have 
been familiar to Tacitus and have had its raison d'etre in the 
rapid rise of the Makkabees to power posterior to B.o. 168. 
Still, the Jewish scribes went back far enough, to Ptah and 
Athor, the two chief divinities of Memphis,* as prototypes of 
As and Asah (Issa) the fire-deities of Aud, leoudah, and Mo- 

Aratus says that there are many stars in the heaven, that 
is, revolving, because they are borne round from rising to 
setting and from setting to rising unceasingly in spheroid 
form. And towards the very " Bears,'* he says that there is, 
as it were, a river's flow, a great wonder of a monstrous 
Dragon, and this he says is what the Adversary in Job said 
to God: Walking about upon and circulating in the earth 
beneath heaven, that is, revolving and contemplating what 
have come into being ; for they think that the Dragon, the 
Serpent, has been stationed in the arctic pole, looking upon 
and overlooking from the highest pole (or heaven) all things, 
in order that nothing of what is done should escape his no- 
tice. For when all the stars in the heaven set, this pole alone 
never sets, but coming up above the horizon observes all 
things, and, he says, nothing can escape his notice of the 
things that happen. For the head of the Dragon is placed 
towards the setting and rising of the two hemispheres. 

There is down upon the very head of the Dragon a human 
form beheld through (the) stars, which Aratus calls a wearied 
phantom and resembliug one tired out ; and it is called '' In 
genubus." The Aratus therefore says that he knows not what 
is this labor and this wonder revolving in heaven ; but the 
heretics wishing to confirm their own dogmas by the history 
of the stars, waiting very carefully upon these, say that the 
" In genubus " is the Adam, according to God's command, he 
says, watching the Dragon's head and the Dragon (watching) 
his heel.* And, he says, on each side of " In genubus '* are 
Lyra and the Crown, and he bending his knee and stretching 
his hands out as if confessing about sin.^ 

Kepheus is near him ^ and Kassiepeia and Andromeda and 

> Kenriok, I 96. 

> Genesis, iii 15. 

» HippolytoB, iv. 47. Miller, pp. 83, 83. 
* Ophiuchos. 

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1818 IN PHCBNICIA. 307 

Perseus, great letters of creation for those who are able to see. 
For Kepheus, he says, is the Adam, Kassiopeia Eua, Andro- 
meda the soul of each of these, Perseus the Logos, winged off- 
spring of Dios,* Ketos the treacherous '^ beast.' Even the Lapps 
have their mythical epic ^ in which they relate how Pawin par- 
ne (the Son of the Sun) along with his brother giants used the 
Great Bear as his bow, and hunted and tamed the heavenly 
stags — Jupiter "the bright stag" and Venus "the color- 
changing hind *' — in the constellation Cassiopeia.' 

Wretched Kftssiepeia through Aether goes down into the Be« 

Trembling at the Nereids, and deems happj the orbit of Arktos* 

Who is neyer wetted in ocean and neyer touches the sea.^Nonnns, zzr. 185. 

Asarach is not here the Sun of the West^ but Serach the 
Morning Sim, called also Bakar in Hebrew and Bak " light " 
in Egyptian.' God (Elohim) was the intelligible, mind-per- 
ceived, Sun-moon,* Adonis.* Adonis in Hades is Aidoneus, 
and Bimmon is Ahriman-Areimanius. The monad is extended, 
which generates two.'^ The Moon " was bom of the Sun." The 
Maternal Cause ^^ is double, having received from the Father 
matter and spirit. For the duad ^^ sits by this and glitters with 
intellectual sections, to govern all things and to arrange each." 
She is the cause of all things. " What is subsequent to God," 
says Philo, "although it is the oldest of all existing things 
beside, holding the second place, was called female,'^ as com- 
pared with the male principle, which is the Creator of all 
things." " This is the Hermetic Beligion, the Hermes-philos- 


* K^tos is the Ck>nftellatioii, Cioero's pistrix, sea-monster. 
*Hippolytii8, iy. 49. Miller, p. 87. 

* See the summary of this ** Vogul Genesis,** given by M. Adsm in the Reme de 
Philologie et d^Bthnologie, L 1 (1874), pp. 9-14. 

* Sayoe, Introd. to the Soienoe of Language, IL 10& 

V Seal of lar-Homs in Abbot Eg3rpt. If nsenm. 

* Metrodorus, de Sensionibns, cap. 18 ; Dnnlap, S9d, I. p. 141. 

* ibid. L pp. 31, 70. 

»• Proclns in Euc. 27 ; Cory, Ano. Frag. 245i 

" Mene-Minerva. 

" Colebrodce, Rel. of Hindns, p. 2Si 

" Enah, Venah, Venus. Gen. iii. 20. 

^* Isis- Venah- Aisah. — Gen. ii 28. Allah-Sin. 

" Proclus in PUt 37«. 

»• See "Woman," Aisah, in Gen. iL 23. 

»' Philo, On Fugitives, p. 311. 

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ophy, the doctrine of the Eastern world from which Homer 

The Wisdom which is Man and Woman. — Hermes, i. 30. 
Minerva, whom thej call Intelligence pervading all things. —Athenagoras, 
pro Ghristianis, 24. 

Minerva is the Intelligence, the Mens divina, permeating 
material things, Casta ilia et edita sine matre Dea.' Very 
often they called Isis Athena ; and they called Isis Sophia.^ 

The Wisdom, the Mother, through whom the all was made. — Philo, qnod 

deter. 16. 

And in Venah everj life is included. — ^Kabbala Denudata.' 

The female Primal Principle that arranges the universe in order. — Plutarch, 

de EI apud Delphos, 8. 

The Kabbalist Sophia* is the Homeric-Greek Athena; which 
carries back the Hermes-doctrines in the Levant to a period 
earlier than Homer. 

Philo says of the first cause : My nature is to he^ not to be 
named ! 

I did not show to them my name. — Exodus, vi. 8. Septuagint. 

Abstract existence [rh tv) is not to be named, so that the ministering Powers 
do not tell us the Lord's name.— Philo, Mutatio nominum, 2. 

The holy mystic account about the uubegotten and his Powers ought to be 
concealed. — Philo, de Sacr. Abelis et Caini, 15. 

Divine affairs are told to men with a little more concealment.^ To cover up 
and hide hidden mysteries in ordinary words under the pretext of a certain his- 
tory and statements of visible things ! Therefore an account of the visible 
creation is introduced and the making and fiction of a first man. . . . But in 
a wonderful way the account of even the battles was put together and the 
described diversity of those, now conquerors, now conquered, by which cer- 
tain unspeakable sacraments are declared to these who understand how to in- 
vestigate sayings of this sort. But also the law of truth and of the Prophets 
is inwoven with the Scripture of the Law through the admirable instractlon of 
wisdom, which divine things, by a certain art of wisdom, as if a certain vest- 
ment and covering of spiritual meaningfs, were each covered up : and this is 
what we have called the corpus ^the body) of Scripture, so that even through 

1 Origen. II. p. 498 ; contra Gels, vi Pallas Mounogenea. 

« Plut. de Iside, 2. 

* Apparatus in librum Zohar, p. 891. See Gen. iii 20. 

< God's Daughter, Sophia, is, too, male and father. ^PhUo, FngitiveSf p. 811. 
Helena's image was in the form of Minerva.-— Hippolytas, p. 256. The Valentinians 
too denominated **a certain Wisdom" Pninica.—Origen, contra Cela. vi. voL II. p. 

» Origen, de Principiis, IV. 467. 

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laia IN PHosmciA. 809 

this that we haye oalled the clothing of the writiDg, woiren bj the art of wis- 
dim, manj could constmct and progress who could not do so bj the mere words. 
But since, if all had kept the succesfdon and order of this clothing, that is, of 
this history of the Law, holding the connected continuation of the conception, 
we sureljr should not believe that anything was shut up inside in the Sacred 
Scriptures except what was indicated bj the front appearance (the literal ex- 
pression), on this account the Divine Wisdom arranged certain obstacles 
... by which to bar the way and passage of this vulgar understanding and 
to recall us, put off and excluded, to the beginning of another way, that thus 
it might open the immense breadth of a certain higher and loftier path of Di- 
vine knowledge through the entrance of a narrower track. But also it behoves 
us to know this, because, since it is the main object of the Holy Spirit to guard 
the consecutivenesB of the Spiritual Meaning concerning what ought to be done, 
or what has already been done, as if indeed there was no question about those 
things that have been done aooording to history, it composed in one language 
of narration, concealing always the hidden meaning ! ' 

All which hidden and concealed things are arranged in the histories of the 
Sacred Scripture, because also the Kingdom of the Heavens is like a treasure 
hidden in a field.* 

TheopompuB was afflicted with loss of mind because he con- 
cerned himself too much about divine things, wishing to di- 
vulge them to men in general? The priests saw clearly that, if 
they did not make it appear that there was a mystery about 
religion which the public did not comprehend, society would 
soon do without the clergy and their living would be taken 
from them. 

But writing to the Galatians and upbraiding in words certain who seemed to 
him to read the Law and not understand it, for the reason that they did not 
know that there was allbgoet IK THB 8CBIFTURB8 * he with a certain repre- 
hension thus speaks : Tell me, ye who wish to be under a law, have you not 
heard the Law ? For it is written that Abraham had two sons one by a slave 
girl and another by a free woman. But the one bom of a slave was born after 
the FLESH, but the son of the free girl according to the Covenant, which things 


Which things are spoken so as to imply something other than what is said. 
For these are two testaments, one indeed from Mt. Sina, bearing children into 
serfdom ; that is, Hagar. For the Sina is a mountain in the Arabia and corre- 
sponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is a slave * together with her children. 
But the Jerusalem on high is free ; which is our mother. — Qalat. iv. 28-27. 

» ibid., IV. p. 470. 
•ibid., IV. p. 478. 
> JosephuB, Ant. zii 2, p. 307. 

^ Flato and the Stoics had used allegorical interpretation to explain the Greek my- 
thology.— Nicolas, 132, 130. Compare, Dunbip, SCd. L 175; Plato, TimaeaB, 78. 

• Origen, de Princip. IV. p. 469. 

* to the Romans, probably. 

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The true Mussulman must never express a doubt when 
told of divine inspiration.* From Asia the Christians derived 
the notion. The priests of Bra'hma, Vishnu, Siva, Osiris, 
Adonis, Bel, Mithra and Dionysus la'hoh found it for their in- 
terest to take the lead in what concerns the Gods and to as- 
sert the existence of a hidden wisdom to the knowledgre of 
which they had attained. Pausanias says : Of the Greeks, 
those who have been considered wise told the words of wis- 
dom * formerly hy enigmas and not in a direct way ; and the 
things said about the Kronos I conjectured to be a certain wis- 
dom of the Greeks. Of course, in regard to what concerns to 
Btlov^ we will employ what is usually said.^ 

The evidence collected in this chapter shows that a Hidden 
Wisdom was recognized in the time of Herodotus, that the 
kabbalah contained it, and that its influence is visible in the 
Old Testament, in the New Testament, and precedes the date 
of the writings known under the name of Hermes Trismegistus, 
which were regarded as very ancient until this view offended 
modem partisans of the Church. How could the Hebrews 
alone of all the races of the orient deny an es5teric meaning of 
their sacred records? The Egyptians, Greeks, Hindus, Per- 
sians and others loved the enigmatic style in their temple 
scriptures, all antiquity knew the double-meaning language 
of the oracles.* Therefore a book that had its origin imme- 
diately through divine inspiration could least of all dispense 
with this stamp of supernal origin.* 

Jewish mysticism arose under a priest caste, the same as in 
Babylon, India, Egypt. Quintus Curtius makes the following 
statement : 

About the first watoh, the failing moon hid the first brightness of her orb : 
then she stained all her light with the color of blood spread over it, and great 
religions misgiring ^ oame upon those that felt anxious at the very risk of so 
great a crisis, and thereby a panic was produced. They declared that they were 
being dragged to remotest lands against the will of the Gods ! Now the affair 
came almost to a mutiny, when Alexander ordered Egyptian Priests, whom he 

* Vambery, Travels in Central Asia, p. 51. 
^ A^yov(, doctrines. 

» the deity— n«i*<«r gender. 

* Pausanias, VUL a 8. 

• 1 Samuel, ix. 8, 9. 

• Nork, Real-WeJrterbuch, H 852. Art. Kabbala. 
7 Plutarch, vita Pelopidas, 84. 

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I8I8 IN Pn(BNIOIA. 311 

beliered most aeqaainted with heaven and the stan, to delirer their opinion. Bat 
the/, who well knew that the heavenly bodies go through stated changes and that 
the moon is eclipsed either when she passes the earth or is hidden hy the sun, 
do not declare the cause, although they knew it. — Quintus Curtios, It. cap. 10. 

We find Egyptian and Hebrew " sacred scribes *' in Genesis, 
xli. 24.^ The orieutal chacham or " wise man " endeavoring to 
stamp oat the first feeble sparks of intellectual advancement 
and to crush the infant eflforts of thought struggling to be free 
is a strong but not untrue type of rabbinism as it really is.^ 

Before the period when Aries and Libra ' became the signs of 
the vernal and autumn equinoxes Taurus and Scorpio were con- 
temporaneous with the equinoxes. The Bull then began the 
year with Isis-Vena. The two opposites were constantly rising 
above or descending below the horizon like the scales attached 
to the extremities of a balance. Typhon, the Adversary, rep- 
resented the winter season (in Persian and Egyptian theory), 
the season of the decrease of light. He is that Old Serpent 
that was primitively located in Scorpio. Owing to the preces- 
sion of the equinoxes, the sign of the Ram came into the posi- 
tion previously occupied by Taurus, the star of the Serpent 
stood opposite to Aries, just as the Scorpion had been the 
opponent to the Taurus. The entrance of the sun into the 
Scorpion brings the rainy season in the last of October and 
the beginning of November. Just when the early rising of 
Scorpio takes place on the horizon the Pleiades and Hyads, 
sacred to Bacchus and Osiris, descend to the world below. 
Here is the sketch of a system known to the entire ancient world 
before the time of Homer and referred to in Macrobius.* This 
system seems largely the foundation of astronomical myths. 

Egyptian chronology is based on the complete series of the 
epochs from Bytes-Menes to Hadrian- Antonin through three 
full Sothis-periods, equal to 4,380 years.* 

And in Binah (Venah) every life is included.— Kabhala Denudata.* 

* Joaephus, Ant. ii. ohap. 5 The Scribes corresponded to tlie Magi ; each had 
three orders.— Ernest de Bansen, Keys of St. Peter, p. 211 ; Matthew, xxiii. 2 ff. 

« Israelite Indeed, vi 71. 

* Libra was called the ** yoke *^ ; which, by its shape, indicates a kind of balance ; 
on each of its ends hung the loop whereby Taurus was yoked to Scorpio. 

* Maorobius, L xii. 11. 

» Prot Dr. Jos. Lauth, Strasburg, 1877. 

'Rosenroth, Apparatus, in librum Sohar, p. S91. Muleta the Ourania.— Gerhard, 
p. 397. 


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Minerva is the fontal Intelligence and Life. Her emblem is 
the moon, and the moon is called nature's self -seen image.^ 
They call the Moon " Mother of the world " and think her nat- 
ure male-female nature, being filled by the Sun and She again 
sending forth into the air generative elements and sprinkling 
them down.« 

The Venah proceeds out of the limits of the primal Wisdom.' 
Just hear Venus sung by the women of Byblus. — Nonnus, xxix. 851. 
Venus the Original Mother of the race ! — Aeschylus, Septem contra Thebas, 

The Venah thou shalt name Mother.— The Sohar, III. 290. 

Euah is the Mother of every living creature.* 

And in Venah every life is included.* 
It ver, et Venus!— Lukretius, v. 786. 

The Venus of Lebanon is supposed to be meant by the " image 
of jealousy " in the portico of the Temple.® " Jacentem Ven- 
erem a tergo," says Scacchi, in describing a lamp with a reclin- 
ing Venus on it.^ The sacred scribe could not write the word 
Benah (Venus), because it is the name used in the quotations 
above ; and he regarded Venus as " jealous " of Proserpina or 
Persephone, in respect of Adonis. All this points to the lat- 
est period, when the canon was arranged by the scribes of 
the Temple. Macrobius, Lucian and St. Jerome mention the 
Adonis worship as still existing after Christ in the Phoenician 
religion : 

Veneris Architidis et Adonis maxima olim veneratio viguit, quam nunc 
Phodnioes tenent — Macrob. Sat. I. 21. 

Like the Phoenicians, the Jews held on to the slab on which 
the Venus of Arki was represented cast down, supported on 
one hand extended, in grief for the loss of Him that is Her 

> Taylor, Eleusinian and Bacohic Mysteries, 74, 87 ; Prool. in Tim. 260 ; Apoleius, 
Met xL 

« Plutarch, de Iside, 42, 43. 

» The 32 Ways of Wisdom, 5. p. 1. 

4 Gen. iii. 20; Lucretius, Ub. II. 2. 4. 

» Rosenroth, Kabbala Denudata ; Apparatuii in libmm Sohar, p. 391. 

* Eizekiel, viii 3, .5 ; Lenormant, Gazette Arch^logique, 1875. 97-102 ; il mito di 
Adone-Tammus, 25, 26. 

^ Fr. F. ScacchuB, Sacr. Elaeochrism. Murothecia, p. 27. Amstelodami, 1701. 

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own,* descended to Proserpine. She is the picture of " Jeal- 
ousy for what She has possessed." Macrobius, in the fourth 
century after Christ, says the Phoenicians worship Her still ! 

Attes first taught the Mysteries of Rhea, The Phrygians, 
Ludians and Samothrakians celebrated them.* And he told 
about the eunuchs in the Temple.^ Dionysus instituted the 
eunuchs, like Adonis. 

Let not the eanacli say : Lo, I am a drj stick, for thus says la'hoU to the 
eanucbs who keep mjr sabbaths and choose that in which I delight and keep my 
covenant. And I will give to them in my temple and within my walls a place 
and name better than sons and daughters, an eternal name I will give to him, 
which shall not be cut off.— Isaiah, Ivi. 3, 4. 

The Syrians, according to Herodotus, II. 104, were along the 
Thermodon and Parthenios rivers. These eunuch priests, 
re&ching from Syria to Ludia and Phrygia, show the Syrian 
influence in the region around Troy. The sons of Sem were 
Ludians, Arameans, Elamites, Assyrians,^ etc. Aramaic was 
the dialect of the Semitic highlands and was once widely dif- 
fused over Syria and Mesopotamia, belongs to the northern di- 
vision of the Semitic, and is now represented by a few Neo- 
Syriac dialects in the neighborhood of Lake Urumiyah. It 
was the lingua franca of trade from the eighth century B.C., 
was spoken at Carchemis' on the Euphrates, and the Jews 
finally made it their own.* Since the greater part of the Jews 
resided in Babylon their chronology would naturally be based 
on the Babylonian numbers. Oppert says that for Genesis ^ 
there is no chronology. Successions of dates are given in 
another land with exactly the same fundamental figures, among 
another people and in reference to other events. But when 
these fundamental numbers are applied in two lands in two 
different ways, then we are in a position to assume an artificial 
calculation among both nations and to lay down the proposi- 

» Bzekiel, via 8. 5. 

s Laoian, de Syria Dea, 15. SeeDonlap, Sod, L pp. 31, 70. TMb etmaohiBmas led 
to the views of the leesaeans, as Matthew, xiz. 12, shows. 

* about the Galli. — Lnoian, 15. So the Dionysas-toDBiire of the Phoeniciaii 
kereohim. Kcipv. 

« Chaldee 1 CHiron. i 17. 

* now Jerablds. 

* Sayoe, Science of Language, IL 171. 

' See Smith and also Delitzsch, on the Chaldaean Genesis. 

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tion that just in the absence of all true chronology they have 
sought to supply its place by a fictitious one. The people 
which has the same chronology in common with that of Gen- 
esis is the Chaldaeans, and the computation of time which the 
fragments of Berosus have handed down to us is in reality that 
of the first book of the Pentateuch, from the first chapter to 
the last, from the Creation to the death of Joseph. Where the 
Jews reckoned an hour the Chaldaeans assume 10,000 years. 
The Bible day is counted equal to 240,000 Chaldaean years.* 
The Jews counted 10 Patriarchs, and the Babylonians their ten 
kings, before the flood. The figures in both cases are fabulous. 
As the Jews in substance had the basis of the Babylonian 
chronology it is fair to assume that Jewish philosophy repre- 
sents Chaldaean wisdom and the Bible religion the Babylonian, 
in the more important essentials, with some things revised and 
struck out. The essentials of the Adonis-faith remained, and 
some of the usages of that cultus. The Jews got the names of 
their months, the doctrine of the divine Powers, the ceremonies 
of the Adonis-religion, even the Talmud itself, in great part, 
from Babylon. 

'* All the books of the Apocrypha are comparatively modem. 
There is none of them, on the most favorable computation, 
which can be supposed to be older than the latest years of the 
Persian empire. They belong, therefore, to the age when the 
last great religious movement of the Old Testament under 
Ezra had passed away— when prophesy had died out,^ and the 
nation had settled down to live under the Law, looking for 
guidance in religion not to a continuance of new revelation but 
to the written Word and to the interpretations of the Scribes." * 
" It is often taken for granted that the list of Old Testament 
books was quite fixed in Palestine at the time of our Lord, and 
that the Bible acknowledged by Jesus was precisely identical 
with our own. But it must be remembered that this is only an 
inference back from the list of Josephus published at the very 
end of the first century. Before this date we have no cata- 

1 Oppert, in the KtoigUche Getellsohaft der Wiuensohaften, pp. 902, 908. A day 
of Brahma is a thoosand times a thonsand yean. The Mandaeana have a preference 
for the sacred numbers 360 and 480,000 years, which points to their Chaldaean and 
KatMthean ancestry. 

> The doctrine of spirit and of prophecy still obtained in Numbers, xi. 9G. 

> W. Robertson Smith, The Old Test in Jewish Ghnroh, 12 lectures, p. 2a New 


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1818 IN PHCENICIA. 815 

logiie of the sacred books.*' ^ '^ The Scribes chose for as the 
Hebrew text we have now got." ^ " No single copy, therefore, 
however excellent, was likely to remain long in good readable 
condition throughout. And we have seen that collation of 
several copies, by which defects might have been supplied, 
was practised to but a small extent. Often indeed it must 
have been difficult to get copies to collate, and once at least 
the whole number of Bibles existing in Palestine was reduced 
to very narrow limits." For Antiochus Epiphanes (b.o. 168) 
caused all manuscripts of the Law, and seemingly of the other 
sacred books, to be torn up and burnt, and made it a capital 
offence to consent to or approve of the Law.^ It is not stated 
what sort of sacred hooks they did possess ! And we should not, 
in that age, expect to meet with perfect veracity in respect to 
theological concerns either in Makkabees or in Josephus himself. 
Mr. Smith says : ^ " There is not a particle of evidence that 
there was a uniform Palestinian text in the sense in which our 
present Hebrew Bibles are uniform — or, in other words, to the 
exclusion even of such variations and corruptions as are found 
in MSS. of the New Testament— before the first century of 
our era. Nay, as we have seen, the author of the Book of Ju- 
bilees, a Palestinian author of the first century, used a Hebrew 
Bible which often agreed with the Septuagint or the Samaritan 
recension against the Massoretic text.*' * " When critics main- 
tain that some Old Testament writings, traditionally ascribed 
to a single hand, are really of composite origin, and that many 
of the Hebrew books have gone through successive redactions, 
— or, in other words, have been edited and reedited in different 
ages, receiving some addition or modification at the hand of 
each editor, — ^it is often supposed that these are mere theories 
devised to account for facts which may be susceptible of a very 
different explanation. It is thought incredible that inspired 
books should have been subjected to such treatment ; and fol- 
lowing the Newtonian rule that every hypothesis must have a 

> ibid. p. 27. 

« ibid 17. 

« ibid 18 ; 1 Makksbeefl, L 56, 57; Josephus, Ant. xii 5 : H^ii^ M « irov /K^Aos 

cvfMfttii Upd ml v6tUK, col vap* oXc evptBtiri xot o^roi kokoL Kdumt amoAAvtTO. These expressions 
* sacred scroll and (the) law * are general expressions, and do not of necessity mean the 
Pentatench ; especially if it was written after the death of Antiochus Epiphanee. 

* Lectures, p. 21. 

» ibid. p. 21. see p. 16. 

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basis in demonstrable fact, conservative theologians refuse to 
accept the critical theories till external evidence is produced 
that editors and compilers actually dealt with parts of the 
Bible in the way which critics assume. Here it is that the 
Septuagint comes in to justify the critics and provide external 
evidence of the sort of thing which to the conservative school 
seems so incredible. The variations of the Greek and Hebrew 
text reveal to us a time when the functions of copyist and 
editor shaded into one another by imperceptible degrees. 
They not only prove that Old Testament books were subject- 
ed to such processes of successive editing as critics maintain, 
but that the work of redaction went on to so late a date that edi- 
torial changes are found in the present Hebrew text which 
did not exist in the manuscripts of the Greek translators." * 

1 ibid. p. 22. Psalm xix. 4 is an instance. It contradicts the Arabic, Septoagint 
and Vulgate texts and Kombers, zx7. i. 

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In the whole of Asia, in Egypt, Jerusalem, Phoenicia, Babylon, 
India, even down as late as the philosophy of Simon Magus 
we find a dualism, consisting, in the so-called Hidden Wis- 
dom, of a Male Deity and His Sacti or feminine Deity. Osiris 
and Isis, Bel and Mulitta, Adon and Vena, Adam and Heuah 
(Septuagint Eua), Brahma and Sarasvati, Apollo and Athena, 
Asur and Tanais, Zeus and Hera. We must suppose that this 
dualism idea was invented in each separate country, or, what 
appears more probable, that it was invented in one land first, 
and then distributed to the priests of other nations. With 
their appreciation of the sun and moon as the abodes of 
Divine Powers the priests of the different peoples would not 
have had any great difficulty in attaining to the conception 
of an Adon and Vena (or Venus), an Ash (Fire or Adam) and 
Ashah (Aisah, Issa, or Isis), a Bel and Beltis. At any rate, 
they went further and propounded the doctrine of a Herma- 
thene or Primal Father^ in whom these two dualist principia 
subside into one primordial First Cause. This was a quasi 
mathematical inference, in part derived from the unit, partly 
sought in the notion of causation, that everything must have 
had a cause, and therefore the first cause must have been 
Creator of heaven and earth and all that in them is, human 
souls especially, and angels of the stars. So far this is all 
logical. But one sol and one luna are not basis enough for 
myriads of solar systems of which astronomers tell. They 
answer very well for one of the solar systems, but how about 
the others ? Here we come upon the limitations to which Jew 

> The Arsenoihelas Dimamis (the Malefemale Power.— Gen. ii. 23). — Simon 
Hagns ; Hippolytns, vi. 18. And He was One, for having Her in Himself He was 
alone. But he was not called Father before She called Him so. — Hipp. ti. 18. 


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and Gentile are both subjected. Nature has provided for us 
all a limited knowledge and a limited being ; and the specula- 
tions of the ancient * three score and ten years ' are worth no 
more than those of the modem three score and ten, probably 
less ; since science has had time to increase for the modem's 

" The Wisdom of Salamah was beyond the wisdom of all Beni Kadem." 
** Gnosis is the result of science, and science the gift of God.'' — Hermes, x. 9. 

The mystic tradition (Kabalah) came from Mesopotamia.^ 
The Kabalists held the book Shi'ur (Measure of stature) to be 
of the first century, and the ideas contained therein to be pre- 
christian. In Ephesians, iv. 13, this very phrase, Measure of 
the stature, already occurs.'* Dath Elion (knowledge of the 
Most High) is plainly gnosis. Numbers, xxiv. 16, reads wa-ida 
dath Elion C and I know the gnosis of the Most High *). My 
heart has seen much of chochmah (Wisdom) and dath (science, 
gnosis). — ^Eccles. i. 16. Maimonides ^ says that in this passage 
rah is used of intellectual perception. It is SEEing by gnostic 
insight, VISION. The Jewish scriptures subindicated something 
hidden.* Josephus says that Moses " physiologises," that is, 
wrote philosophy.*^ Megasthenes relates that " what has been 
said by the ancients about nature is said also by the philoso- 
phers outside of Greece : some things among the Hindus by 
the Brahmans, others by those called in Syria Jews." ' Plato 
mentions "the eternal existence uncreate,"' and Plato's first 
cause is the " everlasting, unborn, having no genesis," ^ the ton 
AEi zoNTA of Pherekydes Syrius 544 before Christ, and the 
Hebrew " I am what I am." 

This was before soul bearing a human shape. Next, looking around, that 
saw nothing but himself ; and he first said ** I am L" Therefore his name was 
I. He wished another ; and instantly he became such as is man and woman in 
mutual embrace. He caused this, his own self, to fall in twain : and thus 
became a husband and a wife.—The Yrihaddr&njaca.' 

» Mihniui, Hist. Ohr. ed. Harper, 1844, pp. 43, 200, 201, 277, 311 ; Gen. vi 8. 
« Dr. S. M. Schiller-Szinesay, m the "Exporitor," Nov. 1886. p. 888. 
3 Guide to the Perplexed, ch. iy. 1 ; v. 1. by Frledlinder, pp. 41, 42, 44^ 

* Origen, c. CelBiim, vi. p. 4d5. 
» Joseph. Ant. L 2. 

• Megasthenes, p. 137. Schwanbeck. 
T DunUp, Spirit-Hist., 318. 

• Plato, Tim., 17. 

* Satapatha br^ttmiana, 14. Colebrooke, p. 87. 

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This is the Eabbalist story of Ehadam and Huah, the 
Adam Hermaphroditus or Hermathene. The Hindu primal 
life gave being to time and its divisions, to the stars and 
planets. So says also Genesis, i. 14 f. The Hindu God '^ hav- 
ing created this universe, was absorbed in the spimt, changing 
the time of energy for the time of repose ; " * or, as Genesis 
phrases it, " Elohim restted." 

One Circle going ronnd all the circles, which was said to be the Univer- 
ml Life named Leviathan : whom Jewish Soriptares aabindioating something 
oocalt say was created bj the God in mocker j. — Origen, xi. 495. Contra Cel- 
snm, vi. 

He created that emptj space within which heaven and earth spiritual and 
corporeal were to be located. — Eabbala Denudata, II. 165. 

In the beginning,' the will of the Kino was carving forms in highest parity, 
light of power going out, the centre of the concealed that are concealed, from 
the head of Ain Soph.~The Sohar, L 1. 

In the Kingdom of the heavens, the King will say : Inherit the 
Kingdom prepared for you. — Matthew, xxv. 1, 81, 34. Accord- 
ing to Irenaeus, I., the primal Father was invisible, everlasting 
and unborn, in silence and in much quiet (Resting), in bound- 
less Ages of time. Here we see the Kabbala and Gnosis in 
Genesis, ii. 2. 

Then there was neither non-being nor being ; no world, no air, nor anything 
above it; nothing anywhere in the hap of any one, enveloping or enveloped. 
Death was not, nor at that time immortality, nor distinction of day and night, 
but THAT suspired without exhalation, alone, with spontaneity contained in 
him. Beside him was no thing which since has been.'— A late hymn of the 

Thou that dost inhabit the shining folds of heaven, Zen,^ save us !— Eu- 
ripides, Phcenissae, 84, 85. 

The God, the Source of the Oldest Logos.*— Philo, Quod det. , 22. 

For what was not expected God found a passage. — Euripides, Medeia, 1415. 

1 Dnnlap, Vestiges, p. 181. 

' Braslth bara Alhim eth haahemaim wa-eth haares. — Qenetia, L 1. The opinion 
of the KabbaUsts was followed by most of the Rabbins, who followed the Kabbalists 
and the author of the Zohar, fol CV. ool. 4, editio Cremonensis. The greatest part of 
the Kabbalist chachamim agree that the ineffable tetragrammaton (Ihoh) was explained 
through the ** sacred names.*'- Schickardi, Jtu Regiom Hebraeorum, p. 19; R Abra- 
ham Seba, in Zeror hammor. 

> Lassen, L 915. 

« Zio — fnlgor. — Codes Nasoraeus. 

* Hebrews, viii 1 ; Marie, zvi 19. King of Heaven, Holy Dia.— Euripides, Iphi. 
geneia in Tauris, 749. Semnos Dens. 


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God the Supreme Cause and Logos does not move like the 
planets, but remains immovable.^ The Logos is the Oriental 
Son of Gk>d,^ and the sun, says Philo, is the emblem of the 
Logos.^ The sun is Hermes and it has been shown aboye that 
Hermes is the Word, the Logos. Since the Homeric Theos 
(Odyssey, iv. 236, 237 ; v. 4) reappears in John, i. 1, the idea of 
One Supreme God was familiar to Greeks as well as to the 
Jewish Prophets. 

Magister format omnia. — Proverbs, xzvL 10. 

The Good was identical with the One ; according to Plato. — 
Grote, Plato, 1. 217, 218. God only is Good.— Mark, x. 18. The 
Sun is the oflfspring of the Good. — Julian, Oratio, iv. The 
Mind-perceived Sun raises up the souls to the Intelligible 
World ! This was Chaldaean doctrine. — ^Movers, I. 551-^53. 
The Karpokratians^ denied the resurrection of the body. He 
(Karpokrates in Egypt) led a Gnostic sect in the time of Ha- 
drian. As to Simon Magus, his gnosticism looks neither bet- 
ter nor worse than the gnosis of a. d. 115-125, unless one be- 
lieves what Justin and Lrenaeus say of him, and then the rule 
applies f alsus in uno falsus in omnibus.^ 

Beyond all the animals of the earth the man is two-fold, being mortal by 
the body, bnt immortal in the essential man (the image of the Father) ; . . . 
being male-female and sprang from a hermaphrodite Father. This is the Hidden 
Mystery even to this day. For the nature mixed with man brought forth a 
marvel most wonderful. For he having the nature of the harmony of the 7, of 
which I spoke to you, (the nature) of fire and spirit, the nature did not wait, but 
bore right off 7 men, male-female and high in the heavens, according to the nat- 
ures of the 7 Procurators (Planets, Rulers of destiny). The Genesis of these 7 
was as follows : For the air is female, and water is able to impregnate. And 
from fire it took maturity, and from the aether it took the breath of life (spirit). 

1 Philo Jadaens, Quaestio, 42. 

« Gen. L 8 ; John, L 4, 5 ; v. 19 f.; vi. 54 ; viii. 12 : Hermee, passim. 

3 Philo, de Somniis, 15, 16. 

« Easebius apparently puts Karpokrates under Hadrian, who died in 138. 

A Whether Simon Magus and Menander really claimed to be the logos (the first 
gnostic Power) the Great Power of Gk>d, is not easy to determine. On one side we have 
one set of Gnostics, on the other their virulent opponents. And as to Simon^s magic, 
Acts offers no proof of it, and Simon evidently thought that in the transmission of the 
pneuma by laying on of hands, there most have been some trick. — Acts, viii. 18-20. 
Acts opens to view the most remarkable religious excitement ever known among the 
ignorant and excitable (both Greeks and Jews) east of the Aegean Sea. The gnOsis ex- 
pressed in the Sohar is a sufficient endorsement of all that has been said of the foUy 
and extravagance of the oriental imagination. 


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And natore brought forth the bodies in the inuge of the Man (Adam). And the 
Man became a sonl ' and mind from life and light, — from life a sonl, but from 
light a mind. And so all parts of the perceptible world continued up to the end 
of the Period of •* Beginnings " and ** Generations." The period having been 
completed, the conjunction of all was dissolved bj the will of God. For all the 
male-female * creatures were dissolved in twain, together with man, and became 
part male and the rest female. And the God at once said bj His Holy Logos : 
Increase in increase, and multiply in multitude, all created things !— Hermes, 
1. 15-18. 

The primal God was called double-gendered and of two nat- 
ures, by the Orphic theologians ; and in the 10th hymn Nature 
is invoked as Father, Mother, Feeder, and Nurse, of all 

Hermaproditus is God. 

6 8i yovs 6 Bc^s ii^p9v6^kin Up, (^ im^ ^t ^«(^ci.— Hermes, Poimander, 
1, 9. 

Adonis is hermathene and hermaphrodite, like Adam Ead- 
mon.^ ' 

I invoke the First bom, hermaphrodite, great, aether wandering, 

Egg-born, decorated with Golden- wings, 

Bnll-faoed, the procreator of the Blessed Gods and mortal men. 

Renowned Seed, manj-orgied Erikapaeus, 

Not named, occult. — Orphic Hjmn. 

This is the Adam Kadmon of the Kabbala, — the Son of Aric 
Anpin, the Long Face of the Church in the olden time. He 
corresponds to Brahma, the Son, and to Serapis. Hence the 
psalm xc. 1, 2, accepts the two principles united in one first 
cause ; and, adopting the inferences that arise from this unit 
of the oriental philosophy, this source of all life that is now 
enclosed within a material body, says : 

Adoni, Thou wast for us a place of abode in generation, and in generation. 
Before the mountains were bom and the earth was formed and the circle (of 
it) ; and from eternity to eternity thou art El. — Psalm, zc. 1, 2. 

1 Genesis, ii. 7, has this same idea. 

* Male-female created he them, in his own image.— Gen. L 37. Plato was acquainted 
with this Hermetic Hidden Wisdom since he refers to it in the Symposiom. 

God therefore, as the ancient acoonnt has it, possesses both the Beginning and End 
and Middle of all things.— Plato, Leg. iv. 7. 

For Hermes is the Logos, who being Hermenens (Interpreter) and Creator of what 
have been and at the same time are and will be. — Hippolytus, 144. 

» Nork,' Real-Wtfrterbnch, L p 8ft. 

* DnnUp, Sod, L 81. 


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Homer held that the earth is a "circle" Barroanded by 
Oceanus, and Proverbs, viii. 27, has the same idea.^ There 
can be no doubt that the Gnosis and the Kabalah in some 
traditional points are as near to Homer's time as the word 'eraz 
(earth in Hebrew) is near to tpaffi (meaning to earth, in 
Homer). Eraze is good Hebrew; the e corresponds to n in 

Prazinoa, oome here. GbBerre first the embroideries. 

Fine, and hoif beautiful I You will saj robes' of divinities t 

Divine Athanaial what workers labored on them! 

What painters painted these accurate pictures ! 

How real thej stand, and how true thej move about. 

Thej are living, not woven in I Man is truly a wise thing— 

But how admirable He is lying down upon silver couches 

Throwing out the first down from his cheeks 

The thrice-beloved Adon, who is loved too in Acheron . . . 

Hush Prazinoa— a very skillful songstress, the daughter of 

The Argive (woman), is going to 9ing the Adonis : 

** Queen who has loved Golgos and Idalion too 

And high Erux,* Aphrodita, sporting on Chruso, 

How Hours soft of foot brought in the twelfth month * 

The Adonis to thee from everlasting Acheron. 

Beside him lie the fruits of the season, which the tops of a 

Tree produce, and by him tender plants kept in silver little baskets 

And golden caskets of Syrian unguents. 

And food such as women make up in dishes, 

Mixing all sorts of flowers with white wheaten flour, 

And such as from sweet honey, and those made in moist oil, 

All feathered and reptile (forms) here are by him.» 

And verdant pavilions heavy with soft dill 

Have been constructed ; and moreover boy Eroses are hovering above 

Like young nightingales, making trial of their wings that have grown. 

Flit about on a tree from bough to bough." 

O the ebony,— O the gold,— O the eagles of white ivory 

Carrying to Zeus the Son of Saturn the cupbearer Boy, 

And purple rugs above more soft than sleep. 

The Milatis will say and he that is shepherd in Samos ; 

» ch5g means a circle.— lea. xL 23 ; Job, xxvi. 10. 

« this sttflax indicating '* towards," to a place.— Gen. xviii 2, HV^tC. 

» Of wool, fastened on the shoulder* by a buckle or brooch ; worn by Dorian 

« GolgSe and Idalion were in Kupros (Cyprus). Erux was a promontory in Sicily, 
with a grove and the altar of Venus in the centre. Chruso may, perhaps, be a town of 

» February. 

• So, Genesis, viL 14. 

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** A couoh has been prepared for the Lord, at the same time, the BeaatifaL'' 
KuprU has the one, but the rosy-armed Adonis the other. 
His kiss does not prick, yet his lips are red all around. 
Now then, Good bye, Kupris, having her own husband I— 
But at dawn, with the dew, we in crowds will bear him 
Out to the wares foaming on the beach- 
Having loosened the hair and baring the bosom to the lower parts 
The breasts being unoovered* we will begin the Song of Woe. 
Thou comest, O dear Adonis, both here and unto Acheron. 
Farewell, O Lord Beloved, and go to those who rejoice. > 

The Babylonian Son of Ood is the Monad from the one, 
Adonis, Adam, Mithra, Apollo. No one has ever seen God: 
the Only-begotten God in the bosom of the Father has in- 
terpreted.'^ This is the God of the "Powers"* according to 
Philo Judaeus. 

The Gnosis of the first both Lord and Mind-perceived * whom the female 
God • invites us to seek near Her, since He both is and coexists with Her.* The 
Temple's name also announces plainly both Gndsis and Knowledge of tow 
6rr9s (the one existence), for it is called Isbion, as belonging to those about to 
know ** TO ON " (the essenoe of the first cause), if with wisdom and holily we 
should enter in to the Mysteries of the female God.— Plutarch, de Iside, 2. 

Philo's peculiar teaching leads him to derive Iseion from loTy/it 
and 'Io-Sl (the verb to know), but the root is Asat, Issa and Isis. 
To one who used the allegorical method all kinds of explana- 
tions were, permitted. Still it was bold to translate the name 
of the shrine of Isis by a Greek verb meaning to know. Philo 
knew Isis and Greek too. 

The Older Horns is the eidolon and phantasma of the Kosmos that 48 to be. 
— de Iside, 54. 

> those in Acheron (Hades). He descended into Hades. The third day he rose 
from the dead, and ascended to heaven, with the sonls of the righteons led ap by him 
through the clefts in the earth by which the spirits rine. Theokritus, the anthor of 
this idyl xv. lived in Egypt 270 before Christ. Kallimachus, B.C. 26U-240, in hie hymn 
to DSraetCr, mentions the nninitiated women and the Mysteries of DSmBter. Ptolemy 
Philadelphan had introduced the Eleusinian festival from Athens into Alexandria. 

« John, i 18. Codex Sinaitic. 

* Septuagint 1 Kings, xvR 1 ; Matthew, iv. 11 ; xiv. 3. 

* what only Mind oan perceive. 

* The Sakti, Isis, Ena, Wisdom, '' Minerva whom they think to be Isis also.*'— 
Plutarch, de Iside, 9. See Herodotus, n. 59. 

* So Simon Magus held regarding the boandless fire from which the Male Mind 
springs containing within him the EInnoia female. 

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This is the Kabbalah doctrine such as it is found in the 
Apokaljrpse, xxi. 10. Everything on earth has its prototype 
in heaven, — even as the New Jerusalem. 

Horns is this earthly kosmos neither freed from destruction nor from birth J 
--de Iside, 43, 56. 

Horus, then, is the Soul and Spirit of the world. 

O Brahma, dear Son, I give to thee my grace and the i>ower to create the 

At once sprung from the down-moving Elements the logos of 
the GOD into the pure workshop of Nature, and was united to 
the Demiurgus Mind, for it was consubstantial.^ And the ir- 
rational the down-moving Elements were abandoned to be 
only Matter. But the Demiurgic Mind together with the 
logos, he, embracing the Wheels^ and turning them round 
with an impulsion, made his own works revolve and permitted 
them to revolve from undefined beginning to endless end ; for 
they begin ever where they stop. And the revolution of 
these, exactly as the Mind wills, produced from the down- 
moving elements irrational animals. For he gave not the 
logos ; but the air brought forth birds and the water fish ; 
and the earth and the water were separated one from the other 
according as the Mind willed, and the earth brought forth 
from itself what it could, four-footed animals, reptiles, beasts, 
wild and tame. But the Mind,' Father of all, being life and 
light, procreated man like himself ; having the image of the 

Being male-female, sprung from a male-female Father, and sleepless, he is 
ruled by One who never sleeps.' 

And after these things my mind says : For I too myself love the logos. But 
the Poimander said : This is the mystery hidden down to this day. For Nat- 
ure in union with the man brought forth a certain miracle most wonderful. « 

The primal MAN of the Jewish Kabbala is male-female. • 

> genesis. 

« Majer, Mytholog. Lex. I. 248. Daumer, Urgeschichte, 91. 

• ** bomooosian.^* 

« Orbits. These are the Wheels of Brekicrs vision, taken from Hermee. 

• Zens-Belns, Logos, Japiter. 

• Hermes Trismeg. L 11, 12. 
T ibid. L 15. 

• ibid. L 16. 

• S3d, IL p. xix. XX ; Movers, L 544. 

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From that which is the First Cause, not the object of sense, existing eyerj- 
where in substance, not existing to our perception, without beginning or end, 
was produced the divine man. 

He framed the heaven above and the earth beneath. He assigned to all 
creatures distinct names. — A Hindu Cosmogony. 

And whatever Adam called everj living creature that was the name thereof. 
-Gen. ii. 19. 

Then went forth the " workman" to his work and was formed as ** man and 
woman."— The Sohar, Idra Suta, viii. 1. 

Having divided his own substance, the mightj power became half male, 
half female. — A Hindu Cosmogony.* 

And la'hoh Alahim built the rib (the moon-crescent) which He took from the 
Adam (mas et foemina) into ** Woman " (female life). She waa taken out of as 
(Life), therefore shall she be called Aisah (Isis, Issa, female Life).— Gen. ii. 22. 

The 8PIBIT (purusha) totally pervades the earth. From him sprung Viraj 
(the MAN, the Adam). Viraj divides his own substance into male and female." 
It is plain that this is the Hindu Kabbalah, the hidden wisdom of Hermes and 
the book Genesis. But to leave no doubt upon the identity of the Jewish and 
Egyptian hidden wisdom there are the telling extracts from the book of Kings : 

They brought out the Asarah from Ia'hoh*s temple : two little Apises and 
an Asirah (the Isis Heifer).— 2 Kings, xxiil 6 ; xvii. 16. 

These were the emblems of the Chochmah and Venah, Adonis and Venus. 

The Kabalah (tradition ' ) dates back beyond the Christian 
era and forms part of the prechristian gnosis. Munk carries it 
back to the time of the Babylonian Exile. At a period later 
than the Exile the Eabalah was mainly occupied with the 
Maase Beresith ^ and the Maase Merkabah, which have some 
relations to the Book of Genesis and Ezekiel's Vision. In the 
Maase Bereshith ' we have to do with Chadam or Adam, as 
with Adam Kadmon in the Eabalah, while his Ishah or Isis is 
his sacti or female potence. Job, too, grives us the Mnaculo- 
feminine Logos, the Ghachamah (Ghochmah) and the Yenah : 
and the Sohar says : 

All that the Ancient, blessed be His name, has created can exist only through 
a male and a female.—Sohar, part m. p. 290 a. See Idra Suta, § 218, Ofrdrer, 
I. 299. 

Man, as emanation, was both man and woman, as well on the 
side of the Father as on the side of the Mother. When Elo- 

> Dunlap, Spirit-Hist 181. 
« sod, L 148. 
'Matthew, XT. 2, 8. 
* the work Genesia 

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him spoke : Let there be light, it was light on the side of the 
Father and it was light on the side of the Mother. And this 
is the two-fold Man.* The reasoners on the Euphrates and the 
Nile had been taught that the moon receives light from the 
sun ; Stoics and Peripatetics could find God in the sun and 
full-moon.^ This is Amon and Neith.^ Here we have the 
Mind that is energising before energy, the Mind that conducts 
the world of fire/ the world of the mysteries, the world of 
the Ghebers I 

At the time of the Oldest Mishna-teachers there existed a 
secret doctrine esteemed by all.* Gfrorer says that the Clemen- 
tine Homilies (date a.d. about 176-225) are a treasure house of 
"hidden wisdom," — a sort of Greek Sohar.* The Clementine 
Homilies reckon but six or seven circles of emanation from the 
unmanifested God ; while the Sohar enumerates ten sephiroth 
or spheres of emanation.*^ The Bereshith Babbah to Genesis 
i. 2, states that by ten qualities of God the world was created. 
Even Celsus (in the second century) was acquainted with a 
figure of ten circles separate one from another, and bound to- 
gether by one circle which was called the Soul of all things.^ 
And in the pirke afoth cap. v. 1, the oldest part of the Mishna, 
it is said : Through ten words (things) the world has been cre- 
ated.^ Origen says that the God is named with ten names by 
the Hebrews. These ten names point to a ten-fold action of 
the Creator.*^ Gfrorer carries back the doctrine of emanation 
in circles to the time of Jonathan ben Usiel before Christ ; 
relying on the Chaldee translation of the word ophan (wheel) 
by galgala (circle or sphere). The idea of a holy Jerusalem 

> Extracts from the Sohar, AnszUge aus dem Sohar, in Danlap, SM, 11. 73. 

> S5d, L 141 ; Philo, De prof ugis, 458 ; Augustin, oontra Faast. c. zx. ; Metrodo- 
ms, de Sensionibus, c. 18. 

3 Minerya ; the male Virgin, led ! loh. 

4 DamasklnB, de Prinoipiis. 

BloSl, Midrash hakabaL,45; 2 Esdras, xiv. 6, 26; psahn zxv. 14; It. 14; Idra 
Rabba initiam : Sod ha-Kodesh liriaio. See also Lake, viii 10, 17 ; 1 Cor. ii. 6. 10, 
13 ; Matthew, ziii 85. 

•Gfrttrer, Jahrhnndert des Hells, I. 295, 297. 

' ibid. 298. 

» Origen n. 539 ; GfrOrer, ibid. 1. 288, 284, 298. Compare the Hebrew Ahiah, the 
"I AM," with the 10 Babylonian, and the 10 Hebrew, "powers," "essences," or In- 
telligible Alahim (Nofitoi) who precede the Flood as Gods, Alahim, kings or patri- 

•GfrOrer, n. 24. 

"Gfrttrer, L299; IL 24. 

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coming down out of heaven * is itself a part of the ancient 
mysticism, according to which '' whatever is on the earth that 
too is in heaven, and there is nothing so small in the world 
that does not correspond to another similar to it in heaven/' ^ 

Jemsalem which now is is in bondage, with her children ; but the Jeru- 
salem which is above, is free.— Galatians, iv. 25, 26. 

The Holj Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. — Be v. xzL 10. 

Another instance is found in the Epistle to the Hebrews, viii. 
1, where the highpriest in heaven corresponds to the Jewish 
highpriest. This principle of the kabalah is plainly uttered 
in the words : The priests serve according to the model and 
sketch of the heavenly ; . . . See that thou make all things 
in the type exhibited to the^ upon the mountain.^ The 
same dogma is repeated in Hebrews, ix. 23, 34.^ Finally the 
Babylonian Talmud, tract ' Chagigah 12 b, says : Heaven is 
called zebul, where Jerusalem and a temple and altar have 
been built, where Michael, Great Prince, stands and oflfers 

Thou didst tell me to build a temple on thy holj mount in imitation of the 
hoi J tabernacle * which thou madest from the beginning. — Sophia Salom^ iz. 8. 
I will not conceal mysteries from jou. — Sophia Sal. yi. 24. 
All mysteries of wisdom will pour out — Enoch, li. 8. 

These two works are prior to the New Testament. Gfrorer ' 
states that the words sod gadol in the mystical books always 
introduce a secret doctrine ; and these words translated into 
Greek (musterion mega) occur in the Epistle to the Ephe- 
sians,^ where one, writing in the name of Paul, makes Gen. ii. 
24 refer to Christ and the Church instead of to the Male and 
Female Wisdom* in creation. The Sohar is written in the 
same strain ; so that we must regard the later Paul of " Ephe- 

> Bey. XXL 10. 

sGfrOrer, J. des Hails, II. 29« 26; Sohar to Genesis, 91. 

• Hebrews, yiii 5. 

« Gfrorer, Jahrhondert dee Heils, IL 29, 80. 

• Ibid. 80. CJomp. Heb. TiiL 1. 

• It was the Kabbalist idea that everything on earth had its prototjrpe in heaven. « 
Nork, Rabbin. Qnellen, p. box. ; Hebrews, viii. 5. 

7 Gfrdrer, Jahrhondert des Heils, II. 54, 5(!k 
" Ephesians, v. 82 ff. 
•Or life. 

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sians " as a Kabbalist.* The intimate connection shown by 
Gfrorer to exist between the Jewish mysticism in the Sohar 
and that in the Old and New Testaments favors the antiquity ^ 
of the numerous passages by him cited out of the Sohar ; for 
these exactly coincide in meaning with writings of the first 
century. Job, xxviii. 20, divides the Wisdom into Male and 
Female; and the Sohar says: This all-embracing Wisdom, 
when it issues and shines from the Most Sacred Ancient, 
shines only under the status of male and female. Sapientia 
est pater, Intelligentia (est) mater.^ And the Wisdom of 
Hermes, Proverbs and Sophia Salomon fully agree with this. 
So too Simon Magus said the Boundless Power is Fire. The 
Male Power is Mind, the Female Power Thought, Wisdom. 

The targum of Onkelos to Genesis, xlix. 27, mentions " the 
Shechinah." * The Shechinah contains all the Sephiroth. The 
Shechinah is the Messias, the Messias is the Tree of Life, and 
the Tree of Life is the 10 sephiroth. The Messias ' goes out 

1 The contrast between *Hhe things of earth*' and *^the things of heaven** in 
John, iii 13 is quite gnOstic, intimating intuition of divine things. 

a Gfrttrer. L 258, 820, 821, 834, 887, 889, 845, 848, 849, 350; H 5, 10, 12, 58, 126, 
183, 147, 282, 261, 419. The Mystical book Bahir (Splendor) belongs to the 12th cen- 
tury, and the completed Sohar to the end of the 18th. It is a collection of the fruits of 
earlier and later mystical writings (most of them now lost), and preserves to us a com- 
plete image of the Jewish secret doctrine. It contains a prophecy that about 1880 the 
Messias will come. — Gfrdrer, Jahrhundert d. Heils, I. 68, 64. 

3 Gfrdrer, I. 299 ; Idra Suta, $ 218 ; so Simon Magus, regarding Nous and Ehmoia. 

« GfrOrer, L 55. Onkelos dates 20 to 80 before Christ Jonathan ben Usiel used 
the expression Sidri Bereshith (Books or Courses of the Creation), which may mean 
Maaseh Bereshith (the Kabbala). The Ebionites held to the mystic lore, and the Es- 
senes had their secret books and hidden doctrine. According to Philo, they considered 
it impossible for the human soul to comprehend ** the inherited laws ** except by inspi- 
ration from Grod. Moreover, Josephus, XIL 2, 8, says that the Law is philosophical, 
and must not be made known to profane mouths. — Gfr5rer, I. 248-264. J. ben Usiel, 
to 2 Sam. xxiii 5, to Isaiah, xL 21. 

* We find in the Sohar, I. 1, and in Matthew, xxv. 84 the expression King. This 
represents the ** Crown ** of the Kabalah and the ^' King ** of the Gospels, King Mes- 
siah. *'*' For according to our doctrine body is not spirit, as fire is not that body which 
is said to be the Grod by him (apud eum) who says : Our GoA is a Consuming Fire ; for 
all these things are spoken figuratively, in order that that Intelligible Nature may be 
indicated by means of names corporeal and customary to us.— Origen, c. Celsum, vi. p. 
504. So Hippolytus. But Kronos lived in his castle of flame, and lahoh placed his 
tent In the sun, which was regarded as fire. — Ps. xix. in Greek, Arab, Latin. 

One is the Eling of Light in his kingdom, nor is there any who is higher than he, 
none higher than he, none who reflects (retulerit) his similitude, none who lifting his 
eyes has beheld the Crown that is on his head. — Codex Nazoria, L 11, ed. Norberg. In 
whose name dost thou baptise ? John answers, In the Name which was revealed to 
me, the Name of Mana Semira.— Ibid. L 22. Then shall the King of light (Mano) 


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from the Garden of Adin ^ from ken zippob,^ and is the Shek- 
inah Angel. The Bedeemer Angel is the Shekinah.^ The 
Light of the Messias/ That Light is the Shekinah, compared 
with which human souls are as little lamps to the bright glare 
of the torch.* 

Franck shows that already in the Mishna * a secret science 
is mentioned under the name Merkabah.'' Franck rightly re- 
marked that the prohibition to teach the Merkabah has no 
reference to the mere text of Ezekiel, because the holy script- 
ure was accessible to all and all could read it, nay, were com- 
manded to do so.® The name " Maseh Merkabah " was given 
only to an especially deep, mysterious conception of Ezekiers 
vision.^ The Talmud (Chagiga 13. a) says : The heads of the 
sentences are not delivered except to a father of the Beth Din, 
and to him whose discretion is known. The Mishna (Chagiga, 
11 b) says : They de not discuss cases of incest before three, 
and the " Maseh Bereshith " not before two, and the " Merca- 

■ay.— MattheWf xzt. The nnghom locks of the Nazen typified Apollo's Rays, the un- 
shorn looks, glory and strength of the Sun, the Logos. The R^gal Vanma of pore 
yigor in the baseless (sky) sustains on high a heap of light ; the Rays are pointed down- 
ward while their base is above. May they beoome concentrated in us as the souroes of 
exi8tenoe.-~Big Veda, Wilson, L 63. At Naga in Egypt is a figure sitting frontways, 
a Crown of rays over the floating hair, the left arm raised at a right angle, and the 
fore and middle finger of the hand stretching upwards as is represented in the old By- 
santine figures of Christ. The right hand holds a long staff resting on the ground as 
John the Baptist usnaUy holds it— Lepsins, Letters, p. 210. Preaching the word of 
life they descended into the Jordan, and, baptising themselves, received the pure sign. 
Bach was marked with the sign of life, praising the name of the King of Light.— Co- 
dex Nazoria, m. 249. Arise, O my soul, depart from this world, thy King Most Great 
oomee.— Ibid, 299. 

> Sohar, II. 8. col. 3. Adin is Eden. 

• Nest of light I The glory that I had with thee before the world was.— John, 
xviL 5. 

> Sohar, U. fol. 48. 123, 133. 

« Nork, Rabbin. Quellen, p. iz.; Pesikta Rabbathi, f oL 03. ooL 1; Nork, Ixxiv., 
Ixxv., xxii; Meunchen, 73G. 

ft Tikkune Sohar, foL d, col. 4. 

• Chagiga, 11 b. 

^ D. H. Io5l, Medrash hazohar, 19. The Essenes adored the Life in the sun. 
Sarapis is the Sun of the universe. Mithra*s votaries were marked on the forehead 
with the sign. Nothing has transpired of the Essene Mysteries in the writings of 
Josephus and Philo ; but it is more than probable that the books, more recent, of the 
Kabalists retrace in great part the mystical and metaphysical doctrines of the Essenes. 
— Munk, Palestine, p. 519. 

" Gfrtfrer shows passages that prohibit the reading of EzekieVs first chapter. 

• loel, 23 ; 2 Bsdras, xiz. 40. The truth is that Ezekiers Vision forms part of the 
Old Kabbala. 


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bah " not before one, except if he be a " Wise man " (chacham). 
The Mishna is at least as ancient as B. Jehuda who compiled 
it. He died a.d. 190. The Talmud (Sanhedrin, f ol. 67. p. 2) says 
that Babba created a man and sent him to Rabbi Zerah. He 
spoke to him ; but, when the man did not reply, he said : Thou 
art created by magical power I Bay Chanina and Bay Ausaiah 
studied the Kabbalist book lezirah, and then created a three 
years old calf, and ate it. It is (Talmud, Succa, fol. 28. a) said 
that B. lochanan ben Sakkai studied both great and lfitle. 
The Talmud explains this as follows : Under great, the science 
of the Merkabah is to be understood, by LirrLE the disputa- 
tions of Abaii and Baba are meant, who flourished about 336.' 
B. Nechunia ben ha-Kana in his book, Iggereth hassodoth, 
mentions the divine" mysteries of the names of four, twelve, 
and forty-two letters.^ 

The Divine Wisdom is a tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil and a tree of life. Adam, Metatron or Herakles Sar haph- 
anim represents the good ; but Samael rides on the Serpent 
representing the bad side. Adam is the Good ; Samael-Satan 
the Evil one. The Son, Gabriel, Herakles, is a paraclete or 
Mediator (like Mithra, Metatron or Michael the Saviour Angel) 
before the Father of the world to obtain forgiveness of sins. 
And since he set his tabernacle in the sun, his Wisdom was 
planted towards the east, and of two sexes; for "there are 
some verbal symbols of things appreciable only by the intel- 
lect, and the mystical meaning which is concealed beneath 
them must be investigated in accordance with the rules of 
Allegory." " There is an allegorical meaning concealed under- 
neath the express language of scripture." The Essenes, like 
the other Jews, understood that in the holy volume many pre- 
cepts are delivered allegorically and in enigmas.^ Wisdom is 
also called Sarah.^ ' God called the Intelligence Adam^ 

The Apokalypse, xiii. 18 and the Kabbalist book lezirah, 
chapter 1, exhibit the mystic gematria the numeral language.' 

»Io«l, 89, 41. 

« Galatinns de Aroania, p. 75. Compare Io«l, pp. 81, 34 ; also 1 Cor. ii. 7 ; Rom. 
xvi 25 ; Matth. xi. 25. 

» Philo Jad. Qaae«t et Solut 7, 86, 53 ; On the World, 7 : Vita Momb, 14 ; On 
those offering sacrif. 5 ; On Special Laws, 7 ; Virtuona also free, 12 ; Ps. xix. 4, Sept. 
h Vnlgate. 

* Philo, Chembim, § 4. p. 74. Minerva, Venah. 

• See D. H. Io«l, Medrash hakabala, p. 44 ; Jeremiah, li 1 ; xxy. 26. Qyid men- 


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The lezirah, i. 8 ; iii. 2, mentions a profound mystery.^ The 
Jerusalem Talmud, Sanhedrin, c. 7 ' mentions that B. Jehoshua 
ben Chananiah, who lived towards the end of the first century, 
performed miracles by means of the KabbaHst book lezirah ; 
which book the Babylonian Talmud also mentions.* At the 
time of the Oldest Mishna-teaohers^ there existed a Secret 
Doctrine esteemed by all.* ' 

The 85d (mystery) of Ia*hoh is for those that fear him.*— Pa. xxv. 14. 

The Talmud^ states that no one was permitted to write any of 
the Merkaba ; but it was delivered orally.® 

The Sohar contains long disused systems and doctrines. It 
also repeats descriptions from the Book of Basiel.' The reader 
must make a distinction between the age of the Older Kaba- 
lah and the time of the Book Sohar. Therefore it may be well 
to state that Tholuck admits the antiquity of the doctrines 
taught in the Sohar. Discernendum esse inter libri confec- 
tionen et doctrinae elementa quae continet. Nimirum haec 
certe ex remotiori possunt esse tradita antiquitate : A distinc- 
tion must be drawn between the date of the book itself and the 
elements of doctrine contained in it. Doubtless these can cer- 
tainly be handed down from a more remote antiquity.*® Babbi 
D. H. loel says : Even in the case that the author of the work 
Sohar did not live prior to the thirteenth century, yet the fun- 
damental principles of his doctrine (in great part at least) are 
borrowed from far older Jewish mystical sources whether writ- 
ten or verbal traditions.^* The word kbl which had previously 
carried along the chain of tradition suddenly ceases in the 16th 

tions Veniu (the Binah, Bos, Eve, Isis) with the little Bros on the shore of the 
BaphrateB ; hat Rey. xii. 1, 4, 5, 14, pate the Woman (the Ishah, Imm) with her infuit 
Horns in the Desert. The Euphrates is near to the Desert 
1 Gelinek, transL of Franck, p. 110. 

* completed between a.d. 250 and 800. 

s Grelinek, German transl. of Franck, 55, 56, 57. 

* The Tanaim. 

•Io«I, Mediash hakabal. 45; 2Esdra8, zIy. 8, 26; Psahn, xxr. 14; It. 14; Idra 
Rabbah, initinm. 

* See Lnke, vui 10, 17 ; 1 Cor. ii 6, 10, 18 ; Hatihew, xiiL 85. 
f Talm. Chagiga, title Ain Dorsin. 

* Galatinns, de Arcanis, p. 21. 

> Graets, Gesoh. d. Jnden, vii 77, 239. 
» Tholnok, de Ortn Gabbalae, p. 25. 

"loel, p. 73. Franck, Kabbala, L cap. 3; Landaaer, L. B. des Orients, 1845, 
nombers 13 and 15. 

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Mishna of the first chapter in Abot, and is replaced by the 
formula: Babban Gamaliel aumar: Says Babban Gamaliel. 
Later (Mishna, 4) begins again the formula : Babban luchanan 
ben Sakai kabal mi Hilel ve Shammai: B. lochanan ben Sakkai 
received from Hillel and Shammai.^ B. lochanan ben Sakkai 
was the immediate pupil of Hilel the Old, the uncle of Gti>ma- 
liel ; and, like other older Tanaim, speaks with wonder and awe 
of the Merkaba.^ Judaism has produced the Kabbalah out of 
itself, aided by the Jewish traditions out of the oldest times.^ 
It was the work of several centuries and generations of Kab- 
balists/ After quoting Jacob b. Zebi of Emsden^ against 
parts of the Sohar, Graetz states that Jabez^ considered the 
basis of the Kabbalah most ancient : der Kern oder der Sohar 
im engem Sinne sei uralt. Bachja ben Asher in his commen- 
tary dated 1291 has two quotations from the Sohar which 
Graetz unhesitatingly ascribes to the marginal glosses of a 
copyist, on the ground that if two passages were really quoted 
more would have been.' According to Graetz, the originator 
of the modem Kabbala is either the author of the Sepher 
hokabbala, Abraham ben David, about 1161, or his son Isaac 
the Blind, who lived from 1190 to 1210. Landauer and Graetz 
state that the Sohar (part Baia Mehimna) puts the study of the 
Talmud very low, treating it with contempt. Other such an- 
titalmudic attacks appear in the Sohar. The Mishna is de- 
clared to have been the real death of Moses and the hard rock 
that he struck upon. " Until now,'* that is, imtil the Sohar's 
appearance, "no one knew what was the grave of Moses." ^ 

Concerning the time when the Kabbalah was written down, 
a very solid treatise, nniTH niDlp 1D«D/ ^pon the high antiquity 
of the Kabbalah, has appeared in 1856 by David Luria. Its 
object is to show that the Sohar really has Simon ben Jochai 
for its author. While he fails to prove this, he shows, out of 
the BGA. of the Geonim 1802, conclusively that the G^onim 
had already before them many passages, taken out of old writ- 

» Io«l, p. 84«. 

> loel, 345. 846 ; Talmud, Chagiga, 14 b. 

* Io«l, 388. 

*Gelmek,94; loCl, 78. 
» in 1768. 

* the aforeRaid J. h. Zebi. 
"> Non seqaittir. 

* Graetz, Geschiohte d. Juden, vol. vii 505, 500. 

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ings, which can be found in the Sohar ; so that the higher an- 
tiquity of the contents of this book, which some are disposed to 
ascribe to the 13th century, must be considered proved, even 
if the work that bears this name contains later additions. 
Landauer's criticism on the Sohar can at most establish the 
conviction that the compilers of the work have cut it out with 
the scissors.^ 

The entire conception and form of the Sohar shows, how- 
ever, a plurality of authors of the separate pieces which make 
up the collection, and one passage even speaks of two authors 
from the city (Avila) and seven from the Idngdom (Leon). As- 
suming this last, however, there is no evidence going to show 
an invention of the work with the intent to publish new ideas 
and doctrines. By far the most important part of the Sohar 
consists oi primitive doctrines of the oriental school.' It is un- 
important to know whether it was Abulfia, or some learned 
contemporary writer in Avila ' named Moseh b. Schem Tob de 
Leon, or a combination of many (as seems to us most prob- 
able). The fact that the Sohar in Adereth's time* had its 
present shape is to be noted ; but the suspicion of a falsifica- 
tion is wholly unfounded. The dating it back to Simon ben 
lochai and his school is only an artful mode of acquiring for 
the book the appearance of antiquity.' According to the So- 
har the primal existence • is in itself wholly inconceivable, 
concealed,' without quality. The first revelation of Him is 
when rays issue from Him.— Aidra Suta, § 46. The Most 
Sacred Ancient is the Highest Light, concealed in all occulta- 
tions, and is not foimd, rajrs excepted, which are extended and 
unveiled. The Highest Head is the Senior Sanctissimus, 
hidden iu all occultations. Head of all heads, a Head that is 
not a head, nor knows nor is perceived what is in that Head, 
because it is not comprehended, neither by wisdom nor by in- 
tellect.— Idra Suta, §§ 46, 62. He is called Ain, non ens ; also 
Ain Soph, because he is the Unlimited. Through 10 circles 
all things are made, by Emanation in the 10 circles. He formed 

» Note to Jo«t, II 991. 

« JoBt, HL 77; quotet, II 291. 

» M JeUinek, particularly in hia Moses b. Schem Tob de Leon, seeks to show. 

* Adereth Hred at Barcelona about 1285, or later. 

* Jost, ni 78. 

* das Urwesen. 

^ See the Name Amon, meaning the Conoealed.— De Iside, 9. 

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out under the form of Male and Female. This Wisdom is ex- 
tended, and is found, that it is Male and Female.— Idra Suta, 
§ 218. Gfrorer, Wisdom is Father, and Intelligence is Mother 
(or Woman ^).—ib. 218. 

The later rabbinical writingB have their source in older 
lost sources of the period before Christ^ and in verbal tradi- 
tion. Hence also can the rabbinical writings of later centu- 
ries have a value for Ohristian scholars, because the Jewish 
way of thinking in the apostolic age still appears in them. 
The picture which the Jews formed of the future Messiah was 
fitted to Jesus by his followers, so that the Christian dogma- 
tik is still the Jewish and both parties have fought by the 
thousand years only over the individual that they decorated 
with these attributes. The primitive elements of the Chris- 
tian doctrines are found in the writings of the rabbins. All the 
passages from the Old Testament called messianic by the 
Christian Church previotcsly passed for such among the Jewish 

Gfrorer says that the Clementine Homilies are a treasure 
house of Hebrew hidden wisdom — a sort of Greek Sohar.^ 
The Clementine Homilies, true to Genesis, reckon but six or 
seven circles of emanation from the unmanifested God, while 
the Sohar enumerates ten Sephiroth or spheres of emanation.* 
The Beresith Babba to Genesis, i. 2 states that by ten qualities 
of God the world was created. In the second century, accord- 
ing to Origen, II. p. 539, even Celsus was acquainted with a 
figure of ten circles separate one from another and bound to- 
gether by one circle which was called the soul of all things ; * 
and in the Pirke Afoth, cap. v. 1, the oldest part of the Mishna, 
it is said: Through ten words ' the world has been. created.* 
Origen says that the God is named with ten names by the 
Hebrews. These ten names point to a ten-fold action of the 

» Gen. a 28 ; Proyerbi, viii 1, 22, 23, 30 ; Job, xxviii. 20, 23 ; Dunlap, S5d, 11. 68, 
80, 99-106. 

*The first oaoae, being merely exUtence^ has no relation to any tiling, bat hii 
" Powers " liare. And the fellow of iiis •* Powers ^* is his " Creative Power " wliich ia 
called God.— Philo, III. 161, § 4. Compare psalm xly. 6, 7 ; iL 12. 

' Nork, Rabbin. Qaellen and Paiallelen, p. yiii 

* GfrOrer, Jahrhnndett dea Heik, I. 295, 297. 
» ibid. 298. 

• ibid. 283, 284, 298. 
' things. 

> Gfrorer, EL 24. 

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Creator. Gfrorer carries back the doctrine of emanation in 
circles to the time of Jonathan ben Usiel, before Christ, rely- 
ing on the Chaldee translation of the word ophan (wheel) by 
galgala (circle or sphere). Jerusalem coming down out of 
heaven ^ is itself a part of the ancient mysticism ; according 
to which '' whatever is on the earth that too is in heaven, and 
there is nothing so small in the world that does not correspond 
to another similar to it in heaven." ^ Another instance is in 
Hebrews viii. 1, where the highpriest in heaven corresponds 
to the Jewish highpriest. This principle of the Kabalah is 
plainly uttered in the words : The priests serve according to 
the model and sketch of the heavenly, . . . see that thou 
make all things in the type exhibited to thee ^ on the moun- 
tain.^ The same dogma is repeated in Hebrews, ix. 23, 24.' 
And, finally, the Babylonian Talmud • says : Hea^wn is called 
Zebul, where Jerusalem and a temple and altar have been 
built, where Michael, great Prince, stands and oflfers sacrifice/ 
The dogmas of the New Testament offer many resemblances 
to the system of the Kabbalah.^ In the Kabbalah, the Holy 
Ghost is the heart of the Son.® The Kabbala was said to have 
been handed down by a secret Tradition from the earliest ages**^ 
and we have before mentioned the chain of Tradition which 
hauded down the secret science " to the time of Proclus a.d. 436. 
As part of the Tradition, the oldest doctrines of the Kabbala ex- 
isted in 131 before Christ ; ^ and these special doctrines appear 
to be still older. 

Concerning the mysteries it is not proper to speak in detail to the nuinitiated. 
— Diodor. Sia HI. 196. 

The Great Cause of aU things is aocnstomed to reveal his sbcrbts to some in 
a more oonspionons and visible manner, to others more sparely.— Philo, Noah's 
planting, vi. 

1 Bey. zxi. 10. 

3 Sobar to GeneidB, 91 ; GfrOrer, IL 26, 29. 


• Hebrews, viii. & 

• Gfruier, IL 29, 80. 

• Chagigab, 12 b. 

"* Gfxdrer, IL 30. Comp. Hebrews, Tiii 1. 
> F. R S. Mank, Palestine, 567 ; see Matthew, ii. 4. 

» Adam,— Matthew, iil 16, 17 ; Luke, iii 3S ; i 85 ; Gen. ii 7. Adam who is a type 
of him who is to oome ! — Romans, ▼. 14. 
» Home, Intr. I. 161. 

" Caaaers Koaari, p. 7. note 2. quotes ProdaB. 
" Munk, 512, 519; Gelinek's Franck, 40-44, 57. 

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The whole spirit and language of the Apocalypse strongly 
leans towards that of the Kabbala.^ So, too, Matthew, xi. 27 : 

Neither does any znan know the Father, save the Son and he to whom the 
Son shall reveal Him.— Matth. xi. 27. Woe, if I shall reveal, —Woe, if I shall 
not reveal.— Sohar IlL f ol. 53. ool. 4. Aidra Rabba, line 10. 

A secret mystical science existed at the time when the New 
Testament was written.^ It forms part of the Traditions men- 
tioned in the Gospels, existed in some shape long before Philo 
wrote, and the mystic Gematria or science of numbers appears 
in Jeremiah, li. 1 and in Bevelations, xiii. 18, not far from a.d. 

Here is Chochmata (Wisdom) . . . number 666 (Latein).— Bev. xiii. 18. 

The word Kabbalah means " tradition," and the gnosis (of 
which it forms part) precedes the Christian scriptures. The 
gnosis is certainly older than Christianity,^ as has been sho^-n 
already, and is distinctly named gnosis in the New Testament.^ 
Simeon ben lochai, who is said to have collected the traditions 
of the Kabbalah, lived about the end of the first century.^ 
The Talmud mentions it in a way to show that its study was 
no longer in its infancy .• " Many things in the New Testa- 

1 Kork, Rabbin Qnellen, p. ii. ; Rev. xiii 18 ; xvii. 5. I saw a Well of Righteous- 
ness which was inexhaastible ; round about it were many Wells of Wisdom and thirsty 
drank from them and were full of Wisdom, and had their dweJUngs with the justified 
and holy and elect. And at that hour was that Son of ma.n named before the Lord of 
BOulSf and his name was named in the presence of the head of the dats. And before 
the sun and the signs (of the zodiac) were created, ere the stars of heaven were made, 
was his name named before the Lord of souls. He will be a staff to the Just and the 
Saints to support themselves upon and not fall, and he will be the Light of the peoples 
and the hope of those who are sad in heart. Therefore was he chosen and Concealed be- 
fore Him ; and the Wisdom of the Lord of souls has revealed him to the saints and the 
Just — Enoch, xlviii 

> Gelinek, 65, 44 ff ; Rev. six. 18 ; Coloss. iiL 8; iv. 8 ; Sohar, H foL 8. col. 8 ; 
Colossians, i 1.5, 16, 26; John, m. 12 ; Romans, v. 14 ; Munk, Palestine, 511, 519. The 
eighth day contained some mystery, proclaimed in this way by God, more than the 
seventh day. — Justin cum Trypho, p. 47. 

» Nork, Rcal-Wttrterbuch, XL 05; Harlesz, Egyptian Myst. 7, 11 ; Hermes Tris- 
megistus, books ii. iii. xiv. 

• I Timothy, vi 20, 21. 

• Gelinek, p. 48. 

• ibid. 54, 51, 47, 89 : see loSl, 866, 867. The author of the Sohar had already be- 
fore him earlier Kabbalist scriptures which he cites, as Hechal5th, Bahir, etc. — Nork, 
pp. iv. V. ; Kusari, IIL 65. 




ment are Kabbalist."^ "The Sacred Logos brings forward 
many of the Mysteries^ which it is not proper for any un- 
initiated person to hear.*' ^ That mode of teaching which the 
Sohar uses was employed previously by the Jews. lesus and 
the apostles, says [N'ork, accommodated themselves to this 
usage.* The author of the book Zeror hameor did not borrow 
" the mystery of Adam * is the mystery of the Messiah " from 
Eomans, v. 14, nor did Paul supply the author of Thisbi with 
the idea that " the soul of Adam will inhabit Messiah's body." 
The parallel between Adam and the Messiah had been made 
before the Paidinist period.* 

The King is the King Sun in the sun, the Divine Wisdom 
and Word, mentioned in Matthew, xxv., the inner Light of all 
lights.^ He is Adon Ai, the Eabbalist Angel Metatron, the 
Angel of the Garment of Light. The Father is Concealed ! ^ 

I asked one of the angels wlio went with me and showed me all the hidden 
things oonoerning that Son of (the) Man. And he answered and said to me : 
With him dwells the righteoosuess * and he reveals all the treasures of that 
which is CONCEALED ; for the Lord of soals has chosen him. And this Son of 
(the) Man will stir up the kings and the mighty from their seats, and the pow- 
erful from their thrones and loose the bridles of the strong and grind in pieces 
the teeth of sinners. And he will thrust out the kings from their thrones and 
kingdoms. And in those days '® the prayer of the just and the blood of the 
righteous mounts up from the earth before the Lord of souls. In those days 
the Saints who dwell above in the heavens, united with one voice, will entreat 
and pray and praise and thank and extol the name of the Lord of souls on ac- 
count of the blood of the righteous " that was shed and the prayer of the justi- 
fied that it may not be in vain before the Lord of souls, that for them the Judg- 
ment may be consummated and they not have to sufifer ever. And in those 
days I saw the Head of the days as He seated himself on the throne of his 

iSchoettgen, Hor. Heb. 11. 807; Munk, Palestine, p. 530, a; Nork, Babbin. 
Qaellen, pp. v. Ixix. Ixx. 


s Philo, on Dreams, L § 83. 

^Nork, v.; Schdttgen. 

» SeoandoB locns tetragrammati in Adam Eadmon est.— A. Cohen Lira, Sor ha- 
shemaim, p. 144. Adam was created with two faces.— The Sohar, I. foL 4. col 2. 
Solabaoh ed. The Hermathene. 

* Kork, Rabbin. Qnellen, p. Ixx. 

Y Idra Snta, ix. BoiienrSth Kabbala Denadata; Danlap, S5d, IL 72, 75. 

B According to Matthew, ▼! 6 ; Mark, xiii. 82 ; Henoch, xlviii d. ' 

» Mahuihi, iy. 2. 

>« Ezekiel, xxxviii 2, 16 ; xxxix. 18. 

" Rov. xix. a 

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glorj and ^e Books of the liying were opened before him.* — Henoch, xlvi. 

The King in his beauty mine eyes shall see !— Isaiah, xxxiiL 17. 

This the Gabriel, the Lord of the Mysteries, the King, the 
most concealed of Divine Powers. " The sacred and mystic 
account concerning the uncreated one and His * Powers ' ought 
to be kept secret." ^ 

Mors in Adamo, vita in Christo I — Origen c. Celsom, yi. 
Death in Adam, life in the Messiah I 

This presupposes the kabbalist doctrine that the soul of Adam 
by metempsychosis would reappear in the bodies of David and 
the Messiah.^ Eomans, v. 14, is therefore Kabbalist. 

Clemens Alexandrinus ^ mentions the Jewish mystics. The 
Jewish Kabbalists^ held that great mysteries were contained in 
the Old Testament.^ The world is not in stability except by 
mystery ; and if in matters of the world mystery is necessary, 
then also in the matter of the most recondite mysteries of the 
Ancient of Ancient of days (Ain Soph) which have not yet been 
mentioned even to the angels on high.*^ Mark, xiii. 32, has the 
same idea ; but it was originally Jewish before it was Chris- 
tian : for there was " a wall of separation ® between Christian 
and Jewish literature until the thirteenth century." These 
mysteries belong to the Old Mysteries of Osiris and Isis, Bel 
and Mylitta, from which comes the Gnosis or mystic science. 

The name of the temple too, announces clearly both Gnosis and Knowledge 
of the Life. For it is called Iseion ; as if '* about to know * the Life ^ we 
should come with reason, and holily, to the Sacra of the female God *® (Wisdom). 
Merkury, that is, the Logos bearing witness, and showing that nature delir- 
em up the world having shaped it after that which only the mind is able to 

1 This is an Apokalypse. Compare Rev. xx. 12. 
a Philo Jndaeas, p. 94. SS. Abelis et Gain, 15. 
> Mnnk, Palestine^ 621. 
« Clem. Strom. I 28. 

* Kabbala means ** tradition/' 

* Nork, Rabbin. Quellen, p. Izv. 

-> Sohar, IH fol. 53. col 4. Idra Rabba Kadisha. 

Of that day or hour no one knows, neither the angels in heaven, neither the Son 
but the FATHER.— Mark, xiR 82. 

* Renan, pp. xii 82. 

* from Isemi *' to know. ** Properly, Iseion comes from Isah (Lns) ; Iihah. 
»• PlaUrch, Iside, 2. 

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pereeiye.i For the reason alone peroeiTOS the Unreyealed, beoaoae itself is also 
nnrevealed ; if then haet power with the eyes of tlie Spirit, then it becomes 

The Angel, His Wisdom, thej recognise as Himself.—Pbilo, de Somniis, 

The logos is Hermes. ^Hlppoljtns, I. 118. The Logos is the Christos.— 
John, i. 

Eden is the supernal Wisdom * the Logos. The Wisdom of 
the divine essence is called "Edem."* Thus Adan (Adonis) 
becomes (in pronunciation) Eden, and Adam '' Edem ; '* so that 
on the two authorities just cited, Adan (Adon) is the same 
persona that Adam is ; as might have been conjectured. In 
the " 32 Ways of Wisdom '* the Eternal Wisdom is described 
as the Garden of Eden.* From this Garden the Messia'h 
goes out.* Eden's Kiver issues from God's " Wisdom " and is 
the Logos or " Word."^ The King is the Kvine Wisdom and 
" Word," like Hermes the Word of Zeus. The " Hidden Wis- 
dom '* of the Jews is Hermetic ! 

The Elected One will in those days sit on his throne and all myiitries of 
Wisdom will stream forth from the thoughts of his mouth. — Enoch, li. 

The Angel, His Wisdom, they recognise as Himself ; just as those, who 
cannot see the SuK Himself look upon the Snn-like radiance ^ as Blios I—Philo, 
de Somniis, 41.* 

This is the religion of Apollo, the Logos-Wisdom! In 
what are called the Books of Hermes it is told about the 
sacred names.^^ The Nazarene " hidden wisdom '* is ITerinetic 
philoaophy. Some writers will have it that because Plotinus 
borrowed largely from the Oriental Philoaophy therefore the 

> Ibid, 54. 

* Hennea, viii 8. 

* Roeenroth, Kabbala Denndata ; Idra Sata, viii 

* Philo, de SomnliB, II. 87. Adem, Athmen, Atman, Odem, mean breath, spirit, 
blood, life. Atman is the AUseele, the Soul of the aniverse, Adam ! 

* Meyer's Jeziia, p. 8 ; the I6th Way. 

* Donlap, Sod, H. p. 1 ; AnszUge ana dem Sohar, p. 90 ; Sohar, H f oL 8. col. 8. 
» Philo, Allegoriea, I. % 19, p. 35 ; Kzekiel, xxviii a 

> Compare the Sheklnah. 

* The Greek original reads: **For jast as those nnaUe to behold Helios Himsell 
look Bpon the snn-like radiance as Helios and regard the alterations round aboat the 
Moon as her very self, so also they recognise the Image of the (}od. His Angel Logos, 
M Hinsell''— Philo, p. 406. ''In the soul, then, Mind and Logot, the Prince and 
Lord of all that is best, is Osiris.''— Plutarch, de Lnde, 49. 

!• Plutarch, de Iside, 61. 


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Books of Hermes Trismegistus are copied from Plotinns. 
Non sequitur ! Why not from the Book of Wisdom, cited by 
Aristoboulos as early as 145 before Christ ! ^ Some of the 
Books of Hermes were known to Plato, some belong to the 
school of Philo, were known to Plutarch ^ and to Justin Martyr.^ 
The Jewish secret science, referred to in Numbers, xii. 8, 

Having learned these things as well from the Sacred Books which (Moses) 
left behind as wonderful monuments of his wisdom, as also from certain of the 
nation*s presbyters. For ahoays they intenoove what i$ said * with the passages 
read; and therefore I thought to give the details of his life more accurately 
than others.— Philo, Vita Mosis, I. 1. 

The lawgiver conveys darkly some things with propriety ; and others he 
speaks gravely, in such a way as to imply something oiher than tohat is said; 
but what is best spoken straight out, this he declares definitely.— Josephus, 
Ant. preface. 

was chiefly busied with the " Creation," and with the nature 
of God. The common Pharisee view held to the words of 
Genesis; but even in the Talmud the mystical doctrine 
glimmers through in many ways,— a clear proof of its being 

The revelation of the mystery which was kq[)t secret since the world began. 
. . . From the foundations of the world the occult things of God are seen 
by the intellect, being understood by the things which are made.^Romans, i. 
20 ; xvl 25. 

In the beginning, the will of the Kmo was carving forms in highest purity, 
light of power going out the centre of the coNCBAiiBD, that abb concealed.^ 
— Sohar, 1. 1. The King of rulers . . . inhabiting unapproachable light, whom 
no man has seen or can see I — 1 Tim. vi. 16. 

The Gnosis of the Mystery of God, both Father and Christ, in which are 
HIDDEN all the treasures of the Sophia and the gnosis, — the mystery that has 
been concealed from ages and generations. — Golossians, i. 26. 

The Kabbalist Longface Arich Anpin is the primal Deity. 
Night and Heaven reigned, and before them Erikapaios.' 

» Vacherot, L 184. 

> Donaldson, Hist. Greek Lit. 11. 187. 

• Justin Log. Par, pros Hellenaa, p. 81. ed. 1551. 

• G^esis and the Merkaba. 

• GfrOier, Jahrhnndert d. Heils, II. 1. 

^ The Messias was supposed to be kept concealed with Gk>d until the end of the 
world and the Judgment. — Maokay, II. 822. By the word Amoun something hidden 
and concealed is indicated. — De Iside, 9 ; quotes Manetbo the Sebennite. It must hare 
been the identification of Amnn with the Logos that was hidden. 

• Cory, Ancient Fragments, 299 ; Donlap, Vestiges, 185. 

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Metis,^ Phanes, ErikapaicNS * all three are the one power and 
strength of the Only God.* By his power all things were pro- 
duced, both the incorporeal archai, the sun and moon, earth, 
sea and all things in them visible and invisible.^ The doc- 
trine of the Egyptians concerning the Principia inculcates the 
origin of all things from the One with different gradations ' to 
the many; which again are held to be under the supreme 
government of the One. And God produced matter out of the 
material (part) of his divided nature which, being vivific, the 
Demiurg (the Fire angel Gabriel) took it and made from it 
the harmonious imperturbable spheres." Before all things that 
actually exist and before the entire " Ideal forms " there is One 
God remaining immovable in the solitude of his unity, prior 
to the first God and King.'' 

One is King of Light ^ in his kingdom, nor any who is higher than he, no 
one who has reflected back his image, no one who, lifting his eyes, has seen the 
Grown * which is on his head. He is the Supreme King of light : from his head 
the Crown has not fallen.'® 

The sparklings of his Crown permeate through every place, and flashes of 
splendor, light and glory break forth from his face and among the folia of his 

In the beginning the King was carving forms in highest purity, light of power 
going out, the centre of the concealed that are concealed, from the head of Ain 
Soph. The vapor in the body sticks in a circle, not wliite, not black, not red, 
not green, and no color at all. — ^The Sohar, I. i. SnUbach ed. 

Should'st thou fall into temptation, take care not to impart the least thing of 
the belief of Emanation ; for this is a great mystebt in the mouth of the Kab- 
balisU.— Der Stein der Weisen.'* 

The Tanaim, E. Akiba, R. Simon ben lochai, E. lose, E. 
Eliezer and E. lehoshua lived in the end of the first cent- 

> Metis the first GenetSr ; and all-delightfnl Eros. — Orphem ; Cory, 297. Eros was 
of both genders. — Danlap, Vestiges, 160, 170. Metis, called Phanes. Protogonos. 

> Female and Father is the Mighty Qod (Erikapaias). — Cory, 399. Erikapaios ia 
the Arioh Anpin of the Kabbala, who is male and female. 

* The same is tme of Brahma, Vishnn, Siva. 

* Cory, 299. 

» The Egyptians considered Athena (the Divine Wisdom) and Hephaistos (the 
Vital Fire, Ptah) to be hermaphrodite, like Bros. 

* Hermetio Fragment.— Cory, 285. 
"* Dnnlap, Vestiges, 179. 

* Adonai. 

* The Crown is the first Sephira. the ** Crown " of the Kabbala. 
** Codex 19'azaraeas, I. 11. 

" ibid. I. 9. 

w Quoted in Grelinek, p. 78. 

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\aj} Simon ben lochai himself tells us that he had predeces- 
sors.^ The book lezirah, not very far removed from the time 
of Christ,^ speaks of the " Ten Sephiroth," and names four of 
them : the Chochmah, the Venah, the Keter and the Isod ; but 
it is not certain that Matthew, vi. 13, names three more of them, 
the Kingdom, Power and Glory : while Philo speaks of 6 
PowEBS or attributes of God. In the lezirah, we find three 
in the world: Fire, Water and Spirit . . . three in the soul: 
Fire, Water and Spirit.^ 

For Three bear witness, the Spirit, the Water and the Blood, and these 
Thaeb uuto the One.— 1 John, y. 8. 

Ten Sephiroth without what ? One, the Spirit of the God of lives, blessed 
and blessed again be His Name who lives to eternity : Voice and Spirit and 
Word, this is the Holy Ghost !— The lezirah, i, 9, 10. 

In all combinations of mysticism the number three appears as 
an essential pattern.' The Sohar* states that the Thought, 
Wisdom, Voice and Word are One.'' 

By the intervention of the " Father " and the " Mother " the 
"Spirit" of the Ancient of the Ancient descends upon the 
" Short Face." ^ One " Spirit " goes forth to the " Short Face." 
And one is the spirit of Life. And the spirit goes forth from 
the shut up brain, and at some time will rest upon the King 
Messiah.' And the spntrr goes out bom the hidden brain, and 

» Io«l, p. 42. 

• Gelinek, 96, 97 ; Sohar, Aidra Rabha, ad imtinm. 
» from B.C. 100 to a.d. 50. 

• lezirah, ilL 4. 
» Gelinek, 118. 

• Sohar, 1 346, b. 

' (relinek, p. 189. Compare John, L 1. After Herr FrandE has shown the high 
antiquity of that Secret doctrine (the Kabalah) and placed it at the end of the first 
oentury of onr era, he adds (p. 48) : This is now exactly the time in which the Tanaim, 
R. AJdba, R. Simon ben lochai, R lose, R Elieser and R Jehoshna lived. — Rabbi D. 
H. loSl, Medrash hasohar, p. 43. Thus the Sohar*8 ideas that are taken from Simeon 
ben lochai must far antedate the * Evan^l according to the Hebrews ^ and every other 
Christian evangel ; so that the statement in Munk^s Palestine, p. 520, that some of the 
Apokryphal Books of the Old Testament as well as the Evangels, the Acts of the 
Apostles and the Talmud offer numerous traces of the Kabalah, is confirmed. 

We should also observe that the Rabbi Akiba here mentioned died at the time of 
Bar Cocheba^s rebellion, a-D. 183-186. It is impossible to trace any gospel back to 
that date. We find no satisfactory evidence in the passage in the Talmud, Tract. Sab- 
bath, foL 116. 

• SSd, n. 70 ; Eabbala Denudata. 

• Idra Rabba, x. 177-179. 


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through that spnar they will know Wisdom in the time of 
Messia the King.^ 

Adam, who is a type of him that was to oome. — Romans, t. 14. 

The baptized Healer immediately ascended from the water ; and lo, the 
heavens were opened, and he saw God's SPIRIT descending like a dove, coming 
upon him.— MaUhew, iii. 16. 

Christos, the Power and the Wisdom of God.— 1 Cor. L 38, 24. 

Adam (Brahma) the Son of God.— Luke. iii. 88. 

But the Father indeed Himself dwells in the sapreme and principal light 
which PanloB elsewhere calls inaccessible ; bat the Son is in this second and 
visible light ; and since he is himself two fold * as the apostle knows him, say- 
ing that Christ is God*8 Power and God*s Wisdom, his Power indeed we believe 
dwells in the son, hot his Wisdom in the moon : and also we confess that this 
whole circnmambient air is the seat and abode of the Holy Spirit which is the 
third majesty, from whose powers and pneumatic profusion the earth, too, con- 
ceiving bore suffering lesos who is life and light of men, who was suspended 
fron^ the tree. — Augustin. contra Faust, c. zx. 

Wisdom in the moon is the Binah, Vena, Intelligence, the 
Breath of Life, the Mother of the Gods, the Mother of all that 
live. Adam and his rib (Isis in the moon-crescent) are the 
hermaphrodite Wisdom of la'hoh and lacchos, for "some 
say that Hermaphroditus is God." * Amon in Egypt was her- 
maphrodite and Neith was so also. Before Amon's altar the 
priests kept a lamp always burning,^ as on the altar at Jem- 

I, Amon, was with Him.— Proverbs, viii. 80. 

He Himself always took part in the Sophia * as in his own Breath of life ; ^ 
the Sophia ^ is united to God like a soul, but is extended from him like a hand 
which creates the world : therefore it was produced, One Man ; and from him 
issued also the Female. And, being One in the birth, is a dnad. For in exten- 
sion and contraction the monad is thought to be duad. So that to One God, 

> The Idra Snta, $ v. 

3 geminiu at com apostdliu novit Simon Magus regarded the Nous (or Logos) the 
Mind M of two genders. 
« DiodoxiM Sia, IV. 215. 

* Sharpe* L 881. 

* Leviticus, vi. 18 ; 1 Sam., iii 8. 

* The Sophia ia the logos proforikos in the lona-world. The moon is bom from 
the Son.— Colebrooke, Buayi, 25, 96. Isis ia the Wisdom or Intelligence.— Proverbs, 
viii 1, 21, 28, 80. 


* They also mentioned Minerva as the First Ennoia (Conception of the Divine 
Mmd).-Ja8tin Martyr, ed. 1551. p. 161. 

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as to ParentB, I do rightlj giving the entire honor. — Clementine Homilies, 
xvi. 12." 

God, having made Intellect first, called it AdauL^ — Philo, Qnaestio, i. 53. 

The Naaseni worshipped a dual power whom they called 
Adamas, addressing him as man and also as Father and Mother, 
and singing all sorts of hymns to him.^ They too adored their 
"spirit" and their Son of man. 

Preconceiving the generative man in whom is, they say, the male and the 
female sex, he afterwards works o£f the form, the Adam. — Philo, Legal Alle- 
gories, n. 4. 

In Babylon there was an idol with two heads, one a man's head, 
the other a woman's, and it had the otSotd of both the sexes.^ 
In the Jewish Kabbalah we find that lach (lah) severs into I 
and AH (I — ah) ; which ah is the same as feminine ousia,^ being 
the Asah, Ishali, Isis, the Woman-life, the Spirit as the Holy 
Mother of al , _ 

I A O 


The King* 


great ousiris, greater phre, to phOs' pur^ phlox,® greater 
greater lar (Horus with the Lion-head, Michael with the Lion- 

» Crerhard Ulhorn, p. 172. 

s Enos is interpreted ^^ man,^* and is reoeiyed as meaning the Intellect (??).— Philo, 
Qnoeat., 79. 

* HippolytuB, V. 7. 

* Dulaure, 70 ; qaotes Alex. Polyhistor, in Ghaldaiis apnd SyncelL, p. 29. 
6 ^ itiio. oiwUt the everlasting essence. — Plato. Tim. 87 E. 

* The bringing to light of the gnSais of the glory of the Ood in the face of ICsous 
the King. Keter is the Crown. The gnOsia in the Mysteries preceded the argumenta- 
tion of Moses and Simon Magna 

' bak ; light. 

> the seminal fire. 

* Siva, the Conflagration : the Destroyer and Regenerater. 

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head, Ariel, the Lion of Jndah, the King) who includes the ten 
spheroth ^ in himself. This is the Kabbalist MAN,' to whom 
is the power ' and the glory ^ and the kingdom * for ever and 
ever ad oulom. 

AiN Sop (Without End). 

The Ten Sephiboth 

1 Crown 

2 Chochmah 
(Venah) 3 BiNAH (the Benah) 

4 Gbace 

5 Judgment 

6 Beauty 

7 Tbiumph 

8 Glory 

9 Basis 

10 Kingdom 

The first three sephiroth are of intellectual and metaphysical 
nature. They express the absolute identity of being and 
thinking ; and form what the modem kabbalists have named 
the Intelligible World, Oulom MoshkeL 

The next three sephiroth are of a moral character. The 
last make up the realm of power. 

Inform them also oonoeming the celestial Crown which is placed in its own 
habitation of the Supreme Life. — Codex Nazaraeos, II. 805. 

If Justin Martyr admits that the Gbostics were called Chris- 
tians and were teachers of the new revelation long" before he 
was, if the Kabalah recognized the Logos as Malka Messiah 
in the first century, if Daniel acknowledged the Messiah at 
least a hundred years before the Christian Era and Matthew 
XXV. 1, 5, 34, 40, one hundred and fifty years after the * Birth 

1 the 10 cirole<L 

« Mithia's emblem was the lion.— Nork, Real-Wdrterbnch, IH 175, 178. Mithra- 
Mettron (Metatron), the Logos and Anointed King, the Massiaoha. Metatron is the 
identical Shechinah, and the Shechinah is called Iahoh*s Metatron, beoaose it is the 
Grown of the ten Sephiroth.* 



* malkath . 

• Tikune Sohar, 73 b. ; in GfrOrer, 1. 121. 

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of Christ ' identifies the Christos with the " King '* mentioned 
in the Kabalah before, we must admit that in two hundred and 
fifty years a vast body of Messianists most have been collected 
in the regions lying between the Persian Gulf and Ephesus. 
These were Arabian, Babylonian, Syrian, Jewish, and Samari- 
tan gnostics, one at least of whom, like Daniel, preached the 
Great Power, the Power of the God and the Wisdom of the 
Gt>d. Compare Philo Judaeus, Simon Magus, and Simeon 
ben lochai. 

For, lo, lahoh will come in fire (ash). — Isa. Ixvi 15. The 
Stoic philosophers dogmatised that the God himself is re- 
solved into fire and the Sibyl and Hystaspis affirmed the dis- 
solution of perishable things by fire. — Justin, p. 142. Since 
Apsethos a Libyan was burned for claiming divinity for him- 
self, Hippolytus says koL irhrovScv 6 /iayos irdSo^ ri irapankriviov 
*k\ffiS^i If the comparison is correct and the Magos has suf- 
fered a passion like to Apsethus let us endeavor to reteach 
the parrots of Simon that Christos was not Simon the * Stand- 
ing, Stood, Will Stand.' There has been a considerable 
amount of stuff said against Simon Magus that is now proved 
incorrect, and it might be interesting to know the truth about 
him. That he claimed that there were * powers * of Gbd may 
readily be believed and when he claimed that there was a Great 
Power it was quite in accordance with the Gnostic notions of 
his time. But Acts does not say that Simon himself claimed 
to call himself any more than nva fteyav, *some one great* and 
that Simon believed and was baptised! Here Simon would 
seem to have been converted ! What then was the reason why 
he was singled out for a considerable display of hostility on 
the part of Irenaeus and the Christians t Irenaeus, Hippoly- 
tus, Acts, and Clementine Homilies treat him as a Great 
Leader of Gnostic Heresies. The author of Antiqua Mater 
shows that the story of Lrenaeus that there was a statue of 
Simon Magus on an island in the Tiber is all wrong because 
the statue was a statue of Semo Sanctus and not Simon. 
Then he shows from Justin Martyr that early in the second 
century the Gnostics shared the name of Christians and were 
teachers of the new Eevelation long before him.^ Then he 
regards the romance of Simon Magus and his Ennoia or In- 
tuition as an allegory. The Intuition is, he considers, the 

1 Apol. L 26. Also Origen, oontra Celsam. 5. 


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8<ml, an emanation of Deity, confined to earth and to a mortal 
form. Justin blunders over Semo Sancus and the whole ac- 
count of Simon Magus the author of Antiqua Mater regards as 
a manifest myth, in which general ideas, as usual, are repre- 
sented in a personal and dramatic manner. Justin, he says, 
saw in Simon Magus and his disciple Menander, both of 
Samaria, a land of mixed Jewish and heathen population, a 
rival to the Christ.* — ^Antiqua Mater, p. 214 ; cf . Hamack, 178 f . 
Simon Magus says that the Infinite Power is fire ; and 
Genesis, i. 2, ii. 23, Deut. iv. 12, 15, Exodus, iii. 4, Matthew, 
iii. 11, and the Egyptian and Phoenician-Kanaanite religions 
rather support him. The Hindu effectually does. Out of the 
speech (logos) issues fire. Simon says it is not single, but 
that the nature of fire is double ; and of that double he calls 
one part something hidden, the other manifest, and that the 
(things) concealed are hidden in the manifested of the fire, and 
that the manifested (parts) of the fire have their birth from 
(or by) the hidden. This is what Aristotle calls power and 
energy, or Plato designates as mind-perceived and visible or 
perceived by the senses. And the manifest part of the fire 
holds all things in himself that one could perceive or pass 
over by oversight, of things seen. Of all the things that 
really are, perceived by senses or mind-perceived, which he 
calls hidden and manifest, the Supercelestial Fire is the treas- 
ure-house, like the great tree that Nabouchodonosor saw in a 
dream, from which all flesh was nourished. He thinks the 
manifest part of the fire is the stem, the branches, the leaves, 
the bark surrounding it outside. All these parts of the Great 
Tree set on fire from the all-consuming flame of the Fire dis- 
appear. But the fruit of the tree if it should be fully shaped 

> On the Synkretiim of Jewish, Babylonian, Persian^ Syrian. Hellenio religions out 
of which the Universal and Absolute Religion arose, compare Hamack, 178 1 About 
the Gnostics in general our earliest informant is Irenseus, a determined opponent of the 
Hellenic spirit ; especially of that polytheism or relative monotheism which under new 
names the Gnostics were bringing back. They represented the religious revolution 
as a war of gods : the god of the Jews or Demiurge (Creator) being lowered in rank 
and distinguished from the supreme and true or '^good** Grod. The secret spring of 
this innovation the author of Antiqua Mater traces to Hellenic jealousy of the Jews 
and their Law and Prophets, and to an objection to its impositions whether circum- 
cision or the ascetic regulations for the proseljrtes of the Gate. To establish a rival 
theology, to claim a new knowledge of the Supreme as their own, to invent a new 
category of mediatorial beings or Aeons, all this was to supersede the Old Testament 
and to claim the spiritual empire for the Greeks.— Antiqua Mater, 216. 


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and receive its own form, is placed in a storehouse, not in 
the fire. For the fruit is bom to be stored up, but the chaff 
to be put in the fire, which has been generated, not for its own 
sake, but for the fruit.^ 

Then Simon applies this to Scripture : For the house of the 
Israel is the vine of the Lord Sabaoth, and man the beloved 
germ of the louda. And if man is the beloved new-shoot of 
the louda it has been shown that the tree is nothing else than 
man. But the scripture has spoken enough of his secretion 
and dissolution, and for instruction what has been said is 
enough for those fully formed. For all flesh is grass, and all 
glory of the flesh as the flower of grass. The grass has been 
destroyed and its flower has fallen, but the word of the Lord 
remains forever. But the word is the Word and Logos that 
has been generated in (the) mouth of the Lord, and elsewhere 
is no place of genesis. 

The Fire being such, according to Simon, there were of aU the Aeons, two 
branches from one root, Mind and Ennoia (Mother of all things). 

The Angels governing the world badly because they 
wanted to govern, he said that he came to restore things, 
metamorphosed and made like to the rulera and powers and 
angels, so that he appeared as man, not being a man, and 
seemed to suffer, not having suffered, but appearing to the 
Jews as Son, but in Samareia as Father, and in the other 
nations as Holy Spirit, and that he endured to be called by 
whatever name the men may wish to call him.^ 

At Bome he meets with the Apostolos, and Peter resisted 
him much deceiving many by magic arts. At last being near 
being confuted by delaying too long, he said that if he were 
buried alive he would rise on the third day. Having ordered 
a pit to be dug by the disciples, he directed the earth filled in. 
They did as they were directed, but he has been missing till 
now, for he was not the Christos.^ 

If neither Peter nor Paul ever saw Bome, or if the author 

> See Matthew, iii 10, la 

« Hippol3rti]8, vi. 19. 

* ibid, vi 20. The stories of Lrenieiis and Hippolytns are simply improbable ; ex- 
cept that it is barely possible that Simon and Menander were charged with claiming to 
be Salvators, Saviors ; and the few lines Irenieas gives to Menander, Kerinthns and the 
Ebionites, exhibit a oneniided nnconscientious partisanship, undesiroos to inform the 
public on the subjects about which or against which he is writing. 


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of ' Sapematual Beligion ' is correct in deciding that none of 
our four gospels is earlier than A.D. 150, then it is plain that 
Hippolytus wrote, like Irenaeus, as partisan and not as his- 
torian. Then the whole story in IrensBus and Hippolytus is 
a myth, except the account of the ambitious Angels, perhaps, 
which Irenseus charges Menander and Satuminus with hold- 
ing as a dogma, seven wandering stars performing the govern- 
ment on high.— XlJlemens Al., Strom., vi. 813. 

The characteristic power of Nature is its formative power. 
This Simon Magus * did not hesitate to ascribe to Unlimited 
Fire, 17 dir^iros hvvaiu^, to irvp, of a duplex-uature (like Elohm), 
having the two genders male and female f and the Spirit goes 
out from the Seventh Power ; for the three days before the Sun 
and Moon were made subindicate Mind (Nous) and Epinoia 
(Intelligence, Sophia, Sapientia^) and the Seventh Power that 
is unlimited. And these three Powers precede all the others 
that are bom. And when they say : ** Before all the aions 
He generates me,*' this is said concerning the Seventh Power, 
he says. And about this Seventh Power Moses speaks when 
he says : The Spirit was borne over the water. That is, he 
says, the Spirit containing all things in itself, the image of 
the unlimited power. Begarding which Simon says : Image 
from an immortal form, sole arranging all things. — Hippoly- 
tus, vi. 9, 14. It may be remarked here that Genesis hesi- 
tates to employ the phraseology of the Kabalah, Ajrin, the 
' No-Thing,* but rather prefers the Chaldflean and Egyptian ex- 
pressions. Unknown Darkness. — Gen. i. 2 : " Darkness was on 
the faces of Tahom.*' If Genesis had used the kabalist lan- 
guage, Ayin, it would have betrayed the source of its informa- 

1 Simon was charg^ed by the ChristianB with naing magic art, bat, as in the evan- 
gel of Nioodemna the Jews accuse Jesus before Pilate of being a magician (Supem. Rel. 
L 324), we can afford to lay these charges to the acoonnt of mntoal rivalry and partisan 
feeling. In sncb cases the ancients sometimes lied. Such accusations of magic were 
supposed by the Jews, doubtless in the 2nd century, to have been correct. —ibid. 325, 
It is certain that on the supposition that Pilate may have made an o£&cial report of 
events so important in their estimation. Christian writers, with greater zeal than con- 
scienoe, composed fictitious reports in his name in the supposed interest of their re- 
ligion, and there was in that day little or no critical sense to detect and discredit such 
forgeries. — ^ib. 827. No evidence of any official report ! 

3 The Wisdom, the Daughter of God, is also Male and Father.— Philo, de profugis, 
p. 458. 

' The Wisdom is the Daughter of God, and Simon Magus testifies to the existence 
of the Hidden Wisdom (of the Gnosis) in the Kabalah, both in and before his time. — 
Proverbs, viii. 1, 23, 27, 80. 


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tion ; and the Court of the ffighpriest was too diplomatic for 
that. Although there is kabalah in Ezekiel, i., and gnosis else- 
where, it would be. going tolerably far back to have openly 
charged Moses with kabalist ideas and expressions. It was 
different in the time of Simon, for the kabalah was well known 
in the 2nd century, at a period just prior to the writing of Her- 
mas, who held that the Holy Spirit of God is the divine power 
which first of all worked in the person (corpus) of Christ. — Hil- 
genfeld, 167 ; Matthew, iii. 11, 12, 16 ; iv. 1. The God, he says, 
planted the vineyard, that is, created the people and gave it 
to his Son ; and the Son established the angels over them to 
guard them. He showed them the paths of life, giving them 
the Law which he took from his Father. Hermas, Sim. v. 6, 
says : echeis kai tautes tes Paraboles ten epikisin. See if 
Matthew xxi. 33, 38, 41, has not a similar parable. — Mark, xii. 
6, 9. The question then arises which of the two treatises is 
the earlier. Hermas mentions bishops, presbyters and dia- 
cons ; but then he does not mention Peter nor John, nor the 
name of any apostle. He knows none of the names. Before 
any gospel, except the general *good tidings' that .was 
preached by Budhist and Eastern Saints, there were saints, 
missionaries and apostles noway related to the subsequent 
Christian dispensation ; so that if Hermas and the Apokalypse 
do not know the name of a single Apostle mentioned in the 
Gospels, they are probably of earlier date than the Four Gos- 
pels. It is not a case of the mere word ** apostles," for the 
Didache shows that there were enough of them about. The 
point is, did Hermas and the author of the Apokalypse know 
Peter, as the Gospel of Matthew does. If they do not know 
him they are reliable ; but they testify to a period when the 
spurious works, that do mention Peter, did not exist. Her- 
mas was written about the middle of the second century, or a 
little earlier.— Supemat. Kelig. I. 257. 

Vast numbers of spurious writings, moreover, bearing the 
names of Apostles and their followers, and claiming more or 
less direct apostolic authority were in circulation in the early 
Church : Gospels according to Peter, to Thomas, to James, to 
Judas, according to the Apostles, or according to the Twelve, 
to Barnabas, to Matthias, to Nicodemus, &c.,and ecclesiastical 
writers bear abundant testimony to the early and rapid growth 
of apocryphal literature.— Supernatural Eel. I. 292, 293. 


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Justin refers to a mythical ' Acta Pilati.' Scholten conjectnres 
that Justin merely referred to documents which tradition sup- 
posed to have been written, but of which he himself had no 
personal knowledge. — Supemat. Religion, I. 327, 328. 

It is not difficult to believe that Justin Martyr's first 
Apology was the genuine work of a Christian,^ but that it was 
written at an early period of Christianism, that is, according 
to a prior Gospel almost identical with the Gk)spel according 
to Matthew, seems barely possible.' It testifies to the cample- 
Hon of the transjordan system (partly Essene, partly Ebionite, 
partly Kabalist, partly Messianic, and essentially the long- 
practised work of the Eastern Saints ^ and wandering apostles) 
which had become perfectly organised when Matthew's Gkws- 
pel was issued. The title and superscription are at first sight 
suspicious ; for it may be doubted if such a communication 
was ever intended prior to a.d. 140 to have been addressed or 
presented to a Roman Emperor. — Supem. Rel. I. 326. It is 
open to the objection that it is the first work in which the 
mistake of seeking to identify Simon Magus with Semo Sanc- 
tus is found. Again Justin, pp. 137, 139 uses the word agnoia, 
and Lucian quizzes it. Again the Memoirs he uses may have 
been apocryphal evangelia.— Supemat. Rel. I. 312, 314-316, 
321, 324, 412. 

And the evil demons were not satisfied before the Manifestation of the Chris- 
tos with sa^iring that the before mentioned sons were bom to the Zens, but after 
he had been manifested and born among men ; and after thej learned that he 
was prophesied bj the Prophets and knew that he was believed and looked for 
in every people, again, as we before showed, they put forward others, Simon 
to be sure and Menander from Samareia, who also having performed magian 
miracles deceived many, and yet hold them deceived. — Justin Martyr, pp. 
157, 158. Apol. I. 

It is easy to see that this is an argument, and a late one, pro 
Christianis. " We have been denounced as Christians, but it 

> He speaks particularly of the demons and eternal punishment. 

* There waa an existiDg Christian Eoclesia when Matthew, xvi. 18 was written. 
And the writers of the Memoirs tell all about our Saviour lesous Chriatos. — Justin, 
ApoL I. 88. 

* All through the Jordan country and the desert were wandering pastors, itinerant 
prophets or koraim. — Dnnlap, S3d, IL pp. ziv. xxxii. xxxiii. 84 ; Isaiah, xxix. 19 ; zl. 
3. The Sabians baptized. Baptism was one of the observances in the worship of 
Adonis in Mesopotamia and Arabia. Those initiated in the Mysteries of Mitbra were 
baptlzed—Dunlap, S5d, L 139; Movers, L 891 ; Matth. iii. 6, 11, 18. 


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is not just that the good is hated." — p. 137. There is nothing 
in the first part of it showing that it was an address to Adrian, 
or Hadrian. The superscription may have been put to it in 
order to give it the appearance of being of an earlier date than 
it really was. Here it is : 

To the Autokrat Titus Ailianoa Adrianos, Antoninos Pius august Kaisar, and 
Ouerissimus son philosopher, and Loukios philosopher, by nature son of Kaisar, 
and adopted of Eusebes, friend of learning, and sacred colleague, and to the 
entire people of the Romans, in behalf of the men from everj nation unjustly 
hated and abused ; loustiuos sou of Priskos the Bakcheios, one from Flavia 
Neapolis of Suria Palaistine, I have made address and petition of them.— p. 135. 

The Septuagint, like the Targums, moved on in the direc- 
tion of Christianism ! like Matthew, Justin always quotes 
from the Septuagint Version.^ The mere fact that Justin men- 
tions *evangelia' without giving the name of any one of them 
is no evidence that his writings are not of later date than some 
of the Canonical evangels.— See Sup. Eel. I. 308, 309-311. 
The use of the word * agnoia,' if it proves anything, shows 
that the writer may have been living about the time of Lucian, 
and prior to Irenaeus. His mention of Simon Magus, Me- 
nander, Markion, shows that the writer of Justin's 1st Apology 
must have been late ; since Markion's period of great success 
lasted ^ from a.d. 154 to 180. Moreover, the author of the Ist 
Apology, p. 145, says that " Markion is even now still teach- 
ing." Since Hadrian died in a.d. 138 and Markion rose to 
fame in about a.d. 154-166 it was nearly impossible for Justin 
to address his first Apology to Hadrian (dead in 138) and 
speak of Markion as ' now still teaching * in 154-166. Hadrian 
died before Markion reached Kome or began to study with 
Kerdo (about 141 or later). Moreover Hadrian is not men- 
tioned in the aforesaid Apology until the last page, — which 
may have been added later by some partisan. In fact, Adrian's 
name is only named in the 2nd, 4th, and 6th lines from the 
close, just before the writer gives Adrian's decree concerning 
the Christians. Justin's 'memoirs^ of the Apostles' varied 

1 Snpemat. ReL L 294. Jastin^s acoount is still more inoonaistent with hiatorj 
than LukeV— ib. I. 807, 308. 

' IrenaeoB, HL iy. p. 248, ed. mbolxxt. : Markion invaloit sab Aniketo. He came 
after Kerdo, who came to Rome in the episcopate of Huginiis (Hyginns) the eighth 
bishop, in 187-141.— Irenaeus, IIL iv. 242. 

' If Justin tells the truth about those Memoirs (apomnemoneumata) then there must 
have been an earlier period of Christianism about which we can know but little ; but 


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persistently and materially from the canonical Gtospels. — Sup- 
emat. Eelig. I. 302. The Canonical (lospels derive the De- 
scent from David through Joseph ; but Justin's sources derive 
it through Mary. See ib. I. 306. Justin quotes the Apocry- 
phal Evangelia (Supem. Rel. I. 403, 407, 411, 412). It is true 
that 'Supernatural Eeligion,' I. p. 285, concludes that the 
date of Justin's First Apologia is about a.d 147; but the 
text of Irenaeus, III. iv. pp. 242, 243, says; Cerdon autem 
qui ante Marcionem, et hie sub Hygino, qui fuit Octavus 
Episcopus, . . . Marcion autem illi succedens invaluit sub 
Aniceto decimum locum episcopatus continente. Therefore, 
although Markion may have been " at one time secretly teach- 
ing, at another, making public profession," yet he grew in re- 
pute in the time of Aniketos who held office as tenth Bishop. 
Smith's Dictionary, DI. p. 819, dates Justin's Ist Apology a.d. 
150. The words of Justin, pp. 145, 158, Markion a certain 
Pontican, who even now is still teaching (S? koI vvv m Wl 
Sc&uricftfv) and * Kou. vw SiScuTKct ' settle the point that the later 
teaching of Markion is meant : because Markion became 
more successful in the time of Anicetus who was Bishop of 
Bome from a.d. 154-166, twelve years. Consequently the date 
of Justin's First Apology must fall between 154 and 166. 
Therefore the appeal to Hadrian, if really made in a.d. 138-9, 
the time when Hadrian died, must have been made sixteen 
years at least before Markion had gained his reputation, and 
at a time when the Emperor was dying. It would look, then, 
as if * Supernatural Beligion ' had dated Markion's First Apol- 
ogy too early by seven years. Markion came to Bome and 
continued to teach for some twenty years. — Supemat. Be- 
ligion, n. 80. That is one reason why the superscription 
wears a doubtful aspect. Markion is said to have recognized 
as his sources of Christian doctrine, besides tradition, a single ' 
Gospel and ten Pauline Epistles. But as his own Gospel can- 
not be found, nor reconstructed out of his bitter antagonists, 
Tertullian and Epiphanius (both of whom are, from a quasi 
proximity in time, a sort of argument, in connection with 
Irenaeus III. iv. p. 243, for the later date for Markion's active 

this is clear that Matthew had some motive for writing that Peter was the Rock on 
which the Ebionite Eccleeia was founded. So that this verse mnst be an interpolation, 
or else something went before of which we are not informed.— Hermas, ParabolS, ix. 1, 
nses the very word EScolesia. 


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career), and as some have opposed the idea that Markion con- 
structed his own Gospel in part out of the Canonical Luke, 
we might admit in Markion a knowledge of the Paulinist writ- 
ings ; without, at this stage of the argument, admitting that 
Markion knew any canonical evangel at all. The singularity 
of a selection of Luke instead of Matthew is in itself striking, 
for Matthew is more markedly identified, in some respects, 
with Essene-Ebionite aphorisms than Luke is, and Markion is 
nothing if not first, last, and altogether an Encratite. Like 
Satuminus, he detested marriage. The virginal birth in Luke 
would have suited him no better than the proposition con- 
tained in Matthew, iii. 16, 17. The real question is, if these 
two Gospels were not produced until after a.d. 150,^ whether 
Markion is not, in that case, a confirmation of the fact ; for if 
Babbi Akiba and the Jews in 134-136 expected a Messiah (in 
Barcocheba) they were not yet prepared to admit that one had 
come in a.d. 30, and the ground was not yet prepared for the 
acceptance of a canonical Gospel ! They were looking for an- 
other! — Matth, xi. 3. Matthew's Gospel might as well have 
discussed the attributes of the Healer on Mt. Sinai, as amid 
the turmoil and excitement that prevailed in Judaea, on the 
Jordan, and in Edom too, from 65 to 136. Hence the arrival 
of the Great Ascetic in Bome between 139 and 142, or perhaps 
later, may be fraught with historical significance. But if 
Markion, relying on the fall of the Jews and the Angel of 
Jerusalem (see Lrenaeus, I. xxii. xxiii.), considered this an 
evidence that the Angel of Jerusalem was not the Highest 
Deity, what prevented his concocting a description of the 
descent of the Saviour ' Mithra lesoua ' or Malka Messiacha 
in human appearance merely,^ to the Galilaean city Kaper- 
naum, that might serve as a suggestion to the canonical 
writers ? When Markion was, there was no canon of author- 
ised New Test. Scriptures.— Supernat. Bel. 11. 81. According 
to St. Luke others had set to work writing gospels, why not 
Markion also ? Of course he wrote from the ascetic point of 
view, as Matthew and the Essenes and Ebionites would have 

las * Supernatural Religion' supposes. Advenisse Christum ad destructionem 
Indaeorum Dei, et ad salutem credentium eL —Satuminus, in Iren. I. xxii 

* Doketio Gnusis. ** But the Saviour Satuminus demonstrated (to be) unborn, and 
incorporal and without form, but a man apparently, as you would suppose.*^ — Irenaeus, 
L xxii. This is gnostic, and the Apocryphal Evangels were gn5stio also.— Sup. Rel. 
L 403, 411. 


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done, and Satuminos did. Those Seven Ang'els were consid- 
ered bad Angels in the Liber Adami or Codex Nazoiia. Sa- 
tuminus considered them bad in a.d. 125. Is there any reason 
why Markion should not have hhared his opinion ? Justin in 
his 1st Apologia, p. 158, mentions Simon (the Magus), Menan- 
der, and Markion. Why does he leave out Satuminus who 
comes next in order ! He was himself late. But he mentions 
Markion, however, the legitimate successor of such opinions 
as those of Satuminus, particularly that the Saviour came 
without a body! Did the writer of Apologia L decline to 
strengthen Markion*s case ? Now the connection that we have 
here substantiated between Markion and Satuminus, and which 
Justin does not deny, Irenaeus by his way of writing would 
never lead one to suspect. But, then, he was a missionary to 
the Gauls ! The question still returns. Did Markion's ideas in 
any way contribute to induce the production of the Gospel 
according to Matthew? It was certainly first written in 
Greek. Markion *8 high personal character and elevated views 
produced a powerful effect on his time, and his opinions were 
so widely adopted that in the time of Epiphanius his follow- 
ers * were said to be found throughout the whole world.* An- 
ticipating the results of modem criticism, Markion denies the 
applicability to Jesus of the so-called Messianic prophecies.^ 
The mere fact that the Paulinist ^ does not follow Matthew, i. 
18, 20, nor Luke, i. 35, speaks strongly for the priority of some 

The whole course of Markion's proceedings implies that he 
put no great faith in canonical Gospels, if he altered them. If 
Markion*8 Gospel was a more original and authentic work than 
Luke's (Supem. Eel. 11. 108, 134) we may have to admit an 
earlier status of Christianism among the Oriental Greeks and 
preceding the canonic Gospels, a Christianism in which Sa- 
tuminus and Kerinthus together with the Kabbalist Jews 
might abide, and into which Messianists could enter, with 
Philo as a teacher. Compare Supernat. Eelig., n. 118, lines, 
12, 17, 18, 19, 20; 120, line 11; 123, 125. Markion held Paul 

» Encratites, MarUon had no need to tinker Lake. See Supernat. Rel. IL 109, 

« Supern. Rel II. 80. 

« ib. It 106. There is a complete severance between the Law and the Gospel. —n 
106. *^ ^ 

M.Cor. xii. 8; GaLiv. 4. 

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to be the only true Apostle ! — ib. 121. Therefore Peter and 
James must have been (if he ever heard of them) inventions in 
his eyes, possibly some of the members of the body of Saints 
and general apostles, or else imaginary conceptions, got np 
for theological purposes or local prejudices, or business. 
Markion*8 text contains many readings which are manifestly 
superior to, and more original than, the form in which the 
passages stand in the third Gk)spel. We are indebted to 
Markion for the correct version of the Lord's prayer. The 
true reading was, instead of 'Hallowed be thy name,"* Let 
thy Holy Spirit come upon us." — ^Luke, xi. 13 ; Sup. Belig. 11. 
126. The correctness of Markion's Gospel as an original text 
versus the Synoptics is further verified. — ^ib. 11. 130, 131. 
Markion's Gk)spel began thus : In the 15th year of the reign of 
Tiberius Caesar lesoua ^ came down to Kapemaum a city of 
Ghililee. Luke, iv. 23, without any previous mention of Kefr 
Naum, says: 

No doabt yoa will saj to me this parable : Physician, Heal thyself ; what- 
ever we- have heard taking place at the Kaphamaom, do here too in thy native 
place ! 

In Matthew, iv. 13 also the lesoua is described as beginning 
to preach at Kaphamaum in the mountains of Zaboulon and 
Nephthaleim. Assuming that Markion's copy is older than 
Luke's or Matthew's, it is easy to see why all three agree in 
making Kaphamaum the beginning of the lesoua's preach- 
ing. Li that case, Markion would have set the example for 
the others to improve upon, using however an earlier text, a 
Paulinist copy. He came down to KBphamaum. — Luke, iv. 
31. Luke evidently was embarrassed by taking from previous 
sources, for he makes lesoua, in the synagogue at Nazareth, 
refer to works done at Kapemaum before any mention has 
been made of his having preached or worked wonders there to 
account for his alluding to the subject. Markion's Gk)spel 
represented lesoua as first appearing in Capernaum, theii 
going to Nazareth and addressing the people with the natural 
reference to the previous events at Capernaum. That Luke 
happens to be the only one of our canonical Gk)spels which 
has the words with which Markion's Gospel commences, is no 
proof whatever that those words were original in that work, 

> The Syrian for the Greek lOfoua. 


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and not found in several of the many gospels preceding Lake's. 
'' It seems indeed a bold thing to affirm that Marcion's (Gos- 
pel, whose existence is authenticated long before we have any 
evidence of Luke's, must have been derived from the latter." — 
Supem. Rel., 11. 134. It is more simple and natural to sup- 
pose that the system was formed upon the Gk^spel as Markion 
found it, than that the Gospel was afterwards fitted to the sys- 
tem. — ib. 138. Although Markion obviously did not accept 
any of the Gospels which have become canonical, it does not 
by any means follow that he knew anything of these particular 
Gt>spels. As yet we have not met with any evidence even of 
their existence at a much later period.— ib. IL 145. We must 
not forget the date of Markion's celebrity, given us by Iren- 
aeus, 154-166, 12 years. There is no evidence of the existence 
of any of the canonical Gospels at a later period than 166. 
Irenseus knows them all about 174 or 175, apparently. " The 
fact is, however, that the numerous Gk)spels current in the 
early Church cannot have been, and our s3moptic Gbspels most 
certainly are not, independent works, but are based upon ear- 
lier evangelical writings no longer extant,^ and have borrowed 
from each other. The Gospels did not originate full fledged 
as we now have them, but are the result of many revision^ of 
previously existing materials." Almost all critics are agreed 
that the Synoptics are dependent on each other and on older 
forms of the Gospel.— Supemat. Rel. L 397. It is also evident 
that the doctrine of self-denial, the prominent theory of the 
East (which is the legitimate result of the antithesis of Spirit 
and Matter), had penetrated the inmost convictions of this 
great Ascetic, and that he met it in every evangel that existed 
between Pontus and the Jordan. Death ^ could teach him that 
* the flesh profiteth nothing ! ' 

Justin Martyr not only quotes from the Apocrjrphal Evan- 
gelia (as above mentioned), but Eusebius, H. E. iii. 27, says of 
the Ebionites, using only the * Evangel according to the He- 
brews,' they make small account of the others; and the author of 
Supernatural Eeligion, I. p. 423, 427, 428, says that Justin's quo- 
tations, where they resemble passages in the canonical Gospels, 

1 We might infer from Justin, Dialogne, S5, 51, lot Cor. xL 18-19 (Sup. Rel 413, 
414) that the Paolinist preceded Justin. The fonroea in Asia and Syria from which 
the Panlinist drew materials for his Hellenist Epistles may have preceded Jostin. 

' ** oorpua enim natura oorftiptibile existit.*'— Iren. L xziii 

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are evidently taken from the Evangel according to the He- 
brews.^ It was among the earliest Christian commnnities 
generally believed to be the original of the Greek Gtospel of 
Matthew. IrensBus states that the Ebionites used solely the 
' Gospel according to Matthew.' — Iren. I. xxvi. Sup. Kel. L 423, 
424, 425. Justin, Apol. I. 50, states that after the Crucifixion 
even his friends all forsook him and denied him. Matthew, 
xxvi 56, says * they all forsook him and fled.' Luke, Mark, and 
John represent the disciples as being together after the Cruci- 
fixion. Justin makes no mention of the angels at the sepul- 
chre. — S. E. I. 332. There is one way of freeing Markion from 
the accusation of having known of some canonical Gospel ; we 
can assume that he used the word lesoua in its literal mean- 
ing only, the Saviour ; and this agrees with his teaching. The 
word Capernaum looks as if Markion had read Matthew and 
Luke. But they may have taken the word from him if they 
published after 154. His views, as far as we can get at them, 
appear not dependent upon Gospel accounts. He may not have 
needed to borrow. Matthew, xxvi. 29, and John, ii. 3, 9, are 
contra Markion; therefore not extreme ascetics, as Markion 
was. Per contra, see Matth. xix. 12. 

There are some differences between the later Mosaic Juda- 
ism at the period 100 before our era and the theology of the 
neighboring nations ; but the resemblances are still greater. 
It must be remembered that a vast scribal performance had 
taken place which intervened between the Jewish past and the 
Judaism of the Old Testament. This scripture placed the 
Jewish religion on a literary basis, which systematised the re- 
ligion. The system worked a change ; for no great scribe 
movement of that kind could have been without a motive, and 
the motive must have been to operate a change of some sort 
in the previous condition. All through the Hebrew Bible, in 
one place and another, here and there, a kind of Messianic 
feeling crops out at intervals. Consequently, according to the 
evidences that we have placed side by side, the Hebrews, 
Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Greeks often appear closer re- 
lated in point of religious theories before the time of Alex- 
ander the Great than they do in B.C. 100 to a.d. 50. At the 
time of the Christian era Persian influence was very great in 
Judaea and Jerusalem ; and Persia, too, looked for a sort of a 

» See S. R. L 299, 800, 803, 830-834, 879, 413, 414, 419, 430. 


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Messiah. The like parallel can be drawn between Judaism 
posterior to the Pentateuch and the Diasporan Christianism, 
as developed by the New Testament and the papacy at Bome. 
A change of some sort was worked in its exterior, just as late 
Judaism, after Christ, was systematised by the Talmud. The 
policy or polity of the Church is altered ; even the older doc- 
trines are not entirely crushed out. The Mourning for the 
Adon (the dead Sun) is not entirely suppressed in Ezekiel. 
But the effort for its suppression showed its continued ex- 
istence. Just so, if we take to pieces the chapters of Moses 
and the Prophets we arrive at the earlier form of Jewish re- 
ligious suppositions, which is intimately connected with the 
views described in the Mysteries of the Egyptians, Phoenicians, 
Syrians, Greeks, Babylonians, and vividly drawn in descrip- 
tions by the Greek dramatists. Early Judaism was recon- 
stituted imder a pseudo-Moses. So Messianism was reformed 
under Greek influences and under the Bishops of Bome. 
Bome's political control embraced the East and the West. 
The Boman See reformed Christianism on a corresponding- 
ly vast scale, as the Pauline Epistles and Matthew, xvi. 18, 
xxviii. 19, exhibit. 


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" Open to me the places that are closed." 

The Therapeutae were gnostic Nazarenes, and consequently 
were able to see,^ and were before our era. — Joel, ii. 28 ; Philo, 
Therap., 1 ; Luke, i. 22. Without any physical perceptions 
whatever, the soul was supposed able to look upon and see 
anything it pleased in heaven above. The assumption of a 
soul's mental perception (Intuition) dispensed with bodily or 
cerebral vision. This doctrine opened the way for a large 
amount of well-meant humbug. lao is the mystical name of 
the Sungod, — Movers, I. 539 ff. lao is Adonis and Ab Ram, 
Pater excelsus or Ramas the Most High God (Hesychius). — 
Movers, I. 542. Adonis is also Dionysus.^ Adonis the Most 
High God is followed in a theogony by his Son Ouranos, the 
Epigeios (Terrestrial Adam) united with Earth, whom, as usual 
formerly, Saturn follows ; from which it follows that He was 
considered the Primal Being (Urwesen) corresponding to the 
Old Bel with the Taautha, who here is Berut the Venus of the 
Lebanon. — Movers, I. 644. Among the Valentin ians (Gnostics) 
the Aion teleios (complete, perfect) can only pass for a copy of 
the Babylonian-Phoenician Primordial Being ( — Movers, 645) 
the Buthos proarche, propator. — benaeus, I. i. 1 . With this 
Aion, compare the Ancient of Days in Daniel, vii. 8, 14. So 
that Daniel seems to be exhibited as a thorough gnostic, a 
leader of Messianist gnostics, benaeus could have known 

1 The Epopt needed no eyes to see ; no brain to think ; paychioal perception 

* The change to the Christian religion seems to have been helped on by the ideas 
previously taught in the Mysteries, and more or less taken up by the Jews and others. 
The Dionysus Mysteries were a concurrent fiictor in producing that mental status that 
predisposed minds towards the Resurrection theory and Christian sentiment The 
hand of man appears in the succession of ideas. The Old Testament was as much a 
literary work as the ^' Revise *^ is. 

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that the gtio&iiciB preceded Christianism, and therefore were not 
based upon it in any way. Justin Martyr, Dialogue, p. 74, 
speaks of the Father and Maker of all things. Justin, 78, 79, 
83, mentions the Maker of the heaven, who fastened it firmly, 
and, as the Maker of all things, made hard the earth and what 
is in it. The Babylonian and Jewish Kabalah preceded the 
Christianism of the gospels. The gnosis was Hindu, Persian, 
Babylonian, and included the Egyptian gnosis as exemplified 
in the writings of Hermes Trismegistus, the Jewish gnosis, and 
whatever of these was infused into individual Sabians, Nazoria 
and Ebionim. The Babylonian Most High God was the Buler 
of the world, Bel-Saturn the Kosmokrator. He was the God 
of Life ; and the life of the flesh is the blood thereof. In 
Chaldaea Saturn was supposed to be located in his castle of 
fire.^ In Arabia, Dionysus was Fire-god, Sun-god, and Life- 
god lachi (lacche) and lacchos. Movers, I. 548, reads lahoh 
(lachoh softened from the aspirate ch) " he makes to live." 
The " Adon lives." Lydus de Mensibus, iv. 38, 74, (speaking 
of Dionysus) says that the Chaldaeans call the God lao, in- 
stead of the Intelligible (Mind-perceived) Light, in the Phoe- 
nician language, and He is many times called Sabaoth as the 
One who is over the Seven Orbits, that is, the Creator. The 
Phcenicians regarded the sunlight as a spiritual power which 
issued out of the Light-principle, the Most High God Bel- 
Saturn, and extended over the Seven Orbits.' In the Chal- 
daean theosophy this Intelligible Light is an efflux emanating 
from the Intelligible World, the Intelligent Life, the Light- 
Aether, out of which the souls emanate, and to which they 
come back again, purified from the dross of the senses (flesh) ; 
they are borne aloft (carried up) by the Mediator, who is called 
Bel-Mithra, Zeus (compare Abel Ziua the Shining, Gabriel), 
that is, Zeus-Belus, or Intelligible Sun, Logos, Onlybegotten,^ 

1 Compare Psalm, L 8 ; Judges, xiii. 20, 23 ; Poimander, L 9 ; Hermes Trism., 
L 9, 13. 

• Movers, L 646-666i 

* Aooording to Irenaens, m. 257, the Nioolaitans (besides some views of a Mar- 
kionite description) held that the Christos, who continued impassible and did not 
snfler, flying back again into his own Pleroma, is the beginning indeed of the Only- 
begotten; but that the Logos is the tme son of the Onlybegotten. This is, ap- 
parently, some later variety of the Babylonian theory among the Ebionitee in the 
2nd oentnry of our era. It is gnosis any way, and posterior to the period when 
the Jews (2 Kings, xviL 17 ; zxiii 5, 8, 12) bnmed incense to the Stars, like the 
Arabs prior to Islam. — Baethgen, p. 112. It is just poasible that the theory (in the 


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and, just like Philo's Logos, whose theology is certainly bor- 
rowed from the Chaldaean, is only the other form of Bel- 
Saturn, on which account therefore the ideas Bel-Iao, Bel- 
Mithra, Bel-Saturn and his copy (photograph) Sol-Belus run 
together (in einander (ibergehen). Now that this is Judaism, 
we have the evidence in Damaskius : " He made oath tender- 
ing * (calling as witness) the Bays of the Helios and the Hebrew 
God " : ^ " the Secret Initiation into the Sacred Mysteries 
which the Chaldaean celebrated about the God with Seven 
Bays, raising up the souls through Him.'* ^ These Mysteries 
were well known to the ancient divines, the blessed theurgists, 
as the Emperor Julian calls them. This God Sabaoth was 
father of the worlds, father of the Aeons (Times), Creator of 
the Gods, and was called King. — Synesius.* The Sabian Deity 
is the Spirit of the Spheres of heaven. — Chwolsohn, II. 451-3 ; 
Numb. viii. 2. The ' Evangel according to the Hebrews ' was 
written in the Chaldaean and Syrian language, but in Hebrew 
letters.' It was, then, Chaldaean in form, origin, and doctrine. 
— Bev. iv. 6. 

Targtim of OnkeloB) concerning the Memra might have Buggested personae divinae an- 
terior to the Logos, as the Babylonian Bel-Mithra, who is the Onlybegotten of the 
Older Bel. Out of Babylon the Israelites brought the first germs of the Kabbala. — 
Ermann, 24. The Tanaim appeared (according to Franok, p. 38) in the 8d century 
ac. See Dunlap, Sod, IL 65, 70, 76, 88, 92; Franok, 65, 249 ; Hermetic Books. The 
Ancient has formed all by reason of a Male (Korios) and a Female (the Knria). — The 
Sohar, III. 290 a ; 6en. ii 22 ; Job, xxviii 20, 21. Job here mentions the Ohochmah 
(Wisdom) of the Knrios (Ohristos) and the Vinah (Vena) of the Kabbalah. The divine 
spirit is the most dominant essence of the sooL — ^Pbilo, C^nis Heres, II. 

1 irporctmv ^ ** stretching ont," pointing to, " shewing at a distance," hence, invok- 
ing, " tendering as pledga** To a Sabian speak of the number 7, says De Sacy.— Chwol- 
sohn, n. 626. Codex Nazoria, III. 155 has the 7 Stellars, with the Spirit and Messiah. 

> Photins, Bibl. p. 339 ; Movers, 552. See too Ezekiel, viii 14, 16 . Numbers, 
XXV. 4 ; psalm, xix. 4, Septuagint, Vulgate, versions. Ia6 is the Sun in the different 
seasons, closely related to Adonis and Dionysus as autumnal God. See Movers, 554. 
Bel-IaT) is Mithra.— Movers, 553. Bel was both Saturn and SoL— Movers, L 185. Was 
not Seb (the Egyptian Saturn, Seb, Sev, Dionysus-Sab 1, or Sabos) worshipped in Beer 
Sabah, and Asaph (an Arab Deity) in Saphir (Air Asaph, Ir Shemes) ? Jacob's Well, 
was it not the Well of Keb ( Ai Kab, or Ai Keb) ? Jacob being the Gabariel or Herakles 
of the Aaaqabaara of Cbebron. The centre of temple-worship was changed from 
Hebron to Jemsalem.— psalm, ii 6 ; xliii 5. Before that, ^ all things were bom from 
Saturn and Venus.* ** Venus cum Inna in domibns et finibus Saturni*' — Clem. Recog- 
nitions, c. 19.— Uhlhom, p. 51. 

* Julian, Orat. in Matrem, p. 17*^. Here we have the Chaldaean God of the Resur- 
rection of souls.— Numb, xxiii. 1 ; Rev. i 18, 16 ; xi 11 ; xix. 13. 

« Dunlap, Sod, II. 80 ; Spirit-Hist. 312. 

• The Nazarenes continued to use it even in St. Jerome'a time. —Hieronymns adv. 
Pelagian, m. 2 ; Dunlap, Si>d, II. 44, 45. 

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The Euphrates and the Jordan have always been the centre 
of the Sabian Baptists. To a Sabian speak of the number 
Seven. See 2 Kings, xxiii. 5, where incense was burned in 
the temples on the High Places of ludah to Bal, to the Sun, 
the Moon, and the Five Planets, the Chaldaean Seven Kays 
of the God.^ For many centuries this Seven-rayed Chaldaean 
Sabaoth continued to possess the minds of both Babylonia 
and ludea, as we learn both from the Codex Nazoria and 
from the Apokalypse, i. 13, 16, ii. 1, v. 6, also from Julian 
(Orat. V. on the Mother of the Gods, p. 172) concerning lao the 
Seven-rayed God of the Chaldaeans, the Saviour who lifted up 
the soul to the realms on high.^ The Nazoria were on the 
east side of the Jordan, as the New Testament relates, and as 
Jeremiah, ix. 26, apparently indicates, when he refers to the 
uncircumcised Sabians dwelling in Ammon, Moab, Idumea 
and the remotest comers of the Desert. Now we find the 
Nazoria after the Christian era living in Nabathaea, Idumea, 
all along on the east side of the Jordan, and continuing as far 
north as Edessa, Nisibis, Harran, Antioch, and Galatia ; so 
that when one century before our era Isaiah, xxix. 19, says 
that 'the Ebioni of Adoma' shall rejoice,' we are placed 
among the Poor, the Essenes and Nazoria ; for Epiphanius 
tells us that the Nazorenes were before Christ, and knew not 
Christ : and what is said of the Nazoria in the Desert is 
equally true of the Ebionites, for they lived together and the 
two names are names of the Transjordan and Nabathaean As- 
cetics} These were their distinguishing designations, when, 
under the Baptism of John, the command came to * Go out 
from the Great Desert.' If these Nazoria had not gone out to 
Antioch where they first learned to be called Christians, we 
might to-day have to look in vain for the pope of Eome and 
the Church of England. The Codex Nazoria, like the Gospel 
of Matthew when describing the origin of the Nazoraian sect, 
supports itself upon the Baptism of John.' All that live in 
the Desert are uncircumcised, says Jeremiah, ix. 26. So that 

» See Rev. iv. 5 ; v. 6. 

« Movers, PhOnizier, I. 550, 551 ; Lydas, de mem. IV. 88, 74, 98 ; Cedrenus, L p. 
296 ; Jerem. viii 1, 2, vii 9, ix. 14. 

> Edora. The Lebanon is mentioned two venes earlier. — Isa. xzlx. 17. Compare 
also Galatians, i 17, 21, 23. 

* Compare Galat. ii. 10. 

» Matthew, iii. 6, 18. The Mithra baptiam. 

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here was a radical difference between the Jews proper and the 
Sabians or Arabian Nazorians that was certain to manifest it- 
self at Antioch.^ Just as Matthew carries the lesua back to 
the Baptism of John at the Jordan, jast so Galatians, i. 17 
carries Paul of Tarsus in Kilikia ^ straig^ht back to the Ara- 
bian^ Nazorians for confirmation of doctrine. Standing firmly 
on these data, we are authorised to look beyond the Jordan 
for Chaldaean sources of Judaism, Messianism and Christian - 
ism. Moving from the east of the Jordan to the parts around 
Sidon, Edessa, and into Elilikia and Galatia, Antioch, a city 
filled abundantly with Jews, became the natural focus of the 
Ebionim and Nazorenes in the 2nd century of our era. 

Bemember always that the doctrine of the existence of a 
divine Saviour (such as Osiris, the Spiritus, Malach lesua or 
Horus) in the sun must have preceded the idea of locating 
such a Saviour in the human form divine. The Apokalypse 
and Justin Martyr's works are simply late. They both have 
the logos doctrine applied to lesu. Justin, however, has a 
considerable share of the framework of Matthew's narrative, 
which the Book of Bevelation has not, and he says that a 
John wrote the Apokalypse. The author of 'Supernatural 
Beligion ' claims that our Four Gospels are later than a.d. 150. 
Christianism, therefore, must somewhat antedate the Apoka- 
lypse. The question is if it antedates Kerinthus. Here we 
have to weigh the testimony of Irenaeus. The least preju- 
dice, or substitution of the word lesu for Salvator, on his part 
might spoil his testimony and have a tendency to pervert his- 

The Primal Father produced the Intelligible Sun. There 
were two Bels, the first, Saturn ; the second, the Sun. The 
main social facts at the beginning of the Christian Era were 
the Babylonian doctrine of the Father and Son,* the Adonis 

1 GaL il 8, 11, 12, 16, 21 ; iii 2, 18, 2a Galatians indicates quite a late stage of 
theNazoriaii religion. 

» GaL i. 21. 

> Rev. ziL 1, 6, carries the Woman and her Son (in the snn) back into the Naza- 
rene Desert. The book is late. Mentions the Saints and the ohnrches of Asia Minor. 
Phil6remos m^n g&r h theia Sophia. — Philo, Quis Heres, 25. 

* Dnnlap, Vestiges, p. 182. The Primal Father of all has an Onlybegotten Son, 
who is himself again and in the Trinity takes the first place : he is the Creator Bel, the 
Revealed Saturn, the mystical Heptaktis or lao of the Chaldean Philosophy. In the 
Chaldean Oracles of the two Julians, the two Bels, the Older and the Toonger, divested 
of their mythic personality, were hymned as the Old and New eternal Time. Ao- 


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religion in Jndea^ Chaldea and Syria, the Dionysus worship in 
Arabia, Syria, Greece, Egypt, the Messianism in Jerusalem's 
scriptures and the mjrth of Osiris Sauveur in Egypt : in the 
facts of the moral, intellectual and political condition of con- 
temporaneous society in the East there was, in consideration 
of the belief in miracles and a very lively propagandism by 
the aid of wandering pastors, a possibility of such a myth as 
the Messias-myth taking hold of the Greeks of Asia, some of 
the Jews, and not a few Egyptians. 

Those walking in Darkness behold a Light Great I— Isaiah, iz. 2. 

The Great Mother Tanat, face of Bal.— Carthaginian Inscription. 

Arise, shine, for thy Light is come !— Isaiah, Ix. 1. 

I Ia*hoh. \hy Saviour and Redeemer. —Isaiah, zlix. 26. 

The kingdom of the heavens is at hand t— Matthew, ir. 17. 

We find the form Adon Tanat I The very being of the Deitj itself appears 
in Tanat. — Baethgen, p. 56. 

And H€ra * made him live again ; and of Luaios * with outstretched locks 

To the long eyes such youthful lustre measured out. 

If ever earthly womb so great a form produced. — Nonnus, xxxv. 828. 

The Great Beneficent King,' Osiris, is bom !— de Iside, 12. 

That Father issues from the Most Sacred Ancient t And the Wisdom (Logos) 
will be discovered out of Ayin.— The Sohar, Idra Suta, vii. § 208. 

The Messiah is the Son of the Blessed One.—Mark, xiv. 62 ; Dan. vii. 13, 
14; viii. 15,16. 

He that acknowledges the Son has the Father also. — I. John, ii. 23. 

Above all, we must remember that the heavy hand that had 
crushed Jerusalem had in some degree deprived the Pharisees 
of power. If Jerusalem had not been destroyed, who among 
the Jews would have ventured to write that the Pharisees, the 
proudest sect and the most powerful, were a generation of 
vipers?* To take the religion of the Initiated' out of their 
hands, to combine it with Persian and Essene doctrines, to 
connect it with a man, and to preach it to the uninitiated and 
the poor, this was to originate a Christianity/ Was there a 

cording to Julian, Emperor, the Sapreme Goodneu broogbt forth ont of itself the 
InUUigibU Sun, the ideal prototype of the sun.— Movers, PhOnizier, 266; Danlap, 
Vestiges, p. 182; Hark, xiv. 61. 

» From Ar (lonar Fire, the Ashah). 

* Compare 1 Sam. xzv. 29. Redeemer; from ImO, to loose, unbind, release. 
Lnaioe freed from the bonds of Hades and Death. 

•the "King."— Matthew, xxv. 84. 

* Matthew, iii. 7. 

* The peasant girl, at that very time, continued to sing the Adonis-Aoide. 

* Paul taaght that lesous was the Power and Wisdom of Qod.— 1 Cor. i. 24. Jastin 

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sect of the Nazoria called lessaeans (as Epiphanius says) ? 
Matthew says many things to confirm Epiphanius in this 
particular. Matthew, x., describes them as Essaeans ; Matthew, 
xix, 12, calls them eunuchs (for the Essaians were celibate 
coenobites), and xxii. 30 declares that in the resurrection and 
among the Angels in heaven there is no marriage ! This is as 
Essene as anything Satuminus or Markion could supply. 
What clinches the matter is the embarrassment of Epiphanius, 
who tries to cover up his tracks by deriving the word ' lessaeans ' 
from lesse (father of Daud), and the effort of Matthew, ii. 23 
to find the word Nazoria (Nazorene) in the *necer' of Isaiah 
xi. 1. The word Asaia (physician) is the root of the word 
lessaia (healers), and the words zar and iiazar are the root of 
Nazoria (Nazarenes) meaning self-denial, abstinence. Compare 
Acts, xxvii. 21, which mentions Saint Paul's abstinence. These 
embarrassments of Matthew and Epiphanius (leading to false 
derivations) are proofs of a desire to hide and cover up some- 

Gnosis, the scientia boni et mali, was in Budhism, in Brah- 
manism, and among the Indian latrikoi before Christ ; it was 
known to the authors of the Book of Genesis, Deuteronomy, 
the first Book of Samuel and Isaiah xlvii. 10 : even the word 
gnosis appears in the Septuagint in the meaning which the 
Gnostics attached to it. Plutarch uses the expression rov 6c 
ytvtoo-Kctv Ttt orra, the knowing the primal entities ; which proves the 
existence of the gnosis in the beginning of the first century, at 
least before the treatise De Iside et Osiride was written ; while 
the Gospels and the writings often ascribed to Paul * attest the 
presence of the gnosis in the first and second centuries. The 
opposition of good and evil, of spirit and matter, belong to 
the Persian, Babylonian, Jewish ^ and Egyptian gnosis. The 
Jewish Kabbalah is the gnosis, and Munk carries it back to 
the time of the Exile to Babylon, while Lassen traces the gno- 
sis as far as India. Arabia had an abundant share of it. Ac- 
cording to Irenaeus, some of the Gnostics say that there is a 
certain primal light without end. This is the Ain Soph. This 
tliey call the Fatlm* of all and First Man. Compare the close 

Martyr identified Ksous with the Logos.— Justin, p. 131, 184, 137, ed. 1661-3. Christ 
is Logos-angel and Fire-angel in Exodus, iii. 5. — Justin, p. 160. 

1 The hidden treasures of Wisdom and Gnosis. — ColossianB, ii. 3. 

3 Philo, Quod deterius, 1. 


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of Ezekiel's first chapter, also Qenesis i. 2 ; ii. 7, 15, 17, 21 ; 
and Hippolytus, I. 132, who states that the serpent-worship- 
pers among the Ghiostios honored the Man and the Son of the 
Man. They said also that the Mind is His forth-going Son,* 
sent out by the Father, and that he is Second Man, Son of 
the Man.^ Then the First and Second Man illuminated the 
spirit and generated Incorruptible Light from Her, — the third 
Male whom they called Christ, Son of the first and second 
Man and of the Holy Spirit the first Woman.' This is in 
accord with the Jewish Kabalah, because the King, the Logos, 
Adam Kadmon proceeds from and out of Ain Soph, and, in the 
generation of the Anointed from the Holy Spiiit, the Pater 
acts only through the Filius who is the Logos prof orikos. In 
calling the Son " Light Incorruptible " the Gnostics, only too 
strictly, were followed by the Christians in their Light of 
Light,* very God of very God. Thus from the relics of an 
ancient civilization, like that of India, proceeded Judaism and, 
finally, Christianity. 

Siva* is the only Hindu deity to whom animal sacrifices 
were offered ; • they were offered to Osiris, Dionysus-Iachoh 
and the Jewish Moloch, for the Jewish religion is the Diony- 
sus-Mithra worship,^ with its baptism, purifications and lustra- 
tions. Zeus, the Son of Saturn, set the rainbows in the clouds 
for a sign to men.^ 

I will set mjbow in the cloud. — Genesis, ix. 18. 

The divine Sekra • wrote with his finger upon a stone 42 ques- 
tions for Budha.^® Tables of stone were also written by the 
finger of Alahim." These resemblances are the result of simi- 
lar ideas in India, Greece and Judea. After listening to Bud- 

* This 18 the Logos proforikos. 

3 IrenfteoB, L zxxiv. Paris, 1675. 

< ibid. The Great Spirit, Yishna in the form of a fish, threw out ionah, the Dove 
—an emblem of the spirit, or Bel Herakles HermaphroditoB. 

* John, i. 4, 5, 7 ; ix. 5 ; Luke, iii 88 ; €kn. i 8, 4 ; Isaiah, ▼. 20 ; ix. 2 ; Danlap, 
S5d, IL 24, 49. 

^Mithra, DioDysns, Bagis (Siya), Baga (God). 

* Lassen, I. 924. 

^ Pbst, Untersnohnngen, 48 ff., 58 ff. 

* Homer, Iliad, xi 27, 28. 

* a name of Indra. 

>• Beal*8 Fah-Hian, p. 111. 
" Elohim. Exodus, xxxi 18. 

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lia's sermon five hundred blind men immediately recovered 
their sight^ In the Clementine Homilies it is stated that 
Peter delivered his sermon first, and the healing followed the 
sermon. On Sundays the Physicians ^ came to the holy places, 
sitting in rows, the young below the elders.^ The Hindu 
latrikoi had the theros, or elders, and appear to have adored 
the Sun. Compare the magnificent temple to the Sun at Bal- 
bec — ^built in the 2nd century. 

The Sun having % cognomen to be both Saviour and Herakle8.~Paa8auia8, 
viii. 31, 7. 

But let not any one suppose that he is that Horrible One ^ whom 
the myths describe, but that Mild and Benignant One who 
completely frees the souls from production : those not freed he 
joins to other bodies, correcting and chastising ; but also as- 
cending and raising up the souls to the world perceived by 

According to Julian, the Sim's rays have the property of 
RAI8INO (the souls) UP on high. "The Sun draws all things 
from the earth, and summons them to itself and makes them 
germinate, separating the bodies by the life-kindling and 
wonderful heat, I think, to extreme fineness (subtility) : and 
those that are by nature carried down he lifts up. And such 
things, I say, must be made evidences of his invisible forces. 
For the one who thus accomplishes this by means of corporeal 
heat, why shall he not, by means of the invisible and every 
way incorporeal and divine and pure ousia • established in the 
rays, draw and raise up the fortunate souls? Therefore, since 
this light appears akin to the Gods and to those that desire to 
be lifted up (to a higher place), this same (light) will increase 
in this our kosmos (orderly world) so that the day is greater 
than the night when the King Sun begins to go through 

> Beal*B Fah-Hian, p. 7a 

• Therapeutae, latrikoi, Aiaya, Essaiol 

• Philo, qnod omn. prob. liber, § 12. 

« The torments of the wicked in Hades and the meads of the pious.— Diodor. Sio. 
L 86. Dionysus Bull-formed in Hades brandishes a whip.— Nonnus, xliv. 280. 

• Julian, Oratio, iv. pk 130. Here we find the Hindu and Egyptian oonception of 
hells, punishment, and spiritual existences as Gods, and the fall of the soul into matter. 
The Jews inherited these notions from the Bast. Plato thought that the Qods were in- 
corporeal animated natures.— Apuleius, on the God of Sokrates. 

• fiery, vital essence. 


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Aries,^ the light of the rays of the God, through the visible and 
invisible force, has been shown to be, by nature, able to carry 
up ; by which (power) innumerable souls have been carried up-* 
having followed the most brilliant and most sunlike of all per- 
ceptions, for the divine Plato praised in song such ocular per- 
ception not alone as dear and useful but also as a leader to 
wisdom.' And if too I should take up the unspoken mysta- 
gogia which the Chaldean revealed in the Bacchic rites about 
the Seven-Bayed God * bringing up ' the souls through Aim, I 
shall say what is not known and very unknown to the vulgar 
herd at least, but well known to the blessed priests. There- 
fore I will say nothing about them now/'* 

The Mjsterjr of the Seven SUra !— Rev. i. 20. 

The Mystery of God the Kma I ^ — Coloesians, ii. 2. ed. Lftohmann. 

Behold, I will send my Messenger,^ and he shaU prepare the way before Me : 
and the Adon* whom ye seek shall suddenly come to his temple, even the Angel 
of the Covenant. — Malachi, iii. 1. 

The Son of Dauid does not oome until that impious kingdom (Rome) shall 
have extended itself over the whole earth. — Talmud, tr. loma, fol. 10, 1. 
Meusohen, p. 19. 

From heaven the King shall oome, enduring through ages — 

Only think, present in the flesh, to judge the worldj'— SibyL 

Herakles is termed Saviour." Metatron is called Angel 
lesua ; ^ Gkbriel (Gabariel) is Hermes (Logos), Herakles (Sav- 
iour), and SuN-Angel,"* Adonis. Hermes is Saviour and " Best 
Angel." " Julian says that Zeus has appointed the Goddess of 
Wisdom as Guardian to Herakles the Sair^p rdv icotr/Aov, the Sa- 

* the Lamb. 

* raised on high, exalted. 

> ZSeoB is Son of Saturn the Spiritoal Life to which the souls ascend. —Plato. 

« Compare the mmbns of Apollo, the Seven Rays of Dionysus, and the Therapente 
** glory." The laS and SabaOth is Dionysus, whose sacred number is seren, who pre- 
sides over the orbits of the 7 planets. 

* to heaven. 

* JuUan, V. p. 172. 

^ the glorious Adonis- Angel, Aden Ai. 

* Saviour Angel, Great Archangel, the Adonis-angel, or Audonai-angeL 
!• Sibylline Books. Gallaeus, I. 827, 888, 889, 628, 651. 

" Movers, p. 889; Mnnk, Palestine, p. 683 ; Nork, Rabbin. Wtfrterbuch, II. 165, 
169, 157, 172. He is the Phoenician Arohal, Archaleus, ibid. II. 165. 
" Bodenschats, IL 191. 
" Irenaeus, L xii.; Rev. L 16, 18 ; rix. 13. 
^* Aeschylus, ChoSphorae, 1 ; Diodoms, Y. 841. 

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viour of the world,^ Hermes was the Great Angel of the Sa- 
bians. The Angel Hermes was sent by Dios. — ^Hesiod, Frag- 
ment, I. 1. Hermes, that is, the Logos (Word). — ^Plutwch, de 
Iside, 54. For Hermes is the Logos. — Hippolytus, p. 144. The 
Logos of Grod is his Son (as we have said) and he is called 
Angel and Apostle. — Justin, Apologia, II. p. 160 (whether Jus- 
tin wrote it or not). This Wisdom or Logos is the Oldest 
Angel, the Man in the image, according to Philo. — Philo 
Judaeus, ed Paris, 1562, pp. 222, 231, 232 ; Gen. i. 26; the Sohar, 
I. f ol. 77, col. 1 ; V. f ol. 137, col. 4. The Angel Gabriel came in 
the Memra (the Word) from the L6rd's face. — Jerusalem Tar- 
gum to Gen. xxxi. 24. The King, the Messiah goes out from 
the Garden of Eden.^ The Messiah dwells in the 5th house in 
the Garden of Eden. — Beresith Kabba to Gen. ii. 9. The King 
himself is the innermost Light of all Lights. — Rosenroth Kab- 
bala Deuudata, Sohar, II. fol. 3, col. 3 ; Aidra Suta, ix. Tour 
life is hidden with the Messiah in the God. — Colossians, iii. 3. 
The Sohar (Aidra Habba, x. Aidra Suta, ii. v. Rosenroth) 
states that the Most Sacred Ancient is hidden and concealed, 
that the Spirit of Life will issue from the Hidden Brain of the 
Ancient, be poured out on the King Messiah, and that men 
will know wisdom in the time of the Messiah. By the inter- 
mediation of the Father and Mother, the spirit of the Ancient 
of the Ancient descends on the Microprosopus. The Ancient 
most sacred is hidden and concealed and the supernal wisdom 
hidden in that Cranium is found again and not found. — Kab- 
bala Denudata. See Dunlap, Sod, II. 70. The first Way is 
the Secret Wisdom (the Highest Crown) and is the primitive 
Light of the Intelligence, and is the first Power whose ex- 
istence no creature can conceive.^ Colossians, iv. 3 speaks of 
the Mystery of the Messiah.^ 

At the end of Tohu and Bohu * and the conflux of waters, 
lahoh will be exalted (id est, in the time of the Messiah). — Sifra 
di Xeniutha, I. § 24 (Kabbala Denudata, II. p. 348). The Mes- 
siah is named lahoh, — Eisenmenger, Entdektes Judenthum, I. 

» Julian, Oratio VIL p. 220. 

» Sohar, IL fol. 11. SSd, II. 1, 181. 

> Meyer^s Jezira, p. 1. Ck>mpare Proverbs, Tiii 1. Hebrew text. 

^ ColoBsians, i 26 declares it the Mystery which has been kept hidden from ages 
and generations ; Romans, xvi 25 calls it a Mystery kept secret in Aionian times ; Col- 
ossians, iiL 3, 4, mentions the Christos concealed in the God. This is all gnosis ! 

6 The earth was tohu and boho, and darkness on the faces of the deep. — Qen. i 2. 


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216, 217. Meiatron, his name is as the name of his Lord, having 
been created after his image, his similitude. — Sohar, III. fol. 
9L In Judaism the Shekinah was the spirit, and the Messiah 
was the spirit and the Shekinah. — Matthew xvi. 27. The spirit 
is the Gkxi. — John, iv. 24. Bal was represented with a dove's 
wings and tail ; Matthew, iiL 16 sees this emblem of the spirit. 
In the Ascension of Isaiah (a Jewish Apokruphon, of about the 
middle of the 2nd century) the prophet ascends into each of 
the seven heavens on the throne of each of five finding an 
Angel ; but in the sixth heaven there was no throne ; all 
praised the Father, the Son and the * Holy Spirit.' These 
three were in the Seventh Heaven. In the * prayer of loseph,' 
another apocryphum (mentioned in Origen, philocalia, cap. 
xxiii. and in Bonsch, Jubilees, p. 332), it is shown that Spirits^ 
which had a great advantage over men and were far better 
than the other souls, descended from the position of an angel 
into the human nature. And among these Spirits the Jewish 
Patriarchs were numbered, for laqab (Jacob) boasted that he 
prior to his life on earth stood before the throne of God and 
was called in heaven Israel, as the " man who sees God.'' Thus 
the Patriarchs were Angels that had become flesh. Gfrorer to 
whom we are indebted for this shrewd deduction adds : " Only 
the Messias-Adam was considered a higher nature than them, 
consequently the descent into this world was for him still 
greater. Therefore (bei ihm, with him) intermediate members 
were assumed. Such are really found in the Ascension of 
Isaiah." When the time came for the Son to go down into the 
world the Father says to him (10. 7) : Descend through all the 
heavens to the firmament, into the world of matter (Korper- 
welt) to the Hells angel, who indeed is liable to the Judgment 
but not yet Judged. Not all Spirits know thy rank, that thou 
dost dwell with me above the seven heavens and art set over 
their angels. And with heavenly voice I will call up the 
angel-hosts, and thou wilt assume the office of Judge and de- 
clare condemnation against the Principalities and angels of 
the world of matter, and then enter upon the government of 
the world. For those Spirits had lied when they boasted 
" Besides us is no God." — Hundert und ein Frage, p. 2. Com- 
pare the Eebel Angels of Jewish (and Persian) gnosis and the 
Angels and Powers of the Simonian, Menandrian, Kerinthian, 
Earpokratian, Basilidian, and Yalentinian gndsis (Irenaeus, I. 


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XX.-XXV.), Colossians, i. 16, and the Book of Enoch. This was 
not the only period of Semite speculation! According to 
Gfrorer, two main theories underlie this extract from the As- 
cension of Isaiah. It was intended to show, first, that the 
Heavenly Messiah descended gradually from one stage to an- 
other into the finite ; second, to make it conceivable how all 
powers of the world and of hell kept sq quiet when in the per- 
son of lesua such a terrible visitor for the wicked came down 
on the earth. It is further told how the Son descended from 
one heaven to another and how, with the exception of the first 
migration, he there changed form. In continuation is related 
how the Lord, through an eighth change into the bosom of the 
Maria became man. Many details therein agree with the ac- 
count of the first evangelist, several others not,* whence we 
have to infer that this composition was made at a time when 
besides the evangelical stories others independent of them were 
in circulation. — Hundert und ein Frage, p. 2. Luke, i. 1, says 
that many had written before he wrote, regarding their com- 
mon belief. Consequently we must conclude that besides the 
Gospel according to the Hebrews, the Ascension of Isaiah 
and the Apokal3rpse quite a number of other Christian works 
had been circulated prior to the appearance of the 4 Gospels. 
The followers of Satuminus were akin to the Nazorene gnosis, 
denouncing marriage as the work of Satan. Not only must 
they have taken offence at the birth of a Messiah ^ as an actual 
son of a man named Joseph, but they naturally would prefer 
the generations of the heavens to the generations of mankind. 

1 The Meniah shall be revealed in the land Galilee, and a certain Star appearing in 
the eastern quarter will swallow np Seven Stars in the northern quarter.— The Sohar, 
I. fol. 119 ; Bertholdt, 56. The Messiah appears in Gal lice. —Matthew, iil 13 ; ir. 18. 
The Seven Stars— Rev. L 15. This is the Messiah SabaOth— a Chaldean doctrine— Seven 
Lamps of fire, Seven Spirits, Seven Angela about the throne of the Logos.— Rev. iv. 5. 

> The word Mashicha appears in the Sulzbach ed. Sohar, I. fol. 75, col 291. Mes- 
siah bears the sins of Israel.— LUkut Rubeni. fol. 80 d. in Nork, Real-Wdrterbuch, 
IIL p. 152. The Jews led the way, and the Christians interpret the same Messianic 
passages that the Jews did, in interpretilig the Hebrew Bible. But many passages in 
the Hebrew Bible were written in a Messianic sense at first. Who ia responsible for 
that ? The priests and temple scribes had possession of the Scriptures before Jerusa- 
lem's fall. The Apokalypse shows that the Jewish doctrine of the Seven Lamps on 
the Golden Candlestick in the Holy of holies was the Chaldean Unspoken Mystery con- 
cerning the Grod with Seven Ra3r8, through whom they raised up the souls.— Julian, v. 
p. 172. This is the Christos of the Resurrection of souls. The Chaldean God lao, 
often called Saba&th, is over the Seven Orbits, the Creator.— Lydus, de mensibua, iv. 
38, 74. This is the Heptaktis, the Messiah of the Jewish Sohar. 


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^ It is perfectly clear, then, that such people could never have 
agreed with the Ebionites that Joseph was the actual father of 
lesu. This accounts for the spirital incarnation described in 
Matthew, i. 18, iii. 16 ; Luke, i. 35, and for the expression ' the 
Son of the Man ' applied in the Greek (Jospels, while Daniel 
calls the Jewish Messiah ' one like a Son of Man.' Before 
Creation the Gbd was alone, without form, without likeness 
with anything else. But after he had created the form of 
the Heavenly Man (Adam Olah) he made use of it as of a 
vehicle, to descend. The Highest Cause is called " Without 
End."— Franck, die Kabbala, 126, 136, ed. Gelinek. And 
Daniel said that to the Ancient of Days one like a son of 
man (*the Son of the Man,' says Matthew) was brought, 
and there was given him dominion and glory and a king- 
dom, that all people and nations and tongues should serve 
him — an everlasting dominion which shall not pass away. 
Daniel knew the Kabalah of Babylon ! So did the Book Sohar. 
The Christian dogmas offer numerous relations with the sys- 
tem of the Eabbalists.^ This is the " detection of the mystery 
of the God, Father of Messiah (the King) in whom all the 
treasures of the Sophia (Wisdom) and gnosis are concealed." ^ 
The Elect and Concealed one existed in His presence before 
the world was created.— Henoch, xlviii. 6. The Mystery that 
from the beginning has been hid in Gk)d. — Ephesians, iii. 9. 
The Mystery hidden from the ages and the generations, but 
now manifested to his Saints.^ For through him (the Son in 
whom we have the redemption, the forgiveness of sins) all 
things were created in the heavens and upon the earth. — Co- 
lossians, i. 13, 14, 16. This is the Messiah of the Eabalah of 
the Jews. The earliest Judaism of the Kabalah held that the 
Messiah takes on himself (as Saviour Angel) the sins of the 
world. John, i. 29, takes up this idea, and repeats, that as 
Lamb of the God the Son carries away the sins of the world. 
It is the Tradition of the Kabalah repeated in Christianism. 
The Slain Lamb with 7 horns and 7 eyes. — ^Eev. v. 6. Gnosti- 
cism has borrowed much from the traditions and theories con- 
tained in the Sohar.^ The Sohar is the fruit of many centuries 

> Monk, Palestine, 567. 

* Goloss. ii 3, 8. 
«i. 2ft. 

* A. Fr&nokf die Kabbala, Gelinek*s Uebersetzung, p. 82. 

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and many generations of Kabalists. Moreover it makes no re- 
ference to the Christian religion.^ Simeon ben lochai himself 
says that he had predecessors in the Kabalah. — The Idra 
Rabba, ad initium. He calls Rabbi Akiba his teacher. — Schii- 
rer, I. 570. R. Akiba lived, a.d. 100-130.— ibid. I. 93. 

Isaiah, xxix. 19 refers to the original Ebionites and Nazori- 
ans in Idumea. Tertullian's order of succession was probably 
accepted from Irenaeus, literally, in the cases of Karpokrates, 
Kerinthns, and the Ebionim. Both make the same charges 
about all three in regard to their Opinions (Haeresies) respect- 
ing the human and natural birth of lesu, and both writers say 
little of the three ; but tTiat little shows that while Kerinthus 
(who in many particulars agreed with Karpokrates) was in 
one respect differently minded regarding the Creation of the 
world, all three were clearly strict Judaizers, observing the 
Jewish Law. As the gndstic Jews, Samaritans, and Transjor- 
dan Ebionites were often further scattered than Antioch, Pella 
and Moab it is not surprising that Tertullian thought the Only 
Difference between Kerinthus and the Ebionites worthy of 
mention ; but, since we are trying to discover if the notion, 
that there was a man named lesua (a Jew) who delivered the 
sermons and Essene admonitions foimd in Matthew's Gk)spel, 
is not as late as a.d. 135-145, it is desirable to note the, rela- 
tions between Kerinthus and the original Ebionim beyond the 
Jordan, paying rather slight regard to the opinions of such 
Ebionites (whether converted or not) that Irenaeus and Tertul- 
lian were lucky enough to find and describe seventy-five years 
after Kerinthus who is dated about 115 by ' Antiqua Mater.' 
The placing of the Ebionites next in order after Kerinthus 
tends to put them one hundred years, or more, later than their* 
true date, because the Ebionites of Irenaeus I. xxvi., are as 
late as a.d. 139-185, perhaps later. The Ebionites were Juda- 
ist gnostics adhering to the Law of Moses (Matthew, i. 1, 2 ; 
xii. 3 ; xvii. 3, 4 ; xxiii. 3 ; Mark, vii. 10 ; Luke, ix. 33 ; xvi. 31 ; 
John, V. 45) differing from Kerinthus in the belief in El (their 
God). Otherwise, the gnostic Kerinthus was very much like 
them, except about the Christos ; as they used only the Gos- 
pel of Matthew in the time of Irenaeus. 

When we light upon so many Supreme Deities as we find 
in the Levant from Egypt to Persia, India and China, is not 

Mbid. 94, 05. 


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the abstraction the unit (TO *0N) by the philosophers of the 
orient as much a piece of gnosis as the rest ? It is the Ayin 
(Nil) of the Kabalist religious philosophy. And the same with 
the '' das Brahman/' unit of the Brahmans. Then we find the 
Monad from the unit ; then comes the Babylonian doctrine of 
the " Father " and the " Son."— Kenrick, Egypt, I. 303; Cory, 
Ano. Fragm., 253, 254; Proclus in Tim. 242. Consider the 
doctrine of One God, found by Pierret to have existed in 
Egypt, consider the doctrine of the resurrection implied in 
the narrative of Osiris, regard with wonder the divine godlike 
statue of Sarapis in all its majesty ; and the conclusion is nigh 
that mankind in the orient has known how to create its own 
abstractions and manufacture its Gods, Powers, Thrones, Lords, 
its Angels, and all the rest of its gnosis. The Ebionites did 
not regard the Christos as begotten from the Gk>d, but as cre- 
ated superior to the Archangels, greater than they, and Lord 
of the Angels. — Epiphanius, xxx. 16. The angels came to and 
served him. — ^Matth. iv. 11. The Ebionites of St. Matthew (the 
lessaians) did not forbid wine ; but rejected Paulinism. — ^Matth. 
vi. 25 ; X. 5, 6. 

The earlier Ebionites of the first century and those of the 
time of Epiphanius agreed with the idea of Kerinthus as to the 
Christos ; but when the idea was given out that lesu and the 
Christos were one (Acts, ix. 5), it brought about a disagree- 
ment with more than Kerinthus. To regard the Jewish Mes- 
siah as a man, a son of Dauid, agrees with what the Hebrew 
Bible said. Isaiah, Ixiii. 8, speaks of a Salvator, Exodus, iii. 
2, 4, 14, and Qenesis, xxxi. 11, 13, mention the Angel of the 
Lord as God ; but Isaiah, Ixiii. 9, speaks of ' the Angel of His 
presence ' as the Saviour, and Judnism had its '' Angel lesua " 
the Saviour Angel. Then Satuminus, Karpokrates, the 
Nazoria and the Ebionites beyond Jordan and in Idumea could 
all believe in an Angel lesua, the Logos or Oldest Angel, the 
"Kingly Power " (of Philo) and '* the Merciful Power'' of the 
Supreme Being. The Jews that followed the Hebrew Bible 
were gnostics, and so were the Essenes, lessaioi, and Nazoria 
beyond the Jordan. Tertullian holds out Hebion (the Ebionira, 
Hebioni) as considering lesu a mere man, which some of the 
later Ebionites might have said in the time of Irenaeus in re- 
ply to their opponents who called him " the Son of the God ; " 
but, whether as Jews or Judaizers, they would not have called 


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'the Angel lesua' a mere man. According to Tertullian, 
Satuminus held that an Unborn (innascible) Power abode in 
the boxmdless realms on high, but that the angels made the 
world below. Satuminus, in connection with the doctrine of 
the resurrection of the dead, undoubtedly claimed the presence 
angel as a Salvator, as Tertullian calls the presence angel (of 
Isaiah, Ixiii. 8, 9) the Christos (the Jewish Messiah). But to an 
Esse^e, an Ebionite, or a Nazarian lessaian no human nature 
could be associated with the Angel lesua, the Salvator of the 
souls of the deceased; consequently such persons would not 
believe in the humanity ascribed to the Salvator after Pauline 
Epistles appeared. St. Paul not only wrote against the Law 
given through Moses, but spoke of a * Crucified Messiah,' which 
would naturally be as distasteful to the transjordan Ebionites 
as the crucifixion of Philo's Logos or the Archangel Gabriel ; 
as they were not beings of flesh and therefore could not be 
crucified. Karpokrates in Antioch held that there was a 
Highest Power, the Chief of the Powers above. So far, there 
is no denying a resemblance between his doctrine of the Pow- 
ers and that of Simon Magus, Menander and Satuminus. 
Satuminus, Karpokrates, Kerinthus (and perhaps the peoples 
in Edom and beyond Jordan), maintained that the angels 
created the world of mankind. The story was afloat that some 
of the angels had descended to marry women. — Gen. vi. 2. 
Kerinthus held that the Jewish Law was given by angels, and 
described the God of the Jews as an Angel. At all events, 
Jerusalem had been destroyed ! I Tertullian represents the 
Ebionites in the Desert as holding themselves bound by the 
Law of Moses, and the Gospels describe an adherence to this 
Law. The New Testament three earliest Gospels agree with 
the Ebionites (of Irenaeus, I. xxvi. ; the blessed Poor) in claim- 
ing that the world was made by the God, not by the Angels. 
We find the entire lessaian, Nazorian, and Ebionite disposition 
made clear in Matthew's Gospel and the Book of the Acts of 
the Apostles. Their disposition was clearly Essene. The 
Angel lesua of Moses or Isaiah was a Salvator, perhaps a 
Messiah, but not a man; although Philo's Logos perhaps. 
Irenaeus and Tertullian wrote at the end of the Second Cen- 
tury, after Justin Martyr's works, the Pauline epistles, and the 
Four Gospels had already appeared. Of course they sided 
with Justin Martyr, St. Paul, and the Four Gospels rather 


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than with the Gnostic Nazorenes, Ebionites, the Law of Moses, 
Satuminus, ELarpokrates, Kerinthus, or the Markionites. But 
Tertullian failed to see that in identifying the Jewish Messiah 
with the Saviour Angel (the Christos of Antioch) he is really 
sustaining the Jewish doctrine of the Angel lesua and the 
primitive Ebionite belief. Tertullian charges that a 7nan, 
whom he considers Philo's Logos, Salvator, and a human being 
all a