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Eclating to the Contest for Liberty, Chiefly in South Carolina, 
IN 1781 AND 1782, 


BY R. W. GIBBES, M. D., 








Gentlemen, The names of G-ADSDEN, PICKENS, HAMPTON and 
BUTLER are intimately and most justly associated with those of 
SUMTER and of MARION. They equally deserve to be preserved 
in the memory of every American. I trust that in these papers, 
when completed, the record will show them where they should 
be, embalmed in the History of South Carolina. May the future 
be as much honored by them as the past and the present ! 
Respectfully yours, 



When I commenced the publication of this collection of papers, 
my intention was to confine it to the series of letters collected and 
arranged by Gen. Peter Horry. They have been in the hands of 
"\Veems, James and Simms, who have each written a Life of Mar 
ion, but only a few of them have been published. As they contain 
much of the material of which the history of that day is construc 
ted. I determined to print them for reference. After publishing a 
few forms, upon the suggestion of several friends, I concluded to 
extend the publication so as to embrace other papers of interest 
scattered through scarce volumes, with such additional manuscript 
letters as I had and might procure from my friends. I have, there 
fore, selected a few letters from TARLETON S MEMOIRS, now a rare 
so, from Johnson s Life of Greene, Lee s Memoirs and Lee s Cam 
paign of 1781, I have also been aided by my friends Hon. A. P. 
Butler, Col. F. W. Pickens, Col. W. Hampton, Col. J. Gadsden, 
Rev. J. M. Pringle, Col. J. Ferguson and Hon. J. B. O Neall, who 
have famished me with papers which will be used in other vol 
umes. I expected to find valuable documents in the State De 
partment, but relating to the Campaign of 1781 and 1782 there are 
scarcely a dozen letters, and few of them important. I have copied 
those most interesting. 

As soon as I find a sufficient interest in this volume, I will put 
to press a second. 

1 have in my possession a valuable collection of the papers of 
the Council of Safety of 1775 and 1776, containing Gen. R. Rich 
ardson s reports of the Snow Camp Expedition, with AndX 
W" 1 Son s of his Indian expedition with the original papers of 
W. H. Drayton and Rev. Wm. Tennent in their tour, through the 
upper districts of the State, explaining the position and views of 


the Whigs of that day. These, with many other valuable papers, 
will also be given in a third volume, if a sufficient number of 
copies is disposed of to pay the expense of publieation. 

I earnestly solicit the aid of my friends in carrying out any effort 
to assist in preserving the materials for the Documentary History 
of the Revolution in South Carolina. Many friends have promised 
to send me documents. I request them not to delay doing so. 


From Tarleton s Memoirs, No s. 90, 97, 111, 112, 156 

11 Ramsay s Revolution, No s. 92, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137 

" Lee s Campaign of 1781, No s. 70, 81, 82, 247, 262 

" Lee s Memoirs, No s, 89, 99, 114, ]25, 126 

" Johnson s Life of Greene,..., ,,... ......,. ....No s. 128, 160 


No. PAGE. 

1. Gen. B. Lincoln, to Col. F. Marion, 1 

2. A. Dellient to Col. F. Marion, 2 

General Orders, 2 

3. Gen. Wm. Moultrie to Lt. Col. F. Marion, 2 

4. Gen. B. Lincoln to Col. F. Marion, 3 

5. Gen. B. Lincoln to Lt. Col. Marion, 4 

6. Gen. B. Lincoln to Lt. Col. Marion, 4 

7. Gen. B. Lincoln to Lt. Col. Marion, 5 

8. Gen. B. Lincoln to Col. Marion, 6 

9. Gen. B. Lincoln to Col. Marion, 6 

10. Col. Marion to Gen. Prevost, 7 

11. Col. Marion to Capt. De Treville, 7 

12. Gen. B, Lincoln to Lt. Col. Marion, 7 

13. Brigade Major Barrow to Lt. Col. Marion, 8 

14. Gen. Prevost to Lt. Col. Fr s Marion, 9 

15. Lieut. W. Jackson to Lt. Col. Marion, 9 

16. Gen. Lincoln to Lieut. Col. Marion, 9 

17. Maj. E. M. Hyrne to Lt. Col. Peter Horry, 10 

18. Maj. E. M. Hyrne to Lt. Col. Peter Horry, 10 

19. Col. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 11 

20. Ccl. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 11 

21. Gov. Rutledge to Lt. Col. P. Horry, 12 

22. Wm. Christian to Col. W. Preston, (R. W. G.) 13 

23. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 15 

24. Col. George Campbell to Gen. Marion, 15 

25. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 16 

26. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 16 

27. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 17 

viii INDEX. 

No. PAGE. 

28. Gen. Huger to Gen. Marion, 18 

29. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 19 

30. Gen. Greene to Col. Wm. Campbell, (R. W. G.) 19 

31. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 20 

32. Gen. Greene to Col. Wm. Campbell, (R. W. G.) 21 

33. Armstrong to Col. W. Preston, (R. W. G.) 21 

34. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 22 

35. Col. Wm. Preston to Col. Wm. Campbell, (R. W. G.). 22 

36. Gen. Summer to Gen. Marion, 23 

37. Capt. J. Saunders to Gen. Marion, , 24 

38. Gen. Marion to Capt. Saunders, 38 

39. Capt. Saunders to Gen. Marion, 25 

40. Gen. Greene to Col. Wm. Preston, (R. W. G.) 25 

41. Capt. Saunders to Gen. Marion, 26 

42. Gen. Marion to Capt. Saunders, 26 

43. Col. W. Balfour to Gen. Marion, 27 

44. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 27 

45. Capt. J. Saunders to Lt. Col. Irwin 28 

46. Col. Watson to Gen. Marion, 29 

47. Gen. Marion to Lt. Col. Balfour, 30 

48. Gen. Marion to Col. Watson, 30 

49. Gen. Marion to Capt. Saunders, 31 

50. R. to Lt. Col. Watson, 31 

51. Gov. J. Rutledge tc Gen. Marion, 32 

52. Col. Watson to Gen. Marion, 33 

53. Col. Balfour to Capt. Saunders, 35 

Capt. John Postell s Parole, 36 

54. Col. Balfour to Gen. Marion, 36 

55. Col. Balfour to Col. Cassels, 37 

56. Col. Watson to Gen. Marion, 38 

57. Gen. Marion to Col. Watson, 38 

58. Col. Watson to Gen. Marion, 39 

59. Col. Watson to Gen. Marion, 40 

Gen. Marion s pass to Lieut. Torianno, 41 

60. Col. Lee to Col. W. Campbell, (R. W. G.) 41 

61. Col. Balfour to G-en. Marion, 42 

62. Capt. J. Saunders to Gen. Marion, 42 

INDEX. ix 

No. PAGE. 

63. E. Giles to Gov. R. Howley, (R. W. G.) 43 

64. Gen. Surnter to Gen. Marion, 44 

65. Col. Watson to Capt. Saunders, 47 

66. Col. R. Hampton to Maj. J. Hampton, (.R W. G.). . . . 47 

67. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 48 

68. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 49 

69. Col. Harden to Gen. Marion, 49 

70. Gen. Greene to Col. H. Lee, (Lee s Campaign,) 51 

71. Gen, Moultrie to Gen. Marion, 52 

02. Col. Kolb to Capt. Snipes, 52 

73. Capt. Snipes to Col. Kolb, 53 

74. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 53 

75. Col. Harden to Gen. Marion, 53 

76. Col. Kolb to Gen. Marion, 55 

77. Gen. Marion to Gen. Greene, 57 

Articles of Capitulation at Fort Watson, 58 

78. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 58 

79. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 60 

SO. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 60 

81. Gen. Greene to Col. H. Lee, (Lee s Campaign,) 61 

82. Gen, Greene to Col. H. Lee, 63 

83. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 64 

84. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 66 

8-5. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 66 

86. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 67 

87. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 67 

88. Maj. Pendleton, A. D. C., to Gen. Marion, 69 

89. Lord Rawdon to Lieut Col. Lee, 70 

90. Gen. Greene to S. Huntington, (Tarlton,) 70 

91. II. Barry to Wells & Son, 72 

92. N. Balfour to Prisoners, 72 

93. Maj. Burnet, A. D. C., to Gen. Marion, 74 

94. Lt. Col. S. Moore and Maj. Barnwell to N. Balfour,.. . 74 

95. Lt. Col. S. Moore and Maj. Barnwell to Gen. Greene,. . 74 
Prisoners on board the Torbay, , 75 

" on board the Packhorse, 76 

96. Stephen Moore and others to Lieut. Col. Balfour, 76 


No. PAGE. 

97. Lord Rawdon to Earl Cornwallis, 77 

98. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 80 

99. Earl Cornwallis to Sir H. Clinton, 81 

100. to 111. Letters relating to the Capitulation of Fort 

Cornwallis, 83 to 88 

Lord Rawdon and Col. Balfour s Proclamation. 88 

111. Lord Rawdon to Lt. Gen. Cornwallis, 89 

112. Jord Rawdon to Sir H. Clinton, 90 

113. Gen. Pickens to Gen. Greene, 91 

114. Earl Cornwallis to Lt. Col. Tarleton, 92 

115. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 93 

116. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 94 

117. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, . , 94 

118. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 95 

119. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 95 

120. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 96 

121. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 97 

122. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion, 97 

Agreement between Col. P. Horry and Maj. Ganey,. . . 98 

Treaty between Gen. Marion and Maj. Ganey, 98 

123. Marquis La Fayette to officers, 99 

124. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 100 

125. Gen. Greene to Lt. Col. Lee, , 101 

126. Gen. Greene to Lt. Col. Lee, 102 

127. to Gen. Marion, 103 

128. Adj t. Gen. Williams to Maj. Pendleton. 105 

129. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 106 

130. S. McDowall to Col. W. Campbell, 107 

131. Col. W. Washington to Col. R. Hampton, 108 

132. Maj. C. Eraser to Mr. Hayne, 108 

133. Maj. C. Fraser to Mr. Hayne, 109 

134." Maj. C. Fraser to Mr. Hayne, 109 

135. I. Hayne to Lord Rawdon and Col. Balfour, 109 

136. Answer of Lord Rawdon and Col. Balfour, Ill 

137. Ladies petition for Col. Isaac Hayne, 112 

Consultation on the case of Col. Hayne, (Ramsay s Revo 
lution.) 114 

INDEX. xi 

No. PAGE. 

Proclamation by Gen. Greene, 115 

Dr. Olyphant on treatment of prisoners, (Ramsay s Revo 
lution,) 116 

Dr. Fayssoux to Dr. Ilamsay, (Ramsay s Revolution,). . 118 

138. Col. Wm. Campbell to Sam l McDonald, 122 

General Exchange. 123 

Orders by Gen. Marion, 123 

139. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 123 

140. Gen. Wayne to Gen. W. Campbell, 124 

141. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 124 

142. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 125 

143. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 126 

144. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 126 

145. Col. Balfour to Gen, Marion, 128 

146. The Officers of the Army to Gen. Greene, 128 

147. Major Ganey to Gen. Marion, 130 

148. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 130 

149. Gov. Rutledge to Gen, Marion, 131 

150. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 132 

15 1 . Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 132 

152. Col. Balfour to Gen. Greene, 133 

153. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 134 

154. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 135 

155. Maj. Ganey to Gen. Marion, 135 

156. Lt. Col. Stewart to Earl Cornwallis, 136 

157. Wm. Swinton to Gen. Marion, 140 

158. Wm. Snow to Mr. Rhodes, 140 

159. Gen. Greene to the President of Congress, 141 

160. Battle of Eutaw. (From Johnson s Greene,) 144 

161. Capt. Wrn. Richardson to Gen. Marion, _ 158 

162. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 159 

163. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 160 

164. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 160 

165. Maj. Pierce to Gen. Marion, 161 

166. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 162 

167. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, , 163 

Proclamation of Governor Rutledge, ^ ...... 165 

xii INDEX. 

No. PAGE, 

168. Gov. Rutledge to Col. R. Hampton, 166 

169. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 166 

170. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 167 

171. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 168 

172. Gen. Greene to Col. Balfour, 169 

173. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 170 

174. Maj. J. Jarnes to Gen. Marion. 170 

175. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 171 

176. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 17:2 

177. Gov. Rutledge to Col. P. Horry, 173 

178. Gov. Rutlenge to Gen. Marion, 173 

179. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 175 

Proclamation of Gov. Rutledge, I / 5 

180. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 178 

181. Col. P. Horry to Gen. Marion, 181 

182. M. Myers to Gen. Marion, 182 

183. W. Swinton to Gen. Marion, , 183 

184. Gov. Rutledge to Col. P. Horry, 181 

185. Gov. Rutledge to Col. P. Horry, 184 

186. Gov, Rutledge to Gen. Marion, .1 85 

187. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 187 

188. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 188 

189. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 189 

190. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 189 

191. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 1.90 

192. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 190 

193. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 190 

194. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 192 

195. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, , 193 

196. Gen. Marion to Col. Maham, 194 

197. Gov. Rutledge to Col. P. Horry,. . 194 

198. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 195 

199. Gov. Rutleclge to Gen. Marion, 196 

200. Gov. Rutledge to Col. P. Horry, 198 

Thanks of Congress, 199 

201. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 199 

202. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 200 

INDEX. xiii 

No. P4GE. 

203. Col. P. Horry to Gov. Rutledge, 200 

204. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 203 

205. Gov. Rutledg-e to Col. P. Horry. 204 

206. Col. P. Horry to Gen. Greene, 204 

207. Maj. D. Hart to Col. R. Hampton, 205 

208. Gov. Rutledge to Col. P. Horry, 206 

209. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 206 

210. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 207 

211. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 208 

212. D. Doyle, (British,) to Gen. Marion, 208 

213. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 209 

214. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 210 

215. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 211 

Gen. Washington to Gen, Greene, 213 

216. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 212 

217. J. Doyle, (British,) to Gen. Marion, 213 

218. Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 213 

219. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 214 

220. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 215 

221. II. Hampton to Capt W. Butler, 216 

222. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 217 

223. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 218 

224. Lieut. P. Poissin to Gen. Marion, 219 

225. Capt. T. Shubrick to Gen. Marion, 220 

226. Gen. Barnweli to Gen. Marion, 220 

227. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 221 

228. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry 222 

229. Gen. Greene to Gen. Garion. 223 

230. Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion, 223 

231. G-en. Greene to Gen. Marion, 224 

232. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 225 

233. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 225 

234. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 226 

235. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 227 

236. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 228 

237. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 228 

238. Gen. Greene to Gen, Marion, _ 229 

xiv INDEX. 

No^ PAGE, 

239. Col. Laurens to Col. Maham, 231 

240. Gen. Marion to Ccl. P. Horry, 231 

Governor Rutledge s Message, ? 233 

241. Col. P. Horry to Col. Maham, - 238 

242. Col. Maham to Col. P. Horry, 238 

243. Col. Maham to Col. P. Horry, 239 

244. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 239 

245. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 340 

246. John Nicholson to Gen. Marion. 241 

247. Gen. Greene to Lt. Col. Lee, 242 

248. Gen. Greene to Gov. Rutledge. 243 

249. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 244 

250. Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry, 245 

251. Col. Peter Horry to Gen. Marion, 245 

252. Gen. Greene to Col. Peter Horry, 247 

253. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 248 

254. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 249 

255. Gen. Greene to Gov. Rutledge, 250 

256. Maj. Isaac Harleston to Gen. Marion, 250 

257. Capt. Saunders to Gen. Marion, 251 

258. Gov. Mathews to the Legislature, 251 

259. Gen. Greene to Col. Horry, 251 

260. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry 253 

261. Doughty & Bryan to Gen. Marion, 253 

262. Gen. Greene to Lieut. Col. Lee, 254 

263. Jas. Hammond to Gov. Rutledge, 255 

264. W. Hampton to Gov. Mathews, 257 

265. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 257 

266. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 258 

267. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 258 

268. Gen. Greene to Hugh Rutledge, 259 

269. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 259 

270. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 260 

271. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 260 

272. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 261 

273. Cornet Elholm to Col. P. Horry, 262 

274. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion,. . 263 

INDEX. xv 


No. PAGE. 

275. Col. Laurens to Gen. Marion, 263 

276. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 264 

277. Gov. Burke to Gov. Rutledge, 265 

278. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Korry, 266 

279. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 267 

280. Col. P. Horry to Gen. Marion, 268 

281. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 270 

282. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 270 

283. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 271 

2S4. John Dorsius to Col. P. Horry, 272 

285. Cornet Elholm to Col. P. Horry, 273 

28G. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 274 

287. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 274 

288. Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion, 275 

289. Gen. Greeene to Gen. Marion, 276 

290. Le Roy Hammond to Capt. W.Butler 277 

291. Gen. Marion to Col. Horry 277 

292. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 278 

293. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 279 

294. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 280 

295. Gen, Greene to Col. P. Horry, 280 

29G. Gen. Greene to Col. P. Horry, 281 

297. Edward Walsh to Gen. Marion, 283 

298. Gen. Marion to Col. P. Horry, 284 

299. Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 285 

300. Col. P. Horry to Gen. Marion. 285 

301. Col. P. Horry to Gen. Greene, , 286 

302. From a Secret Correspondent, 287 





Letters and Papers relating to the Contest for Liberty 






f No. l.J Gen. B. Lincoln to Col. Francis Marion. 

CHS TOWN, November llth, 1779. 
Sir : 

You will please to take the earliest opportunity to send to 
Charles Town all the entrenching tools and axes, saving about fifty 
which you may send in camp, as also all such stores in the Qr. Mr. 
Department which will not be necessary for you. 

I am, sir, your most obedt. servant, 


P. S. Please to order the Qr. Mr. to make an exact return of all 
stores which will be left in his hands. 


[No. 2.] A. Dellient (Brigade Major) to Col F. Marion. 

CHS TOWN, November 12th, 1779. 

I am ordered to transmit to you the following orders, by Genl. 
Lincoln, for which, you will be kind enough to acknowledge the 
reception. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obed. humb. servt., 


[Gen. Orders.] 

HEAD QUARTERS, CHS TOWN, Nov. 12th. 1779. 
At a general Court Martial whereof Colo. Horry is president, 
Conrad Bessinger a private soldier in the 3d. South Carola. Bat 
talion was tryed for desertion, being found in arms against the 
United States, found guilty, and sentenced to be hanged by the 
neck until dead. The General approves the sentence, and orders 
it to be executed on Wednesday next, between the hours of 9 and 
11 in the forenoon. At this Court also, Capt. Lieut. Wilson, and 
Lieut. Field, both of the So. Carola. Regimt. of Artillery were 
tryed for absenting themselves from camp and duty on the 25, 26, 
27 and 28 days of October, 1779, without leave, were found guilty, 
but considering the circumstances thereof, and the number of days 
of remaining under arrest adequate to the offence, and recommend 
they be discharged from their arrest, and to return to their duty. 
The General approves the sentence, and the Officers immediately 
return to their duty. The Court Martial is dissolved. 

\No. 3.] Gen. William Moultrie to Lieut. Col. Francis Marion. 

CHS TOWN, Novemr. 13th. 1779. 
Sir : 

I received yours yesterday, and inform you that the command of 
the Continental Troops cannot devolve upon Colo. Garden, no more 
than Colo. Garden can be tried by the Coritinl. Articles, should he 
disobey Genl. Lincoln s orders, or any superior officer s order be 
longing to the Continent, as the State has absolutely refused to put 


their Militia under the Continental Articles, when doing duty with 
us. I will shew you only one absurdity : Can Colo. Garden issue 
an order to try any Continl. Soldiers, when he is not liable to be 
tryed by the same law, these several reasons will inform you are 
not to give up the command to Col. Garden, but that you should 
form separate camp. Remember me to my Brother Tom. 
I am, your most obedt. humbl. servt., 


\ No. 4.] General B. Lincoln to Lieut. Colo. Marion. 

CHS TOWN, Novr. 25th, 1779. 
Sir : 

I have been favoured with your letters of the 14th and 18th. I 
had it not in idea that the command of the Continental Troops was 
given to Colo. Garden, nor had I the least intimation thereof untill 
nformed by you though I have a great opinion of Colo. Garden 
and think him a man of worth, yet I certainly could not stand justi 
fied to the Continent, to give up their troops to the controul of any 
of the United States you therefore did perfectly right in retaining 
the command. Colo. Garden may question the right you have to 
command him, if he is a Senior Colonel, as there is no resolve of 
Congress within my knowledge which annexes any peculiar rank 
to a Commander. In that case, I suppose he will act as command 
ing a different body of men from you, which may be attended with 
ill consequences. If any mischief should arise, the blame must fall 
on those who have refused to place the Militia, while in the field 
and acting with the Continental Troops, under the same laws. In 
consequence of your representation that medicines were wanted in 
camp, I spoke to the Director General for the time being, he says 
they have ever been supplyd from the Hospital when requested 
and he is ready to supply them whenever returns are made. Com 
manders and officers of corps must not grant leave of absence to 
their Surgeons, unless a mate or assistant remain with the Regi 
ment, it is from this improper indulgence you must be persuaded 
that the present inconvenience arises, as there is one Surgeon at 
least belonging to each corps now in camp. If they are absent, 


the most positive orders must be given requiring their immediate 
return and in future no Surgeon is to leave camp without the per 
mission of the commanding officer there. You will please to write 
particularly to your officers to return to camp, and request Colo 
Horry to do the same. If the gentlemen do not return on such 
notice, the line of duty will be plain. I will enquire into the rea 
son why the officers of the Third are absent, I must find some 
officers who belong to another corps to do duty in that Regiment. 
I am with esteem, Sir, your most obdt. servt., 

N. B. I will order in some Rum. 

[No. 5.J Gen l. B. Lincoln to Lieut. Col. Marion. 

CHARLES-TOWN, December 13th, 1779. 

Yours of the ninth is before me; on the contents, would observe 
that, the four prisoners of war apprehended have been duly ex 
changed ; you will, therefore, order them across the Savannah to 
join their corps. As those who wished for a flagg, are inhabitants 
of this State, I referred the matter to the Governour he will not 
permit them to go to Savannah I have called on Mr. Rutledge to 
supply you with a new waggon-master. If Mr. Bond should re 
turn you will arrest and have him tryed. unless he has such excuse 
for his absence as will satisfy you. You will appoint a General 
Court Martial to set immediately for the tryal of all such prisoners 
as shall be brought before it. Shoes are ordered and the troops in 
camp to be first cloathed. You will endeavour to secure the de 
serters, if in camp, mentioned in the enclosed list, and send them 
to town. I am, sir, 

Your most ob dt serv t, 


[No. 6.J Gcrfl B. Lincoln to Lieut. Col. Marion. 

CHARLES-TOWN, December 17th, 1779. 
Sir : 

The prisoners that were here are exchanged I suspect those 
you have with you are exchanged also if you will send the names 


of them I can ascertain the matter. If they are not exchanged I 
will send them across the River upon parole. You will, therefore, 
as much as possible, keep them from obtaining a knowledge of your 
strength or of your designs. It would be well, before they leave 
you, to give out that you expect a large reinforcement this you 
can do, very justly, for one is expected. The first Division,! have 
reason to believe, is now in this Sf.ate. I am informed that we are 
very short of cartridge paper, I wish, however, when you know 
of an opportunity of its coming safely to you, that you would write 
for it, to Col. Dray ton. Six hogshead of rum are now on the road 
for your camp, or, at least, six were ordered, and the wagons are 
gone. You will please instruct your Commissary of Issues to 
apply in time to Mr. Rutledge, Commissary General, for pur 
chase for a further supply, as, probably, you may remain some 
time on the same ground. You will direct the men to be very at 
tentive to their hats, and let them be as comfortable as possible 
there is now cloth enough for jackets and overalls, for all the troops, 
and, I believe, coats also ; but tailors are needed ; you will, there 
fore, please to send down, under the care of a good sergeant, all 
the tailors you have in camp, if they do not exceed twenty. 
I am, sir, 

your most obedient serv t, 


[No. 7.] Gen l. B. Lincoln to Lieut. Col. Marion. 

CHARLES-TOWN, December 20th, 1779. 
Sir : 

I am informed that gangs of cattle and sheep are driving from 
Coosawhatchie to Mr. Wall, at Pendarvis place, near May River, 
probably, with a design, to be sent over to Savannah. You will, 
therefore, be pleased to detach a party of horse to enquire into this 
matter, and, if you find that any unwarrantable practices are carry 
ing on, or any communication with the enemy, you will order those 
persons to be secured and the stock remaining brought off. 
I am, sir, 

Your most obed t serv t, 



P. S. The General delivered this letter to the bearer at half- 
past 1 o clock, Tuesday morn, and gave him 10 dollars, with a pro 
mise that you would give him 10 more, if he reached camp in 48 

[No. 8.] Gen I. B. Lincoln to Col Marion. 

CHARLES-TOWN, December 30th; 1779. 
Sir : 

Congress have resolved that the Regiments of this State should 
be incorporated and formed on the plan ordered by them for the 
Army of the United States, May, 1778, and have left the execution 
of this matter with his Excellency, the Governour of this State and 
the Commanding Officer here ; I have the Governour s permission 
to inform you that he wishes this business may be conducted in a 
manner most agreeable to theline of officers, and that they would point 
to a mode of officering the retained regiments, which would give 
the greatest satisfaction. I am with his Excellency in sentiment, 
and wish you would immediately take the opinion of the officers in 
camp, on the matter, and send it to me by the very first opportu 
nity. I am, sir, 

Your most obed t serv t, 


[No. 9.] General B. Lincoln to Col. Marion. 

CHARLES-TOWN, December 30th, 1779. 
Sir : 

I have received yours of the 23d I would have all the prison 
ers of w r ar sent into the enemy by a flagg and a receipt taken for 
them to be accounted for hereafter. The pains you have taken to 
accommodate the men, is peculiarly agreeable to me. and it gives 
me great pleasure to find that they are well satisfied. Give them a 
gill of Rum daily, and send, before you are out, for more. The 
matter respecting winding off the cattle on the River, destroying the 
rice on Wright s Neck, the negroes plundering. &c., I have shewn 
to the Governourj and expect he will give orders to Col. Garden 


respecting it. Pray send some person, if you can, to Savannah for 
intelligence. Give him, if you can get a good man, a sum which 
shall be worth his while to run risques I need not mention that 
this must be a perfect secret. 

I am, sir, with great esteem, 

Your most obed t serv t, 


[No. 10.] Col. Marion to General Prevost. 

SHELDON, Januy 7th, 1780. 
Sir : 

By order of General Lincoln, I send Capt. DeTreville with a 
flag to deliver you for prisoners of war to be accounted for, please 
give a receipt for them. 

I am, your Excel!, most obt. servt, 


Prisoners : George Hannet, Michael Jones, John McClocking, 
York Volunteers. Saml. Woodward, Brown s. 

[No. 11.] Col Marion to Capt. DeTreville. 

SHELDON, January 7th, 1780. 

Sir : 

You will proceed with a boat and hands from Beaufort to the first 
British post in Georgia with a flagg and deliver George Hannet, 
Michael Jones, John McClocking and Saml. Woodward, and take a 
receipt for them on account, and return as soon as possible. 
I am, your most ob t servt, 


[No. 12.] General B. Lincoln to Lieut. Col. Marion. 

CHARLES-TOWN, Januy llth, 1780. 
Sir : 

Captain O Neill will deliver this. He apprehends that as the 
enemy are dispersed and cantoned at different plantations, some 


parties might be surprised and brought off I think at least of a show 
of horse across the river t circumscribe their limits and prevent 
their receiving those supplies which otherwise they might obtain. 
I am at too great a distance from Camp to give any particular or 
ders in these matters, because the success of movements of this kind 
depends on so many circumstances, and a particular knowledge of 
the state and situation of the enemy, so necessary, and which may 
so materially change from the time I can be informed of it and an 
answer returned. I therefore leave it with you to consult with the 
commanding officers of the horse, and after that, should you, from 
the evidence you may obtain, think the measure advisable, you wi l 
attempt something of the kind and if Capt. O Neill should be 
thought a suitable person to execute it, it will be agreeable to me ; 
however, that must be left with you and the officers also he has an 
idea that with six dragoons from the Legion and the same number 
from Col. Horry s corps, joined with six from Augusta, he could 
effect something pretty I received last night your letter, by which 
I learn that the officers with you differ a little in their opinion 
with respect to the mode of officering the retained regiments, but, 
notwithstanding, I think that matter will be easily settled. You 
mention that the officers do not incline to return until they know 
their fate. This settlement cannot effect the subalterns for there 
are not enough in the whole line to officer the three regiments, to 
remain. They should, therefore, join you immediately. 
I am, dear sir, with great regard, 

Your most obed t serv t, 


[No. 13.] Brigade Major Barrow, (of the British) to Lieut. 
Col Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Savannah, Jan y 12th, 1780. 

I am directed by Major General Prevost to acknowledge the re- 
ce pt of the three prisoners of war mentioned in your letter, and 
that they will be accounted for hereafter. 

I am sir, your humble servant, 



[No. 14] General Prevost to Lieut. Col Fr s. Marion, or Officer 
Commanding the American Troops at Sheldon. 

SAVANNAH, Jan. 19th, 1780. 

Sir : 

I have sent Lieut. Creswell, with a flagg, to deliver two Prison 
ers of war, on account of those you were so good to send me some 
days ago, and for which a certificate of their arrival will be suffi 
cient. I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your most obed t, humble serv t, 


[No. 15.] Lieut. W. Jackson, (Aid DeCampJ to Lieut. 
Col. Marion. 

H D QUART S, CH S TOWN, Jan. 24th, 1780. 
Sir : 

I am requested, by the General, who is himself engaged, to in. 
form you, that a brig, from New York, bound to Georgia, was de 
coyed into the harbour last evening, by the Eagle Tender. She is 
one of a Fleet of 90 odd sail, which left New York about the 26th 
ultimo said to be bound to Georgia, the convoy consisted of 6 
sail of the Line 1.50 & 1.40 with a frigate the brig parted with 
the fleet the beginning of this month, off Cape Hatteras, steering 
S.S W. The General reiterates his request that you will endeavour 
to obtain every possible intelligence from Savannah and give him 
the earliest notice thereof. 

I am, with respect, sir, 

Your very obedient servant, 

W. JACKSON, Aid D Camp. 

[No. 16.J General Lincoln to Lieut. Col. Marion, at Sheldon. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Cha s Town, Jan y 31st, 1780. 
Sir : 

The state of officers is such as to make it necessary that we draw 
our force to a point as much and as soon as possible. No troops 


will be kept in the field, except two hundred Light Infantry and 
the Horse. You will, therefore, please to select from the three 
regiments with you, two hundred of your best men and those who 
are best clothed, and organize them into a corps with proper officers. 
All the remainder, with the baggage of the whole, (saving such as 
is absolutely necessary for Light Troops,) will march immediately 
to this town. You will please take the command of the Lt. Infantry 
untill Lt. Col. Henderson arrive, which I expect will be in a few 
days ; after that I wish to see you as soon as may be in Charles 
Town Cross will deliver you this, a letter to Col. Parker and ano 
ther to Major Jamieson You will send them on towards Augusta 
in the common route by four horsemen. Two will guide Col. 
Parker to this town by the shortest way, and the other two will 
guide Major Jamieson to your camp. 

I am, sir, your most ob t serv t, 


\No. 17. | Major Edmund M. Hyrne (D. Adj t General) to Lieut. 
Col. Peter Horry. 

February llth, 1780. 
Dear Sir : 

You are this day in orders for the third Regiment, and the General 
desires me to inform you that your presence is immediately and ab 
solutely necessary. We have certain intelligence of the British 
Troops having landed and we are just informed that 47 sail are now 
off Stono. I have the honour to be, dear Sir, 
Your most humble serv t, 

EDM D. M. HYRNE, D. A. Gen l. 

[No. 18.] Major E. M. Hyrne, (D. Adj t Gen l) to Lieut. Col. 
Peter Horry. 

February llth, 1780. 
Dear Sir : 

I am sorry to have troubled you with my letter of this date by 
the Express. Col. Henderson, (before the order was issued,) in- 


formed the General he had altered his mind and would accept the 
appointment, and he is accordingly appointed Lt. Col. of the third. 
I am, dr. Sir, your humble serv t, 

ED. M. HYRNE, D. A. Gen l. 

[No. 19.] Col. Marion to Col P. Horry. 

LYNCH S CREEK. 17th Aug., 1780. 
Sir : 

You will take the command of such men as will be collected 
from Capt. Bonneau s, Mitchell s & Benson s Companies, and imme 
diately proceed to Santee from the Lower ferry to Lenud s and de 
stroy all the boats and canoes on the River, and post guards on each 
crossing place and prevent any persons crossing to or from Charles 
Town on either side of the River. You will give all intelligence 
necessary and the number of men you may have collected as early 
as possible. You will procure about twenty-five weight of gun 
powder, and proportionable quantity of Ball or Swan Shot, also flints 
and send up to me, immediately, to the Kings Tree, by an Express. 
I am, with esteem, your ob t servt, 


N. B. You will also take the command of Capt. Lenud s Com 
pany and furnish your men with arms wherever you can find them, 
giving a receipt. 

[No. 20. J Colo. Marion, to Colo. P. Horry. 

LYNCH S CREEK, 27th Augt. 1780. 
Dear Sir : 

I am sorry to acquaint you, General Gates is defeated with great 
loss, he was obliged to retreat to Charlotte, which obliged me also to 
retreat. You will without loss of time retreat what men you get 
to Britton s Neck where I have encamped. It is necessary to 
obtain ammunition, arms and accoulrements and as many good horses 
as you can. also get stores from George Town. You will if pos 
sible send up the River to Britton s Neck. On the 20th instant I 


attacked a Guard of the 63d and Prince of Wales Regt. with a 
number of Tories at the Great Savannah near Nelson s Ferry 
took 22 Regulars and 2 Tories prisoners, and retook 150 Continentals 
of the Maryland Line, 1 waggon and a drum, one Captain arid one 
Subaltern was also captured. Our loss is 1 killed and Captain Ben 
son slightly wounded on the head. I shall be at Britton s Neck 
with the prisoners and Continentals to-morrow morning. I must 
beg you d retreat as immediately as you receive this, for I expect 
the enemy will send their Horse in this part of the country, as 
soon as they can recover a little from the great loss they sustained 
which is said is equal to a defeat. General DeKalb is killed, DuBuy- 
son wounded, the particulars have not come to hand. I beg you d 
procure me two quires of paper, I have not heard a word from 
you since you left me. 

I am, dear Sir, your obt. servt, 


[No. 21.] Governr. Rutlcdge, to Lieut. Colo. P. Horry. 

HILLSBOROUGH, 3d October, 1780. 

I have just now received your favour of the 20th ulto. and am 
very sorry to hear of your indisposition, I hope however you will 
soon be able to join Colo. Marion, and continue your services to our 
country. I did not know, nor can I learn before the bearer sets off 
for Wilmington, whether you are entitled to half pay or half sub- 
sistance since the reduction of the regiment, but I will enquire and 
satisfy you soon about that matter. In the meantime to accommo 
date you as soon as possible, I enclose an order in your favour on 
Mr. Will m Gibbes (who is at Major Harleston s plantation on Cape 
Fear River, or you will hear at that place where he is) for Conti 
nental Loan Office Certificates for Seven Thousand Six Hundred 
and Ninety two Dollars being the amount of your pay, till the Regi 
ment was reduced, and of your accot for supplies to the Army. I 
have no public money in hand, but I apprehend these certificates 
will answer your purpose as well as, or rather better than money, 
as the bearer Mr. Gallbrack tells me, he passed some at Wilming- 


ton, and he supposes you may also for an advance of twenty-five 
per cent I am, sir, your very hum. servt., 


[No. 22.] William Christian to Col. William Preston. 

VAUSSES, January 6th, 1781. 
Dear Sir, 

I am thus far on my way home, but shall remain here to-night; 
and I propose sending Tom Body with this letter to your house to 
morrow, while I take the strait road myself. 

I will enclose ,1000 to be disposed of as the Governor s letter 
will, I suppose, direct. I also enclose c4S for each of the boys, 
your son and Billy Norvell, and 27 for Richard Minat. This 
was allowed Minat for going up to Mahanaim ; I could not get his 
other accounts reconsidered by the Auditory. I took no account, 
when 1 received this small sum for him, and am not sure of the 
exact amount, but it seems to me that it was about d27. I send 
two advertisements signed by the Commissioners for our District, 
I suppose one would be necessary at Sinking Creek. I will leave 
one at Byrn s, and send the others to proper places upwards, and 
down the other side of the River. 

I left Richmond on Friday evening the 29th of last month. The 
gentlemen were endeavouring to rise next day. but I guessed they 
must sit some part of this week. The bill had passed for raising 
3000 Regulars for the war, for three years, or by a draft for 18 
months. The bounty for the "war is to be 12000 dollars in hand, 
and a negro and 300 acres of land at the end of it. For three 
years 80CO dollars, and each Draft is to have 400 dollars. To 
raise the money, a tax of 2 per cent, in specie ; in the new Congress 
money ; or in our other common currency 40 for one ; or Tobacco, at 
<70 per hundred, or in hemp at c300 per hundred ; at the same 
rate of 40 for one upon the late specie assessment is to be collected 
the last day of this present month. I was very uneasy, for fear 
people in this county had assessed high, but I find them moderate. 
Col. Nathaniel Dandridge s 124 negroes averaged 6624.190. His 
land stands at 661600. Mr. Lewis s Mill an I 550 acres of land 
near Stanton <1SO. Billy Bo wyer s house and land, 6 negroes 


and 6 horses <355. Your old place by Stanton 70. Mich. Bow- 
yer s negro wench and child 6630. In Rockbridge they valued 
some higher. The Stone-house land c136, besides the houses. 
Col. Fleming s land <135, buildings d40, Vausses 1173 acres 
d103, mill 6640. In Buckingham, Tom Anderson s land, called 
300 acres low grounds d705, buildings 200, negroes 50, aver 
aged <25. I believe ther counties may be higher, but some are 
lower. [ came by Stanton and made enquiry at Billy Bowyev, 
upon which I was furnished with what I mention in that neighbour 
hood. I mention these things to you, fearing that our county has 
been too honest. 

There is no news of peace. The king dissolved his Parliament 
last summer, and upon the new election the minority were univer 
sally left out. Burke was hissed in the streets of Bristol where he 
had been formerly popular. Gen l Kniphausen sailed with 4000 
Troops the 10th of December from New York, for the south 
ward. It is supposed, they mean to make their best exertions for 
North Carolina and Virginia this year ; we are but weak that course. 

I met your letter, with Griffith s petition, at Mr. Fleming s, and, 
therefore, will enclose it to you again : also Trigg and Sawyer s 
letter, supposing there may be papers in it. 

The Spaniards want the navigation of the Mississippi confirmed 
to them, but our assembly will waive that subject till next spring. 

I spoke to Stephen May, yesterday, to come up immediately and 
take up a dancing school : 1 wish to know if you d take a third of 
his wages upon you. He asks d60, old way, for teaching, 36 days. 
Perhaps you, Mr. Madison and myself can take in some neighbors 
to help out with money. I will send for him to begin at Mahan- 
aim, because it may not answer, some time hence, for family rea 
sons I wish you would desire Young to go up and see me next 
week about the mill. 

Mr Madison keeps making me laugh about divers matters, but 
after all he will join the school Adieu. 

I am your obd t humble serv t, 



[No. 23.] Gen. Greene to the Honourable Brigr. Gen. Marion. 

CAMP ON PEE DEE, Jan. 19, 1781. 

Dear Sir : 

The inclosed letter from Capt. Odingsell came to hand last eve 
ning I have directed him to apply to you for orders on the sub 
ject. I have detached Major Anderson with 1000 Regulars and 100 
Virginia Militia to attack and disperse the Tories at Mr. Amir s 
Mill on Drowning Creek, the party marched yesterday with orders 
to endeavour to surprise them. Perhaps you might be able to 
make some detachment which would contribute to the success of 
the party. By the last accounts, Lt. Col. Tarlton was in motion, 
with about 1000 Troops, towards General Morgan, who is in the 
fork of Broad River. Lord Cornwallis is moving in force to cover 
him. I wish your answer respecting the practicability of surprising 
the party near Nelson s, the route and the force you will be able to 
detach, these enquiries are a matter that requires the greatest secresy. 
I am, dear Sir, your most obd t humble scrv t, 


[No. 24.] Colo. George Campbell (of the British) to General 

Mai ion. 

GEORGE TOWN. 21st Januy, 1781. 
Sir : 

A flagg of truce from you dated the 19th is just come to hand, 
by whom I have received the letters and papers contained in the 
inclosed receipt. 1 have already sent out Thomas Hunter, and 
have every right to expect Mr. Riddle as soon as you are informed 
of Hunter s being out. A Captain Clark of yours fell into my 
hands at the Waccamaw, I have a right to expect he will come and 
surrender himself to me as a prisoner of war ; if he has any spark 
of honour ; he must from my own generosity to him think it a 
duty. The two soldiers of the Queen s Rangers taken at he Wac 
camaw, I should wish were sent in, as they are distant from the 
corps and may be likely not to have the necessary supplies, as if 
their corps were nearer. I have a Godfrey in my hands taken on 


the Waccamaw, whom I will send out for the one and a Griggs for 
the other. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most hum. servt , 

Lieut. Colo. & Commander, George Town. 

P. S. Major Irvin s personal cloathing I think descending a little 
too low to be detained. I acknowledge to have received from you 
some papers of Major Irvin s and eight dollars addressed as follows, 
viz : Lt. Colo. Stephen Moore, Brigdr. General Mclntosh, Colo. 
Wm. Russell, Colo. DeLaumoy, inclosing a bill for four hundred 
dollars, Hon ble Brigr. Gen l. Scott, Brigr. Genl. Moultrie, Mr, Dart 
and Capt. James Frazer. 

f No. 25 ] General Greene to General Marion. 

CAMP. Januy 22d, 1781. 
Sir : 

I have your letter of the 18th containing an account of the 
several little skirmishes between your people and the enemy, which 
were clever and do them much honour, I am sorry that so few 
horses fit for service are to be had in your quarters, as we are in 
great want. Get as many as you can and let us have fifteen or 
twenty sent to camp without loss of time they being wanted for 
immediate service. Major Hyrne who is appointed Deputy Com 
missary General of Prisoners, has settled the business with Mr. 
Walter. I beg you will please to favor me with weekly returns of 
the Militia serving under you, and the number of horses you have in 
service, and the particular duties on which they are employed, to be 
made every Monday morning. I also wish a separate return of the 
Contl. Troops serving with you, and the rank and names of the Offi 
cers, if any are with you and the corps to which they belong. 
I am. Sir, with esteem, your most obt. humbl. servt. , 


[No. 26.J General Greene to the HonVe. General Marion. 

CAMP ON PEE DEE, January 23d, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have the particular pleasure to congratulate you on the entire 


defeat of the enemy under Lt. Colo. Tarlton. Major Giles this 
moment arrived, brings the glorious intelligence, which I have the 
pleasure to transmit. On the 17th, at day break, the enemy con 
sisting of 1150 British Troops and 50 Militia attacked General Mor 
gan, who was at the Cowpens, between Pacolet and Broad River 
with 290 Infantry, 80 Cavalry, and about 600 Militia. The action 
lasted about fifty minutes, and was remarkably severe. Our brave 
troops charged the enemy with bayonets, and entirely routed them, 
killing near 150, wounding upwards of 200, and taking more than 
500 prisoners, exclusive of the wounded prisoners, with 2 pieces 
of Artillery. 35 waggons, upwards of 100 of the Dragoon horses, 
and 70 negroes, and wilh the loss only of 10 men killed and 55 wound 
ed. Our intrepid party pursued the enemy upwards of 20 miles, 
About thirty Commissioned Officers are among the prisoners. Colo, 
Tarlton had his horse killed, was wounded, but made his escape 
with 200 of his Troops. This important intelligence I wish you to 
communicate to Lt. Colo. Lee if possible. I have not time to write 
him. If he has not attacked George Town, I wish he could pri 
vately transmit it to the Garrison. I am, with esteem, 

Your most obt. humbl. servt, 


[No. 27.] General Greene to General Marion. 

CAMP ON PEE DEE, Jan. 25, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the 20th is before me, before this I hope you have 
received the agreeable news of the defeat of Lt. Col. Tarlton by 
Gen. Morgan, after this, nothing will appear difficult. I find it is 
your opinion, however, that Col. Watson s corps is so posted 
that it will be difficult either to surprize or attack them. But I 
should suppose from your description of the place they will be 
more easily surprised than if they lay where they were less covered. 
People are apt to be off* their guard in proportion as they imagine 
themselves in security. I cannot give up the idea of an attack 
upon them, and wish you to get the best intelligence you can of their 
numbers and consult with Lt. Col. Lee, upon the subject. If your 


force aided by the Infantry of the Legion is not sufficient to make 
the attack to advantage, I will send a party down the River 
agreeably to your advice. I wish to have your opinion upon the 
practicability of crossing the Santee with a party of three or four 
hundred Horse and whether they would be much exposed by being 
in the rear of the enemy. Also, whether the party would not 
make good their retreat, if it should not be necessary, and join our 
people towards Ninety-Six. If the thing is practicable, can your 
people be engaged to perform this service ; it may be a matter of 
the highest importance connected with other movements and there 
fore I beg you to give me all the information upon the subject you 
can, without hinting the design to any person whatever, except 
Lt. Col. Lee, whom I wish you to advise with on all occasions. You 
may place the highest confidence in him with perfect security ? and 
I persuade myself there will be no dispute between you respecting 
rank. All the provisions in the lower country should be brought 
up the river as fast as possible, and I beg you to take every mea 
sure in your power to have it done. The posts lower upon the 
river are exposed to sudden invasions by water and besides which, 
they are very insecure posts for an army while the enemy hold 
posts so high up in the country. 

Your most ob t. hum. servt., 


[No. 28.] General Huger to Brigr. Genl. Marion. 

CAMP, HICK S CREEK, Januy. 28th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

General Greene wishes that you will attempt to cross the Santee, 
and if possible, reach some of the enemies magazines and destroy them. 
I am persuaded you will not leave any practicable measure uriat- 
tempted to effect this business, the execution is left entirely to your 
judgment and address. I am, dear Sir, with much esteem, 

Your most huml. servt., 


P. S. Capt. Snipes has received an invitation from Colo. Harden 
to join him on the south of Charles Town with 150 men. If you 


think this will answer the General s intention of alarming the enemy 
and destroying their magazines, you will promote it. Capt. Snipes 
has permission to proceed on the expedition. 


\No. 29.J Governor Rutledge to Genl. Marion. 

CHERAWS, 28th, 1781. 

General Huger sends you by Capt. Snipes an extract of Genl. 
Greene s letter, by which you will perceive what the General wishes 
you to attempt. Capt. Snipes is desirous of raising men to the 
southward, westward of Santee, and requests to have the command 
of an Independant Company. I have no objections to gi/ing him 
a Company, and to his bringing away all the spirited young men to 
the southward whom he can get to join you, or Gen l. Pickens, as 
circumstances will admit, but I refer Capt. Snipes to you for in 
structions. You will determine whether you can comply with the 
General s wish or not, and give Capt. Snipes such instructions as you 
think proper when you have determined on your plan. Capt. 
Snipes may receive Brevets from you for himself and officers, as I 
have no commissions by me and can t detain him till any can be 
wrote out. I am in haste, sir, 

Your most ob t. servt., 


[No. 30. J Gen. Greene to Col. Wm. Campbell. 


The enemy are pushing into the country, and are now as high up 
on the Catawba as Beatty s Ford: and seem to be determined to 
disperse the Militia, and push the Continental troops out of this 
State. To prevent so great a misfortune, I wish you could 
send to our assistance 1000 good volunteer militia from over the 
mountain, engaged to serve one month after they arrive at Head 
Quarters. Such a force joined to what we have in the field and 


can collect, upon such a footing, will enable us to push the enemy 
in turn, and add new splendor to your own glory, and give the 
world another proof the bravery of the mountain Militia. Let me 
entreat you to come to our aid without loss of time. 

General Morgan s success you have heard of I presume, and I 
have this moment heard of the surprise of George Town, one of 
the enemy s out p osts. It was by Lt. Col. Lee and his Legion. 
I am, with the highest respect, 

Your most obed t. servant, 


[No. 31.] General Greene to Genl. Marion. 

Dear Sir : 

I received your favor of the 31st ultimo, and beg you to give my 
particular thanks to Major and Capt. Postell, for the spirit and address 
with which they executed your orders over the Santee. Your 
crossing the Santee, must depend upon your own discretion. I 
think it would be attended with many advantages, if it can be exe 
cuted with safety. Gen. Sumpter is desired to call out all the Militia 
of South Carolina and employ them in destroy ing the enemies stores 
and perplexing their affairs in South Carolina. Please to commu 
nicate and concert with him your future operations until we have a 
better opportunity to have a more free intercourse. Great activity 
is necessary to keep the spirits of the people from sinking, as well 
as to alarm the enemy, respecting the safety of their posts. We 
formed a junction at this place last night, but our force is so much 
inferior to the enemy s, that we dare not hazard a general action, if it 
can be avoided, but I am not certain that it can. The enemy are 
within thirty miles of us, up towards the Shallow Ford on the 
Yadkin. I am, dear sir, 

Your most ob t. hum. servt., 



f No. 32.J General Greene to Col. Wm. Campbell. 

CAMP, HALIFAX C. H., Feb. 12th, 1781. 
Sir : 

Reports prevail that you are about to march to join the army with 
a large body of Riflemen. It is said you encamped at the Iron 
works upon the Dan, the night before last. I can hardly prevail 
on myself to believe that the report is true : as I have heard nothing 
from you. However, if you are on the march please to let me 
know it ; and also what force you have with you and whereabouts 
you are. Arid it is my earnest desire you should join us as soon as 
possible. Our army will halt here until the enemy cross, or begin 
to file off towards Hillsborough, which I expect will be the case, 
and therefore am anxious to collect a force as soon as possible to 
follow them ; and I am not without hopes of effecting their ruin. 
I am, sir, your most obd t humble servant, 


[No. 33.J Armstrong to Col. W. Preston. 

HOLLOW, 16th Feb y. 1781. 
Sir : 

On my arrival here last night, the only intelligence I could gather 
is, that Lord Cornwallis is marched from Salem towards Hillsbor 
ough, our Militia gathering from every part of the country, and that 
General Greene is reinforced with twenty-five hundred regular 
troops from the northward, and 12 pieces of cannon. I am likewise 
informed that the Lighthorse has not damaged the country so much 
as we heard. Richmond which we were told was burnt, proves to 
be false, I don t understand that they were in the Town; three or 
four of them were at my house, but have done no damages, all 
which, comes by travellers. 

Capt. Stephens and the other officers thinks it s not necessary to 
keep a guard at this place, and the men don t seem to be satisfied, as 
there is no kind of rough forrage for their horses. I start from 
here with some of the Militia for Richmond, and any certain accounts 


of the enemy which I get, I shall embrace every opportunity of 
sending to you. Should you have an opportunity, send the en 
closed to my son, arid oblige, sir, your hum. serv t, 


[No. 34.] General Greene to General Marion. 

CAMP AT HALIFAX C. H., VIRGINIA, Feb. 16th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have seen your letter to Gen. Huger, of the 6th instant, and 
am surprized that Col. Baker or Capt. Snipes should pretend that 
they had my directions for crossing the Santee. I beg you will 
encourage the Militia and engage them to continue their exertions. 
If the supplies, expected from the Northward, arrive in season, we 
shall be able to assist you. The movements of the enemy were so 
rapid that few of the Militia joined us in our march from Pee Dee, 
which reduced us to the necessity of passing the Dan, or risque an 
action on very unequal terms. The enemy are upon the banks of 
the river, but the people of this country appear to be in earnest. I 
hope we shall soon be able to push Lord Cornwallis in turn. I 
wrote you from Guilford, which I hope you have received. 
I am, dear sir, your most obd t, humble servt, 


[No. 35.\Col Wm. Preston to Col Wm. Campbell 

OATES FEB. 17th, 1781. 

Scarcity of paper obliges me to send you this with the intelli 
gence it contains, which is all I have. I shall march this morning 
with about three hundred men. Their number I can t exactly as 
certain, as they are coming hourly. The court martial have doomed 
a great number of Continental soldiers according to the act of Assem 
bly, but they have ordered the sentence to be reversed. If these 
men will turn out by next Saturday and serve this expedition, or- 


ders for this purpose have issued to every company. You shall be 
sure of any interesting news I may receive on my march. 
I am, with great esteem, sir, your humble serv t, 


[No. 36.] General Sumptcr to the Honourable General Marion. 

CAMP AT FRIDAY S FERRY, Feb. 20th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Hurry of business obliges me to be laconick. I arrived at this 
place yesterday morning about four o clock. Shortly after, at 
tacked the fort, with which I have been ever since engaged. Every 
thing hitherto favourable, and have no doubt but 1 shall succeed, if 
not interrupted by Lord Rawdon, who, I know, will strip his post 
as bare of men as possible to spare, to obviate which, as far as 
may be in your power, it is my wish that you would be pleased 
to move in such a direction as to attract his attention, and thereby 
prevent his designs. Timely assistance in this way portends much 
good to this State. I have also to request that every inhabitant of this 
State, westward of Santee be permitted to join their respective 
Regiments, or rather immediately repair to my station. I desired 
Col. Marshall, with what men he could collect to march down, 
eastward of Camden, and will probably fall in with you in good time. 
I wish and beg that you may suppress every species of plundering, 
as the greatest evils to the publick, as well as individuals, are ex 
perienced thereby. You cannot be too particular. The enemy 
oblige the negroes they have to make frequent sallies. This circum 
stance alone is sufficient to rouse and fix the resentment and detes 
tation of every American who possesses common feelings. I shall 
be happy to receive an account of the state of things to the East 
and Northward. If you can, with propriety, advance Southwardly 
so as to co-operate, or correspond with me, it might have the best of 

I am, dear sir, with the greatest regards, 

Your most obd t, humble serv t, 


P. S. I am extremely short of ammunition : if you are well- 


supplied, should be much oblidged to you to send some into the 
neighborhood of Buckingham s ferry. 

[No. 37. J Capt. John Saunders, (of the British.) to Brig. Gen. 


GEORGE TOWN, 22d Feb., 1781. 

I wrote you sometime since relative to the exchange of two Ser 
jeants of mine and three private soldiers of the Ke. Am. Regiment, 
but not having heard from you I am induced to believe that it hath 
never come to your hands. I have, therefore, enclosed a copy of 
that letter, being informed that several wounded prisoners taken 
by you at Monk s Corner are destitute of the proper medicines and 
necessaries, which I am told are riot in your power to obtain for 
them. Humanity, therefore causes me to request that you would 
permit them to be sent in here, or to any other of his Majestie s 
posts, to remain till they may be sufficiently received. 
I am, sir, your most obd t humble serv t, 

Capt. 1st A. Regim t Command g at G. Town. 

[No. 38.] General Marion to Capt. Saunders. 

22d February, 1781. 
Sir : 

I received yours of this instant and another of the 12th. As to 
the two Serjeants of the Queen s Rangers, they are, by this, in 
Virginia. I have, in my possession, a number of prisoners taken at 
Monk s Corner, which I will exchange for Wilson Godfrey, Henry 
Grigs, John T. and Jno. Postell. This last I am induced to ex 
change on account of his age, and hope humanity will induce you 
to treat him like a gentleman. The prisoners will be sent you any 
day you mention when you will send the others at the same time. 
I am, sir, your humble serv t, 



[No. 39.] Capt. Saunders to General Marion. 

GEORGE TOWN, Feb. 23d, 1781. 
Sir : 

I am willing to exchange the prisoners you mention but as Capt. 
DePeyster and his party have fallen into your hands, I wish to en- 
elude that party in the exchange. Whatever the difficiency of 
prisoners may be at this post, I am authorised to say that it will be 
immediately made up from the prisoners in Charles Town. Should 
you incline to prosecute the exchange. 

I am, sir, your obt. and very hum. servt., 

Capt. 1st A. Regt Commanding at (5-eorge Town. 

[No. 40.] Gen. Greene to Col. Wm. Preston. 


Feb. 24th, 1781. 

Capt. Campbell delivered me your letter of the 18th last evening. 
It is my wish you should march to this place as soon as possible 
and join Gen l. Pickens who has a party of Militia collected from 
the different counties in Salisbury district. It is necessary we 
should collect our force to a point, and it is equally necessary that 
the force should be formed under the command of some good and 
experienced officers. There is no one more deserving than Gen l. 
Pickens, who I dare say will be perfectly agreeable to you and 
those under your command. Provision and forage are scarce, you 
will therefore bring forward with you all you can collect, without 
delaying your march, but let nothing detain you from joining us as 
soon as possible. 

You will appoint a person to collect both provisions and forage 
for the Troops under your command, and give proper certificates 
for what is taken, that the people may be satisfied hereafter. I 
trust you will take every possible precaution to prevent plundering, 


as the country is exceedingly distressed, and that will add riot a 
little to their calamity. 

Your exertions to reinforce the army under its critical situation 
deserve my particular thanks, and cannot fail to procure you the 
approbation and thanks of the public. 

The enemy are at Hillsborough collecting provisions, and re 
freshing themselves. 

I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 41.] Capt. Saunders (of the British} to Geril. Marion. 

GEORGE TOWN, Feb y. 25th, 1781. 

Sir : 

I am willing to send you as many of the second regiment as you 
have prisoners of mine in your hands, but I cannot think of making 
a partial exchange, except in the instance of Captain De Peyster, 
who has my authority to offer you Capt. Clark or any other per 
son I have here in exchange for himself. If you are as anxious to 
relieve your prisoners as I am min the exchange will immedi 
ately take, of which I have no doubt. 

I am, sir, your ob t. hum. serv t., 

Capt. Command g George Town. 

N. B. Capt. Campbell, a volunteer, has fallen into your hands, 
I am willing, as he does not belong to this post, to give you Griggs 
for him. 

[No. 42.] General Marion to Capt. Saunders (of the British.) 

BLACK RIVER, 26th Feb., 1781. 
Sir : 

I received yours of the 25th inst, and will exchange four men 
which were taken near Monk s Corner, for the four prisoners men 
tioned in my letter, of the 22d inst., and have sent for those men ; 
when that exchange takes place, I will let you know my intentions 


respecting a further exchange. Any other Mr. Griggs but the one 
I mention 1 do not know anything of. 

I am your humble serv t, 

F. MARION, B. G. M. 

N. B. The men taken with Capt. De Peyster are so far off, it is 
not in my power to convey the cloathing for them. 

[No. 43.] Col. W. Balfour to Brigadier General Marion. 

CHARLES TOWN, March 2d., 1781. 
Sir : 

Repeated informations, reaching me, of the very ill treatment 
which such of the King s militia whose misfortune it is to be cap 
tured by you are daily receiving, especially those taken at Black 
Mingo, I am compelled, abhorrent to my feelings, by the calls 
which these people have on me, for protection, and the justice due 
to such who attach themselves to his Majestie s service, not only to 
declare to you my intentions, but actually to put in force retaliation 
of all severities imposed by any of your people on such prisoners 
of war; and for this purpose, I have directed the militia to be sep 
arated from the continental prisoners, that they may experience 
those hardships and ill usages in their full degree, which too many 
of ours labor under. At the same time, be assured sir, I shall, with 
more pleasure, mitigate the sufferings of captivity whenever I have 
a sanction from your conduct so to do. Since only the wish to re 
move from war, any unnecessary calamities, and to afford his Ma 
jestie s subjects that relief in their distress, which it is my duty to 
attempt, could induce a measure so contrary to my feelings, and the 
wish I have to soften rather than aggravate the misfortunes of the 
prisoners. I am, sir, your most obd t, 


\No. 44.] General Sumter to General Marion. 

CAMP, MR. BUADLEY S, 4th March, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Yours of 2d instant has this moment come to hand. I am very 
sorry to be so far out of the way of meeting with you at a time 


when there is the greatest occasion for it. I made no doubt, but 
your route to me would be by the way of King s Tree, or the 
Ferry, and after receiving yours of the 28th ultimo, informing me 
what the number of your men were, I found you to be very weak, 
and the enemy near at hand in force, this determined me to move 
on to meet with you to concert measures for our further opera 
tions, which is still absolutely necessary. I shall therefore remain 
at or near this place for that purpose, and beg that you may come 
this way with all possible speed, if not convenient with all your 
men to facilitate an interview, please to come with a few. My 
horses are so worn out that I can scarce move at all, and officers 
and men quite discouraged finding no force in these parts, not 
even "men enough to join to guide me through the country. But, 
notwithstanding little may be done now, yet much good might be 
expected to result hereafter from a personal consultation, which I 
hope to have the favour of by to-morrow night. You will readily 
agree with me, that the worst of consequences are to be appre 
hended from my having to return without seeing you, and fixing 
upon a proper mode for our proceedings in future; and as you are 
not unacquainted with my inability to go to you, I hope you will 
undertake to do the needful in that case. The accounts you give 
respecting Lord Cornwallis are very pleasing ; God grant a speedy 
confirmation. If you return upon the same side of the River that 
you now are, perhaps you may collect men about the hills, and 
take some of the Tories about Black River, which I am informed 
are venturing out. Near this place I mean to remain, until I hear 
from you again. I am, dear sir, with great esteem, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 45.] Capt, J. Saunders (of the British) to Lieut. Col Irvin. 

GEORGE TOWN, 6th March, 1781. 
Sir : 

The enclosed was intended to have been sent by Lieut. Futhy 
had he not so precipitately left this place. I had signified to Brig. 
General Marion that I should not agree to a partial exchange. I 


am surprised that he should have ordered you to send in the four 
men mentioned in your letter. My letter mentioned only the 
wounded prisoners taken at Monk s Corner they being totally 
destitute both of Surgeons and necessaries, \vas my reason for re 
questing that they should be sent here until recovered. Capt. John 
Postell being a prisoner of ours, cannot receive orders from you, 
and he has forfeited all claim to lenity by a violation of his parole. 
I cannot indulge him in returning to the country until I receive 
directions. As your flag mentions that there are reports that the 
prisoners here are harshly treated, I think proper to mention to you, 
that prisoners in my hands are always as well treated as their situa 
tion and circumstances can admit. 

I am yours, &c., 

JOHN SAUNDERS, Capt. Comd t. 

N. B. Col. Irvin s note to Gen. Marion, enclosed in the above 
says, " lis not strange Lieut. Futhy should precipitately retreat, 
when he saw an armed party coming to take him." 

[No. 46.] Col. Watson to General Marion. 

BLAKELEY S HOUSE, March 7th, 1781. 
Sir : 

I am to make my apologies to you that a proper list of those go 
ing to Charles Town has not been sent before, you will find one in 
closed which you would have received sooner, but it was either left 
out by mistake or dropped by accident from the second- letter ad 
dressed to you. I am, sir, your humble serv t, 


[No. 47.] Gen. Marion to Lieut. Col. Ealfour. 

SANTEE, March 7th, 1781. 

I sent Capt. John Postell with a flag to exchange some prisoners 
which Capt. Saunders, Commandant of George Town had agreed 


to, but contrary to the laws of nations, he seized Capt. Postell and 
detained him as a prisoner; as I cannot imagine his conduct will be 
approved of by you, I hope you will give orders to have my flag 
discharged, or I must immediately acquaint Congress of this viola 
tion, the ill consequences of which is now in your power to prevent. 
I am sorry to complain of the ill treatment my officers meet with 
from Capt. Saunders ; the officers are closely confined in a small 
place, where they cannot either stand up, or lay at length, nor have 
they half rations ; I have treated your officers and men in a differ 
ent manner who have fallen in my hands. Should these evils be not 
prevented in future, it will not be in my power to prevent retaliation 
taking place. Lord Ruwdon and Col. Watson have hanged three 
of my Brigade for supposed crimes, which will make as many of 
your men in my hands suffer. I hope this will be prevented in 
future, for it is not my wish to acf but with humanity and tender 
ness to the unfortunate men whom the chances of war may throw 
in my power. 

I have the honour to be, your obedient servant, 


[No. 48.] General Marion to Col. Watson (of the British.} 

SANTEE, March 7, 1781. 

Inclosed is a letter which I wish may be forwarded as soon as 
possible. I make no doubt but you will be surprised to see a flag 
sent at the head of an armed party. The reason of it is, that Capt. 
Saunders, Commandant of George Town has violated the laws of 
nations, by detaining, taking, and imprisoning Capt. Postell who 
carried prisoners to exchange, which was agreed to by him. The 
hanging of men taken prisoners, and the violation of my flag will 
be retaliated, if a stop is not put to such proceedings, which is 
disgraceful to all civilized nations. All your officers and men 
which have fallen in my hands have been treated with humanity 
and tenderness ; and I wish sincerely, that I may not be obliged to 
act contrary to my inclinations, but such treatment as my unhappy 


followers whom the chance of war have thrown in my enemies 
hands meet with such ; such must those experience who fall in my 
hands. I have the honour to be. 

Your obedient servant, 

f No. 49.] Gen. Marion to Capt. Saunders. 

March 7th, 1781. 
Sir : 

By my orders, Lieut. Col. Irvin sent Capt. John Postell with a 
flag to exchange the men you agreed to, and am greatly surprized 
to find you not only refused to make the exchange, but have violated 
my Hag by taking Captain Postell prisoner contrary to the laws of 
nations. I shall immediately acquaint the Commandant at Charles 
Town, an 1 if satisfaction is not given, I will take it in every instance 
that may fall in my power. I eve" used all the officers and 
men taken by me with humanity ; but your conduct in closely con 
fining Capt. Clark in a place where he cannot stand up, nor have 
his length, and not giving him half rations will oblige me to retali 
ate on the officers and men which are, or may fall in my hinds, 
which nothing will prevent but your releasing Capt. Postell imme 
diately and using my officers as gentlemen, and your prisoners as 
customary in all civilized nations. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 


[No. 50.1 (Intercepted Letter.) R. to Lieut. Col. Watson. 

CAMDEN, March 7th, 1781. 
Sir : 

I arrived here about noon on the 5th, and on the same evening 
detached Major Frazer with the South Carolina Regiment to Rad- 
cliff s Bridge. The cavalry were to have accompanied him, but just 


as they were to March, the report of a body of the enemy being 
within a few miles of us, occasioned my detaching them another 
way ; ordering them, however, to join Major Frazer after they had 
fulfilled their first object. Frazer. yesterday fell in with Sumter 
(who was advancing this way) between Scape Hoar and Rad cliff s 
Bridge. A smart action ensued, in which the enemy were com 
pletely routed, leaving ten dead on the field and about forty wound 
ed. Unfortunately none of our Dragoons had joined Frazer, so 
that he could not pursue his victory. Sumier fled across Lynch s 
Creek and continued his retreat northward ; he has his family with 
him, so that I think he has entirely abandoned the lower country. 
By the accounts of the prisoners, Marion has but a very trifling 
force, and is not likely to increase it. If your intelligence corres 
ponds with this. 33, 16. 4117, 5, 64, 22 57, 19, 18, 365, 24. 3, 
14, 16,25, 1451, 23, 5-25, 14, 11, 8, 15, 16, 11, 53, 11, 18,74, 
11, 26, 251, 14, 26, 23, 4, 18, 23, 4, 14, 157, 16, 25, 5129, 
22, 18, 12, 2, 57, 16, 25, 51, 24, 5, 26, 18, 7, 3, 14 and 25, 2, 16, 
3, 2574, 2, 16, 53, 171, 14, 23, 22, 1, 1151,23,52, 5, 11, 
21, 25, 12, 5, 1, 11, 14, 1, 54. I have the honor to be, sir 

Your most obedient R. 

[No 51] Gov r. J. Rutledgc to Brig r. Gerfl Marion. 

CAMP AT HAW RIVER, March 8th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

The present situation of affairs rendering it impracticable for me 
to return into South Carolina, not seeing any prospect of being able 
to go thither very soon, and it being impossible, if we could pene 
trate that country, to re-establish the Civil Government for some 
time; and my remaining here being of no service to the State, I 
have determined to set off in a few days for Philadelphia, with a 
view of procuring, if possible, some supplies of clothing for our 
Militia (whose distress for want of it gives me great concern) and 
of obtaining such effectual aid as may soon restore both the town 
and country to our possession. My utmost endeavors for these pur 
poses shall be executed, and I flatter myself that I may succeed by 


personal applications. I am persuaded of the continuance of your 
utmost attention, and hope you will cultivate & good understanding 
with Gen Is. Sumter and Pickens, and do everything in your power 
to forward the former s views, and shall be g ad to hear from you 
when anything material offers under cover to him wht-n I have 
anything material to communicate. 1 have not yet received the 
Blank Militia Commissions \vhich I expected out. If I do riot get 
some before I arrive at Richmond, I will have some printed th< re 
and transmitted to you. In the meantime you will give Brevets, 
and in order that you may carry sufficient authority over the seve 
ral officers in your Biigade, you may remove any of them and ap 
point others in their stead from time to time as yon think proper I 
have sent some linen to be distributed amongst the Militia of your 
(Gen l. Sumter s and Pickens,) Brigades as a free gift from the State, 
according to their number and services. I wish it was more worth 
their acceptance; without doubt you must want many articles of 
clothing, &c. for your own use; I therefore request that you will 
send me a list per express to Gen l Greene (with a request to him 
to forward it per express to rne) of whatever you wish to have pro 
cured for yourself, and you may depend on my obtaining it at Phil 
adelphia ; but don t delay this matter as I perhaps may stay but a 
little time there. 1 hope it will not be necessary for me to remain 
long. I am with great regard, dear sir 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No 52.] Col. Watson (of the British) to Gen l. Marion. 

CANTEY S HOUSE, March 9th, 1781. 
Sir : 

It is with le. s surprise that I find a letter sent by you in all the 
appaient forms of a flag of truce, attend* d by an armed p;irty 
who concealed themselves within a certain distance of a place that 
pointed itself out for the delivery of it, than to see the contents of 
it exhibit a complaint from you against us for violating the law of 
nations. I believe, sir. it would be as difficult for you to name an 
instance of a breach of it in his Majesty s troops, as it would for 


them to discover one where the law of arms or nations has been 
properly attended to by any of your party. An enumeration of 
the various particulars of such practices on your side, beginning 
with the very disgraceful conduct of Congress respecting the Con 
vention troops, and the incessant instances that from that time to this 
hour have occurred in the different provinces, would be needless. 
I think it however right to mention one, as I meant to inform Gen l. 
Sumter of it. A few days ago, after Gen l. Sumterhad taken some 
waggons on the other side of the Santee, and the escort to them 
had laid down their arms, a party of his horse who said they had 
not discharged their pieces came up, fired upon the prisoners and 
killed seven of them. A few days after we took six of his people. 
Enquire how they were treated. As to reflecting on our practice 
of hanging your followers whom the chance of war puts into our 
hands, I have to answer, that if your followers are composed of 
our people (for all people upon parole to us I call ours) who have 
broken their paroles, they must expect to suffer that punish 
ment (which in opposition to the late cruelties exercised by 
those who say they belong to you) it becomes necessary 
for us to inflict and which the law of nations justifies. The 
houses of desolate widows have been laid waste even burnt 
by these people. By these people too, many individuals defence 
less, without arms, and taking side witr neither contending party, 
but residing peaceably in their own houses, have been murdered. 
By what law are these proceedings justified ? does martial any 
more than civil law countenance such people? If ever they fall 
into our hands, they will meet with the punishment due to 
their crimes. When noble enemies make war, such men are pro 
tected by no side. You say it was agreed that an exchange of 
prisoners should take place at George Town, and that Capt Postell 
went with a flag for that purpose, in consequence of that agree 
ment. But I conceive it was not agreed that a man on parole to us 
should become our enemy. Capt. Postell was, I understand, taken 
at Charles Town, and admitted to the country on parole, if so, his 
detention, with all its consequences, is justifiable. With respect to 
your threat of retaliation so long as you will permit us by a return 
of similar behaviour, we will make war with that generosity, that 
it is the boast of Britons is the characteristic of their nation. Men 


like his Majesty s troops, fighting from principle for the good of 
their country, with hearts full of conscious integrity, are fearless of 
any consequences. War itself bears with it calamities sufficient. 
Take care then, sir, that you do not, by improper behaviour to our 
people who may from its chance of war become your prisoners, 
add to its natural horrors. 

I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


[No. 53.] Col. Balfour to Capt. Saunders (both of the British. ) 

CHARLES TOWN, March 12th, 1781. 
Sir ; 

I am favoured with yours, and have written you by two oppor 
tunities, one of which by mistake, was by sea. As to Postell you 
have done perfectly right. I have got his parole which he has broke, 
and which renders him wholly unfit to enter into any service, as it 
entitles us to seize him as our prisoner wherever we can find him ; 
no sanction whatever can defend him against a breach of the par 
ole by which his liberty was allowed him, and by trusting to his 
honour, permitted him to use the means of making his escape if he 
chose to break it, and take advantage of those means. He takes the 
chance of falling into our hands and feeling the punishment due to 
his breach of the laws of war. I wished you to send him by land, 
but if inconvenient, you may send him by water in Dorrell s vessel 
or any other fast sailor, when she returns with a guard ; but of this 
do as you will, only be so good as not to allow him to have a chance 
of escaping. I send you an answer to a letter received from Mari 
on by a flagg of truce, sent into Col. Watson s post ; and I also send 
you a copy of his letter to me. In sending it out be so good as to 
be careful who you send ; a non-commissioned officer will be best, 
for fear he detains the person sent on account of Postell, which I 
forgot to mention to you in my last. I am, with regard, sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 



Capt. John Postell s Parole. 

I do hereby acknowledge myself a prisoner of war upon my 
parole, to his Excellency Sir Henry Clinton ; and that 1 am there 
by engaged until I shall be exchanged or otherwise renased there 
from, to remain at my plantation in the Parish if St. Marks, in the 
county of Craven in the province of South Carolina. And ihat I 
shall not in the meantime, do or cause anything to be done prejudi 
cial to the success of his Majesty s aims, or have intercourse or 
hold correspondence with his enemies; and that upon a summons 
from his Excellency, or other person having authority thereto, that 
I will surrender myself to him or them at such time and place as I 
shall hereafter be required. Witness my hand this 19th day of 
May, 1780 Jno. Postell, Lieut. Adj t., Craven county. Wit. 
nesses John Gillon, McKillop, Major Stewart, Commissary pri 
soners, John Hamilton. A true copy taken from the original in my 
office, this 12th May, 1781. 

LEWIS DEROSSET, Commissary Prisoners. 

[From the parole it appears he was paroled in -Charleston, but 
soon after, the British or Tories stripped him of all his property, 
which was a breach of it on their part, and thus he was released 
from any obligation. In a letter to Gen. Marion, 14th January, he 
says, "my honour is all I have left my family has been reduced 
to beg their bread."] ED. 

[No. 54.] Col W. Balfour to Brig. Gcn L Marion. 

CHARLES TOWN, March 12th, 1781. 

I have received your letter of the 7th instant, respecting the de 
tention <.f Capt. John Postell, when charged with a flagg of truce to 
George Town, and complaining of the same as a breach of the law 
of nations. The best answer I can return to which is transmitting 
you his parole, which will clearly evince that the breach of such 
laws, as well as those of honour, rests solely with that gentleman, 


who has acted in a military capacity when engaged by the solemn- 
est ties to remain in a neutral state. I therefore trust when you 
represent this case to your Congress, you accompany it with so es 
sential a document as the enclosed. I shall certainly make enquiry 
into the ill-treatment you complain your prisoners at George Town 
receive, and if well founded, must certainly have it redressed ; but 
from the confirmed character of Capt. Saunders, I must as yet 
doubt the accuracy of your information respecting the hanging of 
three of your men by Lord Rawdon and Col Watson, as it is a point 
of which I am wholly unacquainted, so 1 can specifically make no 
reply to, but have generally to observe, that if such executions took 
pi ice on gooil grounds it will require reasons equally cogent to jus 
tify a retaliation. My wishes of rendering the situation of prison- 
ers in all respects as little irksome as possible, arid mitigating on all 
occasions the honours of war, perfectly coincide with those you 
express, and therefore this part of your letter gives me great hopes. 
Mine of the 2d instant will be attended with the very best conse 
quences, and settle that humane line of conduct which it is the 
duty of all parties to observe. I am, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 55.} Colonel Balfour to Colonel Cassels. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Charles Town, March 13th, 1781. 
Sir : 

Enclosed is Sir Henry Clinton s proclamation of the 27th May, 
last, for opening this port, but you will please to observe that, at 
present, the port of George Town can only be opened to and from 
Charles Town and you are not to allow any vessel to load or dis 
charge until they have first obtained your permission for that pur. 
pose, and on the arrival of any vessel in your port from this, you are 
to see that she has a pass from the Supe rinteridant s Office here. 
All vessels arriving in your port from any quarter whatever, except 
from this, you are immediately to order the Master to proceed 
here with his vessel and on no account suffer him to discharge with 
you. I am, sir, your most obd t humble serv t, 



[No. 56.] Colonel Watson to General Marion. 

BLAKELEY S, March 15th, 1781, 
Sir : 

The very extraordinary method you took of sending the letter I 
received from you, makes it rather difficult to guess in what way 
you mean to carry on this war, and therefore induces me to take the 
mode of addressing you through a neutral person. The bearer is 
a little boy of John Witherspoon s. We have an officer and some 
men wounded, whom I should be glad to send where they could 
be better taken care of. I wish therefore to know if they will be 
permitted to pass without interruption from any of your parties to 
Charles Town. I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


[No. 57.] Gen. Marion to Lieut. Col. Watson, (in answer to the 

above Letter.) 
Sir : 

Yours of this day s date I received. In answer, I wish to carry 
on this war as usual, with all civilized nations. The violation of 
my flag is a good reason to believe it may a second time be done, 
and oblige me to act as I did ; when my flag is released, I will have 
faith, and act in the usual way. If Capt. Postell was a prisoner, 
it was no reason for the violation of my flag, especially when it was 
Bent to exchange prisoners agreed to by Capt. Saunders ; but this 
matter I expect Lord Rawdon will set to rights. The enclosed 
letter gives me reason to believe it, and you may be assured I will 
not act in any other way, than vvhat I find is done by the British 
Troops. If you will send me the number of wounded you wish 
to send to Charles Town, 1 will send you a pass for them. 
1 am, sir, your obedient servant. 



[No. 58. j Col. Watson to Gen. Marion. 

BLAKELEY S HOUSE. March 15th, 1781. 

I am just now favoured with your answer, and take the earliest 
opportunity of enclosing you the name of the officer, and the num 
ber of men I wish to send to Charles Town, consisting of one 
officer and six privates wounded, with their attendants. As you 
have received Lord Rawdon s opinion in a direct line, his Lordship 
being always as clear in his expressions as he is just in his senti 
ments, there remains nothing for me to explain upon that subject. 
Were we to differ, it would be of little consequence, as Lord 
Rawdon s judgment must direct my conduct. I am happy how 
ever, that you, sir, have by this means, an opportunity of seeing 
the perfect consonance of our ideas respecting the treatment it is 
meant to hold towards your Troops. It is not worth mentioning 1 , 
because probably sooner or later we shall be even with them. 
Your people are daily doing what is not customary, but as you say, 
you wish to carry on war as usual with civilized nations, we 
must suppose you ignorant of numberless transactions of the peo 
ple under your command, and take it for granted that you never 
heard of people whipped by Maynard and others of your followers : 
of two prisoners taken on the 13th January by a party under the 
command of Capt. Daniel Conyers, one of which was whipped 
almost to death, Thomas Wise, a Militia man, and the other John 
Stilwell of Hannon s corps whose horse threw him ; he got upon 
his legs and was desired to surrender, which he did ; he was asked 
for his pistol, he delivered it up and was instantly shot through the 
body with it ; he complained of this behaviour, he was abused and 
ordered to deliver his sword, he did, and was cut through the skull 
in five or six places with his own sword, and when a party brought 
him home, who went out for that purpose, his brains, that is part of 
them, were two inches issued from his head. He preserved his 
senses perfect for two days, and told regularly the same story, then 
died. Gen. Sumter, after his lying before the post at Scott s Lake, 
sent a flag to say, if we would let him have four men, he would 
exchange four he had taken at Nelson s Ferry for them, three of 


those he sent for were killed, but we sent him six others, and re 
quested he wou d get from you Thomas Wise and another man if 
you had him, for the other two sent more than he had men to ex 
change for; this the flag took upon himself to answer for. If 
therefore you thought proper, I should be glad to have that Wi^e 
and another man. Gen. Sumter did not send the four men he pro 
mised to me, but that I presume must have been owing to some 
accidental circumstances previous to his affair with Major Frazer, 
and as that meeting has prevented his doing it at present. It 
appears to me equitable that you should return us what prisoners 
you have till we have six men for those I delivered to his flag. 
The men we took from him, all but one or two who were badly 
wounded, were on their way to Charles Town, bul reposing, per 
fect confidence in you and him, I remanded them, and let them go 
as I before mentioned. I must therefore request of you that num 
ber. Those two you took the other day you can send to us imme 
diately, and the others as soon as you can conveniently. You seem 
to be satisfied the business of George Town will be properly 
settled ; it certainly will, meantime give us no reason to want 
confidence in you, antf I assure you, you may place it fully in us. 
You know the dictates of Lord Rawdon. I shall do my endeavours 
to put them in execution as closely as possible. 

I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


f No. 59.J Col. Watson to Gen l. Marion. 

BLAKELY S HOUSE, March 16th, 1781. 
Sir : 

I do not think it necessary to enter further into a detail of your 
conduct, or words to justify our own. Your mentioning that you 
wished to carry on the war as usual with civilized nations led me 
to mention the circumstances I did. Care is taken to prevent any 
thing being taken from those who do not bear arms against us, or 
who do not secretly assist our enemies. Whatever other people are 
deprived of we do not call plunder, but property fairly taken from 
the enemy, and what cannot be carried away conveniently we de- 


stroy, if we think proper ; the burning of houses and the property 
of the inhabitants who are our enemy is thought right and is custom 
ary in all countries, but further than the distress that it occasions to 
their families, the distressing women or children, is so far from be 
ing either countenanced or connived at by any officers in our service, 
that on the contrary, every assistance possible is afforded them. Your 
pass only mentions Nelson s ferry. I believe Nelson s ferry is im 
practicable for men in their situations, and therefore should be glad 
you would give it for Murray s or any other ferry they find they 
can pass with least inconvenience in their way to Charles Town. 
I will inform Lord Rawdon of your inclination respecting a gen 
eral exchange of prisoners. I am, sir, 

Your humble servant, 


Gen. Marion s Pass granted Lieut. Torianno and 12 Privates. 

BLACK RIVER, 16th March, 1731. 

One officer and six wounded men with six attendants of the Brit 
ish Troops, are permitted to pass to Nelson s Ferry, from thence to 
Charles Town unmolested. 

F. MARION, B. G. M. 

Lieut. Torianno wounded, 3 soldiers and a negro servant to 
attend the Lieutenant; 6 soldiers wounded, and 2 soldiers as attend 
ants to the wounded soldiers. 

\No. 60.] Col. Lee to Col. W. Campldl. 

March 17th, 1781. 

I am very happy in informing you thnt the bravery of your 
Battalion, displayed in the action of the 13th, is particularly noticed 
by the General. It is much to be lamented that a failure took 
place in the line, which lost the day, separated us from the main 
body, and exposed our retreat. I hope your men are safe, and that 


the scattered will again collect. Be pleased to favor me with a 
return of your loss, and to prepare your men for a second battle. 
I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 


I No. 61.] Col. Balfour to Gen. Marion. 

CHARLES TOWN, March 21, 1781. 

I am greatly astonished to find you should have detained an of 
ficer of ours sent out with a fla^g of truce to you, and acting under 
its sanction. This indeed is an impaction of the laws of nations 
and of war, as you complain in the case of Captain Postell ; and 
such a one as if not immediately redressed, I shall be obliged to 
punish in the most exemplary manner by the severest retaliation. 
If in this action you could for a moment have alluded to the case 
of Capt Postell, my letter of the 12th inst. must surely have con 
vinced you, how truly dissimilar in every respect they are, but, as 
from such conduct I must conceive sir, this letter may not have reach 
ed you. I now enclose a copy for your information and conviction. 
Let me observe, as faith had been violated by Captain Postell, he 
naturally became to us an object for capture and punishment, under 
what circumstances he might be met, and to argue from his jus 
tifiable detention, a right to extend theliketo those most unimpeach- 
ably upright in their conduct, is a confounding of all right and 
wrong and a violation of all principles, under which any intercourse 
can subsist between powers at war with each other. 

I am, sir, your most obd t and humble servent, 


[No. 62.J Capt. John Saundcrs to Gen l. Marion. 

GEORGE TOWN, March 24, 1781. 

The inclosed were received from Lieut. Col. Balfour, with or 
ders to forward them to you. There is such an apparant dissimi- 


larity in the cases of Mr. Merrit and Mr. Postell that I am confi 
dent Mr. Merrit will be immediately sent in. I am happy to hear 
by Mr. Spencer, who fell into my hands yesterday, that the deten 
tion of Mr. Merrit is occasioned equally by that act as in sending 
an improper person with a flagg. I am, sir, 

Your obd t humble servant, 

Commanding George Town. 

[No. 63.] E. Giles to Gov. R. Howley. 

ANNAPOLIS, March 27th, 1781. 
My Dear Sir : 

I have the pleasure to transmit to you a copy of a letter from 
the Marquis La Fayette, dated 25t.h inst., from Williamsburgh. 
" I have received certain intelligence of a very severe action having 
been fought between the fleet of his most Christian Majesty and the 
British near Cape Henry, in which the British were worsted so 
much as to be obliged to run in two of their seventy -fours. Being 
joined by the Charon of forty four and some frigates of Mr. Ar 
nold ? fleet, they put to sea again on the 23rd, and on the 24th a 
very heavy cannonade was heard near Cape Henry, which lasted 
for some hours." 

So says the Marquis. 

Capiain McLane, who left York Saturday, informs me that he 
there saw a letter from Colonel Otho H. Williams to Col. G. Smith, 
wherein he gives an account that on the 15th inst, Lord Cornwallis 
advanced with an intention of surprising General Greene, but failed, 
owing to Colonel Lee s falling in with Colonel Tarlton who com 
posed Mr. Cornwallis advance guard. Lee, after a short conflict, 
obliged Tarlton to retreat with a great loss to the main body, when 
an action commenced which lasted more than an hour. As General 
Greene, owing to the unexpectedness of the attack and the detach 
ed situation of his troops, could not collect all his force to a point, 
he thought it expedient to retire for two miles, whereyhe drew up 
on advantageous ground in expectation Mr. Cornwallis would attack 


again. The regular troops in action were all of Maryland. They 
took 200 prisoners, which finding it impossible to secure in their 
retreat, they bayonetted. Williams says the Militia bore ihe great 
est heatof theactionand behaved with unparalleled gallantry. He 
concludes with saying : The action would have been greatly to the 
honour and advantage of the American arms, had we not lost four 
pieces of cannon. 

So far says Williams. 

Will it not sir, be a prelude to Lord Cornwallis total destruction 1 ? 
Did riot a similar action lead the way to Mr. Burgoyrie s ? 

Every opportunity, I shall take to give you all the news. The 
fate of the last action I will transmit as soon as possible. God bless 
you. E. GILES. 

[E. Giles was A. D. C. to Gen. Greene.] Ed. 

[No. 64.] Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

NEW ACQUISITION, 28th March, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

It \vas exceedingly mortifying to me, after so much pains taken 
to bo deprived of a conference with you, a circumstance much to 
be lamented, as both individuals and the publick are consequently 
much injured thereby. Your advice and assistance in framing, 
digesting and laying down a proper plan of operation against the 
enemy in future, might have produced the most happy events. 
My unfortunate failing herein and withaf finding contrary to my 
expectation, that you had neither men, or surplus of any kind, and 
the force I had with me but small and from many causes decreas 
ing, rendered my retreat at once both necessary and difficult. I 
find that the c isorders are prevalent in your Brigade, which have 
fur some time past been practised in the frontiers with such avidity 
as to threaten the State with inevitable ruin. To obviate which 
evil as far as possible, I have adopted measures truly disagreeable, 
such as can only be justified by our circumstances and the necessity 
of the case. But it is clearly my opinion, unless this or a 
similar method be immediately carried into effect, that neither the 


State or the weahh thereof, will be in the power or possession of 
the deserving citizens after a few weeks. The dissoluteness of our 
pretended friends, and the ravages committed by them, are as 
alarming and distressing, as that of having the enemy among us. 
It is therefore necessary immediately to discriminate who are ene 
mies, arid who are real friends ; the former treated as their base 
ness and perfidy authorize, the latter to be known only by their 
conduct, that is, by bearing arms and doing duty when thereunto 
required by proper authority, a^d in case of refusal or neglect, both 
person and property to be treated and dealt with accordingly. 
Nothing can be more unwise or impolitic than to suffer all the 
wealth of our country to be so basely and unfairly appropriated, 
for the sole purpose of accumulating our misfortunes, and finally 
completing our ruin, when it is in our power at once to check, if 
not totally prevent the evils and disadvantages resulting therefrom ; 
to which end I propose raising several Regiments of Light Dra 
goons upon the State establishment, agreeably to the enclosed sketch 
of a plan for that purpose. I therefore request that you would be 
pleased to cause to be immediately raised in your Brigade two 
Regiments agreeably thereto. I have also to request that you give 
orders and oblige every person with you to join their proper Regi 
ments or Brigades, and that none of the enemy when taken be 
paroled, or set at lib -rty, but in cases of extreme necessity that 
all the property captured or taken from the enemy be securely 
kept for publick purposes, except what is allowed to, and appro 
priated to, and for the use of the troops in service, agreeably to the 
terms proposed. Nothing <-an be mo e essential to promote the 
happiness and secure the peace and tranquility of the people of this 
country, than treating with the utmost severity, all persons, who, 
contrary to orders, and to the total subversion of all authority, take 
upon themselves to form parties to go a plundering, distressing the 
resources of the country necessary for the use and support of an 
army. I recommend that too great a number of servants, idle pec- 
sons and led horses may not be suffered to follow the army. You 
will be pleased to let me know what your present strength is, and 
what you judge it may be ten days henc^, what your views are, 
what is the si uation of the enemy, and what position you think 
will mo?t effectually tend to distress the enemy, by preventing their 


being supported with beef, cattle, &c. which at Camden they stand 
in great need of. At present it is my desire that you should have 
a position higher upon Black River, which is verv necessary to not 
only prevent the stock from being drove to Camden, but also to 
facilitate my plans and designs on the west side of the Wateree. 
The more speedy your movements are, the better they will answer. 
The enemy are taking great pains to raise a number of horse, a 
circumstance that should by every possible means be prevented. 
If men were to turn out cheerfully, so that large bodies might pass 
through different parts of the country, it would at this time very 
materially injure the enemy. News from the army and northward 
I have no doubt you have had. I have just received accounts that 
Col. Clark with a party of Georgians and South Carolinians fell in 
with Capt. Dunlap of the Legion near Savannah River, killed and 
made prisoners the Captain and about 70 more out of 80 some 
add that Capt. Dunlap was recruiting for the Legion. The Gov- 
ernour has probably mentioned something to you respecting some 
stores, they were stored up in Virginia and will be of but very little 
consequence when brought forward, as what little there was, has 
been much pillaged, the dry goods he requested you might have a 
part of, if you choose to take them. I am apprehensive that the 
whole will not be sufficient to cloathe one Regiment. The day I 

received your letter, Col. Marshall joined me with about men, 

chiefly North Carolinians, chiefly of Regiment that left the 

W^axsaws with him and deserted jsome days before. I doubt you 
will get but few out of that Regiment to join you until you are 
higher up, after our joining they might perhaps remain, if not too 
leniently treated ; they are an untoward set of people. If Col. 
Harden is still with you, I think it advisable for him to come this 
way. General Pickens has gone to take command of his Brigade. 
Col. Harden may be wanted upon some particular occasion. I 
heartily congratulate you upon the happy advantage gained by 
Major General Greene and the army under his command, over 
Lord Cornwallis, near Guilford Court House. 

I am, dear sir. your most obedient humble servant, 


N. B. I shall be happy to hear frequently and fully from you. 
I shall make some movements in about six days. I write in so 


much pain as hardly to know my own meaning, or read what I 

[No. 65.J Col. Watson to Capt. Saunders. 

CHOVIN S HOUSE, March, 1781. 
Sir : 

I shall be this afternoon with the corps under my command at 
George Town, or very near it, and will be oblidged to you to have 
some forage ready for us, rum, salt and flour, if you have it, we 
shall want to take with us. If there are are any mens shoes to be 
purchased in town, we shall be glad to get them. You will be 
pleased to have some chests of musket cartridges ready for us. 
The officers would be extremely obliged if you could send them an 
intelligent man who would inform them of the proper people to 
send to, to get those little supplies all troops must want who have 
been in the field for three months, such as wine, &c., &c. I have 
the honor to be, sir, 

Your very humble servant, 


A negro of Mr. Chovin s was sent with this letter, who was pur 
sued and killed by one of Marion s scouts. 

[No. 66.] Col. Richard Hampton to Maj. John Hampton. 

2d April, 1781. 
Dear Brother: 

For news I give you the following, viz : Bro. Wade has joined 
Gen l. Sumter, and has left all his property in the possession of the 
British and Tories; he now fights them hard. Bro. Henry is rai 
sing a regular Regiment of Light Horse, as also Col. Middleton, 
Hawthorn hill. I have accepted the Majority in Middleton s 
Regiment. Bro. Wade I believe will also raise a regiment. It 
will not be amiss to mention the terms on which they are to be rai 
sed, and the number each Regiment is to consist of. The troops are 


to enlist for ten months, each Regiment to have one Lieut. Colonel, 
one Major, five Sergeants, ten Lieutenants ; each company two 
Serg ts, twenty-five privates the pay to be as follows : 

Each Colonel to receive three grown negroes and one small negro; 

Major to receive three grown negroes; 

Captain, two grown negroes; 

Lieutenants, one large and one small negro ; 

The Staff, one hirge and one small negro ; 

The Sergeants, one and a quarter* negro ; 

Each private, one grown negro ; 

And to be furnished with one coai;,two waistcoats ; two pair over 
alls, two shirts, two pair stockings, one pair shoes and spur?; one 
horseman s cap, one blanket, (and one half bushel salt, to those 
who have families ;)with two-thirds of all articles captured from the 
enemy except negroes and military stores; and salvage allowed them 
for all the articles belonging to our friends which we may capture 
from the enemy, and to be equipped with a sword, pistols, horse, 
saddle and bridle, &c. Should you meet with any young men 
who are willing to turn into this kind of service, you may assure 
them that the terms will be strictly comply ed with, and the Gene 
ral directs that any who may think proper to come out with the wag 
gons in order to join the said service, are to be served with provi 
sions for themselves and horses. 

Bro. Wade has brought one of your negro fellows with him, (Ja 
cob). We are all in high spirits. 

I am, dear brother, yours sincerely, 


[No. 67.] Gen l Greene to Gen L Marion. 

CAMP DEEP RIVER, April 4th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

This will be handed you by Capt. Conyers, who will inform you 
what we have contemplated. He is sent forward to collect provi 
sions for the subsistance of th* 1 army, an<! I beg you will assist him, 
in this necessary business. The army will man h to-morrow, and 
I hope you will be prepared to support its operations with a consitler- 

* Under 10 years or over 40 was a half negro, a full negro being valued at 


able force. General Sumter is written to, and I doubt not will be 
prepared to co-operate with us. The Captain can give you a full 
history of Lord Cornwallis manoeuvres in this State, and of the 
several skirmishes as well as the battle of Guilford, which terminated 
in a retreat of the enemy, and his lordship was obliged in turn to 
run lustily. I am, sir, 

Your most obd t. humble servant, 


[No. 68. | Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP AT FARE S, Feb. 28th, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

I have received your favor of the 26th inst., and am extremely 
glad to hear you are so far advanced this way. I passed the river 
last night at Mrs. Flud s. have been at Col. Watson s station, and 
find that he has collected his whole force at that place. I think it 
advisable that we should form a junction, or at least approach so 
near each other as to co-operate upon the shortest notice. Nothing 
can at this time bo more essentially necessary to the interest of ihis 
country, than to form a well regulated army in the interior part 
of this State, while the enemy s principal force is so far removed. 
I hope it will not interfere with any plan that you might have laid 
to come this way. From the idea I have of the state of things in 
this quarter, I think it expedient for you to proceed to this place. 
I shall wait impatiently for the happiness of an interview with you. 
I have, dear sir, the honour to be 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

This letter should have followed No. 42. 

[No. 69.] Col Harden to Gen l. Marion. 

Dear General: 

Yours of the 21st of last month came safe, and I am very glad to 


hear our affairs are in so prosperous a way. I have not been able 
to do much since I wrote you. I have stopt three schooners, one 
of which was loaded with rice, that I had unloaded and stored; 
the other two I scuttled. I also stopt a sloop, got four cans. salt 
that were coming to Blake s plantations; I ordered that not to be 
touched till I could hear from you. Col. Ballingall came up with 
one hundred regulars and sixty horse to Pon Pon a few days ago, 
and said he would run me off. However I sent a small party to 
see how he was situated, as I purposed to surprise him that night; 
my party went in and brought off two British prisoners within three 
hundred yards of his main body, and that evening he made a pre 
cipitate retreat to Parkers Ferry, and the next day to Dorchester, 
and yesterday I heard he was moving to town. I send a party down 
to see. I have been able to keep from Purisburg to Pon Pon clean 
that two or three men may ride in safety, and would have gone 
lower down, but was in hopes you would have been <;ver the river 
and been in their rear, when we might have been sure of them. I 
shall remain hereabout till I can hear from you, as I have not been 
able to take orders from Gen l. Pickens, as he is at Ninety-six. The 
day before I received your letter, I received a letter from Col. Wil 
liamson to form a junction with him, and sent up to him as I men 
tioned to you. 1 heard last night, that Augusta and the fort at Gal- 
phin s, and one other fort composed of militia, were all besieged ; 
that \ve had about six hundred men, and those in the fort were de 
serting daily, and expect every hour to hear from that quarter of 
the surrender of one or all of them. You will receive a letter from 
Col. Hayne with the commission. You will hear his reasons for 
not accepting it. This gentleman has kept many from joining me 
on his staying on too much formality. I have given the command 
of the Regiment to Major Ladson, who turned out the day I cross 
ed the river, without hesitation. I hope you will not take it amiss, 

as Col. S wont be seen, and the Lieut. Col. Saundersis to the 

northward, Ladson to act as his Major on his old commission. 1 
find the leading men very backward, which keep many thus, so 
hope you will send me or some other officer some proclamations or 
orders what to be done on this occasion. They all say they wait 
for your army to come this way, then they will all turn out, but I 
find too many of them are waiting for commissions they can t turn 


out without. I shall give you a particular account of them when I 
see you. I beg to hear from you immediately, when you may be 
assured your orders shall be punctually obeyed. With compliments 
to all the officers in your camp, you will please accept the same 
from Your most obd t. humble servant, 


[This letter and Nos. 81 and 82 are from Lee s Campaign in 

[No. 70. J Gen. Greene to Col H. Lee. 


April 10th, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

Your letter without date or place wrote at, was handed me this 
morning. We got here night before last, and should have been on 
our march to-day for Camden, had we not been delayed for want of 
boats to cross the river. 

General Sumter will have 1000 men to join us by the 20th, but 
he is going to take a position between Camden and Ninety Six, 
about thirty miles from the former. If you go over Santee you 
will fall in with him. We shall march directly for Camden, and 
avail ourselves of circumstances. If the detachment you mention 
low down Pee Dee, is on the march for Wilmington to join Corn- 
walliSj it is almost certain that he has no idea of our scheme. All 
things promise well as yet. Inform yourself if possible whether any 
reinforcements have arrived at Charleston. Col. Morris has arrived 
from Virginia, and says, a report prevails there that two Hessian 
Regiments had arrived from Europe. I don t believe it, but it may 
be so. 

Go on and prosper, and let me hear from you as often as possi 
ble ; and if you hear that Lord Cornwallis is on the march for 
Camden you must join the army immediately, that we may beat 
him before he gets us, by .1 junction with other force joining him. 
The light horse, in Virginia, shall have fresh orders to march for 
North Carolina. Yours sincerely, 



[No. 71.] Gen l Moultrie to Genl Marion. 

CHARLES TOWN, April 16th, 1781. 

I have this day received information from Lieut. Col. Balfour in 
Charles Town, that your troops have been guilty of many cruelties 
upon the people in the country, particularly in the murders of Mr. 
John Inglis, Capt. Clark, and John Frazee (Mr. Maxwell s over 
seer). As I know you are well acquainted with the customs of 
war, and that your disposition will not countenance such cruelties, 
especially as it cannot answer any good purpose, I am therefore to 
request the favour, you will give such orders as will prevent private 
animosities from taking revenge at this time by such unwarrantable 
practices, as can only serve to disgrace the generous and the brave. 
I dare say the people that have been guilty of these outrages will 
be called to a proper account. I an), sir, 

Your most obd t humble servant, 

WM. MOQLTR1E, Brig. Gen l. 

\No. 72.] Col Kolb to Captain Snipes. 


I am informed you are taking all the young men that I have or 
dered to join Gen l. Marion, with you to the southward. I must 
now beg leave to inform you of Gen l. Marion s orders against such 
proceedings, which I have just received, forbidding any persons 
leaving his Brigade without his leave. I am, sir, 

Your most obd t. humble servant, 


[No. 73.] Capt. Snipes answer to the above. 

April 16th, 1781. 

I received yours, and this will inform you that I have instructions 


from Gen l. Sumter, who commands General Marion, -to raise men 
where I can, and as to Gen l. Marion s orders, in this case it avails 
nothing. I am, sir, 

Your most humble servant, 


[No. 74.J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

April 17th, 1781. 


Dear Sir : 

We are on our march for Camden, and shall be there ne^t day 
after to-morrow. I am greatly in the dark respecting the enemy s 
strength and situation in South Carolina, and also of Lord Corn- 
wallis s motions. This last circumstance is of the highest impor 
tance to the safety of our army, arid I beg you to communicate to 
me all the intelligence you can obtain, and take measures to get all 
you can. Lieut. Col Lee is gone towards the Santee ; intelligence 
to him is equally as necessary as to me ; you will please therefore 
to send him information accordingly. Don t spare either time or 
pains to get the earliest information, and to forward it as soon as 
possible. Your present force and situation, I should be glad to 
have a particular account of. Please give me an official account of 
Col. Horry s attack upon a party of Watson s detachment. 
I arn, dear sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 75.J Col. Harden to Gen. Marion. 

Dear General: 

This will be handed to you by Mr. Cannon, who will acquaint 
you of many particulars, which I can t mention at this present. 
On Saturday, on the Four Holes, I came to a muster field, where I 
took a Captain and 25 men, and paroled them, and on Sunday night 


got within six. miles of Captain Barton, and six men to guard him. I 
detached Major Cooper and fifteen men who surrounded his house 
and ordered him to surrender, but he refused ; a smart fire com 
menced and Major Cooper soon got the better, wounding Barton, 
who is since dead, and one other, killed three and took two 
prisoners. The Major got slightly wounded and one of his 
men, and lost a fine youth, Stewart, who rushed up and was shot 
dead. I then heard Col. Fenwick and his corps of Horse Dragoons 
was at Pocotaligo, 35 in number, I proceeded on my march to sur 
prise them, but the Colonel had heard I was coming, and he at 
tempted the like on me. Our advance party met and hailed, when 
I ordered my men to turn out in the woods, but unluckily, went too 
far from the road. I fired a few shots when they retreated; I 
rushed out, but they charged and my men gave way ; I had one 
man taken, and two wounded, we shot one of his men dead, and 
wounded seven ; next morning took two of his Dragoons and retreat 
ed back about ten miles, and stayed two days, when I marched on 
again and got within sight of Fort Balfour, at Pocotaligo, at 12 
o clock in the day. I placed my men and sent ten of the best 
horses to draw them out, but luckily, Colonels Fenwick and Letch- 
mere were at Vanbiber s and were taken, with seven of the Dra 
goons, and brought to me, the re^t of them were in the fort. I then 
sent Captain Harden with a flag to demand a surrender of the fort 
and the men in it ; they sent for answer they would not give it up ; 
I sent the second time, and told them that if 1 was-obliged to storm 
it, that I would give no quarter. Col. Kelsell then desired half an 
hour to consider, I gave him twenty minutes: they then agreed to 
give up the fort on terms which I granted, and in two hours the 
fort with one Militia Colonel, one Major, three Captains, three 
Lieutenants, and sixty privates of Col. Fenwick s, one Lieutenant 
and 22 dragoons and their horses gave up to me, and they marched 
out and piled their arms without the abbatis, and I marched in 
and took possession of it, and that night and the next day had it 
destroyed, as I had intelligence of a party coming from Town 
which did the day after. Col. Ballingall with one hundred of the 
Seventy-first, thirty Highlanders mounted, and about forty militia 
mounted came, but I could not give them battle, as I had sent a party 
up the Savannah River with Captain Barton and McKoy in pursuit of 


seven boats going to Augusta, and they Lave not yet returned ; but 
hope they will join me to-morrow at farthest. The enemy left Po- 
cotalig and is now lying at Blake s Plantation, I imagine for some 
of the Tories to join them; however, I hope but few will join, as 
I have been about them, and they all took the swamp. I am 
obliged to haul off southwardly to collect all the men I can in those 
parts, and am in hopes the most of the men near the Okaties will 
join me. The men about Pon Pon are the backwardest though ; 
when I first went there. I learned they were all to be in arms, only 
waiting till they could send a man to you for Commissions, when 
they were to turn out. I beg you will send some immediately with 
your orders, it seems they wait for Col. Hayne s, and he says he 
can t without a Commission, and is sure, if he turns out, that at least 
two hundred will join him, if so, I am very sure that this part of the 
country may be held. I beg to hear from you as soon as possible, 
and in the mean time, you may be assured I will do every thing in 
my power. I would be glad if you would send a party over the 
River again, as I am told, they want to bend all their foice to 
run me off, and a Command there will stop them. I have not had 
time to go to the River to see about the powder, and there was but 
little in the fort ; however, if McKoy takes those boats, 1 can 
supply you with a good deal. I have not heard from Gen. Pickens 
as yet, but expect to hear by McKoy when I will send to him. I 
have no more to add at present, but my best, and all the officers 
compliments to all the officers and acquaintances, and you will 
please to accept the same from, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

WM. HARDEN, Colonel. 

[ No. 76.] Col. Kolb to General Marion. 

April 18th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Through much difficulty, I have sent you Captain John Wilds 
with a few men, though not the number you expect. Something 
I expressed a fe\v days ago that 1 should not be able to send you a 


single man; as soon as the men were ordered to join you, Snipes 
and some officers whom he had appointed out of this Regiment, 
endeavored to prevent their joining you, by telling them some fine 
stories, and speaking rather disrespectfully of you as I have been 
informed, to prevent their joining you. As soon as I received your 
last orders, I immediately informed Lieut. Lyons, who I had or 
dered to join you with the young men that were to have been con 
tinued with you, of your orders, informing him that I thought the 
young men that were ready in turning out with him to join Gen. 
Sumter, would receive the same advantage by joining you, but this 
did not avail anything. When I found this to be the case, I wrote 
him again, also wrote Captain Snipes, a copy of which I have in 
closed you ; also Snipes answer. I saw Lyons yesterday myself, 
I asked him about the men that he had raised, he said he had sent 
them to Gen. Sumter and that he would send every other man of 
the Regiment that he could recruit to him, notwithstanding they 
were ordered other ways. He damned himself if he would serve 
under any officer but whom he pleased ; that he disregarded any 
orders that might be issued to the contrary. As soon as I received 
your orders, I ordered my Captains to have half of their men in 
readiness to join you, by a certain time; just as they were ready to 
march, the said Lyons immediately suppressed several of their 
horses, and sent them immediately off, which prevents many of them 
coming to you, the scarcity of horses at this time and place, pre 
vents their being replaced. I should be glad to know what method 
you would have me to take wilh such persons. 1 shall endeavour 
to send some few men on to you as soon as horses can be had, as 
we are obliged to stop plows to get horses at this time to do 
patrol duty. We have no news at this time, only of a party of 
Tories, who have been in Capt. Murphy s Company, commanded 
by a Captain John Brockinton. 

I am, dear sir, your most humble servant, 



[No. 77.J Gcril. Marion to Gcn 1. Greene. 

FORT WATSON, SCOTS LAKE, April 23d, 1781. 
Sir : 

Lieut. Col. Lee made a junction with me at Santee the 14th 
inst, after a rapid march from Ramsay s Mill, on Deep River, which 
he performed in eight days ; the 15lh we marched to this place and 
invested it. Our hope was to cut off their water; some riflemen 
and continentals immediately took post between the fort and the 
lake. The fort is situated on a small hill forty feet high, stockaded, 
and with three rows of abbatis around it ; no trees near enough to 
cover our men from their fire. The third day after we had invest 
ed it, we found the enemy had sunk a well near the stockade which 
we could not prevent them from, as we had no entrenching tools to 
make our approach, we immediately determined to raise a work 
equal to the height of the fort. This arduous work was completed 
this morning by Major Mayham, who undertook it. We then made 
a lodgement on the side of the mount near the stockade; this was 
performed with great spirit and address by Ens n. Johnson and 
Mr. Lee, a volunteer in Col. Lee s legion, who with difficulty as- 
scended the hill, and Dulled away the abbatis which induced the 
commandant to hoist a flagg, and Lieut. Col. Lee and myself agreed 
to the enclosed capitulation, which I hope may be approved of by 
you ; our loss on this occasion, two killed, and three continentals 
and three militia wounded. I am particularly indebted to Lieut. 
Col. Lee for his advice and indefatigable diligence in every part of 
this tedious operation, against as strong a little post as could well be 
made on the most advantageous spot that could be wished for. The 
officers and men of the Legion and Militia performed every thing that 
could be expected, and Major Mayham of my Brigade had in a 
particular manner a great share of this success, by his unwearied 
diligence in erecting a tower, which principally occasioned the 
reduction of the fort. In short, sir, I have had the greatest satis 
faction from every one under my command. Enclosed is the list 
of the prisoners and stores taken, and shall without loss of time 
proceed to demolish the fort, after which, shall march to the High 


Hills at Capt. Richardson s plantation, where I will wait your 
further orders, and arn with great esteem sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Articles of Capitulation proposed by Lieut. McKay , Commandant 
at Fort Watson. 

ART. I, The officers to be allowed their parole ; to wear their 
swords ; and shall have their private baggage secured to them. 

G ranted. 

ART. II. The British officers shall be permitted to march to 
Charles Town, where they shall remain, without entering into any 
active service, till they shall have been exchanged; till which time 
they shall be bound to surrender themselves, whenever called upon 
by the commander-in-chief of the American Southern army. 


ART. III. The irregulars shall be treated as prisoners of war. 


ART. IV. All public stores shall be surrendered to the quarter 
master general of the Legion, and the fort to Captain Oldham, who 
shall take possession this evening, with a detachment of the Mary 
land division. 

I agree to this capitulation, such as it is at present, in considera 
tion of the bravery with which the fort was defended. 

Captain of Foot belonging to the Legion. 
JAS. McKAY, Lieut. 

April 23, 1781. 

[No. 78.J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP BEFORE CAMDEN, April 24th, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

Your favour of the 21st has just come to hand. When I con 
sider how much you have done and suffered, and under what dis- 


advantages you have maintained your ground, I am at a loss which 
to admire most, your courage and fortitude, or your address and 
management. Certain it is no man has a better claim to the public 
thanks, or is more generally admired than you are. History affords 
no instance wherein an officer has kept possession of a country 
under so many disadvantages as you have; surrounded on every 
side with a superior force; hunted from every quarter with veteran 
troops, you have found means to elude all their attempts, and to 
keep alive the expiring hopes of an oppressed Militia, when all 
succour seemed to be cut off. To fight the enemy bravely with a 
prospect of victory is nothing; but to fight with intrepidity under 
the constant impression of a defeat, and inspire irregular troops to 
do it, is a talent peculiar to yourself. Nothing will give me greater 
pleasure, than to do justice to your merit, and I shall miss no oppor 
tunity of declaring to Congress, the Commander-in-chief of the 
American Army, and to the world in general, the great sense I have 
of your merit and services. -I thank you for the measures you 
have taken to furnish us with provisions, and for the intelligence 
you communicate. A field piece is coming to your assistance, 
which I hope will enable you and Col. Lee to get possession of the 
fort. With the Artillery you will receive 100 Ibs. powder and 
400 Ibs. lead. I wish my present stock would enable me to send 
you a larger supply, but it will not, having sent you near half we 
have. I have reason to be!ieve the enemy have evacuated their 
post upon the Congarees ; and if there is no object very important 
on the other side of the River, it is my wish you should move upon 
this, in order to enable us to invest Camden to more advantage, the 
garrison of which, I have good reason to believe is short of provi 
sions. I have this moment got intelligence, that Lord Cormvallis 
crossed the Cape Fear River last week, in order to begin his march 
towards this State. I beg you to take measures to discover his 
route and approach. Col. Horry s attack upon a party of Wat 
son s, does him great honour. With the highest respect and es 
teem, I am, dear sir. 

Your most obedient humble servant, 



[No. 79.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 


April 26th, 1781. 


Dear Sir : 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your two letters, dated 
23rd and 25th instant. I congratulate you on your success against 
Fort Watson. The articles of capitulation 1 highly approve of, 
and feel myself particularly indebted to you and all the officers and 
men under you, for their spirit, perseverance and good conduct 
upon the occasion. The enemy advanced upon us yesterday and 
gave us battle. The conflict was short, and seemed once to prom 
ise UP advantage, but we were obliged to retire and give up the field, 
though with no material loss. We are now within five miles of 
Camden, and shall closely invest it in a day or two again. That 
we may be enabled to operate with more certainty against this post, 
I should be glad you would move up immediately to our assistance 
and take post on the north side of the Town. I have detached a 
field piece to your assistance, with an escort of a few Continental 
troops under the command of Major Eaton, I should be glad 
you would send them a guide and conduct them to your army. 
I am, with great esteem and respect, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. SO.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP AT RUGELEY S, April 28th, 1781. 

Capt. Snipes has just arrived in Camp and says that reports 
were below, that we were routed and totally dispersed. You will 
take measures to have the above contradicted, and the people pro 
perly informed. By mistake we got a slight repulse, the injury is 
not great. The enemy suffered much more than we did. What 
has happened will make no alteration in our plan of operations, and 
therefore I wish you to pursue the same plan as you had in con 
templation before. In my last I desired you to move up within 7 


miles of Camden ; but Capt. Conyers thinks that with 50 men 
below, at the distance of 15 or 20 miles, all the supplies can be as 
effectually cut off as if you were at a less distance, and that if you 
cross the Santee you can take all the posis upon the Congaree, and 
those posts that lie between Camden and the River. I have there 
fore sent Capt. Conyers to. conduct the Artillery to you. which I 
was informed this morning by Express, was on its return. Major 
Eaton having heard of the reduction of the fort. You will cross 
the River Santee, or detach Lieut. Col. Lee and direct your force 
as information and circumstances may direct, either towards George 
Town or elsewhere, as shall appear necessary, keeping me con 
stantly ad vised of your situation, and leaving a guard of about 60 
men at, or about the High Hills of Santee, to prevent supplies from 
going to Camden. Get all the good Dragoon Horses you can to 
mount our Cavalry; those for Col. Washington s Corps, Capt. 
Conyers will take care of. This is a great object, and I beg you 
to pay particular attention to it. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 81.1 General Greene to Col. H. Lee. 


28th of April, 1781. \ 
Dear Sir : 

I have just received your letter of 19th, two of the 23d, and two 
of the 27th. I note all the contents. You know best your own 
situation, arid your own wishes, but you are not well informed of 
mine. I have run every hazard to promote your plan of operations, 
as well as to oblige you, as from a persuasion the public service 
would be benefitted by it. 

On the 25th the enemy sallied. It was what we wished for. and 
had taken a position about a mile from the town for the purpose, 
on a very advantageous piece of ground. The enemy were dis 
covered by a fire upon our piquets. The line was formed in a few 
minutes, ready for their rrcepiion. The Light Infantry lay in our 
front, and a heavy fire soon commenced. I ordered the second 


Maryland Regiment to flank the enemy, and the first to advance 
and charge them in front. The two Virginia Regiments had orders 
to do the same, and Col. Washington to gain the enemy s flank and 
rear. Our artillery from the advantage of position was doing great 
execution. In this situation the action grew warm, and our troops 
advanced ; but from some unfortunate mistake of the true state of 
things the first Maryland Regiment being a little disordered, had or 
ders to retire a few rods. This threw them into disorder. The 
second Marlyand Regiment seeing them fall back soon got into dis 
order also; and the whole retired off the ground. This encour 
aged the enemy, who before were retiring, and they pushed on and 
gained the top of the hill ; and the Artillery was obliged to retreat. 
Col. Haws s Regiment was then advancing in tolerable order, within 
forty yards of the enemy, and they in confusion in front, but from 
the enemy having gained their flank, by the retreat of the Mary- 
landers, I was obliged to order them to retreat also, to save them 
from being cut to pieces. I was with this Regiment myself, and 
they suffered more than all the rest. Col. Campbell s Regiment got 
disordered about the same time the Maryland troops did. but by his 
exertions, and Captain Pierce s, my aid, they were soon rallied, and 
the whole of the troops rallied at different times, but not in such 
order, or with such spirit, as to recover the misfortunes of the day. 
We retired about two and a half miles and halted without loss of 
artillery, waggons or stores of any kind, except a few of the sol 
diers knapsacks and blankets. Col. Washington nevershone upon 
any occasion more than this. He got into the enemy s rear and 
took upwards of 200 prisoners, whom he found retreating, and in 
the course of the day made several charges, and cut to pieces their 
Dragoons. He was obliged to quit the greater part of his pri 
soners, though he saved upward of and made good his 
retreat out of the enemy s rear. We had about 150 men killed 
and wounded, and the enemy a greater number. Among the wound 
ed is Col. Ford, in the arm. A considerable number of stragglers 
have not yet come in, but we have heard of them. In this situation 
things are. You will undeceive the people respecting the conse 
quences of the action, which at the commencement of it I was al 
most certain would prove the enemy s ruin, as well from the supe 
riority of our force as the advantages of the ground. I have sent 



Captain Conyers to conduct the field piece to you, if you and Gen 
eral Marion think it will be useful. Gen. Marion and you will cross 
the river together, or act separately as occasion and intelligence may 
dictate as necessary, but dont run great risques. I congratulate 
you on your late success, and wish you fresh laurels. 

Yours, affect y. 


P. S. Col. Williams was very active and greatly exposed, but 
all would not do, the day was lost. 

[No. 82.] Gen. Greene to Col. H. Lee. 


29th of April, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the 28th has just been received. You wrote as 
if I had an army of fifty thousand men. Surely you cannot be 
unacquainted with our real situation. I have run every risque to fa 
vour your operations, more perhaps than I ought; clearly so, if I had 
not my own reputation less at heart than the public service in gen 
eral, and the glory of my friends in particular. I wrote you an ac 
count of the affair of the 25th last evening, and sent Captain Con 
yers to conduct the field piece to you and Gen. Marion. The event 
of the day was contrary to my expectations. Whether it was ow 
ing to an order of Col. Gunby s, or the misconduct of the Mary 
land troops, is now a matter of inquiry. I took the position on 
purpose to draw the enemy out, after being fully satisfied that the 
town could riot be stormed, the works being too strong and the 
garrison too large to hope for success. I never had an idea of the 
kind unless I found the place very weak. There were not wan 
ting mad caps enough to urge it. Had we defeated the enemy not 
a man of the party would have got back into town. The sally was 
what every body wished for, but the event was unfortunate. The 
loss on either side is not greatly different one from the other. I 
think the enemy s must have been the greatest. The disgrace is 
more vexatious than anything else, though the disappointment in 


its consequences, is a capital misfortune. Camden must have fallen 
had we succeeded. I am as strongly impressed with the necessity 
of pushing our operations on the west side of Santee as you can 
be, but the means are wanting. We want reinforcements. You 
want detachments ; and if you and General Marion separate you 
will be botli exposed; and I am afraid our little repulse the other 
day will give fresh hope to the enemy, and damp the spirits of our 
friends ; however, the best way to counteract that, is to act vigor 
ously. In my letter to Gen. Marion last evening, I desired him, 
either to detach you, or cross the Santee with you, as he might 
think advisable, from the information he had of the enemy s posts, 
numbers, and situation. I beg you not to think of running great 
hazards, our situation will not warrant it. If we cannot accom 
plish great things, we must content ourselves in having avoided a 
misfortune. Gen. Sumter has got but few men; he has taken the 
field and is pushing after little parties of tories towards Ninety Six. 
Major Hyrne is gone to him. if possible to get him to join us, but 
this I know he wil avoid if he can with decency, for the same rea 
son that you wish to act separately from the army. Should ho join 
us, we shall go on with our blockade with security. I cannot agree 
with you that the farthei south \ve go the better. The posts upon 
the Santee and Congaree should be our great object. I am still 
afraid whether the Earl will quit his footing in North Carolina to 
come to the aid of his posts here. Mr. Carringlon, one of your of 
ficers, is here with a party of horse and foot, but the most of them 
are without arms. They should come on to you, but they are so 
defenceless that I am afraid to send them. Can you not furnish 
them with arms ? It is out of our power to do it. Once more let 
me warn you to be cautious. 



[No. 83 ] Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP CONGAHEE, April 30th, 1781. 

I have received yours of the 18th inst. wherein you observe that 
you wrote me on the 6th, which letter is not lost, as you allege. 


You gave your opinion in that, it is true, with respect to raising 
troops upon the State establishment, which opinion it appears you 
have resumed, not from the ill policy of the measure, but because 
Major Snipes might have disobliged you. Whether he gave a 
cause of umbrage. I know not, he was acting by no particular 
direction of me. If he has transgressed, he is amenable, and may, 
as an officer, be punished with great propriety, notwithstanding 
there is neither executive or legislative body in the State; yet I 
think their powers exist, and whoever denies it is dilating the al 
most mortal wound our laws have received, and directly admits 
what Major iSnipes may have done to be just, or that what he 
prevented another from doing was unjust. I revere the citizen 
who is tenacious of ihe laws of his country I lament their being 
so much abused If I have done it, I think myself accountable 
and shall no doubt be called upon by the gentleman to whom you 
say you shall represent the mutter, and if he is unacquainted with 
my motives and the step I have taken, should be happy to have 
his opinion upon that head. To hi- judgment and authority, I 
pay the greatest respect; but I have not a doubt but he and till 
impartial men. will applaud an undertaking which promised so 
much good to the United States, and this in particular; especially 
as it \vas the last and only measure that could be adopted for its 
security, or possession of, even the last part of it. As to the powers 
by which I act, they o:;ght not to be called i i question by any man, 
until gentlemen whom it might concern, had used proper means to 
obtain information. I am sorry the party you allude to is noi likely 
to be taken. Gen. Greene wrote me a few days ago. thai Col Lee 
had made his appearance very near, so that he could take it in a few 
minutes with a piece of Artillery which he had sent him. Since 
which, I hear it is taken. 

1 am sir, your most humble servant, 

P. S. Permit the bearer to pass the guards 



[No. 84 ] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 30th came in last evening. Keep a good look out 
for Tarlton, I think it is probable he is on the George Town route, 
but it is possible he may be on the upper route, as I hear of a 
guard being lately surprised near the Cheraws. Gen. Sumter is 
on the Congarees, with a considerable force and daily increasing. 
Please to communicate with him, and if necessary for any capital 
purpose, form a junction of your force. I hope the Artillery is 
with you before this, and you will employ it in any manner that 
you think w r ill most effectually promote the service Should Tarl 
ton get into Camden, Lieut. Col. Lee with his force must join us 
immediately. Major McArthur is on his way to Camden, and I 
fear has passed Sumter. If all those detachments which are di 
recting their course towards Camden get in, the enemy will be 
strengthen. The Marquis De Lafayette with a large detachment 
from the Northern army and the Pennsylvania Line are both on 
the march to join the southward army. We shall soon be in force 
to drive the enemy out of the upper country. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 


f No. 85.J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP AT 25 MILE CREEK, May 6th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I wrote you day before yesterday that Lord Cornwallis was in 
motion and that it was uncertain which way he meant to operate, 
but in any case, it was necessary for us to collect our force, for 
which purpose I had given Lieut. Col. Lee orders to join the mam 
army immediately with the several detachments and the field-piece. 
.1 am not determined yet what line of conduct to pursue, supposing 
Lord Cornwallis to move northwardly, and therefore wish you to 
continue at or near the Congaree, so as to prevent supplies from 


coming to Camden until you hear farther from me. I expect more 
full intelligence to-night which will enable me to decide. Don t 
forget, to give me an account of your numbers, and you would 
promote the service greatly if you could furnish us with sixty or 
eighty good dragoon horses. I am sorry for Col. Kolb s death } and 
the necessity there is for detaching a part of your Regiment. 
With esteem and regard. I am, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 86.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP AT 25 MILE CREEK, May 7th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Col. Watson I find is on his way to Camden, this is rather an 
unfortunate circumstance, as the enemy will begin to be impudent 
and to shew themselves without their works, which they have never 
ventured upon since the morning of the 25th. Our force divided, 
and the enemy collected, put matters upon an unmilitary footing. 
There is no further intelligence from Lord Cornwallis, which 
induces me to believe he is marching northwardly. Major Hyrne 
will inform you of my plan. Supposing that to be the case, the 
Major will inform you also how far Lieut. Col. Lee is at liberty to 
continue to operate with you against the fort you were yesterday 
firing at. I should be exceedingly glad to have an account of the 
probable operating force you may expect to act with you for some 
months to come. This will enable me to judge with more certainty, 
the propriety of the plans I have in contemplation. 
With esteem, I am dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 87.J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP COLONEL S CHEEK, May 9th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I am favoured with yours of the 6th ihst. I am sorry the Militia 
are deserting because there is not greater support. If they were 


influenced by proper principles, and were impressed with a love of 
liberty and a dread of slavery, they would not shrink at difficul 
ties. If we had a force sufficient to recover the country, their aid 
would not be \vanted, and they cannot be well acquainted with 
their true interest to desert us, because they conceive our force 
unequal to the reduction of the country without their assistance. 
I shall always be happy to see you at Head Quarters, but cannot 
think you seriously mean to solicit leave to go to Philadelphia. It 
is true your task has been disagreeable, but not more so than 
others, it is now going on seven years since the commencement of 
this war. I have never had leave of absence an hour, nor paid the 
least attention to my own private affairs. Your State is invaded; 
your all is at stake, what has been done will signify nothing, unless 
we persevere to the end. I left a wife in distress, and every tiling 
dear and valuable to come and afford you all the assistance in my 
power, and if you leave us in the midst of our difficulties while you 
have it so much in your power to promote the service, it must, throw 
a damper upon the spirits of the Army, to find the first men in the 
State are retiring from the busy scene, to indulge themselves in 
more agreeable amusements ; however, your reasons for wishing 
to decline the command of the militia, and for going to Philadelphia 
may be more pressing than I imagine, 1 will therefore add nothing 
more upon this subject till I see you. My reasons for writing so 
pressingly respecting the dragoons, was from the distress we were 
in. It is not my wish lo take the horses from the militia if it will 
injure the public service. The effects and consequences you can 
better judge of than I can. You have rendered important services 
to the publick with the militia under your command, and done great 
honour to yourself; and I would not wish to render your situation 
less agreeable with them, unless it is to answer some very great 
purpose, and this I persuade myself you would from a desire to 
promote the common good. I wish you success in the fort you 
are besieging. Lord Rawdon was out yesterday, we had the 
night before taken a new position on Sanders Creek, and imagined 
he came out to attack us expecting to find us on the Twenty-five 
Mile Creek. We did not like the situation on Sanders Creek to 
risk an action on, arid therefore took a new position at this place, 
leaving the Horse. Light Infantry, and Piquets at the old encamp- 


menf, the enemy came and drew upon the other side of the Creek, 
but did not attempt to cross, but retired into Camden before night- 
We are in daily expectation of a large reinforcement of Virginia 
militia and some Continental troops, when those arrive we shall 
push our operations with more vigour. No further news of Lord 

I am, sir, -with the highest esteem and regard, 

Your most obedient humhle servant, 


\No. 88.] Maj. Pendlcton (Aid-de-Camp) to Geril. Marion. 

General Greene has this moment recei/ed information that the 
enemy have evacuated Camden. They moved out this morning 
very early, after destroying the mill, the goal, and their stores, to 
gether with many private houses; what may have induced this un 
expected and precipitate movement is uncertain, but the General 
is of opinion that the same motives which have induced Lord Raw- 
don to take this step will also induce the evacuation of all the out 
posts, which the enemy have at Ninety-Six, Augusta and on the 
Congaree. He begs you to take such measures as may prevent the 
garrison at Mutt s from escaping. The army was to have moved 
to-morrow morning towards Friday s Ferry. I will move that way 
still, though by a different route and perhaps more slowly. It is un 
certain which way Lord Ravvdon took his loute; it was either to 
George Town or Charles Town and most probably the latter. 
The General is firmly of opinion the enemy will, if they can, 
evacuate all their out-posts. You will therefore take such mea 
sures as you think best calculated to prevent their design. 
I am, sir, with high respect, 

Your most obd t., most humble serv t., 

NATH. PENDLETON, Aid-de-Camp. 


[No. 89.] Lord Rawdon to Lieut. Col Lee. 

CAMP, May 14th, 1781. 
Sir : 

I beg leave to return you many thanks for your politeness in 
transmitting to me the letters which fell into your possession at 
Motte s house. Lieut. M Pherson having mentioned to me that you 
proposed an exchange of the garrison taken at that post, I have 
only to promise, that an equal number of continental officers and 
soldiers shall be immediately set at liberty for all such as General 
Greene may think proper to send to Charleston. 

Lieut. M Pherson farther informed me, that the troops taken at 
Wright s Bluff were understood by you not to have adhered to the 
terms of capitulation, as strictly as they ought to have done : I beg 
you will believe, sir, I consider the charge of so serious a nature, 
that the most exact inquiry shall be made upon it as soon as possi 
ble. I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


f No 90.] Gen 1. Greene to Samuel Huntingdon, Esq. 
From Tarlton s Southern Campaigns. 


May 14, 17S1. J 
Sir : 

I had the honour to send despatches to your excellency on the 
5th from near Camden, by Captain O Hara. On the 8th the place 
was evacuated by the enemy with the utmost precipitation ; Lord 
Rawdon burnt the greatest part of his baggage, stores, and even 
the effects belonging to the inhabitants ; he set fire also to the prison, 
mill, and several other buildings, and left the town little better than 
a heap of ruins : He left behind him our people who had been 
wounded in the action of the 25th of April, and had been tnken 
prisoners; they are thirty-one in number. His lordship left also fif 
ty-eight of his own people, with three officers, who were so badly 


wounded, that they could not bear a carriage. Several of the in 
habitants assert it as a fact, that, in the last action, the loss of 
the enemy, in killed and wounded, was not less than three hundred 

As soon as the enemy left Camden we took possession of it, and 
are now employed in raising all the works ; a plan of which I en 
close for your excellency. Had the Virginia militia joined us in 
time, the garrison must have fallen into our hands, as we should 
then have been able to invest the town on all sides ; and the garri 
son was in too great want of provisions and military stores to be 
able to stand out a siege. The detachments under General Marion 
and Lieut. Col. Lee, in the lower districts of the country, had cut 
off the enemy s provisions, and particularly salt, with which they 
were totally unprovided. On the 9th our arrny began their march 
towards this place. On the llth the post of Orangeburgh, defend 
ed by eighty men, under the command of a colonel and other offi 
cers, surrendered to Gen Sumtcr, who, by his skill in the disposi 
tion of his Artillery and Troops, so intimidated the garrison, that the 
place soon submitted. We thus got possession of a very strong 
post, without loss either of men or time; a great quantity of pro 
visions and other stores were found in it. The 12th, Motte s fort 
submitted to Gen i. Marion; the garrison consisted of upwards of 
one hundred and forty men; one hundred and twenty were British 
or Hessians, with seven or eight officers. The place had been in 
vested the 8th ; nor did it surrender till our troops had made their 
approaches regularly up to the abbatis ; the redoubt was very 
strong, and commanded by Lieutenant M Pherson, a very brave 
young officer. Great praise is due to General Marion, and the 
handful of militia that remained with him till the reduction of the 
fort. Lieut. Col. Lee s Legion, and the detachments under Major 
Eaton, the artillery under Capt Finlay, and the corps of Infantry 
under Captains Oldham and Smith, were indefatigable in carrying 
on the siege There were found in the fort, one carronade, one hun 
dred and forty muskets, a quantity of salt provisions, and other 

When we marched from Deep river towards Camden, I wrote to 
General Pickens to assemble all the militia he could muster, to lay 
siege to Augusta and Ninety-Six. These two places are actually 


invested, arid the fort at Friday s ferry will be invested to-morrow 
morning, as Lieut. Col. Lee sot out for that purpose last night, with 
his Legion, aud the several detachments which serve under him : 
The whole army began their march this morning for the same place. 
The last intelligence I received, informed me that Lord Rawdon 
was near Nelson s ferry, where the enemy have a post ; but they 
were sending away their stores from it, which sufficiently indicates 
that they intend shortly to evacuate. Gen s. Sumter and Marion 
narrowly watch all his lordship s motions. I arn, &c.. 


[No. 91.] H. Barry to Messrs. Wells fy Son. 

CHARLESTON, May 17, 1781. 
Gentlemen : 

Several prisoners on parole, having been this day taken up. and 
sent on board ship, the motives for which are explained in the enclo 
sed copy of a letter to them ; I am directed by the commandant to 
desire you will insert the same in your next paper, for the informa 
tion of the public. I am, gentlemen, 

Your most obedient servant, 

H. BARRY, Sec D. A. General. 

f No. 92.J N Balfour to the Militia prisoners of War. 

CHARLESTON, May 17, 1781. 

Gentlemen : 

Many have been the representations which the outrages commit 
ted by the American troops, and their violations of all the humaner 
principles of war, havecompelled me to make to such of their officers 
as commanded parties in this province; but more particularly have 
I been obliged to remonstrate against the rigorous treatment, in 
many cases extending to death, which the loyal militia, when made 
prisoners, most, invariably experience. 

These representations, gentlemen, having been grounded on the 


truest principles of benevolence, and which it behoves each Bide 
equally to have advanced, I was as much surprised as I was mor 
tified, to find them in all cases practically disregarded, and iti many, 
wholly neglected. It is then fore become my duty, however irk 
some to myself, to try how far a more decided line of conduct will 
prevrtil, and whether the safety of avowed adherents to their cause, 
may not induce the American troops to extend a proper clemency 
to those whose principles arm them in defence of British govern 

Induced by these mo ives, I have conceived it an act of expedi 
ency to seize on your persons, and retain them as hostages for the 
good usage of fill the loyal militia who are, or may be made pri 
soners of war, resolving to regulate, in the full extent, your treat 
ment by the measure of thrirs, and which my feelings make me 
hope may hereuftt>r be most lenient. 

And as I have thought it necessary that those persons, who some 
time since were sent from thence to St. Augustine, should, in this 
respect, be considered in the same point of view as yourselves, I 
shall send notice there, that they be likewise held as sureties for a 
future propriety of conduct towards our militia prisoners. 

Reasons so cogent, and which have only the most humane pur 
poses for their objects, will, I doubt not, be considered by every 
reasonable person as a sufficient justification of this most necessary 
measure, even in.those points where it may militate with the capitu 
lation of Charleston ; though indeed the daily infractions of it, by 
the breach of paroles, would alone well warrant this procedure. 

Having been thus candid in stating to you the causes for this 
conduct, I can have no objectio s to your making any proper use 
of this letter you may judge to your advantage, and will therefore, 
should you deem it expedient, grant what flags of truce may be 
necessary to carry out copies of it to any officer commanding 
American troops in these parts, and in the mean time the fullest di 
rections will be given, that your present situation be rendered as 
eligible as the nature of circumstances will admit. 

I am, gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, 



\No. 93.] Major Burnet (Aid-de-Camp) to General Marion. 

Sir : 

I am directed by Gen l. Greene to inform you of the surrender 
of Fort Granhy ; five pieces of iron Ordnance, nineteen officers 
and three hundred and twenty nine privates fell into our hands- 
The army will march this morning on the route to Ninety Six. 
The General has directed General Sumter to continue at this post 
to command and organize the militia. You will be pleased to con 
tinue to harrass the enemy and to receive General Summer s orders. 
You will also arrange your Brigade with expedition, and be in rea 
diness to co-operate with this army, should an opportunity offer. 
I am, with great respect, 

Your most obd t. humble servant, 

J. BURNET, Aid-de-Camp. 

[No. 94. J Lieut. Col. Striken Moore and Major John Barmvcll 
to Lieut. Col. Nesbit Balfour. 


May 18. 1781. \ 

In conformity to your letter of yesterday, we embrace your of 
fer of forwarding a copy of the same, together with a roll of the 
prisoners onboard this ship, and a letter addressed to Major Gen l. 
G reene, all which are enclosed. We could wish one of our number 
might be suffered to attend the flag of truce. We are, sir, 
Your most obedient humble servants, 


[No. 95.] Lieut. Col. Stephen Moore and Major John Barnwcll, 
to Gen. Greene. 


May 18, 1781. \ 
We have the honor of enclosing you a copy of a letter from Col. 


Balfour. commandant at Charleston, which was handed usimmedL 
ately on our being put on board this ship ; the letter, speaking for 
itself, needs no comment ; your \visdom will best dictate the notice 
it merits. We would just beg leave to observe, that should it fall 
to the lot of all, or any of us, to be made victims, agreeably to the 
menaces therein contained, we have only to regret that our blood 
cannot be disposed of more to the advancement of the glorious 
cause to which we have adhered. A separate roll of our names at 
tend this letter. 

With the greatest respect, we are, sir, 

Your most obedient and humble servants, 
STEPHEN MOORE, Lieut. Col. N. Carolina Militia. 
JOHN BARNWELL, Major So Ca. Militia, 

for ourselves and 130 prisoners. 

On board the Prison-skip Tori} ay. 

William Axon. Samuel Ash, George Arthur, John Anthony, 
Ralph Atmore, John Baddeley, Peter Bonnetheau, Henry Ben- 
bridge, Joseph Ball, Joseph Bee, Nathaniel Blundell, James Brick- 
en. Francis Bayle, Wi.liam Basquin, John Clarke, jr., Thomas 
Cooke, Norwood Conyers, James Cox, John Dorfius, Jospph. 
Dunlap, Rev d. James Edmonds, Thomas Elliot, Joseph El 
liot, John Evans, John Eberly, Joseph Glover, Francis Grott, 
Mitchell Gargic, William Graves, Peter Guerard, Jacob Henry, 
David Hamilton, Thomas Harris. William Hornby, Daniel Jacoby, 
Charles Kent, Samuel Lockhart, Nathaniel Lebby, Thomas Lift.or, 
Thomas Legare, John Lesesne, Henry Lybcrt. John Michael) 
John Minott, sr., John Moncrief, Charles M Donald, John Minott, 
jr., Samuel Miller, Stephen Moore, George Monck, Jonathan Mor 
gan, Abraham Mariette, Solomon Miluer, John Neufville, jr., 
Philip Priolpau, Janrs Poyas, Job Palmer. Joseph Robinson, Dan. 
iel Rhody, Joseph Righton, William Snellirig; John Stevenson, jr., 
Paul Snyder, Abraham Seavers, Ripley Singleton; Samuel Scot- 
towe. Stephen Shrewsbury, John Saunders, James Toussiger, Paul 
Taylor, Sims White, James Wilkins Isaac White, George Welch, 
Benjamin Wheeler, William Wilkie, John Welch, Thomas You. 


On board the Schooner Pack- Horse. 

John Barmvell, Edward Barn well, Robert Barnwell, William 
Branford, John Blake, Thomas Cochran, Joseph Cray, Robert De- 
war, H. W. Desaussure, Thomas Eveleigh, John Edwards, jr., 
John W. Edwards, William Elliot, Benjamin Guerard, Thomas 
Grayson, John Gibbons, Philip GaJs. len, John Greaves, William 
H. tiervey, John B. Holmes, William Holmes, Thomas Hughes, 
James Hey ward, George Jones, Henry Kennon, John Kean, 
Stephen Lee, Philip Meyer, George Mosse, William NeufYille, 
John Owen, Charles Pinkney, jr , Samuel Smith, YV 7 illiam Wigg, 
Charles Warham, Thomas Waring, sr., Richard Waring, John 
Waters, David Warham, Richard Yeadon, 

Published by order of Congress, 


[No. 96.] Stephen Moore and others, to Lieut. Col. Balfour. 


May 19. 1781. 


Sir : 

Yesterday we transmitted to you a letter, enclosing a copy of 
yours, with a list of one hundred and twenty-nine prisoners of war, 
confined on board this ship, which we hope is forwarded to Major 
Gen l. Greene, agreeably to your promise, and make no doubt but 
that your feelings as a gentleman will, upon this occasion, induce 
you to do every thing in your power to liberate, from a most inju 
rious and disagreeable confinement, those against whom there can 
exist no charge of dishonor, and whose only crime, if such it can 
possibly be termed by men of liberal ideas, is an inflexible attach 
ment to what they conceive to be the rights of their country, and 
who have scorned to deceive you by unmeaning professions. In 
justice to ourselves we must say, that if the Americans have at any 
time so far divested themselves of that character of humanity and 
generosity, which ever distinguished them, we feel ourselves most 
sensibly mortified, but are induced, from the generous treatment of 


Cols. Lechmere, Hugely, Fenwicke and Kelsell, and their parties, 
and from a number of other instances which might he easily addu 
ced, to believe, that the outrages which you complain of, must be 
the effect of private resentment (subsisting between British subjects 
and those who, after having availed themselves of the royal pro 
clamation, have resumed their arms, in opposition to that govern 
ment) and totally unsanctioned by any American officer, and which 
\ve are well convinced they would reprobate and would punish in 
the most exemplary manner, could the perpetrators of such horrid 
acts be detected. 

In a war, circumstanced as the present, there will be some in 
stances of enormities on both sides. We would not wish to partic 
ularise, but doubt not there are acts of cruelty frequently committed 
bv the irregulars of your army, and are convinced, that on your 
pait, as well as our own, they are generally to be attributed to an 
ignorance of the rules of warfare, and a want of discipline ; but 
the idea of detaining in close custody ns hostages a number of men 
fairly taken in arms, and entitled to the benefits of a solemn capitu 
lation, is so repugnant to the laws of war, and the usage of civilized 
nations, that we apprehend it will rather be the means of increasing 
Us horrors, than answering those purposes of humanity you expect. 

As a most strict adherence to the terms of our paroles, and a firm 
reliance on your honor, have been the only reasons of our being in 
your power at, present, we trust, that upon equitable proposals be 
ing made for our exchange by Gen. Greene, no objections will be 
raised, but every thing done to bring the matter to tiie most speedy 

As you have thought proper to publish your reasons for seizing 
upon our persons, we request our answer may also be inserted in 
the next Gazette. We are, sir, 

Your most obedient servants, 

STEPHEN MOORE, and others. 

[No. 97 ] Lord Rawdon to Earl Cornwallis. 
From Turlton a Southern Campaigns. 

MONK S CORNER, May 24th, 1781. 
The situation of affairs in this Province has made mo judge it 


necessary, for a time, to withdraw my force from the back coun 
try, and to assemble what troops I can collect at this point. I hope 
a recital of the circumstances which have led to this determination 
will satisfy your lordship as to the expediency of the measure. 

After the action of the 25th of April, (an account of which I 
had the honour of transmitting to your lordship) Major General 
Greene remained for some days behind the farthest branch of 
Granby s Quarter Creek. A second attempt upon his army could 
not, in that situation, be undertaken upon the principle which ad 
vised the former. . In the first instance. I made so short an excur 
sion from my works, that I could venture, without hazard, to leave 
them very slightly guarded ; and I had the confidence, that, had 
fortune proved unfavorable, we should easily have made good our 
retreat, and our loss, in all probability, would not have disable 1 us 
from the farther defence of the place. To get at General Greene 
in his retired situation, I must have made a very extensive circuit, 
in order to head the creek, which would have presented to him the 
fairest opportunity of slipping by me to Camden ; and he was still 
so superior to me in numbers, that, had I left such a garrison at my 
post as might enable it to stand an assault, my force in the field 
would have been totally unequal to cope with the enemy s army. 
I had much to hope from the arrival of reinforcements to me, and 
little to fear from any probable addition to my antagonist s force. 

Whilst, upon that principle, I waited for my expected succours, 
Gen. Greene retired from our front, and, crossing the Wateree, took 
a position behind Twenty-five Mile Creek. On the 7th of May, 
Lieut. Col. Watson joined me with his detachment, much reduced 
in number through casualties, sickness, and a reinforcement which 
he had left to strengthen the garrison at George Town. He had 
crossed the Santee near its mouth, and had recrossed it a little below 
the entrance of the Congaree. 

On the night of the 7th, I crossed the Wateree at Camden ferry, 
proposing to turn the flank and attack the rear of Greene s army, 
where the ground was not strong, though it was very much so in 

The troops had scarcely crossed the river, when I received notice 
that Greene had moved early in the evening, upon getting informa 
tion of my being reinforced, I followed him by the direct road, and 
found him posted behind Swaney s creek. 


Having driven in his pickets, I. examined every point of his situ 
ation ; I found it every where so strong, that I could not hope to 
force it without suffering such loss as must have crippled my force 
for any future enterprise ; and the retreat lay so open for him, I 
could not hope that victory would give us any advantage sufficient 
ly decisive to counterbalance the loss. 

The creek (though slightly marked in the maps) runs very high 
into the country. Had I attempted to get round him, he would 
have evaded me with ease ; for, as his numbers still exceeded mine, 
I could not separate my force to fix him in any point, and time (at 
this juncture most important to me) would have been thus unprofit- 
ably wasted. I therefore returned to Camden the same afternoon, 
after having in vain attempted to decoy the enemy into action, by 
affecting to conceal our retreat. 

On the 9th I published to the troops, and to the militia, my design 
of evacuating Camden, offering to such of the latter as chose to 
accompany me every assistance that we could afford them. Dur 
ing the ensuing night I sent off all our baggage, &c., under a strong 
escort, and destroyed the works remaining at Camden, with the 
rest of the troops, till ten o clock the next day, in order to cover 
the march. 

On the night of the 13th, I began to pass the river at Nelson s 
ferry, and by the evening of the 14th, every thing was safely across. 
Some mounted militia had attempted to harass our rear guard on 
the march ; but a party of them having fallen into an ambuscade, 
the rest of them gave us no farther trouble. We brought off all 
the sick and wounded, excepting about thirty, who were too ill to 
be moved, and for them I left an equal number of continental pris 
oners in exchange. We brought off all the stores of any kind of 
value, destroying the rest ; and we brought off not only the mili 
tia who had been with us at Camden, but also all the well-affected 
neighbors on our route, together with the wives, children, negroes 
and baggage, of almost all of them. 

My first news, upon landing at Nelson s, was, that the post at 
Motte s house had fallen. It was a simple redoubt, and had been 
attacked formally by sap. Lieut. M Pherson had maintained it 
gallantly till the house in the centre of it was set in flames by fire 
arrows, which obliged his men to throw themselves into the ditch, 
and surrender at discretion. 


But as Major M Arlhur had joined me with near three hundred 
foot and eighty dragoons. I conceived 1 might, without hazarding 
too far, endeavor to check the enemy s operations on the Conga ree. 
On the 14lh, at night, I marched from Nelson s, arid on the even 
ing of tliel/)th I reached the point where the roads from Conga- 
rees and M Cord s ferry unite. Various information was brought 
to me thither, that Greene had passed the Conguree, at M Cold s 
ferry, and had pushed down the Orangeburgh road. The accounts 
though none of them po.-itive or singly satisfactory, corresponded 
so much, that I was led to believe them, ami the matter was of such 
moment, that it would not admit of my pausing for more certain 
information ; therefore, after giving the troops a little rest, I moved 
back to Eutaws the same night, but hearing nothing there, I pur 
sued my march hither. 

By my present situation, I cover those districts from which 
Charles Town draws its present supplies I am in readiness to 
improve any favourable occurrence, and guard against any untoward 

It is a secondary, but not a trifling advantage, that I have been 
able to supply the troops with necessaries; for the want of which, 
occasioned by the long interruption of our communication, they 
suffered serious distresses. 

I am using every effort to augment our cavalry, in hopes that the 
arrival of some force will speedily enable us to adopt a more active 

[No. 9S.J Gcn l. Greene to Gen I. Marion. 

CAMP BKFORE NINETY-SIX, May 26th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I arn favored with your letters of the 19th and 20th. I am sur 
prised at. the enemy s conduct towards the party sent as an escort 
to the prisoners taken at fort Motte. and the more so as the party 
was for their protection and at their request. The insult offered to 
our people deserves resentment, and you have my full consent to 
treat their officers as they treat ours, but, at the same time it i.s my 
wish to cany on the war upon the most liberal principles and as 


correspondent with the law of humanity as the nature of the ser 
vice will admit If the enemy are making no preparation to inter 
cept the siege at this place or Augusta, and Gen. Sumter don t 
think himself exposed in consequence of your moving to 
George Town, of wliich I have desired him to inform you, I have 
no objection to your making the attempt you propose. But if Lord 
Rawdon is making preparations for offensive operations which may 
interrupt the sieges now carrying on, or expose Gen l. Sumter in 
his present situation, I would not wish you to make the attempt as 
that is bin an inferior obje. t. Before this reaches you, you will be 
bftter informed of the state and intentions of the enemy below. 
The last account I had of Lord Cornwallis, he was at Halifax, in 
North Carolina, and seemed disposed to rest there for some time, 
probably with a view of concerting a plan for forming a junction 
with Gen l. Philip*. I beg my most re>p?ctful compliments to 
Col. Horry and Major Mayham and the rest of the gentlemen with 
you. I am, sir, with esteem and regard, 

Your obd t. humble servant. 


[No. 99. | Earl Cornwallis to Sir Henry C/ in ton. 

The arrival of the reinforcement has made rne easy about Ports 
mouth for the present. I have sent Gen. Leslie thither with the 
seventeen h Regirn nt and the two BaUa ions of Anspach. keeping 
the forty-third with the army. I shall now proceed to dislodge La 
Fayette from Richmond; and, with my light troops, to destroy any 
magazines or stores in t ie neighborhood. whio:h may have been col 
lected either for his use or Gen. Greene s army. From thence I 
propose to move to the neck of Willi;imsburgh. which is represent 
ed as healthy, and where; som subsistence may be procured ; arid 
keep myself unengaged from operations which might. int< rf- re wiih 
your plan for the campaign, until I have he satisfaction of hearing 
from you 1 hope I shall then have an opportunity to receive bet 
ter information than has hitherto been in my power to procure, rela 
tive to a proper harbour ami plaoe of arms. At present I am in- 


clined to think well of York. The objections to Portsmouth are, 
that if. cannot be made strong, without an army to defend it ; that 
it is remarkably unhealthy, and can give no protection to a ship of 
the line. Wayne has not yet joined La Fayette ; nor can I posi 
tively learn where he is, nor what is his force. Greene s cavalry 
are said to be coming this way ; but I have no certain accounts of it. 
Most respectfully yours, 


[The following is Gen. Pickens and Lieut. Col. Lee s report of 
the capitulation of Fort Cornwallis.J 

[No. 100.1 Brig. Gen. Andrew Pickens and Lieut. Col. Lee, jr. to 
Lieut. Col. Brown. 

From Tarlton s Southern Campaigns. 

AUGUSTA, May 31, 1781. 
Sir : 

The usage of war renders it necessary that we present you with 
an opportunity of avoiding the destruction which impends your 

We have deferred our summons to this late date, to preclude the 
necessity of much correspondence on the occasion. You see the 
strength of the investing forces; the progress of our works; and 
you may inform yourself of the situation of the two armies, by in 
quiries from Captain Armstrong, of the Legion, who has the honor 
to bear this. We have the honor to be, &c. 

ANDREW PICKENS, B. G. militia. 

HENRY LEE, jr., Lieut. Col. com dg. cont l. troops. 

[No. 101.] Lieut. Col. Thomas Brown to Brig. Gen. Pickens and 
Lieut. Col. Lee. 

Gentlemen : 

What progress you have made in your works I am no stranger 
to. It is my duty and inclination to defend this post to the last ex 
tremity. I have the honor to be, &c. THOS. BROWN, 

Commanding the King s troops at Augusja. 


\ No. 102.] Gen. Pickens and L>eut. Col. Lee, jr. to Lieut. Col. 


It is not our disposition to press the unfortunate. 
To prevent the effusion of blood which must follow perseverance 
in your fruitless resistance, we inform you, that we are willing 
though in the grasp of victory, to grant such terms as a comparative 
view of our respective situations can warrant. 

Your determination will be considered as conclusive, and will 
regulate our conduct. 

We have the honour to be, &c. 5 
ANDREW PICKENS, B. G. miliiia. 
HENRY LEE, JR., Lieut. Col.Com dg. Cont l. troops. 

[No. 103.J Lieut. Col. Brown to Brig. Gen. Pickens and H. 

Lee, jr. 


Gentlemen : 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your summons 
of this day, and to assure you, that as it is my duty, it is likewise 
my inclination to defend the post to the last extremity. 
I have the honour to be, &c., 

Lieut. Col. commanding the King s troops at Augusta. 

[No. 104.] Brig. Gen l. Picbcns and Henry Lee, jr. to Lieut. Col. 


HEAD QUARTERS, June 4, 1781. 

Sir : 

We beg leave to propose, that the prisoners in your possession 
may be sent out of the fort, and that they may be considered yours 
or ours as the siege may terminate. 


Confident that you cannot oppose the dictate of humanity and 
custom of war, we have only to sav, that any request from you of 
a similar nature will meet our assent. 

We have the honor to he,, &c. 
HENRY LEE, JR., Lieut. Col. Com dg Cont l. troops. 

f A0. 105.J Lieut. Col. Brown to Brig. Gen. Piclcens and Lieut. 

Col. Lee. 
Gentlemen : 

Though motives of humanity, and a feeling f >r the distresses of 
individuals, incline me to accede to what you have proposed concern 
ing the prisoners with us, yet many reasons, to which you cannot 
be strangers, forbid my complying with this requisition such at 
tention as I can, confident with good policy and my duty, shall be 
shewn them. I have the honour to be &c., 

Lieut. Col. Commanding the King s troops at Augusta. 

[No. 106.] L t. Col. Brown to Brig. Gen. Piclcens and L t. Col Lee. 

GcnCemen : 

In your summons of the 3d instant no particular conditions were 
specified ; I postponed the consideration of it to this day. 

From a desire to lessen the distresses of war to inJiviJuals, I am 
inclined to propose to you my acceptance of the enclosed terms, 
which being pretty similar to those granted to the commanding offi 
cers of the American troops and garrison in Charles Town, I ima 
gine will be honourable to both parties. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Lieut. Col., commanding the King s troops at Augusta. 


I No. 107.] Brig. Gen. Pickens and Lieut. Col Lee, jr. to Lieut, 

Col. Brown. 
Sir : 

There was a time when your proposals of this <3ate ought to have 
been accepted. That period is now passed. You have every no 
tice from us, and must have known the futility of your farther 

Although we should be justified by the military of both armies 
to demand unconditional submission, our sympathy for the unfortu 
nate and gallant of our profession has induced us to grant the hon 
ourable terms which we herewith transmit. 

We have the honour to be, &c., 
ANDREW PiCKENS, B G. Militia. 
HENRY LEE, JR.. Lieut. Col. Com dg. Cdnt l. troops. 

(No. 108.J Lt. Col Brown to Brig. Gen. Pickens and Lt. Col Lee. 

FORT CORNWALLIS, June 5, 1781. 

Gentlemen : 

Your proposition relative to the officers of the King s troops and 
militia being admitted to their paroles, and the exclusion of the men, 
is a matter I cannot accede to. 

The conditions I have to propose to you are, that*such of the dif 
ferent classes of men who compose this garrison, be permitted to 
march to Savannah, or continue in the country, as to them may be 
most eligible, until exchanged. 

1 have the honour to be, &c., 

Lieut. Col. commanding the King s troops at Augusta. 

{No. 109.] Brig. Gen. Pickcns and Lieut. Col. Lee, jr. to Lieut 

Col. Brown. 

FORT AUGUSTA, June 5, 1781. 

In our answer of this morning, we granted the most generous 


terms in our power to give, which we beg leave to refer to as final 
on our part. We have the honour to be, &c., 


HENRY LEE, JR , Lieut. Col. Com dg. Cont l. troops. 

[No. 110.J Lieut. Col. Brown to Brig. Gen. Pickens and Lieut. Col. 

Lee, jr. 

FORT CORNWALLIS, June 5, 1781. 

Gentlemen : 

As some of the articles proposed by you are generally expressed, 
I have taken the liberty of deputing three gentlemen to wait upon 
you for a particular explanation of the respective articles. 
1 have the honor to be, &c., 

Lieut. Col., Commanding the King s troops at Angusta. 

Articles of capitulation proposed l>y Lieut. Col. Brown, and ansiver~ 
ed by Gen Pickens and Lieut. Col. Lee. 

ART. I. That all acts of hostilities and works shall cease between 
the besieged until the articles of capitulation shall be agreed on, 
signed, and executed, or collectively rejected. 

ANSWER. Hostilities shall cease for one hour ; other operations 
to continue. 

ART. II. That the fort shall be surrendered to the commanding 
officer of the American corps, such as it now stands. That the 
King s troops, three days after signing the articles of capitulation, 
shall be conducted to Savannah, with their baggage, where they 
will remain prisoners of war until they are exchanged ; that pro 
per conveyances shall be provided by the commanding officer of 
the American troops for that purpose, together wrh a sufficient 
quantity of good and wholesome provisions till their arrival at 


ANSWER. Inadmissible. The prisoners to surrender field pri 
soners of war : The officers to be indulged with their paroles ; the 
soldiers to be conducted to such place as the commander-in-chief 
shall direct. 

ART. ill. The militia now in garrison shall be permitted to re 
turn to their respective homes, and be secured in their persons and 

ANSWER. Answered by the second article, the militia making 
part of the garrison. 

ART. IV. The sick and wounded shall he under the care of their 
own surgeons, and be supplied with such medicines and necessaries 
as are allowed to the British hospitals. 


ART. V. The officers of the garrison, and citizens who have 
borne arms during the siege, shall keep their side arms, pistols, and 
baggage, which shall not be searched, and rUain their servants. 

ANSWER. The officers and citizens who have borne arms during 
the siege shall be permitted their side arms, private baggage, and 
servants ; their side arms are not to be worn ; and the baggage to 
be searched by a person appointed for that purpose. 

ART. VI. The garrison, at an hour appointed, shall march out, 
with shouldered arms and drums beating, to a place to be agreed 
on, where they will pile their arms. 

ANSWER. Agreed. The judicious and gallant defence made by 
the garrison, entitles them to every mark of military respect. The 
fort to be delivered up to Captain Rudolph at twelve o clock, who 
will take possession with a detachment of the Legion Infantry. 

ART. VII. That the citizens shall be protected in their persons 
and properties. 

ANSWER. Inadmissible. 

AKT. VIII That twelve months shall be allowed to all such as 
do not choose to reside in this country, to dispose of their effects, 
real and personal, in this province, without any molestation what 
ever, or to remove to any part thereof as they may choose, as well 
themselves as families. 

ANSWER. Inadmissible. 

ART IX. That tiie Indian families now in garrison shall accom 
pany the King s troops to Savannah, where they will remain prison- 


ers of war until exchanged for an equal number of prisoners in the 
Creek or Cherokee nation. 

ANSWER. Answered in the second article. 

ART. X. That an express he permi ted to go to Savannah with 
the commanding officer s dispatches, which are not to be opened. 
ANSWER. Agreed 

ART. XI. Additional. The particular attention of Col. Brown 
is expected towards the just delivery of all public stores, monies, 
&c.j .md that no loans be permitted to defeat the spirit of this 

Signed at Head Quarters, Augusta, June 5, 1781, by 
HENRY LEE, JR, Lieut. Col. Commandant. 

Lieut. Col. Com dg King s troops at Augusta. 


"By the riglit Hon Francis Lord Raivdon, Col. commanding a 
corps of his Majesty s forces in Carolina, fyc., and Nrs- 
lit Balfour, Esq., Lieut. Col. and Commandant of Charles 
ton, 8fc. 

Although attention to the general security < f the province has 
obliged his Majesty s troops, for the present, to relinquish some of 
the upper pans of it, we trust, that it is unnessary for us to exhort 
the loyal inhabitants of those districts to stand firm in their duty 
and principles; or to caution them against the insidious artifices of 
an enemy, who must shortly abandon to their fate, those unfortunate 
people whom they have deluded into revolt. 

But being well informed, that many persons, sincprely attached 
to his Majesty s cause, have, notwithstanding, been forced to join 
the enemy, as the only means of preserving themselves and 
their families from the savage cruelty of the rebel militia, until es 
cape should be practicable ; we desire all such to be confident, that 
they run no risk of suffering from us, through indiscriminate ven 
geance ; reminding them, that the British government never ex- 


tends its hand to blood, without the most convincing proofs of in 
tentional guilt. 

And we advise all persons in the above predicament, as likewise 
who, from the oppressions of the enemy, have been obliged to quit 
their possessions, to take the earliest opportunity of coming 1 in, with 
thei 1 arms, to any post or detachment of the royal army. We give 
them assurances of every support, and of every endeavor on our 
part, to mitigate their present sufferings; further declaring to them 
that we shall feel ourselves no less bound to reward the fidelity of 
those who have remained unshaken in their allegiance, than to inflict 
the punishment due to reiterated perfidy. Nor should we give 
them this invitation, were we not certain that, in conjunction with 
the army, daily expecting powerful reinforcement, their exertions 
will very shortly reinstate them in the full and peaceable possession 
of that property, which they will ihus have only yielded for a lime, 
to receive again with confirmed security. 

Given under our hands in camp, at Monk s Corner, the twenty- 
fourth day of May, 1781. and in the twenty-third year of his 
Majesty s reign. " R \WDON, 

By order of his lordship and the commandant, 

H. BARRY, Dep. Adj t. Gen l. 

[No 11 1 ] Lord Rawdon to Lieut. Gen. Cornwallis. 

CHARLES TOWN, June 5ih, 1781. 

Gen. Greene invested Ninety Six on the 2-id of May. To my 
great satisfaction, however, I learned, by messages which 1 have 
found means to interchange with Lieut. Col. Cruger. that the new- 
works were completed before the enemy s approach. The garri 
son is ample for the extent, and the fire of the enemy had no effect. 
Lieut. Col. Cruger, therefore, only apprehends, that relief may 
not arrive before his provisions are expended. 

Fortunately we are now in a condition to undertake succouring 
him. without exposing a more valuable stake; and from ihe report 


of his provisions which he sent to me, I trust we shall be fully in 

Augusta is likewise besieged ; but I hope in little danger. Sir 
James Wright represented so strongly the wants of troops at Sa 
vannah, that I thought it necessary to send the King s American 
Regiment thither with all dispatch. 

On the 3d instant the fleet from Ireland arrived, having aboard 
the 3d, 19th, and 30th Regiments, a detachment from the Guards, 
and a considerable body of recruits ; the whole under the command 
of Col. Gould, of the 30th. Lieut Col. Balfourand I immediately 
made known to Col. Gould the power which your lordship had giv 
en to us, for detaining such part of the expected reinforcement as 
we might conceive the service required: And it has been settled, 
that fie three Regiments shall all remain here until your lordship 
signifies your pleasure respecting them. I shall march on the 7th 
towards Ninety Six, having been reinforced by the flank compa 
nies of the three new Regiments. 

lam happy in mentioning to your lordship a handsome testimo 
ny of zeal for his Majesty s interests, which has occurred here : 
Considerable difficulty having arisen in the formation of cavalry, 
some of the principal inhabitants of this town made a subscription, 
amounting to near three thousand guineas : which sum they request 
ed I would apply to the purpose of equipping a corps of dragoons 
in the manner I should judge most expedient. As I had no means 
of forming such a corps bwt by drafts from the infantry, I thought 
your lordship would be pleased that a compliment should be paid 
to the loyalty of the gentlemen above mentioned, by fixing upon 
men connected with the province; I have therefore ordered the 
South Carolina Regiment to be converted into cavalry, and I have 
the prospect of their being mounted and completely appointed in a 
few days. 

\No. 112 ] Extract of a letter frorn Col. Lord Rawdon to Sir Hen 
ry Clinton. 

CHARLES TOWN, June 6th, 1781. 

I cannot in any manner give your excellency a more explicit ac 
count of what has passed in this province, and of the present state 


of our affairs, than by enclosing to your excellency, copies of the 
letters which I have, at different periods, written to Lord Cornwal- 
lis. The situation of the province has been critical ; yet I am well 
convinced, that numbers have joined the enemy merely to shield 
themselves from the atrocious barbarity of the rebel militia, which 
has been been beyond what I have ever heard of among the most 
savage nations. Should we be successful in our present enterprise, 
it will probably be found necessary to make the Santee and Con- 
garee the boundaries of our posts, and to invite the friends of Gov 
ernment to settle upon the estates of revellers within the claim of 
our stations. The back parts of the province must necessarily de 
pend upon the country enclosed by those rivers, as long as we keep 
possession of the Chesapeake. 

[No. 113. \ Gen. Pickcns to Gen. Greene. 

AUGUSTA, June 7, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

A very disagreeable and melancholy affair which happened yes 
terday in the afternoon, occasions my writing to you at this time. 
I had ridden down to Browne s Fort where I had been but a few 
minutes, when information was brought me that a man had ridden 
up to the door of a room here, where Col. Grierson was confined, 
and, without dismounting, shot him so that he expired soon after, 
and instantly rode off; and though he was instantly pursued by 
some men on horseback, he effected his escape. Major Williams 
who was in the same room, immediately ran into a cellar, among 
the other prisoners; but standing in vi.nv, was soon after shot at, 
and wounded in the shoulder. 1 have given orders for burying 
Col. Grierson this afternoon with military honors, but as Col. 
Browne was also insulted yesterday, (though the man was for 
sometime confined for it,) and the people are so much exasperated 
against some individuals. I have found it necessary to give orders 
to cross the River with the prisoners, under the care of Col. Ham 
mond s Regiment, and Capt. Smith s detachment of North Caro 
linians, and march them to Ninety-Six, or till I meet your orders 


respecting" them; being fully persuaded that were they to march for 
Savannah, they would be beset on the road, but think they may go 
to Charleston by way of Ni ety-Six, if you should so order. 
With respect, your obedient servant, 


| No. 114.] Earl Cornwallls to Lieut. Col. Tarleton. 

Dear Tarleton : 

You will proceed with the detachment of cavalry and mounted 
infan ry under your command, before day break to-morrow morn 
ing, to Albemarle old court-house, where you will destroy any 
stores you may find. If you then hear of no other stores of any 
consequence on this side the Fluvannah, and the baron Steuben 
should still be on the other side, you will cross that river, and make 
it your principal object to strike a blow at baron Steuben; as the 
corps under his command consists of part of the new levies, and is 
the foundation on which the body of the eighteen month s men, late 
ly voted by the province of Virginia, will be formed. It will be 
of the utmost importance to defeat and destroy it: I shall, there 
fore, wish you to take every means in your power of effecting this 
service, if you should see a probability of success. I likewise re 
commend it to you to destroy all the enemy s stores and tobacco be 
tween James river and the Dan ; and if there should be a quantity 
of provisions or corn collected at a private house, I would have 
you destroy it, even although there should be no proof of its being 
intended for the public service, leaving enough for the suppoit of 
the family ; as there is the greatest reason to apprehend that such 
provisions will be ultimately appropriated by the enemy to the use 
of Gen. Greene s army, which, from the present state of the Caro- 
linas, must depend on this province for its supplies. 

I shall proceed by easy marches to Richmond, and it will prob 
ably be a business of eight or nine days from this time before I can 
get up my boats to that place to receive you ; so that you may very 
well employ that time on your expedition. As it is very probable 


that some of the light troops of Gen. Greene s army may be on 
their march to this country, you will do all you can to procure in 
telligence of their route I need not tell you of what importance 
it will be to intercept them, or any prisoners of curs from South 

I would have all persons of consequence, either civil or military, 
brought to me before they are paroled. Mo-t sincerely wishing 1 
you success, and placing the greatest confidence in your zeal and 
abilities, I am, with great truth and regard, dear Tarleton, 
Most faithfully yours. 


[No. 115.] Gen I. Smntcr to Gen l. Marion. 

ANCRUM S, June 9th. 1781. 
Sir : 

I have just received your favour of the 6th instant, but have not 
that which you mention of the proceeding day. I find the enemy 
disposed to do us every possible injury. I am glad to hear you suc 
ceeded against George Town, and that you think of passing the San- 
tee soon, which will in some measure check the progress of the 
enemy. I have two Regiments moving downwards with orders to 
co-operate with Major Mayham others move to day- No perfect 
plan of operation can at; present be laid down. I shall be happy to 
have the earliest advices from you, after you pass the river and have 
obtained proper accounts of the situa ion of the enemy. I 
am sorry to hear of a reinforcement having arrived ; have 
hopes it may not be so considerable as is suggested The post at 
96 and Augusta are not as yet taken, they are obstinately defend 
ed, but consequently must fall in a few days. We have certain ac 
counts that all Pensacola is in possession of the Spaniards, that all 
the enemy s out works, at St. Augustine, are possessed by them; 
through the same channel of intelligence we learn that Admiral Kod- 
ne} has been defeated, in the West Indies, and that a fresh fleet is 
or will be on our coast very soon, which will give us a superiority 
at sea. I recollect I received yours of the 5ih yesterday, and sent 
your packet for Gen l. Greene on immediately. 1 am, sir, 
Your most obd t. servant. 



N. B. The increase of the enemy s force may render it expedi 
ent to collect our force, and unless your Brigade, that is the division 
called upon, are cheerfully out, we shall be but weak. Gen l. 
Greene has four Regiments from my Brigade with him, besides some 

[No. 116.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

CAMP BEFORE 96, June 10th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Yours of the 6th I have received with the enclosures. I had 
information of the arrival of a reinforcement at Charles Town, 
before your letter came to hand ; accounts are various respecting 
their numbers. By private information, the enemy intend to attempt 
raising the seige of this place, which I hope, will terminate in our 
favour. Should the enemy attempt to penetrate the country, I 
beg you to collect all the force you can and join Gen. Sumter, with 
out loss of time, and. give the enemy all the opposition you can, 
until we form a junction with our collective force, it being my in 
tention to fight them, and I wish them to be crippled as much as 
possible before w r e have a general action. Send me all the infor 
mation you can get. With esteem and regard, 

I am dear, sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 117.] Gen l. Greene to Gen l. Marion. 

CAMP BEFORE 96, June 10th, 1781. 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your favours of the 22d 
and 29th ultimo. It gives me great pleasure to hear the enemy 
have left George Town, and I am of opinion wilh you that it will 
be attended with many good consequences to that part of the coun 
try. After you have dismantled the enemy s works, you will col 
lect your force, take the position you mentioned, and act in conjunc 
tion with Gen l. Sumter, agreeably to the advice I gave you before. 
I have the pleasure to congratulate you on the reduction of the 


enemy s fort at Augusta. This event took place on the 7th inst. by 
capitulation, and I hope in a few days to have the pleasure of con 
gratulating you on the reduction of this place, but we are opposed 
by many difficulties, and the garrison resists with great obstinacy. 
I am, sir, with every sentiment of respect and esteem 
Your very humble servant, 


I No. 118.] Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

June 13th, 1781. 

I find the enemy still advances, and in all probability 96 is their 
object. That place is not yet taken ; to have the siege raised 
would be of great injury to us. You will be pleased to disencum 
ber yourself of all heavy baggage, and march with all possible 
expedition on towards 96, so as for our whole force to act together 
if requisite. You will find plenty of meal and corn at Saylor s 
Mill, near the Congaree. lam sir, with esteem, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 119.1 Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

CONGAREE, June 14th, 1781. 

I have this morning received accounts that the enemy are not 
moving upwards; the parties that have been discovered, are said to 
be Tories, in consequence of which I advise you to halt, until this 
matter can be clearly ascertained ; in the meanwhile beg you may 
collect as large a force as you can, so that we may act offensively, 
if the enemy remain and cover so much of the country. I hope to 
have the pleasure of seeing you soon, until which I have nothing 
further to recommend, but that of gaining the best intelligence you 
can of the enemy s strength and situation, covering the country and 
being ready to move, if the designs of the enemy and Gen. Greene s 
particular circumstances should render it necessary. The enemy at 


96 is very obstinate; they sally almost every night, arid have suf 
fered considerably by it of late. I don t expect to hear of the 
reduction of that post lor some days yet. The Tories have been 
troublesome towards the Savannah River. Col. R. Hampton has 
lately seen two of their parties upon Edisto, and near the Salt 

I have the honour lo be, with great respect, sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


\No. 120.J Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

CONGAREE, June 15th, 1781. 


I wrote you since the letter of mine, which you mention 
having received, that the enemy were not advancing. It again 
appears probable they are, and from the accounts you have of their 
reinforcements, there is every reason to think they mean to repos 
sess themselves of this country again. I therefore think it advisable 
that we keep in the field as large a force as possible. I recommend 
that you do call out at least three-fourths of your Brigade, and 
move higher up the River, in readiness to cross, if the enemy con 
tinue advancing. I have but little powder, will divide with you 
what I have, but cannot send it just now, the uncertain state that 
things are in puts it out of rny power to write accurately, even if I 
had time. It the militia ;ire obstinate and faithless, it will be neces 
sary to make examples of some. Great eeverky must be used, 
which if done, we have little to apprehend from the enemy. Nine 
ty-Six is not taken. 1 am, with esteem, 

Your most obil t. servant, 


N. B To any person, either officer or private, who may consider 
himself in my Brigade, I beg you will cause notice to be given 
that I request them immediately to join their proper Regiments, as 
nothing is more injurious to public service, than that of people de 
taching themselves. 


[No. 121.] Gen 1 1. Sumter to Gen l. Marion. 

CONGAREE, June 16th, 1781. 

I have just received yours of the I4rh inst. lam glad you are mo 
ving up; there is the greatest occasion for forced marches. I wrote 
you to-day that the enemy were upon the way to Ninety-Six. They 
go very slow. You may join me in time. You will get meal and 
other provisions at Taylor s Mill, south side the Congaree river, and 
ten miles from the fort, or at Ancrum s on the 7th. 1 have left with 
Col. Taylor some ammunition for you. This is a great push the 
enemy is making. I beg you may move with all the force you 
can and order out at least three-fourths of your Brigade; the whole 
might be the most eligible, those living high up. might pass through 
the fork, and I am yet at the Congaree. 

I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 


N. B. Please be so obliging as to forward Mr. Davis letter. 

[No. 122. J Gen. Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

CONGAREE. June 16th, 1781. 
Sir : 

The enemy are yet advancing, are some distance above Orange- 
burgh, their force considerable; Ninety-Six not yet taken ; every 
thing with respect to the siege going on well; time is all that is need 
ed. I wrote to Gen l Greene for ammunition for you, which, if 
he furnishes, I will have forwarded to meet you. In one day more 
the enemy s designs must be known, whether their object is Ninety- 
Six, or my party, to which they have already given much trouble in 
marching and counter marching. As their movements have been 
very singular and with uncommon caution, they are strong in horse. 
An express this moment from Gen l. Greene; the post not reduced, 
but in a fair way. I am, sir, 

Your most obd t. humble servant, 



Articles of agreement made and concluded between Col. Peter Hor- 
ry, in behalf of Gen l. Marion^ and Major Ganey ^ Commanding 
officer of the Tories or King s subjects, inhabitants lying between 
great Pee Dee River and North Carolina. 

ART. 1st. That from and after signing these articles, all hostili 
ties on both sides shall cease. 

ART. 2d. That both parties shall have free intercourse to traffick 
together unmolested. 

ART. 3d. That injuries committed on persons or property on ei 
ther side shall by the Captain or officer commanding the complain- 
antj be made known to the officer commanding the defaulter, when 
a jury composed of five men, two to be whigs and two tories, with 
an officer from the side of the complainant, shall be called on to set 
as a court martial to judge and determine the matter between them, 
and to inflict such punishment as shall appear reasonable and just. 

ART. 4th. That property taken not in action (but plundered) on 
being proved by either party, shall be restored. 

ART. 5th. That these articles of agreement and association shall 
continue for three months certain, or for any longer time not exceed 
ing twelve months, and be valued and binding on both parties as 
shall be ratified by the Honorable Gen l. Marion. Given under 
our hands at Pee Dee, June 17th, 1781. 

PETER HORRY, Col. Gen. Marion s Brigade. 

Treaty between Gen l. Marion in behalf of the State of South Car 
olina, and Major Ganey and the inhabitants under his commands 
which were included in the treaty made the Ylth June, 1781 (as 
above mentioned) with Major Ganey. 

ART. 1st. The men under his command to lay down their arms 
as enemies to the State, and are not to resume them again until call 
ed on to do so in support of the interest of the United States, and 
of this State in particular. 


ART. 2d. They will deliver up all negroes, horses, cattle and 
property that have been taken from this or any other State. 

ART. 3d. They will demean themselves as peaceable citizens of 
this State, and submit themselves in future to be governed by its 
laws, in the same manner as the rest of the citizens thereof. 

ART. 4th. They engage to apprehend and deliver up all persons 
within the district, vvl: o shall refuse to accede to these terms and 
contumaciously persist in rebellion against the State. 

ART. 5th. They will deliver up as soon as possible, every man 
who belongs to any regular line in the American service, and every 
inhabitant of North Carolina, or this or any other State, who have 
joined them since the 17th of June, 1781, when the last treaty was 
made, or oblidge them to go out of the district, and whenever they 
return, to take and deliver them into safe custody of any jail within 
the State. 

ART. 6th. Every man is to ?ign an instrument of writing, pro 
fessing his allegiance to the United States of America, and the State 
of South Carolina in particular, and to abjure his Britannic Majesty, 
his heirs, successors and adherents. 

ART. 7th. And promise to oppose all the enemies of the United 
States, and the State of South Carolina in particular. 

ART. 8th. The above eight articles being agreed on, they shall 
have a full pardon for all treason committed by them against the 
State, and enjoy their property and be protected by the laws thereof. 
ART. 9th. Such men as do not choose to accede to the above trea 
ty, shall deliver themselves as prisoners of war, and shall be safely 
conducted within the British lines, to be exchanged for so many 
American prisoners, and will be allowed to carry their wives and 
children and such property, (stock and arms excepted) as are really 
theirs. All arms, ammunition and warlike stores to be delivered up. 

[No. 123. \ Marquis La Fay ette to the officers on their way to the 
South, Carter s Ferry, Va. 

HEAD QUARTERS, June 21, 1781. 

Gentlemen : 

I send by the bearer a number of letters for the Southern army, 


some of them of the greatest importance, in so much that they 
should not be delivered into any other hands than Gen. Greene s. 
Should any delay arise to your company, I would request that one 
of you would proceed with as much despatch as convenient to the 
Head Quarters of the Southern army. 

The enemy moved this morning from Richmond ; it appears they 
have taken the road to Williamsburg. 
I have the honor to be 

Your most obd t. humble servant, 


It will be indeed a very great service to the public should the en 
closed be forwarded as speedily as possibly. I have the honor to 
wish you a good journey. 

Permit the bearer, an express, to pass. 


[No. 124.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 


June 25th. 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

I am favoured with your letter dated at the Congaree. The enemy 
have obliged us to raise the siege of Ninety-Six, when it was upon 
the eve of surrendering. It was my wish to have fought Lord Raw- 
don beforehe got to Ninety -Six, and could I have collected your force 
and that of Gen. Sumter and Pickens, I would have done it, and 
am persuaded we should have defeated him, but being left alone, I 
was obliged to retire. I am surprised the people should be so 
averse to joining in some general plan of operations. It will be 
impossible to carry on the war to advantage, or even attempt to 
hold the country, unless your force can be directed to a point ; and 
as to flying parties here and there, they are of no consequence in 
the great events of war. If the people will not be more united in 
their views, they must abide the consequences, for I will not cal 
culate upon them at all, unless they will agree to act conformably 
to the great law of recovering all parts of the country, and not par- 


ticular parts. Gen. Sumter is preparing for a manoeuvre down in 
the lower part of the State, and he will require your aid to bring it 
into effect. You will therefore call out all the force you can, and 
co-operate with him i:i any manner he may direct. Count De 
Grresse has defeated Admiral Rodney in the West Indies, and taken 
St. Lucia. These are facts, and you may propagate them. 
With esteem and regard, I am dear sir, 

Your humble servant, 


[No. 125.] Gen. Greene to Lieut. Col. Lee. 

June 25th, 1781. 
Dear Lee : 

I have just received your two letters of this clay. In my last I 
gave you full liberty to act as you thought proper, and circumstan 
ces dictated to be necessary. Sumter is on the march for the Con- 
garee, and will prepare to go still lower down. Let your move 
ments be correspondent with his, so far as you may find them 
consistent with the good of the service. We shall remain on this 
ground to-morrow, after which we shall move to the point agreed on. 

I think the enemy will have a hard struggle in evacuating Ninety- 
Six. I am rather inclined to think they will garrison it with tories 
if they can get provisions. If the enemy s reinforcements are as 
large as is represented, they will try to take post at the Congarees; 
and nothing but the fear of our army will prevent it. I cannot 
think it prudent while the British army is in the field, and we want 
to reduce them to the necessity of retiring into the lower country, 
to detach any part of our horse. It is not only necessary to have 
a superior cavalry, but a very great superiority. By keeping our 
selves collected we may effect what we wish ; but by dividing we 
may defeat the whole. Sumter and Marion are collecting their 
forces; and the militia from Roan and Mecklenburgh are collecting 
in considerable force. Armstrong h;is joined us this afternoon with 
the North Carolina regulars. A detachment of Continental troops 
has come up. If Pickens joins us with a considerable force it will 
be my wish to force Lord Rawdon to an action. 


Letters from Virginia to-day, hut nothing new. General Mor 
gan with a large body of Virginia riflemen are forming a junction 
with the Marquis. General Cadwallader also with 2000 Maryland 
minute-men have formed a junction with the Marquis. The people 
in that quarter are in high spirits, and a defeat and capture of the 
Earl is strongly talked of. But this you know will require hard 
blows. Some of the Southern army is much wished for ; 1 mean 
the Legion and the gallant Col. Lee. 

Yours affectionately, N. GREENE. 

[No. 126.] Gen. Greene to Lieut. Cjl. Lee. 

HEAD QUARTERS, June 29th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

By a deserter who came into the camp last evening, I learn the 
enemy have 16 wagons loaded with stores of different kinds moving 
up from Charleston, upon the Orangeburg road, under an escort o^ 
four hundred men and forty cavalry, for the use of Lord Rawdon s 
army. He left them at Four Holes, 35 miles below Orangeburg 
on Sunday last, and says they could not march more than 8 or 10 
miles a day, and adds that they were very sickly and much dissatis 
fied. I have directed Col. Washington to move down to An- 
crum s plantation on the Congaree, and Col. Middlelon to join him 
at that place If you are in a situation to form a junction with 
them I think you may take the whole of this escort with great ease. 
I beg you will take measures therefore without loss of time, forming 
a junction with them at that place, or advertising them where it 
may be effected to more advantage. Or if you think your force 
equal to the attempt, and that the opportunity may be lost by wait 
ing for a reinforcement, in that case, you will move a? further infor- 
ma ion may dictate to be necessary. As your collective force join 
ed to that of Washington and Middleton will effect the business 
without risque, I wish you not to hazard too much to effect it. But 
at any rate you will inform Co!. Washington what route you will 
move, and what you wish him to do. I shall send a duplicate of 
this letter for fear one should miscarry. 


I have the pleasure to inform you by letters received yesterday 
from Virginia, that Lord Cornwallis is retiring before the Marquis- 
Gen l. Washington joined by the French army has laid siege to New 
York with an army of 15,000 men. I have also official informa 
tion from Congress of the defeat of the British fleet in the West 
Indies. I have several other interesting pieces of intelligence which 
are flattering to our interests, but am not at liberty to disclose them 
at present. 

Part of our reinforcements have arrived, and the remainder of 
them are near. 

I rely upon your prudence and activity, and am, 
Yours affectionately, 


[No. 127.] to Gen I. Marion. 

PEE DEE, July 6th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I wrote you the 14th, which will be handed you by the bearer 
here, of our public business ; and now have to address you, sir, on 
account of slaves of one Capt. Kiriborough, who before Gates de~ 
feat withdrew himself from his plantation in this State with part of 
his property and twenty-seven slaves to Camden, as did many others 
from this river, where he remained late after the defeat, when he 
returned home without his slaves ; and about the twentieth of Sep 
tember, I, by order of Gov. Nash, took post on the Pee Uee to protect 
the inhabitants, and our scouts being constantly on duty, he could 
not get back if it was his choice, though he lay out till the 22d of 
November, when he surrendered himself to me a prisoner, subject 
to be tried by his country, and seemed to be very sorry for his past 
conduct on which I promised to permit him or some other person 
to go to bring in his property; and I in December gave him a per 
mit to send for his slaves home, on which he gave a bond payable 
to the Governor or his successors, for five hundred thousand pounds, 
with five able securities, for the producing the said slaves whenever 
the sense of the Legislature should be known; but he taking the 
Small Pox was not able to go after his property till the return of 


Gen l. Greene to the siege of Camden, some of whose officers rar- 
ried Mr. Kinborough to camp, and General Greene paroled him till 
en lied by the commanding officer of the Southern army, or the Le 
gislature of this State. Now the Assembly of this State is .setting* 
and Mr. Kinborouirh and others are called onin like circumstances, 
and will be judged guilty and their property confiscated or acquitted 
and restored to their privileges; and when Gen l. Greene paroled 
him, he directed him to apply to me for a pass to Mr. Gaynor to go 
for his slaves, and I thought the negroes oujht to be retained ti l 
the sense of the legislature should be known on Mr. Kinborou^h s 
case. When I gave the order, I should have addressed you, but 
expecting you then to be at George Town, and sundry persons of 
property being taken in the Congaree fort, who have withdrawn 
themselves from here, who \vere suffered to enlist out of custody in 
Gen l. Sumter s Brigade, and then hired substitutes, and have not 
served two weeks and are come home here; and some of them the 
most inveterate tory officers we were troubled with, and have 
brought home their own slaves and no doubt some that they plun 
dered from good men. Now Kinborough has hired a certain con 
tinental soldier during the war, and if Mr. Kinhorough s estate 
should be confiscated, it s no doubt with me that he being an in 
habitant of this State, that the personal estate will always go with 
the landed estate, and the commissioners of the confiscated estate have 
a right to collect the persons property that reside in their districts 
from any place in the United States, wherever it may be found, of 
which- I am a Commissioner for the district of Salisbury, or would 
not have sent for them. So if you judge that the State have a right 
to retain the property of the inhabitants of the State without the 
Confiscation act, carried into it, they would lose in theiraccoun sby 
it, as there are large numbers of slaves brought to this State from 
yours, the property of the disaffected judged when taken by plun 
dering parties which our laws put in the power of the county sher 
iffs to take into their care for the benefit of your State, or the own 
ers of good men. Now, sir, if you think proper to order those ne 
groes into my possession out of the hands of the several persons 
hands that have them, 1 will employ them in the Stafe of South 
Carolina, in the Commissary department, and be accountable for 
them to your State or ours as the case may be determined, as I am 


creditably informed they are all in bad hands, only a few in the hands 
of Capt. Spann, in whose hands if you don t choose to send them to 
me, I hope in justice to the public, you will order them, though I 
have sundry negroes in my care, that I took from people that plun 
dered them from your Slate, as the Gov. Ruiledge ordered me to 
take those kind of slaves till legally called for, which I have em 
ployed in beating out corn. 

[No. 128 J Extract of a Letter from Ad jt. Gen Williams to Maj. 
Pendleton, Aid-dc- Camp to Gen. Greene. 

CAMP HILLS, SANTEE, July 16, 1781. 
tl Deaf Pcndhton : 

" After you left us at Ninety-Six we were obliged to retrograde 
as far as r.he cross roads above Winnsborough. Lord Rawdon s re 
turn over Saluda induced the General to halt the army, and wait 
for intelligence respecting his further manoeuvres, and hearing a 
few days after that his lordship was on his march to fort Granby, 
our army was ordered to march towards that place by way of 
Winnsborough. Before we could arrive at Congaree, Lord Raw- 
don retired to Orangeburgh ; and as he had left a considerable part 
of his army at Ninety-Six, Gen. Greene detached the cavalry arid 
light infan ry to join Gen. Marion, and endeavor to intercept Col. 
Stewart, who was on his march from Charleston with the Third 
Regiment, &c., consisting of about three hundred, conveying bread, 
stores. &c., of which Lord Rawdon s troops were in great want. 
Stewart however joined his lordship at Orangeburgh; and Gen. 
Greene, from the information he had received, was encouraged to 
expect success from an attack upon the Biitish army at that post. 
Accordingly he collected his troops, and called together the militia 
and state troops under Gen s. Sumterand Marion (Gen. Pickens be 
ing left; to watch the motions of Col. Cruger). A junction of the 
whole formed a very respectable little army, which marched to a 
small branch of North Edisto, within four mih j s of Orangeburgh, 
where we halted, and lay the 12th instant from about nine o clock 
in the morning till six in the afternoon. 


" Gen. Greene reconnoitred the position of the enemy, and 
found it materially different from what it had been represented. 
The ground is broken, and naturally strong, from the Court-house 
(which is two stories high and built of brick), to a bridge four or 
five hundred yards distant, the only pass over the Edisto within 
many miles. The general had every reason to believe what he 
had soon afterwards confirmed, that Col. Cruger had evacuated 
Ninety-Six, and was on his march to join Lord Rawdon, which 
might possibly be done before we could force his lordship (if he 
could be forced at all) to a general action, the issue of which was 
not certain. These considerations induced the General rather to 
offer than give battle. The enemy declined the opportunity, and 
put up with the insult. Gen. Greene, therefore, ordered our troops 
to retire in the afternoon to Col. Middleton s plantation, from whence 
we have proceeded by slow easy marches to this place, and not 
without leaving behind sufficient detachments to intercept their con 
voys fiom below, and to create such a diversion at Monk s Corner, 
Dorchester, &c., as will very probably oblige his lordship to march 
to their relief. Indeed I am encouraged to hope that the garrison 
at Charleston will not be undisturbed. Mischief is meditated against 
them in other quarters; and I sanguinely trust the issue of this 
campaign will permanently fix the exalted idea the world has just 
ly conceived of the eminent abilities of our General, and secure du 
rable advantages to the country." 

[No. 129. J Gen. Greene to Gcn l Marion. 

Dear Sir: 

Your letter of the 19th, giving an account of the operations be 
low, I have had the pleasure to receive. The g illantry and good 
conduct of your men reflects the highest honor upon your Brigade. 
I only lament that men who spilt their blood in such noble exertions 
to serve their country could not have met with more deserved suc 
cess. I beg you will communicate my particular thanks to the of 
ficers and men of the respective corps. I am fully sensible of iheir 


merit and shall take pleasure in doing them justice. It is true your 
success was not complete, yet I think the advantages will be 
great, had the intentions of the enemy not been mistaken at Monk s 
Corner, you would have had the whole prisoners, and a glorious af 
fair it would have been. If the enemy continues at Orangeburg, I 
propose to post your Brigade at or near Nelson s Ferry, keeping 
such parties upon the enemy s lines as you may think proper. Gen. 
Sumter I propose to post at Friday s Ferry, and to have all the 
grain removed from the lower to the upper side of the river. If 
this can be effected it will prevent the enemy from taking post there 
unless they hazard everything, which I think they will not venture 
upon. I beg to have your opinion upon the practibility of embody 
ing a certain proportion of the Militia a given time : say four months; 
a standing force will be of great importance to this country for a 
few months to come. Matters are coming to a crisis, in which this 
State is deeply interested, and I am afraid the enemy will take ad- 
vantantage of some critical moment, to ruin our prospects and re 
cover the advantage they have lost. I beg you will consult your 
principal officers on this point and advise me of the result as soon 
as possible. 

I am, sir, with regard, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 130.J Sam l. McDowell to Col. Wm. Campldl. 

HENRICO, July 25, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have no official news worth notice, but report says that a Con 
gress of several great powers in Europe is to meet to settle the 
war ; and I have reasons to believe it, and that America will be in 
cluded in the treaty. Perhaps Commissioners from this country 
may at this time be appointed (but here I must stop), however I am 
persuaded we shall have peace by next May. On our own exer 
tions, this campaign, depends our future happiness. We ought, if 
possible, to drive off the enemy or pen them in as small bounds as 
in our power. Hold what we possess will be strongly insisted on 


in the treaty. The French have gained great advantages In the 
East Indies, and some in the West Indies. I have only to add my 
best wishesfor your future happiness and success in your endeavors 
for the defence of your country. May they be crowned with 

There are above two thousand men ordered to the southward to 
join Gen. Greene. It is talked that Gen. Lavvson will have the of. 
fer of the command, as he is very popular with the militia I wish 
dear sir, (if it would suit you) that you were to have the command 
of them. Washington and Montgomery counties make up part of 
the men, but are to join Gen. Greene by the nearest route. I would 
be glad of a line from you ; if any thing worth notice comes to 
my knowledge you shall have it. I had almost forgot the last par 
agraph of my letter, but I now subscribe myself 
Your sincere friend, 


[No. 131.] W. Washington to Col. Richard Hampton. 

MR. DAVISON S, July 26, 1781. 
Sir : 

I hope you have been successful in your nocturnal expedition. I 
have come to a resolution to cross the river this evening; I wish 
you to be with me ; if you cannot, should be obliged to you to send 
all the guides you have, and what intelligence you have collected. 
Let me hear from you before sunset this evening. I am, sir, 
Your very humble servant, 


\No. 132. | C Fraser to Mr. Hayne. 

JULY 26, 1781. 
Sir : 

I am charged by the Commandant to inform you, that a council 
of general officers will assemble to-morrow at ten o clock, in the 
hall of the province, to try you. 1 am, &c., 

C. FR ASE R, Major of the town. 


[No. 133.J C, Fraser to Mr. Hayne. 

THURSDAY EVENING. July 27, 1781. 
Sir : 

lam ordered by the Commandant to acquaint you. that instead of 
a council of general officers, as is mentioned in my letter of this 
morning, a court of enquiry, composed of four general officers and 
five captains, will be assembled to-morrow at ten o clock, in ihe 
province hall, for the purpose of determining under what print of 
view you ought to be considered. 

You will immediately be allowed pen, ink and paper; and any 
person that you choose to appoint, will be permitted to accompany 
you as your council, at the same hour and place. 1 am, &c.. 

C. FRASER, Major of the town. 

f No. 134. J C. Fraser to Mr. Hayne, in the Provost Prison. 

SUNDAY, July 29, 1781. 

The adjutant of the town will be so good as to go to Col Hayne 
in the provost s prison, and inform him, that, in consequence of the 
court of enquiry held yesterday, and the preceding evening, on his 
account, Lord Rawdon, and the Commandant, Lieut. Col. Nesbit 
Balfour, have resolved upon his execution on Tuesday, the 30th 
inst., at six o clock, fo: 1 having been found under arms, and em- 
loyed in raising a Regiment to oppose the British government, 
though he had become a subject, and had accepted the protection of 
that government, after the reduction of Charles Town. 

(Signed) C. FRASER, Major of the town. 

[No. 135. j Isaac Hayne to Lord Raw Jon and Col. Balfour. 

PROVOST. July 29, 1781. 
" My Lord and Sir : 

" On Thursday morning I had the honor of receiving a letter 
from Major Frazer, by which he informed me, that a council of 


general officers would be assembled the next day for my trial ; and 
on the evening 1 of the same day, I received another letter from the 
same officer, acquainting me, that instead of that, a court of inquiry 
would sit for the purpose of deciding under what point of view I 
ought to be considered. I was also told, that any person whom I 
should appoint, would be permitted to accompany me as my coun 
sel. Having never entertained any other idea of a court of inqui 
ry, or heard of any other being formed of it, than of its serving 
merely to precede a council of war, or some other tribunal, for ex 
amining the circumstances more fully, except in the case of a spy ; 
and Mr. Jarvis, lieutenant marshal to the provost, not having suc 
ceeded in finding the person who had been named for my counsel, 
I did not take the pains to summon any witnesses, though it would 
have been in my power to have produced many ; and I presented 
myself before the court without any assistance whatever. When 
I was before that assembly, I was farther convinced that I had not 
been deceived in my conjectures. I found that the members of it 
were not sworn, and the witnesses were not examined upon oath ; 
and all the members, as well as every person present, might easily 
have perceived, by the questions which I asked, and by the whole 
tenor of my conduct, that I had not the least notion that I was tried 
or examined upon an affair on which my life or death depended. 

"In the case of spies, a court of inquiry is all that can be neces 
sary, because the simple fact whether the person is or is not a spy, 
is all that can be the object of their researches ; and his having en 
tered the lines of the enemy s camp or garrison, subjects him to mil 
itary execution. As that accusation neither is nor can be made 
against me, I humbly conceive that the information I received, that 
the court would make inquiry concerning what point of view I 
ought to be considered under, could not be taken as a sufficient no 
tice of their having an intention to try me then ; but couid only be 
thought to signify, that they were to take it into consideration 
whether I ought to be looked upon as a British subject or as an 
American : that in the first case I should undergo a legal and im 
partial trial 5 in the second, I should be set at liberty on my parole. 
Judge then, my lord and sir, of the astonishment 1 must have been 
in, when I found they had drawn me by surprise into a proceeding 
tending to judgment, without my knowing it to be such; and de- 


prived me of the abilit3 r of making a legal defence, which it would 
have been very easy for me to have done, founded both in law and 
in fact ; when I saw myself destitute of the assistance of counsel 
and of witnesses ; and when they abruptly informed me, that after 
the procedure of the court I was condemned to die, and that in a 
very few days immediately upon receiving this notice, I sent for 
the lawyer whom I had originally chosen for my counsel. I here 
inclose his opinion concerning the ]egality of the proce5s held against 
me ; and I beg that I may be permitted to refer myself to him. I 
can assure you with the utmost truth, that I had and have many 
reasons to urge in my defence, if you will grant me the favor of a 
regular trial; if not, which I cannot however suppose from your 
justice and humanity. I earnestly intreat that my execution may be 
deferred, that I may at least take a last farewell of my children, and 
prepare for the dreadful change. I hope you will return me a speedy 
answer ; and am, with respect, ISAAC HAYNE." 

[No. 136,] Answer of Lord Rawdon and Col. BaJfour to Col. 
Haync s letter of the 29th of July^ and delivered on the 30th, at 
1 o clock, into the hands of the town Major (Fraser.) 

I have to inform you that your execution is not ordered in con 
sequence of any sentence from a court of enquiry, but by virtue of 
the authority with which the Commander-in-chief in South Carolina 
and the commanding officer in Charles Town are invested. And their 
resolves on this subject are fixed and unchangeable. I then begged 
Major Fraser that he would seriously entreat the above said officers 
to grant a respite, that I might have time to send for my children 
and take of them the last farewell. At three o clock, the town-ad 
jutant (Cooper) brought me for answer, that my request was reject 
ed. On Tuesday, July thirty-one, at one in the morning, the depu 
ty provost, (Marshal) brought me information that it was time for 
me to prepare for death, as hehad just received orders to that effect, 
and that 1 was to leave my apartment at five o clock. 

In loss than half an hour Major Fraser came in and delivered the 
following message : . 


Colonel Hayne, I am to acquaint you, that in consequence of a 
petition signed by Governor Bull and many more, as also of your 
prayer of yesterday, arid the humane treatment shown by you to 
the British prisoners who fell into your hands, you are respited for 
forty-eight hours I thanked the commanding officer for this res 
pite : this gave mean opportunity of seeing my children. 

The Major had been gone but a few minutes, when he returned 
to tell me that he had forgot part of his message: this wa*, that 
if Gen. Greene should offer to expostulate in my favor, with the 
commanding officer, from that ins-ant the respite would cease, and 
I should be ordered for immediate execution. 

AUGUST 1, 1781, 3 o clock, A. M. 

Mr. Cooper, the town Adjutant, came in and read to rne the fol 
lowing written message: Lord Rawdon and Col. Balfour have con 
sented to grant to Mr. Hayne a respite for forty-eight hours. My 
answer was, that I thanked them. 1. H. 


[No 137.] To the right honor able Lord Rawdon^ Commander -in- 
chu f of his Majesty s forces in South Carolina, and to Col Bal 
four, Commandant at Charles Town. 

My Lord and Sir : 

We should have reason to reproach ourselves of having omitted 
a proper occasion of manifesting the tenderness peculiarly charac 
teristic of our sex, if we did not profess ourselves deeply interested 
and affected by the imminent and shocking doom of the most unfor 
tunate Mr. Hayne, and if we do not entreat you in the most earnest 
manner graciously to avert, prolong or mitigate it. We do not even 
think, much less do we intend to imply, in the remotest degree, that 
your sentence is unjust; but we are induced to hope, that every end 
it proposes may be equally answered, as if carried into execution ; 
for to us it does not appear probable that any whom it is intended 
to influence and deter from similar delinquency, will be encouraged 
with the hope of impunity, by reason of any favor shewn him, as 


they must surely reflect that it was owing 1 to certain causes and cir 
cumstances that will not apply to them. We presume to make this 
intercession for him. and to hope that it will not prove fruitless, from 
the knowledge of your dispositions in particular, as well as from the 
reflection in general, that humanity is rarely separable from courage, 
and that the gallant soldier feels as much reluctance to cause, by 
deliberate decrees, the infliction of death on men in cold blood, as he 
does ardour in the day of battle and heat of action to make the 
enemies of his country perish by the sword. He may rejoice to 
behold his laurels sprinkled with the blood of armed men and re 
sisting adversaries, but will regret to see them wet with the tears of 
unhappy orphans, mourning the loss of a tender, amiable and wor 
thy parent, executed like a vile and infamous felon 

To the praises, that men who have been witnesses and sharers of 
your dangers and services in the field, may sound of your military 
virtues and prowess, wo trust you will give the ladii S occasion to 
add the praises of your milder and softer virtues by furnishing them 
with a striking proof of your clemency and politeness in the pre 
sent instance. May the unhappv object of our petition owe to that 
clemency arid politeness, to our prayers and to his own merits in 
other respects, what you may think him not entitled to if policy and 
justice were not outweighed in his behalf. To any other men in 
power than such as we conceive you both to be, we should employ 
on the occasion more ingenuity and art to dress up and enforce the 
many pathetic and favorable circumstances attending his case, in or 
der to move your passions and engage your favor, but we think this 
will be needless, and is obviated by your own spontaneous feelings, 
humane considerations and liberal reasonings. Nor shall we dwell 
on his most excellent character, the outrages and excesses, and per 
haps murders prevented by him, to which ir.nocent and unarmed 
individuals were exposed in an extensive manner; norshall we here 
lay any stress on the most grievous shock his numerous and re 
spectable connexions must sustain by his death, aggravated by the 
mode of it; nor shall we do more than remind you of the compli 
cated distress and sufferings that must befall his young and promi 
sing children, to whom perhaps death would be more comfortable 
than the state of orphanage they will be left in All these things 
we understand have been already represented, and we are sure will 


have their due weight with men of your humane and benevolent 
minds. JVJany of us have already subscribed to a former petition 
for him, and hope you will regard our doing it again not as impor 
tunity, but earnestness ; and we pray most fervently that you will 
forever greatly oblige us by riot letting us doit in vain. 
We are, my lord and sir. with all respect, 

Your very anxious petitioners and humble servants. 

Consultation on the case of Col. Hayne, enclosed in Ms letter to Lord 
Rawdon and Col. Ralfour. 

Col. Hayne being detained in the provost s prison, and taken, as 
it is given out, in arms against his Majesty, received from Major 
Fraser, on Thursday night, a notice in these words: A court of 
enquiry, composed of four staff-officers and five captains, will as 
semble to-morrow, at ten in the morning, in the Province Hall, in or 
der to determine under what point of view you ought to be con 
sidered. The court met at the time appointed, and the prisoner 
made his appearance. Neither the members nor witnesses were 
upon oath. The prisoner considering it only as a court of enquiry, 
which was held previous to a formal trial, did not avail himself of 
the liberty granted him to employ counsel, nor did he produce any 
witness to ascertain a great number of facts tending to his defence, 
for which, indeed, he was allowed but a very short time. He was 
apprized this morning, that the said Lord and Colonel, on the rising 
of the said court of enquiry, carne to the resolution of having tho 
said Hayne executed on Thursday, July thirty-first. Query from 
the prisoner: Are such proceedings authorized by any law, and i 3 
the subsequent sentence lawful V 


I. In the notice given you, that the intention was to examine you 
before a court of enquiry, there is not, even according lo the rules 
of martial law, a sufficient certainly, nor any express accusation 
which might be the object of the court s enquiry, or of your defence. 

II. No enemy can be sentenced to death in consequence of 


any military article, or any other martial process that I know of, 
without a previous trial, except spies, who. by the articles of war, 
are expressly debarred from that right. 

III. No subject whatever can or ought to be deprived of his life, 
liberty or fortune, unless it be by the unanimous award of his peers, 
and according to the laws of the country. And, to my knowledge, 
there is not a law which can authorize a judgment and sentence like 
that which they have taken upon themselves to pronounce in this 
affair. It is an invariable rule, established bylaw, that every man 
is to be deemed innocent till his guilt is proved ; that being found 
or taken in arms does not argue criminality so far as to hinder the 
culprit from, making his defence, either by proving a commission, 
or upon any other ground ; and that many of those who had taken 
up arms have been acquitted upon such proofs. 

IV. In consideration of the principles above adduced, I am pos 
itively of opinion, that taking you in the light of an enemy, (not of 
a spy) the process carried on against you is not lawful ; but if you 
are to be considered as a subject, such proceedings militate against, 
and are diametrically contrary to all laws. 


Charleston, July 29, 17S1. 


By Nathaniel Greene. Esq , Major General. Commanding the 
American army in the Southern Department. 

Whereas Col. Isaac Hayne, commanding a Regiment of militia 
in the service of the United States, was taken prisoner by a party 
of British troops, and afte- a rigorous detention in the Provost s 
prison at Charleston, was condemned and executed on the 4th of this 
month, in the most cruel and unjustifiable manner, in open violation of 
the cartel agreed upon between the two armies, for the release and 
exchange of all prisoners of war ; and it being no less the duty than 
the inclination of the army to resent every violence offered to the 
good citizens of America, to discountenance all those distinctions 
which they have endeavored to establish, in making a difference in 


various orders of men, fjund under arms for the support of the 
independence of the United States; and farther considering that 
these violences are committed with a view of terrifying the good 
people, and by that means preventing them from actingin conform 
ity with their political interests and private inclinations ; and that 
this method of trying and punishing, in consequence of those dis 
tinctions, is no less opposite to the spirit of the British, than it is in 
clusive of an unwarrantable infringement of all the laws of humani 
ty, and the rights of the free citizens of the United States ; from 
these considerations I have thought proper to issue the present pro- 
clamation, expressly to declare, that it is my intention to make 
reprisals for all such inhuman insults, as often as they shall take 
place. And whereas the enemy seems willing to expose the small 
number of the deceived and seduced inhabitants, who are attached 
to their interests, it they can but find an opportunity of sacrificing 
the great number that have stood forth in defence of our cause ; I 
farther declare, that it is my intention to take the officers of the 
regular forces, and not the seduced inhabitants who have joined 
their army, for the objects of rny rsprisals. But while I am de 
termined to resent every insult that may be offered (o the United 
States for having maintained our independence, I cannot but lament 
the necessity I am under of having recourse to measures so extreme 
ly wounding to the sentiments of humanity, and so contrary to the 
liberal principles upon which I wish to conduct the war. 

Given at the Head Quarters at Camden, 26th of August, 1781, 
in the sixth year of American Independence. 


(The treatment of the prisoners of war taken by the British in South 
Carolina, in the year 1780, is more particularly stated in the two 
following letters ; the first of which was written by Dr. Olyphant, 
director of the American hospitals in the Southern department, on 
the 7th of May, 1781, to Gen. Moultrie, in the following words) : 

You will observe by this month s return the number of sick 
among our people continues great, especially as this is a healthy sea 
son of the year ; but when the reasons of it are considered, it is not 


much to be wondered at. Men sent immediately from a sick hos 
pital on board of prison-ships, and confined to a salt diet, cannot 
possibly recover their health arid vigour. This likewise accounts 
for the many deaths. 

lam farther to acquaint you of our convalescents being discharg 
ed before they are thought fit by our physicians to be dismissed 
under such circumstances. This is directed by Dr. Hayes, the di 
rector of the general British hospitals, who is commanded, as he in 
forms me, to do so by the commandant. 

(The same subject is more particularly stated in a letter address 
ed to Dr. D. Ramsay by the Hon. Peter Fayssoux, M. D., 
member of the council of the State of South Carolina, who ser 
ved his country during the late war in the character of chief phy 
sician to the American hospitals in the Southern department, which 
was in the following words:) 

CHARLESTON, March 26, 17S5. 

Sir : 

In compliance with your request, I now send you some of the 
most remarkable facts relative to the treatment the American pri 
soners, the sick in particular, received, during their captivity in 
Charleston, from the British. The director general having been 
confined by the British, the immediate charge of the American hos 
pitals devolved on rm i , I can therefore answer for the truth of this 
account, as every circumstance was within my own knowledge. 
From the surrender of Charleston to the period of Gen. Gates de 
feat, I do not think we had any material cause of complaint. 

The regulation for the government of the hospital, the sup 
plies of medicines and diet, were in general prescribed by ourselves 
and acceded to by the British. 

After the defeat of Gen. Gates our sufferings commenced. The 
British appeared to have adopted a different modn of conduct to 
wards their prisoners, and proceeded from one step to another un 
til they fully displayed themselves, void of faith, honor or humanity, 
and capable of the most ravage acts of barbarity. 

The unhappy men who belonged to the militia, and were taken 


prisoners on Gates defeat, experienced the first effects of the cruel 
ty of their new system. 

: These men were confined on board of prison-ships, in numbers 
by no means proportioned to the size of the vessels, immediately 
after a march of one hundred and twenty miles, in the most sickly 
season of this unhealthy climate. 

These vessels were in general infected with the Small-Pox ; ve 
ry few of the prisoners had gone through that disorder. A repre 
sentation was made to the British Commandant of their situation, 
and permission was obtained for one of our Surgeons to inoculate 
them this was the utmost extent of their humanity the wretched 
objects were still confined on board of tl.c prison-ships, and fed on 
salt provisions, without the Irast medical aid, or any proper kin ! of 
nourishment. The effect that naturr.lly followed, was a Small-Pox 
with a fever of the putrid type; and to such as survived the Small- 
Pox, a putrid dysentery and, from these causes, the deaths of a c 
least one hundred and fifty of the unhappy victims. Such were 
the appearances, and such was the termination of the generality of 
the cases brought to the general hospital after the eruption of the 
Small-Pox before, the eruption, not a single individual was suffer 
ed to be brought on shore. If any thing can surpass the above re 
lation in barbarity, it is the following account, : 

The Continental troops, by the articles of capitulation, were to 
be detained prisoners in some place contiguous to Charleston; the 
barracks were pitched on as the proper place ; this was agreed to 
by both parties. The British, in violation of their solemn compact, 
put these people on board of prison-ships Confined in large num 
bers on board of these vessels, and fi-d on salt provisions in this cli 
mate in the months of October and November, they natural y gen 
erated a putrid fever from the human miasma. This soon became 
highly contagious. The sick brought into the general hospital from 
the prison-ships, genernlly died in the course of two or three days, 
with all the marks of a highly septic state. Application \vas made 
to Mr. De Rosette, the British commissary of prisoners; the vast 
increase of the numbers of dea hs was pointed out, and he was re 
quested to have proper steps taken to check the progress of a dis 
order that threatened to destroy the whole of the prisoners. 

In consequence of this application Mr. Fisher, our commissary 


of prisoners, and Mr. Fraser, who formerly practised physic in this 
country, but then ac ed as a British deputy commissary, were or 
dered to inspect the State of the prisoners in the vessels. This re 
port confirmed the truth of what had been advanced this can be 
proved by a very particular circumstance. My hopes were very 
sanguine that sorm thing would be done for the relief of those un 
happy persons, but they were entirely frustrated by a person from 
whom I did not, and ought not to have expected it. Dr. John 
M Namara Hays, physician to the British army, a person who had 
been taken bv the Americans on the capture of Burgoyrie, who 
had received the politest treatment from the Americans when a pri 
soner, and who had the generosity to acknowledge the usage he 
had met with this person was ordered to report on the state of the 
prisoners to my astonishment, I was informed his report was, that 
the prison-ships were not crowded, perfectly wholesome, and no ap 
pearance of infectious disorders amongst, the prisoners. 

I then determined to make one more effort for the relief of these 
unhappy persons for this purpose I had two of the dead bodies 
kept in the area of the hospital, and, upon Dr. Hays daily visit to 
our hospital, I marked to him the appearances of the subjects, 
whose bodies were highly tinged vriih a yello^v suffusion, petechied 
over the breast and trunk, with considerable ecchymosis from ex- 
travasated or dissolved blood about the neck, breast and upper ex 
tremities. I inquired if it was possible a doubt could remain re_ 
spotting the nature of their disorder, and expressed my surprise 
at the report he had made. The words of his reply were, that 
the confinement of the prisoners in prison-ships was the great eye 
sore, and there was no help lor that, it must be done. The disor 
der in consequence continued until the cold weather; the number 
of deaths, joined with the number that were compelled by this treat- 
merit to enlist with the British, removed in a great measure the 
cause. Hitherto a number of our prisoners who were tradesmen 
had been permitted to remain in the barracks, or in the city, where 
they were employee] by the British about the month of January 
1781, they were all confined to the barracks, and there British em- 
issari S were very busy among 1 them, to persuade them to enlist in 
their nc\v corps. About the same time a supply of clothing, and 


some money to procure necessaries, arrived from the Congress for 
the use of the prisoners. 

Mr. Fisher, our commissary, was prevented from distributing 
the clothing, and the prisoners were informed it was a deception, for 
no supplies had arrived for their use. Their motive was, that by 
the complicated distress of nakedness and imprisonment, their pa 
tience would be exhausted, and enlistment wish them would ensue. 

To prevent this, means were found to have several bales of the 
clothing brought to the picquets which inclosed the barracks, and 
in sight of our soldiers ; this measure established the fact. 

Disappointed from this quarter, the British Commandant or his 
ministers determined to observe no measures but what would ac 
complish their own purposes. All the soldiers in the barracks, in 
cluding the convalescents, were paraded and harangued by Fruser, 
the British deputy commissary, and one Low, a recruiting officer 
for one of the British corps. The conclusi-nof the affair was, that 
such as chose to enlist with the British should leave the ranks, and 
the remainder go on board of the prison ships A few who had 
been previously engaged withdrew from the ranks ; the large ma 
jority that stoo I firm, after three different solicitations without, effect, 
had this dreadful sentence pronounced by Fraser, that they should 
be put on board of the prison-ships, where they could not expect 
any thing more but to perish miserably ; and that the rations hither 
to allowed for the support of their wives and children, from that day 
should be withheld ; the consequence of which would be, they 
must starve in the streets. 

Human nature recoiled from so horrid a declaration for a few 
seconds the unhappy victims seemed stupefied at the dreadful pros 
pect ; a gloomy and universal silence prevailed. This was follow 
ed by a loud huzza for Gen. Washington ; death arid the prison- 
ships was the unanimous determination. 

1 The hospital at this time was reduced to the greatest distress 
imaginable the sick without clothing, covering, or any necessary 
but one pound of beef and bread very little sugar, no wine, and 
rarely a small allowance of rum. 

We had no resources, and the Briiish would only furnish the ab 
solute necessaries of life. The officers of the hospital, on the rnild- 


est representation, were threatened and insulted, frequently prohib 
ited from visiting the sick, once I remember for three days. 

It was scarcely possible for men to support such an accumula 
ted misery ; but when least expected, a relief was administered to 
us. A subscription for the support of the sick was filled by people 
of every denomination with amazing rapidity. Several of the la 
dies of Charleston, laying aside the distinction of whig and tory, 
were instrumental and a-siduous in procuring and preparing every 
necessary of clothing and proper nourishment for our poor, worn- 
out and desponding soldiers. 

Thus, sir, I have furnished you with some of the most material 
occurrences of that unhappy time. I have not exaggerated or writ 
ten a single circumstance from hatred or prejudice. I could furnish 
you with a long detail of crueHy and distress exercised on individ 
uals. Major Bocquet s case, exposed in an open boat for twelve 
hours in a violent fever, with a blistering plaster en his back, extend 
ed at length in the bottom of the boat, then put in the dungeon of 
the Provost with the vilest felons and murderers, left to languish un 
der his complaint until his death seemed certain, only released from 
his confinement from the dread of a just retaliation the moment 
his recovery seemed probable, again hurried back to the Provost, 
there to remain uniil the general exchange released him from their 

This instance of severity exercised on an individual, whose 
only crime was a steady attachment to the cause of his country, 
and a determined resolution to keep sacred the solemn oath he had 
taken in its cause, would appear as nothing, were I to enumerate 
the scenes of woe and distress brought on many citizens of this once 
happy country, by British cruelty and unnecessary severity. I am 
sure every breast woulJ be softened, even tears would fall from 
British eyes. 

I am, sir, with esteem, yours, &c. 



\No. 138.] Col. Win. Campbell to S aril McDowall. 

CAMP GOODE S BRIDGE, July 28, 1781. 
My Dear Sir : 

I received your favor by Col. Harrison, and am much obliged to 
you for the hope you give me, that there is a prospect of the war 
being speedily terminated. I pray God that our exertions may be 
such under Provi lence, as will make the end of it happy and hon 
orable to our country. 

We have been at this place since the ISthinst , without any thing 
to do more than to deter the enemy from coming up into this part 
of the country in small parties. I do not know how long we may 
continue here, but I expect it will be until the enemy make some 
movement to determine our future operations. 

My command is now much reduced from the expiration of the 
term for which many of the militia were ordered out. [ have but 
about four hundred men at this time. We have not the least news 
here from any quarter. If you get anything interesting, pray be 
so kind as to communicate it to me. 

You drop a word that it might suit me to take the command of 
the miliiia who are ordered to the southward. I can only say that 
I shall most cheerfully acquiesce in whatever my country sh;:ll 
please to order me to do in her service ; nrid just add that I should 
esteem myself peculiarly happy in serving under the officer who 
now commands in that department, for whom I have the greatest 
respect arid veneration, and who has served with so much glory to 
himself and credit to his country. I have taken the liberty to ad 
dress a letter to Col. Meredith, in Amhersr, arid another to Col- 
Syme to your care. You \\ill ph-ase to give them as speedy and 
safe conveyance as you can. Excuse the trouble I give you. 
Your sincere friend, 


General Exchange. 

Whereas in pursuancp of adequate powers respectively delega 
ted to us to carry into execution, articles of a cartel made on the 


3d day of May in the present year, between Captain Cornwallis, on 
the part of Lieut. Gen l. Earl Cornwallis and Lieut. Col. Carring- 
ton, on the part of Major Geri l. Greene, for the exchange and re 
lief of prisoners of war, laken in the Southern department : We, 
the underwritten, have mutually agreed, that all the militia, prison 
ers of war, citizens of America, taken by the British amis in the 
Southern department from the first commencement of ihis present 
war, to the loth day of this present month of June, shall be imme 
diately exchanged for all the militia prisoners of war, subjects of 
Great Britain, taken by the American aims in the said department, 
within the above mentioned term. Now public notice is hereby 
given, that all the above mentioned British and American prisoners, 
wheresoever they may at present be, are hereby d dared to be fully, 
absolutely, reciprocally exchanged; and such of them as are on 
parole within the lines of their respective parties, are hereby de 
clared to be released therefrom ; and such as are within the towns, 
garrison?, camps, posts or lines of the powers who captured tliem, 
shall be immediately liberated and permitted to pass without re 
striction to the party to whom they belong. 

EDMUND M. HYRNE, Dep. Com y Gen l. prisoners. 

JAMES FRAZER, Commissary prisoners. 
June 22, 1781. 

Orders ly Gen. Marion All persons on parole to the Ameri 
cans, are ordered within the British lines agreeably to the above. 

F. MARION, Brig. General. 

July 28, 1781. 

\No. 139 ] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

August 1, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

As you are getting clothing for your men on Continental expense, 
I will be obliged to you to let Sergeant Davis of my Regiment 
have a suit with your men, and such other clothing as you see he 
is in want of ; and you will particularly oblige, 

Your humble servant. 



[No. 140.] Gen. Wayne to Gen. W. Campbell. 

Augusts, 1781, 3 P. M. J 
Dear Sir : 

I have this moment received orders from the Marquis LaFayette, 
to march towards Fredencksburg; the enemy are expected, having 
certainly sailed up the bay. 

You will therefore cross the Apomattock at Petersburg, and 
proceed in the most direct route for West Ham, on the James; 
should we have crossed it before you arrive, you ll follow in our 
track. Interim believe me, 

Yours most sincerely, 


[No. 141.] Gov. RutlcJge to Gen. Marion. 

HIGH HILLS SANTEE, Aug. 7, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I am very sorry for the affair at George Town; I am inclined 
to think that if the enemy leave Charles Town, they will force the 
place in the same manner. The orders you have given respecting 
the inhabitants who have suffered by the destruction of George 
Town are very proper; it is our duty to alleviate their distresses 
as much as possible. I will speak to Gen. Sumter about adding 
the lower Regiment to your Brigade, and write to you shortly on 
that point. Col. Henderson undertook at Capt. Richardson s to 
get a proper man for Sheriff of Camden District. I will mention 
Kemble to him, and if none better is found, he shall have the ap 
pointment. If your information about the embarkation at Charles 
Town is well founded, I think it is probable that the enemy will 
soon leave this part of the country and go to Town ; however, I 
hope we shall not suffer them lo do so. 1 entirely forgot when I 
saw you last, to mention what I intended before we met, that if a 
little hard money, 30 or 35 guineas would be useful for getting 
intelligence or other services, I have that sum ready for you. If 


you will let me know by whom it may be sent to you, it shall be. 
I am with great regard, dear sir, 

Your most obe iient servant, 


\ No. 142.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

Dear Sir: 

Inclosed I send you a letter from Col. Harden the express that 
brought it could not find you and therefore brought it on to camp. 
If it is practicable I wish you to give support to Col Harden. You 
know the Colonel s force, your own and the enemy s, and will do 
asyou may think proper. Your force added to Harderi s appear to me 
competent to the business, and if you undertake it you must move 
with the utmost secresy and expedition. However, you are best 
acquainted with the nature and difficulties attending the attempt 3 
and must govern yourself accordingly. But it will be of the greatest 
importance to check the enemy in the progress of this business, for 
if thev are permitted to pursue it with impunity, they will possess 
themselves of all the rice of the country, and totally dispirit the 
militia. Your letter of the 8th I have received, and sent more than one 
half of the lead I have. I am in hopes this will answer your pre 
sent demand ; in a Jew days we expect a fresh supply ; the lead 
would have come with the powder but for a mistake of one of my 
aids who gave the order. You will see by Col. Harden s letter 
that the enemy have hanged Col. Hayne ; don t take any mea 
sure in the matter towards retaliation, for I don t intend to retaliate 
on the Tory officers, but the British. It is my intention to demand 
the reasons of the Colonel s being put to death, and if they are un 
satisfactory, as I am sure they will be, and if they refuse to 
make satisfaction as 1 suppose they will, to publish my inten 
tion of giving no quarters to British officers of any rank that fall 
into our hands. Should we attempt to retaliate upon their militia 
officers, I am sure they would persevere in the measures in order 
to increase the animosity between the whigs and lories, that they 
might stand idle spectators and see them butcher each other. As 


I don t \vijh my intention to be known to the enemy, but through 
an official channel, arid as this will be delayed for some few d<iys to 
give our friends in St. Augustine time to get off, I wish you not to 
mention the matter to any mortal out of your family. Neither Col. 
Shelby nor Col. Lock have arrived, nor can I tell when they will. 
Lieut. Col. Lee crossed the Santce a few days ago, and took 15 or 
20 prisoners of the enemy s Horse. Please to let me know whether 
you go to the relief of Col. Harden or not, that I may take some 
other measures, should it be out of your power to succour him. 
1 have the honor to be, dear sir, 

Yours most respectfully, 


[No. 143 J Gen. Greene to Gen 1 !. Clarion. 

August 13th, 1781. \ 
Dear General : 

By a letter from Col. Parker to Governor Burke, I learn a great 
part of the British troops in Virginia had embarked for New York, 
which is closely besieged by Gen l. Washington and the French ar 
my. The same writer says the British fleet have got another dril 
ling in the West Indies. If those accounts are true, as no doubt 
they are, the enemy have everything to fear and little to hope in 
this quarter. Y ou will forward the letter that accompanies this, to 
Col. Balfour as soon as possible. 

With esteem and regard, I am. dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 144.] Gov. Rutledgc to Gen. Marion. 

HIGH HILLS OF SA.NTEE, Aug 1 . 13, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

We really want a press SD much, that I request you will lose no 
time in getting one and all other requisites for Wy her, and send him up 
here with them nr-d his press, that he may go to work as soon as 
nosable. It would be best to get the oil and lampblack where you pro- 


cure the paper, but if they cannot be got there I am told the latter 
may be made here, and so may neat s-foot oil, which I suppo:-e will 
answer the purpose. I have heard of Mr. L. I), pas.-ing thu way, 
he is one of the addressers to Clinton on the reduction of Charles 
Tcwn. I think we should be very cautious how we admit such 
people to join us. I dare say there are many of them who would 
gladly do so, not for oursakesbut their own. However, I \vish to 
know from you upon what footing this man stands in consequence of 
anything which may have passed between you and him. You will 
consider the militia between Charles Town and your Brigade as an 
nexed to it, but I would not have any appointment which Gen. Sum- 
ter may have made of officers revoked, while they behave properly. 
The Governor of Norih Carolina writes, but with what truth I 
know not, that 2500 men had embarked in Virginia for New York, 
which was closely besieged. A man arrived at Camden last Fri 
day, who landed at James Town in Virginia, with several other 
prisoners of war, who had gone thither from Charles Town, so 
that we may soon expect to see several of our friends from thence. 
I request that you will send immediately to Col. Harden, and get 
a full and authentic account of the execution of Col. Hayne, with 
every material circumstance relative to that unhappy affair. I am 
told his son is possessed of copies of letters which passed between 
the Col. and Balfour; pray have them all transmitted tome as quick 
as possible, with that account and copies of Col. Hayne s speech to 
his Regiment, which I understand was the matter laid to hi^ charge, 
and of the petition to the Commandant of Charles Town for his 
pardon, with the names of the petitioners. I ihink of appointing im 
mediately an ordinary in each District, by whom wills may be pro 
ved, arid letters testamentary, and administration granted, and other 
business within the ordinary jurisdiction transacted, The constitu 
tion directs that this shall be done and I think it a measure absolute 
ly necessary for a number of reasons. I wish you would recom 
mend proper persons who will undertake the office of ordinary for 
George Town, Che-raws and Charles Town Districts. Write to 
Col. Harden to do so for Beaufoit District. 
I arn with great regard, dear sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 



\No. L45.J Col. Balfour to Gen. Marion. 

CHARLES TOWN, Aug. 18, 1781. 
Sir : 

In answer to your letter relative to Mr. Postcll, I must beg leave 
to inform you, that he has been detained for being in arms when up 
on parole, contrary to the laws of all nations, and the matter with 
the consent of your Commissioners of prisoners referred to Gen. 
Greene. Mr. Cooper, who was taken the 17th July, and every 
prisoner of war in this town will be liberated and sent out with a 
flag of truce to-morrow, according to the cartel. Nothing can 
astonish me more than your offering to release a British soldier for 
Mr. Cooper. I presume you must have been furnished with a copy 
of the cartel, and if so, I am truly at a loss to know on what prin 
ciples any British soldiers can be detained by you; this has been al 
ready complained of, and if such practices are persevered in, the 
cartel must be at an end. I am, sir, 

Your most obd t. servant, 


[No. 146 ] The Officers of the Army to Major Gen. Greene. 


August 20, 17S1. \ 

The subscribers, commissioned officers serving in the Southern 
army, beg leave to represent to the Hon. Major Gen. Grreene, that 
they are informed not only by current reports, but by official and 
acknowledged authority, that, contrary to ex press stipulations in the 
capitulation of Charleston, signed the twelfth day of May, 17SO. a 
number of very respectable inhabitants of that town and others 
were confined on board prison-ships, and sent to St. Augustine, and 
other places distant from their homes, families -and friends. That 
notwithstanding the general cartel settled for exchange of prisoners 
in the Southern department, and agreed to the third of May last, 
several officers of militia and other gentlemen, subjects of the Uni 
ted States, have been and still are detained in captivity ; that the 


commanding officer of the British troops in Charleston, regardless 
of the principles, and even the express tenor of the said cartel, hath 
not only presumed to discriminate between the militia and other 
subjects of the United States prisoners of war, partially determin 
ing who were and who were not objects of exchange, but hath even 
dared to execute, in the most ignominious manner, Col. Hayne, of 
the militia of the State of South Carolina, a gentleman amiable in 
character, respectable in his connexions, and of eminent abilities ; 
and this violent act. as cruel as it was unnecessary and unjust, we 
are informed is attempted to be justified by the imputed crime of 
treason, founded upon the unfortunate sufferer s having, in circum 
stances peculiarly distressing, accepted of what is called a protec 
tion from the British government. 

If every inhabitant of this country who, being bound by the ten 
der ties of family connexions, and fettered by domestic embarrass, 
ments, is forced to submit to the misfortune of falling into the hands 
of the enemy, must therefore become a subject of such inhuman 
authority, and if such subjects are liable to be tried by martial law 
for offences against the said c .vil government of the British nation, 
their situation is truly deplorable ; but we conceive forms of pro 
tection which are granted one day, and retracted, violated, disclaim 
ed or deserted the next, can enjoin no such condition or obligation 
upon persons who accept them. We consider the citizens of Amer 
ica as independent of the government of Great Britain as those of 
Great Britain are of the United States, or of any other sovereign pow 
er, and think it just the severities and indulgences to prisoners of 
war ought to be reciprocal. We therefore, with submission beg 
leave to recommend that a strict enquiry be made into the several 
matters mentioned, and if ascertained, that you will be pleased to 
retaliate in the most effectual manner by a similar treatment of 
British subjects which are or may be in your power. 

Permit us to add, that while we seriously lament the necessity of 
such a severe expedient, and commiserate the sufferings to which 
individuals will necessarily be exposed, we are not unmindful that 
such a measure may, in its consequences, involve our own lives in 
additional dangers; but we had rather forego temporary distinctions, 
and commit ourselves to the most desperate situations, than prose- 


cute this just and necessary war upon terms so unequal and so dis 

We are, sir, with the greatest regard, and most respectful senti 
ments of esteem. 

Your most obedient and most humble servants, 

Signed by all the officers of the army. 

[No. 147.] Major Ganey to Gen. Marion. 

August 25th, 1781. 
Sir : 

Agreeably to your letter, I grant the truce to continue for twelve 
months betwixt us with this restriction. The property taken by 
the British themselves and confiscated about the country, I cannot 
engage to restore, for lhat is out of my power to do, but the articles 
I mean to observe with diligence. I hope your honor will be so 
kind as to send me an answer when you receive this, which answer 
I hope to receive by the the 8th of September ensuing, as I hope 
we do not mean to take advantage of each other, and your compli 
ance will very much oblige 

Your humble servant, 

MICAJAH GANEY, Major Militia. 

[No. 148.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen, Marion. 

CAMDEN, Sept. 1st, 1781, 
Dear Sir : 

I have appointed Capt. Richardson to procure indigo and specie 
for public use, and I request that you will give him every assistance 
in your power to aid him in this business, and if he should want an 
escort or any military aid you will be pleased to furnish him with 
what he may require. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 



[No. 149.J Governor Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

ACKERMANS, Sept. 2, 1781. 
Sir : 

You will put your men in two divisions, the first to serve one 
month and be relieved by the second ; such men who are to serve 
should not be given leave of absence on any account whatever, 
except sickness. You will punish any man who shall take, destroy 
or waste any provisions, and such men who may be found spoiling 
the property of any persons, must be taken up and prosecuted as 
felons. Every man who refuses serving when called upon must 
be deemed an enemy and taken prisoner and sent to the British, and 
a receipt taken for them, and must not be permitted to return. All 
their property must be taken care of for the use of the State, and no 
part suffered to be conveyed away on any pretence whatever. Such 
private men whom the enemy has parolled without the faith of an 
officer and a receipt taken is void, and they are liberated by the car 
tel, and if such men refuse to take arms and do their duty when 
called on, they must be an enemy and must be dealt with accor 
dingly. Any persons who go to town or the enemy without a per 
mit from you or an officer, must be treated as carrying intelligence 
to the enemy and suffer accordingly. Any woman who will go to 
town or in the enemy s post without leave, must not be permitted to 
return. Severe examples must be made of all negroes who carry 
any provisions of any kind, aid or assist, or carry any intelligence to 
or for the enemy ; agreeably to the laws of this State all such ne 
groes shall suffer death. I recommend that particular attention be 
paid to the saving of provisions, and forage must not be given to 
any man for more than two horses (except field officers) who may 
be allowed forage for three, and the commanding officer of the 
Brigade or Division, is allowed six rations. Whenever the enemy 
march in your district in force, you will call out the whole of your 
militia to oppose them, and if too weak you will let me know, and I 
will march to your assistance. You will appoint justices of the 
peace in every district immediately. I am, sir, 
Your humble servant, 



{No. 150.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen l. Marion. 

CAMDEN, Sept. 2, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Upon overlooking the list of persons who addressed Gen. Clinton 

after the surrender of Charles Town, I find the name of B. T : 

pray is this the person mentioned in Dr. Hyrne s letter to you, which 
the Heriotts brought up to me some time ago, with a letter from 
you 1 If so, his case is extremely different from what it was rep 
resented to me. So much so indeed, that 1 can scarcely believe the 
persons are the same. I therefore suspend giving any orders about 
him until this matter is ascertained, and request to know from you 
per first opportunity, whether this is the man who signed the ad 
dress or some other person of the same name. 

I am, sir, your most obd t. servant, 


[No. 151.] Governor Rutledge to Gen l. Marion, in Ms absence to 
Col. Horry or tJie officer commanding at George Toivn. 

CAMDEN, SEPT. 2d, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I understand there is at George Town a Mr. W. who I find was 
one of the addressers to Clinton after the surrender of Charles 
Town, and that he has brought a quantity of goods from thence 
with which he is trading at George Town. I really am amazed at 
the impudence of these people to dare after such an atrocious act. 
to come out and reside amongst us without making their application 
to proper authority and knowing whether they would be received 
or not, as if they had really been guilty of no offence whatever ; 
though in my opinion, they have acted in the most criminal manner. 
For my part, I don t desire to have any of them with us, and will 
not receive any of them, for I should not believe them to be sincere 
even if they pretended to conversion. They only came out to serve 
their own or the enemy s purpose, and even "if they be sincere," 
I would not have them for we can do very well without then> 


Every one of us should lose all his property for such infamous con 
duct. I therefore desire that you will immediately have this Mr. 
W. taken and sent up to rne under an appropriate guard, and that 
you will make the necessary inquiries, and having discovered what 
property he has with him or which may be come at, take the whole 
of it; let it consist of what it may, money, goods, negroes, boats, 
or any other article whatever, and send to me all such as may be 
recovered hither, and dispose of all the rest for the public account; 
be pleased to inform me per safe hand quickly, what is the result of 
your conduct in consequence of this order. 

I am, sir, your humble servant, 


[No. 152.] Extract of a letter from N. Balfourto Maj. Gen. Greene. 

CHARLESTON, Sept. 3, 1781. 

I come now to that part which has respect to the execution of 
Col. Hayne, on which I am to inform you it took place by the joint 
order of Lord Rawdon and myself, in consequence of the most ex 
press directions from Lord Cornwallis to us, in regard to all those 
who should be found in arms, after being at their own request re 
ceived as subjects, since the capitulation of Charleston and the clear 
conquest of the province in the summer of 1780; more especially 
sucli as should have accepted of commissions, or might distinguish 
themselves in inducing a revolt of the country. To his lordship 
therefore, as being answerable for this measure, the appeal will 
more properly be made, and on such appeal I must not doubt, every 
fit satisfaction will be tendered ; but as the thieat in your letter is of a 
nature which may extend its consequences to the most disagreeable 
and serious lengths, I cannot dismiss this subject without some gen 
eral remarks, still referring for the particular justification to the opin 
ion and decision of Lord Cornwallis, immediately under whom I 
have the honor to act. 

And first I must conceive, without adverting to the particular 
cause of dispute between Great Britain and this country, that, on 
the subjection of any territory, the inhabitants of it owe allegiance 
to the conquering power (in the present case a voluntary acknowi- 


edgemenl was given, and consequent protection received ;) and that 
on any account to recede from it, is justly punishable with death, by 
whatever law, either civil or military, is then prevalent. 

To justify retaliation I am convinced you will agree a parity of 
circumstances in all respects is required ; without such every sha 
dow of justice is removed, and vengeance only points to indiscrim 
inate horrors. 

[No, 153.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

CAMDEN, Sept. 3, 1781. 

On full consideration of the matter, I think justice to our friends 
whose wives and families the enemy have sent out of the State, and 
policy require that we should send into the enemy s lines the wives 
and families of all such men as are now with and adhere to theene" 
my. I lament the distress which many innocent women and chil 
dren may probably suffer by this measure, but they must follow 
the fate of their husbands and parents, and blame can only be impu 
ted to them and to the British commanders, whose conduct on the 
principles of retaliation justifies this step, which all circumstances 
considered, is an indispensable one. You will therefore give the ne 
cessary orders for enforcing this measure within the district of 
your Brigade, without delay or exception. I am much dissatisfied 
with the present allotment of the several Brigades in this State, and 
think a fourth might be formed to the southward, and that the other 
three might be better divided. I wish you would consider this 
matter well, and give me your sentiments as soon as convenient on 
the best manner of establishing four Brigades. I also request that 
you will fuinish me as soon as you can have it made out, with an 
accurate alphabetical list of all persons having property within your 
Brigade who come under the following heads or description, dis 
tinguishing which heads they respectively fall under, viz : 1st. Such 
as have held or hold British commissions, remarking what the com 
mission is. 2d. Such as have gone over and adhere to the British 
government, or whose conduct has manifested them to be notorious 
and dangerous enemies to their country. 3d. British subjects re- 


siding abroad. Please send off an express immediately to Col. 
Harden, with the enclosed. 

I am sir, your humble servant, 


[No. 154.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

September 6, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

In the words, " send the wives and families of those who are 
with and adhere to the enemy into them," you ll understand my 
meaning to be, that they be sent into Charles Town, and give orders 
accordingly. Be pleased to send the enclosed (which contains 
a similar explanation of the orders to Col. Harden on that subject) 
to him immediately by a trusty person, in haste. 
Yours, &c. 5 


The following paper found enclosed in the above (supposed to be 
written jy Gov. Rutledge) : 

1st. When did you begin and what methods did you take to form 
a party ? what public measures increased and what decreased your 
force? 2d. How did you get ammunition, and how support your 
troops ? 3d. What are the particulars of your late action, the pri 
soners and of your leaving the State after the battle of and 

of your return to it ? 4th. How did you defend yourself against 
the enemy ? 5th. What are the methods taken by the British to 
annihilate your force? house burnings and murders, how many on 
both sides ? 6th. What particular expeditions have you underta 
ken wnen alone, and your force when co-operating and your num 
bers at different times 1 

[No. 155.J Major. Ganey to Gen. Marion. 

PEE DEE, Sept. 8, 1781. 
Sir : 

Your answer of the 5th of September came to hand this day, and 
in perusing the same, I understand that your honor wrote concerning 


the acquaintance you gave to the North Carolinians concerning our 
truce, which I never received or heard of before ; it has miscar 
ried by some means or other. My full desire, sir, is to be at peace 
with all parties if they will with me. I am very sorry sir, to acquaint 
your honor, that I am under the disagreeable necessity of complain 
ing to you of Col. Murphy ; I wrote several orders to him to re 
store their plunder, which they refused to do except such as is of 
no service to themselves; all that is of value they keep, s r > that I 
found there a stumbling block. The way, just about the time that 
Murphy first broke out and ruined me and broke up, for which rea 
son I first revolted my constancy to my country; he took some hor 
ses from me, one of which he has yet in his possession ; then I wrote 
an order and sent to him for said horses which he refused to send 
without I would hunt up and get all his horses that he has lost, 
which was six or seven head, he says ; and I don t know his hor 
ses ; I never saw them, and in the like manner they detain several 
horses and negroes and a number of cows. I have no reason to 
complain of any of your men, save that same Regiment of Murphy s. 
The list you wrote to me about, you shall faithfully have given up 
very shortly to Col. Irvin s order. I am, with respect sir, 
Your very humble servant, 


\No. 156.] Extract of a letter from Lieut. Col. Stewart to Earl 


EUTAW } Sept. 9, 1781. 

With particular satisfaction I have the honor to inform your lord 
ship, that on the 8th inst. I was attacked by the rebel Gen. Greene 
with all the force he could collect in this province and North Caro 
lina, and after an obstinate engagement, which lasted near two hours, 
I totally defeated him, and took two six-pounders. 

Soon after I had the honor of writiug your lordship from Thomp 
son s, I received information of Gen. Greene s having moved with 
the rebel army towards Camden, and crossed the Wateree near that 
place, and from the best intelligence I could collect, was on his march 
to Friday s ferry, on the Congarees. 


The army under my command being much in want of necessa 
ries, and there being at the same time a convoy with provisions on 
the march from Charles Town, which would necessarily oblige 
me to make a detachment of, at least, four hundred men (which at 
that time I could ill afford, the army being much weakened by sick 
ness; to meet the convoy at Martin s, fifty-six miles from the camp : 
the distance being so great, a smaller escort was liable to fall by 
the enemy s Cavalry, which are very numerous. 

I therefore thought it advisable to retire by slow marches to the 
Eutaws, where I might have an opportunity of receiving my sup 
plies, and disencumber myself from the sick, without risking my 
escorts, or suffer myself to be attacked at a disadvantage, should 
the enemy have crossed the Congaree. 

Notwithstanding every* exertion being made to gain intelligence 
of the enemy s situation, they rendered it impossible, by way-laying 
the bye-paths and passes through the different swamps ; and even 
detained different flags of truce which I had sent on public business 
on both sides. 

About six o clock in the morning I received intelligence by two 
deserters, who left Gen. Greene s camp the preceding evening, about 
seven miles from this place ; and from their report, the rebel army 
consisted of near four thousand men, with a numerous body of Cav 
alry, and four pieces of cannon. 

In the mean time I received information by Major Coffin, whom 
I had previously detached with one hundred and forty Infantry and 
fifty Cavalry, in order to gain intelligence of the enemy, that they 
appeared in force in his front, then about four miles from my camp. 

Finding the enemy in force so near me, I determined to fight 
them, though from their numerous Cavalry, seemed to me to be at 
tended with dangerous consequences. I immediately formed theline of 
battle, with the right of the army to Eutaw branch, and its left cros 
sing the road leading to Roache s plantation, leaving a corps on a 
commanding situation to cover the Charles Town road, arid to act 
occasionally as a reserve. About nine o clock the action began on 
the right, and soon became general. 

Knowing that the enemy were much superior in numbers, and at 
the same time finding that they attacked with their militia in front, 
induced me not to alter my position, unless I saw a certain advan- 


tage to be gained by it ; for by moving forwards, I exposed botli 
flanks of the army to the enemy s Cavalry, which I saw ready 
formed to take that advantage, particularly on the left, which 
obliged me to move the reserve to support it. 

By an unknown mistake, the left of the line advanced, and 
drove their militia and North Carolinians before them ; but unex 
pectedly finding the Virginian and Maryland lines ready formed, 
and at the same time receiving a heavy fire, occasioned some con 
fusion : it was therefore necessary to retire a little distance to 
an open field, in order to form, which was instantly done, unde r 
cover of a heavy well-directed fire from a detachment of New 
York volunteers, under command of Major Sheridan, whom I had 
previously ordered to take post in the house, to check the enemy, 
should they attempt to pass it. * 

The action was renewed with great spirit ; but 1 was sorry to 
find that a three-poander, posted on the road leading to Roache s, 
had been disabled, and could not be brought off when the left of 
the line retired. 

The right wing of the army being composed of the flank Battal 
ion, under the command of Major Majoribanks, having repulsed and 
drove everything that attacked them, made a rapid move to their 
left, and attacked the enemy in flank : Upon which they gave way 
in all quarters, leaving behind them two brass six-pounders, and up 
wards of two hundred killed on the field of action, and sixty taken 
prisoners, amongst which is Col. Washington, and from every in 
formation, about eight hundred wounded, although they contrived 
to carry them off during the action. The enemy retired with great 
precipitation to a strong situation, about seven miles from the field 
of action, leaving their Cavalry to cover their retreat. The glory 
of the day would have been more complete, had not the \vant of 
Cavalry prevented me from taking the advantage which the gallant, 
ry of my Infantry threw in my way. I omitted to inform your 
lordship, in its proper place, of the army s having for some time 
been much in want of bread, there being no old corn or mills near 
me : I was therefore under the necessity of sending out rooting 
parties from each corps, under an officer, to collect potatoes, every 
morning at daybreak ; and unfortunately, that of the flank Battalion 
and Buffs having gone too far in front, fell into the enemy s hands 


before the action began, \vhich not only weakened my line, but in 
creased their number of prisoners. 

Since the action, our time has been employed in taking care of 
the wounded ; and finding that the enemy have no intention to 
make a second attack, I have determined to cover the wounded as 
far as Monk s corner with the army. 

My particular thanks are due to Lieut. Col. Cruger, who com 
manded the front line, for his conduct and gallantry during the ac 
tion ; and Lieut. Col. Allen, Majors Dawson, Stewart, Sheridan, 
and Coffin, and to Captains Kelly and Campbell, commanding the 
different corps and detachments ; and every other officer and sol 
dier fulfilled the separate duties of their stations with great gallant 
ry : but to Major Majoribanks, and the flank Battalion under his 
command, I think the honor of the day is greatly due. My warm 
est praise is due to Captain Barry, Deputy Adjutant General, Ma 
jor-Brigade Coxon, Lieut. Ranken, Assistant Quarter-Master Gen 
eral, and to acting Major-of-Brigade Roorback, for the great assist 
ance they rendered me during the day. 

I hope, my lord, when it is considered such a handful of men, 
attacked by the united force of Generals Greene, Sumter, Marion, 
Sumner, and Pickens. and the Legions of Colonels Lee and Wash 
ington, driving them from the field of battle, and taking the only 
two six-pounders they had, deserve some merit. 

Enclosed is the return of the killed, wounded, and missing of 
his Majesty s troops. From the number of corps and detachments 
which appear to have been engaged, it may be supposed our force 
is great ; but your lordship will please to observe, that the army 
was much reduced by sickness and otherwise. I hope your lord 
ship will excuse any inaccuracy that maybe in this letter, as I have 
been a good deal indisposed by a wound which I received in my 
left elbow, which, though slight, from its situation is troublesome. 
It will give me most singular pleasure, if my conduct meets with 
the approbation of his Majesty, that of your lordship, and my coun 

Return of Kitted, Wounded and Missing. 

Three commissioned officers, 6 Serjeants, 1 drummer, 75 rank 
and file, killed; 16 commissioned officers, 20 Serjeants, 2 drummers, 
313 rank and file wounded ; 10 commissioned officers, 15 Serjeants, 
8 drummers, 224 rank and file, missing. 


[No. 157 j William Swinton (Commissary) to Gen. Marion. 

SEPTEMBER 9, 1781. 
Honored Sir: 

I received your orders dated the 5th of this instant, and accord 
ingly I have sent Mr. Tomlinson with a hogshead of brandy and 
a cask of salt ; there is no such thing as getting any gin at all, or 
any kind of spirits out of George Town. I shall set off this week 
to get you some peach brandy and some flour. Sir, I beg you will 
send for the liquor as fast as possible, as it is very hard for me to 
find an honest man to take care of it. Sir, there is at old Mr. Wm. 
Davis , one cask of salt, and at Col. Richardson s two casks, and 
have enclosed the names of the different men where the salt is stored. 
I am, sir, yours to serve with due respect, 


[No. 158.] Wm. Snow to Mr. Rhodes. 

ST. JAMES, SANTEEJ Sept. 9, 1781. 
Mr. Rhodes Sir : 

You will receive by big Tom, order by Capt. Henry Lenud, to 
take any of my negroes for Mr. David Jones, and my sorrel mare, 
yearling, from Robert James, and bring them to me, and for each 
negro you bring or either of them, I will give you five pounds, 
and the same for the yearling mares, and you shall be sure of the 

cash. Your I have sent by him, the salt and the other thing 

I will endeavor to get by the last of the week, when I shall expect 
you down with Tom, as I have ordered him to assist you with my 
negroes as you will have full power to bring them, for Capt. Lenud s 
order is as good as the Governor s, for he is a continental officer, and 
I expect you and Mrs. Jones will do what you can for me, as I can t 
come up myself just on account my \vife s state of health. First, 
get cousin Billy to bring Mathias over to your house like on busi 
ness, then secure him well in Tom s care; then fetch Ben from cou 
sin Stephen s and Ruth at Daniel s ; these negroes, if they are not 
well secured, will get away ; have no mercy on these negroes or 


they will deceive you. If you mean to do anything for me, keep 
your mind very still from black or white until you are ready to set 
off, or the negroes will hide out of the way. Tom has his orders 
to be still " until" you give orders ; there is not the least danger of 
your coming here ior there is no party about us, so I depend en your 
doing this business for me as you shall be well rewarded for your 
trouble, and I want to see you very much about some of our affairs 
which will be an advantage to you. My love to Billy Goddard, and 
our compliments to family, when I remain 

Your friend and very humble servant, 


P. S. If you say the least about Ruth, she will run off, for she is 
an arch bitch ; my wife and I beg you will call on Mrs. Owen, she 
wont have to wait on her over a few days. 

[No. 159.1 Gen. Greene to the President of Congress. 

NEAR FERGUSON S SWAMP, Sept. 11, 1781. 

In my dispatches of the 25th of August, I informed your excel* 
lency, that we were on the march to Friday s Ferry, with the in 
tent of forming a junction with the troops of the State and a corps 
of militia that were assembled, and to attack the English army, en 
camped near M Leod s Ferry. 

On the 27th, upon our arrival there, I received advice that the 
enemy had retired. We passed the river at Howell s Ferry, and 
our first post was Motte s plantation, where I learnt that the enemy 
had stopped at Eutaw Springs, about forty miles from us, wheie 
they had received a reinforcement, and they prepared to establish 
a post there. To dislodge them, I determined to hazard an en 
gagement, although we were considerably inferior in number. 

We began to march on the 5th of September ; and we advanced 
by small marches, as well to disguise our intention, as to give time 
to General Marion, who had been detached, to rejoin us ; so that 
it was the 7th when we came to Bendell s plantations, within sev 
enteen miles of the enemy. 

We marched to attack the enemy at four o clock in the morning 


of the 8th. Our front line was composed of four small Battalions 
of militia, two of North and two of South Carolina ; our second 
line consisted of three small Brigades of Continental troops, one of 
North Carolina, one of Virginia, and one of Maryland ; Lieut. Col. 
Lee, with his Legion, covered our right flank; and Lieut Col. Hen 
derson, with the State troops, our left. Lieut, Col. Washington, 
with his Cavalry and the Delaware troops, formed the body of re 
serve. Two three-pounders were in the front of our line, and two 
six-pounders with the second line. The Legion and the State troops 
formed our advanced guard, and were to retreat on our flanks when 
the enemy should form. We marched in this order to the attack. 
The Legion and State troops met with a part of the enemy s Horse 
and Foot, about four miles from their camp, and put them to flight 
with fixed bayonets, having killed and wounded many. As we 
thought this was the van of the enemy, our first line was ordered 
to form, and the Legion and State troops to take post on our flanks- 
From this place of action to Eutaw Springs, the whole country is 
covered with wood. The firing began at three miles from the Eng 
lish camp. The militia advanced firing, and the advanced posts of 
the enemy were routed. The fire redoubled ; our officers behaved 
with the greatest bravery, and the militia gained much honor by 
their firmness. But the fire of the enemy, who continued to ad 
vance, being superior to our s, the militia were obliged to retreat. 

The Carolina Brigade, under Gen. Sumner, were ordered to sup 
port them, and, though not above three months raised, behaved no 
bly. In this moment of action, the Virginians, under Col. Camp 
bell, and the Marylanders, under Col. Williams, advanced in the 
face of the enemy s fire ; a terrible cannonade, and a shower of 
bullets, overturned all that presented, and the enemy were put to 
the rout. 

Lieut. Col. Lee turned his left flank to the enemy, and charged 
them in the rear, while the troops of Maryland arid Virginia charged 
them in the front. Col. Hampton, who commanded the troops of 
the State, charged on part, of whom he made one hundred prison 
ers. Col. Washington advanced with a corps de reserve upon the 
left, where the enemy appeared to prepare again to make resistance, 
and charged them so impetuously with his Cavalry, and a body of 
Infantry, that they had not time to rally. 


We continued to pursue the enemy, after having broken them, 
until we attained their camp. A great number of prisoners fell 
into our hands, and some hundreds of fugitives escaped towards 
Charles Town; but a party having got into a brick house, three 
stories high, and others took post in a pallisadoed garden, their rear 
being covered by springs and hollow ways, the enemy renewed 
the fight. Lieut. Col. Washington did his utmost to dislodge them 
from a thick wood, but found it impossible ; his horse was killed 
under him, and himself wounded, and taken prisoner. Four can 
non were advanced against the house, but the fire from it was so 
brisk, that it was impossible to force it, or even to bring on the can 
non, when the troops were ordered to retreat, and the greatest part 
of the officers and men who served those cannon were either killed 
or wounded. 

Washington having failed in his attack on the left, the Legion 
could not succeed on the right ; and seeing our Foot roughly han 
dled by the enemy s fire, and our ammunition almost expended, I 
thought it my duty to shelter them from the fire of the house, being 
persuaded that the enemy could maintain their posts but a few 
hours, and that we should have better play on their retreat; than to 
obstinately persist in dislodging them, which would expose us 
to a considerable loss. 

We collected all our wounded, except those who were too for 
ward under the fire of the house, and we returned to the bank, 
which we occupied in the morning, not finding water any where 
nearer, and our troops having great need of refreshment, after a 
fight which had continued four hours. I left upon the field of bat 
tle a strong picket. 

I shall send Col. Lee and Gen. Marion early to-morrow morning 
between Eutaw and Charles Town, to prevent the reinforcements 
which may come to succour the enemy, or to retard their march, if 
they attempt to retreat, and give room to the army to attack their 
rear guard, and complete our success. We lost two pieces of artil 
lery to the enemy, and we have taken one of theirs. 

The night of the 9th the enemy retired, leaving more than sev 
enty of their wounded behind them, and more than a thousand 
arms, which they had broken and concealed in the springs of the 
Eutaw s ; they staved twenty or thirty barrels of rum, and de- 


stroyed a large quantity of provisions, which they could not carry 
with them. 

We pursued them as soon as we had notice of their retreat, but 
they joined Major M Arthur, Gen. Marion and Col. Lee not having 
troops enough to hinder them. At our approach they retired to 
Charles Town. We took five hundred prisoners, including- the 
wounded they had left behind; and I reckon they had not less than 
six hundred killed and wounded. Thefugitives spread such an alarm, 
that the enemy burnt their provisions at Dorchester, and quitted 
their post at Fair Lawn. A great number of negroes and others 
have been employed to throw down trees across the roads at some 
miles from Charles Town. Nothing but the brick house, and their 
strong post at Eutaw s, hindered the remains of the British army 
from falling into our hands. 

We have pursued them to the Eutaw s, but could not overtake 
them. We shall rest here one or two days, and then take our old 
position near the heights of San tee. 

I think I owe the victory which I have gained to the brisk use 
the Virginians and Marylanders, and one party of the Infantry, made 
of the bayonet. I cannot forbear praising the conduct and courage 
of all my troops. 

(Signed) NATH. GREENE. 

State of the Continental Troops. 

Killed : One Lieutenant Colonel, 6 Captains, 5 subalterns, 4 Ser 
jeants, 98 rank and file. Wounded : Two Lieutenant Colonels, 7 
Captains. 20 Lieutenants, 24 Serjeants, 209 rank and file. Total, 
408 men. 


[No. 160.] Account furnished by Col. Otho Williams, ivith addi 
tions by Cols. W. Hampton, Polk, Howard and Watt. 

At 4 o clock in the morning, the American army moved in four 
columns from its bivouac, in the following order : The South Car 
olina State Troops and Lee s Legion, formed the advance, under 
command of Col. Henderson. The militia, both of North and 


South Carolina, under Marion, moved next. Then followed the 
regulars, under Gen. Sumner; and the rear was closed by Wash 
ington s Cavalry and Kirkwood s Delawares, under Col. Washing 
ton. The Artillery moved between the columns. The troops 
were thus arranged in reference to the order of battle, in which 
they were to be formed on the field. 

It is an admitted fact, that on the evening of the 7th, Stewart was 
unapprized of the approach of the American arrny. He supposed 
them to be still posted at Laurens , and the apology which he makes 
for it is " that the Americans had way-laid the swamps and passes 
in such a manlier, as to cut off every avenue to intelligence." He 
would have found a better apology in the fact, that the only patrol 
which appears to have been dispatched up the Congaree road, had 
been entrapped and captured by Col. Lee, during the night. So 
entirely secure had he felt himself in his position, that an unarmed 
party, under a small escort, had been advanced up the river for the 
purpose of collecting the sweet potatoe, (very generally cultivated 
in this State) to contribute to the subsistence of his army. This 
party, commonly called a rooting party, consisting of about one 
hundred, after advancing about three miles, had pursued a road to 
their right, which led to the plantations on the river. 

The first intelligence, that Greene had approached within seven 
miles of his position, was communicated to Stewart by two of the 
North Carolina conscripts, who had deserted early in the night. 
And Captain Coffin, at the head of his Cavalry, was advanced, as 
well to recall the rooting party, as to reconnoitre the American posi 
tion, and ascertain their views. 

The American advance had already passed the road pursued by 
the rooting party, when they were encountered by Coffin ; who 
immediately charged with a confidence which betrayed his igno 
rance of its strength, and of the near approach of the main army. 
It required little effort to meet and repulse the British Cavalry 
but, the probability that their main army was near at hand to sup 
port the detachment forbade the measure of a protracted pursuit. 
The firing at this point drew the rooting party out of the woods, 
and the whole fell into the hands of the Americans. 

In the meantime time, Col. Stewart had pushed forward a de 
tachment of Infantry to a mile distant from the Eutaws, with or- 


ders to engage and detain the American troops, while he formed his 
men and prepared for battle. But, Greene, persuaded by the au 
dacity of Coffin, that the enemy was at hand, and wishing to have 
time for his raw troops to form with coolness and recollection, halt 
ed his columns, and after distributing the contents of his rum casks, 
ordered his men to form in the order for battle. 

The column of militia, when deployed, formed the first line ; the 
South Carolinians, in equal divisions, on the right and left, and the 
North Carolinians in the centre ; Gen. Marion commanded the right, 
Gen. Pickens the left, and Col. Malmady, (who held a commission 
under North Carolina) commanded the centre. Col. Henderson, 
with the State troops, including Sumter s Brigade, covered the left 
of this line, and Col. Lee, with his Legion, the right. 

The column of regulars also deployed into one line ; the North 
Carolinians under Gen. Sumner, occupied the right, divided into 
three Battalions, commanded by Col. Ash, and Majors Armstrong 
and Blunt ; the Marylanders, under Col. Williams, on the left, di 
vided into two Battalions, commanded by Col. Howard and Major 
Hardman; the Virginians, in the centre, under command of Col. 
Campbell, were also divided into two Battalions, led by Major 
Sneed and Captain Edmonds. The two three-pounders, under 
Capt. Lieut. Gaines, moved in the road with the first line, which 
was equally distributed to the right and left of it ; and the two six- 
pounders, under Capt. Brown, attended the second line, in the 
same order. Col. Washington still moved in the rear in column, 
with orders to keep under cover of the woods, and hold himself in 
reserve. The relative numbers of the corps that formed the Amer 
ican second line, were nearly as follows : The North Carolina line, 
350 ; the Virginians, 350 ; the Marylanders, 250. Those of the 
militia have been already "mentioned. The troops of the two cover 
ing parties, and the reserve, i^ake up the total of the regulars be 
fore stated. 

In this order the troops moved forward. The whole country on 
both sides of the road, being in woods, the lines could not move 
with much expedition consistently with preserving their order. The 
woods were not thick, nor the face of the country irregular ; it un 
dulated gently, presenting no obstacles to the march, although pro 
ducing occasional derangements in the connection of the lines. 


When the first American line reached the ground on which it 
encountered Stewart s advanced parties, it was ordered to move on 
in order, driving the enemy before it. And in this manner it ad 
vanced firing, while the enemy retreated, and fell into their own line. 

At about two hundred yards west of the Eutaw Springs, Stew 
art had drawn up his troops in one line, extending from the Eutaw 
Creek beyond the main Congaree road. The Eutaw Creek effectu 
ally covered his right, arid his left, which was in the military lan 
guage, in air, was supported by Coffin s Cavalry, and a respectable 
detachment of Infantry, held in reserve at a convenient distance in 
the rear of the left, under cover of the wood. 

The ground on which the British army was drawn up, was al 
together in wood ; but, at a small distance in the rear of this line, 
was a cleared field, extending west, south and east from the dwel 
ling house, and bounded north by the creek formed by the Eutaw 
Springs, which is bold, and has a high bank thickly bordered with 
brush and low wood. From the house to this bank, extended a 
garden enclosed with palisadoes, and the windows of the house, 
which was two-stories high, with garret rooms, commanded the 
whole circumjacent fields. The house was of brick, and abundant 
ly strong to resist small arms, and surrounded with various offices 
of wood ; one particularly, a barn of some size, lay to the south 
east, a small distance from the principal building. In the open 
ground, to the south and west of the house, was the British encamp 
ment, the tents of which were left standing. 

The American approach was from the west ; and at a short dis 
tance from the house, in that direction, the road forks, the right 
hand leading to Charleston, by the way of Monk s Corner, the left 
running along the front of the house by the plantation of Mr. Pat 
rick Roche, and therefore called, by the British officers, Roche s 
road ; being that which leads down the river, and through the 
parishes of St. Johns and St. Stephens. 

The superiority of his enemy in Cavalry, made it necessary 
that Col. Stewart should cast his eye to the Eutaw house for re 
treat and support. To that, therefore, he directed the attention of 
Major Sheridan, with orders, upon the first symptoms of misfor 
tune, to throw himself into it, and cover the army from the upper 
windows. On his right also, he had made a similar provision against 


the possibility of his lines being compelled to give ground. In the 
thickets which border the creek, Major Majoribanks, with three 
hundred of his best troops, was posted, with instructions to watch 
the flank of the enemy, if ever it should be open to attack. This 
command had assumed a position having some obliquity to the main 
line, forming with an obtuse angle. 

The Artillery of the enemy was also posted in the main 

As soon as the skirmishing parties were cleared away from be 
tween the two armies, a steady and desperate conflict ensued. That 
between the Artillery of ihe first line, and that of the enemy, was 
bloody and obstinate in the extreme ; nor did the American Artil 
lery relax for a moment from firing or advancing, until both pieces 
were dismounted and disabled. One of the enemy s four pounders 
had shared the same fate, and the carnage on both sides had been 
equal and severe. 

Nor had the militia been wanting in gallantry and perseverance. 
It was with equal astonishment, that both the second line and the 
enemy, contemplated these men, steadily, and without faltering, 
advance with shouts and exhortations into the hottest of the ene 
my s fire, unaffected by the continual fall of their comrades around 
them. Gen. Greene, to express his admiration of the firmness ex 
hibited on this occasion by the militia, says of them, in a letter to 
Steuben, " such conduct would have graced the veterans of the 
great king of Prussia." But it was impossible that this could en 
dure long, for these men were, all this time, receiving the fire of 
double their number ; their Artillery was demolished, and that of 
the enemy still vomiting destruction on their ranks. They at length 
began to hesitate. 

Governor Rutledge, who was anxiously attending the event of 
this battle, a few miles in the rear, wrote to the South Carolina del 
egates, that the militia fired seventeen rounds before they retired. 
That distrust of their own immediate commanders, which militia 
are too apt to be affected with, never produced an emotion where 
Marion and Pickens commanded. 

Gen. Sumner was then ordered to support them. This was done 
with the utmost promptness, and the battle again raged with re 
doubled fury. In speaking of General Sumner s command. Gen. 


Greene observes, u tliat lie was at a loss which most to admire, the 
gallantry of the officers or the good conduct of the men." 

On the advance of Gen. Sumner s command, Col. Stewart had 
brought up the Infantry of his reserve into line on his left, and the 
struggle was obstinately maintained between fresh troops on both 

From the first commencement of the action, the Infantry of the 
American covering parties, on the right and left, had been steadily 
engaged. The Cavalry of the Legion, by being on the American 
right, had been enabled to withdraw into the woods and attend on 
its Infantry, without being at all exposed to the enemy s fire. But 
the State Troops under Henderson had been in the most exposed 
situation on the field. The American right, with the addition of 
the Legion Infantry, had extended beyond the British left. But 
the American left fell far short of the British right; and the conse 
quence was that the State Troops were exposed to tha oblique fire 
of a large proportion of the British right, and particularly of the 
Battalion commanded by Majoribanks. Never was the constancy 
of a party of men more severely tried. Henderson solicited per 
mission to charge them, and extricate himself from their galling 
fire, but his protection could not be spared from the Artillery or 
the militia. At length he received a wound which disabled him 


from keeping his horse, and a momentary hesitation in his troops 
was produced by the shock. The exertions of Col. Wade Hamp 
ton, who succeeded to the command, aided by those of Col. Poik 
and Middleton, proved successful in restoring them to confidence 
and order, and they resumed their station in perfect tranquility. 

In the mean time things were assuming important changes along 
the front line. Sumner s Brigade, after sustaining for some time, a 
fire superior to their own in the ratio of the greater numbers op 
posed to them, at length yielded, and fell back. The British left, 
elated at the prospect, sprang forward as to certain conquest, and 
their line became deranged. This was exactly the incident for which 
the American commander was anxiously watching, and the next 
moment produced the movement for availing himself of it. Col. 
Williams now remained in command of the second line. " Let 
Williams advance and sweep the field with his bayonets," was the 


order delivered to a gentleman of medical staff, who acted the sur 
geon, the aid, and the soldier, indifferently, as occasion required. 

Never was order obeyed with more alacrity ; the two Brigades 
received it with a shout ; emulous to wipe away the recollections 
of Hobkirk s Hill, they advanced with a spirit expressive of the 
impatience with which they had hitherto been passive spectators of 
the action. When approached within forty yards of the enemy, 
the Virginians delivered a destructive fire, and the whole second 
line, with trailed arms, and an animated pace, advanced to the 
charge. Until this period their progress had been in the midst of 
showers of grape, and under a stream of fire from the line opposed 
to them. But eye-witnesseshave asserted, that the roll of the drum, 
and the shouts which followed it, drew every eye upon them alone; 
and a momentary pause in the action, a suspension by mutual con 
sent, appeared to withdraw both armies from a sense of personal 
danger, to fix their attention upon this impending conflict. It may 
well be supposed with what breathless expectation the Southern 
commander hung upon a movement on which all his hopes de 
pended. Had it failed, he must have retired under cover of his 

Under the approach of the second line, the advanced left of the 
British army had commenced a retrograde movement, in some dis 
order. This was confirmed by the good conduct of Col. Lee. 
The Legion Infantry had steadily maintained its order in its posi 
tion on the extreme right ; and the advance of the British left hav 
ing exposed its flank, the Legion Infantry were promptly wheeled, 
and poured in upon them a destructive enfilading fire ; then joining 
in the charge, the British left wing was thrown into irretrievable 
disorder. But their centre and right still remained ; greatly out 
numbering the assailing party, and awaiting the impending charge 
with unshaken constancy. 

If the two lines on this occasion, did not actually come to the mu 
tual thrust of the bayonet, it must be acknowledged, that no troops 
ever came nearer. They are said to have been so near, that their 
bayonets clashed and the officers sprang at each other with their 
swords, before the enemy actually broke away. 

But, the scales of victory, fortunately for man, are never long in 
equipoise on these occasions. 


In this instance, the left of the British centre appear to have been 
pressed upon, and forced back by their own fugitives, and began to 
give way from left to right. At that moment, the Marylanders de 
livered their fire, and along their whole front the enemy yielded. 

The shouts of victory resounded through the American line, af 
fording a gleam of consolation to many a brave man, bleeding and 
expiring on the field. Among these was the gallant Campbell, who 
received a ball in the breast during this onset. 

The victory was now deemed certain; but, many joined in the 
shouts of victory who were still destined to bleed. The carnage 
among the Americans had but commenced ; it was in the effort to 
prevent the enemy from rallying, and to cut him off from the brick 
house, which was all that remained to compel the army to surrender, 
that their great loss was sustained. 

A pursuing army is always impeded by the effort that is neces 
sary to maintain its own order ; while, whether from terror, for 
safety, or for rallying the speed of the fugitive, is unrestrained. 
Hence, Cavalry are the military means for rendering disorder irre 
trievable. It is obvious, that at this point of time, the Legion Cav 
alry might have been turned upon the British left with very great 
effect. Their position was highly favorable to such a movement, 
and their Infantry was close up with the enemy to afford support. 
Why this was was not done, has never been explained ; we can 
only conjecture, that it was prevented by one or both of two cau 
ses known to have existed on that day. Col. Lee was generally 
absent from it during the action, and bestowing his attention upon 
the progress of his Infantry ; and Captain Coffin was in that quar 
ter, attending on the retreat of the British left. Coffin s force was, 
probably, superior to that of Lee in Cavalry ; whether so superior 
as to justify the latter s not attempting the charge in the presence 
of the British Cavalry, although supported by that of his own In 
fantry, could only have been decided by the attempt. 

At this stage of the battle, Majoribanks still stood firm in the 
thickets that covered him ; and, as the British line extended consid 
erably beyond the American left, their extreme right still manifested 
a reluctance to retire ; and as their lefthad first given way, and yield 
ed now without resistance, the two armies performed together a 


half wheel, which brought them into the open ground towards the 
front of the house. 

Gen. Greene now saw that Mojoribanks must be dislodged, or 
the Maryland flank would soon be exposed to his fire, ana the con 
flict in that quarter renewed under his protection. Therefore, or 
ders were dispatched to Washington, to pass the American left and 
charge the enemy s right. The order was promptly obeyed, arid 
galloping through the woods, Washington was soon in action. Had 
he had the good fortune to have taken on Kirkwood s Infantry be 
hind his men, all would have gone well; to have been detained by 
their march, would have been inconsistent with his general feel 

Col. Hampton, at the same time, received orders to co-operate 
with Col. Washington ; and the rapid movement which he made 
to the creek, in order to fall in upon Washington s left, probably 
hastened the forward movement of the latter. On reaching the 
front of Majoribanks, and before Hamrton had joined hinj. Wash 
ington attempted a charge, bat it was impossible for his Cavalry to 
penetrate the thicket. He then discovered that there was an inter 
val between the British right and the creek, by which he was in 
hopes to succeed in gaining their rear. With this view, he ordered 
his troop to wheel by sections to the left, and thus, brought nearly 
all his officers next to the enemy, while he attempted to pass their 
front. A deadly and well directed fire, delivered at that instant, 
wounded or brought to the ground many of his men and horses, 
and every officer except two. 

The field of battle was, at this instant, rich in the dreadful sce 
nery which disfigures such a picture. On the left, Washington s 
Cavalry, routed and flying, horses plunging as they died, or cour 
sing the field withouttheir riders, while the enemy with poised bayo 
net, issued from the thicket, upon the wounded or unhorsed rider. 
In the fore-ground, Hampton covering and collecting the scattered 
Cavalry, while Kirkwood, with his bayonets, rushed furiously to 
revenge their fall, and a road strewed with the bodies of men and 
horses, and the fragments of dismounted Artillery. Beyond these, 
a scene of indescribable confusion, viewed over the whole Ameri 
can line advancing rapidly, and in order : And. on the right, Hen 
derson borne off in the arms of his soldiers, and Campbell sustain- 


ed in his saddle by a brave son, who had sought glory at his fath 
er s side. 

Nothing could exceed the consternation spread at this time 
through the British ground of encampment. Every thing was 
given up for lost, the commissaries destroyed their stores, the nu 
merous retainers of the army, mostly loyalists and deserters, who 
dreaded falling into the hands of the Americans, leaping on the 
first horse they could command, crowded the roads and spread 
alarm to the very gates of Charleston. The stores on the road were 
set fire to, and the road itself obstructed by the felling of trees, for 
miles, across it, 

Lieut Gordon, and Cornet Simmons, were the only two of Wash 
ington s officers who could return into action. The Colonel him 
self had his horse shot under him, and his life saved by the inter 
position of a British officer. The melancholy group of wounded 
men and officers, who soon presented themselves to the General s 
view, convinced him of the severity of his misfortune] but, he had 
not yet been made acquainted with the full extent of it. 

The survivors of Washington s command being rallied, united 
themselves to Hampton s, and were again led up to the charge upon 
Majoribanks, but without success. That officer was then retiring 
before Kirkwood, still holding to the thickets, and making for anew 
position, with his rear to the creek, and his left resting on the pali- 
sadoed garden. By this time Sheridan had thrown himself into 
the house, and some of the routed companies from the left had made 
good their retreat into the picketted garden ; from the intervals of 
which, they could direct their fire with security and effect, The 
whole British line was now flying before the American bayonet. 
The latter pressed closely upon their heels, made many prisoners, 
and might have cut off the retreat of the rest, or entered pell-mell 
with them into the house, but for one of these occurrences, which 
have often snatched victory from the grasp of a pursuing enemy. 

The retreat of the British army lay directly through their en 
campment, where the tents were all standing, and presented many 
objects to tempt a thirsty, naked and fatigued soldiery to acts of in 
subordination. Nor was the concealment afforded by the tents at 
this time a trivial conisderation, for the fire from the windows of 
the house was galling and destructive, arid no cover from it was 


anywhere to be found except among the tents, or behind the build 
ing to the left of the front of the house. 

Here it was that the American line got into irretrievable confu 
sion. When their officers had proceeded beyond the encampment, 
they found themselves nearly abandoned by their soldiers, and the 
sole marks for the party who now poured their fire from the win 
dows of the house. 

From the baneful effects of passing through the encampmentj 
only a few corps escaped. Of this number, the Legion Infantry 
appears to have been one. Being far on the American right, it di 
rected its movements with a view to securing the advantage of be 
ing covered by the barn ; and the narrow escape of the British ar 
my, is sufficiently attested by the fact, that this corps was very near 
entering the house pell-mell with the fugitives. It was only by 
closing the door in the face of some of their own officers and men, that 
it was prevented ; and in retiring from the fire of the house, the pri 
soners taken at the door, were interposed as a shield to the life of 
their captors. 

Everything now combined to blast the prospects of the Ameri 
can Commander. The fire from the house showered down destruc 
tion upon the American officers ; and the men, unconscious or un 
mindful of consequences, perhaps thinking the victory secure, and 
bent on the immediate fruition of its advantages, dispersing among 
the tents, fastened upon the liquors and refreshments they afforded, 
and became utterly unmanageable. 

Majoribanks and Coffin, watchful of every advantage, now made 
simultaneous movements ; the former from his thicket on the left, and 
the latter from the wood on the right of the American line. Gen. 
Greene soon perceived the evil that threatened him, and not doubting 
but his Infantry, whose disorderly conduct he was not yet made ac 
quainted with, would immediately dispose of Majoribanks, dispatched 
Capt. Pendleton with orders for the Legion Cavalry to fall upon 
Coffin and repulse him. 

We will give the result in Captain Pendleton s own language : 
" When Coffin s Cavalry came out, Gen. Greene sent me to Col. 
Lee, with orders to attack him. When I went to the corps Lee 
was not there, and the order was delivered to Major Egleston, the 
next in command, who made the attack without success." u The 


truth is, Col. Lee was very little, if at all, with his own corps after 
the enemy fled. He took some dragoons with him, as I was in 
formed, and rode about the field, giving orders and directions, in a 
manner the General did not approve of. Gen. Greene was, appa 
rently, disappointed when I informed him Col. Lee was not with 
his Cavalry, and that I had delivered the order to Major Eg- 

By this time Gen. Greene, being made acquainted with the ex 
tent of his misfortune, ordered a retreat. 

Coffin, who certainly proved himself a brave and active officer 
on this day, had no sooner repulsed the Legion Cavalry, than he 
hastened on to charge the rear of the Americans, now dispersed 
among the tents. Col. Hampton had been ordered up to the road 
to cover the retreat, at the same time the order was issued to effect 
it, and now charged upon Coffin with a vigour that was not to be 
resisted. Coffin met him with firmness, and a sharp conflict, hand 
to hand, was for a while maintained. But Coffin was obliged to re 
tire, and in the ardour of pursuit, the American Cavalry approach 
ed so near Majoribanks, and the picketted garden, as to receive from 
them a fatally destructive fire. Col. Polk, who commanded Hamp 
ton s left, and was, of consequence, directly under its influence, de 
scribes it by declaring lt that he thought every man killed but him 
self." Col. Hampton then rallied his scattered Cavalry, and re 
sumed his station in the border of the wood. But before this could 
be effected, Majoribanks had taken advantage of the opening made 
by his fire, to perform another gallant action, which was decisive 
of the fortune of the day. 

The Artillery of the second line had followed on, as rapidly as it 
could, upon the track of the pursuit, and, together with two six- 
pounders abandoned by the enemy in their flight, had been brought 
up to batter the house. Unfortunately, in the ardour to discharge 
a pressing duty, the pieces had been run into the open field, so near 
as to be commanded by the fire from the house. The pieces had 
scarcely opened their fire, when the pressing danger which threat 
ened the party in the house, and, consequently the whole army, 
drew all the fire from the wirdows upon the Artillerists, and it very 
soon killed or disabled nearly the whole of them. And Majori 
banks who no sooner disembarrassed of Hampton s Cavalry, than he 


sallied into the field, seized the pieces, and hurried them under the co 
ver of the house. Then being re-inforced by parties from the gar 
den and the house, he charged among the Americans, now disper 
sed among the tents, and drove them before him. The American 
army, however, soon rallied, after reaching the cover of the wood, 
and their enemy was too much crippled to venture beyond the co 
ver of the house. 

Gen. Greene halted on the ground only long enough to collect 
his wounded ; all of whom, except those who had fallen under 
cover of the fire from the house, he brought off; and having made 
arrangements for burying the dead, and left a strong picket, under 
Col. Hampton, on the field, he withdrew his army to Burdell s, se 
ven miles distant. At no nearer point could water be found ade 
quate to the comforts of the army. 

Both parties claimed, on this occasion a complete victory ; but 
there is no difficulty in deciding the question between them, upon 
the plainest principles. The British army was chased from the 
field at the point of the bayonet, and took refuge in a fortress ; the 
Americans were repulsed from that fortress. And, but for the de 
moralizing effect of possessing themselves of the British tents, the 
cover of the barn presented the means of forcing or firing the house 
with certainty, and reducing the whole to submission. 

But if further evidence of victory than driving the enemy from 
the field, occupying his position, and plundering his carnp, be re 
quired, it is found in the events of the succeeding day. 

M Arthur was called up from Fairlawn to cover Gan. Stewart s 
retreat ; and leaving seventy of his wounded to his enemy, and 
many of his dead unburied ; breaking the stocks of one thousand 
stand of arms, and casting them into the spring ; destroying his 
stores, and then moving off precipitately, he fell back, and retreated 
to Fairlawn. The possession of the American Artillery, was the 
strong ground on which the British founded their claim to victory. 
But in this the trophies were divided, for one of the enemy s pieces, 
the four pounder that was disabled on the field, was carried off by 
the Americans, and the two others were fairly in their hands, and 
would have been secured, had they not been brought up, through 
the officious zeal of some of the staff of the army, to attack their 
prior owners. 


On the other hand, the enemy took no prisoners, except about 
forty wounded, whilst the Americans made five hundred prison 
ers, including the seventy who were abandoned when the enemy 

But the best criterion of victory is to be found in consequences ; 
and here tho evidence is altogether on the American side. For 
the enemy abandoned his position, relinquished the country it com 
manded, and although largely re-enforced, still retired, when the 
Americans advanced within five miles of him, to Ferguson s 
Swamp, where he had first halted. 

It was Gen. Greene s intention to have renewed the action the 
next day ; and in hopes to prevent a junction with M Arthur, Lee 
and Marion had been detached to watch the lino of communication 
between the Eutaws and Fairlawn. By the simultaneous move 
ments of the two corps, so as to meet at mid-distance and out num 
ber Marion, their junction and retreat was effectually secured. This 
was the evening of the day after the battle. Gen. Greene pressed 
the pursuit on tho road to Charleston, during the whole of one day ; 
but, finding that Col. Stewart still retired before him, and being now 
left at liberty to watch the movements of Lord Cornwallis, and 
his wounded and prisoners requiring attention, he resolved to retire 
again to the High Hills af Santee. 

Names of the continental commissioned officers killed and wounded 
in the action of Eutaw. the St/i of September, 1781. 

Maryland Brigade. Captains Dobson and Edgerly, Lieutenants 
Dewall and Gould, killed. Lieut. Col. Howard. Captain Gibson, 
Capt, Lieut. Hugon. Lieutenants Ewing, Woolford and Lynn, En 
sign Moore, wounded. 

Virginia Brigade. Lieut. Col. Campbell, CagtjOldlj^rrij Lieut. 
Wilson, killed. Captains Edmonds and Morgan, Lieutenants Mil 
ler and Jonitt, wounded. 

North Carolina Brigade. Captains Goodman, Goodwin and 
Potterfield. Lieat. Dillon, killed. Capt. Hadley, Lieutenants Dix- 
on, Andrews and Dudley. Ensigns Lo.mb aud Moore, wounded. 


South Carolina line. Lieut. Col. Henderson, wounded. Cav 
alry : Lieut. Col. Washington, wounded and prisoner of war ; 
Capt Watts, Lieutenants Gordon, Simons, King and Steward, Mr. 
Carlisle, volunteer, killed. Artillery: Capt. Lieut. Finn, wound 
ed ; Lieut. Carson, wounded mortally ; Lieut. Drew, wounded ; 
Lieut. M Gurrie, wounded and prisoner of war. Legion Infantry : 
Lieut. Manning, wounded; Mr. Carrington, volunteer, wounded. 
)c Q. H. WiijiamSj. D. A. G. 

South Carolina State Officers. Major Rutherford, Lieut. Polk> 
Adjutant Lush, killed. Lieut. Col. Henderson, commanding Brig 
ade, Lieut. Col. Middleton, Captains Moore, Giles, N. Martin 
and Cowan, Lieutenants Erskine, Culpeper, Hammond and Spra- 
gins, wounded. 

South Carolina Militia. Brig. Gen. Pickens, Lieut. Col. Horry, 
Captains Gee and Pegee, Lieutenant Boon, wounded. Lieutenants 
Holmes and Simons, killed; 

[No. 161.] Capt. William Richardson to Gen. Marion. 

MEXICO PLANTATION, Sept. 12, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

The Governor sent me on the business of purchasing all the In 
digo in the State, and to obtain an account of all the provisions on 
the rivers, with directions to apply to you for a party to go on this 
business, and to escort two wagons down to Strawberry to fetch 
up some things from thence. Capt. Lesesne, with a small party, 
on my application to him, assisted me three days in getting Indigo, 
but his anxiety to be with you and fears of a rebuke, induced him 
to leave me, which puts a stop to my progress ; for without a party 
I apprehend great difficulties may arise ; people are not inclined to 
part with Indigo on the public security, so that I fear I shall be re 
duced to the necessity of impressing ; in that case a party will be 
absolutely necessary, therefore request you will be so obliging as 
to let Capt. Lesesne, with a small party, assist me in this business. 
and your advice whether it will be safe to send the wagon down to 
Strawberry for the Governor s things at this critical juncture ; they 


are now waiting at Murray s Ferry, and will there remain till I re 
ceive your orders. I most sincerely congratulate you on your suc 
cess on Saturday last. Report says your militia behaved like old 
veterans. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 162.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

CONGAREE, Sept. 14, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Upon consideration of the matter, it appears to me that the en 
closed allotment of your Brigades is the best that can be made. I 
wish to know from you as soon as possible, whether you are of the 
same opinion, or whether you would recommend that any and which 
Regiment should be thrown into different Brigades than they are in 
according to this allotment, for I wish to have the several Regiments 
throughout this State properly brigaded, the militia classed and 
draughted, the Regiments properly and fully officered, and such 
other regulations established as may be most expedient for render 
ing the militia serviceable. I shall expect to hear from you in an. 
swer to this letter and several others lately wrote you, as soon as the 
busy scenes in which you are now engaged will allow you leisure 
for that purpose. I am, sir, 

Your very humble servant, 


P. S. Since writing the above. I have received yours of the 3d 
instant. lam sorry to find that the Southward militia behaved ill. 
I hope, however, we shall soon reform them ; we must endeavor to 
have them better officered. Pray recommend (if you can) some 
good man on the west side of Santee River, for Ordinary of Charles 
Town District, who will not be afraid to undertake the office. I 
presume such a man may be found near Santee River, as he will be 
under your wing and safe. I wish to make this appointment as soon 
as possible, having fixed on proper persons for all the other Districts, 


therefore let me know if you please as soon as convenient, whom 
you recommend for this district. 
I am, dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 163.J Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

SEPTEMBER 14, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I had thought of requesting Col. May ham to accept the office of 
Ordinary for Charles Town District, but it is necessary that the 
Ordinary should reside in the district for which he is to act, and I 
was told Col. Mayham resided on the east side of Santee, but since 
my letter to you of this morning, I understand he lives on the west 
side and consequently in Charles Town District; you need not there 
fore take the trouble of looking out for a proper man for that dis 
trict, as I shall appoint him and will in a few days send a commis 
sion to him which I hope he will accept, as it will not interfere with 
his militia duty. I am, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 164.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

SEPTEMBER, 14, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Yours of the 7th and 8th inst. came to hand last night. It is en 
tirely out my power to pay any attention to the tories, as I have riot 
one sixth of the men out, that ought to be this month. Enclosed is an 
order for the leather; I had wrote you formerly that all saddles, arms 
and horses may be taken from such men as have given substitutes- 
I am sorry to find you have so few men mounted and accoutred. I 
was in hopes to have had a troop at least in action. I have been 
so harrassed that neither my horses or men can move. In the ac 
tion of the 8th inst. the enemy lost at least one thousand men up- 


wards of five hundred are prisoners. Our loss is one hundred and 
sixty-five killed, wounded and missing;. Col. Washington fell in 
the enemy s hands by accident, having his horse killed which fell on 
him. Col. Campbell, -of the Virginia line, was killed ; Gen. Pick, 
ens slightly wounded ; Col. Henderson through the leg; Lieut. 
Col. Hugh Horry wounded through the fleshy part of his leg. 
Many valuable officers got wounded. The action was close and 
lasted an hour ; ray Brigade behaved well, but the North Carolina 
militia under Col. Malmady rua Um third fire ; u l the troops ex 
cept his, fought like heroes, ai,d the enemy was drove above a mile. 
We took throe pieces of cannon, one was retaken, and we lost two 
pieces by advancing too far to batter the Eutaw house. The ene 
my retreated with grear precipitation to Monk s corner, where they 
received reinforcements front town; they left seventy wounded at 
Eutaw. I am, with regard. 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 165.J Major Pierce ( Aid-de-camp ) to Gen. Marion. 

MRS. MOTTE S, Sept. 14, 1781. 
Sir : 

Your two letters of the 26th ult.. and 4th inst. directed to Gen. 
Greene, rave been duly received. I am desired by the General to 
assure you that if more horses should arrive from North Carolina, 
than are engaged for the two established corps of Cavalry, you shall 
undoubtedly claim his first attention, but as yet, none have arrived. 
As to your sending officers into North Carolina to recruit, it ia a 
scheme that he can only countr-impee. but not by any means author 
ise. If your prospects are good, he thinks you had better make 
the trial, for the great object is the same to every State, and no lo 
cal advantage or disadvantage can arise from it. Enclosed is an or 
der from the Governor on Capt. Richardson, for as much of the 
public Indigo as may be sufficient to procure necessary equipments 
for your Regiment of Dragoons. The General depends much on 
your judgment and prudence in calculating the quantities, and hopes 
you will keep in view the strictest economy. Instead of the two 



companies of Riflemen, that you wish to have attached to your 
corps, the General wishes you to raise only one, and engage them 
for as long a time as you can. You may continue to receive or not 
receive substitutes for the militia, as you may judge best calculated 
to promote the public good. 

I have the honor to be, sir, with great respect, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

WM. PIERCE, jr., Aid-dc-camp. 

[No. 166.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion,, 

CONGAREE, Sept. 15, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I think after the glorious victory at Eutaw, it would be expedi 
ent to issue a proclamation offering to all who have joined and are 
now with the enemy, excepting such as signed the congratulatory 
addresses to Clinton and Cornwallis, or have held, or hold commis 
sions under the British government, a free pardon and permission 
for their wives and families to return and re-occupy their possessions. 
on condition that such men appearing at our head quarters, or before 
a Brigade or the Colonel of any Regiment, and there subscribing 
an engagement to serve the State faithfully as militia men for six 
months, and declaring in case of their deserting in that time, their 
wives and families shall be sent into Charles Town or the enemy s 
lines. I apprehend such a measure would be well-timed at this 
juncture, and might induce some, perhaps many, to return to their 
allegiance and behave well, which would not only deprive the Brit 
ish of their services, but turn those services to our advantage. How 
ever, this is a nice point, and I don t know how it will be relished 
by our friends. You know mankind generally judge of the pro 
priety of measures from events These we cannot foresee, but it 
is our duty to consider what they probably will be, and to take 
such steps as are most likely to produce the best effects. I now re 
quest that you will favor me by bearer, with your opinion on these 
several points. 1st. Whether you think it advisable to issue any 
proclamation or offer of pardon. 2d. Would it be best to make 


any condition at all of a pardon; if condition is made should it be 
the person entering into the Continental service for a certain time, 
(that I urn afraid they would not like) or would it be sufficient to re 
quire them to serve as militia for a certain time after the expiration 
of which they would be liable to do duty as the other inhabitants? 
Is six months service long enough ? I think a time ought to be 
limited for their coming in. Suppose twenty days; would that be 
long enough ? Would it not be best that they should appear and 
subscribe the agreement at one certain place, say the head quar 
ters of the army, or should it be either there or before any Briga 
dier or Colonel, or before a Brigadier only ? Pray give me your 
sentiments fully and freely on this matter, also with respect to the 
allotment of Brigades, about which I wrote you yesterday. 
by return of the bearer, and despatch him as soon as you can, for 
I keep Gen. Pickens only till I hear from you on these points, and 
he is very anxious to get away. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


\No. 167.] Goi\ Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

CONGAREE, Sept. 17, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have allotted to your Brigade the following Regiments, viz : 
Lieut. Col. McDonald s, Richardson s, Irvin s, and Benton s, and 
the Regiment formerly Maybank s. You will receive herewith, a 
number of blank commissions ; be pleased to have the Regiments 
fully and properly officered, mustered and classed, or draughted 
as soon as possible, and march one third of them with the utmost 
expedition to Head Quarters, or such other place as the Hon. Maj. 
Gen. Greene shall direct, to do duty under his orders for two months 
from the time of their arrival thereat. Enclosed are such extracts 
from several laws as are necessary to be made known to the militia, 
you will have each Colonel furnished with a copy of them and or 
der they be publicly read at the head of his Regiment, and a copy 
taken by each of his field officers and Captains that now may pre 
tend ignorance of them. The militia laws may certainly be made 


much better than they are generally supposed to be. You will 
therefore appoint the most proper men in your Brigade for officers, 
and have the laws carried strictly and steadily into execution. You 
will direct that the men come on foot, for they are to do duty as 
Infantry, and their horses cannot be kept in camp, nor can any 
draughted men be spared to convey them back. If the number of 
commissions herewith sent are insufficient, let me know how many 
more 8 re wanted, and I will send them as soon as they can be print 
ed. In the mean time you will give brevets to officers for whom 
there are no commissions. I wrote to Capt. Arns Vanderhorst 
to come and take command of the Regiment, formerly Maybank s, 
and will keep the commission of Colonel open till I hear from him. 
You will appoint a Lieut. Colonel and other necessary officers for 
that Regiment. 

I will send you printed copies of three proclamations, 
which are enclosed as soon as a press can get to work. 
In the interim j please have a copy taken and delivered to each Col 
onel, with orders to have it read at the head of his Regiment and 
circulated through the district of it. Pray have the enclosed letter 
to Col. Hugh Horry and the papers forwarded. My proclamation 
of this date, suspends until ten days after the next meeting and 
sitting of the General Assembly, the Acts which make Continental 
and State money a tender in law ; all fines must therefore be paid 
in specie. By the militia laws of 1778 and 1779, offenders are lia 
ble to be fined in sums not exceeding those which are therein men 
tioned, as they areimposed in current money, and the fines hereafter 
to be levied are to be paid in specie; it is necessary to ascertain to 
what amount in specie the court may fine. In 1776, the militfa 
were entitled to ten shillings current money a day. There was at 
that time, no difference in the value of specie and paper money. 
In March 1778, the pay of the militia continued the same ; it is 
therefore to be presumed that no difference had taken place between 
paper money and specie, at least there is no legislative acknowl 
edgment of any depreciation. But in February 1779. the pay of 
militia was raised from 10s. to 32s. 6d. per day, the paper money 
having, and being admitted by the Legislature to be, depreciated 
in that proportion. From these observations, we may fix the fol 
lowing rule as the moist just and equitable for determining how far 


the court may fine in specie, viz : For fines imposed by the Act of 
1773 to the amount of the sums mentioned in the law. Thus c100 
in specie (according to the old current rate of gold or silver) for 
<100 currency. But for fines under the Act of 1779, they must not 
exceed in specie the sums therein mentioned as d150 specie (ac 
cording to the old currency rate of gold and silver) for c500 cur 
rency. You will order all offenders who may be condemned to the 
Continental service, to be sent under a sufficient guard to head 
quarters. Persons against whose bodies executions issue are to be 
committed to the gaol at Waxsaws. You will give orders that no 
persons be suffered to pass from this State into any other through 
the district of your Brigade, without a permit from me, the Gen 
eral commanding the Continental troops, one of his Aids, or a 
Brigadier of militia, and that all persons, taken prisoners or stop 
ped on suspicions, be thoroughly searched, to prevent the enemy s 
carrying on a correspondence by this means. 
I am, with great regard, dear sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


Proclamation of his Excellency Jno. Rutledge, Esq., Governor 
and Commander-in- Chief of Sout/i Carolina. 

Provincial Assembly. Whereas the bills of credit or paper money, 
emitted by the honorable Continental Congress or the Legislature of 
of this State, are. by law, made and declared to be a tender in payment 
of all debts, contracts, dues and demands whatsoever ; and whereas 
from the redundancy of the said paper currency, the non establish 
ment of funds for the sinking or redeeming thereof, and other cau 
ses, it has greatly depreciated in its comparative value with specie, 
and the persons possessed of paper money have acquired ihe same 
for very trifling considerations, so that it would be inequitable and 
unjust to oblige creditors to accept of such money at an equal value 
with gold or silver, and it is difficult to ascertain an exchange or rate 
at which the same should pass, and tho fixing such exchange at 
present would be attended with many inconveniences, I have there 
fore thought proper to suspend, and I do by this my proclamation, 


and with the consent of the privy Council, and by virtue of the 
power and authority in me vested, suspend the several resolves and 
Acts of the Legislature, which make said paper currency a tender 
in law for or in payment of any debt or demand whatever. And I 
do declare the said resolves and acts to be accordingly suspended 
until ten days after the meeting and sitting of the General Assem 
bly j and whereas, it would be oppressive (the said Tender Laws 
being so suspended) in present condition of the State, to suffer cred 
itors to sue for recovery of debts, I do therefore, hereby prohibit 
and forbid all actions, suits, processes and proceedings in the Courts 
of Common Law or before a Justice of the Peace, under the Act for 
the trial of small and mean causes, until ten days after the next 
meeting and sitting of the General Assembly, to the end that the 
weighty and important matters may be submitted to their considera 
tion and finally be determined by their authority. 

Given under my hand and great seal at Congarees this thirteenth 
day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-one, and in the sixth year of the Independence 
of America. By his Excellency s command. 


SEPTEMBER 17. 1781. 

\No. 168.] Gov. Rutlcdge to Col. R. Hampton. 

CONGAREE, Sept. 17, 1781. 
Sir : 

I have annexed your Regiment to Gen. Sumter s Brigade. You 
are, therefore, in future to obey his orders. 

I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


[No. 169.] Gen L Greene to Gen L Marion. 

HIGH HILLS, Sept. 17, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have the pleasure to congratulate you on the arrival of Count 
De Grasse in Chesapeake Bay with 28 sail of the line, a number of 


frigates and 6000 land forces. Gen. Washington is also arrived in 
Virginia to take command of the army. From these circumstances 
and from some further intelligence of Lord Cornwallis movements: 
it is highly probably that his lordship will endeavor to retreat through 
North Carolina to Charles Town. I must therefore entreat that 
you will use every exertion to collect as large a body of militia to 
gether and as speedily as possible, that we may be able to intercept 
his lordship, and frustrate his design. I need not urge further the 
necessity of despatch, as his success must wholly depend on the 
rapidity of his movements. You will let me hear from you imme 
diately on this subject, and hold yourself ready to join the army at 
the shortest notice. I have the honor to be, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


\No. 170.] Gen. Greene to Col Peter Horrij. 

HIGH HILLS SANTEE, Sept. 17, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I congratulate you on the most flattering advices from the north 
ward. Count De Grasse has arrived in Chesapeake with twenty- 
eight sail of the line, a number of frigates, and six thousand land 
forces, and Gen. Washington has also arrived in Virginia to take 
command of the army. Lord Cornwallis movements indicate an 
intention of endeavoring to save himself by pushing a retreat through 
North Carolina to Charles Town. Should he undertake it, he will 
undoubtedly be preceded by a large body of Cavalry. I there 
fore beg to impress you with the necessity of using uncommon ex 
ertions to bring as many as possible of your Regiment into the field 
with the utmost expedition. You will be so obliging as to let me 
hear what are your prospects on this subject, and hold yourself rea 
dy to join the army at the shortest notice. 

I am. dear sir, your most obedient serv t, 



[No. 171.J Gen. Marion to Col Peter Harry. 

SEPTEMBER, 17th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I received yours of the 12th by Davis, and had answered every 
part two days ago. Wm. Johnston as you describe, is a soldier in 
2d Regiment for tho v/ar ; yon may keep him to do duty in your 
Regimentui; til called for. It is true Col. May ham had sixty Dragoons 
out, elegantly mounted and well clothed and armed ; in ten days 
hence he will have twenty more fit for the field. Tiie workmen you 
employ, I suppose yovi may do with as you think proper ; to exceed 
ones power on emergency may be warrantable. The enemy have 
collected ail their force, and are again at Eutaw, there is a fine field 
at present for Cavalry. I am, dear sir, 

Your humble servant, 


[No. 172. j Gen. Greene to Col. Balfour. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Sept. 19, 1781. 

" Your favor of the 3cl inst. I have received, and am happy for 
the honor of Colonel Hayne, to find nothing better to warrant his 
cruel and unjust execution, than the order of Lord Cornwailis, giv 
en in the hour of victory, when he considered the lives, liberties and 
property of the people prostrate at his feet. But I confess that I can. 
not express my astonishment that you and Lord Rawdon should give 
such an extraordinary example of severity upon the authority of 
that order, under such a change of circumstances, so long after it 
had been remonstrated against, and after a cartel had been settled 
to restrain improper severities, and to prevent the necessity of retali 

You will see by my letter to Lord Cornwailis, of the 17th De 
cember last, a copy of which is enclosed, that I informed his lord 
ship that his order was cruel and unprecedented, and that he might 
expect retaliation from the friends of the unfortunate. 


" You observe, that to authorize retaliation there should be a 
parity of circumstances, to which I can by no means agree. Re 
taliation pre-supposes an act of violence having been committed, 
and that it is adopted to punish the past and restrain the future, and, 
therefore, whatever will produce these consequences is warranted 
by the laws of retaliation. 

" You observe that the inhabitants of any country at war owe 
allegiance to the conquering power. 

" The right of conquest, from partial successes, is often made 
use of to levy contributions, but I believe there are no instances 
where the inhabitants are punished capitally for breach of parole 
given under these circumstances, especially while the two parties 
are contending for empire; and this act of severity complained of, 
is the more extraordinary, as you had long lost that part of the 
country, and upon your own principles the inhabitants owed alle 
giance to the conquering power. 

" The execution of Lieut. Fulker was without my "knowledge 
or consent. Nor did I ever hear of it before. I understood there 
were some who fell victims to the violence of the militia for the 
many outrages they had been guilty of, and this without the know 
ledge of the commanding officer, who put a stop to it the moment 
he discovered it. But there is a great difference between delioerate 
executions, and deaths which happen from an enraged people, ur 
ged by a sense of injury and oppression. 

"I have never authorized or countenanced an execution but for the 
crime of desertion. On the contrary, I have taken all the pains in my 
power to soften the resentments of the inhabitants towards each oth 
er, and to prevent as much as possible the dreadful calamities of pri 
vate murder. It has been my object to reclaim not to destroy even 
such of the inhabitants as have been opposed to the interests of 
their country ; and I cannot but consider your remarks respecting 
Col. Grierson and Major Durilop, as both illiberal and ungenerous, 
if you are acquainted with facts, if not, I hope you will be more 
careful how you censure without authority in future. A handsome 
reward was offered for the detection of the murderers of both 
those persons, as you will see by the enclosures Nos. 2 and 3. 

"As you have referred the justification of your conduct, in the 
affair of Col. Hayne, to Lord Cornwallis, and as his determination 


upon that matter will govern the business of future exchanges, I 
can see no advantage in appointing a person to meet Capt. Barry 
on the subject; besides \vhichj that gentleman is now a prisoner of 
war, and no longer in a capacity to negotiate affairs of this nature." 

[No. 173 ] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

Dear General: 

I thank you for your ready and cheerful compliance in calling 
out the militia, and beg you to take a position so as to be able to 
join us, should the enemy cross the Santee as they give out, which 
I can hardly suppose they will attempt in the desperate situation of 
their affairs in Virginia. If they will give us a. few days to breathe, 
refresh and take care of our wounded, I shall have no objection to 
another touch ; our prisoners amount to upwards of five hundred, 
and I will venture to say their loss in kil ed and wounded is not less 
than 600 more. Another such stroke will give us quiet and peace 
able possession of all the country. By the last accounts from Vir 
ginia, which have arrived since I wrote you, I am in great hopes, 
it will be out of the power of Lord Cornwallis to make good his 
retreat through North Carolina; but don t let that relax your pre 
parations, for fear of accidents, and we may want the militia here 
for our own defence Should the enemy cross the Santee, give May- 
ham and Horry orders to join you immediately, both being directed 
to hold themselves in readiness. 

With the most perfect esteem and regard, I am, dear sir, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 174.J Major John James to Gen. Marion. 

INDIAN TOWN, Sept. 20, 3781. 
Honored Sir : 

Enclosed I send you a letter from Snow to Messrs. Rhodes 
and Jones, the contents will fully inform you of Snow s design and 


the method lie is taking to accomplish it. Mr. Rhodes was in camp 
when the message came to his house. Mrs. Rhodes, his wife, being 
doubtful of the matter, came to rne about it. I forewarned her or 
any other person from meddling \vith Tory property until your 
pleasure should be known. I also desired her to acquaint her hus 
band with it at his home. Since I came from camp we have been 
much alarmed by the Tories ; I have been twice out in scout against 
them; once up Lyrich s Creek, where they had made robberies and 
shed blood, but I could find none, they having all fled to their shel 
ters. The second alarm was, that two hundred were in full march 
to destroy or carry our stores at Black Mingo. As quickly as pos 
sible, I collected upwards of 30 men and made all speed to endea 
vor to prevent them. The Tories aforesaid came only down Wacca- 
maw where they have done, as I am informed, a deal of mischief. 
A small party came down Britton s neck, and carried off some hor 
ses ; they took off all Mr. Gibson s. At the earnest request of the 
inhabitants of Lynch s Creek, I gave orders to eight men, chiefly 
of Capt. Brown s company, to assist those people in keeping up con 
stant scouts against the Tories, until you are pleased to give other di 
rections. I am ready and should have set out for camp to-morrow 
with the relief, but from orders from my Colonel, concerning the to- 
ries women, which will give me some trouble. If I am wanted in 
camp or any other command you may have for me, I am willing to 
comply with as far as I am capable. I sincerely congratulate you 
on the late additional honor you have acquired to you and your 
Brigade, and am, with due respect, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 175.] Gen. Marion to Col. Horry. 

MURRAY S FERRY, Sept. 23, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Gen. Greene desires me to call your Cavalry as soon I shall 
march from here. As the enemy is expected to cross the Santee, 
you will be ready at a moment s warning to join me. Indeed, I 
think it will be much for the good of the service, that you send all 


the men you have that are mounted and equipped immediately to 
me, as the enemy may cross suddenly, without having to send to 
you. I am informed that you or some of .your officers have order 
ed a tar-kiln of Brockington s to be set on fire to make coals for 
your workmen, if it is done, those that ordered it shall pay the val 
ue of it. Capt. Lenud has given Mr. Snow an order respecting 
his property. If I find it true, that gentleman shall be immediately 
put under arrest and tried by a general court martial, for assuming 
a power which is only vested in the Governor and delegated to 
me. I have heard a number of liberties which your officers have 
taken out of their sphere and line of duty, and shall in future take 
such steps with them as will bring them to their senses, for I think 
they are entirely out at present. I am informed of a great number 
of men in your Infantry, all of them not doing the service of one 
third. You will please send me the names of all such artificers as you 
have employed and are actually at work, and their different callings, 
that I may not only know who make it a pretence from doing du 
ty as militia, but to judge what numbers may be sufficient for your 
purpose. As it stands aC present, you ought to have a third of a 
Regiment. None but such as you give names of, shall be per 
mitted to stay from camp ; you will therefore send me a list per 
bearer. You will retain as few men as possible, as we shall want 
every man that can be got, for if the enemy cross the river an ac 
tion must ensue. I am, dear sir, 

Your humble servant, 


\No. 176.] Gen. Greene to Col Peter Horry. 

September 24, 1781. \ 
Dear Sir: 

Your favor of the 20th was delivered me last evening. I am 
sorry to find the Tories are getting formidable upon the borders of 
South Carolina. I had heard some time ago of their growing pow 
er and increasing confidence, to which Col. Wade s misfortunes, I 
believe, have contributed not a little. As you are acquainted with 


all their haunts in that part of the country, I wish to have your 
opinion respecting the force necessary and the best mode for dis 
persing- them I recommend calling 1 your troops together as fast 
as they are enlisted and putting them under discipline, they will 
be sooner fit for service, and at the same time serve to awe the To 
ries, as the very name of a regular soldier fills them with terror. 
I am happy to find by your returns, your Regiment so strong, and 
only wish that horses and accoutrements could be had to mount them 
immediately ; however, I am in hopes the mode you have fallen 
upon will afford you a considerable number. I have heard nothing 
farther from Virginia, by which the enemy s intentions ran be more 
fully explained, than when I wrote you before, but every hours de 
lay will render their retreat more difficult and dangerous. 
I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 117. \ Governor Rutledge to Col. Peter Horry. 

SEPTEMBER 25 ; 1781, 
Sir : 

You are hereby empowered to impress arid take what horses are 
wanted for your corps, except such as are in the Dragoon service, 
necessarily employed on public duty or belonging to the pnblic. The 
Honorable Major Gen. Greene s powers to you to procure articles 
for the equipment of your corps are hereby fully confirmed, and 
you are authorized to exercise them in future. I am, 
Your obedient servant, 


[No. 178.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

SEPTEMBER 26, 1781. 

Sir . 

I am informed that several persons liable to do militia duty, have 
found substitutes to perform it for them, and that others have paid 


money to officers to procure men in the Continental or State service, 
by which means, such persons have been excused by their officers 
from militia duty. As this practice has introduced and must occa 
sion great irregularity and confusion, I think proper to issue a spe 
cial and particular order on this head, and to give reasons against 
the practice above mentioned, and for the propriety of the order. 
The law does not allow any man the privilege of sending 1 substi 
tutes, nor does it exempt him from militia duty, by paying such a 
sum as his officer may think proper to receive, either in lieu of per 
sonal service to find a Continental or State soldier or for any other 
purpose. Therefore, if an officer takes on him to give an exemption 
from militia duty to one who provides a substitute, or pays money 
to procure a regular soldier, it is illegal and unwarrantable; such con 
duct never did, nor will receive my sanction or approbation. The 
militia are to be divided into three classes, in one of which every 
man must be; each of these classes is liable to be called out for two 
months. This makes every militia man liable to march twice a 
year ; (I mean those who are above 80 miles from the enemy, for 
if within that distance, the draught may be greater and the term 
of service longer) if he refuses or neglects to march, he is liable 
to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty pounds specie, being 
about the specie value (at the time when the Militia Act of the 13th, 
February, 1779, was passed) of five hundred pounds current mo 
ney, and to a further fine, not exceeding a third part in specie of 
treble the part of his tax. Such third part being about the com 
parative value (upon the principle laid down) between specie and 
paper money, in the latter of which he was liable to be fined not 
exceeding treble his tax; the only alternative then, is to do militia du 
ty or undergo his trial by a court martial, and pay such fine in spe 
cie (not exceeding the amount above mentioned) as they may ad 
judge for his neglect or refusal. You will give the necessary 
orders for observing this rule with your Brigade. No other 
regard is to be had to those who have found substitutes or paid mo 
ney to procure men, or for public purpose, than if they do not 
choose to perform militia duty, to allow them credit on account of 
their fine, for the specie value of what they paid to procure a sub 
stitute or for public purpose. You will order a regular account 
to be kept of all monies received, or to be received on the score 


above mentioned, which is to be paid into your hands, by those who 
originally receive it, and be pleased to make a return to me of what 
ever has been received, and every two months of all which may be 
received, that, a proper disposition of it may be ordered. I hope 
these instructions and those of the 17th inst., are sufficiently clear 
and extensive. I will endeavor to make them so if any doubt 
should remain or arise or any explanation be requisite, upon your 
communicating them to me. I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 179.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

Dear Sir : 

I have been very much puzzled about a proclamation to offer 
pardon to the Tories. I have, however, determined upon the whole, 
to issue one with certain exceptions. It is enclosed ; be pleased to 
have it properly circulated. I will send you some printed copies 
as soon as they can be struck off. You will have a regular account 
kept of all who surrender themselves within the time limited, and 
transmit it to me as soon as the time is expired. 

Your obedient servant, J. RUTLEDGE. 


J3i/ his Excellency John Rutledge, Esq., Governor and Commander- 
in- Chief of the said State. 

Whereas, the forces of the United States having compelled the 
troops of his Britannic Majesty, to surrender or evacuate the seve 
ral strong pests which they held in the upper and interior settle 
ments, and retreat to the vicinity of Charles Town, and the enemy 
being therefore unable to give that protection and support which 
they promised to their adherents, left many of the inhabitants of 
this State, who had taken up arms with them (induced so to do by 
their artful representations) to become victims to their in- 


j tired country; Wliereupon, sucli persons to escape or avoid the 
effects of its just resentments, followed and remained with the Brit 
ish army, or lurk and conceal themselves in secret places: And 
whereas, the commandant of Charles Town having sent beyond 
sea, the wives and families (who were in the said town) of all the 
avowed friends of America, the several Brigadiers of militia were 
ordered, as a retaliation of such treatment, to send the wives and 
families within their respective districts, of all persons who had 
joined or adhered to and remained with the enemy into their lines : 
And whereas, ii is represented to rne in behalf of the unhappy men 
who are wilh the British Troops, or scouting themselves as afore 
said, that they are now convinced (being reduced with their fami 
lies to great distress and poverty) that they relied on false and spe 
cious engagements, and were flattered with vain expectations and 
delusive hopes, and that they are therefore anxious (if they may be 
permitted) to return to their allegiance and use their utmost exer 
tions to support American Independence. On duly weighing and con 
sidering the premises, I have thought fit, by and with the advice 
and consent of the Privy Councils, to issue this proclamation, offer 
ing, and I do hereby offer to all persons who have borne arms with 
the enemy and who now adhere to, or are with them in this State, 
or are lurking or concealing themselves in secret places in any part 
of the State, a full and free pardon and oblivion for such their of 
fence of having borne arms with or adhere to the enemy, upon the 
conditions following : That is to say, that such persons do and shall 
within thirty days after the date hereof, surrender themselves to a 
Brigadier of militia of* this State, and engage to perform constant 
daty as privates in the militia for six months next ensuing the time 
of .such surrender, and that they actually perform such duty; and 
do further offer to the wives and children of such persons, upon 
their husbands or parents complying with the condition first above 
mentioned, license and permission to return to their habitations and 
to hold and enjoy their property in this State without molestation 
or interruption, Provided, that if such persons shall desert from 
the militia service within the time above limited, their families shall 
be immediately sent into the enemy s lines, and neither they or their 
husbands or parents suffered to return to or reside in this State. 
Nevertheless, I do except from the pardon hereby offered and from 


every benefit of this proclamation, all such persons, as having gone 
over to or joined the enemy, were called upon by me in and by 
two several proclamations, to surrender themselves to a magistrate 
within forty days after the respective dates of those proclamations, 
in pursuance of an Ordinance, entitled an Ordinance to prevent per 
sons withdrawing from the defence of this State to join the enemy 
thereof: All such as were sent off or obliged to quit the State for 
refusing to take the oath required of them by law, who have re 
turned to this country : All those who subscribed a congratulatory 
address, bearing date on or about the 5th day ot June, 1780, to 
Gen. Sir Henry Clinton and Vice Admiral Arbuthnot, or another 
address bearing date on or about the 19th day of September, 1780, 
to Lieut. Gen. Earl Cornwallis : All such as hold or have held any 
commission civil or military under the British government, and are 
now with the enemy, and all those whose conduct has been so in. 
famous, as that they cannot (consistently with justice or policy) be 
admitted to partake of the privileges of America; notwithstanding 
which last mentioned exception, such persons if they be deemed by 
me, or the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, (for the time being) 
inadmissable to the rights and privileges of subjects, will not be de 
tained as prisoners, but shall have full and free liberty and a pass 
or permit to return : At a juncture when the force of the enemy in 
this State, though lately considerable is nearly reduced, by the 
many defeats which they have suffered, and particularly in the late 
important action at Eutaw, when they are dispossessed of every 
post except Charles Town garrison: When the formidable fleet of 
his most Christian Majesty in Chesapeake Bay, and the combined 
armies of the King of France and of the United States under the 
command of his Excellency Gen. Washington, in Virginia, afford 
a well grounded hope that by the joint efforts of these armies, this 
campaign will be happily terminated and the British power in eve 
ry part of the confederated States soon totally annihilated : It is 
conceived that the true and real motive of the offer here made will 
be acknowledged; it must be allowed to proceed, not from timidi 
ty, (to which the enemy affect to attribute every act of clemency 
and mercy on our part) but from a wish to impress with a sense of 
their error and reclaim misguided subjects, and give them once 
more an opportunity of becoming valuable members of the com- 


munity, instead of banishing them or forever cutting them off from 
it ; for even the most disaffected cannot suppose that the brave and 
determined freemen of the State have any dread of their arms. 
With the persons to whom pardon is thus offered, the choice still re 
mains, either to return to their allegiance and with their families be 
restored to the favor of their country and to their possessions, or to 
abandon their properties in this State forever and go with their \vives 
and children whither, for what purpose, on whom to depend, or 
how to submit they know not, most probably to experience in some 
strange and distant land all the miseries and horrors of beggary, 
sickness and despair. This alternative is now, for the last time, sub 
mitted to their judgment. It will never be renewed. Given un 
der my hand and the great seal at the High Hills of Santee, this 
27th day of September, in the year of our Lord 1781, and in the 
sixth year of the Independence of America. 
By his Excellency s command. 

JNO. SANFORD DART, Secretary. 

[No. 180.J Gov. Rutledgc to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER, 5th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I received your letter of the 2d inst., the day before yesterday 
and should have answered it sooner, but have been disabled by sick 
ness. The order respecting militia. marching on foot, was general 
to all the Regiments, but as the movements and employment of 
your Brigade are different from those of any other, I think the rea 
sons good for your continuing to act on horseback. You will there 
fore order them to do so. By your order of the 2d inst., to Col. 
Richardson, I perceive you have mistaken my intention, which was 
not to bring to a trial by court martial (in order that they may be 
fined in specie) such persons as have refused to do duty. My de 
sire iS; that the Regiments be mustered and classed or draughted, 
and the extracts of the militia law, my orders respecting the mili 
tia, and the, proclamation suspending the Tender Acts, read at the 
head of each Regiment, in order that they may be publicly notified 


and no person hereafter preteni ignorance of them. This being 
done the instructions are to operate against all future offenders,, 
whether they have found substitutes in the militia, provided regular 
soldiers, or paid money for those or other purposes, but until this 
be done, persons who have refused to do duty are only fineable in 
paper money, and am rather of opinion, that it is most expedient 
not to inquire into past offences, but to begin upon the new plan 
which I havs laid down. As to persons who have found substi 
tutes or done any other act which they have been made to believe, 
would exempt them from militia duty, and who have therefore re 
fused to perform it, the bringing them to court martial for such 
past offences, would be extremely hard, if the court martial should 
fine largely, and might give umbrage to many officer swho probably 
conceived that they had a right to receive money or substitutes for 
exemptions from duty, and that in so doing they were rendering the 
most effectual service to their country, but it is likely that under 
such circumstances, the Court would fine him in a very small sum. 
For these reasons I would recommend the overruling of all past 
offences or neglect of duty ; and you will therefore alter your or 
ders to Col. Richardson, and any other similar orders which you 
may have given to other Colonel s, and make these orders conform 
able to this explanation, but enjoin the strictest and steadiest execu 
tion of orders in future. Gen. Greene informs me that he is in want 
of a Chausseur Corps of militia, to natrole in the vicinity of his 
camp, and prevent the soldiers from strolling and offering any inju 
ry to the inhabitants. You will be pleased to order Col. Richard 
son to go to the General, know from him what number of men he 
will want, and to furnish them for that purpose out of his first 
draught, the performance of such duty to exempt the men employ 
ed in it (whilst they are so employed) from any other. My idea is, 
though I presume no doubt has arisen with you on the point, that 
no man that is within the district of any Regiment out of Charles 
Town, shall be excused from militia duty under a pretence that he 
is on parole, or a British subject, unless the former has been fairly 
taken in arms and paroled as an officer ; any other men who are on 
parole I wish on their being British subjects, and therefore refused 
to do militia, may take their chance, either of doing it or going into 
the enemy s lines, and if they will not go and refuse to do duty, 


they must be tried and fined, as it is directed with respect to other 
privates; you will not however consider this instruction, it being 
a general one, as any prohibition to you to suffer such persons in 
either of the predicaments last mentioned, as you may think proper 
to permit to remain out of the British lines without doing any mi 
litia duty at all for some more valuable purpose, this being a matter 
which I leave to your direction. I find there are many gentlemen 
riding about the country under the description of volunteers who 
render no kind of service to it; this practice being very injurious, 
should be immediately suppressed ; and no man is to be excused 
from doing militia duty in the district of the Regiment to which it 
belongs, unless he is actually enrolled and obliged for some cer 
tain time to serve in some regular corps of Cavalry, not merely as 
a volunteer, but to do the same duty and be subject to the articles as 
the rest of the corps are obliged to do, or are subject to. The blan 
kets and cloth you mention will certainly be wanted for public use. 
You will therefore have them safely kept, somewhere under your 
orders, and indeed we shall want more than you can procure ; I 
shall therefore be gkd that you obtain all that you possibly can, and 
have that also kept in the same manner. Be pleased to forward 
the enclosed letters to Cols. Horry and Mayham. There are seve 
ral other matters that I shall write to you about, as soon as I con 
sider and arrange them ; I am unable at present to do so. Capt. 
Richardson informs me that he has not above three bushels of salt 
left. As three barrels or twenty-four bushels will be absolutely 
necessary for the use of myself and the gentlemen of the council^ 
whom I daily expect here, I shall be much obliged to you to send 
in your first letter to me, an order on the person who has the charge 
of any salt of yours (the nearest to the place to deliver that quan 
tity to such person as I may send for it). 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 



I No. 181.J Col Peter Horry to Gen, Marion. 

OCTOBER 5, 1781. 
Dear General : 

In your letter of the 23d September, you say that none but such 
as I give in the names of shall be admitted to stay from camp, and 
that I do therefore send it you per bearer. I therefore at that time 
answered your letter and sent you the names of such as I then had 
in employ for my Regiment, and I hoped that you would have suf. 
fered such as I find industrious to have continued working, as you 
must know tis impossible to equip my Regiment without employ 
ing artificers ; whether tis your order or not, I am ignorant; how 
ever, the workmen in this part of the country, (and am told Gen 
eral, all ray workmen) say they can work no longer as you have 
ordered them to stand their draft for the field, and several are draft 
ed, and the rest say they must stay at home without working for 
me, as the next month will be for their going out. I am sorry for 
such orders, and believe there must be some mistake, as I do not 
suppose your instructions can be to prevent my equipping my men 
for the field, which must be the case, if you debar my employing 
workmen. In a few days I hoped the workmen I had employed 
liere would have enabled me to take the field, by finishing me off a 
number of scabbards, bridles and halters, and binding the scabbards 
with iron; but they have storped, and unless you will suffer them to 
go on I cannot send you mounted above half as many men as I 
would otherwise do ; hereunder are the names of such as I wish 
you to suffer me to continue, and to give your own exemptions for 
them, which I suppose your officers will pay some respect to. 
which they will not do for mine. My Pee Dee command is not yet 
returned ; I expect them on Thursday or Friday next, and then 
I will send you all the men I can mount and equip. 

I am, dear General, your obedient servant, 


At George Town, Gauf, Boot Maker, and 3 workmen ; 2 Han 
cocks and Crone. 

At Britton s Neck, Brown, Cap maker. 


At Lower Pee Dee, Wort (Curry er) and 3 Rozolonger (Boot 

At Upper Pee Dee. Dewet and Lebrael, Sword makers. 

At Township 3 Nermyths and Scott, are Smiths arid Sword ma 
kers. Knox and Kirkpatrick. Saddlers. Total: 17. Anthony 
M. White acts for me as agent and Quartermaster, and procures me 
at George Town whatever I wish for. 

[No. 182.] Mordecai Myers to Gen. Marion. 

GEORGETOWN, Oct. 6, 1781. 
Honored Sir : 

Agreeably to your letter by Capt. Mitchell of the 15th Septem 
ber, and your order of the 1st, I have supplied commissary 
Swinion with the following articles as per bill enclosed. I can as 
sure you I have charged the goods at the same rate, I sold them last 
fall for cash to the inhabitants of this part of the country, which 
any of them can testify. The Indigo you were so obliging as to 
promise me in payment for these articles you receive for the public 
use, I should be glad to receive when convenient, as there is now a 
trade commenced between this post and some of the northern States, 
that I may be able to supply the public as well as individuals with 
necessaries ; but it will be of little consequence for me to receive 
Indigo in payment, unless your honor would be so kind as to give 
me a protection for it, as Major Vanderhorstis here at present press 
ing all of that article that he can lay his hands on. Your honor must 
be sensible that unless the traders of the place are indulged to keep 
what produce they have on hand or what they may receive from 
time to time, they cannot barter with those masters of vessels be 
fore mentioned, and of course will not come to this post, will be of 
infinite disadvantage to the people at large as well as the public, and 
as I have no other dependence, must of course perish unless your 
honor will take this matter into your consideration and give me 
some relief. I have also supplied Col. Peter Horry s Regiment of 
Light Dragoons to a considerable amount, also Capt. Ransom Da- 
vis, which I should be glad to receive payment for in Indigo, as it 


will enable me to give you further assistance in supplies, as I in 
tend being concerned in a vessel to trade at present to Nerbern, 
there being at present a large quantity of captured goods there 
and if your honor should think me worthy, I should be happy 
in importing any articles from thence that your honor or the public 
may stand in need of. 

I am, with the greatest esteem and respect, 

Your honor s very humble servant, 


P. S. I delivered your handk s. to Capt. Mitchell some time ago. 

\?fo. 1S3.] William Swinton (Commissary) to Ge?i. Marion. 

OCTOBER 9, 1781. 

Honored Sir : 

I received yours dated the 2d of this inst., and according to your 
order I have been to George Town and have received the articles 
which you desired me to receive of Mr. Myers, of which I have 
enclosed a list. I have likewise purchased a puncheon of rum and 
a cask of sugar for your use. Sir, I would have impressed the 
rum, but as there is a trade just open in that place, I was afraid that 
if I went to press, it would be the means of stopping the trade 
which I thought would be a hurt to the public in general ; in the next 
place Capt. Putnam, whom i got the liquor of, says that if the pub 
lic will make him returns in Indigo, rice or negroes, he will supply 
them with a great quantity of liquor, blankets, cloth, and saddles, 
which he will bring in the course of three weeks ; his price for the 
liquor will be two dollars a gallon, the saddles twenty-five dollars, 
and the blankets he could not tell what they would come at ; he will 
likewise take bills on France in payment. Sir, the liquor I pur 
chased is at a very high rate, it is at $3 J per gallon, and the Indigo 
d3 sterling per pound. If the price is too high, would be glad if 
you would send me word what I should give, and if your desire is 
that I shall not pay for it in Indigo, I beg you will send me a posi 
tive order against it, as I have given my obligation for the same 
and Mr. Wayne is my security, and I would not be willing to suf- 


fer, nor yet would I wish my security to suffer. I have likewise 
agreed to give <2 6d. sterling for the sugar, to be paid in Indigo 
at 3 sterling. Capt. Putnam has 9 or 10 puncheons of rum now 
by him ; would be glad to know whether I shall impress that or 
purchase it, and what I shall allow per gallon. 

I am, sir, 

Yours to serve at all times, with due respect, 


P. S. I have taken one of your knives and a stick of sealing 
wax, as there was none other to be had ; I hope you will not take 
it amiss. There was but one cask of the wine, and that I kept for 
your own use, as there were but 26 gallons of it. Sir, I would be 
glad of one bushel of salt for my own use. 

[No. 184.] Gov. Rutledge to Col Peter Horry. 

OCTOBER 10th, 1781. 
Sir : 

Gen. Marion informs me that some of your officers have behaved 
very much amiss in impressing plow horses, breeding mares two 
years old, and yearlings. I should not have given a press warrant 
for procuring horses for your Regiment, if I could have conceived 
that the power would have been so abused by any of your officers, 
who certainly upon reading the warrant must have known better, 
if they did not before, as the warrant extends only to the horses fit 
for Dragoon service, which the creatures above described surely 
are not. I request that you will have them restored to the owners, 
and direct that in future no horses be committed under the head of 
impressment. I am, sir, 

Your very humble servant, 


[No. 185.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 10, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

Enclosed are several printed copies of the proclamation of 


which I have sometime ago sent you a written copy, offering pardon 
to the persons therein described. You will be pleased tohave them 
as generally circulated as posssible, that all who may be desirous 
of taking the benefit may be apprized of it. and enabled to do so 
within the time limited for surrendering themselves ; as I have no 
intention of extending that time. You will have an exact account 
kept of all such as surrender themselves to you within that time, 
and as soon as it is expired have such account transmitted to me. 
I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


[186.J Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 10, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I received yours yesterday by Mr. Boone, and wrote in the most 
pressing terms to Col. Williams, Gen. Greene being not yet return 
ed from Charlotte, for which place he set off last Friday for a sup 
ply of ammunition, sending at the same time an extract of such 
parts of your letter, as were material on that head. I am sorry to 
find by Col. Williams answer enclosed, which he sent open for my 
perusal, that it is absolutely out of his power to comply with your 
request immediately. I wish to God it was within my power to 
send you ammunition instantly, but it is not. I shall not fail to have 
it sent to you as fast as any arrives at Head Quarters, and you ob 
serve Col. Williams says he expects a sufficient stock every hour; 
our situation in this respect being unknown to the enemy, they will 
not profit of it, nor can I say that I expect they will attempt 
any measure against us. I rather think they will be apprehensive 
for their own safety. However,. I wish this circumstance had not 
intervened to prevent your crossing the river, as I think your doing 
with your people would have a good effect. This, I imagine, in 
the present situation of affairs, you can t attempt. However, I know 
you will do all that you can. If Mr. Withers had sent the schoon 
er which was Patterson s to Havana, agreeable to my directions, 
which I sent to him immediately on receiving your letter by Patter 
son, we should have had a large stock of ammunition for you and 


others long ago, but he had delayed the matter I think very long ; 
however. I am taking, and shall continue to take steps, which I 
hope will be effectual in several directions for procuring ammunition 
for employ without depending on the Continental stock, which is I 
find in general small and often exhausted. You certainly may 
clothe all the Continental soldiers of our line who join you. From 
something I have lately heard about Dutarque, I am more anxious 
than formerly to have him taken, lest he should escape ; be pleased 
therefore to have this matter effectually and speedily attended to. I 
am also devising means for a supply of arms and have to obtain some 
soon ; I am sensible that some men are destitute of arms. Howev 
er, you know it is an old trick of men coming to camp to pretend 
that they have none. I need not give you a hint, that it would be 
well to be sure that the men really have not. and that they can tpro- 
vide arms, before they are discharged for want of them. Indeed, 
although men with arms are not of use in camp, yet they may oc 
casionally be detached from it in service with the arms of some who 
remain in camp. Enclosed is a Brigadier s commission ; I don t re 
collect the date of the former, but I dare say you do ; be pleased 
therefore to insert it. I think Col. Horry s conduct very extraordi 
nary, and have enclosed a letter to him on the subject you mention. 
I send the letter open for your perusal ; when you have read, be 
pleased to seal and forward it ; he is not yet a Continental officer, 
and his Regiment is not yet on Continental establishment, but if he 
was I know of no authority that any Continental officer, or any oth 
er person (whomsoever he may be) has to impress in this State 
without a power from me. Gen. Greene, it is true, did before my 
return direct him to impress, but he has never (I believe and indeed 
lam well persuaded of it) since my return given any such power 
to any one. He knows better, so far from it, that he requested me 
if I approved the power which he had ordered Col. Horry to ex 
ercise of impressing horses and articles necessary for the equipment 
of his Regiment, to confirm what he had directed. I accordingly 
sent him a press warrant in which the power was particularly con 
fined to horses fit for the Dragoon service and not in public service ? 
informing him also that your Regiment are to do duty on horse-back, 
this therefore would give him no power to take breeding mares and 
yearlings ; in order to exchange them for horses, such not being fit 


for his Regiment, nor the only horse a man has who is required to 
do militia duty on horse-back ; I am afraid if all plow horses were 
exempted, an exclusion would prevent our getting any horses at all 
for all may be brought under the description ; however, it is cer 
tainly extremely hard and ought not to be suffered, that the plough 
horses necessarily employed to raise bread for the poorer kind of 
people, who use horses as a substitute for negroes, should be taken ; 
this would be very oppressive. I find every authority may be 
abused, and perhaps that which I have given on this head may be, 
therefore, to cut the matter short, wherever you find that it is wan 
tonly exercised and an oppressive and improper use of it made 
within the district of your Brigade, I give you full authority to or 
der the officer attempting to impress such subjects, to cease from it 
or have them restored, if impressed. It would give me pleasure to 
restore every encroachment on the liberties of the people and shall 
certainly do so, as far as my power extends in any of the cases 
which you say you will mention to me when we meet. Unluckily 
Col. Lee went to Virginia last Friday. If he was here I should 
have immediately enquired into Mr. Ravenel s case, and had it re 
dressed. However, pray inform me if you can where the mare is, 
and I will endeavor to have her taken and restored. I shall, before 
I hear from you, as soon as I see Gen. Greene or any of Col. Lee s 
officers, enquire into this matter. I daily expect to hear officially 
of Cormvallis being reduced, and hope Charles Town will be the 
next object of the combined army. It is not improbable that Count 
De Grasse may have sent or send some ships to block up the harbor. 
Pray give us what intelligence you can from below, that you think 
may be depended on. I will send you that from Virginia if good, 
as it must be, as soon as we can get it. 
1 am, with great regard, dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 187.] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

OCTOBER 11, 1781. 
Sir : 

It was not my intention to prevent you from equipping your Reg- 


iment by issuing the order you allude to, but to prevent a number 
of idle men who make it a plea that they are working for you, and 
check the liberty some of your officers take in stopping any men 
they please from coming out on duty. Enclosed is permission for 
such workmen as I think are necessary for you. I gave a few days 
ago one Dukes, near Lenud s Ferry, who says he is preparing 
leather for you, a permit to continue to work for you. I think an 
agent to procure what you wanted from George Town may be ap. 
pointed from your corps, as you have a number of officers 
who must be idle at present. The time is lost when your Horse 
would have been of service to me. You will therefore send your 
men to Gen. Greene, agreeably to his orders. 

I am your obedient servant, 


[No. 188.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 11, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Lest upon the construction of the militia Act of February, 1779, 
which makes offenders liable to pay a sum not exceeding what is 
therein mentioned and treble their last tax, a doubt should arise 
about what tax is meant, whether the last which was paid previous 
to the passing of the law, or what is paid since it passed, that being 
the last tax which has been paid, I think it necessary to intimate 
to you that the law must be continued to mean the last tax which 
was paid antecedent to the passing the act, and not that which has 
been paid since. You will therefore, have this explanation proper 
ly made known throughout your Brigade, as a rule by which court 
martials are to be governed in their determinations. 
I am, sir, your humble servant, 


I No. J 89.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 12th, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

The Captains of several vessels with commissions of Letters of 


Marque from Congress, have some time ago made a practice of 
landing on our Islands or sea coasts, and others of coming up the 
rivers and taking away from plantations, negroes and other proper 
ty under pretence of their owners being Tories ; the several per 
sons whose property have been so taken, were well known to be 
friends to the United States, and this practice being highly illegal 
and unwarrantable, even as to Tories whose property (if they have 
been guilty of a capital offence) is forfeited to the State, and not 
plundered to any freebooter who can lay hold of it, I desire that 
you will be pleased to give the necessary orders and have the most 
effectual measures taken (within the district of your Brigade) for 
having all masters of vessels and their crews, who shall commit or 
attempt to commit the offence above described, apprehended and 
sent under a sufficient guard to me with the witnesses to prove the 
fact, that they may be properly tried for it. You will have the ves 
sels in which such captains and mariners come, with their cargoes, 
secured until you shall receive. directions from me what is to be done 
with them, and make a report to me of what the cargoes consist. 
Your most obedient servant. 


[No. 190.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 12, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Policy dictates our preventing the enemy, in Charles Town, from 
obtaining any supplies, which may either afford them subsistence or 
the means of making remittances to the British dominions. You 
will therefore be pleased to give the necessary orders and cause the 
most effectual measures to be taken (within the district of your Bri 
gade) for that purpose, and for securing to the public use such ar 
ticles as may be taken in going to the enemy. You will order a re 
turn to be made to me of whatever may be seized, and the best 
care taken of it, until you shall receive my instructions in what 
manner it shall be disposed of. I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



[No. 191.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 13, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Mr. Joseph Allston has represented to me (by his son William) 
that his ill state of health will not permit his doing militia duty, but 
that he would gladly render any other service in his power to the 
State ; as my private instructions give you sufficient authority on 
this head, I have referred young Mr. Allston to you, as the person 
to whom application should be made; probably you may know 
some line in which his father s services may be of much more benefit 
to the country than any other which he could render as a militia 
man, even if his health would enable him to say in a camp. You 
will, I am persuaded, use the discretionary power lodged with you 
with judgment and propriety. I am, dear sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 192.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 16. 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

The bearer, Mr. Edwards, (son of Mr. John Edwards, whom 
we all know was a staunch friend to America and a very worthy 
man) wishes to serve his country under you. I am persuaded that 
as well out of regard to the memory of his father as to encourage 
the zeal of this young gentleman, you will either take him (if you 
have a vacancy) into your family, or give him some proper appoint 
ment which I would be glad that you would. 
I am, with great regard, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 193. j Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 16, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have just now received yours of the 13th inst. ; by the bearer. 


You were misinformed with respect to young Allston s business 
with me ; but had it been what you were told, the Waccamites 
would have been disappointed, for my sentiments correspond ex 
actly with yours on the point you mention. The orders that no sub 
stitutes be admitted will answer the end you propose, and make 
them, as well as others of the same stamp, either go into the British 
lines, do militia duty, or pay fines, as a court martial may inflict, 
unless you think proper to make use of my private instructions with 
respect to them. lam told that an offer is to come from the Wac- 
camaw men, about furnishing a quantity of salt in order to be ex 
cused from militia duty. If it should I shall refer it to you to fix 
the matter with them. Dr. Neufville was taken sick at Salisbury ; 
on his way from the northward. He may probably be recovered 
ere now. I will write to him to come on directly in order to be 
your surgeon, and in the mean time will endeavor to get one for 
you from camp, though I fear I cannot, as the troops are exceeding 
sick and in want of doctors. Yours of the 15th is also just come 

to hand by Capt. Greene, with Mr. D , whom I have sent to 

Sheriff Kimball. You will be pleased to consider the directions re 
specting B s. estate as extended to D., and give the same orders 
about the latter, as you have done about the former. You will eith 
er confine Mr. W. where you think proper and he will be safe, or 
send him with the proofs of the charge you mention against him 
under guard to me, and send Mr. S., into the enemy s lines, and do 
the same with every man that is taken at home. I would make the 
rule general as to every man so taken, but it may happen that good 
men will sometimes be taken at their own houses, and it would be 
hard to send them in to remain with the enemy. This is no time 
to be trifled with, we must be in earnest. Therefore all men thus 
taken, who are reasonably suspected of not being friends to the 
State, are to be dealt with as above mentioned I wish Mr. S. could 
be immediately exchanged. Gen. Greene is to be here to-day, and 
will speak to him on the subject, though I fear it cannot be done as 
Major Barry is come up, for he cannot (though a favorite) get ex 
changed for Washington ; and I presume from that circumstance 
the cartel suspended for the present. I have the pleasure to inform 
you that Congress have at last, on the 18th ultimo, ordered the 
Board of War, to have the mines at Limsburg in Connecticut pre- 


pared for the reception of five hundred British soldiers, to remain 
there as prisoners unexchangeably, until the American soldiers who 
were forced into the British service at Charles Town and elsewhere 
are returned to the United States. This measure, or the putting 
these men on board the French fleet as mariners, is what I have often 
and strenuously recommended long ago, but it never could be ef 
fected sooner. It is, however, better late than never, and though 
so long postponed, will, 1 hope, produce good consequences. The 
General writes to me that he has received a letter from the Presi 
dent of Congress, informing him that the French fleet hdd sunk a 
74 gun ship, disabled five more, and drove the rest of the British 
fleet into the hook at New York. "We have no later intelligence 
from Virginia than to the 25th ult., when Gen. Washington had 
twenty-six thousand men, half of them regulars, and was to begin 
his operations by regular approaches on the 27th. God grant that 
he may be successful there and give us peaceable and quiet posses 
sion both of our town and country. 

I am, dear sir, your humble servant. 


[No. 194.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 16, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

As some of the wagons from George Town can bring the four 
boxes of Indigo of Mr. Sinclair s that you mentioned, I wish you 
would send it by them. They will pass by you in two or three 
days. I must also request the favor of you as soon as the situation 
of the enemy will admit of your so doing, to have all the Indigo 
brought from the South side of Santee to the North side, and lod 
ged at Mr. John Cantey s or some other safe place, where Mr. 
Richardson will send for it. This will, I hope, add considerably 
to our supply, which falls much shorter from below than I expected. 
Our salt here is reduced to the last half barrel. Be pleased to think 
of us and forward the order to Swinton. The ammunition you 
wrote for, went down yesterday, I am, dear sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 



P. S. I will think of what you say about Putnam, and give you 
an answer in a day or two, being at present much, hurried. 

[Ac. 195.J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

October 16, 1781. ] 

Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the 14th, and the prisoners, have arrived. Col, 
Maybaoi s success is highly honorable to him and corps, and I hope 
\\iii be followed by future strokes of good fortune. We have got 
a small supply of salt, but it comes on heavily from the northward. 
o \ving to the difficulty of obtaining transportation. I should be 
glad Inert fore to have it reduced to a certainty whether salt can be 
had n.t Waccamaw, and whether Putnam can supply us with that 
article, as well as rum and sugar, all of which we are in want of 
and will pay in bills for. Since I wrote you before, I have been up 
to Charlotte, where I expected to meet Cols. Shelby and Sevier 
with about 1000 militia, but they had not arrived. I am anxious 
to collect a force to drive the enemy into Charles Town, and for 
this purpose urged Gen. Sumter to collect his militia and State 
troops as soon as possible, but^I am afraid it will be some time be 
fore either the mountain militia or Gen. Sumter be ready to join us 
in the attempt. I am glad to hear the enemy are moving down into 
the lower country, and I wish it was more in our power to hasten 
them. The President of Congress writes me that the French fleet 
have sunk one British 74 and disabled live more, and drove the 
whole into the hook of New York. Gen. Washington s operations 
against Lord Cornwailis is carrying on with all imaginable dili 
gence, and by the fifteenth or twentieth at farthest, it was expected 
the whole British army would be prisoners. Col. Lee has gone to 
solicit a Southern expedition, which I hope will take place, and re 
lieve this unfortunate and distressed country. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 



\No. 196.] Gen. Marion to Lieut. Col. MayJiam. 

OCTOBER 18, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I am not a little surprised to find you have refused giving up Mr. 
Jno. Oliver s horse, which you have impressed, when I sent an or 
der for that purpose, and I am much more surprised to think that 
you believe I have assumed more power than I have a right to. 
To convince you, I have sent the Governor s orders to me, as I wish 
not to have any difference with a man whom I have long had the 
greatest regard for, but in the mean time, if you do not return Mr. 
Oliver that horse, which I now repeat the order to do, without any 
further hesitation, I shall and will try the matter in a general court 
martial, which would give me great pain and uneasiness, but must 
do through necessity. I have endeavored to do every thing to com 
plete your corps, and shall still continue to do so, notwithstanding 
any difference of opinion may arise between us, but I think it high 
time that you and I should know whether I have the power of com 
manding you or not. This is so essential a point in our country s 
service that I cannot put it off while it is contested. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 


N. B. You w ill please send me the Governor s letter as soon as 
you have perused it, and your final determination about the horse. 

\No. 197.] Gov. Rutledge to Col Peter Horry. 

OCTOBER 22d, 1781. 
Sir : 

I should have answered your letter (received about a week ago) 
sooner, but sickness prevented. I have revoked the order to the 
Brigadier of militia with respect to those who furnished men or 
money which procured them for your Regiment, but this is to ope 
rate as to what is past. I think much more money might and should 
have been paid than I find was by many persons from exemption 


from militia duty, and I hope a much better method may be taken 
to recruit our Cavalry than the exempting men from milita duty for 
trifling sums. In my order to the officers of militia, a liberty is al 
lowed to volunteers, to join any regular corps of Horse, provided 
the person so serving, do not merely pretend to do so, in order to 
skulk from militia duty, but that they actually remain with the 
corps which they join, and serve with them, under such articles, as 
the rest of the corps does and for a certain time. If you will men 
tion McCormick s and Miller s cases to Gen. Marion, he will order 
what is proper to be done on the occasion. I have not the Continen 
tal articles of war by me. I am, sir, 

Your very humble servant, 


P. S. You will be pleased to make returns to me, of all per 
sons to whom you have given exemptions from militia duty, in con 
sequence of their having furnished men or money which procured 
them for your Regiment, distinguishing the several militia Regi 
ments to which the person so exempted belongs, and the consider 
ation for which such exemptions was given, and I shall expect to 
receive the returns within ten days. No other persons but such as 
are mentioned in them will be excused from militia duty ; and it is 
proper that the Brigadiers should be furnished with copies of these 
returns, which I shall order to be transmitted to them, You will 
also furnish me with a list of such as have joined your corps as 

\No. 19S.J Gen. Greene to Col Peter Horry. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Oct. 23d, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

I have received your favor of the 4th ; the man that brought it 
did not wait for an answer. I am sorry you meet with such em 
barrassment in procuring horses. I find a difficulty in accommoda 
ting the prejudices of the people, the idea of stripping the rnili- 
tia of their horses, for the regular corps, being necessary to promote 
the public service. Both the militia and regulars are necessary to 
support the service, and it seems to me like robbing Peter to pay 


Paul, to disqualify the militia for service to equip the regular force, 
I know of no other mode but the middle path, which is to take the 
horses of those only who do not go into the field. The Governor 
and myself have had several conversations on the subject of horses, 
and he appears perfectly disposed to do all in his power, but the 
means are small and the demand great. This is a crisis of affairs ; 
a few days and we can better tell what is best to be done with re 
spect to the horses. I expect intelligence daily from Virginia, of 
the most interesting nature. You will please put yourself and 
corps under command of General Marion, and follow his orders. 
Such of your men as you cannot mount, you will have armed as 
Infantry to serve on foot. A large body of Riflemen are on their 
march to join Gen. Marion, and 1 am in hopes soon to drive the 
enemy into Charles Town. 

With esteem, I am, dear sir, 

Your most obd t humble servant, 


[No. 199.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

OCTOBER 24, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

1 mentioned Mr. Peter Sinclair s case to Gen. Greene. Ex 
changes between the two armies are now stopped, but (between our 
selves) the General consents to your proposing, as without his 
knowledge, the exchange of any particular person whom you have 
or can get for Mr. Sinclair, and I hope you may, by this means, fall 
on some means of speedily relieving him. I have sent your letter 
which mentions Col. Maham s taking Oliver s horse, to Gen- 
Greene, and recommended his signifying to Horry and Mayham, 
that they are under your orders, and to acquaint you of that mat 
ter also. This will prevent all such and any other disputes with 
them in future, and make them serviceable. 1 have not heard from 
the General since, but I have no doubt that he will do this, as in a 
convention with him lately upon Horry s conduct, we agreed that 
he should. All the gentlemen of our council, arrived yesterday. 
No news from Virginia, but I imagine Col, Lee will be back in a 


week. By him I hope we shall have something important. I wish 
when you can get at th e Commissionsof the Peace, which I gave you, 
that you would send them to me, after wrfting in them the names 
of as many as you think fit for Magistrates. I want to have a list 
of the new Magistrates published, that people may know who they 
are. and that the old may forbear acting, many of them being very 
improper persons. Major Vanderhorst tells me that the second cask 
of wine, which you were so obliging as to give Col. Postell an or 
der for, had been removed by Mr. Swinton. I wish you would 
have it sent to me, or if you will let me know where it may be got, 
and will enclose an order for it, when next you write, I will have 
it sent for. I am told that Putnam is coming up to me to endeavor 
to contract for several articles ; however from the specimens 1 have 
had of him. I believe he is very extravagant, and am in great hopes 
we may get supplies on much better terms from others. But of 
that I shall soon judge. I have given Mr. Clay, who has gone to 
Newbern, powers and instructions to treat with the owners of the 
prizes lately carried into that port ; also with Mr. James Nelson 
and others about supplies. I have also sent for Wayne to come up 
here. I expect to see him soon, as I am told he went to North Car 
olina to bring in some articles, with \vhich he is daily expected at 
George Town. I sent Mr. Ravenel s mare to you by Antigu. the 
day before yesterday. I am told one McCoomber, in a cruising 
galley, is on our coast. I wish this man may not attempt to carry 
off negroes and commit such other outrages as Anthony and the 
like have done. I hope, however, you have issued orders, agreea 
bly to my instructions to the militia officers in your district, on this 
subject. I wish you would send to me, per first opportunity, a dis 
charge for one Thomas Ackin, of the second South Carolina Regi 
ment of Continentals. He is unfit for duty, and I have promised a 
friend of his to procure him a discharge, in consideration of his ren 
dering some important service to the State. 

I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 


P.S. Be pleased to have the proclamation herewith sent, circu 
lated in your Brigade. Since writing the within, I have received 
yours of the 23d inst, and that which mentions the conduct of Ker 
ry s officers. With respect to impressing, I have wrote to the 


General requesting that he will consent to your proposing an ex 
change of as many of the privates taken by Capt. McCoomber, as 
will redeem your othe^ men, besides Mr. Peter Sinclair, who are 
prisoners in the town, and I think he will. I shall inform you what 
he says, as soon as I see or hear from him. I have also sent to him 
your letter, concerning Col. Horry, and I have informed him that 
if I have any other complaint against Horry, I will revoke the press 
warrant and never give him another. Enclosed is a letter for Hor 
ry, which I request you will have forwarded, after you have read 
and sealed it. But I think the best way would be to send for Horry 
to you, and hear what he has to say for such conduct, and talk the 
matter fully over with him, and if he does not give you satisfactory 
assurances that he will not abuse the press warrant in future, I will 
immediately withdraw it. Be pleased to inform me, if you should 
send for him, what passes on the occasion. I find poor McCul- 
lough is in the Provost ; however, it is impossible to help him. 
An offer of an exchange, as the enemy consider him one of their 
subjects, would injure instead of benefittinghim. 

[No. 200.J Gov. Rutledge to Col Horry. 

OCTOBER 27, 1781. 
Sir : 

Enclosed is an extract from a letter which I have received from 
Gen. Marion. It appears very extraordinary, that notwithstanding 
with respect to impressing, your officers should act in the manner 
which the General represents. I desire to hear from you who the 
officers alluded to are, and what they possibly can offer in extenu 
ation of conduct, which may be productive of the most mischievous 
consequences, and I assure you, that if I ever hear another com 
plaint of the abuse of the press warrant which, confiding in your 
discreet exercise of it, I gave you, I will instantly revoke it and ne 
ver let you have another. I am very sorry for such repeated com 
plaints from Gen. Marion, respecting the officers of your corps, 
who appear to take every step in their power to abuse, insult and 
exasperate the militia. Surely you will see the evil tendency of 


such behavior, and check it by the most determined conduct, and I 
hope you will, if not I shall very speedily take such a step as will 
most effectually stop it. I am, sir, 

Your humble servant, 


By the United States^ in Congress Assembled. 

OCTOBER 29, 1781. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the United States, in Congress as 
sembled, be presented to Brigadier Gen l. Marion, of the South 
Carolina militia, for his wise, gallant, and decided conduct, in de 
fending the liberties of his country, and particularly for his prudent 
and intrepid attack on a body of British troops, on the 13th day of 
August last, and for the distinguished part he took in the battle of 
the 8th of September. 

Extracts frorn the minutes. 


[No. 201.] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

OCTOBER 29, 1781. 

I have the pleasure to inform you from authority, that Lord 
Cornwallis and his army surrendered prisoners of war to General 
Washington on the 17th inst. Some of your officers have taken 
two swords and saddles from Brown and Orr, of Capt. Green s 
company, which you will order restored, as they are my Light 
Horse and constantly on duty, and must not be disarmed. I wish 
to see you as soon as possible, that I may know for a, certainty if 
the complaints against your officers are to be depended on. I am 
told that Capt. Black is with you. Please order him to come to me 
to answer for his conduct, which has been much complained of; if 


he does not come, I sliall send and take him. Col. Maham is on 
command over the river, with 70 of his Horse, complete and equip 
ped. He will do something. I shall be glad to know how many 
of our Cavalry is complete for duty, that I may know how to call 
on you if necessary. I am, with regard, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 202.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

CANTEY S PLANTATION, Oct. 29.. 1781. 
Sir : 

I received yours of the 28th ult., with the return of your corps. 
I this day wrote you for it, but find you are not yet in a condition to 
act, and shall not call on you but when necessity obliges me. Just 
now I have a large body of Cavalry, and can give you time to com 
plete the most of your men. I have not one musket to spare, and 
you may take any arms from the men, who have given substitutes, 
or money to procure them but no other. You will receive my 
letter wrote this morning, wherein I desired to see you to settle 
some matters of complaint against your officers, and if convenient 
you will come ; whenever you think your corps is in a state to act, 
I shall find employment for them. larn, sir, 
Your humble servant, 


N. B. I have plenty of ammunition. 

[No. 203.J Col. Peter Horry to Gov. Rutlcdge. 

OCTOBER 30, 1781. 

Yesterday and to-day, three of your Excellency s letters came 
to my hands dated 5th, 22d and 27th insts. In the first I am di 
rected to enlist no more men for a less time than three years. As 
substitution is stopped, I have ordered in all my officers, having no 


more money. The second prevents my taking- any more substitutes, 
as you are of opinion a better method may be fallen on to recruit 
Cavalry, than exempting the militia from duty for trifling- sums, 
General Greene directed no particular sum to be received, but on 
ly giving a substitute, which was done either by money or other 
wise, and Gen. Greene nor myself could at that time devise no bet 
ter method to procure regular Cavalry, which was much wanted, 
as the enemy appeared to be augmenting theirs. Enclosed please 
to receive a return of rny substituting concerns, and the names of 
volunteers that do duty with me. It is needless my mentioning 
either McCormick s or Miller s cases to Gen. Marion, as I find him 
not- disposed to give or receive any information from me. Your last 
letter enclosed an extract of a letter from Gen. Marion which says, 
" Since the letter you sent to Col. Peter Horry respecting impres 
sing horses, his officers went to a general muster, which Col. 
Irvin called of his Regiment in order to draught the men for duty, 
that those officers took their horses, saddles and swords, which they 
resented and drew up and obliged them to give up, or they would 
have been fired on ; since that, some men coming to camp on duty, 
had their horses, saddles and arms taken from them. It is out of my 
power to do anything, as they believe they are to obey no other 
power than Gen. Greene s orders." These are such charges that 
I hope your Excellency will give me leave to endeavor to confute 
them. A Captain Black, Gen. Marion s officer and not my officer, 
but a person that assisted Cornet Elholm, my recruiting officer on 
Pea Dee, coming down with some men which Elholm sent me, 
called in at the musterfield, and it appears that he behaved much 
amiss in endeavoring to impress, &c.; but while he continued with 
me, which was several days, I had no complaint made against him, 
and if he was my officer and acted wrong, my quarters were direct 
ly in Col, Irvin s route to Gen. Marion s camp, and he or Gen. Ma 
rion could with great ease have informed me of it. Any person 
whatever that will lodge information to me against any of my offi 
cers, will find that I am far from upholding them in any abuse of 
the inhabitants or of power given them, but will inquire strictly 
into their conduct and give satisfaction to the complaint; but gen 
eral charges are unfair and ungenerous, and difficult, if not impos 
sible, to vindicate ourselves against. Gen. Marion s charges always 


say "your officers," but do not name the officers in particular; in 
respect to a contempt of authority, I never showed any to your 
Excellency or Gen. Marion, whose authority I never doubted or 
disobeyed. He, a good while ago, and then only was pleased 
(amidst so many general charges of complaints made to you against 
my officers) to write me as follows : "I am informed that you or 
some of your officers had ordered a tar-kiln of Brockinton s to be 
set on fire to make coals for your workmen ; if it is done, those 
that ordered it shall pay the value of it. Capt. Lenud has given 
Mr. Snow an order respecting his property. If I find it true, that 
gentleman shall be immediately put under arrest, and tried by a 
Court Martial, for assuming a power, which is only vested in the 
Governor, and delegated to me. I have heard a number of liber 
ties which your officers have taken out of their sphere and line of 
duty. I shall in future take such steps with them as will bring 
them to their senses, for I think they are entirely out at present. 
On receipt of this letter, I immediately wrote the General an an 
swer that Capt. Lenud was absent, that I knew nothing of his or 
der to Snow nor had I or any of my officers to my knowledge, or 
dered any kiln to be set on fire ; that if any of them behaved amiss 
they were answerable, and would suffer for it. Since that I have 
had no complaint from Gen. Marion, and it was very easy for him 
to name the officer, which any complaint was lodged against, and 
if he did not confide in inquiries of the matter, he could write me 
to send him the officer, or to order him under arrest ; however, I 
am since told it was Ids officer that ordered the kiln to be set on 
fire and not mine. Capt. Lenud says he only gave Snow a pro 
tection for a horse against any of his parties taking him, as he 
thought the horse unfit for our service. Thus you see how tales 
run to the General, and how ready and willing he is to hear and 
believe them against myself and officers, and as readily conveys 
them to your Excellency, and under the ungenerous charge of Col. 
P. Harry s officers ; however, after all his complaints, I received 
his letter yesterday, dated 29th instant. His words are, " I wish 
to see you" (for now I am immediately under his command and he 
finds that you have sent me an extract of his letter) " as soon as 
possible, that I may know for a certainty if the complaints againts 
your officers are to be depended on," so that after endeavoring to 


injure us in your Excellency s opinion and drawing your displea 
sure on us, he now wishes to know if what he has asserted be true. 
If General Marion s motives for this and other charges against us 
do not appear to your Excellency, to me they are obvious, but I 
wish riot to tire your patience. Reprimands I am not accustomed 
to, and such your Excellency s letter appears to me to be, and so 
severe a one that in the course of near seven years service, I never 
received from any of my superior officers, and it hurts me much to 
receive this unmerited one from your Excellency. I value my 
commission as serving my country with honour and reputation, 
which I have ever endeavoured to do, free from any other inter 
ested motives. I assure you my property is no way augmented by 
serving- m y country, but much the reverse. If my conduct is so 
offensive, your Excellency or General Marion had best order a 
Court of Inquiry on the same, or that I be tried by a Court Mar 
tial, then I may have an opportunity of vindicating myself and 
silencing General Marion s complaints. I have, by General Ma 
rion s orders, sent for Capt. Black to come to him to answer com 
plaints lodged against him ; and no other officers have ever been 
named to me but Capt. Lenud, Major Benson will wait on your 
Excellency and fully inform you of all the grounds of these com 
plaints, which I hope will satisfy you ; however, if not, and if you 
do not rely on my statement of the matter, I will endeavour to get 
leave of my good friend, General Marion, and with my papers, let 
ters, &c., support these my assertions. 

I am, your Excellency s ob dt. serv t., 


[No. 204.] Gen. Greene to Col Peter Horry. 

October 30, 1781. ) 
Dear Sir : 

I liave just received your letter by Lieut. Huggins and Capt. 
Gough. I congratulate you on the glorious news from the north 
ward, the surrender of Lord Cornwallis and army to Gen. Wash 
ington and his army. It is said to have happened on the 17th. No 


official accounts have arrived, but the channel through which the 
intelligence comes, leaves no room to doubt its authenticity. I 
wrote to you a few day days since to join Gen. Marion and to take 
his orders in all matters till you hear further from me. If that let 
ter should not have come to hand, you will please join the General 
immediately on the receipt of this. It is not a little surprising how 
my letters miscarry, not one of your s has remained unanswered 
long in my hands. As soon as I hear from Gen. Washington, you 
shall hear further from me on the recruiting service. 
I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 205 ] Gov. Rutledge to Col. Peter Horry. 

OCTOBER 31, 1781. 
Sir : 

I have received your letter of the 28th inst., per Lieut. Huggins, 
but I sent to you under cover to Gen. Marion last week, a full an 
swer to your letter on the same subject of volunteers and substi 
tutes, so that it is unnecessary to repeat here what you have cer 
tainly received some davs ago. Mr. Snipes is much mistaken as to 
what you mention ; I have given orders to the Colonels of the 
Southern Regiments on that point, and desired Col. Sanders to 
show Capt. Kirkburn my letter relative to it. 

I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


[No. 206.J Col. Peter Horry to Gen. Greene. 

INDIAN TOWN, October 31, 1781. 
Dear General: 

Agreeably to your orders, I have put myself and corps under 
General Marion s command. I before wrote you that while the 
enemy continued in the country, I was willing to submit to your 
commands, and be in any manner employed by you in the service 


of my country that you thought fit. I used to submit to General 
Marion s orders with pleasure, but at present I assure you it is dis 
agreeable to me and all my officers that have experienced his late 
usage. That gentleman, for reasons to me obvious, but which I 
forbear to trouble you with, seems to have used every means in his 
power, by writing to the Governor to prejudice myself and officers 
in his opinion, and has drawn two letters from the Governor to 
me, which are such reprimands that the like I never in near seven 
years service experienced from any of my superior officers, and 
which I declare to be groundless, and which indeed General Ma 
rion writes that he wishes me to come to his camp to know for a 
certainty if the complaints against my officers are to be depended 
on. after writing them to the Governor as facts. I wish you. to in 
form rne if myself and corps are on Continental or State establish 
ment. If on continental, I shall receive my orders from no other 
person but yourself, and wish you to send me commissions for my 
officers. No more substitutes being allowed, and my money being 
out. I have ordered in all my recruiting officers, and wish to know 
how I am to complete my command of men. Major Benson waits 
on you, and will carry your commands to me. 

I am, dear General, your obedient servant, 


[No. 207.] Maj. Derrill Hart to Col. RicJiard Hampton-. 

THURSDAY NIGHT, Nov. 1 5 1781. 
Dear Colonel : 

I this moment returned from Head Quarters, but the Governor 
and the General both disapprove of moving the stock, except those 
belonging to people who are obliged to go off; the Governor would 
not undertake to do anything respecting the Tories, and after keep 
ing me the day out, sent me to Gen. Greene, who says he will take 
the matter up in a few days, bat at the present can do nothing with 
them. I have certain accounts of about 150 Tories being gone to 
town; they are promised clothes, blankets and arms; they have 
carried 4 wagons said to be for ammunition, &c. Gen. Sumter 


is by this time in camp ; I expect to be there myself on Sunday, 
would have gone immediately on, but the family is very ill. 
I am, dear Colonel, your very humble servant, 


P. S. The Governor was surprised to hear of your going on this 

[No. 208. J Gov. Rutlcdge to Col. P. Horry. 

NOVEMBER 4th, 1781. 
Sir : 

I received yours of the 31st ult., with the several papers enclosed 
in the letter, which is referred to. I am exceedingly sorry for the 
misunderstanding which seems to have taken place between Gen. 
Marion and you. However, I am in hopes now, that as you are 
both together, it will subside and nothing of the sort happen in 
future. I could not suppose that his complaints of your officers 
conduct were ill founded ; therefore, I expressed myself as if they 
were just. I am glad to find your account of the matter so favor 
able, and doubt not that Gen. Marion will be convinced that he has 
been misinformed. When I was at Mrs. Motte s, at Congaree, 
about 12th September, I gave Maj. Hyrne, commissions for all the 
officers of your corps, as well as of Col. Mayham s. You may 
therefore, get commissions for your officers, by sending to Maj. 
Hyrne. I am sir, your very humble servant, 


[No. 209.1 Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

Dear Sir : 

Your favor of the 2nd, I have received. Officers of the militia 
not in arms, are upon the same footing as privates. Those you 
sent up are upon parole, until the enemy give an answer upon the 
subject. Gen. Sumter has orders to take post at Orangeburg, to 
prevent the Tories in that quarter from conveying supplies to Town, 


and his advance parties will penetrate as low as Dorchester; there 
fore you may act in conjunction with him, or employ your troops 
on the enemies left, as you may find from information they can 
best be employed. Please to give me your opinion, on which side 
you think they can be the most useful ; also, give me an account of 
the force you have with you, including the Riflemen, Horry s and 
Mayham s Corps. With esteem and regard, 

I am dear sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


\No. 210.] Gen. Greene to Col. Peter Horry. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Nov. 6, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the 30th October, by Major Benson, I have re 
ceived. Nothing gives me more pain than to find disputes and dis 
agreements beginning among officers high in rank and on whom the 
people have their eyes for examples. Such disputes will weaken 
our own exertions and encourage the enemy, for they will be in 
formed of all these matters. The high opinion I have of both of 
you, as well in matters of patriotism as good sense, induces me to 
hope that you have but to meet and all matters will be accommoda 
ted to your mutual satisfaction. Gen. Marion cannot wish to injure 
you after knowing how much you have done and suffered for the 
cause. It is your interest to be friends; it is the interest of the 
public that you should be so, and let me beg of you to render things 
as agreeable as possible. The General is a good man ; few of us 
are without faults ; let his virtues veil his if he has any. Let 
neither prepossession or resentment widen the breach between you. 
Your bleeding country demands a sacrifice of little injuries, and 
your own good sense will point out the best mode of avoiding them, 
I beg leave to recommend harmony and concord between you, as 
the most effectual way of rendering the service most agreeable to 
yourselves and beneficial to the public. Our public affairs are at 
such a crisis, and the capture of Lord Cornwallis and his army 
will make such a change in our measures, particularly in the Cav 
alry department, that I cannot at present decide anything on that 


head, nor until I receive Gen. Washington s dispatches, which are 
daily expected. As soon as this happens, you shall hear further 
from me on this subject. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 211.] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

NOVEMBER 6, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Capt. Withers arrived here with his troops yesterday, at 2 o clock 
P. M., which came too late for the present design, but a grand 
movement will take place in two or three days, when I shall pass 
the river. Gen. Greene has called for your return, and I will 
send the one you made me, but must take notice you mention in 
your last, that Capt. Withers has all that is fit for duty. If you 
have any more men fit for duty, I beg you will send them to me 
immediately, as I am obliged to take post low down the country. 
Enclosed is what you desire. 

I am, with great regard, your obd t. servant, 


\No. 212.] D. Doyle, D. Adjutant General (of the British) to 
Gcrfl. Marion. 


November 9, 1781. 
Sir : 

I am directed by Brigadier General Stewart to state to you an 
outrage that has been offered by a party (who style themselves un 
der your command) to a safe-guard placed at the widow Ravenel s 
plantation, for the purpose of protecting her house ; although her 
family are avowedly opposed against us. Some day last week, a 
certain Mr. Daniel Ravenel, with some armed men, came to Mrs. 
Ravenel s, and after abusing the safe-guard, left solely for her pro 
tection, took his sword which they have carried off and never since 


returned. As such improper behavior will be the means of pre 
venting the General s protecting the peaceable, helpless families, as 
he would wish to do without respect to party; he therefore desires 
mo to represent to you the necessity of ordering the sword to be 
immediately returned to the safe-guard, which as consonant to pol 
icy as well as humanity, the General has no doubt you will rea 
dily acquiesce in. Upon every movement of the British troops, the 
General would wish to send safe guards to the neighboring planta 
tions to protect the harmless neutral individuals, but for the fear of 
their being ill-treated by the mistaken zeal of the irregulars of your 
party. It would seem well worthy the attention of both armies to 
prevent as much as possible the horrors of war being carried to ex 
tremes, by stamping upon safe-guards the respect and sacredness 
which they receive in every civilized country. 
I have the honor to be. sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

J. DOYLE, Dep. Adj. Gen. 

[No. 213.] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

NOVEMBER 9, 1781. 
Sir : 

I received yours of yesterday s date. I only wait for the re 
mainder of your Cavalry fit for duty to pass the river. My order 
from Gen. Greene is to take post on the left of the enemy, and 1 think 
to take post at or near Huger s Bridge, in St. Thomas. Gen. Sum- 
ter is to take post at Orangeburg, and to penetrate to Dorchester ; 
my post will be active, and make, no doubt the enemy s Horse will 
try to remove me, which is the reason I am anxious to get as many 
Cavalry as will be a match for them. You will find me there or 
about that quarter, and shall be happy to see you, if it will not re 
tard the completing youL % men. If you have reason to believe 
that Sol. Miller has forged the certificate, you will have him brought 
before a magistrate, and if proved send him to jail for forgery and 
a cheat ; if you are apprehensive that he will make his escape, you 
will .send and take him, and then carry him before a Justice of the 


Peace, and should nothing be proved against him, and there is yet 
presumptive proof, you will either keep him in confinement or send 
him to me, and I will endeavor to make such a villain suffer for 
such an atrocious crime, which is not to be passed over by any means 
whatever. Enclosed is an order for salt, and beg you will be sa 
ving on that article, as my stock runs very low, for I have supplied 
Gen. Greene and almost every corps in the State for a considerable 
time. I am sorry I had not the pleasure of seeing Capt. Gough, 
who passed within half a mile of me. The reason he gave for not 
calling, was, " I was angry with the corps he was in," and I am 
sorry to find any gentleman can have so little and despicable an 
idea of me. If I find fault with officers for anything 1 am made to 
believe they have done wrong, I cannot be angry with any one, but 
the very action itself, and I assure you, I am not capable of anger 
with individuals, when I am acting in a public capacity, but for 
public errors against the good of my country. 
I am, dear sir, with esteem. 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


N. B. The post I mean to take and that of Gen. Sumter s is a 

[No. 214.] Extract of a Letter from General Greene to Colonel 
Peter Horry. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Nov. 11, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

" I have received your favor of the 8th. It affords me great plea 
sure to hear you and Gen. Marion have come to a satisfactory ex 
planation. Men of honest hearts and good intentions very seldom 
prosecute each other long, after an opportunity of comparing notes, 
especially where both parties are governed by reason and benevo 
lence. Blankets are so scarce with us that more than three-fourths 
of our men are without. Mr. Clay is gone to Newbern to purchase 
a quantity ; should he succeed equal to his orders, and you fail, I 
will try to assist you, though the extent of my orders will not come 


up to our demands. Gen. Marion will inform you of the enemy s 
loss in Virginia." 

With esteem, I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 215. J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion.] 

HEAD QUARTERS, Nov. 11, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have just received your letter of yesterday. The reinforce 
ment you mention renders your proposed plan of operations upon 
the enemy s left a little dangerous, until you know more of their 
strength arid intentions. By Col. Morris, I was informed that Gen. 
Leslie was in New York, but I thought from the circumstances of 
the storm in which he disappeared, it was much more probable that 
he was lost , and that the enemy would either evacuate or reinforce 
Charles Town, I had not the least doubt upon the fall of Corn- 
wallis. If the reinforcement is considerable, we may have active 
operations again. As there will be a dispute for the country, we 
are preparing to get in motion. You will watch the enemy closely 
and let me know if they make any movements. ShouJd the enemy 
attempt to cross the Santee, desire Capt. Eggleston, who is on Black 
River, to join you. I will write to him to that effect. Gen. Sum- 
ter is gone to take post at Orangeburg. Enclosed is an extract 
from Gen. Washington s letter, from which you may see the ene 
my s loss in Virginia is very great ; further particulars are daily ex 
pected. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


Extract of a letter from Gen. Washington to Gen. Greene. 

YORK TOWN, Oct. 24, 1781. 

i( The number of prisoners is not accurately ascertained, but from 
the best estimate, will amount to 7,000, exclusive of seamen, 74 


brass and 140 iron cannon, with 7,320 muskets which are already 
returned. The number of seamen exclusive of those on board the 
private ships, will amount to 8 or 900." 

[No. 216.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Nov. 15, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Your favor of the 14th is just come to hand ; it is now late in 
the afternoon; as you are at liberty to act as you think advisable. 
I have no particular instructions to give you. and only wish you to 
avoid a surprise. Gen. Sumter is gone to Orangeburg, and the ar 
my will move on that route the day after to-morrow. What you 
conjecture respecting the evacuation of Charles Town, may take 
place, but if it does, the garrison will not go to Savannah, nor do 
I believe an evacuation probable ; that of Wilmington I think likely. 
As soon as we cross McCord s Ferry, please to give me intelligence 
of your position, and I shall depend upon your guarding our left, 
after we get down as low as Four Holes, to which place we shall 
march by slow and easy marches ; should the enemy have in con 
templation a retreat to Georgia by land, the Four Holes will be a 
proper place to intercept them on their march. But be assured 
they will not attempt it, nor can I flatter you with hopes of getting 
aid of them at so easy a rate. I expect several more good hard 
fights this winter, and if we hold our ground until spring, possibly 
an evacuation may take place for fear of a combined operation with 
the French fleet, which we can hardly hope for this fall ; but let 
this rest with yourself, and also keep our intended position a secret 
until we are better informed respecting it and its advantages. 
I am, dear sir, your humble servant, 



[No. 217. \ J. Doyle, (of the British) Deputy Adjutant General, to 
General Marion. 


November 20, 1781. ] 
Sir : 

I am directed by Brig. Gen. Stewart to represent to you an out 
rage that has been committed by a party of your corps, under 
the command of Col. Maham, upon a parcel of sick, helpless 
soldiers, in an Hospital at Colleton s House, on the morning of the 
27th inst. The burning an Hospital and dragging away a number 
of dying people to expire in swamps, is a species of barbarity hith 
erto unknown in civilized nations especially when that hospital has 
been left without a guard for its defence that could justify an at 
tack upon its defenceless inhabitants. For the sake of humanity, 
sir, the General is unwilling to believe that such unmanly proceed 
ings could meet your countenance, and he therefore expects that 
those unhappy sufferers may be sent immediately as prisoners on 
parole, to prevent their perishing for want of necessaries and medi 
cines. The sick and helpless seem not proper objects for military 
prowess, and attacks on Hospitals are among your own Continental 
army hitherto unprecedented. The Hospital at Camden was 
by Gen. Greene s order, protected, although it had an armed guard 
for its internal police. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

J. DOYLE, Dep. Adj. Gen. 

[No. 218.] Gen, Sumter to Gen. Marion. 

ORAXGEBURG, Nov. 23, 1781. 


I have some reason to think Gen. Greene don t mean to move 
downward until the lower posts are well explored, and the number 
snd situation of the enemy accurately ascertained. I am perfectly 


unacquainted with the enemy s position and strength towards Coop 
er River; to know which and to confer with you upon several oth 
er points of consequence, I send Major Bleauford, the bearer here 
of, to wait upon you, in whom you may confide, and to whom I 
beg you would give your opinion upon such matters as I have di 
rected him to mention to you ; the most profound secrecy is abso 
lutely necessary ; certain disappointment and ruin would attend 
our operations to have the design known. The enemy in this quar 
ter are numerous in horse, but not formidable. I refer you to the 
Major for particulars, as he is able to give you the fullest account 
of the state of things. I am, sir, with great respect, 
Your obedient humble servant, 


[No. 219.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

NOVEMBER 23, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Herewith you will receive several writs, (according to the list 
underwritten) for electing members of the Senate and House of 
Representatives. I request that you will be pleased to insert in 
each the names of three such persons as you think most proper to 
manage the elections, and then have the writs forwarded by careful 
hands as soon as possible to those persons, or one of them, that they 
may proceed to the election of this business. You will observe 
that where an election can be held in the parish or district for 
which members are to be chosen, it must be held in the nearest to 
it, where the greatest number of persons entitled to vote can meet 
with safety and convenience. Upon this point you will be able to 
form a good judgment, and I wish you would give the managers 
whom you appoint your advice with respect to the places most pro 
per for holding these elections, where they cannot be held in their 
own parishes. In such cases I should suppose that elections for 
several parishes might be held at one place. It would be best to 
fix on such places as we have good reason to believe elections may 


be held at. However, I have no doubt that you will have this 
matter conducted in the best manner. 

I am, with great regard, dear sir. 

Your most obedient servant, 


Writs of election for the parishes of Christ Church; St. John s, 
Berkley County ; St. James, Goose Creek ; St. Thomas and St 
Dennis; St. James, Santee; Prince Frederick; St. David; for mem 
bers of the Senate and House of Representatives. A writ for 
electing members of the House of Representatives for All Saints. 
Writs of election for a member of the Senate for Prince George, 
Winyaw and All Saints ; members of the House of Representatives 
for Prince George, Winyaw. Be pleased to forward immediately 
by a trusty person (and with a guard if necessary) the packet here 
with sent for Gen. Barnwell. 

[No. 220. j Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

Dear Sir : 

Your letters of the 18th and 21st of this month I have received. 
The enemy complains of Col. Maham in attacking and drag 
ging off a number of their distressed sick from their Hospital. I 
shall bo obliged to Col. Mar- am to give me a particular report of 
the condition of the prisoners he made as well as the manner of 
making them, also of the special reasons which induced him to burn 
the Hospital. I have not the least doubt but that their charges are 
groundless as to inhumanity, and that burning the Hospital was to 
destroy the stores, which could not be effected any other way ; 
but I wish to have materials to contradict their charges with. I am 
very sorry the Riflemen are going so soon; I understand from Cols. 
Shelby and Sevier that the men were engaged to stay until spring, 
or until Charles Town was reduced. In expectation of their co 
operation with us, we are on our march to the Four Holes. If they 
leave us before our reinforcement arrives, it will both embarrass and 
expose us. They are on the march and will be here before many 


days. Tell them therefore that I beg them to continue with you 
until they arrive. Wilmington is evacuated, which will give the 
enemy here a reinforcement, and therefore we shall be more ex 
posed if they leave us. Please to inform me how and on what 
terms Col. Sevier can enlist his men, and if on a consultation with 
the Governor and council I can think my self justifiable and the 
conditions are agreeable, I will take the matter under consideration . 
I am afraid the position you propose upon the enemy s right wiU 
expose our left when we move down. We must, if possible, en 
deavor to post our troops so as to be able to collect and continue our 
force upon the shortest notice. But if the enemy are gone as low 
as Goose Creek, the danger of your position will be less, at any 
rate you must keep patroles on the enemy s right to make as early 
discoveries as possible of any movements on our left, and let those 
patroles have orders to give us the earliest intelligence thereof. If 
you think the cattle of St. Thomas parish in danger, I wou id not 
hesitate to have them drove off. Doubtless as the enemy find them 
selves straitened for provisions, they will push for cattle most un 
der their command, and it appears the parish of St. Thomas is 
formidable for sudden descents, and the nearer they draw to town. 
the greater detachments may be made for this sort of service. You 
can best judge how far the swamps arid thickets are to be depended 
on for a security to these cattle. I would not wish to remove them 
if they are not in danger, for they may serve by and by for our 
own subsistence. Have you heard of any action to the southward 
lately ? Reports prevail of two ; one at Port Royal, the other by 
Gen. TwiggSj in both of which we are successful. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 


[No. 221.] H. Hampton to Capt. William Butler. 

HIGH HILLS SANTEE, Nov. 24, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Some time since, I heard of your intention of entering the ser 
vice, but more particularly from Mr. Cams, who promised to do 
me the favor to speak to you on the occasion. From the throng of 


business and the want of opportunity, I have never had it in my 
power to write to you until the present period. You have no doubt 
been informed of the nature of the service with the particular es 
tablishment of my Regiment, therefore need say nothing on that 
head. I shall only say that I have reserved for you an appoint 
ment of Captain, which is all that is in my power ; however, by 
your filling the first company (which from your known influence I 
think you ll do) you will be entitled to first rank, and in that case 
it will not be long before you will be entitled to a Majority. It is 
therefore necessary that you lose no time in having your company 
filled ; by the first safe conveyance I shall send further directions 
and advices from, clear sir, 

Your obedient humble servant, 


[No. 222.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

COMMINGTEE, NoV, 28, 1781. 

Dear Sir : 

I have received yours with the return of your corps. I want 
you to go on command with your whole corps from this through 
"Wadboo, around Monk s Corner, and down towards Goose Creek 
as low as possible, to reconnoitre the enemy and get all the intelli 
gence of their situation and movements. I will send you guides ; 
the route will be nineteen or twenty miles to Goose Creek Bridge, 
where I heard the enemy lay, but probably they are moved lower 
down since- You may set out this afternoon or to-morrow early. 
If you stay to-night you will forage in the neighborhood where it is 
to be had. In respect to Lesesne it is proper you acquaint Gen. 
Greene with his arrest, and he will send me power to order a gen 
eral Court Martial. 1 wish to see you before we move. 
I am, with esteem, your obd t. serv t., 



[No. 223.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

DECEMBER 4, 1781. 
Dear Sir: 

I have received yours of the 1st inst, by Mr. Villepontoux; such 
men as the and are to be excepted in the procla 
mation. You may either take sufficient bail for their appearance 
at Court and the Assembly when they meet, or send them to me, 
as you think proper, if they should come out. I am much of your 
opinion, that several scoundrels will quit the town and surrender 
themselves in order to obtain a pardon by serving six months 
in the militia, but it does not follow that they will be pardoned. 
Those whose conduct and character have been so infamous, that 
they cannot, consistent with policy or justice be admitted to the privi 
leges of Americans, may and probably will be sent back. Be 
pleased to make a return to me, as soon as the limited time by the 
last proclamation expires } of all who have surrendered agreeably 
to it. As Gen. Greene set off last Tuesday for Four Holes and the 
lower part of the country, I am in hopes you have seen each other 
before now, and I am inclined to believe that his position will be 
such, even before his reinforcements arrives at Head Quarters, that 
the enemy will not think it safe to venture into the country. After 
those reinforcements arrive, I think he will keep them below the 
Quarter House, unless Charles Town should be reinforced, which 
I do not think will be immediately. The surrender of Cornwal- 
lis must perplex Clinton as well as the Ministry, and I apprehend 
he will wait for their directions what step to take next. I do not 
think, however, that the enemy will evacuate the town until they 
see a force on our part, sufficient to compel them to do so. They 
are under great apprehension (and I hope with good reason) for their 
West India possessions. You do not say what you have done with 
Barnes ; you may either send him (under guard) to Gen. Greene 
or to me. I am, with great esteem, dear sir, 

Your very humble servant, 



\No. 224.] Lieut. Peter Foissinto Gen. Marion. 

DECEMBER 7, 1781. 
Dear General: 

I take my pen in hand with the greatest pleasure imaginable, to 
acquaint you that I have at last returned home, from a tedious and 
disagreeable captivity. I make no doubt but you have seen Capt. 
D unbar, who, I hope, has acquainted you with all the distresses 
and vicisitudes of fortune that have attended us since I have had the 
pleasure of seeing you. How shall I paint to you the unhap- 
piness I feel in not being able to take any further active part in 
the field, and to maintain that rank among my countrymen which I 
have endeavored to merit. Rely on it that it is not for want of in 
clination, but rendered incapable by frequent and severe returns of 
that cruel disorder, the gout, which is my inevitable lot for life; 
therefore when the Regiments are consolidated I would wish to re 
tire, notwithstanding still anxious for the public good, I am and 
shall be ever willing and desirous to exert my weak abilities to 
promote the glorious cause we are jointly engaged in, and should 
there be anything in which I can render my country any services 
in these parts, I shall ever acknowledge it an obligation if you 
would call upon me, I will cheerfully fill any post that I am capa 
ble of holding. I would be very happy to hear from you. 
I am, yours sincerely, 


\No. 225.J Capt. Thomas Sliubrick to Gen. Marion. 

December 7, 1781. 


Dear Sir : 

I am directed by the General to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 5th inst, and also of the several others there mention 
ed, and to inform you that his having been absent from the army 
for some time past, prevented his answering them. The articles 
you mention being in want of in your last, were very scarce when 


he left camp ; if any have arrived since, part of it shall be forward 
ed to you. He entirely approves of the position you have taken, 
but would caution you against venturing too low down, lest they 
should throw a large party in your rear, but the reliance he has in 
your conduct and prudence renders this precaution unnecessary. 
I am, with the greatest respect and esteem, dear General, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

THOS. SHUBRICK, Aid-de-Camp. 

\No. 226.] Gen. Barmoell to Gen. Marion. 

PORT ROYAL, Dec. 12, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

It is with infinite pleasure, I set down to address an old acquain 
tance, and one to whom, not only myself but the whole country, is 
so particularly obligated for his unwearied assiduity in the war, at 
a time when every difficulty which arises from a superior army, 
and every disadvantage that attends a diffident, unwilling, and undis 
ciplined body of men, had caused all hopes even in the most san 
guine to expire, arid a general shameful submission of every other 
part of the country (but that which was inspired by your presence) 
was the natural consequence, and yet my worthy friend arose su 
perior to every accumulated disadvantage, arid shortly I hope will 
demand at the gates of Charles Town, a reparation of his country s 
wrongs ; there will I do myself the honor of attending him. Your 
favor of the 2d., in part I received yesterday; the writ of elec 
tion on the 7th came to hand, and if the gentlemen to whom 
I dispatched them, do their duty, will be in time, except St. 
Helena, which I was prevented from bringing, by the wind and 
the rain, that obliged me to alter the days of election to the 24th 
and 25th. What influence I have shall be used, most assuredly, to 
obtain good men for members, for believe me sir, I dread the meet 
ing of the House at Camden at a period when our presence is so 
necessary in the field. I will issue orders immediately that the 
Charles Town gentlemen shall join you, although you have been 
misinformed relative to their doing duty, being, generally speaking , 


as constant as the others, but all very bad, nor will anything 
but personal ruin, bellowed from the tongue of a Briton, rouse 
them, and then to scold or continue a short time in the field, a month 
is too much for almost any of them to bear. The enemy have evac 
uated this place near a month, and I was informed that Ebenezer 
was abandoned, but that was a mistake ; the Hessians were relieved^ 
and their baggage going down the river occasioned the error, which 
was natural at that juncture. From late information the forces in 
Georgia consists of the Hessians, Fanning s, Delaney s, Brown sj 
Major Wright s Infantry and Campbell s Horse, amounting to six 
hundred, and four hundred irregulars ; these last I cannot but think 
exaggerated. I expect to hear from that place in a few days, and 
will write you more particularly. Stafford s Regiment is on Sa 
vannah River, Harden s I have ordered collected to join the Gen 
eral. Wilkinson s are employed with the army about Stono. I make 
no doubt Gen. Greene has informed you by this time; their number, 
as I heard, were one hundred and fifty, exclusive of as many more 
on John s Island; Major McClure, of Georgia, acquainted me he 
had sent me a barrel of porter and a cheese to George Town ; will 
you be so obliging as to forward it to Head Quarters for me. 
I am, with respect and esteem, 

Yours, most sincerely, 


[No, 227. j Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, ROUND O, Dec. 13, 1781. 

Dear Sir : 

The information of my being gone to Georgia is wrong. The 
army is at. this place, and Col. Lee with a flying party, but very 
strong, is posted between Ashley and the Edisto to cover that part 
of the country. Gen. Sumter is posted at Orangeburg and Four 
Holes to cut off the Tories from a communication with the British 
army. The Tories are coming in in great numbers daily. Gen. 
St. Clair is approaching fast with a strong reinforcement; as soon 
as he arrives we shall draw near the enemy s lines ; in the mean 
time I hope you will be able to keep your position and prevent the 


enemy from drawing supplies from that part of the country. I am 
sorry to inform you that the one thing needful has not arrived, but 
is hourly expected ; the moment it comes to hand you shall be fur 
nished. Such of the militia as come out from the enemy s lines 
and engage our service ought to take an oath of fidelity before they 
are put upon duty, and if it was practicable I should rather have 
them in a separate corps, but this is not absolutely necessary. The 
enemy have detached a body of troops to Savannah, upon the sup 
position that this army was moving that way ; this mistake arose 
from our position. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


\No. 228.] Extract of a letter from Gen. Greene to ColPeter Horry, 

HEAD QUARTERS, ROUND O, Dec. 14, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

If Mr. Isaac Leger is guilty of disobedience of orders and you 
think proper to bring him to trial for it, order him to camp and for 
ward the charges, but perhaps it may be as well to forgive him, if 
he is sensible of his fault and promises to do better in future, but 
not without, for that would be an encouragement to disobedience 
of orders. Your soldiers seem to have much less patience than 
ours. Our Horse have neither cloaks nor blankets, nor have our 
Troops received a shilling of pay since they came into this country, i 
nor is there a prospect of any, and yet they don t complain ; how 
ever this is no bar to the justice of your people s claim, and I wish it 
was in my power to assist you, but the public have not furnished 
me with a shilling of money for this department since I have had 
the command here, except paper, of which I could make no use. 
We took a couple of boats at Augusta, which were sold, and the 
product is all I have had for special services and matters of intelli 
gence. My situation has been very distressing and is so still, but I 
hope if the officers stand by me with the same virtuous attachment 
they have done, we shall get through our difficulties in time, and 
I shall take a pride and pleasure in doing justice to your services. I 


have not heard from Gen. Washington upon the subject of the 
Cavalry, nor can I tell why Major Hyrne detained your Commis 
sions, unless it was to have the matter settled whether the corps 
were to be State or Continental Cavalry. It is possible I might 
have advised to it but do not remember it ; application being made 
to him, he will satisfy you on the subject. I have engaged Mr. 
Putnam at George Town to get me some blankets ; should he suc 
ceed, you shall have part. All kinds of cloth we are in want of 
and in the greatest distress on the same account ; near one half of 
our soldiers have not a shoe to their feet and not ablanket to ten men 
through the line. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 229.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, ROUND O, Dec, 14, 1781. 

Dear Sir : 

I have just received your letter of the 12th, and have sent you 
all the ammumition that arrived ; more is expected daily. I am 
sorry that the enemy have it in their power to take off rice \vith im 
punity, but it is neither your or my fault. If we are not supported 
and supplied with the means to defend the country we cannot help 
it. It is true our masters are poor, and among some of them incli 
nation is wanting, particularly in Virginia ; but be not discouraged, 
I look forward for better days. 

With esteem and regard, I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 230.] Gov. Rutledge to Gen. Marion. 

HIGH HILLS OF SANTEE, Dec. 15, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

You will consider the Charles Town Regiment of militia as an 
nexed to your Brigade, and make the necessary appointments. I 


am told the troops which are coming from the northward, bring 
800 stand of arms. If you apply to Gen. Greene, it is probable 
he may on their arrival, spare some to you. I have wrote to Phila 
delphia for arms and ammunition for the State s use, expect them by 
return of the waggons, which carried Indigo thither, and which I 
think must be now about setting off to come back. On their ar 
rival I hope to give your Brigade a good supply ; I wish to pro 
cure 12 barrels of rice for the use of the Assembly at their intend 
ed meeting on the Sth of next month. Be pleased to have that quanti 
ty procured as high up Santee River as it can be got, and let me 
know as soon as possible where it is, that I may order wagons 
down to fetch it from thenco to Camden in time. Capt. Bocquet 

says you wish to know what to do with respect to Messrs. J 

and F H , who desire to remain neuter. They must 

certainly do as all others, perform militia duty, or pay such a fine 
for neglecting it, as a Court Martial may adjudge. I purpose set 
ting out for Gen. Greene s camp on the first of next month, and re 
quest that you will send me an escort of 25 men, and a proper Oifi- 
cer from Maham s corps ; let them be here the day before, and 
well mounted, as I shall travel pretty expeditiously. 
I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble serv t, 


[No. 231.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

AT MR. ROGER SAUNDERS , Dec. 16, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

I have this moment got intelligence that the enemy embarked 
about 1509 or 2,000 troops yesterday at 3 o clock in the afternoon, 
and came up to -Stono last night. I imagine they mean to burn the 
forage and drive our light parties back; I have ordered the whole 
army to be put in motion, and wish you to march by way of Dor 
chester to join us. On that route you shall hear further from me. 
It is possible the enemy may have a party there to prevent a junc 
tion of our forces ; be on your guard therefore. I sent a quantity 
of ammunition to your camp on yesterday. You will take care 


to fall in with it ; move with as much expedition as possible, and 
forward me an express, how soon I may expect you and the force 
you will bring. 

I am, dear sir y 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 232.] Gen l Greene to Gen L Marion. 


Dear Sir : 

The enemy have made no movement intothe country as yet, and 
as their object and time of execution is uncertain, you will halt at 
Dorchester or in the neighborhood of it, until you hear further from 
me or Col. Lee, who will be directed to write you, should I re 
turn to camp without further intelligence from the enemy. It is 
Said a great many cattle go in from Goose Creek or the neighbor 
hood. Col. Lee keeps a party near the Dorchester road and the 
enemy s lines. If you were to keep another on the other road, few 
or none could get in. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 233.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, ROUND O, Dec. 22, 1781 
Dear Sir : 

I have just received your letter of yesterday, dated near Dor 
chester; when I wrote you to move this way, I had every reason 
to believe the enemy intended to take the field ; by intelligence from 
different people, I thought it most advisable to draw our forces to 
gether, that we might not be beatin detachment, and that if we did 
fight, to have it in our power to give the enemy a crippling blow, 
if we could not obtain victory. The enemy came out, but did 
not make any stay and the force was inconsiderable ; on hearing 
this, I directed Col. Lee to inform you thereof, and that if nothing 


appeared to indicate further operations in the country, that you 
might return to your old station ; yoiJ ? will therefore, after hearing 
from Col. Lee, take your measures according to circumstances. The 
enemy have a body of Cavalry which frequently comes out as far 
almost as Dorchester. Cannot Lee and Maham concert a plan in 
conjunction to cut them off? I am unacquainted with the ground 
and roads, and therefore cannot judge of the practicability. A blow 
of this kind could be effected with proper address, and would pre 
vent further excursions, which will be more and more troublesome 
without some check. You will please to order me a return of the 
two corps of Horry and Maham, as well of the horse as the men, 
and I think, as there is a large body of regular Cavalry coming 
from the northward, that it will not be worth while to go to the ex 
pense of equipping any more, especially as the nature of the war 
is changed so as to render Infantry much more useful than Horse. 
If those corps could be made legionary, one half Infantry and the 
other Cavalry, they will be more useful and less expensive ; since 
the fall of Lord Cornwallis, I considered the plan of the war as to 
tally changed, and what was before the first object is now only a 
secondary one ; I mean as having a very great body of Cavalry in 
the field. It will be impossible for the enemy to get a Cavalry, with 
every exertion they can make, that will be able to combat with one 
half of ours, and the Cavalry in this lower country, and especially 
in a siege, can be of little use to what Infantry may be, and they 
are five times as expensive. I beg your opinion on the matter. 
I am, sir, most respectfully yours, 


[No. 234.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, ROUND O, Dec. 27, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

By good intelligence from Charles Town, I learn the enemy are 
in hourly expectation of four Regiments of Infantry and two of 
dismounted Dragoons, from Cork, and three Regiments from New 
York ; should this intelligence prove true, and it has all the marks 
of authenticity, I fear it will oblige us to collect our force, even 


although it should expose some part of the country. Please to let 

me know what militia force you can keep in the field dismounted. 
We shall be much more in want of Infantry than Cavalry ; a large 
reinforcement of the latter being hourly expected from the north 
ward. Let me hear from you on this subject as soon as possible, and also 
inform me whether the enemy can get any horses or teams in your 
quarter, should they send a detachment on that service, for if they 
mean to take the field, they will want the means of transportation ; 
and there can be little doubt of their taking the field and pushing 
us, if they are as largely reinforced as reports say they are; to de 
prive them of the carriages and horses therefore will be the most 
effectual way to prevent their operating to our disadvantage. If 
teams and horses are to be had therefore in your quarter, take mea 
sures to have them removed out of the enemy s way, should the 
reinforcements before mentioned arrive, for depend upon it they will 
try to get them, nor will it be in the power of the people to keep 
them out of their way, if they are left with them, for be assured the 
enemy will use less delicacy towards the people than ever, as their 
object will be conquest, and not a return to allegiance. 
I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 235.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Dec. 31, 1781. 

Dear Sir : 

I wrote you a day past of some intelligence I got of four Regi 
ments of Infantry and two of dismounted Dragoons expected from 
Ireland, and three Regiments from New York. The Cork fleet 
has arrived, but no troops except about 60 artillery men ; the troops 
from New York are hourly expected, but one of the Regiments is 
a Regiment of dismounted Dragoons, and I am in hopes the Infan 
try Regiment will not be large. In consequence of the intelligence 
of the reinforcement, I have detained for a few days the Governor s 
proclamation for the Assembly to set at Jacksonborough, thinking 
that position might be unsafe 3 if the enemy were to be as largely 


reinforced as was expected, but as the numbers fall far short of what 
was at first expected, I have forwarded the proclamation for you 
to distribute agreeably to the Governor s orders, and you will please 
to have them dispersed accordingly. Gen. St. Clair expected to be 
^t the Mills to-morrow upon the Edisto. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 


[No. 236.] Gen. Greene to Gen, Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Jan. 3, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

It was not my intention to have the teams removed until the enemy 
got a reinforcement, as I did not wish to distress the inhabitants but 
from absolute necessity ; however if you think they are unsafe 
where they are, as a reinforcement may arrive at once, and remo 
ving the teams requires time, you will act in the business as you 
think proper. Your Assembly is to set at Jacksonborough, and 
you must take measures for covering that part of the country with 
your own force, as it will not be in my power to detach for that 
service, as the service of Virginia is disposed of, and they are gone 
home. As to passes, you will give such as you think proper, and 
I am happy to hear that you are likely to get clothing for us, as our 
poor fellows are in great want. Enclosed I send you an order for 
holding a Court Martial upon the deserters of Cols. Horry s and 
Maham s men. With esteem and regard, 

I am, dear sir, your obedient humble servant, 


[No. 237. j Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

JANUARY 10, 1782. 

You will take the command of my Brigade until I return. You 
will keep the guards at Cainhoy and Fogartie s ; their orders is to 
prevent any boats or persons from going to or from town without 


a written pass from me or yourself. Such persons who have al 
ready had my pass to get out goods for the army must be permit 
ted to pass and re-pass for that purpose, and the goods brought up 
you receive and send over Santee to Mr. Joseph Legare. You will 
not permit any men to have leave of absence without they are re 
lieved or served two months. You will endeavor to cover this part 
of the country as much as possible, and may remove to my place 
from which you may get subsistence and forage. Col. Maham s 
corps will be ordered to Mepkin to remain there until my further 
orders. I think in a few days you may remove to my old quarters 
at Comingtee, and get your forage for the Brigade from the other 

side of the river at ; but that position may only be taken 

when the forage about this neighborhood is expended. I expect 
Mr. Lockwood will send out some goods for me, and I have given 
Lieut. James Simons a permit to send boats to town to get out 
goods; whatever you can get for soldier s clothing you will embrace 
by all means. Serg t. Mathew Smith has a small command at 
Goose Creek, and is to remain to give us intelligence and prevent 
women and others from going in town ; his orders is to take all 
their horses and send them back on foot. I wish you to send him 

four men ; Philips Schooner has my passport to come up to 

with Mrs. Pinckney, Mrs. Sinkler, and Doughty, with their goods, 
and the vessel to return. You will let me know every occurrence 
per express. I am ; 

Your obedient servant, 

F. MARION, Brig. Gen. Militia. 

[No. 238.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion, 

Dear Sir : 

Your favor of the 15th, has just this moment come to hand. I 
cannot imagine upon what principles Lt. Col. Maham presumes to 
dispute rank with Lt. Col. Horry ; the latter has been a Lieut. 
Colonel in the Continental service, and still claims his rank in that 
line, but supposing his claim not to be well founded, he is out of 


service, not of choice but necessity, and is a supernumerary officer 
on half pay, and therefore his claim to rank must be good whenev 
er called into service ; there is a great difference between the claims 
of an officer who resigned and one who goes out of service upon 
the half pay establishment. On this ground I think Col. Horry has 
clearly the right of out ranking Col. Maham. Much is due to the 
merits and exertion of Col. Maham, but no less is due to the rights 

? D 

and claims of Lieut. Col. Horry. It was never my intention that 
Lieut. Col. Maham s corps should be subject to no order but my 
own, but in the first instance this would be totally incompatible with 
the nature of the service. My intention with respect to that corps 
was, that it should stand upon the same footing as Lieut Col. Lee s 
Legion, which is called an independent corps ; nobody has a right 
to command them but the Commander in chief, unless by him placed 
under some other command. Lee s Legion is frequently put un 
der particular officers command; according to the nature of the ser 
vice, and to be otherwise would be burdening the public with a 
useless expense, for many things which are practicable with a com 
bined forc.e could not be attempted without it. I am persuaded 
when Col. Maham thinks more fully on this subject, he will, he 
must be convinced his ideas of the constitution and nature of his 
corps is totally inadmissible. The care and expense he has been 
at, claim every indulgence that the nature of the service will admit, 
but the public finance does not admit of show in preference to sub 
stantial service. It was my wish that you should use the corps on 
ly upon the most material service, that they mio;ht be always in 
readiness for the most important calls, and these are my wishes still, 
at any rate I cannot think of removing them from the quarter they 
are employed in, as I am but too sensible of their utility there. I 
received a line from Lieut. Col. Horry to-day, informing me of the 
militia having deserted him in great numbers since you came away, 
and the Colonel begs you to return as soon as possible, consistent 
with the public good ; and this is my request also. Lieut. CoL 
Horry writes that the enemy have detached a large body of troops 
to George Town, but I believe the intelligence to be premature. In 
your report of the action of the other day, you don t mention the 
loss of the enemy, as you mention in a former letter that they had 


requested you to bury their dead. I am sorry to find your loss 
greater than you first expected, and wish to learn the enemy s. 
I am, dear sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


\No. 2391 Col Laurens to Col. Maham. 

Dear Sir : 

I leave my letter to Gen. Marion and the papers mentioned in it 
open for your perusal ; however little inclined to believe that the 
enemy seriously meditates an enterprise against Gen. Greene s army, 
it is our duty to take every precaution, relative to such an event; 
there may be still more forage found this side of Goose Creek, and 
a very little time will discover whether intelligence transmitted is 
well founded. I have no intelligence this morning, but have reason 
to believe that all is quiet as yet ; however if a. move is to take 
place, it is an event that may happen from one moment to another. 
Yours, sincerely, 


P. S. I shall move hence immediately towards Dorchester, and 
will transmit you immediate intelligence of anything that may oc 
cur, and of the final position which Gen. Greene wishes to take. 

(No. 240.J Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

JANUARY 18, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I send you the proceedings of the general Court Martial. You 
will dissolve the Court and put the sentence in execution. I send 
you Gen. Greene s letter in answer to mine sent him as soon as I ar 
rived here, and it is determined as I expected. You will keep the 
letter, and if the enemy should approach your quarters arid you 
find it necessary, you must call on Col. Maham s Troops and 
Horse as a reinforcement, and wish he may not be called on for no 


other purpose. If you find the men desert you, a small par 
ty of six men, or two such parties, sent to bring them back 
and put them in confinement will have the best effect. I fear your 
patience must be something longer tried with the militia, as I can 
not be spared without stopping the whole proceedings of the House. 
We have but 13 Senators, which is the least number that can do busi 
ness. The other HoT;se has 74 69 can do business ; but it requires 
202 members of both houses to chose a Governor. As soon as they 

can spare me I will return. You did very right to send Mrs J 

H back, and hope you will send every one who has their 

husbands with the enemy. I am informed that a pass is given to 
Capt. Williams, of the schooner which came up to carry produce 

down, and she is to be up again in a few days, to carry Mrs. P ; 

if she comes up without your pass or mine, she must be ta 
ken and sunk, and if Mrs. P goes down she must not be 

suffered to return. The pass I allude to above is said to be given 
by Col. Maham, which I cannot believe. Gen. Wayne is gone to 
Georgia with White s Cavalry. The enemy has evacuated Johns 
Island and Wadmalaw ; they took a subaltern and *ix privates of 
Col. Washington s Horse at Dorchester ; through carelessness and 
bad conduct, they have also taken John Glaze and young Parker. 
If you can spare Capt. Gough I wish he may come to the House, 
or Major Benson; I think one may be spared. The account of die 
enemy s going to George Town I believe is not true, though it is pro 
bable they may try to have a blow at you, or your parties of ob 
servation down the neck. We have in the Philadelphia papers an 
account of the combined fleet taking a 90 gun ship and three frig 
ates, and 83 sail of the Jamaica fleet. Anything material I wish 
you would let me know per express. Col. Servven had leave of 
absence for a few days, to move his family, but if he is wanted, I 
wish he may be called on to take the command Nelson has I am 
so perfectly satisfied that you can command these, as well as my 
self, that I shall be very easy in every respect ; and I know you 
only want patience with militia, which you will gain by experience. 
I am, with esteem, dear sir. 

Your most obedient servant. 




Honorable Gentlemen of the Senate, Mr. Speaker and Gentle 
men of the House of Representatives : 

Since the last meeting of a General Assembly, the good people 
of this State have not only felt the common calamities of war, but, 
from the wanton and savage manner in which it has been prosecu 
ted, they have experienced such severities as are unprecedented, and 
will scarcely be credited by civilized nations. 

The enemy, unable to make any impression on the northern 
States, the number of whose inhabitants and the strength of whose 
conn cry had baffled their repeated efforts, turned their views to 
wards the southern, which, a difference of circumstances afforded 
some expectation of conquering, or at least of greatly distressing. 
After a Jong resistance the reduction of Charles Town was effected 
by the vest superiority of force with which it had been besieged. 
The loss of that garrison, as it consisted of the Continental Troops 
of Virginia arid the Carolinas, and of a number of militia, facilitated 
the enemy s march into the country, and their establishment of many 
posts in the upper and interior parts of it ; and the unfavorable 
issue of the action near Camden, induced them vainly to imag 
ine, that no ether army could be collected which they might not 
easily defeat. The militia commanded by the Brigadiers Sumter 
and Marion, whose enterprising spirit and unremitting perseverance 
under many difficulties, are deserving of great applause, harrassed 
and often defeated large parties, but the numbers of whose mi 
litia were too few, to contend effectually with the collected strength 
of the enemy. Regardless, therefore, of the sacred ties of honor, 
destitute of the feelings of humanity, and determined to extinguish, 
if possible, every spark of freedom in this country, they, with the 
insolent pricle of conquerors, gave unbounded scope to the excess 
of their tyrannical disposition, infringed their public engagements, 
and violated the most solemn capitulations. Many of our worthiest 
citizens were, without cause, long and closely confined ; some on 
board of prison ships, and others in the town and castle of St. Au 
gustine; their properties disposed of at the will and caprice of the 
enemy, and their families sent to a different and distant part of the 


continent, without the means of support ; many who had surren 
dered" as prisoners of war, were killed in cold blood ; several suf 
fered death in the most ignominious manner, and others were deliv 
ered up to savages and put to tortures, under which they expired. 
Thus, the lives, liberties, and properties of the people were depen 
dant solely on the pleasure of British officers, who deprived them 
of either or all. on the most frivolous pretences. Indians, slaves, 
and a desperate banditti of the most profligate characters, were 
caressed and employed by the enemy to execute their infamous 
purposes. Devastation and ruin marked their progress and that 
of their adherents ; nor were their violences restrained by the 
charms or influence of beauty and innocence ; even the fair sex, 
whom it is the duty of all, and the pleasure and pride of the brave 
to protect, they and their tender offspring were victims to the in 
veterate malice of an unrelenting foe ; neither the tears of mothers 
nor the cries of infants, could excite in their breasts pity or compas 
sion. Not only the peaceful habitations of the widow, the aged 
and the infirm, but the Holy Temples of the Most High were con 
sumed in flames, kindled by their sacrilegious hands. They have 
tarnished the glory of the British army, disgraced the profession of 
a British soldier, and fixed indelible stigmas of rapine, cruelty, per 
fidy, and profaneness on the British name. But I can now congrat 
ulate you, and do so most cordially, on the pleasing change of af 
fairs, which, under the blessing of God, the wisdom, prudence, ad 
dress, and bravery of the great and gallant Gen. Greene, and the 
intrepidity of the officers and men under his command, have hap 
pily effected a General who is justly entitled, from his many spe 
cial services, to honorable and singular marks of your approbation 
and gratitude. His successes have been more rapid and complete 
than the most sanguine could have expected. The enemy, com 
pelled to surrender or evacuate every post which they held in the 
country, frequently defeated, and driven from place to place, are 
obliged to take refuge under the walls of Charles Town, and on 
Islands in its vicinity. We have now the full and absolute posses 
sion of every other part of the State, and the Legislative, Execu 
tive and Judicial powers, are in the free exercise of their respective 

I also most heartily congratulate you, on the glorious victory ob- 


tained by the combined forces of America and France, over their 
common enemy; when the very General who was second in com 
mand at the reduction of Charles Town, and to whose boasted 
prowess and highly extolled abilities, the conquest of no less than 
three States had been arrogantly committed, was speedily com 
pelled to accept of the same mortifying terms, which had been im 
posed on that brave, but unfortunate Garrison ; to surrender an ar 
my of many thousand regulars, and to abandon his wretched fol 
lowers, when he had artfully seduced from their allegiance, by 
specious promises of protection, which he could never have hoped to 
fulfil, to the service or army of their country ; on the naval su 
periority established by the illustrious ally of the United States 
a superiority in itself so decided, and in its consequences so exten 
sive, as must inevitably soon oblige the enemy to yield to her the 
only post which they occupy in this State on the reiterated proof 
of the sincerest friendship, and on the great support which Ameri 
ca has received from that powerful monarch a monarch whose 
magnanimity is universally acknowledged and admired, and on 
whose royal word we may confidently rely, for every necessary 
assistance on the perfect harmony which exists between France 
and America; to the stability which her independence has acquired* 
and on the certainty that it is too deeply rooted ever to be shaken; 
for animated as they are, by national honor, and united by our com 
mon interest, it will and must be maintained. 

What may be the immediate effects on the British nation, of the 
events which I have mentioned, of their loss of territory in other 
parts of the world, and of their well founded apprehensions from 
the powers of France, Spain and Holland, it is impossible to fore 
tell. If experience can teach wisdom to a haughty and infatunted 
people, and if they can be governed by reason, they will have 
learned that they can have no solid ground of hope, to conquer any 
State in the Union ; for though their army have obtained temporary 
advantages over our troops, vet the citizens of those States firmly 
resolved, JS they are, never to return to a domination which, near 
six years ago. they unanimously and justly renounced, cannot be 
subdued ; and they must now be convinced, that it is the height 
of folly and madness to persist in so ruinous a war. If, however^ 
we judge as we ought of their future, by their past conduct, we 


may presume that they will not only endeavor to keep possession of 
our Capitol, but make another attempt, howsoever improbable the 
success of it may appear, to subjugate this county. It is therefore 
highly incumbent on us, to use our most strenuous efforts to frus 
trate so fatal a design, and I earnestly conjure you, by the duty 
which you owe, and the sacred love which you bear to your coun 
try, by the constant remembrance of her bitter suffering;;, and by 
the just detestation of British government, which you and your 
posterity must forever possess, to exert your utmost faculties for 
that purpose, by raising and equipping, with all possible expedition, 
a respectable permanent force, and by making ample provisions for 
their comfortable subsistence. I am sensible the expense will be 
great, but a measure so indispensible to the preservation of our 
freedom, is above every pecuniary consideration. 

The organization of our militia is likewise a subject of infinite 
importance ; a clear and concise law, by which the burdens of ser 
vice will be equally retained, and a competent number of men 
brought forth and kept in the field, when their assistance may be 
required, is essential to our country, and therefore justly claims 
your immediate and serious attention. Certain it is, thcit come of 
our militia liave, upon several occasions, exhibited instances of va 
lor which would have reflected honor on veteran troops. Tun car 
riage and conduct of the Generab whom I have mentioned, the 
cool and determined bravery repeatedly displayed by Brigadier 
Pickens, and indeed the behavior of many officers and men in every 
Brigade, are unquestionable testimonies of the truth of this asser 
tion. But such behavior cannot be expected from militia in general, 
without good order and strict discipline, nor can that order ar;d dis 
cipline be established, but by a salutary law steadily executed. 

Another important matter for } r our deliberation, is the conduct of 
such of our citizens as, voluntarily avowing their allegiance, and 
ever glorying in their professions of loyalty and attachment to his 
Britannic Majesty, have offered their congratulations on the success 
of his arms, prayed to be embodied as Royal Militia, accepted 
commissions in his service, or endeavored to subvert our constitu 
tion and establish his poxver, in its stead ; of those who have re 
turned to this State, in defiance of a law by which such return was 
declared to be a capital offence, and have abetted the British inter- 


est ; arid of such whose behavior has been so reprehensible, that 
justice and policy forbid their free readraission to the rights and 
privileges of citizens. 

The extraordinary lenity of this State has been remarkably con 
spicuous. Other States have thought it just and expedient to ap 
propriate the property of British subjects to the public use, but we 
have forborne to take even the profits of ihe estates of our most im- 
placabl 3 enemies. It is with you to determine, whether the forfei 
ture arid appropriation of their property should now take place. 
If that be your determination, though many of our firmest friends 
have been reduced for their inflexible attachment to the cause of their 
country, from opulence to inconceivable distress, and if the enemy s 
will and power had prevailed, would have been doomed to indi 
gence and beggary, yet it will redound to the reputation of this 
State, to provide a becoming support for the families of those whom 
you iiiay deprive of their property. 

The raluc of paper currency became of late, so much deprecia 
ted, that it was requisite, under the powers vested in the Executive 
during the recess of the General Assembly, to suspend the laws 
by which it was made a tender. You will now consider whether 
it may not be proper to repeal those laws, and fix some equitable 
mode for the discharge of debts contracted whilst paper money 
was in circulation. 

In the piesent scarcity of specie it would be difficult, if not im 
practicable, to levy a tax to any considerable amount, towards sink 
ing the public debt, nor will the creditors of the State expect that 
such a tax should, at this time, be imposed. But it is just and reason 
able, that all unsettled demands should be liquidated, and satisfac 
tory assurances of payment given to the public creditors. 

The interest and honor, the safety and happiness of our country, 
depend so much on the result of your deliberations, that I flatter 
myself you will proceed, in the weighty business before you, with 
firmness and temper, with vigor, unanimity and dispatch. 

JANUARY 18, 1782. 


[No. 241. J Col. Peter Horry to Col Maham. 

JANUARY 19, 1782. 
Sir : 

I received a letter from Gen s. Greene and Marion yesterday. 
The former terminates our rank in my opinion, and the latter writes 
me to take command of your Legion, if I find it necessary ; the 
Generals also wrote you, and I suppose to the same purpose. 
Please to make me a return of the strength of your Legion, that I 
may know what support I can have in case of need. I have an of 
ficer and six men at Wadboo, as tis beyond } 7 our post, I wish you to 
relieve him from your Cavalry. 

I am your obedient servant, 


[No. 242.] Col. Maham to Col Peter Horry. 

JANUARY 20, 1782. 

I received letters yesterday from Gen s. Greene and Marion ; 
neither of them has wrote me to give you the rank ; therefore I 
cannot think of giving up the rank to you ; if your Commission 
was of an older date than mine, I would readily have submitted, but 
as the matter stands, you may rely on it, this I never shall ; as to 
my part 1 cannot see what right you have to expect to take the rank. 
In the first place, you were thrown out as a supernumerary officer 
one year on half pay, no rank whatever in the army, nor had 
you a right to the rank in any case whatever, unless being re-elect 
ed. In the next place, there was but one Regiment of Cavalry 
spoken of, which I was to have been honored with the command of. 
But some of your friends interfered, and was the occasion of the 
2d Regiment being raised. I had my Regiment three months in 
the field on duty before you had yours ; as I cannot think of being 
commanded by an officer of the same rank, I think it proper not to 
make you a return of my Regiment, and shall not obey any order 
that you may be pleased to send. I cannot think you have be- 


haved well on this occasion ; you hare been trying to get every 
advantage of the Regiment. You have antidated nearly all your 
Captains commissions months after their appointments, in order that 
they shall take the rank of my officers. 

I am ; sir, your humble servant, 


No. 243. Col MaJiam to Col Peter Horry. 

JANUARY 20, 1782. 

Your order to me this morning deviates much from those I re 
ceived from Gen. Marion; he wrote me that you were only to call 
on my corps in case the enemy advanced towards us, but you im 
mediately called on me to relieve a guard, which, in my opinion, 
ought to have been furnished by the militia. If Gen s. Greene and 
Marion would wish Col. Horry to have the command of my Regi 
ment, I shall give it up with pleasure. I did not take it with any 
self interested views, it was purely to serve my country, as I al 
ways wished to do. As to denying the antedating of your officers 
commissions, it surprises me much, as the matter can be so readily 
explained. I am, sir, 

Your humble servant, 


N. B. You mention in yours that you would not take any advan 
tage of me. I would not advise you to attempt any such thing, for 
fear you may fail in the attempt. 

\No. 244.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

Dear Sir : 

I wrote you a few days ago by Morgandollar, who I kept a day 
or two to get an answer from Gen. Greene ; he went from here on 
the 10th, and I suppose he is with you before this. I wish you 


would send me every occurrence, as Gen. Greece cannot give tlie 
necessary orders to you, being unacquainted with the situations in 
that part, and the particulars of the Brigade, and the General is not 
more than five miles from me, so I can easily acquaint him with 
such particulars as may be essential for him to know. I expect in 
a day or two you will receive a reinforcement by Capt. B. Waring, 
all six months men. The Assembly is falling on a method to fill 
out Continental Regiments, which I hope will answer the purpose ; 
that and a number of other business oblige me to stay a little longer 
from relieving you, especially a new Militia Law, and that if I go 
away the Senate can do no business for want of members, as we 
make but a bare house; so you must have patience. It is reported 
that three transports are arrived with two hundred men, bjt that is 
uncertain, and I wish you could learn the truth of it. I believe it 
is certain that all the Hessians are embarked; the three transports 
which are come, are said to be a part of fifteen sail from New York. 
I believe our army will draw near Dorchester in hopes the enemy 
may come oat to give battle, which we must wish for. Smith, I 
hope will give you the earliest notice of the enemy s approach on 
his side, and if your parties of observation do their duty you need 
not fear a surprise. I hope to hear from you as often as possible. 
I am, with esteem, your obd t. servant, 


[No. 245.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

JACKSONBOROUGH ; Jan. 23, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 21st came to hand this morning. I will sec Gen. 
Greene, and endeavor to settle the dispute between you and Col. 
Maham, who I think has acted in a very extraordinary manner. I 
think you had best move to Wambaw, where icrage can be had ; if 
you could send half or more of your Cavalry down at Cainhoy, they 
may very probably cut off the enemy s Horse, which go out a fo 
raging ; as your new position at Warnbaw will be more secure, 
your men will not be so much harrabsed, and you can better de 
tach your Cavalry than at present. I wrote you in my last that no 


boats or persons should pass from or to Charles Town without 
your or my passport, and you will therefore regard no other. Col. 
Hugh has seen your letter to Gen. Greene, and thinks as I do, that 
it is not proper to send it, as it seems to be wrote in too much heat 
and I can do the business better in person ; you may send Mr. 
Heriott a passport for one barrel Indigo for Mrs. Huger in 
Charles Town, and grant Mrs. Lesesne her request, taking care 
that no more is sent than five or six barrels of rice. Nardell can 
not be relieved ; you may give Nesmyth and Snow a pass to Pee 
Dee, to get their arms, and old Nesmyth must be sent to the ene 
my with orders not to return. When you go to Wambaw, send 
orders to the plantations on Santee not to thrash out or beat any 
rice, but what may be necessary for plantation or your use. 1 have 
wrote to Maharn, to try if he can take the enemy s Horse which 
go out a foraging, but you may notwithstanding form any plan for 
that purpose, separately from him. Gen. Wayne is gone to Geor 
gia with Col. White s Cavalry, and to take command there. "We 
are told that there are 200 troops arrived in Charles Town, and the 
Hessians are actually going away. Let me know whatever you 
learn from town. I shall return in a very few days. 
I am. with esteem, your obd t. serv t. 


[No. 246.1 John Nicholson to Gen. Marion. 

JANUARY 25, 1782. 

Sir : I have the honor of your Excellency s letter of the 7th inst. 
and beg leave to assure your Excellency, that 1 have never served 
either as an officer or private in the British army, and that 1 have 
never been subject to any other power, but that of Great Britain; 
under these circumstances I think myself perfectly free to take ad 
vantage of your Excellency s kindness in releasing me from parole 
given to Capt. Withers. I request your Excellency will be pleased 
to accept my warmest thanks for the indulgence you have thought 
proper to grant me. 

I have the honor to be with the most perfect respect, 

Your Excellency s most obedient humble serv t., 



\No. 247.] Gen. Greene to Lieut. Col Lee. 

HEAD QUARTERS, January 27, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

I have beheld with extreme anxiety for some time past a growing 
discontent in your mind, and have not been without my apprehen 
sions that your complaints originated more in distress than in the 
ruins of your constitution. Whatever may be the source of your 
wounds, I wish it was in my power to heal them. 

You say your friends are not disposed to do justice to your exer 
tions. If you mean me. and any thing appears in my conduct to 
confirm it, it has been owing to error in judgment or accident, and 
not to a disinclination. 

From our earliest acquaintance, I had a partiality for you, which 
progressively grew into a friendship. I was under no obligations 
to you until I came into this country ; and yet I believe you will 
do me the^justice to say, I never wanted inclination to serve you. 
Here I have been under the greatest obligations, obligations which 
I can never cancel, and if in this situation I should be unwilling to 
do justice to your reputation, I should not only be guilty of the 
basest ingratitude, but there would appear a strange contradiction 
in my conduct. 

I am far from agreeing with you in opinion, that the public will 
not do you justice, or that they do not do you justice. I believe 
few officers either in America or Europe are held in so high a point 
of estimation as you are. Substantial service is what constitutes 
lasting reputation ; and your reports this campaign are the best 
panegyric that can be given of your actions. For me therefore to 
have passed any extraordinary compliments upon them might have 
made me ridiculous, but could have given no dignity to you. My 
character has been far from being fully established, and subject to 
much calumny. In this situation any thing that I might have said, 
would have only served to discover my partiality without benefit 
ing vour reputation. 

It is true there are a few of your countrymen, from ignorance 
and malice are disposed to do injustice to your conduct, but it is 
out of their power to injure you. Indeed you are ignorant of your 


own weight and influence, otherwise you would despise their spleen 
and malice. 

There is no inconvenience I am not ready to submit to, to oblige 
you, nor is there any lengths I would not go to serve you, in the 
line of truth and honor ; but let me entreat you not to think of 
leaving the army. Every body knows I have the highest opinion 
of you as an officer, and you know, I Jove you as a friend. What 
ever may be your determination, to retire or continue in service,my 
affection will accompany you ; and as far as my little influence has 
any operation among men, I shall always take a pleasure in paying 
a just tribute to your merits. You know I am not very profes 
sional. I always thought the most effectual way of serving a friend, 
was to conceal the friend behind the intention, lest an appearance 
of partiality should prejudice the design, and injure the party I 
meant to serve. 

The money matters you mention shall be settled in any way 
most to your satisfaction. Capt. Pearce will wait on you, to whom 
I beg leave to refer you for any thing you may wish to learn or to 
communicate. I am unwell, and have my anxieties as well as you ; 
otherwise I would have been more full in this letter. 

Capt. Eggleston desires leave to go to Virginia. I must grant 
it however inconvenient. But as to that, much will depend on your 
iinal determination. I am, with esteem and affection, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 24S.J Gen. Greene to Gov. Rutledge. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Jan. 27, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I am informed that the people in general are thrashing out their 
rice. Should they pursue it, and thrash out all they have ; we shall 
be distressed on account of forasfe, as the rice in the straw is much 

o / 

preferable to the grain. 

I must beg you will give orders to prevent the thrashing it for 
any other than indispensable purposes. 
I am, with very great esteem, 

Your Excellency s most obedient servant, 



I No. 249.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Jan. 28, 1782. 
Dear Si? : 

I am very sorry that you should suppose that I would prefer 
any person to Capt. Postell ; Capt. Campbell went in long before 
Mr. Conyers came out. Maj. Fraser made a proposition that an 
officer should be sent in and Capt. Conyers should be sent out, but 
not before the British officer first appeared ; the proposition con 
veyed such a mean distrust, that I told Captain Shubrick to whom 
the letter was addressed, to reject it with disdain, and since the re 
ceipt of that letter, the enemy let Mr. Conyers out without any 
consideration on our part. I feel for Capt. Postell, but you know 
his peculiar situation he bore a flag, and ought not to have been 
made a prisoner ; he has of right been exchanged. It is intolera 
ble therefore, that we should be subject to these impositions. But 
notwithstanding my desire has been so great to release him from 
a sense of his sufferings, that I should not have hesitated a moment 
to have given another person to have obtained his release, but you 
know the affair of Col. Hayne has suspended all exchanges in the 
regular way ; and that matter is still before Congress undecided. 
These reasons have been the true cause of Mr. Postell s long cap 
tivity, and I hope neither you nor he will suppose I want inclina 
tion to do justice to such singular merit. If you do, you are a 
stranger to my feelings and the attention I wish to pay to the rights 
and claims of every individual in the military department. You 
will inform Capt. Postell that I have lately ordered in the British 
officers from the Waxhaw, on condition that all our s on parole be 
permitted to continue out. But be that as it may, tell him he shall 
not return to his parole until he has my permission, and that I will 
take the justification of his conduct upon myself. We can supply 
you with ammunition, and will forward it the moment an escort can 
be had to carry it. I will also write to Lieut. Col. Maham deci 
dedly, upon the dispute respecting his rank. I am sorry the Colo 
nel carries that matter to so disagreeable a length. Rank is not what 
constitutes the good officer, but good conduct ; substantial services 
give reputation, not captious disputes. A Captain may be more 


respectable than a General ; rank is nothing without it is accom 
panied with worthy actions. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 250.] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Harry. 

JANUARY 29, 1781. 
Dear Sir : 

Yours by Mr. Morgandollar came to hand. I have just received 
Gen. Greene s answer and he promises to write to Col. Maham de 
cidedly. We have chosen Mr. John Matthews as Governor. (Gen, 
Gadsden declining) ; Mr. Hutson, Lieut. Governor, and to-morrow 
we shall elect Councillors and Delegates, after which I will return 
as soon as I can get orders from our new Governor, which may be 
the latter end of this week or beginning of next. Tell Dr. Neuf- 
ville I sent his letter, and by this opportunity send him a packet of 
three letters I shall order proper receipts to be given for the rice 
of Mr. Middleton. Give Mrs. Caw a pass to town, and also Mrs. 
Frazer, at Strawberry, or any other you think proper. I find that 
Col. Maham did not give Phillips or any other passes to or from 
town. I am collecting the Charles Town militia for Dorchester and 
will go there with me. Give my compliments to the gentlemen with 
you, in particular Maj. Muller and Dr. Neufville. 
I am. with esteem, your obedient servant, 


[No. 251.] Col. Peter Horry to Gen. Marion. 

JANUARY 31, 1782. 
Dear General: 

Morgandollar, my last express to you, is not yet returned. En 
closed is a letter to you from Maj. Ganey, sent by a flag, which I 
have detained till I receive your orders. I am told that although 
Ganey is now of opinion that the truce with you ought to be bind 
ing on the North Carolinians, yet after it was made, some of his 


party actually did surprise and kill some of the North Carolini 
ans; you best know his conduct. The invalids, with a few vessels 
from Charles Town, sailed a few days past for England. I am in 
formed from my post at Cainhoy, that 60, some say 100, sail of 
vessels are ordered to wood and water, and be in readiness to sail 
in a very few days ; that persons employed in town to build boats 
are ordered to desist ; that the wood cutter no longer cuts woods 
and that every information from town, indicates an evacuation ; how 
far those informations may be relied on, I know not, but such is 
given me. I assure you your presence is much wanted here. It 
is impossible for me to comply with your orders in covering this 
part of the country ; Col. Maham interferes with my commands so 
much that I can scarcely act ; he gave passes to several ladies to 
go to town without my leave, and they accordingly went to 
town in a boat, which boat since returned, and the ladies 
since have come up ; Phillips schooner also without my leave. This 
schooner I sent a command on board as a safeguard, until I exam 
ined her passports, letters, &c. Col. Maham came there, the let 
ters were taken away, and Maham told my officer that he was com 
manding officer, and that he had given the vessel leave to return 3 
and that he must leave the vessel, and threatened to send for a par 
ty of his troops and force my guard. I sent orders to my officer 
to do his duty in complying with my orders to him, and that he 
should sink the vessel as by your orders to me, since which I have 
heard no further from this officer. Yesterday an officer of mine 
with a command at Strawberry, sent me word by one of my offi 
cers, that Col. Maham told him that he was commanding officer, 
and that he would send and relieve him, as he chose to occupy that 
post himself; he likewise gave permission, when he went to Cain- 
hoy, to a person from town to pass to Mrs. Daniel Horry, and 
there to remain for several days. This person, I am informed, is 
making enquiries of what rice can be had on Santee ; I have just 
sent an officer in quest of him, after my officer had taken Mr. 
T Gr at John Huger s house, Maham sent two dra 
goons and took him away to his camp. Thus you see he interferes 
with my out posts, and gives passes to persons going and coming 
from town without my knowledge, so that I cannot be acquainted 
with matters which I apprehend are transacted in this part of the 


country. I really believe he will force my out guards and take 
away their posts. It is an insult, and I could repel force by force, 
but this would be injuring my country, and I leave his conduct to 
you to judge of. Bennet s, Toomer s Pinckney s and MurrelPs com 
panies, are without any officers on Cainhoy, and they cannot be 
kept in camp : those and several others, indeed all the gentlemen 
of any note in that part of the country, say they have leave to 
move, and neither they or their men will stay in camp. Col. Irvin 
and Capt. Warren command those guards, and complain very much 
of them. Your Brigade lessens daily. I assure you my patience 
is nearly exhausted, and if it is possible you can leave the house, the 
command here waits your presence. To-morrow I shall hear fur 
ther of M ah Jim s conduct, and of the person at Mrs. Kerry s, when 
I shall send you another express 

I am, dear General, your obedient humble servant^ 


\No. 252. J Gen. Greene to Col. Peter Horry. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Feb. 1, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I have written decidedly to Lieut Col. Maham upon the dispute 
subsisting between you and him, upon the subject of rank, and told 
him you had an unquestionable right to out-rank him. I have only 
to observe upon this subject, that great delicacy on your part should 
be exercised on this occasion, nothing like a triumph, as that will 
will wound his feelings; blinded by matters of interest and love 
of roiik, he will yield to conviction unwillingly, and rinding himself 
in this situation, will feel with double force every unnecessary ex 
ercise of authority. I recommend to you both to cultivate har 
mony and good understanding, it will render your corps far more 
useful, and impress upon the minds of your officers, the weight of 
your own authority and a proper sense of subordination in them. I 
have been told that you and Col. Maham have engaged your men 
upon different pay than what is given to the Continental Cavalry, 
but as you must at once see the inconvenience such a step must pro 
duce to the service. I cannot think it has any foundation, but rather 


conclude that whatever extraordinary allowance was made was in 
the country and not in the pay. You will please make me an ex 
act return of the number of your non-commissioned officers and 
men, the term of service they are engaged for, and the conditions 
of bounty and pay ; also the number of your horses, clothing, and 
accoutrements of every kind. I am making out a general report 
to Gen. Washington and the Minister of War, of the state and con 
dition of the forces of the Southern department ; the returns are 
wanted immediately. I have wrote to Col. Maham for a similar 
one from him. I am, with great respect, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


| No. 253.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

FEBRUARY 3, 1782. 
Sir : 

Yours of the 31st ult., I received. I sent you an answer by 
Morgandollar. I am surprized at Col. Maham s interfering with 
your command. I have wrote him positive orders not to do so in 
any respect whatever, and "was in hopes Gen. Greene would have- 
prevented such evils before this. My presence here is absolutely 
necessary for a few days, until the Militia Act and that of raising 
our Continental quota of Troops is past, which is now in debate 
and will be over soon ; there is also a Confiscation and Sequestra 
tion Bill on hand, and until they are passed, I cannot get leave to re 
turn. You will detain Phillips schooner, and let me know by 
what authority he came up, whether by a pass from some offi 
cer, as Col. Maham denies he gave any. You will order the mili 
tia to be dismounted, except such a number as may be necessary for 
the two out-posts below, and no forage will be allowed to any other 
except field officers they are allowed two. 

I am, in haste, your obedient servant, 



\No. 254. J Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

FEBRUARY 10, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

Yours of the 7th came to hand. I asked leave of the House to 
return, but they would not grant it; there are three laws now on the 
carpet, which they insist I should stay until finished. If I leave 
the House the business will be over, as many men will go with me, 
and they will not be able to make a House ; our material business 
is the three laws above hinted at. These reasons oblige me to stay 
until Wednesday next, when I hope I shall set out. If your health 
is such as to require your absence from camp, you will leave the 
command of the Brigade to Col. Maham. I hope the orders I sent 
to the different commanders of Regiments, will bring the men in 
carnp. You may let the present set of men retain their horses, but 
the next relief must come without, as I will not permit them to 
keep their horses on the public expense ; the Governor has ordered 
me positively to dismount them. The new militia law turns every 
man who disobeys orders or deserts in the Continental service for 
the war. Two Regiments are to be raised as our Continental Q,uota 3 
giving them a negro per year, which is to be taken from the confis 
cated estates. The number of large estates is down on this list, and 
others are amerced which will give us at least a million sterling as a 
fund. If you find any reinforcement arrives in town, let me have 
the earliest notice. I hope soon to get through the business here 
and return. I assure you I am tired of Legislating, and wish my 
self with you. Enclosed are two letters, please forward. A party 
of the enemy came as far, two days ago, as Bacon s Bridge ; they 
took old Mr. Singleton of Charles Town, and three others at Dor 
chester ; twenty of their men deserted from them in this excursion, 
and they are daily coming in from Charles Town and Georgia ; the 
last are kept close within their lines. Gen. Wayne is watching- 
their motions. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 



\ No. 255.] Gen. Greene to Gov. Rutledge. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Feb. 11, 1782. 
Sir : 

In answer to your Excellency s letter upon the proposition of 
furnishing the army with a number of negroes, { rovided their ser 
vices may be accounted for by Congress, I beg leave to observe, 
if they can be had upon such terms as will engage their fidelity, the 
public could employ four or five hundred to great advantage. But 
unless the negroes can have an interest in the servitude, I am per 
suaded they will be of little benefit, and by no means to be depend 
ed on. I would beg leave to propose therefore that the public clothe 
thenij and that the negroes be allowed the same wages allowed by 
Congress to the soldiers of the Continental army. If this is agreed 
to, the fidelity of the negroes may be depended on, and they may 
perhaps perform the service expected from them with cheerfulness. 

I think we could employ 140 wagoners, 150 pioneers, 120 arti 
ficers, and 20 or 30 servants to advantage. If this number could 
be immediately furnished the army, such as are good men and such 
as shall be approved of on inspection, I will recommend the mat 
ter fully to Congress for their approbation, that the State may be 
allowed for the same in their public accounts. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect, 

Your Excellency s most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 256.J Maj. Isaac Harleston to Gen. Marion. 

ST. STEPHENS, Feb. 12, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

I flatter myself that I still claim so much of your attention, as 
to be favored with the proceedings of the Legislature, with such 
other occurrences in your absence as are interesting ; but to what 
cause am I to ascribe your silence ? Pray be more communicative, 
and afford me as heretofore, an opportunity of conversing with you, 
though at a distance. I am, dear sir, 

Yours, sincerely, 



[No. 257. j Capt. Saundcrs (of the British} to Gen Marion. 

GEORGE TOWN, Feb. 12, 1782. 
Sir : 

I arn authorized to offer in exchange for Serg ts. Burt and Hud- 
jins, of the Queen s Ranger Dragoons, and Joseph Sherwood, John 
Farrington and Wm. Moore, privates in the King s Artillery Regi 
ment, any two Serg ts., and three privates in Charles Town, having 
been informed by Lieut. Col. Campbell of your wishes for an ex 
change. I am induced to hope your prisoners may very soon be 
here ; those that you name shall be forwarded to you as soon after 
receiving your letter, as an express can be sent to Charles Town. 
I am, sir, your most obd t. humble serv t, 

JOHN SAUNDERS, Capt. Ar. Reg. 

[No. 258.] Gov. Mathews to tJte Legislature. 

FEBRUARY 12, 1782. 

Honorable Gentlemen : 

I herewith send you the copy of a letter from Major Gen. Greene, 
to me. If the propositions therein made of furnishing the army 
with a number of negroes for the different services he has mention 
ed, should meet your approbation, it will enable Gen. Greene to 
throw into the ranks a considerable number of valuable soldiers. I 
therefore recommend this matter most earnestly to your consid 


[No. 259.] Gen. Greene to Col Peter Horry. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Feb. 14, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I am favored with your letter of the 14th of this month, with the 
returns of your Regiment. Lieut. Col. Haimer. Deputy Adjutant 


General, will enclose a blank, as a form by which you will make 
your returns in future. I am very sorry that anything in my letter 
deciding the rank in your favor, should have wounded your feelings. 
as nothing would be more remote from my intentions; so I think 
nothing in the letter authorizes the construction you give it. It is 
true, I say much is due to the merit and exertions of Col. Maham, 
but no less to the rights and claims of Col. Horry ; is not the plain 
import this, if Maham founded his claim upon right, yours is supe 
rior; if upon merit, yours is equal. I meant to form no distinction, 
nor will my expressions authorise it. I esteem you both as men of 
merit. It is not my business to decide between you which lias most; 
a moment s reflection,! should have thought, would have convinced 
you that it could not be rny meaning to form any distinction be 
tween you, in a letter which from the subject and design, must be 
read by both parties, and if any thing in the letter would have ad 
mitted such an interpretation, you must have known it was only in 
sound and not in sentiment, for that I could not have been so weak 
as to disclose an opinion upon such an occasion ; so remote from 
policy, if not from truth: many, if not the greater part of the differ 
ences among men, originate in mistake ; a generous and liberal way 
of thinking is the best foundation for human happiness ; few men 
are without faults. We should think, therefore, charitably of one 
another, and exercise forgiveness. If Col. Maham fell into error, 
you should rejoice that you escaped, his own reflections are a suffi 
cient punishment, and your triumph is great enough without up 
braiding him of his folly. I wish you to be friends because I es 
teem you both, and because the public good requires it. It would 
be generous in you to propose it, but it would appear like meanness 
in him, from the difference in your conduct. It is much easier for 
him who feels the superiority to make advances, than the other par 
ty ; in the one it would be dignity, in the other it might be subject 
to the imputation of servility ; men often feel w r hat they can never 
be brought to acknowledge ; pride often interferes, and by sealing 
our lips conceals what we wish to disclose; there is more greatness 
in forgiving- than punishing the follies or errors of mankind. I wish 
you therefore to value Col. Maham for his latter, and forget his for 
mer conduct ; he certainly has merit, and to refuse it is to cut off 
part of your own. I am ; dear sir, your most obedient servant, 



P. S. I wish to be informed whether the pay of your men has 
been fixed at twenty dollars per month, or generally the same as 
the Continental Cavalry. I never intended they should be different 

[No. 260.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

FEBRUARY 14, 1782. 

Dear Sir : 

Yours per bearer came to hand, and am sorry that I cannot yet 
return; my going away will break the House and put a stop to 
business, but hope we shall get through by the beginning of next 
week. Capt. Waring, with the ammunition only, set off yesterday, 
Enclosed is an order from Gov. Matthews, which must be attended 
to. I have wrote you fully by Capt. Edwards, who returned with 
Morgandollar. I wish you could send a man that inay supply the 
place of Serg t. Smith, he must be active and know the country. It 
is said a vessel is arrived lately from Yarmouth ; the Captain is 
sworn to secrecy and the crew not permitted to come on shore. Get 
all the intelligence you can, and forward the letter to Plowden 
Weston. I am, with great esteem, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 261.] Dougldij and Bryan, (merchants) to Gen. Marion, 
in Ms absence Col. Peter Horry. 

IN CAMP, GEORGE TOWN, Feb. 17, 1782. 
Sir : 

Capt. Bryan and myself are just arrived from Bermuda and 
Turks Isjand, with a load of salt 1500 bushels, last Wednesday at 
this bar. A New England privateer took possession of us, and 
with the utmost difficulty we could prevail on him to let us come 
in here, that our country and army might reap the good of this 
most necessary article. We are very apprehensive they will still 
take the vessel out of port, and our virtuous suffering countrymen 


now in the field will be deprived of this most necessary article. 
We therefore sir, beg your protection of her, by sending down a 
detachment of 50 or 60 men as soon as possible into George Town. 
We ask this of you as fellow citizens of America claiming your 
protection, and lastly above all, as we had a protection from Con 
gress for this vessel and cargo, which the captain has thought pro 
per by force to detain from us ; the vessel and cargo is wholly 
owned by us, a gentleman of Virginia and one now residing in St. 
Thomas, a neutral port, in every respect deserving your protection 
and assistance. Mr. Ashley will come down with the party in the 
most private manner. 

We are, with great respect, sir, your most obedient servants, 


[No. 262.] Gen. Greene to Lieut. Col. Lee. 

HEAD QUARTERS, Feb. 19, 1732. 
Dear Sir : 

Your reports found us in bed last night. Col. Laurens set off 
immediately for the Light Troops. 1 cannot think the enemy mean 
to fight us ; but if that is their wish we will meet them half way. 

Until the return of Col. Laurens and Morris, I thought you had 
been gone, both from what you wrote me, and what the Doctor 
informed me. Had I had the least apprehension that you were still 
with the Light Troops, I should have sent you the letters I meant 
to forward by you, but I should not have directed Morris to make 
inquiry after the report you promised me ; which I supposed you 
had left in the hands of some of your officers. 

I am exceeding sorry to find that notwithstanding all that has 
passed between us upon the subject of your discontent, that your 
disgust increases, and that you harbour sentiments respecting me 
no less groundless than unfriendly. I do riot expect therefore, that 
anything that I can say will either convince your judgment, or cor 
rect your prejudice. I shall leave you at liberty to think of me as 
you please, and whatever sentiments you may entertain of me, I 
will always do justice to your merit ; and shall always be happy 


to share your friendship and confidence, when it can be had on 
terms reciprocal and honorable. 

You say you think you have been injured in my public reports. 
Take up the matter collectively and separately, and I am far from 
thinking so. In the course of last campaign there were eleven 
public reports made, in all of which you are honorably mentioned. 
Even in my defeats, you are spoken of with great respect. "Where 
is there an officer that stands in the least competition with you 1 
You make no allowance for the composition of our army. You give 
me no credit for the opportunities I have constantly afforded you of 
signalizing yourself. I have kept up yourcorps, and detached you 
on all occasions. It is true the public good, and your own glory, 
walked hand in hand ; and therefore I thought myself well warrant 
ed in what I did. But other officers as well as you, my dear sir, 
have their feelings, and are not without their claims. One officer 
cannot carry on the service alone, however meritorious ; and jeal 
ousies and discontent have not been wanting in the army, at the op 
portunities afforded you, to the prejudice of others. I know I am 
under great obligations to you for your exertions, but you should 
set some value upon the opportunities, at the same time you tax me 
with extraordinary services. 

You say no officer in the army has been treated so cruelly as 
you have except Gen. Lee, This is strange indeed. You have 
never been mentioned but in the most honorable terms ; and the 
army to my remembrance, has never made a single move but that 
you have figured capitally in ; not only in the service, but in the re 
ports, except our defeat before Camden. How different was my 
situation in the Northern army. I fought hard at Harlaem. I was 
in the action at Trenton and Princeton. I covered the retreat at 
Brandywine, and was upwards of an hour and a quarter in a hot 
action, and confessedly saved the park of artillery, and indeed the 
army, from the fatal effects of a disagreeable route ; and yet for all 
these actions, I never had the honor to have my name mentioned 
to the public, either as being with the army, or having done the 
least thing, notwithstanding I was a general officer. At German- 
town, I was evidently disgraced, although I think if ever I merited 
anything, it was for my exertions on that day. I have been con 
cerned in many other lesser services, which have all been passed 


over in silence. But I never murmured or complained, notwith 
standing I was held in indignation for faults and misfortunes I had 
no direction of. I would not mention these things, but to show you 
how groundless your complaints are. Col. Laurens thinks you 
have no reason in the world to complain; and that you do injustice 
to your own importance to dwell upon single expressions. All I 
ask of you is to give yourself time to cool ; and take a general view 
of the Southern operations, and see how important a part you have 
played in them. After which, if your ambition is not satisfied, if 
the rights of friendship have been violated, I shall be ready to 
submit to any censure that justice may dictate. I love and esteem 
you, and wish you not to think meanly of me, as some of your in 
sinuations seem to import ; that to compliment Colonel Washington, 
I had done injustice to you. As nothing is more remote from truth, 
so nothing is more wounding to my feelings. I despise a mean act, 
and am above duplicity. I esteem Colonel Washington, but I 
should abhor myself if I was capable of so dishonorable a sacrifice. 
I have a regard for Col. Washington, and think him a good officer. 
But I do not mean to draw a comparison between you and him. 
Every body knows my sentiments on that head. 

I am, with the warmest wishes for your health and happiness, 
Yours, most affectionately, 


[No. 263. j Sam. Hammond to His Excellency John Rutledge, Esq. 

Sir : 

The term which I engaged the troops for. which are now under 
my command is nearly expired, and as I have not yet been informed 
where their pay is to come from, not the mode of payment, hope 
your Excellency will inform me, per Lieut. Beal, o? both, and if 
the officers (agreeably to promise) are to have any clothing, I hope 
you will contrive some method for the getting of them, as they have 
not got. any yet. If the Regiment you spoke of in your favor of 
Sept. 17, 81, are to be allowed, the men may soon be engaged 
as the most of the Regiment on the present establishment, are wil- 


ling to engage for the bounty and wages, you then mentioned. I 
v/isli you \vGu1d spare me a little writing paper, if it is to spare; 
LisiU. Boal will wait on you for it. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect. 
Your very obedient servant, 


[No. 26-i.J W. Hampton to Gov. Mathews. 

FEBRUARY 22, 1781. 

The 10th September last I received instructions from his Excel- 
lency the late Governor, for raising a Regiment of Cavalry to con 
sist of four troops ; in consequence of which, I have enlisted up 
wards of eighty men for the war of three years ; have procured a 
number of saddles, and other accoutrements, suitable for 
Cavalry ; and have taken measures to procure clothing sufficient 
to complete the \vhcle Regiment. As it seemed to be the opinion 
that prevailed generally, that Infantry were more immediately want 
ed than Cavalry, I laid a plan before the Legislature for reducing 
the corps to two troops of Cavalry, ai)d two companies of Infant 
ry, and for adding te their pay, a negro at the expiration of their 
time of service. This, ho \vev_". 1 , was not agreed to. 

If ; t is thought unnecessary to continue the Regiment on the 
present establishment, and that the men already enlisted are not 
wanted, I would wish vour Excellency would be pleased to give 
orders for discharging them and nrdke provision to defray such ex 
penses as have unavoidably been incurred. 

I am, sir, your Excellency s obedient servant, 


[No. 265] Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion. 

JACKSONEOROUGH, Feb. 23, 1782. 

Sir : 

Enclosed is a resolution of the Legislature, for supplying the 
widows and orphans of persons killed in the service of this State, 


and of such as have been disabled in the service, with provisions. 
I therefore must request you will take the necessary measures for 
carrying the same into execution. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 266. J Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion. 

FEBRUARY 26, 1782. 

As some little trade has began to flow into George Town, and 
our necessity requiring every encouragement to begin it, and as 
nothing will tend more effectually to do so, than a proper protec 
tion given the vessels and goods brought in, I therefore desire you 
would have a party under the command of an active and vigilant 
officer, stationed at and about George Town, so as to be always in 
3, situation to give the most prompt assistance when requisite. I 
must leave you to judge what number of men will be sufficient for 
this service. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 267.] Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion. 

FEBRUARY 26, 1782. 
Sir : 

The Legislature having requested me to have the number of 
white inhabitants in this State ascertained as soon as possible, I 
therefore request you would take the necessary measures for this 
purpose, and transmit the returns to me without delay ; distin 
guishing men, women, and children, and men able to bear arms. 
Although I could wish to have the business done speedily, yet 
I would not have it hurried in such a manner as to render the re. 
turn inaccurate ; on the contrary, I must desire them to be made 
with the greatest exactness. I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



\No. 268.] Gen. Greene to Hugh Rutledge, Speaker. 

FEBRUARY 27, 1782. 
Sir : 

I have been honored with the thanks of your House and feel a 
weight of obligation for the very flattering and favorable light in 
which they have been pleased to view and consider ray conduct. 
The mark of bounty which accompanies the resolution, affords me 
the most pleasing proof of their esteem, at the same time that it 
displays a generosity of sentiment no less honorable to them than 
flattering to me. Permit me therefore to return the House of Rep 
resentatives my hearty and grateful acknowledgments for the hon 
ors and emoluments bestowed upon me ; and to assure them that 
my future exertions for the common cause shall be constant and 
uniform in support of our liberties. I also beg leave to return my 
sincere thanks to you sir. for the very polite manner in which you 
communicated the resolution of the House. 
I have the honor to be, sir. 

With great respect and esteem, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 269.] Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion. 

JACKSONBOROUGH, March 1, 1782. 
Sir : 

The Commissioners appointed for disposing of certain confisca 
ted estates, conceiving the personal property of some of them to be 
in danger of being lost, for want of proper assistance to secure the 
same, have applied to me for the necessary aid. I have therefore 
to desire that you would afford these gentlemen such military or 
other support in prosecuting this business, as they shall from time 
to time require of you. I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



[No. 270.J Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, March 1, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I received your letter giving an account of the enemy s move 
ments in St. Thomas . I am sorry they have succeeded so well, as it 
will revive the drooping spirits of the troops and give a desponding 
temper to the militia. But there is no guarding against so superior 
a force ; please in your next give as accurate an account of your 
loss as possible, and the enemy s also. Would you wish to have a 
part of the militia of Gen. Sumter s Brigade ] they are at Orange- 
burgh and Four Holes please to inform me. I suppose you have 
heard of the G-enerai s resignation ; Col. Henderson is thought of 
to succeed him. I have written to the merchants of George Town, 
to move all the stores as fast as they arrive at that place, as high up 
the river as possible, and to have nothing valuable in the town. 
This, and this only, will prevent the enemy from paying a visit 
there ; please to recommend it also, as I hear the enemy are medi 
tating a stroke there. Lieut. Col. Laurens had orders to march to 
your support, the moment I got your letter, with the whole of the 
Light Troops, but has halted in consequence of information from 
town, that the enemy had returned. Should they attempt o pene 
trate again, write to Col. Laurens as well as to me of the situation 
of matters, as he will have discretionary orders to act upon the oc 
casion, and it will save a great deal of time. He commands our 
Horse and Light Troops. I am, dear sir, 

Your most obdient servant, 


[No. 271.J Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 2, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

Yours of the 18th February came to hand. We lost a fine op 
portunity to cut the enemy s Horse to pieces, by Maham s Horse 
not charging as it was ordered, but I believe it was principally owing 


to Capt. Smith not telling- his officers and men what they were go 
ing- about. I rallied a part of the Horse less than half a mi^e, and 
sent them to cover the scattered men. The enemy never followed 
us oat of the plantation. I cannot learn our loss of the 25th ult. ; 
it is more than Lieut. Smizer and three men. I shall pay every at 
tention to your Regiment ; you can provide caps and swords where 
you are. Capt. Mitchell can tell you what passed in the Assem 
bly. I am, dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


\No. 272.J Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion. 

JACKSONBOROUGH, March 3, 1782. 

Major Gen. Greene has applied to me for a body of militia as a 
permanent force, and on which he can rely in support of his opera 
tions. I therefore desire you will immediately proceed to draught 
your Brigade into three classes ; the first class to rendezvous at 
your Head Quarters on the first day of April next, and to continue 
in service for one month from that day ; the second you are to hold 
in readiness to relieve with punctuality, the first on the day their 
time of service shall expire, and in the same manner the third, to 
relieve the second. Your Brigade is to continue this routine of du 
ty until further orders from me. If your Brigade has been already 
classed into three classes, and are now serving under that arrange 
ment. I would not wish to break in upon it, as it must create some 
confusion, but rather continue it, only that they must be relieved 
every month instead of every two months, agreeably to the new 
militia law ; but if they have not been thus organized, then you 
must pursue the instruction I have above laid down, which although 
attended with some inconvenience in the first instance, must be sub 
mitted to, as the good of the service renders it absolutely necessa 
ry. I must insist sir, that you pay the strictest attention to the 
bringing into the field, all persons in your Brigade liable by law to 
bear arms agreeably to their drafts, and thut the law be carried vig 
orously into execution against all delinquents; unless this is done it is 


impossible for me to comply with my engagements to Gen. Greene, 
the service must suffer, and confusion necessarily ensue. I must 
also insist that you oblige all those persons who have come from 
within the enemy s lines, and are liable to do duty in your Brigade 
under the late Gov. Rutledge s proclamation, and the law lately 
passed for pardoning such as come out after the said proclamation, 
to comply with the conditions on which they are to be pardoned, 
as far as relates to their military engagements. As soon as you can 
ascertain the number of men in each class, you are to make me a 
return and continue so to do as is directed by the militia law. 
I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 


[No. 273.J Cornet Elholm to Col Peter Horry. 

JNO. KAIN S PLANTATION, March 3, 1782. 
My Dear Colonel : 

It is an impossibility for me to bring you John Kains ; he is since 
he was started, by a command from Gen. Marion, perpetually 
mounted upon an extraordinary good horse when he makes his ap 
pearance, and which is but seldom, and only to those which he is 
conscious are incapable or will not take him prisoner, and the re 
mainder of his time he spends in the woods ; his connections of 
other crimes is equally careful. I am confident that evidence can 
be produced that Capt. Chiney is the only man connected with 

John Kains in carrying stolen negroes of by water. Mr. M 

B is connected in trade with said Kains in regroes 

and Virginia horses; as I am not able to judge in that matter and he 
complains he is so indisposed as not able to wait upon you, I desired 
him to remain with me until I receive your orders. Said Kains 
has several negroes, but the most of them are small; I detain them 
as public property until ordered to the contrary. Said Kains has 
declared he will not be taken, and I suppose he will go to another 
State as soon as it is in his power, and as he has an expanded con 
nection, he may do it with ease. 

I am, with esteem, dear Colonel, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 



\No. 274.] Gov. Matthews to Gen. Marion. 

JACKSONBOROUGH, March 4, 1782. 
Sir : 

Col. Senf will wait on you to confer on the necessity and practi 
cability of fortifying the harbor of George Town. Gen. Greene is 
very anxious that it should be done immediately. After conferring 
with you Col. Senf is to proceed to make a survey, and report to me 
accordingly. I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 275.] Col. Laurensto Gen. Marion. 

MR. JOORSJ AT THE CYPRESS, March 4, 1782. 
Dear General : 

I have this moment arrived here with Washington s Cavalry and 
the Cavalry of Lee s Legion ; the Infantry of the latter corps and 
the Delaware Battalion have halted at Rurnpp s ; after a night march 
we require a few hours refreshment and repose, and shall put our 
selves in motion at 10 o clock ; my guides advise me to take the 
road from hence to Daniel Ravenel s, sr. A movement on your 
part to that place, or as much further towards us as you please, 
would, I apprehend, secure our junction. My corps is by no 
means as strong as I would wish, but it is composed of good sol 
diers ; we are rather fatigued and will esteem it a favor, if you will 
save us in marching. I mention the junction above simply from 
the information of Mr. Glaize. Your views relative to the enemy 
may require a junction in another point; tre sooner I can hear from 
you on the subject, the better able I shall be to execute your inten 
tions ; my Infantry amount to about 170, my Cavalry to 94. 

I have the honor to be, 

With the greatest attachment and respect, 

Dear General, yours sincerely, 



[No. 276. | Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 7, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

Yours of the 4tliult., came to lian.l yesterday afternoon. I have 
sent Capt. Gough to join you, and hope you will, with all expedi 
tion, equip and put your Regiment in order for duty ; and I cannot 
be easy until I have satisfaction of our cruel enemy. I wrote you 
before I came from the Southward of my approbation in sending 
Capt. Pinckney to George Town ; had you not done it you would 
be wanting in your duty. As you are in the vicinity of Goorge 
Town, you will lake ths command of that place, and you are to 
act as Commandant of George Town and its vicinity. Cant. "Wey- 
man will show you my orders, which you will attend to. You will 
be particular in defending the trade, and every vessel which may 
come in, and give orders for the good regulation of trade, and every 
other matter which mav be for the o p cod. of the service. You will 

*/ C3 

be particular in not suffering any person to go to Charier, Town 
without the Governor s, Gen. Greene s or rny permission. T have 
enclosed an order to Capt. Bossard to reinforce Capt. Wey man s 
Artillery ; and that the Charles Town militia which I have order 
ed to take post in that town, 1 would advise to lemove every vt.-ssel 
and goods out of the town to Black Mingo, and send a guard the A3 
for their protection from the Tories. Every article thai, is brought 
in for sale, I wish to have regulated, that it may riot he soM at too 
extravagant prices, giving such a generous lo the importers 
as to encourage the trade as much as possible. Salt must not be 
more than four hard dollars per bushel. Every article that is or m?y 
tend to luxury may beat whatever price the seller pleases, and my 
meaning is to regulate nothing but what may be absolutely necessa 
ry for the support of life, such as salt, sugar, coffee., tea and medi 
cines. I hope that your disorder is not so great a? to prevent ycu 
from presiding over the necessary business nbove mentioned, and 
you are hereby authorized and empowered to take the command of 
all the troops in George Town, or in its vicinity, which is not order 
ed otherwise by me. I am, with esteem, 

Your obedient servant, 



[No. 277.} Extract of a Letter from Gov. Burke (North Caro 
lina) to Gov. Rutledge. 

HALIFAXJ March 6, 1782. 

Though I do not admit that any treaty of neutrality made 
by the officers of one State with people inhabiting such State, 
can be obligatory on the citizens of any other State, yet 
I am very far from being disposed to contravene any mea 
sures taken by Gen. Marion, for his character sufficiently 
assures me they were judicious. But the truth is no prepa 
rations are making in this State, of which the people within 
your line are the objects. An officer from the county of Blanden, 
which borders on the State of South Carolina, and in which are 
several waters that discharge themselves into Little Pee Dee, has 
represented to me, that about one hundred of the people who in 
habited these waters, and who are the most desperate and destruc 
tive of those who were put in motion against this State by the ene 
my, had taken shelter among 1 the people, to whom Gen. Marion 
had granted a neutrality, and from thence infested our people. I 
had intended writing to the Executive magistrate of South Caroli 
na on this subject, requesting that Gen. Marion might cause the 
abuse of his compact to be remedied, and that he would co-operate 
with us in measures which are now nearly ready for execution, the 
object whereof is to make all these people of whom the enemy can 
al ways avail themselves while they remain amongst us, either Con 
tinental soldiers or prisoners of war. We hope by this means to 
raise a considerable reinforcement of recruits, to obtain persons to be 
exchanged for our citizens and Tories, and at all events to deprive 
the enemy of the advantages they derived from having a body of 
such men in the heart of the country, devoted to them and ready 
to undertake enterprizes which greatly distressed the State arid di 
vested its powers and resources in a great measure from the com 
mon object. The checking the furious resentments w r hich prevail 
among the people and produce tragical effects, and the preventing 
the number of judicial convictions for treason which involved the 
government in the dilemma of suffering numbers to be executed 


?, only interposing pardons, to weaken the due authority 
of the land, were with rne strong motives for adopting those, mea 
sures ; by removing the objects, I hope both will be effected, and 
on the return of the soldiers, their country will be reconciled to them. 
In a few days, a force will move into the disaffected part of the 
country, for carrying those measures into execution ; such as are 
obstinate may possibly remove over the line, thinking to avail them 
selves of Gen. Marion s compact by mingling with the people there; 
should they escape by this means they will prove very trouble 
some, both to you and to us, in case the enemy get a reinforcement 
sufficient to enable them to act offensively. I hope therefore you 
will recommend to Gen. Marion, to take measures for preventing 
those people from availing themselves of a protection to which they 
have no claim, and which we cannot admit, and to enable us to dis 
criminate under the necessity of pursuing our enemies into your 
borders ; the predatory habits of the people, here referred to, be 
ing originally outlaws, and since the war, remorseless plunderers 
and murderers, make them an object of terror to their vicinity ; nor 
will government, by any civil interposition, be able to restrain the 
disorders which they provoke and commit; whether measures simi 
lar to ours are expedient to you, I will not presume to say. 

[No. 278.J Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

MARCH 8, 1782. 
Sir : 

I received yours of the 7th ult. You will order Capts. Allison s 
and Murrell s companies to join you at George Town. I mean one 
third of each, as only that proportion is now ordered out ; for the 
George Town company I gave you orders in my last. Mr. White 
who acts as Commissary, will want drivers that know the country ; 

let him have a sufficient number. Mrs. W must be sent to 

Charles Town immediately, with only such property as came with 

her or attends her with all her wearing apparel ; nothing of B 

estate, or such as as is her husband s by marriage, she must take 
away. A number of negroes I am told are going northwardly ; 


you will stop all such negroes, and prevent as much as possible 
negroes travelling anywhere without a pass from me or some officer 
commanding any detachment in the Continental service. Fishburn 
I sent on business to the Southward ; the rest I know nothing of. 
I expect particular orders respecting impressing horses ; till that 
comes, nothing can be done. 

I am, sir, your very humble servant, 


[No. 279.1 Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

SMYTH S PLANTATION, March 10, 1782. 

Yours of this date is before me. The orders respecting not 
thrashing out rice, extend to every part of my Brigade; those who 
presume to disobey that order must be taken prisoners and sent to 
me under guard, and all such rice thrashed contrary to orders, 
must be seized for the use of the public. I would wish Mrs. 
Stewart may be indulged to remain with her friends as long as her 
behavior is not consistant with the good of the Americans. Mrs. 

"W must immediately go to Charles Town as before directed; 

persons corning from Charles Town (T mean men) must join our 
forces in George Town or be made prisoners of war. Women who 
may come from there and have husbands or fathers in Charles 

Town, must be sent back to them; respecting Mr. and Mrs. H 

I shall as a friend give rny private advice, and favor them as 
much as may be consistent with my duty. Capt Chancy and 
crew must be absolutely made prisoners and put in close confine 
ment, and the vessel and cargo sent to Black Mingo under guard, 
and be taken care of until settled by a Court. Kains and Ins ac 
complice, if taken, must be put in irons, and kept as felons; and 
every negro in custody of whatever person that has not a pass from 
Governor Mathews, Gen. Greene, or myself, must be stopped, and 
kept in close confinement until further orders. I believe the gal 
leys were not at Seewee as mentioned in my last, it was there they 
are gone. I heard yesterday from Daniel s Island and Wappetaw. 
The enemy have returned to town. This day I have accounts that 


an order of Gen. Leslie is, that one half of the British troops arc 
to hold themselves in readiness to embark by the 15th ult.. for New 
York. This comes from a person in town attached to the British^ 
and that they are casting down to the water, provisions arid officers 
baggage. I shall remain here some time, where you may direct 
every occurrence as soon as I can settle my camp, which may be 
in a Jay or two ; I will send you a reinforcement from here. Cha 
ncy and his crew mast at all events be secured in jail. If you can 
send a small detachment of men of your Cavalry after the villain 
K.ams and his accomplices, do it without delay. 

I am, sir. your humble servant, 


[No. 280.] Col. Pder Horn/ to Gen. Marion. 

GEORGE TOWN. March 11, 1782. 
Dear General: 

I am favored with yours r.T the 9th and lOthinsts. Your orders 
respecting the North Carolina cutter and the flag schooner shall 
be complied wich. I have sent Capt. Lenud with every horse that 
can be of service. Capt Withers is very wrong to suffer officers 
under his command to send cfT any man whatever without his 
permission, and on very urgent necessity. Mr. Wragg is an 
assistant of Mr. Waties. who is gone to Virginia as Continental 
agent ; he only went out as a temporary volunteer to act immedi 
ately should there be an action ; he is returned but I supposed with 
leave. Mr. Gucny I have nut seen lately. Mr. Lesesne and every 
other volunteer but Blarnyer, I Lave sent you ; he is a good wri 
ter, and has eo much to do in that way that he acts as my secretary 
or clerk. I do not much wonder at Gen. Greene s delays respect 
ing me; it is as usuil, difficulties a i ways arose whenever anything 
was to be determined relative to me ; however, by your urging 
him, I suppose he may determine sooner than he otherwise would 
do. I shall put myself in the way to equip and clothe my men, 
and \vish for full orders so to do. I have sent Col. Grimke your 
order for rice, but have not yet had hin 013 wer. None of the mer 
chants or vessels want rice, they all want Indigo. If I can, you 


will rely on it, I will get you rum, :ugar and coffee. I bog you to 
write to North Carolina, or to the General Governor and Council 
of this State, to endeavor to put a stop to .he depredations commit 
ted on our coast by North Carolina privateers. No vessels can come 
in here ; a flag, G^n. Greene s, the Governor s or your pass or pro 
tection to vessels coming in this harbor, are of no signification; they 
are captured by those plunderers continually. Ho well and his 
crew and a number of other sailor? he collected on shore, have be 
haved in a very riotous manner respecting the flag vessel; 1 have 
been obliged to confine some of them in goal, and under a guard ; 
Meyers is on board the flag; Moors case is desperate, he; deserted 
the British with his arms and was endeavoring to make his escape) 
he was taken cif a sea island and brought here; his family is at 
Black River ; if he is sent back ho \vill be h nged ; he and Broderick, 
the inhabitants have petitioned .Tie to sutler to remain on shore 
till your further orders; they als:> petitioned you in their favor; as 
the flag vessel has not a fair wind, I have indulged their petition. 
Tis likely the enemy will rna ic another ;,ailv soon, as they find 
Col Laurens retired, from this quarter to Gen. Greene. They ap 
pear in their designs to harrass us as much as possible, by landing 
alternately on both sides of the river, against yourself and Col. Lau 
rens. Mr. Lesesne has Dr. Hyme s house without his knowledge 
or consent, and refuses to pay the rent of thirty guineas, (asked by 
Hyrne) and says you promised him a billet in town. If you do 
not approve his biiiet, lie says lie \viil leave the work Cob ISenf has 
given him the superintendance of, and do his duty as a soldier; he 
will be a loss to Senf. I liink Lesesne should pay the rent and 
the public pay him for his work. You will please determine this 
matter by your orders to me. Solomon Miller, formerly a volun 
teer of my corps, has never produced the man whose attestation he 
delivered me ; I have every reason to think he forgot it. Welch, 
of this place, has been tempted from duty on said accounts, as hav 
ing given a substitute. Miller I before wrote you of, ho \vent away 
to North Carolina before I could put your orders in execution, 
which was to confine him in goal as a cheat; your former order to 
confine him is now in execution; k-i me know if he is to be con 
tinued in goal. Capt. Gough I gave leave of absence to go to his 
Santee plantation j I expected him to join you. Four casks of In- 


digo are left at Mr. Trapier s plantation, (public) the former Gover 
nor impressed it. It is under your direction ; if you give me a 
sanction, I will take it for public service. I assure you General I 
am sensible of furnishing you with every man, as I know you want 
them ; were you here, you would be convinced that the trust you 
repose in my command here, require them little less than yourself. 
My exertions for my country I need not inform you of ; whatever 
is in my power you may rely on. 

I am, dear General, your obedient servant, 


\No.2Sl.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 12, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

Since I wrote you the enclosed, I received yours of yesterday s 

date. Mrs. W will send you a note respecting her. Mrs. So- 

dy must be sent to town immediately, and if she does not go or ev 
er comes back, she must be confined in jail. Mr. Brown s age enti 
tles him to pardon ; he has mine, and will give him a certificate as 
soon as I see him. Capt. Mathews will carry round the schooner 
for the purpose you mention, and I wish the galley could be got 
up, it would be of great service ; every effort must be made to get 
her up, and if got up to put her in order. I shall send you in a 
few days those I have mentioned in the enclosed ; such of Pos- 
tell s company which are gun-men, you will order to join you ; I 
mean the division which ought to be out, which is one third. The 
rate of salt, sugar, and coffee as mentioned, I approve of, and ought 
not to be sold higher. 1 wish you to procure me all the paper you 
can for public use. 

I am, your humble servant, 


[No. 282.] Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion. 

JACKSONBOROUGH, March 12, 1782. 
Sir : 

I have consulted Gen. Greene on the plan you propose of incor 
porating Maham s and Horry s corps into one, and forming them 


into one Legion. The General and myself both approve of the 
plan, and you are therefore authorized to carry into execution and 
to make such arrangements as you shall think will best tend to pro 
mote the service. I hope this incorporation will prevent the ne 
cessity of your making use of the power I lately gave you to im 
press horses ; it is grievous to the inhabitants, and ought to be 
avoided if possible. I herewith send you one dozen copies of the 
Militia law, and some of the recruiting acts. 

I am, sir, with much regard, your most obd t. serv t, 


I No. 283.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 13, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

In your return of your horses, you did not mention how many 
were lost on the 23th and 25th of last month in the action, which I 
wish to know separately, from the wanting to complete mine, as I 
cannot think you lost 35 horses, as in that return; if you have, let me 
know, that I may transmit it to Gen. Greene. I send you the men 
of Bossard s, Murrell s and Allston s companies, that are in camp, 
with eight British prisoners of war, whom you will keep in the 
jail in George Town or at Black Mingo, with a guard. I think it 
will be best to have a guard at Black Mingo, as the salt and other 
merchandize will be kept there ; the greater part of your men 
should be kept there, and the prisoners, and only keep a small party 
at George Town for observation ; in order to secure the post at 
Black Mingo, a small party redoubt should be made to prevent the 
Tories from attempting to surprise them. I would prefer a circu 
lar redoubt made very high, with abbatis is in the center, a block 
house, made with square timber, so high as to overlook the parapet 
of the redoubt, the block house to be 17 feet square, with loop 
holes to fire through ; it should stand on large posts, the lower part 
to be open in the middle of the second story, to be open one foot 
across to fire under the house. You will collect negroes for the 
above purpose, and get Col. Senf, who is now up that way, to lay 
out the redoubt : there should be no gateway to the redoubt, but 


the going in and out must be by ladders, that the outward one may 
be taken in every night. Your situation should be such as to com 
mand the river within musket shot. If I can spure time I will be 
with you in a few days. Weyman will carry your oiders in 
to effect, and take off the trouble from you, as you ace not yet well. 
From various intelligence from town, the enemy is preparing to 
evacuate ; they are getting all the sea stock they can and packing 
up all the stores they have. It is said that Daniel Horry says that 
it is worse in England than here. Mobs are going about in every 
part, arid the King is openly cursed and threatened ; that there is 
no living in England. This I hope, will produce us a peace on 
our terms. 

I am, your obedient servant, 


[No. 284. J John Dorsious (merchant) to Col. Peter Ilorry. 

GEORGE TOWN, March 14, 1782. 
Sir : 

I take the freedom of addressing a few lines to you respecting 
the orders Gen. Marion is pleased to issue, relative to the trade of 
this place. My indisposition prevents me from waiting upon you. 
Those orders do immediately operate to the prejudice of every one 
concerned in trade, as well as myself, and done without the least 
enquiry or concurrence of those it injures. I must therefore ac 
quaint you that I have been at a great deal of trouble to ride 
through North Carolina (attended with heavy expenses) and there 
pledged my honor to the gentlemen interested in trade, that if they 
would send vessels with cargoes here, they should be at fall liber 
ty to dispose of their cargoes to the best advantage, without restric 
tion or hindrance whatever, which I made the agents acting for 
Gen. Greene s army and the State acquainted of, and received their 
approbation ; two or three vessels, I so passed my honor for, have 
already arrived here, and more may be daily expected ; some of the 
articles on which the General is pleased to lay restrictions, belong 
to gentlemen in North Carolina, I have still by me in store. I can 
not help judging no good can arise to the State from Gen. Marion s 


orders, but that they will be the means of putting a total stop to 
the small trade established here, as I shall be under the necessity 
of informing the gentlemen concerned in trade to this place hereof. 
I am certain that all vessels coming to this port will be stopped ; 
indeed it is so repugnant to the principles upon which I have acted, 
as will oblige me to decline trade. I would therefore wish the 
General would be pleased to withdaaw his orders, being respect 
fully, sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 


[No. 2S5.J Cornet Elliolm to Col. Peter Horry. 

Dear Colonel: 

I received yours this moment, together with Gen. Marion s pro 
clamation, which I will forward with the greatest speed. I do 
send to you Richard Kains, escorted by Dragoons Singleton and 
Lauther. John Kains has abundance of creditors, and they being 
conscious that he is both a sharper and a rogue, do live in suspense; 
those he perhaps owes will have it in his power to nay, does the 
same service to him as the creditors of the national debt does to the 
crown of Great Britain. I have done every scheme to make every 
body of opinion that we find it but in vain to endeavor to catch him, 
and likewise given out that all his property is now seized on to pub 
lic use ; my pretended haste to set out for George Town and 
leave all his effects upon his place, will draw him home. I am now 
setting off with all rny party downwards, and then by another road 
return to bis house for to ambush him, and perhaps may catch him. 
I am, with esteem, my Colonel, yours, &c., 


P. S. Mr. Moses Bonneau I have desired to see you, and I have 
nothing to his charge, but that he has traded with said Kains; you 
know how he is to be treated. 


[No. 286.] Gen. Marion to Col Peter Horry. 

MARCH 16, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

Your letter to Dr. Buchanan mentions some persons of Thomp 
sons parolled to Charles Town ; I don t believe they can be of any 
hurt to us from the intelligence they may give of George Town. 
You may permit them to pass to Charles Town by the way of Le- 
nud s Ferry; the other prisoners desiring exchange I cannot agree to 
it, as no exchanges take place at present. Gambol! lost a letter yes- 
erday ; I do not know if it came from you or Mitchell. You will 
not give passes to any women to go to Charles Town. A party 
down the Neck yestesday killed three Tories and took one, a deser 
ter who had Gen. Greene s pass last month to go to the northward, 
but was returning to the enemy with the three killed, they were 
a McLeod and McNeal, and suppose they came from the North 
Carolina Scotch ; they passed George Town and landed at Mid- 
dleton s plantation, Santee, which is a common route for all Tories 
from Pee Dee; the prisoners taken are to be tried by a general court 
of militia to-day. 

I am, your obd t. serv t., 


[No. 287.] Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion. 

Sir : 

I have this moment received your letter of the 13th inst. I was 
informed you had in charge a considerable quantity of rice, this was 
my reason for desiring you to supply Heriot and Tucker with the 
quantity I mentioned; however, I shall change the mode of procur 
ing it; only desire you to afford any military aid that might be ne 
cessary. You have acted perfectly right with respect to the stolen 
negroes ; such as you have received that belong to any of the con 
fiscated estates, must be delivered to the Commissioners; if there 
are any others they should be delivered to their owners, they pay- 


ing the charges for recovering them. I will endeavor to have Rich 
ard Kains apprehended. The proclamation herewith delivered you 
and my letter on the subject, will answer your questions whether 
rice is allowed to be exported. My letter of the 9th inst., as soon 
as it reaches you, will inform you what is to be done with Mrs. 

W and all others in like circumstances. I only wait to hear 

from Gen. Huger what arrangements he has made for the recruiting 
service. I shall be ready whenever I hear from him to do my part 
of the duty, which is to give orders for the delivery of the negroes. 
You will let me know as soon as you can, the result of your enqui 
ry respecting Ganey s harboring the North Carolina Tories. I ap 
prehend this fellow will bring us and himself too into trouble very 
soon. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


P. S. Gen. Gadsden has just informed me he will want a 
wagon to return with the wagon that comes on with his baggage. 
I should be glad if you would supply him with one. 

\No. 288. j Gov. Mathews to Gen. Marion. 

JACKSONBOROUGH, March 18, 1782, 
Sir : 

The Legislature having come to a determination during the last 
session, on what terms those perscns were to be received who 
should come in and surrender themselves after their adjournment, 
I have submitted the matter to the Council for their opinion, and 
after a very serious and full consideration of the subject, they ad 
vised the following mode to be adopted with regard to such per 
sons : That all those who had come from within the enemy s lines 
and surrendered themselves since the rising of the Legislature, or 
who might hereafter come in, should be brought to me to be ex 
amined and their cases be determined on, and such as were in arms 
in any other part of the country, or who had not before surrender 
ed themselves, shall be examined by the Brigadier to whose Bri 
gade they belong; and if they should think them proper objects of 


mercy, to receive them on the following terms : To enter into re* 
cognizance "with two good and sufficient sureties to abide by the de 
termination of afuture Legislature, and in the meantime to do no act 
prejudicial to the interest and welfare of the United States, or any 
of them, to find two substitutes to serve in the line of this State for 
the time specified in the recruiting act, and to perform their duty 
in the militia, the same as any other man ; and if he cannot find 
the two substitutes within a reasonable time, then he is to do six 
months constant duty himself in the Brigade to which he belongs, 
and to be obliged to perform such duty until he finds the substitutes ; 
but if on examining any of thepersons herein before mentioned, they 
should be thought undeserving of this favor, they are to be return 
ed within the enemy s lines, with notice, that if they are afterwards 
found out of them, they will be liable to be punished as spies. I 
have therefore to desire, sir, that you will pay a strict regard to this 
determination, and consider it as the rule of your conduct with re 
gard to the persons above described. 

I am, sir, your most obedient servant, 


[No. 289.] Gen l Greene to Gen 1 1. Marion. 

HEAD QUARTERS, PON PON, March 19, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I am possessed of your two letters of the 8th and one of the 13th 
of this month, with the returns enclosed. Gov. Mathews has in 
formed me that it was your wish and that you recommend incorpo 
rating Horry s and Maham s Regiments into a Legionary corps, 
and that you recommend Maham for the commanding officer. I 
wrote the Governor that nothing would be more agreeable to me 
than such a measure, as we had sufficient Cavalry coming on, and 
that it was impossible to fill the Regiments. I also wrote the Gov 
ernor that you might prefer which of the officers you thought most 
suitable. If you can incorporate them it will be exceedingly agree 
able to me. I do not pretend to be a judge of the abilities and mer 
it of the two commanding officers ; you have served w r ith them and 
know which deserves the preference ; most people think Maham 


the best Cavalry officer, and that he has it more in his power to be 
useful than Horry. It is true Col. Henderson is appointed a Brig 
adier, but that is not to operate to his prejudice in the line of the 
army, nor will he resign his commission on any account. I have a 
letter from him on the subject ; therefore you cannot calculate on 
that as a provision for Col. Horry. Should the incorporation take 
place, whatever right Col. Horry had upon any former claims, shall 
be attended to whenever an investigation of his claims can be had, 
or he is ready to attend to the matter. I have forwarded to you 
some letters of importance for Gov. Burke, and I beg you to send 
off a good trusty hand with them, who may be depended on for 
their safe and speedy delivery. I am, dear sir. 

Your most obedient servant, 


[No. 290.] Le Roy Hammond to Capt. W, Butler. 

SNOW HILL, March 20, 1782. 

A general muster of the Regiment is ordered on Tuesday next 
at Charles Williams old place, on Turkey Creek, where you are to 
attend with your Company, properly armed, by ten o clock in the 
forenoon. You will please let your men know that those who dis 
obey this order will be fined to the utmost limits of the law. 
I am, sir, your humble servant, 


[No. 291.J Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 20, 1782. 

The petition in favor of Mrs. Fullerton is granted on account of 
the great service she may be to those venerable old single ladies, the 
petitioners. I think it best to keep all your men at George Town, 
also prisoners, until Col. Senf returns. I will send a guard at the 
mouth of Musquito Creek, to stop boats. The Militia Law I will 


send in my next. I will endeavor to get Capt. Weyman the neces 
saries wanting for the field piece. Mr. "Wayne s bill will be sent 
to the Governor for his approbation, but think Handk s coffee and 
sugar will not be allowed in public accounts. In respect to Cham 
berlain s breach of trust in disposing of his boat, he must proceed 
agreeably to law. You will send your deserters, and as many offi 
cers with evidences as you can spare. I did let Maham s officers 
have one piece blue cloth, and the other I reserved for your use, 
but it is lost. Any intelligence from Ganey let me know without 
loss of time. I am, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


\No. 292.] Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 22, 1782. 

I send you some letters which Gen. Greene desires may be for 
warded to North Carolina by some safe hand immediately, and to 
return with an answer ; as you have the Waccamaw companies, 
you may find a man for that purpose, for I have not a man in camp 
that knows the way. You will send a man off without loss of 
time. I send some proclamations which you will distribute in pro 
per places ; from them you will know what line of conduct to pur 
sue. I have heard nothing lately from town. A man from Seewee 
says that se?en vessels came to anchor off Bull s two days ago, five 
of which he took to be men of war. There is a report that a fleet 
is off Charles Town bar, but don t know what they are. I have 
sent a guard at Cat Island to stop boats going through Musquito 
Creek, from hence you may have the earliest notice of any vessel 
coming in. 

I am, your obedient servant, 



f No. 293.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 


March 27, 1782. 


12. ] 

Dear Sir : 

1 received your favor of tlie 23d inst, upon the subject of incor 
porating Col. Horry s and Maham s Regiments of Cavalry. The 
incorporation of those corps will undoubtedly add to their strength 
and lessen the expense; your proposition therefore meets with a 
ready assent. I wrote you in addition to what I wrote the Gover 
nor on this subject, that you might prefer which of the officers you 
thought most useful. I see by your letter that you are fully of 
opinion that Maham is by far the best Cavalry officer, and that the 
opinion of the officers of both corps, as well as the state of Ma- 
ham s Regiment, gives him a preference. If Maham is the best 
Cavalry officer, and the officers of both wish him to command in 
preference to Col. Horry, I think the good of the service will au 
thorize a preference to be given to Maham ; although Col. Horry 
is the eldest officer and equally meritorious. The distress of the 
country and the critical situation of affairs renders it absolutely ne 
cessary, chat every aid should be given to the army that could pos 
sibly be drawn from the resources of the country. This could on 
ly be done by establishing temporary corps to aid the service until 
the Continental forces or the regular establishment was more equal 
to the service. The distress of the country and necessity of the 
case warranted tl:e measure, and we have derived considerable ad 
vantages from those corps. But the same principle that led to 
their first establishment, should decide their time of continuance 
and the plan of reuucuen. I think Col. Horry a very deserving 
man, and wish it was in rny power to regulate the business upon a 
plan of public utility without offering any violence to his feelings. 
If the incorporation takes place, I think the officers of each Regi 
ment should be continued according to the men belonging to the 
corps. I question much whether Congress will recruit for the 
Regiment, even if it is incorporated, after the term of the mens 
enlistment expire. If the incorporation can take place, I shall be 
glad, but if not matters must go on as they now stand. I am, 
with esteem, your most obedient humble servant, 



[No. 29 4. J Gen. Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH 29, 1782. 
Dear. Sir : 

Your s by Sampson is before me. Whatever negroes may be 
wanted for public service, you will first make requisition of the in 
habitants in proportion so that no unequal burdeji may come on any 
person ; the negroes will be paid whatever has been usual. A cer 
tificate must be given for their term of service ; if the number of 
negroes required is not furnished, we must be obliged (however 
disagreeable) to send parties and take them. The number of males 
each man has may be nearly ascertained, if it cannot, you must 
rate them by guess, and let the owners make it appear they have 
not the number ; every district around George Town must furnish 
their quota, and if not sufficient to extend it to the North of San- 
tee up to Lenud s Ferry. I have no objection to your going to 
Black Mingo or elsewhere, when your business can permit it, 
which you are the best judge. I have never impressed any rum, 
sugar or coffee for myself, but you may apply to Col. Grimke for a 
few barrels of rice from the confiscated estates, and purchase them, 
and wish you could get enough of those articles for us both, and 
tell the Colonel it is my request that you should get rice for the pub- 
lice use. I wrote you yesterday, since which we have had nothing- 
new. I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


[No. 295.] Gen. Greene to Col. Peter Horry. 

HEAD QUARTERS, March 29, 1782. 
Dear Sir: 

Your two letters of the 25th, by Mr. Elholm, I have received. 
On the subject of incorporating your Regiment I wrote you fully 
a few days ago. I wish the incorporation to take place, if it can 
be effected ; reduction of Regiments is always attended with diffi 
culties. Your acceptance of a command in those corps was not 


to interfere with your former claim in the Continental line ; there 
fore the incorporation will place you in no other situation than you 
were before your appointment to the Cavalry Regiment, and as 
there is no possibility of filling, the two Regiments, the remaining 
one should be placed on such a footing as will render it most useful, 
and that is upon the plan I wrote you, recommended by Gen. Ma 
rion. By what I can learn from Congress, I find it is in contem 
plation to reduce all temporary corps, and I expect it will soon take 
place, at least, as soon as the mens enlistment expires. If you 
wish to urge your original claim in the Continental line, you shall 
have a hearing upon it whenever yoi: please ; there are only two 
Regiments to be raised by this State, and Pinckney and Marion 
command them, and the former distinction of Lieut. Col Command 
ant is repealed by a late resolution of Congress. Therefore if you 
succeed in your claim you will be Lieut. Col. of one of those Reg 
iments. Whatever may be the result of those Cavalry Regiments 
they have answered some very valuable purposes in the recovery 
of this State, and I shall be satisfied in the measures I took for rai 
sing them. You urge the situation of your Regiment and desire 
aid ; I wish to heaven it was in my power to give it, but I am not 
less empty handed than you are. I have had no resource but in 
the good will of the people, and have had no motive but their good- 
Mr. Elholm must apply to Gen. Huger, to get an appointment in 
the Continental Regiments of Infantry. I shall mention him to the 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 


[No. 296.] Gen. Greene to Col. Peter Horry. 


March 29, 1782. 


Dear Sir : 

Your two letters dated at George Town have been received. You 
have been too well acquainted with the state of the war in this 
country, and the importance of exerting every nerve for its relief, 
not to have seen the necessity and object for establishing temporary 


corps for the aid of the army. Our force was very unequal to the 
conflict. Our all depended upon our success ; ray zeal to serve 
this country led me to such resources as the circumstances of the 
country could afford. Expedients are always disagreeable, but 
where necessity imposes them they are justifiable. It was upon 
this principle and from those motives, that I attempted to raise the 
two corps of Horse under you arid Mali am. The time and man 
ner of raising these corps must have convinced you, that they could 
not be continued longer than the necessity which first gave, rise to 
the measure existed. On this temporary establishment, under the 
most pleasing form, I meant to draw some immediate advantage 
for the protection of the country; and although the advantages 
have not been so great as we could wish, yet these corps have been 
of importance in the crisis of affairs ; whether they will be most 
useful in one or two corps is the object under consideration. I con 
fess for my own part, that I think they would be more useful in one 
than two, and therefore readily gave my consent for incorporating 
them, when it was proposed by Gen. Marion and recommended by 
the Governor. I recommended to the General to continue which 
officer he might think would be most useful, persuaded that he 
would act uprightly, and that a choice founded upon utility would 
not be displeasing to a generous mind, and satisfactory to one that 
regarded the interest of his country more than private advantage, 
and that he that did not ought not to be gratified. I do not pretend to 
judge between you and Col. Maham; Gen. Marion thinks Maham 
is better qualified for the Cavalry service than you are, and says if 
the public good and condition of the corps, and the wishes of the 
officers of both are to operate in the decision, Col. Maham has un 
doubted claim to the preference ; he at the same time observes, that 
his friendship for you both is equal, and that he thinks you would 
make a much better Infantry officer than Maham, and has recom 
mended your being appointed in the room of Lieut. Col. Hender 
son, promoted to the rank of Brigadier in the militia. I wish it was 
in my power to comply with his wishes, but Lieut. Col. Hender 
son made this condition, that it should be no injury to his Continen 
tal rank in accepting his appointment in the militia. Since you 
wrote respecting your former claim in the Continental line, I have 
have made some inquiry of the Majors Pinckney and Hyrne, who 


both say that Gen. Lincoln, with the Governor of the State, was 
to fix upon such measures for retaining and reducing the Continen 
tal officers to the establishment as they should think proper, and 
that their doings were to be final, and that in consequence of this 
authority they fixed upon a plan by which you were included among 
the supernumeraries. If the General and Governor had such pow 
ers, and the plan they adopted operated generally with the field of 
ficers, I suppose it will be conclusive. However, if you wish to 
have an investigation made and your claims considered, a board of 
officers shall be appointed to hear you on the point, and the proceed 
ings transmitted to the Minister of War, who alone will have it in 
his power to redress you. I have no power to alter, I can only re 
commend, and you may rest assured I will do all the justice in my 
power, and as I once wrote you, I shall take a pleasure in reward 
ing your past conduct by the only means in my power, which is by 
acknowledging your services to the public ; as to pecuniary consid 
erations, I am persuaded you neither wish or expect anything, for 
you cannot be insensible of my situation on that head. You will 
have a just claim to vour pay, subsistence, and contingent expen 
ses during your command of the Regiment of Cavalry, which will 
come under consideration hereafter. I am always happy to do all 
in my power to oblige and accommodate either officers or citizens 
who have exerted themselves in the cause of their country, and 
cannot but hope whatever measures are taken for public good will 
be readily acceded to, though attended with some personal incon 
venience ; on this principle I recommended incorporating the two 
corps of Cavalry. If the feelings of officers are hurt, I am sorry 
for it. and I hope they will do me the justice to believe it is 
the result of necessity and not of choice. I have no object but the 
public good in the measure. 

With esteem and regard, I am, dear sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant. 


[No. 297.1 Edward Walsh to Gen. Marion, 

GEORGE TOWN, March 29, 1782. 

My present situation I hope, will apologize for the liberty I take 


in troubling you in this manner to acquaint you, that I have been a 
prisoner of war upon parole as a private man since the 14th of last 
September, being taken at that time with Gov. Burke and others 
at Wilmington in North Carolina, by a body of Tories commanded 
by Col. Fanning. Now sir, as my feelings are much hurt by not hav 
ing it in my power to be. of any service to my country, and as it is 
thought that an exchange of prisoners is to take place shortly, any 
favors which you may be good enough to show me on this occa 
sion, will be most gratefully remembered. I should have done my 
self the pleasure of waiting on you in person, but am prevented 
by a slight indisposition which I have been attended with for some 
days. I have the honor to be. 

With the greatest respect, dear sir, 

Your very humble servant, 

N. B. You will be obliging enough to favor me with an answer- 

[No. 298.] Gen, Marion to Col. Peter Horry. 

MARCH, 31, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I received yours of this date, and find you reflect on me very 
much. I should have been glad if you had suspended your opin 
ion until you heard the whole, and then formed your judgment. I 
did propose to Gen. Greene and the Governor to incorporate the 
two Regiments, but did not say which of the two officers was to 
be preferred. I think it was nearly this : That Col. Maham was 
the best Cavalry officer arid you were the best Infantry, and propo 
sed that your corps should be dismounted and serve as Infantry in 
George Town, as that post was to be kept, and the, horses, saddles 
and swords be given to Maham. In this I thought I consulted the 
good of the service, without throwing you out of service; when I 
see you, I can give you the whole which passed and my reasons, 
and I dare say it will be satisfactory ; the making any alterations 
in either of the corps is not determined on, neither shall I do any 
thing which may not be agreeable to you. I therefore must insist 


that you keep the command of George Town, and when you think 
proper to ride as far as this I will give you every reason to be sat 
isfied. I am, dear sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


\No. 299.] Gen. Greene to Gen. Marion. 


March 31, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

Your favor of the 29th has this moment come to hand. Lieut, 
Col. Laurens marched yesterday with all the Cavalry and Light 
Troops to intercept the party of the enemy now out in St. Thomas. 
They carried one field piece. Lieut. Col. Laurens was to inform 
you of his route, and to fix a point to form a junction with you. 
If you can give the enemy a blow it will be of great importance, 
but be careful and not engage to a great disadvantage. Our Light 
Troops are excellent, and will beat near double their numberj if you 
only give them a fair chance in the manner of engaging. Is there 
no possibility of forming a post at Monk s Corner 1 ? It would con 
tribute greatly to the security of the country. 

I am, dear sir, your obedient humble servant, 


[No. 300.J Col. Peter Horry to Gen, Marion. 

GEORGE TOWN, April 1, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

I received last evening a letter from Gen. Greene ; as you 
saw the contents it is needless for me to relate any part thereof, 
further than that I am sensible to whom I am indebted for being 
turned out of service and Maham continued. My conscience tells 
me that I have in no instance been wanting in my duty to my coun 
try, and have served it to the utmost of my abilities. It is welcome 
to all my past services. It only hurls my feelings that Maham 


who is both younger in service and rank, should be continued and 
myself turned out. Yet if tis for the good of the service, which 
from Gen. Greene s letter you say it is, I am satisfied and must en 
deavor in future to attend my own interest with as much assiduity as I 
have heretofore done for my country. The remaining part of the 
Regiment lies at Austin s, under commond of Lieut. Stephens; Ad- 
jutant Huggins has the Regiment book ; shortly I shall deliver you 
up whatever papers relate to the Regiment. I consider myself 
no longer as commanding officer thereof. I have left Capt. Wm. 
Allston commandant here, and given him the necessary orders until 
further from you. I am going to Black Mingo for a few days, and 
as my negro man is at Santee, have taken one Dragoon to wait on 
me until he returns. I hope you will not take such liberty amiss. 
In a few days I will wait on you at Santee. 

I am, dear sir, your most obedient servant, 


P. S. Herewith you will receive for Gen. Greene, a letter. I 
will be obliged to you to forward it. 

[No. 301.] Col Peter Horry to Gen. Greene. 

GEORGETOWN, April 1, 1782. 
Dear Sir : 

Your letter of the 27th of March I received. I am fully satis 
fied with the necessity of your raising the two corps of Horse, and 
always looked on them as temporary. Unless hereafter one corps 
should be established in the service of this country (which as I 
found this country kept but two Regiments of Infantry, neither of 
which I could expect the command of), I fully think that the two 
corps of Cavalry ought to be incorporated, but I know of no right- 
that Maham should be continued and myself put out of service. 
However, you say that Gen. Marion thinks it is for the good of the 
service; if it be so, I am satisfied, as my motive for continuing so 
long in service was for the good of my country, which I think I 
can with great truth declare, I have served with faithfulness and to 
the best of my abilities. Gov Rutledge told me that Gen. Lincoln 


alone settled the former arrangement of officers, by which I was 
discontinued, and that he had no hand in it ; if my country lodges 
or vests such authority in any one officer to supercede or put anoth 
er (under his command) out of service at his pleasure, (right or 
wrong) it being art act of my country, I must be satisfied; believe 
me, I never wished to continue in service onehour beyond the wish 
es or inclinations of my country. It is only the manner of being 
turned cut of service (by being superceded by younger officers) 
that hurts my feelings. As to an investigation to be made by a board 
of officers of my claims, to be transmitted to the Minister of War, 
it is little worth such trouble; the treatment of my country to me 
has never encouraged my service, or even given me my just dues. 
Therefore I have no great ambition to persevere in her ill-treatment, 
although she is heartily welcome to what is past. I only remain 
that you will let me know by a line or two, if I am to consider my 
self as a supernumerary officer on half pay or not, in order that I 
may know whether the militia officers have a right to call on me 
to do militia duty; in doing this you will much oblige me. I 
beg leave to return you my thanks for the many favors and civili 
ties shown to me while under your command; whatever relates to 
the Regiment, I shall deliver up to Gen. Marion. 
I am, wiih much esteem and regard, dear General, 

Your obedient humble servant, 


[No. 302. J From a Secret Corresjiondcnt. 

APRIL 1,1782. 
Sir : 

I arrived here half an hour ago ; I left Charles Town this morn 
ing ; no very particular news, only that our friend Judge Pendle- 
ton is in the Provost. I waited on him yesterday, and must say, 
that he as a prisoner, is tolerably well situated, though for form 
sake the General has ordered a sentinel within his apartment. I 
am much of the opinion he will be parolled to the town in a little 
time. The York fleet sailed yesterday with some of the Queen s 
Rangers, and many invalids, with a number of officers. The fleet 


for London was to sail this morning; besides, Mr. Pendleton, Major 
Pinckney and Hyrne were taken^ The party are all to return to 
Haddrels Point. The refugees and most respectable inhabitants 
have had two or three meetings, and addressed Gen. Leslie to re 
quest he would make use of 1200 of them as soldiers, and go out 
and attack the army you command. The General received their 
address with marks of approbation, and I think it probable they 
will make the attempt in a very few days. Late last night a pack 
et arrived from England without letters, papers, officers or men, 
except some Americans who had made a prize of her a few weeks 
ago ; and unfortunately she was retaken by the Grana, who left 
New York ten days ago. I am of opinion Leslie has had some 
dispatches by her x as he was over the bar and on board, of that 
vessel all yesterday. I shall do myself the honor of waiting on 
you in the morning. 

I am, with the utmost respect and regard, sir, 

Your most obedient servant. 




This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

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NOV12 1965*3-; 

AUG 1078 

MAR 2 2 





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