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The Girl Reserve Movement is a movement 
of the Young Wornens Christian Associations for 
teen age girls. Therefore, to use the name and 
the programs it is necessary to establish a super- 
visory relationship with a city, town, country or 
district or student Young Womans Christian As- 
sociation, or with a traveling secretary of the 
National Y. W. C. A. who is responsible for work 
with teen age girljs. The program content, 
however, is at the disposal of all people interested 
in the welfare of girls. 



Published September, 1918. 



Revised: January 1919 
September 1919, June 1921 



Copyright, 1921, by 

The National Board of the Young Womens Christian Associations 
of the United States of America 



PREFACE 

THIS edition of the Girl Reserve Manual is the result of 
long 1 years of experimentation, study, and practical ex- 
perience on the part of many workers in the Young 
Women's Christian Association, who because they steadily be- 
lieved in the potential power of girl life have felt the "Charm 
of the Impossible" and like "Fishin' Jimmie" have gone upon 
a quest. 

The first Girl Reserve Manual, issued in 1918, was but a pre- 
liminary and temporary edition. Since that time the many 
pamphlets containing various Girl Reserve programs as well as 
the first preliminary Manual have offered a wealth of material 
which has been of use to many workers with girls. 

It is hoped that this Manual, including as it does the philo- 
sophical principles, content and methods of work developed and 
tested by the Young Women's Christian Association through 
many years of practical experience, will prove of even greater 
value and use to those who have grasped the significance of 
Christian leadership to-day* and have accepted its responsibili- 
ties. 

GERTRUDE GOOIN, Director* 
Bureau for Work with Younger Girls 
National Board, Young Womens Christian Associations 



FOREWORD 

THE Young Women's Christian Association is a fellow- 
ship of women and girls. The value of the fellowship 
lies in whatever it may contribute to self-expression, dis- 
cipline and growth of the whole life of each of its members and 
in the effectiveness of that group as it functions in the life of 
a community. It offers, therefore, to advisers of g'irls a place 
of leadership which has the greatest value. 

There is a standard toward which the development of all the 
membership both girls and advisers is set. The standard 
is expressed in the name "The Christian" and makes the teach- 
ings of Jesus the informing and directing principles of any of 
the Association's programs. His example of growth in wis- 
dom and stature and in favor with God and man is consciously 
followed. Any girl may enter this fellowship; there is noth- 
ing selective about its membership. The possibility of ful- 
filling this standard of achieving -this growth, is in direct 
proportion to the gift of self of those advisers who have ac- 
cepted places of leadership in the " Association movement. 

The Girl Reserves are a cross section of the whole fellow- 
ship. They are a movement within the movement of the whole. 
All the resources of the organization, general and specialized, 
lie back of the Girl Reserves, and are available for their de- 
velopment. The Girl Reserves are to the Young Women's 
Christian Association, of which they are a part, the fresh 
stream which feeds into the main current of the movement at 
its source or along itsl course the very youth of its youth. 
They have its future in their keeping. 

MABEL CRATTV. 

Office of THE GENERAL SECRETARY, 

National Board, Young Womens Christian Associations, 
United States of America. 
June 1921. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

THE Bureau for Work With Younger Girls wishes to ex- 
press grateful appreciation to the following people for 
the contribution they have made to this Manual: 
To Miss Marjory Lacey-Baker and Miss Hazel MaeKaye 
for the chapter on the Drama ; to Miss Emily T, Goding for 
the chapter on 'Conferences; to Miss Esther Dayman for the 
chapter on Camps; to Miss Margaret Proctor for the material 
on Pood Values; to Miss Alice G. Moore for "Triangles for 
Girl Reserves" and for various stories for use with leaders and 
girls; to Miss Mabel E. iStone for the chapter on Religious 
Education; to Miss Mary L. Cady 1 for the chapter on Voca- 
tional Guidance Emphases and for the chapters on Citizenship 
and Thrift; to Mrs. Alice Standish Buell for material on Legis- 
lative 'Standards; to Miss Eliza Rhees Butler and Mrs. Marion 
Rider Robinson for ''School Girl Ideals"; to Mrs. Marie Stan- 
ton Lruetters and Miss Vesper Bell for the chapter on Business 
Principles, Ideals and Details; to Miss Blanche Geary and Miss 
Sutherland Griffith for the chapter on Music ; to Miss Gertrude 
Gogin and Miss Etha Louise Buchanan for material on organi- 
zation and program planning for grade school and high school 
girls, for younger girls in business and 'industry and in busi- 
ness college; for the chapter on "Books and Reading"; for 
the preparation and the editing of the sections on "Needs of 
Girls" and "The Leadership of the Girl Reserve Movement," 
and for the chapter on "Material for Program Building"; to 
Miss Clara Bartram for the material on "Dress"; to Miss 
Clara I. Donihoo for the material on Sealing Wax Craft; to 



the Bureau of Social Education for the section on Health Edu- 
cation; to Miss Era Betzner for the material on Recreation; to 
the Division of Work for Foreign-Born Women for Program 
Suggestions in Work with Girls with a Foreign Background; 
to Miss Amanda O. Nelson, Miss Katherine Gerwick, Miss Al- 
niira Holmes, Miss Crystal Bird, Miss Ethel Cutler and other 
secretaries of the National Board, both field and headquarters, 
and to many local secretaries), for material and suggestions in 
preparation and revision of this material; to Doubleday Page 
and Co., for permission to use the excerpt from Christopher 
Morley's "Parnassus on Wheels"; td Charles Scribner's Sons 
for permission to use excerpts from "Prayers by R. L. S."; 
to the Westchester County Children's Association for 
permission to use "I Am the Future 1 ' by Tudor Jenks; to Wal- 
lace's Farmer for the material "The Story of Our Flag"; to 
George H. Doran Co., and the author for permission to use the 
poem "Songs for SL Little House"; to the Reilly and Lee Com- 
pany, Publishers for permission to use Edgar A. Guest's poem 
"Mother's iDay"; to Miss Etha Louise Buchanan for her con- 
stant and untiring attention in connection with, the preparation, 
editing, and production of this Manual. 

BUREAU FOR WORK WITH YOUNGER GIRLS, 
National Board, Young Womens Christian Associations 



CONTENTS 



SECTION PAGE 

I. The Needs of Girls 11 

Chapter 1. The Younger Girl in Cities 13 

Chapter 2. The Younger Girl in Towns 14 

Chapter 3. The Younger Girl in Villages and the 

Open Country 16 

Chapter 4. The Needs of School Girls 18 

Chapter 5. The Needs of Younger Girls in Busi- 
ness and Industry 22 

Chapter 6. The Needs of Young-er Business Col- 
lege Girls 25 

Chapter 7. The Needs of the Foreign-Born Girl . . 26 

Chapters. The Needs of the Colored Girls 30 

Chapter 9. The Needs of the American Indian Girls 33 

Chapter 10. The Psychology of Girlhood 34 

Chapter 11. The Survey of the Girl Life in a Com- 
munity 36 

II. The General Plan of the Girl Reserve Movement 41 

III. The Organization of Groups of Girls '81 

Chapter 1. Principles of Organization 61 

Chapter 2. Organization Among Grade School 

Girls 68 

Chapter3. Organization of Junior High School or 

High School Freshmen Girls 77 

Chapter 4. Organization of Girl Reserve High 

School Clubs 83 

Chapter 5. Organization of Younger Girls in Bus- 
iness and Industry 100 



SECTION ^ . r 1 PAGE 
Chapter 6. Organization of Younger Business Col- 
lege Girls H3 

IV. Program Planning 117 

Chapter 1. A Clue to Program Planning 117 

Chapter 2. Typical Programs for Groups of Girls 128 

V. Activities for Developing a Christian Personality. . 295 

Chapter 1. Religious Education or Training in 

Christian Thinking and Living 295 

Chapter 2. Health Education and Recreation 316 

Chapter 3. Nature Lore 374 

Chapter 4. Handicraft 387 

Chapter 5. Story Telling 392 

Chapter 6. The Place of the Drama in the Girl 

Reserve Movement 39i> 

Chapter 7. The Place of Discussion in the Girl 

Reserve Movement 423 

Chapter 8. The Practice of Citizenship 452 

Chapter 9. The Place of Thrift in the Girl Reserve 

Programs - - 468 

Chapter 10. Business Principles and Ideals and 

Details 476 

Chapter 11. Books and Reading in* the Life of a Girl 483 
Chapter 12. Vocational Guidance Emphases in the 

Girl Reserve Movement 503 

Chapter 13. The Place of Music in the Girl Reserve 

Movement 526 

Chapter 14. Camps for Girls 567 

Chapter 15. Conferences ...,,..,. 589 

Chapter 16. Service Activities .... 600 

8 



SECTION PAGE 

VI The Leadership of the Girl Keserve Movement 609 

^Chapter 1. Qualifications 609 

Chapter 2. The Girls' Work Committee '614 

Chapter 3. Community Relationships 650 

VII Material for Program Building-; 665 

VIII. History of the Growth of Girls' Work in the Young 

Womens Christian Association 80G 




O 



The Girl 
Reserve Movement 



Section I. 
THE NEEDS OF GIRLS 




ef l am the Future, for in me 

there lies 
What through the ages our land 

shall be; 
Yet what I am is what you are 

to me 
7 am the question to which you 

make replies! 3 * 



between twelve and 
eighteen is facing the critical 
character building years of her 
life. At the age of twelve certain habits have been acquired 
some of which are not very firmly fixed. Whether for good or 
evil these will probably become established within a short "time. 
The years ahead are therefore the ones in which new habits for 
good may be acquired and bad habits replaced by good ones ; 
certainly habits of the most vital character content will be 
formed to meet the new needs of the girl's developing personality. 



* Written by Tudor Jenks for the Westchester County Children's Afts'n. 

11 ' 



The instincts for self-preservation, self-expression, and self- 
perpetuation, or as they are sometimes stated, the egoistic, 
the rational, the sex, and the relation instincts are manifest- 
ing themselves in many ways and making it necessary for^the 
girl to make adjustments an all phases of her living. It is a 
difficult period for the girl and for all people related to and 
working with her. Her mental growth, her bodily development, 
her consciousness of herself not only as an individual but as a 
part of a social whole, her spiritual yearnings are all matters 
of adult concern. The home, the church, the school, and the 
community as a whole through its various agencies are all ^re~ 
sponsible for seeing that careful guidance is given at a time 
when such guidance will have results. Moreover, there is 
need for correlation of the different training processes given a 
girl through these various channels. The standards, work and 
appeal made by one group are often not related in a girFs 
mind to like standards and appeals made by another. The 
home is the logical place in which such correlation should take 
place but it is not always possible to have it so and therefore 
the worker with girls in the Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation or in any organization must so understand the; funda- 
mental needs of the girl with whom she is dealing that out 
of those needs and desires she will be able to evolve a pro- 
gram of work which will make for successful Christian living. 

The fundamental instincts of self-preservation, self-expres- 
sion and self-perpetuation give rise to certain relationships of 
human life which have been termed needs. Such needs express 
themselves differently, perforce, because of racial and individual 
experience, but in every girl there is the possibility of ex- 
pressing through recreation, fellowship, work, and religion the 
fullness of her life. These four great forms of expression do 
not function equally in different groups of girls and for that 
reason secretaries and advisers concerned with program plan- 
ning find themselves analyzing the needs of different groups 
of girls and choosing as majors and minors these various forms 
of expression, the choice depending upon the outstanding indi- 

12 



vidual and group needs. It has seemed wise, therefore, in -this 
section to state briefly the specific needs of different groups of 
adolescent girls in which the Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation and other kindred organizations are interested. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE YOUNGER GIRL IN CITIES 

FIFTY years ago ninety-seven out of every one hundred peo- 
ple were living in rural communities. To-day fifty-four 
out of every one hundred people in the United States are living 
in cities. Great industrial enterprises and the lure which is 
always associated with the city attract vast numbers of men, 
women, boys and girls, many of whom have been brought up 
in rural communities, either in this country or in foreign coun- 
tries. This means a readjustment for part of a city's popula- 
tion to different methods of living and to certain new conven- 
tions; very often this adjustment is not made by parents as 
rapidly as by the younger members in a family and so difficul- 
ties arise. 

The complexity, the intensity of life, the possible isolation 
and loneliness of individuals and groups even in the midst of a 
dense population; the extreme individualism possible because 
of a sense of detachment caused by the very numbers of un- 
known people and at the same time the great necessity for co- 
operation because of the dependence of one individual upon an- 
other both for housing and transportation and food supply; the 
possible letting down of moral standards; all these are factors 
which must be taken into consideration when one faces the needs 
of a girl in the city. The highly colored theatre posters, the 
trashy love stories and mock heroics featured on the many bill- 
boards which so often line city streets, as well as the great 
electric signs that flash across one's vision at night and trans- 

13 



form the dull and dirty street into a veritable fairy-land, the 
flippant music of the streets, the gray movie "palaces," the very 
crowds themselves and the sense of action everywhere, all stim- 
ulate the newly awakened emotional senses of the adolescent 
girl, whether she be a school girl or a younger girl at work. 

Therefore, not because girls who live in a city are different 
in themselves from other girls but because their surroundings 
and influences are different, is it necessary to consider the spe- 
cific needs of city girls. Briefly speaking, these needs are: 

First, standards based upon such principles that there will 
result a wise choice in the midst of the complex and intense 
life which presents such a variety of activities and interests 
such standards to be rooted in a belief in a God-controlled 
world. 

(Second, an opportunity for recreation which is the result of 
a girl's own ingenuity and not "store-bought" and which shall 
include a chance to glimpse the joy and beauty of the great 
out-doors. 

Third, the opportunity to remain "young" an the midst of 
what is often a very sophisticated and blase atmosphere. 

Fourth, the opportunity to obtain help in choosing and in 
finding the right kind of employment and to benefit by advice 
which will help tfer not only to see the need for more educa- 
tion and training but also the way to secure them. 



R 



CHAPTER II. 

THE YOUNGER GIRL IN TOWNS 

OBERT LOUIS STEVENSON said that it was not in vain 
that he returned to the nothings of his childhood, for each 
of them had left its impress upon him; the same intangible reac- 
tions to environment are occurring in the lives of hundreds of 
thousands of younger girls in the towns of this country. Whether 
the towns are agricultural, suburban, mining, tourist, manu- 
facturing, college or health resort, each is weaving into the 
life of its girlhood its particular characteristics, good, bad or 

14 



indifferent. Each contributes to the growing girl certain op- 
portunities for human relationships, which the diversified life 
of a city rarely affords; yet the very social solidarity is in a 
measure a handicap. The very neighborliness sometimes blinds 
the adult minds to the infinite possibilities of leadership in 
these growing girls ; inability to see recreational needs met by 
parks and club rooms is sometimes caused by the fact that par- 
ents did not have these things in their youth. 

But to-day, the town which is desirous of holding its boys 
and girls as future citizens must recognize at once their needs 
and supply a leadership which wall be adequate, 

One of the outstanding needs is wholesome recreation; the 
play spirit has wide range dn a town. There are no hamper- 
ing conditions such as one finds in a crowded city; but unless 
it is directed, the play spirit is not sufficiently constructive to 
result in .coordinated Individuals. Recreation needs to be 
cumulative, directed, and based upon definite standards of 
right thinking and right living. 

Often there is a tendency on the part of a neighborhood 
group of girls to become "unconsciously snobbish" one of the 
needs is to instill a democratic spirit, which will help to bring 
together different groups in church, school and community ac- 
tivities. Closely related to this sense of democracy, and per- 
haps an outgrowth of it is the sense of the value of all human 
life, regardless of what clothes it wears, how it speaks, and 
what color it is. 

Another need of the adolescent girl in towns is an apprecia- 
tion and understanding of the place of the church in her life. 
Usually her relationship to the Sunday school is established 
because her family is a church going group. The necessity is 
to have her experience of the church and the church school or 
Sunday school such a vital growing one that her loyalty to them 
when she grows older will be unbroken. Through organized 
class work in the church school and club activities which em- 
phasize character standards she may develop into a Christian 
citizen. 

IS 



Too much cannot be said about the need for developing 
character standards for all girls wherever they are. In her 
relations to girls, boys, the home, the school, and the church, 
there is the greatest need for a sense of right values on the 
part of every girl. Questions of honor, chaperonage, dress, 
kinds of social gatherings and foims of amusements are end- 
less. 

Sometimes, as girls are growing they become so conscious 
of the "limitations" of their home town that they need to be 
helped to see the value in the best which is to be found in 
every town. The right kind of town pride will keep the girl 
from being a "grouch" if she stays on in her own town or from 
shedding every sense of responsibility for enriching the life of 
whatever place in which she may be 

CHAPTER III. 

THE YOUNGER GIRL IN VILLAGES AND THE OPEN COUNTRY 

BEFORE one who travels the road of leadership there pass 
in mental review great stretches of prairies, long vistas 
of cotton fields, mountain valleys and endless plains. She 
remembers the occasional houses and buildings clustered to- 
g-ether, marking the places where people have made homes. 
When she knows that almost fifty per cent of all the people of 
the United States live in villages with populations of less than 
2,500 or in the open 'country, she is overwhelmed by the needs 
of the younger girls in these great portions of our country. 

But after all, the, girl is not different from other girls in her 
desires and needs. In a homely phrase, which (by its very 
forcefulness) claims a place in one's mind, people have been 
compared to nuts, with many similar and delightful qualities 
within, but one must know how to crack the different shells. 
This is the task of the successful secretary and adviser for girls 
in villages and the open country to find the right way into 
the life of this girl. 



(The isolation of the girl's life may have made her shy; she 
does not have the knowledge of many man-made devices which 
are the common experience of the city or large town girl; she 
may not be accustomed to many of the social forms which mark 
the conventional parties of the day, but she has a self-reliance 
and resourcefulness which are much to be desired. She has 
a knowledge of nature and an acquaintance with bird and plant 
life which other girls will work long to attain, and many times 
there is no true appreciation .of this possession. Sincere and 
direct she will respond to the right approach and it is the op- 
portunity of those who work with her as friends, teachers and 
club advisers as well as in the more intimate relationships of 
the home to find the way to crack the shell so that the good 
within stands revealed. 

Specifically stated her needs are as follows: a new vision of 
health as being not merely * not ill but as being well, vigorously 
and wholesomely so; recreation which teaches her team play, 
which has a standard of values that helps her to play right 
games, and which carries with it the message that play is not 
the possession of youth only- something that one grows away 
from but that it is an ever present means for joyous living; 
citizenship training which shall be not only specific in the sense 
of teaching her how to vote but to recognize and understand 
the spiritual motives underlying it; new friendships and new 
interests which will prevent an accumulation of the sense of 
Isolation; a training which will help her to break down barriers 
within herself which sometimes keep her from becoming a co- 
operative person; and greatest of all, an opportunity to form 
those character standards which will make her a dynamic 
Christian, living with power in her community. 

Her new standards will find their expression in her renewed 
Interest in the church, in all forms of community and home 
service, and in her own growing understanding of God. 

The agencies which bring about the satisfaction! of these 
needs will be many. To-day there are at work among people 
In villages and the open country, an increasing number of fac- 

17 



tors. The Young Women's Christian Association through its 
younger girls' movement should be in the closest cooperation 
with directors of Boys and Girls Club Work, operating under 
the Federal government. The Rural Section of the Home Mis- 
sions Council is a great coordinating force for rural social work 
and the church plans made by it must be fully considered by 
secretaries and advisers. The evergrowing cooperative move- 
ment among farm people, and all the various types of informa- 
tion pouring into the rural homes through the media of farm 
journals, newspapers and magazines as well as books upon 
scientific agriculture, are helping to transform the life of this 
girl. Increased transportation facilities are thrusting upon her 
and her mother new vistas which they have not glimpsed be- 
fore^and she must be made ready to make the right choices. 
The^expression of much of this new outlook will be in terras 
of abtaviti^s. Her need is that the activity shall be expressive 
of her best self through pageantry, field days, a desire for 
continued education, which will come if vocations are presented 
rightly to her. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE NEEDS OF SCHOOL GIRLS 

IN the public schools of this country to-day are enroled sev- 
eral millions of girls, girls with every conceivable racial 
inheritance, and representing homes where opportunities have 
been most meager and homes where all the culture of genera- 
tions exists as the girl's heritage. The girl whose father and 
mother do not speak English meets in class and assembly rooms 
the girl who is a direct descendant of "one of the original 
families." Increasingly they are receiving from the public 
school a conception of a democracy which equips them alike 
for certain fundamental duties which are the due of every 
future citizen in a democracy and yet makes allowance for their 
individual differences. 

Just as different as the backgrounds of the girls are the 
schools in which they are to be found. On the one hand are 



the magnificent school buildings, with the latest equipment 
for the study of science, manual training 1 , domestic arts and 
out-door athletics; some of them are built upon the cottage 
plan, and have splendidly equipped faculties. On the other 
hand are the isolated one or two room schools where children 
from the 'country districts are receiving their preparation for 
life. However, the consolidated school system is bringing 1 new 
school standards and many new influences into the lives of 
girls who live in the open country. In between are the hundreds 
of mediumly well equipped buildings, itheir interiors sometimes 
as uniformly drab as are their exteriors. 

In any type of school are to be found both the girl who 
will graduate from high school and enter college, and the girl 
who may or may not finish high school. She very probably will 
enter the business or industrial world; there is also the gft-l 
who will just "stay at home." 

There will be found the studious girl (more frequently 
known in, the parlance of her school mates as "the grind") , 
the athletic girl, the girl who thrives on social affairs, both of 
the school and of her own contrivance, and the all-round girl 
who has a very large share in all (the activities of the school 
and many relationships in her community. 

And yet, different as are these types and varied as are the 
environments in which they are found, their fundamental needs 
are the same; to find ways to a full self expression through 
recreation, work, fellowship and religion. 

All of the needs which have been designated as fchose char- 
acteristic of great groups of girls in cities, towns, villages, 
and the open country apply to the school girl. But the specific 
application reveals the fact that it is necessary to interpret 
these four modes of expression in relation to the every day life 
of the girl. A school girl's need for recreation differs in degree 
from that of the younger girl in business and industry. She has 
experienced, generally, and will continue to receive, certain 
training in games, and plays and pageantry, while it is usually 

19 



true that her social experience is greater (i. e. she knows "the 
hostess feeling" see the chapter on Health Education, page 
362); therefore, in bringing school girls to self-expression 
through recreation, an adviser can begin almost at once to help 
them build up standards for their recreation, give them a vision 
of what it truly is "renewal of life," and help them to see it 
in its relation to work, fellowship and religion. 

To interpret to a school girl the way to find self expression 
through work requires skill and patience on the part of an 
adviser. The girl's conception is usually measured by her 
experience of household tasks or by a growing sense of her 
responsibility to make an economic contribution to the world 
(she is stirred to this very often in secondary school work by 
a study of economics). The adviser's opportunity lies^in the 
need to help the girl see work as a mode of expression for 
her growing self and to recognize that it means more than 
simply doing a task every day. It means creative production, 
which should bring to the girl skill, a sense of craftsmanship 
and fellowship with all others who work, whether with hand 
or mind. Everywhere work is an expression of life, whether 
in a home or in business or industry. Many girls think of it 
only in relation to business; therefore the real task is to help 
the girl see the place of work in the life of a woman. 

Fellowship is a growing consciousness of neighborliness. 
There was a time when the latter word meamt the family in 
the house next door to one; then it grew so that it began to 
include families in other sections of the community, where 
dllness or poverty had come. Through the channels of organiza- 
tions such as the American Red Cross the word took on new 
meaning when sudden calls came from nearby or even faraway 
communities in our own country. The real manifestations of 
neighborliness came with the Great War and girls' horizons 
were widened until they included suffering peoples in the de- 
vastated regions, throughout the world. New knowledge of 
peoples in other countries brought a revelation of the alikeness 

20 



of humanity and therefore the opportunity to-day is to keep 
girls' thinking international in its scope. It sometimes is easier 
to be neighborly at "long-distance" to have one's appreciation 
of the girls in China or Japan! or Russia or Armenia much 
stronger than one's understanding of the foreign speaking 
group or family "across the railroad track." Further interpre- 
tation of the term "fellowship" allows it to mean an understand- 
ing of the value of another's personality; it is a trust of their 
beliefs and purposes. To help a girl avoid "the box car" view of 
life (where one has only the tiny glimpses of the real contribu- 
tions of other people to the common life of a city or town or 
a nation or the world) is a very real need which an adviser and 
a secretary must meet. 

The other way in which the school girl's need may be met 
as through the avenue of religion. To many people the very 
use of this word will bring a sense of limitation, or a ques- 
tion of dogmatic teachings, sometimes interpreted in terms 
of denominationalism, but it is not so used here. When it is 
stated that a developing personality (which is what any girl 
in school is) is growth toward God and man, and that religion 
is a consciousness of God in life, a dynamic for action, then an 
adviser can see how broad is the use of the word and how 
fundamentally true is the application. Almost all girls need to 
see the relation between an individual experience of a relation- 
ship to God (which they have been taught) and the social appli- 
cation of it in their every day standards of living. (See the 
chapter on page 117, "A Clue to Program Planning," and the 
chapter on "Religious Education or Training in Christian Think- 
ing and Living," page 295.) 

The same fundamental needs are *found among the girls in 
the many private schools of th-is country. The New England 
academy, the agricultural school of the South, the country 
boarding and day schools, the city day schools, and the town 
and city boarding school, all offer in their various ways op- 
portunity for a girl to become an intelligent citizen. 

In the lives of most girls who are sent to private schools, 

21 



there is often a greater need for the interpretation of fellowship 
given above than for the public school girl who has more con- 
tact in her daily life -with girls' from all opportunity groups. 
For the private school girl, work needs to be related to her 
own life as a woman in such a way that she conceives of it as 
a factor in her every-day living, regardless of her position. 

While in most private schools, recreation is a carefully 
planned factor in the curriculum, there is still opportunity for 
helping the girl to form right standards of choice and value, 
so that when she must make decisions for herself she will have 
a scale of true values. 

The private school girl experiences the same need for ex- 
pression through the avenue of religion as does the girl in the 
public school. In addition to any moral, ethical or religious 
training given either as a part of the curriculum or through 
the school life, there is need to help the girl to relate her 
individual experience of a relationship to God to her every-day 
living. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE NEEDS OF YOUNGER GIRLS IN" BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY 

The Girl Herself 

THE group of younger girls in business and industry is on*? 
of the most stimulating to advisers of girls. Because of 
the great diversity of the school attendance laws and the 
child labor laws in the various states, in this group will be 
found girls from twelve to eighteen years of age. The direction 
of the girPs new sense of independence, due to her new environ- 
ment and the first taste of real freedom, the knowledge of condi- 
tions under which she lives,, works and plays, grip the imagina- 
tion of any one who really believes in girls. Generally speaking, 
this yo<unger girl resents too much formality in work and or- 
ganization. Life has early become a more intricate thing for 
her than for the school girl of the same age; she spends her 

22 



days doing work which is an expression of the commands of 
some one else or in producing machine work which comes out 
a product, each time the same. The continuing monotony 
normally results in a voluble and volatile outburst of the 
repressed spirit of energy, when work is over. This very fact 
accounts for certain extremes in behavior, in dress, in speech; 
her desire like that of any normal adolescent girl, is for "the 
best time possible/ 7 and sometimes if the best way -is not at 
hand, she takes some other. The girl needs to know what good 
wholesome fun means. Whether the girl admits it or not, the 
adviser needs to know that there is a longing on the part of 
the girl to do something and be somebody worthwhile. To help 
the girl ,to understand herself more clearly, to see herself in 
relation to the world of which she is a part and to satisfy 
this unspoken longing for that which is worthwhile both for 
herself and her fellow worker, through wholesome recreation 
and through a sincere personal interest, through self-govern- 
ing group activities, which give the girl ample chance to express 
herself, is the opportunity of an adviser. 
Where to Find Her and How to Reach Her 

Preliminary survey. Before attempting: club work for 
younger girls in business and industry, a girls' work secretary, 
the committee chairman or an adviser should be acquainted with 
the state regulations in regard to the following conditions: 

(a) Age at which girls may go to work. 

(b) Occupations open to girls. 

(c) Length of working day. 

(d) Average wage. 

(e) Opportunity for trade training, 

(f) Conditions of work; how regulated by law; provision 
for continuation schools. 

(g) Period of apprenticeship. 

(h) Number leaving school when in the eighth grade. 
(i) Number of commercial or technical high schools, 
(j) Number of girls leaving such schools at end of two 
years, 

23 



Information should be obtained also concerning the following 
situations: 

(a) Number of places employing girls between twelve and 
eighteen years of age. 

(b) Nationalities of girls. 

(c) Number living at home. 

(d) Housing conditions. 

(e) Opportunities for vocational training. 

(f ) Recreational facilities. 

(g) Distinct districts into which the community may ^be 
divided; e. g.; foreign, factory workers, etc. Is the community 
divided by the railroad tracks ? 

Such a survey should always be made in cooperation with 
the industrial department if it is organized in the Association. 
A previous survey made by the industrial department may 
make unnecessary another by the girls' work committee. (See 
page 623, Cooperation with Industrial Department,) 

After such a survey it should be apparent whether the 
approach to this younger girl in business and industry is better 
made through the continuation school the technical or busi- 
ness high school, or if the educational laws are such that the 
continuation school does not exist, and girls can go to work 
at a very early age without further education the only ap- 
proach with the exception of the grade school the place of 
work itself. If the latter is true, the girl's work secretary 
and the industrial secretary should work in close cooperation, 
and the girls' work secretary should have as excellent grade 
school work as possible ; she should be in close touch with tilts 
attendance officers, any vocational bureau which may exist in 
the schools and any person or machinery used to follow girls 
who leave school at an early age. The girls' work committee 
should make every effort to havef full information regarding 1 
the plans of Girl Reserves who graduate from the eighth grade; 
it should extend its interest to the many other girls who have 
not been Girl Reserves. Such an extensive piece of work as 

24 



this might possibly be accomplished through the help of high 
school Girl Reserves who are in their junior and senior years. 
These girls may seek opportunity to visit their former grade 
schools at promotion time and tell about high school life and 
with the help of the teacher secure the names of the girls who 
are planning to stop school. Through other grade school Girl 
Reserves themselves, much information can be obtained about 
the girl who thinks she wants to leave before the eighth grade 
and sometimes the presentation of the value of continued educa- 
tion to her and her parents will keep her in school for a longer 
time. 

Experience has revealed that work with younger girls in 
business and industry is twice as difficult if not begun until the 
girl is at work. To "catch the girl's interest" before she is in 
the throes of a new life with its .unsettling elements is the best 
way to help her when she makes this new step, and the Associa- 
tion will keep her loyalty nine times out of ten. ^Otherwise it 
is just an additional element in her life and she does not always 
find time for it. 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE NEEDS OF YOUNGER BUSINESS COLLEGE GIRLS 

THE girl in a short term business college in town or city is 
likely to be only fifteen or sixteen years old and so has all 
the characteristics of adolescence. Generally speaking, the 
course in such a college is from three to nine months in lengfth. 
Several types of girls will come to the attention of those in- 
terested in this group. One is the girl who has graduated from 
a grammar school in some small town or rural community and 
comes ito the large city or town to equip herself for work. 
She is often away from home for the first time, and her sense 
of independence and freedom from home restraint and com- 
munity opinion is likely to overbalance her judgment of what 
are right standards, both of work and play. Her needs are 
therefore: 

1. A spirit of friendliness among the women and girls of 

25 



the community, which will express itself in an active interest 
in how she is living and what she is doing. 

2. Sane and normal recreation. 

3. Vocational guidance. 

4. Better housing conditions. 

5. A growing: interest in "the things that matter most." 
Another type is the girl who has been in a commercial high 

school and has enrolled for a few months as a student in n 
business college in her own community. While her needs are 
not parallel in all respects to those of the girl away from 
home, yet obviously, there is a considerable contribution which 
may be made by a girls' work committee to her all-round 
development. 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE NEEDS OF GIRLS WITH A FOREIGN BACKGROUND* 

THE business of being the first friend in this bewildering 
country into which the stranger has come is the very 
heart and key a*nd secret of all the foreign community work 
of the Young Women's Christian Association, which is done by 
the International Institute. International work is actually 
and only that work which is with and for, and shared by 
foreign girls and women themselves. It is not getting students 
to a state of intelligent respect for the glories of other coun- 
tries and people other than their own, although that is a useful 
thing to accomplish. It is not getting industrial club girls to 
perceive that their opportunity for patriotic social service lies 
in befriending and treating as a Christian should the non- 
American girls they meet, although that, too, needs to be done*. 
. . . The idea has taken hold that to give the same ehanet* 
for education and inspiration to the foreign girls themselves 



* The material for this chapter on the Nceda of CIrls with n Fm'4*k 
Background has been taken from the. Report of th* Division of Work for 
^oreign-Born Women, Department of Research and Method, 1015-1020. 

26 



is "international" or "immigration work." And a second idea 
which has gained acceptance is this: really to do (this work 
with foreign girls, the Association must go and be to them in 
their language and in their communities, all that it now is, and 
even more than it now is, to American girls in their American 
life. In other words, this immigration work is not "a new 
Association activity"; but, on the contrary, it is all kinds of 
standard Association activities worked ouit to fit a new kind 
of community. Foreign community work simply duplicates all 
the different ''groups" of girl life the Association already knows. 

Women, young or older, of other races, other countries, are 
essentially the same sort of beings as are American born 
women, who dress as we do, speak and think the language we 
do. Therefore the Association's program with them and for 
them and their participation in the life and activities of As- 
sociations everywhere is a complete thing", and in no essential 
way different from the same thing with Americans. It differs 
tin approach, and in method, but not in the purpose nor in kind, 
nor in extent. It includes the ''whole Association program/' 
The four points of Association emphasis are there but in dif- 
ferent forms. From (the census and from official immigration 
reports it can be estimated that at present our United States 
population includes nineteen million souls whose childhood was 
spent in other lands. Whoever remembers how deeply the 
experiences, the traditions, the influences about her childhood 
have cut into her tastes and character, will realize what that 
fact means. The girls and older women whose childhood was 
spent in -the "Old Country" have deeply rooted bias, prejudice, 

ideas which must be understood and taken into account. In 

* 
the old country, clothing was made from the same materials 

we use over here. But it was cut differently and the com- 
pleted costume was a totally different creation. Most nations 

27 



use beans for food, but each has a peculiar way of cooking 
them and each certainly likes its own best! And so in its 
International Institute building, at as central a point for the 
currents of life of different foreign communities as can be 
found, the Association will have an informal, non-institutional 
neighborly place, with a class for learning English, and a club 
for singing old country songs. 

The Association's platform on Americanization is revealed 
to be as follows: Helping individual women to find a useful 
place in American life; working steadily to help them out of 
difficulties which so thickly beset the daily experience of 
strangers in a strange land; quietly, continually practicing the 
"loving kindness" which springs only from democracy and 
Christianity; opening new roads to health, to education, to 
ambition, to life itself! 

Where English is not the language of the home, it becomes 
necessary to understand backgrounds and customs in order to 
include them in the program. The employed workers of an 
International Branch always begin with the individual, not by 
classes and clubs, but by going out into the very homes of tho 
young women they would reach. 

Girls' work in an International Institute is based upon recog- 
nition of the fact that the foreign neighborhood brought certain 
Old World experiences to this country. The composite ex- 
perience of a race based upon centuries of similar experiences 
is difficult to comprehend. The roots of our American past are 
so short that we find it hard to understand how deeply rooted 
are the lives of peoples from other nations. 

Peoples from other countries have brought with them firmly 
fixed traditions and customs of family life; in their groups no 
member has ever thought of herself apart from a family rela- 
tionship. The great individualism, freedom and egotism of 
American youith in thought and action, are wholly new ideas 

28 



to the foreign neighborhood, and the examples which they wit- 
ness in their streets serve not to recommend these character- 
istics as working principles. Therefore, the grown folks in 
foreign homes cling more closely than ever to their (traditions 
about the protection and seclusion of their homes. 

Because of all this, the International Institute, that branch 
of Association work charged with carrying the message of the 
Young Women's Christian Association into foreign homes and 
foreign communities, necessarily faces girls' work as a home 
problem. The adolescent girl is absorbed not only in the difficult 
task of growing up, but also she is passing through a period of 
breaking away from the traditions and customs which have 
held the youth of her national group steady; and she is shift- 
ing* her standards and changing her ideals in an effort to accord 
with those of her adopted country as she sees them in the school 
or in the workshop. The Association reaches out to her with 
its understanding and sympathy to help her hold on to the 
best that is in her home while reaching toward the best in 
America. The Association also reaches out to the mother with 
the same understanding and sympathy to help her to attain 
to the best in America ; this "best" combined with the best that 
she has in her home will help her to grow with her daughter 
and not away from her. 

Another reason for approaching work with foreign-born 
girls in slightly different ways is the fact that in general the 
youth of the old world has not the strong "gang" spirit, nor 
does it have the group experience so characteristic of American 
adolescents. So the foreign home muat be led to appreciate the 
purpose and value of group life for their daughters; the girls 
will come very slowly to find a place for themselves in it 
Therefore, clubs will be small, programs will be ever changing 
with the growth of the group ideals in the minds of its mem- 
bers; milestones of group attainment will be placed close to- 
gether and the activities will express the mingling of old world 
culture with American ideals for life. 

29 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE NEEDS OP COLORED GIRLS 

THERE are more than a million younger colored girls in 
this country. The great majority of them live in the 
Southern sitates; in some of these states the colored girl out- 
numbers the white girl three to one. In order to understand 
the needs of this large group of girls, it is necessary to know 
something of their background, and to realize some of the ^con- 
ditions in which they live, particularly in that section of the 
country where they form such a considerable portion of the 
population. 

It is a well-known fact that in many parts of the South 
to-day, large numbers of colored people are owners of valuable 
property; they are building and owning* their houses, are 
entering the business and professional world. But despite these 
facts that bespeak progress, there are yet larger numbers of 
colored people who are still living in frame shanties and cot- 
tages with few or no sanitary facilities. There are communi- 
ties where the streets are often unpaved, undrained and un- 
policed. It can be seen readily what the health conditions am<m 
the colored people in such communities must be. In the last 
five years, however, annual "clean-up campaigns," "Netfro 
Health Weeks," and some health education have been encouraged 
by the United States Health Service, and by some of the state, 
county and city boards of heal/th. 

Moreover, in many of the communities there are few or 
no recreational facilities in the negro neighborhoodsnot even 
playgrounds. In those moving picture houses which do exist, 
the entertainment provided is usually of a rather low order, 
very young girls being admitted without question. The 8&mt k 
thing is true at the public dance halls which very often arc of 
the cheapest and lowest type. 

Taking the country as a whole there arc almost as many 
colored girls between the ages of twelve and eighteen out of 

30 



school as in school, those who do enter continuing until the 
age of fourteen, then dropping out. This is truer in the South 
(which has the largest percentage of colored girls) than in the 
North and West. It is due to several reasons; chief among 
them being an inadequate number of public elementary and 
secondary school buildings. There is also a lack of equipment, 
and the teachers receive low salaries. With very few excep- 
tions there are no public city high schools most of the second- 
ary schools are supported by private funds, four-fifths of which 
are supplied by white church boards, the remaining fifth by 
colored denominations. These reach but a small proportion 
of the thousands of younger colored girls. There is, however, 
an ever increasing tendency in many of the larger cities to pro- 
vide more adequate educational facilities for the colored group. 

Southern states are granting appropriations for better school 
facilities among Negroes; the Julius Rosen wald Fund also 
provides money to assist in erecting rural school houses. 'Com- 
munities will not be granted aid unless their school term is 
at least five months, and unless an amount is secured equal 
to or exceeding" the amount offered by the Julius Rosenwald 
Fund either from public school funds or from funds raised 
among themselves. 

In the Northern and Western states where the colored 
people are more closely identified with the community and 
share in the general influences of the community life, both 
living and educational facilities more nearly meet the needs 
of the colored people. As yet, with the exception of a few 
outstanding cities, the recreational facilities for colored people 
are very meager. But even in those states where the educa- 
tional facilities are better, the colored girl drops out of school 
at a very early age, untrained and in most cases totally unfit 
to be employed in any responsible position. Her leaving school 
is often due to lack of encouragement from her own people, 
and a lack of vocational information and guidance ; also the 
fact that there exist few opportunities in the community to use 

31 



such -training, once it has been acquired, influences her in her 
decision to leave school. 

Within the last few years community life and school life 
have been made more difficult for the colored girl in the 
Northern and Western cities because of the large numbers 
of young colored girls who have migrated from the South with 
their families. On account of the school attendance laws, 
these girls are compelled to attend school; because they fre- 
quently lack knowledge of the simplest fundamentals of living 
and are overgrown, over age and retarded, they form a \ery 
serious problem. This has resulted in many cases in the white 
people becoming acutely and unpleasantly aware of the colored 
group, and a consequent loss of good feeling has developed In 
the community. It has been felt in many of the mixod schools 
and constitutes another reason for numbers of colored girl** 
dropping out of high school in their freshman or sophomore 
years. 

The colored people have found their biggest and truest 
outlet for self expression through their church life so that to 
the average younger colored girl, both in the North and the 
South, church attendance ds a very natural part of her life. 
Despite the great progress that has been made by the Neii'ro 
church, there are still large groups of younger colored girla 
lacking trained Christian leadership. 

It would appear therefore, that although the manifestations 
of the needs of younger colored gills may vary slightly because 
of different local conditions, they are in general the same; 
vocational information and guidance; encouragement to con- 
tinue education; more opportunities for employment; moru 
knowledge of recreation and health standards; better muni- 
cipal facilities for amusement; greater knowledge of and prick* 
in the history and achievements of the Negro race, thus bring- 
ing about freedom from the thought of being handicapped in 
life because one belongs to the colored race; a sense of respon- 
sibility for a contribution to the progress of the race "Etluca- 

32 



lion for Service" the development of a mutual respect for each 
other among both white and colored girls which will result in 
natural contact with white girls bringing 1 about a healthy, 
normal relationship and mutual understanding, faith and trust; 
development of the rich emotional gift which is particularly 
characteristic of this group and building up of Christian 
ideals by means of a trainee! Christian leadership of the highest 
type. 

CHAPTER IX, 
i 

THE NEEDS OF AMERICAN INDIAN GIRLS 

7"ASCINATING as their history has been and thrilling as 
JL they are in pictures and story and poems, the American 
Indians have been consigned to the Government for care and 
direction by the great mass of American people. For several 
hundred years, representatives of the Protestant and Catholic 
faiths have worked among the many tribes, yet many problems 
remain unsolved to-day in spite of government and mission 
work. 

The necessity for an understanding" of the life of an Ameri- 
can Indian girl to-day is very great Like the adolescent white 
or colored girl, she must receive, she must possess and she 
must give. And what are the gifts she must receive? 

First: An understanding that the teachings of Christianity 
are better for her people than their own non-Christian beliefs 
and practices. 

Second: Proof from the lives of Christian girls that the 
love and teachings of Christ are adequate for all their needs. 

To help her gain this understanding and proof, friendship 
in its largest meaning" must become her possession. She must 
find friends among girls who have Christian ideals and 
standards. , There must be friends amonar older Christian 
workers who can and will help her to live up to these ideals 

33 



while she is in school and when she goes home to meet the 
hardships and temptations of reservation life. But the circle 
of her friends must grow larger always and there must be 
a growing sense of friends around .the world, a feeling of fel- 
lowship with girls in other lands who are working and praying 
for the same ideals and for a stronger Christian womanhood. 
Third: She must give all she has received of understanding 
or proof of friendship, to other girls at school who have had 
less opportunity, and to all the people at home, many of whom 
have not yet heard of these things. She must also share her 
personal allegiance to Christ, who will give to her the ability 
to understand, the love and sympathy and the patience she 
needs and courage to push ahead and lead her people along 
new trails. 

CHAPTER X. 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GIRLHOOD 

A Girl and Her World 

IT is of vital importance to an adviser to be able to put her- 
self in the place of her girls, to remember how she felt 
when she was their age, to see how they will look upon the 
plans which she proposes. Between the ages of twelve and 
eighteen every girl goes through certain psychological as well 
as physiological changes. An understanding of these changes 
helps a club adviser immeasurably. 

Although no two girls develop in the same way or at the 
same rate of progress, there are in general three stages of 
girlhood development; -the early "teen age" (twelve-fifteen 
years) which is a period of rapid growth and physical change 
resulting in awkwardness and self consciousness; the "middle 
teen age" (fif teen-eight een years) in which the girl has at- 
tained a womanly appearance, although her growth is still in- 
complete and her nervous tension strong ; the "late adolescent 
period" (eighteen-twenty-five years) in which responsibility 

34 



begins to loom large, the girPs horizon broadens and she is 
ready to give definite social expression to her thoughts. 
Build on What Girls Need and Enjoy 

It is impossible in short space .to discuss adequately this 
large subject of the psychology of girlhood. A chart showing* 
this development is included in this manual (see page 32). 
Ample material is also to be found in such books as "Girlhood 
and Character" and "Leadership of Girls' Activities/ 7 by Mary 
C. Moxcey; "Leaders of Girls," by Clara Ewing Espey, and 
'The American Girl and Her Community," by Margaret Slat- 
tery. All of these may be obtained from The Book Shop, 600 
Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

A study of the characteristics of girlhood development forms 
the foundation for a wise choice of club activities. Age is not 
the only consideration which necessitates variations in a pro- 
gram. If an adviser recognizes differences in environment, 
education, types of homes, occupations, and nationalities of her 
girls, she can plan with the girls in the group a club program 
which combines what the girls will enjoy with what they need. 
Eecreation is an essential in every club program- 

The chart showing the Normal Development of Girlhood is 
included in this Manual for advisers because it helps to retain 
in one's mind some very important psychological principles, 
upon which work with girls should be based. It is essential, 
however, to keep in mind several of the following suggestions, 
lest an adviser or secretary be tempted to follow the chart too 
literally: 

A. The division into age groups is not an absolutely deter- 

mined one which will always hold. The passing from one 
stage to another, in a girl's life, is a process of insensible 
gradations. 

B. There may be some cases where the characteristics noted 

tinder Sections B. C. D. of each stage, seem to be more 
true of girls a year or two younger than the age given 
for this stage. 



0. Sometimes it is discovered that a "girl feels herself mis- 

understood" when she is still in the first or "Me and My 
Crowd" stage of development. 

This feeling would therefore continue until she is about 
fifteen. 

CHAPTER XI. 

A SURVEY OF THE GIKL LIFE OF A COMMUNITY 

Such a survey is essential before it is possible for a Girls 9 Work 
Department to try to meet adequately the needs of the various groups 

of girls. 

1. Population. 

A. What is the population of the city? 

B. How many girls under eighteen included in the total 
population are among this number? 

C. How many of these girls are at work? 

D. How many of these girls are in school ? 

II. Nationalties. 

A. What are the nationalities represented in the city? 

B. Do they group together in certain neighborhoods? 

III. Religious Denominations. 

A. What churches are there in the city? 

B. How many are there? 

C. What are the names of the ministers and priests? 

D. What kinds of activities do they have in their parishes, 
aside from the religious work? 

E. What are they doing for their young people? 

IV. Recreational Facilities. 

A. What is the number, location and character of dance 
halls, motion picture theatres, lodges, skating rinks? 

B. Are public dance halls supervised in any way? If so 
by whom are the supervisors appointed? Are they 
men or women? 

36 



C. What methods of chaperonage are used at semi-public 
entertainments given under the auspices of private 
organizations ? 

D. Are there any parts of the community which offer no 
recfeation for girls ? 

E. Would it be possible to start a club in any of these 
neglected places? 

F. Where could such a club meet; in any unused halls or 
rooms in churches; in any available rooms or gym- 
nasiums in public schools? 

G. Are there community halls or other shacks or cabins, 
or camp grounds controlled locally, used by groups of 
younger girls? What chaperonage is provided? 

V, Organizations Already Doing Work With Girls. 

A. Typical examples. 

a. What churches have institutional work? 

b. What are the number and location of playgrounds? 
Are they private or municipal? 

c. What factories or stores have welfare work which 
includes club and recreational work? 

d. What special organizations, as Catholic Sodalities, 

Community Service, Women's Clubs, are promoting 
a program for girls? 

B, What is the nature of the work they are doing? 

VI, Industrial Conditions (give separately for each establish- 
ment), 

A. How many factories, stores, etc., are there which em- 
ploy girls under eighteen ? 

B. What is the number, nationality and approximate age 
of these girls? 

C. Is any welfare work done among them? 

D. What is the attitude of the firms toward outside or- 
ganizations helping with or undertaking work among 
their employees? 

37 



E. What are the labor laws of the state governing- work 
for girls under eighteen? 

F. On what conditions are work certificates granted, and 
by whom? 

G. Is there a Junior Employment Bureau in your com- 
munity? If not, how are girls 'guided in selection of 
work? 

VII. School Conditions. 

A. How many of the public schools have playgrounds? 
What apparatus is there? Is it used after school 
hours? How is the play supervised? 

B. Is there a physical director in the schools ? What does 
she do for the playtime of the girls? 

O. What equipment is there within the school building 1 
for recreation and physical training? 

D. Is it used by others than the school children? 

E. What use is made of school buildings as community 
centers ? 

F. What clubs or societies (of a social or recreational 
nature) are there within the school? 

G. Is there a dean of girls in the high school? 

H. What effort is made to give vocational guidance in 
grade and high schools ? Are there vocational advisers ? 

L What provision is made for vocational education ? Are 
courses along this line included in regular grade? and 
high school work or are there separate vocational 
schools ? . If so, what courses are included ? Classify 
these according to agricultural, commercial (retail 
selling), home making, industrial. 

For this survey the following sources of information are 
suggested : 

A. Census reports, including school census reports, 

B. Reports of public officials. 

C. Investigations made by Women's Clubs, the National 
Consumers' League (105 East 22nd Streets, New York 
City), and like organizations. 

38 



D. Private inquiry of employers, teachers, ministers and 
parents, 

E. Direct conversation with girls and women. 

A graphic way to study the community as it really is, and 
he girl in relation to it, is to use a chart made by indicating 1 
n a large map of the city, town or county, by use of colored 
i ins, or stars, the following: The grammar schools, parochial 
,nd private schools, continuation and trade schools, consolidated 
chools, business colleges, factories, department stores and five- 
,nd-ten-cent stores, moving picture theatres, dance halls 1 *, thea- 
res, skating rinks, recreation parks, both public and private', 
nunicipal recreation centres, settlements, car lines, public 
ibraries, sections of the community where foreign-born, col- 
red and trade groups are settled; institutional churches, 
foung Men's Clmstian Association and Young Women's Ohris- 
ian Association buildings, if there are any, or like organiza- 
ions. Those public schools which are being used for night 
chools should be indicated in some special manner. 

In making such a chart be sure that the map used is large 
>nough to permit the indication of all these places without con- 
'using the eye. Such maps are usually procurable at the city 
>r town hall. 



Section II. 

THE GENERAL PLAN OF THE GIRL RESERVE 
MOVEMENT 

YOUNGER girls in open country, in towns and cities, for 
whom and with whom work is done by the Young Women's 
Christian Association, are known as Girl Reserves. The 
fellowship of young-er girls, which includes grade school, high 
school, younger girls in business and industry and young-er bus- 
iness college girls between twelve and eighteen is in truth a 
girl movement within the larger Association movement. 

The object of the Girl Reserve Movement, in direct accord- 
ance \vith the purpose of the Association, is to provide or sup- 
plement those ideals and convictions which help a girl to live as 
a Christian of her age should and to aid her to put into practice 
in her community her standards of Christian living. It en- 
deavors to give girls through normal, natural activities the 
habits, insights and ideals which will make them responsible 
Christian women; capable and ready to help make America 
more true to its best hopes and traditions. 

The Girl Reserves, whose insignia is the Blue Triangle with 
the letters G.R. inscribed within, form a part of a national and 
an international movement for girls and women. The Blue Tri- 
angle of the Younff Women's Christian Association is already 
well known throughout the world to-day, and by wearing It 
here in America a girl is sharing the responsibility of girls 
throughout the world to help bring about the kingdom of 
friendly citizens. 

41 



The Girl Reserve Movement includes five programs designed 
to reach groups of adolescent girls; i. e., grade school, junior 
high school, high school, business college and younger girls in 
business and industry. Each of these programs should be 
adapted to local conditions. 

The Girl Reserve Movement has incorporated many princi- 
ples used formerly in Association programs, such as Rainbow 
Club, Be Square Club, The Girl Guardians, and Silver Link 
Club, and has the additional advantage of bringing unity to all 
the work being done with teen age girls in the Young Women's 
Association. 

The unit of organization in work with grade school girls Is 
the corps, made up of ten to twenty girls under the direction 
of a competent leader called an adviser,. In high school work 
the group is generally larger and is called a club. In work 
with younger girls either in business or in industry the 
unit of organization may be any of these, the corps, the com- 
pany, or the club. Two or more corps make up a company, 
All the corps, companies and clubs in the community make up a 
division. Thus in a given community there might be four 
companies of grade school girls, two of high school girls and 
two of younger girls in business and industry. The Girl Reserve 
division would be made up of all of these. In this way all 
the work for younger girls in an Association is linked together 
and the girl passing from grade school to high school, or to 
work, is still a part of the same movement. 

In so far as the organization and program of the several 
groups grade school, high school, and younget girls in busi- 
ness college and in business and industry -must differ some- 
what because of the differences in age and needs of the girls in- 
volved, the details of each are to be found in the special sec- 
tions which follow. 

The Girl Reserve plan may be used in any district, county, 
town, or city, where there is an organized Young Women's 

42 



Christian Association. It also may be used in any district, 
county, town or city where work is being carried on under the 
direction of a field or headquarters secretary who is supervising 
the work done by a group of volunteers. Care should be taken 
in this case that the work in the territory under the supervision 
of this worker will be organized within a reasonable time as 
a Young Women's Christian Association. Any community 
adopting the Girl Reserve plan must recognize it as a distinc- 
tively Young Women's Christian Association plan. The plan 
may be used in any Sunday school or church school where the 
above requirements are met. 

Supervision of Girl Reserve work is interpreted to mean 
the supervision of a regular town or country field worker*, a 
field secretary for work with younger girls, a county or dis- 
trict organizer, a field student secretary, or a local student As- 
sociation where the club work in the community is being 

handled by members of the local student Association. Any As- 
sociation may become responsible for a Girl Reserve group in 
an outlying district through its g-eneral secretary or girls' 
work secretary, provided the city, or town or country field 
secretary is willing that this should be done. 

MEMBERSHIP 

Any girl between the ag-es of twelve and eighteen may be- 
come a Girl Reserve, 

It is difficult at the present time to make any standard regu- 
lations as to membership fees for younger girls in a local 
Young Women's Christian Association, inasmuch as local con- 
ditions differ so greatly in different parts of the country, Un- 
der certain conditions it is undoubtedly better to have no fees. 
Girl Reserve work should never be blocked by a membership 
fee, 

REGISTRATION 

Every corps or company or club is requested to register at 
National Headquarters, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

43 



Application blanks, requesting detailed information about the 
name of the school or firm, group of girls applying for regis- 
tration, number in group, name and address of the adviser and 
the name of the girls 7 work secretary, may be secured from 
the field secretaries for younger girl work. 

Upon return of these blanks, carefully filled out, to the 
Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City, Girl Reserve registration cards are sent to the 
corps, company or club, making the request and to the field 
secretaries for younger girl work in whose field the Associa- 
tion is located. A third card is retained at headquarters, so that 
the Girl Reserve registration file will be complete. 

SLOGAN 
"To face life squarely" 

PURPOSE 
"To find and give the best 

CODE 

"As a Girl Reserve I will be 
Gracious in manner 
Impartial in judgment 
Ready for service 
Loyal to friends 

Reaching toward the best 
Earnest in purpose 
Seeing the beautiful 
Eager for knowledge 
Reverent to God 
Victorious over self 
Ever dependable 
Sincere at all times " 

44 



"I will do my best to honor God, my country, and my com- 
munity, to help other girls, and to be in all ways a loyal, true 
member of the Girl Reserves." 



GIRL RESERVE SYMBOLISM 

The teen age girl is generally imaginative and easily ap- 
pealed to by the symbolic. The Blue Triangle of the Girl Re- 
serve should be to every girl who wears it the symbol of the 
highest type of service for God and her country, the kind of 
service which requires not mere handiwork but the kindling" en- 
thusiasm and the determination to make good, which come only 
when a girl begins to understand some of the simple funda- 
mental facts about her relationship to God, and to life as a 
whole. The base of the Blue Triangle is Spirit, its two sides 
are Knowledge and Health. This means that the Blue Triangle 
girl is physically fit, is mentally and morally trained. With 
these three characteristics, the Blue Triangle girl need have no 
fear in undertaking the big adventure of life. The interna- 
tionalism of the Blue Triangle and the work being done under 
its symbol in the many countries of the civilized world to-day 
give a girl the feeling of a great world sisterhood, which is so 
important a part of the Blue Triangle spirit. The initiation, 
recognition and installation services used by the various groups 
in the Girl Reserve Movement offer a special opportunity to 
interpret this symbolism. 

The Girl Reserve ode serves further to express the mean- 
ing of the Blue Triangle. In interpreting it advisers are asked 
to lay special stress upon the fact that "to face the life square- 
ly,"' '"to find and give the best," "to be reaching toward the best" 
and "to be earnest in purpose," involve a willingness on the 
part of a girl to train herself to be her very best. This means 
working- at all things long enough really to finish them, stay- 
ing by a thing until it is really completed. What the world 
needs to-day is girls and women, who are not mere drifters and 
players, but those who can be relied upon to finish a piece of 

45 



work; by so doing- they add much more to their own worth. 

From time to time all girls should be given a chance to say 
what the code means to them; sometimes a single phrase may 
be used as the subject of an informal talk about the way girls 
can make the code really effective in everyday life. 

The following interpretation of the meaning of the code 
should be regarded as fundamental, and advisers and secre- 
taries will find it helpful in aiding girls to express in their own 
words what it may stand for in their lives. 

THE MEANING OF THE GIRL RESERVE CODE 

To face squarely the daily tests which come at home, in 
school, at work, at play; to be a friend to all and strive to 
show Christ's love in every little deed, to give the best of self 
in service to God and in fellowship with girls everywhere, are 
golden threads woven through the fabric out of which a Girl 
Reserve fashions her thoughts and actions. 

The "Christ way" for everyday living means to a Girl Re- 
serve: simple graciousness; constant and consistent impartial- 
ity; readiness for service however humble and insignificant; mi- 
waiving, unqualified loyalty to friends ; an eager desire for 
knowledge of the beautiful and the worth-while in life and in 
living; a sincerity and earnestness of purpose which leads ever 
upward and outward; a sense of responsibility which not only 
begins a task but also finishes it; a control of self which makes 
for a body and mind clean and pure in all ways; and a reverence 
for God which shows itself in work and in worship which rec- 
ognizes Christ as the Light and the Way. 

This and much more does the Girl Reserve code strive to 
symbolize to every Girl Reserve. Whether it becomes mere 
words or a vital force for living, depends upon the interpreta- 
tion and emphasis given it by an adviser. To make the code live 
for girls means to live it for ourselves. 

It is from the visions of youth that come inspirations to 
make to-morrow better than to-day. Visions come from a be- 

46 



lieving In belief; from believing in love and loveliness, from a 
spirit which hates wrong and injustice, which strives for a 
"best" that has God for its goal and Christ's standards as its 
test for action a spirit which sees, in the shadows of the great 
trees and in the gold of the sunset, a God not old but young 
who calls youth to follow him and find eternal life. This is the 
meaning to a Girl Reserve of the key note of her code "reverent 
to God," the giving of self in love for God and love for man, 
love expressed in terms of human helpfulness. Towards this 
and from this all the rest of the code leads, helping every Girl 
Reserve to find for herself and others the "life abundant." 

SALUTE 

Girl Reserves salute their advisers, each other, and the Blue 
Triangle, The salute is made by placing the thumb of the 
right hand in the middle of the palm. The right hand is then 
brought in salute to the place on the left arm where the Girl 
Reserve Triangle patch is to be worn. 

The four fingers have been chosen to symbolize the four 
principles of development in a girl's life: Health, Knowledge, 
Service, and Spirit. 

Every time a Girl Reserve sees the Blue Triangle, she will 
salute and, as she salutes, will remember that it stands for the 
goal toward which she is striving "to face life squarely, to 
seek and give the best, and to be in all ways a loyal, true 
member of the Girl Reserves." 

SONG 

By ROSAMOND KIMBALL 

Sung 1 to the melody, *'Keep the Home Fires Burning:" 
I 

To the girlhood of our country 

There sounds a trumpet call, 

To the girls by mountain, sea and plain, 

47 



In town and village small. 
Arise! Arise] O daughters! 
Lift up your eyes and see, 
The fields are ripe for harvest! 
Will you the gleaners be? 

Chorus 

Girl Reserves! Who'll join us? 
Eager, glad for service. 
Sisters, daughters, friends and comrades 
We'll be true. 

Reaching toward the highest, 
Honor, Truth and Beauty, 
Find and give the best in life, 
The world needs you! 

II 

Do you love good times and hiking, 
Wi'th the camp fire at the end? 
Will you be a strong true comrade 
To someone who needs a friend? 
Can you meet a sharp word bravely, 
With forgiveness and a smile? 
Can you stand for what you know is ri 
Then you're a girl worth while. 

Chorus 
III 

The way is bright with promise 
But the path is steep and lonp:, 
For it were not worth the struggle 
If the prize were cheaply won. 
As our men have fought for freedom, 
So we will fight for rig*ht, 
For we will hold the torch of truth 
And bear aloft the light. 

Chorus 

48 



OFFICIAL INSIGNIA 

The letters G.R. placed within the Blue Triangle, the three 
sides of which symbolize the three cardinal principles of the 
Girl Reserve movement Health, Knowledge, Spirit. 
Ann Bands. 

The arm bands are made of grey cloth and have embroid- 
ered on them a Copenhagen blue triangle. Grade school girls 
outline the triangles on their arm bands with a very light blue 
floss. Freshman high school girls (if organized in a separate 
club) use tan floss, and younger girls in business and industry 
use red floss. Some of the younger girls of the latter group 
want to use the armband embroidering on it, perhaps their com- 
pany or club color as a bar at either side of the blue triangle. 
Older girls will be more interested in the little sew-on triangle 
and the pin. 

Special Insignia. 

Health Badge: A reel circle to be described around the 
triangle on the armband. This circle is to be embroidered by 
the Girl Reserves themselves. 

Knowledge Badge: A small owl, to be placed at one side 
of the triangle (sec diagram page ), 

Service Badge: A blue star, to be placed at one side of the 
triangle (see diagram page ). 

Spirit Badge: A Roman lamp to be placed above the tri- 
angle (see diagram page ). 

Sew-on Triangles. 

Patch triangles: These are Copenhagen blue triangles em- 
broidered on white wash material. They are to be worn on 
middy blouses, coats and hats. 

Brush-away triangles: These are Copenhagen blue triangles 
embroidered on a transparent background, which brushes away 
when the triangles have been whipped to the ties. These are 
to be used on the ties which grlrls will secure for themselves. 

49 



Pins. 

These are three-quarter-inch triangles made of gold and blue 
enamel with the letters G.R. in the center. 

Official Costumes. 

The official costume is a white middy blouse worn with either 
a blue or a white skirt, a Girl Reserve tie of Copenhagen blue 
or black silk, with an embroidered Girl Reserve triangle on one 
end of it, and a white d-uck hat. 

Girl Reserve Rings. 

These are sterling silver rings with a raised silver seal on 
which is mounted the Girl Eeserve triangle enameled in blue 
hard French enamel. The possession of the Girl Eeserve rin 
is the greatest honor that can come to a Girl Reserve, No girl 
can purchase the ring. It must be earned by one of the fol- 
lowing methods: 

REQUIREMENTS FOR WINNING THE GIRL RESERVE RING 

Grade School Girls. 

When a grade school girl has won the required one hundred 
and sixty honors necessary for the chevrons, she may work for 
one hundred additional honors from the Girl Reserve List and 
win a Girl Reserve ring. She is then called a special Girl Re- 
serve aide. 

High School Girls. 

High school girls may win the Girl Reserve ring in either 
of two ways: 

(1) By working on certain standards for health, 
knowledge, and spirit because the Blue Triangle stands as a 
symbol of the finest kind of living. Any girl who wears the 
Girl Reserve ring should feel that it stands as a measure of 
her growth toward attaining her ideal in health and knowledge 
and spirit. These standards may vary slightly in different 
communities, because girls and advisers are helping to set 
them, but such things as good posture, fine scholarship, faithful 

50 



club attendance, active service work, a good team spirit, will 
help to determine whether a girl deserves a ring. 

Suggestions for standards for the winning of rings by high 
school girls may be secured from the secretaries for younger 
girls in the several fields. No standard can be adopted until 5t 
has been accepted by the field secretary for younger girls and 
the Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington Ave- 
nue, New York City. In the section on Material for Program 
Building, page 713, will be found suggestive standards which 
may be adapted by any group to fit its own needs. 

Very frequently a committee of club girls, who will be, 
probably, cabinet or council girls, will help the advisers in 
choosing girls who should receive the rings. 

(2) High school girls may win the ring by earning rtwo 
hundred and sixty points taken from the honor list or from 
lists which have been approved by their field secretary for 
younger girls. 

Younger Girls In Business and Industry. 

Younger girls in business and industry may win the Girl 
Reserve ring in either of two ways: 

Method I. 

(A) By showing a desire to establish, good health habits 
through : 

(a) Keeping the Girl Reserve Health Code for at least eight 
months (see page 204). 

(b) A physical examination, if possible. 

(c) Personal first aid. 

(1) Knowing and observing proper care of the body by 
bathing; care of the teeth; care of the hair and 
skin. 

(2) Knowing the important organs of the human body 
and observing their functions. 

51 



(B) By trying* to become a more intelligent citizen and worker 
through at least six discussions of some such topics as: 

(a) What lies behind and ahead of the pay envelope? 

(b) Thrift. 

(c) Books why? when? where? 

(d) Who makes "your laws ? 

(e) Health personal and community. 

(f) Pictures good and bad. 

Suggestions for these and other discussion topics will be 
found under "Knowledge," in the chapter on Content and 
Method Typical of a Program for Younger Girls in Business 
and Industry. (See Section IV, chapter II, page 209.) 

(C) By trying to be a real Girl Reserve at home, at work, at 

play, for at least eight months. This means: 

(a) Keeping the Business and Industrial Code (see page 
227). 

(b) Doing a good turn daily or saying a kind word daily. 

(c) Trying to make concrete through active service work, 
through personal reading and discussion, the motto of 
the Y. W. C. A., "I am come that ye may have life, and 
have it more abundantly." 

These regulations might be posted on a bulletin board in 
the club room or center and the attention of new girls called 
to them from time to time. 

A "ring committee" might consisit of two or more girls 
chosen or elected, the girls' work secretary and adviser. 
Method II. 

By winning 260 Honors. (See Special Honor List for 
Younger Girls in Business and Industry for suggestions for 
such honors, page 280.) 

No girl under twelve years of age can win a Girl Reserve 
ring even though she may have covered the ground required 
for the winning of the ring. 

In making application for rings for grade school girls, the 
age of the girl must be stated. 



CORRECT PROCEDURE FOR ADVISERS WHO DESIRE TO SECURE RINGS 
FOR GIRL RESERVES OR FOR THEMSELVES 

I. For Girls. 

(a) If a girl is entitled to a ring on the basis of honors, 
the following information, approved by the local girls' 
work chairman, must be sent by the local girls' work 
secretary to the Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, and a copy of 
it must be sent to the field secretary for younger girls. 

(1) A statement of the honors either by number in the 
list or written in full. 

(2) The length of time which the girl has taken to win 
the required number of honors. That is, when she 
began work on them and when she completed them. 

(b) If a girl is entitled to a ring because she has attained 
the standards set by her club, and accepted by the field 
secretary for Younger Girls and 1 by the Bureau for 
Work with Younger Girls, the recommendations for the 
recognition should be approved by the ring committee, 
the adviser In charge of the group (and if a high school 
girl, by a faculty adviser), and by the chairman of the 
S. 0. S. or the chairman of the council (cabinet) and 
the local guis y work secretary. The recommendation 
must contain full information as to the kind of work 

. done and the amount of time given. 

If committee work is part of the standard set it must ex- 
tend over the regular period for which the committee serves or 
if the work is done on a special committee, the time given must 
be sufficiently long to prove a real test. In either case, the 
committee work must be of such character that it demands 
special interest aid effort in the way of dependableness, spirit, 
and ability. 

If service work is part of the standard set it must be the 
kind which really takes effort, and while no definite time can 

53 



be set as the minimum, it must not be something wmcn can oe 
accomplished in a few minutes. 

This information and the recommendation must be sent to 
the field secretary for younger girls and upon her approval 
the ring will be sent to the Girl Reserve by the Bureau for 
Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. 

II. For Advisers. 

Any adviser who has served for any nine months during any 
calendar year is entitled to a Girl Reserve ring on the recom- 
mendation of the local girls' work committee. The basis for 
making this recommendation should be the following: 

(a) The general reliability and dependableness of the leader. 

(b) Initiative and ability to hold the interest of the girls. 

(c) Punctuality and faithful attendance at meetings. Five- 
sixths of the meetings held during- the year must be at- 
tended by the adviser unless there is some definite reason 
such as unavoidable illness or absence from the city, 

Under these circumstances the local girls' work secretary 
must be notified of such proposed absence in advance of 
the club meeting and a substitute should be provided by 
the adviser in consultation with the g*irls ? work sec- 
retary. 

No ring can be sent to any Girl Reserve or authorized for 
an adviser until the information, as outlined above, is 
sent in by the local girls' work secretary. 

The information under I and II should be sent direct to the 
Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City, with a duplicate to the field 
secretary for younger girls. The recommendation under 
I~b must be sent direct to the field secretary for younger 
girls who will forward it (to the Bureau for Work with 
Younger Girls at Headquarters. 

54 



Rings for advisers (price $1.25) must be purchased from 
the Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 
(Checks or money orders should be made payable to M. H. 
Broadwell, Treasurer). Applications for these ring's should be 
sent to the Bureau for Work with Younger Girls; when re- 
ceived, they will receive official recognition and an order for 
shipment will be forwarded to the Womans Press. These rings 
may be given to the advisers by local associations, or the ad- 
visers may be authorized by the local association to purchase 
their own rings. 

Information regarding the rings won by the Girl Reserves 
may be obtained from the Bureau for Work with Younger 
Girls, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

APPLICATION FOR GIRL RESERVE RING 

To be filled out by the local girls' work secretary, signed by 
the field secretary for younger girls, and returned to the Bu- 
reau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. 

This is to certify that 

Age ........... of the 



(Name of the city and state) 

Young Women's Christian Association, is entitled to a Girl 

Reserve ring, size , having met one of the following 

requirements : 

No. of Honors Committee Work Service Work 

Grade School 



High School 

Younger Girl in Busi- 
ness and Industry 



55 



NOTE: 

A. A Grade School girl is not entitled to a Girl Reserve ring 
until she has earned 160 honors necessary for the chevrons 
plus 100 additional honors from the Girl Reserve list. 

A High School girl may win the Girl Reserve ring in either of 
two ways : 

(1) By working to meet certain standards, as outlined in the 
special statement for high schpol giirls. (See page 50, 
Girl Reserve Manual for Advisers.) 

(2) By winning 260 points taken from the honor list or 
honors which the field secretary for younger girls con- 
siders equivalent to those in the list. 

A Younger Girl in Business and Industry is entitled to a Girl 
Reserve ring through either of the following 1 methods: 

(1) The method outlined in the special statement printed in 
the pamphlet, "The Younger Girl in Business and Indus- 
try," or found in the Girl Reserve Manual for Advisers, 
page 51. 

(2) By winning 260 points taken from the honor list or 
honors which the field secretaries for younger girls 
consider equivalent to those on the list. Please attach to 
this application blank the list of honors which the girl 
has won. 

This application blank must be signed by the field secretary for 
younger girls before any ring will be awarded to any girl, regard- 
less of whether she is in grade school, high school or a younger 
girl in business and industry. 



Girls' Work Secretary. 

Field Secretary for Younger Girls. 
These blanks are to be ordered from the field office. 

56 



SUGGESTED CEREMONY FOR AWARDING OF GIRL RESERVE RING 

Processional "'Hymn of the Lights" 

(Form circle around table, finding place by card) 
O, beautiful for spacious skies 
For amber waves of grain 
For purple mountain majesties, 
Above the fruited plain! 
America I America ! 
God shed His grace on thee 
And crown thy good with brotherhood 
From sea to shining sea! 

Salute to American Flag: 

I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the Republic for 
which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and 
justice for all. 

O, beautiful for pilgrim feet 

Whose stern, impassioned stress 

A thoroughfare for freedom beat 

Across the wilderness! 

America! America! 

God mend thine every flaw, 

Confirm thy soul in self-control, 

Thy liberty in law! 

Salute to Christian Flag: 

I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the Kingdom for which 
it stands one brotherhood uniting all in service and love. 

0, beautiful for patriot's dream 

That sees beyond the years 

Thine alabaster cities gleam 

Undimmed by human tears! 

America! America! 

God shed His grace on thee 

And crown thy good with brotherhood 

From sea to shining sea! 

57 



Statement of requirements which have been fulfilled. Each 
girl in turn presents briefly the requirements which she has 

fulfilled. 

Girl Reserve Song 

Girl ReservesI Who'll join us? 

Eager, glad for service, 

Sisters, daughters, friends and comrades, 

Well be true 

Reaching toward the highest, 

Honor, Truth and Beauty 

Find and give the best in life, 

The world needs you! 
Talk by the Adviser or Committee Chairman. 

Closing Hymn "Hymn of Lights" 

Sung as prayer 
Prayer by the Adviser 

Presentation of rings to Girl Reserves who have won them. 
Producing Notes: 

Place a small table (round, if possible) in the centre or at 
one end of the Club room. Decorate the table with club colors, 
using them to form a triangle or con-centric circles. For the 
centre of the triangle or circles place a bouquet of flowers. 
These flowers may be seasonal ones or they may be the corps 
or club flowers. Fasten attractive place cards to one end of 
ribbon streamers ; attach the 'Girl Reserve ring and the other 
end of the ribbons to the stems of the flowers. 

If this ceremony is used only when a considerable number 
of Girl Reserves are receiving their rings, the remainder of the 
corps or club members become an audience. If only one or two 
girls are being awarded rings, the corps or club as a wholo 
would participate in the ceremony. The talk by the adviser or 
the chairman should be brief and very probably symbolism 
would have some place in it. Since the Girl Reserve ring 
represents real achievement, it is desirable that its significance 
as a measure of growth should be stressed. 

If this ceremony is being used by older high school girls, 



the talk might be made by one of the club members. The pur- 
pose of the High School club could be incorporated in the cere- 
mony, possibly at the pojnt where a girl reports how she has 
won the ring. 

THE UNIFYING OF GIRL RESERVE WORK IN A COMMUNITY 

It is advisable that all work with Girl Reserve groups in 
a community be unified and correlated so that among all club 
members there is a consciousness of belonging to a movement 
of younger girls and not merely to an isolated group. This 
may be accomplished through a Girl Reserve Council for Com- 
munity Wide Activities. Such a council should include: 

One girl and one adviser from every ten corps of grade 
school Girl Reserves. 

One girl and one adviser from each high school club. 

One girl and one adviser from each younger girl in busi- 
ness and industry group. 

The girls 7 work secretary and the chairman of girls' work 
committee should be ex-officio member of the Council. 

The girl representatives on this Council should be elected in 
whatever way seems best to the local units. Such a Council 
should have a girl chairman and a secretary elected from and 
by the group. It should meet at least three times a year. Its 
purpose is to create a sense of fellowship among all Girl Re- 
serves of the community, and to make the community aware of 
the existence of this group of younger girls and of the char- 
acter of their activities as self-governing units. 

Plans for at least two meetings of all Girl Reserves, during 
a year, should be considered by this Council. A community- 
wide piece of service work, a pageant, World Fellowship work, 
standards of health, dress, school work and recreation should 
all be discussed and planned for by this council. Many of these 
plans will be carried out in the different clubs as integral parts 
of their programs, but some of them are so important that 
they could easily be chosen as the programs for the two mass 
meetings. 

59 



Section III. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS OF GIRLS 
CHAPTER I. 

PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION 

OUCCESSFUL activities with girls rest upon a foundation 
O of organization, formal or informal. Each form has the 
same object, namely, the development of individual initiative 
through self-government and the creating of a group con- 
sciousness through group activities. The method of procedure 
differs in some respects; groups of girls, calling themselves 
clubs, corps or companies, as in the Girl Reserve Movement, 
may use either formal or informal organization. Formal or- 
ganization consists of the selection of officers, committees, such 
as membership, program, social and service, the drafting of a 
constitution and the use of a regular order of business. 

Informal organization consists of the appointment of a 
chairman who presides at the meetings of the group. She may 
be elected by the girls from among their number at the time 
of each meeting or she may serve for a longer time. It is 
necesessary also to have some committees appointed to carry out 
the activities in which the group may be interested. The chair- 
man and members of these committees serve just as long as it 
takes to do their particular task. 

Such organization is often advisable for a type of girl who 
is not primarily appealed to by formal organization often 
younger girls in business and industry for it is more flexible. 

61 



It requires as much or even more careful management than 
does a formal organization, for its purpose is the same as that 
of a formal organization, the development of responsibility on 
the part of the girls themselves, and this is more difficult to 
achieve when the group is not so closely organized. It is often 
possible to have informal organization lead to formal organiza- 
tion after several months of work. 

/The first few meetings of any group of girls are of great 
importance, for it is through them that the girls gain their 
impressions of what such group work? can mean. For these 
the adviser should make the most definite kind of preparation. 

No rule for the exact method of dealing with groups of 
girls can be given; it depends upon the personnel of the group 
and the personality of the leader. It is not always possible to 
accomplish much organization in the course of the first few 
meetings, but surely within five or six meetings the following 
things should result: 

A. A short interesting talk on what can be accomplished by a 
group of girls working together. In the informal talk on 
what a club is, emphasis should be placed on the fact that 
it is self-governing, that the girls are responsible through 
their own treasuries for club expenses, and that the program 
of the club is in the hands of the club members. It is a 
good plan to -tell concrete stories of other clubs, describing 
club parties and "stunts" so the girls will feel that in joining 
a club they are coming in touch with a country-wide move- 
ment in which many other girls are participating. A 
definite description of a club program which includes class 
work is a good thing to give. Pictures of other club girls, 
convention pictures and banners, printed club programs, sam- 
ples of club yells and songs, all stimulate interest. 

B. Discussion of whether the girls wish to accomplish these 
things through a permanent organization; if they do, the 
appointment of some such committee as the following is 
advisable: 

62 



(a) A committee to draw up a very simple constitution 
(see page 66). This committee should consist of 
three or five girls who should be nominated by the girls 
and voted upon by all. Care should be taken that if 
the group represents several different cliques of girls, 
each as far as possible should be represented on this 
committee. A tactful remark to this effect can be 
made by the adviser presiding- so that the girls will 
bear this in mind in their nominations. "This com- 
mittee should understand that it must meet several 
times with the adviser before the next club meeting 
to draw up the club constitution. Care should be taken 
that the time for this committee meeting is arranged 
and clearly understood by all. The girls should not 
leave the meeting without arranging for it, for a 
definite appointment will save much time and trouble. 
Suggested constitutions may be shown at this meeting, 
but should never be adopted "wholesale" by the com- 
mittee, for the girls need to realize that they are con- 
tributing something to the club through the constitu- 
tion which they write. Special emphasis should be put 
upon the wording of the high school club purpose, which 
should be in the words of the girls. 

(b) A committee to nominate officers: It is sometimes wise 
to have nominations made directly from the floor. In 
choosing the nominating committee, the girls should 
be warned to put on it representatives of all cliques, 
and not to choose girls whom they eventually want for 
officers, but girls who will make a wise choice of other 
girls for officers. 

C. Discussion of club name and colors. 

D. Discussion of club dues. -Care should exercised that the club 
dues are not excessive. 

E. At the meeting following their appointment, the committees 
should report. The chairman of the constitution committee 
should submit the suggested constitution and it should be 

63 



voted upon. The nominating: committee should also report 
and voting* should follow at once. Voting' by ballot is far 
more acceptable than voting by acclamation. After the 
tellers have been appointed and are counting the ballots 
there is opportunity to teach the girls a cheer or a short 
snappy song to be sung* to the incoming officers. Such fun 
results in esprit de corps. 

P. Discussion of what the club is| going to do. This might 
result in the election of a program committee and a com- 
mittee to plan the social affairs; also the membership and 
service committee chairman may be appointed. An adviser 
should plan to meet with all the officers and committee 
members to explain their duties. The club secretary should 
be told of the importance of keeping her minutes up to 
date in a regular book, not on loose sheets of paper. The 
form in which minutes are usually kept should be explained, 
and also the value of writing only on the one side of the 
page and of numbering the pages. An example of club 
minutes may be found in the Primer of Parliamentary Law 
(The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City, 10 cents). If this is shown to a girl, she usually 
has a different feeling about her work as secretary, for 
with a definite example before her, any feeling of hesitancy 
about her work vanishes and she knows how to begin. In 
the same way the treasurer should be shown a simple system 
of accounting and told that as soon as possible club funds 
should be put in a bank and club bills paid by check. 

The vice-president should assist the president in every 
way. She assumes the duties of the president in case the 
latter is ill, or otherwise unable to carry on the duties of 
the office and may be made the chairman of the membership 
committee. 

The president should call the meetings to order at the 
appointed time. 'She should preside at all meetings of the 
organization. The president should rise when putting a 

64 



question to vote; otherwise she remains seated. When the 
president's vote would have an effect on the outcome of a 
motion, or when the vote is by ballot, she may vote. 

G. Necessary Committees: The following committees are 
necessary for good club work: (a) Membership, (b) Pro- 
gram, (c) Social, (d) Service. Five is a good number for 
the membership of each of these committees with the excep- 
tion of the social committee, which should have a member- 
ship of seven. When the membership of the club is small, 
the adviser should use her own judgment In determining the 
number of girls necessary to carry out successfully the 
work of each committee. In the beginning of organized 
club work it is well to have these committees serve for only 
three to six months; this gives opportunity for more girls 
to serve and gives the adviser greater chance to judge the 
latent capacities of the girls. On the social committee the 
chairman should serve six months. The other members 
change every three months so that all girls have an oppor- 
tunity for committee responsibility. Another committee 
often found necessary is the one on "hiking." The sug- 
gestions as to number of members and term of service, 
given in regard to other committees apply also to this com- 
mittee. 

H. Committee Duties: The program committee should be re- 
sponsible for planning the year's work of the club. The 
meetings which it plans should draw the girls together 
through their mutual interests. These meetings should be 
varied; some should be educational, some of them should be 
led by outside speakers, and, of course, the social and service 
committees will be in charge of some others of them. 

The membership committee of any club should be responsi- 
ble for promoting a spirit of friendliness among the girls 
in the club; it should also help to interpret real friendliness 
to the girls of the community. This committee should invite 
new girls to join the club, not insisting that they should be 

65 



members, but showing them how much a girl receives from 
membership in such a group. The membership committee 
should help with publicity and enlist the girls in greater 
loyalty to the Association, their respective Sunday-schools 
and churches. If the club desires some kind of recognition 
service to mark membership in it, this committee should 
prepare this service in consultation with the club adviser. 

The social committee should be responsible for the good 
times of the club, both indoors and out. It, too, should 
help to promote friendliness in the school and the com- 
munity. The committee members should plan the good 
times for several months ahead. 'Sometimes it is advisable 
to have a special group of girls to help with the "hikes" 
since they need to be very carefully planned if they are to 
be successful. 

The service committee should provide various kinds of 
service to be done by the club members. There are many 
kinds of service; for the school, the church, for charity 
organizations, for children's wards in hospitals, and for 
mission schools both at home and abroad. 

Each of these committees should meet at least once a 
month to plan its work. The club adviser meets with each 
committee. 

The following outline of a very simple club constitution is 
suggested as a guide for groups of grade school girls or younger 
girls in business and industry. See page 95, for the outline 
of a constitution for High School Clubs of the Girl Reserves. 

Article I. Name and Purpose. 

Section 1. The name of this club shall be the 

Club of the . 

Section 2. The purpose of this club shall be to unite its 
members in a spirit of friendliness and service, to win other 
girls to its membership, and to stand for the best things at 
home, in school, at work and in church and community. 

66 



Article II. Membership. 

Section 1. Any may become a mem- 
ber of this club. 

Section 2. The dues shall be (whatever amount the 

club decides fifty cents is usual), payable in whatever way 
the club decides is best. 

Article III. Officers. 

Section 1. The officers of this club shall be a president, a 
vice-president, a secretary and a treasurer. 

'Section 2. The duty of the president shall be to preside at 
all meetings of the club, to appoint all standing committees, 
subject to the approval of the club and to make such changes 
in the personnel of these committees as may be required for 
good work. 

The duty of the vice-president shall be to perform all the 
duties of the president in the absence of the president. 

The duty of the secretary shall be to keep full minutes of 
all meetings and an accurate record of attendance. 

The duty of the treasurer shall be to have charge of all 
club funds and to give a monthly report to the club. 

Article , IV. Committees. 

Section 1. Committees of this club shall be Membership, 
Program, Service and Social. Other names may be given to 
these committees, but the work covered should be that sug- 
gested by these names. The first three shall be standing com- 
mittees for the year. The social committee shall be changed 
every three months.* 

^Section 2. The club leader shall be ex-officio a 'member of 
all committees. 



* This is a general suggestion and some club work, as it develops, may 
demand a more permanent committee so that strong: standards of work may 
be built. 

67 



Article V. Meetings. 
Section 1. The club shall hold weekly meetings on 



evenings at o'clock, or afternoons at 



o'clock. The club shall hold a business meeting each month. 

Section 2. Two-thirds of the club members shall constitute a 
quorum. 

Article VI. Amendments. 

This constitution may be amended at any regular business 
meeting of the club. 

CHAPTER II. 

THE ORGANIZATION OP GIRL RESERVE CORPS AMONG GRADE 
SCHOOL GIRLS 

I. Essential questions to be considered in organizing Grade 
School Corps. 

A. How many grade schools are there in the community? 
Where are they located? Do the locations of these 
schools make work at the Association building pos- 
sible? 

B. What might be the limitations upon the work if it 
is carried on in the school buildings? 

C. What is the total number of girls in the seventh and 

eighth grades? 

D. 'Is the number of grade school girls leaving school 

to enter business each year very large? 

E. Are there school representatives doing placement or 
vocational guidance work with grade school girls? 

F. Are the churches of the community doing work with 

grade school girls? 'How can duplication of effort 
be avoided and cooperation become an established 
fact? 

G. How many demands upon the girl's time are being 

made by the school and its organizations such as 

68 



glee clubSji athletic teams, and the usual pageants 
and demonstrations of domestic arts training which 
occur in the usual school year? Is her loyalty being 
sought by many groups with partially developed 
programs of activities, such as Junior Ked Cross, 
Health and Thrift Campaigns ? 

H. How large a place do commercialized amusements 
hold in the life of the grade school girl? 

I. What are the school regulations in regard to out- 
side organizations being allowed to approach the 
girls at school, or to use the school buildings as 
places for meetings? 

J. What are the state laws or local regulations relative 
to the use of the Bible in the public schools and the 
possibility of religious instruction? 

K. What is the plan whereby mothers of grade school 
girls will be reached so that they will understand 
the corps work about to be organized? 

L. What is the biggest contribution that the Young 
Women's Christian Association can make to the life 
of the grade school girls in the community? 

M. How much work among grade school girls is the 
girls' work department justified in undertaking? 
How shall the girls'' work committee determine where 
to begin? Does the matter of space enter into the 
planning? What kind of mass work (the bringing 
of several groups to a common center) is being 
planned ? 

IT. The unit in grade school organization is the corps, com- 
posed of ten to twenty girls under the direction of the 
corps adviser. 

III. Membership: 

Since all Girl Reserves must be twelve years old, the 
grade school corps usually have as their members girls 

69 



who are in the seventh and eighth grades. In some sec- 
tions of the country the schools are organized differently, 
and sixth grade girls who are twelve years old are 
eligible for membership. Any girl is eligible to member- 
ship who expresses her desire to fulfil the purpose of 
the Girl Reserve Movement 

IV. Advisers: 

The corps adviser may be a young college girl, a busi- 
ness woman or any girl or woman who loves girls and 
is willing to look upon this position of adviser as a real 
opportunity and not a mere pastime. (For the duties 
of, and suggestions to, advisers, see 'Section VI.) 

V. Name: 

Each corps chooses a name. The choice should be guided 
by the following suggestions: 

A. The name should have some real significance. It may 

be chosen because of some historic event which oc- 
curred in the community. It might be the name of 
some woman who has achieved greatness through 
her service to the nation or the worldy or it may be 
the name of the school. 

B. It should not be a Greek letter name. 

VI Purpose: 

"To -find and give the best." A grade school girl accepts 
the slogan, "To face life squarely," the purpose and the 
code. The following interpretation of the meaning of 
' the code may be helpful to grade school girls. 

THE MEANING OF THE CO0E 

Learning to say the code as it is printed in this manual is 
not all that is meant when the requirement is made that, to be 
initiated, a Girl Reserve must know the code, the slogan, and 
the purpose. It means that every girl who wishes to be a 

70 



Girl Reserve is accepting as a part of her every-day living 
standards of courtesy, fair play, and willingness to help. ,She 
is loyal to many friends, not to one friend only; she is willing 
to help her friends when they need her. 

Purpose means that one is guided toward a goal, just as a 
ball is directed toward the basket by a practised wrist. A 
girl who is earnest in purpose is a girl set straight toward a 
worth-while goal. Seeing loveliness both in people and things 
where a quick glance reveals seeming ugliness, is a quality 
which every girl who is a true Girl Reserve will want to have 
in her life. Merely to memorize has been always an easy thing 
for many girls ; to gain knowledge which will help not only to 
play games well and to aid some one in need,, but to understand 
what power her life will have if she is reverent to God through 
clean thoughts and pure living is a victory over herself which 
every girl wants to win. People seeing her sincerity and depend - 
ableness will know that she is what she is because she has a 
standard for living ; she is seeking and finding the best; she is 
facing life squarely. 

VII. Registration: 

Each corps shall be known by the number it receives on 
registration at the Girl Reserve Headquarters '300 Lex- 
ington Avenue, New York City and by the name of the 
school. For example, the "7th Corps Girl Reserves, 
McKinley Grammar School." If two or more corps are 
registered in one grammar school, the school then has 
a Company of the Girl Reserve Division in the commun- 
ity. For example, "Company B, of the McKinley Gram- 
mar School/ 7 composed of Corps 8, 9, 11, 14. 

The company becomes a part of the Girl Reserve 
Division of the community, which is composed of all 
corps, clubs and companies organized in the community 
among all girls between twelve and eighteen, L e. grade 
school, high school, and younger girls in business and 
industry. 

71 



VIII. Dues: 

If a local Association is carrying forward its work on a 
fee basis, then the fifty-cent membership fee of the Asso- 
ciation, payable on the instalment plan, if desired, might 
be charged, this fee to include all expenses connected 
with Girl Keserve work except the cost of the insignia 
and the Guide for Every Loyal -Blue Triangle Girl. In 
other words if the 'fifty cent fee is established there 
should be no special corps or company fees. 

All membership fees should be paid directly by the 
girls either in full or in part to the chairman of the 
service squad, or to someone whom she may appoint 
from her committee. After the Girl Reserve member- 
ship cards have been signed and some payment made by 
each girl, the Scout chairman and the service squad 
chairman take the cards and money to the membership 
secretary of the Association and tell her that these are 
the applications of the Girl Reserves to become members 
of the Association. The secretary lists these names and 
returns the original cards to the Girl Reserve chairman. 
The girls should neither pay fees nor sign membership 
cards at the desk of the membership secretary. All this 
is better done with these younger girls through their 
own officers. 

IX. Committee Work and Officers: 

Committee Work of the Corps. Each corps has the fol- 
lowing committees: 
S cout membership. 

Outings and Innings good times and hikes. 
Service .Squad service work. 

The chairmen of these committees are elected by the 

girls of the corps to serve for half the school year. New 

chairmen are elected for the summer months. Each 

^chairman may appoint two or more members of the 

corps to serve with her on her committee. No girl should 

72 



be on more than one committee at one time. 

The chairman of the Scout Committee is prac- 
tically the "president" of the corps. She is called the 
Corps Scout and has the following; duties: first, she 
presides at the weekly meetings; second^ she is respon- 
sible, with the help of her committee, for interesting 
new girls and looking out for the old members of the 
corps. One member of the Scout Committee is responsi- 
ble for Knowing at weekly roll call why any of the corps 
members are absent. 

The chairman of the Outings and Innings Committee 
acts as record keeper or secretary for the corps and, 
with her committee, which consists of five or more 
members is responsible for planning with the adviser 
for good times and hikes. 

The chairman of the Service Squad is responsible for 
keeping the record of the funds of the corps, i. e., acts 
as treasurer and with her committee and the adviser sug- 
gests forms of service for the corps. 

THE *S. O. S/ OR EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

These three chairmen plus the adviser form the *S. 0. S. J or 
Executive Committee, which discusses and plans program work 
in general and refers its decision to the corps as a whole. The 
Scout Committee Chairman presides at the >S. 0. S. meetings. 

Insignia. 

A. General Insignia. 

Every grade school corps chooses its own color, and each 
girl may embroider on her arm band in Copenhagen blue 
or the corps color two bars, each two inches long' and 
one-eighth of an inch wide (see diagram, page 76). 
The corps color is to be used at banquets and parties for 
decorative purposes and, if corps members desire, a hat- 
band of that color may be worn. 

73 



Girls of grade school age are interested in insignia, 
in ranks and in working for honors. For this reason in 
the grade school plan of organization there are five 
classes of Girl Keserves for a girl passing from one 
class to another by the winning of honors. 

The five classes are the Volunteers, the Fourth Reserves, 
the Third Reserves, the Second Reserves and the First Re- 
serves. As soon as a girl has passed the initiation test 
(learning of slogan, purpose and code) and has won forty 
points from the list of honors in Section IV, she becomes a 
Fourth Reserve and is entitled to wear a chevron embroid- 
ered in Copenhagen blue placed at the right of the triangle 
on the arm band. Forty more points entitle her to a second 
chevron placed at the left of the triangle; when she has won 
one hundred and sixty points and has four chevrons, two on 
either side of the triangle, she is a First Reserve. (These 
chevrons should be one-fourth inch wide and one and one- 
half inch from the point on either side. The best way to 
secure a pattern for them is to use a regular army chevron.) 

An effort should be made to have each girl earn some 
honors from each of the four divisions of the Honor List; 
it would not make for balance if half of the one hundred 
and sixty points were Health Points. 

B. Special Insignia, 

Health Badge 

Thirty points from the Honor List under Health entitle 
a Girl Reserve to the special health badge, a red circle 
described around the Girl Reserve triangle. See diagram, 
page 7-8. 

Knowledge Badge 

Thirty points from the Honor List under Knowledge 
entitle a Girl Reserve to the special knowledge badge, an 
owl placed on one side of the triangle. See diagram, 
page 7-6. 



Service Badge 

Thirty points from the Honor List under Service en- 
title a Girl Reserve to the service badge, a blue star 
placed at one side of the triangle. See diagram, 
page 76. 

Spirit Badge 

Thirty pounts from the Honor List under Spirit entitle 
a Girl Reserve to the special Spirit insignia, a Roman 
lamp placed above the triangle. See diagram, page 76, 

A Girl Reserve may work for the required number of 
points under the four headings Health, Knowledge, Serv- 
ice, Spirit, and win the special insignia. These special 
honors cannot be won by grade school girls until the 
one hundred and sixty general honors have been won. 

These insignia may all be obtained from The Womans 
Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 'City, upon 
presentation of a certified statement from the corps ad- 
viser that a girl has won them. 

Girl Reserve Rings: 

A grade school Girl Reserve, when she has completed 
the one hundred and sixty honors necessary to secure 
her chevrons, may work for) one hundred more points 
and win a Girl Reserve ring and be callec^ a Special Girl 
Reserve Aide. For information regarding the way to 
secure this ring see page 50. 

XL Meetings 

Every corps should meet regularly once a week for 
one and one-half to two hours. Once every two months 
or oftener, if desired, the various corps from the seventh 
and eighth grades may have a joint meeting. If it is 
necessary to form two corps in one grade, joint meet- 
ings may be held as often as desired or the two corps 
may meet together for the opening ceremony and then- 
separate for the program work. 

75 



THE COURT OF AWARDS 

Girl Reserves who have passed the initiation test (learning 
the slogan, purpose and code), and have won their first forty 
points or have qualified as Third, Second, or First Girl Re- 
serves, may appear before a Court of Awards, which is com- 
posed of the chairman of the girls' work committee in the As- 
sociation, the chairman of their section of girls' work (grade 
school, higii school or younger girls in business and industry), 
the girls' work secretary, and 'any other members of the com- 
mittee who may seem necessary, with a written list of these 
honors. This Court meets once a month,, and has the right to 
judge a Girl Reserve not only for her knowledge of her honor 
points, but also upon her spirit of team-work and faithful- 
ness. 



H F A 




A. E 




YW.C.A. 



A. 

AA. 

B. 



Circle Special Health Emblem. 

Corps Bars. 

Owl Special Knowledge Emblem, 

C. Star Special Service Emblem. 

D. Roman Lamp Special Spirit Emblem. 
Fourth Reserve Chevron, 

Third Reserve Chevron. 
Second Reserve Chevron. 
First Reserve Ohevron. 



E. 
F. 
G. 
H. 



The -Corps Bars may be omitted if desired. 
76 



CHAPTER III. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL COMPANY OB A 
FRESHMAN HIGH SCHOOL CLUB OF GIRL RESERVES 

THE junior high school has grown up in democratic Amer- 
ica as the last chapter in the history of the struggle 
against the mediaeval dual system. 5 ' There are many phases 
of- this interesting subject of the development of the present- 
day junior high school which cannot be treated in so short a 
space as this. The movement is "about or slightly more than 
a decade old." Departmentalization is a characteristic of the 
school, and the division of work varies widely. Some junior 
high schools include the seventh, eighth and ninth grades, some 
include only two grades and some only one. They also differ 
as to location, some being grouped with the grade school, some 
alone, and some with the high school. TJh.ere are many different 
forms of curriculum and in most cases the teachers are becom- 
ing more and more highly trained. But however much the 
schools may vary in courses of study, equipment and faculty 
grouping, the following are some of the underlying facts of the 
movement to-day. 

A. There has come to be more than the traditional assump- 
tion that the public schools are ^'merely educative in 
function." They are becoming protective or conserving 
factors, and they are attempting to lengthen the school 
careers through helping the individual to make better 
adjustments to individual differences. In the school this 
is called educational guidance. Between school and work 
this is called vocational guidance. 

B. For many years there was a growing emphasis upon- the 
necessity to accept the seventh grade- as the natural 
turning point in the child's life, for the age of adoles- 
cence demands new methods and wiser direction, 

C. Eeports of various committees in the "late nineties" 
showed an increasing conviction that it was difficult to 

77 



relate a secondary education of four years to the ele- 
mentary school subjects and methods. 

D. Moreover it came to be accepted that the scientific prin- 
ciple of individual differences must be recognized; the 
concept of equality was interpreted to mean more than 
mere uniformity. Pupils were leaving schools are leav- 
ing them still because they found in industry and busi- 
ness concessions to their individual needs. 

E. Also the principle of economy became a factor. 

It has been stated that the peculiar functions of the junior 
high school are as follows: 

I. Realizing a democratic school system through 

a. Ketention of pupils. 

b. Economy of time. 

c. Recognition of individual differences. 

d. Exploration for guidance. 

e. Vocational education. 

II. Recognizing the nature of the child. 

III. Providing conditions for better teaching. 

IV. Securing better scholarship. 

V. Improving the "disciplinary situation and socializing 
opportunities." 

Because there are so many variations in the practice of 
junior high school education in this country to-day, it is safe 
only to say that there are at least these two points of agree- 
ment: (a) specialization on the part of teachers so that the 
work is departmentalized and assigned to the various faculty 
members, and (b) the manner or advancement of pupils (pro- 
motion by subject) "curricula are widely different, standards 
in the selection of teachers vary greatly from community to 
community, admission requirements, methods, advisory sys- 
tems, disciplinary and social organization and buildings and 
equipment range through variation upon variation. In fact the 

78 



junior high school is hardly the same thing in any two com- 
munities." * 

Sjich facts as these reveal clearly to the prospective advisers 
of junior high school girls some of the problems which they 
face with this particular group of girls. 

In organizing a junior high school or in forming a fresh- 
man girls* club, it must be remembered that the girls are 
brought in many instances from different sections, from varied 
environments, all new to their surroundings and needing some- 
thing to give them a group consciousness and esprit de corps. 

To meet this need the Girl Reserves offers a loose form of 
organization which will provide a constructive outlet for the 
superabundant energy of the group through the management 
by the girls themselves of manifold activities in which they 
must be interested and which should be related to school life. 

I. Essential points to be considered in organizing junior high 

school girls or freshman girls in a large high school: 

A. Is the junior high school helping to solve the difficulty 
of "keeping* girls in school" beyond the grammar grades ? 

B. How large is the proportion of girls who leave junior 
high school, during the years included in its curriculum? 

C. Is there a dean of girls in the junior high school; what 
is her relationship to the girls. Does she plan social 
activities for them? 

There are many of the essential points mentioned in 
the organization of grade school into Girl Reserve corps 
which should be considered in planning for the organiza- 
tion of junior high school groups. See page 68. 

II. The Unit of Organization. 

The emphasis in the formation of a freshman club or 
junior high school company wants to be not so much 
upon the corps but upon the larger unit, the company. " 



*Staternent regarding: junior high schools is based upon "The Evolution 
of a Democratic School System," Charles Hubbard Judd and "The Junior 
High School" by L. V. Koos. 

79 



To make possible the smaller unit of girls for pur- 
poses of discussion, for certain kinds of service work, 
and for individual work along certain lines, such as voca- 
tional work y the company should be divided into corps 
composed of ten to fifteen girls. This division should be 
alphabetical or by lot if large numbers of girls are in- 
volved, to avoid cliques, and if girls understand that the 
division is purely for efficiency in handling the group 
and not for real organization no objections can be made. 
Each corps elects from its members a corps leader who is 
responsible for keeping in touch with corps members, 
answering at roll call for corps members, and represent- 
ing the corps on the ,S. 0. S." 

The corps in the freshman company of Girl Reserves 
do not choose corps colors or have committees. The entire 
company has a company color, flower and the three regu- 
lar committees for the entire company, and in this way 
the needed emphasis is upon the group as a whole. 

III. Membership. 

Any girl is eligible to membership who expresses her 
desire to fulfil the company code and the regular Girl 
Eeserve Code, 

IV. Advisers. 

Each company should have one or more advisers; the 
adviser should be a college girl or a young woman in the 
community who loves girls and who expects to find in 
her work with these girls a real opportunity, not a mere 
pastime. In many junior high schools, the size of the 
company; which is organized may make it necessary to 
have several advisers and in such case, it is desirable 
to have some of these advisers members of the junior 
high school faculty, since the activities of .the company 
are so closely related to the school. 

80 



Some clubs of freshman girls may find it desirable 
to have the same system of committee work as the high 
school club has, and therefore it will be necessary to have 
at least four advisers, one of whom will consult with each 
of the four committees. 

V. Name. 

Each company chooses a name. Choice should be guided by 
the following suggestions: 

A. The name should have some real significance. It may be 
chosen because of some historic event which occurred 
in the community. It may be the name of some woman 
who has achieved greatness through her service to the 
nation or the world. 

B. It should not be a Greek letter name. 

VI. Purpose. 

The company draws up its company code, which must 
be learned by every girl in addition to the regular Girl 
Keserve code, slogan, and purpose, before she can be 
initiated, 
VIL Registration. 

Upon receipt at headquarters of this code, which 
should be short and written in the form of a purpose, for 
that is what it is, the company receives its registra- 
tion number and the right to have Girl Reserve insig- 
nia and other Girl Reserve privileges. 

VIII. Dues. 

See section on Dues under Organization of Girl Ke- 
serve Corps among Grade School Girls. 

IX. 'Committee Work and Officers of the Company 

Each company has the following committees: 
Scout Membership. 

Outings and Innings good times and hikes. 
Service Squad iService work. 

The chairmen of these committees are elected by the 
girls of the company; they may serve for half "the school 

81 



year or for the full year, according to the needs of the 
group. Each chairman may appoint four or more mem- 
bers of the company to serve on her committee. It 
seems desirable that no girl should serve on more than 
one committee at one time. 

The duties of the chairmen or officers are the same 
as the ones outlined for the chairmen or officers of the 
grade school corps (see page 73). 

The "S. 0. S." or Executive Committee. 

The "-S. 0. >S." consists of the chairmen of the three 
committees, the Scout, Outings and Innings and Service 
Squad, plus the corps leaders of as many corps as there 
are in the company, plus a member of the high school 
faculty, if desired, plus the company adviser, who should 
be a young college woman. 

The chairman of the "S. 0. S." is the Scout Commit- 
tee chairman. She presides at all meetings of the 
"S. 0. S." 

The duties of the "<S. 0. $.," which should meet regu- 
larly once a month, are: 

(1) To consider the general program and work of the Girl 
Reserve Company and to see that this work supplements 
and does not overlap other school activities. 

(2) To discuss school standards and needs and see how the 
Girl Reserve Company can be an effective force in up- 
holding and making these. 

X. A. General Insignia. 

The insignia of the junior high school Girl Reserves 
or of the freshman Girl Reserves is the regular arm 
band with the Copenhagen blue triangle, in the center 
of which are the letters G. R. Every high school Girl 
Reserve outlines this triangle with tan floss. 

If desired, the corps bars, two by one-eighth inches, 
may be embroidered in Copenhagen blue on the arm 

82 



band at eacl| side of the triangle. (See the -diagram 
on page 76.) 

In general it is not best to try to use the one 
hundred and sixty point honor system in work for fresh- 
man high school girls. 
B. Special Insignia. 

If any girl in the freshman or junior high school 
company wishes, she may work for the special honors 
under Health, Knowledge, Service, and Spirit, and re- 
ceive the special insignia to be placed upon her arm 
band. (See Insignia, Grade School Corps, page 74.) 

(Special Girl Reserve rings may be awarded to the 
girls when they have fulfilled the requirements stated on 
page 50 of this Manual, 
XI. Meetings: 

There should be regular weekly meetings of the com- 
pany or club. 

CHAPTER IV. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF GIRL RESERVE HIGH SCHOOL CLUBS 

I. Essential points to be considered in organizing high 
school clubs: 

A. How many high schools are there in the community? 
Where are they located? 

B. What is the total number of girls in all the high 
schools? What is the total number in each high 
s'chool? What is the total number of girls in each 
class in each high school? 

C. What proportion of girls last year left to enter busi- 
ness at the end of the freshman year; sophomore 
year; junior year? 

D. Are more girls leaving this year because of economic 
readjustments due to the war? 

83 



E. Have yon a dean of girls in your high schools? If 
so, what does her position include? 

F. What vocational work is done in the high schools? 
Is there any vocational guidance work done through 
the dean of girls or some such person on the faculty? 

<G. How many school societies and organizations are there 
in your high school for girls? How many demands 
are made upon the high school girl's time by societies, 
churches and clubs in the community? 

H. Is there a council for older boys and girls, organized 
by the Sunday-schools of the community? If so, what 
relation may a high school club of the Young Women's 
Christian Association have to it? 

I. What is the biggest contribution that the Young- 
Women's 'Christian Association can make to the life 
of the high school in the community? Through what 
kind of work can this best be effected, i, e., what kind 
of a club or what group work if any is needed among 
* the high school girls ? 

J. What are the school regulations in regard to student 
activities and organizations? 

K. What are 1 the state laws and ordinances concerning 
the use of public school buildings, etc? 

L. What are the state laws or local regulations relating 
to the use of the Bible in the public schools and the 
possibility of religious instruction? 
II. 'The unit in high school organization is the club. The 

size of the club may range from a small number of girls 

in a small high school to several hundred girls in a 

large school. 
III. Membership: 

Membership in the club is open to any girl in the high 

school. In some instances there may be girls of high 

school age who are staying at home and yet they would 

like to become members. The local girls' work secretary 

should make the necessary adjustments. 

84 



IV. Advisers: 

In a club which is part of a city, town and county 
Association, club advisers should be chosen from 
among mothers, college girls, and young married 
women. The ideal number of advisers is four, one 
of whom would serve as adviser to the program com- 
mittee and therefore to the whole club, and the 
others who would advise with the other regular com- 
mittees described below. It is essential that one of 
this number be a teacher, representing 1 the school 
in which the club is organized. A faculty adviser is 
sometimes suggested by an interested school prin- 
cipal, or by the girls or by some member of the Board 
of Directors of the Y. W. -C. A. or by some member 
of the Association. 

If there are several high school clubs in a com- 
munity, the club advisers automatically become mem- 
bers of that sub-committee of the local girls' work 
committee which considers the development of work 
for high school girls. This sub-committee is led 
by a sub-chairman appointed by the chairman of the 
girls' work committee either from this group of ad- 
visers or from some other group. (See Section VI, 
Chapter 2, page 614, of this Manual.) 

The meeting of this group once a month offers the 
opportunity for discussion of problems and the ex- 
change of ideas which is essential to good work on 
the part of advisers. 

In communities where the girls' work committee is 
not as yet divided into three sub-committees grade 
school, high school and younger girls in business and 
industry, the high school advdsers may become mem- 
bers of the girls' work committee. 
V. Name: 

Many names for high school club work have l^en 
used in various parts of the country during the past few 

85 



years. The Young Women's Christian Association has 
always endeavored to avoid three of them: any abbrevia- 
tion, such as "Hi-Y," any fancy names, and any name 
containing Greek letters. The "Hi-Y" is the name used 
by the Young Men's Christian Association for work 
among high school boys, and is not advocated for use 
as a name for a high school girls' club. There are many 
considerations to be kept in mind in suggesting a name 
but it has seemed feasible to call by the name Girl Re- 
serve any club group which started under that, plan of 
organization, especially if the purpose Is well understood 
by the girls. However, it will be necessary to make very 
plain to them that the plan of organization and program 
are not the same as those used in grade school Girl 
Reserve work, but are the ones advocated in the high 
school program. Any newly organized group of girls 
may assume the generic name Girl Reserve, becoming 
for instance "The* Student Club of the Girl Reserves." 

VI. Purpose. 

One of the most distinctive features of any high school 
club is its purpose. It should always be written by the 
girls, for it then becomes an expression by the group of 
Its ideals of democracy, service for others, high standards 
of honor in school life and personal living. Thus in the 
very beginning of the club is developed personal initia- 
tive. Such a purpose should necessarily be in accord 
with the spirit of the purpose of the Young Women's 
Christian Association which is promoting the club. 

Any purpose should be a growing one; the wording 
of it, as it is reconsidered and possibly rewritten every 
year should show a steady growth toward the principles 
underlying all Association work, a Christian fellowship 
both individual and social which finds its highest expres- 
sion in a personal loyalty to Jesus Christ and his prin- 
ciples for everyday living. It is such a purpose which 
binds together all high school girls' clubs, wherever they 

86 



may be, In counties, towns, cities or independently af- 
filiated schools. 

Any purpose so written is therefore in accord with 
the spirit of the -Girl Reserve 'Code. The phrases of this 
code epitomize and give in simple terms the individual 
and social elements which are found in the Association 
purpose. 

The purpose of a high school club thus becomes the 
expression of the girl's own thinking about 'Christian 
principles of living which she finds given to her through 
the code and the Association purpose. It is desirable that 
every high school Girl Reserve should know the Girl 
Reserve Code so that she may share to the fullest degree 
in the Younger Girl movement of the Association ; but 
the dynamic for work in every high school club should 
be the club purpose, for it is the group expression of 
the reason for forming and maintaining the club. Such 
a purpose should be always in accord with the Associa- 
tion purpose, although phrased in the girls' own words. 
Small cards on which are printed the club purpose prove 
of value in keeping members mindful of what they have 
agreed upon as their purpose. Such cards, if made by 
hand or printed, should be made of heavy cardboard so 
that they may be used as mirror cards, book marks, or 
for memory books. 
VII. Constitution: 

Every high school club should have a constitution, 
which should be based upon the suggested one in this 
Manual. (See Chapter IV, page 95, in this Manual.) 
A copy of this constitution when written must be sent 
to the field secretary for Younger Girls, who will have 
the supervision of all work where there is an organized 
Association. 
VIII. Dues: 

The dues for any high school club which is a part of 
the city, town or county Young Women's Christian As- 

87 



sociation depend upon the policy regarding younger^girl 
membership as determined by the membership committee 
of the local Association in consultation with the girls' 
work committee. 

The dues for any high school club which is affiliated 
directly with the National Board of the Young Women's 
Christian Association through the student committee are 
whatever the club votes to have them. (See the Consti- 
tution for Secondary Schools. Secure from The Wonians 
Press, 600 Lexington Ave., New York City.) 

IX. Officers: 

The officers of a high school club are: 
President 
Vice President 
Secretary 
Treasurer 

These officers are elected by the girls for one year, 
the elections to take place in the spring. The duties of 
these officers should be the regular duties of such officers, 
and will include the following: 

President presides at all meetings of the club and 
of the council or cabinet (see below) ; is in general 
touch with all other officers and committee chair- 
men is responsible for the general spirit and work 
of the club. 

Vice President presides at all club and council or 
cabinet meetings in absence of the president; is 
chairman of the membership committee. 
Secretary is responsible for minutes of each meet- 
ing; these minutes should be kept in a regular 
secretary's book together with written reports 
which are submitted by the chairman of the stand- 
ing and special committees. She sends out notices 
of meetings; carries correspondence with all outside 
clubs and organizations. 

88 



Treasurer is responsible for presenting 1 at each 
business meeting a statement of the club funds 
the treasurer's book should show complete record 
of the business transactions of the club having a 
debit and credit side. Every treasurer is respon- 
sible with the cabinet for making a budget to cover 
the club's expenses for a year, 

X. Committee "Work: 

A committee must always have a reason for being 
L e., there must be work for it to do; the following 1 con- 
tent should be covered through the work of a high school 
club membership, good times, service, and program and 
it may be administered through four regular committees, 
such as: 

Membership (Who We Are) 

Program (What We Do) 

Social (Our Good Times) 

Service (How We Put Into Practice Our Ideals) 

If a simpler plan for a small and less mature group 
is desired, the grade school plan of three committees with 
the "S. 0. S." acting as the program committee may be 
used. The three committees would then be: 

Scout (Membership) 

Outing and Innings (Social) 

Service 

The chairmen of the committees should be appointed 
by the president of the club in consultation with the 
other officers and the club advisers. Three or more girls 
form a good working committee. Every chairman should 
remember that as large a number of girls as possible 
should be used to carry out this work. In some instances 
it may seem wise to have committees serve for half the 
school year, the four chairmen being continued in office, 
and the rest of the committee rotating. 

89 



It should be realized that much of the success of com- 
mittee work depends upon the Initial interpretation given 
to it by the adviser or secretary. Committee members 
will need to receive a clear definition of their duties. 
This may be given in several ways; a "black board 5 ' talk 
at which a secretary or adviser" makes graphic to the 
girls the real mechanism of a club and the way each 
committee fits into the general scheme; by cabinet or 
council training. (.See Section IV, page 187.) Discussion 
and study by each committee member 'of the committee 
duties as outlined in the following paragraphs will be 
helpful, also. 

COMMITTEE DUTIES 

A Membership Committee should be responsible for 
promoting a spirit of friendliness among the girls in 
school; for inviting- and encouraging new girls to join 
the club; for keeping in touch with members, encourag- 
ing church and Sunday-school attendance; for publicity 
in connection with the school, the Association, and other 
clubs in the community or in various parts of the coun- 
try. This committee should be responsible, also, for the 
recognition service which marks formal membership in 
clubs. 

The Social Committee should be responsible for the 
good times of the club, which should Include indoor and 
outdoor activities. It should cooperate with the mem- 
bership committee in looking after members who are 
ill. .Service for the school, such as ushering at general 
programs and being responsible for helping- to furnish 
and keep attractive the girls' rest room, are also a part 
of their responsibility. 

The social committee should do more than plan par- 
ties and hikes. It should interpret to the club and to all 
the school, principles of courtesy and friendliness and 

90 



help to set standards for all kinds of recreation. To 
accomplish this it is sometimes advisable to have a sub- 
committee of the Social Committee to be known as the 
Committee on Standards, Such a sub-committee would 
censor any social event of the club given either for social 
purposes or for the purpose of raising: money. Censor- 
ship of this kind should be constructive, not destructive 
and should strive to have all social events in accordance 
with the real purpose of the club. 

The Service Committee: Every club will grow in 
interest and permanency in proportion to the definite- 
ness of its community service. .Service has come to have 
a new meaning- in the last few years, and it is being 
realized that if the spirit of the service done abroad is to 
continue, we must have the finest interpretation, of it 
in this country. The very highest kind of service can be 
accomplished in our schools and communities, but it 
means just recognizing needs near at hand. The ser- 
vice committee has three channels: the school, the com- 
munity, and the world. 

In planning the service work of the program, the 
committee should cooperate with the social and mem- 
bership committees. 

Care should be exercised that as many club members 
as possible have some share in all committee work. This 
may be done in several ways: 

(a) By changing the personnel of the committees at the 
close of the first semester (it is taken for granted 
that the chairmen are retained). 

(b) By having many sub-committees on each committee. 

(c) By providing service work which will appeal to the 
club as a club and work which will appeal to certain 
members as individuals to be done in addition to 
that which is done by the club as a group. (See 
Service Suggestions in Section IV, Chapter 2, on 

91 



Content and Method Typical of a High School Pro- 
granij and Chapter 16, Section V, on Service Acti- 
vities, page 600.) 

A Program , Committee should be responsible in con- 
nection with the entire council or cabinet for a general 
plan of a year's work, if desired, or at least for six 
month's work. Such a ,plan should include the inspira- 
tional, informational, service and social meetings which in 
many cases will be developed by the discussional and 
demonstration methods. 

The program committee thus acts as a "clearing 
house" for program work. It should be kept in mind in 
shaping the program that sometimes there are things 
happening in the club which will be of interest to the 
whole school and therefore an invitation should be ex- 
tended through the principal. 

'School recognition for certain program work is de- 
sirable, but quite frequently it comes after the work 
has proved itself. 

The program committee will also have charge of 
the planning for study classes such as Bible, mission 
study, current events, nature study, story telling y hand 
work and other social studies. These meetings should 
not take the place of the regular club meeting and in 
many instances, it has seemed advisable not to have 
them before or after the regular meeting but on another 
day. The\ program committee should also plan for 
Vesper services three or four times during the year, 
cooperating with the Religious Education Department of 
the Association. 

The actual planning and responsibility for all these 
various types of meetings rests upon the committee 
responsible for the particular type of work. For instance, 
a service meeting should be in charge of the service 
committee ; a world citizenship meeting might be cared 

92 



for by the members of the membership and service com- 
mittees; a party would fall to the lot of the membership 
and social committees an inspirational or informational 
meeting might be in charge of the program committee, 
their responsibility being the receiving of speakers, mak- 
ing of general arrangements, etc. 

The responsibility of planning for conferences should 
be shared equally by all the committees, with the 
treasurer serving as chairman of this special group. The 
committee chairmen and members should be interested 
an raising funds to send delegates to conferences and 
should have this in mind during the entire year. 

The advisers and the girl's work secretary, while 
helping the program committee to plan the year's work 
so that it will carry out the ideas expressed in the pur- 
pose, will always remember that the ultimate purpose 
of all high school club work is to train girls in the way 
of Christian thinking and living. Therefore the girls 
need to develop initiative and a large sense of personal 
responsibility. 

XI. Cabinet or Council Work: 

The entire high school club program is made effective 
through the following groups: 

A. The four officers. 

B. The chairmen of the four standing committees. 
These officers and chairmen together with the girls' 

work secretary and one adviser complete the executive 
council known as either the cabinet or the council. The 
latter word is suggested as one better suited to some 
groups of girls; it seems less formal than the word 
"cabinet" which will come into the girl's vocabulary when 
she goes into a college association. Either name may 
be used. The council meets at least once a month. 

93 



XII Inter-club Council: 

To give unity to the club work in a community where 
there are several high schools?, it is suggested that an 
inter-club council be formed. Such a council is composed 
of the presidents of the various clubs, one girl from the 
general membership and a club adviser from each of the 
clubs. "This council may meet every three months or 
more frequently if desired and serves as a clearing house 
for all business, social and service undertakings which 
are community-wide in their scope. The girls' work 
secretary is ex-officio a member of the inter-club council. 

In communities where there is no Young Women's 
Christian Association, provision for the organization of 
high school girls into the Association fellowship is made 
through a unit called an Independently Affiliated High 
'School Association. 'Such Associations can only be organ- 
ized after consultation with a field office. Full informa- 
tion regarding the method of ^organization 'may be 
obtained by writing the field office responsible for the 
supervision of Association work in that state. 

(For list of Field Officers of the Y. W. C. A. see 
page 797.) 

Programs for work in such Associations are identical 
in their content and method of presentation with the 
typical one for high school clubs suggested in Section 
IV, Chapter 2, page 169. All material on the Training 
of Leadership and "Activities for Developing a Christian 
Personality" is usable in High School Association pro- 
grams. 



SUGGESTED CONSTITUTION FOE A HIGH SCHOOL CLUB PROMOTED 

BY THE GIRLS' WORK DEPARTMENT OF A YOUNG WOMEN'S 

CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN A CITY, TOWN, 

OR COUNTY 

Introduction 

A large number of girls enrolled in the public high schools 
of to-day are in communities where there are Young Women's 
Christian Associations. Practically every Association has 
undertaken some work with this group of girls which naturally 
forms an important part of the Girls' Work Program that 
every Association is feeling called upon to promote. 

Through the study which the Department of Research and 
Method of the National Board has made of girls' work, these 
plans for high school girls have been definitely thought* out. 
Wherever high school clubs are organized, a copy of their con- 
stitution should be filed at field and national headquarters. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE HIGH SCHOOL CLUB OF THE 
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

Article I. Name * 
The name of this club shall be the . 



Article II. Purpose 

(Insert here the purpose written by 1 the girls themselves. 
It should be in accord with the purpose of the Association under 
which this club is promoted.) 

Article III. Membership 

The membership of this club shall be divided into three 
groups: general, advisers, and honorary. 

Section 1. General members. Any girl in a high school is 
eligible to membership in the club. 



* AH abbreviations, all fancy names, or Greek-letter names should be 
avoided. 

95 



Section 2. Advisers. 

a, The advisers' group shall consist of four persons 
who become members of that sub-committee of the 
girls' work committee which plans the development 
of the high school work. 

b. The advisers 7 group shall be selected in accordance 
with the constitution,, of the Association which this 
high school club is a part, and shall be chosen from 
among the recent college or high school graduates, 
resident in the community, who are willing- to train 
for large responsibilities. For plans for the meet- 
ings of this group of advisers, see Section VI, page 
614. 

Section 3. Honorary membership. Any woman graduate of the 
high school or any other person especially inter- 
ested in the welfare of the club may be suggested 
for this distinction by the unanimous vote of the 
club. Their duties and obligations shall be those 
usually incumbent upon honorary members. 

Section 4. tMembership dues. 

For Cities 

If a city Association requires membership for the use of 
the privileges of the building, the high school club dues are 
determined by the girls' work committee and the membership 
committee in consultation. In cities using the new membership 
plan, membership in the Association is separate from club mem- 
bership and club dues should be determined by the members 
of the high school club in, consultation with the girls* work 
committee. 

For Towns 

The dues for any high school club which! is a part of a 
town Young Women's Christian Association depends upon the 
policy of each local Association. Where there is an Associa- 
tion membership fee, club dues are determined by the girls' 
work committee and the membership committee in consultation. 

Qtf 



Where there is no Association membership fee, as in the major- 
ity of town Associations, the girls* work 1 committee and the 
finance committee in consultation decide the relationship of 
the high school club to the financial support of the Association. 

For Counties 

When a high school club in a country or district is affiliated 
with a country or district Association, its members are by that 
act members of the Association. 

Where there is an Association membership fee, club dues 
are determined by the girl's work committee and the member- 
ship committee in consultation. 

Where there is no Association membership fee, club dues 
are determined by the members of the high school club in con- 
sultation with the girls' work committee. 

In either case it is hoped the club wall vote a proportion 
of its budget toward the financial support of the Association. 

Section 5. Duties of members. It shall be the duty of all 
members to work together heartily in carrying out 
the purpose of this club and to make it of permanent 
value and service to the school and to the community. 

Article IV. Officers 

The officers of the club shall be president, vice president, 
secretary, and treasurer, who shall perform the duties usually 
required of such officers. They shall be elected by the .members 
at the annual meeting of the club and shall hold office for one 
year or until their successors are elected. 

Article V. Committees 

There shall be such standing and special committees as are 
found necessary to direct the various activities of the club in 
fulfilment of its purpose. 

Article VI. Council (or Cabinet) 

The chairmen of all standing committees, tlie officers of the 
club/ the girls' work secretary and one club adviser shall act 
as the council (or cabinet) of the club. It shall serve as a clear- 

97 



ing house for all proposed work whether it originates in the 
general membership, in a committee, or in the council itself, 
The results of its thinking should be crystalized into recom- 
mendations which should be submitted to the whole member- 
ship at the following- club meeting. The council (or cabinet) 
shall meet regularly at least monthly and may have special 
meetings at the call of the president. 

Article VII. Meetings 
Meetings of the club shall be held at regular intervals. 

Article VIII. Amendments 

Amendments to this constitution shall require for their 
adoption the approval of the council (or cabinet), notice in 
writing at a previous meeting, and a two-thirds vote of the 
members present at a regular meeting. 

BY-LAWS 

I. Meetings 

Section 1. The regular meetings of the club shall occur 
on . 

Section 2. The annual meeting of the club shall occur 
on . 

Section 3. members of the club shall 

constitute a quorum. 

II. Duties of Officers 

Section 1. The president shall preside at all meetings of 
the club and of the council (or cabinet). In consultation with 
the other officers and the advisers she shall appoint all stand- 
ing committees. She shall appoint all special committees with 
the approval of the council, and she shall be ex-officio a mem- 
ber of each committee. 

Section 2. The vice president shall, in the absence of the 
president, preside at all meetings, and shall serve as chairman 
of the membership committee. 

Section 3. .The secretary shall give necessary notice of 
meetings and keep the minutes of transactions of the club. 



She shall also receive and file written reports of officers and 
committees. 

'Section 4. The treasurer shall have charge of the funds 
of the club under the direction of the council (or cabinet). She 
shall collect the dues, pay bills approved by the council, and 
make a report to the club at its regular and annual meetings 
of all receipts and expenditures. 

III. Committees 

Section 1. The work of the committees shall be planned in 
consultation with the council (or cabinet). Monthly^ reports 
with recommendations shall be presented first to the council 
(or cabinet) and then to the club for action and filing. 

Section 2. The standing "committees shall be as follows: 
program, membership, social, and service. 

.Section 3. The duties and responsibilities of the several 
committees shall be as follows: 

a. The Program Committee shall plan with the council (or 
cabinet) a year's program. Such a plan should include the 
inspirational, informational, service, and social meetings which 
in many cases will be developed by the discussional or demon- 
stration method. It shall also plan for study classes such as 
Bible, mission study, current events, the drama, nature study, 
story telling, and hand work. It shall cooperate with the other 
committees, so that the various interests of all the members 
shall be adequately represented in the year's work.* 

b. The Membership Committee shall be responsibly for 
promoting a spirit of friendliness among the girls in the school; 
for inviting and encouraging new girls to join the club; for 
keeping in touch with members; for the enlistment of girls in 
greater loyalty to the Association and to their respective Sun- 
day-schools and churches; for publicity concerning the Associa- 
tion and other clubs in the community or in various parts of the 
country and for publicity within the school; it shall also be 



* For suggestions, see Section IV, page 169, "Content and Method Typical 
of a Program for a High School Club." 

99 



responsible for the recognition service which marks formal 
membership in the club. 

c. The Social Committee shall be responsible for the good 
times of the club, the preparation and the conduct of all parties, 
both indoors and outdoors. It shall interpret to the club and 
the school the principles of courtesy and friendliness. It shall 
cooperate with the membership committee in looking after 
members who are ill, and shall do service for the school. 

d. The Service 'Committee shall provide for the expression 
of the Christian life and activity of the club through the various 
forms of work for the school, Sunday-school, church, community 
betterment or charity organizations, such as hospitals, day 
nurseries and mission work of all kinds, both at home and 
abroad. It shall oifer a wide variety of service. In coopera- 
tion with the Membership Committee, it shall provide oppor- 
tunity for every club member to enter some form of service. 

e. The responsibility of planning for conferences should be 
shared equally by all the committees with the treasurer serv- 
ing as special chairman of this group. 

CHAPTER V. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF GIRL RESERVE WORK AMONG YOUNGER 
GIRLS IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY 

Informal Group Organization 

THE name Girl Reserves, standing as it does for the younger 
girl in the Association and not for one specific program, 
offers a unifying element for group work. To be a Girl Reserve 
in such an informal group it is necessary to understand and 
subscribe to the code and the purpose of the Girl Reserves which 
means trying to live up to its standards. In many larg-e cities 
and industrial communities where numbers of girls between 
fourteen and eighteen are employed, Associations have found 
that an informal work of this kind is successfully carried out 
in a center located in a district where the largest number of 



girls is to be found, A center which includes a rest room, some 
kind of a reading room and a game room and facilities for 
serving one or more hot dishes meets a need in the lives of 
the girls and they come to it gladly. More and more it is ap- 
parent that the equipment offered to the girl for her recreation 
and play must be where she is and that it must be so simply 
and attractively designed that she accepts it as her own and is 
proud of it. It often happens that a city Association, because 
of its location and the large number of people using its rest 
rooms, club rooms and cafeterias, does not offer sufficient space 
and freedom at the very time when this group of younger girls 
can come. In smaller cities and towns, however, many Associa- 
tions are able to provide several rooms or one large club room 
where many activities may be occurring at one time. These 
rooms can belong to this particular group of younger girls and 
can be used and especially decorated for them. If this can be 
done in any Association, an informal club program can be 
worked out to great advantage. In other Associations it has 
been found possible to have one or more special nights when 
club rooms and other necessary equipment are turned over to 
this group of younger girls in business and industry. 

Whatever plan is used by the Association, it must be remem- 
bered that self-government and a certain freedom of expression 
on the part of the girls must never be overlooked. If an 
Association starts a center in a given locality the interest of 
the girls is naturally aroused and they come to it with little or 
no urging. If the work is being done in the Association club 
rooms, it is sometimes necessary to interest the girls through 
personal invitation, through attractive dodgers and through 
older industrial girls. It has been found feasible sometimes to 
appoint in each store or factory a Girl Reserve chairman. She 
is a young girl interested in Girl Reserve work and is respon- 
sible for interesting other girls. As the work grows and more 
and more girls come to the center or to the Association club 
rooms these chairmen from the different plants can be formed 
into what might be called "The Girl Reserve Executive Council." 

101 



Little by little they can be made to assume responsibility for 
planning activities and for setting- standards for the work done 
at the center or in the club rooms. From such an executive 
council and from such informal noon recreation work will often 
come the demand on the part of several girls for definite club 
organization. 

Formal Club Organization 

The formal organization for Girl Reserves in business and 
industry has usually taken the form of three committees: the 
first known as the Scout Committee, which is practically a mem- 
bership committee, responsible for interesting new members 
and keeping in touch with old members; the second, the Outings 
and Innings Committee which is the social and recreation com- 
mittee, and the third, the Service Committee which, as its name 
indicates, has full charge of service work for the club. Every 
girl in the club should be made a member of one of the three 
committees. By this method each girl bears a real responsi- 
bility for a piece of work, is more interested, and so is a better 
member. The work of each committee can be so planned that 
a large number of girls can be kept busy on each committee. 

The chairman of these three committees, plus any members 
from those committees which the girls desire to have, form 
the Girl Reserve Executive Council known as the S. 0. S. This 
group us responsible for planning general program work and 
submitting it to the club as a whole for its formal approval. 
The chairman of the S. 0. S. is the Scout Committee chairman. 
She presides at all meetings of the <S. 0. S. and at all meet- 
ings of the Girl Reserve club, which may be called either a 
Girl Reserve Company or a Girl Reserve Club, depending upon 
the vote of the girls themselves. The S. 0. S. should meet 
regularly once a month and should (1) consider the general 
program and work of the club and see that this work supple- 
ments the needs of the girls in the club and sets standards of 
which a Girl Reserve will be proud; (2) discuss how the Girl 

102 



Reserve club or company can be an effective force in upholding 
these standards in their homes and at work and in the com- 
munity. 

In many cities and towns where there are many grade and 
high school Girl Reserves, there may be formed a divisional 
council for Girl Reserves. This council consists of representa- 
tives from the grade school, the high school and the Girl Re- 
serves in Business and Industry. (See Girl Reserve Manual 
for Advisers, page 59.) They may meet once in three 
months or oftener if desired to discuss general pieces of service 
work and to see how the Girl Reserve can become as a whole 
a more effective force in the community. The chairman of this 
group may be elected from and by the group itself. Such a 
divisional council does much to bring about a feeling of unity 
among all the girls and helps to form a better understanding 
between the school girl and the younger girl at work. 

In addition to this committee organization, any group may 
elect the four regular officers president, vice president, secre- 
tary and treasurer to serve for the time the group desires. 
Older girls will undoubtedly want to organize in this way. Care 
should be taken that such officers feel the responsibility of their 
positions and understand the duties of their office and how to 
perform these duties. (See Primer of 'Parliamentary Drill, 
Womans Press, price ten cents.) 

Every group of Girl Reserves whether an informal or formal 
club, should register at New York headquarters,- 600 Lexington 
Avenue. Formal registration blanks may be obtained through 
the field office. Girl Reserve code cards are sent to each Girl 
Reserve as soon as the application card with the number in the 
group is received in New York. In case of informal groups, if 
exact number cannot be given, state approximate number. 

Meetings 

The best time for meetings of younger girls in business 
and industry is in many communities a problem. Where there 

103 



is no center to which the girls may come at noon it sometimes 
seems as if there were no chance at all really to come in close 
contact with them. A problem of this kind is necessarily local 
and must be worked out differently in each case. 

There are four times when meetings for this group of girls 
are possible: 

(a) Noon hour. 

(b) During school hours at the continuation school 
or the Y. W. C. A. 

(c) At night. 

(d) On Sundays. 

For suggestive activities to be used at these times, see 
Section IV, 'Chapter II, page 195, on Content and Method Typical 
of a Program for Younger Girls in Business and Industry. 

Suggested Methods of Approach. 

If the approach to the girl is to be made through a school, 
the following kinds of school with their curricula must be un- 
derstood and contacts made with them: 

(a) 'Grade school (see suggestions above). 

In some communities the girls' work committee may, 
through its share in a community council create inter- 
est on the part of representatives of parochial schools 
in their graduates or "drop-outs" who are going to 
work. 

(b) Continuation school. 

(c) Commercial, business or technical high school. 

(d) Business college. 

Continuation Schools 

The continuation school does not exist at present in some 
communities while in many others it is new and is weighing: 
and testing out methods to meet the many demands placed 
upon it. The recent federal education legislation, known as 
the Smith-Hughes Law, the proposed Sterling-Towner Bill, Sen- 

104 



ate No. 1252, H.R. No. 7 (the Smith-Towner Bill of the pre- 
vious session *) and 'Federal Child Labor Law,f raising the age 
standard at which children may be employed in certain occu- 
pations, state legislation relating to the raising of school at- 
tendance age and its enforcement plus the growing public sen- 
timent that youth has certain rights which cannot be denied 
nor abrogated, have led to the growth of the continuation 
school movement. At present the following states have contin- 
uation school laws: 

Arizona, Iowa, Nebraska, New York, South Dakota, Cali- 
fornia, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oklahoma^ Utah, Connecticut, 
Michigan, New Hampshire, Oregon, Washington, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Indiana, Mon- 
tana, New Mexico, Rhode Island, Wisconsin. 

The summary of the text of these laws may be secured by 
writing to the Bureau of Education,, Department of Interior, 
Washington, D. C.: W. R. Hood, law specialist, and to the State 
Department of Public Instruction at the state capital. 

Suggested Methods of Cooperation with Continuation Schools. 

If a girls' work department an a local Association is begin- 
ning work with continuation school girls, the following course 
of action has proven a good one in many cases. 

(1) Ask the field secretary for younger girls to have an 
interview with the state supervisor for continuation 
schools, which will explain that the Y. W. C. A. 
is glad to know whether it can in any way supplement 
the work of the continuation schools in that community. 
She will explain that such cooperation will in no sense 
duplicate continuation school plans. She will also ask 



* See Section VII Topic : Legislation, for summary of these laws, 
f See August, 1920 , American Child quarterly journal published by the 
National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22nd Street, New York City. 

105 



the state supervisor for the list of local principals which 
then will be forwarded to the various local Associations. 
(2) Request an interview with the local principal at which 
the local girls' work secretary, and if possible the field 
secretary for younger girls, will be present. At this 
time should be discussed what needs, if any, the Asso- 
ciation can help to meet. Experience has shown that 
the following- are needs which the Association can help 
to meet: . 

(a) Noon Eecreation with the girls at the Continua- 
tion School. 

This may be held either at the school or the As- 
sociation, depending upon the equipment and desire 
of the school. The girls' work secretary, a volun- 
teer worker trained for such work, or the physical 
director may have this in charge. 

One Association used a nearby park in spring 
and fall, urging the girls to bring their luncheons 
there. Afterward games were played. Another 
Association regularly moves all the furniture from 
its sewing room and turns this over to the continu- 
ation school girls for a play room at noon. In- 
genuity and a real desire to serve will carry an 
Association through the many obstacles which at 
first seem to stand in the way of work of this 
kind. 

(b) Gymnasium Work. 

Associations have been glad to offer free of 
charge their gymnasium and physical director for 
forty-five minutes of work one morning a week. 
In other Associations, a trained volunteer worker 
has handled simple floor work. If the physical 
director is in charge, it has been found advisable 
for the girls' work secretary to play the piano or 
join in the games with the girls in order to make 
the necessary contracts. One Association has had 

106 



a business arrangement in the continuation school 
and a flat rate for the year for the use of th gym- 
nasium and physical director has been worked out. 
In many instances when the continuation school has 
no gymnasium,, they are glad to make some ar- 
rangement with such an organization as the Asso- 
ciation. The question of whether this service from 
the Association is free or not depends of course 
upon the local conditions. The fact in -which an 
Association is interested is that the continuation 
school girls need this kind of physical work and 
play and since it is a community agency it will 
want to do what it can to cooperate with these 
plans. 

(c) Stimulation of the Social Activities in Continuation 
School Circles. 

Many continuation schools are as yet very 
crowded for space and equipment and the teachers 
are very busy. This makes difficult the development 
of a real school spirit which will be of the finest 
kind. With the help of an Association worker the 
continuation school teachers through cheers, yells 
and songs taught at parties or a noontime recrea- 
tion, can bring to the boys and girls a feeling of 
pride and joy in the school of which they are a 
part. For instance, such cheers and songs as the 
following have been used with great effect: 

"Continuation Continuation, 
Continuations Continuati on, 
We are cheering, we are cheering, 
Cheering now for Continuation, 
Rah, rah, rah!" 

The famous Johnny Smoker song (usually in- 
cluded in a collection of popular music) can 

107 



be used most successfully. Both boys and girls 
enjoy singing it. 

(d) Assistance in Home Visitation. 

Sometimes help Is needed in home visiting and 
a girls' work secretary has a real opportunity to 
prove to the continuation school principal that she 
is one who can be of use. Usually the continuation 
school closes earlier than other schools at the 
Christmas season in order that the girls and boys 
may be free for the Christmas rush in their various 
places of employment. 'In a large city a girls' 
work secretary may be welcomed as an additional 
home visitor at this time and the knowledge which 
she gains of home conditions is one of the most 
valuable assets she can have for constructive work 
with the girls (e. g., if Mary regularly goes to 
sleep at school it may mean sleeping conditions for 
Mary at home are not what they should be). 

(e) An Increased Knowledge of Club Methods and 
Recreation Work. 

In one section of the country where cooperation 
with continuation school staffs has been well 
worked out, the experience of the Association in 
training people for club and recreation work has 
been utilized in those training schools where the 
continuation school teachers are prepared. Lec- 
tures and demonstration work often can be fur- 
nished by the local girls' work secretary or the 
field girls' work secretary if they are desired by 
the continuation school supervisor. 

Technical and Commercial High Schools Business Colleges 

This group of schools differs from the continuation school in 
that the girl is there for a much longer period of time every 
day in the week and so the school is a major and not a minor 

108 



activity with her. School life and activities are necessarily 
more highly organized. 

Most technical and commercial schools have a two years 9 
course which gives the girl a certificate and a four year course 
which results in a diploma. Large numbers of girls go only 
long enough to receive the certificates and so at an early age 
enter the business world as stenographers, file clerks, and other 
kinds of office workers. 

In some sections of the country, technical schools have ar- 
ranged to have pupils do laboratory work in certain stores and 
factories. Thus the "hours of school" for the girl are spent 
partially at the school building, partially in a store or factory 
at work. The girl who through such an arrangement is at work 
and in school at the same time is often in need of the kind of 
programs the Association can offer. SJie needs help in those 
adjustments of thinking and living which a good Association 
program should provide. 

The approach to such schools is through the principal the 
faculty and individual girls. An assembly talk, recreation, 
camp work, all offer points of contact. Again the closest kind 
of cooperation needs to exist between the girls' work secretary 
and the person in the school in charge of placing the girl at 
work. 

The needs and the desires of the younger business college 
girl have been considered in Section I of this manual. 

The Girl Already at Work. 

If the approach is to be made to the girl at her place of em- 
ployment, the first things to be taken into consideration are 
the approach to the employer and the ways of securing his co- 
operation (see Section VI on "Cooperation with Industrial De- 
partment")- 

There are two possible ways of approaching the younger 
girl already at work one through older girls connected with 
the Association who are at work in the same industry or busi- 
ness ; the other, by contagious enthusiasm of the girls* work 

109 



secretary and the adviser who "become personally acquainted 
with girls and who are seers enough to believe that every girl 
has a gift to bring and the Association has one to give. This 
latter method means getting acquainted with the girls "over the 
counter" and at noontime in the factory or by visits to offices 
where the girls are employed. It may seem a slow process but 
eventually it does win the confidence of girls who become a 
nucleus for larger results. Efforts of this sort imply the most 
careful cooperation and understanding with any welfare or 
service workers, junior superintendents, and nurses employed 
by the management. Through them it is possible to gain access 
to- the girls at noontimes in their rest rooms or dining rooms 
and permission to place on bulletin boards attractive posters 
and announcements of hikes, summer camp or general enter- 
tainments. Often, also, it is possible to cooperate with the 
management's plan for noon recreation in a place provided by 
the management in the plant itself, dn a nearby park or a 
vacant lot. A schedule for handling such recreation if requested 
by the management, should be worked out in cooperation with 
the physical director and the industrial secretary. 

Whether the Association maintains a center outside the 
building and particularly for the use of the younger girls in 
business and industry, or whether a room or whole floor in a 
local Association building is given over to their use, the at- 
mosphere should be that of a place which is utterly their own. 

A little money combined with much thought and ingenuity 
can make attractive a room in an Association or any space 
rented to serve as a center. The luxury an both color and 
equipment found in the modern department store where many 
younger girls are employed, and the glitter of the "movie pal- 
ace" and other places of commercialized recreation overstimu- 
late the girls' love of color, and it is necessary therefore for 
the Association to compete by some method which through its 
very beauty and simplicity will attract and help brighten their 
perspective. 

110 



Many of the town Associations with their plain home-like 
rooms will prove attractive to the younger girl in business and 
industry, once she knows the Association secretaries. Both the 
executive and the associate need to know and understand as fully 
as possible the needs and) desires of this younger girl who is 
such a vital part of the town community. Sometimes she comes 
with a definite need, such as a job or a place to live. That is 
the time to serve her well and make her acquaintance. The 
chances of service by the town Association are many and great 
and sometimes the finest piece of work in a town or in a city 
is not through organized club work but through individual per- 
sonal service and informal recreation. 

The following suggestions may prove helpful to a secretary 
or adviser who is approaching the girl already at work in a 
town or a city: 

(a) Read the "want ads" and advertisements in the daily 
and Sunday newspapers. "Want ads" supply informa- 
tion about the kind of job offered, the kind of business 
concerns using this method of obtaining girls, and 
something of the labor turnover among floating groups. 

Advertisements in both daily and Sunday papers give 
an idea of the "personality" of the various stores. Every 
employee in a store is affected by an "Annual White 
Sale," a "July Clearance Sale" or a "Red Tag Bar- 
gain Sale," and the stores having this type of 
sale have a different "personality" from, t the stores 
with another kind of bargain sale. It is es- 
sential for a girls' work secretary to know of such sales 
in order that she may be intelligent about the kind 
of program needed, the time that camp is possible for 
girls and the kind of recreation and club supper needed 
if club night falls on sale day. A girl who has been all 
day in a store with a "Red Tag Bargain Sale" going on 
needs a certain kind of food and recreation. Most girls 
read the newspapers at least parts of them; conversa- 

111 



tion is not so difficult if the secretary and adviser have 
also read of the same current topics and know of such 
an event as a big sale. 

(b) Eead in current magazines stories and articles with such 
titles as the following. They give color and information 
about store life and methods of work: 

"$16.50 Trimmed." 

^How Department .Stores Watch One Another." 

(c) Watch theatre and movie announcements also. Special 
attractions of the various commercialized amusement 
places. Know when the "big dance" is to be at one of 
the popular halls and when free refreshments are being 
served at any one of them. 

(d) ^Learn to understand the vocabulary of the younger girl 
in business and industry and to talk with her intelligently 
of things she understands, appreciates, and works with 
daily. For instance, understand such expressions as the 
following: tube room, the "cage," time-keeper, jogger, 
models, comptometer, ticket sorter, dictaphone, calla- 
phone. 

These are but a few examples of terms in the daily 
vocabulary of the younger girl in business and industry. 
They must be known to the person working 1 with her. 

(e) Know how working papers and permits are secured. Try 
to know personally the official in charge of issuing these, 

(f ) Secure from business houses and industrial plants sample 
copies of: 

a. Blanks which applicants for work must fill out. 

b. Health certificates if required. 

Show these to girls and discuss them so that when 
application is made, the girl will not feel ill at ease. 

(g) Know the name, address, policy of work (free or pay) 
of the various employment agencies in the community* 
(This information should be secured through the employ- 
ment secretary of the Association and all work connected 
with employment done in close cooperation with her.) 

112 



(h) Have full information regarding the location, hours, and 
method of work of free clinics, emergency hospitals, good 
dentists, oculists, and doctors. 

(i) Know when civil service examinations are to be given. By 
information about the requirements and opportunities of- 
fered, many a girl may be helped to better positions and 
more interest in her work. 

(j) Have a file containing the following information: 

(1) Catalogues and bulletins of business colleges. 

(2) Catalogues of schools of salesmanship. 

(3) Papers published by local stores and plants. 

(4) Names and addresses of girls who just "drop 
into" the Association and who do not seem to 
want anything offered. Some day word sent 
them about a definite meeting or "stunt" may at- 
tract them. 



CHAPTER VI. 
THE ORGANIZATION OF YOUNGER BUSINESS COLLEGE GIRLS * 

THERE are two kinds of organization possible among 
younger business college girls. One 4s the regular club 
organization with the usual officers and committees, and the 
other a more informal organization an which the business of the 
group is handled by committees elected whenever there is need 
to put into execution any of the desires of the group. This does 
away with overhead machinery which sometimes is not wanted 
by these girls. See preceding pages for a discussion of formal 
and informal organizations. 



*This is suggestive material to be adapted and changed as the needs of 
the girls demand, for no two communities can use the same program in the 
same way. It is hoped that this material, together with that prepared for 
older business and professional women by the Business and Professional 
Women's Bureau, will form the basis for a consecutive and constructive piece 
of work with these groups which should be closely allied in all interests. 

113 



If a club is organized', it should have a constitution and a 
purpose which are in line with those of the older Business and 
Professional Women's Club in the Association. (See "Suggested 
Program for Business and Professional Women's Clubs, The 
Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, $.25.) 
The club of older women should feel itself responsible for the 
younger girls, both individually and in club work. The girls' 
work secretary, the chairman of the girls' work committee, a 
group of business and professional women from the older club 
and when possible a representative from the business school or 
college should be responsible for initiating work among the 
younger business college girls, and for all policies and programs 
carried on in connection with this kind of work. Such a commit- 
tee of older business women might well be made part of the 
service committee of the Business and Professional Woman's 
Club when such a club exists. 

Since the work among younger business college girls is new, 
it has seemed wise not to suggest a name but to leave that mat- 
ter to each local community. If the girls desire to be a part of 
the younger girl movement of the Young Women's Christian 
Association, known as The Girl Reserve Movement, they may 

do so by designating themselves as the Club of 

the Girl Reserves/ by registering themselves at headquarters, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, and by receiving and 
using the Girl Reserve code posters. 

This official connection with the younger girl movement of 
the Young Women's Christian Association may or may not 
seem wise. This probably will depend upon the way in which 
the Girl Reserve Movement has been presented to the community 
If it has been conceived of as a program for school girls and not 
as a movement providing programs for all girls under eighteen 
grade school, high school, younger girls in business and industry, 
and younger business college girls the girls may not care to 
be related to it, feeling that it is a single program for school 
girls. 

114 



But the advantages of this connection are obvious. It pro- 
vides at this very experimental stage of the work, a definite 
channel of organization and purpose, expressed in posters and 
code cards and other supplementary material, all of which will 
be extremely valuable to the older business woman, who for the 
first time interests herself in the leadership of younger girls. 
At the same time, this connection in no way interferes with the 
kind of program to be used with this group of younger business 
college girls. It merely provides a framework for the program. 

LEADERSHIP 

The leadership of younger business college girls should come, 
in so far as possible from among the older business and profes- 
sional wonten of the community, and whenever there is a Busi- 
ness and Professional Women's Club, it should come from that 
membership. The older business and professional women have 
more to contribute, probably, than any other group of women in 
the community, in the way of standards of living and of work. 
The object of such a club among younger girls is to develop the 
girls themselves for positions of leadership, and those who are 
sponsoring the work r therefore, should be very sure that the 
club is a self-governing one. 



115 



Section 



PROGRAM PLANNING 
CHAPTER I. 

A CLUE TO PROGRAM PLANNING 

THE purpose of the Association, and hence of all its pro- 
grams and activities, is essentially the bringing of the girl 
to her full development. In response to many requests for a 
program which shall bring about such a development, this 
philosophy of program making is suggested. Our task in, life 
is to live in a way which completely develops through use r 
powers of body, mind, spirit. In the development of Christian 
womanhood there are four fundamental expressions of life, any 
one of which may be inclusive of the others. The necessary 
thing is that all four, with their Christian interpretation, shall 
contribute to a developing personality. 

These fundamental expressions are: 

First: Work a creative production, both mental and 

manual, 
Second: Kecreation a renewal of life, emotional, physical, 

mental and spiritual, 
Third: Fellowship a consciousness of the value of other 

personalities expressed through an outgoing of spirit 

and manifested by good acts, 
Fourth: Eeligion a consciousness bf God in lifej, the 

dynamic for action. 

117 



A well developed life program needs to include plans to 
make one a better workman, means of renewing life, avenues 
for growing fellowship, and ways of coming to know God 
better. What are the processes of growth? What is involved 
in growing? What are the tests by which we measure plans 
that will help us in our growing? First of all we ask, in what 
ways do we need to grow? Second How is this to be achieved? 
Third Is it worth while? Fourth Out of the many possibili- 
ties which the study and planning and evaluation have brought 
forth, which will we actually follow out ? Again we are driven 
back to the worth while things of life, to the fundamental ex- 
pressions, by means of which we achieve development of per- 
sonality. 

This is always found through work. Work is essential to a 
developing personality, defining work as the expression, use or 
exercise of our abilities in the actual participation in the in- 
dividual and collective production of the world. Unless one's 
tasfc is truly a complete expression of self, is it enough to 
work? Through the days and through the years it is by means 
of recreation, the renewal of life that we continue in happiness 
and growth. Renewal of life occurs when the use of our 
emotional force, the powers of our body, mind, and spirit, no 
matter what the form of expression, fulfills the aims and de- 
sires of our whole personality, producing rest, satisfaction, 
peace and joy. Yet can we find complete development of per- 
sonality alone ? Plants are best in gardens, sheep are loveliest 
in flocks; all of us iind ourselves at our best when we reach 
out to other people in a growing fellowship and friendship. 
Yet one thing is lacking. 

What is it that furnishes the urge? What is it that gives 
one the sense of responsibility for the use of life? What is it 
that sends one reaching out to a joyous sense of brotherhood? 
What makes the garden truly fair when the cool of the day is 
over all? Is it not the presence of God in the garden? Our 

118 



lives express themselves through work and in the giving of 
gifts, because it is God that worketh in us, and work and 
recreation and fellowship take on a new meaning and new 
glory when permeating them all, encircling them all is the 
consciousness of God. 

Do we measure each of life's projects by these tests? Do 
we balance our lives by these fundamental measures? Are we 
truly growing into the measure of the stature of the fullness 
of Him who found his joy in giving of Himself in work, who 
never missed the perfect balance, who loved even the least and 
lowliest, who lived his life in the conscious fulfillment of the 
purpose of his Father and ours? 



119 



EXPRESSIONS OF LIFE 



WORK 


RECREATION 


FELLOWSHIP 


RELIGION 


Creative 


A Renewal of 


A Conscious- 


A Conscious- 


Production 


Life, Emo- 


ness of the 


ness of God in 


Mental 


tional, Physical, 


Value of Other 


Life the 


and 


Mental, 


Personalities 


Dynamic for 


Manual 


Spiritual 


'Expressed 


Action 


i. Social contri- 
bution. 


I. Evaluation 
of leisure 


Through an 
Outgoing of 
Spirit and 


I. Sense of 
freedom in 


2. Economic 
independence. 


time. 

2. Restoring of 
balance. 


Manifested by 
Good Acts. 
I. Growing 


action. 

2. Sense of 
brotherhood. 


3. Development 


3. The play 


neighborli- 




of skill. 


spirit. 


ness. 


3. Urge of life. 






2. Appreciation 




4. Craftsman- 


4. Freeing of 


of people; 


4. Sense of re- 


ship. 


Mastery Sense. 


understanding 


sponsibility. 






of their be- 








havior, be- 








liefs, 








customs. 








3. Trust of 








purposes. 








4. Spirit of co- 








operation. 





120 



Too often our programs have created interest among certain 
girls but have failed to reach and satisfy the needs of others. 
This is because we have not taken into account the fact that 
there are in each individual unformed, developing desires, many 
times unexpressed, which must find satisfaction if the girl is to 
develop normally and richly. A^ girl has many interests, or 
latent interests, but too often no definite plan or purpose for 
her life. Most of her future power and happiness depends upon 
the way these interests and the demands they make, are met. 
These forces of her personality cannot be repressed without 
danger. The opportunities offered* her should therefore be 
rich, stimulating, and varied. 

Study needs and desires of group 

Select the avenue of expression for the year's work. 

Choose the emphases 

Build the project 

Analyze the project by the program tests 

Therefore, in building a program we have in mind four 
supreme avenues of expression work, recreation, fellowship 
and religion. First we study the girls and find what is their 
greatest need. We also discover what things they want in the 
way of program. For instance, the adviser, knowing that a 
group of girls cares for nothing but dancing and other forms 
of physical activity, also realizes keenly that the same girls 
need certain character standards developed. Therefore, when 
the girls choose for their year's emphases in their club pro- 
grams, nothing but forms of amusement, the adviser keeps 
always in mind such emphases as will give the girls through 
recreation, properly developed, not only all the play and fun 
they want*, but also activities from which develop ideals of 
Christian character. 

The program emphases now being decided upon, the adviser 
studies whether these emphases will bring to the girls elements 
of work, recreation, fellowship and religion. Satisfied that 
they will, she decides through which one of these four avenues 

121 



of expression the girls will find most normally complete develop- 
ment. Next, the group in consultation, chooses the methods by 
which not only immediate interests are satisfied, but also ways 
(of which they are not immediately cognizant) in which their 
lives may be given proper balance and power of growth. 

To illustrate: This group of girls who desire only physical 
activity chooses to form a basketball team. A few of the group 
want to have a class in candy making; others want to learn 
to cook still others want to do some good reading. Tha 
adviser acquiescing in all these desires, immediately sees oppor- 
tunities in the basketball and cooking classes, and especially 
in the study of literature, to do the work fundamental to the 
formation of character standards, which she feels this group of 
girls so badly needs. The major emphasis, or main expression, 
for the year then is recreation, a basketball team with minor 
emphasis on candy making, cooking and literature. The ad- 
viser's knowledge of the character standards which are to be 
the permeating and integrating element, is, where advisable, 
to be kept in the background. The project would then start 
with a skeleton outline as follows: 

A group meets for supper, which the class in cooking pre- 
pared under the guidance of a capable instructor. After supper 
while the basketball team practices, or plays a game, the class 
in candy making goes to work, and the class in literature goes 
off under their adviser. When the basketball team is tired, the 
girls all come together in the club room for the final hour of 
the evening; the adviser or some other girl chosen from the 
class in literature, tells a story or reads some poems, and time 
is given for discussion. This is the adviser's great opportunity. 
The candy makers pass their wares and the evening ends with 
a note of fellowship. 

With a plan similar to this in mind, the group is satisfied 
because each girl feels that her needs are to be met. The 
project is thus built. Ideally, this should cover a year's club 
work and should be broad enough to meet the girPs interest 

1.2.2 



at the moment, and yet carry her forward to new fields of 
growth and understanding 1 . For illustrations see the suggested 
project, page 124. 

When the project is complete in the minds of the girls 
and the adviser, and before it is entered upon, it should be 
analyzed by the following tests of a program: 

A. Acquisition of knowledge. 

B. Development of technique. 

C. Formation of habits. 

D. Character expressed through action. 

Is the girl able to learn through basketball, the laws of 
health, hygiene, the value of team play, and honesty? Through 
a cooking class, does she learn something of dietetics, cleanli- 
ness, the relation of a balanced diet and good habits of life to 
a well body? Through candy making, does she learn accuracy 
of weighing and sifting and testing? Something of social ser- 
vice perhaps? Through literature, the use of English, the 
influence and style of great writers, the lives of men and 
women in 'their relation to one another and to 'God ? 

If the proposed project answers these tests, it will result 
not only in meeting the unexpressed and developing desires of 
the girl at the moment, but will lead her on into a fuller and 
richer growth of Christian womanhood. 

And what is Christian womanhood? It is typified by a 
woman whose sympathies are as broad as the needs of people; 
whose understanding is as deep as the unfathomed heart of a 
girl, whose life is rich and full and joyous with the joy of Christ 
because she has learned of Him the meaning of friendship and 
gives herself in wholehearted devotion to all His friends. A 
woman who stands as He stood, dauntless and unafraid, cham- 
pioning the oppressed, righting hideous wrongs, pouring balm 
on wounded hearts, comforting the sorrowing, rejoicing with 
the joyous, living the abundant life. 

123 



The success of the project can be determined only at the 
close of the year's work. If there have opened to the girl new 
vistas of knowledge, skill in the use of technique, contacts 
resulting in a greater appreciation of peoples, a consciousness 
of <God in all of life, the project has been a success. 

The following project on fellowship has been prepared to 
illustrate^ the way in which the program planning just out- 
lined may be carried out by a group of younger girls. 



A PROJECT IN WORLD FELLOWSHIP FOR YOUNGER GIRLS' CLUBS 

Time: From six weeks to three months depending upon 

the comprehensive treatment of the project. 

First Step: In magazines and books find pictures of girls 
of other countries, Japan, China, India, North 
American Indian, South American Indian, Poland, 
Bulgaria, iSyria, Italy, Czechoslovakia and any 
other countries desired. 

Se-cond Step: From these draw and color designs for costumes. 
At these meetings the leader tells interesting 
facts about these countries how religion and 
tradition have been formative influences in the 
lives of the women and girls of these lands. Dif- 
ferent girls would add items of interest which 
they have discovered In their search for the 
pictures. 

Third iStep: The making of costumes. This offers an oppor- 
tunity for a class in sewing. Also in order to 
get proper shades, the material could be dyed 
and this could occupy one step of the project. 
The making of the costumes should not be hur- 
ried. Again the leader or adviser seizes every 
opportunity to sympathetically interpret girls 
and women of the various countries which have 
been chosen for representation in this project, 

124 



At some meetings a story hour may be used by 
someone telling a foreign story while the girls 
sew. A part of each meeting during the sewing 
period is devoted to recreation, to playing games 
of foreign countries. Music can be used also 
the leader or someone secures for this purpose 
teaching the songs and pointing out the main 
differences in Oriental and Occidental music. 
Poetry can be read at certain meetings and in- 
terpreted to reflect the religious ideals of the 
country and also to instill a sympathetic under- 
standing and appreciation of non-Christian cul- 
ture and religion. 

Fourth 'Step: When the costumes are nearing completion, or 
earlier if desired, simple folk dances can be 
learned the girls and advisers studying the sym- 
bolic nature of these dances, their relation to the 
religions of the country. When the dances are 
learned, and the costumes completed, advance 
to the 

Fifth Step: Which is in the nature of a simple pageant or 
style show. This should be entirely in pantomime 
and can be worked out in any form the group 
desires. The, following is merely suggestive. 
A Court of Nations with Columbia posed in 
simple dignity is arranged. Each nation is rep- 
resented by one or more girls in costume and 
appears either singly or in groups, each girl 
carrying some flower or tree which is character- 
istic of her country. (Cherry blossoms for Japan, 
maple leaves for Canada, etc.) The girl advances 
slowly, seeking to express the idea of the country 
she represents in gesture and posture, (This 
should have been carefully thought through and 
planned beforehand.) She makes obeisance and 

125 



deposits her offering at the feet of Columbia. 
She then beckons to the entrance from which 
she came; a group of girls run out and join 
her in the folk dance of her country. In the 
end Columbia, wi'th gestures symbolic of pro- 
tection^ understanding and appreciation, wel- 
comes all the girls Into a circle of friendship 
which is formed by the girls joining hands and 
forming some simple and beautiful tableau. 
The same costumes, music and dances can be 
used again in a bazaar given for money-making 
purpose at which times booths decorated to 
represent the countries, could be most effectively 
used and merchandise peculiar to that nation 
sold. 

Again at a special vesper service the same cos- 
tumes and music can be used in presenting The 
Prayers of the Nations (printed in this Manual). 
A number of the honors listed under KNOWL- 
EDGE can be made into Interesting projects 
e. g., No. 4, 7, 8, 10. 

References: Pictures for costumes: The National Geographic 
magazine Asia back copies of The "World Out- 
look Koka. 

Games: See "Children at Play In Many Lands/' 
by Katherine S. Hall, Missionary Education 
Movement, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City. 

Bancroft Game Book, Music: Native Melodies 
Missionary Education Movement, 156 5th Ave., 
New York City. 

Two selections from Chinese tone poems in low 
voice by John Alden Carpenter, Schirmer, New 
York. Two selections from Gitanjali (Tagore), 
John Alden Carpenter, Schirmer, New York. 

126 



Folk Songs of Many Peoples, The Womans Press, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York. 

Poems; 

The Crescent Moon Rabindranath Tagore 

Fruit Gathering.. Poems 12, 19, 27, 57 and 79 

The Broken Wing Sarojini Naidu 

Bird of Time Sarojini Naidu 

The Golden Threshold Sarojini Naidu 

Hispanic Anthology, arranged by Thomas Walsh 

(Poems from Spanish) 

Anthology of Jugoslav Poetry, 

B. 'Stevens /Stanoyevich 

Stories : 

Girl Reserve Book List, 
Children of India, 

Janet Harvey Kellerman Chap. 2 

Children of Japan 

Janet Harvey Kellerman The Story of 
Hamojuchi 

African Adventures 

Jean Mackenzie ^Chaps. 25-28 A Girl's 
Bravery 
Japanese Fairy World 

William Elliott Griffis The Firefly's 
Lovers 
Woodcraft Manual for Girls 

Indian Stories page 107 

Story of Cornsmut Girls (A Hopi Legend) 
The Seven Swans, How We Found the 
Great Spirit. Page 119. 

Junior Mission Story Margaret Applegarth 

"The Story of Jill" .(Southern Highlander) 

Dancing Frazer (for Hindu Folk Dances) 

127 



CHAPTER II. 
TYPICAL PROGRAMS FOR GROUPS OF GIRLS 

The following programs have been included in this Manual 
because they typify some of the necessary elements which must 
be present both in the content and method of all project building 
as stated in the preceding pages. The fundamental way of build- 
ing a program which contributes to the fulness of life of a 
developing personality is an ideal toward which all educational 
programs in the Association will be directed henceforth. But 
because all advisers and secretaries are still finding their way 
into the study of program building, it has been considered wise 
to assemble many topics or manifestations of 'the four avenues 
of expression, and to develop them as units which may be com- 
bined into a project on work, recreation, fellowship or religion. 

To illustrate this by a diagram, a large circle may be drawn 
which may be divided into four equal parts*, or right angles, each 
of which would represent one of the four avenues through which 
a developing personality expresses itself. But the needs and 
desires of the group might make it necessary to have the major 
emphasis upon recreation. Therefore the project would be pic- 
tured by a circle equal in diameter to the other, but with the 
angle representing the emphases placed upon recreation equal 
to two hundred or two hundred and seventy degrees approxi- 
mately. The remaining degrees may include emphases upon 
any one or more of the other avenues of expression, in terms of 
their Christian interpretation. The life of a girl or the life of 
group of girls will grow as any project stands the tests men- 
tioned before and represented diagrammatieally by a series of 
concentric circles, the smallest of these representing 1 the develop- 
ing personality, which grows as it acquires knowledge, develops 
technique or skill which will be utilized in all further life experi- 
ences, forms good habits and expresses all its development in 
action, thus becoming a social factor for good. 

128 




1' A DtHtADTlM Tt 

'"TESTS 



"TUt 



129 



THE TEST OF A PROGRAM 

The test of a club program is the way in which it holds' the 
girls' attention. Variety is an essential which must not be over- 
looked and yet underneath there should be a continuous theme 
which will make for growth in the life of the girl. Each activity 
should be a definite step toward this goal. Fullness of life for 
the girlhood of to-day will make a responsible womanhood for 
to-morrow. 

In the chart, "Activities for Developing the Girl Citizen," 
the activities which girls enjoy and need have been grouped under 
four divisions: the girl's physical life, the girl's mental or intel- 
lectual life, the girl's social life, and the girl's spiritual life. 
These terms are descriptive of processes which are measured by 
the four expressions of life indicated dn the preceding pages of 
this chapter, recreation, work, fellowship, and religion. 

The weekly program of every club should provide one major 
activity and some supplementary activities from any one of 
these divisions, depending upon the kind of project which has 
been undertaken by the decision of the group. The chart will 
help to serve as a guide. (Page 128.) 

PROGRAMS 
CONTENT AND METHOD TYPICAL OF A GRADE SCHOOL CORPS 

PROGRAM 

THE following program demonstrates in a very simple way 
certain principles which an adviser needs to bear in mind 
as she plans her program, First, the assignment, made at least 
a week in advance of the regular meeting; second, a list of 
material to be prepared or secured by the adviser; third, the 
actual meeting. 

It is only suggestive, for it is clearly recognized that the 
sort of topics listed here will not be applicable to situations 
existing in certain communities. As this program stands, no 
provision has been made for the opening and the closing of the 
meetings. In other words, an adviser planning for a meeting 

130 



must have in mind these three distinct parts of the program, 
the opening,, the' major activity, and the best way to spend the 
last haft-hour. This program deals only with the major activity 
and somewhere in the program should occur one half-hour of 
carefully planned recreation. (For suggestions in regard to 
the opening of the meeting, and recreation, see pages 157, 348, 
748. 

To show how the Honor System becomes the basis of any 
program or any single meeting in the year's work, there have 
been included in the directions for the preparation of these 
meetings direct reference to the kind of honor it represents 
and to the number of that honor in the revised list of honors 
which appears elsewhere in this Manual. For example, Honor 
No. 19, Health, placed at the right of the directions for the 
meeting means that members of the corps or company will 
have an opportunity to begin and perhaps complete that par- 
ticular honor, because the subject of the program Is one which 
is included under 7 Health in the Honor List. 

One meeting each month should be a business and good- 
times one, and therefore only three are outlined in the program 
which follows. 

It is not always possible to have the first meeting of a Girl 
Reserve Corps in the fall one where a complete program is 
attempted. Especially is this true if the corps is a new one, or 
is being reorganized. Therefore, the outline for two meetings 
has been stated in the following way, so that the new girls 
will understand what the whole plan is. After this point in 
organization has been passed, it is easy to undertake the con- 
tent of the program suggested, and carry it forward in the 
way best suited to meet the girls' needs. 
First Meeting: 

(A) Have ten to fifteen minutes of good lively recreation 
so that the girls will feel at ease. See "Ice-Breakers" 
by Edna Geister for suggestions for games; pub- 
lished by The Womans Press. 

131 



(B) Explain in an interesting and graphic way what the 
Girl Reserve Movement is, stressing the fact that 
it is part of a national and international movement; 
show what the Blue Triangle means to-day in the 
world and what the Blue Triangle girls are doing 
here. 48 Have pictures of club girls, insignia, etc., to 
show. This talk should not be over fifteen minutes 
in length. 

(C) Let the girls ask questions. Have slips of paper 
ready for the girls to write their names and ad- 
dresses if they want to be Girl Reserves. Appoint 
time for next meeting, 

(D) Play games. Have general good times for fifteen 
to twenty minutes at close of meeting. Girl Reserve 
cheers and yells can be used at this meeting if 
desired. 

Sample yells: 

(1) We're here we're there 
We're everywhere 

Girl Reserves. 

(2) (Spell slowly, emphasizing italicized letters) 
G-I-R-L R-E-S-E-R~F~E-$ 

Girl Reserves! 
Second Meeting: 

It is not always possible to organize at the second meeting, 
as the girls are not always ready for organization for several 
meetings. In such a situation, continue a good recreation pro- 
gram, working in some of the regular Girl Reserve program. 

If possible, however, try to do the following at the second 
meeting: 

/(I) "Roll call," e. g., read names of girls handed in at 

last meeting to see how many more are present. 
(2) If many new girls are present, explain the three 
committees and have the election of the three chair- 
men. It is well to tell clearly what these three girls 

132 



must do and to bring out that girls must not be 
chosen because they are "popular/' but because they 
are able, faithful, and to be relied upon. The first 
officers of any group are apt not to be the right 
girls. 

(3) If possible, have a little formality connected with the 
nomination of the chairmen and have the voting by 
ballot. 

(4) While the ballots are being counted have the girls 
learn some cheers and make up short songs to be 
sung to the incoming officers. 

(5) Selection of name of corps, color, flower if desired. 

(6) Decision as to regular time and place for corps 
meetings. 

(7) Explanation and discussion of the "Honor System.'' 
Show girls how record of honors is to be kept. (See 
pages 255-294.) 

(8) Recreation for at least twenty minutes. Use good 
team games which the girls can be learning, and 
which will count later as an honor under "Indoor 
Activities." 

SEPTEMBER Honor No. 12 

Knowledge 

First Meeting. A School Girl's Wardrobe. 
Assignment: 

Have the girls make a list of the clothing necessary 
for a girl who is going to school, giving the approximate 
cost of each article. Each girl should bring pencil, note- 
book and scissors to the club meeting. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should prepare a list of the clothing neces- 
sary for a girl who is going to school and should secure 
samples of material. It would be wise to secure samples 

133 



of different grades of material so the girls may select 
the best. Designs may be secured from fashion maga- 
zines. % The adviser will also need scissors and paste. 

Club Meetings: 

Discussion centering about the lists submitted by the 
girls may be stimulated through such questions as the 
following: 

What should be one's standard of values in regard 

to clothes? 

Do clothes make a girl? 

How far should a girl be influenced by what others 

wear? 

"Be not the first by whom the new is tried, 
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside." 

Let each girl make a fashion book containing pic- 
tures cut from fashion magazines, illustrating the various 
articles in a girl's wardrobe; place beside each "cut-out" 
samples of the material and the prices. Impress the fact 
that simplicity, durability and girlishness are qualities 
which are desirable. 

Second Meeting. It is often desirable to have two club programs 
on plain sewing, following such a discussion as suggested 
in the first meeting. 

Honor No. 79 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have the girls bring needles, scissors, thread, and 
pins and white goods. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

Obtain simple patterns of undergarments. Send to 
Extension Service, New York State College of Agricul- 
ture, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, for Junior 

134 



Extension Bulletins 1 and 2* Similar material may be 
secured from almost any of the State Colleges of Agri- 
culture. 

Club Meetings: 

See that the girls make use of the different kinds of 
seams and stitches as they work together. Insist on 
accuracy and neatness. Assign some home work "to be 
done and plan to complete the garments- at the next 
meeting. While the girls work there is opportunity for 
teaching group songs. 

Third Meeting. This meeting is a continuation of the second 
meeting. Make a doll's dress. 

Honor No. 80 
Knowledge 

OCTOBER " Honor No. 32 Spirit 

Honor No. 33 Spirit 
First Meeting. Girls the World Around. 
Assignment: 

Use during this month the Third Inch of the Inch 
Library, which may be secured from The Womans .Press, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. Assign to three 
6f the girls the stories of the (a) "Geographical Adven- 
tures in Friendship," (b) "One of the Shining Ones," 
(c) "Carmela." 
Material needed by the adviser: 

The Third Inch of the Inch Library, and "Children 
at Play in Many Lands," by Katherine Stanley Hall. 
Club Meeting: 

Locate on the map the lands mentioned dn these 
stories. Have the girls read or tell their stories. Show 
any curios from these countries which an adviser may be 
able to secure. If possible, choose from "Children at 
Play in Many Lands" games to be played by the giris 
during their recreation period. 

135 



Second Meeting. Girls the World Around (continued). 

Assignment: 

Choose three other girls and ask them to read or 
tell the following stories from the Third Inch of the 
Inch Library: (a) "The Russian Stage Coach," (b) 
'"East of Suez/' (c) "The Mark on the Loaf." 
Material needed by the adviser: 

"Children at Play in Many Lands." The Third Inch 
of the Inch Library. 
Curios. 

Club Meeting: 

Use the map as before. Have the girls play the 
games and tell the stories. 

Third Meeting. Girls the World Around (continued). 

Assignment: 

Choose three other girls and ask them to read or tell 
the following stories from The Third Inch of the Inch 
Library: (a) "Saki, the New Woman," (b) "Nat So Very 
Different," (c) "Bargains." 
Material needed by the leader: 

The same as for the previous meetings. 

Club Meeting: 

Use the map as before and make the people real to 
the girls. 

NOVEMBER 

Honor Nos. 1-2-5-24-31-32 
Service 

Honor No. 31 
Knowledge 

First Meeting. The Why and How of Cooking. 
Assignment: 

Decide on the desired food to be prepared and have 
the girls bring the necessary materials, notebooks and 
pencils. 

136 



Material needed by the adviser: 

All the necessary cooking equipment. Secure from 
the Metropolitan Life Insurace Company, 1 Madison 
Avenue, New York City, the Metropolitan Cook Book. 
Mothers of club members are often very glad to help in 
such a demonstration. 

Club Meetings: 

Demonstration. The following questions are sug- 
gestive: 

Why is food necessary to the human body? 

What foods are tissue builders? 

Which ones are energy builders? 

What foods should growing girls eat? What should 
they avoid? 

Demonstrate the way to set a table correctly and 
attractively. 

How should flowers be used? 

Why are salads and meats garnished? 

Honor No. 43, Service 
Honor No-. 1, Knowledge 

Second Meeting. The Why and How of Cooking (continued). 
Assignment: 

See above. Ask the girls to think about this question: 
How can a Chouse be arranged to save steps and labor? 
Material needed by the adviser: 

The same as stated for the first meeting. Secure 
from the Bureau of Public Health Education), City of 
New York, "Keep Well Leaflet," No. 17, "Sample Whole- 
some Luncheon for Working People" ; also special bulle- 
tins on "The Home" from the Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C., and from the Extension Department 
of State Agricultural Schools. Farmers' Bulletin 927, 
"Farm Home Conveniences," is especially helpful. 

137 



Club Meeting: 

Use such questions as the following to stimulate dis- 
cussion: 

What labor-saving devices are there in your home? 
What would you like to have or use? 

Third Meeting. Recipe Party. Honor No. 11 Service 

Assignment: 

Have each girl bring to the meeting her favorite 
recipe; also the menu for a dinner. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should secure several good recipes for 
dishes usually served at a dinner to be served in courses. 
She should also review the proper way to serve and 
clear a table, finding the directions for this in some 
Domestic Science textbook. 

Olub Meeting: 

Discuss and exchange recipes. Plan several balanced 
meals. Demonstrate the serving of a meal and the 
clearing of a table. 

DECEMBER 

First Meeting. A Christmas Play. 

During this month it is often advisable to prepare for an 
entertainment to be given by the cluB during the holidays, 
Suggested plays: "The Christmas Story/' by Jean Miller, 
and "The Ruggles Party" from "The Birds Christmas Carol." 
See the full list of Christmas Plays included in A Second 
List of Plays and Pageants, The Womans Press, 600 Lexing- 
ton Avenue, New York City. Price 35e. The T. S. Dennison 
Company, 154 West Randolph Street, Chicago, 111., has 
excellent catalogues of plays and stunts; also, Samuel 
French, 28 West 38th Street, New York City; The Penn 
Publishing Company, 536 South Clark Street, Philadelphia, 

138 



Penna., and the Walter H. Baker Company, Hamilton Place, 
Boston, Mass. Whatever play is decided upon should be 
ordered early. Probably at the first meeting the girls would 
be interested in exchanging ideas for Christmas presents. 
Assignment: 

Let each girl bring to the meeting- some very simple 
gift suggestions. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure from popular women's magazines such as the 
Woman's Home Companion or the Ladies' Home Journal 
many suggestions for small inexpensive gifts. These 
plans should be shared with the girls at club meeting. 
Club Meeting: 

Read aloud some Christmas story while the girls work 
on their gifts. The second and third meetings are similar 
to the first and include rehearsals for the play and gift 
making. 

JANUARY 
First Meeting. How Much Do I Cost ? 

Honor No. 40 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have the girls write down what they think they cost 
per year. 

Even though a girl is living at home, she can estimate 
from prices in the community the approximate cost of 
her living. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should carefully estimate what she considers 
the amount necessary to care for a girl, considering living 
expenses, cost of clothing, education and amusement. 

Club Meeting: 

Discuss the girls' outlines^ comparing amounts. 
Through carefully guided discussion, a girl /may 'be 

139 



taught to appreciate more fully her home. She becomes 
more conscious of her own value in the home and realizes 
her responsibility. 

Discuss also the value of keeping accounts during 
the year. Why should a girl budget her income when 
she first starts to work? Should the housekeeper have 
a budget system? 

Second Meeting. What's in a Letter? Honor No. 20 

Knowledge 

Assignment: 

Have the girls bring to the meeting a letter to a 
publishing house regarding the changing of an address, 
an invitation to a luncheon, and a "bread and butter" 
letter. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should write similar letters, neatly, and 
paying special attention to spacing and paragraphing. 
C'lub Meeting: 

'Suggestive questions: What is the value of a well- 
written business letter? A neatly addressed envelope? 
Discuss the letters the girls have written. If it is 
at all possible, secure a man or woman from a nearby 
department store or business firm, who can talk about the 
value of good letters. 

Third Meeting. Mistakes I Hear Every Day ; Honor Nos. 56-57 



Assignment : 

Have the girls bring in a list of the mistakes in speech 
which they hear every day. 

Ask the girls to think about the following question: 
Does a person's speech make any impression on her 
hearer ? 
Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should note carefully the conversation of 
her girls ; she must remember that for every incorrect 

140 



and uncouth expression removed from their conversation 
a substitute must be provided, otherwise they will become 
timid and inarticulate. 

Club Meeting: 

Suggestive questions: What are the ordinary gram- 
matical mistakes one hears every day? How did slang 
originate? When is slang not slang? 

Even though a person may be able to express exactly 
what she means in a correct way, one requisite is a well- 
modulated voice. In how far can a girl determine the 
nature of her voice? If she has not the kind of a voice 
she admires, how can she cultivate it? Does the man- 
ner of expressing a statement influence its interpre- 
tation? 

FEBRUARY 

Honor Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 

Knowledge 
First Meeting. Care of -the Sick Room. 

Assignment: 

What effect does the room in which a patient is lying 
have upon her condition? Bring to the club a small 
floor plan of a bedroom, indicating on it the things one 
would wish if one were ill. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should carefully study the things neces- 
sary in a sick room. It would be well for her to draw 
a plan of a model bedroom simply furnished with the 
essentials of home nursing. Pamphlets' may be secured 
from the 'Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1 Madi- 
son Avenue, New York City. 

Club Meeting: 

If it is possible, hold this meeting in the home of the 
adviser or at the home of one of the girls. Have the girls 
prepare one of the bedrooms as a sick room. 

141 



Suggestive questions: In what part of the house 
should a sick room be? Does a patient like to have 
many pictures on the wall? How should the lighting of 
a room be arranged? Where is the best place for a 
bed? When the doctor comes, what should be ready for 
his use? 
Second Meeting. Care of the Sick Person. 

Assignment: 

Ask the different girls in the group to come prepared 
to tell how to take care of patients having such diseases 
as: scarlet fever, pneumonia'., diphtheria, the usual dis- 
eases of childhood. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should secure pamphlets from the Met- 
ropolitan Life Insurance Company, as they will be helpful 
to her in carrying on these discussions with the girls. 
Pamphlets regarding the special care of children may be 
secured from the Child Health Organization, 370 Seventh 
Avenue, New York City. 

Club Meeting: 

Girls like things to be concrete, therefore it is ad- 
visable to have the meetings in one of the homes where 
a girl may be the patient. The girls should learn the 
symptoms and method of 'treatment of each disease. 

Suggestive questions: What is the most comfortable 
way for a patient to lie in bed? Where should the pil- 
lows be placed to ease the weight the most? Fix a chair 
upside down for the patient's back so that she may sit 
up in bed. 

"hird Meeting. Honor No. 31 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Ask the girls to bring to the next meeting a diet for 
the patient suffering from the different diseases which 
they have learned to treat. 

142 



Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure information regarding the diet of a sick per- 
son, the care of utensils, the disposal of the food. The 
pamphlets secured for the previous meeting's contain 
helpful suggestions. 

If possible secure the services of a nurse or doctor 
at the meeting. If this is not possible, be sure to con- 
sult one or the other before the meeting. 
Club Meeting: 

Suggestive questions: Why does the food for a sick 
person have to be considered so carefully? If a person 
is on a liquid diet, how many things can be named which 
would be appetizing and nourishing? Why should care 
be used in sterilizing dishes which have been in the sick 
room? How soon should they be sterilized? Why is it 
so necessary to dispose of the food which has been re- 
turned from the sick room? How should this be done? 
'How may a tray for a sick room be made attractive? 

MARCH 
First Meeting. What am I Going to Be? Honor Nos. 28-29 

Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have the girls bring in a list of as many occupations 
as they know are open to women and what preparation 
is essential for each; also information as to where such 
preparation may be secured. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

See material in this Manual on Vocational Guidance, 
page 503. 

Secure from the standard colleges catalogues show- 
ing what scholarships are available for girls. 
Club Meeting: 

Go over with the girls the vocations which are open 
to women. Discuss the amount of preparation necessary 
for each and where it can best be secured. 

143 



Suggestive questions: What is the value of being 
well trained for work; does training make possible great- 
er enjoyment of work ? How much will it cost to be well 
trained for the work one wishes to do? To what college 
should one go? 

Explain how scholarships may be obtained and the 
usual amount which is to be secured. 

Second Meeting. What My Community Needs Most. 

Honor Nos. 38, 39, 40 
Service 
Honor No. 30 
Knowledge 
Honor No. 34 

Service 
Assignment: 

Ask the girls to think very definitely of the things 
that they would give their communities were they finan- 
cially able to do so j also to be able to answer the fol- 
lowing questions: 

Where is the county poor farm? 
How many people live there? 

Where are the insane people of our community sent? 
Where is the state penitentiary? 
Are there any state reform schools? 
How are the poor in our community cared for? 
Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should acquaint herself with everything 
regarding the community and should be able to answer 
the questions assigned to the girls. She should be able 
to explain to the girls the various systems whereby the 
community disposes of its garbage, how the water supply 
is kept pure and how sanitation for the whole community 
is achieved. 

144 



Club Meeting. 

Have the girls discuss the above questions: also seek 
answers to the following: 

What are the needs of our community? 

How are they met? Hew should they be met? 

What can our club do as a piece of service work for 
our community? 

Third Meeting. Citizenship. 

Honor No. 44 (d) 
Knowledge 
Honor No. 54 
Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have the girls think of what it means to be a citizen 
in their community. Assign to some of them the life 
stories of women who have served their communities in 
splendid ways. 

Suggested names are: Jane Addams; Anna Howard 
Shaw ; Mary McDowell ; Catherine Breshkovsky, "the Lit- 
tle Grandmother of the Russian Revolution"; Mary Lyon; 
Frances Willard. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure stories of the lives of these women and of others 
who, through forming public opinion and through being 
good citizens, have brought great good to the women 
of the world. Be able to lea^l the discussion in the club 
meeting in such a way as to have it mean something 
definite in the lives of the girls. See material in this 
Manual on Citizenship. 

Club Meeting: 

The following questions might be used to start dis- 
cussion: 

What is citizenship? 

What is .the responsibility of a girl or woman citizen 
in a community? 

145 



Am I a good citizen? How can I be a better one? 
What is the value of a woman's vote? 
How is the ballot an instrument to form public 
opinion ? 

How is public opinion created? 

What am I doing to be well educated for citizenship ? 

What should I know to be able to vote intelligently? 



APRIL 

First Meeting. When We Go Traveling. 

Honor No. 56 
Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have the girls bring to the club meeting a list of the 
things they would need to take for a two-weeks' trip. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser should also make such a list. Secure from 
the railroad offices a time-table, a hotel guide, and a 
large map to trace the journey. 

Club Meeting: 

The following questions are suggested to help in the 
discussion: 

What should we take when traveling? 

How should a girl be dressed? 

How should she conduct herself? 

If she is not sure what to do <in the station, from 
whom should she ask directions? 

Should she tip the porter? 

How should she act in a diner? See material in Sec- 
tion VII "When I Go Traveling." 

Have a demonstration of how to buy a ticket, a Pull- 
man berth or secure a chair in a parlor car; show how 
to check baggage; arrange for a transfer; use of a time- 
table. 

146 



Second Meeting. When We Go Traveling (continued). 

Third Meeting. When We Go Tiaveling (continued). 

Assignment: 

Have the girls make out the tour they wish' to take, 
mentioning as many places of interest as they possibly 
can which they wish to visit. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

Suggestive travel material can be secured from 
Thomas Cook & Son, 245 Broadway, New York City; 
Agwi Steamship News, published by the Atlantic Gulf 
and West India Steamship Line, 165 Broadway, New 
York City; New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Com- 
pany, foot of Wall Street, New York City; Ideal Tour, 
Almon C. Judd, Waterbury, Conn. Very attractive book- 
lets usually may be secured from the ticket offices of 
various railroads. 

Club Meeting: 

During these two meetings, take, the girls on an im- 
aginary tour, carefully planned and followed on a map. 
It is well to include the approximate cost, for some- 
time it may be possible for some of the girls to take 
such a trip. Discussions of the places visited in this im- 
aginary trip should have in them the elements of "fel- 
lowship" or understanding of the customs and beliefs of 
the people in these particular sections of our country or 
the world. 

MAY Honor No. 7 

Knowledge 

First Meeting. Insect Study "Little teenty things down be- 
low that most folks never see." 
Assignment: 

Have the girls bring to the club meeting a list of all 
the insects they know, giving some description of them 
by which they can be identified. 

147 



Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure "Nature in Camp" (price ten cents, from The 
Book Shop, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, 
Pages 4 and 5 and the questions on page 8 deal specifi- 
cally with insects. Bulletins may be secured from Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, N. Y., and from the Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Club Meeting: 

Base the discussion for the club group on the ques- 
tions on page 8 of "'Nature in Camp." 

Second Meeting. Birds. 

Honor No. 9 
Knowledge 
Honor No. 10 
Knowledge 
Assignment: 

Have the garls bring to the club meeting a list of all 
the birds they know, mentioning some distinctive char- 
acteristic of each. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

See page 4 and the questions on page 7 of the pamph- 
let "Nature in Camp," which will serve as very good bases 
for the meeting. Pamphlets may be secured from the 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., and from 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (Farmers 7 Bulletin 
630 is especially helpful.) Attractive nature study cards 
in color may be secured from George B. Brown and 
Company, 38 Lovett Street, Beverly, Mass. 

Club Meeting:. 

Base the discussion of birds on "Nature in Camp." 
Take the girls on a field trip to see whether they can 
identify any of the birds. Begin a "bird calendar," not- 
ing on it the name of the girl who saw the bird and the 
date upon which it was recognized. 

148 



Third Meeting. Stars, and Out-of-Door Cooking. 

Honor No. 5 

Knowledge 

Honor No. 6 

Knowledge 

Assignment; 

Have the girls learn as much as they can regard- 
ing the stars and constellations. Plan definitely for an 
out-door supper. The social committee should have 
charge of preparing the supper. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

"Nature in Camp" also contains helpful study mate- 
rial about the stars. The Monthly Evening Star Map for 
May may be secured from Leon Barritt, 150 Nassau 
Street, New York City, for ten cents. This will be very 
helpful in locating the constellations. The Boy Scout 
Manual and the Woodcraft Manual for Gdrls both have 
good material in them. Secure from the public library 
stories about the stars and especially any myths con- 
nected with them. See also "Trees, Stars, Birds," by 
Edwin Moseley, World Book Company, Yonkers, *N. Y. 
($1.40.) 

Club Meeting: 

Take the girls on a hike, starting late in the afternoon. Let 
them cook their supper out of doors. Return home after 
the stars come out, so that they may be studied. 

JUNE 

Honor Nos. 21, 25 

Service 

Honor Nos. 8, 22 
Knowledge 
Honor No. 75 
Knowkdge 

149 



First Meeting 1 . 
Assignment: 

Have the girls bring to the club meeting a list of all 
the trees and flowers which they know in their com- 
munity and ask them to be able to describe them. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure from Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., and 
the Department of Agriculture, Washington* D. C., 
pamphlets about trees and ffowers. "Nature in Camp" 
also contains valuable material. 

Club Meeting: 

Take the girls on a hike which has Been very care- 
fully planned so that they may identify trees and flowers. 
Note the discussion on the questions given in "Nature in 
Camp." 

Have the Social Committee responsible for games in 
some open space, as a field or meadow. 

Second Meeting. What Shall I Do to Keep Well? 

Honor Nos. 1, 22 

Health 
Assignment: 

Have the girls bring a written list of the things 
which help to keep a person in good health. Include in 
this personal and home hygiene and community sanita- 
tion. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

The adviser must map out carefully a discussion on 
health. See pages 316-374, of this Manual on Health 
Education. Other helpful material may be secured from 
the -Child Health Organization, 370 Seventh Avenue, New 
York City; Metropolitan Life Insurance, 1 Madison Ave- 
nue, New York City; Ten Talks to Girls on Health, The 
Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

ISO 



Club Meeting-: 

The following questions are suggestive in discussion: 

How should a girl "keep fit" ? 

What is the comparative importance of health, edu- 
cation, skill and genius? 

Is the old saying, "An ounce of prevention is worth 
a pound of cure," still true? 

What are the essentials of good health? 

What can I do to keep myself up to the proper 
standards of health? 

Third Meeting. Care of the Hair and Hands. 

Honor Nos. 15, 19, 20 

Health 
Assignment: 

Suggested questions: 

Is it worth while to care for one's personal appear- 
ance? 

Should one make oneself as attractive as possible? 
.Should one make oneself attractive only on special 
occasions, or should one constantly take care of one's 
personal appearance? 

Material needed by the adviser: 

Plan for a, demonstration of care of the nails and 
the hair; this usually proves very successful. Ask one 
of the girls whether she will serve as a model at the 
club meeting. Ask her to bring her own toilet articles, 
good soap, etc. 

Club' meeting: 

Have the demonstration, letting some of the girls 
help in dressing the hair. This will give opportunity 
for direct questions about the ways of dressing the 
hair; should it be a la mode whether it is becoming or 
not? 

These questions, may stimulate the discussion: 

What makes beautiful hands? 

151 



How should we care for them? 

Is it of any importance to keep one's hair combed? 

JULY 

Honor Nos. 8, 14 

Spirit 
Honor Nos. 34, 45, 46, 47, 58, 61 

Knowledge 

F-irst Meeting-. Stories and Music. 
Assignment: B 

Assign to different girls some short stories and ask 
them to be prepared to read or tell them at the next 
meeting. A list of well-known songs that the girls like 
should be selected and some girl should be asked to 
tell about them at the next meeting. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure several books containing short stories; see 
,the bibliography suggested in Chapter II, on "Books and 
Beading in the Life of a Girl/ 7 in this Manual, page 483. 
The adviser also needs a list of songs which the girls 
know or could learn. The following are suggested and 
can be found in most song books. (See Chapter 13, 
on The Place of Music in the Girl Reserve Movement.) 
The Star^Spangled Banner. 
The Battle Hymn of the Republic. 
Dixie. 
Ben Bolt. 
Swanee River. 
Hark, Hark the Lark. 
Club meeting: 

The program should be carefully planned, with the 
stories and the songs alternating. These* should be 
chosen wiith the purpose of forming the program for 
the community evening program to be given some time 
in the third week of the month. 

152 



Second Meeting 1 . Stories and Music. 

Honor No. 36 

Service 
Assignment: 

Ask the girls who told their stories successfully to 
repeat them at the next club meeting. Assign stories 
to the girls who had not been asked to tell them pre- 
viously. <Song practice should be continued. Complete 
arrangements for the community program. Ask the 
girls to make posters inviting their parents and friends 
to a community meeting- and sing. 
Material needed by the adviser: 

Additional stories and music. 
Club meeting: 

Practice for the Community Meeting and Sing. Have 
the girls choose the stories and songs to be used in the 
program. No admission should be charged but if refresh- 
ments are to be sold, arrangements for them should be 
perfected. 

Third Meeting-. The Community Meeting and 'Sing. 

All the details of this program must be very carefully 
planned by the adviser. It will be necessary to have a 
complete rehearsal before the program is given. It 
would help very much, if interested mothers would assist 
in the serving of refreshments. Proceeds from the sales 
could be used for club expenses. 

The people present at the Community Party will 
understand the purpose of the club and its place in the 
community if one of the girls is prepared to tell about 
it, the organization of committees, and what the club 
is planning to do. 

AUGUST 

First Meeting. Canning Fruits and Vegetables. 
No. 1 (c) 1 (e) 1 (f) Service. 

153 



Assignment: 

Ask the girls to bring a list of the vegetables and 
fruits that are easily canned. Ask them to find how 
much time is required for the cooking of each. 

Material needed by the adviser: 

Secure Farmers' Bulletin No. 839, and Department 
Circular No. 3, and descriptive pamphlets from the Direc- 
tor of Boys' and Girls' Extension Work, through the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. These 
pamphlets contain material about the drying of vege- 
tables and the one-period cold pack method. Also secure 
any publications of the Extension Department of some 
State Agricultural School. 

Club Meeting: 

Plan to have this meeting in one of the homes where 
it will be possible to do some canning. 
Suggested questions are: 
What is the value of preserving food? 
Why does heating preserve it? 
Why should the jars be scalded? 
Why should the jars be dipped in paraffine? 

Second Meeting. Canning Fruits and Vegetables (continued) 
Assignment: 

Secure answers to the following questions: What 
does the word dehydrate mean? What vegetables and 
fruits can be so treated? 
Material needed by tho adviser: 

Secure from the Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C., the bulletins on dehydrating and the 
making of a dehydrator. The adviser should make a 
simple dehydrator to use in experimentation. Secure 
one fresh vegetable to dehydrate at the club meeting. 
Club Meeting: 

Plan to have this meeting in a home where it will 
be possible to demonstrate the process of dehydration. 

154 



Explain the construction of the dehydrator and the 
method of work. Prepare the vegetables or fruits. 

Suggested questions are: Why does it take such a 
long time to dry it? What are the advantages com- 
pared with canning? The disadvantages? How is 
dehydrated food prepared for table use? 

Third Meeting. Party. 

Have the Social Oommlittee in charge of a party. 
Suggestions are: 

Colonial Tea or Reception. 

Book Party. 

Baby Party. 

Tacky or Hard Times Party. 

THE INITIATION OP A GIRL RESEKVE 

No girl can wear the Girl Reserve insignia until she has 
been formally initiated. Initiation meetings should come once 
every four weeks, and a girl must have attended three meet- 
ings and have learned and understood the Girl Reserve slogan, 
purpose and code before being eligible to the Initiation meet- 
ing. She is called a Volunteer Girl Reserve until her initia- 
tion, after which she is a real Girl Reserve. 

INITIATION SERVICE 

(1) Girls march in, with the chairmen leading. The Corps 
Scout carries the Christian flag; the Outings and Innings 
chairman carries the American flag. The three chairmen 
with the Corps advisers and the girls form a square. 

(2) Salute the American flag. 

Sing the first verse of "America" or the second verse of 
"0 Beautiful for Spacious Skies." 

(3) Salute the Christian flag, v 

Sing the last stanza of "America" or the last verse of the 
hymn "0 Beautiful for Spacious Skies," or use & prayer. 

155 



(4) Corps Scout says: "Have we Volunteer Reserves for ad- 
mission to membership In Corps of the Girl 

Reserves?" 

Outings and Innings Chairman: "We have Volunteer 

Reserves for admission to membership in the 

Corps of the Girl Reserves." 
Corps Scout: "Have they been examined?" 
Outings, and Innings Chairman: "They have." 
Corps Scout: "You may present them for initiation." 
The Outings and Innings Chairman brings the girls in and 
they form in line facing the Corps Scout. Each Vol- 
unteer has a yellow candle. 

Corps Scout: "Do you wish to become a Girl Reserve?" 
Volunteer: "I do." 

Corps Scout: "What is your reason?" 
Volunteer: "I wish to face life squarely and to find and 

give the best," 

Corps Scout: "How as a Girl Reserve will you do this?" 
Volunteer: "As a Girl Reserve I will be" (repeat code). 
Corps Scout: "Can I trust you on your honor to try to 

keep this code and to be a loyal Girl Reserve?" 
Volunteer; "I will try on my honor to keep this code and 

to be a loyal Girl Reserve." 

(The official insignia is then placed upon the girl's arm by 
the -corps or the division advisers.) 

Each Girl Reserve then gives the salute. 
The adviser gives a short talk on the meaning of the Blue 
Triangle, ending with the following: 

"Our bodies shall be as physically perfect as we can mate 
them clean, holy, fit temples for the most high God to dwell in. 
"Our minds shall be keen and alert; our thoughts shall be 
clean and pure and kind. 

"Our spirits shall be put in the care of our friend Jesus 
Christ, who will keep them lovely and loving to Him and to all 
his children everywhere. 

156 



"These three in one body, mind, and spirit we shall give 
to the service of God and of our country and girls the world 
over. 

"In your hands you hold the yellow candle of service. 

"Before me stand the red candle of health, the blue candle 
of knowledge, and the white candle of spirit. 

"Will you in dedication of yourself in body, mind, and spirit, 
in service as a loyal Girl Reserve, light your candle at these 
three?" 
(5) Sing: "Hymn of the Lights." 

OPENING CEREMONY 

The use of this ceremony is optional, and if it does not 
meet local needs, another may be substituted. 

The Girl Reserves form in a line, led by the 'Corps Scout, 
followed by the other Corps officers. 

The Corps Scout carries the iflag and takes her posi- 
tion in the center of the room; others form in a square 
facing flag. 

(1) Salute and Pledge to the Flag: 

I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the republic for 
which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty 
and justice for all. 

(2) Repeat Girl Reserve Code. 

(3) Five-minute talk by a Girl Reserve on one phase 
of code or upon something interesting and worth 
while. (See The Meaning- of the Oode, page 46.) 

(4) .Sing one verse of a Girl Reserve song or some hymn 
or patriotic song. 

If desired, one of the following prayers may be used 
in connection with the opening ceremony; also the salute 
to the Christian flag: 

Prayer: 

Dear Father of us all, bless us as we meet together. 
We axe girls, just girls, not old and! wise with years 
and experience, but young and eager for life. Make 

157 



us care for the best thing's in thy world. Help us to 
think of every other girl as our sister, whether! she be 
rich or poor, quick of wit or slow of understanding. 
Let us not leave a< girl to be lonely, or sad, if we can 
cheer her. And remind us always that the thing we 
do for another is done for Thee, if we want it to be so. 
Amen. 

Prayer: 

"0 may I be strong and brave to-day, 

may I be kind and true! 

May I meet all men in a gracious way 

With frank good cheer Jin the things I say, 

And love in the things I do. 

May the simple heart of a child be mine, 

And the grace of a rose in bloom. 

May I fill the day with a hope divine 

And turn my face to the sky's glad shine 

With never a cloud of gloom. 

With the golden levers of love and light 

I would lift the world, and when, 

Through a path with kindly deeds made bright, 

I come to the calm of the starlit night, 

Let me rest dn peace! Amen!" 

Salute to the Christian Flag: 

"I pledge allegiance to my flag and to my Saviour 
for whose Kingdom it stands one brotherhood uniting 
all in service and love." 

The Christian flag has a white background with the 
Cross in red on a blue field in the upper left-hand corner 
may be made, or obtained from The Presbyterian 
Board of Publication and Sabbath School Work, (The 
Westminster Press) George W. Brazer, Mgr., 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

158 



They are made an the following materials: 

A. Victory Bunting Flags Size 2x 3ft. $2.00 

3x 5ft 2.00 

(2 ply cotton bunting) 4x 6 ft. 4.00 

8x12 ft. 11.50 

B. Printed on Silk, 

mounted on stick Size 16x24 in. 1.50 

24x36 in. 2.50 

C. Wool Bunting Flags, canvas 

heading and gromets Size 2x 3 ft. 3.00 

3x 5 ft. 5.00 
4x 6 ft. 7.50 
8x12 ft. 21.00 



SUGGESTED PROGRAM FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL COMPANY OF GIRL 
RESERVES OR FRESHMAN HIGH SCHOOL CLUB 

(This program has been arranged to start with the month 
following the opening of school, probably October; it is difficult 
to do any organization work with girls during the opening 
month of the school term.) 

I. Recreation meeting, such as a track meet j(for full 
description see "Icebreakers," by Edna 'Geister). 

At this meeting it is necessary to create among 
the girls a sense of group consciousness of belonging 
to something. Nothing is more effective/ than a good 
cheer. The following might be used. (Either Girl Ee- 
serves, or Young Women's Christian Association may be 
used.) 

We are the girls of world-wide fame, 

Y. W. O. A. is our name, 

Tall girls, short girls, fat girl&, thin, 

Y. W. C. A., takes them all in. 

You don't need money and you don't need pearls, 

Anybody, everybody, just so you're girls. 

159 



II. Organization meeting. (With every club it is not possi- 
ble to have an organization meeting at the second meet- 
ing it may have to be delayed and more recreation meet- 
ings put in.) 

(A) Elect chairmen of Scout Committee, Outings and 
Innings Committee, and Service Squad. The elec-- 
tion of officers should be formal. While the ballots 
are being counted have the rest of the girls learn 
cheers and songs to sing to the incoming officers. 

(B) Recreation, good active games (see "'Ice-Breakers" 

for suggestions). 

III. "A Long, Long Trail." 

River or shore party. (Have several older, attrac- 
tive high school girls talk informally on some such sub- 
ject as "Sign Posts on the Trail," e. g., experiences in 
high school life which will give the younger girls in- 
sight into the many new relationships which they are 
entering such as "purpose of high school organizations," 
"place of athletics," "how to be an all-round girl in high 
school/ 7 "standards of honor," "faculty relationships/') 

IV. Service Meeting. 

(A) Open this meeting, if desired, by the use of the 
regular opening ceremony of the Girl Reserves, 
into which, through discussion, stories, talks and 
poems, can be worked] the spirit of the Girl Re- 
serve movement. ,As the group becomes more 
homogeneous, what might be called an informal 
Bible class can be given in these few minutes. The 
girls often like to call such a period "Serious time." 
Suggestions for this time 

(1) Ask the girls some such questions as "What are the 
greatest war songs that you know? National airs 
and poems will be given. Discuss these. Then ask 
if they ever knew that some of the Psalms were the 
greatest war songs ever written. Read and encour- 



age them to learn some. From such discussion with 
the right kind of leadership will develop a real under- 
standing of the Bible and a desire to study it. 

(2) Give in a series of vivid, interesting talks the history 
of the making of the Bible, showing why it is such 
a precious book. 

(3) Ask such a question as "What is the insignia of a 
lady? Is it the clothing a girl wears, an arm band, 
or what is it?" 

(B) Initiation of girls. (See the suggested ceremony, 
page 155.) 

(C) Red Cross or Community Service. See Section V, 
Chapter 16. 

(D) Recreation games, general good time (thirty to 
forty minutes). 

V. Organized Hike. 
VI. Business Meeting. 

(A) Opening ceremony, Girl Reserves. 

(B) Bring linto this in an interesting way points about 
Parliamentary drill. 

(C) Recreation (thirty to thirty-five minutes). 
VII. Thanksgiving Party. 

Kitchen Garden party to which guests are invited to 
come dressed as vegetables. (Have short one-act play, 
or pantomime or tableaux illustrating Thanksgiving 
spirit.) 

See a Second List of Plays and Pageants (35c), 
obtained from The Womans Press, -600 Lexington Avenue, 
New, York 'City, and Section V, Chapter 6, of this Manual. 
VIII. "The Land of Cherry Blossoms" Japan. 

Costumes and customs. 

People and play. 

Houses and health. 

See: 

"The Lady of the Decoration," "Little Sister Snow," 
by Frances Little. 

161 



"Japan To-day," by Ruth Emerson. 
"It Happens in Japan." 

The purpose of this meeting and the following- ones 
on China, South America and India is to arouse in the 
girls a sense of world citizenship. As much color and 
atmosphere as possible should be put into this work and 
therefore it is suggested that these meetings be social in 
nature. Decorations, costumes and dramatic work, table- 
aux, charades, may all be used. The foreign trunks 
obtained through the Field Offices contain material which 
will be very helpful. Plan for this meeting sufficiently 
in advance so that one of these trunks may be secured. 

IX. Service Meeting. 

(A) Regular opening ceremony of Girl Reserves. Initia- 
tion ceremony if necessary. 

(B) Make arrangements for the giving of a Christmas 
party (this might involve a short business meeting 
and would unquestionably be the time to string 
popcorn, make other decorations for the Christmas 
party, and also to rehearse games to be played at the 
Christmas party, and make preparations for any 
pantomime to be given there.) See Section V. Chap- 
ters 2 and 6, for suggestions. 

X. "In-as-much" Christmas Tree Party. 

Each club member is responsible for being Santa 
Claus to some child. Children may be invited from the 
settlements, Associated Charities, etc. Have a tree, 
presents, refreshments, singing of carols, and an enter- 
tainment by the company or club girls, such as the 
pantomime entitled "The Night Before Christmas." 

XL "The Land of the Dragon" China 
Costumes and customs. 
People and play. 
Houses and health. 

162 



See: 

"Shanghai Sketches," by Jane Ward. 
"My Chinese Days/' by Gulielma Alsop. 
"Mook," by Evelyn Worthley Sites. 

XII. Baby Welfare Work or "First Aid to Beauty" Meeting. 
(See Section V, Chapter 2 of this Manual.) 

(A) Opening ceremony of the Girl Reserves if desired. 

(B) Baby welfare work demonstrating the proper bath- 
ing and dressing of a baby or under the title of 
"First Aid to Beauty," give demonstration of 

(1) Proper care of the hands (for this have orange 
sticks and files). 

(2) General care of body that as, use of soap, powder 

and perfume; proper bathing. 

(3) Eecreation (thirty to forty-five minutes). 

XIII. Business Meeting. 

(A) Opening ceremony of Girl Eeserves if desired. 

(B) Discussion of plans for supper of next week; possi- 
ble election of new officers. 

(O) Recreation Eskimo party (see "Ice-Breaker s\" by 
Edna Geister). 

XIV. Girl Reserve Supper. 

Either one of the following "stunts" is suggested for 
such a supper: 

(A) A Backwards Party. Do everything backwards; for 
instance, girls come dressed backwards, eat dessert 
'first, sing songs backwards. 

(B) Registration Day at high school. The girls may 
register with either of the three following pro- 
fessors: 

I. M. Bowin, professor dramatic art. 
Miss D. Sign, professor interior decorations. 
Miss Carry Callory, professor domestic science. 
All girls registering under dramatic art prepare 
the "stunts" for the evening ; all under interior 

163 



decorations decorate tables and make place cards; 
all under domestic science get supper ready. 
Note: Have the registration cards which all girls 
sign include foolish questions as: "How many teeth 
were you born with?" "Do you expect to marry?" 

Decorations, of course, should be simple, and made in 
a very few minutes. Have clever toasts which shall be 
greeting's to the officers elected at previous meeting. 

XV. "The Land of the -Coffee Berry" or "The Land of the 
Llama" or "The Christ of the Andes" South America. 
Costumes and customs. 
People and play. 
Houses and health. 

XVI. 'Baby Welfare Work, or "First Aid to Beauty" (con- 

tinued). 

(A) Formal Girl Reserve opening ceremony, if desired. 

(B) Under baby welfare give proper feeding and use 
charts. Under First Aid show proper method of 
shampooing. 

(C) Valentine Party with stunts. 

XVII. Business Meeting. 

(A) Formal Girl Reserve opening ceremony, if desired. 

(B) Reports of committees, etc. 

(C) "Town Topics," e. g., talks, discussions, tableaux or 
charades illustrating fire department, police depart- 
ment, health department; or "Where, When and 
What," a dramatic, presentation of how to introduce 
one person to another social courtesies at home. 
Remember that a girl of high school age is "keen" 
to do things correctly and in an up-to-date way. 
She will accept this kind of teaching and follow 
it because the Girl Reserve company is standing for 
it, and it becomes a group matter. (See Section 
V, Chapter 7, in this Manual.) 

(D) Fun and recreation. 



XVIII. Colonial Tea. 

Have the host and hostess represent George and 
Martha Washington, and have a colored butler to an- 
nounce the guests. Dance the minuet; story telling, 
for instance, the story of Betsy Ross. Have games and 
other stunts which are in accordance with Washington's 
Birthday. For refreshment have gingerbread and tea or 
lemonade, served by a colored mammy. (See Section 
V, Chapter 2, for suggestions about Boy and Girl Parties.) 

XIX. "The Land of Jeanne d'Arc" France. (See Section V, 

Chapter 7, for suggestions regarding discussions.) 

Have one of the Girl Reserves tell the story of Jeanne 
d'Arc, and have one of the Girl Reserves play "The 
Marseillaise/* 

Discussion: "At the Sign of the Blue Triangle in 
France," "What does the French girl .think of me?" 
"What do I owe to her?" "Is there a Young Women's 
Christian Association like ours an France?" 

Read from "Dere Godchild," by Margaret Bernard 
Edith Serrell. 

XX. "Spring Opening," or "How to Dress and How not to 
Dress." This may be put in dramatic form by repre- 
senting the suit and cloak department of a store. The 
girls may be used as salesladies and as customers. Cor- 
rect modes of dress may be illustrated by ill-chosen and 
well-chosen costumes. 
XXL Business Meeting. 

(1) Parlimentary drill (five to ten minutes). 

(2) Committee reports. 

(3) "Town Topics" or "Where, When and What" (thirty 
minutes). 

(4) Fun and recreation. 
XXII. "Book Party." 

Girls may come dressed to represent either one char- 
acter in a book or the entire book. Have guessing con- 

165 



tests- provide story-telling. Suggested stories for this 
are, "Of Water and the Spirit," by Harriet Montague, 
or "The Happy Prince," by Oscar Wilde. (If Girl Re- 
serve Book List has not been used before this use it at 
this time. See Section V, Chapter 11, and Section VII 
"Book Friends/' 

XXIII. Service Meeting for Easter. 

(1) Girl Reserve opening ceremony, if desired. Tell the 
Easter Story or read a poem from "Christ in the 
Poetry of To-day." 

(2) Make bean bags for day nursery, or stencil flower 
pots, or make Easter baskets, have an Easter egg 
hunt (forty-five minutes). 

(3) Recreation general good time (thirty minutes). 

XXIV. Outdoor Meeting. 

(1) Plan for either 

(a) Hare and Hounds. 

(b) Trailing. 

(c) Treasure Hunt. Send group to certain place where 
directions will be found under a stone or on tree 
for a continuation of the Treasure Hunt. End with 
"bacon bat" or a picnic supper. 

(d) Penny Hike. Divide the group of girls into .two or 
more parts. Each group takes a penny. Tossing it 
up, the leader says: "Heads, we go to the right," 
or "straight ahead" or any direction she wishes to 
indicate. Then the group goes as rapidly as they 
choose to the next corner as indicated by the toss of 
the penny. There another girl tosses the penny 
and names the direction she wishes the group to 
go. The object, of course, is to see which group 
gets back to. the starting point first, and it is neces- 
sary that they go as the penny indicates each time. 
It is wise to have the first two tosses named so that 
they will take the girls away from the goal. 

166 



XXV. Business Meeting. 

(1) Parliamentary drill (five to ten minutes). 

(2) Committee reports. 

(3) World citizenship program. 

(4) Fun and recreation. 

XXVI. Mother and Daughter Banquet. 

This banquet should be for the entire Girls' Work 
Department and mothers of all the girls should be the 
guests. (See Section VII for suggestions regarding 
a Mother and Daughter Week.) 

XXVII. "Where Are You Going, My Pretty Maid?" 
A Vocational Meeting. 

Have a good vocational talk on the value 1 of staying 
in school. Use the vocational "Ready for Service" blanks 
if not filled out previously. Calling the girl's attention 
to what she is going to do is an essential part of every 
program. While technical vocational guidance is in no 
sense the work of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, it is within its province to stimulate a girl to make 
the most of her life. Therefore any program for girls 
should include some emphasis on this topic. The voca- 
tional conference, one day or a, half a day long, is the 
logical outgrowth of any incidental work done at such a 
meeting as the one above. Through the use of attractive 
posters and charts at the meeting, by putting in dramatic 
form the right and wrong way to apply for a "job," by 
having a business woman or a vocational expert present 
"the value of staying in school/' much can be done to 
interest a girl in the conference. For further sugges- 
tions regarding the place of vocational guidance in the 
regular program, see Section V, Chapter 12, page 510, 
in this Manual. 

5CXVIIL "Census of the Woods." 

Competent leaders should take groups of ten girls to 
certain sections. Equipped with notebooks and pencils, 

167 



a certain length of time is given to note the foliage, 
plant and insect life in that section. At the end of the 
time all groups return and compare notes. This can be 
made the beginning of work to be carried on during the 
summer. -See Section V, Chapter 3, for further resources 
regarding Nature Lore. 

XIX. Business Meeting. 

(1) Formal Girl Reserve opening. 

(2) Reports of committees. 

(3) Election of summer chairmen. 

(4) Consideration of summer work and of next year's 
work. 

This might be called "Alice Through the Looking 
Glass." 

(5) Fun and recreation. 

XXX. Garden Party. 

An opportunity to raise conference funds will be 
afforded by a "Mother Goose" party at this time. Girls 
may be dressed as characters in Mother Goose rhymes; 
for instance, milkmaid, selling either milk or ice cream; 
Simple Simon and the Pieman selling pastry; Little 
Bo-Peep, selling sandwiches; Jack Horner with a large 
grab bag; Jack and Jill with a bucket of lemonade; Queen 
of Hearts selling tarts. Handkerchiefs, aprons and other 
fancy articles may be sold from the clotheslines of the 
"Maid in the Garden hanging up the clothes." 

Stunts to do: 

"Old Woman in the Shoe" pantomime, taken from 
"Mother Goose" or any fairy tale. 

This program provides for a monthly business meet- 
ing. This is not necessary if it seems wiser to have two 
fifteen-minute business meetings as part of two of the 
monthly meetings. The entire program is suggestive 
and should not be followed absolutely. It includes much 

168 



recreation but every so-called "party" is worth, while 
and educational. 

This program has its beginning in the month of Octo- 
ber, a more promising time for organizing work with 
girls than September if school does open in September. 
This schedule presents three meetings in October, four 
during the intervening months, and the regular com- 
pany or club work closes the last week in May. 



CONTENT AND METHOD TYPICAL OF A HIGH SCHOOL CLUB 
PROGRAM 

The suggested content of this program centers about school 
and community life and may serve as a nucleus about which a 
program combining variety, balance and continuity may be 
built. 

It is understood that the building of any high school pro- 
gram is in the hands of the program committee/ made up of 
girls assisted by an adviser. An adviser knowing the needs 
and desires of the girls will be able so to shape their thinking 
that the activities chosen will be built into projects as described 
in "A Clue to Program Planning." The work of any group 
of girls thus itself becomes a part of the whole project idea. 
These suggestions presuppose only two meetings of the club 
each month, the other two times being given over to committee 
and council meetings respectively. The first and third meet- 
ings might be general club meetings and the others should be 
devoted to the committee and council work. 

Past developments of high school work have suggested that 
much of the content and method of club work rest upon a cycle 
which falls somewhat into seasonal lines. This division is by 
no means a hard and fast one but may be helpful to a girls' 
work secretary in planning a year's work. The cycle as de- 
veloped here is indicated by grouping the months according to 
the seasons, fall, winter, spring, and summer. 

169 



The word "content" is here used ito indicate club material 
which may be ined in the general meetings and by "method" is 
meant the means by which a girls 7 work secretary and her 
club advisers successfully promote the program for the high 
school club. 

FALL MONTHS 

.September and October 

This is the time for perfection of the club organization, 
securing and training club advisers, the approach to school 
authorities, and the first get-together of the former club girls. 
If delegates have been present at a girl's conference reports 
should be given by them. 

These first few weeks of a school year may be used in two 
ways, depending upon the development of girls' work in a com- 
munity. A girls' work secretary may have an established 
club to deal with or she may be in a community where no work 
has been doVie heretofore and so faces new work. In the case 
of the high school work already organized, the following sug- 
gestions may be of use: 

A. The first get-together of club girls may be a combina- 
tion picnic and business meeting, held out-of-doors if 
possible. At this meeting such things as the follow- 
ing should be considered in relation to the club work 
as a whole: 

1. How to- interest new girls: 

(a) Secure lists of names of new girls from the 
school office. 

(b) Posters: planning and permission to display 
them in the school building. 

(c) Plan* a party to be given to new girls* 

(d) Recognition service plans. 

2. General reports from the committee chairmen, 
noting vacancies on committees. 

170 ' 



B In case of forming a new club, this meeting* is also 
social and business, but the work of organization 
must be launched. Two committees should be chosen 
by acclamation: 

1. 'Constitution Committee: 

All constitutions must be submitted to the Field 
Secretary for Younger Girl Work, a copy being 
filed in the field office. 

2. Nominating Committee: 

(These committees will report at the following 
club meeting.) 

3. Interpretation of possible names: 

(a) Student Club. 

(b) Friendship Circle. 

(c) Girl Reserves as a generic name; e. g., "The 
Student Club of the Girl Reserves," or "The 
Friendship Club of the Girl Reserves" or just 
"The Girl Reserves." 

4. .Recreation and refreshments. 

5. Announcements: time and place of the next meet- 
ing. For both club groups the second meeting is 
a continuation of the work launched at the "get- 
together." 

Method. 

For suggestions in regard to the securing and training of 
club advisers see Section VI. 

For approach to the school authorities, see suggestions in 
Section III, Organization of Groups of Girls. 

Content. 

I. World Citizenship. 

Topics: To be used at meetings of the club. These 
topics may be developed by the discussional and demon- 
stration methods when desired: 
"Who is My Neighbor?" 
"How Large Is Your World?" 

171 



"Things That Sting." 
"Americanization." 

II. Thanksgiving. 

Topics: An inspirational service, with an outside 
speaker if possible. 

This meeting might possibly be a Vesper -Service. 
Service: 

Preparation of Thanksgiving baskets. 

A "sing" at some home for aged people, the blind 
or shut-ins. 
Social: 

Hallowe'en Party. 

'^Harvest Home Party." 

Presentation of "The Wayside Piper." 

Method. 
Topics 

"How Large Is Your World ? Use a map of the com- 
munity and also one of the world. Have the girls see for 
themselves the boundaries of their own worlds as made 
by their own interests. 

"Things that Sting." See The Association Monthly 
for August, 1919. 

Americanization. See pamphlets from The Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Bureau of Education, American- 
ization Division. Use the poem, "I Am the Immigrant," 
included in Section VII, Material for Program Building. 

Service: 

In preparing the Thanksgiving baskets, care should 
be taken that when ready they are dlistributed through 
the channels of recognized social agencies in the com- 
munity. 
Social: 

Hallowe'en Party: Suggestions for carrying out a 
successful Hallowe'en party are scarcely necessary here 
since there are so many splendid plans given in every 

172 



book on "Home Entertainments," etc. 

Harvest Home Party: This kind of party can be 
given very successfully in mid-autumn when brightly 
colored leaves are abundant and shocks of corn can be 
secured for decorating a house or a large barn. Lively 
games, and charades and seasonal refreshments make 
for its success. 

v The Waysidei Piper" may be secured from The 
Womans Book Shop, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. 

WINTER MONTHS 
December, January, February 

These months are the time for presenting vocational guid- 
ance, for emphasis on school standards, for interesting in the 
club new girls, who are entering high school at semester time, 
for the reorganization of committee personnel (if the com- 
mittees are reorganized at this time, the girls' work secretary 
should be careful to include the ndW girls in the committee 
work); it is a good time for boy-and-girl parties at the Asso- 
ciation building or in the school and for promoting a "-Mother 
and Daughter" banquet or tea or reception. Discussions center- 
ing about the home and school standards of honor may be used 
ft this time. 

Content. 

I. School Standards: 

Topics. To be used at the club meetings. These 
topics may be developed by the discussional and demon- 
stration methods when desired: 

"Everything real, nothing artificial." 
"I will be square 
In what I say 
In what I do 
In what I am." 
"What is a snob?" cliques. 
"Popularity vs. Success." 

173 



II. Our Attitude toward Foreign-speaking- Girls. 
Topic: 

"If I were from France or Russia." 

"The Kindest Person I Know." 

"Customs, Costumes, and Courtesy." 

III. Vocational Guidance. 
Topic: 

"Fits and Misfits." 

"My Grandmother's Job and Mine." 

IV. Bible Study 
Topics: 

"Is Your Book Dusty?" 
V. Christmas. 
Topics: 

"What Does It Mean?" 

VI. Open Programs (when the school is invited to share in 
a club program.) 

Topics: 

"Patriotism Old and New." 

"What Is Real Patriotism?" 
" "A Perfect Tribute" Day (February 12). 
Service: 

Singing of Christmas carols. 

Preparation of Christmas baskets. 

A Christmas party for needy children. 

Decoration of the school corridors and rooms. 
Social: 

A Colonial party (for boys and girls). 

Mother and Daughter banquet. 

Father and Daughter party. 

Method. 
Topics: 

"If I were from France or Russia." For this and 
other similar ones, use "The Immigrant's Appeal." (See 

174 



Section VII, Material for Program Building.) Secure 
material from The Division on Work for the Foreign- 
Born, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

"Fits and Misfits." (See Section V, Chapter 12.) 

"My Grandmother's Job and Mine." See the Second 
Inch of the Inch Library, published by The Womans 
Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

"Is Your Book Dusty?" The girls' work secretary 
who suggests the use of this topic will recognize that it 
is one way of saying, "Why have Bible study?" See 
Lynn Harold Hough's "A Living Book in a Living Age," 
and the Girls 7 Year Book with its teaching outline for 
Section I; also Section V, 'Chapter 1, of thiis Manual. 

"Christmas what does it mean?" This may be de- 
veloped through the use of tableaux, a pageant, or by the 
story method. 

"Patriotism, Old and New," and "What is Real Patriot- 
ism" and "A Perfect Tribute" may offer opportunities 
for .the use of outside speakers who will bring a real 
message to the club. 
Service: 

Preparation of Christmas baskets and the giving of a 
party for needy children should have the same careful 
consideration as was suggested in the comment regarding 
the preparation of the Thanksgiving baskets. See that 
the baskets a*-e distributed through some recognized local 
agencies and that the children who are invited to the 
party come as family groups, since disappointment so 
often comes to several when one child is chosen to go 
to a party and several others are left at home. 
Social: 

"A Colonial Party" offers a means of cooperation be- 
tween the Young Men's Christian Association wlxen 
members of the Hi-Y clubs may be invited to the party 
or the girls may invite their own boy friends. 

175 



"The Mother and Daughter Banquet" offers an op- 
portunity to acquaint the mothers with the ideals and 
purpose of the club work, and it very often reveals a 
mother to a daughter in a new way. Through a cleverly 
arranged toast program the mothers may express their 
appreciation of the club and what it means to the 
girls. (See Section VII, Material for Program Building, 
page 726.) 

"The Father and Daughter" Party. In so far as the 
Boys' Work Department of the Young Men's Christian 
Association is having "Mother and Son" parties, it would 
seem that "Father and Daughter" parties might well 
be a part of the Girls' Work program of the Young 
Women's Christian Association. For a^good many years 
it has been very usual to have the relationship between 
father and son and between mother and daughter stressed 
much more than the relationship between father and 
daughter and mother and son. 

SPRING MONTHS 
March, April, May 

These months are the time for presenting plans for a voca- 
tional conference, for planning a St. Patrick's party, for the 
election of officers, for planning Mothers' and Daughters' week, 
for a discussion of summer camps, summer conferences, Senior 
parties, parties for grade school girls who will enter high school 
in the autumn, for council (or cabinet) training through the 
medium of a week-end house party when the new and the 
old councils meet together, for the planning of a summer pro- 
gram, the Girls' Work Committee and the club committees all 
considering what should be done and how. 

Content. 

Topics: To be used at the club meetings. These are 
suggested only. They may be developed through the 

176 



discussional or demonstration method. 
"Discovering Myself." 

"How to Live on Twenty-four Hours a Day." 
"FeetA Good Understanding." 
"Have We Fulfilled Our Purpose This Year?" 
"Choose Ye." 

"Shall We Have a Summer Program?" 
"Making Our Triangles Perfect." 
"Through Freshman Spectacles, or High School as 
We See It." 

"Habit Postures, Good and Bad." 
"Camps Why Have One?" 
"Conferences Why Go to Them?" 
"What Does Easter Mean to You?" 

Service: 

Presentation of "A Pageant of Sunshine and Shadow." 
A Vocational Conference, to which all girls in the 
school may be invited. 

Social: * 

A party for the Senior girls. 

A party for girls who will enter high school in the 
autumn. 

The Council Training House Party. 

Method. 
Topics: 

"Discovering Myself." Chapter 12, Section V of this 
Manual contains a bibliography of material to be used 
in presenting vocational work. 

"How to Live on Twenty-four Hours a Day/' the 
title of a book by Arnold Bennett. It may be read 
aloud at a club meeting or the adviser or girls' work 
secretary may read it and tell it to the girls, or the 
girls may read it and then have a discussion based upon 
it. 

177 



"Feet A Good Understanding." Secure from .the 
Womans Press a series of posters' on posture and .the 
right kind of shoes and see the article in the July (1919) 
"Association Monthly" on "A Perfect Shoe For a Perfect 
Foot"; see Section V, Chapter 2. 

"Have We Fulfilled Our Purpose This Year?" A 
time of reckoning" when the girls face squarely whether 
the club purpose is real, and if not, why not. 

"'Choose Ye." A meeting- when senior girls tell what 
they would do if they were starting- to high school again. 

The following quotation from Kipling may be used: 

"I wish myself could talk to myself, 

As I left 'im a year ago, 
I could tell 7 im a lot that would save 'im a lot 

Of the things 'e ought to know." 

"Shall we have a summer program?" Discussion in 
this case should center around the following points: 
The advisability of a summer program^ what should be 
its nature; how often should the club meet ; what should 
be the nature of the meetings? 

"Making Our Triangles Perfect." John Oxenham's 
poem, "Everymaid," might be used in this meeting. It 
is to be found in his little book of poems, ""Bees in 
Amber," which may be secured from The Book Shop, 600 
Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

" Through Freshmen Spectacles" does not need inter- 
pretation, 

"Habit Postures, Good and Bad." Data which will be 
helpful in such a meeting as this may be found in 
Section V, Chapter 2, of this .Manual. 

"Camps Why Have One?" This may be a discussion 
on the part of the girls as to what a camp may mean; 

178 



the kind of publicity to make a camp successful; why 
camp songs are necessary; how many days should be 
spent at camp. The girls' work secretary will consider 
location, equipment, recreation, the creation of camp 
spirit which results in self-government, how much time 
can be reserved completely for the girls' work depart- 
ment, if it is a camp shared by the whole Association, 
and how to relate the camp program to the programs of 
the other groups in the Association. See Chapter 14, 
Section V, of this Manual. 

"Conferences Why Go to Them?" See Chapter 15, 
Section V, of this Manual. Those girls who have attend- 
ed a summer conference will be able to make all their 
experiences very vivid to the other girls through the 
use of kodak pictures and conference memory books and 
stories. 

"What Does Easter Mean to You?" Sometimes a 
series of Lenten meetings may be arranged in the Girls' 
Work Department, or perhaps a vesper service, held in 
a church or in some place made attractive with flowers 
and vines, will help to make the Easter season a very 
lovely one for the girls. 

"A Pageant of Sunshine and Shadow." This will be 
real service for all proceeds from it are to be devoted 
to the work of The National Child Labor Committee. 

Social: 

Party for Senior Girls: This party should be planned 
for the senior girls by all the other members of the club. 
It may be a tea with faculty members present. It 
represents, usually, the closing of the school year part ol 
the club program. 

Cabinet or Council Training: The purpose is to bring to- 
gether the old and the new council members, so that the^ 
may learn all the detail of club work and committee 
organization and management. 

179 



SUMMER MONTHS 
June, July, August 

These months offer excellent opportunities for out-door 
activiUles, such as camps, auto-truck parties, beach parties, 
tennis, group singing; it is also time for attendance at a sum- 
mer conference. A summer program is essentially informal, 
and may mean that the advisers meet the girls only once a 
month instead of the more regular meetings of the school year. 
Such summer work as that mentioned above requires leader- 
ship, which can only be obtained by careful thought and 
planning, in which the girls 7 work secretary and the girls' work 
committee members and advisers will all share. Sometimes, 
when regular advisers are unavailable, there are college girls 
who will be glad to help while home for the summer. 

PROGRAM HELPS 

All good program work must take into consideration a sea- 
sonal grouping of activities, whereby the year is divided into 
quarters fall, winter, spring and summer. The program com- 
mittee, in preparing its outline for the year's work, will find 
in these lists of material the suggestive elements which will 
provide the variety, balance and continuity essential to suc- 
cessful club work, and which may be adapted to the needs 
of individual girls in the local community. All of the ma- 
terial in Section V and Section VII of this manual will con- 
tribute additional strength to the program. 

Every program committee should also remember that the 
program which they plan should make concrete the ideals which 
the club has incorporated in its purpose. The purpose of any 
club should be "the pace-setter" for the quality of the work 
done, both in regular club meetings and in council and com- 
mittee meetings. All program committee members, advisers 
and the girls' work secretaries must always remember that the 
ultimate purpose of all high school club work is to train girls 
in the way of Christian living. This, being interpreted, means 

180 



to help a girl to understand what it means to be a Christian, 
and to help her ,to live as a Christian in her community. 

The value of any club work to its members is in direct pro- 
portion to the way in which that work enables' the members, 
as individuals and as a group, "to face life squarely" and to 
do this means to accept Christian standards of living and to 
so adjust personal desires and problems to these standards 
that all members attain abundant life. Such adjustments for 
every one come in home, school, church and community living. 
To obtain abundant life, club members must be strong in body, 
alert in mind, and must seek in God, the Father, and Jesus 
Christ, His Son, their purpose "to find and give the best." The 
triangle of health, knowledge, spirit, expressed in service, should 
become the keystone for a girl's Hiving in her normal environ- 
ment home, school, church and community. The suggested 
material has been prepared with this thought in mind. 

I. Book Poverty "I Don't Have Any Time to Read." 
II. My Book Shelf: 

"Books I Would Like to -Own." 
"Books I Would Leave in the Library." 

III. "If I were having a party and could have only twenty 

guests, whom would I choose?" 

IV. "My Five-Foot Shelf." Ask each club member to 

make a list of .the books which she would include in 
her five-foot shelf if she had one. These lists will 
serve as the content of a discussion for the club 
members to determine what volumes would make a 
Five-Foot Shelf for the club, and why certain books 
should be retained and others discarded. 
V. "Trash or Classic Hysterical or Historical What 

Do You Read?" 

VI. Book parties, where club members come representing 
well-known book characters or book titles; guessing 
games which involve a knowledge of books, and bio- 
graphical sketches done by some one who knows how 

181 



to tell stories, all help to stimulate a girl's interest 
in reading 1 . 

VII. "What have I in my sweater pocket?" 

What are my treasures? might be another way of 
staging 1 this topic. Every girl has them; many she 
carries with her, and they vary as do the girls them- 
selves. Poems should be part of the treasures of 
girlhood, for they are results of the gift of some one 
who can see the land of far distances and the King 
in His glory, and who crystalizes "the beautiful" into 
words. 

It ds fortunate that many volumes of verse and 
anthologies, such as "The Little Book, of Modem 
Verse," are sweater pocket size, and every adviser and 
secretary has an untold opportunity to indicate such 
use of sweater "carrying space." 

Pocket size: 
The Golden Treasury of Magazine Verse. William 

Stanley Braithwaite. 

Second Book of Modern Verse. Jessie Rittenhouse. 
Bees in Amber. John Oxenham. 
High TideSelected Poems. Mrs. Waldo Richards. 
Poems That Have Helped Me. S. E. Kiser. 
A Little Book of Western Verse. -Eugene Field. 
Poems of Childhood. Eugene F|ield. 
Trees and Other Poems. Joyce Kilmer. 
Old Fashioned Roses. James Whitcomb Riley. 
Volumes from The Little Leather Library Corpora- 
tion, 44 East 23d Street, New York City. Write 
for catalogue. 

VIII. The Woman Movement: 

The Woman's Land Army of America, 19 West 44th 

Street, New York City. 
The Woman Suffrage Party, 373 Fifth Avenue, New 

York City. 

182 



The Woman's Trade Union League, 7 East 15th Street, 

New York City. 
The National Consumers' League, 105 East 22d 

Street, New York Oity. 
The National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22d 

Street y New York City. 

The World's Student Christian Federation; address re- 
quests for information to The 'Student 'Committee, 
Department of Research and Method, 600 Lexing- 
ton Avenue, New York City. 

IX. The Blue Triangle the World Around: India\ China, 
Japan, France, Russia, England, South America. 
(Helpful material for such a meeting may be secured 
from the Foreign and Overseas Department, National 
Board, Young Womens Christian Associations, 600 
Lexington Avenue, New York City.) 

X. "The World at Our Door." -See "Peter of the World" 
in the first Inch of the Inch Library. Use the follow- 
ing verse, entitled "The Window of the World," on 
a poster: 

Through the window-, 
Through the window 

Of the world, 
Over city, over lea, 
Down the river, flowing free 
Toward its making with the sea, 
I am looking 
Through the windows 

Of the world. 
XL "The World Beyond Our Borders." 

Such a topic gives the opportunity to increase in 
knowledge and understanding of "World Oitizenshfip." 
See "The Magic Carpet," "The Air Route to Buenos 
Aires," U A Camel Trip to Cairo" and "Precious 
Flower and the Flies," all of which may be secured 
from The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. 

183 



XII "Different Angles of Our World" 

Our individual angles: Home, School, Church. 

Our industrial angles: Native-Born, Foreign-Born, 

Colored. 
Our world angles: Europe, Asia, South America. 

This could be made graphic by using three tri- 
angles one for each of the divisions at the corners of 
a poster. 

This topic can be developed by showing how the 
triangle of home, school and church can never be per- 
fect until there is a realization that the triangle 
of colored and foreign-born girls in the great indus- 
trial centers is becoming more nearly equilateral be- 
cause of improved working conditions, wages and 
hours; and that the distress lin other continents can 
only be rectified as we realize that it is our responsi- 
bility to reach out from our immediate little triangle 
of home, school and church to the triangle which lies 
at our very door, and from there to the world triangle. 
(Use again /if desired, the poem given under topic D, 
Chapter VII, Section V, of this Manual, "The Place 
of Discussion in the Girl Eeserve Movement." 

XIII. "Ups and Downs" ."All mortals have their ups and 
downs ; in all the modern styles ; one day they wilt 
'neath Fortune's frowns, the next enjoy her smiles. 
Some men put up a gorgeous front when all things 
come their way; they blithely tackle every stunt, 
their curves are glad and gay. They move with an 
elastic step, the bluff they make is tall; we say, 'these 
men are full of pep, they're winners, one and all.' 
Sane people calmly take their joys, and do not tear 
their gowns or make a woeful, sobbing noise when 
ups give way to downs." Walt Mason. 

184 



XIV. "The Letters We Write in Our Faces" 

Where do the lines come from? See Robert Love-* 
man's, poem, "A Sunshine Heart and a Soul of 
Song," and John Oxenham's poem, "Everymaid/' in 
"Bees in Amber." 

XV. "Through the Looking Glass" 
Life's mirror. 

A look into our own niirrors. 

XVI. Three Requisites for Success: Desire, Efforts, Results. 
XVII. Grace, Grit, Gumption, Girls. 
XVIII. The Alibi Habit: "I was Busy Here and There." 
XIX. "Are You Extravagant?" 

Money Giving. Time Giving. Joy Giving. Self 

Giving 1 . 

XX. Care of the Teeth. Care of the Hands. Care of the 
Hair. (These should be practical demonstrations, 
given by specialists if possible.) 
XXI. Common Sense Hints on Dress. 
XXII. A Girl's Relation to Men. 
XXIII. "When I Go Traveling." 

See in Section VII "Material for Program Building," 
a "movie" which may be used to dramatize this topic. 
XXIV. On the Fence School Honor. 
XXV. The Green-Eyed Monster (Envy). 
XXVI. A Girl's Storage Batteries. 

XXVIL "How Would I Explain to a Girl from a Foreign 
Country My Christianity?" 

XXVIII. The Women Jesus Knew and What They Thought of 
Him. (This might well be a talk given by an out- 
side speaker.) 

XXIX. A Girl's Triangle Others, God, Myself. 
XXX. Courage the things which help one reach toward 
God. 

185 



XXXI. A Gfirl's Garden. (The following poem by Thomas 
Edward Brown might be used: 

"A garden is a lovesome thing Got wot! 
Kose plot, 
Fringed pool, 

The veriest school of peace. 
And yet the fool 

Contends that God is not 
Not God! in gardens, when the eve is cool? 
Nay, but I have a sign! 
Tis very sure God walks in mine." 
"Patience and Her Garden," by Ida Smith Decker, 
published by Paul Elder & Go., San Francfisco, is a 
delightful story, which possibly could be used at such 
a meeting. 

XXXII. "Habits that are of value in Personal Relationships." 
Thoughtfulness. Avoidance of petty and 

Courtesy. unjust judgments 

Quiet Voice. Punctuality. 

Aversion to gossip. Honesty, 

XXXIII. "A Glass of Blessings." 

"There are three ingredients in the good life, learning, 
earring and yearning. A man should be learning as 
he goes; and he should be earning bread for himself 
and others; and he should be yearning to know the 
unknowable. When God made man (says George 
Herbert) he had 'a glass of blessings standing by.' 
So He pours on man all the blessings in His reservoir; 
strength, beauty, wisdom, honor, pleasure and then 
He refrains from giving him the last of them which 
is rest, i. e., contentment. God sees that if man is 
contented he will never win his way to Him." 

Christopher Morley. 

(From "Parnassus on Wheels/* reprinted by per- 
mission of the author and publishers, Doubleday 
Page and Co.) 

186 



"Life Came to Me Today ." 

This I entreat 

Flow in my hands, inform my lagging feet, 

Shine in mine eyes, and smile "upon my lips. 

Oh, lift my spirit's flame from dull eclipse 

And), sing, within my heart, that I may be 

Life, in my turn, for those who look to me." 

XXXIV. "Whatsoever Things Are Lovely." 

(a) Poems I love. 

(b) Pictures I love. 

(c) Books I love. 

(d) Music I love. 

(e) People I love. 

XXXV. "What can I, a girl, do to help?" 
At home. 
In my school. 
In my community. 
The world. 

XXXVI. "How can we do common things in an uncommon way ? " 
For additional interpretation of the world fellowship, 
4 which can become so easily a part of any program, see 
the suggested interpretation of the honors which will 
make them international see page 290. Even 
though high school girls themselves may not 
be (interested in honors the adviser of the Program 
Committee will find there much which is suggestive 

CABINET OR COUNCIL TRAINING 

It sometimes happens that girls who are elected to office in 
the High School Club, because of their leadership qualities, 
do not understand what are the responsibilities which become 
theirs with office-holding. The week-end Cabinet or Council 
Training has proved a very effective way of preparing them. 

187 



Who The old cabinet or council, the newly elected one, the 
advisers, and the secretary. In the case of the independently 
affiliated high school where the visit of a secretary is not possi- 
ble, one of the advisers will have charge of the training. 

When jn or a week-end as soon after the election of officers 
as practicable, beginning Friday afternoon or evening. 

Where The place should be away from the usual scene of 
action both for more concentrated work and greater interest. 
A cabinet or council house-party offers great possibilities. 

What Information. 
Inspiration. 
Training. 

Tentative Program for Such Training. 

Friday evening I. Our responsibility Retiring president. 

II. The girl who leads: The girl who follows 
Secretary or adviser. 

III. Our purpose: what it means, and how we 
carry it out Discussion. 

IV. Closing cabinet or council member or 

adviser. 
Saturday Morning 

I. Opening Devotions Cabinet (Council) 

member or adviser. 

II. The Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion of whlich we are a part secretary or 
adviser. 

III. Parlimentary Drill this should be short, 
"snappy" and stimulating. 

IV. The Relation of the Cabinet or Council to 

the club as a whole secretary or ad- 
viser. 

This may be illustrated by a diagram or 
a chalk talk, interesting relationships 
figuratively described as follows: 

188 



a. "Your Cabinet or Council the Hub." 

b. "Your Committees the .Spokes." 

c. "Your Club the Wheel." 

V. How to plan for a Cabinet or Council 
Meeting 'Cabinet or Council member or 
adviser or secretary. 

A. The following is the usual plan of 
procedure for a business meeting. 

1. Meeting opened by president. 
(Something devotional at the be- 
ginning or the end of the meeting.) 

2. Minutes of the last meeting. 

3. Old business. 

4. New business. 

a. Report of all committees. 

b. Future plans. 

VI. How to plan for a committee meeting. 

A. Regular time for a meeting. 

B. Outline of business. 

C. Discussion of work to be done and the 
best ways to do it. 

D. Monthly report to the cabinet this 
report should include work that has 
been done and also future plans. 

VII. Discussion of the duties of cabinet or 
council members adviser, secretary or 
member of Cabinet or 'Council. 

A. President. 

B. Vice President (membership chair- 
man). Refer to Constitution. 

C. Secretary. 

D. Treasurer. (See! the Chapter on Or- 

ganization in this Manual, page 61.) 

E. Program committee chairman. 

F. Service committee chairman. 

189 



G. Social committee chairman. Organi- 
zation of high school and private 
school associations. 

Saturday Afternoon 

I. Model Cabinet Meeting. 
II. Our Program. 
A. For the year. 

1. For the summer. 

a. 'Camps and conferences. 

b. 'Community service. 

2. For the school year. 

III. Installation services planned and re- 
hearsed. 

IV. Closing. 

The right spirit for a cabinet otf council meeting can be 
secured in a number of ways. There are poems', which are in- 
spirational, stories and biographies that challege us to our best, 
and which all of us want to use at times, but for those of us 
who know the inspiration that comes from the study of our 
Bible and the fellowship of prayer, these latter are the most 
direct ways. 

A RECOGNITION SERVICE FOR NEW MEMBERS 

To many members of girls' clubs in the Young Women's 
Christian Association, the words "Recognition Service" have 
come to have a very definite and beautiful meaning and be- 
cause of a desire to make this experience available to all girls 
who share in the fellowship of work, play, love and worship in 
the Girl Reserve movement, the following suggestions for a 
Recognition .Service for New Members have been included 'dn 
this Manual. It is very desirable that for every club the ser- 
vice should have an especial meaning* and therefore it is hoped 
that these suggestions will be adapted to fit the immediate 
needs. Always there should be beauty and simplidity and a 

190 



spirit of reverence ; what mode of expression these will find is 
not so vital, but that they should be ever present is most 
essential. 

Producing Notes: 

At the end of the room place a table on which is set a large 
candle that is lighted. Mark out on the floor, immediately in 
front of the table, the three angles of a large triangle, which 
shall serve as guides to the old members of the club when they 
march in and form a triangle outline. The President of the 
club and the Vice President head the procession and take their 
places at either end of the table. 

The old members, carrying unlighted candles, march into the 
room. They advance by twos to the middle of the base of the 
triangle (D) and there separate, turning at the angle of the 
triangle and marching to the apex, where .they light their 
candles. They turn and march down the other side to the 
points E and F. The new members, also carrying unlighted 
candles, enter the same way and separate at (D) as did the 
old members. They march in single file, inside the lines formed 
by the old members. The order of service is as follows: 

Processional Hymn "0 Beautiful for Spacious Skies." 

(At the close of the hymn, the Vice President steps forward 
and speaks as follows.) 

Vice President: "Whom do we welcome to the fellowship of 
this club? 

Old members (in unison): All who work, play and worship 
with us in a common purpose. 

Vice President: In what words do we express our purpose? 
Old members (in unison): (Repeat the club purpose.) 

Vice President (turning to the President): I present to 
you these new members. 

191 



President: Is it your desire tq become members of this 
club? 

New members (in unison) : It is. 

President: In token of your common pledge with us to 
share in the fellowship of this club, will you come forward and 
seek your light where we have lighted ours ? 

(The new members step forward to the large lighted candle; 
when they have lighted their candles they march down the sides 
of the triangle formed by the old members and complete the 
triangle by forming the base. 

Short talk or story by a member of the club or one of the 
advisers (interpretation of what the club can mean to girls). 

Recessional: Hymn of the Lights. 

AN INSTALLATION SERVICE FOR OFFICERS OF A HIGH SCHOOL 

CLUB 

The preparation for an installation service must be started 
several weeks in advance of the date determined for the formal 
installation. This tflme is necessary because it is desirable that 
many parts of the suggested service included in this Manual 
should be prepared by the new and the old council or cabinet 
officers. Much discussion will be needed to make it very clear 
and very attractive to the club members, who really share in it 
'as much as do the officers who are being installed. 

Producing Notes: 

The service proceeds according to the order indicated below. 
While the members of the club are assembling, hymns or other 
appropriate selections should be played. When the processional 
is ready, play the hymn *'Lead On, King Eternal"; the mem- 
bers of the club stand while the officers of -the club, old and new, 
enter. They are preceded by a girl who is dressed in white. 
She carries a large lighted candle. Each retiring officer marches 
with her successor they all carry candles, and the candles of 
the retiring officers are lighted. The candle bearer places her 

192 



candle on a table at one end of the room and steps to one side. 
The retiring officers place their lighted candles on the table as 
they file by and the new officers place theirs in a similar position 
on the other side. When the processional hymn is ended, all 
are seated, chairs having been arranged for the officers so that 
they face the club membership and form a semi-circle about 
the table. The retiring president arises and tells very simply 
the story of the choosing of David or the calling of some other 
great leader of the people. This story may be told in the 
words of the Bible story or in the girl's own words; it must 
receive careful preparation, so that none of the beauty and 
significance of it escapes the auditors. She then repeats the 
purpose of the club, stating very briefly how the retiring officers 
have tried to help the club carry it into its work and fellowship. 
She states that the old officers are about to give their trust to 
the new officers. When she has said this, all of the officers 
arise and the retiring president presents to her successor the 
constitution, and in a few sentences, gives her trust and respon- 
sibility to her. The order of the service is indicated below. 
I. Music 
II. Processional "Lead On, King Eternal." 

III. President's address and charge to the new president. 

IV. New President's response. 

V. Retiring Vice President presents the membership roll to 
her successor and charges her with the responsibility 
for the club membership. 
VI. New Vice President's response. 

VII. Retiring 'Secretary presents record book to her successor, 
with a brief address. 

VIII. New Secretary accepts the charge and the treasurer's 
books. 

IX. Retiring President explains the meaning of the large 
candle and bids the new officers light their candles from 
it. 

193 



X. Candle Service. 

New President (stepping forward, takes her candle 
and lights it, while she repeats these words), "Jesus said: 
'I am the Light of the World/ " 

When she has returned to her place, .the new Vice 
President steps forward and lighting her candle, repeats: 
"The True light, even the Light which lighteth every 
man coming 1 into the world." 

The new Secretary repeats, as she lights her candle, 
"Light shall shine out of darkness." 

The new Treasurer repeats: "Jesus said 'Ye are the 
light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot 
be hid.'" 

The retiring President speaks, saying: "Let your 
light so shine before men that they may see your good 
works and glorify your Father which is in Heaven." 

The retiring officers then step forward, take up their 
lighted candles and join with the new officers in a prayer 
such as .the following: 

"Light of light, that shined ere the world began, 

Draw thou near and lighten every heart of man." 

XL Recessional Hymn 'Hymn of the Lights. 

The candlebearer, having taken her candle, leads the 
recessional, followed by the new officers, marching two 
by two; the retiring officers follow. 

CONTENT AND METHOD TYPICAL OF A PROGRAM FOR YOUNGER 
GIRLS IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY* 

All programs for younger girls in business and industry 
must take into consideration the fact that the needs of the girl 



*The majority of these suggestions have been taken from the Commission 
reports of the various Councils for Younger Girls in Business and Industry 
held during these past two years, and from programs worked out by the 
girls through their own committees in local Associations. It is hoped that 
they will prove suggestive to other groups of girls as they plan their own 
programs. 

194 



between fourteen and sixteen are often very different from 
those of the girl between sixteen and e'ighteen. These differ- 
ences, however, can often be met not so much by a change in 
subject or content as by a 1 different method of presentation. 
The older girl is more sophisticated, feels more grown up, has 
often more freedom from home restraint, has sometimes reached 
a different relation with her men friends, and should have a 
feeling of greater responsibility toward work and her place 
in the industrial or business world. All of these things make 
possible a program more "formal" in its presentation. 

With both groups of girls, care should be taken to correlate 
program work with the programs of the industrial department 
and with the department for business and professional women. 
If this is done, the transition from girls' work to either of .these 
is easier. 

A wise use of leisure time is one of the* most vital factors to 
take into consideration in programs for this group of younger 
girls in business and industry. Their desire for singing, dancing 
and "shows" may be directed easily to folk dancing, gymnastic 
drills, dramatic art, nature study and good reading. 

The following- program suggestions have been grouped under 
the four elements which constitute the basis of all the Girl Re- 
serve programs health, knowledge, service, spirit. 

I Health. 

Just as soon as possible every girl should realize through 
a talk, a discussion, a demonstration or an exhibit, that health 
is no longer to be considered a luxury but a social responsibility, 
and that the health of the individual bears directly upon that of 
the home, the continuation school, the place of work, and the 
community. The Girl Reserve health slogan is "Stand Up 
Straight" and ":Sit Up Straight" inside and outside ^S.U.S." 
The slogan itself can be worked into a clever poster and the 
letters "S. U. S." may be used in many ways. 

195 



Through cooperation with the health education department 
of the Association, if it exists, arrangements should be made 
for a physical examination of every girl. The examination 
should be followed by the individual exercises necessary, gym- 
nasium, classes, games which develop group and team spirit, 
indoor track meets, swimming, talks and demonstration of first 
aid, footwear, posture, healthful clothing, proper food, ventila- 
tion and sanitation. 

The last seven suggestions should be worked out in just as 
graphic and visual a way as possible. For instance, the pictorial 
poster method might be used. This has proven especially effec- 
tive at centers or clnb rooms where groups of girls gather at 
noontime and it would be equally effective with work done at 
the Association building at night. Take the subject "footwear." 
Make two posters, alike in size and coloring; label one "Two 
Feet of Happiness," the other "Two Feet of Unhappiness." On 
the first place a picture of a most attractive girl or several girls, 
wearing the standard, common-sense shoe; on the other a girl 
in a pointed toe,^high-heeled pair of shoes, looking pained and 
tired. Later on if the posters cause discussion, as they are 
sure to, definite information as to price and place for purchasing 
might be added to the first poster. Another clever poster bound 
to cause laughter and comment is the outline of the sole of a 
foot, each toe plainly visible and in the center of the sole these 
words, "A Five Room Apartment A Room for Every Toe." 
Clever figures in bright colors at Either side make this most 
attractive. 

An exhibit of common sense shoes may possibly be obtained 
from a local shoe man and be displayed after such posters have 
become familiar. Write Bureau of Social Education, 600 Lex- 
ington Avenue, for information and material. 

This poster idea can be carried still further and evolve into 
a series 1 , placed in the club rooms one after another, thus caus- 
ing great curiosity and amusement. "It's just like a serial in 

196 



the Cosmopolitan," one girl was heard to say. Here is an 
illustration of how a series of foot posters can really become 
a series of "foot-talks." The entire set may be placed on view 
at one time or one by one they can appear: 

Foot Talks. 

Another series could be the following-: 
"Aids to Good Health." 
Still another series along this line: 

Quick Lunch. 
Nutritious Food. 

These posters have been given here in the hope that these 
or far cleverer ones can be made by some "artist" among the 
girls or on the Girls' Work Committee. 

Simple drawings like these, or with the same general idea, and 
a clever application of paint can do more .to attract the eye 
of the younger girl in business and industry than all the 
lithograph posters imaginable. Something that is hand done 
has its attraction. This poster method is often far more effec- 
tive than any amount of lecturing or "preaching." Aj large 
number of people in this world are "eye-minded," not "ear- 
minded," and the pictorial will carry a meaning to them more 
quickly than the spoken word. Poster work of this kind has 
often led to a demand for "Talks" and gives much opportunity 
for constructive conversation with individuals. A chance for 
a snappy, ten-minute talk on a lunch that really counts for 
something versus one which consists of a sundae, a jelly dough- 
nut or fried pie is striking at the real root of the girls' living 
and thinking. 

The following Health Code is one which was originated by 
younger girls in business and industry. Such a code printed on 
attractive cards and given to each Girl Reserve might do mucJi 
to make health mean something vital to a girl as an individual 
and to the group as a whole. An enthusiasm for health needs 
to b,e arouse.d and can be if all are bent on obtaining it. 

197 



How About You? 

Are you changing the general trend of your foot-shape? 
causing discomfort and awkwardness? 




Nature created the foot 
to fit in the simplest food 
covering, the moccasin. 



The child of six can play comfortably 

in the sandal, 
198 



How about you? Do you 
consider the French heel a 
necessity to be "grown-up?" 




Or do you let Na- 
ture decide your 
foot-gear for you? 



With ease the girl of twelve 

years, walks her eight blocks 

to school. 



199 



Aids to Good Health 



MR* 



O 



I 



jl 



O 



"An apple a day keeps the doctor azvay." 




Don't permit your weight to go to extremes. 



200 




Sleep with your windows wide open. 




Walk one hundred miles a month. 





Drink plenty of water each day. It aids digestion. 
201 



Quick Lunch 




Thorough mastication creates easy digestion. 





Drink milk instead 
of coffee. 



Eat one green vege- 
table a day 



Eat plenty 
of fruit. 



202 



Nutritious Food 




Eat wholesome foods, lots of fruit and vegetables. 





p../ \,pr./ \>ft. \, P t. 




Drink eight glasses of wetter each day. 



203 



Health Code* 
I. Eight hours sleep every night. 

II. Eat .wholesome food three times a day at regular inter- 
vals (this means a real luncheon, not two sundaes). 

III. Drink s'lX glasses of water daily. 

IV. Wear, if possible, loose 1 clothing, low-heeled, square- 
toed shoes. 

V. Remove damp clothing as soon as possible. 
VI. Bathe in hot water at least twice a week. 

VII. Exercise out of doors one-half hour daily (walking to 
work will help to do this). 

VIII. Adopt health habits to insure daily bowel regularity. 

Outdoor activities such as hiking-, skating, camping, volley- 
ball and tennis should be provided. For some girls Saturday 
afternoon is a possible hiking time. For others Sunday after- 
noon is the only possible time. A picnic supper on a Saturday 
or Sunday hike is good fun. Hiking is always a joy provided 
the person in charge has the "spirit of the road" within her 
and is ever alert to the beauty by the way and overhead in the 
sky and knows interesting games to play enroute and stories 
to tell at supper time or around the camp-fire. 

Recreation. 

One of the greatest needs, of the younger girl in business and 
industry is the opportunity to meet boys and men !in a natural, 
normal way. Any recreation plan should take this into con- 
sideration and provide for the "mixed party" and for that atmos- 
phere in the Association which spells "friendliness" and "home" 
to the girl and her man friend. 



*Written by younger girls in Business and Industry, East Central Field. 

204 



. It is very often possible to use the "men friends" as assist- 
ants when a circus or stunt is going on. Standards of action 
can often be established while setting up a stage or while 
decorating. The normal significance of any social act'ivity is 
two-fold, the quality of the thing itself and the way in which 
it is done. The impression which these activities are leavfing 
upon the minds of girls and men can never be accurately fore- 
cast but it is safe to say that each one makes its mark upon 
their lives and unconsciously standards of action are built up 
which will form the social fabric of whatever community they 
will live in later in life. 

Material on Health Education and Recreation. 

See Chapter II, Section V, Health Education and Recreation. 

Write to the Bureau of Social Education for additional in- 
formation, pamphlets and suggestions, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City. 

Write Child Health Organization of America, 870 Seventh 
Avenue, New York City, for the Child Health Alphabet. 

Cho-Cho and the Health Fairy, demonstration pamphlets and 
other bulletins. Enclose 50 cents and a sample set of all ma- 
terial will be sent to you. 

Write to the Superintendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C., for pamphlets entitled "Sum- 
mer Health and Play School, Teaching Health." 

Write to the Bureau of Public Health Education, care De- 
partment of Health, 13,9 Center Street, New York City, for 
"Keep Well" leaflets, especially No. ,17, "Simple Wholesome 
Lunches for Working People." 

II Knowledge. 

The kind of educational work suggested for younger girls 
in business and industry under this 1 section of Knowledge is 
most important for the reason that in the present scheme of 
education and guidance this girl is less well provided for than 

205 




H 



How does my amount of sleep 
affect my work? Is it easy to be 
cheerful when I have a headache f 
Are many illnesses caused by one's 
own carelessness f What responsi- 
bilities to others does one have for 
keeping well? 

206 




Why are there so many songs written 
about smiles? How does being grouchy 
affect other sf Am I increasing my 
circle of friends by being friendly? 
Is my Spirit loving, cheerful and helpfulf 



207 




// / could hear my conversations re- 
peated at the end of the day, would 
it make any difference in zvhat I say? 
Are my thoughts kind and true before 
I speak of another? Have I the courage 
to say what I knozu is true? Which 
are louder: actions or words? 



208 



any other group. In some communities there are as yet no con- 
tinuation schools and so no study is required. Night schools pro- 
vide the opportunity for some girls but even so there is usually 
the chance for the kind of work here outlined and it is needed. 
The girl who leaves school at fourteen in a very short time" 
drifts away from her former school mates. She has, perhaps, 
disliked the formal class work of the school and has vehemently 
declared that she "hated school and books." Perhaps she did, 
but there is in her just the same a longing for self-expression 
which cannot be complete without more education and guidance. 
Unless some definite help is given her between the age of four- 
teen and eighteen, she is never going to meet in a congenial 
way her former school mates who come into business or industry 
?t eighteen or twenty with more school background. One of 
the difficulties of programming for business girls between eigh- 
teen and twenty-two is their difference in background and 
educational advantages. 

By following some of the suggestions here given under 
"Knowledge," it would be possible to have two or more times 
during the year exhibits of style-craft work, dramatic presenta- 
tions, and poster exhibits by both younger girls in business and 
industry and high school girls. They are all Girl Reserves or 
younger girls in the Association and a joint piece of work which 
takes for its preparation a joint committee would do much to 
keep the groups together and make both see that in their work 
in the Association they have a common ground. 

Talks and discussions of chances^ for promotion given by 
business men and women, definite personal help given each girl, 
and when possible a real "vocational conference" in cooperation 
with the schools and other agencies are greatly to be desired 
in a program for younger girls in business and industry. 

Intelligent citizens are needed to-day as never before. Girls 
everywhere want to "know" if only the right approach is made. 
Younger girls in business and industry are not ordinarily inter- 
ested in classes. Information like everything else, must be pre- 
209 



sented to them in a graphic, visual, active way. The poster 
method described in the preceding section, plus the following 1 
suggestions may help include this phase of work in a program: 

A, Dramatics. 

Charades. 

Plays. 

Pageants. 

Pantomimes 

Style Shows. 

Foot and shoe exhibits. 

"Movies." 

Dramatic work like every other activity in a program should 
be done with the object of developing initiative and personality. 
The dreams of what one would like to be can come true for the 
period of time one is living the part of some girl in a play! To 
really be a character for two weeks at rehearsals and on the 
final night of the performance often makes one a different per- 
son for all time. The influence of the play is great and should 
never be under-estimated. (See Chapter VI, Section V, on The 
Place of Drama in the Girl Reserve Movement.) 

The average group of younger girls in business and indus- 
try are not interested in a play or pageant which takes a great 
deal of time and energy given to rehearsals. The short, simple 
play, full of action and quickly prepared is always to be chosen. 
The following plays are suggested: 

1. Mrs. Oakley's Telephone 

Samuel French & Co., 28-30 W. 38th St. New York. 

2. Ope-o-me-Thumb 

Renn & R. Pyr.ee, Samuel French, N. Y., 25 cents. 

3. Six Cups of Chocolate 

Edith V. B. Matthews, Harper & Bros., N. Y, 

4. Land of Heart's Desire 

W. B. Yeats, Walter H. Baker, Boston, Mass. 

5. A Brown Paper Parcel 

M. S. W., 2 characters, Samuel French, 25 cents. 

6. Mechaneal Jane 

M. E. Barber, 1 act, 3 characters, Samuel French. 

7. Engaging Janet 

Ester W. Bates, Penn Publishing Co., Phila, Pa. 

210 



8. The Puppet Princess 
Houghton-Mifflin, N. Y. 

9. The Good Old Days- 
Alice C. Thompson, Penn Publishing Co. 

10. Portmanteau Plays 

Stewart Walker. (This is a collection which includes many possible 
plays.) 

11. Suppressed Desires 

Cook Publishing Co., 3 characters, 30 min. 

12. Mrs. Pat and The Law 
Lady Augusta Gregory. 

13. The Fan and the Candle Stick 

Mary McMillan. (In book by that name; ask in any Public Library.) 

14. Harvard Plays Brentano, New York 

Three Pills in a Bottle Rachel Lymann Field. Volume I $1.25. 
The Florist Shop Volume II $1.25. 

15. The Piper's Play- 
Samuel French, N. Y. 25 cents. 

16. The Traveling Man- 
Lady Augusta Gregory, John W. Luce & Co., Boston, Mass. 

(In addition to these suggestions, write to The Womans Press for 
"A Second List of Plays and Pageants.") 

A "Foot and Shoe" show can be made most interesting by 
having a regular "parade" of girls with various kinds of shoes. 
Stretch a curtain or sheet across a stage letting the bottom 
fall about three feet above the floor. Have girls with good and 
bad shoes walk behind it, thus showing just their feet and 
ankles. Actual "Shoe exhibits" may be obtained by writing to 
the Bureau of Social Education, 600 Lexington Avenue. A foot 
film is also obtainable for certain occasions. 

Pantomimes or "movies" worked out by the girls on all 
kinds of subjects such as "Travel," "Clothes," "Table Etiquette" 
are simple and most effective in result. Poems, stories and 
songs can also be handled in this same way. A suggestion for 
a "Table Etiquette Movie" is as follows: Have a table correctly 
set. Four or any number of girls sitting on one side the same 
number on the other. The first four do incorrectly everything 
connected with the meal from the opening of their napkins to 
the final rising from the table. The other group does every- 
thing correctly. While no words are needed, a song at the very 
end which sums up the fun may be a clever addition, 

B. Pictures: 

iGoodi pictures are one of the most educational of all "tools" 

211 



in work with girls. Their very existence in a club room or 
center as an indirect method of education. They can be made 
the subject of conversation, of discussion and means of illus- 
trations. Tableaux can be worked out from them color values 
and good* and bad lines can be illustrated by them. It is some- 
times possible to have an "art gallery." This may be made by 
securing prints of well-known pictures from George P. Brown 
Company, Beverly, Massachusetts, or from the Perry Picture 
Company, Maiden, Massachusetts. Mount the pictures on heavy 
brown paper and place them on bulletin boards or suspend them 
fiom cords stretched from corner to corner of the club room. 
A series of pictures on landscapes, both by old masters and 
modern painters, or a display of Madonna pictures, or a series 
of pictures by one artist such as Corot, Isreals, or Raphael, or 
a modern painter like Maxlield Parrish, might well be included 
in such a gallery. A committee composed of club members and 
an adviser should be responsible for knowing the names and 
the significance of these pictures and should extend to the 
community, mothers and fathers or family groups, an invita- 
tion to come to the exhibit. 

C. Music: 

Music if properly handled is of infinite value to the spirit 
and the body. A group of tired girls can be re-created by good 
group singing. Every club room and center should have a good 
piano and plenty of good music. The transition from a cheap, 
popular song to a beautiful hymn is not a difficult one. The 
love for "jazz" is a youthful expression of super-abundant life 
an'd energy which can be turned into an enjoyment of music 
which lifts and helps one to live abundantly. Group singing 
cannot be emphasized too strongly. Glee clubs are often possi- 
ble but if they are not, group singing is. Sunday afternoon or 
evening ".sing-songs" are always enjoyable. The national songs 
and ,the folk songs of girls where parents have come from other 
lands are a great contribution to a club meeting or a noon or 
'evening "get-together." One group of Girl Reserves composed 

212 



of ten nationalities learned many songs of each country by hav- 
ing the different girls teach the group. 

Singing at camp on hikes, on all occasions will make girls 
sing at work and at home, if not actually, at least in spirit. 

Besides s nging, there are the violin, the ukulele and other 
instruments which can be used in general program work. (See 
Section V, Chapter XIII, page 526, on The Place of Music in 
the Girl Reserve Movement.) 

D. Style-Craft: 

1. Hat Making 

Within twenty to thirty minutes a clever milliner 
can demonstrate the making and trimming of a hat. 
Such a demonstration made at a center or club room at 
noon in spring or fall will often cause a demand for a 
short, informal series of "lessons." This becomes an 
informal group rather than a "class." 

2. Organdy Collar and Cuff Sets 

An improvised bulletin board on which are placed sev- 
eral sets of the simplest but daintiest of organdy collars 
and cuff sets causes an immediate demand to be "shown 
how." Such sets cost so much when bought and so little 
in comparison when made and they are so stylish! (This 
can be done with various articles of dress.) 

3. Tie-Dyeing- 

Directions for this may be found in the November, 
1920, Ladies' Home Journal or in any book on Arts and 
Crafts. 

4. Dress-Making a la Carte 

On a medium sized piece of cardboard, each girl 
pastes the picture pattern of a dress she would like to 
have. Beside the pattern she pastes a. sample of the 
material and of any trimming needed together with the 
price per yard of each and the amount needed. An entire 
wardrobe or "trousseau" may be worked out in this way 
and a prize given for the prettiest and most inexpensive. 

213 



E. Outside Speakers: 

1. Vocational Work 

a. The road aliead where does it lead ? 

b. What does a business man 'expect of a business girl? 
Ask a business man to give a talk. 

. c. What lies behind and ahead of the pay envelope ? 

2. Thrift 

3. Travel talks. 

4. Hair fashions given by a hair dresser who understands 
girls. (Include care of hair.) 

5. Hand fashions (manicuring) and face fashions (care of 
the skin). 

6. Help. * 

7. Books why when where ? 

(A librarian can often give a most interesting twenty- 
minute talk on this subject.) 

8. Working and living. 

(a) Ways and means for showing initiative and origi- 
nality in factory and commercial work. 

(b) Causes of fatigue and ways of counteracting it. 

(c) Dangers connected with the particular industry in 
which the girls are working. 

(d) Safety devices necessary for certain kinds of work. 
(Cooperation of employers and of Health Education 

Bureaus might easily be obtained for this sort of work. 
A short talk followed by questions and discussions would 
be most worthwhile.) 

F. Open Forums: 

These should be as far as possible in the hands of the girls 
and may take the form of debates, short dramatic skits, in- 
formal conversations or carefully planned discussions. 

1. What lies behind and ahead of the pay envelope? 

Have health, skill, promptness, loyalty to work, dress 
and manners anything to do with this? 

2. Telephone manners. 

214 



3. "Fans": 

Baseball, Japanese, movie, window. 

When is a fan not a fan? 

Are fans necessary? 

Name some ways of "fanning out." 

Do you know any girls who are window fans? 

How does it affect them? 

4. Modes Manners Customs Costumes. 

In an office. 

At any social function (especially at a dance hall). 

On the street. 

In the street car and on the train. 

This may be worked out easily in a dramatic way. 
For instance, the one "in an office" offers the opportunity 
for three short, "snappy" scenes one occuring at 8:30 
or 9 o'clock in the morning, showing the opening of an 
office, the tardy stenographer or bookkeeper, the ex- 
change of greetings and all the by-play which is usual; 
the second at the noon houtf, showing the busy hour of 
the day, tempers frayed, telephones ringing, girls plan- 
ning for luncheon appointments among themselves or 
with the men in the office or men who have come in; 
the third at closing time, showing the girl's attitude 
toward her work. The girl's interests, both constructive 
and destructive, could be shown by the various bits of 
conversation floating about as the girls make ready to 
leave the office. 

"In the dance hall" any representation made should 
include a demonstration of the correct position in dancing. 

"On the street" and "in the street car and on the 
train" could be well worked out by having one group of 
girls do the objectionable thing and another group do the 
opposite. 

In all these dramatic presentations much can be taught 
by the kind of costume worn and the style of hair-dress- 

215 



ing. The good and the bad should be shown in each 
scene. 

5. Health; a luxury, a necessity, or what? 

Is there any relation between health, efficiency, 
u looks," disposition, etc? See the pamphlets prepared 
by the Bureau of Social Education and for sale by The 
Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York .City. 
Also see Section V, Chapter II, and Ten Talks, to Girls 
on Health, The Womans Press. 

6. Who makes the better citizen, a business man or a busi- 
ness woman? 

See "The Woman Citizen," published by The Woman 
Citizen Corporation, 171 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

See "The Young Woman Citizen," Mary Austin, The 
Womans Press, 

See also outline questions for "The Young Woman 
Citizen," by Mary L. Cady, The Womans Press. 

See "Your Vote and How to Use It," Mrs. Kaymond 
Brown. 

All of this resource material may be secured from 
The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. 

7. Who makes your laws, you or the politicians ? 

Do you take what is "handed to you" or do you help 
"to hand out" what is to be taken? 

8. The Ten Best Books I Have Kead, 

9. The Magazines I like Best. 

10. "Blue Triangle Aerograms." 

Messages from the Blue Triangle Centers throughout 
the world. Write the Foreign and Overseas Department, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, for helpful sug- 
gestions. 

216 



11. Industrial girls in other lands. 

12. History of industries such as silk weaving, etc., beginning 

with the cocoon. (These can be worked out dramatically.) 

13. A. "T. and E." Program (Thrift and Efficiency). 

a. The Twin B's (Budgets and Business). 

The keeping of personal accounts, planning a per- 
sonal budget, keeping of a personal bank account can 
all be emphasized under this topic. 

b. The Twin S's (Saving and Spending). 

Graphic material of all kinds, including posters, should 
be used in developing this program. Sample budgets 
worked out by the girls themselves, a simple accounting 
system for personal use, the how and why of savings and 
checking accounts, should all be featured at this meeting. 
Possible means for increasing interest would be the sug- 
gestion that the group work out a thrift acrostic and 
adopt it for their slogan; for instance, 

Thoughtful. 

Honest. 

Resourceful. The girls should put this 

Intelligent in their own "language." 

Firm 

Temperate. 

The following Thriftograms taken from the Savings 
Herald, published by the Eighth Federal Reserve District, 
St. Louis, Missouri, may be useful in a supplementary 
way: 

Old Man High Cost of Living shaves the dollars; it 
is up to you to save them. 

Come easy, go easy is the material used to pave the 
hills to the poorhouse. 

You don't need a ouija board to find out what's going 
to happen if you keep on spending all you earn. 

c. When is money really saved? 

d. Does my vacation belong to me? 

217 



14. Hopes and Hope Chests. 

This offers a chance to show efficiency of planning, 
buying-, and system in general. Different girls can be 
asked to give their ideas of how best to prepare for a 
hope chest and what it should contain, 

15. Good Citizen at Work. 

9 Emphasize spirit and standards. 

16. "Pegs and Holes." 

Do you know any girls who are round pegs in square 
holes? Why are they? Do you know the opposite? 
Which are you going to be? What can work mean in 
a person's life? 

17. "Links" my employer, my work, my associates, and 

myself. 

Develop this idea along the line of the links in a 
chain, where each one is absolutely essential .to the 
strength of the entire chain, and if one breaks or is 
weak the strength and service of the whole are lessened. 

18. Homes and Home-making. 

How can a girl away from home still surround her- 
self with the home atmosphere ? Can a room in a board- 
ijig-house be made "home?" What makes a real home? 
iThis discussion will lead naturally to a discussion of -the 
ideal home which every girl wants. 

See "House and Home Series," Elizabeth Jenkins. A 
series of pamphlets for sale by The Womans Press with 
such titles ,as "Planning the House," "Furnishing the 
House," "A Budget of Personal and Household Ac- 
counts." 

19. Dress. 

The following material will prove suggestive for 
forum discussions, dramatic presentations, posters, tab- 
leaux, or pantomimes. 

21S 



It is important that a girl be helped to form right 
standards of dress during the adolescent period when her 
interest in clothes is greatest. 

[deas to instill: 

1. It is not money but mind which produces good taste. 

2. Do not mistake the costly for the beautiful. 

3. Simplicity does not mean plainness nor poverty, but is 
the very foundation of beauty and refinement. 

4. Imitation in shoddy suits or jewelry is insincerity. An 
honest, frank use of plain, inexpensive material worth 
the price paid for it, reflects more credit on the wearer. 

5. It is not necessary to follow strictly the dictates of fash- 
ion. Be individual. Sometimes your type can't wear 
certain styles. 

6. Wear dress suited to the occasion. 

7. Be careful about choice of accessories. 

8. Comfort and health must not be sacrificed. 

9. Beauty, wherever found, in pictures, architecture or cos- 
tume is based on definite art principles. 



IRT PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO COSTUME DESIGN. 

Read Arthur W. Dow "Composition." 

Art study is the attempt to perceive and to create fine rela- 
ions of line, mass and color. Good spacing or proportion ds the 
, r ery ground work of design. Ways of arranging and spacing 
,o create a harmony may be called the 

Principles of Composition. 
These are: 

1. Opposition Two lines meeting at an angle form a 

simple severe harmony. This gives an impression of 

abruptness. 

219 



2. Transition If the corner where two lines meet is 
softened into a curve, the opposition is softened and 
an effect of unity and completeness produced. 

3. Subordination Unity secured through the relation of 
principal and subordinate. Example: A tree trunk 
with its branches. This principle governs the distri- 
bution of "Dark-and-Light" 

4. Repetition The opposite of subordination. The pro- 
duction of beauty by repeating the same lines or 
masses in rhythmical order. 

5. Symmetry An arrangement in exact balance. This 
is another way to satisfy the desire for ordetf and 
good arrangement. 

Art Elements. 
A. Line. 

B Dark-and-Light, 
C. Color. To describe a color tell its 

1. Hue the name of the color as red, yellow, etc. 

2. Value whether it is a dark color or light. 

3. Intensity Whether it is bright or dull. 

A LINE IN DRESS. 

The silhouette of the costume makes a certain -line. Then 
there are others on the dress, such as tucks, stripes, rows of 
buttons, etc. Let these lines follow the structural lines of the 
body as the lines of doors and windows do on a building. 

What lines to avoid if you are stout: 

1. Horizontal lines, such as are formed by belts, broad 
shoulder effects, ruffles, the line of the sleeve ending 
at the elbow which is on a line with the belt. 

2. Avoid tight blouses as well as very baggy, and coats 
ending at hips or Eton jackets. 

220 



3. Avoid anything which will lead the eye across the fig- 
ure, such as pockets at the hips. 

4. Do not wear fiat hats trimmed in horizontal lines. 
Stout people should wear dresses, which present a long 

unbroken silhouette and use trimming of buttons, etc., near the 
center of the figure. Wear pointed neck, not round or square. 
Build the hair high on head or wear hats which add height. Do 
not wear "headache bands." 

The slender type needs to emphasize lines to increase her 
width. She may wear all that her stout sister cannot. 

Avoid: Yokes whose lines meet in angles over the chest. 
These will make her appear hollow chested. Round yokes and 
neck line are best. 

Avoid tight sleeves and severe lines in opposition in waist, 
sleeve, skirt or hat. 

Do not arrange the hair out of all relation to the size and 
shape of head and neck. 

Do not adopt an angular, unrhythmical hair arrangement. 
Do not wear it built too high nor sliding down at the back of 
the neck. 

Do not adopt a style just because everyone else is wearing 
her hair that way. 

BDARK AND LIGHT. 

The design in the textiles worn, the use of different mate- 
rials in trimming make the Dark-and-Light of a costume." Good 
designs are not those that are an imitation of nature. The 
charm of the simplest flower is lost when used in endless repe- 
tition. Choose simple designs which are well spaced. 

Stout people should avoid conspicuous stripes or borders, 
plaids, bold designs,- large dots. 

Light shoes should not be worn with dark dresses unless you 
wish to draw attention to your feet. 

221 



C COLOK. 

Color Harmonies: 

1. Complementary The colors opposite each other on the 
color chart emphasize the intensity of the other. To make them 
into a harmony use one in a small space and the other in the 
largest space. The small space may be bright, if the large 
space has its opposite very dull. 

2. Dominant Use two or more values of one hue such as 
light grey-green and dark grey-green. 

3. Analogous Use hues in which one color plays through 
all. Examples: Yellow-green, green, blue-green. Warm 
colors are the flame colors: * Red, yellow, orange. Cool colors 
are blue, purple, green. 

Types and Colors: 

Stout people should avoid brilliant colors. 

Thin people should wear warm colors. 

Every costume should have a touch of warm color some- 
where. 

HAIR. 

Yellow and red haired people are warm haired. 

Black and grey are cool. 

Therefore to bring out the hair wear some contrasting color 

If a black haired person wears black only the quality of 
blackness is felt. 

Avoid brown if you have grey hair. But do wear* warm 
colors. 

COMPLEXION. 

Sallow skin 

Avoid white and black and green. Sometimes coral, helio- 
trope or turquoise. 

Wear rich cream or buff. 

222 



Pale skin 

Avoid too strong colors. 

Brunette with flushed cheeks may wear strong colors. 

BYES. 

Repeat the color of the eyes somewhere on the costume. 
Accessories 

Avoid noisy hair ornaments or bracelets, etc., especially 
when at work. 

Powder simplifies the planes of the face and emphasizes the 
main features. 

Therefore do not use too much on the nose. It may look like 
a beacon light. 

Paint is unnecessary if you are healthy. We do not dress 
to appear before footlights. 

Shoes should be chosen for comfort and health. 
G. Stories. 

Story-telling if well done will always have its appeal for an 
adolescent girl. It is often possible for an inexperienced story- 
teller to half read and half tell a good story. A successful 
method of interesting girls in reading worth-while books is to 
tell part of the story stopping at a most exciting point and 
say quite casually that the rest is to be found in "this book" 
and display the book. See Section V, Chapter V, page 392, on 
Story Telling. 

Any good story found in a magazine or book form can be 
retold in an interesting way. Consult local librarian for lists of 
stories and new books in demand by girls. 

-Story-telling may often take the form of a "book review"* 
of some popular book. The main facts of the story can be told 
in an interesting way and sometimes a few girls can present a 
few scenes in a dramatic "skit." Two books which have proved 
successful for such reviewers are: 

Slippy MciGee Marie Conway Oemler. 

Shavings Joseph Miller. 

223 



Ill Service. 

According to the Commission reports of the girls, service 
should be along two lines: 

A Social service training. 

B Concrete expression. 

A. Social Service Training. 

1. Informational meetings including discussion on such sub- 
jects as: 

(a) Eed Cross. 

(b) Americanization. 

(c) Juvenile court work. 

(d) World fellowship. 

(e) Industrial Standards of the Y. W. C. A. 

(f ) Eight-hour day. 

(g) Minimum wage, 
(h) Health insurance. 

(i) Child labor laws (federal and state), 
(j) Mother's pension funds. 

B. Concrete expression of service to be shown. 

1. Through the group by: 

(a) Christmas parties for children. 

(b) Making scrap-books for children's wards in hos- 
pitals. 

(c) Making .toys for hospitals, homes, day nurseries, 

(d) Adopting a child and doing all possible for it. 

(e) Adopting a family meaning by this that the Girl 
Reserves will act as friendly visitors, helping as 
much as possible and putting the family in touch 
with the right social agencies. 

2. Through each individual in the group (i. e., a personal 
responsibility) by: 

(a) -Giving at least one day's salary each year to a 
Y. W. C. A. secretary in some foreign country (pre- 
224 



ferably the one the local Association is helping to 
support). 

(b) Knowing and urging- other Girl Reserves to know 
the child labor law of the states. 

(c) Using influence to keep girls in school and to report 
violations of child labor law to the girls' work sec- 
retary. 

(d) Knowing something of mother's pension funds and 
other legislation affecting women and children. 

(These last three are services of the finest kind 
because it is only by women and girls everywhere 
understanding conditions that laws can be effec- 
tively made and kept. Girl Reserves are not too 
young to help all fellow-workers.) 

(e) "Every Girl Reserve being a real Girl Reserve 365 days 
days of the year at work, at "home, and at play." 

IV Spirit. 

Spirit and Service go hand in hand and the recommendation 
of a group of Girl Reserves in one section of our country that 
"every Girl Reserve be a real Girl Reserve for 365 days of the 
year at work, at home and at play" is the basis of the first two 
suggestions for making the spirit of all program work for 
younger girls in business and industry the vital factor the girls 
want it to be. They recognize that the spirit side of the pro- 
gram must permeate it as a whole not merely by a ten- 
minute moral talk nor by singing hymns, nor by reading from 
the Bible does real spirit creep into a program. It must be 
present in everything and must be related in a concrete way to 
their work their home life and their play. 

A wise man in his will once "bequeathed to children the yel- 
low shores of creeks and the golden sands beneath the waters 
thereof, and the dragon flies that skim the surface of said 
waters, and the odors of the willows that dip into said waters, 

225 



and the wMte clouds that float high over the giant trees. " It 
is this spirit of the great out-doors of God which is needed in a 
program. It is this feeling of the joyousness of living in a 
world which, even if it does not offer many chances to look upon 
the "yellow shores of creeks" and their golden sands, is the 
world of God. He has put people in it to help make it as He 
wants it to be. They are here because they have work to do for 
God in all of their daily living 1 . This is the spirit which will 
make a Girl Eeserve the kind of a girl who can live as a Chris- 
tian at her work and in her home and in her community. 

All of the following suggestions are made with this thought 
of helping the girl to see the connection between certain great 
principles of Christian living which have come out of the expe- 
rience of the past and her own little evefy-day problems. 

(A) Interpret by means of stories (Bible and other stories), 
by poems, talks, discussions, dramatic presentation, the 
underlying meaning of the Girl Reserve Code. This 
code is a girl's expression of the spirit of the Y. W. 0. 
A., and can mean much to a girl as she tries, to live her 
life to the fullest. 

As a Girl Reserve I will be: 
Gracious in manner, 
Impartial in judgment, 
R eady for service, 
L oyal to friends, 
R eaching toward the best, 
E arnest in purpose, 
S eeing the beautiful, 
E ager for knowledge, 
R everent to God, 
Victorious over self, 
Ever dependable, 
S incere at all times 

226 



These codes are printed in an attractive way on small cards 
and may be obtained, free of charge, one for each Girl Re- 
serve, by writing to the Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. They are given only 
when the group of girls is registered at National headquarters. 
(See page 46 for an interpretation of the Code, and page 690 
for a Symbolic Interpretation.) 

(B) Interpret, in the same concrete way, the following 
Business and Industrial 'Code, written by the girls 
themselves. This also might be printed in an attrac- 
tive form by a local Association if it seems a good 
plan and given to each girl: 

1. Be square and always on the job. 

2. Do our work cheerfully (when rush orders come, 
don't grumble but smile and work). 

3. Give our employer the best that is in us for the 
full time we work. 

4. Try to use better language ourselves and help 
others to do the same. 

5. Be good cooperators or team-workers. Do our 
share in keeping the place in which we work 
attractive. This means work-room, lockers, and 
rest rooms. 

6. Do all our work in the spirit of a Girl Reserve, 
which is "to find and give the best.'* 

(C) Stories, poems, music used in connection with any part 
of the whole program or as a special feature can 
always mean much. 

(D) Beautiful initiation services or opening ceremonials 
all help to awaken a sense of the beautiful and a feel- 
ing of worship. If a prayer is used at the closing of 
any meeting or as part of a ceremonial, the following 
are suggested. It is often a good plan to have the 

227 



Girl Reserve group adopt a prayer which belongs to 
them as a group and one they use whenever they want 
to. Either of these or one written by the girls them- 
selves might serve this purpose: 

A Girl Reserve Prayer. 

"The day returns and brings us the petty round of irritating 
concerns and duties Help us to perform them with laughter 
and kind faces let cheerfulness abound with industry. Give us 
to go blithely on our business all this day, bring us to our 
resting beds weary and content and undishonored, and grant us 
in the end the gift of sleep."* Robert Louis Stevenson. 

"Grant, oh Lord, that what we say with our lips, 
We may believe in our hearts 
And practice in our lives." 

The following Initiation Service is suggested as a possible 
one: 

Initiation Service. 

PRODUCING NOTES. 

Have soft music played while new members enter the room 
and take their places in triangular formation (chairs previously 
placed) in front of long table. 

After all the new members are seated, the three committee 
chairmen, or club officers enter and take their places behind the 
table on which are three lighted candles. The central candle is 
the largest and behind it is placed a large blue triangle made of 
pasteboard or ribbon. This candle symbolizes spirit the key- 
note of the Girl Reserve work. The other two smaller candles 
are identical in size and symbolize Knowledge and Health. 
Choose a girl with a musical voice that carries well. A voice 



* From "Prayers Written at Vailima" ; copyright 1898, 1904, by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. By permission of the publishers. 

228 



is heard from behind screen, placed at the front; it recites the 
following 1 . 



v 




"King's Daughter? 

Wouldst thou be all fair, 

With out within 

Peerless and beautiful, 

A very queen? 

Thou must begin 

And build with care 

A Holy place. 

Watching ever, praying" ever, 

Keep it fragrant, sweet and clean. 

So, by God's grace, it be fit place 

His 'Christ shall enter and shall dwell therein. 

Thy temple face is chiseled from within." 
Solo (by a girl). 
President or Scout chairman rises and reads, or repeats: 

"We would be true for there are those who trust us. 



229 



We would be pure for there are those who care. 

We would be strong for there is much to suffer. 

We would be brave for there is much to bear, 

We would be friend to all, the foe, the friendless, 

We would be giving and forget the gift, 

We would be humble for we know our weakness^ 

We would look up, and laugh, and love, and lift," 
She continues: "This group of Girl Reserves proposes to 
carry out this spirit and asks if you wish to join and help them ? 
New members: We do. 

Scout chairman or president: Will you repeat with me the 
slogan of the Girl Reserves ? 

Slogan: "To face life squarely." 
Purpose: "To find and give the best." 
Code: As a Girl Reserve, I will be 

Gracious in manner, 

Impartial in judgment, 

Ready for service, 

Loyal to friends, 

Reaching toward the best, 

Earnest in purpose, 

Seeing the beautiful, 

Eager for knowledge, 

Reverent to God, 

Victorious over self, 

Ever dependable, 

Sincere at all times, 

I will do my best to honor God, my country, and my com- 
munity, to help other girls, and to be at all times a loyal, true 
member of the Girl Reserves. 

President: On behalf of all Girl Reserves I welcome you 
into membership and as a symbol of our club life ask that you 
light your membership candle from this our symbol of spirit, 
In so lighting- your candle you are accepting the trust of all 

230 



Girl Reserves, the trust of a healthy body, an alert mind, a 
willingness to serve, a desire to be a Christian citizen. 

(Soft music while new members file before table and light 
candles all resume places in triangle as before.) 

President: We are standing in the form of a triangle, ^which 
symbolizes the three-fold purpose of our club in its care for 
the body, mind and spirit. A three-fold cord is one which is 
not easily broken^ and as we bind ourselves together let us 
pledge to give our best in the spirit of usefulness, friendship 
and service. 

(All remain standing while the voice from behind the 
screen reads ) : "Everywhere, always, in sunshine, in shadow, 
in joy, in disappointment, in success, in defeat, we, the Girl 
Reserves of America, follow the gleam. If once we fall we rise 
to face the light; if once we fail, we fight again to win; we 
cannot be lonely we stand together. .From North to farthest 
South, from East to distant West, ours is the surest quest. We 
know the One we follow." 

(Same voice alone, or the entire group if song has been 
learned previously, sing): 

Music "O Beautiful for Spacious Skies.** 

Oh Spirit Voice that leads us forth 

Along the great highways; 
Oh Beacon Light that guides our course 

From darkness into day. 
Association Spirit! Our voices rise to say 

We pledge our loyalty 
To the Y. W. C. A. 
0, beautiful for Pilgrim feet 

The road thy light reveals. 
We tread the path with footsteps fleet; 

What days of- joy it yields. 
Our candles lighted at thy torch, 

To others send its ray, 
And beckon them to follow us, 

Upon the shining way. 

231 " i ". 



Oh Master of the Spirit Throng 

That on this road have trod, 
We pray this light may never fail 

To point the path to God. 
And may our tiny candles 

Be lifted high alway, 
And so all girlhood guide to Thee, 
The Life, the Truth, the Way." 

Elizabeth Woodson, Kansas City, Missouri. 
(Either of the prayers given above may be inserted at any 
part of the service which seems best to the adviser.) 

(E). Bible Stones and Bible Games. 

Sometimes a group of girls is quite at a loss to know what is 
meant by certain Bibical references to characters or happenings. 
Their home life has never given them the necessary background. 
For this reason it is a good plan to have simple Bible stories 
told as often as possible. Dramatization of Bible stories is a 
most effective way of teaching many girls the real meaning 
and significance of principles involved. This can be done simply 
and without great effort. (See Section V, Chapter I, page 295, 
on Religious Education.) Bible games offer a splendid chance 
at odd moments for fun and education. It is often possible when 
on a hike to play a Bible game or tell a Bible story. Why not 
just as well as some other? The following games are given 
as suggestive ones: 

Bible -Games. 
I. Bible Mathematics 

Multiply the number of letters in the name of Esther's 
uncle by the number of letters in the name of Ruth's 
mother-in-law and add the number of letters in the name 
of Isaac's bride and divide by the number of letters in 
the name of Ruth's sister-in-law. (9-2/5) 

Divide the number of books in the New Testament by 

232 



the number of letters in the name of the king who held 
the Israelites as slaves in Egypt and add the number 
of letters in the name of the queen whom Esther suc- 
ceeded. (9-8/7) 

II. Bible Anagrams 

Using the letters of the books of the Bible. The letters 
say for two books, are mixed together and put in one 
envelope and the letters of two other books in another 
envelope. The point of the 'games is to see which team 
discovers the names first. 

III. Variation of II 

Have in envelopes slips of cardboard or paper on which 
are names of Bible books and on separate slips names 
of events or characters belonging in these books. Give 
so many minutes to see which girl or team of girls 
can link up the events with books. 
Example: 

Events or Characters 
Den of Lions 
Flood 

Ten Commandments 
Beatitudes 
The Lord is my Shepherd. 

Books 

Matthew 

Psalms 

Genesis 

Exodus 

Daniel 

IV. Recognition 

Given list as suggested, place correct name and event 

together. 
Ark 
Sling shot 

233 



Tables of stone 

Pillar of salt 

Coat of many colors 

Ladder of Angels 

An army of 300 

First murder 

A sold birthright 

A covenant of friendship 

Noah 

David 

Moses 

Lot's wife 

Joseph 

Jacob 

Gideon 

Cain and Abel 

Jacob and Esau 

David and Jonathan 

V, Conclusions 

Given the beginning of a Bible verse, have it finished 
by girls. Can be played as relay or circle game. 

"Blessed are the pure in heart for they " 

"Come unto me all ye that " 

"For God so loved the world that : " 

VL Bird, Beast and Fish translated into a Bible game can 
be made interesting for a little while. Instead of saying: 
Fish when pointing to a girl, say "Bible Character D," 
and the girl will respond before ten is counted with the 
name of a Bible character beginning with D, for example 
Deborah. It would be wise for the adviser to make a 
list of the most common letters leaving out, of course, 
F and perhaps a few others. 
VII. I Went to the Holy Land 

This played to the "tune" of "I packed my grandmother's 

234 



trunk" is always fun, for it keeps our minds working. 

For example: 

I went to the Holy Land and I visited Schechem 
Mr. Arrarat Beersheba -Nazareth Bethlehem 
Jerusalem, etc. 
An assignment might be made the previous week to 

acquaint oneself with twenty Bible cities. It would not 

be necessary to explain the use to be made of this 

knowledge. 

VIII. Relay games using Bible questions 

Who was the strongest man in the Bible? 
How long did it rain during the flood, etc.? 

(F) Short Bible Classes 

"Bible classes which 'begin with life and go back through 
to the Bible' are what we want." These are the words of the 
girls themselves and give the key to a successful Bible class. 
First the girls must want a "class," second, it must be concrete 
related to the 20th century; third, it must be short; fourth, 
it must be conducted by the discus sional method not the 
lecture method. 

The following material for younger girls with necessary 
adaptations may prove suggestive: 

My Friendship with Jesus Christ. 

Studies in Knowing Jesus Christ. 

Christian Citizenship for Girls. 

Ten Commandments in the 20th Century. 
Obtained from the Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City. 

(G) Definite discussions on such subjects as 

1. Is my work a joy or a trial ? Do I hate it or love it ? 

2. What is the purpose of our Girl Eeserve group? 
Take stock and see if we are living up to our purpose. 



These games have "been supplied by Irene Riley, Girls* Work Secretary, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

235 



(H) The poster method previously described has been used 
effectively by taking "Triangles for Girl Eeserves" and 
illustrating them in the following way: In the center of 
a large blue triangle place the head of a girl who is as 
attractive as possible the type of girl every girl wants 
to be. Underneath the triangle place the word Spirit or 
Myself or Health or whatever the triangle may be symbol- 
izing. If the triangle symbolizing Spirit mark the three 
Sides Life, Love, Laugh; if Myself, mark them, Words, 
Thoughts, Actions; if Health, Play, Work, Sleep (see 
illustrations). A poster on which is the triangle of Spirit 
may have something like the following below the triangle 
and printed in as attractive way as possible: 

"Why are there so many songs written about Smiles ? 
How does being grouchy affect others? Am I increasing 
my circle of friends by being friendly? Is my spirit 
loving, cheerful, and helpful?" 

Under the triangle, Myself might be printed some- 
thing like the following: 

"If I could hear my conversations repeated at the 
end of the day, would it make any difference in what I 
say? Are my thoughts kind and true before I speak of 
another? Have I the courage to say what I know is 
true? Which are louder, actions or words?" 

On the third poster which might have on it the 
triangle of Health could be painted: 

"How does the amount of sleep I have affect my 
work? Is it easy to be cheerful when I have a head- 
ache. Are many illnessnes caused by one's own careless- 
ness? What responsibilities to others does one have for 
keeping well?" 

A series of posters of this kind, each bearing in the 
triangle a different girPs head all as attractive as possi- 

236 



ble can be placed one at a time In a center or a club 
room or sometimes in the girl's place of work. They will 
cause discussion and often have far-reaching results. 

WEE WISPS OF WISDOM FOR GIRL RESERVES. 

(Some of which it might be well to commit to memory some 
might be placed on the bulletin boards others might be used 
as the basis for discussions some of which might help to 
make concrete the Girl Reserve Code and the Business and 
Industrial -Code.) 

"Be a booster! Use a horn instead of a hammer. Things 
can't always be as you wish. Everyone should be pleased. The 
largest freedom to all comes when each member does her part 
fully in respecting the rights and privileges of others." 

"Be a good cooperator. Don't make your club suffer through 
failure to do your part. If you have a complaint or a sugges- 
tion for the good of the club, submit it in writing, properly 
signed, to the S. 0. S." 

"Don't be too neighborly with your friend's clothing and 
toilet articles she may need them." 

"A pound of ideals is worth a ton of ideas." 

"A pound of inspiration is worth a ton of information." 

"Woman is the custodian of the ideals of life." 

Who Coes There? 

The Boston Chamber of Commerce Warns the Public. 
I am more powerful than the combined armies of the world. 
I have destroyed more men than all the wars of the world. 
I am more deadly than bullets and I have wrecked more 

homes than the deadliest of siege guns. 
I steal in the United States alone over $300,000,000 each 

year. 
I spare no one, and I find my victims among the rich and 

poor; the young and old, the strong and the weak. 

Widows and orphans know me. 

237 



I loom up to sucli proportions that I cast my shadow over 

every field of labor from the turning of the grindstone 

to the moving of every railroad train. 
I massacre thousands upon thousands of wage-earners in a 

year. 
I lurk in unseen places and do most of my work silently. 

You are warned against me, but you heed not. 
I am relentless! I am everywhere in the home, on the 
streets, in the factory, at railroad crossings and on 
the sea. 
I bring sickness, degradation, death. And yet few seek to 

avoid me. 

I destroy, crush, maim, take all, and give nothing. 
I am your worst enemy. 
I am CARELESSNESS! 

(Reprinted through the courtesy of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce.) 

The Builder. 

By Gerrit A. Beneker. 
I am the Builder; on my throne 
Of iron and wood and steel and stone, 
I stand the Builder, but not alone 
In God's own image, from God's own plan 
From common clay, He built Me, Man. 
From conimon clay He raised the ban 
That I might live but not alone. 

From God's own earth I scoop the ore, 
The coal I mine, the rock I bore, 
The lightning's flash from the air I store; 
This clay fuse I with fire to mock 
The Ancient Gods; their temples rock, 
Crash back to earth; tongues interlock 
To build no Babel as of yore. 

238 



Where once a hillock was but small, 
I build the city towering tall, 
The peasant's hut, the marble hall; 
With men from many a foreign strand, 
I build with heart and soul and hand 
America the Promised Land! 
Build all for each build each for all. 

(Reprinted by consent of the author and the courtesy of 
the Red Cross Magazine.) 

"To-day is your day and mine, the day in which we play our 
part. What our part may signify in the great whole, 'we may 
not understand. But we are here to play it, and now is our time. 
This we know it is a part of action, it is a part of love. Let 
us express love in terms of human helpfulness." 



Your Place. 

"Is your place a small place? 
Tend it with care! 
He set you there. 

Is your place a large place? 
Guard it with care! 
He set you there. 

What'er your place, it is 
Not yours alone, but His 
Who set you there." 



"If you your- lips would keep from slips 
Five things observe with care 
Of whom you speak, to whom you speak, 
And how, and when, and where." 

239 



Special Suggestions for Recreation to meet the needs of 
unorganized groups of girls or where informal organization 
brings girls into groups the personnel of which is apt to 

change. 

(1) Noon Hour. 

Recreation at a center at the Association building at 
place of work itself, or at a continuation school. 

The following: suggestions for noon activities, aside from 
games, have proven successful: 

1. Whistling solos. 

2. Pantomime stunts. 

Inviting boys, friends of the girls at the store, to 
sing, whistle or do some "stunt." 

3. Beauty demonstration, hair dressing. 

4. Story telling. 

5. Handicraft day. 

6. Interpretive dancing. 

7. Roller skating. 

8. Fortune telling. 

9. Songs 

10. Short musical "skits." 

(2) During school hours at the Y. W. C. A. or the continuation 

school. 

(3) At night. 
Center. 
Association building 

(a) Group supper and informal club activities. In many 
places a supper meeting is the only opportunity 
offered for meeting the girls as a group. If this is 
the case, it is extremely important to make the most 
of this time. Two essentials of a successful club 
supper meeting are wholesome, appetizing hot food 

240 



and a well planned activity which may happen at 
the supper table. 

The following 1 suggestions for menus are offered 
because they have proven to be what girls like and 
because they are simple and inexpensive to prepare. 
Four things to remember in preparing club suppers 
are: 
^1. The younger girl in business and industry is just 

like any other girl and likes food prepared in 

clever, appetizing ways. 

2. Buy good bread and butter. The girls eat a great 
deal of it and it should never be poor in quality. 

3. Always serve rolls hot. If it is impossible to 
serve them hot serve plain bread. Girls do not 
like cold rolls. 

4. Girls do not like plain lettuce salad. 

In any good cook books may be found detailed direc- 
tions for any of the following: 
Cheese Fondu. 

Use stale bread with dressing of cheese, eggs and 
milk similar to custard but unsweetened. Bake in oven; 
serve hot. 
Peanut Butter Soup. 

Heat milk but do not boil. Use 1 tablespoon of 
peanut butter to one pint of milk. Dissolve peanut but- 
ter in small amount of milk. Add when milk is heated. 
Salt to taste. 
Stuffed Rolls. 

Split finger or French rolls and fill with chopped meat 
prepared in brown gravy. Toast in oven. 'Serve with 
plenty of gravy. 
Baked Potatoes with Cheese. 

Cut potato when baked in half. Spread with grated 
cheese, pepper and salt and paprika. Place in oven until 
cheese is melted. 

241 



Double Decker Hash. 

Put hash (well cooked) into large baking pans; cover 
with two-inch layer of mashed potato. Brown in oven. 
Cut carefully and serve. 
Creamed Chipped Beef. 

Serve with cheese crackers. Cover large size soda 
crackers with grated cheese. Place in oven to brown. 
Potato Soup. 
Buttered Beets. 
Spaghetti and Cheese. 
Liberty Noodles. 

Fry hamburger steaks until crisp and brown. Oook 
egg noodles in usual way. Add hamburger, bits of green 
pepper and parsely. Finish in oven. (This is an Inex- 
pensive hot dish, popular with girls. Other meats could 
be used in same way.) 
Chocolate Blanc Mange. 

Ambrosia. 

Cut up fruit. Sprinkle with cocoanut. 

Apple Sauce. 

Serve with hot rolls or ginger bread. 

Apple Porcupine. 

See any recipe book for clarified or candied apples. 
Use red cinnamon candy to color syrup. Stick a, few 
almonds and cloves on top of each apple when cooked. 
Serve if possible with tiny bit of whipped cream. 
Hot Sandwiches. 

Three layers of toast, one layer of blackberry jam 
or tart jelly, other layer of peanut butter. 
Punch 1QQ persons. 

Small can of tea. Pour on boiling water and set 10 
minutes. Sweeten tea to taste. Juice of 2 dozen lemons. 
Juice of 1 dozen oranges; 1 can sliced pineapple 
(chopped) ; 1 bottle maraschino cherries. Put on ice, 

242 



The following suggestions for activities with a real 
point to them have proved successful at the table: 

1. Have the table set incorrectly. Before eating* each 
girl must help set it correctly. Decide on the num- 
ber of points for each article placed correctly. Frizes 
may be awarded as jokes. 

2. Place at each plate a funny rhyme; illustrating the 
right use of a cup, a knife, etc. 

3. Typewrite the following story on slips of paper in the 
sections indicated by the spaces. Place one section 
at each plate and have each girl read her section. 
Finally, the entire story will be assembled as it 
should be. This might be followed by a discussion on 
service. 

Said Old Gentleman Gay, "On a Thanksgiving Day, 
If you want a good time, then give something away." 
So he sent a fat turkey to Shoemaker Price. 
And the shoemaker said, "What a big bird, how nice! 
And since such good dinner's before me, I ought 
To give Widow Lee the small chicken I bought." 

"This fine chicken, oh see!" said the pleased Widow Lee, 
"And the kindness that sent it, how precious to me. 
I would like to make somebody as happy as I, 
I'll give Washwoman Biddy niy big pumpkin pie." 
"And oh, sure," Biddy said, "it's the queen of all pies, 
Just to look at its yellow face gladdens my eyes. 
Now it's my turn, I think, and a sweet ginger-cake 
For the motherless Finnigan children I'll make." 
Said the Finnigan children, Rosy, Denny and Hugh, 
"It smells sweet of spice, and well carry a slice 

To little lame Jake, who has nothing that's nice." 

<f Oh, I thank you, and thank you/' said little lame Jake, 

243 



"Oh what a beautiful, beautiful, beautiful cake. 
And oh, such a big slice, I will save all the crumbs 
And give some to each little sparrow that comes. 
And the sparrows they twittered, as if they would say, 
Like old Gentleman Gay, "On a Thanksgiving: Day 
If you want a good time, just give something away." 

4. Tell stories. 

5. In center of table place a paper pie with ribbons 
running to each place. Pull ribbons, and at end of the 
ribbon is a recipe for the hot dish used that night. 

6. Business meeting. 

Have a printed or typewritten outline at each girl's 
place with little slogan on it as "a friend in need/' 
"a good citizen." Business can be transacted promptly 
and short discussion on the slogan follow. 

7. Let every girl try to be a "cheerful cherub" for ten 
minutes and write a "cheerful cherub carol." 

8. Discuss the movies running in the community for that 
week. Let one girl give a resume of one or more of 
the plots. 

9. All kinds of seasonal parties, such as Valentine, Hal- 
lowe'en parties. 

10. Rainbow suppers. 

Have decorations in colors of rainbow with little 
paper rainbows pasted on each tumbler. Talk on 
color and color combinations, becoming and unbe- 
coming colors to blondes and brunettes. 

11, Birthday suppers. 

(b) Formal or informal club meetings. 

(4) On Sundays. 

Indoor activities at the Association building or the Center 
and outdoor activities, such as hikes, sunset vesper service, out- 
door sings. 

244 



In some communities it does not seem wise to try to hold 
meetings of these younger girls at night. Before deciding 
that an evening is impossible it is well to determine whether 
or not the girls are in the habit of going- to night "movies" or 
of being on the streets. The objections, distance and travel, 
are sometimes relieved through the use of club rooms in a 
neighborhood where the girls live. Adequate places for recrea- 
tion and club work can often be found if one can make use of 
o,hurch basements, unoccupied stores, school community centers. 
A little thought and ingenuity and often very little expense 
can make these places attractice. 

In some places girls under eighteen go to evening schools 
and are released about nine or nine-thirty all ready for a good 
time. Often they linger on the streets and make chance 
acquaintances. Any center or Association building should make 
provision to meet this situation through a wholesome recreation 
program or by whatever means seems possible. 

PROGRAM SUGGESTIONS FOR WORK WITH YOUNGER BUSINESS 
COLLEGE GIRLS 

Any program for younger business college girls will neces- 
sarily center around such general interests as the following: 

1. Social activities, including men and girl parties. 

2. Open forums, giving an opportunity for discussion on 
such subjects as social standards and business ethics. 

3. Health education, worked out through actual gymna- 

sium classes, lectures and discussions, physical exami- 
nations and purposeful receation. 

4. Service. 

Social Activities. 

Because of the similarity in age-grouping and the school 
environment, the activities (social) desired by these younger 
business college girls are very similar to those craved and 
enjoyed by the high school girls in their junior and senior years. 

245 



The committee in charge of work with this group must remem- 
ber that the monotony and routine of the average business 
college work is much greater than that of the class work of 
r. high school, that many of the girls are away from home, and 
that they are usually working intensely so that they may cover 
a certain amount of ground in a given period of time; moreover 
most high schools are more completely organized, so far as 
dubs are concerned, than are most business colleges. The 
average business college in fact provides for little except the 
actual business training. Little responsibility is felt for ^the 
way the girl may spend her time or the way she may be living. 
Therefore there is often a very real need among a large number 
of the girls for some/ kind of normal social activity. There 
is often, also, real need for advice and help as to where to live 
and as to what opportunities are possible for more advanced 
study. The recognized business and professional women of 
the community are the logical persons to whom the girls' work 
secretary can turn for such cooperation. 

Many program suggestions, which may be adapted to the 
needs of any community, are to be found in the suggested pro- 
grams for junior high school girls and for high school clubs, 
pages 159, ,169; also in the following sources: 

"Community Service Programs and Activities for Younger 
Girls." 

"Ice-Breakers" by Edna Geister. Secure pamphlets and 
book from the Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. 

Social activities for this group will be more successful if 
clever devices in the way of posters, tickets of admission, and 
favors, are used. For instance, a circus is always a popular 
"stunt." Tickets in the shape of elephants can be easily made 
from cardboard. On them can be typed or printed some short 
clever rhyme describing the circus. 

Very often social activities involve other people than are 
in the club itself ; for instance, the club might vote to entertain 

246 



a group of children from some neighborhood settlement; for 
such an occasion, a shoe could be cut from colored board or 
heavy paper, and on it written something like the following: 
"There was an old woman who lived in a shoe, 
She had so many children she didn't know what to do, 
If you will come on Saturday and amuse them awhile. 
She will promise not to treat you in the usual style. 

On the other side of the shoe, could be written: 
Come representing the following Mother Goose rhyme 
(Give here the name of desired representation.) 

Open Forums. 

These should be just as far as possible in the hands of the 
girls themselves, and might take place once a month or a<3 
often as the girls desire, 

v 
Suggested Topics. 

1. Business life as a training for marriage. 

Is there any relation between business training and 
married life? 

Is one in any sense a preparation for the other? 
What specific things about business might help a girl 
after she is married? 

2. The real place of the business girl to-day in American 

life. 

What opportunities are open to girls to-day in the 
business world? 

How do the numbers of women in business to-day 
compare with the figures for fifty years ago. 
What has brought about the change? 
What are women doing to meet this increased oppor- 
tunity? 

3. Business girls the world around. 

China 

247 



India 

Japan 

South America 

4. What lies behind the pay envelope? 

Have health, skill, promptness, loyalty to work, dress 
and manners anything to do with this ? 

For additional material to be used in discussion, see Section 
IV, Chapter 2, pages 215-224. 

Health Education. 

Indoor: A physical examination for every girl to be followed 
by the individual exercise necessary gymnasium classes, games 
which develop group and team spirit, indoor track meets, swim- 
ming, talks and demonstration of first aid, footwear, posture, 
and healthful clothing, proper food, ventilation and sanitation. 

Outdoor: Hiking, skating, swimming, boating, field meets, 
trailing, camping (including outdoor cookery), volley-ball and 
tennis. 

At the beginning of the club year, all club members should 
learn through a talk, a discussion, a demonstration or an exhibit, 
that "health" is no longer to be considered a luxury but a "social 
responsibility," and that the health of the individual bears 
directly upon that of the home, school and community. 

Every club should make a part of its work an interpretation 
to the business college and the community the necessity for 
health education standards, with particular emphasis on a 
physical examination for every girl, to be followed by individual 
exercises for the formation of health habits if necessary. 

The actual working out of all these elements must be in 
the hands of the physical or health education departments of 
the local Association, where there are such. Associations that 
have no department may obtain help from the Bureau of Social 
Education, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

See Chapter 2, Section V, page 316, Health Education and 
Recreation. 

248 



Service. 

Some sort of service activity is essential to the life of any 
club. Just what this activity should be must be determined by 
local conditions. It is quite possible that the best service 
activity for such "a group might be in the business college itself, 
helping to create a spirit of friendliness and better standards 
of scholarship; or it is quite conceivable that the Younger Busi- 
ness iCollege girls could cooperate with the Business and Pro- 
fessional Women's Club in service work. There are always 
definite and seasonal kinds of service, such as Thanksgiving and 
Christmas parties, the preparation of baskets for needy families, 
and the entertainment of groups of children from orphans 7 
homes, at settlement houses, or from family groups, names of 
which have been secured through the Associated Charities Or- 
ganization of the city or town. 

Noon Recreation for Business College Girls. 

In some communities it is possible to have an informal 
recreation program, at the Association or at some center j this 
program is greatly enjoyed by the girls, and should include 
games, music, and a chance for fun and relaxation of all kinds. 
Sometimes a canteen service where there is need for this, has 
proved most successful. 

Program Resources. 

See the other sections of this Manual for helpful suggestions. 

Some of the best supplementary program material is to be 
found in current periodicals, newspapers, literature of all organ- 
izations dealing with young people. The following are sug- 
gestive: 

Magazines: iir fhe American." 

"The Red Cross Magazine." 
"The Ladies' Home Journal." 
"The Woman's Home Companion." 

249 



SUGGESTIONS BEGAEDING PROGRAM PLANNING FOE GIRLS WITH 
A FOREIGN BACKGROUND. 

Whatever use is made of the suggestions regarding the use 
of the honor list and whatever honors are substituted by the 
local International Institute secretary (with the approval of the 
local and field secretary for younger girls) it is essential that 
the following somewhat intangible values be conserved in the 
life of the foreign born girl; if they are not, a gap will be in- 
creased which in many instances already exists between her 
foreign parents and home and the girl (who is accepting rapidly 
American methods of living and standards of value). 

1. A respect for her parents' language attainments, and 
an ambition to speak her own tongue, as well as to 
command the English language. 

2. An understanding of the contribution of her country 
to the world's history, so -that it has become more of 
a place for youth's delight. 

3. An appreciation of what her country and people have 

given to make American greatness. 

4. An appreciation of the music of the people as a com- 
mon language in which to express universal ex- 
perience. 

5. A correct evaluation of handicraft as a creative gift. 

6. An understanding and enjoyment of folklore as the 
expression of a peoples' day dream. 

7. An appreciation of the arts of her country as gifts to 
America. 

8. Respect for old country customs, clothes, and food 
as being suitable -to the times and circumstances in 
which they are used. 

9. Continuation of the play spirit which is found in 
every European of whatever age; particularly is it 
important to . inculcate respect for this play spirit 
whenever it manifests itself in age. 

250 



10. An understanding- that folk dancing is the familiar 
Old World expression of group activity. 

11. Eespect for the "Holy Days," festivals and Saints' 
Days of the homelands as the spiritual expression of 
the gifts of the old world. 

Suggestions Regarding the Adaptation of the Honor List to 
Fit the General Needs of Foreign Born or Foreign Speak- 
ing Girls. 

Service : 

(a) In the home: 

1. Plan and cook a nationality meal. 

2. Plan and cook a simple American meal. 

3. Teach one or both parents to speak English. 

(b) In the community: 

1. Know and sing some of your national songs. 

2. Know and sing some standard American songs. 

3. 'Serve as an interpreter in a hospital where chil- 
dren are being cared for. 

4. Get one foreign speaking person to attend night 
school. 

5. Know the names and addresses of your neigh- 
borhood clinics to which people may be referred 
for help. 

6. Name the different street car routes and learn 
the places of interest in the city which are on 
these routes. 

7. Name the different parks in the city and tell 
something distinctive about each one. 

(c) To the country: 

1. Save one-half your spending money every month. 
Knowledge: 

1. Give some interesting facts at a club meeting about 
some woman leader in your native country or in the 
country from which your parents came. 

251 



2. Be able to give the history of your native flag and of 
the American flag (three points). 

3. Make a piece of handiwork popular in your native 
country. 

4. Learn one national folk dance. 

5. Learn a folk story of your nation. 

6. Know and be able to tell in a simple narrative form 
the outstanding points in the history of the nation 
from which you have come. 

7. Dress a doll in your national costume. 

8. Make for yourself a national costume, either from tis- 
sue paper or from some inexpensive material. 

9. Make one part of a costume as it is made in the old 
country: i. e., a cross stitch apron or a blouse for a 
Russian costume. 

10. Be able to converse in a language other than English. 

11. Be able to write in a language other than English. 

12. Be able to read a newspaper or a book in another lan- 
guage than English. 

13. Stay in school through the grammar grades. 

14. Learn a trade before going to work. 

15. Start a bank account or belong to a saving club. 

16. Name the agencies with which one would get in touch 
to rent a house. 

17. Tell the kind of a house you would expect to rent 
for* $ per month. 

Spirit: 

1. Learn a favorite poem in your native language. 

2. Make a friend of some girl of another nationality and 
learn some interesting things about this girPs nation 
and tell it at a club meeting. 

Por sustaining interest in honors: 

Make use of equilateral triangles cut out from paste- 
board, each side measuring eleven inches. These tri- 
angles are to be filled with stars for the honors won. 

252 



Use three f headings: Knowledge (Health becomes a part 
of this), Service, Spirit. Red indicates Knowledge, gold 
Service and silver Spirit. When the triangles are filled, 
they will hold forty stars, representing one chevron. 

Program Planning: 

One International Institute has found helpful the fol- 
lowing plan of linking the honors chosen by the method 
indicated above and the actual corps meetings: 

One month was chosen as a month when ideals would 
be emphasized in pictures, games and talks. Pictures il- 
lustrating the different ideals expressed in the Girl Re- 
serve Code were selected and hung or exhibited in differ- 
ent parts of the clubroom. The girls in the corps guessed 
which points the pictures illustrated. The girls also 
selected from magazines pictures which seemed to them 
to illustrate the Code. If accepted, these pictures were 
included in scrap books which were sent by the Girl He- 
serves to hospitals or to Ellis Island. At the following 
meeting of the corps, each girl spoke for a very brief 
time on one point of the Code which she had chosen to 
interpret. Questions which were of world fellowship sig- 
nificance (such as questions about China) were drawn by 
the corps members; these questions were to be answered 
at the next meeting. Such a meeting gave an opportunity 
for the corps members to come attired in Chinese cos- 
tumes and to see at the club room an exhibit of Chinese 
pictures and curios. The name of some great national 
character was given to each girl at the close of this 
meeting and their project work was to look up this char- 
acter and determine what made him great. "A Great 
Character Day" was the result of this research at the 
next corps meeting and special emphasis was laid upon 
the spiritual qualities in each life which had helped to 
make it great. Such a meeting prepared the way for a 
discussion on school ideals and reasons for continuing 

253 



one's education. The following month of work with this 
group was Vocational in its emphasis and included trips 
to high schools to observe equipment, and the advantages 
of high school education as presented by a high school 
girl. 

Honors for Blue Side of Triangle. 

(a) On time for a month 1 

(b) Leaving on time for a month 1 

(c) Present every meeting for a month or 
written excuse 2 

(d) Know Girl Reserve Song 1 

(e) Neatness of appearance 4 

(f) Faithfulness in committee work 1 

(g) Honors from other list 5 

(h) Taking part at each meeting 4 

(i) Reading book from Girl Reserve list 1 

Honors for Gold Side of Triangle. 

(a) Help straighten club room once during 
month 1 

(b) Five special acts of service at home during 
month 1 

(c) Five acts of service as a citizen 1 

(d) Honors earned from other list 5 

(e) Making ^crap book 10 

(f) Bulbs for Easter 2 

Honors for Silver Side of Triangle. 

(a) Give talk on some point in Girl Reserve 
Code 3 

(b) Write and discuss five ideals for a girl 3 

(c) Going to church each Sunday for a month. . 4 

(d) Learn a poem from the list 2 

(e) Name a great character and tell two rea- 
sons why he is great 2 

(f ) Share in question box on China 1 

(g) Honors from other list 5 

254 



These honors are listed here as suggestive of the way in 
which choices are made and as showing what type of substitu- 
tions have been made to fit the local need. 



HONOR SYSTEM 

The fact that the Girl Reserve plan is being used by so 
many different groups of girls in so many different parts of the 
country makes it impossible to have a list of honors which is 
exhaustive. A local worker is free to substitute honors which 
fit community needs, provided: 

(a) She makes every effort to make use of the honors 
on the prescribed lists. 

(b) She chooses new honors which will conform to the 
standards of the printed list. 

(c) She submits the new honors to the -Field Secretary 
for Younger Girls for her approval. 

A local worker is also free to give an award for each indi- 
vidual honor earned in case her group desires such tangible 
evidence of work completed. Suggested awards are small blue 
celluloid triangles or such triangles made from heavy paper. 
These triangles cannot be secured from headquarters but are 
left for a local leader to secure. 

In making use of the Girl Reserve honor system, an adviser 
will realize that certain honors have been included because of 
work with the girl from the open country and the girl from 
the foreign-speaking home. These honors, if not applicable to 
a certain group, may be omitted and others used. 

When honors are awarded it is well to make use of a simple 
ceremony, so that the occasion may be a more impressive one. 
The individual adviser may use her own judgment about this 
and may evolve the ceremonial best suited to her group. 

The Use of an Honor System. 

An honor system is a definite, tangible system for helping a 
girl to acquire information and knowledge of various kinds. It 

255 



is a plan of work that has been much used in connection with 
work for younger girls during these past few years. Under 
such a system one or more points or honors stand for a definite, 
worth-while accomplishment along a certain line such as Health, 
or Knowledge or Service or Spirit. 

Skill thus acquired usually means for the girl an advance 
in all-round womanhood. 

Girls between twelve and fourteen are usually interested 
in working for honors. If an adviser plans to make use of any 
system of honors, she should realize that they are a part of 
the program. 

The danger of an honor system might be that it could lay 
too much stress upon individual attainment. To effect such a 
result, it is well to encourage honors which have as their ob- 
ject the achievement of group standards as well as the individ- 
ual. Friendly rivalry between two or more groups of girls is 
valuable. 

An example of the way honors can be made a part of the 
program is found in the Girl Reserve program where honors 
have been grouped under the four headings Health Knowl- 
edge Service Spirit which are the fundamental principles of 
Girl Reserve work. 

Care should be taken that every girl does well the work of 
each honor. In many cases the decision as to whether or not 
this has been done must necessarily rest with the adviser. If 
her emphasis is placed upon the conscientious fulfillment of 
the requirements, the awarding of the honors will become a 
highly desirable attainment in the eyes of the girls. 

The satisfactory attainment of honors may be judged in some 
eases by an examining committee or Court of Awards. When 
the honors have been won in school, home or church, the 
teacher, mother, Sunday School teacher or pastor may certify 
this upon blanks such as the one printed here, which may be 
ordered from The Womans Press, COO Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. 

256 





Girl Reserve Honors 



Corps Company Division 

I have honestly completed honor number 



(Signed) Girl Reserve 

Approved by , 

Teacher, mother or pastor 

Adviser 



.Date 



The Honor System plan of the Girl Reserves gives to each 
adviser a means by which the influence of her corp organiza- 
tion extends out into the daily life of her girls. The winning of 
each honor means a definite worth-while accomplishment. The 
attainment of many honors means that the girl who has won 
them has advanced in her development of all-round womanhood. 

It is the adviser's privilege to arouse interest among her 
girls in the plan of the Honor System and to see that, after 
the first enthusiasm has passed, the corps members do not 
falter. The aim of every girl should be to do well the work 
necessary to win each honor. In many cases the decision as 
to whether this has been well done must necessarily rest with 
the adviser. If her emphasis is placed upon the conscientious 
fulfillment of the requirements, to be awarded an honor will 
become a highly desirable attainment in the eyes of the girls. 

257 



At all times, a careful record of honors won should be kept 
by the adviser. The following has been tested and found satis- 
factory. Secure a loose-leaf notebook nine by seven inches; 
divide each page so that it will serve as a record for two 
girls. Use left margin for a record of member's name, address, 
telephone number and grade in school or place of business. 

How to Award and Keep a Record of Honors. 

The four heading's Health, Knowledge, Service, and Spirit 
enable the adviser to record by numbers corresponding to the 
numbers in the Honor List the definite honors which each girl 
has won. The accompanying diagram shows how this record 
form may be used. (See page 294.) 

If an adviser is desirous of keeping a record which shows at 
a glance how many honors a Girl Reserve has won in a month, 
she may carry out her desire by dividing the five blocks of space 
near the left margin into two, four or six spaces. Extend these 
lines across the page at right angles to the lines forming the 
columns where the honors are recorded. Enter the names of 
the months. Instead of having one column for the total, widen 
this space near the right margin to carry as many sub-columns 
as there are months recorded. 

Corps Honors. 

Since one of the objects of Girl Reserve work is to create 
and foster group spirit and loyalty to one's corps or company, 
it is suggested that corps honors as well as individual tionors 
should be emphasized. Team spirit is not as strong among 
girls as it is among boys and yet it is one of the essentials of 
good citizenship on the part of girls. The following honors, 
which encourage team spirit, are only suggestive and local ad- 
visers may add to the list, awarding such insignia as are de- 
sired. These honors are competitive, and it is suggested that 
a chart be kept, on which are the names and ranks of the con- 
testing corps and companies: 

(a) Singing. 

258 



(b) Seventy-five per cent of all members present at all busi- 
ness meetings. 

(c) Competitive sports, such as tennis, basket ball, volley 
ball and field meets. 

One hundred and sixty points in the system of General 
Honors are necessary to become a First Reserve. One Honor 
Point is awarded for each activity, unless otherwise stated. 

Wherever an honor is marked by a tiny triangle it may be 
repeated, the points given for doing it counting toward the one 
hundred and sixty points required to be a First Reserve. Each 
time, however, the honor must be won by learning new games, 
or new recipes, etc. Points for honors 3, 27, 29, 30, under 
Health, for honor 73 under Service, for honor 7 under Spirit, 
may be counted for rank only twice. 

HONOR LIST 
1. Health physical fitness 
(a) Personal: 

(1) Open windows an sleeping room for six weeks during 
the winter months. 

(2) Get eight hours of sleep each night for six weeks, y 

(3) Take daily open-air exercises for at least one-half 
hour for six weeks, y 

(4) Avoid chewing gum for one month, y 

(5) Remove damp clothing promptly for two months. 
(6)- Brush teeth morning and evening for six weeks. 

(7) Drink at least three glasses of water every day be- 
tween meals for two months (two points). 

(8) Know the cause and prevention of fallen arches of 
the foot. 

(9) Do not miss school because of ill health for two 
months. 

(10) Go to bed not later than 9:30 for six weeks, except 
one night a week. 

259 



(11) Have your teeth cleaned at least twice eacli school 
year. 

(12) Learn the number of teeth in the first set, also the 
names of the permanent teeth. 

(13) Learn the special work of the molars, bicuspids, 
incisors. 

(14) Make a poster for the club, illustrating the care of 
the teeth. Show the kind of paste and toothbrush 
to be used. 

(15) Care of the hands: 

Wash your hands before every meal, for one 

month. 

Clean your nails once every day for one month. 

(16) Wear low-heeled, square- or round-toed shoes for 
school and business. 

(17) Take at least two warm baths weekly for two 
months. 

(18) Put on clean underclothes once each week for one 
month. 

(19) Wash hair at least once a month for three months. 
.(20) Do not bite nails for a month. 

(21) Place clothing in order on .a chair or foot of bed 
every night for one month. 

(22) Increase lung and chest capacity noticeably within 
three months. 

(b) First aid: 

(23) Name the different kinds of bandages. 

(24) State uses of and rules for applying. 

(25) Give symptoms of and treatment for six of the 
following: 

(a) Fainting (e) Strains 

(b) .Shock (f) Sprains 

(c) Sunstroke (g) Dislocation 

(d) Bruises (h) Fracture 

(i) Hemorrhages. 

260 



(26) Give the symptoms and treatment for five of the 
following : 

(a) Burns and scalds (d) Colic 

(b) Frost bite (e) Croup 

(c) Drowning (f) Earache. 

(c) Outdoor activities: 

(27) Walk thirty miles within ten days. A 

(28) Build a fire outdoors. 

(29) Skate on ice or roller skates twenty-five miles in 
ten days. A 

(30) Ride forty miles on a bicycle within ten days. A 

(31) Coast not less than fifteen hours in any one month. 

(32) Pass the athletic badge test of the National Play- 
ground Association. (Secure tests from the Na- 
tional Playground Association, 1 Madison Avenue, 
New York City.) 

(33) Swimming (one point for each of the following): 
Beginners : 

Swim ten strokes 
Learn to tread water 
First attempt to dive. 
Advanced swimmers: 

Swim twenty-five yards, any stroke 
Swim under water fifteen yards 
Do three standard dives in good form 
Swim fifty feet on your back. 

(34) Learn to paddle a canoe, understand how to back 
water and how to make a good landing. 

(35) Know and use the noiseless stroke of the Indian 
paddler. 

(36) Learn to row one hundred feet in good form, and 
make a good landing, either on a beach or at a pier. 

(37) Know how to sail a boat or steer a motor boat (five 
points). 

(38) Know how to reef a sail and cut a bow. 

261 



(39) Bait a fishhook on a fishing trip, and name three 
good kinds of bait. 

(40) Walk to and from school for four weeks, providing 
the distance is at least one-half mile. (Count twelve 
long blocks and sixteen short ones to a mile.) 

(41) Tennis (one point for each of the following): 
Beginners : 

Learn to serve good balls 

Learn the meaning of the following terms as used 

in tennis: "Service court," "base line," "alley," 

"lob," "cut," "love" 
Win a love-set. 

Experienced players (three points for each of the 
following) : 

Take part in a tournament 

Lay out a court 

Describe the relative values of grass, clay or 

cement courts 
Understand and use a backhand stroke, a cut, a 

volley. 

(42) Golf (three points for each of the following): 

Knowing the names and use of the various clubs 
Play a nine-hole course. 

Play an eighteen-hole course (two additional 
points). 

(43) Play twelve games of croquet (two points). 

(44) Play twelve games of tether ball (two points). 

(45) Know the different positions on a baseball diamond 
and how to keep score. 

(46) Play on an organized baseball team for four weeks. 

(d) Indoor activities: 

(47) Know any simple setting-up drill and do it regularly 
every morning for one month. \7 

(48) Know and play five team games, y 

(49) Know the commands of a simple military drill. \/ 

262 



(50) Know the alphabet and simple word combinations 
used in signaling, y 

(51) Learn to dance five standard folk dances. 

(52) Teach during two months the rules governing a team 
game and coach the members in team-play and 
spirit (two points). 

(e) Community health: 

(53) Swat twenty-five flies a day for -two weeks. 

(54) Help in some campaign to make the city clean. 

(55) Observe the following rules for one month (a, b and c 
each count one point) : v/ 

(a) Do not use public drinking cups 

(b) Do not throw fruit skins or paper on the 

streets 

(c) Observe safety-first rules in 

(1) Crossing the streets 

(2) Getting on and off cars 

(d) Do not use a public hand towel. 

(56) Do not cough or sneeze for two months without cov- 
ering your mouth. 

(57) Know what the work of the Children's Bureau is. 

(58) Know what the Board of Health is, and what its use 
is to the city. 

(59) Plan a model house for five or for ten people, show- 
ing the number of windows in each room. What is 
the amount of air necessary for each person in a 
room? (Five points for this.) 

II. Service 

(a) In the home: 

(1) Plan and cook a meal averaging 15 cents a person. 

(2) Know how to prepare the following (each counts 
one point): 

(a) Bake one kind of cake and cookies 

(b) Bake bread and muffins 

263 



(c) Cook six common vegetables 

(d) Three ways of using left-over meats 

(e) Can four quarts of fruit 

(f ) Make three glasses of jelly 

(g) Make three kinds of candy 

(h) Bake two kinds of cake (not learned under 
2-a). 

(3) Make your bed and care for your room every day 
for one month. 

(4) Iron for one hour each week for four consecutive 
weeks. 

(5) Learn the care of china, glassware, silver and kitchen 
utensils. 

(6) Give one hour of service in the home every day for 
one month, y 

(7) Keep your stockings darned for two months. 

(8) Do not borrow or lend personal belongings for two 
months. 

(9) Take care of younger children in the family for 
three hours a week for two months. 

(10) Learn five simple rules of etiquette which will en- 
able you to be a good hostess. 

(11) Set a table correctly and serve one meal. 

(12) Be able to introduce guests properly. 

(13) Keep your bureau drawers in perfect order for six 
weeks. 

(14) Do not leave clothing or school books around for 
one month. 

(15) Be on time for meals for a month. 

(16) Do errands cheerfully and without reward for one 
month. 

(17) Keep buttons sewed on for two months. 

(18) Have hair and ribbons neat for a month. 

(19) Keep shoes blackened or polished for six weeks. 

(20) Give two hours of service in the home on Saturday 
for three months (two points). 

264 



(21) Water and care for plants for one month. 

(22) Sweep the sidewalk every morning- for one month 
(two points). 

(23) Make a set of cards illustrating all the articles of 
dress worn by a girl (ten points). 

(24) Know how to arrange flowers attractively from point 
of view of what flowers look well together, use of 
leaves, and the kind of vase you put them in and 
where in a room you place them (three honors). 

(25) Know how to really pick garden and wild flowers; 
e. g., length of stem, not pulling them up by the 
roots, and do not destroy any of them, for two 
months. 

(26) Plant in your own yard four vines and keep them 
growing for two months. 

(27) Keep your lawn in- order for one month; i.e., mowing 
and clipping and caring for shrubbery. 

(28) Rake leaves from the lawn for one month. 

(29) Make and fill a window-box and care for it for two 
months (five points). 

(30) Wash and polish the family automobile (two honors). 

(31) Know and tell at a club meeting what cuts of meat 
are the most economical for use by a family of five. 

(32) Know and tell what vegetables are necessary to a 
well-balanced diet. 

(33) Visit a city market and write a description at least 
three hundred words long of what you saw and why 
you think the market is valuable (three points). 

(b) To the community: 

(34) Name and locate the institutions to which you would 
refer a tubercular person; one needing food, fuel and 
clothing; a lost child; a truant scholar case; a girl 
seeking employment; a person suddenly taken ill 
on the street; an unsanitary housing condition in 
your locality. 

265 



(35) Know the safety-first rules for the home (see Boy 
Scout Manual, page 237). 

(36) Specially prepare for and take part In a community 



(37) Specially prepare for and help In a community 
program. 

(38) Know how to send in emergency calls for the fire 
department, police department, pulmotor station, 
(Be able to tell your story calmly and distinctly and 
answer promptly any questions asked by the depart- 
ment called.) 

(39) Know the laws regarding fire protection in your city. 

(40) Take part in the clean-up of your block once a 
week for a month (two points). 

(41) Take part in an exhibit of handwork made in the 
Old Country (three points). 

(42) Tell at club one or more folk stories which you have 
learned at; home (one point far each story). 

(48) Make a set of cards illustrating all the furniture 
necessary for a dining-room, a kitchen, and a living- 
room, Cut the pictures from magazines and cata- 
logs and paste each on a separate card. Write 
clearly underneath each one the name. These may 
be sent to the International Institute of the Young 
Women's Christian Associations and will help to 
teach English to foreign-speaking people. 

(44) Earn and save money to purchase $2 worth of 
Thrift Stamps (one point for $2 worth, three points 
for $5 worth). 

(45) Oet another girl in your community to make a win 
dow box and fill it. 

(46) Help to start a window-box campaign in your com- 
munity. 

(47) Make a set of paper dolls to be sent to a children's 
hospital or an Indian or Mission school. 

266 



(48) Collect twenty-five used or unused postal cards. 
Paste a piece of white paper over any writing on 
the cards and send them to the Young Women's 
phristian Association, Shanghai or Canton, China. 

(49) Teach English to a foreign-speaking girl who may 
be serving in some home (three points for each six 
lessons of one hour each). 

(50) Make and send Valentines, Easter greetings, May 
baskets or any token which symbolizes a national 
festival to two or more shut-ins (two points). 

(51) Make your church more attractive by cleaning and 
mending hymnals and Bibles and by bringing flow- 
ers for decorations. 

(52) Gather flowers and send to hospitals or shut-ins 
(one honor for each time this is done, for four times). 

(53) Plant one or more bulbs and take the plant when 
it blossoms to a hospital or a shut-in. 

(c) To the country: 

(54) Do one hour of Red Cross work each week for two 
months. 

(55) Make one finished article for the Red Cross. 

(56) Save one-half your spending money for three months. 

(57) Earn your own money for a membership in the 
Junior Red Cross. 

(58) Help your corps or company to support an 
orphan in some country where the American Red 
Cross or American Food Administration is at work. 

(59) Plant a garden and raise at least three kinds of 
vegetables so successfully that they may be served 
on your home table. 

(60) Belong to a vegetable (potato, tomato, corn, etc.) 
or canning club and can or dry ten pounds of fruit 
or vegetables to prevent waste. 

(61) Commit to memory at least five patriotic songs. 

(62) Do not put more food on your plate than you can eat. 

(63) Know five recipes for conservation of food. 

267 



(64) Get seven new members for the Girl Reserves. 

(65) Collect and send to soldiers or sailors twenty-five 
magazines of recent date. 

(66) Raise chickens or rabbits for market. 

(67) Put up three quarts of fruit or have a successful 
winter garden. 

(68) Use in cooking two good substitutes for meats, 
sugar and fat, and bring the recipes to club meeting. 

(d) In the school: 

(69) Have an average of 90 per cent or its equivalent in 
your school in all school work, including deportment, 
attendance, punctuality and studies for two months, y 

(70) Do not be late or absent from school or work for 
six weeks, y 

(71) Help a new girl in school or at work to know other 
girls, v 

(72) Answer truthfully for two months these questions :JJ 

(a) Have I been honest to myself and my teacher 
by not cheating, or have I been honest to 
myself and my employer in the use of his 
time and money? 

(b) Have I been unfair or unkind in what I have 
said about other girls? 

(73) Raise monthly average 10 per cent and keep it for 
two consecutive months. 

(74) Help to keep your school yard in order; e. g., pick 
up papers, do not scatter fruit skins or food on the 
ground (six weeks, three points). 

(75) Help your school to secure trash boxes if it does 
not already have them (two points). 

(76) Plant shrubs in the school yard or help in some way 
to beautify the school grounds (three points). 

(77) Make the school rooms attractive through helping 
to earn money for pictures and decorations, or by 
securing attractive pictures and plants (three points). 

(78) Earn money to help buy books or a map for your 
school. 

268 



III. Knowledge 

(1) Make a list of the furnishings and the price of each 
article necessary .to furnish (two points for each, or 
two points additional credit if a house furnishing book 
is worked out. Total, 10 points.) 

(a) A bedroom. 

(b) A living-room. 

(c) A dining-room. 

(d) A kitchen. 

(2) Choose the color scheme you would have on a dark 
bedroom; in a light dining-room. 

(3) Select four pictures you would put in a living-room 
and tell how you would frame them. 

(4) Describe the proper way to sweep and dust a room. 

(5) Name and locate six constellations. 

(6) Know and be able to tell the story of two constellations. 

(7) Identify and describe five harmful garden bugs and 
tell how to destroy them. 

(8) Know and describe twenty wild flowers. 

(9) Know and describe twenty birds. 

(10) Know six bird calls. 

(11) Name six semi-precious stones and tell .where found. 

(12) List the necessary articles of clothing for a school 
girl or a young business girl. 

(13) Design a school or business dress and give approximate 
cost. 

.(14) Design a party dress and give approximate cost. 

(15) Read any three books you have never read before (listed 
in Girl Eeserve Book List, prepared by The Bureau 
for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City. One point for each book.) 

(16) Read three additional books from the above list. (One 
point for each book.) 

(17) Read three books in the First Inch of the Inch Library 
and three in the second or six from either one. 

(18) Tell in a club meeting some story of standard fiction. 

269 



(19) Name five writers of fiction whose stories you like, and 
name two books by each. 

(20) Write a letter of application for 

(a) A position in a department store or office. 
. (b) A position as a teacher. 

(21) Know how to fill out and endorse a check. 

(22) Be able to give the history "of the United States flag. 

(23) Know the salute to the flag. 

(24) Learn the rules for use and display of the flag. (Two 
points.) 

(25) Know the officers of the army and navy in order of rank. 

(26) Know the insignia of the army and navy officers. 

(27) Name the members of the President's Cabinet and tell 
what are their duties. 

(28) Name twenty occupations open to girls and women. 

(29) Fill out vocational questionnaire to be obtained from 
your adviser. 

(30) Tell how garbage from your kitchen is disposed of. 
How does the community finally dispose of it? 

(31) Describe the proper way to wash dishes, make a bed, 
and set a table for a simple meal. 

(32) Know and be able to describe by their bark four trees; 
ten trees by their leaves. 

(33) Name ten important minerals and tell where found. 

(34) Name five great composers and a work by each. 

(35) Name five great artists and a picture by each. 

(36) Know the Child Labor Laws of your state, and tell about 
them at a corps meeting. (Two points.) 

(37) Know the name of the mayor of your city, and how 
he is elected. 

(38) Know the name of the city superintendent of schools 
and tell how the Board of Education is organized. 

(39) Know the name of your representative in the State 
Legislature and in the House of Representatives at 
Washington and in the Senate at Washington, and 
how they are elected. 

270 



(40) Keep an account of how much you spend or is spent 
for you on these items for two months: 

(a) Fun and recreation (that is "movies," parties, etc.). 

(b) "Eats." 

(c) Clothes. 

(d) Service for others (that is church, Sunday school, 
Red Cross, etc.) 

(41) Tell how much money you think a school girl or a 
young business girl should spend on these items (list 
each article separately). 

(42) Name five American and five English poets. 

(43) In consultation with your adviser choose a poem of at 
least four stanzas and memorize it. 

(44) Give at a club meeting the most interesting facts in 
regard to (one point for each description) : 

(a) Some woman leader in Russia. 

(b) Some woman leader in France. 

(c) Some woman leader in England. 

(d) Some woman leader in the United States. 

(45) Know all the words of the hymn, "0 Beautiful for 
Spacious Skies." 

(46) Know two verses of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic" 
and "The Star Spangled Banner," and tell how these 
songs were written. (Three points.) 

(47) Know two verses of the "Marseillaise" and "God Save 
the King." 

(48) Know the alphabet of the Semaphore Code. 

(49) Send and receive a message in the Morse or Semaphore 
Code. 

(50) Be able to play six bugle calls on the piano or bugle. 

(51) Name the commanders -in-chief of the army and navy 
(not the President of the U. S. and the Secretary of the 
Navy Department). 

(52) How many republics are there in the world and what 
are they? Submit a written list. (Five points.) 

271 



(53) Read a story in the Third Inch of the Inch Library and 
take part in the dramatization of it. Secure from The 
Womans Bookshop, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. (Three points.) 

(54) Learn the story of Catherine Breshkovsky, "the Little 
Grandmother of the Russian Revolution/' and help to 
dramatize three scenes from it. (Five points.) 

(55) Learn the story of Edith Cavell. 

(56) Know the symbolism of the National Travelers' Aid 
pin. 

(57) Use a thimble when sewing. (Do It ten times and get 
one point.) 

(58) Practice your music lesson regularly each day for four 
weeks. 

(59) Make three watercolor sketches, showing the color com- 
binations which a girl may make in her school clothes. 
(Six of these sketches count for two honors.) 

(60) Know the difference between a checking and a saving 
account, and know how to open each of these accounts 
at a bank. 

(61) Learn how to open a book properly and how to care 
for its pages. 

(62) Save a definite sum every week for two months* y 

(63) Plan a model wardrobe for a school girl. (Five points 
if prepared in writing; ten points if produced in water- 
colors or by dressing paper dolls in tissue costumes.) 

(64) Know why the sky is blue. 

(65) Know why the teakettle sings. 

(66) Know why an apple falls straight down. 

(67) Collect ten different sea shells and know something 
about the tiny animals that built these shells, or gather 
some frogs' eggs, place them in a glass jar and watch 
them grow. (Two additional points if you draw pic- 
tures showing the different stages of growth.) 

(68) Learn "A Country Girl's Creed." 

272 



(69) Write a paragraph at least one hundred words long 
on the importance of selecting and testing 1 seed before 
planting it. 

(70) What kinds of soil are there in your home farm or 
garden and for what uses are the different kinds 
adapted? (Two additional points for a chart or a map 
showing the location on the farm or in the garden 
and showing the strata of soil of each kind.) 

(71) Take part in a corps or company debate on the most 
urgently needed improvements in and about your school: 

(a) Improvements in the building, heating, lighting, 
ventilating, etc. 

(b) Improvements in the equipment. 

(c) Improvements in the course of study, with particu- 
lar reference to the things which you think would 

be of advantage in your neighborhood. (Three points). 

(72) Write one or more paragraphs of at least 200 words 
or talk for five minutes at a program meeting of the 
corps on "How does a strike or a blizzard which ties 
up a city's food supply show the extent of the city's 
dependence on the country?" (Two points.) 

(73) Draw another plan showing your ideal of a schoolhouse 
for the use of the people as a community center. In- 
dicate on the plan. (Three points) : 

(a) The different rooms. 

(b) The heating and ventilating system. 

(c) The cloakroom. 

(d) The windows. 

(e) The kind of furniture. 

(f ) The number and position of the seats. 

(74) Write one or more paragraphs of at least two hundred 
words on how many people besides the pupils have been 
in your schoolhouse in the past year. (Two points.) 
(a) How many of these people were adults? 

273 



(b) How many were parents of the children in the 

school ? ; 

* (c) Why did they come? 

(75) Know the differences in the blossoms of the pear, 
plum, peach, cherry, apricot, prune, apples, orange and 
crab trees; sketch and color each kind. (Two points.) 

(76) Know and observe the traffic signals of your community 
for six weeks. 

(77) Tell ten combinations of two colors each that go well 
together. Illustrate by pieces of colored paper. 

(78) Know and locate five industries or occupations in your 
town in which women and girls are employed. 

(79) Know six different stitches in plain sewing. 

(80) Make a dolPs dress, showing the above stitches and a 
harmonious combination of two colors. 

(81) Memorize a piece of classical music, and play it at a 
club program. 

(82) Read the "Pied Piper of Hamelin" and share in its 
dramatization by your corps or company at a regular 
meeting. (Two points; if it is well rehearsed and pre- 
sented publicly, five points.) 

(83) Know the difference between a check, a draft, a money 
order and an express check. 

(84) Describe the dress of a Chinese girl, 

(85) Read five poems of the two Hindu poets Sarojini Naidu 
and Rabindranath Tagore. 

(86) Know the story of a great woman leader of India. 

(87) Take an imaginary journey from New York City to 
Peking, stopping en route in London. 

(88) Know something of the great South American liberators. 

(89) Read a book of travel. 

(90) Know the process of silk manufacture. 

274 



(91) Describe the furnishing of a Japanese home. 

(92) Know what reform movements are taking place in China. 

(93) Make and color the flags of China, Argentina, Japan, and 
Liberia, using the encyclopedia to tell the correct colors. 

IV. Spirit. 

(1) Write at least two hundred and fifty words about ten 
ideals for a girl, and share in a corps discussion of 
these ideals. 

(2) Write at least two hundred and fifty words about ten 
ideals for a boy, and share in a corps discussion of 
these ideals. 

(3) Read and discuss, "Are You Triangular or Bound?" 
obtained from The Woman's Press, 600 Lexington Ave- 
nue, New York City. 

(4) Read in "The Girl's Year Book" or the Bible every 
day for six weeks. 

(5) Choose and tell about at corps meeting five pictures 
each of which means an ideal toward which you will 
work. (Three points.) 

(6) Give a five-minute talk at some club opening on some 
point in the Girl Reserve Code. 

(7) Attend Sunday School regularly for six weeks. 

(8) Learn "The Hymn of the Lights." 

(9) Learn one of the Psalms. 

(10) Learn one poem from "Christ in the Poetry of Today," 

(11) Attend church regularly for two months. 

(12) Learn ten Bible verses. 

(13) Name the Books of the Bible. 

(14) Learn to tell six Bible stories. 

(15) Learn at least three important facts in the lives of 
eight Bible heroes. 

(16) Name six women of the Bible and mention some in- 
teresting incidents in their lives. 

275 



(17) Tell three things of interest about five children of 
the Bible. 

(18) Write a description (at least two hundred words) or 
take part in a discussion of the ways the boy Jesus 
grew. Luke 2:52. 

(19) Take part in club discussions on "A Girl at Her Best."* 

(a) "A Girl at Her Best Physically." 

(b) "A Girl at Her Best Mentally." 

(c) "A Girl at Her Best at Home." 

(d) "A Girl at Her Best Among Her Friends." 

(e) "A Girl at Her Best in Her Church." 

(20) Eead one good story of the life of some famous woman, 
as "The Story of a Pioneer," by Anna H. Shaw, or 
"One Girl's Influence/ 7 by Robert E. Speer. 

(21) Name countries in which the American Y. W. C. A. 
secretaries are working with girls. 

(22) Make a friend of some girl' of another nationality. 

(23) Learn something interesting about this girl's nation 
and tell it at a club meeting. 

(24) Give five reasons why you think there should be a Y. 
W. C. A. in your city. 

(25) Read four stories connected with the life of Christ 
either in the Bible or in some book of Bible stories, 

(26) Give brief accounts of the life and work of five Y. W. 
C. A. secretaries in foreign countries. 

(27) Give brief accounts of the life and work of five mis- 
sionaries who have represented or are representing your 
church in foreign countries. 

(28) Know the authors' names and give a brief account of 
the writing of four standard hymns of your church. 



* Each discussion will count one point. See "A Girl at Her Best," by Alice 
<5. Moore. There is material enough in this pamphlet for five corps meetings ; 
perhaps it should not be used successively. 

276 



(29) Learn the motto of the National Y. W. C. A. and write 
a three-minute interpretation of it to be read at a club 
meeting 1 . 

(30) Serve on committee in the young people's organization 
of your church, 

(31) Be a member of a Bible class in the girls' department 
of a Y. W. C. A. 

(32) Read and tell at club meetings three stories about girls 
of foreign lands.* 

(33) Learn four games played by children in other lands.** 

(34) Be a member of a Mission study class either in your 
church or at the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, and attend regularly for two months. 

(35) Read the story of "The Girl Who Walked Without 
Fear," by Mrs. Louise Rice. 

(36) Learn five facts about the people and their customs in 
the following countries: China, Japan, India, South 
America. 

(37) Memorize two hymns other than those listed elsewhere, 
and learn something about their composers. (Two 
points.) 

(38) Study your Sunday school lesson regularly for six con- 
secutive weeks. 

(39) Be on time at Sunday school for six consecutive weeks. 

(40) Give regularly each week to church and missions or 
to some benevolent object from your own allowance 
or money that you have earned and saved. 

(41) Read and own "Mook True Tales About a Chinese Boy 
and His Friends," by Evelyn Worthley Sites. (Two 
points, one point for reading only.) 

(42) Read "A Girl's Book of Prayers," written by Margaret 
Slattery. 

* See Third Inch of the Inch Library. 

** See "Children at Play in Many Lands," by Katherine Stanley Hall. 

277 



(43) Read "Red Cross Stories for Children," written by 
Georgene Faulkner. 

(44) Know the story of how we got our Bible. 

(45) Tell the story of one of the following people: Martin 
Luther, Joan of Arc, Jacob Riis. (Two points for one 
story; eight points for three stories.) 

(46) Tell the story of the King James version of the Bible. 

(47) Know the story of "The Christ of the Andes." 

(48) Learn the motto of the world Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association and share in a discussion of its mean- 
ing at a corps or company meeting. 

(49) Make a map of the world showing all the places where 
the "Blue Triangle" is at work. (Two points.) 

(50) On an outline map of the United States, show in differ- 
ent colors the eleven groups of states in which the 
Young Women's Christian Association has divided the 
country. (Each one of these descriptions is called a 
Field.) 

(51) On a outline map of the United States, place the letters 
Y. W. C. A. so that they stretch from coast ta coast. 
Then draw connecting lines from these letters to the 
cities where the Field Girls' Work secretaries have their 
offices. 

(52) Read four poems written by Robert Louis Stevenson 
and memorize two of them, and know something of his 
life. (These poems may be chosen from "A Child's 
Garden of Verse.") 

(53) Read "The Perfect Tribute," by Mary Raymond Ship- 
man Andrews, and "The Three Weavers," by Annie Fel- 
lows Johnston. 

(54) Find six stories in the New Testament that show 
how Jesus went about helping other people. 

(55) Find six stories in the New Testament that show how 
Jesus loved the out of doors. 

278 



(56) Have a "white record" against any personal fault 
such as lying, stealing, cheating:, bluffing, "cribbing" 
unclean stories for two months. 

(57) Have a "white record" against any unkind criticism 
for one month. 

(58) Earn your own Bible by Sunday school attendance or 
by earning money to buy it. (Three points.) 

(59) From hymns sung in your church during a period of 
three months, choose three that mean something espe- 
cial to you and memorize one of them. (Three points. 
This may be repeated, using the same number of hymns 
but choosing different ones.) 

(60) Be a helper in a primary or beginners' class for two 
months and do not miss a meeting. (Three points.) 

(61) Help your corps or company to write a corps prayer. 
Use a blackboard where possible and share in a ten- 
minute discussion of the prayer. 

(62) Learn John Oxenham's poem, "Every Maid." 

(63) Learn the rules of behavior for a Chinese girl. 

(64) Learn the names of the ten great world religions, their 
dieties, and the countries where they are worshipped.* 

(65) Read the story of Pandita Ramabai. 

(66) Learn ten Bible verses to show that Jesus made no dis- 
tinction between races. 

(67) Learn two of Rabindranath Tagore's poems from The 
Crescent Moon and know something of the poet's re- 
ligion. 

(68) List five characteristics of Oriental girls which you think 
American girls might emulate, and know why. 

(69) Learn the story of Gautama Buddha. 

(70) Know what contributions are being made to American 
life by the following races: Japanese, Italian, Russian, 
Dutch, German, Chinese, and Czechoslovak. 



* For material see Menzie's "History of Religion/' or Moore's "History 
of Religions." 

279 



(71) Select and learn a Bible story which yon think best il- 
lustrates Jesus 7 love for people. 

(72) Write a 300-word essay on what Christianity has to 
offer to the girls of the Orient. 

SPECIAL HONOR LIST FOR YOUNGER GIRLS IN BUSINESS AND 
INDUSTRY. 

I. Health 

(a) Personal: 

(1) Open windows in sleeping rooms for six weeks 
during winter months. 

(2) Get an average of at least eight hours' sleep a 
night for one month. 

(3) Go to bed not later than 9:30 P. M. for at least 
two nights a week for one month. 

(4) Take daily outdoor exercise for at least one-half 
hour for one month. 

(5) Avoid chewing gum for two months. 

(6) Brush teeth evening and morning for one month. 

(7) Do not miss work on account of ill health for two 
months. 

(8) Drink three glasses of water between meals every 
day for one month. 

(9) Refrain from drinking tea or coffee more than 
once a day for two months. 

(10) Eat well-balanced lunches every day for one 
month. 

(11) Wear low-heeled shoes to work every day for two 
months. 

(12) Know the proper care of (two points): 

(a) Skin. (c) Teeth. 

(b) Hair. (d) Nails. 

(13) Refrain from eating between meals, except choco- 
late bars, graham crackers, or fruit, for one month. 

280 



(b) First Aid: 

(14) Know where to use and be able to apply the fol- 
lowing- kinds of bandages (three points): 

(a) Circular. (c) Sling. (e) Finger. 

(b) Reverse. (d) Head. (f) Joint. 

(15) Give symptoms of, and know treatment for, the 
following- (one point for each) : 

(a) Fainting 1 , (c) Bruises. (e) Burns. 

(b) Sunstroke (d) Frost bite, (f) Sprains. 

(g) Splinters. ' (h) Something in the eye. 

(16) Know a simple remedy for the following (one 
point for each) : 

(a) Cuts. (c) Headache. (e) Nosebleed. 

(b) Earache, (d) Toothache, (f) Indigestion. 

(17) Know how to make a hospital bed. 

(18) Be able to use a clinical thermometer. 

(19) Learn how to bathe a sick person in bed and 
change the bed linen. (Three points.) 

(c) Outdoor Activities: 

(20) Walk twenty miles within ten days. 

(21) Make a signal fire and illustrate two ways of 
building a cook fire. (See Boy Scout Manual, 
pages 87 to 117.) 

(22) Know what to do if you are lost in the woods. 
(See Woodcraft Manual for Girls, page 208.) 

(23) Know road signs made with stones and with grass. 
(See Woodcraft Manual for Girls, page 238.) 

(24) Know how to cook around a camp fire without 
utensils (two points): 

(a) Eggs. (c) Wienies or bacon. 

(b) Potatoes. (d) Marshmallows, 

281 



(25) Learn how to swim the following strokes (three 
points for each): 

(a) Breast. (d) Crawl. 

(b) Side. (e) Tread water. 

(c) Back. (f) Under water. 

(26) Learn the following dives (three points for each) : 

(a) Front. (c) Swan. 

(b) Back. (d) Jackknife. 

(d) Indoor Activities: 

(27) Do a simple five-minute setting-up drill every 
morning for one month. (Two points.) 

(28) Play three team games such as volley ball, basket 
ball, corner ball for six weeks. (Ten points.) 

(29) Know four standard folk dances. (Five points.) 

(30) Teach a group to dance a standard folk dance. 
(Two paints.) 

(31) Attend a gymnasium class at least three times a 
month for three months. (Five points.) 

(32) Know the alphabet and simple word combinations 
used in signaling. (Two points.) 

(e) Community Health: 

(33) Swat twenty-five flies a day for two weeks. 

(34) Help in some campaign to make the city clean. 

(35) Observe the following rules for six weeks (one 
point for each): 

(a) Use no public drinking cup. 

(b) Throw no fruit skins or paper on the streets. 

(c) Use only sanitary towels. 

(36) Practice safety-first rules for six weeks in (one 
point each): 

(a) Crossing" the streets. 

(b) Getting on and off the cars. 

282 



II. Service 

(a) In the home: 

(1) Know how to prepare 1 the following- (two points 
for each) : 

(a) One kind of cake or cookies. 

(b) Bread and muffins. 

(c) Six common vegetables. 

(d) Lett-over meat in three ways. 

(2) Make your bed and care for your room every day 
for one month. 

(3) Iron for one hour each week for six consecutive 
weeks. (Three points.) 

(4) Keep your stockings darned for one month. 

(5) Do not borrow personal belongings for six weeks. 

(6) Make something attractive for your home, such as 
curtains, sofa pillows, etc. (Three points.) 

(7) Keep your dresser drawers in perfect order for 
six weeks. 

(8) Do not leave clothing around for one month. 

(9) "Wash or dry dishes from one meal for one month. 

(10) Sweep the sidewalk and front door step or porch 
every day for one month. 

(11) Help to buy a geranium or some hardy plant 
for the house and know what makes its leaves 
grow. (Three points.) 

(12) Care for this plant regularly for one month. 

(13) Help to buy a piece of furniture or linen supplies 
for your home. (Three points.) 

(14) Be able to tell your family what fire and life 
insurance is and why it is valuable; tell what is 
meant by "policy" and "premium." (Two points.) 

(b) Outside the home: 

(15) Take part in a community program. 

(16) Name and locate the institutions in your locality 
to which you would refer a tubercular person; one 

283 



needing food; fuel and clothing; a lost child; a 
truant scholar case; a girl seeking employment; a 
person taken ill on the street; an unsanitary 
housing condition. (Five points.) 

(17) Know how to send in emergency calls for the fire 
department, police department, pulmotor station. 

(18) Know the laws for .fire protection in your city. 

(19) Make a finished article for the Red Cross or 
similar organization. 

(20) Help support a Belgian or French orphan. 

(21) Contribute to some local charity. 

(22) Write a letter to a relative or shut-in once a 
week for two months. 

(23) Teach two games to children. 

(24) Sing regularly in the church choir or community 
chorus for two months. 

(25) Become a member of the Junior Red Cross. 

(26) Contribute to a Thanksgiving or Christmas fund 
or basket. 

(27) Sing or participate otherwise in some entertain- 
ment at a hospital or old people's home. 

(28) Sing in a caroling group at Christmas. 

(29) Make a scrapbook for a hospital or children's 
home. 

(30) Collect and send ten magazines to some institution. 

(31) Get three new members for the Girl Reserves. 

(32) Help earn money for a camp or conference fund. 

(33) Make a poster used by your company. 

(34) Make a poster for another group or general Asso- 
ciation use. 

(35) Write a song which is adopted for use by your 
corps or company. 

(36) Plan and carry out a party for your corps or 
company. 

(37) Help a new girl to feel at home in her work and 
with the other girls. 

284 



(38) Buy and hold for three months five dollars' worth 
of government thrift stamps. (Three points.) 

(39) Have a personal saving account, and make a de- 
posit regularly each pay day for two months. 

(40) Buy five dollars worth of postal savings for three 
months. (Three points.) 

III. Knowledge 

(1) Be able to describe all the steps in the manufacture of 
a piece of ribbon, beginning with the cocoon. Do the 
same for whatever product you help to make. (Five 
points.) 

(2) Hold a regular position for six months. (Three points.) 

(3) Do not be late for work for two months. 

(4) Live on the budget worked out by your club and re- 
garded as adequate for a girl with your salary for 
two months. (Two points.) 

(5) Read "Out of Shadow," by Rose Cohen. Discuss it at 
a club meeting. 

(6) Know what The Consumers' League is and what it is 
trying to do. 

(7) Receive a certificate for completing* a night school 
course. (Five points.) 

(8) Receive a certificate for any course that increases your 
efficiency in your work. 

(9) Name ten occupations open to girls and women and tell 
the training required for each and opportunities offered 
in each. (Two points.) 

(10) Fill out a vocational questionnaire to be obtained from 
your adviser. 

(11) Discuss the Child Labor Laws of your state. (Three 
points. 

(12) Know the proposed labor legislation for women and 
girls in your state this year. (Three points.) 

(13) Know what is meant by health insurance. (Two points.) 

(14) Write a letter of application for a position. 

285 



(15) Make out and endorse properly a check and a money 
order. 

(16) Know the name of the governor of your state and the 
mayor o'f your city and tell how they are elected. 

(17) Tell the names of your representatives in the State 
Legislature and at Washington, D. O., and how they are 
elected. > 

(18) Tell the names of your senators in the State Legislature 
and at Washington, D. C., and how they are elected. 

(19) Give some interesting facts at a corps or company 
meeting in regard to (two points for each one): 

(a) A woman leader in Russia. 

(b) A woman leader in France. 

(c) A woman leader in England. 

(d) A woman leader in the United States. 

(20) Be able to direct a stranger in your city to the railroad 
station, city hall, a church, hotel, theater, library, etc. 

(21) Recognize from post cards or photographs fifteen out 
of twenty views of your city. 

(22) Know the significance of the weather signals and be able 
to describe the flags used for each. (Two points.) 

(23) Be able to read a railroad time-table. 

(24) Learn the rules for the use and display of our 1 flag. 

(25) Know the Semaphore code. 

(26) Write: 

(a) A formal invitation to a party. 

(b) An informal invitation to a party. 

(c) A note of acceptance. 

(d) A note of regret. 

(One point for each of these.) 

(27) Learn five simple rules of etiquette that will enable 
you to be a good hostess. 

(28) Set a table correctly for breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. 

(29) Learn five simple rules of etiquette that will enable 
you to be a good guest. 

286 



(30) Be able to introduce guests properly. 

(31) What color scheme would you have in a dark bedroom? 
In a light dining-room? 

(32) What four pictures would you put in a living-room and 
how would you frame them? 

(33) Describe the proper way to sweep and dust a room. 

(34) Make a list of the furnishings and the price of each 
article necessary to furnish (two points for each): 

(a) A bedroom 

(b) A living-room 

(c) A kitchen 

(d) A dining-room. 

(35) Know and describe ten wild flowers. 

(36) Know and describe ten trees. 

(37) Know and describe ten birds. 

(38) Make a flower book, or a tree book, noting kind, dat 
and place where found. (One point for each kind ol 
book.) 

(39) Name and locate six constellations. 

(40) Tell three nature myths. 

(41) Be able to tell the story of two constellations. 

(42) List the necessary article of clothing for a young busi- 
ness girl. 

(43) Design and make a dress appropriate for work. (Five 
points for a summer dress, ten for a winter dress.) 

(44) Make a hat. (Five points.) 

(45) Tell the story of some book you have recently read. 

(46) Read any three books which you have never read before 
from the Girl Reserve Book List. 

(47) Read three stories from the First Inch of the Inch 
Library, and three from the Second Inch of the Inch 
Library. (One point for three of them.) 

(48) Know all the words of the hymn, "0 Beautiful for Spa- 
cious Skies/' 

287 



(49) Know all the words of "The Star-Spangled Banner" 
and ^America." (Two points.) 

(50) Discuss in a club program what a reputable employ- 
ment agency in your city or town would offer to the 
girl who works. 

(51) Dramatize the way a girl secures her working papers. 

(52) Share in a corps or company discussion on the topic, 
"When I go traveling/' 

(53) Name the articles you would put in your suitcase when 
starting on a trip, and tell what you would do if you 
missed a train in a strange city. 

(54) Know how to recover an article left on a train or a 
street car. 

(55) Earn a bonus given by your firm for good work or 
salesmanship. 

(56) Know the names of three women prominent in the 
labor movement of today and tell something which 
each one of them has done. 

(57) Give at least three reasons for having an eight-hour 
day and state three reasons usually given by those 
who oppose it. 

(58) Take part in a debate upon the above question. 

(59) Give at least three reasons against child labor and state 
three reasons generally given by those who favor child 
labor. 

IV. Spirit 

(1) Write (not less than two hundred and fifty words) and 
discuss ten ideals for a girl. (Two points.) 

(2) Write (not less than two hundred and fifty words) and 
discuss ten ideals for a boy. (Two points.) 

(3) Read and discuss the Book of Esther. (Two points.) 

(4) Read and discuss the Book of Ruth. (Two points.) 

(5) Name six women of the Bible and mention some inter- 
esting incidents in the life of each. 

288 



(6) Tell three things of interest about five children of the 
Bible. 

(7) Name six important events in Christ's life. 

(8) Give the outlines of the leading religions 1 of the world 
other than Christianity and tell the status of women 
under them. (One point for each.) 

(9) Make a friend of some girl of another nationality. 

(10) Compare labor conditions of women and children in our 
own country with those in China, Japan, India, and 
other Asiatic countries; with those in England, France, 
Germany, and other European countries; in Africa and 
in South America. (One point for each country com- 
pared.) 

(11) Tell the social customs and standing of women in the 
above-mentioned countries. (One point for each coun- 
try.) 

(12) Participate in the dramatization of a Bible story. 

(13) Memorize Psalms 19 and 28; Romans 12; First Corin- 
thians 13, using the word "love" instead of "charity." 
(One point for each.) 

(14) Memorize the Association motto John 10:10 and give 
a five-minute talk on it. (Two points.) 

(15) Commit to memory ten Bible verses selected by the 
adviser. 

(16) Learn John Oxenham's poem, "Everymaid," and dis- 
cuss it. (Three points.) 

(17) Learn and discuss the laws of your state regarding the 
holding of property. 

(18). Learn one poem from "Christ in the Poetry of Today." 

(Three points.) 
(19). Attend Sunday school regularly for six weeks. (Two 

points.) 

(20) Attend church regularly for six weeks. 

(21) Be a member of a Bible class in the Girls' Work De- 
partment of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 

289 



tion and attend at least four times for six weeks. 
(Two points.) 

(22) Serve on a committee of the young people's organization 
in your church for two months. 

(23) Write a sketch of at least 200 words about the work of 
the Young* Womens Christian Association in other coun- 
tries than ours. 

Note. From time to time the adviser of every corps will receive sugges- 
tions for new honors. Every Girl Reserve should add these to the lists in 
her Guide. 



Suggestions for an Interpretation of Honors Which Will Make 
Them International in Their Scope. 

This material will be of a particular service to the secre- 
tary and adviser who are working with the foreign-born girl, 
but it is also very valuable for the content which it brings to 
the honor which might seem to be of ordinary importance only. 
If the suggestions are adequately developed they will furnish 
much of the content to be used at the regular corps meeting, 
thereby linking the honor directly to the club activity making 
it the activity, in fact. 

Health: 

Honor No. 27. Walking is an old-world sport, and it will 
make a girl tremendously interested if she should gather 
some information regarding the famous trails in Europe, 
and also some of the best-known ones in America. In- 
teresting biographical studies will result if she should 
search for stories about some of the great people who 
have tramped these trails. 

Honor No. 51. Obviously, it is not only the folk dances 
which should be learned, but their origin and significance. 
See Marie Hofer's book, "Popular Folk Games and 
Dances." 

290 



Honor No. 43. This and other honors similar to it offer an 
opportunity for the girls to learn not only the technique 
but also the history of games. Croquet is not American 
in its origin. What are some other famous European 
sports ? What are the Olympic games ? When are they 
held? Who competes? 

To advisers and secretaries working with foreign speaking 
girls, the following suggestion is made: Compare pictures of 
European children with their rosy cheeks and sunny eyes and 
the faces of average American children; pale childhood is not 
an American ideal and foreign mothers must know that vigor- 
ous children are desired in America as much as they are in 
Europe. The foreign children whom American girls see in 
great crowded cities in foreign quarters are the product of a 
low standard of American living and are not representative of 
Old World children. 

Service : 

Honor No. 2. (c) It would be interesting to learn how vege- 
tables are cooked by other nations. America is not fam- 
ous for its cooking of vegetables, (g) Find the origin 
of some of our candies which we accept as American: 
e.g., Turkish Delight. 

Honor No. 10. From where did rules of etiquette first come ? 
The old-world courts. Pantomime and dramatization will 
make this very tangible to girls. 

Honor No. 38. Trace in the programs of "community sings" 
which have occurred in your locality the songs which are 
international. 

Honor No. 50. Christmas, Easter Day and May Day are 
festivals which are observed by people in America and 
Europe, too they are international. It would be very 
interesting to interpret our observation of these days in 
the light of the customs of some other country. 

291 



Honor No. 58. This honor may be broadened to include any 
needy group of people the world over. Advisers and sec- 
retaries will guide carefully into constructive channels 
all of the interest which is aroused by a definite appeal 
in a community. 

Honor No. 61. This honor may be broadened to include the 
teaching of these patriotic songs to some other girl, pos- 
sibly not a Girl Reserve, for love of country is a thing 
which grows by being shared. Particularly is it neces- 
sary to keep clearly in the minds of girls that much of 
America's greatness is due to the many streams of im- 
migrant life which have flowed into it ever since the 
establishment of the colonies. True patriotism in America 
will recognize the enthusiasm with which a descendent 
of a foreign nation observes his great hero days; it is 
second only to the zeal with which he celebrates Ameri- 
can holidays. 

Knowledge: 

Honor No. 52. It would be possible in interpreting this 
honor to interest a girl in the new countries which have 
grown out -of the war, and in some acquaintance with 
the people in those countries, their needs and ambitions, 
and the obstacles which they are trying to overcome. 

Honor No. 56. When the girl is learning about the National 
Travelers' Aid pin, it would be possible to stretch her 
interest to far-away places by asking such questions as 
the following: What nationalities are coming into your 
community? What groups are there already? 

Honor No. 60* If a secretary or an adviser is eager that her 
girls have an increasing knowledege of and interest in 
the peoples of the world, the club meeting which deals 
with this honor might include in its program some dis- 
cussion of foreign money and foreign exchange, a dis- 
cussion of the best way to send money, and how people 

292 



prepare to come to this country i. e., their passports, the 
amount of American money they receive for their money, 
and many other interesting 1 details of the journey. 

Spirits 

For the secretary and adviser working with foreign-speaking 
girls, suggestions about the spirit honors have been in- 
cluded in the chapter on a Program for Girls with a For- 
eign Background. It may be possible in many communi- 
ties which are American to interpret in an understanding 
way the observance of Holy Days by other churches than 
the one to which the girl belongs. It would be particu- 
larly interesting, for example, to see how Easter is ob- 
served in different churches. 



293 



Name Snyder, Elizabeth Address, 710 Main 
Grade, 7 B Telephone, 326 


HONOR SYSTEM. GIRL RESERVES. 


Health 


1 


1 

4 


9 


12 


































Total 
4 


Service 


3 


7 


11 




































3 


Knowledge 


1* 








































2 


Spirit 


12 








































1 


Total 


5 


2 


2 


1 




































Grand Total 




..10 




Name Hughes, Alice Address, 1817 Broadway 
Grade, 7 A * Telephone, 693 


Health 












































Service 












































Knowledge 












































Spirit 












































Total 






































Grand Total 







294 



Section V. 

ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING A CHRISTIAN 
PERSONALITY. 

CHAPTER I. 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OR TRAINING IN CHRISTIAN THINKING 
AND LIVING. 

IN its Girl Reserve Movement and throughout its work for 
younger girls, the Young* Women's Christian Association con- 
siders that it has a fundamental purpose underlying 1 all activi- 
ties, discussion groups, services of worship: namely to develop 
the normal interests of the girl so that she grows healthfully 
as a girl Christian of her age may be expected to grow. Its 
program of religious education is not a part of its whole plan 
of activities, "for religion touches all of| life" and therefore 
religious education becomes an underlying principle which can- 
not be separated from the whole fabric of a girl's living. 

Moreover, the Young "Women's Christian Association recog- 
nizes frankly that it is only one force working in a community, 
touching the lives of girls with the purpose of Christian educa- 
tion; and that the church has a peculiar responsibility for the 
development of girls; that, indeed, the more formal class work 
iii Bible and world fellowship and much of the girl's training in 
worship should come directly through her relationship with the 
Church. 

In order to develop the religious life of the girl, one must 
understand the whole girl, for character depends not upon the 
development of the spiritual life alone, but upon the working 
together of all the factors which go to make up the life of the 

295 



girl. The normal development of girlhood has to do with physi- 
cal, mental, social and spiritual characteristics as interdepend- 
ent factors. The girl is a whole girl, in any situation, with all 
of her personality involved; this means that she must be 
trained as a whole person. What she thinks, says, and does 
at any moment is either stimulating or inhibiting normal growth 
and expression; whatever may be the immediate situation a 
basket ball game, a Sunday service, a question of class room 
honor, or the decision to forego a new party dress so that she 
may help famine sufferers, her power to throw herself into 
such a situation and to act in that situation as a girl Christian 
should, determines to no small degree how adequately she will 
deal with other situations as they arise. 

This process of growth is furthered greatly by the entrance 
of three elements, each of which has its direct bearing upon 
the life of the girl. They are the opportunity to worship, ways 
to develop a growing understanding of God, and of men, and 
an opportunity to express through sharing her life and her 
standards of action, her consciousness of God. 

Worship. 

The place of worship in the training of the younger girl 
is presented in considerable detail in the pamphlet "Training 
the Girl Through Worship," so that it is necessary here only 
to suggest the main points involved. First of all there is the 
more formal service of worship in which she joins with others, 
either in her church or in the Association. Beauty, order, and 
symbolism appeal most to the girl between twelve and eighteen. 
Music which is rich, full of dignity, and rhythm, and reverence 
is a factor which cannot be discounted in any effort to interpret 
worship to girls. Girls at this period of development rarely 
enjoy and seldom are helped by any play upon the emotions 
through the use of hymns and stories which, while popular, 
lack the fine fibre of the hymns which for many years have 
ministered to the needs of all groups of Christian people. Many 
advisers will find opportunities to supply the girl's need for 

296 



beauty, order and symbolism not only through the Association 
but also in the church. 

The opening club ceremonial, and the installation and recog- 
nition services also offer great opportunity for the expression of 
the element of worship. In this it is the spirit of simple dignity 
and reverence for one's own personality, for others' personality 
and for the personality of God which lifts a service into a realm 
of worship. The use of poems and songs is valuable. A poem, 
which has been talked over together and memorized, may be 
repeated in the opening ceremonial of the Girl Reserve meeting; 
in many case such a hymn as "0 Beautiful for Spacious Skies" 
may be expressed through a series of tableaux as simple 
dramatic action for a service of worship. However it is man- 
aged, the girl needs worship, both to develop and strengthen in 
her attitudes of thanksgiving, unselfish service, and reverence, 
and to awaken a greater sense of group consciousness and a 
willingness to make herself one of the group. Worship is 
essential both for strengthening the individual life and for 
releasing that life from individualism. 

A Growing Understanding of God. 

Even though the Young Women's Christian Association 
recognizes that the bulk of a girl's thinking and discussion 
through study groups will be done in a church school or as a 
part of her day school curriculum, there is both opportunity 
and necessity for it to make sure that the girl is really growing 
in her understanding of God and his relations to herself, and 
others and in a deepening interpretation of her relations to a 
world. 

This necessity and opportunity for such service on the part 
of the Association do not mean, however, that in formal Bible 
study classes or in organized world fellowship groups only can 
be found the ways to achieve this growth of understanding. 
Particularly is this true of the younger girls in the Girl Reserve 
Movement. It is a growing conviction that the younger girl 
goes further in her grasp of both Bible and world fellowship 

297 



content (world fellowship implying- social) through story tell- 
ing 1 , dramatics, and discussion than in a formal class hour. 
When program content is regarded in this way, there is always 
freedom to incorporate it into a club program at any point 
where it will bear directly upon the girl's life at that time. A 
Bible story may be told and dramatized at once, or there may 
be a discussion of party dresses, from which there will develop 
a real project; the girls will set themselves to the task of find- 
ing- out the conditions of industry in Japan and something about 
the lives of Japanese girls who make the lovely fabrics from 
which the party dresses are fashioned. The result may be a 
short litany of intercession for industrial girls as the result of 
their own study of the conditions and needs. An astronomy 
party once led a group of high school girls to ask about the 
star worshippers and there resulted a discussion of certain non- 
Christian religions and men's age-long search for God. This 
came about so naturally that the girls were not conscious in 
the least that they were being "religiously educated." At an- 
other time, a milk strike was the occasion of one skillful leader's 
stimulating her girls to a discussion of the ideals which Jesus 
had for human lives brought together in great groups. The 
ultimate result was the study by a small group of "The Social 
Teachings of Jesus." This study was carried on in the Sunday 
School class to which many of the girls belonged and it was 
right that it should be. Any situation in which the girl lives 
may be the door for that girl into a growing understanding of 
God, The uses to which an adviser puts situations in a girl's 
life depend upon that adviser's knowledge of the girl, and of 
the principles of teaching. There must be a constantly increas- 
ing grasp of material, also, which can be played into the girl's 
life when she needs it, without recourse to texts and formal 
study groups. It is very obvious, of course, that the fineness of 
contact at this point is in direct proportion to the strength 
of the background which the girl is accumulating through the 
church school. 

298 



Christian Habits in Every Day Living. 

It is not difficult to remember and to regret the experiences 
of certain girls whose ability to pray in a young people's meet- 
ing and whose knowledge of Bible and missionary facts was 
amazing, yet whose ability to make experimental use of these 
experiences was nil. The Girl Reserve movement recognizes 
the imperative necessity of a girl's having such intelligent 
activity in the expression of her Christian purpose that she is 
saved from becoming a prig. In the main, these outlets are 
three in number: (a) sharing her life with other people (com- 
monly spoken of as "service"), (b) the declaration of her ideals 
through character standards by which she measures her rela- 
tions to her world, and (c) recreation by which she keeps the 
emotional balance, and in many cases, frees her instinct for 
mastery in a way that is not injurious to others. All are a 
necessary part of religious education. 

Planning with her for service activities, it is necessary, first 
of all, to avoid the point of view that they are merely "busy 
work," such as is usually given to small children in the primary 
class to keep them out of mischief. If the service activities are 
not training and developing the girl, they are useless. Train- 
ing is not possible unless the activities which she carries out 
are really needed in her immediate community or in the larger 
community, the world. A group of younger girls who make, 
for a children's hospital, baby clothes that no baby could get 
into, are not being rightly trained in service. It is very prob- 
able that they may become women who pack impossible mis- 
sionary boxes with left-over evening gowns. The girls who 
seek to share their lives with other people must learn what they 
have which those people need, and what those people have which 
they need, so that it can be honest sharing and not a patroniz- 
ing giving. It is more religious for a younger girl to help in 
a "cleanup my town" campaign than it is for her to give a 
tenth to missions solely because her family compel her. 

Of course, all advisers of girls realize that if the girl's inter- 

299 



est stops with her immediate community, she is only partly 
Christian, and, therefore, the understanding sharing: of her life 
with those who are geographically far apart from her ;s 
essential. 

The expression of herself in the character standards upon 
which she bases her behavior, will depend upon the closeness 
and the correlation between her ideals and the conditions of her 
life. It is so easy for even grown-up people to be tremendously 
interested in the hours and conditions of work of industrial girls 
and unconscious of the impersonality and discourtesy with which 
they treat an industrial girl who rubs elbows with them in the 
street car or in a crowd ; therefore it is no wonder that a younger 
girl may come home starry-eyed from a meeting which has 
stirred her aims and stimulated her dreams of service, only to 
meet with an irritable impatience the demand of a small brother 
to "tell us a story." 

Never would the secretaries and advisers in the Girl Re- 
serve Movement fail in stimulating a girl to formulate the high- 
est of ideals for herself, but always there is the recognition of 
the necessity to help her to express those ideals in terms of her 
own everyday living. This must be done so that the number of 
women who give themselves to great causes without stint but 
more or less completely fail in the close relationships of every- 
day, may be decreased. 

For this reason, the adviser of girls must study carefully 
the situations in which her girls are forced to make decisions 
and act upon them. The girl, who steadily increases her power 
to decide in favor of other people rather than in her own favor, 
is on the road toward being able consistently to express herself 
as a Christian woman. This may be illustrated by the action of 
a group of girls who gave up their own sodas and candies, 
formerly purchased from a druggist, who was compelling his 
two girl clerks to work fourteen hours a day without a chance 
to sit down; or by the high school girl, who definitely gave up 
the possession of a new party dress so that she might give her 

300 



mother for Christmas a sweater which she needed. Such groups 
of girls or individuals are beginning to comprehend the "friendly 
kingdom" way of living, both in business relations and in the 
home. 

Moreover, it would be unfair, manifestly so, for the secre- 
taries and advisers in the Girl Reserve Movement to criticize 
the older girl for maintaining unwholesome social relationships 
when she has been permitted or encouraged in an attitude of 
careless flippancy in her friendships with either boys or girls. 
They must help the younger girl to gain the power to deter- 
mine character standards for herself, yet to look with under- 
standing and tolerance upon different standards determined for 
themselves by others, and this training must be acquired through 
her right meeting of these situations in her girlhood. She can 
and should be helped to grow into a normal balance between 
respect for the decisions of others as to what are character 
standards and her own independent actions. 

The validity of religious education of girls is nowhere more 
tested than in the matter of recreation. Sometimes so many 
mature Christians consider their recreation as "time off" from 
being a Christian a sort of spiritual dishabille that it is not 
difficult to understand how younger girls come to consider their 
recreation as outside the realm of the religious. A wholesome 
attitude toward health of mind -and body (in which good times, 
that are re-creative, play so large a part) is impossible with- 
out a spiritual dynamic. It therefore becomes an important 
question whether or not sodas, outdoor exercise, and proper 
shoes are accepted naturally by the girl as factors in the deci- 
sions which a girl Christian makes. 

There remains one fundamental thing, when all that could 
be said about the religious education of the growing girl in far 
more space than this chapter is said. Religion involves life 
all of life and religious education is the training of the whole 
life all of the time in the way of comradeship with God, who is 
the Father of a world. 

301 



If advisers and secretaries are rightly to interpret the pur- 
pose of the Young Women's Christian Association In its group 
and individual work with girls, and if the three elements in the 
process of a girl's growth are to be successfully coordinated, 
there are certain methods of procedure which should be fol- 
lowed, either closely if an adviser is just growing into her ex- 
perience of working with girls, or with a great degree of free- 
dom if a person has found her way. The following suggestions 
are appended, accompanied by a bibliography designed to equip 
an adviser and secretary with right tools, to illustrate ways of 
conducting formal and informal services of worship, and the 
telling of Bible stories. 

A. For Use in Worship. 

An order of service for more formal vespers: 

1. Opening sentences of invocation. 

2. Prayer of penitence and thanksgiving. 

3. Hymn of praise. 

4. Scripture reading, responsive prayers or psalms re- 
cited in unison. 

5. Talk, story or dramatization. 

6. Hymn of consecration and action. 

7. Closing prayer and benediction. 

B. Plan for short, informal period of worship. 

1. To catch everybody's attention, use a hymn or two, 
such as "Day Is Dying in the West," "Come Thou 
Almighty King." 

2. The recitation of a psalm or some other memorized 
passage together, trying to keep the same thought of 
thanksgiving as in a more formal service. 

3. The club prayer or prayers by several girls (who 
have been asked previously to have this share in the 
service). 

4. Hymn of Action (if around the camp-fire, use a good- 
night hymn). 

302 



BENEDICTION. 
Leader 

The Lord bless thee, 

And keep thee. 

The Lord make his face to shine upon thee 

And be gracious unto thee. 

The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee 

And give thee peace. 
Response 

God be merciful unto us 

And cause his face to shine upon us; 

That Thy way may be known upon earth, 

Thy saving health among all nations. 

Let the peoples praise Thee, God ; 

Let all the peoples praise Thee. 

All 

The Lord bless us 

And keep us. 

The Lord make his face to shine upon us 

And be gracious unto us. 

The Lord lift up his countenance upon us 

And give us peace, 

Both now and evermore. Amen. 

C. Telling Bible Stories to Younger Girls. 

1. What stories to tell: 

While the girls are still in their early teens, stories with 
very concrete action and red-blooded heroes, such as Joseph 
and Moses should be used and sections from the Acts may 
be chosen. Stories like the one about Ruth should be left 
until the girls develop a love for the idealistic. When this 
is at its height, usually when the girl is between fourteen 
and seventeen, stories from the life of Jesus have a unique 
appeal. It must be a virile and manly Christ who is por- 
trayed, but this a is only to say that advisers must get down 

303 



to the real heart of the gospel narratives. This is the time 
to enlist to its full the loyalty of the younger girl to the 
personality of Jesus. 

Some of the parables that of the "Good Samaritan," for 
instance can well be used for the grade school girls, while 
others, such as 'The Ten Virgins/' fit better the need of 
girls a little older. The call of Isaiah and the story of 
Nehemiah are excellent material for the girl close to eigh- 
teen. There is recorded in the Bible a whole group of expe- 
riences of men at close grips with life; their spiritual sig- 
nificance can best be presented by the story method even 
though such a presentation, strictly speaking, cannot be 
called telling stories. The way that men's understanding of 
God grew from the desert god of war to the Father God of 
Jesus is an illustration of this point. 

2. Preparing to tell Bible stories, 

Beyond the preparation that lies in the practice in telling 
any story is the matter of Biblical background which gives 
vividness and a real understanding of the meaning of the 
Bible story told. For help in this see the bibliography at- 
tached. One caution may be wise. Nothing is ever gained 
by cheapening the style of the Biblical narratives in an at- 
tempt to make them sound like the Sunday supplements, but 
on the other hand the use of a modern English- word for one 
whose meaning is unfamiliar may illumine a whole passage 
for a girl. Neither is it ordinarily necessary nor best to 
put into the mouths of the characters a mixture of words 
drawn partially from the text and partially from imagina- 
tion. 

3. Dramatizing Bible stories. 

This may be done in two ways. There is first the spon- 
taneous dramatization without the use of costumes or scen- 
ery; this is especially valuable for the grade school girls. A 
long, elaborate story with several situations cannot be 
handled as easily by this method as a short story with a 

304 



good deal of action centering around a single point. How- 
ever, a long story may be broken up into shorter ones. This 
first use of dramatization is valuable in training the imagi- 
nation. There is also a rich field in the dramatization of 
long stories, such as that of Joseph or sections from the 
Acts. In such a case, the high school girls may write their 
own play, taking several weeks perhaps to prepare and pro- 
duce it. Their grasp on the inner meaning and the human 
reality of the story will be immeasurably deepened by so 
doing. 

4. When to tell Bible stories. 

They may be told at Sunday afternoon recreation hours 
and around the fire. The opening ceremonial for grade 
school corps offers an opportunity too, but the telling should 
not^be confined to stated occasions. The Bible story may 
be used in any story hour as a climax (see appended sug- 
gestion for a story hour that develops from the amusing to 
the meaningful story). All the adviser needs is to make the 
Bible story so much a part of her own thinking that it crops 
out as an illustration along with others when the girls are 
hiking. 

5. Two suggested story hours. 

(a) "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" from "The First Jungle Book" 

by Rudyard Kipling. 
How the Prehistoric Little Girl Learned to Tell Time 

from "When I Was a Little Girl" by Zona Gale. 
The Knights of the Silver Shield. 
The Queen Who Dared (Book of Esther). 

(b) Tajar Stories by Jane' Shaw Ward.* 

Bit-bit and the Deeve from "When I Was a Little 

Girl" by Zona Gale. 
The Jester's Sword by Annie Fellows Johnston. 

* Published April, June and July, 1916, John Martin's Book. Reprinted 
in 1917 Annual John Martin's Book. Can be procured from The Book 
Shop, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, 

305 



The Forty Wrestlers See any book of early church 

history. 
Stories from the life of Jesus. 

A Camp Fire Story of the Long Ago. 
Producing Notes: 

The story teller repeats the first two paragraphs as 
stated here or in a similar form. When she is ready to tell 
the story of the old man (the story teller or teacher of the 
tribe) she would use for the source of her story the words 
of the second chapter of Genesis, verses 4-23. The Historical 
Bible, Volume I, by Kent, will also be of valuable help to 
her. To expand -this story in order to interpret the first 
chapter of Genesis, the story teller should tell very briefly, 
in story form, some of the adventures of the tribe as it 
pushed its way into the unknown lands to the west, of its 
experience in Egypt, of the escape under the leadership of 
Moses, and the fact that eventually the people of this tribe 
settled in cities. Their great achievement after that was the 
building of the Temple. When the story teller reaches this 
point, she continues in words similar to the ones suggested 
below. After the point "richness of figure and rhythm of 
verses fitted the beauty of the Temple," it is of great value 
to the interest of the story to read the first chapter of 
Genesis through the first part of the fourth verse of the sec- 
ond chapter. 

"Once in the long ago when all the world that we know 
best had never been dreamed of and when mighty nations 
ruled the world that to-day we know only in history books, 
there wandered a tribe of .desert people in the barren lands 
beyond the Mediterranean Sea. From time to time they 
pitched their camel's hair tents where a tiny spring, push- 
ing its way up through the dry sandy dust gave water for 
their flocks; or on some nights their camp was made where 
several springs made a green oasis; and once it happened 
that their wanderings carried them into a country where a 

306 



great river watered the earth and made of it a garden. This 
they never, never forgot but always it stood to them as sym- 
bol of the goodness and protecting care of Jehovah, their 
God, 

"When the supper had been cooked and eaten and the 
tribe drew close around the camp fire the men sat in the 
inner circle; a little removed, where the shadows danced and 
flickered, sat the women with the little children cuddled in 
the folds of 'their mothers 7 cloaks, protected from the evening 
damp. Then it was that some boy was sure to ask: 'Tell us 
a story, one of -the wisdom tales of the beginning of our 
tribe.' (The old man who answered would be the story- 
teller of the tribe, its teacher really, for where there are no 
books, it is the tales that are told from the earliest memory 
of their fathers' fathers that hold the wisdom and the truth 
men find and pass to their childrens' children.) ,So sitting 
where his face was lighted by the fire he told them the story 
they loved almost best of all sifting the dusty earth through 
his fingers as he talked. And this was his story ('Genesis II, 
vs. 4-23): 

When the old man ceased the fathers and mothers sat 
looking into the fire or up at the stars so far over head, say- 
ing to themselves, 'Lo, the beginning of all life is with 
Jehovah, yea even the stars and the food for each day and 
the water that cools our thirst,' And the young men and 
maidens dreamed of the new families that would be some 
day and thought: <Lo, the love of the children and of the 
husband and wife is of Jehovah and He maketh new 
families.' 

Then when the beautiful Temple was built, the priests 
found the old story told through the years around the camp 
fire so simple that they longed for a more stately form in 
which to express the faith of the people that the very source 
of their life was with Jehovah. It was at this time that the old 

307 



story began to be told in poetical form with such richness 
of figure and rhythm of verse as fitted the beauty of the 
Temple. But still there were many who loved the old story 
well and therefore at the first of the Book of thg Begin- 
nings are found both ways of declaring the faith of their 
fathers in Jehovah, the stately poem first as is natural and 
then the camp fire story. 



Triangles for Girl Reserves 




HAVE you ever noticed that many electric trains use 
miles and miles of triangles overhead to steady the 
wires which carry the power? 

Girl Reserves stretch over miles of country and they, too, 
may be triangles for power and help hold the line steady for 
all girls. The triangles of power which Girl Reserves hold 
are in home, school and community. Sometimes it is not easy 
to see just how the line can be kept steady and so Alice G. 
Moore has written for all Girl Reserves these triangles which, 
if thought about at corps meetings and at home, may help 
Girl Reserves to become triangles of power. 

308 



MYSELF 



May the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be 
always acceptable in Thy sight, O Lord, my rock and my redeemer. 
Psalm 19, xiv. 




MYSELF 

"Think truly and thy words 
Shall the world's famine feed; 
Speak truly and each word of thine 
Shall be a fruit seed. 
Live truly and thy life 
Shall be a great and noble creed." 

To Think About Together 

Recall some verse you have memorized and particularly like. 
What is the value of memorizing worth-while things? 

Why do you think it is important to read good books? In 
what ways do our friends influence our thoughts? How will 
our thoughts about others determine our actions when we are 
with them? Do people judge us more often by what we say 
or by what we do. Is it true that "actions speak louder than 
words"? 

Read Philippians 4:8. Why do you think this verse might 
be a good motto for "finding and giving the best"? Do you 
believe that "as you think, so you are"? 

309 



To Think About Alone 

What do I like to think about when I am alone? Do these 
thoughts help me "to find the best"? If I could hear my 
conversations repeated at the close of a day, would it make 
any difference in what I say! Am I always sure that my 
thoughts are true and kind before I speak of another? Have 
I the courage to say what I know is right? 

HEALTH 

Know ye not that ye are a temple of God and that the spirit of 
God dwelleth, in you? I Cor, 6, xix. 




HEALTH 
I am helping to build a highway 

For great and noble deeds 
That are waiting to hurry forward 

To the call of the world's great needs, 
I must build it strong and steady 

For the way can no weakness show, 
Lest thoughts and deeds to conquer wrong 

With faltering footsteps go. 
I will build with care my highway, 

For the temple of God is there, 
The way must be free from barriers, 

If the best I find and share. 

310 



To Think and Talk About Together 

What are the things you think we must remember to do 
in order to keep well ? What three "don'ts" should we observe ? 
How could one divide one's days into work, play and sleep in 
order to keep at one's best? How does the proper amount of 
sleep affect grades in school? Does our posture when we 
study have anything to do with the health? Is it easy to 
be cheerful when one has a headache? How does health 
affect disposition? Do you think that many of our illnesses 
are caused by our own carelessness? Are some caused by the 
thoughtlessness of others? What responsibility do we have 
to others for keeping well? 

KNOWLEDGE 

Happy is the man that findeth wisdom and the man that getteth 
understanding. For the gaining of it is better than the gaining of 
silver and the profit thereof than fine gold. Prov. 3, xiii, xiv. 




KNOWLEDGE 
Books will be like friends to me, 

If I truly care. 
They will open up their hearts, 

Deepest joys to share. 
But they cannot give me more 

Than printed page can give; 
Only friends and being friends 

Teach me how to live, 

311 



To Talk About When Together 

Sometimes a girl says: "Oh, I'm not going on to school; 
I'm going to work." 

Should a girl go to school as long as possible? Why? 

What difference does the motive make whether we study 
because we wish to know the lesson or simply for a high 
grade ? 

Think of ways of increasing one's knowledge outside of 
school hours. 

How might our knowledge grow during a* walk in the 
country ? 

Why do we often miss seeing the interesting and beautiful 
things all about us? 

For what reasons do you think we should have a knowledge 
of the Bible? 

To Think About When Alone 

Do I gain knowledge entirely from books, or do I learn from 
people by being a good hostess? 

Am I too eager to have my own experiences heard? 

SERVICE 

Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of these my brethren, even these least 
ye did it unto me. Matt. 25, xl. 




312 



SERVICE 

We serve by every loving thought 

For those about us day by day; 
A smile, a word, some kindness wrought, 

A letter to some one far away. 

There still another gift must be, 
If service would be great and true 

The gift of self, unbound and free, 
For what we are is service, too. 

To Talk About When Together 

If certain things are required of us at home, how can we 
make this real service? Does the spirit in which we do our 
work make a difference? 

How about making things easier at home by putting away 
books and clothes? What are other ways of being of real 
service at home? 

Did you ever think when you carelessly threw a paper in 
the street how your city would look if everyone did this? 
Do you think helping to keep the city clean is a patriotic 
service? Can you think of other ways in which you might 
serve your community? 

Have you served folks in other parts of the world in the 
last year through your club, church or as an individual? 

Did serving those folks make you any more interested in 
them? 

Would knowing more about girls in other lands make you 
wish to be of service to them? How would this service make 
you a world citizen? 

To Think About When Alone 

What can I do today that will be real service? 

Think of the many different people Jesus served and the 
many ways He helped them. See how many you can recall; 
then find others in Luke. 

313 



SPIEIT 

Jesus advanced in wisdom and stature and in favor with God and 
man. Luke 2, lii. 




SPIRIT 

Help me to grow in spirit, 

Lord, I ask, 
More ably to fulfill 

Every task. 
Teach, me to speak in kindness 

Words of cheer, 
Courage for all who suffer 

And who fear. 
Teach me Thy way of loving 

Every day. 
Give me Thy spirit of service, 

Master, I pray. 

To Talk About When Together 

Think of Florence Nightingale, Clara Barton, Edith OavelL 
What kind of spirit did they have? 

Can we think of some acts of people we know which show 
the same spirit? 

What opportunities might we have every day to show a 
spirit of courage? Of unselfishness? Of helpfulness? 

314 



Why are there so many songs written about smiles? 
How does being grouchy affect others? What kind of 
spirit does it show? 

Think of some of the reasons so many people followed 
Jesus wherever He went. 

Why did He grow in favor with men? 

How do you think He grew in favor with God? 

To Think About When Alone 

Am I increasing my circle of friends by being friendly? 
Is my spirit loving, cheerful and helpful? 



BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. 
Books for reading and study by advisers: 
Adams, Charlotte "The Mind of the Messiah." 
Betts, George E. "How to Teach Religion." 
Brown, Charles "Religion of a Layman/' 
Coe, George E. "The Spiritual Life)' 
Cope, Henry F. "Religious Education and the Family." 
Crowe, Martha Foote "Christ in the Poetry of To-day." 
Davis, Maud "Religious Education and the Younger Girl." 
Elliott, Harrison "How Jesus Met Life Questions." 
Glover, T. R. "The Jesus of History." 
Houghton, Louise Seymour "Telling Bible Stories." 
Hunting, Harold B.- "The Story of Our Bible." 
Kent "The Historical iBible" (4 Vol. Old Testament). 
Miller, Elizabeth "The Dramatization of Bible Stories." 
Moxcey, Mary "Girlhood and Character." 
Ofcttey "Short History of the Hebrew People." 
Richardson, Norman E. "Religious Education of Adolescents." 
Rhibany, Abraham M. "The Syrian Christ." 
Smith, David "The Days of His Flesh." 
Stone, Mabel E. "Training the Girl Through Worship." 
Woods, Edward <S. "Modern Discipleship." 

315 



Study courses for use with girls: 
Cutler, Ethel "Out of Doors in the Bible." 
Gerwick, Katharine "The Ultimate Quest." 
Richards, Katherine "The Golden Word." 
Slack, Elvira "Jesus the Man of Galilee." 
Thoburn, Helen "Christian Citizenship for Girls/' 
Thoburn, Helen "Studies in Knowing Jesus Christ." 
Ward, Jane Shaw "Shanghai -Sketches." 

MATERIAL FOR STUDY ON WOULD FELLOWSHIP. 
Burton, Badley "India, Beloved of Heaven." 
Coehran, Jean "Foreign Magic." 
Cohen, Rose "Out of the Shadow." 

Dewey, John and Evelyn "Letters from China and Japan." 
Emerson, Ruth "Japan To-day." 
Kellerman, Janet Harvey -"Children of Japan." 
Kipling, Rudyard "The Eyes of Asia." 
MacKenzie, Jean "African Adventures." 
Matthews, Basil "Yarns of the Near East." 
Sherwood, F. A.- "Glimpses of South America." 
Tagore, Rabindranath "The Crescent Moon." 
Ward, Jane Shaw "Shanghai Sketches." 



CHAPTER II. 

HEALTH EDUCATION AND RECBEATION. 

HEALTH is attainable in a much greater degree than the 
ordinary person realizes. It means much more than just 
being free from serious ailment. Children believe that things 
are won by wishing; adults know that the best things of life 
are only earned by joyous and determined effort. All the ster- 
ling values of life must be striven for. Girls are likely to take 
health for granted and to assume that here at least is some- 
thing one does not have to work for. But "something for 

316 



nothing" does not apply to health any more than it does to any 
other of the real treasures of existence. 

Whether the normal girl is splendidly well or just not sick 
depends largely upon herself, for good health habits are the 
way to good health. One should not be satisfied with anything 
less than complete health, which makes possible the fullest ex- 
pression of one's powers physical, mental, emotional, and spir- 
itual. All these various aspects of the individual's well-being 
form what is really one inseparable whole. The most economi- 
cal way to work for health is to strive for wholeness of life. 

Health is a vital, positive thing which in one sense may be 
regarded as an obligation to society and to the person possess- 
ing it, but which, over and above that, is a right and a privil- 
ege which every girl should claim. Health makes its contribu- 
tion in many ways that appeal to girls. It gives beauty; it 
gives energy for work; it gives zest for play,, and a great 
capacity for enjoyment. Health makes for ambition and for 
happiness as nothing else can do. 

This phase of a Girls* Work program -cannot be too greatly 
stressed, for teen-age girls can do more toward building healthy, 
robust bodies than can older people. No girl can acquire later 
this same kind of health and strength which should have come 
during adolescence. A health program involves much more than 
physical exercise: it means the right proportion and kind of 
work, play, love and worship. The definite health education 
program* of the Girl Reserve Movement is found in all of the 
several programs for grade school, junior high school, and high 
school girls and for younger girls in business, industry and 
business colleges. For the grade school girl, the many honors 
which are listed under health offer to the adviser a unique op- 
portunity to make vivid through demonstration and very simple 
plain discussion -the road to health. For the place which health 
education holds in the programs for high school girls and 
younger girls in business and industry and business colleges, 
see sections of Chapter 2, Section IV. 

317 



The subject of health is by no means prosaic or humdrum 
when rightly presented by secretaries and advisers. Its most 
practical aspects may become absorbing topics of conversation 
among the members of a class or club. The subject need not be 
forbiddingly serious and heavy. Unless the girls inject into 
their response some of the liveliness which is natural to their 
age, the adviser may be sure that the subject is not being right- 
ly presented. The girl who presented the health physician at 
the close of the lecture with clever rhymes of appreciation ex- 
pressed a fundamental principle of health education quite as 
truly as if she had attempted a more formal and dignified state- 
ment. 

True health education is not something which is made up of 
odds and ends of personal hygiene, even though the odds and 
ends may in themselves be favorable to health. True health 
education must be based on a constant recognition of health as 
a positive value and as the physical, mental, moral and spirit- 
ual well-being of the whole individual. 

The author of the "Health Talks'" listed at the close of this 
chapter gives it as her experience that groups of girls can be 
just as easily interested in the harmonious processes of life as 
in a limited subject like sex hygiene. In actual practice she 
found that the groups which came for the talks on ''Foods the 
Source of Joyful Work and Play" were just as large as those 
who came for the talks on "Love and Health." The best type 
of sex education, like the best type of teaching on posture, diet, 
and exercise, is that in which the special subject falls into place 
as a part of the general subject of health. 

A special talk on diet, for example, may be made to include 
by implication a whole philosophy of health. A discussion of 
foods can be made and should be made the approach to the 
broadest and most inspiring of health ideals. The story of 
food and what it means to the human being is full of genuine 
romance and readily appeals to the girPs imagination. The 
history of the functional activities related to food is a splendid 

318 



lesson in respect for the human body and logically teaches the 
interrelation of physical and mental habits and the relation of 
both to character and personality. 

Similarly, the discussion of posture, exercise, and "good 
shoes for good feet" leads naturally in a real health program to 
the wider aspects of wholesome living 1 . If good health-habits 
are to be rightly taught, they must be pictured forth in action; 
they must be projected against the living, breathing future of 
the individual girl. Good health habits cannot be vividly por- 
trayed against a future of selfish inactivity and dependence or 
self -centered ambition. Health itself is not attainable without 
activity, self-reliance, and joy in service. For this reason, 
health education becomes social education, and the most special- 
ized health talk about posture, exercise, or feet serves its true 
purpose to the same degree that it builds towards normal and 
socialized living. 

The adviser of younger girls has a unique opportunity, one 
not to be later recalled. It is the age when the eighth grade 
graduate, to her later injury, dons her first pair of high-heeled, 
pointed shoes. It is the age when, as a result of bad shoes and 
the growth of self consciousness, the girl slips into bad habits 
of posture, one of the most important elements of health. It is 
the time when she should be exchanging the rough play of child- 
hood for the most highly coordinated forms o$ physical exer- 
cise. But too often the girl falls under the influence of a false 
ideal of refinement or succumbs to indolence, so that she does 
not build up habits or exercise, or the attitude of enjoyment to- 
ward them. The same tendency appears in regard to food and 
recreation; the girl has reached the age when she begins to ex- 
ercise her own choice in regard to all these things and it is pos- 
sible to help her in the formation of good health-habits with- 
out offending that sense of choice which it is the right of every 
young girl of this age to preserve. 

In general, the teen age or the younger girl group must be 
led through habit or performance, not by abstract teaching. It 

319 



is the age in which example is most compelling, when dreams 
and ideals and achievements loom large in the young girl's 
future. Although the group sense and the social desires are 
waking, they are still in need of cultivation and less responsive 
to direct appeal. At this time, the girl views all standards with 
a personal and individualistic bias. It is an age when historical 
characters, pageantry, and the dramatization of life have a 
strong appeal. These things should be chosen for training in 
character or standard forming rather than the method of lec- 
tures or moralizing talks. Friendships are in the making, and 
there is at no time greater need for wholesome group habits 
and true boy and girl comradeship instead of the enervating 
beau or sweetheart attitude. Healthy types of friendship and 
comradeship can be taught through literature and history, with 
frank discussion from the girPs own point of view. By the 
critical comparison of values and types, she can be helped to 
stabilize and master her new, developing social sense, thus gam- 
ing a personal foundation for conduct based upon judgment and 
not upon mere "follow the leader" or "conventional" standards. 
The "give and take" which is developed through wholesome, nat- 
ural group association and play, provides excellent training for 
understanding of manners, custom and courtesy. This is need- 
ed to supplement the lessons learned within the family circle. 
The discipline of such intercourse becomes the means whereby 
they learn the. true significance of personal ambition, responsi- 
bility and opportunity. 

Individual application of reason and action and ideals should 
result, as far as possible, from the awakened interest and de- 
sire of the girl herself. 

Advice and instruction should be given, whenever possible, 
in response to the awakened interest and desire of the girl her- 
self. Her inquiries and criticisms should be answered as con- 
structively and broadly as seems possible, and yet on the basis 
of a real understanding of what the individual girl would be, 
ignoring as much as is possible the failures of undeveloped 

320 



characteristics of her age. She is over-conscious of her inade- 
quateness to the social world around her; this is physiological 
as well as psychological hence the ease with which she is up- 
set, becomes hysterical, feels misunderstood and falls into tan- 
trums. Never is there a time when sympathetic leadership can 
do more to make or mar the visions and the powers of her 
future life. 

Healthful habits cannot be too boldly urged, but the fact 
should not be forgotten that the "do and don't" stage of moral 
teaching is passing rapidly, if it is not already a thing of the 
past. But youth will listen when we say: "This is the alto- 
gether desirable thing," or "That will enlarge your oppor- 
tunity to become what you want to be above all else." 

The skilled adviser can learn to understand the way of help- 
ing girls to choose the best, but in order to do this, she must 
understand herself what is the best and respond herself to its 
appeal. In the study of the health education program of the 
Bureau of Social Education she will find much valuable guid- 
ance toward the best health habits which the experts of to-day 
can offer. 

Many Associations will include in their all-department pro- 
grams a Health" Week, at which time will be stressed work by 
a Health Unit consisting of a physician, and a physical educa- 
tion secretary. The examinations, which are given, should be 
medical, physical and inspirational. They are essential to give 
the girl the constructive point of view of health, to cause her 
to realize where she stands as to health and where she might 
stand. They offer an opportunity for instruction in health 
habits, including habits of mind the girl's attitude toward her 
work, her friends, her fun, her aspirations. These examina- 
tions should include heart and lung examination and a strength 
test. In addition to this technical assistance, girls with the 
encouragement of their advisers, may do a great deal for them- 
selves through the Individual Health Program. The Health 
Inventory is the first step in the Individual Health Program. 

321 



Advisers will find very helpful a book entitled "Ten Talks to 
Girls on Health," which may be secured from The Womans 
Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. The following 
brief resume will indicate its helpfulness to an adviser: 

Introductory appeal to Club Leaders. 

1. Pulling Uphill or Running Down; this is an inspira- 
tional talk to the girls and explains what determines 
the choice of the Uphill Eoad. 

2. A Good Food-Tube A Basic Equipment for the Climb 
to Success; A Bad Food-Tube The Source of Blues 
and Failure. 

3. Teeth: The Best Friend You Have; gives the true 
story of the growth of teeth, so little understood, and 
the health-habits which preserve them* 

4. Foods: The Source of Joyful Work and Play. 

5. Exercise: A necessity for a Successful Climb. 

6. Hidden Traps on the Eoad to Success: Infections and 
Resistance to Them. Shows the value of courage and 
good health habits; the consequences of fear and self- 
neglect. 

7. Drugs: The Most Misleading Sign on the Way. 

8. The Feet on which to climb to Success or limp to 
Failure, and posture which Aids or Retards us. 

9. Love and Health: The true meaning of Love is the 
making of Personality, the Building of Health, in 
Creative Work. 

10. World Health: The Value of Human Beings above 

that of Material Things. 

In addition to the leaders' talks, the following pamphlet may 
be obtained from the Womans Press. It is adapted for the 
use of the individual girl or may be incorporated in the regu- 
lar program of a girl's club: 

The Health Inventory, with an Introduction. This contains 
questions on health habits under the following topics: the 
avoidance of headaches, indigestions, constipation, colds; bath- 

322 



ing, care of teeth, care of hair, diet, sleep, elimination, 
menstruation, clothing, posture of feet, exercise, work, and 
leisure, personal relationships. 

The following material published by The Womans Press 
gives valuable practical help toward individual health-building: 

Corrective Exercise Cards: twenty-two illustrations with de- 
tailed instructions. 

Exercises for Business and Professional Women: ten exer- 
cises recommended for daily practice. 

Health Pamphlets: a series of general talks on health. 

Foot Posture Posters: a set of seven posters for educational 
campaigns. 

Foot-tracing 'Charts: for use in testing the feet. 

Health Examination Cards Medical and Physical. For use 
in the detailed health examination. 

'Special Parties and Stunts: recreation material compiled 
by Era Betzner. 

Further guidance in the attainment of health and in the 
appreciation of true health values may be obtained from the 
official series of pamphlets which is published jointly by the 
Women's Foundation for Health, Bureau of Social Education, 
National Board, Y. W. C. A., and the Council on Health and 
Public Instruction, American Medical Association. Address 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

These pamphlets contain detailed and comprehensive material 
for a program of health, education. In each pamphlet there is 
a short, concise statement of what is meant by Positive Health. 

The series is developed as follows: 

1. An all-round discussion of health and health habits. 

2. Health examination cards with an interpretation and 
suggestions. 

3. How to conduct a Health Demonstration and how to 
plan a Health Foundation Center. 

323 



OF 
IN T^NY INDIVIDUAL LIFE 



Copyright 

Applied 

For 



Used by the permission of 
The Women's Foundation for Health 
129 East 52nd Street, New York City 
Secretary Dr. Josephine H. KLenyon 



These are fhe 
Not" losing sighf of fhese 
Use ta when necessary; 
Then go on ho Hie PosiHve 




-This is Hie PosiMve 
Focus Your 
AfhenHon 
-Here 




ConsJ-rucJ-ive 



324 




EVOLVING Berns OF VISION -As To THE^BUTH PROBLEM 
PUBLIC 




Modern: 

ScienhPic 
Boords o/'tlealrh 
Samtahon 

Scientific Research 
Diagnosis 
Specialists 
Public tlealth Nurses 
Red Cross Nurses 
Anh* -Tuberculosis NursftS 
Child Welfare 
Prenatal Work 
NuWHonal Clinics 
rc. 



The Future will Emphasize 

Consh-uchvc'tleall-h and Individual Responsibility 
tlealhh Physician 
Prochc.ng Phjrsiaon with tfe^h Rjmhe 
PUblic Demand for Conshruchve ttaa 



325 



4. A special pamphlet on Nutrition and Health. 

5. A special discussion of Mental Health. 

6. A special pamphlet on Reproduction and Health. 

By the study of thesa pamphlets 1 , prepared by specialists 
and experts, advisers of girls' clubs may increase their knowl- 
edge of health in such a way that they may become intelligently 
helpful to their club members. Girls themselves should finally 
arrive at the use of these pamphlets also, by way of a graduated 
course of reading-. The woman's movement for health needs a 
multitude of leaders; it has a place of influence for every girl 
who is aware of her opportunities and awake to the possibilities 
of increasing health by sharing it. 

As has been stated, adolescence is the very time when the 
donning of high heeled pointed a shoes marks the way to bad 
posture habits and the permanent crippling of the feet. There 
are certain goals which every girl should set for herself in 
regard to her feet, so that they will not only serve her "as 
a good understanding" but will also contribute to her state 
of health. Foot fatigue or discomfort results in lessened gen- 
eral health and efficiency and so her chance of success is reduced. 
Any girl should be eager to have her feet have (a) a straight 
inner border which means that the great toe is in line with the 
heel; (b) a strong long arch which means an inner line that 
does not touch the floor; (c) a good transverse arch, which means 
an absence of any callous on the ball of the foot; (d) all of the 
toes free and able to pick up pencils or marbles or to make a 
stocking pass back under the foot when portions of it are 
gripped by the toes. 

This may be achieved to a certain degree by the normal foot 
position in standing and walking (a matter which deserves very 
careful attention since the correct method is to place the feet 
close together and pointing straight ahead, not toeing out as 
people have been taught for so long) and by exercise; but 
most of all is it accomplished by the care with which the feet 

326 



are dressed. The cuts on page 328 indicate what can 
and does happen to the foot which is improperly shod. It also 
shows the beauty of foot with which most girls begin life. 




The Feet and How They Should Be Dressed. 

"Men do not walk on pegs why should women ?" 
"Do you buy shoes to fit someone's eyes or your feet?" 
Such questions are being asked repeatedly to-day by thoughtful 
advisers of girls and by girls themselves who have determined 
somehow to find an answer to tired feet at night. 

327 



Shoes should have a straight inner border, which follows the 
line of the normal foot ; there should be room for the toes with- 
out crowding; a broad low heel and a flexible shank which al- 
lows action of the arch muscles are indispensable to foot com- 
fort. It is believed that the low cut shoe allows better circula- 
tion and increased muscle strength. 

A study of the feet and of correct shoes in which to dress 
them should be a part of every group program each year. Dis- 
cussions centering about the two questions which are stated 
above, and the writing of two or three hundred word essays 
on "A Five Room Apartment With Eoom for Every Toe" or 
some similar subject can be made still more fascinating by the 
making of foot pictures at club meetings. Secure large sheets 
of brown wrapping paper, some printer's ink and some benzine. 
Place the printer's ink on the sole of the foot and make a 
print upon the brown paper. The ink will come off easily when 
the benzine is applied. There should be discussion on the fol- 
lowing points: Is the great toe straight? Why not? What 
kind of an arch do I have ? Why ? Draw an outline of the foot 
on paper and then place the shoe over this outline and trace 
it. Is the shoe a "good five-room apartment?" Grade the feet 
under the four points mentioned in the preceding paragraph. 

The writing of foot grams is another way of developing an 
interest in the feet. Some of the following may serve as 
models: 

Stand and walk toeing straight forward. 

Use your toes dig in. 

Use your foot muscles. 

Posture Tracing : 

The importance of correct posture as an expression of 
health cannot be overestimated and one of the very best ways to 
help- counteract some of the slovenly habits of standing and 
sitting which have been aided by the acceptance of certain styles 
of dress as the height of fashion, is to have the girls make 
posture tracings. A good posture tracing can be made by the 

329 



use of a large piece of brown paper, a candle and a soft lead 
pencil. Two girls can work together. The paper should be 
pinned to the wall and the candle lighted and set on a table 
in such a position that when the girl whose posture is to be 
traced, stands between the paper and the candle, the shadow of 
the profile of her body falls on the paper. The girl working 
with her then traces the outline with the soft" pencil. The sil- 
houette which is good and of use in determining her posture 



(i) (2) (3) (4) 

must not be blurred by clothing. A close fitting union suit or 
an Annette Kellerman swimming suit should be worn. It should 
fit closely into the small of the back. After tracings have been 
made for the group, they should be made into a temporary 

330 



exhibit and used to focus the ensuing discussion on correct pos- 
ture. The following points should be considered in the examina- 
tion of the silhouettes: 1. (a) is the head well balanced?; (b) 
the line showing the back of the neck should be almost vertical; 
(c) the chin should be in. 2. (a) does the spine have a normal 
curve backward or an exaggerated one?; (b) are the shoulders 
round? 3. (a) is the chest normally full, low or flat?. 4. Is 
there a normal curve in the lower spine or a hollow back? 5. 
Is the abdomen slightly curved forward or prominent? 

The tracings opposite indicate some of the defects which girls 
need to recognize and correct; figure one is representative of 
GOOD POSTURE and may be' used as a standard ; figure two 
shows the head thrown forward, a long round back, and a promi- 
nent abdomen; figure three shows a hollow back, and a promi- 
nent abdomen; figure four shows a round upper back, and a 
prominent abdomen. 

How should girls assume good posture? SIT TALL! STAND 
TALL! WALK TALL! Push upward from the arches, trunk 
and the top of the head. 

FUNDAMENTALS OF A DIET 

The Growing Girl: 

1. Total quantity offered in 24 hours should not be less 
than 2,500 calories. 

2. Proportion of constituents important. Meat once a 
day or a protein equivalent. Green leafy vegetables 
twice daily. Fruit, raw or stewed, once a day as a 
minimum. 

3. Protective foods 

(1) Milk and dairy products: The chance to drink at 
least one glass of whole milk once a day. 

(2) Leafy vegetables 

(3) Foods made from whole grains, as: whole wheat 
bread, available cereals from whole grains. 

(4) Eggs 

331 



4. Foods for bulk and roughage, such as: root vegetables, 
bran* raw fruits, including skins. 

5. Food should be well prepared: 
Cooked sufficiently. 
Appetizingly flavored and served. 

Raw foods selected relishes, such as: radishes, olives, 

pickles, celery. 

Aesthetic value should not be lost in service. 

6. Some latitude in choice given: such as, choice of cereal, 
choice of vegetable. 

7. Avoid choosing two starchy foods at one time. 

8. Opportunity to drink the necessary eight glasses of 
water every day. 

General application of these fundamentals of a diet to the 
girl's life: 

A. The individual girl should be educated by talks and 
illustrations at regular club meetings to use her per- 
sonal judgment in the selection of proper and sufficient 
quantities( of food to meet her requirements. This 
is really more than a matter of judgment; it is a mat- 
ter of responsibility. The relationship of food and 
sleep and rest and relaxation should also be stressed. 
For too many girls, both in school and in industry 
there is no opportunity for relaxation or rest after 
the noon meal. In some way this must be achieved. 

B, The 'exercise of her judgment should be trained 
especially in the matter of what a girl should pur- 
chase for those "in-between" meals which seem so 
essential to adolescence ; fruits oranges, bananas, 
prunes, nuts, figs, raisins in preference to candy. 
The quality of ice cream (i. e. its food value) should 
concern a girl and simple biscuits should be chosen 
to eat with it rather than rich cake. 

332 



SUGGESTED SAMPLE DIET FOR ONE DAY. 

Breakfast: Fruit raw or cooked. 

Cereal choice if possible, one cooked, one 
dry portions should be equivalent in food 
value. 



Necessary 



Desirable 



Noon Meal: 
Necessary 



Evening Meal: 



Necessary 



Preferably whole grains oats, cream of 

barley, wheatina or cracked wheat. 

Toast or rolls. 

Butter (not a butter substitute,) 

Bacon or Eggs. 

Sweet of some sort marmalade, etc. 
Warm fluid tea, coffee; (coffee offered only 
in the morning is most desirable for 
adolescent). 



A meat dish. 

A starchy vegetable. 

A green leafy vegetable preferably fresh. 

Bread choice 1 , whole wheat or white. 

Butter. 

Dessert, preferably fruit. 

Relish if desired. 

Thick soup or vegetable soup, cooked to 
conserve the soluble salts. 

One dish, such as macaroni, hominy or rice, 
with cheese, or escallop ed fish, or escalloped 
vegetables, or escalloped potatoes. 
Baked beans, not more than once a week. 
Salad or green vegetable. 
Bread choice of whole wheat or white. 
Butter. 
Simple dessert. 



333 



Offer one glass of milk if desired, or cocoa. 
(Tea and coffee not desirable at night). 
Relish if desired. 

EXERCISES FOB GIRL BESERVES AND OTHER TEEN-AGE GIRLS 

Daily Exercises, 10 Minutes Morning and Night Loose Clothes. 
To look one's best, to be efficient, and to be fit are a closely 
linked trio, with fitness as the greatest of the three. Looking 
one's best and being efficient depend so tremendously on fitness 
of health, that we may truthfully say the latter is the source 
and fountain of the other two. Everyone wants to look her 
best that goes without saying; and nowadays efficiency is the 
keynote of all success. Health, the natural birthright of every 
girl, helps to keep her looking her best. That every girl may 
come into her birthright, these exercises are offered by the 
Bureau of Social Education of the National Board, Young 
Women's Christian Associations. 

I. Signaling. 

1. Stand feet parallel, hands at sides- 

2. Clap hands over head, bringing arms sideways upward 
and bending knees. 

Repeat 10 to 20 times. 

II. iSteamboat. 

1. Stand feet apart, arms shoulder height. 
. 2. Bend right knee, touching right foot with right hand. 

3. Stretch right knee and sway to left, bending left 
knee, touch left foot with left hand. 

Repeat 5 to 10 times. 

III. Brakeman. 

1. Stand feet parallel, arms shoulder height, palms up. 

2. Make small circles with arms bringing arms forward, 
upward and backward. 

Repeat 10 to 20 times. 

334 




Ill 



IV. 'Chopping Wood. 

1. Stand feet apart, both hands clasped on right shoulder, 
body twisted right as if holding axe. 

2. Chop wood, bringing both hands down between legs. 

3. Swing back to erect position, placing both hands on 
left shoulder, body twisted left. 

4. Continue, alternating left and right. 
Repeat 8 to 10 times. 

V. Climbing Ladder. 

1. Grasp a ladder with left hand, bend right knee upward 
and place right foot on ladder rung. 

2. Climb by reversing arm and leg positions, bend knees 
high. 

Repeat 10 to 20 times. 

VI. Batting Baseball. 

1. iStand feet apart, body twisted to right. 

2. As leader throws ball, swing bat at ball, transfer 
weight to left foot. 

3. Continue three times right and three times left. 
Repeat 10 to 20 times. 

VII. Bowling. 

1. Stand holding ball in right hand, balancing it with 
left. 

2. Run forward about three steps, starting with left foot. 

3. Bowl ball with right hand, resting left on left knee. 

4. .Stand erect, bringing right foot up to left. 

5. Continue five times right, five times left. 
Repeat 8 to 10 times. 

VIII. Weather Vane. 

1. iStand feet apart, hands on hips. 

2. Twist body to left. 

3. Twist body all way around to right. 

4. Continue alternating left and right, keeping feet flat 
on floor. 

Repeat 10 to 20 times. 

336 




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337 



VII 




VIII 



338 



IX 



JL. Jumping Jack. 

1. iStand on toes, hands at sides. 

2. Jump with feet apart, clapping hands over head. 

3. Jump feet tog-ether, bringing hands to sides. 
Repeat 10 to 20 times. 




X 



X. Rocket.. 

1. Stand arms bent. 

2. Bang; stretch arms up quickly. 

3. Szzz; lower arms sideways downward* 
Repeat 5 to 15 times. 

339 



Many girls do not get enough, of the right kind of exercise. 
Some school girls do not really exercise and some younger girls 
in business and industry have work which keeps them at desks 
or machines all day. Before girls know it they find themselves 
with a poor complexion which is really due to sluggish digestion, 
poor circulation, the wrong kind of food. Sometimes too, a tired 
brain and something called "blues" come at the same time. 
The right kind of exercise will do much for all of these. A 
good slogan for every A number 1 American Girl is Plenty of 
fresh air, regular systematic exercise and lots of water to 
drink. 




HEALTH RECORD 
of 



Name. 



DAILY HEALTH CODE No. I 

Ten Counts for Health. 

1. Drink six glasses of water daily, 

2. Eat an apple or an orange and fresh vegetables every 
day. 

3. Sleep eight hours with windows open. 

4. Brush the teeth at least twice daily. 

340 



5. Eat at regular intervals three meals a day. 

6. Breathe deeply (in good air) ten times daily. 

7. Keep the body clean by a daily tub or sponge bath. 

8. Take one hour of outdoor exercise daily. 

9. Wear shoes with low heels, or approved shoes and suit- 
able clothing, 

10. 'Cultivate good posture: S. U. S. Sit up straight .Stand 
up straight. 

MONTHLY HEALTH CODE No. 2. 

"Joy, temperance and repose, 
Slam the door on the doctor's nose." 

1. Keep a record of your chest expansion. 

2. Mark your improvement in posture. 

3. Weight adjustment. 

4. Attend at least three health talks or health programs in 
your club. 

5. Help some other girl to understand and keep Code No. 1. 

6. Learn how to play one new active team game every six 
months. 

7. Attend a summer camp or spend at least one night in 
camp during the year. 

8. Write a paragraph of one hundred words, stating what 
you have discovered about Health and Personality. 

9. Measure your monthly progress in the care of your feet 
by a decrease of corns and callouses, fatigue, and in bet- 
ter walking and standing habits, and in wearing of com- 
fortable shoes. 

10. Health Service Keep a baby in a health camp or pro- 
vide money for a milk or ice fund, or swat flies. 

341 



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345 



HOW TO USE THE OHAET ON THE GIRL RESERVE 
STANDARD MEASUREMENTS. 

Each interval equals five units. 

First: Find the seven points for the "-Should Be" line, accord- 
ing to the standards shown on the chart for a girl of that 
age. 

Second: Draw the line in black ink. 

Third: Find the seven points for the "I Am" line, according to 
the actual measurements. 

Fourth: Draw this line in red ink. 

Fifth: Compare the two lines and then begin to plan for im- 
provement. 



Grade posture and feet according to the following scale: 
A = 90 100 

B = 80 90 

C = 70 80 

D = 60 70 



346 




347 



Suggested topics for talks at regular club meetings. Any 
one of these should be developed in relation to the Health Edu- 
cation material found on page 816. 



Talks on Hygiene and Sanitation. 
Suggested Topics Home and Community Sanitation: 

1. Careful Choice of Food. 

2. The Back Yard. 

3. Relation of Clean Streets to Public Health. 

4. Pure Milk. 

5. Food and Flies. 

6. Home Sanitation. 

7. The Relation of Good Health to Good Citizenship. 

8. Bangers of Impure Water .Supply. 

Personal Health Talks. 

1. The Mouth and Teeth. 

2. Value of Exercise and Rest. 

3. The Air We Breathe, and the Value of Ventilation. 

4. Patent Medicines. (Exploitation of people's attitudes of 
mind.) 

5. Cleanliness. 

6. Habit Postures, Good and Bad. 

7. Feet a "Good Understanding." 

8. Relation of Wholesome Food to Good Health. 

9. 'Common Sense Hints on Dress. 
Reference: "How to Live" Fisher and Fiske. 

348 



Recreation 

Recreation is the renewal of life in the individual. This 
renewal is found, as well as expressed, through activity, whether 
work or play. In creative production, mental and manual, there 
is a field where work and play meet and overlap each other. 
Work in which there is no element of play is drudgery; and 
recreation in which activity and effort have no place lacks the 
creative element which makes for renewal of life. 

The rhythm of life requires that relaxation or inactivity, too, 
shall have its due; but this is not the whole of recreation, which 
must be a positive and not merely a negative use of leisure 
time. Recreation is essential for the maintenance of balance, 
beauty, and wholeness of life, and it is, therefore, essential to 
health. iFor health is not a limited, negative state of just not 
being sick, but a positive, all-round condition of the individual 
which combines physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well- 
being. 

The conception of health as wholeness and beauty of life is 
the one which is most acceptable to girls, for whom the mere 
absence or presence of disease is naturally not a subject which 
has a strong appeal. In the same way, the view of recreation 
as the positive evaluation of leisure time is more congenial to 
youth than the negative idea of just not being at work. But 
it is true that girls need to be guided into the positive view of 
health and the positive view of recreation, all the more since 
their adult sisters nowadays are finding it necessary to retrain 
themselves in the attitude of responsibility toward health and 
recreation. 

The girl, struggling for self-expression, is conscious of 
energy welling up within her, but is hampered and groping in 
her search for outlets. We say quite truly of her, "she is 

349 



trying to find herself." This intangible self seems for the 
moment almost hopelessly obscured by the varied moods and 
emotions which threaten to engulf her. Under wise leadership 
she discovers that these troublesome forces are only trouble- 
some until she learns to guide them and that the normal develop- 
ment of one's emotional life is a necessary part of a well- 
rounded personality. 

There conies, in one form or another, a great yearning which 
enmeshes the girl in web of fantasy. Her air-castles are her 
instinctive protection and conservation of the inner urge which 
is as yet inarticulate, which as yet cannot find an appropriate 
outlet in the world of fact, and which, nevertheless, is as*neces- 
sary for her individual existence as sunlight and fresh air. She 
tries out in secret, as it were, a multitude of paths along which 
her soul would go and returns from each adventure with her 
secret still intact. These ideal journeyings are indeed "delicate 
blossoms" and not easily discovered. Yet, somewhere amid 
all the fancied outlets is the right one or the right group of 
outlets for the individual girl. 

It is through her understanding of the value and importance 
of the girl's dreams that the adviser will be able to do her 
task successfully. They are the elusive, but indispensable aid 
of anyone who tries to help the girl. What she will one day 
be lies enfolded within the day-dreams of her present. The 
time will come when she will look back and laugh at some of 
them as childish fancies, but others she will recognize as the 
tiue and valid unfolding of her own distinctive "self" or per- 
sonality. The adviser will do well to keep this future in mind 
as something which is not separate, but is inherent in the girl's 
idealism of to-day. The leader will engage and develop the 
strongest interest of a girl or group of girls, in so far as she 
has the tact and insight to understand ideals that are too un- 

350 



formed to find expression and too sensitive to expose them- 
selves to the critical or materialistic gaze. 

"Dreamer of Dreams? We take the taunt with gladness, 
Knowing that God, beyond the years you see, 
Has wrought the dreams, that count with you for madness, 
Into the texture of the world to be." 

The adviser of a group of girls who understands the spirit 
of recreation and appreciates its true function will know how 
to make their everyday interests into recreational activities. 
It is not necessary to invent material for recreation; the best 
material exists in the habits and interests of daily life. The 
girl's attitude toward exercise and work, fellowship and re- 
ligion, is the fundamental consideration. It is the creative 
impluse working through the program which makes it mean 
renewal of life and release of spirit. 

The adviser of a group of girls has for her initial guidance 
the predominating interest of her group. This may be basket- 
ball, or dancing, or books. With any of these interests for a 
point of departure, it is possible to develop standards of beauty 
and values of life. Any of these activities may become the 
means of increasing the girl's consciousness of the wholeness 
of life. 

A proposed program should be gone over with this emphasis 
in mind and a method of carrying it out should be chosen by 
which this aim may be achieved. Then, when the time in the 
program for recreation arrives, the activities engaged in will 
express not only the chief interest of the group but will be .the 
source of new activities, new interests, and new standards. In 
recreation the girl should learn that unity of life may be main- 
tained in the presence of many diverse elements. 

Such a program may become the right education of the 
emotions, if it adds to the elements of interpretation and appre- 

351 



cfation the further element of action. The emotional experience 
which is always a part of recreation should culminate in the 
desire for action, which is another and an equal part of recrea- 
tion. 

Outstanding channels for the expression of this desire for 
action may be found in forms of play which express the love 
of color, of music, and of drama, as well as that instinctive love 
of home which is fundamental in girl nature. The play which 
satisfies these interests and desires by directing them into chan- 
nels of suitable activity is the beginning- of that much neglected 
art, "the art of living." It brings new joy and freshness into 
social intercourse and helps in "the art of living." It helps 
in the formation of happy personal relationships, on which 
depend the ultimate success of home, school, and community 
relationships. 

There are four types of recreation, each of which is com- 
plementary to the others. In order to balance the year's recrea- 
tion, each of the four types should have its share in increasing 
a girl's joy in living. 

Individual Eecreation. 

Every girl should learn to enjoy solitude by having at her 
command occupations which dispel the sense of loneliness and 
create in its stead the pleasurable sense of opportunity. The 
ability to swim, to skate, to row, to ride horseback; the knowl- 
edge of flowers, trees, birds, geography, music, photography, 
handicrafts, literature and art any and all of these are a 
resource of happiness for the individual. It is absolutely neces- 
sary that a girl should learn to develop within herself the ability 
to play alone. For it is thus, that skill and expertness are 
acquired in any accomplishment or art, and the consciousness 
of power within the girl comes to be based on real effort and 
achievement. To do good work and appreciate good work in 

352 



solitude means the enrichment of her personality; it helps her 
to win friends and hold them; and it aids in making life joyous 
for herself and, through her, for all those with whom she comes 
in contact. 

Family Recreation. 

The proper balance in the education of the emotions requires 
that solitary play should be supplemented with social play. When 
either is preferred to the total exclusion of the other, the girl's 
emotional development suffers. 

In the family the girl finds her first social group. Her future 
social relationships are built up out of the early habits and 
attitudes developed within the home circle. Unfortunately, the 
parents sometimes allow burdensome responsibility or ambitious 
striving to drive the spirit of play out of the door. This results 
in an emotional poverty in the home, the danger of which is 
too little appreciated. The younger members of the family 
begin to feel that home is the realm of must and don't and 
that real play is only to be found in the outside world. The 
commercialized amusements of the present day thrive upon the 
exploitation of this attitude, which can only be counteracted by 
the recognition that amusement and play have a necessary and 
a vital place in family life. The individuals of a family need to 
learn to play together and groups of families need to learn to 
play together for the mingling of old and young in a spirit of 
recreation helps to keep alive the sympathy and understanding 
between old and young which so easily fails to function if not 
wisely cultivated. A health carnival, a tea, a party, a picnic, 
or an occasional business meeting of the club to which the 
families of the members are invited and served with refresh- 
ments by the girls, are all types of entertainment which should 
be included in the recreation program of the club. 

Club or Group Recreation. 

This type of recreation supplies the opportunity for inspira- 
tion that comes from fellowship and comradeship. Girls of the 

353 



same age have abundant common interests on which to base 
a program. While learning to play the game at home helps 
the girl later in her play-life with the group, it may happen 
also that she carries back into the home again the inspiration 
she has gained from the group. The development of individual, 
family and group recreation should all be directed in such a 
way that the one is an aid and encouragement to the other. 

Community Recreation. 

Community recreation is built up from the foregoing types. 
New possibilities arise, however, from the wider cooperation 
involved and the greater resources available. A club " may 
demonstrate to the community methods of recreation which are 
capable of adaptation for more inclusive groups and a larger 
number of individuals. Types of play which lend themselves 
well to community use are roller-skating parties, both indoors 
and outdoors; regular hikes, plays and pageants, hare and 
hound chases, match games between different groups or towns, 
swimming campaigns and community sings. The possibilities 
of community recreation are closely related to the particular 
facilities of the locality concerned, whether these are parks 
and play grounds, spacious public buildings, or a picturesque 
natural environment. In the right use of the existing facilities, 
there are always possibilities of satisfying the love which exists 
in young and old for romance and adventure 

Recreational Activities. 

Most of the activities which follow will prove available for 
anyone or all of the four types of recreation. The special events 
that occur in the development of these types, would meet the 
needs of one particular occasion or might be made part of 
a plan for a whole year's program. These suggestions may be 
given unlimited variety by adaptation to different forms of 
recreation, outdoor, indoor, athletic, social. For instance, almost 
any basketball game, played with balloons and limited dis- 

354 



tances, may become a social game, instead of being atHetic. In 
the same way, a "conversational game played at a Valentine 
Party with "Hearts' 7 as the topic, may become a Hallowe'en 
game with "Ghosts" as the topic of conversation.* 

A. Play Hours. 

The play hour offers an opportunity to the adviser to vivify 
the program of the club through the use of the play spirit, 
music, drama and; color. For instance, if the serious lesson 
of the day be world fellowship, the play hour may be a demon- 
stration of play in other lands, or; any other study may be 
thus continued over into the play-hour project. The hour 
should begin with a rollicking game to get everyone interested 
and eliminate self-consciousness. Then girls may teach games 
they know, not only using the entire group for this, but also 
breaking it up into smaller groups, so that all the girls may have 
an opportunity to teach. Each game should be followed by dis- 
cussion of the way in which it might be improved, where it 
would be fun to use it at home, or at a picnic. Girls should be 
encouraged to use the games and dances, songs and stories, 
which they learn, not only in pageants and plays, but at their 
parties and other social entertainments, in family and school 
and church groups. They should learn to apply all the materials 
of play in the most flexible way. 

The useful points in teaching games should be remembered: 

Be sure you know your game. 

The explanation should be brief and to the point. 

Waste no time in getting started. 

Watch the group for change of interest, changing the game 
just before the first person is ready to drop out. 

Insist on fair play. 

Friendliness is an essential factor. 

Give directions without scolding even if they don't listen! 
It will often suffice to start the direction, and then wait 
a moment and start over again. 

355 



Speak so that every member of the group can hear. 

When the game is a guessing game, make an effort to have 

all of the members hear and be heard. 
Guard against rowdyism in social gatherings. This can 

be done usually by changing the rhythm of the game 

being played or by substituting for it another activity 

of a different rhythm. 

B. Athletics. 

The spirit of team work so conspicuous among boys is often 
lacking in girls, therefore activities which develop this are much 
needed. They should provide an opportunity to arouse girls to 
the health value and the intrinsic interest of athletics. Train- 
ing for team games increases the efficiency of the group in all 
group activities. Fundamentals of big team games should be 
learned and may be used in other competitive undertakings. 

1. Individual Adaptations. 

Form in serving and hitting a tennis ball. Tether ball is an 

excellent way of developing skill and quickness. 

Pitching a baseball (stones may be used for practice in 

throwing, when on a hike). 

Batting a baseball. 

Serving and returning a volley ball. 

Basketball goal throwing and practice games such as 

goal throwing relays, allowing thirty seconds to throw 

as many goals as possible. Progressive goal throwing 

(progressive from easy positions to difficult ones). 

Ball passing. All kinds of ball passing games. 

Distance throw for form. 

Principles of Newcomb. 

Land Swimming drill. 

Kicking a soccer ball. 

2. Group Adaptations. 
Soccer ball. 
Volley ball. 

356 



Tennis. 
Baseball. 
Dodge ball. 
Wall ball. 
Kick ball. 
Crosstag. 
Chinese tag. 
Three deep. 

All kinds of passing; games (played either with bean- 
bags or an ordinary ball or basketball). 

Track meet (indoor and outdoor meets are splendid 
ways of bringing groups together and developing real 
sportsmanlike spirit). Such a program as the following 
could be used: 
Short sprints. 

Throwing balls for distance. 
Drilling. 

Folk dancing and singing (can be worked into a program 
with good effect). 
Relay races. 
'Competition balancing. 
A short game of volley ball. 
Tournament. 

C. Hiking. 

Nature study hikes, with contests for finding the 
largest variety of plants, trees, flowers, or birds. 
Bacon Bats. 

Over-night hikes with ponchos and blankets; sleeping 
under the stars. 
Hare and hound chases. 

Hikes, with volley ball (a string strung up between two 
trees will answer this purpose), baseball, story-telling 
singing around the fire, etc. 

D. Swimming. 

Class work the club going in together. 

357 



Splash parties. 

(The following articles in the water add to the pleasure 

of the participants.) 

a. Waterwings. 

b. Inner tube. 

c. Rubber and cork balls. 
e. Canoe. 

5. Camping. 
Week-end camps. 
Vacation camps. 
All summer camps. 

Canoeing, boating, horseback riding, launch parties. 

6. Winter sports. 
Coasting. 
Skiing. 
Skating. 
Snow shoeing. 

7* Pageants and dramatics for different occasions. 

Stunts which may dramatize different group experiences 

"A Day at Summer Camp" in the winter time, etc. 

Tableaux. 

Shadow Pictures. 

Spring Opening Fashion Show. 

Health Farces and Plays. 

Simple One Act Plays. 

Vesper service in which the dramatic and pictorial 

elements are used. 

8. Music. 

Dances of our Land and other Lands 
Songs of our Land and other Lands. 
Ukelele, mandolin, violin, piano, etc. 
Singing carols. 

9. Handicraft. (See Section V, Chapter IV.) 

358 



10. Parties and social events for girls; and for girls and boys. 
National Holidays as: 

Valentine. 
St. Patrick's. 
April Fool. 
May Day Party. 
Hallowe'en. 
Thanksgiving. 
Christmas. 

Special Parties ass 
Children's Party. 
Family Party. 
Character Party. 
Mother Goose Characters. 
Famous Characters. 
Books, 
Birthdays. 

Special Events: 
Circus. 
County Fair. 
"Spreads." 
Minstrel Show. 

Health Carnival (Family Recreation). 
A club, through its discussions, arouses an interest in the 
individual health program 1 , so that each girl becomes imbued 
with a strong desire to achieve constructive health. She goes 
home and begins to work on her own Individual Health Pro- 
gram, so that she may measure up to her club standard of 
health. The family is amused, but also interested, so much so 
that when the invitations to the Health Carnival come, they 
are eager to accept and see what it is all about. 

This same health interest may be used as the Style Show 
for the special event in a boy and girl party. Later in the year, 

359 



the club may participate in an event which will epitomize the 
work and ideals of the whole Association for the community or 
with the community. 

The idea of the Health Carnival here briefly outlined may 
be used for a small informal gathering or expanded to a 
formal Health Exhibit, with elaborate booths, contests, Fashion 
Shows, plays, pageants, etc. 

A ticket similar to this one may be used. It may be desir- 
able to have fewer tests on it: 
Admission, the drinking of 
one glass of water. P <> sitive Healt!l Theater. 

Tickets of admission to be 
filled out during the evening. 



Av. Wgt 

Lung Capacity 
Total Strength 

Posture 

Shoes 



Total ... 
Av. Total 



Clowns act as ushers, "Gen- 
eral Health" being the name of 
one who is master of ceremonies, 
and the club may choose names 
relating to health for the others. 
Names and decorations should 
be chosen from the various 
Health Slogans: Diet, Clothing, Shoes, Exercise, etc. One side 
or end of the room may be made into booths, and the rest used 
for the seating of the audience and a stage. 

The outside of the booths may be covered with posters. 

The first, height and weight booth, to have posters with 
diet lists and foods, exercises, in and out of door activities. 
The second, lung capacity, to have posters on posture, and 
activities which involve deep breathing. The third, strength 
tests, to have posters on food, exercise, dress, general health 
habits. The fourth, shoe exhibit, with posters including all 
Association posters and originals made by the clubs. The fifth, 
demonstration of health exercises. The sixth, candy, ice cream, 
cake, etc., may be sold. An hour may be given to visiting the 
booths, having individual tests given and summed up (see the 
ticket). 

360 



The next hour may be given to a carnival program using 
health stunts by the clowns, relay games, fathers against daugh- 
ters, etc., grotesque dances, a competition in roller skating, a 
swimming game (if there is a pool in the building), a com- 
petition in health songs, composed by members, also one in the 
wittiest healthgrams delivered in the form of telegrams to 
"General Health." 

(If the usual apparatus is not available, substitutes may be 
used, real or burlesque). 

Posters may be ordered from The Womans Press, 600 Lex- 
ington Avenue, N. Y. C. 

Grading charts. 

Health Inventory. 

Exercise cards. 

Group Activities. 

There is no fun like working for the thing which fulfills 
the desire for play. It is well to bear this in mind when arrang- 
ing for all activities. Any social gathering is like a piece of 
music; it is a series of moods which must be blended to create 
harmony. The outstanding manifestations of these moods are 
activity and quietness; all arrangements on such occasions 
should be gradations of these moods. If they are not properly 
graded, the participants will not have a good time. For in- 
stance, if very active games are played continually, the party 
will grow wearisome; on the other hand, a continuous program 
of quiet games would be even more wearing. Variety both in 
movement and interest is obtained by changing the activities 
of the group and varying the use of the following elements: 
play, drama, color and music. 

The Planning of a Party. 

Great care should be taken to make as large as possible the 
number of girls who are definitely responsible for some specific 
part of the event. Directions to these individuals should be 
explicit; they should be given to the whole grqup or committee, 

361 



and should be the result of the careful consideration of the 
whole event by the group or committee not by the secretary 
alone. A hostess, when she entertains in her home, either opens 
the door herself and directs her guests to the dressing room 
or the servants do it. She naturally expects to receive them, 
to see that they are entertained, to offer them refreshment 
and divertisement and bid them adieu. The success of the 
whole event is dependent upon the hostess and her ability to 
anticipate the comfort and pleasure of her guests. When the 
event Is over, she has had the joy of extending the hospitality 
of her home successfully to a number of her friends. This 
should be borne in mind when an entertainment is being planned 
by a group for a group. Hence, the hostess' feeling of respon- 
sibility and the consequent joy of achievement should be shared 
by all the group. Their common success in anticipating the 
pleasure and comfort of "our guest" should become a standard 
by which the success of parties is measured. Details of respon- 
sibility are so often overlooked when groups are being enter- 
tained; the hostesses are not quite sure of what they are to 
do, and consequently not quite sure of themselves. This com- 
municates a feeling of uncertainty to the guests; they do not 
know where to go to remove their wraps, and they are not 
sure when things are going to start. The introduction, by the 
thoughtful hostess, of people who ought to know each other, or 
the bringing into the group of persons who hate to join in all 
of these things are essential to the success of a social gathering. 
If they are every one's responsibility, they are no one's, and 
lor that reason different persons of the group should be detailed 
for their respective parts in the playing of hostess and the 
whole group should share in the satisfaction of having made 
other guests happy for the evening. 

Girl and Boy Party. 

The following outline for such a party may prove useful. 
There may be one leader for all the games, or the leadership 
may be divided Between one girl who takes the active games 

362 



and another who takes the quiet ones, etc. It must be remem- 
bered that the leader should be familiar with, and ready to 
teach, at least three games for every one she actually does 
teach. This saves embarrassment when there is more time 
than she plans for or when it is necessary to substitute for one 
game, which does not go well, another of the same type will be 
successful. 

Introduction. 

Some method of introduction is necessary; the receiving 
line, the introduction game, or any of the various games for 
getting acquainted may be used. 

Active. 

About four or five, a number of which should be musical and 
some of which should require frequent changing of partners. 

Grand March, Rig-a-Jig, Popularity, etc. 

Eelay races. 

Balloon upkeep, friendship line, etc. 
Quiet Games. 

Various guessing games, or games which require chairs. 
Music. 

Folk or country dances, as pop goes the weasel, circle (see 
Elizabeth Burchanel's book on "Country Dances"). 

Nigarepolska (see "Icebreakers" by Edna Geister). 

The Dramatic Element. 

A special feature may last from ten to twenty minutes, in 
which one or more members of the group entertain. This spe- 
cial feature may be of a formal or informal nature, it may be 
a chorus or play by the hostesses, or impromptu stunts, or 
simple charades. There may also be singing by the whole group. 

Refreshments. 

The serving of refreshments is the opportunity for the hos- 
tesses to see to it that there is a general air of sociability. 
The refreshments themselves will do much toward this. A pop- 
corn ball, apples and cider, a hot drink or a cold one these 
simple refreshments are generators of sociability. 

363 



Active games to conclude the evening, preferably should be 

music games. 
Alphabet, 
Virginia Reel. 
Going to Jerusalem. 

Group singing, with a few popular songs, ending with 
"Should Auld Acquaintance Be Forgot," "Good Night, Ladies," 
or "My Country Tis of Thee/' 

Such parties are most successful when they do not exceed 
an hour and a half or two hours in length. If longer, the play 
or special feature should be longer. 

Field Day (Community Recreation). 

A field day meet should epitomize and demonstrate the vari- 
ous activities of one club group or a number of clubs, some of 
which may be Association clubs and others Community organi- 
zations. The average person's conception of a field meet has 
been limited by the experience of many people who have par- 
ticipated in or observed collegiate meets. These meets are not 
adapted to community use because of the necessity of almost 
professional training in order even to enter, and too often the 
basis is one of individual success rather "than the success of the 
group in a given activity. In planning a field day which will 
be of interest to the community, some of the following things 
should be borne in mind. 

A. The reproduction in one form or another of all the vari- 
ous activities which have entered into the whole year's work. 

B. The intrinsic interest of each event should be considered 
from the point of view of the players and spectators. They 
should require a certain amount of skill and yet not be so 
difficult but that all may take part. 

C. The scoring in all cases should be for the team and not 
for the individual. This makes all events team events. 

D. 'General suggestions for preparations should include plans 
and arrangements for insignia, cheering, trophies, entries^ 
teams, etc. 

364 



E. The officials should be thoroughly informed of their du- 
ties, some of which are: 

Referee. The referee shall enforce all rules and decide all 
questions relating to the actual conduct of the day. 

Captain. The president of a club or one duly authorized 
by her should be captain for her group. She shall represent 
them on the field day whenever necessity may arise. She should 
have charge of her group entry blanks and see that they are 
properly represented. 

Inspectors. Inspectors should stand at such points as the 
referee may designate and watch the competition closely for 
fouls and enforce penalties. They should wear a distinguishing 
badge. 

Judges. For each race there shall be two who will decide 
at the finish which team comes in first. They shall report 
their findings to the official score keeper. The first judge shall 
act as starter. All races may be started with a whistle. 

Time Keeper. The time keeper shall call time as directed by 
referee and notify each group in advance of their event and 
place each competitor behind her proper mark. 

Scorer. The scorer shall record the winning team both in 
preliminaries and finals. No individual scores shall be re- 
corded. 

The events may consist of special exercises which have been 
demonstrated during club meetings in connection with the 
health work, health stunts, and competition in music, singing 
contests, and dancing. 

Community education through the drama may be included 
also in such a program. A pageant which puts into picture form 
the ideals of the community and uses some activities such as 
folk dancing and games, which have been learned in the regular 
program work, etc., may be used as demonstration of a method 
of expression. 

365 



Social Games. 

Games for Getting Acquainted. 

1. Lemon-lemon-lemon. 

Formation: Single circle facing center. 

Object: To learn everyone's name. 

When there are twenty-five girls in circle, have five girls 
in center. Each person in the circle learns the names of 
girls on either side. On a signal the five girls in the center 
run in all directions and point at a person counting ten. 
While they are counting, the person being pointed at must 
say both names before ten is said; if she doesn't she is a 
"lemon" and must go into the circle and be "it," The girl 
who has just counted takes her place. 

2. What are you going to do? 

Printed slips answering the question, "What are you 
going to do? are passed out to the guests. They must, in 
pantomime, show what they are going to do and look for a 
person who is going to do the same thing. Such things as 
the following may be given: Going walking in the rain. 
(The person carries an umbrella and goes through various 
motions which will lead one to believe that he is walking in 
the rain.) Swimming, Paddling, 'Skating. Each person 
goes about asking "What are you going to do?" and the 
person addressed may only answer in pantomime. This goes 
on until each person has found a partner. 

3. The Millionaire Friends. 

This is a good mixer which will get everyone to shaking 
hands. The leader in charge donates a dime to the cause. 
This is given to someone in the group. The others, of 
course, do not know who holds it. The leader announces 
that the one holding the dime will give it to the tenth per- 
son shaking hands with him. Everyone at once begins shak- 
ing hands. The one who holds the dime must keep an 
accurate account and give it to the tenth person. A prize 
may be given. 

366 



Active. 
4. Balloon Ball (yellow and blue). 

The players are divided into two teams, the yellows and 
the blues. Each team is then divided into two sections. The 
room is divided into four equal parts by lengths of ribbon 
fastened to chairs. 'Section one of the yellow stands in the 
space marked off by the first two lengths of ribbon, section 
one of the blues stands in the next space, section two of the 
yellows stands in the third space, section two of the blues 
occupies the next. This arrangement brings a section of 
the yellow team between two sections of the blue, and vice 
versa. 

The balloon is tossed up between two players, one from 
each team, who stand on the opposite sides from the middle 
line. Each faces her own group and tries to strike the 
balloon with her hand toward her own players. The team 
which gets the balloon tries to keep it. That is, if the yel- 
lows get the balloon, they try to throw it over the heads of 
the blues so that the other section of their own team gets it. 
They continue throwing back and forth. The blues try to 
intercept the balloon and keep it, passing it back and forth 
between the two sections of their team over the heads of the 
yellows. 

Instead of scoring one point every time the balloon is 
caught, each side may score only when the round trip is 
made; that is, when it is caught from one section and re- 
turned to that section and caught. When there are many 
players, two balloons may be used. A score-keeper for each 
balloon is necessary. When balloons are not available, a ball 
may be made by crushing colored crepe paper, and winding 
it with a cord. 

5. Feather Blow. 

The players kneel on the floor or sit around a table, with, 
a sheet or blanket stretched between them, which they hold 
by the edges. A feather is put on the blanket. As many 

367 



may play as can get near. They may be in sides, two or 
four, or each for herself. At the signal "Go" each tries to 
blow the feather off the blanket at the enemy's side and to 
count one for herself. It is usually best to stop the game 
when a score of seven, eleven or thirteen points has been 
made. 

6. Column Ball. 

The players sit down, or stand, in two rows about 'five 
feet apart and face each other. The object of this game is 
to cause the balloon to fall on the opponents' side. Players 
may arise to bat the balloon but must sit down immediately 
after hitting it. One or more balloons may be used. 

7. Folding Ohair Eelay. 

This is a good game for large groups of people. The 
formation for it may be easily arranged after a march, 
which finishes with the group in lines of eight (8) alternat- 
ing between boys and girls. Arrange four lines of partners 
with spaces in between. Several feet in front of the lines, 
place folding chairs, one for each line. When a whistle 
blows the first couple in each line runs forward. The gen- 
tleman picks up the chair, unfolds it, places it for the lady, 
the lady sits down, gets up; the gentleman folds the chair, 
puts it back on the floor, takes the lady's hand; together 
they run back to place, touch the hand of the first couple 
waiting for them in their line and run to the rear of line. 
Each couple in turn does the same thing. The line whose 
leading couple returns to place first, wins the game. 

8. Hoops. 

Relay formation. The first girl in each line is provided 
with a barrel hoop or willow hoop covered with colored 
paper or cloth to match decorations. At a signal she raises 
it, pulls It down over her head, shoulders and body, steps 
out of it and hands it to the one behind her. Then she goes 
to the end of the line at' once. The object of each line is of 
course to draw itself through the hoops in the shortest 
time. 

368 



Semi- Active, 

9. The Lamplighter. 

Each contestant is given a lighted candle. The one who 
in the shortest time reaches a distant goal with his candle 
burning-, wins. If the candle goes out, contestant must re- 
turn to the starting point to have it relighted. The relay 
plan must be used. 

10. The Wind Blows. 

The players stand in open gymnastic formation. The 
leader says "The wind blows east," upon which all turn 
east. If the leader says "Turn west," without the first part, 
the players stand still. If any player turns in the wrong 
direction or does not move when he should, he changes place 
with the center player. 

11. Wander Ball. 

Players sit in a circle. A soft ball or' bean bag is put in 
circulation, being passed from one to the other in direct 
succession. As it is being passed, all players say in unison, 
"Kound and round the wander ball goes, I wonder who is go- 
ing to be 'it'." When "it" is pronounced, whoever has the 
ball must get in the circle. Continue until all are in the 
circle. No one can refuse to take the ball when his turn 
comes. Other articles may be used. 

12. Jerusalem and Jericho. 

Useful for large groups. The leader stations himself 
where all can see, and announces that when he says "Jeri- 
cho" no one should bow. The leader seeks to confuse the 
others by bowing at either word. When one makes a mis- 
take he must take the place of the leader. Change words 
rapidly. Words of local interest which sound somewhat 
alike may well be used. 

Quiet. 

13. Choosing a Course of Study. 

Each person says what she thinks are the most impor- 
tant courses of study. As her choice is limited to courses 

369 



beginning with the initials of her own name, the courses 
vary decidedly; these Initials may be used also to describe 
personal characteristics. 

14. Hat Trimming Contest. 

Give each player a sheet of ordinary brown wrapping- 
paper, two or three sheets of tissue paper of bright colors, 
some pins and a pair of scissors and tell her to make and 
trim a hat The most successful hat can be selected by 
judges or by popular vote. 

15. My Vacation. 

Make booklets with the pages entitled "My earliest pho- 
tograph," "My latest picture/' "Who went with me," "How 
we went," "Where we lived," "Some people we met/' "An 
accident," "How it turned out," "Our happiest moment," "A 
near tragedy," "Finis/ 5 etc. Give each girl an old maga- 
zine, a pair of scissors and paste. She is to cut illustrations 
from the magazine for the pages of her booklet and can 
make some very amusing combinations, adding poetry if she 
is clever. 

Folk Dances. 

Circle Dance. 

Music 2/4 rhythm (this rhythm makes possible the use of 
popular music). 

Partners join inside hands, take eight walking steps in the 
line of direction, hands swinging easily. Take eight skipping 
steps in the line of direction. 

All face center and join hands, forming a single circle. 

Take eight slides to the left and eight slides to the right. 

Still remaining in a single circle, partners face each other. 
Boy will have left side toward center of circle. All take four 
slides to the left. This will take the boy toward center of circle, 
girl away from center. 

Take four slides, returning to place. 

370 



All take four slides to the right, girl sliding toward center 
of circle, boy away from center. 

Take four slides, returning to place. 

Link right arm with partner. Take eight skipping steps 
circling around partner. 

Link left arm with partner, take six skipping steps, "circling 
around partner in opposite direction. On the seventh and 
eighth counts partners unlink arms and progress to new part- 
ners. Boy will progress counter-clockwise, girls clockwise. 

At the end of this figure dancers should immediately fall 
into place by the side of new partners, being careful that the 
boy is on the outside of the circle, and the girl is on the inside. 

Dance may be repeated as often as desired, with a new part- 
ner each time. 

Sliding Dance. 

Music 2/4 

All join hands, forming a circle, and take eight slides to the 
left. 

Take eight slides right. 

Take three steps forward toward center of circle and stamp 
vigorously on the fourth count. 

Take three steps backward to place and stamp on the fourth 
count. 

Partners face each other, and link each other's right arms. 
In this position, take four skips, turning in place. 

Partners join both hands, arms extended, and stand so that 
the boy has his left shoulder toward the center of circle, girl her 
right, and slide to the center and then slide back to former 
position. 

Repeat three times, moving toward center of circle. 

371 



Suggested Bibliography on Recreation. 
Popular Amusements Edwards. (Social aspect of recreation 

problems.) 
Christianity and Amusements Kichard Henry Edwards. 

Games for Gymnasium, Home and School Jessie Bancroft. 
An encyclopedia of games. 

Handbook of Athletic Games Pulmacher and Bancroft. 
Good suggestions for coaching major team games. 

Play and Recreation Henry P. Curtis. 

Suggestions for sports and community athletics. 
Stunts Capt. Pearl. 

A valuable book for every physical director or director in 

athletics. 

Producing Amateur Entertainments Helen Ferris. 
Published by E. P. Button & Co. 

Ice Breakers Edna Geister. 
Suggestions for Parties. 
Published by The Womans Press. 

Social Games and Group Dances Elsom and Trilling, 

.Suggestions for Parties Music for several dances given. 

Outdoor Games and Sports Miller. 
Published by Doubleday Page Co. 

Book of Woodcraft and Indian Lore Ernest Seton Thompson. 
Entertainingly written, excellent suggestions for camping 
or interesting girls in hikes, etc. 

Recreation in the Church Herbert Wright Sales. 

Spaldings Athletic Library Girls Athletics American Sports 
Publishing Co. 
Inexpensive but good. 

Children at Play in Many Lands Katherine S. Hall. 

Published by Missionary Education Movement, 156 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

372 



Community Activities Russell Sage Foundation, 35e, 130 East 
Twenty-second Street, New York. 

Contains information as to where helps for all community 
activities may be found, valuable reference book. 

Community Service Publications, 1 Madison Avenue, New York 
City. 

Material available from Womans Press: 
Material prepared by Helen Durham. 

1. A series of simple and elaborate parties. 

2. Y. W. C. A. Circus. 

3. Groups of dances described in detail for industrial girls. 

4. A revision of "Fashion Revue Down Petticoat Lane." 

Special Parties Era Betzner. 

Polite and Social Dances Marie R. Hoper. 
Published by Clayton F. Summy. 

Folk Dances and Singing Games Elizabeth Burchenal. 

Published by G. Schirmer, 3 East Forty-third Street, New 
York, 

Bright Ideas for Money-Making Jacobs. 

Published by George W. Jacobs, Philadelphia. 

Our American Holidays Robert H. Schauffler 
Yard & Co., New York. 

Nine volumes on holiday celebrations, published by Moffat, 
Yard & Co., New York. 



373 



CHAPTER III. 

NATURE LORE. 

Give me Thy harmony, O Lord, that I 
May understand the beauty of the sky, 
The rhythm of the soft wind's lullaby 
The sun and shadow of the wood in spring, 
And Thy great love that divells in everything! 
ALEXANDER PRINGLE. 

LOVE of nature is instinctive in all peoples children rejoice 
in -flowers and birds, but Because of present modes of 
living this instinctive quality needs to be cultivated. Girls who 
have lived always in cities have had very little opportunty for 
free observation of plants, birds, trees and stars, while the girls 
of small towns and the open country are so accustomed to the 
sight of all that their very "accustomedness" has led them to 
a neglect of the very real pleasures of knowing the great out- 
door world. Confusion also results from the great variety of 
flowers, ferns, birds, trees, grasses, bugs, insects, fish, rock, etc., 
and it is hard to know where to find these friends of the out of 
doors. 

The following rules, from The Woodcraft Manual for Girls, 
on "How to Know the Wild Things," will be helpful to all girls' 
work secretaries and advisers as they attempt the difficult task 
of interpreting Nature Lore, both in and out of a regular club 
program: 

"First, take one thing at a time. Second, 'Look in the 
book/ Have a simple but comprehensive guide book (if possi- 
ble one that you can own) that tells in simple, clear language 
the main facts. Later, make a record in a notebook of what 
you see and either make drawings or preserve specimens. 
Fourth, if you have a friend 'who knows/ get information from 
her as to the specimen you have seen or have in your posses- 
sion." 

374- 



Just what the content of such interpretation will be and the 
form of it, is difficult to state because of the widely varying 
groups which this material will serve, but the following inter- 
pretative material will undoubtedly be of service: 

THE STARS 

I care not for public opinion, 

So paltry is fame or disgrace, 
But I pray that I'll always be able 

To look all the stars in the face. 

R. McCann. 

Suggested outlines for study of the stars by advisers and 
club girls are included in this chapter. It will be necessary of 
course for individual advisers and secretaries to determine with 
the help of the girls just where in the year's work this study 
will be undertaken and then to find complete information in the 
several texts and Nature 'Study pamphlets, which are listed in 
the Bibliography at the end of this chapter. 

I. The Sky Winter Nights. 

A. Recognizing a star. 

B. Watching the sky: Ten Lessons Out of Doors. 

1. Finding North. 

2. Some Conspicuous Star Groups. 

3. Some Other Star Groups and Objects of Special In- 
terest. 

4. From Sunset to Midnight. 

5. The Waxing Moon. 

6. The Waning Moon. 

7. The Milky Way. 

8. The Planets. 

9. The Winter Sun. 
10. The Year Passes. 

C. Explaining the Sky: Ten Lessons Indoors. 
1. The Starry Sky. 

375 



2. The Changing Sky. 

3. The Phases of the Moon. 

4. A Trip to the Moon. 

5. Among Other Worlds. 

6. Our Star: The Sun. 

7. Our Corner of the Universe. 

8. The Year Passes. 

9. Why Winter. 

10. Some Great Astronomers and Their Discoveries. 

IL The Sky: Spring and Summer Nights. 

A. Virgo, the Virgin. 

The constellation that announces the coming of Spring. 

B. Bootes, the Herdsman; Corona Borealis, the Northern 
Crown; Hercules, the Kneeler; Coma Berenices, the Hair 
of Berenice. The Northern 'Crown, and the Hair of 
Berenice are among the surprises of the summer sky. 

C. Leo, the Lion. 

A Royal Constellation. 

D. Gemini the Twins. 
They suggest their name. 

E. Auriga, the Charioteer. 

A winter constellation that lingers in the evening sky 
until summer and hastens to appear again in the fall. 

F. Scorpius, the Scorpion. 

The constellation that announces the summer. 

G. Sagittarius, the Archer. 

The Archer aims his arrow at the heart of the Scorpion, 

but he never lets it fly. 
H. Cygnus, the Swan; Aquila, the Eagle; Lyra, the Lyre; 

Delphinus, the Dolphin. 

The most beautiful of summer and fall constellations. 
I. Pegasus, the Winged Horse; Andromeda, the Chained 

Maiden; Perseus, the Champion. 

The "most romantic constellations. 

376 



siliiiiii 



Ursa 
Minor 



NbrtlvStar 



Cassiopeia 

1 , 9 p. m. Northern Horizon 



URSA MAJOR, THE BIG BEAR; URSA MINOR, THE LITTLE 
BEAR; CASSIOPEIA, THE QUEEN; DRACO, THE DRAGON. 
These are visible all the year in the latitude of New York or further 
north. May I, 9 p.m., Ursa Major almost overhead, bowl of Big Dipper 
opening downward; bowl of Little Dipper in Ursa Minor at the right 
of fhe North Star; Cassiopeia low in the north; head of Draco in the 
northeast 

377 




Showing four different positions of the Big Dipper during twenty-four hours 



378 




BOOTES, THE HERDSMAN; CORONA, BOREALIS, THE 
NORTHERN CROWN; HERCULES, THE KNEELER. 

Look for these between April I and October i. 

May i, 9 p.m., Bootes high in the east, Hercules lower toward the 
northeast; Corona between Bootes and Hercules. 

July. -I, 9 p.ni., Corona and Hercules almost overhead; Bootes 
further west 

September i, 9 p.m., Bootes low north of west; Corona and Her- 
cules higher in the west. 

379 




Showing how to find Coma Berenices from Arcturus, 
from Spica, or from the Big Dipper. 



380 




H 
C/3 

w 
W 

H 



X 

1 

en 

"g 
e> 



J. Ursa Major, the Great Bear; Ursa Minor, the Little Bear; 
Cassiopeia, the Queen; Draco, the Dragon. 

Always visible in northern latitudes. 
K. The Stars the Night Through. 

Lucky campers who can make the heavens their roof. 
L. Telling Time by the Stars. 

Nature's own Time piece. 
M. The Twenty Brightest Stars. 

Eleven of these can be seen in the evening in April. 
N. Pronunciation. 

The names of stars are no harder to learn than the 

names of our human friends. 

THE MOON. 

I. A Trip to the Moon. 

A. What? Where? Why? 

A fascinating tale of a journey to the moon which makes 
one appreciate the beauties of the earth. 

Flowers, Trees, Birds, Insects. 

All secretaries and advisers of girls will be grateful indeed 
to have "Nature in Camp," a most attractive pamphlet, in their 
kits when they go to camp or conference or even for an all- 
day hike or a few hours in the woods and meadows. It has 
been written for use particularly by girls who have only two 
weeks in camp, and the lists of flowers, ferns, birds, insects, 
etc., include only those which are most easily found. Most of 
the plants and insects and birds named are very common and 
widely distributed. As for the star-groups mentioned, they can 
be studied on the North Temperate Zone the world around, from 
Europe and Asia as well as from North America, for stars have 
this advantage over plants, that in any given latitude the same 
ones can be observed from land and sea, from desert and from 
mountain. The directions for its use show many possibilities to 
the enterprising: It is easier to remember the name of a plant 

382 



if the name is seen in print. Therefore, take this pamphlet 
with yon on your walks, and when an adviser or friend intro- 
duces a plant to you, check its name in the list. Check a sec- 
ond time when you are sure you can recognize it. It is better 
to know twenty well than to be able to name one hundred, with 
no real acquaintance. Look closely at each flower. Often its 
greatest beauty is hidden. Notice the number and peculiarities 
of its sepals, petals, stamen and pistils. Try to get acquainted 
with insects without killing them. You can approach very near 
to many butterflies, if you are careful. 

I. Nature in Camp. 

A. One Hundred Plants Flowering in July and August. 

1. Flowers White. 

2. Flowers Yellow. 

3. Flowers Orange, Pink or Red. 

4. Flowers Blue or Purple. 

5. Flowers Greenish or Inconspicuous. 

B. Twenty Ferns Conspicuous in July and August. 

C. Twenty-five Trees. 

D. Summer Stars -Seven bright stars, visible between 
eight and eleven o'clock in July and August. 

Fifteen star groups visible in July and August. 

E. Forty Land Birds Easily Found in Summer. 

F. A few of Our iCommon Insects. 

1. Butterflies, 

2. Moths. 

3. Beetles. 

4. Flies. 

5. Bees, Wasps, Ants. 

6. Bugs. 

7. Grasshoppers, Crickets, etc. 

383 



Stars. 

The Monthly Evening Star Map. Leon Barrett, Editor 
and Publisher, 150 Nassau Street, New York City, 40c each. 
This is the paper to consult for current events in the sky. 
It not only gives a map of the evening sky, but it also 
answers the questions boys and girls are always asking: 
What is the evening star? Why did people think that the 
world was coming to an end December, 1919 ? Are wireless 
signals coming from Mars? And if there is any question 
that it does not answer send it to Mr. Barrett, for he has a 
question and answer column for that purpose. 

A Beginner's Star Book. Kelvin McKready. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons, $3.50. This is one of the best popular books in 
astronomy. It should be in every nature library. One of 
its best features is the excellent photographs it contains 
photographs of the moon, the planets, star-clusters, comets, 
Nebulae, as seen with the best telescopes. Such a book is 
a good substitute for a visit to an observatory. 

The Sky, Winter Nights. ^Louise Brown. The Womans 
Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, 35c. A course 
for busy young people who want to get acquainted with the 
starry sky through their own observations. This pamphlet 
is adapted for use by individuals or by clubs. It gives direc- 
tions for ten lessons out of doors, and ten lessons indoors, 
with seven charts of constellations visible in the winter and 
spring. 

The Sky, Spring and Summer Nights. Louise Brown. 
The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York Citv, 
40c. A description of constellations visible spring and sum- 
mer evenings, 'with twenty illustrative charts. Designed es- 
pecially for use in camps. 

All Night With the Stars. Louise Brown, The Womans 
Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, 20c. 

A Trip to the Moon. Louise Brown. The Womans 
Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, 25c. A story 

384 



of the experiences of some girls who visit the moon. Only 
a story but of value for those who want a real acquaint- 
ance with this nearest neighbor of ours. 
Starland. Sir Robert Ball. Ginn and Company, $1.20. One 
of the best astronomies for boys and girls and delightful 
reading for everybody. Do you want to know how we know 
how far off the moon is, why it changes its shapes, why 
we have winter and summer. This is the book to give you 
answers that you can understand. 

Flowers. 

Field Book of American Wild Flowers. F Schuyler 
Mathews. G. P. Putnam Sons, $3.00. 

How to Know the Wild Flowers. Mrs. Wm. Starr 
Dana. Charles Scribner's Sons, $3.00. 

Flower Guide. Chester A. Reed, Doubleday, Page & 
Co., $1.25 

These remain the best flower books for beginners. Those 
who know some botany will prefer the more complete man- 
uals of Gray or Britton. 

Ferns. 

Our Ferns and Their Haunts. William Nelson Clute. 
Frederick A. Stokes Co., $2.50. Ferns are much easier to 
identify than the average person realizes. The ostrich 
fern, and the little polypody, once known, becomes as dear 
friends as hepaticas and violets. 

Trees. 

Our Native Trees. Hariet L. Keeler. Charles Scribner's 
Sons, $3.00. One of the best books for the study of trees. 

Insects. 

The Butterfly Guide. W. J. Holland. Doubleday, Page & 
Co., $1.25. Manual for the Study of Insects. John H. 
Comstock. Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca,' N. Y., $3.75. 

385 



The Butterfly Guide is excellent for butterflies but no inex- 
pensive book has yet been published for moths and other 
insects. Comstock's Manual is a large book but there is 
none better for the club leader who really wishes an 
acquaintance with insect life. 

Birds. 

Land Birds. ^Chester A. Reed. Doubleday, Page & Co., 
$1.25. Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America. 

Bird Studies With a Camera. F. M. Chapman. D. Ap- 
pleton & Co., $3.00. Education Building, Albany, N. Y. 
It is hard to select the best bird books from the large num- 
ber in the market. 

The bird pictures issued by the Educational Department 
in Albany are excellent. The National Association of Audu- 
bon iSocieties, 1974 Broadway, New York City, publishes 
leaflets and a magazine of interest to all bird lovers. 

The Dennison Manufacturing Company presents for use 
as stickers some very attractive reproductions in colors 
of birds most usually known. These stickers will help to 
make most attractive records of bird study trips. Secure 
them at 62 East Randolph Street, Chicago, or Fifth Avenue 
and 26th .Street, New York City. 

General Helps. 

Secure "Nature in Camp." Price ten cents, from The 
Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

The Boy Scout Manual and the Woodcraft Manual for 
Girls, both have good material in them. Secure from the 
public library stories about the stars, especially any myths 
connected with them. See also, "Trees Stars, Birds," by 
Edwin Moseley, World Book Company, Yonkers, New York. 
$1.40. 

386 



CHAPTER IV. 

HANDICRAFT. 

HANDICRAFT, like any other program activity, has a two- 
fold value one, the actual product of the work done, 
and the other, an intangible resultant in the spirit of a girl 
who, herself, has striven to create or reproduce a thing- of 
beauty. The latter can never be computed in definite terms 
but any friend of girls will always take it into consideration 
and consciously strive to incorporate this ideal into any handi- 
craft program. For clubs which wish to include it, the following 
suggestions are made; it is essential, in carrying out these 
suggestions, that the club advisers and the program committee 
remember that such work often must be done at a time apart 
from the regular club meeting. This will ensure a more 
satisfactory attendance, for those girls who are not interested 
would then have no excuse for not being present. 

(1) Leather work, especially making covers for maga- 
zines. 

(2) Wood block printing. 

(3) Batik work. 

(4) Tie dyeing. 

(5) Decorating flower pots, wooden bowls, glass jars 
and coffee cans. 

(-6) Making lamp shades. 

(7) Sealing wax craft. 

(8) Art and decoration in crepe and tissue paper. 

(9) Flower making. 

(10) Pottery, 

(11) Raffia work. 

(12) Bead work.' 

(13) -Stenciling. 

387 



(14) Making Recipe books. 

(15) Making doll houses, doll furniture and doll outfits. 

(16) Boxcraft 

(17) Collecting leaves, flowers, bark of trees, bird nests, 
for exhibits, 

(18) The making of matting baskets. 

Books of value for help in the above work are: 
"What a Girl Can Make and Do." By Lina and 
Adelia Beard. Scribner. $2.25. 

"The Jolly Book of Boxcraft." By Pattern Beard. 
Stokes. $2.00. 

''Art Craft for Beginners." Sanford. $1.75. 
"The Woodcraft League Manual for Girls." Chap- 
ter III, by Ernest Thompson Seton. Price 75 cents 
(paper). $1.25 (cloth). 

"Prang's Industrial Art Books." Obtained at any 
School Supply Company. 
The Dennison Costume Book, free and 
The Dennison Art and Decoration in Crepe and 
Tissue Paper Book, $.15. 

Published by Dennison Manufacturing Company, 
62 East Randolph Street, Chicago, 111. 
Fifth Avenue and 26th Street, New York City. 
1007 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, "Pa. 
23 Franklin Street, Boston, Mass. 
Girls' Make-at-Home Things,, Carolyn iSherwyn 
Bailey. $1.75. 

Every group of girls taking up handicraft should approach 
the subject through a study of good examples of old-world 
handicraft, such as laces, embroideries, textiles, wood carvings, 
and pottery. The foreign girls in the group should be encour- 
aged to find these treasures in their own homes, for almost 
every foreign family has things of rare beauty hidden away 
in closet or trunk, possessions which have been brought by 
the parents from the home countries. Not only will the girls 

388 



get many helpful suggestions for their own handicraft from 
the beauties of color, line and design of the present handicraft, 
but they will be taught a greater respect and love for the gifts 
brought to the new world from the old. Moreover, an interest 
in the art work of the foreign girls is valuable as one means 
of breaking down race prejudice ; a girl of one nationality 
becomes as eager to study the similarities in design of the 
embroideries and laces of other countries as to show the handi- 
craft of her own land. Moreover, the foreign mothers feel 
that, through this interest, they are being looked up to and 
consulted and the girls of American birth are taught a new 
respect for their parents, race and artistic background. The 
foreign mother will have many a helpful suggestion to give on 
the working out of certain designs or the combining of colors, 
and the girls' work secretary or adviser will find that through 
teaching handicraft to her girls she is unconsciously creating 
a close bond of understanding between herself and the homes 
from which her girls have come. 

In planning handicraft for grade school girls, it is necessary 
to keep a balance in the program. The girls respond so eagerly 
to the suggestion "to make something," that there is a tempta- 
tion to let it become the major activity or emphasis in the 
regular corps work. Moreover it is essential that the adviser 
and secretary remember that grade school girls are less capable 
of sustained effort and therefore the craft work must be simple. 
There should be adequate provision in the way of tools and 
space: i. e. tables and scissors and paste and supplies, with 
sufficient advisory or supervisory help, for grade school girls 
are more liable to become discouraged than are older girls, if 
they have no one with whom they may talk about their work. 

The place which handicraft will occupy in any high school 
club program cannot be definitely stated. This is due to the 
fact that some girls of high school age are interested in handi- 
craft and others are just as certainly not interested. 

389 



Younger girls in business and industry are interested in 
handicraft provided it is presented to them in an attractive 
way; provided it is of an attractive nature and not so com- 
plicated that it takes a great deal of time. For instance, 
cigandie collar and cuff sets are easy to make, and ornamental. 
They have a practical value to a girl at work. Such handicraft 
may sometimes be started and sometimes finished at the noon 
hour, provided it is simple enough; sometimes girls will be so 
interested that a class may be formed. This is especially true 
of the making of Christmas presents. 

SEALING WAX CRAFT 

A few sticks of sealing wax, an alcoho 1 lamp, using only 
the best denatured alcohol, a steel knitting needle, a tiny 
palette knife (one has been designed especially for this art), 
and a modelling tool or nut pick, comprise the inexpensive 
outfit for this delightful craft. A box of the assorted colors 
of Dennison Sealing Wax reminds one of a lovely box of paints 
The colors and shades of the different colors are beautiful and 
immediately the suggestion comes to use them as paint. 

Draw a little design of a rose and leaves. Hold a stick of 
light pink sealing wax over the flame until it is soft; then 
spread it over the little rose which has been drawn. Heat the 
palette knife and spread the wax out smooth. This little 
foundation serves for the outer petals of the rose when com- 
pleted. Heat a stick of the dark pink wax and drop one drop 
at a time on the little foundation which has been made, until 
ten or fifteen drops have fallen. Let the wax harden and then 
spread on the top of the little mound some of the light pink. 
Heat the modelling tool, or a nut pick and make a hole in the 
center of the mound of wax. Heat tool again and make three 
cuts around the hole, heating the tool each time. An attrac- 
tively modeled rose is the result. Hold a stick of leaf green 
over the flame and scrape a little wax with the palette knife. 
This palette knife is now used as a brush to make the green 

390 



leaves. All flowers except the rose are made by using the 
palette knife as a brush. The wax tools must be kept hot, or 
the design will look rough. The flowers may be used to 
decorate boxes, place cards, basketry, glass and pottery. Very 
little drawing is necessary, only a few lines are needed to 
indicate where the design is to be placed. Designs may be 
cut from crepe paper napkins, pasted on the articles to be 
decorated, and worked over with sealing wax. They may also 
be transferred by using tracing paper. Tiny garlands are 
most attractive on hat bands. The wax flowers are especially 
pretty on velvet, but may be used on satin, georgette, or silk. 
The making of wax flowers is very interesting to girls, 
and money for the Red Cross Fund or some other service may 
be made by selling boxes, place cards, candles and candlesticks 
decorated with the wax. The boxes can be used for lingerie 
libbon, balls of twine, powder, gloves, and handkerchiefs. This 
method of decorating is very simple and one does not need 
artistic ability to get good results. It is one of the simplest 
forms of color work, as the colors are all mixed and the designs 
simply filled in with color. Flowers may also be made by 
taking a small bit of wax in the fingers and moulding in the 
shape of a petal. The petal is then heated and stuck to the 
card or whatever is to be decorated. Faces may be moulded 
from wax. This is a little more tedious, but nevertheless, 
very interesting. 

Inexpensive vases are covered with sealing wax, giving 
them the effect of expensive pottery. To cover the vase, warm 
the article just a bit before starting. Hold a stick of sealing 
wax over the flame until it begins to melt; then, beginning 
at the bottom edge of the vase, press the wax against it in two 
or three places, using a small amount of wax at a time. The 
wax will adhere to the vase and become cold; but, by holding 
the waxed part of the vase over a tongue of the flame, it will 
melt and run into a smooth surface. Add more wax and con- 
tinue smoothing it down by slightly heating, always turning the 

391 



vase In the same direction so that when colors are blended the 
swirl will follow the same general lines. Do this until the 
vase is entirely covered. Several colors may be blended, and 
it is particularly advisable to use shades of the same color, 
as this gives the light and shade effects that come in all pot- 
tery. Wax may be used in this way on glass, cardboards or 
china. 

The making of beads from sealing wax is a delightful pas- 
time. Beads may be made in almost any desired color. Charm- 
ing strings of beads and unusual beads for decorating lamp 
shades may be produced with little effort. To make beads 
proceed as follows: Choose a stick of Dennison's letter wax, 
the desired color for the beads. Break into pieces as nearly the 
correct size for the beads as possible. Heat a steel knitting 
needle about one and one-half inches from the end. Then press 
it carefully into a piece of wax. Hold the piece of wax on 
i-eedle above the flame, revolving- it slowly until an even, round 
bead is formed. Revolving it all the time, carry it to a glass 
of water and then dip it in the water until cool. Dry the beads 
with the cloth 'before holding over the flame again, so that no 
bubbles will form'. In removing the bead, heat the needle on 
each side of the bead one inch from the bead. When bead is 
loosened, slide it back and forth on the needle before taking 
it off; this leaves a cleancut hole. 



s 



CHAPTER V. 

STORY TELLING. 

TOEY telling, if used in the right way and place, can be 
made of great value in work with younger girls. A story 
hour helps to stimulate the girl's imagination, to arouse whole- 
some emotions, to introduce her to what is beautiful in thought 
and expression, to increase her enthusiasm for good reading, 
and, most important of all, it offers opportunity to bring the 
best spiritual influences to bear upon the girl when she is at 
a most impressionable age. 

392 



Care must be taken that the story and the story teller are 
3f the best. Many communities now have a Story Teller's 
League, the members of which are often glad to give time to 
groups of girls. From the Public Library in any community 
a list of stories can always be obtained. 

The following are suggestions for obtaining good material 
Cor story telling: 

"The Story Hour." A pamphlet published by the Ameri- 
can Book Company, New York. Contains a splendid list of 
books illustrating different characteristics. 

"The Woodcraft Manual for Girls/' mentioned before, 
contains some fascinating Indian stories which make de- 
lightful fireside stories. 

The following books have* been found of special value 
for the story teller: 

1. -"Fifty Famous Stories Retold" James Baldwin. 

American Book Co. 56 cents (exclusive of postage). 

2. "Around the Fire" H. M. Burr. Association Press. 

75 cents. 

3. "Indian Days of the Long Ago" Edward S. Curtis. 

World Book Co. $1.00. 

4. "Uncle Eemus, His Songs and His Sayings" Joel 

Chandler Harris. Appleton. $2.00. 

5. "Just So Stories" Rudyard Kipling. Doubleday, 

Page & Co. $1.20. 

6. "iGreen Fairy Book." Andrew Lang. Longmans. 

$2,00. 

7. "Donegal Fairy Tales." Seumas McManus. McClixre, 

Phillips & Co. $1.00. 

8. '"Heroines Every Child (Should Know." Hamilton 

Wright Mabie. Doubleday, Page & Co. $1.50. 

9. "The Golden Windows" Laura E. Richards, Little, 

Brown & Co. $1.35. 

10. "East o' the Sun and West o' the Moon." Mrs. G. T. 
Thomsen. Row, Paterson & Co. 60 cents. 

393 



11. "The Happy Prince, and Other Tales. 5 ' Oscar Wilde. 
Little, Brown & -Go. $1.00. 

The following books have been found interesting 
to girls whose desire for reading has been aroused 
through story telling or club work in general: 

BIBLE STORIES 

On Nazareth Hill Elbert E. Bailey. 

The Golden Cobwebs (In "How to Tell Stories) 

Sarah Cone Bryant. 

Jesus Among His Friends Ethel Cutler. 

When the King Came George Hodges. 

Who was It Stories Julia Johnson. 

The Lost Boy Henry Van Dyke. 

The First Christmas Tree Henry Van Dyke. 

The First Christmas Spirit Henry Van Dyke. 

The Story of the Other Wise Man Henry Van Dyke. 

The Birds* Christmas Carol Kate Douglas Wiggin. 

cnacs 
Lessons for Junior Citizens Mabel Hill. 

MYTHS AND LEGENDS 

Stories from Northern Myths Emilie Kip Baker. 
Fairy Tales from Far Japan Susan Ballard. 
That's Why Stories Catherine T. Bryce. 
Children of the Dawn Elsie Finnimore Buckley. 
Blackfoot Lodge Tales George B. Grinnell. 
Book of Nature Myths Florence Holbrook. 
Indian Fairy Tales Joseph Jacobs. ' 
Greek Heroes Charles Kingsley. 
Stories of Legendary Heroes (in "the Children's 
Hour/' Vol. 4) Eva March Tappen. 
Old Indian Legends Zitkala-Sa- 

394 



SHORT STORIES ILLUSTRATING CHARACTERISTICS 

Bravery. 

"The Eed Thread of Courage" (in "How to Tell 
Stories") Sarah Cone t Bryant. 

"The Golden Horse and His Eider" (in "The City 
That Never Was Reached") Jay Thomas Stocking. 

Contentment. 

"The Crooked Fir Tree" (in "Outlook Story Book") 
Laura Winnington. 

Discontent. 

"The Mill Widow" (in "Storyland") Elizabeth Har- 
rison. 
"The Golden Windows" Laura E. Richards. 

Faithfulness. 

1. "The Little Hero of Harlem" (in "How to Tell 

Stories") Sarah Cone Bryant. 
2- "How Cedric Became Knight" (in "Storyland") 

Elizabeth Harrison- 

3. "A Message to Garcia" Elbert Hubbard. 

4. "Keeping Tryst" ^Anna F. Johnston. 

Friendship. 

1. David and Jonathan The Bible. 

2. "Three Friends" (in "Three Years With Children") 

Amos Wells. 

Generosity. 

1- "Margaret of New Orleans" (in "Best Stories to 
Tell") Sara Gone Bryant- 

2. "The King of the Golden River" John Ruskin. 

3. "The Happy Prince" Oscar Wilde. 

4. "An Old Story" (in "Outlook Story Book") Laura 

Winnington. 
Happiness. 

1. "The Enchanted Mirror" (in "Storyland") Elizabeth 
Harrison. 

395 



2. "The Maker of Rainbows" Richard LeGallienne. 

3. "The Blue Bird" Maurice Maeterlink. 

4. "The Land of the Blue Flower" Frances Hodgson 

Burnett. 

Influence. 

1. "The Witness" (in "The Militants")- Mary Ray- 

mond Shipman Andrews. 

2. "Jean Valjean" (In "World Stories") adapted by 

Joel Metcalf- 

Patience. 

1. "The Desert of Waiting" Annie F. Johnston. 

2. "The Lame Boy" (in "First Book of Religion") Mrs. 

Chas. Lane. 

3. "The Crosses" (in "Just Over the Hill") Margaret 

Slattery. 

Selfishness. 

1. "Prince Harwada" . (in "Storyland") Elizabeth 
Harrison. 

Service. 

1. "The Wheat-^Field" (in "Gol&en Windows") Laura 

E. Richards. 

2. "The Cup of Loving Service" Eliza D. Taylor. 

Sincerity. 

1. "The Nightingale" Hans Christian Anderson. 

2. "The Real Thing" (in "Stories That End Well") 

Octave Thanet. 

3. ''Truth is Mighty and Will Prevail" (in "Twenty- 

three Tales") Leo Tolstoi. 

* STORY-TELLING POEMS 

1- "Pippa Passes" Robert Browning. 
2. "The Pied Piper of Hamelin Town" Kobert Brown- 
ing. 
3* "The, Vision of Sir LaunfaP' James Eussell Lowell. 

4. "Home to Him's Muwer" Margaret Prescott Mon- 

tague. 

396 



5. "Story-Telling Poems.'* Edited by Frances Jenkins 

Olcott. 

6. "Idylls of the King:" Alfred Tennyson- 

7. "The Toiling of Felix" Henry Van Dyke- 

8. "The Legend of Service" Henry Van Dyke. 

9. "The Foolish Fir Tree" Henry Van Dyke. 

STORIES OF A GIRL, AND HER MOTHER 

"Andrew's Cap" (in "Second Book of Stories* 5 ) 
Ida Coe. 

"The Pot of Gold" (in "Second Book of Stories") 
Ida Coe. 

"The Closing Door" (in "Mother Storios") Maud 
Lindsay. 

"About Angels" (in "Golden Windows") Laura E. 
Richards- 
Mis CELL ANEOUS STORIES 
"The Sandy Road" (in "Jataka Tales") Edited by 

Ellen C. Babbitt. 

"A Little Brother of the Books." (To be adapted.) 

Josephine Daskam Bacon. 

"The Story of Cossetts" (in "Dream Children") 

Elizabeth Brownwell. 

"Mignon" (in the same) Elizabeth Brownwell. 

"A Sisterly Scheme" (in "Short Sixes") iH. C. 

Bunner. 

"Stories from the Operas" Gladys Davison. 

"The Vision of Anton" (in "The Richer Life") 

Walter Dyer. 

"The Little Maid at the Door" (in "A Tale of 

Witchcraft") Mary E. Wilkins Freeman. 

"The Story of Chinese Gordon" E. A. Hake* 

"The Man Without a Country" Edward Everett 

Hale. 

397 



"The Three Weavers" Annie F. Johnston. 

"The Persian and His Three Sons" Mrs. Charles 

Lane. 

"Everybody's Lonesome." (To be adapted,) Clara 

E. Laughlin. 

"The Stone of Gratitude" (in "Quaint Old Stories") 

Marian Lindsay. 

"Stories from Wagner" Joseph McSpadden. 

"Blue Sky and White Cloud" (in "More Bed-Time 

Stories") Louis Chandler Moulton. 

"The Tide March" (in "Poor Dear Margaret Kirby") 

Kathleen Norris. 

"The Hill" (in "Golden Windows" ) -Laura E. 

Richards* 

"Deer Godchild" Edith Serrell and Marguerite 

Bernard. 

"Where Love Is, God Is" Leo Tolstoi. 

"Three Questions" (in "Twenty-three Tales")-- Leo 

Tolstoi* 

"A Handful of Clay" (in "The Blue Flower") 

Henry Van Dyke. 

"The Keeper of the Light" Henry Van Dyke. 

"The Wonder Maker" (in "Stories of Scientists") 

Mary Wade. 

"Stories From Old French Romance" E. M. Wil- 

mot-Boxton. 

This list of books is not intended to be a reading course, 
but merely a suggestive guide. A more complete list will be 
found in the Girl Reserve Book List, Chapter 11, page 485. 

398 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE PLACE OF THE DRAMA IN THE GIRL RESERVE MOVEMENT. 

DRAMATIC instinct, that inner force eternally reaching out 
for the opportunity to do and to be something beyond 
the doing and being of this work-a-day world (reaching out 
most eagerly in the period before mental and emotional dis- 
cipline is established), is a force which, if rightly guided, may 
be used to develop and to stimulate the deepest spiritual powers. 

It will be found that this force exists in an individual in a 
greater or lesser degree in proportion to his knowledge and 
understanding of life, and it is in supplying a medium for 
developing and enlarging his experience imaginatively that the 
drama makes so large a contribution to education. 

The inevitable identification which comes of sincerely "play- 
ing a part" provides opportunity for the expression of talent 
and power which are dormant or have been too often completely 
repressed. The joyous recreation which is the result of the 
laying aside for a time of one's own personality, and the put- 
ting on of the character and individuality of another, is too 
common an experience to need discussion. It is the process 
gone through in the creation of any art poetry, singing-, 
dancing. "I do not ask the wounded person how he feels," 
says Walt Whitman, "I myself become the wounded person, 
my hurts turn livid upon me as I lean on a cane and observe-" 

Intelligently approached, keeping ever the ideal of complete 
identification in mind, there is nothing from the great literature 
of the Bible to the story of "The Three Bears," which may 
not be of infinite value when presented in dramatic form. And, 
by this same token, it would be difficult to overestimate the 
harmf ulness to the adolescent mind of identification , with the 

399 



cheap and unworthy in drama. This does not mean that one 
must be "highbrow." It does mean, however, that a great 
responsibility in the choice of material devolves upon those 
yho assume dramatic leadership. 

There are certain dramatic forms peculiarly suitable to the 
understanding and needs of certain types of girls. In planning 
a dramatic program, it is as important to determine the form 
which will contribute most to the enjoyment and development 
of the group as it is to determine the content. 

In poetry, the nature of a given thought is largely responsi- 
ble for the form of its expression. This same rule governs the 
drama. Dramatization, pantomime, the short play, the long 
play, the masque, and the pageant are forms which may be 
used as mediums for dramatic expression. 

Bibliography. 

Cabot, Richard C. What Men Live By. 

Curtis, Elnora W. The Dramatic Instinct in Education- Hough- 
ton, Mifflin Co., New York, 1914. 

Pry, Emma Sheridan Educational Dramatics. Moffat, Yard 
& Co-, New York, 1913. 

Herts, Alice Minnie The Children's Educational Theatre. 
Harper & Bros., New York, 1911. 

Herts, Alice Minnie The Kingdom of the Child. E. P. Dutton 
& Co., New York, 1913. 

Hillard, Evelyne Amateur and Educational Dramatics. Mac- 
millan Co., New York, 1917. 

DRAMATIZATION. 

The impromptu dramatization of stories is a fun process 
which releases the imagination and permits it the freest expres- 
sion of which it is capable. Much of the fun arises from the 
impersonation not only of the people in the story, but also 
of animals, elements, and things. Such impersonation is of 

400 



good and ancient usage witness "Wall" and "Lion" in "Mid- 
summer Night's Dream," "Bread," "Water," and any number 
of similiar characters in "The Bine Bird." 

The more imagination is expended upon the costumes, 
properties, lighting, publicity (announcement either by placards 
or by "word of mouth" of scenes and characters), staging, 
make-up and music, the greater the fun will be; a glass bowl 
for Cinderella's slipper; nightgowns one for the body, one 
for the head, one for each arm, and behold a ghost! a girl 
upon the floor, her feet against some object supposed to be a 
wall, and a gate has been achieved, which, at least, will be 
like many another in that it will swing in only one direction; 
this, by the bending of her knees* 

The following outline is suggested with the explanation 
that, although it is possible to carry the work of dramatization 
to a finished production, this section deals primarily with the 
impromptu form of this dramatic activity. 

The steps involved are as follows: 

A. Selection of the story. 

1. The leader should be prepared to present in brief 
outline several stories to the group. 

B. Reading or telling of the story which has been chosen. 
1, Special emphasis on plot and characters. 

C. The names of the characters are written on a black- 

board. 

1. Space should be allowed for descriptions of each 
one. 

D. Suggestions of adjectives descriptive of eacli char- 
acter are made by the group and written on the 
board. 

E- The incidents are listed in chronological order upon 

the board- 
F. The players for the parts are chosen by popular 

vote. 

401 



G. The committees are selected. 

1. One person or a group should be chosen for the 
necessary committees. 

2. It should be clearly understood that the work of 
whatever committees are required is just as im- 
portant to the success of the play as the inter- 
pretation of the characters. 

H. The rehearsing is begun. 

1. Using the blackboard, upon which is a list of the 
incidents, sketch out the details of the action or 
the "business" of the play. Draw a diagram of 
the stage indicating entrances and exists. If 
possible, diagram the action, using dotted lines 
and arrows. In the diagram of the stage, work 
out the placement of stage properties and there- 
after adapt the action to the setting. 

2- If the group is a large one, two or three directors 
may be appointed and the story divided into 
episodes- Each director selects the players for 
her episode and rehearsals are then conducted 
separately. If this is done there will be a dupli- 
cation of characters and some way must be devised 
to clarify their identity to the onlookers. 

3. Each time the story is gone over the business, 
action, and dialogue should be enlarged. 

I. The play is presented. 

1. Space for the stage should be cleared at one end 
of the room, and audience chairs arranged in rows 
before it. 

2. Screens, or four girls holding two double sheets 
high above their heads, form the curtain. 

3. The lights in the room are put out leaving only 
those necessary to illuminate the stage, and the 
play begins. 

402 



Bibliography. 

Chubbs, Percival and Associates Festivals and Plays. Harper 
& Bros., New York, 1912. Contains section on drama- 
tization called "First Steps in the Development of Fes- 
tival and Dramatic Activities." 

Getchell, Margaret Red Letter Day Plays, The Womans Press, 
New York, 1920. 

MacKay, Constance D'Arcy How to Produce Children's Plays. 
Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1915. Contains dramatiza- 
tion and analysis of "The Pied Piper of Hamlin" in chap- 
ter called "Play Analysis for Children." 

Miller, Elizabeth Dramatization of Bible Stories. University 
of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

PANTOMIME 

Pantomime is the corner-stone in the building of dramatic 
technique. What has been responsible for the very prevalent 
theory that a pantomime is more difficult to produce than a 
play and that it is "not much fun?" A single experience will 
discredit this theory. To prepare a pantomime for public pre- 
sentation is as simple as any dramatic undertaking can be, 
and for the inexperienced dramatic director* it is far less beset 
with pitfalls. The scenario of a pantomime contains sugges- 
tions for characterization and action to a greater extent than 
is to be found in the text of a play. Also, since pantomine per- 
mits much more freedom of interpretation than a play, a lesser 
degree of discipline and of technique is required of the players. 
This does not mean that the art of pantomime may not be very 
Hghly developed- But it has been proved that in a dramatic 
program which is cumulative, the use of pantomime conserves 
enthusiasm and develops ability- This is true because a 
dramatic form is being used which can be brought to a more 



*The term "dramatic director" is applied to the person who is in charge 
of the dramatic work. She may be an adviser or a secretary or a profes- 
sional director. 

403 



successful conclusion than can be reached if, at the very first, 
the production of a play is attempted. Pantomime demands 
of the player only as much as she is able to give to it. A play 
demands a certain amount of established technique. 

Before attempting to produce a pantomime with any group 
of girls, it is wise to begin with an informal discussion of 
pantomime, what it is, its relation to gesture, and its place in 
dramatic work. 

Self -evidently, pantomime is the logical successor of im- 
promptu dramatization and the precursor of the short or full 
length play. Mr. William Lee Sowers in an article iri "The 
Drama" (May 1919), states that in his opinion "through the 
improved knowledge of gesture, facial expression and miming 
with the body pantomime training would consid- 
erably raise the level of acting." The necessity for exacting 
analysis of character and situation also adds largely to the 
equipment of the player for the interpretation of speech parts. 

Perhaps the simplest definition of pantomime is, action 
without words. Any group will formulate half a dozen defini- 
tions which would be equally true. It is gesture enlarged and 
made to take the place of words. It is mind speaking through 
the medium of the silent body. It is emotion conveyed to an 
audience through gesture and posture. 

After the general subject of pantomime has been discussed 
until the group is no longer in strange waters, some descrip- 
tive pantomime should be worked out. An interesting experi- 
ment is to take a phrase, add to it a gesture which amplifies 
the thought, then amplify the gesture until it takes the plact 
of the phrase. Organize groups of girls to play imaginary 
ball or jump imaginary rope together- This should be followed 
by the assignment of definite problems, or the request for 
original problems, which may be developed by one or by several 
of the group together- Naturally some incident which is a 
more or less common experience would be the subject of the 

404 



pantomime problems. "At the Movies," "Sewing*," "Practicing 
the Piano/' "In a Beauty Parlor," might be subjects assigned 
for development. 

Even in this preliminary work in pantomime there are 
certain laws and principles which should be understood and 
obeyed; for instance, no sound of any sort should be made; 
the mouth may be used only as the eyes or brows are used 
to indicate mood and feeling, no words should be formed on 
the lips; every action must be as carefully completed as in a 
sentence ; if there are imaginary chairs or tables required by 
the setting, the players must remember where these are, and 
not walk through them; any imaginary object which is sup- 
posedly being held, must be treated with the reality of an actual 
object. Possibly it would be interesting also, to have a group 
discussion of the following and kindred questions: How do 
thought, pride, humility, kindness, anger, show themselves in 
the body; face, head, arms, posture, attitude of torso? What 
habit of mind is expressed by a mouth which is turned down 
at the corners? or by a relaxed carriage? or by a head held 
high? What is the difference between the way a man stands 
and walks and the way a woman stands and walks. Such a 
discussion is an invaluable aid to character study and analysis. 

By now the group should be ready for the actual work on 
the pantomime selected for production. The text should be 
read aloud slowly, while each listener tries to visualize the 
action in all its detail as it is described. 

After the cast has been selected and the committees ap- 
pointed, the rehearsing begins. Before meeting with the group, 
the director should have blocked out the action in sections, and 
these sections should each be gone over separately many times 
and then be pieced together, little by little. 

Each player is told where to go on the stage and what to 
do, but never how he goes, nor how he does it. All possible 
freedom in the matter of interpretation should be permitted and 

405 



encouraged so long as individual ideas do not conflict with the 

plan of the whole. 

Bibliography. 
Betzner, Era Three Pantomimes The Awakening of Spring, 

Celestial Love, The Fortune Teller. The Womans Press, 

New York City, 1920. 
Durham, Helen Fashion Revue Down Petticoat Lane. The 

Womans Press, New York City, 1920. 
Gleason, Marion Norris Cat Fear a Japanese Pantomime- 

Rameses Dreams an Egyptian Pantomime. Scenes and 

Songs of Home a Pantomime of the Civil War. The 

Womans Press, New York City, 1920. 
Hudson, Holland The Shepherd in the Distance. Stewart 

and Kidd, Cincinnati, 1921. 
Walker, Stuart The Seven Gifts. Playground and Recreation 

Association, 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

THE PLAY 

Since the rise of the Little Theatre Movement the one-act 
play has come to be a very popular form of amateur dramatic 
entertainment. And there is cause for rejoicing that such is 
the case, since a production consisting of two or three one-act 
plays, carefully chosen for contrast and balance, presents fewer 
difficulties to the group which is limited artistically and finan- 
cially, than the production of a long play. A three-act play 
makes heavy demands upon the ability of the player not only 
in the matter of memorizing lines, but in the sustaining of the 
part. Further than this, it is more nearly possible to meet the 
taste and ability of each individual in the group in a program 
of short plays than in presenting a "full evening" play. 

Play Selection. 

There are certain factors which need to be determined before 
the selection of a play or group of plays. One should ask, 
what purpose is being served by giving the play? Is it for 

406 



entertainment, or to raise money, or to celebrate some special 
event? How much time is there for preparation not only in 
days, but in the number of hours in each day? Where is the 
play to be given, indoors or outdoors, on a large, or a small 
stage? How many participants are to be included as players 
before and behind the scenes? What is the range of the age 
of players, are they children, or adults, or both? What type 
of material is desired shall it be seasonal, patriotic, imagina- 
tive, realistic? Only after all these points have been deter- 
mined, should the actual selection of the play take place. Much 
confusion may be avoided by appointing (by majority vote) a 
committee to read plays of the type desired and to report on 
these to the groups. 

At the first meeting, there are three very definite things to 
be accomplished: the reading of the play, the appointing of 
the committees, and the casting of the characters- Let this 
f rst meeting set the standard for all meetings and all rehear- 
sals which are to follow- Let it begin promptly. Punctuality 
should be one of the sterling by-products of all amateur 
dramatics; so begin at the tim^e appointed, if only two or three 
are there, and establish this practice at the start. Order is 
not only heaven's first law it is the stalwart backbone of 
dramatic production. Noise and confusion at rehearsals and 
meetings are not conducive to earnest work, and the serious 
minded are disturbed by it and lose interest. Players who are 
not rehearsing should not be allowed to chatter. Lastly 
(whether a committee meeting or a rehearsal), let it be recrea- 
tion, shot through with the joy of creation, of cooperative 
endeavor, and of imaginative, spiritual and technical develop- 
ment. These are joy processes. 

There are several methods of play-reading, but the reading 
of the speeches in rotation is perhaps the most satisfactory. 
It is more interesting to all the group, since in this way each 
has a share, and also it serves to reveal to a certain extent 
the relative interpretative abilities, the voice and speech quali- 

407 



ties of eacli member of the group. Before the reading is begun, 
the director should ask that, as the reading progresses, every- 
one will be determining in her own mind how the play should be 
cast. When the reading has been completed the next step is 
to cast the play. 

Casting. 

It is suggested that the director appoint the entire group 
as the casting committee, acting herself as the chairman. It 
is only through the democratic method of voting that it is 
possible to eliminate the personal element in selecting the 
characters. Ask the group to base its individual judgment on 
honest belief in the ability of a member to play her part. One 
method of casting which has been successfully carried out, is 
to have any member of the group nominate any other member 
for the most important part. Those who have been thus nom- 
inated read (one after the other without the interruption of 
comment), the same or different significant parts of the text 
of the leading character- Then by the "handraising process" 
of voting, eliminate until the most able player is left in pos- 
session of the part. Players for the next most important part 
are then nominated **from the floor," tried out and eliminated, 
and the process is repeated until all the cast has been selected- 
The same girl, of course, may be nominated for different parts 
any number of times. It is important that the director should 
hold together the spirit of the meeting. It is for her to lift it 
from any possible personal complication into the realm of an 
art ideal wherein "the play's the thing." It should also be 
clearly understood that if any player proves unsatisfactory in 
lehearsal another will be substituted. 

Committees. 

After the play has been read and cast, the final thing to 
be accomplished at the first meeting is to appoint committees 
and their chairmen. The type of the play will determine the 
number of committees which are needed. Usually for a produc- 

408 



tion which involves less than fifty participants, committees on 
staging, costume, properties, lighting, music, publicity, and 
finance are needed. 

The various committees should begin their work at once. 
Ihe rehearsal times should be also the times for the workshop 
activities. By organizing in this way the continuing interest 
of the entire group is safe-guarded. 

The work of the committees can and should be made com- 
pellingly interesting, but unless especial attention is paid to 
this phase of production it is not possible to expect efficient 
committee cooperation- The director should call together the 
chairmen and the committees for a brief conference. It would 
be well at this time to emphasize the share of all in the pro- 
duction- The interpretation of the parts is only a fragment of 
the whole. The interpretation of the play through tKe costum- 
ing, through the setting, with the lighting, and by music, is of 
equal importance. Says Emerson: "All are needed by each one, 
nothing- is good or true alone." This is fundamentally the basis 
of good production. To develop all phases which are divided 
in the production of a play requires devotion, patience, inge- 
nuity and the expenditure of one's self in larger proportion than 
does the playing of the parts. Since this is true, the service 
of the committees should receive recognition equal to that given 
the actors in the program. 

There must, of course, be the closest cooperation between 
the various committees in order that the unity of the produc- 
tion may be preserved. In general, the duties of the commit- 
tees are as follows: 

Staging: This committee is responsible for the setting and 
properties, for assembling these, for having them in their ap- 
pointed places before the rise of the curtain and on hand for re- 
hearsals as they are required. The committee is also respon- 
sible for the safe return in good condition of any borrowed stage 
properties. Extreme care in the treatment of these cannot be 
stressed too strongly. 

409 



Costume: The .costume committee Is called together by its 
chairman to re-read the play and analyze it. First to be de- 
termined is the class into which the play most nearly falls. Is 
it realistic or imaginative, a little of both perhaps, or something 
between, which is completely neither. The type of the play will 
determine the mode of the costuming, the content of the play 
will determine the color scheme. The psychology of color is 
too large a subject to be dealt with here. Suffice it to say that 
it is a problem for the costume committee to solve. Definite 
mental and emotional vibrations, both for players and audience, 
are set in motion by the use of color in costuming and setting, 
and as such the subject needs very careful consideration. The 
care of costumes cleaning, pressing, repairing, listing, packing 
is one of the important duties of the committee both before 
and after the performance. 

Properties: There are, of course, stage and personal "props.' 1 
When the term is used, however, it generally is meant to desig- 
nate the personal. In many instances the players are able to 
provide these for themselves, but if a period or imaginative 
play is being presented it is the duty of this committee to pro- 
cure or make all the properties. In any event, the chairman of 
the properties committee is responsible for seeing that each 
player has her personal properties at the time of the dress re- 
hearsal and at the performance. 

Lighting and Music: There is little that can be said of the 
activities of these two committees since the problems involved 
depend wholly upon local conditions and the demands of the 
play. It is important, however, for these committees to re- 
member that both the music and the lighting should serve as a 
background for the idea and action of the play. 

Publicity: All arrangements concerning advertising, posters, 
bulletins, press notices, etc., are the responsibility of this com- 
mittee. In their hands also is usually placed the business of 
arranging for the hall in which the play is to be presented, the 

410 



decorations, ushering, etc. Frequently the publicity committee 
takes complete charge of the sale of the tickets. 

Finance : Anything which involves the expenditure of money 
comes under the province of this committee. 

Rehearsing-* 

At the first rehearsal, the discussion of the underlying 
motive of the play and of each of the characters is a stimulat- 
ing proceeding, too often neglected by amateurs in their eager- 
ness to get to the actual work of rehearsing. Only those who 
have had the experience of rehearsing a play which has been 
thoroughly analyzed by the members of the cast, can know how 
the production is deepened and enriched by this intellectual 
contribution. 

If it is necessary, further "try-outs" should come now, and 
then the rehearsing of the action (ignoring, for the time being, 
interpretation) of the first act or scene. The action should 
have been entirely "plotted," i. e., worked out by the director, 
before the first rehearsal. Much of it will doubtless have to be 
changed, suggestions from the players will add to it, but inde- 
scribable is the confusion which results from having no definite 
plan of stage action to form a basis for the work of the first 
rehearsal. Further than this, it cannot be too often stated that 
every bit of action must always be the result of a real reason 
for moving from one point to another. 

There are certain technical terms with which it is wise to 
familiarize a group of players at the outset of dramatic work. 
In giving directions right and left are now generally accepted 
to designate the players right and left rather than that of the 
audience. Down stage refers to the part nearest the audience; 
up stage to that farthest away. The entrances are referred to 
by numbers, one being nearest the audience. More often than 
not there are only right, left and center entrances, but if on 
the right there are two or three they are so numbered. The 
following abbreviations are frequently used especially in act- 
ing editions of plays: L. left; R. right; D. L. down left; 

411 



D. R. down right; U. L. up left; U. R. up right; C. cen- 
ter; U. C. or D. C.- up or down center; E. U. E. or L. U. E. 
right or left upper entrance, or R. 2 L. 2 may be used to indi- 
cate the upper entrances. "Backing" is a section of setting 
used behind a door or window that is to be opened. "Practical" 
is the technical term for useable a practical window or door is 
one which will open or close, a practical lamp is one which will 
light. "Plot" is the technical term for list i. e., property plot 
means the list of properties arranged in relation to the differ- 
ent scenes in which they are used. 

The second rehearsal reviews the last rehearsal's work, not 
to perfect it but to recall it and to get continuity; the action of 
the next scene is gone over, and attention is given to the inter- 
pretation and reading of speeches. 

Each subsequent rehearsal reviews xthe new work of the pro- 
ceeding rehearsals. The action is perfected little by little until 
the play moves smoothly. The speeches are worked over until 
the players are letter perfect and speak their lines clearly and 
intelligently. 

If a costume play is to be presented it is important to have 
two dress rehearsals, with an interval of two or three days be- 
tween in order to allow time in which to make the necessary 
changes and additions. At the first dress rehearsal all stage 
properties should be in their places, all individual properties to 
be used by the players should be given to them, and all music, 
cues, lighting effects and changes of scenes should be thoroughly 
rehearsed. At the second dress rehearsal the players should be 
in complete costume (make-up and wigs if these are used), and 
the entire play should be gone through without interruption, as 
if the actual performance were taking place. 

Bibliography. 

Clark, Barrett. How to Produce Amateur Plays. Little, 
Brown & Co., New York, 1917. 

MacKay, Constance D'Acy. 'Costumes and Scenery for Ama- 
teurs. Henry Holt & Co., -New York, 1915. 

412 



MacKay, Constance D'Arcy. How to Produce Children's Plays. 
Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1915. 

Second List of Plays and Pageants. -Compiled by the Bureau 
of Pageantry and the Drama of the National Board of the 
Young 1 Womens Christian Association. Order from The 
Womans Press, New York City. A selective list for the use 
of girls and young women. It also contains descriptions of 
all books listed in these bibliographies. 

PAGEANTRY. 

Much of the philosophy and technique which underlies 
dramatization, pantomime and play production is applicable to 
pageantry, hence it is only logical that a discussion of this 
form of the drama should come last in an outline for construc- 
tive, cumulative dramatic work. 

"A pageant is primarily something 'compacted together,'" 
says Robert Withington in his very valuable historical outline, 
called "English Pageantry." "Moreover, the pageant is at its 
best when produced, not by one group or set in a community, 
but by all; not by paid performers but by townspeople in volun- 
tary cooperation." 

Of the various forms of pageantry, Miss Hazel MacKaye 
says: 

"The term 'pageantry' to-day implies the use of the drama 
by large numbers of amateur groups in a spectacle of consider- 
able magnitude. The term 'community drama* is often used 
interchangeably with 'pageantry,' but 'community drama' in- 
cludes all dramatic activities which are non-professional, 
whether these activities take the form of a community pageant 
in the city's largest auditorium or a community play in a Little 
Theater. 

"A pageant in the original use of the term meant a gor- 
geous spectacle or parade without the accompaniment of dia- 
logue, but in its modern application a pageant means a series 
of dramatic episodes (often with 'pageant' features) strung, as 

413 



it were, on a string like beads, each 'bead' or episode being 
complete in itself, but all being: interpretative of the same un- 
derlying- idea. More often than not, dialogue is used in these 
episodes. The pageant form is best suited to historical subjects, 
such as the history of a city or town, or the history of a move- 
ment, like Education, or the history of an institution, like the 
Church. 

"A 'masque' is constructed on the same lines as a play, in 
that there is a plot, with all that implies of conflict and sus- 
pense. The plot, however, is symbolical or allegorical. It deals 
with universal or impersonal problems, not with particular or 
personal ones. In addition, the masque lends itself to pageant 
features, pageant, in this sense, meaning 'gorgeous spectacles 
and parades/ The masque is especially adapted to the inter- 
pretation of social and ethical problems where it is desired to 
portray the difficulties to be overcome. 

"Then there are dramatic forms less easy to classify, such 
as dramatic ceremonies, rituals and services. These are used 
often to celebrate certain observances, such as the dedication of 
a church or civic building, or to celebrate a holiday, such as 
Memorial Day, or to observe some religious festival, such as 
Christmas or Easter." 

But whatever the form, the underlying principles and phil- 
osophy are the same. "We must be no more tolerant of bad 
art than of bad civics, for bad art is bad sociology and bad edu- 
cation," says Percy MacKaye in his essay, "Community Drama." 
In addition he states that "Community Drama seeks the effi- 
ciency of neighborliness. It seems to provide, and rightly or-, 
ganized, it does provide, a substitute for ineffectual goodwill in 
the effectual definite processes of cooperative art. It takes its 
first hints from childhood. Children are nearly always definite 
and cooperative. When child neighbors meet, they play to- 
gether; that is, each relates himself to a community process; 
or, if they squabble, they cooperate in groups to do so. The 
games of childhood, modern survivals of ancient folk art (when 

414 



they have not been perverted by a spirit of military national- 
ism), are, then, first lessons in community drama. 

"'Here we go round th,e mulberry bush !' not 'here I go 
round/ but 'we/ It is always 'we/ among children: we small 
neighbors, linked hand in hand, each self -included circle-symbol 
of the world itself. ... So from as little and homely a thing 
as a 'mulberry bush' we may cultivate and gather fruit of the 
International Mind/' 

To a local Association the reasons for using a pageant or 
masque are usually one of the following: 

A. To arouse interest in a cause. 

B. To provide an art activity for a large group. 

C. To raise money. 

For any* pageant or masque which assumes community pro- 
portions, expert leadership is absolutely essential the organi- 
zation alone of such a production requires knowledge and abil- 
ity, which can only come through specialized training and ex- 
perience. 

In organizing a pageant, there are two distinct sets of activ- 
ities to be "set up" community activities and the dramatic 
activities. For the community activities there needs to be a 
general committee composed of an executive committee with its 
chairman and executive secretary, the community director and 
the chairman for the general' committee. There should be a 
recruiting committee responsible for enrollment in the different 
districts; a publicity committee responsible for speakers, mass 
meetings, newspapers, posters and literature, special advertis- 
ing features and the programs; a finance committee responsible 
for the budget, underwriting, business administration, contracts, 
sale of tickets, seating arrangements; a fellowship committee 
to give assistance with the workroom, at rehearsals and at per- 
formances. There must also be an office, the activities of which 
are 'filing, notifications, distribution, records and minutes, in- 
formation, correspondence and business details. 

415 



For the dramatic activities there needs to be a general com- 
mittee composed of its chairman, an executive committee chair- 
man and executive secretary, the director of production with a 
staff consisting of the assistant director, music director, dance 
director, light director, costume director and scenic director. 
Also there needs to b~e a workroom where the costumes, scenery 
and props are made. 

Where expert leadership is not possible the outdoor produc- 
tion of a pageant in the spring or summer is often within the 
reach of an inexperienced group, For such a production it is 
well to select a simple pageant with few principals, with much 
of processional, pantomime, dance, and little speech, and to 
keep the activities attendant on the production within a limited 
group rather than to enlist community cooperation. 

The selection of background and setting for an outdoor pro- 
duction is of vital importance, as also the level of the ground 
for the seating of the audience. Clustered trees, or tall bushes 
which form a fairly solid background and admit of entrances 
and exits, a slight rising of the ground back of this "stage," 
which will permit the beauty of long distance processional, and 
again rising ground for the audience, form the ideal conditions. 
Often, however, the side of a house, heavily vine-covered, makes, 
a good background. Sometimes a natural pool may be utilized. 
The underlying principle is that the site for the stage shall be 
an obvious point of focus, both through being naturally beauti- 
ful and dramatically effective. 

Bibliography. 

Bates and Orr. Pageants and Pageantry. Ginn & Co., New 
York, 1912. 

Chubb, Percival and his Associates. Festivals and Plays. Har- 
per & Bros., New York, 1912. 

Davol, Ralph. A Handbook of American Pageantry. Davol 
Publishing Co., Mass., 1914. 

416 



MacKay, Constance D'Arcy. Patriotic Drama in Your Town. 
Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1918. 

MacKaye, Percy. Community Drama. Houghton, Mifflin Co., 
New York, 1917. 

Mitchell, Roy. Shakespeare for Community Players. E. P. 
Dutton & Co., New York, 1919. 

Withington, Robert. English Pageantry. Harvard University 
Press, Cambridge, Mass. Two volumes. 1918-1921. 



SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS ON FORMING A DRAMATIC STUDY 
GROUP OF GIRL RESERVES.* 

The term Dramatic Study Group is here used to designate a 
group, which may be formed in any Girls' Work Department, 
to forward the study and interpretation of the several phases 
of the drama as outlined in the preceding pages of this chap- 
ter. In its membership should be included all younger girls 
who are particularly interested in the drama and who want to 
build up in the Association and in the community a drama 
movement. The work of this group would not duplicate in any 
measure the suggestions made "earlier in the chapter about the 
place of the drama in the Girl Reserve Movement. Those sug- 
gestions are made to help put the drama in its rightful place 
in the regular program work of each of the corps, companies 
and clubs. 

Perhaps a contribution of real merit may be made to the 
Community Drama movement, if every Girl Reserve Dramatic 
group starts out on the right basis that is with the motto, 
"What is worth doing at all is worth doing well." 

Since many people have had experience in forming dramatic 
study groups, it would be well to take advantage of this expe- 
rience from the beginning and avoid making some very serious 
mistakes. 



* The following: suggestions were compiled specifically for Girl Reserves 
by Hazel MacKaye. 

417 



The following: are some of the principles which it has been 
found wise to follow: 

1. The group must be put on a good business basis. This 
does not mean that it must be run for money. On the 
contrary, that is the worst possible basis, for if the ob- 
ject is to "make money" then the artistic worth of the 
production becomes only a secondary matter. The ar- 
tistic side of the play must be the first consideration, but 
some system of financial support, aside from "gate re- 
ceipts" must be thought out. Dues, subscriptions, un- 
derwriting (by interested friends) all of these may be 
combined to enable the club to have the necessary capital 
with which to begin the nucleus of its stage effects, such 
as stage hangings or sets, a wardrobe, a few properties, 
and a simple lighting equipment. Each play will add to 
all these things, but a beginning must be made, and 
"capital" of some sort is necessary. 

2. Responsibility for enforcing rules, especially with regard 
to attendance at rehearsals and committee meetings, must 
be placed squarely upon the group membership and not 
upon the dramatic director. 

3. The work of producing a play or plays must be divided 
equally among the membership. Those who act in one 
play, should be the managers, directors and committee 
members in the next play. "Turn and turn about is fair 
play." 

4. Painstaking care should be given to the selection of the 
plays (or series of plays) as well as to every detail in 
carrying them out. "Artistic integrity," should be the 
underlying purpose of every production. 

First Step. 

It is impossible to lay down any rule regarding the 
amount of ground to be covered at each meeting, but the 
following activities are taken up in their relative order: 
1. Discussion of the Community Drama Movement. 

418 



2. Discussion of policies. 

3. Selection of a Dramatic Study Chairman. 

4. A Committee should be appointed (or an individual as- 
signed) to submit several plays to be discussed at the 
subsequent meeting. 

Second Step. 

1. Readings of the plays, or outlines submitted, with final 
choice by the club membership of the play to be 'given. 
(Where the club is large, a Play Reading Committee may 
choose the play.) 

2. Discussion of the underlying meaning and significance of 
the play and the characters. 

3. Appointment (or election) of chairman and committees. 
The committees will grow out of the needs of ths play. 

4. Assigning of parts by "try-outs" or other means. The 
try-out system by a Oast Committee has proven to be a 
very effective way of removing all personal animosities. 
It also helps to foster a spirit of "good sportsmanship ' 
among the members. 

5. Conferences between the Director and her assistants as 
well as with her committees. (Note: It is just as impor- 
tant that time be set aside for these conferences as for 
the rehearsals. Either before or after the rehearsals 
doubtless would be best.) 

The success with which the play is interpreted will depend 
greatly upon the care with which it is analyzed and discussed by 
the Director and the club. All the members on the Production 
Committee should know the play as well as the actors, for they 
have an equal share in its interpretation. The setting, cos- 
tumes, properties, music and lights should be designed and car- 
ried out with a view to the effect of the play as a whole. In 
short, the aim should be to have a synthesized production. This 
can only be obtained by the proper understanding of the play 
by all concerned in its presentation on the stage. 

419 



It is not possible to go into the many details of rehearsing 
a play in this brief setting-forth of the subject, but a few gen- 
eral rules may be suggested: 

First. Absolute and undivided attention must be given to 
the business at hand by those taking part in the play, while 
those looking on must be perfectly quiet. A rehearsal cannot 
be conducted in the midst of confusion. If the study group is 
truly "self-governing" this rule will be carried out by the girls 
themselves and not left to be enforced by the Director. 

Second. The Director should be in sole control of the re- 
hearsal until it is dismissed, when suggestions and comments 
should be invited. (Each member of the cast should have a 
copy of the entire play so that she may be intelligent about the 
play as a whole and not merely her own part.) The Director, 
especially if unskilled, should be guided by the wishes of the 
majority, in case of any disputes, but divided authority during 
the rehearsal is impossible. This pre-supposes that the Direc- 
tor has given the play great thought and has largely mapped 
out her plans before rehearsal. 

Third. The rehearsal should take place, if possible, on the 
actual stage. If not, then the proportions of the stage and the 
exact location of the entrances should be adhered to in re- 
hearsing the action. 

Fourth. The action should grow out of the thought and 
emotion revealed through the speeches, and not arbitrarily im- 
posed because some action "would look well." 

Fifth. The speeches should not be committed to memory at 
the first rehearsal, but the sooner the player frees herself from 
the effort of trying to remember her lines, the more quickly 
can she throw herself into her part. Great care should be taken 
to speak clearly and audibly at all rehearsals. 

Sixth. There should be two dress rehearsals. The first for 
a "line perfect" rehearsal on the stage combined with the scen- 
ery properties and music. The second should have all these 

420 



with the addition of costumes, makeup, etc., and lights. The 
play should be performed at least once exactly as it is to be 
given before the audience. 

Performance. 

It is here that "team work" between the "front of the 
house" and "behind the scenes" may be used so advantageously 
as to give the audience the "atmosphere" of the play from the 
first moment they enter the auditorium. If the play is a cos- 
tume play, the ushers may echo certain features of the period 
in their dress, while the decorations and programs may also re- 
peat this note. If the play is modern, let the ushers adopt a 
dress which is decorated with the symbol of the club and let the 
decorations and programs be symbolic of the underlying mes- 
sage of the play. This gives a certain creative interest to those 
on the "Promotion Committee" for they can use their ingenuity 
in making the "front of the house" a veritable delight to all 
who enter. 

As to the running of the performance "behind the scenes" 
that is again too technical a matter to be treated here. Suffice 
it to say, that all the actors should be in their dressing rooms 
at least an hour before the curtain rings up; that the stage 
manager, costume, property and other directors should have all 
things in readiness so that the curtain may rise on the ap- 
pointed hour. 

Workshop. 

As the activities of the study group lead more and more 
into the visual side of play-making, the desirability of having 
some place where the necessary scenery, costumes, etc., may 
be made with comparative ease will become increasingly ap- 
parent. The creative instinct of the girls' may be used to ad- 
vantage here as in the actual performance, while the activities 
of designing, decorating and making the costumes can be readily 

421 



allied to the already existing training-classes of the Young 
"Women's Christian Association, the Workshop being a practical 
and fascinating application of the skill developed in these vari- 
ious classes. 

Dramatic Program. 

When the study group has really made one or two success- 
ful productions, it is more than likely that the idea of plan- 
ning some of their plays ahead, and planning them in relation 
to one another will be conceived. This opens a large oppor- 
tunity for study and research, as well as variety in the choice 
of plays. 

The Bibliograhy suggests where resources for dramatic 
programs may be found. After a perusal of these sources, it 
is quite likely that each individual group will have ideas of its 
own regarding the kind of program it wishes to carry for- 
ward, but help along this line is doubtless necessary in the 
beginning. 

Regular Meetings. 

Aside from the rehearsals and meetings growing out of 
the needs of the play, time should be set aside when the 
group as a whole meets to discuss its principles, its aims and 
its problems. It is impossible to set any definite time for 
these meetings since conditions vary so greatly in different 
places. But at such times it would be well to have someone 
from outside speak briefly on the drama or related subjects 
so that the girls keep in touch with aims and problems other 
than their own. In this great "cooperative art" of the drama it 
is well to inculcate the habit of mind of thinking of one's 
study group as a part of a whole great community of equally 
aspiring and earnest groups seeking to find the hidden beauty 
in themselves and in the world about them. 

422 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PLACE OF DISCUSSION IN THE GIRL RESERVE MOVEMENT. 

THE value of discussion in girls' club work is the same as 
in every other phase of every day living-. It Brings about an 
exchange of ideas, serves as a clarification of many opinions 
which teen-age girls have heard and which they have been 
holding in their minds unexpressed, and opens up many ave- 
nues of thought which have been closed to the girls. It stim- 
ulates a desire for further thinking and actual study along 
these lines. 

There is a growing conviction on the part of many edu- 
cators and social workers to-day that many of the life stand- 
ards which are offered to present day youth, are adult in 
their conception. Youth accepts them, sometimes with pro- 
test, but not having thought them through for itself, fails to 
uphold them at critical moments. Therefore, the opportunity 
to present to growing girls questions which are vital to their 
every day living is a very great one. 

This does not mean the abandonment of established stand- 
ards nor a disregard for the experience of the past which has 
produced standards, but it does mean that the rising gener- 
ation is allowed to enter into this experience of the past and 
to make the adjustments to their own age, so that standards 
of the past are conserved rather than destroyed. Youth some- 
times sets aside the thing which is automatically given. 

"Modern college work is largely a pouring-in process. In 
the class room, through the lecture method, the student is told 
what is true and what to believe, and his examination tests 
him in how* well he can repeat what he has been told. In the 

423 



religious meetings he is told what is true and what to believe 
and what to do religiously. He is robbed too largely of the 
joy of finding some things out for himself, of daring to have 
ideas of his own. Ideas are dynamic; yes, but common sense 
and modern psychology agree that they are dynamic and re- 
sult in action only when they become a part of one's own 
thought and conviction." -Harrison Elliott. 

This pouring-in process is undoubtedly less a part of sec- 
ondary school work than of college and university work^ 
More and more the formal recitation method is being sup- 
planted by the project method, which offers a great field of 
discussion because it represents an individual or group effort 
and the pupil speaks from a certain experience which has re- 
sulted from the work undertaken, but in addition to what this 
may do to help a girl form standards for living which come 
as the result of right thinking, there is still a tremendous 
field for helping either school girls or younger girls in business 
and industry, to know upon what to base their own judgments. 

Leading a Discussion. 

It is very desirable to have club members assume respon- 
sibility for directing the discussion in a regular club meeting. 
This cannot be done without thorough consultation between 
the girl leader and an adviser. There may be certain topics 
-which demand the skillful guidance of an adviser herself when 
presented to the whole group. Whether she is directing a 
discussion herself or advising a girl in her preparation for the 
discussion, an adviser will meet this situation more adequately 
if she has some of the following qualifications: a real interest 
in what she is doing, an earnest desire for the well-being of 
girls, such joy in helping girls to understand the possibilities 
of what is being discussed that she is willing to direct their 
thinking step by step, and to put at their disposal all of her 
skill, her teaching power, her mental vigor, her insight into 
character, her knowledge of methods, and most of all her power 
of graphic application. 

424 



The language, the arrangement of material, the method 
of presenting the questions and the manner of the person 
directing the discussion, are fundamentals in successful dis- 
cussion and the girl leader of any discussion should be "coached" 
along all of these lines. The language, both of presentation 
and answer, should be simple, clear, forceful and correct. The 
manner of the girl leader or the adviser has a real bearing upon 
the group response; spirit, energy, life, and the very tone 
quality of the voice, add to the general interest in any subject. 
Where all of these elements have been considered in the pre- 
paration for any discussion, the matter of discipline in the 
group, or the holding of attention becomes almost negligible. 

The girl leader or the adviser must have the necessary 
information regarding the topic in such order that she passes 
ouickly and clearly from the introduction to the real body of 
the discussion. This, too, must be so arranged that it repre- 
sents a real progression and there must be always a relation- 
ship between the main theme and all questions and answers. 
If the leader is a girl, she should make first her own plans for 
the presentation of the subject. Consultation with the adviser 
should follow, thus giving the girl the opportunity for initia- 
tive, a very desirable thing and one of the aims of this dis- 
cussional work. 

Method of Discussion. 

The really successful discussion does not begin with a 
lengthy presentation which has, within its bounds, answers to 
all of the questions which may be asked later. The art of vivid 
presentation lies in the fact that it is thought provoking. It 
contains statements which arouse immediate questions in the 
minds of all who share in the discussion ; it projects questions 
^hich, by their very edge, make an immediate answer a neces- 
sity or the asking of a new question the only present satisfac- 
tion for that girl who wants to know. 

The Art of Questioning is a difficult one but it is not insur- 
ixiountable to the adviser who is really anxious to do her dis- 

425 



eussion work in a craftsmanlike way. Briefly stated, questions 
may be grouped under the following headings: the preliminary 
or experimental question, the question employed to give actual 
instruction, and the question of examination. This last form 
is little used in discussion with girls in a club. However ques- 
tions are couched, they should be definite and not open to too 
many interpretations; they should not tell too much, and they 
should be the real questions of the person conducting the dis- 
cussion. Fully as important as the questions asked are the 
answers received. If an answer is given which is wrong, or 
lion-pertinent to the subject under discussion or not clearly 
related to the question asked, it should not be discarded by the 
leader of the discussion. Neither should there be an immediate 
reply which, in its entire disapproval of the statement made, 
reduces the speaker to complete silence during the remainder 
of the discussion and to outspoken discontents after the club 
meeting is over. In other words, such answers deserve the 
most careful consideration and there should be always a com- 
plete sense of impartiality on the part of the leader of the 
discussion. * 

If the membership of a club is large, it is better to divide 
into several groups, with a girl leader or an adviser directing 
each group; after discussion, the whole club comes together 
for reports of their group findings and for further discussion. 

While the question method is the usual one for beginning 
discussional work, there are other ways such as pictures and 
diagrams, stories, observation, and demonstration. Illustra- 
tions of these various methods are: 

(a) Questions; If the subject for the discussion is "con- 
duct" and the first question is: "Why does the way we act 
make any difference?" the implication is that it does make a 
difference. If the first question were: "Does the way we act 
make any difference?" the girl has an opportunity to think for 
herself. A question that can be answered by "Yes" or "No" 
should be used very rarely; but if used, it should be followed 

426 



by questions that will lead to reasons for the answer given, 
as illustrated by this example. If the discussion is centering 
about purity, especially purity of thought, instead of the ques- 
tion: "How can we keep our thoughts pure?" the question 
"What do you think about when you are alone?" will help every 
girl to face squarely the challenge as to the quality of the 
contents of her mind. 

(b) Story: If the subject for discussion is: "A Girl's 
Scale of Values," and the purpose is to help girls discover 
those principles for living which have true value in that they 
express right relations to man and God, the story of "The 
Plant That Lost Its Berry," to be found in "Story Tell Lib/' 
by Annie Trumbull Slosson, can be used to introduce the sub- 
ject. See page 447 for a further interpretation of the mes- 
sage of this story. 

i(c) Observation: If the subject is "A Good Understanding" 
and the purpose is to present to the girls the value of wearing 
the right kind of shoes, ask each girl, at least two weeks before 
the meeting, to observe the shoes of passers-by, noticing the 
type and condition of many of them. Narrow shoes with pointed 
toes and high heels usually result in heels which are run over 
and counters which are broken down, soles worn off at the tips, 
or on the sides. Have the girls watch advertisements to see 
what points are emphasized and also the display windows of 
scores. At the club meeting, combine the results of this 
observation with the demonstration method and have an exhibi- 
tion of shoes which meet the requirements of a normal natural 
foot. See the chapter on Health Education, page 326 ff. 

(d) Pictures and diagrams: If the subject is "What is my 
relation to the little girls who feed the silk worms in China" 
and the purpose is to present to girls their dependence upon 
the labor of hundreds of children in other lands, thereby arous- 
ing a spirit of fellowship, pictures illustrating the care of the 
silk worms, the feeding of mulberry leaves and the patient 
winding of the delicate threads of silk, can be used to open 

427 



this discussion. Ask the girls to define the boundaries of tneir 
lives. Is It the neighborhood or the school or, if it were to 
be illustrated by a diagram upon a blackboard or map, would 
lines run out to the far distant lands? Are the girls one- 
country girls? 

(e) Debate: The debate suggested here as one form of dis- 
cussion is not the carefully prepared, formal debate in which 
many of the club members might participate in school. Topics 
which are of pressing interest to girls should be assigned some- 
time in advance of the meeting. It usually adds interest not to 
choose the debaters until the time for the debate and the 
amount of time allotted to this introduction to the real body 
of discussion should not be too great. A suggested topic is: 
Resolved: That teamwork in the preparation of lessons is 
allowable. 

(f) Demonstration: If the subject for discussion is: "Are 
expensive clothes necessary for one who wishes to be well 
dressed'* and the purpose is to show that an attractive per- 
sonality may express itself through simplicity in design, har- 
monious colors, and moderately priced and durable material, an 
exhibition of dresses suitable for school, afternoon or evening 
parties, and street wear will serve as an excellent setting for 
this most practical discussion. Secure these garments through 
the courtesy and cooperation of a standard department store. 
It is essential that the secretary or adviser in charge of this 
discussion is very sure that the person sent from the store to 
help in this exhibition is aware of the standards which the 
Association and the club are eager to maintain, so that the 
affair does not become a demonstration of the latest "fads." 

(g) Dramatics: If the subject for discussion is "Child 
Labor" and the purpose is to bring to girls an understanding 
of some of the conditions which make possible labor by children, 
and to arouse in them a determination to face squarely their 
ultimate responsibility, as future citizens, for the abolition of 
anything like this which stunts the fullness of life of children, 
the pageant, "Sunshine and Shadow/ 7 published by the National 

428 



Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22nd Street, New York City, 
proves a. very effective way of stimulating interest. It does not 
require elaborate preparation. Eoyalty is paid to the National 
Child Labor Committee. 

Content of the Discussion: 

In the preceding description of the Method of the Dis- 
cussion, it is evident that not only ways of conducting dis- 
cussions have been suggested but also considerable content has 
been indicated. The following topics for discussion are listed 
in the hope that they will be suggestive of many others which 
can be used to stretch the muscles of a girPs mind. 
A. "What Do I Cost?" 

A girl's budget: Living expenses. Education. Cloth- 
ing, Amusements. 
Bl "Purpose." 
"To each man is given a day and his work for the 

day; 

And once, and no more, he is given to travel this way. 
And woe if he flies from the task, whatever the odds ; 
For the task is appointed to him on the scroll of the 

gods. 

There is waiting a work only his hands can avail; 
And so, if he falters, a chord in the music will fail, 
He may laugh to the sky, he may lie for an hour in 

the sun; 
But he dare not go hence till the labor appointed is 

done. 
Yes, the task that is given to each man, no other 

can do; 
So the errand is waiting; it has waited through ages 

for you 

And now you appear; and the hushed ones are turn- 
ing their gaze 

.To see what you do with your chance in the chamber 
of days." 

Edwin Markhaxft. 
429 



C. "The Ideal Home." House and Home Series. Eliza- 
beth Jenkins. Secure from the Womans Press, 600 
Lexington Avenue, New York. 

"Planning- the House." 

"Furnishing the House." 

"A Budget of Personal and Household Accounts." 

"Literature in the Home." 

"The Home and the Neighborhood." 

D. "How Wide Is My World?" 

"The world stands out on either side 
No wider than the heart is wide; 
Above the world is stretched the sky 
No higher than the soul is high. 
The heart can push the sea and land 
Farther away on either hand; 
The soul can split the sky in two 
And let the face of God shine through." 

Edna St. Vincent Millay. 

(If possible obtain a copy of the picture "Sic Te 
Amo," by Marie Collier, sometimes called "How Wide 
Is My Love?") 

E. "One hundred per cent, health for the High School 
girl." There are several "ways of presenting this topic. 
It could be done through the medium of a splendid 
and inspiring talk by a doctor, or through a mock 
trial of the American girl on the following counts: 
Firm versus flabby muscles. 

Red versus white corpuscles. 
Straight versus crooked backs. 
Pink versus pale cheeks. 
Bright versus shadowed eyes. 

F. "Modes, Manners, Customs and Costumes." 

(a) Standards of conduct for the American girl. 

(b) "Clothes." 

430 



A demonstration of attractive dresses for high 
school girls, suitable for all occasions, can often 
be obtained through the courtesy of the Misses' 
Department of a store. Care needs to be taken 
that extreme styles are not featured, 
(c) "Hair." 

A demonstration of up-to-date styles of hair 
dressing 1 for girls of high school age, can be 
obtained through the courtesy of a reliable hair- 
dressing establishment. The same care in regard 
to extremes needs to be exercised here also. 
G. "All Work and No Play Makes Jill a Dull Girl." 
The place of recreation in a high school course. 
EL "Gossip versus Conversation." 

Is gossip confined to any one group of people? Is 
it as apt to be heard in drawing rooms as in the con- 
versation occurring over the backyard fence? What 
is the difference between conversation and gossip? 
What makes conversation worth while? 
"Natural talk, like ploughing, should turn up a large 
surface of life, rather than dig mines into geological 
strata it should keep close along the lines of human- 
ity, near the bosoms and businesses of men, at the 
level where history, fiction and experience interest 
and illuminate each other." Kobert Louis Stevenson. 
I. "What Are You Laughing At?" 

Different sorts of laughter, kind and unkind "gig- 
gling" e. g., "the time, the place and the laugh." 
J. "Your Castles in the Air," 

Do you believe that "Dreams are the record of our 
waking moments?" 

SCHOOL GIRL IDEALS. 

"School Girl Ideals," which follow, are offered as a dis- 
cussional series, which may become the background for dis- 

431 



cussional work during a year. The topics are suitable for a 
genera! meeting, but there will be a more informal and spirited 
discussion if they are used by smaller groups. The girls them- 
selves should lead the discussion, with a more mature leader 
acting as referee. Some girls enjoy taking the outlines home 
after the meetings for further thought and study, writing 
answers to the questions and later comparing these with the 
answers of other girls. 

The Biblical quotations establish the Christian standards 
ir these matters and can serve as texts, while the topics call 
attention to the more important phases of the subjects under 
consideration. The questions are only suggestive and intended 
to stir up thought. The girls themselves will think of many 
nore to be added. 

The leader of this discussion, with the aid of the adviser 
or the secretary, should always give a summary of the import- 
ant points at the close of the discussion, being careful to avoid 
stating any conclusion unless the group has arrived at such 
a conclusion. If there is to be a more or less formal con- 
clusion, which -would result in taking a stand upon a given 
question, or forming a policy which would result in definite 
action, such should come from the group. 

A GIBL'S LOVE OF THE BEAUTIFUL. 

"Whatsoever things are lovely, think on these things, 
Phil. 4:8. 

"Let your speech be always with grace." Col. 4:6. 

"I will greatly rejoice' in Jehovah, my soul shall be joyful 
in my God ; for he hath clothed me with the garments of salva- 
tion, he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a 
bridegroom decketh himself with a garland, and as a bride 
adometh herself with her jewels." Isa. 61:10. 

I. Beauty of Thought and Speech. 

What is the meaning of being a gentlewoman? Are my 
thoughts always pure ? Does the book I am reading now 

432 



give me true ideas about life? How can I tell whether 
a book is worth reading? How does what I read affect 
what I say? Have I a gentle voice? How far does 
my tone of voice tell the kind of girl I am. Have I 
listened to anything to-day that I could not tell my 
mother ? 

[I. Beauty of Conduct. 

Is it true that "actions speak louder than words?" What 
does it mean to be truly courteous? Why does it make 
any difference how I act? Do I show my kindness best 
by the things I do or by the things I do not do? Why 
is a crowd with which one has to travel sometimes so 
apt to be disagreeable? Do the same standards apply 
to conduct at home, on the street and in school? 

III. Personal Beauty. 

Does my face reflect sunshine within me? Have I a 
smile for those I greet? Is it really true that "hand- 
some is as handsome does?" Is a pretty face ever a 
disadvantage to a girl? Have I the beauty which comes 
from "beauty sleep/' each hour of which before midnight 
is worth its weight in gold? Do I look well not only 
well dressed but physically well? If not, why not? 
When am I dressed appropriately? Does my dress 
always express the kind of a girl that I am? Should 
it? Are , expensive clothes necessary for one who wishes 
to be well dressed? Why should I think that I must 
have the same clothes as the other girls? Who makes 
fashions ? 

IV. Beauty in Nature in art in surroundings. 

Can I enjoy myself when alone out of doors? Why 
should it make me happy to see a beautiful autumn sun- 
set, the earliest spring flower or to hear the first robin? 
How do I know that I love good music and good pictures ? 
How can I tell what is good poetry? What is the best 
way to try to know what the poet wants to tell me? 

433 



Why does it refresh me when tired? How many pic- 
tures copied from the great masters can I call by name ? 
Were I free to choose any picture in the world for my 
own room, which would it be? When a guest enters my 
room, by what could she test my sense of beauty? My 
sense of neatness ? What makes a truly beautiful room ? 

V. Beauty In All Things. 

Why should I try to live up to my most beautiful ideals ? 
How do I discover the beautiful in everything and in 
every person that I see? If I constantly look for the 
best friends, can I through my demand help create the 
beautiful and best in their lives? What is the most 
beautiful thing in the world? 

Have I spent any time this week with the most beautiful 
character in the world, Jesus Christ? He can teach me 
to see the beautiful and how to make the world more 
beautiful because I have lived with him in it. 
"Whatsoever thou seekest, that shalt thou find." 

Closing Prayer. 

Our loving Father, we would be true and beautiful in 
all that we do and say. Open our eyes to see the beauty 
in the world which Thou has made. Put into our hearts 
the desire to grow into the beauty of Christ, our Lord 
and Saviour. Amen. 

Note The above and later questions are to be answered 
by each girl herself, quite frankly and honestly. Perhaps she 
will want to try writing the answers in a book opposite the 
questions. Then she will be able to compare her answers 
"vnritten at the time with answers she might want to make a 
month or three months later when she has shared in a club 
discussion or has talked them over again with some older per- 
son a teacher, an adviser or a secretary. 

434 



II. 

THE JOY OP LIVING. 

"Rejoice, and be exceeding glad." Matt. 5:12. 

"I came that they may have life, and may have it abund- 
antly/' John 10:10. 

"For ye shall go out with joy, and be led forth with peace; 
the mountains and hills shall break forth before you into 
singing-; and all the trees of the fields shall clap their hands." 
Isa. 55:12. 

"My soul doth magnify the Lord, 

And my spirit hath rejoiced In God my Saviour." Luke 1:43. 

I. Joy in Things. 

When am I truly happy? What do I call real joy? 
Where do I look f or my happiness ? Is it in things which 
I can do, in the things which I possess or the places 
where I may go? If I weigh my interest in trashy 
books and vulgar stories over against good reading what 
do the scales show? Why? What is there in my way 
of living that makes me not enjoy making pretty things ? 
What kind of shows and other amusements leave me 
tired in body as well as in spirit? What are wholesome 
pleasures? Do I find real joy in the great out-of-doors?' 
How well do I care for my garden? Do I always go out 
for my pleasures or can I have the best kind of a time 
at home? What happens to a person who stores up all 
the things which vex and bother her? 

II. Joy In Work. 

What have I accomplished to-day that has made some- 
one else really happy? What did I neglect to do yes- 
terday that I might have done well? Why do I find so 
much pleasure in doing things for others? Is it the 
thing that I do or being able to do it well that gives 
me pleasure? Why was I glad to be called upon in 
class yesterday? Why do some girls "just hate marks?" 

435 



Are all my joys at the mercy of things that happen to 
me, or have I a joy that cannot be taken away? Is the 
pleasure that I take in my work contagious? What 
does the joy of forgetting oneself reveal to other people? 
Why should I endeavor to complete promptly whatever 
I begin? What happens to the "togetherness" of my 
family if I surprise the other members by cooking some 
particularly good dish? How can tasks be turned into 
joyful work? Why was the last thing I did to help my 
mother joy-producing? 

III. Joy In Companionship. 

How does doing things together make life happier? Why 
is reading aloud while another sews a twofold pleasure ? 
What is necessary in order that two people can be happy 
together? Is it true that our best friends are those 
with whom we may Tbe silent? Why are pet animals 
such good companions? In what ways should a Christian 
be joyful and full of life? How may I have the abiding 
joy that comes from friendship with Jesus Christ ? Why 
do some people think it necessary to be long-faced and 
negative if one is a Christian? Why should Christian 
companions be the happiest? 

IV. The Influence of a Joyful Life. 

How do I make life more worth living for those around 
me? How do joy and light in my heart make the world 
any brighter and happier? How often do I remember 
to share my joys with my family? In what ways 
Joes the cheerfulness of my life reach beyond those of 
my immediate circle? How can I best help to make my 
town a prettier place to live in, my school a better place 
to work in and my country the happiest place to be in? 
If every one were like me, how happy would the world 
be? What kind of a Christian makes other people want 
to be Christians, too? Am I that kind of a Christian? 
If I really follow Jesus Christ, I must be a bringer of 

: 436 



joy to many hearts. "Give us to awaken with smiles, 
give us to labor smiling, and as the sun lightens the 
world, so let our loving-kindness make bright this house 
of our habitation." 

Eobert Louis Stevenson. 

Closing Prayer. 

"0 give me the joy of living 
And some glorious work to do! 
A spirit of thanksgiving, 
With loyal heart and true; 
Some pathway to make brighter 
Where tired feet now stray; 
Some burden to make lighter 
While 'tis day." 

Amen. 

III. 

A SCHOOL GIRL'S SENSE OF HONOR. 

"Whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honor- 
able . . . think on these things." Phil. 4:8. 

"Take thought for things honorable in the sight of all men." 
Rom. 12:17. 

"Judge not, that you he not judged." Matt. 7:1. 

"Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, 
but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?" 
Matt. 7:3. 

"Jehovah^ who shall sojourn in thy tabernacle? 

Who shall dwell in thy holy hill? 

He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness, 

And speaketh truth in his heart; 

He that slandereth not with his tongue, 

Nor doeth evil to his friend, 

Nor taketh up a reproach against his neighbor." Ps. 15:1-3 

437 



I. Honor In School. 

What is honor in school work? What are bluffing, 
cribbing, copying or use of other people's work ? Where 
do you place them in your honor scale? Why? Why 
should I be willing to be called "mean" rather than to 
give dishonorable help? If I write a note to someone 
else in the class and expect several other girls to pass 
that note for me, do I force others to join in my decep- 
tion? Am I afraid to speak the truth when I think I 
might keep out of trouble if I keep silent? What is a 
"perfectly good excuse?'' Why should I do my own 
work when I might live upon the efforts of some of the 
best students in the class? What should I do if I 
haven't had time to finish my mathematics lesson and 
know I can get it from another girl-? Am I square to 
that girl, even if she depends upon me for English work ? 
Is team work ever allowable in preparing one's lessons? 
What happens to me when I obscure my handwriting if 
I do not know how to spell a word? Is it necessary to 
be trustworthy when left "on my honor?" Why do most 
schools have to have "lockers?" Is there any difference 
between "swiping" and stealing? 

II. Honor in Play. 

Why is the willingness to accept honorable defeat rather 
than dishonorable victory a sign of a school's greatness? 
Should I be accepted as a worthy member of the school 
team if I am behind in my class-room work? Am I 
willing to give up the fun and honor of representing my 
school on the team and tell the truth about my ability 
to play? Is it honest to get my hair wet intentionally 
under the shower in the gymnasium so that I will have 
to skip the next recitation in order "to get it dry and 
not take cold?" Why should not a visiting team collect 
as "souvenirs" any thing that happens to be available in 
the school building? 

438 



III. Honor Among Friends. 

Who is hurt more when I say things behind a friend's 
back that I would not say to her face? Why? Do I 
disclose personal confidences? What is flattery? Why 
should I not exaggerate the things I tell my friends, if 
it improves the story? What does "standing up for a 
friend" necessitate on my part? How far can I defend 
her? Is it ever justifiable to lie, even to "save" a, friend? 
Am I too quick to believe that my friend told something 
about me which is untrue? Why is it that by trusting 
my friends I help them to be honorable? 

IV. Honor In Daily Living. 

What are some "slip-over" the line standards that make 
honor in daily living hard to attain? Who pays the 
penalty when I fail to pay my fare on the street car 
when I get a chance ? What happens to me when I bor- 
row small sums of money and forget to return them? 
How does such a habit weaken my sense of honor? 
Why should promises, and engagements be kept faith- 
fully? What is there wrong in being late? Why is 
keeping others waiting such a common form of selfish- 
ness? In what ways am I most apt to show a disregard 
of the use of my own or of another's time? Am I ever 
tempted to send mail under a cheaper class than is right? 

V. Honor of Self. 

How am I cultivating a sense of personal dignity? Is 
it possible to have two sets of manners, one for com- 
pany and one for home? Why do I answer this question 
in this way? Why is it just as hypocritical to make 
believe that you are worse than you are, as it is to 
make believe that you are better than you are? Am I 
honest to myself when I excuse my own weakness and 
laziness? Do I wear well or does my polish wear off? 
How far am I endeavoring always to "ring true?" 

439 



Have I spent any time this week with the most honor- 
able and sincere person who ever lived, Jesus Christ? 
He will teach me to distrust vulgar pretense. I can 
learn from Him to admire the truth and through Him I 
can gain the power to live a life of sincerity and honor. 

Closing Prayer. 

"Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my 
heart be acceptable in Thy sight, Lord, my rock, 
and my redeemer." Amen. 

IV. 

A GIRL'S STANDARD OF COURTESY. 

"Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speak eth," 
Luke 6:45. 

"If ye love them that love you, what reward have ye? Do 
not even the publicans the same? 

"And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than 
others? Do not even the Gentiles the same?" Matt. 5:46-7. 
"In honor preferring one another." Romans 12:10. 
"And whosoever shall compel thee to go one mile, go with 
him two." Matt. 5:41. 
1. True Courtesy. 

What is the secret of true courtesy? Do forms and 
customs or spontaneous action aroused by kindly feelings 
constitute courtesy? Why should I rise when an older 
woman enters the room and remain standing until she 
is seated? Why do I try to restrain my laughter when 
someone slips and falls? Why do I step back and let 
another precede me in entering a doorway? Do I listen 
when I am being spoken to ? Why might I know all the 
suggestions written in a book on manners .and still be 
discourteous? How would it be possible for me never 
to see a book on manners and yet be a truly courteous 
girl? How do most people learn to be courteous? 

440 



II. 'Courtesy Among Friends. 

Am I ever justified in criticizing my friends? Why is 
courtesy to all people necessary even though one does 
not like every one whom she meets? Why are other 
girls, as human as I am, apt to be offended by constant 
whispering? How can I get over the feeling that when 
persons whisper they are talking about me? Is it true 
that even my intimate friends may not let me into all 
their thoughts? Have I any more right to open my 
friend's top bureau drawer than that of a stranger? 
When cross and blue, is it fair for me to "take it out" 
by scolding my friends? Am I willing to share my 
friends gladly with other girls? 

III. Courtesy In Public Places. 

Do I look cross when waiting for a package? Which 
tires a clerk more, lack of courtesy on the part of cus- 
tomers or long hours? What does the glare which one 
person gives another who shoves him in the crowd 
reveal? Why should I be careful about talking with 
my friends in church? At a public entertainment, when 
my neighbors are trying to listen? Do I scold "central" 
when she gives me the wrong number? When a fat 
lady squeezes in beside me in a street car, have I ever 
thought how embarrassed she must be to take up so 
much room? What are some of the reasons why I should 
not discuss private affairs in public places? Why should 
I be very careful never to attract attention to myself 
when in a public place? 

IV. Courtesy at Home. 

In what ways do I show consideration for my mother? 
Do I contradict and argue more with home people than 
with outsiders? Why? Why should we stop our con- 
versation when sister is talking at the telephone? Do 
I excuse myself as "shy" when I am discourteous to 
guests in my own home? What is my standard of treat- 

441 



ment for those who are employed in my home? Do I 
thank the dressmaker for making* me a becoming dress ? 
What makes my friends glad that they -came to my 
home? When a beggar or agent comes to the door, 
what is the nature of my reply to his inquiry? How 
often, from the point of view of courtesy can I expect 
my little brothers and sisters to run my errands and wait 
on me? Does being "the biggest" make a difference? 
Am I impatient with the grocer boy when he leaves the 
wrong packages? Is there any real reason why I should 
not always be well-mannered and courteous? Do you 
think it true that "There is more harm wrought by want 
of thought than want of heart?" 

If I am a Christian girl and endeavoring to show my 
Christianity in everyday life, is there any more import- 
ant way than remembering the little things to do them? 
Have you ever thought about how many different types 
of people Jesus sympathized with and loved and helped, 
because He really cared for them? He was glad to 
make the sacrifice of love. 

Closing Prayer. 

"If any little word of mine may make a life the brighter, 
If any little song of mine may make a heart the lighter, 
God help me speak the little word, and take my bit of 

singing, 

And drop it in some lonely vale to set the echoes ringing. 
If any little love of mine may make a life the sweeter, 
If any little care of mine make other life completer, 
If any lift of mine may ease the burden of another, 
God give me love and care and strength to help my toil- 
ing brother/' Amen. 

442 



V. 

IDEALS OF HOSPITALITY. 

"Forget not to show love unto strangers, for thereby some 

have entertained angels unawares." Heb. 13:2. 

"Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself." Matt. 22:39. 
"If a man love me he will keep my word: and my Father 

will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode 

with him." John 14:23. 

I. The Spirit of Hospitality. 

What makes a greeting cordial ? When I enter a f riend's 
home and receive a weak, indifferent handshake, what 
effect has it upon my conversational powers? Why is 
a friendly "good-morning" important even in my family? 
Do I entertain with my heart or with my pocketbook? Is 
the spirit of hospitality the same whether I have one, or 
fifty guests ? What are some of the little ways in which 
I may put my guests at ease? How shall I decide 
whether my manner of dress will make my guests com- 
fortable? -Should I make embarrasing remarks about 
my friend's accomplishments? Why does simply men- 
tioning two persons' names not always constitute a suf- 
ficient introduction? How can I make my guests feel 
they are "at their best?" What does the presence of 
cliques in a school indicate? What is a clique? Can 
I be my best and belong to one? 
II. The Place for Hospitality. 

Can I always have time for my friends while at work 
or at play? In order to have a good time must I always 
ask guests into my home or can I sometimes entertain 
my family? What is the difference between being sim- 
ply a housekeeper and being a home-maker? How can 
I be prepared to be both when the time comes for me 
to have that responsibility? Who is the real hostess 
in every home? Whom should I ask to my home, sim- 
ply my own crowd or strangers, possibly some shy or 

443 



lonely school mate? How Is It possible for my mother 
really to know my quests? Could not the rest of the 
family have a good time helping me to entertain my 
guests? What makes a party a success? In what ways 
is a party given in one's home always "better than one 
given in a hired or public place? How can I help to 
make my home a place where all my friends will love 
to come? 

IIL The Influence of Hospitality. 

Why does taking the trouble to invite friends in occasion- 
ally make for a happy home? What should a "bread and 
butter" letter to the friends whom I have been visiting 
express? Is this hard or easy to write? Why? Should 
I expect to be entertained or should I help my hostess 
entertain the other guests ? In how many ways may I 
show my appreciation of hospitality that has been exr 
tended to me? Why would there be more real fun in 
the world and a greater variety of ways of having a 
good time if a larger number of homes were opened for 
friends to gather in and have a good time? Is there 
any greater joy than sharing a happy time? Does it 
help me to be a finer girl, to have a wideawake, gen- 
erous and receptive heart? 

Is Jesus a guest in my home? Am I^building a home 
for his spirit in my heart? Am I sharing his spirit with 
those who are homeless and who have no abiding place? 

Closing Prayer. 

"0 Jesus, ever with us stay; 
Make all our moments calm and bright." 
Help us so to share our lives and hearts that those who are 
seeking? Thee may find the joy and peace which Thou alone 
canst give. Amen. 

444 



VI. 

IDEALS OF FRIENDSHIP. 

"I have called yon friends." John 15:15, 

"A friend loveth at all times." Prov. 17:17. 

"Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down 
liis life for his friends. Ye are my friends, if you do the 
things which I command you." John 15:13-14. 

I. Seeking Friendship. 

What is friendship and how does one seek it does one 
ever begin it deliberately? Where am I seeking my 
friends, if I seek my friends because of their social prom- 
inence alone will those friendships be lasting? Can 
friendships based upon superficial interests endure? 
Can one simply act on the old saying, "He who would 
have friends must show himself friendly?" Do I want 
to be a true friend? Should I look for what I can get 
out of friendship or for what I can put into it? Can 
the doors of friendship be forced? Upon what are true 
friendships based? What have I in mind when I speak 
of one person as an acquaintance, or another as a com- 
panion and still another as a friend? Can I have several 
friends at a time? What is the difference between 
friendship and friendliness? 

II. Being a Friend. 

How do I inspire my friends to be their best? What 
does my friends' faith in me do for me? Is it as bind- 
ing upon me "to receive" as a friend, as "to give" as a 
friend? Do I begrudge any good that comes to my 
friend? Have I too good a memory for slights and 
, wrongs ? Do I trust my friends and believe in them 
when others turn against them? When do I most truly 
"stand by" my friends ? Should I back up a friend when 
I know her to be in the wrong? How far do I forget 
self and enter into my friend's life, her point of view, 
her struggles and difficulties ? Should two friends always 

445 



think the same, dress the same or say the same things ? 
Does friendship need large sacrifices for supreme 
moments or does it grow by some other ways? Why? 
What are some of the severest tests of friendship ? Is there 
any special obligation to forgive a wrong done me by a 
friend? Am I courteous to my intimate friends? Am I 
careful not to expect or urge my friends to tell me their 
inmost thoughts? Can they not expect me "just to 
understand" and not to need to know? How can I best 
show my loyalty to my friends? To my school? 

III. Sharing Friends. 

Am I jealous of my friends? What good reasons have 
I for refusing to share them with others? Is having a 
loyal "chum" a justification for personal selifishness, 
about sharing her? How does "our crowd" seem to the 
rest of the girls? When I act in an unbecoming or 
thoughtless way how far does it reflect upon my crowd, 
my class, or my school? What is the character of the 
thoughts and ideas which I am sharing most intimately 
with my friends? Should true friends ever "gossip" 
about another person? Are my friends 7 standards being 
raised by what I share with them? Do you think Presi- 
dent King of Oberlin College is right when he says, 
"Friendship means sharing our great experiences, shar- 
ing in dominant interests, sharing in, service of great 
causes, sharing in sacrifices for great common ends, 
sharing in great personal loyalties and friendships?" 
Why should I not give my best? 

Can I not come closer this week to the One who said, 
"Lo, I have called you my friends?" He is truly our 
best friend and if we base all our friendships upon the 
solid foundation of Jesus Christ, they will never fail. 

Closing Prayer. 

Our Father, we come before Thee with hearts full of 
joy for all those who have helped and loved us. Teach 

446 



us to realize that we must first be friends if we would 
have friends. Give us the open heart that loves freely, 
the patience that bears with others' mistakes, the pur- 
pose to make it easier and not harder for others to live 
up to the best and noblest. May Thy love crowd from 
our hearts all selfishness, and may our friends together 
with us grow happier and better through friendship with 
our greatest friend, Jesus Christ. Amen. 
(Rochester, N. Y., High School Girls' Club Prayer.) 



VII. 

KEADINESS FOR SERVICE. 

"Serve the Lord with gladness. 

Come before his presence with singing." Ps. 100:2. 

"So then, as we have opportunity, let us work that which 
is good toward all men." Gal. 6:10. 

"Not to be ministered unto, but to minister." Mark 10:45. 

"He that is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much." 
Luke 16:10. 

"If any man would be first, he shall be last of all, and 
servant of all." Mark 9:35. 

I. The Naturalness of Service. 

If I am any kind of a girl at all, can I sit still when I 
see things waiting to be done? How can I train my 
eyes to keep wide open and my heart to feel others' 
needs more quickly? What was the last thing needing 
to be done that I made believe I did not see? Could 
I do it now?" How does the doing of small tasks lead 
up to a greater service? What is the only thing which 
keeps me from constantly doing real service? 

II. Characteristics of Service. 

Is service measured by the amount accomplished or by 
the spirit in which it is done? If I know why I am 

447 



doing a piece of work, will it change it from drudgery 
into service? Which is real service, simply doing the 
thing that particularly interest me or doing will- 
ingly the things that have to be done? Why? Can one fully 
enjoy work until one knows the pleasure of completing 
a task promptly? Do I think more of the happiness and 
convenience of the person I am trying to help or of my 
own time and my particular way of doing it? Is service 
done from a sense of duty real service? Should I ever 
try to excuse myself for giving inappropriate gifts to 
"The poor and needy?" Should unpaid service be any 
less well done than work that is paid for? 

III. Forms of Service. 

Why does home-making seem a beautiful occupation to 
me? When I help mother by "doing the dishes" have 
I, too, a share in making the home? What part do I 
take in the housework each day without being asked to 
do it? If I show a friendly spirit toward all the girls in 
school am I rendering any service? Is having the right 
kind of school spirit, fair play in athletics and high 
standards in the class room a kind of service that I 
am able to render? Do I think that I am doing my 
teacher a favor by learning my lessons? When is help- 
ing other girls in getting their lessons real service and 
when is it a definite unkindness to my friends? How 
do I show my enthusiasm for Sunday School? Why 
should I go to church with the kind of spirit which 
makes it easier for my pastor to preach a good sermon? 
In what ways may I help to make my town more beau- 
tiful? How far am I responsible for the appearance of 
the schoolhouse? The condition of my books? If every 
girl were to do as well in these things as I am doing, 
what would be the result? 

IV. Preparation for Service. 

Am I keeping close to my Master each day and learn- 

448 



ing of Mm the love to see others' needs? How may I 
do it better? How far am I guarding my health by 
% regular sleep, proper food and exercise, that my body 
may be a ready instrument for service ? Why is this 
important? Does the way in which I learn my lessons 
train my mind and add to my knowledge or do I merely 
cram for examinations and then forget it all? Are ex- 
aminations the only thing? How may I read, observe 
and study so that I will be better able to appreciate the 
fine and good wherever I see it? Why should I have a 
real desire way down in my heart to live a useful 
woman's life? In how far are success and popularity 
justifiable aims? Who is the greatest woman of whom 
I know anything? Why is she great? 
Have I spent any time this week with the one whose 
whole life was given over to serving the world, Jesus 
Christ, who lived and died for others? 
Closing Prayer. 

"Lord, make me quick to see 
Each task awaiting me, 

And quick to do. 
Oh, grant me strength, I pray, 
With lowly love each day 

And purpose true, 
To go as Jesus went, 
Spending and being spent, 

Myself forgot, 
Supplying human needs 
By loving words and deeds." 
Amen. 

VIII. 

A GIRL'S APPRECIATION OF THE "GREATEST THING 
IN THE WORLD/* 

"And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and 
more in knowledge and all discernment; so that ye may ap- 

449 



prove the things tiiat are excellent; that ye may be sincere 
and void of offence unto the day of Christ; being filled with the 
fruits of righteousness, which are through Jesus Christ, unto 
the glory and praise of God." Phil. 1:9-11. 

"Love suffereth long, and is kind ; love envieth not; love 
vaunteth not itself ; is not puffed up, doth not behave itself un- 
seemly, seeketh not its own, is not provoked, taketh not ac- 
count of evil ; rejoiceth not in unrighteousness, but rejoiceth 
with truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all 
things, endureth all things. Love never faileth." I Cor. 13:4-8. 

I. True Characteristics of Love. 

How far have I really found out what the above quota- 
tions might mean for me? How does love open one's 
mind to truth and sincerity? Should a person ever be 
tempted to think of it as a weak, sentimental thing that 
one should be ashamed of? How far will a truer un- 
derstanding of love aid me in self-control, such as in 
keeping my temper? How far will it show me the way 
to be patient and unselfish? Am I willing to let it open 
my eyes to others' needs ? Has love meant to me a great, 
wonderful power? Have I treated it lightly? As God 
is Love and I am his child, shall I not enjoy my birth- 
right and share in his care for his world? 

II. Love the Revealer 'of Beauty and Joy. 

If I care enough to open my eyes to the great beauties 
of nature all about me what will be the effect upon me? 
If I truly care for my friend, will I only see the outward, 
appearances which may be unfortunate and be tempt- 
ed to be ashamed of her? If I have a loving heart can 
I always have a joyful face? 

III. Love the Foundation of Honor, Courtesy and Hospitality. 
If I respect myself, as I should will I to my "own self 
be true?" Should I ever lie? How can I show that love, 
not fear, controls my life? How can I make it a habit 
to care more for others than myself? When can I be 

450 



said to be a true gentlewoman? What differences in re- 
sponse to my invitation will I find if I give myself with 
the invitation? 

IV. Love' the Power in Friendship and Service. 

Do I try to understand my friends better the longer I 
know them? What part does love play in my discover- 
ing in them new qualities and gifts? What prevents 
jealousy? How will working together make people bet- 
ter friends? Must the giver be back of every good gift? 
If I love people enough will I be able to help them truly? 
Does it make much difference where I serve? Why I 
serve? How I serve? 

What is the predominating note in all the acts and words 
of Jesus as "he went about doing good"? 

Closing Prayer. 

O God, who has taught us to keep all Thy heavenly com- 
mandments by loving Thee and our neighbors, grant us' the 
spirit of peace and grace that Thy universal family may be de- 
voted to Thee with their whole heart and united to each other 
with a perfect love, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Benediction. 

"May the Lord bless us in our work and in our play, and 
grant us the peace and the joy that corne through service for 
others and friendship with Jesus Christ." Amen. 

Benediction of the Kansas City, Missouri, High School Girls' 
Club. 

Aim and Conclusion. 

Two words which are much used in discussional work at the 
present time are aim and conclusion. They have been defined 
several times elsewhere in this statement on the "Place of Dis- 
cussion in the Girl Reserve Movement." Briefly summarized, 
that discussion has achieved its aim which has served as an ex- 
change of ideas, a clarification of opinions, the opening of new 

451 



avenues of thought, and a stimulation of a desire for further 
thinking and study. The aim is in no sense just an effort to 
reach a conclusion. Individual thought, which may continue 
over a considerable period of time after the discussion has oc- 
curred, is a desirable manifestation of success, and no leader, 
either girl or adviser or secretary, should be discouraged if 
nothing more tangible results at the time of the discussion. 



s 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE PRACTICE OP CITIZENSHIP 

OMB words in the ordinary vocabulary are so much used 
that the first thing to do in order to understand them is to 
strip off the meanings loosely attached and examine the under- 
lying idea. Often times this will be found surprisingly inter- 
esting. 

When this drastic operation is performed upon a word, so 
often and glibly on our lips as is "citizenship," the discovery is 
made that it is not concerned simply with far-off facts which 
are associated in people's minds with candidates and elections, 
with politics *and government, with the getting of a passport 
when one goes to Europe, or paying an income tax cheerfully. 
On the contrary, the term has a richness of meaning and an 
immediate relation to every-day life that it will be well to ex- 
amine closely. 

Citizenship, in the first place, is knowing about things which 
concern individuals as members of a group of people who are 
trying to live together. Long experience has shown how advis- 
able it is for such a society to adopt certain rules jand regula- 
tions for the greater security and happiness of all concerned. 
When a long name like "government" is used people may find 
themselves losing sight of the simple necessity which was the 
cause of having such rules to live by. 

452 



The fact is that the majestic fabric of the local, state and 
national government has been built upon this necessity and 
each of its functions, the acts of its agents, and people's atti- 
tude toward it should be judged by its reason for existence. 

It is, therefore, merely sensible for individuals to know as 
much as possible about the operation of the group as a whole; 
only thus shall they be able to judge wisely what their own part 
in the operation shall be. 

In the second place citizenship is concerned with understand- 
ing our heritage as members of a society which has behind it 
long ages of experiment, many failures, reluctant successes won 
against the twin enemies of the powers of nature and man's 
own selfish spirit. Seen against the background of what used 
to be, this heritage must be of infinite value to each person. 

There is also a heritage which is ours as Americans, as mem- 
bers of a society which throughout its history has always pro- 
fessed, and sometimes practiced, certain ideals of human broth- 
erhood which mark a new stage in the world's development. 
There is great danger that we shall be so confident of the recti- 
tude of our intentions that we shall forget the necessity of 
adapting constantly the principles upon which our nation was 
founded to the new conditions of every day. The assumption 
that "Americanism" is a finished something which one is born 
with and never loses, or which can be learned like a new lan- 
guage or swallowed like a patent medicine is the most un- 
American idea now widely prevalent in this country. 

But Citizenship is more than knowledge and understanding 
of our heritage. It is also realizing our share as individuals in 
the long upward struggle toward betterment, Unless people 
feel that their personal efforts count and what they do really 
matters they shall be only that shabby kind of citizen described 
by the saying "The public's business is nobody's business." 
Much of the inefficiency and downright corruption in govern- 
ment is due to the unwillingness of individuals to concern theiu- 

453 



selves with politics. The level of public service can rise no 
higher than its source in the public which it serves. 

In the fourth place citizenship must be more than ideals and 
standards; it must include a considerable amount of action, 
putting into practice the theories which sound so well on paper. 
This action varies all the way from voting, taking part in peti- 
tions and meetings, serving on committees to the holding of 
public office. There is a multitude of activities connected with 
running the joint affairs of all of us our government which 
are too often left to those citizens whose interest is financial 
or otherwise. 

Finally, what addition of value is made to our ideas of citi- 
zenship by the adjective "Christian"? It must be realized thac 
much which is in reality Christian is included in what has been 
stated above. Yet the spirit of human brotherhood and service 
has been so imperfectly realized in society as now constituted, 
that people must recognize in the application of the principles 
of Christian citizenship the very greatest need of the world 
to-day. Only the Christian motive is strong enough potentially 
to overlap the bounds of class and national prejudice in the in- 
terest of all men as brothers together. 

Such a conception of citizenship as suggested above is an 
integral part of a program for younger girls. Not only are 
they citizens to be, and as such deserving of the best training 
available for future use. In a very real sense, every "teen- 
age" girl has a part to play in her home, school, church and 
community in which she is forming the habits which will per- 
sist later in life. There is a persistent notion that some myste- 
rious change takes place when one passes her twenty-first birth- 
day which makes her, overnight, a citzien to be consulted. As 
a simple matter of fact, in two functions of citizenship only, 
voting and office holding, is age the decisive factor, and these 
are by no means the most vital ones. Into every other citizen- 
ship activity one comes by a gradual process of growth ; issu- 
ing in habits which become fixed by exercise. In view of this 

454 



fact it is of transcendent importance to begin during adolescent 
years the serious facing of what it means to be a Christian 
woman citizen. 

In the lists that follow will be found books which illustrate 
some of the points given. Attention is also called to the lists of 
lives of famous women adapted for the reading of younger 
girls. These lists are included in the chapter on Vocational 
Guidance. 

KNOW YOUR OWN COUNTRY. 
A Reading List for Youthful Citizens. 
What Makes America Go. 

Austin, Oscar P. Uncle Sam's Secrets. 
Bryant, Sara Cone I Am An American. 
DuPuy, W. A. Uncle Sam, Wonder- Worker. 
Greene, Frances N. My Country's Voice. 
Gordy, W. P. American Beginnings in Europe. 
Hagedorn, Hermann You Are the Hope of the World! 
Jackson, Henry What America Means to Me. 
Marriott, Crittenden Uncle Sam's Business. 
Nicolay, Helen Our Nation in the Building, 
Parsons, Geoffrey The Land of Fair Play. 
Price, Overton W. The Land We Live In. 
Snynon, Mary My Country's Part. 
Turkington, Grace A. My Country. 

Makers of History. 

Abbot, W. J. The Story of Our Army for Young Americans. 

Abbot, W. J. Soldiers' of the Sea. 

Bishop, Farnham .Panama, Past and Present. 

Blaidsdell, A. F. Heroic Deeds of American Sailors. 

Brady, Cyrus T. Border Fights and Fighters. 

Faris, John T. 'Makers of Our History. 

Fiske, John The War of Independence. 

Gordy, W. F. Our Patriots. 

Griffis, W. E. Young People's History of the Pilgrims. 

455 



Greene, Homer The Flag. 
Grinnell, G. B.-~ The Story of the Indian. 
Parkman, Francis The Oregon Trail. 

Rolt- Wheeler, Francis The Boy with the U. S. Explorers. 
Stevens, F. R. Buccaneers and Pirates of Our Coasts. 
Historical Tales of Your Own Country. 

Andrews, Mrs. M. R. S. The Perfect Tribute. 
Allen, W. B. Cleared for Action. 
Altsheler, J. A. Guns of Shiloh. 
Bennett, John Barbaby Lee. 
Churchill, Winston Richard Carvel. 
Cooper, J. F. The Last of the Mohicans. 
Dix, Beulah Marie Blithe McBride. 
Dix, Beulah Marie Soldier Rigdale. 
Fox, John, Jr. The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come. 
Hale, Edward E. Man Without a Country. 
Jackson, Helen 'Hunt Ramona. 
Knipe, E. B. and A. A. Polly Trotter, Patriot. 
Knipe, E. B. and A. A. Mayflower Maid. 
Mason, Alfred B. Tom Strong, Lincoln Scout. 
Mitchell, S. W. Hugh Wynne. 
Page, Thomas N. Two Little Confederates. 
Pyle, Howard Jack Ballister's Fortunes. 
Sabine, E. L. On the Plains with Custer. 
Singmaster, Elsie Emmeline. 
Smith, Mary P. Wells -Boys and Girls of 77. 
Taggart, Marion A. Pilgrim Maid. 
True, J. P. Scouting for Washington. 

Suggestions for including Citizenship Practice in Regular Club 
Programs. 

Civic Information: 

Civic Information may be said to be of two kinds: the 
first, the general information kind, which brings to 
girls a vision of what citizenship means, and how, by sacri- 
fices and toil for many years, men and women have built a 

456 



road that has led to our present forms of government. The 
vision will not be complete until girls see themselves in re- 
lation to this task the necessary up-keep of the road 
through sane patriotism, and a continued building of it to 
still greater perfection through more democratic and more 
Christian principles of living. The second is the specific 
kind of information, which includes a knowledge of the forms 
and methods of government in the girls' communities. The 
first kind of civic information can become a vital part of 
any program through the discussion of the lives of men and 
women who have achieved and through discussion of topics 
of current interest. 

Roadmakers : 

Washington, the Father of His Country. 

Lincoln, "A Man for the Ages." 

Jacob Riis, "A Servant of the City." (See "Comrades in 

Service.")* 

Grace Dodge, "Who Walked the Way of Friendly Hearts." 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton. (See Woman Citizen, February 

14, 1920.) 

Susan B. Anthony, "The Pioneer of Woman Suffrage." 
Theodore Roosevelt, "A True American." 
Anna Howard Shaw, "A Maker of Homes." ('See Woman 

Citizen, February 14, 1920.) 

These names are suggested with the hope that girls in every 
community will add to the list those pioneers in the early his- 
tory of their localities who were roadmakers and trail blazers. 
Material which will be helpful will be found in "Comrades in 
Service," by Margaret Burton; "A Man for the Ages," by 
Irving Bacheller; "Letters to His Children," Theodore Roose- 
velt; "Life of Roosevelt," by Abbott, $3.00 (by Thayer, $1.00), 
and The Woman Citizen, February 14, 1920. 

457 



Topics of Current Interest: 

1. Movement for the abolition of child labor. 

2. Seasonal industries in which girls and boys work: 

Beet fields. 
Fruit picking. 
Canning 1 . 
Hops. 
Cotton. 

3. The Children's* Bureau, its organization and work, 

4. The continuation school movement. 

5. The consolidated school movement. 

6. Good roads movement. 

7. Cross currents in Americanization. 

8. The meaning and force of public opinion as applied to: 
Legislation, motion pictures, clean streets and sidewalks, 

municipal recreation. 

What responsibility has a high school girl for the forma- 
tion of public opinion? 

How do high school girls form their opinion? Is "Old 
Mother Grundy" dead yet? 

What relation do all of the above topics have to home 
and school life and community development? Is there 
any connection between a girl working in a beet field 
and a high school girl? Has one any responsibility 
for the other? 

Much material for the development of the eight topics listed 
above may be found in the current numbers of The Survey, 
112 East Nineteenth Street, New York City ($5.00). 

Special material on child labor can be obtained from the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee, 105 East Twenty-second Street, 
New York City. Ask for all Child Labor pamphlets; member- 
ship in the National Child Labor Committee is $2.00. A High 
School club might well take out a membership. 

Material regarding the Children's Bureau may be obtained 

458 



directly from The Children's Bureau, at Washington, D. C. 
Write for catalogue or pamphlets. 

Secure information about the Continuation Schools from 
The Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Americanization can be made a most interesting feature of a 
club program through an "Americanization Day." A program 
similar in content to the following could be used: 

Hymn America, the Beautiful 

Salute to the Flag 

Short Talk "America, the Melting Pot." 

Reading "The Immigrant's Appeal." 

Girl Reserve Manual, page 686. 

Reading "America for Me" 

Henry Van Dyke, 

The Athenian Oath: 

"We will never bring disgrace on this, our city, by an 
act of dishonesty or cowardice, nor ever desert our suffering 
comrades in the ranks. We will fight for the ideal and 
sacred things of this city. We will revere and obey the 
city's laws and do our best to excite a like respect and rev- 
erence in those about us who are prone to annul them 
and set them at naught. We will strive unceasingly to 
quicken a public sense of duty, and thus in all these ways 
we will transmit this city, not only not less, but greater 
and better and more beautiful than it was 'transmitted 
to us." 

(Copies of this oath should be made so that every girl will 
be able to share in this part of tlxe program). 

The book, "An American in the Making," by M. E. Ravage, 
is one of the most colorful of the recent books regarding this 
matter of Americanization. It, with others of its kind, and 
with the vast amount of interesting and informational material 
in current magazines and newspapers will serve to supply sec- 

459 



retaries and advisers with all of the equipment necessary to 
make such a program successful. 

The second kind of civic information about the various 
means and forms of government may be secured through dis- 
cussions, talks, charts, exhibits and visits. All club work of 
this sort should be correlated with the work in the various 
classes on Civics in the high school. 

Such questions as the following 1 , asked at a club meeting, 
would undoubtedly lead to discussion and further thinking on 
the part of the girls: 

1. On what day does my neighbor, who is a fireman, rest? 

2. How are the policemen on our force ranked and by whom 
is it determined? 

3. On what municipal questions in my community do women 
vote? 

4. "What do I do to the fabric of our community life when 
I disregard a traffic man's signal? 

The Story of the Flag.* 

The flag of our nation is the mute but eloquent symbol of 
the spirit of our people. It represents our hopes, aspirations, 
ideals, and principles for which we stand. Though voiceless, it 
speaks with irresistible power for the things that we consider 
most Worth while in life. Wherever it goes it speaks for the 
freedom of man, for civil and religious liberty, for schools, 
churches, homes. Under its shelter the oppressed of all na- 
tions have found safe refuge and boundless opportunity for 
every proper ambition. When the flag calls, men lay aside 
their own work and obey, for the call of the flag is the call of 
the nation. Under its folds men suffered and died that the 
black man might be made free. They followed it into the 
jungles of Cuba and the Philippines, and freed those people 
from the bondage of the Spanish monarchy. And they followed 

*This material is used by permission of Wallaces' Farmer. 

460 



it to the shell-torn battlefields of France, to have a part in 
safeguarding for all generations yet to come the benefits of 
Christian civilization. 

Of itself, the flag is a flimsy thing, a few yards of bunting 
tossed back and forth by the breeze. But in what it symbolizes, 
the flag of the United States is the most powerful human force 
in all the world, and what is better, the most powerful force 
for righteousness and decency and wholesomeness and fairness 
among men and nations. It is to be loved and respected as the 
emblem of a right-minded nation. 

The evolution of our flag has been interesting. Up to the 
time the Colonies declared independence of Great Britain, they 
flew the ensign of the mother country, although some of them 
had special flags of their own. In the early days of the Revo- 
lution, a number of different flags were used, one of them be- 
ing the famous rattlesnake flag with the motto, "Don't tread 
on me." 

On January 1, 1776, General Washington raised what is 
known as the Grand Union flag. This flag had thirteen stripes, 
alternating red and white, with the British Crosses of Saint 
George and Saint Andrew in the corner. In speaking- of this 
flag, Washington said: "We hoisted the Union flag in compli- 
ment to the United Colonies and saluted it with thirteen guns." 
When it was first displayed, the British officers, who saw it 
from Charleston Heights, interpreted it to mean that General 
Washington meant by it to announce his surrender, and they 
at once saluted it with thirteen guns. They were not a great 
while in discovering, however that they had misinterpreted 
General Washington's purpose. 

By June 1, 1776, Betsy Eoss made her famous flag, under 
the direction of General Washington, Robert Morris and Colonel 
George Ross. This flag consisted of thirteen stripes, alternat- 
ing red and white ? with a circle of thirteen five-pointed stars in 
a field of blue, and on June 14, 1777, it was adopted by Con- 
gress as the national flag. In speaking of this flag, Washing- 
ton said: 

461 



"We take the stars from heaven, the red from our Mother 
country, separating It by white stripes, this showing that we 
have separated from her; and the white stripes shall go down 
to posterity representing liberty." 

John Paul Jones is said to have been the first to hoist the 
new flag over a United States war vessel; and France was the 
the first foreign naval power to salute the Stars and Stripes, 
and thus recognize the independence of the United States. The 
flag was probably first displayed over the military forces of the 
United States on August 2, 1777, that particular fiag having 
been made out of a white shirt, a blue army overcoat and a^red 
flannel petticoat belonging to the wife of one of the soldiers. 

In 1795, because the flag of thirteen stars and thirteen 
stripes no longer represented the number of states, Congress 
passed a bill increasing the number of stars to fifteen; and it 
was this flag, displayed over Fort Henry in September, 1814, 
that served as the inspiration for our national anthem, the 
"Star-Spangled Banner." The stars in this flag were arranged 
in flve horizontal rows of three stars each. 

In 1815, when Indiana was admitted to the Union of states, 
Congress appointed a commitee to inquire into the matter of 
altering the flag. This committee reported that it would not 
be advisable to increase the number of stripes, for the reason 
that their size would necessarily be decreased, and they might 
become indistinguishable. It was suggested that the number of 
stripes be limited to thirteen and that the number of stars 
should conform to the number of states. In 1818, Congress 
passed a law to this effect, providing that on the admission of 
a new state one star be added to the flag of the Union. 

The first flag displayed on the capitol building at "Washing- 
ton after this law was enacted had the stars arranged in the 
form of one great star. This precipitated some discussion as 
to just how the stars should be arranged on the field of blue. 
It was thought that if they were arranged in the form of one 
big star, it would be necessary to very much decrease the size 

462 



of the stars as new states were added. The matter was not 
settled by law, but by official sanction the stars have since 
been placed in parallel lines. 

The name "Old Glory" is believed to have been given to 
the flag by Captain William Driver, who was born in Salem, 
Massachusetts. In 1857 he moved to Nashville, Tennessee, and 
l:ved there until his death in 1886. He was the commander 
of a sailing vessel, and was presented with a flag just before 
he sailed. As he hoisted it, he christened it "Old Glory/* 
When he moved to Nashville, Tennessee, he carried this par- 
ticular flag with him. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, 
the Confederates made an effort to secure this flag, and 
searched his house for it. He had concealed It by sewing it 
up in his bed covers, and was able to hold it until the Federal 
troops entered Nashville in 1862, when, by permission of the 
Federal troops, he hoisted his old flag over the state capitol 
building. This particular flag is now preserved in the Essex 
Institute at Salem. 

The flag has four parts. The central part, that is, the 
dimension or height of the portion next to the staff or pole, 
is called the hoist. The fly is the horizontal part, the dimension 
or length of the flag. The canton is the rectangle in the upper 
corner next the hoist. The union is the device placed in the 
canton to denote the particular union. The term "union" 
sometimes includes the device and the canton, and is generally 
called the "Jack" or the "Union Jack." The proportions of the 
flag are as follows: Fly of flag, 1.9 feet; hoist, 1 foot; width 
of union, 7-13 of a foot; length of union, 76-100 of a foot; width 
of each stripe, 1-13 of a foot. These proportions are preserved 
as the flag is increased or decreased in size. 

The flag should be displayed on all national holidays. Out- 
of-doors it should always fly to the breeze, and never be fast- 
ened to the side of a building, platform or scaffolding. When 
hung as a display across a street, the field should fly to the 
north in streets running east and west, and to the east in 

463 



streets running north and south. The flag should not be used 
as a cover for a table, desk, or anything o that sort; and noth- 
ing: should ever be placed upon the flag unless it be the Bible. 
It should not be worn as a part of a costume. 

The flag should not be raised before sunrise, and it should 
be lowered at sunset. One of the most beautiful and impres- 
sive ceremonies in our army practice is the lowering of the 
flag at sunset, at which time all of the soldiers face the flag, 
wherever it may be, and hold the right hand at salute until it 
is lowered. When the flag passes in parade, soldiers salute it 
in this manner, and civilians should stand and remove their 
hats, holding them on the left side of the breast until the flag 
has passed. 

Star of the early dawning, set in a field of blue, 
Stripes of sunrise splendor, crimson and white of hue, 
Flag of our fathers' fathers, born on the field of strife, 
Phoenix of fiery battle, risen from human life; 
Given for God and freedom sacred indeed the trust, 
Left by countless thousands returned to the silent dust; 
Flag of a mighty nation waving aloft unfurled, 
Kissed by the sun of heaven, caressed by the winds 

of the world; 

Greater than kingly power, greater than all mankind, 
Conceived in the need of the hours, inspired by the 

Master Mind. 

Over the living children, over the laureled grave, 
Streaming on high in the cloudless sky, banner our 

fathers gave, 

Flag of a newborn era, token of every right, 
Wrung from a tyrant power, unawed by a tyrant's 

might; 

Facing again the menace outflung from a foreign shore, 
Meeting again the challenge, bravely answered of yore; 
Under thy spangled folds thy children await to give 
All that they have or are, that the flag they love shall live. 

Charles G. Crellin. 
464 



Facts About Flag Day and How We Should Show 
Proper Respect for Our Flag. 

1. "The official history of our flag begins on June 14, 
1777. June 14 is celebrated in many states as Flag 
Day. 

2. The flag should not be hoisted before sunrise and not 
allowed to remain up after sunset. 

3. At re treat, sunset, civilian onlookers should stand 
at attention and give the military salute. 

4. When the national colors are passing- on parade or 
review, the onlookers should halt, if walking, and if 
sitting, rise and stand at attention and uncover. 

5. When the flag is flown at half mast as a sign of 
mourning, it should be hoisted to full staff at the 
conclusion of the funeral. In placing the flag at half 
mast it should first be hoisted to the top of the staff 
and then lowered to position, and preliminary to 
lowering from half staff it should be raised first to 
the top. 

6. On Memorial Day, May 30, the flag should fly at half 
mast from sunrise to noon, and full staff from noon 
to sunset." 

(From The Sons of the Revolution, State of New York.) 

A Short Course in Flag Lore.* 

The Stars and Stripes. 
Queries for Girls to Answer. 

1. ,How many stars on the flag? 48. 

2. Why this- number? It represents the number of 
states in the Union. 

3. When were the last stars added? July 4, 1912. 

4. For what states? Arizona and New Mexico. 



*This material -was prepared under the auspices of ' the Abigail Adams 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

465 



5. How many stripes on the flag. 13 seven red and 
six white. 

6. Why thirteen stripes? They represent the thirteen 
colonies. 

7. Name the thirteen colonies? Connecticut, Delaware, 
Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsyl- 
vania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia. 

8. Why are Maine and Vermont omitted? Maine was 
part of Massachusetts; and Vermont was claimed by 
New York. 

9. Name the colors of the flag. Why used? Eed, White 
and Blue. Used because the colors used in nearly 
all National flags. 

10. What is the language of Red? Courage. 

11. What is the language of White? Purity. 

12. What is language of Blue? Fidelity or Truth. 

13. For what does the flag stand? Liberty and Union. 

14. Where should the blue field which contains the stars 
be placed? In the upper corner next to the staff. 

15. How many points has each star on the flag? Five. 

16. Who proposed the five pointed star? Betsy Koss. 

17. Who first proposed the six pointed star? George 
Washington. 

18. By what authority was the Stars and Stripes Flag- 
adopted and when? By the Continental Congress, 
June 14, 1777. 

19. When will another star be added to the flag? July 
4th, immediately after another new state is admitted. 

The Old Flag. 

"Floats our flag" in starry splendor, 
Witness of the vows we tender 
To be loyal to the fairest land 

466 



That e'er ttie sun shone on. 
Sends its colors Heavenward flying, 
Emblem of a trust undying 
Handed down from patriot father 
To his freedom-loving son." 

A Second Short Course in Flag Lore.* 

1. What does a Nation's flag represent? The supreme, 
highest, fullest power or force and will of the whole 
nation, called its sovereignty. 

2. In the battling of two nations for victory, what does 
the presence of the flag of each indicate? The one 
nation asserts its rights and defies the other. 

3. In the Revolution, in what conflict was the "Stars 
and Stripes" flag first flung to the breeze to defy 
the British? At the seige of Fort Stanwix, in New 
York, August 3, 1777. 

4. Where was the first official United States flag made 
and by whom? At 238 Arch Street, Philadelphia, 
by Mrs. Betsy Ross, at Washington's request and 
after his design. 

5. By what authority are all flags, standards, colors and 
ensigns for the Army and Navy of the United States 
made? The authority of the United States Govern- 
ment. 

6. How many stars are required by the law on the 
official flags of the United States? Forty-eight, one 
for each state of the Union. 

7. After a star has been added to the flag for a new 
state, what of the old flags? They are never again 
used officially. 

8. When is a flag raised on a fort or military post? 
At sunrise. 



*This material was prepared under the auspices of the Abigail Adams 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

467 



9. When should such a flag- be .lowered? At sunset 
not later. 

10. When should a fag fly at half-mast or half staff? 
On Memorial Day from sunrise to noon and at full 
staff from noon to sunset. On occasions of mourning 
it should be at Jialf staff until the conclusion of the 
funeral and then it should be hoisted to full staff. 

11. What does the flag at half-mast denote? Mourning 
of the Nation as at the death of the President 

12. What indicates the presence of the President of the 
United States on a government vessel? The Presi- 
dent's flag flying at the mast-head. 

13. What is the description of the President's flag? Of 
blue silk, 6 feet 6 inches by 4 feet, with a white star 
near each corner, a spread eagle in the middle with 
an arrow through each leg and 13 white stars above 
the eagle in a segment of a circle, 

14. What is indicated by striking or lowering the flag? 
Respect, surrender or submission. 

15. What is it to "dip the flag?" To lower it for a brief 
space and hoist it again as a salute or mark of 
respect. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE PLACE OF THRIFT IN THE GIRL RESERVE PROGRAMS. 

TO redeem thrift from the meaning which most people at- 
tach to it without thought is the first step to understanding. 
Thrift is not first and foremost saving money; it is emphatically 
not parsimony and hoarding ; it is certainly not buying always 
the cheapest article and depositing money in an old stocking 
under the hearthstone. It is sadly true that thrift has been 
painted often in such somber colors that it has attracted nor- 
mal young people with the greatest difficulty. 

468 



It is then all the more important to note that thrift is in 
the first place such an evaluation of good things like time, 
health, and material possessions that they will contribute their 
utmost to each person's life. Only a heedless master fails to 
see that in a world where the stock of good things is limited, 
every person, family and nation must learn the art of making 
wise choices. Among the valuable possessions which crowd 
every life, some are material and tangible; food, clothing, 
shelter; others are intangible, yet very real time, health, 
education, play others which are hardest to define are most 
fundamental friendship, family life and comradeship with God. 
Everyday choices must be made among these good things and 
the habit of making them in the light of their relative values 
is one form of real thrift. 

Thrift is also something else. It is the art of spending 
wisely the resources which may be at a person's disposal. 
Besides the intangible resources time and energy, each per- 
son expends a certain amount of money which represents 
wealth somebody's labor. How shall this be spent as wisely 
as possible? There are three simple questions to ask: 

Do I keep a record of what I spend? 
Have I a plan for my spending? 
Do I know what I am buying ? 

"Keeping a record of what I spend" lias a short name 
''keeping accounts." This is the first step in any regular thrift 
plan for spending and means keeping a regular statement of 
money received and spent, even the smallest amounts. Unless 
people are ready to face the facts of where their money goes 
they shall not be ready for the next step. 

"Having a plan for spending" means adopting a budget. 
Every business firm, club, and organization wliich makes any 
pretense of careful management considers a budget indis- 
pensable to successful operation. More and more cities and 
tuwns are adopting it. A budget is becoming recognized as 

469 



necessary in running a home, and women are increasingly using 
this device, not only as household managers but as individuals. 

A budget begins by making a plan of expenditure which 
covers, as far as possible, all expenditures, assigning a certain 
amount to each purpose. When all one's spending is looked 
at together it is natural to balance the merits of different items. 
Every budget should have in it some item for giving to others 
and for savings, and the very fact of such inclusion makes for 
the establishment both of saving and giving. It may be worth 
noting that the amount of money involved in any girl's budget 
has nothing to do with the principle of keeping an account. 
Any girl who spends any money regularly may become so inter- 
ested in having a budget and keeping accounts that the habit 
thus formed may be one of the strong factors in later life. 

The third query asked above "Do I know what I am buy- 
ing?" brings up a very important matter. Ignorance about 
the goods, foods and other things people buy is far too pre- 
valent. National reliance upon labels which do duty for knowl- 
edge of contents, and the easy expectation that many of the 
things which are bought will be of poor quality, all tend to 
foster low standards. The only sure remedy is more knowledge 
about the common articles in daily use in all homes and a 
respect for such knowledge as part of every person's mental 
equipment. - 

In making thrift a part of the program for younger girls 
it may be suggested that clubs may like to make budgets foi 
sny community on the basis of actual conditions there and what 
the girls are spending. If accounts are kept and the percen- 
tages allotted to each item discussed, a kind of normal budget 
for each community will be arrived at. There is a great advan- 
tage in such club study. The path of thrift, like any other, 
is most enjoyable when one has company and the club whicli 
is thrifty together will have most fun and get most good ou1 
of it. 

470 



A list of organizations which publish material on thrift Is 
appended. Several of these will send their material free. Some 
suggested readings on thrift are also added. 

Thrift Work. 
Suggested Plans for Thrift Work. 

"There are four principles of thrift which the government 
is recommending all the people to observe to gain financial 
success for themselves and for their government: 

The earning of money ; 
The careful use of money earned; 
The systematic saving of money; 
The investment of the money saved- 

(1) In government securities. 

(2) In other safe securities. 

"(The Thrift-Saving Campaign' sponsored by our gov- 
ernment to meet and to solve a national need, to stay the pro- 
gress of thoughtless spending and to check wilful waste, stands 
for good citizenship; and I most heartily commend it, believing 
the adoption of its principles as a part of the daily life and 
practice of our people will result in a better citizenship, in 
happier, more prosperous homes, and will build most surely 
for the material welfare of our people." Secretary Redfield. 

Thrift work applied to a club program, involves not only 
the keeping of an expense account, saving and investment, but 
affords opportunity for a knowledge of budgets, the value of 
an allowance, and the wise expenditure of money and time. It 
should be a regular and systematic part of any program and 
should have for one of its several aims such cooperation with 
the girl's family that wherever possible individual girls should 
receive allowances and should be made responsible for the 
administration of them in the home. This situation will help 
a girl to regard herself as a real partner in the various enter- 
prises of the home, and will help to prepare her for the respon- 

471 



sibility of caring for her "Trust Fund" when she becomes a 
real producer in the economic world. 

Thrift work, within the club, must be made interesting 
through concrete application. Some of the following sugges- 
tions will stimulate the club members to original thinking. 

(1) "Thriftograzns." 

"Old man high cost af living shaves the dollars; it 
is up to you to save them." 

"Gome easy, go easy, is the material used to pave 
the hills to the poorhouse." 

"You don't need a ouija board to find out what's 
going to happen if you keep on spending all you 
earn." 

"Regular saving of $1.00 or more a week and invest- 
ment in government savings quickly accumulates 
an emergency fund and guarantees financial security 
and progress." 

(These have been taken from the Savings Herald, published 
by the Eighth Federal Reserve District, St. Louis, Missouri.) 

Each club could be responsible for writing an original 
"Thriftogram" every week or every month, to be posted on the 
club or association bulletin board; this "Thriftogram" should 
be observed by every member. 

(2) A discussion of the following "Do's and Don'ts," 
written by the Department of Justice, Division of 
Women's Activities: 

"Put aside part of your income for future use; don't 
spend every dollar as soon as it is earned. 
"Make every penny buy a penny's worth of some- 
thing really needed; don't buy useless things of no 
value. 

"Invest wisely; don't speculate. 

"Use with care what money buys; don't be wasteful 
and destructive. 

472 



"Figure out what each item of the family expendi- 
ture requires rent, food, light, heat, clothing, school, 
charity, doctor, pleasures, etc. Don't do guesswork 
and trust to make both ends meet. 
"Pay bills monthly don't let worry go hand in hand 
with unpaid bills. 

"Set your own standards; don't ape the extrava- 
gance of others. 

"Buy only what you have- the money to pay for; 
don't run into debt. 

"Put aside for a rainy day don't live beyond your 
means." 
(3) "A Meeting on Junk." 

It is suggested that some such questions as the 
following be asked: 

Who buys junk? (All towns and cities of any size 
, have junk dealers. These dealers have men gather 
junk throughout the country and small villages.) 
Are money receipts for junk large? (They are, 
Last year in the State of Texas alone the amount 
received for junk was more than $30,000,000. Other 
states perhaps collect and sell in the same ratio in 
proportion to population and size.) 
What other good comes from selling junk, aside 
from the money received for it? (Material is 
released for use, and at this particular time there 
is a great shortage in nearly all kinds of material. 
Also it helps to make the town cleaner and more 
sanitary.) 

Talk to the junk man and get his prices and find 
out what he will buy. Cleaning up the place by 
collecting and selling junk is a thrifty habit. By 
all means don't overlook the waste paper. Paper 
supply is now very short and old newspapers, maga- 
zines, catalogues, etc., are worth something and will 
help in relieving the paper shortage if saved and 

473 



sold. To such a meeting 1 each girl might be asked 
to bring one or more magazines to serve as the 
nucleus of a load of papers and magazines to be 
sold to the junk man. A continuation of such a 
^junk program" might wdlU be, /in some clubs, 
"An Alley Beautiful" contest. Club members would 
become responsible for cleaning up the alleys im- 
mediately behind their homes by having removed 
any accumulation of rubbish and perhaps by the 
planting of vines or shrubs in season. Painting 
up of fences and buildings might be a profitable 
result of such a contest. 

(4) "Pennywise Pound Foolish." 

This is a familiar proverb and illustrates the condi- 
tion of affairs in many homes, many states and 
several nations to-day. There is too little fore- 
thought in planning the expenditures and in deter- 
mining a goal, and, consequently, there is "penny- 
wise scrimping" and "pound foolish spending." The 
solution for this problem seems to be a "budg-et- 
system" and a discussion of the terms which should 
go into a personal and a club budget would center 
well around a topic such as "'penny-wise pound- 
foolish." Another proverb which could be inter- 
preted in much the same way is "Bobbing Peter to 
pay Paul," or as we might say, "Robbing Jane to 
pay June." 

In some clubs, or in the council or cabinet meetings, 
it will be possible to follow such discussion by one 
which has for its topic "Our Association Budget." 
For developing such a discussion see the section 
"Supplementary Material" "My Trust Fund"' in 
the section on Materials for Program Building. 

474 



List of 
Organizations Publishing 1 Material on the Subject of Thrift. 

American Bankers' Association, 5 Nassau Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

Government Loan Organization, Washington, D. C. 

Treasury Department, U. S. Government, Washington, D. C. 

War Loan Organization, Washington, D. C. 

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

U. S. Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 

The University Society, New York, N. Y. 

Young Men's Christian Association, 347 Madison Avenue, 
New York. 

Young Women's Christian Association, 600 Lexington Ave- 
nue, New York. 

Home Economics Bureau, Society for Savings, Public 
Square, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Henry L. Doherty Company, 60 Wall Street, New York, N. Y. 

Suggested Readings on Thrift. 

Atwood, A. W. How to Get Ahead. 
Baldt, L. L Clothing for Women. 
Brown, M. W. Development of Thrift. 
Chamberlain, A. H. Thrift and Conversation. 
Child, Georgiana The Efficient Kitchen. 
Conham, S. A. Marketing and Household Manual. 
Farmer, L. O. A. B. C. of Home-Saving. 
Fowler, N. C. How to Save Money. 
Gregory, M. H. Checking the Waste. 
Hull, Bolton Thrift. 
Leeds, J. B. Household Budget. 
MacGregor, T. D.- The Book of Thrift. 
Marcosson, L J. How to Invest Your Savings. 
Nesbitt, Florence Household Management. 
Rose, M. S. Feeding the Family. 
Withers, Hartlety Poverty and Waste. 

475 



CHAPTER X. 

BUSINESS IDEALS, PRINCIPLES AND DETAILS. 

IN the course of human lives there is an inevitable and 
unescapable contact in store for every individual with 
that intangible, indefinite something known as business. 

Business is pictured by some as a cold, commercial, unpleas- 
ant, undesirable quantity. By others it is considered a stern 
necessity, by others, again, a science mysterious, fascinating, 
exceedingly interesting, and, unfortunately, there are those 
that use the term to cover selfish and unscrupulous enterprises. 

Business is so large that it controls the feeding, clothing 
and housing of the entire world; so small that it determines 
the value of individual and personal necessities and how and 
when these values should be given. 

Our countrymen are thinking about business to-day as they 
had to think about slavery in 1860, about taxation in 1776. It 
is the force which will settle the questions of to-day capital 
and labor, immigration, taxation, racial problems and the fur- 
ther civilization of the whole world. Business provides the 
ways and means to destroy it. It can be made an obedient 
servant or a hard taskmaster. 

The girl of to-day, the woman of to-morrow, cannot escape 
a full share in guiding and controlling this thing called busi- 
ness. Yesterday woman's place was not among her brothers. 
She was "shielded" from "sordid business worries." To-day 
woman is being recognized as a possible factor, one to be 
dealt with in the trend of events. To-day economic demands 
necessitate her entrance into the world of business. To-mor- 
row, through her increasing understanding of the fact that she 
must work without indulging in personalities and with that 

476 



attitude of mind which sees in work a creative thing, her place 
shoulder to shoulder with her brothers will be an accepted 
unquestioned fact. Women should be armed with that one great 
weapon, knowledge, so that they will be prepared when the time 
conies to cast their ballots for public officials who will stand 
upon opposite sides of such questions as mentioned above, plus 
public service, corporation control, health and sanitary pro.blems 
affecting future generations, and honesty in public adminis- 
tration. 

It is no longer necessary for a girl to enter upon a business 
career in order to obtain a knowledge of business. Preliminary 
training is just as important in the field of business as it is 
in other fields and touches the individual life as closely. Failure 
to secure desirable positions is caused nine times out of ten by 
lack of training. Short courses in Business English, Business 
Law, Journalism, Economics, Advertising, Accounting, Steno- 
"graphy, etc. may be obtained in the average city college. A 
knowledge of the business processes which produce the things 
we use, makes for a realization of true economy, prepares for 
better home making, better business, better direction of what- 
ever course is pursued in life. Instructive reading material in 
fascinating form may be secured from any library or publisher. 
All that is needed is the desire and the will to make use of 
information ready and waiting. 

Business is built upon exchange of one thing for another. 
Money came into existence as a matter of convenience to do 
away with much handling of many kinds of things. Then came 
banks to make the exchange of money safe, rapid and easy, 
and gradually to administer all manner of business trans- 
actions, agreements, etc. Forms were provided to make 
methods uniform and still more rapid. 

It was but natural that the competition growing out of all 
men seeking more and more a share in the world's work should 
result in unprincipled methods. Business was conducted for 
many centuries upon the survival of the clever and often the 

477 



dishonest. It has taken countless generations to prove that 
such success was not genuine and that the price paid was too 
high. During the nineteenth century particularly the latter 
p ar t the business public began to recognize and to put into 
practice the principles of service. In the midst of the jeers 
of many and the doubts of many more, a few courageous people 
persisted in this theory of service and the proof of their suc- 
cess lies in the high plane in which we find nearly all business 
to-day. The appreciation of the public for the consideration 
offered them under service resulted in the largest financial 
profits ever known. That knowledge spread slowly but effec- 
tively. Men had not done business under the old idea of "ruin- 
ing their rivals/* from choice. It seemed to be necessary to 
their existence, but the natural instinct of men is fairness and 
the new policy of ''help the other man while you help yourself" 
was welcomed eagerly. It resulted in as much or more success 
and permitted full self-respect, a thing dear to mankind. 

The principle of service is that of the square deal. It is 
hardly necessary to give a detailed description of other prin- 
ciples of business; they are all included in that of the square 
deal. Honesty, reason, frankness, consideration, tact, com- 
mon sense, loyalty all these should become are becoming part 
of that spirit of service which binds together the business of 
the world to-day. 

Women and girls need an understanding of that spirit to 
help make it universal and complete. They are a part of it. 
Everything they buy and everything they use is the produce of 
business. Their support for materials which bear the "square 
deal" trademark and their discouragement of goods manufac- 
tured as a result of abuse and oppression, are vital. Each girl 
and woman individually should have! a comprehensive knowl- 
edge and understanding of facts before she judges, then when 
she feels qualified to judge she should stand back of the "square 
deal" with courage and faith and her share in making this 
world a better place to live in will not be a small one. 

47.8 



She should become familiar with current major business 
activities, keep in touch with what the financial world is doing, 
v/hat the governmental plans are, and so on. She should be 
familiar not only with current events in the business world 
but with details, the definition of business terms, business 
forms, etc. She should be trained to manage her own business 
transactions independently whether they be small or large. 
If too large for personal management, she should choose wisely 
and carefully her business adviser. 

It should not be necessary for her to ask others to balance 
her checking account for her. She should learn to do it her- 
self. She should not be heard to say that she "doesn't know 
where her money goes." She should learn to keep an account 
of her expenditures. It will help her to curtail extravagance. 
More than that, she should plan in advance a definite schedule 
for her expenditures based on past experience, placing limita- 
tions and apportioning outgo a veritable stop, look and listen 
sjgn known in business terms as a budget. 

The following are some of the business terms with which 
every girl should be familiar. 

Acceptance When used of a draft or bill of exchange ^"An 
unconditional written order from one person to another, to 
pay to some person designated, a certain sum therein," is 
presented to the payer, he writes across the face "accepted" 

or "accepted for payment at " and signs his name. It is 

then termed an acceptance. 

Accommodation Note A note given without consideration 
of value received, usually done to enable the payee to raise 
money. 

Account A record of transactions with a person or per- 
sons, or with respect to a particular object. 

Administrator One appointed by the court to settle an 
estate. 

479 



Ad Valorem According to value a term used to indicate 
that duties are payable on the value rather than the weight or 
quantity of articles. 

Affidavit A statement or declaration made under oath 
before an authorized official. 

Annuity An amount payable to or received from another 
each year for a term of years or for life. 

Assets All the property, goods, possessions, of value to the 
person or persons in business. 

Bank Balance The net amount to the credit of a depositor 
at the bank. 

Bank Note A 'note issued by a bank, payable on demand, 
which passes for money. 

Bank Draft An order drawn by- one bank on another for 
the purpose of paying money. 

Bank Pass Book A small book furnished to a depositor by 
his bank in which are entered the amounts of deposits. 

Bill A list of goods bought or sold or a statement of ser- 
vices rendered; also called invoice. 

Bill Head The blank or form on which a bill is made. 

Bond A written agreement binding a person to do or not 
to do certain things specified therein. 

Capital Property or money invested in business. Working 
capital is the capital actually used in the active operation of 
the business. 

Check An order on a bank to pay to a certain person or 
to the order of such a person, a specified sum, which sum is 
charged to the account of the drawer of the check. 

Certified Check A check, the payment of which is guar- 
anteed by the bank on which it is drawn. 

Collateral Pledges of security, as stocks, bonds, etc., to 
protect an obligation or insure the payment of a loan. 

Deed A written document or contract transferring title to 
real estate. 

480 



Discount An allowance made for the payment of a bill 
within a specified period, or the interest paid in advance for 
money borrowed from a bank. 

Dividend The profits which are distributed among the 
stockholders of a corporation. 

Exchange The charge made by a bank for the collection 
of drafts or checks. 

Indemnity Security against a form of loss which has 
occurred or may occur; as, fire, insurance against loss by fire. 

Interest The sum or premium paid for the use of money; 
one's share in a business or a particular property. 

Liabilities The obligations or debts of a firm, corporation 
or individual 

Mortgage A temporary transfer of title to land, goods or 
chattels to secure the payment of debt 

Mortgagee The one to whom the mortgage is given. 

Mortgagor The one who gives a mortgage. 

Promissory Note A promise signed by the maker or makers 
to pay a stated sum at a specified time and place. 

A few cautions: 

A check should never be payable to Mr., Mrs. or Miss. It 
should simply be drawn payable to "Anne Smith" or "John 
Jones." 

In endorsing a check care should be used to see that the 
name is written on the back of the lefthand end of check and 
that it is written the same as on the face of the check. If the 
name on face of check is incorrectly spelled, the endorsement 
should be double, (1) same as written on face, (2) correctly. 

Checks should never be drawn in excess of the actual net 
balance in the bank (difference between total deposits and total 
checks drawn) whether or not all of the checks drawn have 
passed through the bank for payment. The balance as given 
by the bank often exceeds the actual net balance because one 

481 



H* more checks drawn are still "outstanding." A checking 
iccount should be reconciled with the bank once a month to 
prove accuracy of record. 



Bibliography. 
Business Ideals. 

Adams, George P. Idealism and the Modern Age. 
Antin, Mary They Who Knock at the Gates, 
Bacon, Albion Fellows Beauty for Ashes. 
Cabot, Richard C. What Men Live By. 
Feld, R. C. Humanizing Industry. 
Foster, Eugene C. Making Life Count. 
La Selle, Mary The Young Woman Worker. 
Lowry, E. B. Preparing for Womanhood. 
Marot, Helen Creative Impulse in Industry. 
Morgan, Ann The American Girl. 
Russell, Bertrand Political Ideals. 
Santayana, George Character and Opinion in the United 

States. 

Spillman, H. C. Personality. 

Steiner, Edward A. Introducing the American Spirit. 
Tarbell, Ida M. The Business of Being a Woman. 
Tarbell, Ida M. New Ideals in Business. 
Tufts, James H. The Real Business of Living. 

Magazine Articles. 

Does Business Render Service A. W. Atwood, in the Saturday 
Evening Post, 193:11 D 18,, '20. 

For Service Instead of Profit A. W. Atwood, Saturday Even- 
ing Post, 193:13 D 4, '20. . 

482 



CHAPTER XI 

BOOKS AND READING IN THE LIFE OF A GIRL. 

NO one who has ever watched a girl pass into and out of her 
teens can minimize the value of the impressions which 
she has gained from the books she has read. Nearly every 
adolescent girl comes at some time to the "book age," when she 
literally devours every book which catches her fancy or upon 
which she falls by chance or mischance. Such a period is one 
of great opportunity for the adviser of girls but an opportunity 
which must be wisely used. 

Books are the silent, beloved companions of many girls 
and from them they acquire many of their notions of how 
to act under given conditions; in them they sometimes find a 
heroine or a hero whose life helps to set their code of morals; 
while again and again the choice of a vocation is definitely 
influenced by the presentation of it given in an interesting 
story. 

A girl's own judgment is not always to be relied upon to 
choose the worthwhile among the great number of books avail- 
able. Books cannot be judged by their "jackets" nor their 
price. The old-fashioned paper covered dime novel still exists 
in different garb sometimes dressed up attractively in book 
form sometimes in magazine story form, and many of the 
latter are read by adolescent girls. 

A wise adviser will know these "dressed up" dime novels 
and recognizing the appeal which they make to the imagina- 
tion and emotional side of a teen age girl, will be ready through 
informal discussion and conversation to suggest some of the 
many sane, wholesome stories now available as well as some 
of the splendid collections of poems. A love and appreciation of 

483 



poetry counts for much as one grows older and an adviser will 
help the girl who often needs an interpretation of a poem to 
see in poetry its real beauty and meaning. 

The adviser needs to be careful, however, that a book is not 
killed for a girl by an over-zealous recommendation. 

Books on prescribed reading lists, especially school lists 
are often disliked by girls. There is real joy in picking and 
choosing one's own list for summer reading or for winter 
leading. A girl may be helped and made desirous of doing this 
by a discussion at a club meeting of some such question as 
"What are your ten favorite books?" 

Every girl should be encouraged to own books and so begin 
to build a real library of her own. The joy of a shelf in one's 
room or one's home, to hold one's "bound friends" is an experi- 
ence every girl should have. Books are windows through which 
a girl's imagination may look out and so, they need (like all 
windows), to be in the right place, of the right kind, and kept 
always clean and shining. 

Books placed in the hands of a girl should help to give her 
some of the following things good standards for every day 
thinking and living; ideals toward which to work; a sense of 
fair play; a constructive philosophy of life and not a cynical 
doubting attitude of mind; a realization that life may be God- 
eontrolled; a logical presentation of events and not a series of 
thrilling happenings absolutely unreal in life and often in direct 
contradiction to all natural law and moral development ' an 
appreciation of scientific truths and an opportunity to acquire 
facts which will be of use; an appreciation of good language 
and a real feeling for beauty of expression. 

The list of books included in this section is meant to be 
suggestive to an adviser and her girls. It is in no sense com- 
plete nor is it a ''course of reading." From it girls may choose 
what appeals to them and by reading one book suggested by an 
adviser they may be stimulated to read others. Most of these 
books will be found ift a public library and if not there probably 
can be secured through the cooperation of a librarian. 

484 




Girl Reserve Book List* 

"Qod taught me to read; 
He gave me the world for a book." 

FOR several years Girl Reserves have journeyed through 
"Story Book Land" with a Girl Reserve Book List as 
their guide. 

One of the joys of this journey is that it never ends. There 
are always new friends and places to be found in "Book Land" 
and so once again every Girl Reserve is invited to take as 
her guide this book list. 

The following books are suggested as ones which real Girl 
Reserves will enjoy. Some old friends will be found in this 
list, but there are many new and delightful ones as well. 
For every book you read, you will receive a Girl Reserve book 
plate to be placed in some one of your own. books. With the 
desire that the Girl Reserves shall have happy journeys into 
the "Story Book World/ this list is given into their hands 
for use. 



* The first Girl Reserve Book List was issued in December, 1918. The 
present list incorporates the first and the second lists, and was printed 
October, 1920. 

485 




If You Are Twelve and Not Yet Fifteen Choose from This List. 

I. FICTION. 

Keineth Jane Abbott 

Little Women Louisa M. Alcott 

An Old Fashioned Girl Louisa M. Alcott 

Eight Cousins Louisa M. Alcott 

Rose In Bloom Louisa M. Alcott 

Under the Lilacs Louisa M. Alcott 

Why the Chimes Rang Raymond Macdonald Alden 

Isabel Carlton's Year Margaret Ashmun 

The Heart of Isabel Carlton Margaret Ashmun 

Peter Pan James M. Barrie 

Master Skylark A Story of Shakespeare's Time. .John Bennett 

Mary Carey Kate Langley Bosher 

Miss Gibbie Gault Kate Langley Bosher 

The Lost Prince Frances Hodgson Burnett 

Little Lord Fauntleroy Frances Hodgson Burnett 

Sara Crewe Frances Hodgson Burnett 

The Little Hunchback Zia Frances Hodgson Burnett 

The Secret Garden Frances Hodgson Burnett 

Hans Brinker or the Silver Skates- Mary Mapes Dodge 

Donald and Dorothy Mary Mapes Dodge 

Jan of the Windmill. Mrs. Juliana H. Ewing 

The Story of a Short Life Mrs. Juliana H. Ewing 

A Flatiron for a Farthing Mrs. Juliana H. Ewing 

486 



J. Cole A Story of a Boy Emma Gellebrand 

Kathleen's Probation Josleyn Gray 

Uncle Remus Joel Chandler Harris 

The Story of Aaron Joel Chandler Harris 

Aaron in the Wildwood Joel Chandler Harris 

Tanglewood Tales Nathaniel Hawthorne 

Twicetold Tales Nathaniel Hawthorne 

The Wonder Book .Nathaniel Hawthorne 

Mopsa the Fairy Jean Ingelow 

Lady Jane Mrs. C. V. Jamison 

The Little Colonel Series Annie Fellows Johnston 

Georgina of the Rainbows Annie Fellows Johnston 

Water Babies Charles Kingsley 

The Jungle Books Rudyard Kipling 

Captains Courageous Rudyard Kipling 

The Just-So Stories Rudyard Kipling 

The Brushwood Boy Rudyard Kipling 

Maid of Old Manhattan Margaret Knipe 

Maid of '76 Margaret Knipe 

Polly Trotter Patriot Margaret Knipe 

Adventures of Nils Selma Lagerlof 

Tales from Shakespeare Charles Lamb 

The Maker of Rainbows Richard Le GaHienne 

Emmy Lou George Madden Martin 

Emmy Lou's Road to Grace George Madden Martin 

The Painted Desert Kirk Munroe 

Rick Dale Kirk Munroe 

Dog of Flanders Ouida 

Bimbi Ouida 

487 



Wilderness Honey Frank Lillie Pollock 

Just David Eleanor H. Porter 

Freckles Gene Sratton Porter 

Girl of the Limberlost Gene Sratton Porter 

Men of Iron , , * , Howard Pyle 

Melody Laura E. Kichards 

Captain January 1 Laura E. Richards 

The King of the Golden River John Ruskin 

Beautiful Joe A Story of a Dog Marshall Saunders 

'Tilda Jane Marshall Saunders 

Kenilworth. Sir Walter Scott 

The Biography of a Grizzly Ernest Thompson Seton 

The Trail of the Sandhill Stag Ernets Thompson Seton 

Black Beauty Mrs. Anna Sewell 

Story-tell Lib Annie Trumbull Slosson 

Fishin' Jimmie Annie Trumbull Slosson 

Heidi Johanna Spyri 

Moni the Goat Boy Johanna Spyri 

The Black Arrow Robert Louis Stevenson 

Treasure Island Robert Louis Stevenson 

Kidnapped Robert Louis Stevenson 

The Queen's Museum and Other Fanciful Tales 

Frank R. Stockton 

The Chaucer Story Book Eva March Tappan 

Robin Hood Eva March Tappan 

The Children's Hour Eva March Tappan 

The Prince and the Pauper , Mark Twain 

The Blue Flower Henry Van Dyke 

The Christmas Spirit Henry Van Dyke 

The First Christmas Tree Henry Van Dyke 

The Foolish Fir Tree Henry Van Dyke 

The Keeper of the Light Henry Van Dyke 

The Legend of Service ....,, Henry Van Dyke 

488 



The Lost Boy Henry Van Dyke 

The Story of the Other Wise Man Henry Van Dyke 

Ben-Hur Lew Wallace 

Daddy Long Legs .Jean Webster 

Dear Enemy Jean Webster 

Just Patty Jean Webster 

When Patty Went to College iJean Webster 

The Bird's Christmas Carol Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Further Chronicles of Rebecca Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Mother Carey's Chickens Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Kate Douglas Wiggin 

The Story of Patsy Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Timothy's Quest Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Liberty Hall Florence May Winterburn 

Indian Legends Sa Zitkala 

King Arthur Any good edition 

II. STORIES OF FAMOUS PEOPLE AND 

INTERESTING LANDS. 
Jack-of -all-Trades Margaret Applegarth 

Story of Roland James Baldwin 

In .Sunny Spain Katharine Lee Bates 

A Boy in Eirinn Padraic Colum 

Tower or Throne Mrs. Harriet Theresa Oomstoek 

Under Greek Skies t Julia Dragoumis 

Japan Today Ruth Emerson 

Treasure Flower A Child of Japan Ruth Gaines 

The Village Shield Story of Mexico 

Ruth Gaines Georgia Read 
Brave Little Holland W. E. Griffis 

489 



Katrinka Story of a Russian Child Helen E. Haskeli 

The Story of Our Bible Harold B. Hunting 

Puck of Pook's Hill Rudyard Kipling 

The Slow Coach Story of English Life . . Edward Verrall Lucas 

Heroines Every Child Should Know Hamilton Wright Mabie 

Heroes Every Child Should Know Hamilton Wright Mabie 

African Adventures Jean Mackenzie 

Genevieve Story of French School Days, .Laura Spencer Porter 

Florence Nightingale Laura E. Richards 

Greek Photoplays Effie Seachrest 

Children of the Lighthouse Charles Lincoln White 

Hindu Tales Teresa Peirce Williston 

Japanese Fairy Tales Teresa Peirce Williston 

First Series 
Second Series 
The Third Inch of the Inch Library 

III. POETRY. 

The Golden Staircase Selected by Louey Chisholm 

Lullaby Land Eugene Field 

Poetry of Heroism Selected by John Jean Lang 

A Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics 

Francis Turner Palgrave 

Poems. James Whitcomb Riley 

A Child's Garden of Verses Robert Louis Stevenson 

490 




If You Are Fifteen or More Years Old Choose from This List 
I. FICTION. 

Under the Lilacs Louisa M. Alcott 

Little Women Louisa M. Alcott 

The Kentucky Cardinal James Lane Allen 

The Perfect Tribute Mary R. Shipman Andrews 

The Three Best Things Mary R. Shipman Andrews 

Christopher and Columbus 

By author of "Elizabeth and Her German Garden" 
Fraulein Schmidt & Mr. Anstruther 

By author of "Elizabeth and Her German Garden" 

Greyfriar's Bobby Eleanor Atkinson 

Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen 

Keeping Up With Lizzie Irving Bacheller 

Mistress Anne Temple Bailey 

Bow of Orange Ribbon Amelia Barr 

Jennie Baxter, Journalist Robert Barr 

The Little Minister . James M. Barrie 

Tommy and Grizel James M. Barrde 

A Window in Thrums James M. Barrie 

Courtin' Christiana John Joy Bell 

Spanish Gold George Birmingham 

Lorna Doone. Richard Blaekmore 

Jane Eyre Charlotte Bronte 

Wuthering Heights Emily Bronte 

Comrade Yetta Arthur Bullard 

T. Tembaron Frances Hodgson Burnett 

The Bent Twig Dorothy Canfield 

Understood Betsy Dorothy Canfreld 

491 



Collision Winston -Churchill 

Ricliard Carvel Winston Churchill 

The Moonstone Wilkie Collins 

Glengary School Days Ralph Connor 

The Major Ralph Connor 

Corporal Cameron Ralph Connor 

The Sky Pilot Ralph Connor 

The Sky Pilot in No Man's Land Ralph Connor 

The Deerslayer James Fenimore Cooper 

Last of the Mohicans * James Fenimore Cooper 

The Pathfinder James Fenimore Cooper 

Prue and I George William Curtis 

Women Wanted Mabel Porter Daggett 

Diane of the Green Van Leona Dalrymple 

The Lovable Meddler Leona Dalrymple 

Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe 

Dr, Lavendar's People Margaret D eland 

The Iron Woman Margaret Deland 

Old Curiosity Shop Charles Dickens 

A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens 

The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes A. Conan Doyle 

The White Company A. Conan Doyle 

Count of Monte Cristo Alexander Dumas 

Doctor Luke of the Labrador Norman Duncan 

The Mill on the Floss George Eliot 

Carolyn of the Corners Ruth Endicott 

Butter .Side Down Edna Ferber 

Fanny Herself Edna Ferber 

Honorable Peter Stirling .Paul Leicester Ford 

A Knight of the Cumberland John Fox, Jr. 

The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come John Fox, Jr. 

The Trail of the Lonesome Pine John Fox, Jr. 

The Trumpeter Zona Gale 

Monsieur Lecoq Emile Gaboriau 

492 



Cranford Mrs. Elizabeth C. Gas^ell 

Apron Strings Eleanor Gates 

The Yellow Dove George Gibbs 

Dream Days Kenneth Grahame 

The Wind in the Willows Kenneth Grahame 

Down to the Sea Wilfred T. Grenfell 

Jan and Her Job Allen Harker 

Prudence of the Parsonage Ethel Hueston 

Prudence Says So Ethel Hueston 

Una Mary Mrs. Una Atherton Hunt 

Tales of the Alhambra Washington Irving 

In the Sargasso Sea Thomas A. Janvier 

In the Desert of Waiting Annie Fellows Johnston 

Audrey Mary Johnston 

To Have and to Hold Mary Johnston 

May Iverson Tackles Life Elizabeth Garner Jordan 

Brushwood Boy Rudyard Kipling 

The Day's Work Rudyard Kipling 

Mary Gusta Joseph C. Lincoln 

ThankfuPs Inheritance Joseph C.' Lincoln 

Making Over Martha Julie M. Lipman 

Martha by the Day Julie M. Lipman 

The Lady of the Decoration Frances Little 

The Rough Road William J. Locke 

The Call of the Wild Jack London 

White Fang Jack London 

When Knighthood Was in Flower Charles Major 

Peg 0' My Heart J. Hartley Manners 

Pandora's Box John Ames Mitchell 

Of Water and the Spirit Margaret Prescott Montague 

Anne of Green Gables Lucy Maud Montgomery 

Anne of Avon Lee Lucy Maud Montgomery 

John Halifax Gentleman Dhiah M. Mulock 

Poor Margaret Kirby Kathleen Norris 

493 



Bob, Son of Battle Alfred Olivant 

The Scarlet Pimpernel Baroness Orczy 

The Star In the Window , Olive Higgins Prouty 

Bab A Sub-Deb Mary Roberts Rinehart 

Calvary Alley Alice Hegan Rice 

Over Periscope Pond Esther Root and Marjorie Crocker 

The Talisman Sir Walter Scott 

Quentin Durward Sir Walter Scott 

Tante Anne Douglas Sedgwick 

The Charm of the Impossible Margaret Slattery 

Kennedy Square F. Hopkinson Smith 

Peter F. Hopkinson Smith 

Treasure Island Robert Louis Stevenson 

St. Ives Robert Louis Stevenson 

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Robert Louis Stevenson 

Kidnapped Robert Louis Stevenson 

The Black Arrow Robert Louis Stevenson 

Fanciful Tales Frank R. Stockton 

The Adventures of Captain Horn Frank R. Stockton 

The Casting Away of Mrs. Leek and Mrs. Ayleshine 

Frank R. Stockton 

The Lady or the Tiger (in short stories) Frank R. Stockton 

The Transferred Ghost (in short stories). . .Frank R. Stockton 
Story of Babette Ruth McEnery Stuart 

The Conquest of Canaan Booth Tarkington 

The Magnificent Ambersons Booth Tarkington 

Monsieur Beaucaire Booth Tarkington 

Penrod Booth Tarkington 

Seventeen Booth Tarkington 

The Newcomes William Makepeace Thackeray 

The Virginians William Makepeace Thackeray 

Alice of Old Vincennes Maurice Thompson 

Just Girls Ida T. Thurston 

Twenty-three Tales Count Leo Tolstoi 

494 



Huckleberry Finn Mark Twain 

The Prince and the Pauper Mark Twain 

Tom Sawyer Mark Twain 

Story of the Other Wise Man Henry Van Dyke 

The Wood Carver of 'Lympus Mary E. Waller 

Daddy Long Legs Jean Webster 

Dear Enemy Jean Webster 

When Patty Went to College. Jean Webster 

David Harum Frank Noyes Westcott 

Hepsey Burke Frank Noyes Westcott 

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Chronicles of Rebecca Kate Douglas Wiggin 

Story of Jean Valjean (translated from the French) 

Sara E. Wiltse 

The Virginian Owen Wister 

Towards Morning Ida Alena Ross Wylie 

Swiss Family Robinson Johann David Wyss 



II. STORIES OF FAMOUS PEOPLE AND 
INTERESTING LANDS. 

Twenty Years at Hull House Jane Addams 

My Chinese Days Gulielma Alsop 

When I Was a Girl in Italy Marietta Ambrosi 

The Promised Land Mary Antin 

All the Days of My Life Amelia Barr 

Comrades in Service Margaret Burton 

Letters to Betsy J. L. Cody 

Dr. Luke of the Labrador James B. Conolly 

Dr. GrenfelFs Parish James B, Conolly 

The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe Martha Foote Crow 

The Life of Mary Lyon Ruth Bradford Gilchrist 

The Life of Frances Willard A. A. Gordon 

495 



Ann of Ava. - Ethel Daniels Hubbard 

The Story of My Life .Helen Keller 

Mary Slosser of Calabar. William Pringle Livingston 

Black Sheep Jean Kenyon MacKenzie 

Louisa May Alcott 

Dreamer and Worker Belle Moser 

The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson Jacqueline Overton 

How the Other Half Lives Jacob Riis 

From My Youth Up Margaret Sangster 

The Story of a Pioneer Anna Howard Shaw 

One Girl's Influence Roebrt E. Speer 

My Mother and I E. G. Stern 

He Knew Lincoln Ida Tarbell 

Th'e Diary of a Prairie Girl Eleanor Gates Tully 

III. STORIES ABOUT THE GREAT WAR. 

A Hilltop on the Marne Mildred Aldrich 

On the Edge of the War Zone , Mildred Aldrich 

The Peak of the Load Mildred Aldrich 

Deer Godchild Margaret Bernard Edith Serrell 

Ambulance Number 464 Julien H. Bryan 

Ambulance Number 10 Leslie Buswell 

The Day of Glory Dorothy Canfield 

Carry On Letters in War-Time -Coningsby Dawson 

The Glory of the Trenches Coningsby Dawson 

Inside the Russian Revolution Rheta Childe Dorr 

Over the Top Arthur Guy Empey 

A Little Gray Home In France Helen Davenport Gibbons 

A Red Triangle Girl in France 

High Adventure James Norman Hall 

496 



The First Hundred Thousand Ian Hay 

My Home in the Field of Mercy Frances Huard 

My Home in the Field of Honor .Frances Huard 

With Those Who Wait Frances Huard 

Madamoiselle Miss 

Women in Belgium Charlotte Kellogg" 

The Red Cross Barge Mrs. Belloc-Lowndes 

The Children of France and The Red Cross June E. Lucas 

Outwitting the Hun Patrick A. O'Brien 

Private Peat Harold Peat 

Trapped in Black Russia Ruth Pierce 

England's Effort Mrs. Humphrey Ward 

IV. POETRY, PLAYS AND ESSAYS. 

Prunella a play Barker-Housman 

The Silent Isle Arthur C. Benson 

From a College Window Arthur C. Benson 

The Upton Letters Arthur C. Benson 

A Treasury of War Poetry George Herbert Clarke 

The Business of Being a Friend Bertha Conde 

Christ in the Poetry of Today Martha Foote Crow 

A Heap 0' Living , . Edgar A. Guest 

Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Authors 

Elbert Hubbard 

My Lady's Dress a play Edward Knoblauch 

Under the Trees and Elsewhere Hamilton Wright Mabie 

The Betrothal and The Blue Bird plays. .Maurice Maeterlinck 

Dream Life Ik Marvel 

The Mountains of California John Muir 

Bees in Amber verse John Oxenhan. 

497 



Why Go to College Alice Freeman Palmer 

Disraeli a play Louis Napoleon Parker 

Pomander Walk a play Louis Napoleon Parker 

The Piper a play Josephine Preston Peabody 

High Tide a collection of verse Mrs. Waldo Richards 

A Little Book of Modem Verse Jessie L. Rittenhouse 

Letters to His Friends Forbes Robinson 

Rhymes of a Red Cross Man Robert Service 

Othello William Shakespeare 

Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare 

Taming of the Shrew William -Shakespeare 

Across the Plains Robert Louis Stevenson 

The Land of Heart's Desire William Butler Yeats 



NEW BOOK FRIENDS 1920-21 
If You Are Twelve and Not Yet Fifteen Choose from This List 

I. FICTION. 

Happy House James D. Abbott 

Marian Frear J s Summer Margaret Ashmun 

The Sampo (Adventures of the Finnish Heroes) 

James Baldwin 

The Boy Emigrants Noah Brooks 

A Little Princess (The Whole Story of Sara Crewe) 

Frances Hodgson Burnett 
Giovanni and The Other Frances Hodgosn Burnett 

A Boy of Bruges Emile and Tita Cammaerts 

Alice in Wonderland Lewis Carroll 

Through the Looking Glass Lewis Carroll 

What Bird Is That Frank M. Chapman 

Green Timber Trail Willard Gerard Chapman 

Story of Sonny Sahib Mrs. Sarah D. Cotes 

498 



Six to Sixteen Mrs. Juliana H. Ewing 

When the King Came George Hodges 

Indian Why Stories Frank B. Linderman 

The Cruise of the Dazzler. Jack London 

Jim Davis John Masefield 

Cornelia Lucy Pitch Perkins 

Golden Dicky Marshall Saunders 

Five Little Peppers and How They Grew Margaret Sidney 

Uncle Tom's Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe 

Sue Orcutt Charlotte Vail 

The Orcutt Girls Charlotte Vail 



II. STORIES OF FAMOUS PEOPLE AND 

INTERESTING LANDS. 
Czecho-Slovak Fairy Tales Parker Fillmore 

Zerah A Tale of Old Bethlehem Montayne Perry 

The Land We Live In Overton Price 

The Story of King Arthur and His Knights Howard Pyle 

The Story of Sir Launcelot and His Companions . . Howard Pyle 

Bird Woman (Saca jawea) Story of Lewis and Clark 

James W. Schultz 



III. POETRY. 

Christmas Tales and Christmas Verse *. . .Eugene Field 

Poems of Childhood , Eugene Field 

499 




If You Are Fifteen or More Years Old Choose from This List. 

I. FICTION. 

A Man for the Ages Irving Bacheller 

Sister's Vocation Josephine Daskam Bacon 

Smith College Stories Josephine Daskam Bacon 

Peter and Wendy J. M. Barrie 

My Antonia Willa Seibert Gather 

What Bird Is That Frank M. Chapman 

Out of the Shadow Eose Cohen 

The Doctor Ralph Connor 

Man Prom Glengary Ralph Connor 

Soldiers of Fortune Richard Harding Davis 

Old Chester Tales Margaret Deland 

The Return of Sherlock Holmes .' A. Conan Doyle 

The Three Musketeers Alexander Dumas 

Christmas, a Story Zona Gale 

Friendship Village Zona Gale 

The January Girl Joslyn Gray 

The Hall With Doors Louise Hasbrouck 

The Mississippi Bubble Emerson Hough 

Westward, Ho Charles Kingsley 

Kim Rudyard Kipling 

Sergeant Jane Margaret T. Matlack 

Rainbow Valley Lucy Maud Montgomery 

Stickeen John Muir 

500 



Bobbie, General Manager .Olive Higgins Prouty 

The Crimson Patch Augusta Hue!! Seaman 

LadA Dog Albert Payson Terhune 

Pudd'n Head Wilson Mark Twain 

Out of Doors in the Holy Land Henry Van Dyke 

Mysterious Island Jules Verne 

Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea Jules Verne 

The Blazed Trail Edward Stewart White 

II. STORIES OF FAMOUS PEOPLE AND 

INTERESTING LANDS. 

American Women in Civic Work Helen Christine Bennett 

Little Grandmother of the Russian Revolution 

Catherine Breshkovsky 

Don Quixote (retold by Judge Parry) Miguel de Cervantes 

Boy's Life of Roosevelt Hermann Hagedorn 

Boy's Life of Lincoln Helen Nicolay 

Boy's Life of Mark Twain Albert Bigelow Paine 

Heroines of Service. M. R. Parkman 

Heroes of Today M. R Parkman 

An American in the Making M. E. Ravage 

Pilgrims of Today Mary Hazelton Wade 

The House on Henry Street Lillian D. Waid 

Up From Slavery Booker T. Washington 

III. STORIES ABOUT THE GREAT WAR. 

Girl's Book of the Red Cross Mary Kendall Hyde 

Tales of the Great War Henry Newbolt 

The Story of the Great War Roland G. Usher 

501 



IV. POETRY, PLAYS AND ESSAYS. 

Letters From China and Japan John Dewey 

Abraham Lincoln^ a play John Drinkwater 

The Rocking Horse Christopher Morley 

A Little Book of American Poets Jessie B. Rittenhouse 

Letters to His Children Theodore Roosevelt 

A Canticle for the Year Elvira J. Slack 

Dream and Voices Grace Hyde Trine 

The Valley of Vision Henry Van Dyke 

Your secretary or corps adviser may add to this list books 
which are of especial interest to you because they have been 
written about the particular part of the country In which you 
live. Every Philadelphia girl wants to read "Hugh Wynne," 
and every California girl will enjoy "The Gray Dawn." 

This list does not include all the books by many authors 
which you will want to read. Therefore, any additional' bpoks 
written by the same authors or others may be counted on 
this list provided your secretary of corps adviser sends the 
names to your Field Girls' Work Secretary for approval. 



Write out a list of the books you have read and give it to your adviser 
or secretary. It will be sent to the Field Girls' Work Secretary of the 
National Young Women's Christian Associations. Then the book plates 
which are sent you for every book you have read will be forwarded to you. 

Any of these books may be ordered from The Woman's Press, 600 Lex- 
ington Avenue, New York City. 



502 



CHAPTER XII. 

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE EMPHASES IN GIRL RESERVE PROGRAMS 
"Life is a mission, and not a career." 

L The Purpose of Vocational Guidance. 

ANY programs which are designed for } teen-age girls must 
recognize that these years are supremely important in de- 
termining the ideals, habits and attitudes toward life which will 
prevail throughout maturity. In view of the fact that women's 
part in the work of the world constantly demands higher 
standards of achievement, there must be incorporated into the 
programs for younger girls such elements of vocational guid- 
ance as will prepare them gradually, yet steadily, for the life 
of productive usefulness which is the rightful heritage of every 
woman today. 

The purpose of such a program should be to use every nat- 
ural means information about occupations, knowledge of what 
women are doing, the inspiration of personal contact with those 
who have been truly successful as pioneers to create an atti- 
tude toward work which shall be truly Christian, and shall pro- 
vide girls with facts and ideals adequate to stand the tests of 
workaday experience. 

Such a program should work in the closest harmony with 
any school or community movements for vocational guidance. 
Available resources for securing vocational information or coun- 
sel should be studied before adopting a club program, especially 
the views of school authorities, state or municipal employment 
services, or any other reputable organizations. With all of 
these, the vocational guidance emphases of Girl Reserve Clubs 
should be to the fullest extent cooperative, and in many cases 
it may be suggestive of further service not as yet developed in 
a given community. 

503 



II. Standards for Vocational Guidance Emphases. 

Before a program can be drafted, the standards to which it 
should conform must be clearly thought out and firmly grasped. 
Every part of the eventual program must do its part in making 
these standards really effective in the living of real girls. 

A. The individual judgment of girls must be the decisive 
factor in choice of work. No tests of wisdom of others can take 
from each girl the responsibility for her free choice. Her 
choice, however, cannot really be free unless she knows many 
things about herself, as well as about the various kinds of work 
to which she feels drawn. In order, then, that the judgment of 
individuals may be wise, there is need that each girl should 
learn to study her own talents and capacities and to realize that 
every girl has some gift awaiting expression. Furthermore, 
each must help the other to know that work, which is useful to 
society and satisfying to an individual, is really worth doing, 
regardless of conventional estimates. In addition, all the avail- 
able resources of scientific vocational guidance should be made 
use of by each individual throughout her occupational life. 

B. The motives underlying- the choice of work must be 
right. Work which is worth doing must call into operation im- 
pulses which cannot be satisfied by a monetary return alone. 
The desire for self-expression, for creation, is inborn in every 
person, and work which is satisfying must realize it. Often a 
narrow and partial view of one's work prevents the right opera- 
tion of this motive. Usefulness is another vital motive for 
work. The fact that human need is satisfied by the results of 
one's activities gives meaning to what one does, and finally the 
fact of being a contributing member of society adds a tang of 
joy that compensates for fatigue and the drudgery that attends 
every worth-while task. 

C. Education, in its widest meaning, and as a continuing 
factor in development, is vital to a satisfying experience as a 
worker. Girls in school must be aided in seeing the importance 
to their future of right habits of application, and of many sub- 

504 



jects whose value the eyes of youth cannot see. Every girl 
must be encouraged to stay In school as long as her mental 
growth keeps pace with her studies. Girls who have left school 
for various reasons must be inspired to return if possible, or at 
all events, to continue their studies otherwise. Beginning thus 
with a solid general school training, the necessity for special 
training for vocations, must be emphasized, bearing in mind the 
grave handicap which rests upon the mass of unskilled workers 
too many of them women who are their own worst foes. In 
righteous enthusiasm for more and better technical training for 
girls, it must not be forgotten that the rarest gift of an educa- 
tion which helps the human spirit to grow, is a breadth of cul- 
ture which sees the meaning of life in terms of creative activ- 
ity, and redeems the humdrum of drudgery by an understand- 
ing of the productive process. So educated, a woman is the peer 
of the great souls of all the ages, and has at her disposal in- 
finite spiritual resources. 

D. Success is judged not by the standard of the market- 
place, money and reputation, but by the twin standard of indi- 
vidual development and social utility. A girl can be called suc- 
cessful in an occupation, not if she makes a good salary alone, 
but if the work offers her the chance to grow in power and to 
develop in her the latent capacities which must die if not used. 
If work tends to be destructive to health physical, mental, 
moral or spiritual, it should be rejected, regardless of scale of 
pay. Furthermore, the test of usefulness to the community will 
help to judge the success or failure of one's work. So closely 
are all people bound together to-day that all progress must be 
measured by its effects upon the well-being of society. Suc- 
cess for the individual cannot longer be purchased at the cost of 
loss for all, and the standard for individual success must be 
brought into harmony with the necessity for advance together. 

IIL Content of Vocational Guidance Program. 

Each item of this program is in essence concerned with sup- 
plying information, but it must be information with a differ- 

505 



ence, and the difference the inspiration to apply personally the 
facts at hand. Only by making- girls enthusiastic about the 
knowledge which is offered can results be secured. 

A. What each girl should know about herself. 

Without encouraging introspection and undue self-analysis, 
the first step toward an intelligent choice of any kind of work, 
must be for each girl an understanding of herself her likes and 
dislikes, her weak and her strong points of character, her ability 
in some directions as evidenced by indications that may prove 
prophetic. A frank facing together in club groups of the influ- 
ence of certain habits, and the price exacted for some practices 
which appear harmless, will help many a girl to begin early to 
steer her life rather than let it drift. Skillful leadership and 
a wise blending in program with other elements will keep this 
emphasis from becoming morbidly introspective. 

Discussion centered around such a question as "How Shall 
I Discover Myself" will open the whole subject and lead natur- 
ally to the habit of planning one's vocational life rationally on 
the basis of individual choice rather than upon the accident of 
chance contact or occasional information. 

B. What girls should know about occupations. 

This topic opens the whole question of the extent to which 
there can be laid a wise because wide foundation in facts 
about occupations for many later choices. Much harm is done 
by assuming that the purpose of this part of the program is to 
attract or repel individual choices, or to play the part of director 
of other people's lives. On the contrary, every girl should have 
a wide and basic knowledge about every type, a knowledge 
which is first of all a part of intelligent citizenship and neces- 
sary for membership in a social order, and secondarily voca- 
tional in intent. Every girl should know about the great stand- 
ard occupations, industrial, commercial and professional to use 
a familiar classification upon which her own comfort is built. 
Such understanding will become part of her mental equipment, 

506 



and will later Influence her choice, often unconsciously. The 
danger of supposing that an irrevocable choice should be made 
early is so great that leaders should remember that a certain 
amount of experimentation is necessary and desirable, that cer- 
tain aptitudes ripen comparatively late, and that, however hard 
it may be to make a decisive choice of vocation, only good 
can come from a catholic familiarity with the field of occupa- 
tions as a whole. 

Besides such general information, particular attention should 
be given to occupations which come within easy range of possi- 
bility for the girls in any particular group. Local industries, 
the custom of a community, the existence of certain schools or 
colleges, give favorable consideration to certain vocational op- 
portunities, and any informational work should take these fac- 
tors into account. The more immediate and definite the facts 
can be made, the more useful will they be. 

C. Educational opportunity for every girl. 

The untrained or half-trained woman who grows steadily 
less and less employable as she grows older, and who has at 
last to take only the most hopeless tasks such is the discourag- 
ing problem of every employment worker. Such wasteful lives 
can only be prevented in youth. The greatest chance for voca- 
tional usefulness is surely to hammer steadily upon the need for 
more education, more training, a wider background of mental 
knowledge against which to play a woman's part in the world of 
work. Every group needs the advice, but of course there will 
be wide differences in the program suggested. 

With girls who are still in school, emphasis should be placed 
upon remaining in school as long as possible, certainly through 
high school. Special help may be needed in individual cases, 
and should be easily secured. 

In facing the eternal question after high school, what? 
several factors are to be considered. Many girls go to college, 
normal or special school; many others could do the same if the 
necessary willingness to work could be aroused, and the indrf- 

507 



ference overcome which is sometimes individual, sometimes a 
family affair. The ways by which girls can be helped to secure 
real training beyond high school are multiform a knowledge 
of scholarships available, lists of schools where a girl can 
work her way through, loan funds to make a start, summer 
work to earn money, special coaching to overcome slight defi- 
ciencies, information about the best schools for special training 
these are only some of the ways by which girls who are hesi- 
tating on the brink of going to work prematurely, as the easiest 
thing, can get fresh courage. 

How can the door of educational opportunity swing wide 
for the girl who i already a wage earner. She has a fund of 
experience about certain jobs, but usually lacks the education 
to make a change to a more congenial occupation or to rise 
further in the one she has chosen. She should be helped to find 
the education which will best serve her case. It may be that 
she can go back into school, and with her experience, qualify 
for a more responsible position. Perhaps, she needs special 
vocational training which a night school, a Y. W. C. A. or 
some other school can give her. Certain it is that no girl in 
her teens can safely call her education finished without facing 
the consequences in narrowing opportunity and starved men- 
tality. 

D. Information about Placement Bureaus. 

After choice and training- comes the old problem of finding 
a place to put knowledge into practice in doing a piece of work. 
The whole question of employment, or placement is in such an 
unsettled condition to-day in this country that few general rules 
can be laid down. Some cities have state or municipal bureaus; 
some Young Women's Christian Associations have employment 
departments; there is a group of Bureaus of Occupation for 
Trained Women doing professional placement. Information 
about these and other agencies which are available should be 
kept up to date, and girls should be informed about local agen- 
cies which are not trustworthy. 

508 



E. Legislation Affecting the Situation m the United States. 

1. The Vocational Education Act (Smith-Hughes Act), 
a federal bill in effect March, 1918, provides federal 
grants, in cooperation with equal state grants, for 
salaries of teachers, and for training- teachers in agri- 
culture, trade and industrial subjects, and in home 
economics. Eight states had a state system of voca- 
tional education in operation when the federal law 
was passed. More than half the states have since 
that time passed laws accepting the provisions of this 
act. 

2. All Laws Bearing on Child Labor and compulsory 
school attendance affect the situation. 

(a) Pending Federal Legislation. 

(b) State Laws of Health Insurance, Minimum Wage, 
. Hours of Work, Child Labor, Prohibited Work. 

P. Conditions In the Local Community Which Should Be 
Known to Every Worker With Girls, 
1. Occupational Information. 

(a) Occupations open in the community. 

(b) Educational value of the work for young workers: 
Are there blind-alley occupations? 

Are there facilities for training in factory or 
shop? 

(c) Regularity of employment: Is there seasonal 
work and therefore the possibility of unemploy- 
ment? 

(d) Usual hours of work daily, weekly, extent of 
overtime, vacations, lunch periods, night work, 
rest periods. 

(f) Wages: Minimum and maximum wages with rate 
of increase: 

How do the girls' wages compare with the cost 
of living in the community? 

509 



What is the comparative beginning wage of 

trained and untrained worker? 
Is the yearly income fifty-two times the weekly 
wage? How much does the girl lose through 
shut downs and other unemployment? 
(g) Physical conditions: Positions at work, possible 
danger from any unusual conditions, from ma- 
chines or materials used; conditions of heat, light, 
space, ventilation, sanitary arrangements and 
supervision; probable effect on wealth and morals 
of the workers. 

IV. The Application of Vocational Guidance to Regular Pro- 
gram Work. 

Each club will naturally have its own idea of how best to 
incorporate vocational guidance into its work ; each year's activ- 
ity should include the following: regular program, conference, 
personal counsel, graphic publicity. 

A. Vocational Guidance in the regular program. 

There are many opportunities to introduce subjects of voca- 
tional interest into the regular meetings of a club. For ex- 
ample, if the club has been reading the lives of famous women, 
the vocations they have chosen make a fascinating study. Or, 
by taking the women in any city or town who have been suc- 
cessful in business or professions could not a discussion of the 
human interest in their success show real values? If some local 
industry employs women, a series of visits will supply material 
for a study of that occupation. Many ways of relating the 
actual local opportunities to program purposes will occur to a 
live program committee. 

The following suggestions regarding possible topics for dis- 
cussion at regular club meetings may be of service. 

1. The "A-l" American girl to-day: her opportunities and 
responsibilities : 

510 



a. Strong body and alert mind. 

b. Steadiness. 

c. Need for directed education. 

2. Uncle Sam's interest in girls. 

a. Vocational Education legislation. 

b. Work of the Children's Bureau. 

3. What is vocational training: 

a. General education plus. (Illustration a steno- 
grapher is of little value unless she can spell.) 

4. How to choose a job. 

a. Does one choose a position because one's friend is 
working there or because one is fitted for it and 
there is need for such work? 

b. Explain a "blind-alley" job. 

5. Fitness for a job. 

a. Age, health, relation between health and work. 
Mental and physical tests for efficiency are neces- 
sary for girls. Emphasize some of the things girls 
do which are detrimental to their health: 

(1) Wearing high-heeled shoes while at work. 

(2) Eating wrong food. 

(3) Eating between meals. 

6. Importance of women's work to-day: 

a. Show tremendous need for trained minds and 
sound bodies in this reconstruction period. Many 
of the boys and girls of Europe were called upon 
to die for their country. The boys and girls of 
America are being called upon to live and live to 
the fullest. (Suggestions for such a talk will be 
found in Hermann Hagedorn's book "You are the 
Hope of the World.") Secure it from the Womans 
Book Shop, 600 Lexington -Avenue, New York City. 

7. Education for social and personal efficiency. 

8. Vocational opportunities in your own community. 

9. Professional opportunities for women. 

511 



10. Out-of-door opportunities. 

11. Some problems in economic life that you feel girls are 
facing to-day. 

12. How do you use your spare time. 

13. The value of reading. Are the books you read help- 
ful, or merely amusing? 

14. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of 
various kinds of work for women. 

15. Study of the lives of famous women. 

16. Responsibilities of citizenship. 

17. The woman movement and education. 

18. The problem of the untrained girl-worker in a city. 

19. Personal accounts, and budgets. 

Sometimes the vocational material which is discussed 
under the topics given above may be illustrated by 
tableaux, charades and short plays. 
If an "honor system" is being used in the clubs it is 
possible to arouse interest in vocational work by al- 
lowing so many points for: 

a. A clever poster illustrating some idea in vocational 
work. 

b. A poem, theme, play or charade on vocational 
work. 

B. Vocational conferences. 

Everybody needs occasionally to meet in a larger social 
group than ordinary, to realize how general are the 
problems that confront us to-day. A vocational confer- 
ence is an excuse for gathering together girls from dif- 
ferent schools or cities, or non-club members, and certain 
elemental inspirations can be most readily evoked under 
such conditions. Such a gathering can also call in out- 
standing speakers and leaders, and may well form a 
climax to a number of club meetings on vocational topics 
and the starting point of more. 

A vocational conference should include recreation, a 
"banquet" all together, some inspirational talks, some 

512 



short informational talks by women who know special 
occupations well, and as much opportunity as possible 
for conferences between leaders and the girls in small 
groups or individually. The conference should send every 
girl away determined to know more about her vocational 
possibilities, and eager to serve in her vocation to the 
utmost of her ability. In planning" the meetings, em- 
phasis should always be laid upon the importance of 
training and the necessity of individual choice ultimately. 
In no case should the conference alone be regarded as 
a satisfactory meeting of the need for vocational guid- 
ance. It should be preceded and followed by club study 
and discussion. 

1. Suggested Plans for an All Day Vocational Conference. 

Program One. 

10:00 A.M. Opening Exercises. 
10: 15 A.M. Vocational Opportunities for Girls. 
11: 15 A.M. Short addresses by representatives of lines of 
work open to women (i. e. millinery, teaching, 
advertising). 

11:45-12:00 Music and Games. 
12:00-12:30 Informal Discussion: More Training, why and 

where to get it. 
12:30- 1;30 Luncheon. 
1:30- 2:00 Recess. 
2:00- 3:00 Vocations from a GirPs Point of View and from 

Schoolmen's Point of View. 
3:00- 4:00 Movie Reels and Stereopticon. 
4:00- 5:00 (Open Forum: "What I Want to do With My 
Life"; "The Get- Ahead Girl"; or group interviews 
with specialists.) 
5:00- 6:00 Rest Hour. 

6:00 Banquet Toasts, Cheers, Songs and Informal 
Talks. 

Final Talk: 

513 



Program 

10:00-10:15 'Getting acquainted and community sing, with in- 
troduction of leaders. 

10:15-10:45 Opening talk; Vocational opportunities for Girls. 
10:45-12:15 Group meetings, on different vocations, with 

specialists. 

12:15- 1:00 Time for making appointments. 
1:00- 2:80 Food and fun for inspirational talk. 
2:30- 3:30 Group meetings. 

3:30- 5:00 (Personal interviews or open Forum on "What to 
do with My Life.) 
Devotions. 
Address of Welcome and Introduction of Leaders. 

2. Suggested Plans for Two -Day Vocational Conference. 
Program One. 

Saturday. 

11:00 Community Singing. 
11:15 Who's Who at Our Conference. 
11:30 Welcome 
12:00 Luncheon. 
1:30 Recreation. 

2:00 Vocational Opportunities for 'Girls. 
3:00 Game Discovering Myself. 
4:00 Recreation. 
8:00 Banquet .Baptist Church, Hostess. 

Informal Program Songs, Cheers and Toasts. 
7:30 Open Meeting. 

Sunday. 

Morning With the Hostess. 
Conference Leaders Guests in Local Pulpits. 
2:30 Girls' Vesper Service. 
Avocation. 
Closing Address. 

514 



Program Two. 
Saturday Morning. 

10:00 Registration. 
10:30 Conference Singing". 
Acquaintance Stunt. 
11:00 Opening Session. 
Conference Hymn 
Devotions. 

Address of Welcome and Introduction of Leaders. 
11:20 Address. 

11:45 Delegates taken to hostesses. 
Saturday Afternoon, 
2:00 Devotional Singing. 

2=15 Vocations for Girls from the Girl's Point of 
View. 

Questions and Answers. 
3:45 Organized Games on the Playground. 
6:00 Supper served by the Domestic Science Department. 

School Cheers or Song from each delegation. 
7:30 "The Spirit of Sisterhood." 
A Pageant. High School. 
Club of the Y. W. C. A. 

8:00 Vocations for Girls from the Schoolman's Point 
of View. 

Sunday Morning. 
Church and Sunday School with hostesses, or 

church of preference. 
Sunday Afternoon. 

3:00 Vespers and Inspirational Talk. 
7:30 Union Rally in Town Hall. 

Program Three. 
Program of Conference. 

Friday Evening. 

5:00- 6:00 Registration of Delegates. 
6:30 Banquet M. E. Church. 

515 



Community Singing and Toasts. Toast Mistress: 

(For Delegates only.) 
8:00 Evening Session. 

High School. 

Presiding Chairman: 

President of County Y. W. C. A. 

, Supervising Principal. 

Solo. 

Greetings from the County. 

Address. 

Greetings from Princeton. 
Saturday. 

Morning High School. 
9:30 Songs. 
10:00-12:00 After School What? 

Talks on Vocations for Girls. 

Time given for informal discussion and questions. 

NoonLuncheon. M. E. Church. 

Altamont Camp Rally. 

Songs, Pictures. 

Afternoon High School. 
2:00 Play, "ThV Challenge of Democracy," presented by 

Rondo Club. 
3:00 Closing Session. 

Address, 

Conference Picture. 

Program Four. 

Saturday. 
11:00 Singing. 
11:15 Acquaintance Stunts. 
11:30 Welcome. 

Instructions. 

12:00 Luncheon with Hostess. 
2:00 Movie Reels. 
2:30 Singing. 



2:50 Talk: Vocations Open to Youn,^ Women. 
3:30 Round Table Discussions. 

A woman doctor, a nurse, a teacher, a business 

woman, a home economics secretary present to 

lead these discussions, 
4:00 Recreation. 
5:00 Rest Hour. 
6:15 Banquet. 

Toasts. 
8:00 Entertainment, 

Address. 

Sunday Morning with the Hostess. 
2:15 Inspirational Talk." - 

Program Five. 
Y. W. C. A. 
Vocational Conference Opening Session. 

Friday, 8:00 P. M. Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. 
Address World Fellowship. 
Saturday Morning Session 9:30-11:15. 

9:30 Devotions. 

9:45 The Business of Home Making. 

10:00 ^Social Service Work. 

10:15 Physical Training and Play-Grounds, with, demon- 
stration. 

10:35 Opportunities in Business. 

11:00 Medicine as a Profession. 

11:15 The Y. "W. C. A. 

11:30 Interviews. 

Lunch at 12:30. 

Saturday Afternoon Session 1:45-2:30. 
1:45 The Standard College. 
2:00 Home Economics. 
2:15 Scientific Farming. 
4:00 Hike. 

517 



Sunday Session. 
Sunday School. 
11:00 Church Service. 

C. Personal Counsel. 

The temptation is great to rely overmuch upon books and 
speeches, and to ignore the fact that in practice most voca- 
tional guidance is done by personal counsel/ some conscious, 
much entirely unconscious. Something can be done for club 
girls by proper programs and conferences, but the greatest 
service of all is to bring girls individually into touch with 
women who have succeeded in their vocations, and whose ideals 
of service are worthy to inspire younger women. Such women 
should be used in conferences and as leaders wherever possible, 
and in addition, club advisers should be alert to know when 
individual girls need the friendly counsel of certain women as 
they face vocational choices. 

D. Graphic Publicity. 

It would seem self-evident that the eye as well as the ear 
should be enlisted to impress vocational facts. Posters giving 
information, pictures of interesting occupations, films showing 
certain processes, and other forms of publicity can be used 
in the school or Association assembly room or on club bulletin 
boards. 

When a conference is being planned, exhibits of pictures and 
catalogs from advanced schools and colleges may be arranged, 
and a part of every conference should be a display in a club 
room of catalogs from the colleges and schools to which it is 
desirable that girls shall go. Posters made by a club, showing 
local opportunities, excite more interest than general posters. 
To be really effective, this publicity should be continuous, with 
changes of exhibits and posters whenever possible. 

A well-arranged poster exhibit is the most grapMc means 
for presenting such a subject as vocational guidance. 

The National Child Welfare Association, 70 Fifth Avenue, 
New York City, has a series called "The Child and His Voca- 

518 



tions"; and one "The A-l American Girl." Bulletins illustrating 
these series and containing Information about the number of 
posters in each and the cost will be sent upon request. 

A series of posters has been prepared by the Educational 
Committee of the Department of Research and Method, Na- 
tional Board Young Women's Associations, and may be obtained 
from the Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City. 

V. General Resources for Vocational Information. 

Because the question of Vocational Guidance and Informa- 
tion is so much in flux to-day, it is particularly necessary for 
Girls' Work Secretaries and advisers to keep themselves in- 
formed regarding present and future developments by con- 
stant contact with material from the following sources. Much 
of the most valuable material is to be found in pamphlets which 
are issued by these agencies. 

ORGANIZATIONS SUPPLYING VOCATIONAL INFORMATION 

Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

Bureau of Vocational Information, 2 W, 43rd St., New York 

City. 

Federal Board for Vocational Education, Washington, D. C. 
General Education Committee* National Board, Y. W. C. A., 

600 Lexington Ave., New York City. 
National Child Welfare Association, 70 Fifth Ave., New York 

City. 
National Child Labor Committee, 105 East Twenty-second 

Street, New York City. 
National Society for Vocational Education, 140 W. 42nd St., 

New York City. 
United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Washington, D. C. 

Russell Sage Foundation, 130 E. 22nd St., New York City. 
The Survey Associates, 112 E. 19th St., New York City. 
U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. 
Woman Citizen Corporation, 171 Madison Ave., New York City. 

519 



Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 264 Boylston St., 

Boston, Mass. 
Women's National Farm and Garden Association, White Plains, 

New York. 

COOPERATING BUREAUS OF OCCUPATION 



Los Angeles, Gal. 
Bureau of Occupations, 
Women's University Club, 
521 West 7th Street. 

Pasadena, Cal. 
Vocation and Placement 
Bureau for Business and 
Professional Women, 608 
Central Building, 30 North 
Raymond Avenue. 

Denver, Col. 

Collegiate Bureau of Occu- 
pations, Chamber of Com- 
merce Building. 

Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Collegiate Bureau 
of Occupations, Room 1804, 
5 South Wabash Avenue. 

Boston, Mass. 

Appointment Bureau, 
Women's Educational and 
Industrial Union, 264 Boyl- 
ston Street/ 

Detroit, Mich. 

Mrs. Leonard B. Orluff, 
President, 489 Atkinson 
Avenue. 



Minneapolis, Minn. 

Woman's 'Occupational 
Bureau, 216 Meyers' Arcade. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Woman's Vocational Bureau, 
601 Ridge Arcade Building 1 . 

New York City, N. Y. 

Bureau of Vocational In- 
formation, 2 West 43rd 
Street. Miss Emma P. 
Hirth, Director. 

New York City, N. Y. 
Employment Department Y. 
W. C. A., Central Branch, 
610 Lexington Avenue. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bureau of Occupations for 
Trained Women, 108 City 
Hall. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bureau of Occupations for 
Trained Women, 302 South 
13th Street. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Women's Employment Ser- 
vice Central Y. W. C. A. 
Building, 59 Chatham Street. 



Richmond, Va. 

Bureau of Vocations for 
Women, Richmond Hotel. 



520 



BIOGRAPHY AS A GUIDE TO VOCATIONS FOR WOMEN* 

A Reading List of Women's Lives Arranged According to 
Vocations. 

This list of biographies has been compiled in the hope that 
it will prove useful in several ways. 

For a knowledge of the personalities of women who have 
played a great part in the making of to-day, and for an ap- 
preciation of the difficulties which they had to overcome before 
the woman's age could dawn, one turns naturally to the life 
stories of the women themselves. 

There is in these stories much of literary and even more of 
personal interest. If carefully read these pioneer choices and 
struggles cannot but help younger girls to-day in the wise 
selection of the vocations they shall follow. A knowledge of 
the long process by which the present free choice came to be 
open to women will not only make clear the great opportunities, 
but also make imperative the call to the girls of this generation 
for further service. 

Wisdom in the making of vocational choices and consecration 
in following out the wise choice will surely be stimulated by 
reading the lives of such women as are listed here. 

BIOGRAPHY AS A GUIDE TO VOCATIONS FOR WOMEN* 

(1) Teaching Life of Mary Lyon. Gilchrist. Houghton. 

Life of Alice Freemaii Palmer. G. H. Palmer. 

Houghton. 

Life of Ellen H. Richards. Hunt. Hunt. 
The Corn Lady. Field. 

(2) Writing Louisa May Alcott in Portraits of American 

Women. Bradford. Houghton. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe in Portraits of American 
Women. Bradford. Houghton. 



* All of these books may be secured through The Bookshop, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City. 

521 



Emily Dickinson in Portraits of American 
Women. Bradford. Houghton. 

The Early Diary of Frances Burney. G. Bell & 
Sons. 

Fanny Crosby's Story of Ninety-four Years. 
Jackson. Revel! Company. 

(3) Acting Memoirs of My Life. Sarah Bernhardt. Appleton. 

The Life and Adventures of Peg Woffington. 

Scribners. 
Heroines of the Modern Stage F. Izard. Sturgis 

& Walton. 

(4) Making The Uncensored Letters of a Canteen Girl. Harper 
History Memoirs and Letters of Dolly Madison. Houghton. 

Diplomatic Days. Edith O'Shaughnessy. Harper. 
Diplomat's Wife in Mexico. Edith O'-Shaughnessy. 
Harper. 

(5) Making Life and Letters of Abigail Adams. Richards. 
Homes Appleton. 

Recollections of My Mother. Hymphrey, Revell. 

Margaret Ogilvie. Barrie. 

The Hills of Hingham. Dallas Lore Sharp. 

Houghton. 

Idyll of Twin Fires. Walter Eaton. Grosset. 
Jonathan Papers. Woodbridge. Houghton. 
An American Idyll. Parker. Atlantic Monthly 

Press* 
The Home Builder. Abbott. 'Houghton. 

(6) Social Life of Elizabeth Fry. Richards. Appleton. 
Service Life of Frances Willard. Gordon. W. C. T. U. 

One Woman's Work for Farm Women. BuelL 

Whitcomb. 
Frances E. Willard in Portraits of American 

Women. Bradford. Houghton. 
Story of a Pioneer. Shaw. Harper. 
The House on Henry Street. Wald. Houghton. 
Twenty Years at Hull House. Addams. Macmillan. 

522 



(7) Medicine Florence Nightingale. Eicliards. Appleton. 

and Life of Edith Cavell. Anderson. Longmans. 
Nursing Dr. Elsie Inglis. Lady Frances Balfour. 

Pioneer Work for Women. Dr. Elizabeth Black- 
well-Dutton. 

(8) Being a A New England Girlhood. Larcom. 

Girl A New England Childhood. Fuller. Little. 

A Daughter of the Puritans. Creevey. Putnam. 
The Promised Land. Antin. Houghton. 
Out of the Shadow. 'Cohen. Houghton. 
Rebels. Ganz and Ferber. Dodd. 
Story of My Life. Keller. Appleton. 

Resume of Lives of Heroines of Service. 



(a) Stories 
of Achieve- 
ments Told 
Briefly 



Mary Lyon. 
Clara Barton. 
Frances Willard. 
Julia Ward Howe. 
Anna Shaw. 
Heroines of the 



Mary Slessor, 
Madame Curce. 
Jane Addams. 
Alice C. Fletcher. 
Alice Freeman Palmer. 
Modern Stage. F. Izard. 



Sturgis & Walton. 

LIST OF BIOGRAPHIES FOR YOUNGER GIRLS 
What American Girls Have Done. 
Louisa M. Alcott Life, Letters and Journal. (A story of a 

Writer who loved all "Little Women.") Cheney. 
Mary Slessor. Doran. 
Margaret Fuller. Anthony. 
If I were a Girl A brave story of great obstacles overcome. 

Keller. 
Uncrowned Queen "The greatest battle ever fought, 

The bravest victory ever won, 

Is fought with never a soldier near, 

And never the sound of a gun." 

Babcock. 

Brom My Youth Up The real story of a real girl. Sangster. 



523 



Quaker Grandmother. Strachey. 

Louise Chandler Moulton. 

Guiding Girls. 

Great-Hearted Women. Murphy. 

A Treasury of Heroes and Heroines. Edwards. 

The Road Ahead. Wilson. 

Elizabeth Fry. Richards. 

Abigail Adams and Her Times "A New England Girl who 

belongs to the Ages." 

My Mother and I. Stern. 

Sister Dora. Lonsdale. 

Girls of Other Lands. 

Joan of Arc A maid who went reluctantly to royal honor. 

Richards, 
Florence Nightingale A girl who found happiness in service. 

Richards. 

Tama The Diary of a Japanese Girl. Wells. 
My Chinese Days Life in one of the World's Oldest Nations. 

Alsop. 

India, Beloved of Heaven. Baden. 

Haremilik How Young Turkish Women Live. Vaka. 
Little Grandmother of the Russian Revolution. Breshkovsky. 

SUGGESTED READING ON VOCATIONS AND EDUCATION FOR 
MEMBERS OF A LOCAL GIRLS' WORK COMMITTEE 

Athearn, W. S. A National System of Education. 
Beard, Mary R. Womans' Work in Municipalities, 
Bennett, Helen. Women and Work. 
Bennett, H. C. American Women in Civic Work. 
Bloomfield, Meyer. Readings in Vocational Guidance. 
Brewer, John M. Vocational Guidance Movement. 

524 



Bureau of Vocational Information Vocations for Business and 

Professional Women, 

Condee, Helen C. How Women May Earn a Living. 
Charity Organization Society, New York City. Opportunities 

in Social Work. 

Cleveland and Schaf er. Democracy in Reconstruction, Chapter X. 
Cope, Henry P. Education for Democracy. 
Davis, Jesse. Vocational and Moral Guidance. 
Dewey, John and Evelyn. Schools of Tomorrow. 
Filene, Catherine. Vocations for Women. 
Fled, E. C. Humanizing Industry. 
Gleason, Arthur. What the Workers Want. 
Goldmark, Josephine. Fatigue and Efficiency. 
Basbrouck, Louise. The Hall With Doors. 
Hill, D. S. Introduction to Vocational Education. 
Hodgens, Margaret. Factory Work for Girls. 
Rollingsworth, Harry L. Vocational Psychology. 
Johnson, F. E. The New Spirit in Industry. 
Kelley, Florence. Modern Industry as Related to Modern Health 

Longmans Green Co., 1916. 

Klaghorn, Kate. Social Work as a Profession for Women. 
LaSalle and Wiley. Vocations for Girls. 
Marot, Helen. Creative Impulse in Industry A Problem for 

Educators. 

Munroe, J. P. The Human Factor in Education. 
Ross. E. A. Principles of Sociology. 
St. Philip's Settlement Education and Economic Research 

Society. The Equipment of the Workers. 
Sechrist, F. K Education and the General Welfare. 
Snedden, D. iS. The Problem of Vocational Education. 
Tarbell, Ida M. New Ideals in Business. 
Tawney, R. H. The Acquisitive Society. 
Wald, Lillian D. The House on Henry Street. 
Wells, H. G. Outline of History, Vol. II, Chapter XLI. 

525 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE PLACE OF MUSIC IN THE GIRL RESERVE MOVEMENT. 

OF all the arts, music alone is capable of an Immediate and 
direct expression of emotion. In this age of city dwellers, 
when all people, and especially girls, are confined and restricted 
in physical expression, music has become almost the only general 
outlet for emotional activities. The development in the past 
twenty-five years of mechanical musical instruments, the low- 
ered cost of printed music and the greater opportunities for 
musical education have all brought advisers face to face with 
the problem of what sort of music must be put before the 
younger girl. All girls have a great need of musical expression 
as an ''emotional outlet, and they respond eagerly to its oppor- 
tunities. 

There is now a pressing need for something to counteract 
the unwholesome music of to-day, the origin of which is purely 
physical, and which appeals only to the unwholesome emotions. 
The people of this country have only recently learned the joy- 
fxil stimulus of group singing, and are ready for any material 
which may offer. The danger of the baser forms which music 
is. adopting lies in the very subtlety of the art; and the constant 
stressing of the kind of music wh.ch appeals only to the senses 
is more disastrous than we realize. 

One solution of the problem now lies at our doorstep. 
America to-day is of overseas origin. She is assimilating into 
her own national life this foreign born population and its various 
contributions of foreign culture. One of the richest gifts 
brought by the incoming people is their heritage of song. Be- 
hind them they have generations of sing-ing ancestors; they 
bring songs which have been passed down the years from father 

526 



to son, from grandmother to grandchild. "No song is a poor 
song which has stood tne wear and tear of a period of time 
such as fifty years to centuries of use. Folk-song must be 
healthy and good to have stood this test; and, besides its peren- 
nial youth, it offers a range of emotions as varied as the human 
heart. 

In addition to the new field thus opened to the American 
girls of longer residence, the newcomer now finds herself no 
more a mere seeker for opportunities, but a gift bearer. Girls 
singing these songs together find in themselves a better under- 
standing, a warmer friendliness and a larger fellowship. 

The purpose of the Girl Eeserves "To Find and Give the 
Best/' can well be expressed by helping girls to know the joy 
of music in any form. The average girl will sing or listen very 
gladly to music which expresses the feeling she cannot put into 
words and in this fact lies a very great opportunity for develop- 
ing in her the highest standards for the beauty and appreciation 
of music. The value of singing should never be neglected by 
any adviser of girls. For the individual girl, singing or playing 
gives a real opportunity for expression. Therefore she should 
be taught the best of songs and music, for they make indelible 
impressions upon her. Too much thought cannot be given to 
the selection of music which is presented to younger girls. It 
should be the best, whether sung, played or mechanically pro- 
duced. Often in sharing this music in the home, a girl is in- 
fluencing a larger circle of girls, as well as the members of 
her family group. 

For a group there is no greater welding force than singing 
together. If properly directed it can be an inspiration and a 
large factor in producing that desirable quality called "club 
spirit." So often when the remark is made that a group has 
wonderful club spirit, it is nearly always followed by the com- 
ment that they sing together unusually well. But such results 
cannot come by haphazard planning. They require careful 
study and planning in order to achieve the best standards. 

527 



Many advisers will feel that they cannot place music in its 
rightful place in younger girl programs because they are not 
technically trained, but a technical knowledge of music is not 
essential to interpret its place so that girls will enjoy it. An 
appreciation of music is essential and persistent effort must be 
made to attain the result desired. A good singing voice is a 
great asset in the leading of songs ; three simple watch words 
for song leading are Attack, Pitch, Ehythm. No song if 
pitched too low or too high, will go well; without the proper 
rhythm, the song will drag or race ahead. If the attack is 
weak the girls who are being led will become uncertain and this 
results in failure, either through timidity or noise. 

Because an adolescent girl's voice is in the formative period 
and not placed, the slightest chance of overstrain should be 
avoided. The adviser should choose songs well within the range 
of the particular groups of voices. The key should be tried 
en the piano, or if there is no piano, -a Chromatic Pitch pipe 
should be used. This small but useful instrument is inexpensive 
and will be a boon in keeping the singers on the right key, 
especially when singing out-of-doors. 

An adviser should know the song which she is about to lead 
and should feel the rhythm before starting, holding to it without 
swerving. The song leader and the accompanist should be in 
perfect unison both in their understanding of the time of the 
music and in the pace chosen by the leader. Even with the 
smallest group it is best to have one person lead the singing. 
Better rhythm is maintained through seeing someone actually 
beat out the time, and good spirit is created through watching 
the leader. In directing, the first beat of the measure is always 
indicated by the downward stroke, it has the heaviest accent. 
In 4-time the 3rd beat has a slighter accent. All movements 
should be clear, firm and concise. 

That leader will receive the best response or attack, who 
exhibits, sureness, poise and cheerfulness. The spirit of the 
leader does much to determine the spirit of the group. 

528 



Desirable Equipment for a Club Room. 

It is desirable, whenever it is possible, that a girls' club 
loom should be equipped with a good piano, which is in repair 
and tuned, and a Victrola, with a good selection of records. 
Music for the old songs, such as "Annie Laurie," "Way Down 
Upon the Swanee River," etc., should be available, and some 
of the popular songs. Not all that is popular is good, but it is 
always possible to secure "tuneful" late music from a reputable 
music house. Some musical comedy productions of the day 
have songs which the girls enjoy singing and they are more 
attractive than poor "jazz " It is suggested that the following 
hymnals and song collections should be used in work with Girl 
Reserves, and therefore should be available in girls' club rooms: 

A. Fellowship Hymnal! 

The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. 

B. Association Music, 

The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City. Price 15c per copy. $12 a hundred. 

C. Songs the Whole World Sings-, 

D. Appleton Co., New York City. Price $1.25. 

D. Home Songs a collection of old favorite songs, 

Oliver, Ditson, Boston, Mass. Price 75c. 

E. Folk songs of Many People, 

The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York 
City. Price, $2.75. 

E. Music for the National Girl Reserve 'Song. 

"Keep the Home Fires Burning," key of G. Can be 
bought at any music store. 

F. Half Minute Songs by Carrie Jacobs Bond. 

The Bond Shop C. J. Bond & Son, Hollywood, Calif. 
Price 75c. 

G. Stories from the Operas. 

H. The Etude. Theodore Presser, 1712 Chestnut Street, 
Philadelphia. 

529 



Club Meetings : 

Because the girls nearly always sing "something" the 
actual planning of the music is often left till the last 
or not done at all. As it is really one of the greatest 
psychological factors in bringing out the best in groups 
and individuals it should be as carefully carried out 
as the major activity of any meeting. It is well to have 
certain girls, who are definitely responsible for the 
music, arrange a program that will be in harmony with 
the club program emphasis for each meeting. 

Pit Falls. 
They are 1 No music on hand. 

2 Not enough copies of the words. 

3 No direction or continuity of program. 

4 Weak leader. 

5 Poor pianist. 

6 Piano out of tune. 

7 Poor typing or mimeographing of words. 

8 Music of too ambitious character. 

Secure a pianist; even though it is sometimes difficult, 
it is nearly always practicable to get a good one. Be 
able to give her the music before the last minute and 
have a thorough understanding as to when it is to be 
played. A program or cue sheet stating order of selec- 
tions, number of verses, etc., is a help. 

If music is to be used for rhythmic games or dancing 
it is most important that it be the best quality and that 
the musicians thoroughly appreciate the character of the 
music wanted. The success of the gymnasium class or a 
party should never depend on the chance playing of some 
boy or girl whose idea of rhythm may be different from 
the kind desired. 

530 



A suggested order for a regular meeting Is as follows: 

Begin with an Informal song, using 1 some popular 
music the girls know then use some Girl Reserve Songs 
while the members g'ather. 

Opening of meeting: 

Salute to the flag. 

Song "My Country Tis of Thee." 

Girl Reserve Code. 

National Girl Reserve song. 

Club Song, or Cheer. 

Major Activity of Meeting: 
Stunt: 

Possibly a musical stunt, pantomiming or acting" out 
a song like "The Old Oaken Bucket.' 7 

"Thank You" singing by the club members. 

Conclusion: 

Camp Songs: 

Good rollicking songs are needed around the camp 
fire, as well as the more serious ones. Here is an op- 
portunity for the originality of the group to play a big 
part in the writing of new camp songs. Featuring the 
locale, scenery or camp people, these songs are usually 
successful when written to the tune of a popular song. 

Program Suggestions: 

There are two kinds of songs which may be used with 
great effect in club work. First, well-known songs, 
patriotic and otherwise, which may be used for chorus 
work. Second, songs which may be "acted out." 

For the most efficient use of the first, every group of 
girls should have either leaflets on which are printed the 
songs the girls should know, or inexpensive song books. 
Leaflets are preferable. 

531 



The following song's are good for chorus work and 
can easily be printed on a single sheet: 
America 

Star Spangled Banner 
Battle Hymn of the Republic 
Marseillaise 
Auld Lang Syne 

When Wilt Thou Save the People ? 
O Beautiful for Spacious Skies. 
God of our Fathers 

Song Stunts: 

Girls find a great deal of fun and good times in tak- 
ing a familiar song and dramatizing it while the music 
is sung off stage. It gives an excellent opportunity for 
the development of humor, ingenuity and quick think- 
ing as well as a good deal of amusement. Any song 
with action and appropriate words can be used "to act 
out" like "Jingle Bells" or "Down by the Old Mill 
Stream/' 

The following songs may be "acted out" effectively. 
(See "the Woodcraft Manual for Girls" for music and 
words of some of them.) 

"The Weasel in the Wood." 
"My Man John." 

(Characters: Master, My Man John, Lady Fair.) 
''Roman and English Soldiers." 

(Characters: Roman and English.) 
"When I Was a Young Girl." 

For program material, the following- brief outline may 
be suggestive of topics to be developed by discussions or 
talks, or by illustration. 
I. The national characteristics of music. 

There are radical differences between the following: 
Spanish, French, Russian, English, Italian, Slavic, Flem- 

532 



ish, Chinese, American, Indian, Japanese. There are 
intimate connections between the historic life of the 
nation and the particular type and variety of its music. 

II. Historic songs and their evolution: 

A. Folk songs. 

B. Historic patriotic songs, etc. 

C. The National Anthem of each nation its history and 
service. 

D. Historic hymns their birth, the national and con- 
temporary history surrounding the period in which the 
great historic hymn was born. 

III. The recourse to great music. 

A. Every Day Living. 

B. In Great Moments. 

The Marseillaise and the French Revolution. 
"Nearer My God to Thee" when the Lusitania went 
down. 

IV. The Development of Music. 

A. Rhythm, melody, harmony. 

B. The place of the Troubadours. 

C. Counterpoint was probably invented by Dunstable, 
an Englishman in 1437. In the sixteenth century the 
law of counterpoint was probably substantially fixed. 
At this time came the Golden Age of music, church, 
chorale and madrigal. The seventeenth century saw 
the development of 

1. Oratorios; 

2. Dramatic Music. 

First opera: Peril's "Euridice." 

Monteverde: Last half of the century. 

Development of modern key system. 

Development of solo voice. 

Violin. 

Arias. 

533 



Sonata. 

Chorales of Mozart and Haydn. 

The eighteenth century: The Work of Bach and Handel, 
Recitative. 
Concertos. 
Symphonies (sonata forms) 

Beethoven 
Comic Opera 

Mozart. 
From Beethoven to Wagner, the Romanticists. 

V. The evolution of instruments harpsicord, clavicord, piano, 
organ, violin, etc. 
Instruments in an orchestra: 

A. Strings: 

First and second violins, violas, violincellos, double 
basses. 

B. Wood wind: 
Flutes, piccolo. 

G. Keed: 

Oboes, tenors and basses. 
Clarinets and saxophones. 

D. Brass wind: 

Tuba, trombone, trumpet, cornet, horn. 

E. Percussion: 

Kettle drums, triangles, cymbals. 

The placement of these instruments and the reasons 
for so doing might be the basis of a very interesting dis- 
cussion. 

VI. What other nations are doing in the matter of music. 

The song fests, the Eisteddfodds, the celebrated Choral 
Unions, the glee clubs and quartettes, the Leeds and 
Birmingham festivals, Bayreuth, the Sistine Choir, the 

534 



Bach Choir, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, the National Con- 
servatories of Paris, Brussels, Petrograd, London; the 
Prix de Rome. The common schools in France and Bel- 
gium teach the children on the street to read music as 
they read their primers. Columbia University is now in 
the process of organizing a school for the study of church 
music. 
VII. 'Influence of music. 

A. In religion. 

B. In family life, e. g,, 

1. Italy. 

2. France. 

3. Germany. 

C. In college life. 

D. In hospitals. 

E. In kindergartens. 

VIII. The development of mechanical devices for reproducing 
music, instrumental and vocal. 

FOLK SONGS SPIRITUALS, 

Practically the only music in America which meets the 
scientific definition of folk song are the negro "spirituals." 
They are spontaneous outbursts of intense religious fervor and 
had their origin chiefly in camp meetings, revivals and other 
religious exercises, although a shower, a thunderstorm or the 
dampness of a furrow were sufficient to give birth to a hymn. 
The freest possible use was made of figures of speech often 
resulting in quaint and striking pictures. Many of them voice 
an unfaltering belief in God and ultimate deliverance from sor- 
row, this latter aspect resulting in their sometimes being called 
"Sorrow Songs." Others strike a lighter, happier note. 

Four steps are distinguished in the development of the folk- 
songs. "The first stage exhibits native African music, and may 
be seen in such a chant as that for the words, "You may bury 
me in the East"; the second is that of Afro- American music, 

535 



the great class "Steal Away to Jesus" being an example; the 
third stage shows a blending of Negro music with that of the 
foster-land as in "Bright Sparkles in the Churchyard"; the 
fourth shows American melodies affected by the Negro music, 
as in the songs of Stephen Collins Foster, such as "Old Folks 
at Home." 

Another division of the melodies makes two classes of them, 
those which are the spontaneous expression of the Negro's own 
feelings, and those which, while now essentially Negro in char- 
acter show some evidence of foreign origin. In the second 
group may be seen traces of European songs and dances, and 
adaptations of Methodist and Baptist hymns. Typical ones 
are, "My Lord, What a Morning," and "Nobody Knows de 
Trouble I've Seen." Sometimes, however, the note of triumph 
sounds with tremendous force, as in "Oh, Give Way Jordan/' 
"In dat Great Gittin'-up Morning," and "Oh, den My Little 
Soul's Gwine to Shine." No one is yet able to say just how 
many of these melodies are in existence, for they have not all 
been collected. 

There is a growing appreciation of the spirituals, and to-day 
wide use of them is being made on the concert stage. Chief 
among those who are responsible for dignifying them and 
giving them their rightful place as a real contribution to 
American music is the well-known Negro musician Harry T. 
Burleigh, whose arrangements are among the most delightful 
in existence to-day. "It was Burleigrh's singing of the old 
melodies which in a great measure gave to Dvorak that con- 
tact with negro folk music which formed the background for 
the themes of his own creation in the "Symphony from the 
New World." The noted Negro composer Coleridge Taylor 
also used many of them as themes for most interesting and 
beautiful transcriptions for the piano. 

These folk songs, like all music that voices the inarticulate 
cries of the human heart, beautiful in their very crudity and 
simplicity, speak a language common to people of all times, 

536 



Those who sang* them walked in the midst of darkness but all 
their struggling, groping, triumphing faith poured itself out 
into the world, to voice for people of every age the restless 
yearnings of the heart toward God. They are called " sorrow 
songs" and all the sorrow, all the agony, all the despair of life 
is in them ; but, breathing through them, is a great faith; faith 
in the ultimate triumph of justice, faith in the glorious victory 
over death, faith in the final fullness of life which sounds 
triumphant in the strains: 

"He arose, He arose, He arose from the dead, 
And the Lord shall bear my spirit home." 
The folksongs have already been used successfully with 
groups of girls who with intelligent understanding of them have 
soon grown to appreciate and to love them. 

Collections : 

Religious Folk Songs of the Negro. 

Arranged by the Hampton Directors of Music, 

The Institute Press, Hampton, Va. Price $1.25. 
Negro Spirituals. 

Arranged by H. T. Burleigh, 

G. Ricordi Co., 14 East 43rd Street, New York City. 
Calhoun Plantation Songs. 

Arranged by Emily Hallowell, 

C. W. Thompson & Co., Boston, Mass. 
For origin of folksongs see 

Hampton Series Negro Folk Songs. 

Recorded by Natalie Curtis Burlin. 

In four booklets. Arranged for male voices only, 
but containing excellent descriptive material. 

G. Schirmer, 3 East Forty-third Street, New York 

City. Price, each book, 50c. 
Folk Songs of the American Negro. 

John Wesley Work. 

Baptist Publishing Co., Nashville, Tenn. 

537 



Afro-American Folk Songs. 
H. E. Krehbiei. 
G. Schirmer, New York City. 

GIKL EESEEVE SONGS.* 
There's a long, long: trail a-winding 

Into the land of my dreams, 
Where friendship's fires are glowing, 

And Faith's white star gleams, 
There's a long, long line a-marching 

Beneath a bright flag unfurled 
For the girlhood of our country serves 

The girlhood of the world. 

There's a long, long shout of gladness 

That rings across many lands, 
For the Girl Reserves united 

Stand with close clasped hands. 
There's a stronger, truer friendship 

Where'er their blue sign's unfurled, 
For the girlhood of our country serves 

The Girlhood of the world. 

Tune: "The Butterfly Song" by Jessie Gaynor. 
There's a friendly way waiting 

For all girls every where 
While our life's in the making 

We will mould it with care. 

Chorus: 

We'll find and give beauty, 

We'll build day by day 
For a glorious future, 

By the Girl Reserve Way. 

* These songs have been collected from many sections of the country. 
They have been written by individual Girl Reserves and by groups. Some 
have been chosen as prize songs in contest. To all authors the Editors 
extend their thanks. 

538 



We will grow strong and healthy 

In our work and our play, 
Just by using our Knowledge 

Of the Health Laws each day. 

We'll be ready for Service 

In our friendships be true 
We will try to be cheerful 

When the hard things we do. 

Tune: Vassar Marching Song (1915).* 

Across the hills and plains from sea to sea, 
Girl Reserves, to thee we bring the faith 
Of Student Club girls, strong and loyal; 
Eager in serving others day by day; 
Pledged to laugh and live, and lift, 
And keep thy vision true 
Along life's way. 

And when the months have passed 

And we're far away, 

Girl Reserves, the thought of thee 

Will bring us near in spirit to each other; 

Challenging to further effort through each day ; 

Spurring on to do and dare, 

And keep thy vision true 

Along life's way. 

Tune: The Banjo iSong Sidney Homer. 

From East to West, from North to South, 

The whole wide world around, 
The girls of every race and clan 

Unite thy praise to sound. 



* Music included in the Collection of Vassar Songs. 

539 



0! Girl Reserves, thy spirit true 
We'll share with all the rest 

And strive with girls of all the world 
To find and give the best. 

'Neath thy banner we will stand 

Forever strong- and true. 
Our purpose firm we'll ever keep 

And pledge ourselves anew. 

O! Girl Reserves! United! 

To thee our best we bring 
And daily strive to ever be 

True daughters of the King, 

True daughters of the King, 
The King! 

Tune: "Alma Mater" of Cornell University. 
From all corners of the world, 

Come the Girl Reserves, 
The banner held on high unfurled, 

Loyalty preserves. 
Lift it higher, ever forward. 

Surely it the best deserves. 
Give the signal and the forward, 

Hail! The Girl Reserves! 
Comes each girl with high endeavor 

Comes to do her best. 
She'll not falter nor will waver, 

In her earnest quest. 
She will stand for truth and honor, 

Sturdy in the strongest gale, 
Place the laurel wreath upon her, 

Girl Reserves! All Hail! 

Tune: Battle Song of Liberty. 

We're a union strong and loyal, 

540 



Of girls striving 1 ever for right, 
Just girls, but girls with, a purpose, 

To work with our might, 
Our slogan's "To face life squarely/ 7 
Be earnest sincere at all times, 
And day by day 
Show the Y. W. C. A. 
We're a credit to their far reaching* lines. 

Chorus : 

And here's to those who'll join us, 

Faithful and true, 
Here's to our Triangle, 

Of white and blue, 
And here's to all our members, 

Honor bright Reserves, 

Here's three cheers for Girl, Girl, Reserves. 

Tune: "Blowing Bubbles." 

Girl Reserves are always happy 
Doing what they ki^ow is right, 
Always on the square, 

Ever shunning wrong*, 

And helping other girls along*. 
Always, always cheerful, 

They are never sad, 
Come and be a G. R. with us, 

And you always will be glad. 

Tune: "Micky." 

Girl Reserves, Girl Reserves, 

With your banner of wondrous hue, 
With your working and no shirking, 
There's a lot of happiness 

Lots of loyalty, too. 

Good times in the summer and in the winter, too. 

541 



Girl Reserves, loyal Girl Reserves, 
Can you blame anyone for wanting 
To meet -with you? 

Tune: "When You Come Back." 

We are the g-irls of -world wide fame 
Girl Reserves, that is our name 
Tall, short, fat girls and thin, 
Girl Reserves sure does take them all in. 
You don't need money, you don't need pearls, 
Anybody, everybody, just so you're girls, 
For -we are "here and -we are there 
Girl Reserves we're every where. 

Chorus: 

Early to bed and early to rise 

Makes a girl healthy, wealthy and wise. 

We like our work, we like our play, 

We like to do it all every day, 
And next July when to camp we go 
We'll sing 1 Yankee Doodle Do! 

For we are here and we are there - 

Girl Reserves we're every where! 

Tune: "Varsity." 

Girl Reserve, Girl Reserve, 

Who are, who are, who are we ? 
Who are, who are, who are we? 
Girl Reserve, Girl Reserve, 

We are, -we are, we are, we are 
Girl Reserve. 

Tune: The chorus of "Dear Old Pal of Mine." 
Oh, how I love you, 
Triangle of Blue, 

Where girls may meet in bonds of friendship true, 
Body, Mind and Spirit, 

542 



Honor and revere it, 
Now loudly cheer it, 
Triangle of Blue. (cheer) 

Tune : "Rig-a- Jig- Jig." 

Key of C. 
As I was walking down the street 

Heigh-o-heigh-o-heigh-o-heig"h-o! 
A pretty girl I chanced to meet 

Heigh-o-heigh-o-heigh-o ! 
She said she was a Girl Reserve, 
A Girl Reserve, a Girl Reserve. 
She said she was a Girl Reserve, 
And wanted me to join, with a 

Rig-a-jig and away we go; 

Away we go, away we go, 

With a rig-a- jig-jig and away we go 
To join the Girl Reserves. 

Tune: 'Three Blind Mice/' (Round.) 

Key of D. 

Girl Reserves, Girl Reserves, 
Happy are we. Happy are we. 
Jolly good-will is the entrance key. 
If you don't believe it, just come and see, 
And if you come you will always be a Girl Reserve. 

Tune: "Smiles/' 

There are girls in California, 

There are girls in China, too. 
There are girls in far away Australia, 

Who are wearing this blue triangle. 
Girls of France, and even girls of India, 

O'er the whole wide world where e'er you stray, 
Are now wearing this same blue triangle, 

Of the Y. W. C. A. 

543 



Tune: "Good Morning:, Mr. Zip, Zip, Zip.** 

Key of G. 

We are the young employed Girl Reserves, 
And we come from every part of town. 
Each Wednesday evening of the month, 
You know where well be found. 
Ready for service, 
And loyal to friends, 
We try to keep the code, 
From beginning to end, 
And what is more we all enjoy 
The hikes and parties in it. 
We never waste a minute. 
That's why we love the Girl Reserves. 

Tune: "Around Her Neck She Wears a Yellow Ribbon." 

Key of D. 

Upon her arm she wears a Blue Triangle, 

She wears it in the winter and the summer, so they say, 

And if you ask the reason why she does it, 

She'll tell you she's a member of the Girl Reserves. 

Girl Reserves Girl Reserves! 

So give/ her all the credit she deserves, 
For on her arm she wears a blue triangie, 

Because she is a member of the Girl Reserves. 

Tune: "Fritzie Boy." 

Key of A Flat. 

Keep the code, Girl Reserves; keep the code, Girl Reserves, 
Each day as you go your way, be loyal, be loyal. 
Would you face life squarely, too, 
Service give, in all be true. 

Do you want to find the best and give it to the rest, 
Then keep the code, Girl Reserves. 

544 



This is a good song 1 to sing to advisers. It is written to the 
tune of "Boola Boola." 

Miss .......... Miss .......... 

We are singing, praises ring.ng, 
We will never find your equal 
Miss ............ here's to you! 

Y. W. C. A., 

We are singing, praises ringing, 

We will ever loyal be, 

Y. W., here's to you! 

SONG OF THE GIRL RESERVES. 
Dedicated to the Girl Reserves. 



We are the jolly Girl Reserves; 
Ready we are to-day to serve. 
Earnest in purpose, loyal to friend 
Girls on whom you may depend, 
Serving our dear triangle blue. 
Loyal we are to Truth anew 
Earnest, honest and our slogan: 
"Face life squarely." 

(2) 

Every summer we go camping and have lots of fun 
Tennis, swimming, games and hiking keep us on 

the run. 

Work and play, combined together, 
Gives us lots of pep. 
Hip! hep! hip! hep! hip! hep! 
Girls, let's keep in step. 
We are the jolly Girl Reserves 
Ready we are to-day to. serve. 

545 



SONG OF THE GIRL RESERVES 

DEDICATED TO THE GIRL RESERVES 

U ORJ1S Y MARY TEASDALE (Ctrl Reserve) MUSIC BY MARY SILVA TEASDALL 



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Earnest in purpose, loyal to friend; 
Girls on whom you may depend, 
Serving our dear triangle blue, 
Loyal we are to Truth anew. 
Earnest, Honest, and our slogan: 
"Face life squarely." 



548 




for 
Reserves 



A I A HESE hymns are given into 
the hands of Girl Reserves 
with the hope that] every Girl 
Reserve every where" will lean/to 
know and love them as do the Girl 
Reserves who have chosenj'them. 
The music for them can be found 
in Fellowship Hymns andj" As- 
sociation Music/' 






549 



HYMNS. 

Girls thoroughly enjoy singing hymns that are inspiring 
and beautiful, like the selections in "Hymns for Girl Reserves." 
Usually the music will be more effective and the rhythm better 
sustained if the tunes are played at a pace which is fairly brisk. 
The mus'c should be kept from dragging, especially in the last 
verse. Never let the girls feel they are tired of singing hymns 
because of the psychological effect of a lagging end. Hymns 
like "Father of Lights" and "0 Beautiful for, Spacious Skies" 
add greatly to the impressiveness of initiation or recognition 
services, particularly if the girls wear vestments or are all 
dressed in white. For Grace before meals, choose a hymn that 
the girls all know, such as "Holy, Holy, Holy," "Day is Dying 
in the West" or "Joy to the World"; use just one verse and an 
"Amen." 

"Fellowship Hymns" and "Association Music" may be or- 
dered from The Book Shop, '600 Lexington Avenue. Price, 
fifty cents and fifteen cents each. 

HYMN OF THE LIGHTS. 
Father of lights, in whom there is no shadow, 

Giver of every good and perfect gift; 
With one accord we seek Thy holy presence, 

Gladly our hearts to Thee in praise we lift. 
Glad for the cause that binds our lives together. 

Through Thee united, worshipping as one. 
Glad for the crowning gift that Thou has given, 

Sending to light the world, Thine only Son. 

Light of the world, through whom we know the Father! 

Pour out upon us Thine abiding love, 
That we may know its depth and height and splendor; 

That heav'n may conie to earth from GEeav'n above. 

550 



Thou art the Christ! To Thee we own allegiance. 

May our devotion sweep from sea to sea, 
Even as we, the gift from Thee receiving, 

Joyfully minister that gift for Thee. 

Association Music, page 4. 

WHEN MORNING GILDS THE SKIES. 
When morning gilds the skies, 
My heart awaking cries, 

May Jesus Christ be praised 
Alike at work and prayer, 
To Jesus I repair; 
May Jesus Christ be praised! 

Whene'er the sweet church bells 
Peals over hill and dale, 

May Jesus Christ be praised! 
hark to what it sings, 
As joyously it rings, 

May Jesus Christ be praised! 

In heaven's eternal bliss 
The loveliest strain is this, 

May Jesus Christ be praised! 
Let earth, and sea, and sky, 
From depth to height reply, 

May Jesus Christ be praised! 

Be this while Life is mine, 
My canticle divine, 

May Jesus Christ be praised! 
Be this the eternal song, 
Through ages all along, 

May Jesus Christ be praised! 
Fellowship Hymns, pagre 10. 

551 



REJOICE, YE PURE IN HEART. 
Rejoice, ye pure in heart, 
Rejoice, give thanks and sing; 

Your festal banner wave on high, 

The cross of Christ your King. 
Refrain 

Rejoice, Rejoice, 

Rejoice, give thanks and sing. 

Bright youth and snow-crowned age, 
Strong men and maidens meek, 

Raise your high, free exulting song, 
God's wondrous praises speak.- 

With voice as full and strong 

As ocean's surging praise, 
Send forth the hymns our fathers loved, 

The psalms of ancient days. 

Yes on, through life's long path, 

Still chanting as we go; 
From youth to age, by night and day, 

In gladness and in woe. 

At last the march shall .end, 
The wearied ones shall rest; 

The pilgrims shall find their Father's house, 
Jerusalem, the blest. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 28. 



552 



MY GOD, I THANK THEE. 

My God, I thank Thee, who hast made 

The earth so bright; 
So full of splendor and of joy, 

Beauty and light; 
So many glorious things are here, 

Noble and right. 

I thank Thee, too that Thou hast made 

Joy to abound; 
So many gentle thoughts and deeds 

Circling us round; 
That in the darkest spot of earth 

Some love is found. 

I thank Thee, Lord, that Thou has kept 

The best in store; 
We have enough, yet not too much, 

To long for more; 
A yearning for a deeper peace 

Not known before. 

I thank Thee, Lord, that here cur souls 

Though amply blest, 
Can never find, although they seek. 

A perfect rest; 
Nor ever shall, until they lean 

On Jesus 7 breast. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 309. 

FOR THE BEAUTY OF THE EARTH. 
For the beauty of the earth, 

For the beauty of the skies, 
For the love which from our birth 

Over and around us lies 
Christ, our God, to Thee we raise 

This our hymn of grateful praise. 

553 



For the beauty of each hour, 
Of the day and of the night, 

Hill and vale, and tree and flower 
Sun and moon, and stars of light 

Christ, our God, to Thee we raise 
This our hymn of grateful, praise. 

For the joy of human love, 
Brother, sister r parent, child, 

Friends on earth, and friends above; 
For all gentle thoughts and mild 

Christ, our God, to Thee we raise 
This our hymn of grateful praise. 

For Thyself, best Gift Divine! 

To our race so freely given; 
For that great, great love of Thine, 

Peace on earth, and joy in heaven- 
Christ, our God, to Thee we raise 

This our hymn of grateful praise. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 311. 

BEAUTIFUL FOE SPACIOUS SKIES. 
beautiful for spacious skies, 

For amber waves of grain, 
For purple mountain majesties 

Above the fruited plain! 
America! America! 

God shed His grace on thee 
And crown thy good with brotherhood 

From sea to shining sea! 

beautiful for pilgrim feet 

Whose stern, impassioned stress 
A thoroughfare for freedom beat 

554 



Across the wilderness! 
America! America! 

God mend thine every flaw, 
Confirm thy soul in self-control, 

Thy liberty in law! 

beautiful for heroes proved 

In liberating strife, 
Who more than self their country loved, 

And mercy more than life! 
America! America! 

May God thy gold refine, 
Till all success be nobleness, 

And every gain divine! 

beautiful for patriot dream. 

That sees beyond the years 
Thine alabaster cities gleam 

Undimmed by human tears! 
America! America! 

God shed His grace on thee 
And crown thy good with brotherhood 

From sea to shining sea! 

Association Music, page 9. 
fellowship Hymns, page 266. 
Music by S A. Ward. 
Words by Katharine Lee Bates. 

FAITH OF OUE FATHERS. 

Faith of our fathers! living still 

In spite pf dungeon, fire and sword: 
how our hearts beat high with joy, 

Whene'er we hear that glorious word: 
Faith of our fathers! holy faith! 

We will b<? true to thee till death! 

Our fathers, chained in prisons dark, 
Were still in heart and conscience free: 
How sweet would be their children's fate 

555 



If they, like them, could die for thee! 
Faith of our fathers, holy faith, 
We will be true to thee till death. 

Faith of our fathers, God's great power 

Shall soon all nations win for thee; 
And through the truth that comes from God 

Mankind shall then be truly free. 
Faith of our fathers, holy faith, 

We will be true to thee till death. 

Faith of our fathers, we will love 

Both friend and foe in all our strife. 
And preach thee, too, as love knows how, 

By kindly words and virtuous life. 
Faith of our fathers, holy faith, 

We will be true to thee till death. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 176. 

LEAD ON, KING ETERNAL 
Lead on, King- Eternal, 

The day of march has come; 
Henceforth in fields of conquest 

Thy tents shall be our home; 
Through days of preparation 

Thy grace has made us strong, 
And now, King Eternal, 

We lift our battle song. 

Lead on, King Eternal, 

Till sin's fierce war shall cease, 
And holiness shall whisper 

The sweet amen of peace; 
For not with swords loud clashing, 

Nor roll of stirring drums, 
But deeds of love and mercy, 

Thy heavenly kingdom comes. 

556 



Lead on, "King Eternal, 

We follow not with fears; 
For gladness breaks like morning 

Where'er Thy face appears; 
Thy cross is lifted o'er us; 

We journey in its light; 
Thy crown awaits the conquest; 

Lead on, God of might. 

Association Music, page 26. 



FLING OUT THE BANNER 
Fling out the banner! Let it float 

Skyward and seaward, high and wide; 
The sun that lights its shining folds, 

The cross on which the Saviour died. 

Fling out the banner! Angels bend 
In anxious silence o'er the sign, 
And vainly seek to comprehend 
The wonder of the love Divine. 

Fling out the banner! Heathen lands 
Shall see from far the glorious sight, 

And nations, crowding to be born, 
Baptize their spirits in its light. 

Fling out the banner! Let it float 
Skyward and seaward, high and wide, 

Our glory, only in the cross; 
Our only hope, the Crucified! 

Fling out the banner! Wide and high, 
Seaward and skyward, let it shine; 

Nor skill, nor might, nor merit ours; 
We conquer only in that sign. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 264. 

557 



LIGHT OF THE WORLD, WE HAIL THEE 
Light of the world, we hall thee. 

Flushing the eastern skies! 
Ne'er shall darkness veil thee 

Again from human eyes; 
Too long, alas! withholden, 

Now spread from shore to shore; 
Thy light, so glad and golden, 

Shall set on earth no more. 

Light of the world, thy beauty 

Steals into every heart, 
And glorifies with duty 

Life's poorest, humblest part; 
Thou robest in thy splendor 
The simple ways of man, 
And helpest them to render 

Light back to thee again. 

Light of the world before thee ; 

Our spirits prostrate fall; 
We worship, we adore thee, 

Thou light, the life of all; 
With thee is no forgetting 

Of all thine hand hath made; 
Thy rising hath no setting, 

Thy sunshine hath no shade. 

Light of the World, illumine 

This dark land of thine, 
Till everything that's human 

Be filled with what's divine; 
Till every tongue and nation, 

From sin's dominion free, 
Rise in the new creation 

Which springs from love to thee. 

Association Music, page 3. 

558 



JESUS CALLS US, O'ER THE TUMULT 
Jesus calls us, o'er the tumult 

Of our life's wild, restless sea; 
Day by day His sweet voice soundeth, 

Saying, Christian, follow Me! 

Jesus calls us, from the worship 
Of the vain world's golden store; 

Prom each idol that would keep us, 
Saying, Christian, love Me more! 

In our joys and in our sorrows, 
Days of toil and hours of ease, 

Still He calls, in cares and pleasures, 
Christian, love Me more than these 1 

Jesus calls us! By Thy mercies. 
Saviour, may we hear Thy call; 

Give our hearts to Thine obedience, 
Serve and love Thee best o all! 

Fellowship Hymns, page 140. 

NOW THE DAY IS OVER 
Now the day is over, 

Night is drawing nigh, 
Shadows of the evening 

Steal across the sky. 

Jesus give the weary 
Calm and sweet repose; 

With Thy tenderest blessing 
May our eyelids close. 

Grant to little children 
Visions bright of Thee; 

Guard the sailors tossing 
On the deep, blue sea. 

559 



Comfort every sufferer 
Watching late in pain; 

Those who plan some evil 
From their sins refrain. 

Through the long night-watches 
May Thine angels spread 

Their white wings above me, 
Watching round my bed. 

When the morning wakens, 

Then may I arise, 
Pure and fresh and sinless 

In Thy holy eyes. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 36. Association Music, page 24. 

AT EVEN, EEE THE SUN WAS SET 
At even, ere the sun was set, 

The sick, Lord, around Thee lay; 
Oh, in what divers pains they met! 

Oh, with what joy they went away! 

Once more 'tis eventide, and we 

Oppressed with various ills, draw near, 
What if Thy form we cannot see, 
We know and feel that Thou art here. 

And none, Lord, have perfect rest, 
For none are wholly free from sin; 

And they who fain would serve Thee best 
Are conscious most of wrong 1 within. 

Saviour Christ, our woes dispel; 

For some are sick and some are sad, 
And some have never loved Thee well, 

And some have lost the love they had. 

560 



Saviour Christ, Thou too art Man, 
Thou has been troubled, tempted, tried; 

Thy kind but searching glance can scan 
The very wounds that shame would hide! 

Thy touch has still its ancient power; 

No words from Thee can fruitless fall; 
Hear, in this solemn evening hour, 
And in Thy mercy heal us all. 

Fellowship Hymns, page 33. Association Music, page 25. 
Music by W. H. Jude. Words by the Rev. Henry Twells, M.A. 
Used by the kind permission of the proprietors of "Hymns Ancient and 
Modern." 

DAY IS DYING IN THE WEST 
Day is dying in the west; 

Heav'n is touching earth with rest; 
Wait and worship while the night 
Sets her evening lamps alight 
Through all the sky. 

Refrain 

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts! 
Heav'n and earth are full of Thee, 
Heav'n and earth are praising Thee, 
Lord Most High I 

Lord of Life, beneath the dome 

Of the universe, Thy home, 
Gather us, who seek Thy face, 

To the fold of Thy embrace. 
For Thou art nigh. 

While the deepening shadows fall, 

Heart of Love, enfolding all, 
Through the glory and the grace 

Of the stars that veil Thy face, 
Our hearts ascend. 

561 



When forever from our sight 
Pass the stars, the day, the night, 

Lord of angels, on our eyes 
Let eternal morning rise, 
And shadows end! 

Fellowship Hymns, page 39. Copyright, 1877, by H. J. Vincent. 
Used by permission of the Chautauqua Press. 

PEACE I LEAVE WITH YOU 
Peace I leave with you, 

My peace I give unto you, 
Not as the world giveth, 

Give I unto you. 
Let not your heart be troubled, 

Neither let it be afraid. 
Peace I leave with you, 

My peace I give unto you. 

Association Music, page 27. 

Music for Younger Girls 

Assembly Songs, Vol. I, is a collection of exceedingly good 
songs suitable for a group that has been singing together 
for a little while as well as for those who can do more ac- 
complished work. 

A Rose Song, by Horatio W. Parker. 

Published by the H. W. Gray Company, 2 West Forty-fifth 
Street, New York City. 

The Golden Carol, arranged by J. Stainer, published by the 

H. W. Gray Co. 

An interesting old Christmas Carol. 
May. Words by Leigh Hunt, music by Carl Bush. Three 

voices; cantata for children's voices and orchestra. 
Kookoorookoo, and other songs, by Christina Rosetti. 

Published by H. F. W. Dean & Sons, The Year Book Press, 

Ltd., 31 Museum Street, London, 

562 



Charming- for young or old in unison, providing one has a 
desire to discover with Christina Rosetti what to do "If 
a pig wore a wig" or delve with her into incontrovertible 
scientific facts, such as " A Pin has a head but has no 
Hair." In this collection we find the most skilled musicians 
of England chronicling in melody the fact that "A Codfish 
has a silent sound however that may be." 

Year Book Press Series of Unison and Part Songs, published 
at 31 Museum Street, London, W. C. I.,, to be had through 
H. W. Gray Co., 2 West Forty-fifth Street, New York City. 

Reapers Music: Thomas Dunhill 

Words: Henry Knight 
No. 74 Year Book Series, 
Good for Study of Enunciation and Time. 

Holly and Ivy Girl Arrangement: Charles Wood 

Words: John Keegan 
No. 123 Year Book Series 
An Irish Folk Song, 

The Fairies Music: C. H. H. Parry 

Words: A. M. Champneys 
No. 96 Year Book Series. 

A merry two-part song for young voices excellent for 
time drill. 

The Sky In a Pool Words: Antonia R. Williams 

Music: Thomas F. Dunhill 
No. 57 in the Year Book Series. 
A very pretty song for any little person who would 
"Like to fly up and down the sky and bathe in its lovely blue." 

Ripple On Words: A. M. Champneys 

Music: C. H. H. Parry 
No. 94 in the Year Book Series. 
An optimistic unison song worth study. 



563 



Older Groups 

Half Minute Songs Carrie Jacobs Bond 

Published at the Book Shop, Fine Arts Building 1 , Chicago, III 
A fascinating group of tiny six measure songs with such 
lines as this: "To understand a sorrow you must have one all 
your own." "A man who finds success looks sometimes when 
he is tired." "I would rather say 'You're welcome' once than 
'thank you' a thousand times," and best of all "Ain't it good 
that what they say can't hurt you unless it's true." 

Oh Captain, My Captain Words: Walt Whitman 

Music: Chas. H. Lloyd 
No. 145 in the Year Book Series. 
Good study of dramatic expression in unison. 

When Dawn Appears .' . . . Music : Baker 

Words: Edward Oxenford 
No. 8 in the Year Book Series. 
Smooth flowing melody, good for study of light and shade. 

In Praise of Neptune Music: John Ireland 

Words: Thomas Campion 
No. 46 in the Year Book Series. 
Good for precision of attack and time. 

A Contented Mind Music: Hubert C. Parry 

Words: Silvester 
(1563-1618) 

No. 18 in the Year Book Series. 
Fine words Fine music. 

A Lake and a Fairy Boat Music: Dunhill 

Words: Tom Hood 
No. 53 in the Year Book Series. 
Good practice for young melodious voices. 

564 



You'll -Get There Music: C. H. H. Parry 

No. 95 in the Year Book Series. 
A rousing song which keeps on hoping that "the sun will rise." 

Hie Ho Daisies and Buttercups Words : Jean Ingelow 

No. 11 in the Year Book Series. 
A cheerful time study. 

The Way to Success Words : Parry 

No. 43 in the Year Book Series. 
Two part song. A gay little word of advice to boy friends. 

The Ride of the Witch. ! Words: Robt. Herrick 

Music: Charles Wood 
No. 79 in the Year Book Series. 
Two part song. Good practice for speedy rendit'on. 

Semi-Difficult Class 

Hie Away, Hie Away Music: C. H. H. Parry 

No. 44 in the Year Book Series. 

Poets Song Words : Alfred Tennyson 

Music. S. P. Waddington 
No. 33 Year Book Series. 



Music for Older Girls 

Assembly Songs, Vol. I, Hollis Dann. Published by the H. W. 
Gray Company. 

It Was a Lover and His Lass, by Morley. Published by the 
H. W. Gray Company. 

Loch Lomond, Old Scotch. Published by the H. W. Gray Com- 
pany. 

Hark! Hark! the Lark Schubert. Published by the H. W. Gray 
Company. 

Welcome to Spring Mendelssohn. Published by the H. W. 
Gray Company, 

565 



Who is Sylvia, by Schubert. Published by the H. W. Gray Com- 
pany. 
The foregoing are all solos but could well be sung in unison. 

After the Rain, by Pinsuti, two part song and soprano solo. 
Published by the H. W. Gray Company. 

The Lord Is My Shepherd; two part Smart. Published by the 
H. W. Gray Company. 

The Swedish Peasants' Wedding March; two part, by Soderman. 
Published by the H. W. Gray Company. 

Wanderer's Night Song; two part Rubenstein. 

Wert Thou in the Cauld Blast; two part, by Mendelssohn. 

The Sabbath Morn; two part, by Mendelssohn. 

O'er the Waters Gliding Offenbach. 

How Amiable Are Thy Dwellings; two part, by Maunder. 

The Three Chafers; four parts, by Truhn. 

A charming book of "Song Dances" by W. Bendall. Published 
by Novello; to be obtained at the H. W. Gray Company. 

"The Visit of Socrates and Athene" by Mark Andrews; a com- 
mencement cantata. 

For the Experienced Choral Union. 

Assembly Songs, Vol. I, by Hollis Dann. Published by the 
H. W. Gray Company. 

Semi-Difficult Music for More ^Advanced Girls. 

Mistress Mary (Assembly Songs, Vol. I); three part song, by 
G. A. Macirone. 

Creation's Hymn; three part song. 

The Maiden of the Fleur de Lys; three part, by Sundenham; un- 
accompanied, 

A Legend of Bregenz, by W. Bendall. Published by H. W. 
Gray Company. A spirited legend giving dramatic oppor- 
tunity. 

The Pied Piper of Hamelin, by A- Cyril Graham. Published by 
the H. W. Gray Company. A cantata for chorus. S. S. A. 
solo and orchestra or piano. 

566 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CAMPS FOR GIRLS 
The Value of Camps. 

LIVING in the open air, with the body in exercise, the irri- 
tating action of the brain is set at rest; little things seem 
big* enough, and great things no longer portentous; and the 
world is smilingly accepted as it is." (R. L. S.) 

A camping experience should be the privilege of every girl, 
for an outing camp is a place where adolescence has a chance 
for natural, simple, unforced development, and such is the great 
need of girls who are living in a time when the majority of 
them are pushed rapidly on into a whirl of experiences and 
activities. A camp for teen-age girls is of value to the indi- 
viduals and what they acquire there is later expressed in the 
work and the life of the organizations they represent. 

A girl from the city becomes acquainted with a physical, 
rather than a mechanically artificial world; a girl from the 
country gains a deeper, more intelligent and spiritual apprecia- 
tion of the wonderful common, every-day things which are 
about her. Girls learn to know and appreciate the beauty of 
flowers, trees, stars, ferns, and the joy of living out of doors. 
Girls clad alike, in middies and camp clothes, must make good 
on the basis of their own merits. They learn tolerance and 
cooperation and normal friendlinesss with girls outside their 
particular crowd. 

Camp is a place where girls learn to practice the principles 
of idealistic community living, of doing unto others as they 
would have others do unto them. 

557 



A gM sheds all sham with her hair puffs, and God and the 
things that matter most mean much to her; she tries to be her 
best self. A camp of high standards helps girls develop a sense 
of pride in the neatness of their personal appearance, in the 
care of tents and beds, in being prompt at meals and meetings, 
and in being thoughtful of others. Camp life helps to build 
stronger bodies and arouses a desire to keep physically vig- 
orous. 

Camp means the experiencing of new adventures. For most 
girls, a hike out of camp for over night, away from beds and 
tents and mirrors, is a real expedience. The facing of the night 
(as a girl does on a bed she has made from pine needles or 
leaves or gras), when the world seems all stars and sky above, 
usually means the overcoming of some hidden, often not recog- 
nized sensation of strangeness or timidity. It is a competing 1 
of human emotions against the great unknown spaces of nature 
at night. She lies down feeling insignificantly small in the 
midst of a magical starlit world; she rises in the morning to a 
world of fam'iliar divisions of sky and earth and surrounding 
horizon and is filled with a spirit of brave conquest over the 
unknown mysteries of a night. Such experiences add real 
stamina to a girl's character and give her a reserve supply of 
grit, which Will make her more truly fitted to face life squarely. 

Camping out is one of the greatest means of bringing to 
girls a realization of what "abundant life" means. No camp is 
thoroughly successful which does not offer some such oppor- 
tunities as these: to help clear a space and build a rock fire- 
place, to build a dam in a stream, to make a little brush house 
in the woods, to mark a new trail, all such feats help camp ful- 
fill its purpose 'in the building of a girl's life. 

It should offer not only the spiritual experience of the 
majesty of a world which for days and years she has accepted 
unquestioningly but it should mean the development of resource- 
fulness through the overcoming of obstacles and the acquiring 
of a sense of power dn the accomplishing of new feats. Wher- 

568 



ever poss.ble the girls in camp should build or make or create 
something;. 

The value of summer camps to the girls' work of an associa- 
tion, as well as to the individual girl, is so great that no associ- 
ation should be without some provision for camping" activities 
for its girls. 

Camp girls make the best k'ind of nucleus for the organiza- 
tion of new clubs. Such clubs stai$ on a foundation of intense 
loyalty and self-assumed responsibility upon the part of the 
girls. 

The results of a summer camp to organized club work are 
invaluable ; camp girls gain an excellent knowledge of the value 
and fun of group spirit, group action and group loyalty. These 
girls may be depended upon to keep a club up to the best stand- 
ards of spirit and action. 

Organized club work also has a reciprocal value to camp 
life, for a camp made up of club girls has a "head start" in get- 
ting under way. 

There are two kinds of camps; a well equipped permanent 
camp, or an 'informal, week-end or short term camp. Each has 
its place in a program of activities for Girl Reserves. (The 
"Woodcraft Manual for Girls" has invaluable directions for 
planning and carrying out the informal camp.) 

The Problems of Camp. 

Financing a Camp. 

An Association planning a summer camp should first form a 
committee which will determine the approximate cost of "set 
up," and then be responsible for securing this initial amount. 
After a camp is set up it should be self-supporting. To keep 
expenses down at the start, each girl may furnish her own 
bedding and, if necessary, may even bring her own kriif e, fork, 
spoon, plate, cup, saucer, a dish towel and a glass of jelly. (For 
a simple camp budget, see pamphlet "Summer Camps," issued 

569 



by Community Service Incorporated, 1 Madison Avenue, New 
York City; price, 80 cents.) 

The daily work of the camp, such as dish washing, table 
setting, serving 1 , preparing of vegetables, wood gathering, if 
done by the girls, saves paid labor, and helps the camp fulfill 
its end as a place of training. 

The cost per girl by the week should be estimated as reason- 
ably as it is possible to have it and still cover the running ex- 
penses of a season. Data collected shows municipal and associ- 
ation camps financially self-supporting on fees ranging from 
$5 to $7 a week per girl. 

NOTE: A camp committee can not plan to save money in 
the providing of essentials; i. e., plenty of food and sanitary liv- 
ing arrangements. A camp does not need to be luxurious, but 
it should comply with the best standards of sanitation and 
living. 

Location of a Camp. 

The requirements are as follows: 

It should be convenient for the transportation of girls and 
supplies and yet not too close to a town or a resort. (Extensive 
transportation will help to keep a camp from being self-sup- 
porting.) 

It should be a place of beauty, furnishing a change of 
scenery and a change of climate from that of home if possible. 

It should have sufficient level space for games, group sports 
and gatherings. 

There should be a sufficient supply of pure water for drink- 
ing and bathing and the land should have sufficient slope to in- 
sure drainage and sanitation. Selecting a site necessitates ex- 
pert investigation. 

Some usable locations are: 

An informal summer resort leased before or after its 
season. 

570 



Mountain farm or country home. 

Government land leased on low yearly payments. 

Equipment of a Camp. 

The permanent buildings required are: A stout warehouse, 
preferably tin lined; a well-screened diriing room (not essential 
at the start, but desirable); a lodge, some cabins or wooden 
platforms for tents, which are set up each summer some place 
should be provided where all garbage and refuse can be burned 
or buried. Sleeping accommodations: There should be single 
beds only. Iron beds are by far the best investment, as canvas 
cots will not stand the strain for long and will soon have to be 
mended or replaced entirely. In dry climates, girls often sleep 
on beds, which have been arranged in order, outside of the 
dressing tents or cabins. Suggestive miscellaneous equip- 
ment: Where water is not piped, there should be plenty ot" 
water buckets, a water proof hogshead with tight fitting lid to 
hold supply of cooking water, a good supply of folding lanterns 
and candles, hooks to hang clothes on, rope, hammer, nails, axe, 
saw, wash basins, hammocks, Japanese lanterns for special dec- 
orations, a swing, a drum, a bugle or hunter's horn, clear mir- 
rors, make up and "togs" for stunts, pop corn, musical instru- 
ments, paper, pencils, pins, card board and paint, games and an 
athletic equipment, dish towels, mosquito netting, brooms, flags, 
first aid supplies for emergency use, such as cuts, sprains, 
bruises, sunburn, bfbes, poison oak, poison ivy, colds, etc. 

Camp Organization. 

The personnel should include a camp director, who is the 
last authority on any subject, a business manager, a good tem- 
pered, competent cook and assistants, if necessary a nurse, a 
physical director, a handy maii-about-canip, and enough coun- 
selors (secretaries, club advisers or college girls) to have one 
in charge of every ten to fifteen girls). 

Responsibility for planning and directing music, dramatics, 
handicraft and nature study, the leading of Bible or discussion 

571 



groups, and many other activities of the camp should be as- 
signed to counselors, or special leaders. 

The Girls' Share in Organization. 

The camp is divided into units, called companies, tribes or 
any other suitable name, with a counselor for each unit. Each 
unit elects one girl as 'its lieutenant or chief or chairman. These 
chosen girls, one from each company, form the girls' executive 
council of the camp. With the leaders 5 council they are respon- 
sible for helping to maintain the best kind of camp spirit, and 
they help to set up and carry out camp government and neces- 
sary regulations They may elect one from their group as their 
president or chief of the camp. 

Responsibility for camp activities should be shared by all. 
Two methods of accomplishing this are suggested: 

(a) Each division, or unit, is responsible for one activity of 
camp, such as the camp paper or the bon fire, etc., in rotation 
by the day or week, according to the size of the camp and the 
length of time. 

(b) Each company, or unit, elects one of its members to 
serve permanently on each of the various committees of camp 
activities, thus, there will be as many members on each com- 
mittee as there are units in camp. Each committee then elects 
one of its members as chairman for that activity. A counselor, 
or adviser, should be appointed to serve with each one of these 
committees. The following activities should be provided for: 

Good government (provided by girls' executive council). 
Camp paper. 

Citizenship records (camp honors and awards). 
Athletic council. 

Ground squad (clean camp grounds, provide fuel, post 
office, etc. This squad may delegate work to others). 

Camp Activities. 

A camp should have a daily and weekly schedule of events 
which will provide a wholesome variety of things to do; the 
events must be suitable for the surrounding and climate. Ac- 

572 



tivities acceptable in one part of the country are not always 
usable in another. A day's schedule should include: morning: 
plunge and setting up exercises, flag raising and short informal 
assembly, Bible or discussion hour, directed games and athletics, 
hikes and water sports, nature study walks, handicraft, rest 
hour, camp fire. There should be some time left free for play- 
ing at will beside/ a stream or dream'ing under the trees, but 
too much of such free time will result in "loafing" around and 
will quickly spoil the morale of camp. 

Prompt attendance at all regular calls should be the rule of 
every well organized group. Events should be announced by a 
bugle or horn which can be heard all over camp. 

A General Program for a Day at Camp. 

The suggested program here given is intended first of all 
for vacation camps with different groups for one week or two 
week intervals. It would do equally well for all-summer camps. 

An Ideal Day Includes: 

Swedish Drill, 

Flag Raising Exercise, 

Discussion Hour, 

Rest Hour, 

Camp Fire, 

World Fellowship, 

Devotions. 

A Day's Program by Hours: 
7:00 Bugle Call. 
7:30 Flag Raising. 
7:40 Breakfast. 
8:30 Formal Inspection. 
9 .00 Morning devotions and notices. 

Observation Class. 
9:30 to 10:00 Swedish Drill. 
10:00 to 11:30 Recreation. 

573 



11:30 to 12:30 Discussion. 
12:30 Lunch. 

1:30 to 2:30 Rest Hour. 

2:30 to 5:30 Recreation. 

5:45 Dinner. 

6:30 to 7:00 Singing. 

7:00 to 9:00 Camp Fire or Evening 
Recreation. 

9:00 Taps. 

The Camp Paper. 

Its aim is to promote camp spirit by creating the best kind 
of public opinion. 

It offers a good chance for editorials by girls and leaders. 

It is a record of camp events and a place for announcements. 

It is a reporter of camp jokes and a creator of camp mirth. 

A paper is an indispensable pait of camp life. 

A Camp Civic Center. 

This may be very attractive and become one of the popular 
places of camp. The following* may be found there: 

A bulletin board, which is fastened to a tree; it should be an 
artistic part of the surroundings. A board covered with green 
burlap and decorated with fresh leaves or ferns is attractive. 
Camp schedules and announcements; citizenship record honor 
lists, and a poem or thought for the day may be posted there. 

The library should have good stories of adventure and 
romance in the out-of-door, a few classics, some boarding 
school stories, poems, and nature study books (see the G'irl Re- 
serve book list). 

The camp guest book or "log" may be kept in the library. 
This contains all the names of the girls of the camp and their 
guests. 

The Camp Store. 

The camp store should open at regular hours, preferably 



"after dinner. It may be set up in some stout packing boxes. 
Suggested articles for sale are personal necessities, such as 
pins, thread, postal cards, stamps, and a few things to eat, 
such as fruit, graham cookies, chocolate bars and marshmal- 
lows. These are better than rich cakes and candies (see "Sug- 
gestions for a Food Program to Be Used in a Girls' Camp," 
page 581). 

Inspection. 

Inspection of group cabins or tents, beds and all camp 
premises may be made an impressive daily ceremony. The right 
atmosphere is largely created through the bearing and effi- 
ciency of the inspecting party This should include the camp 
director, one other leader and one or two girls who have won 
camp distinction. The Girl Reserve salute may be effectively 
used. The members of each company or unit line up or stand 
by their beds. As the inspecting party arrives, the girl lieu- 
tenant, or chief of the unit, gives the command for attention 
and the Girl Reserves salute. The salute is Keld throughout the 
inspection. The inspectors return the salute. 

At evening camp fire, some recognition is given the com- 
pany having had the best results at morning inspection. A 
Girl Reserve flag may be awarded, which the company may dis- 
play -from their cabin or tent the following day. This goes 
each day to the deserving company. 

Flag Raising. 

Have the girls march briskly from inspection to the flag 
pole, or a place of gathering, where the flag can be held by 
color bearers. Give the salute to the flag and sing the "Star 
Spangled Banner." The Christian flag and Girl Reserve flag 
may also be honored. 

Suggested Flag Raising Exercise. 

The following flags are needed for this exercise: 
The Christian Flag, 
The Star Spangled Banner, 

575 



The Flag of Great Britain, 
The Flag of France, 
The Flag of Italy, 
The Flag of Belgium, 
The Flag of Russia, 
The Flag of China. 

These flags are very easily procurable in size two by three 
feet, which 'is perfectly satisfactory, but not as effective as the 
five by eight feet size, where that can be found. When the very 
small flags have to be used some added detail in the way of 
costume or any other effective decoration might help the little 
ceremony. 

The exercise is conducted as follows: 

The First Morning: Raise the Christian Flag above 
the Stars and Stripes; sing one 
stanza of "The Church's One 
Foundation," or any other appro- 
priate hymn, and all stanzas of 
"The Star Spangled Banner." 

The Second Morning: Raise the Christian Flag and the 
Star Spangled Banner as before, 
and have the "Honor Girl" of the 
previous day carry the flag of 
Great Britain; sing one stanza of 
"The Star Spangled Banner" and 
one stanza of "God Save the 
King" or "Rule Britannia." "Rule 
Britannia" is not as easy to find 
in lists of National Anthems, but 
it has far more spirit than the 
other. 

The Third Morning: Honor the Star Spangled Banner 
and the French flag in the same 

way. 

576 



The Fourth Morning: Honor the Star Spangled Banner 
and the Belgian flag in the same 



Continue morning by morning* until all the flags above men- 
tioned have been honored, and on the last day or on some es- 
pecial day at camp, have a real flag rally with "Honor Girls" 
carrying all the different banners and have all the anthems 
sung. The songs suggested here are available in booklet form, 
published by the Schirmer Company, for twenty-five cents. The 
songs published here are harmonized better than they are in 
most collections, and both the original and the English words 
are given. Wherever it is possible, it seems much better to use 
the words that really belong to the songs than the translations. 
If it is not too strictly carried on it may add amusement and 
enthusiasm to try to become familiar with foreign tongues. 

Citzenship records. 

There are two kinds of citizenship records group and in- 
dividual. The purpose of the individual record is to create, 
through a spirit of fair competition, a desire on the part of every 
girl to make her own mark in camp life by participating in camp 
activities. The purpose of the group record is to further camp 
spirit by appealing to the pride of each unit to do its share in 
the maintenance of camp standards and discipline. The whole 
purpose is to help in the teaching of citizenship habits. 

Honors should include a balanced variety of physical feats, 
mental accomplishments, and social and spiritual expression. 
A record can not be made in any one line, but a certain amount 
of activity must be undertaken 'in each. 

The details must depend upon the ages of girls in camp and 
upon the things necessary and possible to do. But for all camp 
girls there should be some plan of feats and tasks to be 
accomplished with recognition by the use of appropriate in- 
signia. 

577 



Visiting: day. 

If there are to be visitors in camp it is much better to have 
them come on the same visiting day. Special features may be 
arranged for their entertainment, and the whole camp unites 
in being true hostesses. 

Handicraft. 

As all girls are not able to participate in the more strenuous 
activities, and as there should be a choice of things to do, handi- 
ciaft and nature study play a valuable part in camp activities. 
This is especially true if there are foreign girls in camp. For 
nature study suggestions, see Nature Study chapter of the Man- 
ual. Some suggestions for handicraft in camp are: 

Baskets made from pine needles and raffia. 

Clay modeling. 

Wood carving making animals and figures from acorns and 
pine cones. 

Hand made rugs. 

Bead making. 

Dennison crepe paper weaving. 

Bible or discussion groups. 

Some Bible study provision is essential to a complete camp 
program, for there is no place better than out-of-doors for 
natural discussion and interpretation of the Bible. Plans for 
Bible, or discussion classes, should have a place in the very 
first discussions regarding camp, and those to be in charge of 
such groups should make their preparations in advance. Special 
short courses may be arranged carefully from such material 
as "Christian Citizenship for Girls," by Helen Thoburn, "The 
Girls' Year Book," "Out-of-doors in the Bible," by Ethel Cutler. 
For further suggestions see the pamphlet "Keligious Educa- 
tion and the Younger Girl," by Maud Davis, price 35 cents, and 
"Training the Girl Through Worship," by Mabel E. Stone, price 
20 cents, which may be secured from the Womans Press, 600 
Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

578 



The Gamp Fire. 

Sunset and the camp fire go straight to the heart of a girl, 
and 'it is the leader's privilege to make the most of these 
hours. At this time, music, story and silence have each its own 
place. 

An evening camp fire should be merry; the fire should burn 
brightly (see "The Wood Craft Manual for Girls' for fire build- 
ing directions) and the program should be varied. The camp 
fires which are never forgotten are those where something 
deeper than just the play spirit is touched by the effect of some 
fine short talk, a story and good night hymn. 

The lighting of the fire can be a great priv' lege, given each 
night to some special girl, company or unit. The following is 
a simple fire lighting ceremony. Just after sunset the girls 
stand shoulder to shoulder in a circle around the unlighted fire. 
As the camp president lights the fire the girls sing, "Day is 
Dying in the West." 

For the fun of the camp the following may be used: a min- 
strel show, a circus, a good sing song of familiar songs (be 
sure to have copies of words) stunt night, troubadour night 
(songs and poems) a potato bake, individual company frolics, 
a court with judge and jury, a story telling contest, a costume 
party, an evening of songs (patriotic), readings and stories. 

Athletics and Games. 

Play is one of the biggest parts of camp life. The physical 
director should have plenty of help from other leaders and the 
girls' athletic council. There should be carefully planned hikes 
and scheduled contests and games. The entire camp may join 
in a treasure hunt, a game of hare and hounds, a track meet 
or "stalking." (See Camp and Outing Activities, by Cheley & 
Baker). Such games as "duck on the rock," catch of fish, last 
couple out, three deep, run sheep run, are popular. Pro- 
vision should be made for the regular athletic games: volley 
ball, baseball, etc. 

579 



Camp Spirit. 

Camp spirit is the most important part of camp, for it is 
created out of the .total of all the things that happen and are 
in camp. In turn it brings success to every effort and accom- 
plishment. It is dependent upon the following 1 hearty appe- 
tites and good food, jolly human leaders, wise discipline, good 
beds, rest hours well kept, good music and singing, a spirit of 
patriotic reverence for the flag, a spirit of worship and devotion 
'in all services and ceremonials, consideration for authority, care- 
ful organization, and "huge" enjoyment all the time. 

Camp is a wonderful place actually to get some thing into 
the hearts and minds of girls. Sunburn and tan on the outside 
are inevitable, but it is just as inevitable that something happens 
on the 'inside, therefore, one should choose wisely of the things 
of which camp spirit is to be made, for it is the "spirit" of 
the camp that goes into the making of character fibre. 

Books of value on camping, trailing and outdoor cookery are 
as follows: 

Health through Stunts Norton Pearl. 
Handbook for Pioneers Chapter XL 

(The Association Press, 347 Madison Avenue, New York 
City, 75 cents.) 

Camp Cookery Horace Kephart. 

Camping for Boys H. L. Gibson. 

Camping for Girls Jeanette Marks (applies primarily 10 
Eastern section of the country). 

Boy Scout Camp Book Cave. 

Boy Scout Hike Book Cave. 

Manual of Woodcraft and Camping Ernest f Thompson 
Seton. 

Equipment, i. e., knapsacks, puttees, knives, etc., may be 
ordered from: 

Abercrombie and Fitch, Madison Avenue and 45th Street, 
New York City. 

580 



Alexander Taylor, 26 East 42nd Street, New York City. 

A. G. Spalding and Bros,, 126 Nassau Street, New York 
City, Write for catalogues from these three firms. The Aber- 
crombie and Fitch catalog is excellent and most suggestive. 

Suggestions for a Food Program to be Used in Girls' Camps. 
"August is laughing across the sky, 
Laughing while paddle, canoe and I 
Drift, drift, where the hills uplift 
On either side of the current swift." 

In planning the food program for the girl in camp it is well 
to think of the g'irl herself as she comes to you eager and 
enthusiastic, hoping for great returns from her investment, 
anticipating friendship and freedom, a bit shy, maybe, 
and somewhat tired from her year's work in school or the 
shop or the store or office. She is very impressionable maybe 
critical for to her it is a distinct} departure from the con- 
fining hours and walls of her routine life of yesterday, and in 
the change and excitement she may be quite uncertain of her- 
self, or, because of her shyness, exceedingly opinionated. 

It is a time of splendid responsibility and great pleasure 
to the camp director and her counselor and staff. Standards 
are set, ideas are crystallized, new outlooks are given, new 
insight into many strange and different kinds of life. 

A very real contribution to her life can be made in paying 
attention to the care and preparation of the food served three 
times a day at the camp table and to the cheerful atmosphere 
that surrounds it. It is to smooth the way a bit for the camp 
director and her counselors and to help to stimulate the girl's 
interest in her own well-being that these suggestions are offered. 

The freedom from office work and the over-abundance of 
fresh air tend to make the girls very hungry, so that 'it is 
necessary to supply a great abundance of nourishing food at 
regular intervals in a variety that will satisfy their actual 

581 



physical demands. A spoonful of baked beans* one piece of 
bread and butter and tea do not make an adequate meal for 
the growing girl under normal conditions and fall far below 
her needs when she is building new tissues by playing in the 
open air. 

It is necessary to supply her with good building and repair 
material, well cooked meat of unquestionable quality at least 
once a day or its equivalent from the list of meat substitutes, 
remembering that substitutes may replace in part but not com- 
pletely as there are great differences in the nutritive value of 
the proteins derived from different sources. As all the proteins 
from the meat substitutes are inferior to those of meat, it is 
to be understood that while they may substitute in part they do 
not replace. If you select beans or peas for your protein sources 
you should supplement them with cheese, milk and eggs. This 
is necessary to satisfy certain requirements of tissue growth 
which are not met by the protein contents of peas or beans 
alone. 

She must have plenty of green vegetables all the year, and 
since they can be obtained in excellent condition during the sum- 
mer months and so cheaply it is advisable to encourage her 
taste for every kind of vegetable that grows, by taking care 
that they are served to her nicely and, that they are agreeably 
prepared in every possible way, but mainly with only the addi- 
tion of salt and pepper and a little butter. A fresh vegetable 
tastes better if it is cleaned well, cooked in fresh boiling water, 
and served hot and attractively. The water in which vegetables 
have been boiled contains valuable materials, and should be 
used in the preparation of soups and sauces. Teach her to eat 
lettuce and all green salad plants. These can be served to her 
at least once a day; they should be a part of the menu twice 
a day if possible. In order that she may be led to appreciate 
the value of a -plain lettuce salad, it may be advisable to begin 
by adding a coaxer in the way of very much des'red vegetable 
or fruit, but have the lettuce so clean and crisp that it is not 

582 



left on the plate because of the old idea that it was used mainly 
as a garnish. 

Give her plenty of fruit twice a day, served either fresh or 
stewed. The nearby resources for these articles of diet should 
be cultivated intensively, for at least three fresh vegetables 
should be eaten daily. See that the heaviest meal of the day pro- 
vides at least two. Balance the kind of vegetables by serving 
with a starchy vegetable (potato), a leafy vegetable (celery, 
cabbage or lettuce). The colors of vegetables, it so happens, 
gives a fair guide. Red, green and white vegetables will usually 
give an excellently balanced vegetable menu. For example: red, 
beets, tomatoes; green, beans, peas, spinach; white, cauliflower, 
cabbage, etc. 

Promote the milk program for new life by making possible 
the consumption of at least one good, full eight-ounce glass of 
milk each day for each girl. This should be incorporated -every- 
where, but particularly in the program of the camps in the 
Southern States where great strides can be made in the diet 
of the mill village and industrial girl and encouragement given 
toward the production of milk in that part of the country if the 
demand be made. Use mUk in cooking, in white sauces, pud- 
dings, cream dishes and good ice cream. In localities where 
fresh milk is not procurable, certain forms of dried milk may be 
used preferably those containing full butter fat. 

Through the menu during the summer publish abroad the 
value of good bread and real butter. Bread is better than bis- 
cuits or rolls. Not enough of the American energy is derived 
from the use of bread as yet. Not enough bread is used in 
the diet, and by adding this to a vigorous propaganda for fur- 
ther consumption of milk and lettuce during the summer months, 
a great deal will be done toward the cultivation of the right 
kind of menu idea in the thinking of all the girls who have 
come to camp for this period, not only for relaxation, but also 
for new ideas which are educational as well as recreational. 
They will then take back to their own associations, and school 

583 



cafeterias right thoughts on the value of food and will know 
how to choose their lunches wisely. 

Supply the girls with white, brown and whole wheat breads, 
using occasionally corn bread; maybe once during their ten 
days* or two weeks' visit, serve Boston brown bread, and some- 
times bread and brown sugar. Use rice and all the seed grains 
largely, such as oats, barley, peas and beans. Make rice and 
tapioca very attractive, as well as more palatable, by thorough 
cooking and the agreeable additions of fruit flavorings. For 
variety raisins, dates, peaches, apples, plums, etc., as well as 
all the berries, can assist as splendid additions to any of these 
cereal dishes. 

Take care of the body's need of roughage by incorporating 
in the menu bran, apples, with skins on, all root vegetables 
(such as beets, carrots, turnips), cabbage, etc. Give the sensa- 
tion of differentiation in feeling in -the diet by serving at the 
same time foods which are hot and cold, crisp and soft, sweet 
and sour. 

For the necessary vitamines, serve lemonade, orange juice, 
raw milk, fresh eggs, rolled oats and whole wheat dishes. To 
make mastication essential, give the girls an actuality to bite 
into and chew on; as, radishes, olives, and celery. Be sure that 
the water supply is not only very abundant, but that it is easy 
of access, so that the girls can learn the value of and will 
practice the drinking of the necessary six to eight glasses of 
water every day. 

For long day hikes, supply each girl with two good sand- 
wiches, a meat sandwich and a sweet sandwich; five or six good 
prunes, and a bit of cheese. The burden of carrying food all 
day is greatly lessened if each member of the party carries her 
own lunch in a paper bag in her pocket or knapsack, and if she 
does not know until halt is called for lunch what her paper 
bag contains she will be more keen to investigate its contents. 

Give her an opportunity to know the kind of extra foods to 

584 



buy between meals by having at the store on the campground 
good quality fruit of all kinds and a good supply of nuts, the 
dried fruits (figs, dates, raisins) nut-bar chocolate and plain 
biscuits. 

Buying. 

A month or two before the camp opens is the time to 
begin to plan the camp menus and the amounts of supplies 
which are to be ordered and delivered at the camp before 
the first group arrives. Know the number the camp can ac- 
commodate, whether it be fifty or less, or up to one hundred and 
fifty or more. The time of visitation of each guest is limited 
to one week, two weeks, or, in some cases to a period of only 
ten days duration. Therefore the number expected for the 
entire season can be readily estimated, keeping in mind the 
number of the staff and counselors who swell the number in the 
camp family. Then, after due consultation with people who 
know the individual peculiarities of the dishes obtaining in the 
particular locality the camp secretary should make a suggested 
list of the kinds of "contained goods" she proposes to use in the 
menus, basing the amounts on the requirements as outlined in 
Miss Emma Smedley's book, Institutional Management, third 
edition, revised in 1919, for a family of one hundred and fifty 
and using Miss Frances Lowe Smith's two books, Recipes for 
Fifty and More Recipes for Fifty, if this number is adequate 
for your needs. For a household averaging one hundred and 
fifty persons- per meal per day, plan to use containers com- 
mercially called ''gallon, or no. 10." In ordering, add to the 
number of dozen-gallon cans of each commodity a few dozen of 
smaller containers called commercially "No. 3" or "No. 2." The 
quantity and kind of canned goods to be bought depends ab- 
solutely upon the neighborhood. Generally speaking, the fol- 
lowing list will be fairly comprehensive in making a selection. 

No. 10, gallon cans of: 

Tomato, corn, peas, string beans, butter 
beans, baked beans, kidney beans, spinach, 

585 



tomato pulp; jam, jelly and marmalade 
catsup syrup, molasses; 
pineapple, peaches, pears, plums, berries, 
cherries, fruit butters. 
In 5~gallon or 10-gallon containers: 
Olive oil, vinegar, pickles, relishes, 
olives. 

No. 3 or No. 2 cans of the limited amount purchased should 
be used to tide over depression points between the departure 
and arrival of groups when the household is very small, and also 
in case a few extra people drop in for a meal just at meal time. 

Unless the camp is very, very small and the patronage able 
to reimburse it, do not purchase jams, jellies, etc., in small 
glass containers. They will prove too expensive for the budget. 
The above kinds of food should be received, checked up, and 
stored, in a locked store-room before the season begins. Energy 
can then be directed to getting the perishables delivered at camp 
on time, in good condition; the greatest variety possible should 
be secured. 

In making the menu for the day, be sure to plan the food 
so that it will give each girl at least 2,500 calories per day. 
Notice that in Miss Smedley's book each rule is calculated to 
give the protein contents in the entire recipe and in each por- 
tion, and also the value in calories for the group and for the 
individual. This is very important to put into action every 
day. 

The books mentioned above will form a splendid nucleus and 
reference library for the food program, and, as all the rules 
indicated in them have been used very many times, the amounts 
specified are pretty conclusively correct. The results will de- 
pend entirely upon the adaptability and skill with which the 
cook will follow directions and combine the various ingredients 
IE the manner described. 

Because very much milk, good butter and eggs will be used, 
it would be well, some time before the camp settles down for 

586 



the summer, to make a survey of the farming- district near 
the camp with a view to obtaining 1 these fresh supplies from 
the nearby farmer at regular intervals. In most parts of the 
country he may be depended upon also to give you a pretty 
good variety of fresh vegetables as the season progresses. If 
there are good storage facilities, an ice house or a good refrig- 
erator, fresh meat can be delivered from the town two or three 
times a week. Where storage facilities are not available, ar- 
rangements for daily deliveries of fresh meats will have to be 
made. 

If fruit is plentiful serve fresh fruit as much as possible 
at least once a day, and twice if it can be afforded. Fruit for 
breakfast may be berries or melons or stewed prunes or apple 
sauce or baked apples, occasionally stewed apricots and once 
in a while stewed figs. 

Use as dessert, either for noon or night, the following com- 
binations: Stewed rhubarb with plain cookies, apple sauce with 
gingerbread, honey with hot biscuits, jam with crackers. Use 
originality so that the combinations do not recur at stated 
intervals. One ten-day menu repeated three times in a month 
gives variety and is less tedious than a seven-day menu where 
corned beef and cabbage are served on Thursday as regularly 
as the day appears. 

Adapt to a menu the best kind of food that the district 
provides and supplement it to make a well balanced menu for 
the entire season by having on hand what can be successfully 
obtained these days and used because of the variety and quality 
that is conserved now in lacquered cans. 

As a general rule, in preparing the menu to give proper 
balance, remember that about twice as many calories should 
come from the carbohydrates vegetables, cereals, flour and 
starchy food and sugar as from butter, oils, cream and other 
fats. Use about the following proportions: 

587 



Protein 250 Calories 

Fat 750 

Carbohydrates 1500 " 



Total 2500 

The following is a list of proteins, each of which furnishes 
one hundred calories: 

1 Small dish of baked beans 

1 Small dish of sweet corn 

1 Large potato 

1 Ordinary slice of bread 

1 Large dish of oatmeal 

1 Lamb chop 

1 Large egg 

1 1-2 Cubic inches of cheese 

1 Small piece of sponge cake 

1 1-2 Lumps of sugar 

1 Dozen peanuts 
8 Pecans 

1 Large banana 
4 Prunes 

2 Apples 

1-2 Cantaloupe 

7 Olives 

1 Large orange 

1 Ordinary pat of butter 

1 Small glass of milk 

1-4 Glass of cream 

1-3 of Piece of pie 

588 



M 



CHAPTER XV. 

CONFERENCES 

ANY years ago, in the days when the Kingdom of 
Friendly Citizens was but a name written upon the 
sands of Galilee, a group of friends, leaving their moored boats 
and their little shops, held some conferences together. They 
were all busy men, and sometimes they could find no time save 
at the end of the day's work for meeting this Master Friend 
of theirs. Almost always it was under the sky that they met 
Him. The stories that He told were all of growing things 
lilies and vineyards and little children. And so, along country 
lanes, up steep mountain paths, by the side of still waters, He 
led them, talking about another growing thing the dream 
of all His life. For He dreamed a dream of a new order in 
which all the people of the world would share in a friendly 
citizenship. And these walks and talks of the long ago were 
the very beginning of summer conferences." 

To-day in many parts of the world, people still gather to 
tell their experiences in helping bring to pass that "new order." 
There are yet many vexing problems which delay its coming 
and dreams must be dreamed and deeds done before all the 
people of the world can share in a friendly citizenship. To 
further this, there have been many such gatherings or confer- 
ences in the history of the Association's work with girls. There 
have been week-end conferences, seven-day conferences, and 
ten-day conferences. There have been conferences for high- 
school girls alone, for younger girls in business and industry 
alone, and for private school girls alone; there have been con- 
ferences that contained as many or as few of those groups as 

589 



the law of permutation allows. Sometimes all the girls have 
come from one city, sometimes all from one county or one 
state or again, from several states. 

Neither has the variety ceased with length of time or type 
of girl or locality concerned. Anyone who wished to run the 
gamut of experience on conference grounds might find herself 
once in a new camp equipped with pup tents and only 'two cot- 
tages, where girls had to he hung up on hooks to dry when it 
rained. Here, however, a literal garden of the gods (though 
they called it the devil's den) provided a majestic assembly hall. 
Then she might go to 'a perfectly appointed spot in the Rockies, 
or another among the softer outlines of the Blue Ridge Moun- 
tains, or to any one of several ideally located and equipped 
field camps in the north and east. Or again she might find 
herself using all of her ingenuity in caring for one hundred 
and fifty girls with an improvised kitchen a dining room with 
no roof but the great blue sky, and with only the stars for 
candles at night. 

The pinnacle of perfection in her experience might possibly 
be the place that is the property of all Association girls, that 
has rocky coast and mountain view and sunshine and invigorat- 
ing air, that has tent houses of just the right size, and an 
assembly hall whose great window frames a matchless picture 
of rocks and sea and sky. 

Experience has proved neither equipment nor lack of equip- 
ment necessarily makes a "successful conference," A confer- 
ence is like a home it is what it is because someone has 
dreamed a dream or has seen a vision of what ten days can do 
for a girl's living and thinking, and has set out to make real 
her dream, in spite of inconveniences. Beauty of surroundings 
and the right environment produced more easily by such 
mechanical aids as a well equipped dining room and proper bath- 
ing and rooming facilities are never to be minimized, for again 
experience is showing the Young Women's Christian Associa- 

590 



tion that the fabric of a girPs dreams often takes its pattern 
from standards which she sees maintained in a conference. 

In spite of this great variety of time and place all con- 
ferences have a common purpose: To bring girls into personal 
relationship with each other in community life; to give them 
sympathetic knowledge of girls in other circumstances and in 
other lands; to help break down the dividing wall between girls 
and their older advisers; to train girls so to grasp the signifi- 
cance of what they are doing that they think for themselves and 
assume direct responsibility for the success of their clubs; all 
of these phases contributing toward an understanding on the 
part of each girl of what her life can be when lived according 
to the principles of Jesus Christ, accompanied by a deep sense 
of His friendship. 

One of the ways in which the conference fulfills part of its 
conference purpose and thereby part of the purpose of the 
Association's work with girls, to develop initiative and respon- 
sibility among the girls themselves is through the Girls' Coun- 
cil. Such a council consisting of five to fifteen girls is elected 
by the girls at a summer conference and is given the task of 
preparing the material, around which the various forum or 
council hours of the next conference will center. Sometimes 
this material is secured by the commission plan of work; to 
one or more groups of girls in different communities is assigned 
a topic such as "Health" or "School Standards" and the club 
members evolve questions which are sent to all clubs included 
in the personnel of the conference. From their responses, which 
are generally returned to the council within three months after 
their submission, an outline, more or less complete, is. made 
and to this is directed the discussion in the summer conference 
forum hours for delegates. 

What girls shall be sent to a conference and how they shall 
be chosen are questions of great importance to secretaries and 

591 



advisers. If the real purpose of a girls' conference is to be 
fulfilled, too young or too immature a girl should not be 
sent as a delegate. 

The very nature of most conferences makes it impossible for 
a girl under fourteen to enter into the fellowship of the group. 
She neither shares nor receives. The difficulty of the necessary 
adjustment to new surroundings, and often an attack of home- 
sickness, prove that this younger girl should be seasoned by 
the experiences of a good local camp, and perhaps a week-end 
conference before she is chosen to represent her club at any 
gathering so important in its possibilities as a summer con- 
ference. There are many elements which enter into the election 
of delegates to a summer conference, such as attractive per- 
sonality, good scholarship standards, constructive committee or 
general club work, and the item of expense (for the sending 
of a delegate to a summer conference represents a considerable 
investment, from which most clubs desire and need to reap a 
return.) 

Of course, a week-end conference must have a more con- 
densed and specialized program than ten days in a summer one; 
so very often a week-end conference takes but one phase of the 
Association purpose and intensifies it, building its program 
around a theme like "Christian Citizenship," which is self- 
explanatory, or "How wide is your world?" which takes into 
account all the phases of world fellowship. The summer con- 
ference on the other hand, takes a more general theme ; for in- 
stance, "Following Jesus/' "How a Christian would play 'Fol- 
low the Leader* to-day," "There are as many ways to God as 
there are human hearts," and "Keepers of the Light." 

Two typical programs are given here, the first a week-end 
conference, and the second a ten-day summer conference. 

592 



I. 

HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS' WEEK-END CONFEEENCE PROGRAM 

Conference Theme "Make Your Light to Be in Readiness." 
Friday Evening, 7:30 P. M. 

"How Do You Do?" 
"The Same to You"-- 

For the Girls. 

For the Advisers. 
Selection. 

Senior Double Quartet. 

"Make Your Light to be in Readiness," an address. 
Hymn. 

"Who's Here, and How Many Do You Know?" (A Get- 
Acquainted Hour in the gymnasium.) 

Saturday Morning, 9:00 A. M. 
Devotional Service. 
"Getting Acquainted with Real People in the Bible," and "How 

to Introduce Them to the Girls at Home." 
(Five minutes recess. Without moving from your seat, learn 

the names of ten new girls.) 
"Vocational Guidance." 

Intermission. 

"Girls of Other Lands in Our Country." 

"Girls of Other Lands in Their Own Countries." 

Luncheon. 

Saturday Afternoon, 1:30 P. M. 
"Positive Health." 
Committee Meetings the Wrong and Right Ways to Conduct 

Them. 
Council Hours. 

Standards for the High School Girl. 
Presidents of Clubs. 
Program Committee. 

593 



Service Committee. 

Social Committee. 

Membership Committee. 

Appointment of Commissions to report at the Summer Con- 
ference. 
Tea. 

Saturday Evening-, 7:00 P. M. 
Banquet. 

Toastmistress. * 

Recreation Hour. 
Y. W. C. A. Moving- Pictures. 

Sunday Morning-. 

11:00 A. M. The Conference will attend worship together. 
3 P. M. Closing Meeting. 

"The Living Flame We Carry." 
Discussion Hours. 
Adult Leadership. 

Saturday 11:30 to 12:00 With Girls' Work Secretaries. 
1:00 to 1:30 With Advisers. 

3:00 to 4:00 Whole Group "Religious Education 
for the High School Girl." 

II. 

SUMMER CONFERENCE FOR GIRLS OF HIGH SCHOOL AGE 
Conference Personnel. 

Executive 

Hostess 

National Board Representative 

Field Representatives 

Recreation Director 

Assistant Recreation Director 

Director of Music 

Pianist 

Physician 

Nurse 

594 



Daily Schedule. 

Rising Bell 6:45 

Breakfast 7:30 

Inspection 8:45 

Flag Raising 9:00 

Morning Assembly 9:20 9:35 

Bible Classes 9:45 10:30 

Athletics and Drills 10:4511:30 

(Forum Hour on Girls' Work Technique for Sec- 
retaries and Advisers.) 

Girls' Council Hour 11:4512:20 

Lunch 12:30 

Quiet Hour 2:00 3:00 

Recreation 3:00 5:00 

Supper 6:00 

Camp Fires 8:00 

Taps 9:30 

Daily Bible Classes. 

Sunday, 11:00 a. m., June 29 Sand Dune Service. 
Sunday, 11:00 a. m., July 6 Chapel Service. 

Camp Fires 8 P. M. 

Saturday "All Aboard" ^ 

Sunday "A Message From France" 

Monday 
Tuesday 

Wednesday "What Am I Going to Be" 

Thursday "Things That Matter Most" 

Friday "Girl Citizens of the World/' a Fourth of 
July Fantasy All Citizens of Girls' Camp. 
Saturday 

Every Night 

(Camp Movie) Continuous Performance. 
Reel I Beach Parties 

505 



Reel II Shadow Pictures 

Reel III Sing Songs 

Reel IV Stories 

Reel V Slumber Party (regular performance). 

The week-end conference, which is coming to be distinguished 
by the title "week-end council," is usually planned and financed 
by the Field Committee. The section of the field where it is 
held is determined by a sufficient development of club work to 
make it advisable; the actual city or town is often decided by 
the delegation first extending its invitation to a council already 
in session. Elaborate plans are made for the entertainment of 
the girls in the homes of the city, and the visitors number from 
seventy-five to three or four hundred. All the detail of arrang- 
ing to have registrations made and the girls delivered safely at 
the homes of their hostesses is assumed by the entertaining 
Association, The banquet, which is an important feature, is 
held either in the Association building or in the parish house 
of a hospitable church. If the conference lasts until .Sunday 
night the girls are guests on Sunday morning at some church 
where the sermon has been prepared especially for them. Each 
year a larger number of local colleges offers entertainment for 
an afternoon or an evening, and new business houses lend ex- 
hibits of suitable clothing for girls of high school age, of inter- 
esting works of art, or of something else illustrative of a confer- 
ence objective. The aid of the community in making such 
programs supremely effective is more freely offered and more 
valuable each year. 

As the simpler week-end council theme is more nearly self- 
explanatory than that of the longer conference, so the council 
program needs less interpretation ; and it is to the detail of the 

596 



ten-day summer conference program that this chapter will be 
particularly devoted from this point. 

The background is the camp, with the usual camp routine 
of flag-raising, inspection of tents, activities of recreation and 
nature study, quiet hours, and with its honor system of self- 
government. The personnel therefore includes a counselor 
group, one of these older advisers for each fifteen girls at most. 
The camp organization is according to different localities one 
of the following types: 

Military Divided into battalions, companies and squads, each 
smaller group with its girl officer, each largest group with 
its adviser who bears a military title. 

Scottish Divided into clans, its girl officers and older ad- 
visers called clansmen and chieftans. 

Indian Divided into tribes, each tribe given an Indian name 
and the officers and advisers given Indian titles. 

The last-named form of organization is the most easily 
adaptable to symbolism. At the opening of the conference a 
big circle of bare totem poles stands in front of the central 
wigwam or assembly hall, each pole the property of a tribe. As 
conference days go on and honors increase in number, for 
self-control in the matter of candy-buying, for the perfect keep- 
ing of quiet hour, and other camp rules, for individual achieve- 
ment in athletics, the poles become more and more decorated 
with totems symbolic of these attainments until the final reckon- 
ing comes. Then the last night at the closing ceremony a great 
circle of tribes sits each behind its tiny unlighted camp fire and 
its highly decorated totem pole. The towering- central fire, 
as it burns, lights the faces of the speakers of the occasion, 
the honor bestower, and the leader who in her closing talk in- 
terprets the meaning of the days that are already past and 
her hope of far-reaching results for good as the conference 
influence spreads. Tribal messengers come at a signal, to light 
their torches at the central blaze, and then go with them held 

597 



aloft, each to light her own tribal fire. At last the girls stand, 
join hands and form a circle outside the fires and renew their 
conference covenant, and sing their farewells. 

In an increasing number of conferences, flag-raising departs 
from simple camp etiquette to become a world fellowship for- 
mality. Each day a new flag is run up the pole until at last 
the national emblems of all the countries where Association 
work is done have their place beneath the flag of the Christian 
Church Single stanzas of appropriate national anthems are 
sung 1 , in English or in the original, according to the resources 
of the conference membership. 

Out of deference to numbers and to the fact that the girls 
in attendance are delegates honored by increasingly narrowed 
selection as our general membership increases, the usual morn- 
ing prayers of camp life develop for conference use into a 
more formal morning assembly. 

At the close of this devotional service the girjs scatter to 
meet leaders for Bible discussion. The subjects of conference 
Bible courses follow the conference theme. 

This program cannot be planned as simply as a camp pro- 
gram for girls who are self -entertaining. Each girl as a dele- 
gate from a club that has spent some of its winter time in 
raising money to pay her expenses is responsible for carrying 
back to her club what the conference has given her. This, of 
course, places a heavy responsibility too upon those who plan 
the details of conference days. The program is intended to 
deal with all sides of the girl's life. In the middle of the morn- 
ing the girls rest from one kind of study by trying another. 
A trained recreation leader teaches them games or folk dances 
in such a way as to prepare them to go home and help run their 
own club recreation for the winter; or by gradually working 1 
out in rehearsal a pageant to be given on one of the last even- 
ings, she teaches them the simple details of pageant produc- 
tion. 

598 



Nothing* gets much momentum without good machinery. 
Club membership does not reach miraculous numbers without 
effort. Club funds for service do not grow on community trees, 
nor do all the bright ideas occur to one little group of girls. 
In the fall, after three thousand girls get back from many con- 
ferences, social evenings that a club in western Pennsylvania 
originated and worked on start a winter program booming for 
a club in eastern Maryland; a clever community service plan or 
an infallible method of filling the club treasury appears in 
Denver, with eastern Kansas primarily responsible; a club in 
Alabama puts added meaning into a whole year because of 
enthusiastic Bible classes that learned their secret from Mis- 
sissippi girls; an orphaned baby in Chicago finds itself sud- 
denly showered with gifts and attention because the girls in 
high school club there learned what fun another city had had 
doing just that a year before. The place for exchanging all 
these suggestions is the daily hour before lunch, when an open 
forum to study club technique is run by club girls, with a sec- 
retary as referee. This hour was once planned by leaders; now 
in sufficiently developed conferences a council of five or six 
girls from different cities is appointed one summer to work 
during the winter and report at the following conference and 
a president for the council is elected at the same time. Com- 
missions are appointed for the study of particular club problems 
and situations that arise in school life needing intelligent dis- 
cussion. In the ideal working out of this plan the girls' sugges- 
tions go directly to the Field Secretary for Younger Girls and 
are woven into the program. A round table for discussion of 
leaders' technique is also conducted and on special days the two 
groups meet together. 

Through cooperation with the Bureau of Social Education of 
the National Board a health program is put on at each confer- 
ence with constantly * increasing effectiveness. Every dele- 
gate is given a thorough physical examination by a com- 
petent physician,, and is told her weak points and how 

599 



to improve her condition. The whole group of girls is stimu- 
lated to a greater interest in health as a major responsibility 
for a Christian citizen by a series of well-planned talks. 

As the main spring and vital point of each conference pro- 
gram a series of talks is arranged, to be given by the wisest 
and most sympathetic of Association and Church leaders in re- 
gard to the things which matter most in the Christian faith, 
and an opportunity is given for talking over together the ques- 
tions which arise during conference days. 

The accomplishment of much of the conference ideal is far 
ahead. Toward it, The Girl Reserves of America, advisers and 
club members together, are steadily working. 



- CHAPTER XVI, 

THE PLACE OF SERVICE ACTIVITIES IN THE GIRL RESERVE 
MOVEMENT. 

THE purpose of all service work in a club program should 
be to train girls to understand the meaning of service 
and to find a practical application of this meaning through 
adequate and worthy pieces of work. 

"Not what we give but what we share, 
For the gift without the giver is bare." 

This is the essence of service and should be a fact which is 
brought early to girls in their individual and club experience. 
So often the most effective service seems to be that which is afar 
off. The little things at home and in the community so very 
frequently seem of slight value, when in reality they matter 
most, and require more of the real spirit of service. One of the 
most important things to realize to-day is that good national 
service is dependent upon intelligent community service. "Serv- 
ice in the large" is impossible until "service in the small' 7 is un- 
derstood. 

600 



Any club in facing its service program for the year will be 
able to give social service training by some such program as the 
following: 

I. Talks given by outside speakers trained in social serv- 
ice work, on such subjects as: Americanization, Con- 
ditions in Foreign 'Countries, The Work of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross, World Fellowship and Work Among 
the American Indians. 

II. Discussions based on such subjects as: 
Attitude Toward Foreign Girls. 

World Work of the Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion. 

China and Her New Interest in Health or the 
Development of Younger Girl Work in City Associ- 
ations in China, South America, Japan, India or the 
several European countries. 

III. Visits for the purpose of observation to settlements, 
hospitals, orphan homes. 

There Are Three Kinds of Service Work: 

I. The earning, and spending of money earned, by group 

effort. 

II. The specific pieces of community or national or world 
service which may be done by the committee as a whole 
or by individual girls outside of the regular club meet- 
ing. 

III. The concrete service work done at the regular club 
meeting. Money may be earned by a club through 
parties, concerts/ circuses, etc., and spent for com- 
munity needs such as: 

(a) Children in hospitals. 

(b) Old ladies in old ladies' homes. 

(c) Orphans in orphanages. 

(d) To help settlement workers in their work among 
neighborhood children. 

(e) Filling baskets for the poor. 

601 



(f ) Magazines to be given to homes and hospitals. 

(g) Stamps for mailing letters written to people who 
need the friendliness. 

In whatever way the money which is to be spent for com- 
munity service is earned, advisers and secretaries should relate 
the effort to the suggested standards for earning money as 
found on page 784, 

Concrete service may be expressed in many ways. Any ef- 
fort to serve groups of needy people in any community should 
be carefully planned with the organized community agencies, 
such as the Associated -Charities, Superintendents of Homes for 
the Aged and Superintendents of Hospitals. 

The following suggestions have been grouped under three 
g-eneral headings: Community Service, National Service, World 
Service. 

Community Service: 

For Children. 

1. Make scrapbooks. 

2. Dress dolls. 

3. Supply Valentines for children in the children's wards 
of hospitals. 

4. Conduct a story hour for younger girls at the Young 
Women's Christian Association or afc a Settlement 
House, Children's Home, or a Library every Saturday 
for three months at least. 

5. Make a Jack Horner pie filled with toys for the chil- 
dren in the children's ward in hospitals. 

6. Care, during the afternoons, for children whose moth- 
ers are at work In some communities where economic 
pressure has brought many mothers into industry, 
groups have been organized to care for the children of 
these women, and club girls can be of great help in such 
instances. If such organized groups do not already exist 
in a community, it may be a chance for girls to start 
the movement. 

602 



7. Provide milk for the school children in the lower gram- 
mar grades of a large city. 

8. Raise enough money to send a baby from a needy family 
to a baby camp. 

9. Endow a bed in a children's hospital. 

10. Fill stocking's for children at Christmas. 

11. Fill Thanksgiving and Christmas baskets. 

12. Help the director at a play ground. 

13. Raise money for support of Belgian, Near East, or 
French orphans. 

14. Give parties at Orphans 7 Homes. 

For the Church. 

1. Put flowers in the church on Sunday. 

2. Conduct a Kindergarten at the Church during the hours 
for the regular service. Many mothers will be able to 
go to service if they know good care is being given to 
the small children. 

3. Offering the services of a club to the Church. 

In some communities this very practical work may 
not seem necessary. However, hymn books and Bibles 
are quite frequently in need of mending of backs and 
torn pages, and erasing pencil maiks. 

4. Promotion of class welfare and friendly oversight of 
class members. 

5. Personal interest in the boys and girls of the church. 

6. Ushering. 

7. Rally the young people to attend church functions. 

8. Earn money for a church Christmas tree. 

9. Buy collection plates or a communion service or other 
equipment for a church. 

10. Help to pay church debt. 

General Community Service. 

1. Some girls' clubs may be interested in gardening and 
canning. The vegetables which they raise and the fruit 

603 



and jellies which they preserve will be very acceptable 
gifts to Orphans' Home and Homes for Old People in 
their immediate communities or nearby cities. 

Secure Farmers' Bulletin No. 839 and Department 
Circular No. 3 and descriptive pamphlets from the Di- 
rector of Boys' and Girls' Extension Work, through the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, D, C. 
These pamphlets contain material about the drying of 
vegetables and the one-period cold pack method. Also 
secure any publications of the Extension Department 
of the State Agricultural School. 

2. Make baby layettes for the local Charity Association. 

3. Sew for a charitable organization in the community. 

4. Make attractive handkerchiefs to take to an Old Ladies' 
Home for Easter. 

5. Pack candy boxes for a community Christinas tree. 

6. Have a safety pin shower for a Baby Hospital. 

7. Make garments for the Needlework Guild in your com- 
munity, to be distributed by them. 

8. Make bouquets for the aged people at the poor farm or 
other institutions. 

9. Cooperation with the Civilian Relief, Home Service Sec- 
tion of the American Red Cross. See your local chapter 
executive and ask whether there are any children of 
men who have been in service who need clothing or books 
or toys. The closest cooperation is necessary in work 
of this kind and it should be done only under the direc- 
tion of this branch of the American Red Cross. 

10. Make afghans of knitted woolen squares and give to a 
city mission or to some organization working for needy 
people. 

11. Girl Reserves in towns have a great opportunity to help 
make attractive the woman's waiting rooms in the 
railway stations. Posters and. comfortable chairs can be 
supplied and some reading matter. 

12. Start a clean-up brigade. 

604 



13. Furnish a rest tent at a fair or town picnic. 

14. Keep up the park in small towns, 

15. "Fly killing' 7 or other insect pest campaigns. 

16. Mend clothes for an Orphans' Home. 

17. Make garments for children's home, hospitals and other 
social service institutions in the community. 

18. Sing and entertain at the Old People's Home. 

19. Help the community to obtain a circulating library. 

20. Make a Birds' Christmas tree. After Christmas, when 
the tree is dismantled, do not throw it away but fasten 
biscuits and perhaps an ear of corn and some small bits 
of suet to its branches and set it up in open space. 

21. Sometimes club girls need to know the resources of their 
own communities before they can do good community 
service. Have each club member make a list of the 
names and locations of the institutions in her com- 
munity which stand ready to help a tubercular person, 
people needing food, fuel, clothing, an orphan, a truant 
scholar, etc. 

For the School. 

1. Tell stories at the schoolhouse. 

2. Buy playground apparatus for a school yard, or put in 
a tennis court and shrubs. 

3. Put in electric lights and wastebaskets in a school. 

4. Friendly visiting become acquainted with new girls in 

school. 

5. Have a party for lonesome girls who are new in the 

school community. 

6. Help to furnish a rest room for the girls in your school, 
providing comfortable chairs, and the latest current 
magazines which are standard. 

7. Serve as guides about the High School building for the 
new Freshman girls, helping them to get their classifi- 
cations. 

8. Furnish new curtains and a window box for the school 
rooms. 

605 



9. Put sanitary soap containers and towels into the schools. 

For Sick People and Invalids. 

1. Send flowers or food to the sick or old people in the 
community. 

2. Plan automobile rides for shut-ins and convalescents. 

3. Visit sick girls. 

4. Wheel invalid chairs. 

5. Give entertainments, reading 1 , speaking' or playing for 
the inmates of city hospitals. 

6. Distribute flowers and fruit to hospitals and homes. 

7. Make "Surprise Bags" filled with little presents, cards, 
stories, etc. 

8. Make May Day baskets for shut-ins. 

9. Trim little Christmas trees for patients in a city hos- 
pital. 

For the Young Women's Christian Association. 

1. Entertain other clubs or corps. 

2. Have a Cosmopolitan Party, each member of the corps 
or club bringing a boy or girl of another nationality. 

3. Have a towel shower for the Young Women's Christian 
Association, bringing dish towels, bath towels and hand 
towels. 

4. During the summer months, help to keep the Young 
Women's Christian Association Cafeteria attractive by 
providing fresh flowers daily for a month. 

5. Make a Christian flag and present it to the local Girls 
Work Department. 

6. Share in the Association's efforts to provide secre- 
taries' support and equipment for Association centers 
in foreign lands. 

For National Service. 

1. Help the American Bed Cross put on its Christmas Sale 
of Seals. 

606 



2. Earn money for the American Red Cross by selling arti- 
ficial red poppies on Armistice Day. Use white baskets 
with Red Cross insignia on them to hold the poppies. 

8. Preparation of Christmas baskets or boxes to be sent to 
Indian schools. For a list of such schools write to the 
Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City. 

4. Sending of clothing, books, games for use with immi- 
grant children detained at the Ellis Island Immigration 
.Station. Address such articles to the Immigration Sta- 
tion, Ellis Island, New York. 

5. 'Share with other members of the corps or clubs in the 
observance of National Child Labor Day. Write to the 
National Child Labor Committee, 105 East Twenty- 
second Street, New York City, for suggestions. 

For World Service. 

1. Help the Near East Relief Committee, New York City, 
by securing clothing for help in the support of orphans, 
who need food and clothing and education. 

2. Help your corps or club to earn money for a scholarship 
or a portion of it for the training of one or more girls 
from foreign countries to be Y. W. C. A. Secretaries. 

(For information regarding this scholarship write the 
Bureau for Work with Younger Girls, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City.). 

3. Pledge and earn money to furnish a student's room at 
, the National Training School of the Young Women's 

Christian Association in Shanghai, China. 

4. Make an attractive kodak book to send to a girls' club 
in some foreign country. Include pictures of the Asso- 
ciation building, the club rooms, and good times on pic- 
nics , hikes and at conferences. 

5. Send Conference letter 1 , illustrated with pictures to girls 
in China or Japan or India who are just beginning to 
experience the joys of a conference. Send this letter to 

607 



the Foreign and Overseas Department, 600 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City, and it will be forwarded to the 
designated country. 

Some agencies which offer channels for service work are: 
American Relief Administration: Herbert Hoover, 
Chairman; Edgar Richard, Director, 42 Broadway, 
New York City. 

Serbian Child Welfare Association of America: Wm. 
Jay Schieffelin, Chairman; C. 0. Dunaway, Executive 
Secretary, 7 West Eighth Street, New York City. 
Near East Relief Committee: Charles V. Vickery, 
Manager, 1 Madison Avenue, New York City. 
Write direct to these agencies for splendid publicity 
regarding their plan to raise funds to meet the needs 
of the suffering people of Europe and the Near East. 
Cooperate with their local agents in every effort to in- 
terest the community in these plans. 

When club members are not working for honors, the list of 
honors under the heading Service will furnish many good sug- 
gestions for practical service, to be undertaken in the home, 
school, church and nation. 

To serve more willingly 

Where there is need; 
To do more thoughtfully 

Each act and deed. 

To work more joyfully 
Through every day. 
To strive more lovingly 

To live Christ's way. 



608 



Section VI. 

THE LEADERSHIP OF THE GIRL RESERVE MOVEMENT. 

CHAPTER I. 

QUALIFICATIONS 

IN a thousand valleys and on a thousand hills, girls are be- 
ing made or marred," says a thoughtful leader of leaders 
to-day, while almost like an antiphona! response conies the 
statement of another leader of leaders that one who leads is 
the "foremost companion," If this is true, what then are the 
qualities which help leaders to "make" girls rather than "mar" 
them, which make for companionship that guides, counsels and 
strengthens, rather than a leadership which kills initiative and 
eliminates joyousness, the rightful possessions of youth. 

To name all of the qualities which most people would indi- 
cate as essentials for leadership would be not only an almost 
endless task, but the very character of these qualities might lead 
a prospective adviser of girls to believe that she would be in- 
capable of the very leadership which it is desirable and neces- 
sary that she undertake. Some of them are: the ability to sub- 
ordinate one's personality so that the personality of others will 
have a chance to develop; a belief in tho potential goodness of 
girls and the unchanging faith to believe this, no matter what 
happens; the power of infinite attachment and infinite detach- 
ment; the ability to understand different types of girls, such 
as the "chronic objector," the shy girl, the busy girl and the 
"make-many promises" girl, the untidy girl and the frivolous 
girl, and to meet sympathetically their problems; the knowledge 
of how to win a girl's confidence and then to respect it, and the 

609 



purpose to interpret the essential things in life in such an un- 
derstanding: way that she may use the commonest of every-day 
experiences to bring to the girl a clearer knowledge of her rela- 
tion to God and to life as a whole. 

Thoughtful consideration of the first of these suggested qual- 
ities reveals a number of elements which usually are mentioned 
as qualities in themselves, yet they come to their greatest power 
when directed into some such interpretation as stated above; 
imagination, ingenuity and initiative are essential to the person- 
ality of an adviser. However an adviser should bear in mind 
that these are the very qualities which she seeks to develop in 
girls; a club is not really a girls 7 club if an adviser is its 
"backbone." 

An adviser must be a scene-shifter and not a star. The 
triumphant feeling of many a person over some success of her 
club might be changed were she honestly to ask herself how 
much of it was due to her own thinking and planning and work 
and how much to the girls themselves. Responsibility for lead- 
ership and for general club work put upon the girls, through 
good committee work, is the keynote of a successful club. Then 
and then only, does the club really seem "our club." The devel- 
opment of this club spirit takes patience and constant work 
with committees. Discouraging moments, sometimes failures, 
are bound to come, but in the end it is worth all the effort. 

Such club spirit is also dependent upon the realization on the 
part of an adviser that she belongs to the entire group and not 
to a few girls. Power of infinite attachment re-stated reveals 
itself to be at least three-fold in its application: it involves a 
rare poise, a deep love for girls, and a religious experience so 
rich that it releases this poise and this love. This explains the 
seeming paradox in the statement that an adviser must be 
capable of infinite attachment and infinite detachment; her very 
deep love for all girls would make it impossible for her to be- 
come so fond of one or more girls that she is not available 
to the group when its need for her is apt to be greatest. 

610 



The most satisfying thing in the world to an adviser is to 
watch a girl grow physically, mentally, socially and spiritually ; 
and to know that she has helped the growing. Beginning with 
the girl where she is, the leader should help her to live fully in 
her present experience; then, as the girl grows, she can be led 
on into ever closer fellowship with God. The direction of a 
girl's life God-ward is the aim of all true leadership. This in- 
volves Revealing unexpected and unknown possibilities to the 
girl who does not recognize the hidden "treasure trove" of her 
life, and supplying through music, stories, poetry, pictures, and 
in other ways to the girl who does not find them in her environ- 
ment, certain of the elements which comprise the heritage 
that is the right of every girl. 

Standards of Work for Advisers- 

In accepting these general qualifications for leadership, every 
adviser must face the need of possessing or cultivating certain 
standards which will make for success in her work with girls. 

A. There must be a feeling of such definite responsibility 
for the work that an adviser is punctual in her arrival at 
club and committee meetings, and that she secure a sub- 
stitute whenever illness or absence from the community 
detains or prevents her from being present. In every in- 
stance, information regarding this situation should be 
sent to the girls' work secretary. 

B. There must be an increasing knowledge of the principles 
underlying the several programs of the Girl Reserve 
Movement. Knowledge of the goal of the Girl Reserve 
Movement and the methods which have been regarded as 
essential to successful work with different groups of girls 
releases the adviser from "mechanics/ 7 so that she is free 
to create from many resources, both within herself, and 
from books and magazines, and experience in living, the 
kind of activities needed and desired by her groups of 
girls. This involves a realization of the need for reading 
and study as well as the ability to see the various activi- 

611 



Physical 
Athletics 
Games 
Folk 
Dancing 
Camping 
Parties 
Calisthenics 
Contests 


Mental 
Reading 
Story-telling 
Discussions 
Class Work 
Vocational 
Training 
Hand Work 
Talks 
Nature Study 



ties of a group in relation to the ultimate aim of the 
work. "Your Club at a Glance" as here given indicates 
the activities which may be used to develop a growing 
personality, and from it an adviser may check her pro- 
gram content along the four lines of Girl Reserve work, 
having previously studied the needs and desires of her 
girls and put a project upon them. 



Social Spiritual 
Parties Development of 
Teas Character Standards 
Rallies Personal Service 
Exhibits Community Service 
Fairs Community Betterment 
Circuses National Service 



C. An adviser must have an ever-deepening sense of the 
privilege and responsibility of being a companion to girls; 
through her companionship she accepts a responsibility 
for helping to bring to girls an understanding of the 
Christ-way of life. 

D. There must be a conviction that a successful club is a 
self -governing one and that its work must be carried on 
through regularly elected officers and committees. 

E. An adviser must, have a belief in a budget for the group 
which has been planned by members of the group. 

F. An adviser must have a recognition of the value of own- 
ing her own tools and the willingness to develop and 
train her acquisitive sense. 

G. An adviser must have a persistent courage and a confi- 
dence which dares to dream dreams and carry them to 
completion in action. 

The following very practical "Do's and Don'ts" for advisers 
may prove suggestive: 

612 



Plan to be at the club meeting in time to welcome the girls 
as they come. 

See that the meeting begins on time and ends on time. 

As the girls come in, have pictures or music or a story. 

Always have the end of the meeting the "peppiest" so that 
the girls go home enthusiastic. 

Never wear out a good idea or "stunt" by using it too long, 

Use the "come on, let's" method. 

Don't keep your hat on at a club meeting, or the girls will 
not feel the true spirit of comradeship. 

Know the Girl Reserve code. 

Don't do all the work yourself; use your committees. 

Don't force your own plans on the girls; give them a chance 
to suggest. 

Don't spare your praise but do spare your blame. 

Remember that the younger girl is apt to take her stand- 
ards of dress from the adviser; so it is necessary to look as 
attractive and as neat as possible when meeting her in the 
club. Use the praise method to help fix these standards of 
dress. 

Have your officers and committee chairmen meet regularly 
once a month to talk over plans for the club. 

Keep a careful record of the membership in the club and 
record the weekly attendance. 

In preparing for a meeting, the adviser must have in mind 
the three distinct parts of her program: the opening to unify 
the group, the major activity, and the best way to spend the 
last half hour. 

A Program of Real Living for Advisers and Girls Should 

include : 

1. Listening more and talking less: that seeking after 
silence which will enable us to know ourselves when we 
are quiet. 

613 



2. Living more in the out-of-doors where God is always to 
be found. 

3. Cultivating a sense of the invisible and unseen, 

4. Loving many instead of few people. 

5. Reading- many different kinds of things so that we may 
know life. 

6. Make daily use of some great book ("a book of the soul")? 
such as St. Augustine's "Confessions/' 

7. Daily study of the Bible. 

8. Hold to the thought of Christ as the central fact of life. 

9. "This is to live: to know God and Him whom He has 
sent, even Jesus Christ." 

"Every girl is potentially good and the true leader has the 
unchanging faith to believe this, no matter what hap- 
pens." 



A 



CHAPTER II. 

THE GIRLS' WORK COMMITTEE 

N active committee on girls' work is essential to really suc- 
cessful work for younger girls in any Association. One of 
the reasons for work with teen-age girls is that they may be 
brought into touch with the many phases of Association life, 
and learn at an early age the value and need of such an organi- 
zation. The young girl of to-day is the potential leader in the 
community of to-morrow. As she thinks, acts, plays, and lives, 
so will the community. It cannot rise above her standards. 
The Young Women's Christian Association is an expression of 
community life. The young girl as one of the most vital fac- 
tors in the community, must be a most powerful leader in the 
Association. Every Association must see to it that she wants 
to become that leader. 

614 



This can be done only by making her feel that she is a real 
part of the Association, and that what it has in the way of ma- 
terial and spiritual equipment is for her use. To make this 
possible, girls' work must be recognized not as a department 
apart from regular Association activities but as a cross section 
of the whole through which and for which the other depart- 
ments operate for younger girls. To come In touch with girfs, 
and through cooperation with the various departments of the 
Association to make possible for them the kind of a program 
needed, is the work of the girls' work committee, 
Membership. 

The number of members on the girls' work committee must 
necessarily vary with the size of the community and the amount 
of work to be done. Association work is developing so differ- 
ently in different parts of the country that it is almost impos- 
sible to state in actual terms the required number of committee 
workers. 
Policy. 

1. To ascertain through careful investigations the condi- 
tions and needs of the following groups of teen-age girls: 

(a) Grade school girls. 

(b) High school girls. 

(c) Girls under eighteen employed in factories, depart- 
ment stores, business offices and other centers. 

(d) Younger girls in business college. 

(e) Home girls. 

2. To provide, as soon as possible, a program of work and 
the means of carrying out that program for the groups 
(e. g., an adequate budget). 

3. To give some time to systematic study of girl life and 
the problems connected with it. 

('See the suggested policy which is included in this chapter.) 

Two types of women are needed one, the kind of woman 

who is interested in girls, who can think and plan a big piece of 

work, and who represents a distinct community interest, e. g., 

school work, women's clubs, the church, the home; the other, the 

615 



young college girl or business woman who is interested in girls 
and has time not only to help think and plan, but also to be an 
adviser of a group. The advisers should be regular committee 
members, for those who actually work with the girls are of the 
utmost value in committee work. It is suggested that the com- 
mittee membership may vary from five to twenty-five persons. 

Suggested Organization. 

I. In Cities, 

As girls' work usually includes high school, grade school, 
and younger girls in business and industry, it seems wise to di- 
vide the committee into three divisions corresponding to these 
groups. There should be then a chairman for the committee 
as a whole and a sub-chairman for each division. Because the 
secret of good committee work lies in the fact that each mem- 
ber has something to do, it is well to make each member re- 
sponsible for a definite piece of work. The woman who is serv- 
ing on the committee because she is interested in girls and rep- 
resents a community interest usually can not be an adviser but 
can be made responsible for one of the following: 

(a) Help to secure leadership for a group of girls. 

(b) Responsibility for camp and conference work for young- 
er girls. 

(c) Work on a survey of adolescent girls in the community. 

(d) Map of the city to show recreation facilities churches, 
factories, parks, etc. 

(e) Active promotion of publicity for work of the depart- 
ment. 

(f) Responsibility for study program for the committee. 
The interest of the younger business college girl can in the 

main be cared for by the sub-committee on Younger Girls' in 
Business and Industry. It is essential (and most constitutions 
provide for it) that every girls 7 work committee chairman be a 
member of the Board of Directors; she is responsible for think- 
ing and planning with the girls 7 work secretary for all work. 
A chairman should meet with her secretary once a week at a 

616 



regular time for consultation and help. The chairman is the 
person to represent the younger girls' interests at board meet- 
ings and in the community. It is important that the problems 
connected with the girl life of a community be made known to 
the board, and it is the real responsibility of the girls' work 
chairman and girls' work secretary to see that all information 
and reports of such are brought to the board in a way which 
will enable the board to meet more adequately the demands 
which a community has a right to make upon the organization 
which the board represents. Adequate girls' work is, moreover, 
dependent upon an adequate budget. Such a budget should be 
planned by a girls' work committee in consultation with the 
finance committee, and presented to the board with reasons for 
the items contained in it. Such consideration on the part of the 
board implies the utmost loyalty on the part of girls' work com- 
mittee members during the annual finance campaign. (See the 
suggested budget included in this chapter.) 

At all times the girls' work committee is responsible for see- 
ing that adequate publicity is given the work for younger girls, 
so that when the Association has its finance campaign the city 
will recognize as legitimate the sum requested for carrying out 
this program. 

A girls' work committee should meet regularly once a month. 
The length of time of the meeting should be determined by the 
program to be followed. It is suggested that committees work 
along either of the following plans: 

Plan 1. (a) Each of the three sub-divisions of the commit- 
tee, grade, high and younger girls in business and 
industry, meets separately. At these meetings 
three-quarters of an hour is given to discussion 
of problems and necessary business; three- 
quarters of an hour to study program; half 
an hour or more to demonstration of group 
activities such as story-telling, first aid, handi- 
craft, etc. For these demonstrations a specialist 
should be obtained when possible. This offers direct 

617 



Qfe Girls'\M: Committee in a 

Y.WCA. 




Girls' work" w not a department apart from regular Association acuvmes , but one 
which operates through physical, educational , religious ed.uca.tion, cafeteria,, 
and. other departments of the Association. . . . * 

Girls 'Vork Committee members 



"^>men vfio represent, community interests 

Schools J 
"Women's Clubs 
Church 
Home 



Women who lead groups, of Girls 

College! Chris 

Jfousiness "Women 

Home Makers 

Cleichers 



Qciillfications 

of the 
CHAIRMAN 



ASSOC1ATIONAL 



PERSONAL 



.A Member of J Frotestant Evangelical .A. Vision of what girls' work is 

r'hur.-l, ^ 



Church 

Member of the board of Directors 
of the Y WC A 



33 Executive Ability 

i Able to assign work to other people 

V. Sees that me work is clone 

3Ab|e to convince other people that they have 

ability to be mveited. in work, for girls 
t Able, to pUn with the girls' work, secretary 

fcjDoes not plan for her f^'Doe\ not follow her 

CA belief in Girls 

1 Individually 

2 Collectively 

D Able to present to the board of Directors the girls' 
interests, fearlessly, vividly and. in a. wholesome 
WJV so that chf> >oard will accept its community 
responsibility 

E 5eli6ves m a. budget for girlr' work, planned m 
co-operation with the Finance Committee 

F Relieves in Publicity 
618 



Sfe Qirls'Mik Committee in a 

V.WCA. 



WHEN 
Once a month 



GRADE 

SCHOOL 

v Sub Committee 



WHERE 
YVV.CA . Building usually 

PLAN 1 



HIGH 

SCHOOL 

Sub Committee 



HOW CONDUCTED 
Plan 1 or PLm 2, nay be used. 




of these proups 



Program of /aoh Sub-Committee 

Problems and Babines? . . ISMmu.Les 

S Lady Prog rim . . 45Minat.es 

Craft Work, Story Tellm^.Firit Aid, Hand Crifl 3OMinu.teS 




Personnel of the Bxecatlve Committee 

MsmbsrS _ The Girls Vark. Com mi ue Chairman, three sab churmin and several chosen repreenu.uvi?.s Pom ej.di a.roup 

Meetings. Once a Month . u 

"VorK. -Velding ^program from the problems ind progress of the sub- committees 

Committee vork is Unified 



. 

A /oungerX 

GRADE/ A HIGH A Girls in ^ 
, SCHOOlU SCHOOL (j Business y 
\t-In ' 



by i joint meeting once every 3 months 
AIAA. A UMITBD VISIOJM 

is QbmpnowS Founditioi\: 

619 






PLAN Z 





/-> . 1 w. 
Uirls in- 
Business and 
Industry 



Eaci Siib^Cbmrnitfee considers 
its special sep^rnely 

for thirty minutes 




Topics for the Joint/ Discussion 

jBusiness 

Study Pro^raM 

of ^atfd Graft, dp 



620 



training to leaders of groups and makes them better 
able to carry out a girls' work program, 

(b) An executive council composed of the chairman 
of the committee, the three sub-chairmen, and any 
other representatives from the sub-divisions, meets 
once a month to discuss and plan for all work of the 
committee. The sub-chairman brings reports and 
recommendations of her division to that meeting. 

(c) A meeting of the entire committee is held once 
every three months, thus bringing all together to 
consider problems as a whole. 

Plan 2. Each sub-division meets separately for a half hour 
or more once a month to consider special problems, 
then all come together for joint discussion, business 
and study program, and remain together for demon- 
stration work as outlined above. 

II. In Towns. 

As girls' work includes all adolescent girls, there are usually 
five groups to be considered: 

(a) Grade school girls. 

(b) High school girls. 

(c) Younger girls in business and industry. 

(d) Younger girls in business college. 

(e) Girls at home. 

Any girls' work committee must consider all these groups in 
its thinking and planning. To ensure this, it is well to assign to 
one or more members definite responsibility for considering the 
needs of each of these various groups. 

In the town as well as in the city, there will be the two 
groups of committee women and so the suggestions for special 
committee responsibility made above will apply to the mem- 
bers of the girls' work committee in a town. 

Every girls' work committee should meet regularly every 
month for an hour and a half so that there will be opportunity 

621 



to consider and discuss all problems in the community relating 
to the younger girl, the needs of each group being presented by 
the committee members responsible for it. The time may be 
divided as follows: 

(a) Consideration and discussion of the problems of groups 
of girls with whom the committee is workng. One-half 
to three-quarters of an hour. 

(b) Study program. One-half hour. (See "The Topics for 
Discussion by Girls' Work Committee" in this chapter. 

(c) Demonstration of group activities, such as handicraft, 
story telling, first aid, and poster making. For these 
demonstrations, a specialist should be secured when pos- 
sible. This time offers direct training to leaders of 
groups and makes them better able to carry out a girls' 
work program. 

In a community where the volume of work is great, it may 
seem advisable to have the groups of committee members, who 
have been given responsibility for planning for grade school, 
high school, younger girls in business and industry, and girls 
at home, meet for a half hour preceding the general committee 
meeting, so that sufficient time shall be allowed for covering 
the needs of specific groups. This will result practically in the 
sub-division of the committee and in this event it may be wise 
to have in addition to the regular chairman, sub -chairmen ap- 
pointed. This will make the committee organization similar to 
Plan 2 outlined above. 

<a 

III. In Counties and Districts. 

Although the area to be covered is so much larger and the 
committee membership so much more scattered, in county and 
district work, it is suggested that the organization be as simi- 
lar to that of the town Association as possible ; L e., that there 
be a chairman of the girls' work committee who is a member 
of the county board. The advisers of all groups should be con- 
sidered members of the committee. It is desirable that there 

622 



should be four meetings of this committee during the year. 
One should be held early in the fall so that the work may be 
well launched. The times for the other meetings must be de- 
termined locally, because of climatic conditions and community 
customs. Possibly one of the four or an additional meeting 
could be held at the summer camp of the county or district asso- 
ciation. Since there are fewer of these committee meetings in 
a year, it is possible to have committee members plan to spend 
at least a half day or even a whole day in these sessions. If 
committee reading has been advocated, there should be well-led 
forum discussions to help to clarify individual thinking, which 
perhaps has been dependent for its only contact with other ad- 
visers' problems through the visits of the county or district sec- 
retary. There should be also opportunity for exchange of ex- 
periences in program building and some time should be used 
for handicraft, and recreational training-. 

Secretarial and Committee Cooperation with Other 
Departments. 

Understanding and cooperation of all workers volunteer and 
secretarial in all departments of the Association make possible 
the finest kind of girls' work. 
Cooperation with the Industrial Department, 

It is the policy of the National Bureau for Work with 
Younger Girls that no work with younger girls in industrial or 
commercial centers shall be undertaken without the full 
knowledge and consent of and cooperation with the local indus- 
trial department, if there is one in the local Association. 

There can be but one general policy for industrial work in 
an Association, and so any committee which bears any responsi- 
bility for a part of the general industrial program must corre- 
late its work with that of the Industrial Department. 

The girl under eighteen employed in any industrial plant, a, 
department store, a five-and-ten-cent store, or a business office 
is the responsibility of the girls' work committee. Experience 
has shown two things first, that in many instances if this girl 

623 



is to be interested at all in the Association, she must be 
reached before leaving school or while at the continuation 
school or through the placement or vocational bureaus con- 
nected with schools, and through the Interest of teachers in at- 
tendance departments of schools; second, that this younger girl 
needs a less "grown-up" program than that provided by the 
industrial department. 

The approach to a school is as scientific and careful a mat- 
ter as is the approach to an industrial plant. It is just as un- 
wise for two Association secretaries representing different de- 
partments to approach a school principal as it is for them to 
approach an industrial manager. The girls' work department 
because of its close touch with school work, is the department 
to handle all relations to the school, while the industrial de- 
partment should make the first approach to an industrial plant. 
If the plant employs girls under eighteen, the girls' work secre- 
tary can either go with the industrial secretary on her first visit 
or if the industrial department is already at work in the plant, 
be brought to the plant, introduced to the manager and can 
then help with the work. She and the industrial secretary 
should plan together for the best way of handling the different 
age girls. It is sometimes impossible to separate them. In case 
the majority are older and it seems best to make it an industrial 
group, it is the business of the girls' work secretary to put at 
the disposal of the industrial secretary all girls' work program 
material and work with her on a program which will meet the 
needs of the mixed group. She should also keep close enough 
to the group for a few months to see that the younger mem- 
bers are adjusting themselves to the work and assuming their 
rightful place of responsibility in the group. It sometimes 
happens in a mixed group that this younger girl takes no 
active part in the work, all officers and committee members be- 
ing chosen from the older girls. This is most unfortunate as it 
does not make for development of the younger girl and for this 
reason whenever possible the group should be separated. 

The expression "girl under eighteen" must, of course, be in- 

624 



terpreted in a broad sense. Generally speaking, up to sixteen 
years of age a girl is more interested in a less formal program* 
but there are always exceptions. When a girl needs the kind 
of program offered by an industrial department, her age should 
not prevent her having it. In the same way, some girls over 
eighteen need an adolescent program. Provision should be made 
for their obtaining it. 

Such adjustments as these and the rigM transfer from one 
department to another when the time comes to "graduate" can 
only be accomplished if there is the right understanding be- 
tween the girls' work and the industrial committees and corre- 
lation of all work. 

A girls' work committee has three sections one on grade 
school, one on high school work and one on work for younger 
girls in business and industry. There should be on this last 
section as a regular or visiting member, a representative of 
the industrial committee, and the committee on work for 
younger girls in business and industry should in turn be repre- 
sented on the industrial committee. In cities where there is a 
special secretary on the girls' work staff for younger girls in 
business and industry, she should be an ex-officio member of 
the industrial committee. If one girls' work secretary carries 
school work and younger girls in business and industry, she 
should be included in certain industrial committee meetings and 
given a chance to report her work and see its relation to the 
entire industrial program of the Association. 

Every girls' work committee must feel its responsibility for 
knowing about proposed legislation for girls under eighteen, 
both educational and industrial, and in cooperation with the in- 
dustrial department take what steps seem possible to give edu- 
cational publicity to this legislation. 

One of the most serious questions to be considered 
by all girls' work and industrial committees is that 
of working out a successful method of passing girls from 
the girls' work department to the industrial department. A 

6 

625 



good girls' work department prepares girls for work in the in- 
dustrial department. They should be ready for constructive 
thinking and acting after two or more years in the Girl Re- 
serve work. Often they are ready but will not pass on or will 
not stay once they do pass on. One difficulty seems to be lack 
of understanding and knowledge of the industrial department 
and industrial secretary. It is a strange new world, full of 
people they do not know, and so they are not eager to pass into 
it. To obviate this difficulty the following suggestions are 
made: 

1. In cities where there is an Industrial Federation, the Fed- 
eration Council should ask the Girl Eeserve executive 
council to appoint one or more of the older members as 
auxiliary Federation Council members to be consulted by 
the Federation Council on any matters which might con- 
cern both groups, such as a piece of social service, and as 
members to be invited to special Federation meetings. If 
these Girl Reserve representatives are girls who within 
a short time should be in regular Federation clubs, this 
contact may do much to gain their interest. 

2. Make provision for some of the older Girl Reserves to go 
as delegates to the Industrial Councils. This will help 
the Girl Reserve girls to understand the aims and ideals 
of the Industrial Federation and increase interest and 
friendliness between the two groups. 

3. See that the younger girls become acquainted with the 
older girls by having one group entertain the other 
group several times during the year. Encourage an in- 
terest in the industrial clubs on the part of the younger 
girls by showing them what the industrial clubs are do- 
ing and what girls are in them. As they grow older they 
will pass naturally from one club to the other. 

4. See that the younger girls become acquainted with the 
industrial secretaries by having the secretaries present 
at certain Girl Reserve meetings and entertainments. 

626 



Help the girls not to become so attached to "their secre- 
tary" that they are unwilling to go into the clubs of the 
industrial department, because they feel that the indus- 
trial secretary is a stranger to them. 

The East Central Field has worked out the following sug- 
gestions for cooperation between the girls' work and industrial 
departments. They are included here as they are the result of 
experience and have proven possible and effective in most in- 
stances: 

We as Association workers have one common aim, to 
make the principles of Jesus Christ effective in industry, and 
we recognize that the only solution to the industrial prob- 
lems is the religious one that the girls' work and industrial 
departments and the International Institutes cooperate more 
closely. 

That we have a joint conduct of noon-hour activities in 
factories where both younger and older girls are employed. 

That we have at least two joint parties each year, older 
girls for younger and vice versa. The Religious Commission 
of the Industrial Club Council suggests Sunday afternoon 
hikes, when subjects interesting to younger girls, may be 
discussed. 

That some Industrial Club members, especially qualified 
and with special training, act as advisers or assistant ad- 
visers to Girl Reserve Corps, the girls' work secretary to 
keep very closely in touch with such corps. 

That Industrial Clubs sometimes assist Girl Reserve 
Corps financially, as recommended in the Religious Work 
Commission of the Industrial Club Council. Also that we 
raise money for such things as conference funds, social 
service and scholarships, by united effort when possible. 

That we promote our Girl Reserve Corps into the indus- 
trial department by clubs rather than individuals. 

That this club be an intermediate one in which the pro- 
gram used be a combination of the girls 7 work and indus- 

627 



trial program, thereby insuring- a gradual development into 

an industrial club; and that this intermediate club have a 
leader or adviser. 

That there be some kind of promotion ceremony, that the 
new club may be publicly received into the industrial de- 
partment. 

That if possible the industrial secretary lead a Girl Re- 
serve Corps of younger girls in business and industry and 
the girls' work secretary lead an industrial club. 

That the industrial secretary keep in close touch with 
the girls of the girls' work department that the younger 
girls may know her personally and thereby eliminate the dif- 
ficulties which so often arise with younger girls in change 
of personal leadership. 

That we may further our mutual education, by industrial 
secretaries studying from girls' work secretaries their meth- 
od of approach to and work with girls, including the psychol- 
ogy of the adolescent girl, and by a study on the part of 
girls' work secretaries, assisted by industrial secretaries of 
industrial conditions, especially those affecting younger girls; 
also that we pool our material. 

That the younger girls have at least two representatives 
on the Federation council, in cities where there is a Federa- 
tion, and that they be given some definite responsibility, 
such as making a report of the work of Girl Reserves, carry- 
ing back to the Girl Reserves the report of the older girls' 
work, serving on joint committees for joint parties, etc. 
The girls should be voting members of the Federation or 
not as the Federation decides. 

That we cooperate with the continuation school by pro- 
viding recreation and supplementing class work when nec- 
essary. 

That in view of the new place of women in industry the 
entire Association work for the passing and enforcement of 
proper laws relating to women. 

628 



That we give our support to labor groups who are work- 
ing out educational plans and cooperate with all agencies 
working for the improvement of industrial conditions. 

That in cities where there is an International Institute, 
plans be made immediately whereby the industrial and girls' 
work departments and the International Institute may ex- 
periment together in some endeavor to establish clubs and 
other activities for girls of other nationalities. 

Industrial Service Centers, 

If a program for younger girls is being carried on at an In- 
dustrial Service Center, it should be related to the work of the 
girls' work committee of the central Association. This may be 
done in one of the following ways: 

1. The chairman of the girls' work committee of the local 
Association or some one designated by her may be made 
an ex-officio member of the center committee. 

2. A member of the center committee may be designated as 
a member of the local girls' work committee. 

The person in charge of the program for younger girls at 
the Industrial Service Center may be either a girls' work sec- 
retary on the staff of the Industrial Center or the recreation 
director on the center staff working in close cooperation with 
the girls' work secretary at the local Association, or sometimes 
if there is on the girls' work staff at the local Association a 
special worker for younger girls in business and industry, she 
may use the center as her place of work and in this way be 
related directly to both the staff of the center and the staff of 
the girls' work secretaries of the local Association. Whichever 
one of these three ways is adopted, the worker in question should 
be related to the girls' work committee and the center commit- 
tee. This in no sense of the word makes for departmentaliza- 
tion in the Industrial Service 'Center. It simply provides that 
the regular Association program for younger girls shall be car- 
ried on through the regular committee and council of the In- 
dustrial Service Center. 

629 



Health Education Department. 

In order that the health and recreation program for younger 
girls may be carried out in harmony with the program of the 
department of health education, it is well for each to under- 
stand the other's program and needs. This can t>e done through 
joint meetings for consultation held at the beginning of the 
fall work and at intervals through the year, and by having one 
member from each committee responsible for attending meet- 
ings of the two committees at which matters of joint interest 
are to be discussed. 

General Education Department. 

Every effort should be made to use the resources of this de- 
partment for any educational features of the girls' work pro- 
gram and to make known to the girls what the education de- 
partment is. A good girls' work department should be a 
"feeder" to an education department. Occasional conferences, 
visiting members, invitations to certain girls 7 work committee 
meetings, all will help to bring about the right understanding 
and coordination. 

To acquaint all committees with the policy and problems of 
girls' work, it is suggested that at least once a year the girls' 
work committee be hostess to all the other committees and 
through interesting reports, maps, pictures and charts, make 
girls' work graphic to the entire Association. 

TOPICS FOB DISCUSSION BY GIRLS' WORK COMMITTEE OF THE 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 
The outlines and references for topics here given are meant 
to be suggestive and naturally must be developed by each com- 
mittee to meet its own needs. Outside speakers in many com- 
munities can be obtained for a brief presentation of many of 
the topics. 'Committee members, the girls' work secretary or 
some other secretary either can lead a discussion on certain 
topics or give brief presentations to be followed by informal dis- 
cussion, or the subject may be made a topic for general "con- 

630 



versational-discussion," the chairman being responsible for 
guiding* it. In any event, the committee should know in ad- 
vance what is to be the topic for discussion and should be given 
the suggested references. All books referred to may be ob- 
tained from the Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New 
York City, or from local libraries. 

Topics for Discussion. 

I. The Girl of To-day. 

In her home. How does the family life of to-day differ from 

that of twenty-five years ago? 
In her school. 
In her church. 
In her community. 
What is the influence of the automobile, the moving pictures, 

commercialized amusements upon the girl of to-day? 
References : 

1. The Spirit of Youth in the City Streets. Addanis. 

2. Religious Education in the Family. Cope. 

3. Girlhood and Character. Moxcey. 

4. A Schoolmaster of the Great City. Angelo Patri. 

5. The American Girl and Her Community. Slattery. 

II. Religious Education and the Younger Girl. 

Is the modern girl any "less religious" than the girl of 
former days? 

What is "religious education?" How may it be made to per- 
meate the program of a Girls' Movement? 

Is there any relation between the wearing of a peek-a-boo 
waist and being a -Christian? Between not playing 
"square" at school and being a Christian? 

What are the greatest needs of the teen-age girl? How is 
the Association meeting them ? 

References : 

1. Religious Education and the Younger Girl. Davis. 

2. Leadership of Girls' Activities. Moxcey. 

631 



3. Beliglous Education of the American Citizen. Peabody. 

4. Religious Education of Adolescents. Richardson. 

5. The Girl and Her Religion, Slattery. 

6. Training the Girl Through Worship. 'Stone. 

III. Tjfie Reading of the Teen-age Girl To-day. 

One way to conduct this discussion would be to have - a 
librarian give the kind of book with resume of its contents 
usually taken by the teen-age girl. (An explanation of 
why such contents appeal to the teen-age girl would be most 
interesting to the committee.) Actual titles showing "pop- 
ular favorites" and a comparison of fiction and non-fiction 
would also be interesting. The discussion should also bring 
out the amount and kind of magazine reading being done, 
its influence on reading of books. 
If the community does not have adequate library facilities, 

what is the responsibility of a girls' work committee for 

securing attractive and worth while books for girls? 

How can this be done. 

IV. The Place of Music in a Girls' Work Program. 

How shall an appreciation and love for hymns be cultivated 

when there seems only a love for "jazz" ? 
How can music be brought into a girls' club program ; e. g., 

forms, time, manner? 
What is the value of group singing ? 
Discuss good collections of songs; the value of a good piano. 

How can these be obtained by a girls' work department 

if it does not possess them? 
Have a demonstration of group singing by someone who 

can lead. Use solos to illustrate the kind of good music 

which will appeal to any girl; this would do much to 

make this discussion interesting. 

V. The Foreign Girl in the Community. 
What nationality is she? 

In what part of the community does she live? 

632 



How many of her are there? What proportion of school 

girls are foreign? 
What kind of a home life has she? 
What is her recreation? 
Eef erences : 

An American in the Making. M. E. Ravage. Harpers. 
$1.90. 

My Mother and I. Stern. 

Write: Division for Work with Foreign-Born Women, 
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City, for specific informa- 
tion regarding International Institutes and different nation- 
ality groups. 

VI. The Colored Girl in the Community. 

(Same general questions as V.) 
References: 

1. Hazel Ovington. 

2. Up From Slavery. Washington. 

VII. The Work of a Juvenile Court. 

If there is one in the community, the Judge may be 
asked to speak to the committee. A visit to such a court is 
well worth while. 
References: 

1. A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil Addams. 

2. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets Addams. 

3. Safeguards for City Youth at Work and at Play Louise 
DeKoven Bowen. 

4. The Juvenile Court and the Community Thomas D. 
Eliot. 

VIII. The Movement for Vocational Education, Direction and 

Placement. 

Cause of movement found in economic waste of unskilled 

labor. 

Work of trades, vocational, and continuation schools. 
Federal Aid to Vocational Education Smith Hughes Act 

1917. 

633 



Scholarships for keeping children in school, 

What are your state and community doing- along this line? 

References: 

Vocational Guidance Movement Brewer. 

Vocational and Moral Guidance Davis. 

Creative Impulse in Industry Marot. 

IX. Present Legal Regulation of Child Labor in the United 

States. 
Discuss: 

(1) Federal Child Labor Tax Law 1919. 
Industries affected. 

Hours and night work. 
Method of enforcement. 

(2) Variations of state laws as to age, hours, night work. 
References : 

Write The National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 
22nd Street, New York, for the text of Federal Laws, 
and for general pamphlets on Child Labor. 
Solution of hild Labor Problem Nearing. 

Child Labor in Your State a study outline 1917 

Nearing. 

Child Labor in Your State a study outline 1917 

National Child Labor Committee. 

Write The United States Department of Labor, Chil- 
dren's Bureau for: 
Leaflet No. 7, Back-to-iSchool. 

Standards Applicable to Child Labor Summer. Publi- 
cation 49, Children's Year. 

Leaflet No. 10, Publication 53, Advising children in their 
choice of Occupation and supervising the working child. 
Children's Year. 

Leaflet No. 12, Publication 56, Children's Year. The Em- 
ployment Certificate System. 

Leaflet No. 3, Publication 64, Every Child in School. 
Children's Year Follow-up Series. 

634 



X, Proposed Legislation (State and Federal) affecting- Women 
and Children. 

At least one committee meeting should be devoted to dis- 
cussion of this most important subject. 

Read: The Woman's Home Companion which publishes 
monthly the text and explanation of certain laws relat- 
ing- to women and children. 

Write: To Law Reporting- Service, National Board, Young- 
Women's Christian Association, 600 Lexington Avenue, 
New York City, for information and a review of current 
legislation. See The Association Monthly for July, 1920, 
pages 33-36. 

Suggested Policy for a Girls' Work Committee. 
The policy of the girls' work committee of the Young 
Women's Christian Association of shall be 

A, To promote Y. W. C, A. work among girls between twelve 
and eighteen through 

1. Development of new work wherever a survey justifies it. 

2. More intensive work in all organized clubs and centers. 
This work shall be developed through 

a. Planning of full year's work and continued emphasis 
upon all club committee work. 

b. Among 

1. Grade school girls through organization of Girl 
Reserve corps under direct supervision of corps 
advisers who with chairman shall compose grade 
school sub-committee. 

2. High school girls through organization of student 
clubs of the Girl Reserve Movement under the 
supervision of club advisers who with chairman 
shall compose high school sub-committee. 

3. Younger Girls in business and industry through 
maintenance of a center or the organization of 
a Girl Reserve Corps or club. The sub -committee 

635 



for Younger Girls in business and industry shall be 
composed of women, representative of the varied 
interests of these younger girls e. g., welfare 
worker, employment director, librarian, principal 
of continuation' school, and the advisers of as many 
groups as are organized. 

This work shall be administered by the Executive Council 
of the girls' work department committee, which shall consist of 
the following members: 

Chairman, who is a member of the Board of Directors of the 
Young Women's Christian Association. 

Vice Chairman. 

Secretary. 

Chairman of the grade school sub-committee. 

Chairman of the high school sub-committee. 

Chairman of the sub-committee for Younger Girls in busi- 
ness and industry. 

The duties of this committee also shall be 

a. To promote study of girls 7 work at large in city of 
and vicinity through 

1. Being informed concerning the work of the other 
teen-age girls' organizations. 

2. Cooperation with these organizations as far as possi- 
ble. 

3. .Seeking of opportunities for the initiation of other 
community work among girls. 

b. To cooperate more closely with the other departments 
of the Young Women's Christian Association (Cafeteria, 
Health Education, Industrial, Educational, Membership, 
Social-Relations) through inter-representation on these 
department committees wherever possible. 

c. To study the purpose of the Young Women's Christian 
Association with the idea in mind to discover how that 
purpose can be incorporated in all phases of younger 

636 



girl work and so to interpret it to the committee mem- 
bers themselves and the girls in the department that it 
will become the keynote of each club purpose as it is 
written by the girls. 

ITEMS TO BE INCLUDED IN A GIRLS' WOEK DEPARTMENT BUDGET 
IN A LOCAL ASSOCIATION. 

19 19 



Girls' Work 
Department 


Receipts 
Actual 


Actual 
Expense 


Estimated 
Receipts 


Estimated 
Expense 


Estimated 
Surplus* 


Appropriation 
needed to 
make ends 
meet** 


Salaries: 
Girls' Work 
Secretary 














Assistant 














Supplies 














Office Printing ... 
Office Supplies 
Postage 














Oar Fare 














Telephone 














Social Events 
Girls' Work Library 
Extension of Work 
Camp Work 














Publicity 














Conference 
Expenses*** '. .... 














Contingent 














Department Total 















* The amount which may result if Estimated Receipts is greater than 
Estimated Expenses. ** The amount in this column equals the difference 
between Estimated Receipts and Estimated Expenses. *** Allowance should 
be made large enough to permit the attendance of the girls' work secretary 
at a mid-winter conference and a summer conference. 

637 



SIX DISCUSSIONS FOR ADVISERS 

e The following discussions are based on certain chap- 
ters in "Girlhood and Character," by Mary Moxcey, which can 
be read before the discussion. The purpose of the outline is 
merely to offer suggestions for a group study of the religious 
problems of younger girls. 

I. 

1. Compare notes on the differences you have noticed 
between a girl ten years old and the same girl three or four 
years later. How many of these differences affect "character.' 7 
Think especially about the little girl's ideas of God. How do 
you find that these things change as she begins to grow up ? 

2. What connection is there between the way a girl makes 
everyday decisions (to skate or not to skate, to drink ice cream 
soda or lemonade, etc.) and her decision to join the church? 
How do you manage the girl for whom all deciding brings a 
"nerve-storm?" 

3. Discuss the relative (and also the complementary) value 
in teaching ideals through example and through broadening a 
girl's information so that she has more content with which to 
think. 

4. How much part do you believe habits play in character 
building? Think back over the laws of habit formation as 
William James gives them (this might be a report prepared 
in advance.) In the light of your discussion what part do 
service and worship play? 

Girlhood and Character Moxcey. Chap. VIII. 
Training the Girl Through Worship -Stone. 

638 



II. 

1. Base this discussion on pages 234-242 (middle of the 
page), in " Girlhood and Character." 

2. Without being careless of what ('"conversion" in the 
ordinary use of the word has meant to very many people f still 
face frankly the difference between this experience and the 
experience of "affirmation" which we seek for the normally 
developed girl. Under what conditions will a girl need to 
have the experience of "conversion" in order to go ahead 
toward a "whole" personality? 

III. 

1. Before this discussion, suggest to different members of 
the group that they prepare to offer illustrations from the 
lives of real girls showing the mistakes which lead to broken 
instead of "whole" personalities. How will the group plan 
to overcome or prevent such mistakes? See pages 242-252 in 
"Girlhood and Character." 

IV-V. 

1. With the background of Chapter XV in "Girlhood and 
Character" (which deals with the problem of right and full 
expression for the middle adolescent girl), talk over together 
the place of emotions in religious experience, their discipline 
and expression; training in moral values and the expression 
through service and prayer. Ask the group to bring in their 
Questions. 

2. What is a "normal girl" like at the end of the middle 
adolescent period when you rightfully expect that she is on 
the road toward being a "whole person?" 

VI. 

1. Carry your discussion of the "normal girl" forward into 
the years when she is called a "young woman." What are the 
attitudes of mind and the habits of action which we have a 

639 



right to expect will mark the young woman as Christian? 
Which of her problems (see pages 364-374) can be helped 
toward a solution by right training as a younger girl? 

2. Define your aim as adviser of girls in terms of the 
fullest growth for a girl. How far is this a definition of 
"religious education?" 

A SUGGESTED PLAN FOR TRAINING GIRLS' WORK ADVISERS IN A 
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

Discussions I and II. The Girl in Your Community. 

A. How many are there of her? 

B. Where does she live? 

C. How does she live? 

D. What does she do? 

E. How does she play? 

P. What is she becoming? 

For these discussions the best source-material is a chart of 
the community prepared, if possible, in advance by the local 
secretary and her committee, on which shall be shown by 
colored pins or stars, the grammar schools, the high schools, 
parochial and private schools, continuation and trade schools, 
business colleges, factories, department stores and five-and- 
ten-cent stores, moving picture theatres, dance halls, theaters, 
skating rinks, recreation parks both public and private, muni- 
cipal recreation centers, settlements, institutional churches, 
car lines, public libraries, sections of the community where 
foreign-born, colored or trade groups are settled, and the 
Young Women's Christian Association building. 

Those public schools which are being used for night schools 
should be indicated in some special manner. In making such a 
chart be sure that the map used is large enough to permit 
the indication of all these places without confusing the eye. 
Such maps, are usually procurable at the city or town hall. 
There is no more telling way to bring a picture of the com- 
munity to a group of people than" by such a chart, if the local 

640 



secretary giving this course knows the facts about the places 
which the colored stars or pins represent. 

In presenting this chart, with its many previously unknown 
community facts, distribute mimeographed sheets with ques- 
tions and topics such as the following, so that group thinking 
and discussion may center about these points and clarity of 
thought may result. 

What is the name of the superintendent of schools? 

Name the principals of most of the grade schools. 

How many girls and what types are in the -different 

schools ? 
Has the community many younger girls in industry, and if 

so what do they do? 
What is the state law regarding the employment of girls 

under eighteen? 
What is the federal law? 
How does a girl secure her working papers? 
Name the recreational facilities of the community. 
Is there any vocational guidance work in connection with 

the schools? 
Much of the information needed for this may be obtained 

through the use of the following sources: 

A. A classified telephone directory, which provides the name 
and street address of schools, churches, libraries, depart- 
ment stores, etc. 

B. Copies of state labor laws from the State Bureau of 
Labor; also copies of the federal law from the Bureau 
of Labor, Washington, D. C.. 

C. Reports of superintendents of schools; general reports 
of all churches and institutions doing work with young 
people. 

D. All the resources of the local industrial committee. 
Perhaps the best way for a girls' work secretary to know 

her community is to cultivate a constant awareness of how 

6-11 



people are living and working, and what they are desiring. 
This means that one really sees people when walking' along 
the street, that one knows and believes that life is a cycle 
of work, play, love and worship, and that we are all inextricably 
bound together in the bundle of life. 

Discussion III. Fundamental Facts About the Adolescent Girl. 
The basis for this discussion is the chart, "The Develop- 
ment of Normal Girlhood," included in this manual. A study 
of this chart should make plain the different stages of girlhood 
in the growth, characteristics, and approximate age limits, and 
the activities suitable for use in group work. To supplement 
the discussion on activities the second chart, "Activities for 
Developing the Girl Citizen," should be used. The whole point 
of this discussion is to interpret to the advisers the necessity 
for a sympathetic understanding of the feelings and desires 
of the girls with whom they are working. To do this they 
must put themselves back in their imaginations to the time 
when they were adolescent girls. Therefore any questions, 
rhetorical or otherwise, which can be brought to the group to 
stimulate thorough discussion are to be desired. In addition 
to the two charts mentioned above the following books will 
be of service: 

Girlhood and Character, Mary Moxcey. 

Leader of Girls, Clara Ewing Espey. 

The American Girl and Her Community, Margaret 
Slattery. 

For further bibliography, see the books listed at the close 
of this chapter. 

Discussion IV. The Programs of the Young Women's Christian 

Association for Younger Girls. 

While it is considered advisable for the people enrolled in 
this course to consider in separate groups the special aspects 
of the several types of work* it is absolutely essential that 

642 



there should "be one discussion on the Girl Reserve Movement 
cf the Young Women's Christian Association. 

The movement is a unified standardized one, though it deals 
with girls of different ages, groups and nationalities. There- 
fore all should know its purpose and general plan. It plans 
for grade and high school girls and younger girls in business 
and industry and younger girls in Business College. Dfevelop 
this discussion through a presentation of the Girl Reserve 
programs. If the course is being given to leaders in unor- 
ganized territory, present the Rainbow, or Be-^Square plan, with 
the material on high school clubs. 

Develop this discussion through the use of such questions 
as the following: 

Why do we have a unified standardized program? 

What is the meaning of "Girl Reserve"? 

Material for the girls' work program: 

In this part of the discussion there should be developed an 
understanding on the part of the advisers of how the Manual 
for Advisers should be used. 

The "Girl Reserves* Manual for Advisers" and the "Guide 
for Every Loyal Blue Triangle Girl" should be studied so that 
each leader will understand the principles of the plans and the 
various points of emphasis. This material can be secured from 
The Womans Press, 600 Lexington Avenue, New York City. 

Discussions V and VL The Programs of the Young Women's 

Christian Association for Younger Girls (Continued). 
Discussions V and VI and VII, if desired, should become 
round table hours on the special programs for the three types 
of work. 

Topics for Grade School Discussion Group. 

A. The Girl Reserve insignia and its meaning. 

B. The Girl Reserve honor system and how to keep it. 

C. The program for a grade school group and its relation 

643 



to the honor system. It should be clearly sho\vn that the 
honor system is the basis for the program, i. e., from 
its suggested activities may be taken much material 
which will be of service in program making. 

D. At what grade or grades do the largest number of girls 
drop out of school and what is the place of vocational 
information in our grade school program? 

E. How to interpret the -Girl Reserve slogan, code, and 
purpose. 

F. What is meant by symbolism? What is its place in a 
grade school program? 

G. Is there any value in arousing group consciousness and 
loyalty through the keeping of a group scrap book? 

Topics for Group Discussion of the High School Program. 

The basis for the discussion centering on the high school 
program is found in Section I, Chapter 4, of this Manual. 

Section III, Chapter 1, Section IV, Chapter 2 (Content and 
Method Typical of a High School Club Program). 

A. Discuss the different types of high schools in the com- 
munity. 

B. Discover the number of girls leaving high school at 
the close of the freshman year. 

C. Do the local schools have a dean of girls? If such a 
title is not used, is there a faculty member who serves 
in such a capacity? What is her work and how can you 
cooperate with her? 

D. Is there good "school spirit" in the high schools? 

E. What plan of government is followed in your schools? 
Do they have student government with service councils 
and class organizations? 

F. Is there any ruling about the number of clubs or organ- 
izations to which a student may belong? 

G. How shall the Association program be coordinated with 
the various school activities? 

644 



H. Discuss fully the committee and council work in the 
high school plan, so that an adviser will understand 
thoroughly this fundamental principle of high school 
work. 

I. Demonstrate the planning of a high school program to 
cover a period of four to six weeks. 

J. Should discussions be led by girls; if so, what prepara- 
tion should be made with them by the adviser? 

Topics for Group Discussion on Younger Girls in Business "and 

Industry. 

In centering the thought upon younger girls in business and 
industry, care should be taken to introduce such topics as: 
types of girls, relations to employers, number of continuation 
schools and attendance, methods of approach both to girls and 
employers. The following topics may be of service in directing 
group thinking: 

A. Review the questions relating to these girls as found 
on page 641, under Discussions I and II. 

B. Study the Girl Reserve program for younger girls in 
business and industry as found in the Section IV, page 
195. 

C. Consider any adaptations of this program which may be 
necessary to meet local conditions. 

D. What is meant by the terms formal and informal organ- 
ization as used in the program plans? (See -Section III, 
Chapter 1, page 61. 

E. What knowledge of industrial movements and develop- 
ments should every adviser have and how shall this 
knowledge be incorporated in the programs for younger 
girls in business and industry? 

P. What are the reasons for including the younger girls 
in business and industry in a girls' work program? 

G. By what definite ways can the girls in the girls' work 
and industrial departments be brought together? 

645 



Discussion VII. The Programs of the Young Women's Christian 
Association for Younger Girls (Continued). 

A. If it seems advisable, continue discussion of the high 
school plan. 

B, Discussion of the relation of an adviser to her girls: 

1. Emphasize how impressionable the teen-age girl is, 
and that therefore an adviser must realize how great 
an influence she exerts in regard to speech, manner 
and dress. 

2. Show the difference between being a friend, a chum 
and an adviser of girls. 

3. What is the advantage in calling a leader an adviser? 

4. What constitutes the "business of being a friend?" 

5. What do you consider the real source of power for 
true leadership? 

See: 

The Business of Being a Friend, Bertha Cond6. 

Leadership, Charles H. Brent. 

Goat Feathers, Ellis Parker Butler. 

The Charm of the Impossible, Margaret Slattery. 

Discussion VIII. The Preparation of the Adviser's Notebook. 
One of the most valuable parts of an adviser's equipment is 
a, loose-leaf notebook, carefully prepared and kept up to date. 
The following definite helps should be given in the preparation 
D such a notebook: 

A. The names and addresses of organizations from which 
material may be secured, such as: 

1. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1 Madison 
Avenue, New York City. 

2. Extension Service, New York State College of Agri- 
culture, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

3. The Children's Bureau, Department of Labor, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

B. How to collect material for general use in work with 

646 



girls. Have for your advisers the slogan "Clip and 
Paste." If an adviser prefers, the material may be kept 
in a series of large manila envelopes or folders, carefully 
labeled, according to the following headings: 

'Games Indoor and Outdoor. 

Service Activities. 

Handicraft. 

Dramatics. 

Good stories to tell and poems to read. 

Discussions Lists and Outlines. 

Parties, Socials, Stunts. 

Ways to earn money. 

Bible Study Courses and Vesper Hours. 

It might be well to list the material regarding parties 
by seasons and also to have a division given over to 
ways of decorating for parties. Sometimes decorations 
can be secured from stores when; they are not usable 
there. Some advisers might like to keep suggestions 
for posters and very attractive material can be secured 
from newstands when the magazines are out of date. 

O. Another valuable section in an adviser's notebook is one 
which might be termed "The Adviser's Acquaintance 
List." By this is meant a list of books, the reading of 
which will add greatly to an adviser's resourcefulness. 
This list may be compiled from suggestions made by 
the girls* work secretary, other advisers, and through a 
study of current book reviews. 

The material secured from sources such as those 
indicated above, should be carefully studied and those 
parts of it which are specially applicable to the headings 
just given, clipped and placed in the notebook or folders 
under the correct headings. 

D. How to prepare for a meeting: 

1. Determine what is to be the major activity. 

2. Select necessary material and decide how much time 

647 



is to be spent on this part of the program. Choose 
a poem or story which may be related in some way 
to the activity and have it read or told at the open- 
ing of the meeting. 

3. Find games which are suitable for the group, and 
study how to direct the recreation hour. 
In other words, an adviser in planning for a meeting 
must have in mind these three distinct parts of the 
program the opening, the major activity, and the 
best way to spend the last half hour. It should be 
noted that this may not always mean that games 
are used. 

E. Practical suggestions for making a meeting successful: 

1. If for some reason the meeting seems to have dragged, 
close with a good lively game. A most important 
thing to remember is to send the girls away with 
the feeling that they have had a good time. 

2. Never wear out a good idea or a "stunt" by using 
it too long at a time. 

3. Begin meetings on time and stop on time. 

P. Keeping a record of the work: 

1. A girls' work scrap book which will be a record of 
all the activities of the department will prove attrac- 
tive to the girls and offers opportunity for individual 
committee members to come into contact with many 
different groups since they will help in every way 
to prepare this book. 

2. A scrap book which is a record of the achievements 
of the individual clubs is a possible source of effective 
competition and cooperation. This club scrap book 
should be made by a committee of club members 
especially appointed for this work. 

648 



Discussion IX. Practical Demonstrations. 

As much practical demonstration as possible along the fol- 
lowing lines should be given to every leader. This should be 
done by specialists whenever it can be arranged. 

A. Playing of games. 

B. Telling of stories. 

C. Various kinds of handicraft. 

D. Making of posters. 

E. Presentation of the history and development of games, 
folk dancing and social dancing. 

Advisers' Certificates. 

This certificate is given to every adviser on the completion 
of the required number of hours of study upon the technique 
of girls' work as outlined in the training course for girls' work 
advisers in a Young Women's Christian Association. 

It is hoped that every adviser in every girls' work depart- 
ment will be given this training and thus become an accredited 
adviser. Some advisers who have given of their time and 
interest for some years may not see the need for spending 
any time in such a study. But* if the necessity for standardiza- 
tion of leadership is explained to them, they will be willing to 
work with the girls' work secretary on a general study of the 
principles involved. This might not mean (in the case of an 
experienced adviser) an eight hour course; it means that it 
might be reduced to four or six hours if the girls' work secre- 
tary thinks best 

The following requirements must be met by new advisers 
through the help of the local girls' work secretary; 

A. At least eight hours of attendance upon an advisers' 
course or its equivalent in the way of individual study and dis- 
cussion with the local girls' work secretary. 

B. Satisfactory examination, either written or oral (as 
determined by the local Association's girls' work committee 
chairman and the secretary). The certificate will be forwarded 

649 



from the Bureau for work with Younger Girls when there is 
sent to the field secretary for Younger Girls the following- 
information regarding the course: the number of hours in the 
course, the subject matter contained in it, the examination 
questions used if a written one is given, the name and address 
of each applicant for the certificate and the kind of group which 
she is advising. 

The certificate is eight by eleven inches and reads as 
follows: 

Girls* Work Bureau. 
National Board of the Young Womens Christian Association. 

This is to certify that has completed the 

required number of study periods on the technique of the 
National Program for Girls' Work of the Young Women's 
Christian Association and is an accredited adviser in the Girls' 
Work Department of . 



National Girls' Work Secretary. 



CHAPTER III. 

COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS 

COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES A COUNCIL OF GIRLS' AGENCIES 

The Young Women's Christian Association, as one force 
in the community working with younger girls, is under obliga- 
tion to understand the work being done by all other agencies 
with this group of girls, so that it may avoid duplication. 
Cooperation with any agency means more than pleasant good 
will. It involves a real study of the methods and work of the 
agency in question. The following" organizations are ones 
with which the Young Women's Christian Association should 
cooperate in most communities and therefore their programs 
and methods must be studied : The Sunday School, The Yotmg 

650 



Men's Christian Association, The Girls' Friendly Society, The 
Girl Scouts, The Camp Fire Girls and The Woodcraft League. 

In communities where these and other agencies exist, a 
"clearing house" for work with younger girls may be secured 
through the formation of a Council of Girls' Agencies. Such 
a council should include one representative from each of the 
organizations working with younger girls. Wherever these 
agencies have executive secretaries, either employed or volun- 
teer, it is desirable that they be the representatives composing 
the council. It should meet regularly once a month or once 
every two months according to the needs of the community, 
and should have a chairman and a secretary. 

The work to be done by such a council is primarily that 
accomplished by a "clearing house," so that there will be no 
duplication of work in schoois or communities. 

The second function is to secure and train leadership for 
younger girls in the community. There are advantages in a 
composite leadership training course which draws upon the 
resources of all groups. Each group is enriched by the ex- 
perience of the others, and when certain phases of leadership 
training such as adolescent psychology, community surveys, 
and the place of religious education in the life of a girl have 
been presented to the group as a whole, the individual units 
are free to instruct their leaders in their own program activities 
and methods of application. 

The council also might be responsible for planning events 
which are community-wide in their scope, such as Girls' Day, 
or Girls' Week, Mother and Daughter Banquets, or Mother and 
Daughter Week, for planning some piece of community service 
or for supporting a "stay in school" drive. 

In the majority of communities, three organizations con- 
cerned with Christian education among girls, boys and men and 
women, are the Church, the Young Men's Christian Association, 
and the Young Women's Christian Association. For this reason 
a girls* work secretary in a Young Women's Christian Asso- 

651 



ciation needs to understand very clearly methods and policies 
of the church school and of the Y. M. C. A. in its work with 
boys. Material relating to Sunday-school work and programs 
may be obtained from the International Sunday-school Asso- 
ciation, 5 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111. Material on the 
boys' work of the Y. M. C. A. from the local boys' work secre- 
tary or the boys' work division of the International Committee, 
Y. M, C. A., 347 Madison Avenue, New York City. 

Cooperation With the Young Men's Christian Association 

It is impossible for an organization working with the girls 
in a community to do adequate work without a knowledge and 
understanding of the work being done with the boys of the same 
age. 

The boys' work secretary and the girls' work secretary are 
both striving for the same goal the making of Christian boys 
and girls. Their methods vary in some instances but they have 
much in common and the differences in methods do not seem 
so great when each worker understands the reason for them. 

Standards for action at home, in school, and in the com- 
munity as a whole cannot be set by boys alone nor by girls 
alone. Joint action on the part of the two Associations is 
necessary. 

In high school work, correlation of program may be secured. 
Such action for work with grade school boys and girls and 
for younger boys and girls in business and industry often 
comes through discussjon on the part of secretaries and com- 
mittees and a conscious planning- of work in a way which will 
meet the problems of the youth of a community not just the 
problems of a part of that youth. 

The Hi-Y movement for boys corresponds to the Girl 
Reserve high school club. It is often possible to have the high 
school club cabinet and a selected group of Hi-Y boys meet 
together several times a year to discuss and consider principles 
which lie at the roots of standards for action and to plan for 
a joint piece of community service work. Such thinking and 

652 



planning together offer a normal, natural channel for a real 
comradeship among boys and girls which is needed in many 
communities. Social activities planned by committees of boys 
and girls are also valuable but real correlation of program 
should strive for something beyond the mere social activities. 
To achieve such cooperation and correlation it is necessary 
that a girls' work secretary understand the Hi-Y movement 
as a whole. 

The following pamphlets obtained from the International 
Committee, Young Men's Christian Association, 347 Madison 
Avenue, New York, give this information. 

1. Local Work and Its Organization. 

2. The Inner Circle. 

The Girl Reserve Movement in Relation to the Sunday Schools 

or Church Schools. 

In many communities where there has been felt for a long 
time the need for more active cooperation with Sunday or 
Church School groups, it has been found possible for the Girl 
Reserve Movement to fill this need, especially where grade 
school girls are concerned. The following suggestions as possi- 
ble means for cooperation are tentative only and of course 
should be adapted to meet the local condition: 

1. A Sunday-school teacher may organize her Sunday-school 
class as a Girl Reserve group; this group may meet at the 
church, using the Girl Reserve program wherever possible; she 
may have her girls attend all rallies and big meetings of the 
Girl Reserves as a Girl Reserve group. The girls' work secre- 
tary would offer to help, in any way possible, any Sunday-school 
teacher leading such a group. 

2. In some instances the Sunday-school teacher would not 
feel that she herself could become the leader of her own Girl 
Reserve Sunday-school group. In this case the girls' work 
secretary of the local Association would help to secure a leader 
for the Sunday-school group and would meet occasionally with 

653 



the group herself just as she does with any regular Associa- 
tion group. The Sunday-school teacher also might come to the 
meetings, if she desires. Undoubtedly she would want to keep 
in touch with th work her group has done during the week 
through the Girl Reserve Movement in that community. 

Special honors for Sunday-school work in connection with 
the regular Girl Reserve honor plan under the heading of Spirit 
could be worked out by the local girls' work secretary and the 
Sunday-school teacher or corps adviser along the following 
lines : 

1. Honors for some service work done as a Sunday-school 
class. 

2. Honors for studying the Sunday-school lesson at home 
and being really prepared on arrival at class. 

3. Punctuality at a Sunday-school class. 

Any teacher may suggest five or more special honors to be 
included under the Spirit honors of the Girl Reserves and 
these will be accepted by the local girls' work secretary as 
regular Girl Reserve honors. 

The following plan has been tested by a local Young 
Women's Christian Association as one way of relating its girls 
to the Sunday-school or Church School of the community. 

A. Centers for specialization. 

Churches and Sunday-schools and nearby communities 
offer centers for organization. 

The purpose is to reach girls twelve to fifteen years old 
through the formation of a company composed of sev- 
eral corps in each church; a division should be organized 
in each community. 

B. Program and Activities: They are much the same as 
for groups meeting in schools or at the Association. 
Honors are chosen which link the girl very closely to 
the life of her own church. 

654 



The purpose is to offer the Girl Reserve program as a 
channel through which the several organizations in a 
church may reach the girls of that group with their 
particular interests. For example, the last meeting- of the 
month may be missionary study or dramatization under 
the Westminister Guild in the Presbyterian Church, 
under the Standard Bearers or Queen Esthers in the 
Methodist Church, etc. (This will create an interest in 
the younger girls on the part of the women's societies). 
The time of meeting weekly. All clubs in one com- 
munity meet the same afternoon, enabling the Associa- 
tion worker to meet with them in a group on that day. 
C. Leadership: Suggestions about the best way to proceed 
are requested from ministers and Sunday or Ohurch 
School superintendents, and advisers are secured from 
groups 'of young women who are 1 - not too actHvely 
engaged in other kinds of work. 

It is suggested that, in addition to the points made above, 
the advisers of Church School groups become members of the 
girls' work committee of the local Association and, if the 
group is very large at the time of the regular committee meet- 
ing, these advisers should have a sectional meeting, discussing- 
their work and problems in relation to the general Girl Reserve 
work. Then they would send a representative or two to the 
regular committee meeting. If the Girl Reserve program as 
such is not used in the church schools, a girls' work secretary 
must make every effort to work with the teachers in these 
schools so that the girl who is already in the church school 
may feel that what she does through her Church and what she 
does through her Association are parts of a whole and do not 
interfere with or confuse each other; and also that the girl 
who is not in the church school but who is in a Girl Reserve 
group, may be made interested in the church school because 
of the close cooperation of the two. 

655 



THE ORCHARD. 

A Story for Advisers By Alice G. Moore. 
John XV: 5 and 16. 

By the side of the great white road that led from the City 
of the Past to the City of the Future there lived a man whose 
heart was very sensitive to the needs of the weary ones who 
passed that way. "It is refreshing fruit that giveth Life," he 
said, "and that is what all these people need." 

So he planted an orchard by the side of the road and 
cared for it himself, until one day a message came, calling 
him to a far land. Before he went he hired gardners to look 
after the trees. "Give them great care," he said, "that all may 
bear fruit and that every hungry one may be refreshed." Then 
he went away. The trees grew, and by and by bore fruit 
so abundantly that hundreds, even thousands, had new life 
given to them as they passed along the road. 

One day there came down the great white road three 
strangers who said to the gardeners, "Is it not a pity that so 
line an orchard is not shielded from the high winds and wander- 
ing cattle? We will build a wall for its protection." So they 
built a high wall about the four sides, leaving an opening on 
the side that was next to the road ; and over the gate they wrote 
the words "FOR ALL." Some of the people who passed by 
saw only the wall; others were afraid to enter the gate; but 
some went through and found the fruit. Now in this wonder- 
ful orchard the trees were in blossom not only in the spring 
time but some blossomed each month, so that there was fruit 
throughout the whole year. No one ever left the orchard 
hungry. 

Within the orchard, by the side of the gate, there stood a 
beautiful tree whose blossoms were like snow. One day this 
tree said, "Why should I drop these lovely petals? People 
need beauty at all times. I shall make myself the most beauti- 
ful tree that eye has ever seen." So the tree held its blossoms 

656 



all year, until they grew larger than the wild roses that climbed 
the orchard wall. People marveled at the beauty of the tree. 
But there was no fruit. 

Another tree said, "Why should I continue to bear fruit year 
after year? If I give up this trying process I may become 
so tall that people from far beyond the orchard wall can look 
at me." So the tree stretched itself upward until its highest 
branches could be seen for miles. But there was no fruit. 

A third tree said, "If I stretch my branches forth and give 
my strength thereto, many people may rest in my shade." 
Whereupon it stretched its branches out, until many found 
shelter there and scores were grateful for the cool retreat. But 
there was no fruit. 

Then all the trees began to change in some way and the 
gardeners could do nothing. Finally they said, "Perhaps it is 
better so, for times have changed.*' And they gave up trying 
to make the trees bear fruit. 

Down in the corner of the orchard there was one small 
tree that longed for fruit, but it had never been strong enough. 
"Perhaps some day I may bear just one bit of fruit," it said, 
"and some hungry one may be fed." 

One day when the sun shone hot on the great white road 
a girl came by. She was weary, hungry and alone. When she 
saw the words "FOR ALL" she eagerly entered the open gate. 
"Oh what a beautiful tree," she said, seeing the white blossoms 
just within the orchard gate. But the sun was so hot that she 
quickly ^sought the cool shade of the larger tree. "I can rest 
here ami be undisturbed," she thought. Then she saw the tall 
tree nearby. "I am so hungry! Surely a tree so old and tall 
must have fruit?" Her eyes searched the lower branches and 
then the higher ones, but she could see no fruit. Her hunger 
would not let her rest until she searched eagerly through, the 
whole orchard. From tree to tree she wandered, but found no 
fruit. At last she wearily dropped to the ground at the foot 

657 



of the smallest tree. The little tree swayed back and forth, 
making a cool breeze^ until she fell asleep. 

On this same day there came running- down the road a little 
girl, much younger than the other. She was laughing gaily, 
and chasing butterflies. She did not see the wall, not even 
the words over the gate; but the butterfly flew in and she 
merrily followed. She did not see the beautiful tree, nor the 
one which made such wonderful shade, nor even the one which 
grew so tall, for her eyes were fastened on the butterfly and 
its elusive flight. She ran on and on until at last the butterfly 
few over the wall and was gone. "How tired I am," she said, 
and just then she saw the other girl asleep. She went up to 
her and shaking her gently she said, "Girl, why are you here?" 
The older girl rose wearily and said, "I came into the orchard 
to rest. Then I was hungry and searched for fruit, but there 
is no fruit here." "Why I am hungry too/ 7 said the little girl 
and she began to cry. While the older girl talked to her they 
heard a soft step on the orchard path, and looking up they 
saw a stranger drawing near. "Why are ye here?" he said. 
"We are hungry," said the older girl, "but there is no fruit 
here." The, stranger looked sadly at the trees and tenderly 
placing his hand on the head of the younger girl, he said, 
"There is beauty and strength in the orchard, but no fruit that 
giveth life." Then he touched the smallest tree and it bore 
fruit. They ate and went away satisfied. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A list of books, magazines and pamphlets recommended 
for reading by secretaries and advisers in the Girls' Work 
Departments of local Young Women's Christian Associations. 

This bibliography has been arranged with the thought that 
in it advisers and secretaries would find resources for an under- 
standing of the principles underlying Girl Reserve work. It is 
in no sense of the word a "study course." It is a guide. 

Any one of the following books may be criticized for pre- 
658 



senting only one viewpoint. They are to be considered, there- 
fore, as stimulating', rather than as conclusive. 

A girls' work committee will find in the list books which form 
a substantial basis for committee reading. For instance, the fol- 
lowing volumes might be selected as the nucleus for a ever- 
growing library, which every girls 7 work department should 
own: 

Pictures in Religious Education. Beard. 

What Men Live By. -Cabot. 

Religious Education in the Family. Cope. 

Community Amusements Edwards. 

The Use of the Story in Religious Education. Eggleston. 

Girlhood and Character. Moxcey. 

The Girl and Her Religion. Slattery. 

The Girl in Her Teens. Slattery. 

Games for Home, School and Playground. Bancroft, 

(Much material on all phases of Girls' Work is to be found 
in current magazines. "The American Readers' Guide," found 
in any library will serve as a guide for any such magazine ma- 
terial, . 

General Reading: 

Abbott, Edith. Women in Industry. 

Adams, Charlotte. Things Which Cannot Be Shaken. 

Addams, Jane. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. 

Alsop, Gulielma. My Chinese Days. 

Bacheller, Irving. A Man for the Ages. 

Blackweil, Alice Stone. The Little Grandmother of the 

Russian Revolution. 

Brawley, B. G. Short History of the American Negro. 
Brawley, B. G.-^-The Negro in Literature and Art. 
Brawley, B. G. Women of Achievement. 
Brawley, B. G. Tour Negro Neighbor. 
Brent, Bishop Charles H. The Mount of Vision. 
Burton, Margaret E. Comrades in Service. " 
Byington, Margaret F. What Social Workers Should Know 

659 



About Their Community. 
Cabot, Richard C. What Men Live By. 
Cheley, F. H. Stories for Talks to Boys. 
Cluett, Every Day with the Master. 
Division of Negro Economics . 

(Issued by U. S. Department of Labor. I 

The Negro at Work During the World War and During Re- 
construction, 

Negro Migration in 1916-1917, 
The Negro Year Book, 1912-1919. 

Douglas, Frederick. Life and Times of Frederick Douglas. 

Drinkwater, John. Abraham Lincoln (a play). 

Ferris, Helen J. Girls' Olubs Their Organization and Man- 
agement. 

Ferris, Helen J. Producing Amateur Entertainments. 

Fleming, J. Daniel. The Marks of a World Christian. 

Fosdick, Harry Emerson. The Meaning of Faith. 

Fosdiek, Harry Emerson. The Meaning of Prayer. 

Fosdick, Harry Emerson. The Meaning of Service. 

Glover, T. R. The Jesus of History. 

Greeley, Hugh P. and Floretta. Work and Play in the Gren- 
fall Mission. 

Henry,