(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The glacial boundary in Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky"

GLACIAL BOUNORY IN OHIO, INDIANA & KENTUCKY 



WRIGHT 




UNIVERSITY or PITTSBURGH 




Uarlington Ai.einorial Library- 



m 



wl 



.^■-/. \ 




PUBLISHED BY 

eriie |)le0tern llpofvuc litotorititl Sotietii, 

CLEVELAND, O. 



THE 



Glacial Boundary 



IN OHIO, 



INDIANA AND KENTUCKY. 



PROF. G. FREDERICK WRIGHT. 



TRACT No. 60. 



CLEVELAND, OHIO: 

LEADER PRINTING COMPANY, I46 SUI'ERIOR STREET. 
18S4. 



y 
^ 



V.^0, 

/ 



N^ 



Preface. 



'^^HEN, ten years ago, I began my investigations eon- 
Liy earning the kames of the Merrimac valley, in Eastern 
* Massachusetts, I little thought to what it would lead; 
and, after having traced the boundary of the glaciated area 
from the Atlantic Ocean to the southern part of Illinois, I am 
equally in doubt as to what the future has in store in this 
most interesting line of exploration. 

The Detailed Report, occupying the larger part of the 
Xjiroscnt publication, is little more than a simple recital of 
I observations, designed to put the reader in my own position, 
and to furnish the facts which all scientific men would wish 
\ to know. I have endeavored to be so specific that future 
observers may be able to verify my statements, and may intelli- 
^ gently connect their own observations with mine. Whether 
I shall publish, in equal detail, my observations already made 
ipon Indiana, the future must determine. I hope, however, 
to continue my investigations across Illinois and Missouri, 
jj- and may then give fuller details of what I have already done 
f in Indiana. 

The preliminary lecture (with its map on page 17), gives the 

facts concerning Indiana with sufficient clearness to show 

i their relations to those more minutely described in Ohio. 

K, When the present report was written, I had supposed that the 

^ joint report of Professor Lewis and myself, upon the glacial 

boundary in Pennsylvania, would already have appeared; and 

some sentences in my remarks upon Columbiana county, 

s!^ Ohio, presume some degree of familiarity with the views we 

i ^ had presented concerning what is called the "fringe" of the 

O boundary in Western Pennsylvania. As that report will soon 

appear, it is not necessary to repeat here what will so soon be 

accessible to the public. Furthermore, my preliminary lec- 

•t,^'* ture puts the reader in possession of the general facts. 

; ^ Among the satisfactory rewards coming to one who engages 

in such unreniunerative, but original, investigations as those 



^ 

^ 



196 Preface. 

here recorded, is the ready appreciation of his work by so 
wide a circle of intelligent men whose time is absorbed in 
other occupations, but who, when the facts are brought to 
light, are quick to see their importance. 

I have, also, had special occasion in these investigations to 
be thankful for the personal encouragement, appreciation, and 
advice of such authorities as Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, 
Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, Prof. E. S. Morse, Prof. J. D. Dana, 
Prof. J. P. Lesley, Prof. Edward Orton, and Col. Charles 
Whittlesey. But it is to the Cleveland Historical So- 
ciety and its friends that I am specially indebted for the 
means to prosecute my work in Ohio and Indiana, and 
that the public is indebted for so full and complete a report 
of the facts as is here given. The funds directly pro- 
vided for my expenses, by the friends of the Society, amount 
to $450.00, the most of which was contributed by Jarvis M. 
Adams, Esq., President of the New York, Pennsylvania and 
Ohio Railroad, and Messrs. Dan P. Eells, Joseph Perkins, 
and T. P. Handy. To Mr. Adams I am also indebted, both 
for passes on the raih'oad of which he is President, and for 
others secured by his intervention on the Cleveland and Pitts- 
burgh Railway; Cleveland, Akron and Columbus; Cincinnati, 
Indianapolis, St. Louis and Chicago; Indianapolis and St. 
Louis; Ohio and Mississippi; Cleveland, Columbus, Cincin- 
nati and Indianapolis; Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and St. Louis. 

The cost of the investigations has, also, been diminished 
by various friends, who have accompanied me and borne their 
share of the expense, among whom should be mentioned Mr. 
J. H. Kedzie, of Chicago, C. C. Baldwin Esq. (Secretary of 
this Society, and through whose well-directed efforts the local 
interest in the subject is largely due), and finally the late la- 
mented Rev. Charles Terry Collins, whose sudden death 
will inflict a loss upon a multitude of philanthropic and educa- 
tional enterprises. The Rev. Mr. Collins was first and fore- 
most among those who set themselves to interest the Cleveland 
public in this matter, and he was with me two weeks in the 
field, entering into every minutiaB of the investigation with 
unbounded enthusiasm, and with sagacious appreciation of 
the whole bearing of the discoveries. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GLACIAL PERIOD IN AMERICA : paoe. 

Introduction 199 

Signs of Glaciation 201 

1. Scratches upon the Rocks 201 

2. Till, or Boulder Clay 202 

3. Transported Boulders and the Terminal Moraine 203 

a. Irreg:ularity of the Boundary Line 203 

6. Irregular Elevation of the Boundary Line 210 

e. Character and Amount of the Debris 212 

Some General Considerations 215 

1. Relation of the Glacial Period 215 

a. To Agriculture and Health 215 

6. To ArchEeology 216 

2. Date of the Glacial Period 220 

3. Centers of Glacial Dispersion 221 

Conclusion 223 

DETAILED REPORT FOR OHIO: 

Columbiana County 227 

The Fringe 227 

The Moraine Proper 229 

Stark County 230 

The Fringe 230 

The Moraine Proper 230 

Holmes County 235 

Berlin Township 236 

Hardy Township 236 

Monroe 239 

Knox 240 

Kxox County 241 

Jefferson Township 242 

Union , 24 2 

Butler.and Jackson > 243 

LiCKiNO County 243 

Eden Township 244 

Mary Ann 244 

Newark 245 

Licking and Franklin ^ 245 

Perry County 246 

Thorn Township 246 

• Reading 247 

Fairfield County , 247 

Richland and Rush Creek Townships 248 

Pleasant 248 

Bern and Hocking 250 

Madison 251 

Pickaway and Hocking Counties 251 



198 Contents. 

Ross County 252 

Colerain Township 252 

Green 254 

Springfield 255 

Union 255 

Concord and Twin 256 

Buckskin and Paint 258 

Paxton 258 

Pike County 260 

Highland County 260 

Marshall Township 261 

Jackson 261 

Adams County 262 

Brown Bounty 262 

Hamilton County 264 

Kentucky 265 

Campbell County ■, 265 

Kenton County 265 

Boone County 266 

APPENDIX: 

1. Abstract of the Bearings of Glacial Striae and Grooves in Ohio (Compiled by 

Col. Charles Whittlesey) 269 

2. The Glacial Dam at Cincinnati 273 

a. Its Effects Along the Upper Basin of the Ohio (A Paper by Prof. I. C. 
White) 273 

b. Its Effects in Boyd County, Ky 277 

c. Mr. G. H. Squier on its effects in Bath County, Ky 278 

d. Prof. Lesley on the Glacial Dam 278 

PLATES: 

I. Glaciated Region of North America 199 

II. Glaciated Region of the Delaware Valley 204 

III. Glaciated Area of Pennsylvania 205 

IV. Same of Ohio 206 

V. Glacial Boundary in Indiana 209 

VI. Palaiolith from France 216 

VII. Pateolith from New Jersey 217 

VIII. Columbiana County 226 

IX. Stark Connty 226 

X. Holmes County 237 

XI. Knox and Licking Counties 237 

XII. Licking, Perry, and Fairfield Counties 249 

XIII, Fairfield, Hocking, Pickaway, and Ross Counties 249 

XIV. Ross, Pike, and Highland Counties 259 

XV. Highland, Adams, and Brown Counties 259 

XVI. Brown, Clermont, and Hamilton Counties 263 

XVII. Kentucky 263 



A LECTURE 

ON TEIE 

Glacial Phenomena in the United States, 

BY 

PROF. G, FREDERICK WRIGHT, 

GIVEN BEFORE THE WESTERN RESERVE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

IN CASE HALL, CLEVELAND, OHIO, 

NOVEMBER 27, 1882. 



Note. — When this lecture was delivered my investigations had reached only the Indiana 
line. Duriiij; the present sunilner (1883), I have continued the exploration to the Illinois 
line, and hence have thought it best to make such changes in the lecture as will give the 
latest results. 

T HAVE been led by the circumstances in which I have been 
■*■ placed, and which I need not here rehearse, to study some- 
what extensively the glacial phenomena of the Atlantic States 
and of the Mississippi basiu. By reason of some special famili- 
arity with the subject, acquired by a long residence in New En- 
gland, I was invited two years ago, in company Avith Professor 
H. C. Lewis, of Philadelphia, to trace the southern limits of 
glacial action for the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. A ful 1 
report of our work will soon appear. It is through the thougli t- 
ful generosity of several friends of this Society that I have been 
permitted to continue these investigations in Ohio ; and I will 
take this occasion to return thanks to these gentlemen and to 
the railroad companies who have facilitated my work. I should 
also say that both in this State and Pennsylvania our work has 
been simply supplementary to that of previous surveys. No 
one can appreciate more fully than myself the value of the gla- 
cial observations made by Colonel Whittlesey, Professor New- 
berry, Professor Orton, Professor Andrews, Mr. M. 0. Kead, 
and others of the Ohio Geological Survey. But unity could 
not well be given to the subject, except one person should go 
over the whole line, and be able to compare the phenomena of 
one section with those in another. 

GENERAL SURVEY OF THE SUBJECT. 

To understand the significance of the glacial phenomena of 
the State, it is necessary to take a brief survey of the general 
facts concerning the glacial period. A study of the phenom- 
ena of the glacial period gives one an impression of the irre- 
sistible power and grandeur of nature's operations, second only 



200 



Glacial Period in America. 



to the study of the geological forces which elevated the conti- 
nents, and to that of the astronomical forces whose effects are 
seen in the motions of the heavenly bodies. During the glacial 
period more than 4,000,000 square miles of the land surface of 
the Northern Hemisphere was enveloped in glacial ice. In 
North America this ice sheet extended, upon the Atlantic 
coast, as far south as Long Island and New York City, and on 
the Pacific coast to the southern border of British Columbia; 




Glacial Period in America. 201 

while in the central portion of the continent the glacier every- 
where advanced nearly to the Ohio Eiver, and in two places 
crossed it. The depth of this ice-sheet in America we know 
to have been at least several hundred feet at its margin, Avhile 
in the interior it was several thousand feet in depth, or deep 
enougli to covfr the highest mountains in New England. 

In Europe the land is less continuous than in America, and 
hence the glacial phenomena are more difficult to interpret. 
But nearly all of Ireland, the whole of Scotland, and the north- 
ern part of England and Wales show marks of long-continued 
and extensive glaciation. In Switzerland the glacie^rs foi nierly 
extended till they filled the whole valley betAveen the Alps and 
the Juras, and upon one side flowed down the valley of the 
Rhone as far as Lyons, which is in a straight line 130 miles 
from Geneva. The whole distance traversed by that portion 
of the Swiss glacier was 270 miles. On the other side of the 
Juras, in the valley of the Ehine, the Swiss ice-current prob- 
ably met, upon the plains of Germany, the counter current 
coming down from the Scandinavian peninsula; while in Italy 
glaciers extended to within a short distance of the river Po, or 
more than a hundred miles south of the summit of the Alps. 
The Scandinavian peninsula was completely enveloped with 
glacial ice, moving southerly, easterly, and westerly, in lines 
of the least resistance. Upon the shores of the White Sea the 
motion was nearly east and west. In Finland and in tlie neigh- 
borhood of Stockholm the motion was south, while upon the 
west coast the motion was towards the Atlantic Ocean. 

SIGNS OF GLACIATION. 

The signs of glaciation are three-fold, and are unmistakable 
in their meaning. These are : first, the scratches upon the 
rocks ; second, the till or boulder clay ; third, the transported 
boulders and terminal moraines. 

First. Sci'atclies upon the Rocks. — All over the regions 
which we have mentioned the harder and fresiily uncovered 
rocks show abrasion; tlicy are polished. This, however, might 
have been done by the action of water in rolling pebbles and 
gravel over tliem. But this is not all. They are scratched and 
grooved as if the sand, gravel and pebbles, which abraded them. 



202 Glacial Period in America. 

had been held in a firm grasp. These strife and furrows are, 
in the main, parallel with each other, and they continue across 
the hard portions of the rock as well as the softer. There are 
places upon the shores, and among the Islands near the west 
end of Lake Erie, where many acres together of rocks, thus 
scratched and furrowed, are exposed, and where frequently the 
furrows may be traced in a continuous line for a long distance. 
These are effects which water alone could not produce. Water, 
by giving motion to pebbles, may polish the rocks over which 
they are moved, yet it docs not give the rocks an even surface, 
but wears down the softer portions faster than the harder. 
Only moving ice is competent to produce such polishing and 
scratching as we have described ; and so extensive and uniform 
is this striation that the theory of icebergs — majestic as they 
are — is entirely inadequate to account for the facts. 

Second. Till, or Boulder Clay. — The competency of water 
for the production of the phenomena ascribed to glaciation is 
excluded also by the character of the superficial deposit which 
is everywhere found over the area indicated. This deposit was 
formerly called "boulder-clay," but, in scientific circles, now 
goes by the name of "till," and its character is un i:istakable. 

Till is an unstratified accumulation, and in this respect dif- 
fers from all deposits which take place in water. Water is a 
more perfect sieve than any of man's invention. It carefully 
sorts whatever it transports, carrying along the finer material 
farther than the coarse, and depositing it by itself. Now in 
the till there is no such separation of the fine from the coarse 
as water would secure. Fine clay, gravel, fragments of stone 
of various sizes, sometimes several feet through, are mingled 
in one indiscriminate mass. The larger part of the material 
composing till is usually derived from the rocks of the vicinity; 
but with this there are also mingled fragments that have been 
brought from a longer distance, sometimes from localities hun- 
dreds of miles away. A noticeable peculiarity of the pebbles 
and fragments of rock which occur in till is that they too, like 
the rock beneath, are scratched, and usually the direction of 
the scratches on them is that of the longest diameter of the 
frasfments. 



Glacial Period in America. 203 

From this description of till it will be recognized, by those 
who have visited the glaciers of Switzerland, as similar to the 
accumulation taking place beneath the glacier, and which is 
called the ''ground moraine." In short, the fine material of 
the till may be compared to the dust with which a lapidary 
polishes his gems, and the larger fragments to the tools with 
which he engraves them. 

Thikd. Transported BovJders and the Terminal Moraine. — 
A third evidence of the reality of the great ice movement of 
which we are speaking, is to be found in the character, position 
and limits of the transported material. This introduces us to 
tlie particular field of my own observations. There is a well- 
defined southern limit to the marks of glacial action in the 
United States. I have now followed that boundary line nearly 
all the way from the Atlantic Ocean to the State of Illinois, 
and can mark it upon the map with nearly as much confidence 
and accuracy as I can that of the shores of Lake Erie. 

a. There are some peculiarities in this line which it is worth 
while to note, the first of which is the irregularity. As shown 
upon the maps, the boundary of the glaciated region in North 
America runs, opposite New England, through Nantucket and 
Martha's Vineyard, and forms the backbone of Long Island, en- 
tering New Jersey at Perth Amboy, just below New York. 

It was my privilege, several years ago, in a more definite 
manner than had been done before, to call public attention to 
the nature of these accumulations in Southern New England. 
I was enabled to do this through information furnished me by 
Mr. Clarence King who gave me the facts in 1876, to be pub- 
lished in a communication to the Boston Society of Natural 
History ujDon the Glacial Phenomena of Eastern Massachusetts. 
(See Proceedings, Vol. 19, p. 62, 1877.) When this clew had 
once been furnished, it was a short matter to trace the line 
along tlie southern shore of New England and through Long 
Island. This work was done by Mr. Warren Upham. 

By independent investigations Professors Cook and Smock, 
of the New Jersey Geological Survey, discovered the signifi- 
cance of certain glacial accumulations in that State, and a little 
later published (Report on the Geology of New Jersey for 1878) 



204 



Glacial Period in America. 



a map of the Terminal Moraine in New Jersey. This runs by 
an irregular course from Perth Amboy to Belvidere, on the 
Delaware River, a few miles above Euston. 




PLATE II. (taken from "Studies in Science and Religion") shows, in addition to the 
glaciated area of New Jersey, the glacial terraces of gravel along the Lehigh and Delaware 
Rivers, and also the "Delta Terrace" at Trenton, fifty feet above the river, in which Dr. C. 
C. Abbott has found palieolithic implements. (For cuts, see Plates VI. and VII., pp. 24, 25 ) 



Glacial Period in America. 



205 




From that point the line runs in a general northwesterly 
direction to the vicinity of Salamanca, N. Y., and thence 
southwesterly into Boone county, Ky., across the river from 
Cincinnati. Thence, by a circuitous route, hereafter to be de- 



206 



Glacial Period in America. 



scribed, it passes to the southwest corner of Indiana. So far 
it has been accurately traced. From geological reports we 
suppose it to trend across Illinois into Missouri, and thence in 
a more northerly course into the States and Territories beyond. 
Taken in their full extent, the curves in this boundary line 
are both graceful and majestic, and may yet furnish to the 
mathematician some clew as to the depth of the ice and the 
distance of the centers from which it was dispersed. Various 
minor curves in the line are also worthy of notice, one of which 
appears in New Jersey, where near Eockaway the line makes 
a right angle. One or two graceful curves are also noticeable 
between the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers. Near Sala- 




PLATE IV. Map showinj,' Southern Boundary of Glaciated Area of Southern Ohio, 



Glacial Period in America. 



207 



LIST OF COUNTIES WITH NUMBERS CORRESPONDING TO THOSE IN MAP. 



1. Williams. 

2. Defiance. 

3. Paulding'. 
i. Van Wert. 

5. Mercer. 

6. Darke. 

7. Preble. 

8. Butler. 

9. Hamilton. 

10. Fulton. 

11. Henry. 

12. Putnam. 

13. Allen. 

14. Auglaize. 

15. Shelby. 

16. Miami. 

17. Montgomery. 
IS. Warren. 

19. Clermont. 

20. Lucas. 

21. Wood. 

22. Hancock. 



23. Hardin. 

24. Logan. 

25. Champaign. 

26. Clarke. 

27. Greene. 

28. Clinton. 

29. Brown. 

30. Ottawa. 

31 . Sandusky. 

32. Seneca. 

33. Wyandot. 

34. Crawford. 

35. Marion. 

36. Morrow. 

37. Union. 

38. Delaware. 

39. Madison. 

40. Franklin. 

41. Fayette. 

42. Pickaway. 

43. Ross. 

44. Highland. 



45. Pike. 

46. Adams. 

47. Scioto. 

48. Erie. 

49. Huron. 

50. Lorain. 

51. Richland. 

52. Ashland. 

53. Knox. 

54. Licking. 

55. Fairfield. 

56. Perry. 

57. Hocking. 

58. "Vinton. 

59. Jackson. 

60. Lawrence. 

61. Cuj'ahoga. 

62. Medina. 

63. Summit. 

64. Wayne. 

65. Holmes. 

66. Coshocton. 



67. Muskingum. 

68. Morgan. 

69. Athens. 

70. Meigs. 

71. Gallia. 

72. Lake. 

73. Geauga. 

74. Portage. 

75. Stark. 

76. Tuscarawas. 

77. Guernsey. 

78. Noble. 

79. Ashtabula. 

80. Trumbull. 

81. Mahoning. 

82. Columbiana. 

83. Carroll. 

84. Harrison. 

85. Jefferson. 

86. Belmont. 
Monroe. 
Washington . 



87 



46 

Allen 13 

Ashland(lM2 ft. ab. sea level) .52 

Ashtabula 79 

Athens 69 

Auglaize 14 

Belmont (1170) 86 

Brown 29 

Butler 8 

Carroll (1011) 83 

Champaign (1158) 25 

Clarke 26 

Clermont 19 

Clinton (1095) 28 

Columbiana (1419) 82 

Coshocton (1326) 66 

Crawford (1175) 34 

Cuyahoga (1032) 61 

Darke (1107) 6 

Defiance 2 

Delaware 38 

Erie 48 

Fairfield 55 

Fayette 41 

Franklin 40 

Fulton 10 

Gallia 71 

Geauga (12.;2) 73 

Greene 27 

Guernsey 77 



. No. IL 

Hamilton 9 

Hancock 22 

Hardin (1371) 23 

Harrison (1180) 84 

Henry 11 

Highland (1135) 44 

Hocking 57 

Holmes (1235) 65 

Huron (1050) 49 

Jackson 59 

Jefferson (1065) 85 

Knox (1295) 53 

Lake (1175) 72 

Lawrence 60 

Licking (1316) 54 

Logan (1550) 24 

Lorain 50 

Lucas 20 

Madison 39 

Mahoning (1208) 81 

Marion 35 

Medina (1117) 62 

Meigs 70 

Mercer 5 

Miami - 16 

Monroe 87 

Montgomery 17 

Morgan 68 

Morrow (1148) 36 

Muskingum (1161) 67 



Noble 78 

Ottawa 30 

Paulding 3 

Perry (1156) 56 

Pickaway 42 

Pike(1285) 45 

Portage (1260) 74 

Preble (1044) 7 

Putnam 12 

Richland (1400) 51 

Ross 43 

Sandusky 31 

Scioto 47 

Seneca 32 

Shelby (1058) 15 

Stark (1261) 75 

Summit (1175) 63 

Trumbull (1165) 80 

Tuscarawas (1491) 76 

Union 37 

Van Wert 4 

Vinton 58 

Warren 18 

Washington 88 

Wayne (1275) 64 

Williams 1 

Wood 21 

Wyandot 33 



208 Glacial Period in America. 

manca, in New York, the change of direction is such as to 
make an acute angle. Omitting various other deflections in 
Pennsylvania, you will notice several of a very marked charac- 
ter in Ohio. 

The boundary line enters Ohio near Palestine, in Colum. 
biana county, and crosses the county in a direction a little 
south of west, and as it enters Stark county, trends a little 
to the north as far as Canton. Here it makes a sharp turn, 
and runs almost south to the edge of Tuscarawas county, 
entering Holmes county near its northeast corner, and contin- 
uing in a southwesterly course to Millersburg, whence it trends 
northwesterly to the southern township of Ashland county, 
where it again takes a very sudden and decided turn to the 
south, passing through the eastern edge of Knox county ; 
thence through Newark, in Licking county, to the reservoir 
in the northwestern part of Perry county, continuing in its 
southerly course to Rushville in Fairfield county. Th?nce it 
bends rapidly westward to Lancaster, and again, after crossing 
the Hocking Valley, turns southward and runs along the boun- 
dary between Pickaway and Hocking counties to Adelphi, in 
the northeast comer of Ross county. Here again it bends 
westward, crossing the Scioto Valley a few miles above Chilli- 
cothe, turning again southward, near Frankfort, and bending 
around so as to just graze the northwest corner of Pike county, 
and cross the southeastern of Highland and the northwestern 
of Adams, entering Brown county near Decatur, and run- 
ning westward across the southern townships of Brown and 
Clermont counties, and crossing the Ohio River into Kentucky 
about two miles north of the line between Campbell and Pen- 
dleton counties, whence it bends northward, keeping nearly 
parallel with tiie river, and from three to eight miles south of 
it, re-crossing the river near Woolpers Creek, five miles south 
of Petersburg, and entering Indiana a little below Aurora. 

In Indiana, the line still continues to bear in a southerly 
direction through Ohio and Jefferson counties, grazing the edge 
of Kentucky again opposite Madison and reaching its southern- 
most point near Charleston in Clarke county, Indiana. From 
here it bears again to the north through Scott and Jackson 




PLATE V. Map of Southern Indiana, showing Glacial Boundary. 



210 Glacial Period in America. 

counties to the line between Bartholomew and Brown, and fol- 
lows this to the northeast corner of Brown. There again 
it turns to the southwest, touching the northeast corner of 
Monroe, where it again bears north for ten miles, to near Mar- 
tinsville in Morgan county. Here again the line turns west 
and south, passing diagonally through Owen, Greene, Knox, 
and Gibson counties, and into Posey county as far as New 
Harmony, where, for the present, I have left it. 

To account for these curves is a problem to which we will 
return a little later. 

b. A second class of peculiarities to be noted in this bound- 
ary line is its irregularity as to elevation. Nowhere is there 
manifest any barrier such as would limit a body of water, and 
the line rises over mountains and descends into the valleys with 
apparent indifference. South of New England the accumula- 
tions forming the terminal moraine are often below the level 
of the sea, — the Elizabeth Islands and Block Island being 
merely the surface of tlie moraine where it is partly buried in 
the ocean ; so on across Long Island, Statcn Island, and a good 
part of New Jersey, the moraine is not far above the level of the 
sea. West of the Delaware the line mounts the summit of the 
Blue Eidge, 1,500 feet above the sea, and descends in crossing 
a transverse valley, a few miles to the north, 1,000 feet. ]t 
ascends again, in a few more miles, the summit of Pocono 
Mountain, which forms the watershed between the Delaware 
and the Lehigh, and is 2,000 feet above the sea. Upon reach- 
ing the eastbrancli of the Susquehanna at Beech Haven, it has 
again descended 1,500 feet, and it keeps on in a nearly uniform 
course until it mounts the escarpment of the Alleghanies north 
of Williamsport. From this point on to Salamanca the eleva- 
vation varies from 2,000 to 2,500 feet. Once across the Alle- 
ghanies the line works gradually to a lower level until it 
reaches the southern part of Ohio, where it is still nearly 1,000 
feet above the sea. 

These facts by themselyes clearly show that the boundary 
line which we have traced, does not, as Dr. Dawson supposes, 
mark the shores of an ancient sea, for if that were the case, 



Glacial Period in America. 211 

there would have been a barrier to limit the sea, and that bar- 
rier must have been upon the same general level, which, as we 
have seen, is not the case. 

Nor have there been any physical changes since the glacial 
period sufBcient to produce these diversities of elevation. The 
Alleghanies were uplifted millions of years before the glacial 
period. This is evident from the immense amount of erosion 
which had taken place before the glacial period. Southeastern 
Ohio and Western Pennsylvania are covered with the strata of 
the coal measures, some outlying fragments of which are still 
to be found as far east as the Susquehanna Valley. Now the 
rivers in all this region flow along the bottoms of deep troughs 
almost like canons, which in the course of ages have been cut 
down by water through the parallel strata of sandstone, lime, 
shale, and coal, which, in alternate layers, built up the great 
structure of the carboniferous period. The extent and depth 
of these narrow valleys of erosion are scarcely appreciated. 
For fifty miles above Lock Haven, in Pennsylvania, the Phila- 
delphia and Erie Railway follows up a narrow winding gorge, 
in the west brunch of the Susquehanna, which is ],000 feet in 
depth. Instead of digging for the coal in this region they 
ascend the summits of the hills. The Allegheny and the Ohio 
rivers occupy similar troughs, which are from 300 to 500 feet in 
depth. These are valleys of erosion, and every tributary of 
these streams occupies a similar trough which it has cut for 
itself. It is certain that the main lines of drainage upon this 
continent do not now differ materially from those which have 
existed from the very earliest time. 

I say materially, because in minor respects the glaciation of 
the continent produced many permanent changes in tiie drain- 
age, and, for a temporary period, changes that were remarkable. 
Bat, in the main, the watershed between the St. Lawrence 
and the Mississippi has been, from the coal period on, a well- 
defined and permanent feature in the physical geography of 
the United States. The minor changes in the drainage of this 
country have been largely due to the work of the glacial period. 
Everywhere over the glaciated region the till, or ground mo- 
raine, has been forced like putty into the gorges formed by the 



212 Glacial Period in America. 

erosion of pre-glacial streams, so that nothing is more common 
thronghout this region than to find that the old channels have 
been buried, and the streams forced to flow in new channels of 
modern date. 

c. A third peculiarity in the border of the glaciated region 
is the character and amount of the accumulations marking it. 
Along a considerable portion of this boundary line the accu- 
mulations of glaciated material are immense. South of New 
England the boundary is marked by a line of hills from 50 to 
250 feet in height, and from two to three miles wide. These 
hills are composed of loose material, thrown together in irreg- 
ular hummocks and ridges, with many enclosed depressions to 
which there are no outlets, and which, from their shape, are 
called "kettle-holes." Many large boulders, brought from a 
long distance, are found scattered over these hummocks. 
There can be no question that this is a terminal moraine, 
marking the line from east to west, along which the ice-front 
rested for a considerable period, and where, from century to 
century, it deposited the burdens of rock and earth which it 
had picked up in its Journey from the north. This was the 
line of battle between the frosts of the north and the tropical 
winds of the south. Here, as the sun melted back the ice in 
summer, the ice deposited its earthy material, and in the winter 
regained its ground to repeat the process and beat a retreat the 
following summer, and so on until these immense hills had 
been deposited. In New England we can often trace the boul- 
ders to ledges scores of miles to the north. Across New Jersey 
these moraine hills continue upon a corresponding scale. 
West of New Jersey the broken and mountainous character of 
the country has frequently disguised the facts, so that they are 
somewhat more difficult of discovery. But even here the gen- 
uine features of a terminal moraine reappear so often that there 
can be no question about the mode of its formation. We may 
note especially a remarkable development of moraine hills upon 
the level summit of Pocono Mountain. Here, for many miles, 
and 2,000 feet above the sea, are almost exactly repeated the 
features which we have described in Southern New England. 
One may travel from the southward for a long distance, over 



Glacial Period in America. 213 

an elevated ])l:iin whose only covering of soil is a foot or two of 
sand and angular fragments arising from the sub-aerial disinte- 
gration of the underlying level strata of Pocono sandstone; 
when suddenly, near Tobyhanna, he intersects the majestic 
curve of moraine hills just referred to. Down to this limit 
glaciated stones are piled in every imaginable confusion. Here, 
in dense forests, are kettle-holes, many of which are still tilled 
with water, which slowly drains away through the loose mate- 
rial near the rim. Here, in the dehris which goes to form 
these hills, are granite boulders which must be hundreds of 
miles away from their native place. 

Omitting for the present further reference to Pennsylvania 
and coming to Ohio, we find in Columbiana county and the 
eastern part of Stark county, that the accumulation of glacial 
material along the front of the ice, is somewhat less marked in 
quantity than farther east, but is the same in quality. The 
apparent diminution in quantity may arise from its having 
been spread over a wider base. But, near the western part of 
Columbiana county, at New Alexandria, two or three miles 
back from the very extreme limit of glacial signs, the familiar 
knobs and kettle-holes of the moraine are distinctly marked, 
and that upon the very height of the land. Wells are here 
sunk from thirty to fifty feet without passing through the gla- 
cial accumulation. A mile or two west of Canton, in Stark 
county, the accumulations of glaciated material are upon a 
scale equal to anything in New England. The northern part 
of Holmes county is covered with till which is everywhere of 
great depth, and in numerous places near the margin displays, 
though in a mo lerate degree, the familiar inequalities of the 
New England moraine. After the southern deflection in Knox 
county, the glaciated region is entered near Danville, from the 
east, on the Columbus, Mt. Vernon & Akron Railroad, tlirough 
a cut ill till a quarter of a mile long, and from thirty to forty 
feet in depth. At the old village of Danville near by upon a 
neighboring hill, wells are reported as descending more than a 
hundred feet without reaching the bottom of the till. Through 
Licking county, both north and south of Newark, the depth 
of the glacial envelope is great up to within a short distance of 



^14 Glacial Period in America. 

its eastern edge. At the reservoir in Perry county the dis- 
tinct features of a moraine come out. The hill upon which 
Thornville is built is a mass of glaciated material in which 
wells descend from thirty to fifty feet without striking rock. 
This is upon the highest land of the vicinity. The reservoir 
itself seems to be iu a great kettle-hole or moraine basin. All 
through Fairfield county the glacial accumulation is of a great 
depth down to a very short distance of its margin. But per. 
haps the most remarkable of all the portions of this line in 
Ohio is that running from Adelphi, in the northeast corner 
of Ross county, to the Scioto River. The accumulation at Adel- 
phi is more than two hundred feet, and continues at this height 
for many miles westward. Riding along upon its uneven 
summit, one finds the surface strewn Avith granite boulders, 
and sees stretching off to the northwest the magnificent and 
fertile plains of Pickaway county, while close to the south of 
him, yet marked by a distinct interval, are the cliffs of Waver- 
ley sandstone rising two hundred or three hundred feet higher, 
which here and onward to the south pretty closely approach 
the boundary of the glaciated region. 

Passing over the intervening space, we note that in Boone 
county, Kentucky, the accumulation of glacial material ex- 
tends several miles south of the Ohio River, and many feet in 
depth, and is here at an elevation of more than 500 feet above 
the river. At an equal elevation similar accumulations appear 
across the river in Indiana, west of Lawrenceburg, 

At every step along the line, as thus traced through Ohio, 
granitic boulders of every size and shape and complexion are 
to be found. The two largest measured were one iu Colum- 
biana county, near Hanovertown, which is thirteen feet long 
by eleven feet wide, and which stands eight feet out of the 
ground; and another near Lancaster, in Fairfield county, 
which is eighteen feet long, twelve feet wide, and stands six 
feet out of ground. These are granite boulders, whose native 
ledges are in Canada, far to the north of Lake Erie. Boulders 
from three feet to five feet in diameter are too numerous to 
mention. 



Glacial Period in America. 215 

SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. 

Several interesting subsidiary considerations are connected 
with this subject: 

First. The Glac{al Period and the Interests of Agriculture 
and Health. — In this State, and probably further west, the 
prairie region is seen to have been a product of the glacial 
period. It was the moving ice of that period which wore down 
the prominences and filled up the depressions to produce the 
dead level or gently rolling surface of all this prairie region. 
The action of running streams produces fertile intervales in 
narrow valleys, but the sheet of ice that pressed over our con- 
tinent ground up the rocks, and spread the detritus over the 
whole surface. In the level regions of the West the soil is 
nearly every wiicre fei tile. A noticeable quality in the soil of the 
glaciated region is the mixture of the elements composing it. 
All the rocks to the north have contributed to its composition. 
In the soil of Lorain county, for example, there are found the 
pulverized fragments of various granites from Canada, of the 
limestones of the Sandusky group, mingled with those of the 
neighboring shales and sandstones. All these elements have 
been kneaded together into one homogeneous mass by the mov- 
ing ice, as the housewife kneads her flour and yeast together. 

The legislators of the State do not yet fully appreciate the 
economical and sanitary bearings of glacial investigations. The 
ice movement of the glacial period pretty much made the in- 
habitable portions of this State. It determined the character 
of the soil, the contour of the country, the minor lines of drain- 
age, and thus in a thousand ways had to do with the pleasure, 
the health, and the prosperity of the present population. As, 
a few weeks ago, I marked off the glacial limits on a map of 
this State, the Secretary of the Board of Agriculture at once 
remarked to me that that was the southern boundary of the 
great wheat-produeing portion of the State, and expressed an 
earnest desire that Ohio might secure as thorough an examina- 
tion of the glacial phenomena within its bounds as has been 
done by New Jersey. Certainly if one is to buy a farm in 
Ohio he should pray that it be either in a river valley or north 
of the terminal moraine. Of course this is to be taken as a 



216 Glacial Period in America. 

general statement, to which there are exceptions; but even 
then it will be found that the exception proves the rule. 

Second. Relation to Archmology. — Dr. C. C. Abbott re- 
ports that he has found palaeolithic implements (one of which 
is shown in tlie accompanying cut, together with one from 
France for comparison) stratified with the gravel forming the 
terrace of the Delaware River, at Trenton, N. J. I have re- 
peatedly visited that place with Dr. Abbott, and in company 




PLATE VI. The palseolith here shown is natural size, and is No. 3034 of the Moitillet 
collection from Abbeville, France. The geological conditions under which this was found 
are very similar to those of the palsDolith from Trenton, N. J. 



Glacial Period in America. 



217 




PLATE VII. This palseolith is shortened one inch in the cut, and is proportionally nar- 
row, the original being 5 6-8 inches long and 8 1-8 wide. This is No. 19723 in Dr. Abbott's 
collection from Trenton, N. J. The Mortillet. and Dr. Abbott's collections are both in the 
Archasological .'•luseum, in Cambridge, Mass., where these specimens can at any time be 
seen. No Vd'lZ is specially interesting, because Professor Putnam took it with his own 
hands out of Trenton gravel from behind a small boulder which was firmly embedded four 
feet below the surface of the soil. (See Proceedings of Boston Society of Natural History, 
Vol. XXI., p. 149.) For the geological condition, see Plate II., p. 204; for a more detailed 
account, see "Studies in Science and Religion," Chapter VI. 



218 Glacial Period in America. 

with Professor Dawkins of England and Professor H. W. 
Haynes of Boston, — two of the highest authorities upon palaeo- 
lithic implements that can be found in the world, — and they 
testify that the implements found by Dr. Abbott, both in 
their form and in the situations in which they occur, closely 
correspond to those which have been so carefully studied in 
northern France and southern England. 

An examination of the terraces along the Delaware at once 
brings these implements into definite relation to the glacial 
period. The gravel in which they are found is glacial gravel 
deposited upon the banks of tJie Delaware when, during the 
last stages of the glacial period, the river was swollen with vast 
floods of water from the melting ice. Man was on this conti- 
nent at that period when the climate and ice of Greenland ex- 
tended to the mouth of New York harbor. The probability 
is that if he was in New Jersey at that time he was also upon 
the banks of the Ohio, and the extensive terrace and gravel 
deposits in the southern part of our State should be closely 
scanned by arch geologists. When observers become familiar 
with the lude form of these pala?olithic implements they will 
doubtless find them in abundance. But whether we find them 
or not in this State, if you admit, as I am compelled to do, the 
genuineness of those found by Dr. Abbott, our investigations 
into the glacial phenomena of Ohio must have an important 
archaeological significance, for they bear upon the question of 
the chronology of the glacial period, and so upon that of man's 
appearance in New Jersey. 

To appreciate the bearing of glacial studies upon this ques- 
tion we must return to study the old water courses Avhich ex- 
isted in glacial times. As you can see, a sj)ecial interest attaches 
to those rivers which rise in the glaciated region and in tbe 
lower part of their course flow through the unglaciated. Man 
lived first below the glacial limit, and fished upon the banks o| 
the streams which were periodically gorged with the spring 
freshets of the glacial period, and during those floods lost hid 
spear-heads, his hammers, his axes and scrapers, where they be- 
came mingled with the gravel brought down from up the stream. 
Tlie Delaware Eiver happens to be the first stream west of the 



Glacial Period in America. 219 

Atlantic whose source is in the glaciated region and who^e 
mouth is in the unglaciated. But, in following the terminal 
moraine Avestward, we are continually crossing streams which 
are similarly situated; such are, in Pennsylvania, tiie Lehigh, 
the east branch of the Susquehanna, the various creeks which 
empty into the west branch of tlie Susquehanna, and those 
which empty into the Allegheny River; all of which, I can 
testify from personal inspection, substantially repeat in their 
terrace formations the phenomena along the Delaware River, 
where it passes from the glaciated to the unglaciated region. 
Where these streams emerge from the glacial region there are 
uniformly immense deposits of granitic pebbles and coarse 
grave], and, for long distances below, terraces of finer gravel 
far above the present high-water mark. 

Ohio abounds in streams similarly situated, among which mi«y 
be mentioned the forks of the Beaver and Sandy Creeks, in 
Columbiana county; the Nimishillin, the Tuscarawas, and Sugar 
Creek, in Stark county; the Killbuck and Mohican, in Holmes 
county; the Licking, in Licking county; Jonathan Creek, in 
Perry county; the Hocking River and Muddy Prairie Run, in 
Fairfield county; and Salt Creek, the Scioto, and the forks of 
Paint Creek, in Ross county. To this list may also be added 
the Ohio itself. 

The Ohio is in every respect unique in its relations to the 
glacial period. Through the whole of its course from Pitts- 
burg to Cairo, it is, roughly speaking, parallel with the ter- 
minal moraine, and all along its course has received from the 
north the contributions of water and ice and gravel which 
poured down from the decaying ice-front but a short distance 
away. And now the discovery of glacial deposits in Campbell 
and Boone counties, Kentucky, adds another exceedingly inter- 
esting feature to the problem. Here, as we have seen, the ico 
actually crossed and projected several miles south of the Ohio 
River. From the elevation at which these accumulations occur 
it is certain that the ice-barrier at Cincinnati must have been 
at least bix hundred feet. This would set the water of the 
Ohio beyond Pittsburg, far up into the Allegheny and Monon- 
gahela rivers, submerging Pittsburg itself to a depth of about 



220 Glacial Period in America. 

three hundred feet. This discovery helps to explain some facts 
observed a year ago in our survey of the moraine in Pennsyl- 
vania. We shall expect to find this theory verified by a variety 
of observations upon the upper course of the Ohio and its trib- 
utaries. We shall expect to find also, in Kentucky, some indi- 
cations of the outlet of this temporary glacial lake. 

It is interesting to reproduce by the imagination the form 
and appearance of this lake. The barrier probably was not 
high enough to submerge all the highlands of southeastern 
Ohio, or of northern Kentucky and of West Virginia; but long 
bays must have stretched up on the north through all the val- 
leys to the ice-front. Thus the glacier in southeastern Ohio 
would for awhile seem to terminate in an archipelago. How 
long this condition of things existed it is impossible to tell 
with certainty, but from the limited amount of the deposit 
south of the Ohio Eiver a relatively brief period is indicated. 
The Ohio Valley, both before and after the formation of this 
ice-barrier, must have presented inviting haunts for palgeolithic 
man. It is of the utmost importance to archaeology that the 
gravels of this valley should be carefully scanned. Probably 
there is nowhere in the world so inviting a field for such inves- 
tigation as the banks of the Ohio and its tributaries. 

Thied. Date of the Glacial Period. — I have time to say but 
a word upon the field which is opened before us in this State for 
making calculations as to the date of the close of the glacial 
OT)och. It is not well for the geologist to abandon his own chro- 
nological data for the confessedly uncertam speculations of 
astronomers upon this subject. Geologists have scarcely begun 
the systematic study of the evidences bearing upon the date of 
the glacial period. The evidences are three-fold: First, the 
amount of the glacial deposit; second, the extent of erosion 
since the glacial epoch; third, the extent to which glacial 
depressions have been filled with sediment. 

The opportunities to estimate the extent of erosion since the 
glacial epoch are superabundant in Ohio. Each of the larger 
streams emptying into the Ohio River and into Lake Erie^ and 
every tributary of those streams, presents a field by itself. In 



Glacial Period in America. 221 

countless cases it is within our power to estimate with reason- 
able accuracy the number of cubic yards of matei'ial which the 
streams in the glaciated regions have removed from the till 
through which they flow. This would give us the dividend. 
It is by no means improbable that there are also mnny streams so 
nearly in their primitive condition that the rate of removal can 
be approximately estimated. This would give us the divisor. 
The quotient would give us the chronology of the close of the 
glacial period. The other hopeful field for chronological inves- 
tigation in this State is presented in the numerous lakes which 
exist over the glaciated surface, and which, in most cases, owe 
their origin to the irregular deposition of till. It is not beyond 
hope that some of these may yield us the secret of their age. 
It may be po-sible to ascertain how deep a layer of sediment 
and peat has accumulated, and we may discover more specific 
facts concerning the rate of such accumulation. For a fuller 
discussion, see Chapter VI; in my ''Studies in Science and 
Eeligion," Andover, W. F. Draper, 1882. 

Fourth. Centers of Glacial Dispersion. — Another topic to 
which we should give more attention relates to glacial move- 
ment, and to the centers from which the ice was dispersed. 
Ice, it should be remembered, behaves not like a solid but like 
a semi-fluid. If an oblong block of ice be suspended u|)on the 
ends it will gradually sag in the middle. If a strong hollow 
sphere be filled with watei', and a good-sized orifice be left 
through which the ice may escape, and the whole be subjected 
to intense cold, the ice will project through the hole for a con- 
siderable distance. As a matter of fact, ice flows like cold 
molasses or half-hardened lava. 

It is not necessary (as some might suppose) to have a steep 
declivity in order to secure glacial motion. Ice can move 
wherever water would run. In our conceptions of glacial 
movement we are in danger of having our ideas cramped by 
the contemplation of Alpine glaciers. The demands made 
upon our imagination by the glacial phenomena of North 
America are almost staggering to reason. We are called upon 
to believe that along a line thousands of miles in extent the 
ice-front of the great glacier rested upon land which is no- 



222 Glacial Period in America. 

where much lower — and in many places is actually higher — 
than the region from which it was dispersed. Boulders, in 
many cases, have been raised to a higher level than their native 



Upon reflection, however, this is not so paradoxical as at 
a first glance it seems. It should be remembered that glacial 
ice is formed, not by the freezij.g of water upon lakes and 
oceans, but by the accumulation of snow, which, under its own 
pressure, becomes converted into ice. If, now, over an exten- 
sive level surface there should be precipitated annually six feet 
more of snow than melted, six thousand feet of ice would accu- 
mulate after a thousand years. It is thus easy to see that after 
a time the ice might form a mountain plateau by itself, and, 
owing to its semi-fluid character, it would gradually move away 
along whatever lines presented the least resistance. Such accu- 
mulations about the north pole would every whei'e move to the 
south, and so we could get this southerly motion from the mere 
accumulation of ice about the pole, without supposing any 
change of level. 

It is easy, also, to see that wherever — from climatic causes 
over any particular portion of this field — there should be an 
excessive accumulation of snow, that area would form a sub- 
center by itself, and project the ice-front in a loop south of the 
main line. The existence of such sub-centers I suppose to be, 
in part, the explanation of the various loops and irregular 
flexures which mark the glacial boundary in North America. 

Nor is it difficult to conceive how boulders are raised in the 
ice to a higher than their original level. Indeed, I ; hink I can 
conceive that fragments of rock can be picked up from beneath 
the glacier, and after movement over sufficient distance appear 
upon its surface; and I can easily believe that many of the 
well-known gl.tciated boulders scattered o^er the surface of 
Ohio have been repeatedly transferred from beneath the ice to 
its surface, and thence projected to the foot of the advancing 
ice-front, and afterwards re-elevated and projected again. 
This might be brought about as follows: 



Glacial Period in America. 223 

It is well know^n that the upper strata of glacial ice move 
faster than the lower, owing to the effect of friction in retard- 
ing the movement at the bottom. The result of this is that 
the upper side of the boulder which is imbedded in the ice is 
constantly subjected to a greater degree of onward pressure 
than the lower side. The effect of this must be to give an 
upward as well as an onward motion to the boulder in the ice. 
The course of such a boulder would be up a very gently inclined 
plane, the slower moving strata beneath it forming the incline, 
and the more rapidly moving upper strata being the force 
to push it along. Once upon the surface, if the motion were 
to continue long enough and the front were not too far away, 
the boulder might be transferred to the front and deposited 
before the moving mass; and if the glacier were still advanc- 
ing, it would stand a chance to be covered again with ice, and to 
be re-incorporated in the moving mass to repeat another cycle. 

CONCLUSION. 

The glacial boundary line marked upon the map of Ohio is 
easily drawn when you know where to draw; but in reality it 
is about two hundred and fifty miles in length, and its deter- 
mination could be secured only by exploring a belt about ten 
miles wide, and by travelling in the field a distance of more 
than one thousand miles. I have now zigzagged this line for 
tlie larger part of the distance from the end of Cape Cod to 
Illinois, and you will pardon me for entertaining some en- 
thusiasm upon the subject, and for having my imagination 
pretty well filled with the theme. The ice period of North 
America seems to me no longer a myth, but a reality. With 
my mind's eye I have seen it; I have walked along -its front; 
I have beheld its glassy surface as it overlapped the mountain 
ranges of Pennsylvania, walled up its ancient river channels, 
filled up the depths of Lake Erie, and spread itself over the 
fairest fields of Ohio; and again I have seen it in its retreat, 
when its thickness was diminished, when its decaying southern 
border was obscured by the accumulations of materials which 
now form the moraine. I have seen it when the great streams 



224 Glacial Period in America. 

of water from its melting surface had worn a series of parallel 
gorges in it along the line of the present water courses. In 
imagination I have witnessed the enormous annual rise of the 
streams during the declining years of the glacial period. I 
have seen the hardy palaeolithic race who fished in these streams 
and hunted upon their banks, and were hastily driven from 
their homes by the rise of floods whose volume we can 
scarcely comprehend. To the mental vision of him who goes 
over this field all these things become realities. He has seen 
their signs: he has interpreted their handwriting. 

I commend the study to the professional and business men 
who need to seek recreation and healtli in outdoor pursuits. 
Now that the buffalo is becoming scarce, and trout fishing un- 
remunerative, we present to you for your vacation work the 
enticing sport of hunting for the terminal limits of the great 
American ice sheet, and for its imbedded marks of palaeolithic 
man. 





PLATE VIII. 
Six miles to an Inch. 



DETAILED REPORT 



INVESTIGATIONS ALONG THE BOUNDARY 



The Glaciated Area in Ohio and Indiana. 

CONDUCTED BY 

PROF. G. FREDERICK WRIGHT, OF OEERLIN, OHIO, 
IN THE SUMMER OF 1882. 



COLUMBIANA COUNTY. 

The boundary lino of the ghici.ited region as it enters Ohio 
from Pennsylvania, is not so distinctly marked by large ac- 
cumulations of till as in many other places ; so that it might 
create misapprehension to speak of a ''terminal moraine" in 
Columbiana county. Still the boundary is well defined, and 
on penetrating the glaciated region a few miles, the accum- 
ulation of till is extensive. As we approached the Ohio line 
through the western counties of Pennsylvania, it was observed 
that what we have called "the fringe" became more extensive 
than in the eastern part of the State; that is, scattered granitic 
boulders and occasional accnmulations of till are found in 
some places five or six miles south of the line bounding the 
continuous accumulation of till which envelops the larger part 
of the glaciated region. This peculiarity continues through 
Columbiana county, from east to west, and as far as Canton 
in Stark county. 

For example: The accumulations of till worthy of being 
called a "terminal moraine," and of being reckoned as a con- 
tinuation of that which marks the boundary of the glaciated 
region in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, enters Ohio at Pales- 
tine, Columbiana county, near the boundary of Unity and 
Middleton townships. The wagon road from Darlington to 
Palestine enters a great accumulation of till, near John Harts- 
horn's, about one-half mile south of the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne 
and Chicago K. K., and one mile east of Palestine. Here, 



228 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

upon the laud of the State Line Coal Works, upon a hill 
sloping to the north, is a striking collection of granitic bould- 
ers, one of which measures 9x6x4 feet. In the valley to the 
north, through which the railroad runs, the accumulations of 
drift show the modifying action of the glacial currents which 
characterized the closing stages of the glacial period. The 
broken ridges and knobs of gravel, alternating with shallow 
kettle-holes, remind one of the kames in New England. Pal- 
estine is built upon such a formation. A large granitic boulder 
was here observed, in a freshly dug grave, five feet below the 
surface. A well was reported as penetrating till for fifty feet 
without striking the bed rock. Three-quarters of a mile 
southwest from Palestine, a cut shows twenty feet of till ; but 
boulders of granite and scratched stones with an occasional 
slight deposit of till, were found several miles further south, 
on the summits of the hills. We walked from Smith's Ferry, 
on the Ohio River, northward over the hills, to a point on 
the State line east of Achor, in Middleton township, with- 
out finding any signs of glaciation. Here granitic boulders 
began to appear near Danison's coal bank. On the summit 
of the hill one-half mile west' of Achor, and about 200 feet 
higher than the bed of Little Beaver creek, is a granitic boulder 
5x3x3 feet. From this point northward to the moraine at 
Palestine, these scattered but unmistakable evidences of the 
presence of the glacier ice are found upon all the hill-tops. 

After this description of the fringe, and its relation to the 
moraine, we may pass more rapidly over the subject. The 
boundary of the fringe runs south-westward from Achor to 
Clarkson post office, thence to the southeastern corner of Elk 
Eun township; thence westward along the southern line of 
this township to the southeastern corner of Centre township; 
thence it bears northerly, striking the line of Hanover town- 
ship two miles northeast of Dungannon, thence westerly and 
bearing a little south through Hanover township, passing one- 
half mile south of Hanoverton Post Office, continuing west to 
Bayard. At Rochester there is an extensive kame-like deposit 
filling the valley, which is here about one-half mile wide, in 
which are numerous granitic pebbles from three to six inches 



Detailed Beport for Ohio. 229 

in diameter. One of these gravel ridges, running north by 
south, measured a little over 30 feet in height, with a slope of 
20°. This cluster of kames is evidently due to the glacial 
floods pouring down the two branches of Big Sandy creek, 
which here unite. The accumulations of gravel in the valley 
of Big Sandy creek gradually diminish in amount and in 
coarseness from here on to Minerva, in Stark county. The ice 
all along here filled the valley and rose to the summit of the 
hills on the south. One boulder was found in the north, 
western corner of Augusta township, Carroll county, but an 
extensive detour of several miles to the south failed to dis- 
cover any other signs of glaciation in that county. On re- 
turning to Bayard, till was found one-half mile southwest, 
rising upon the hills south of the valley to a height of 50 or 
60 feet. One-half mile northwest of Bayard is a terrace 31 
feet above the present flood-plain, enclosing a shallow, but 
extensive, kettle-hole between it and the hills to the north. 

Retracing now our steps we find that from three to five 
miles north of the edge of this fringe there is a marked in- 
crease in the accumulation of till showing itself at East Pal- 
estine and near East Carmel Post Ofilce. Thence across Elk 
Run township through Elkton to New Lisbon. The north- 
east part of Centre township is completely enveloped with till 
of an unknown depth. Three miles from New Lisbon and a 
quarter of a mile west, on the road to Teegarden, is a boulder 
of gneiss 8|x6^ feet, 4 feet out of ground. At and below New 
Lisbon, in the valley of the Middle Fork of Beaver, are the 
extensive accumulations of pebbles and coarse gravel which 
everywhere mark the streams as they issue from the line mark- 
ing the terminal moraine. The terrace at New Lisbon shows 
no distinct stratification, and contains numerous pebbles from 
10 to 15 inches in diameter, and at the railroad station is 36 
feet above the river. Upon the north side, this extends for 
one mile down the stream. Still further down, similar ter- 
races appear at intervals nearly to Elkton, The gravel in all 
these terraces is mined for kidney ore. 

From New Lisbon west, the moraine runs through the north- 
ern part of Sections 23, 22, 21, 20 and 19 in Centre township. 



230 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

In Hanover township it passes directly west, through the 
nortliern part of Sections 24, 23, 22, 21, 20 and 19. Two and 
a half miles northeast of Hanoverton, on the farm of Mr. 
Kinnely, the moraine is well developed, displaying its charac- 
teristic hummocks and kettle-holes upon the summit of the 
country. Large boulders are here very numerous, many from 
3 to 5 feet in diameter. A mile or two farther north, near 
the state road, on the farm of Francis Blythe, is a granitic 
boulder 13x11 feet, 8 feet out of ground. Till is here certainly 
16 feet deep, but how much more we could not ascertain. 

Through West township the moraine bears slightly north, 
passing through the village of New Alexandria, which is sit- 
uated upon a height of land, and surrounded by hummocks 
and kettle-holes of moderate size. Wells are reported 27 feet 
and 50 feet without striking rock. This continues through 
New Chambersburg, where wells were reported on the farm of 
Henry Bowers as going 27 feet without striking rock, the 
lower 6 feet in gravel an 1 sand. 

STAEK COUNTY. 

The boundary line of the fringe in Stark county runs from 
Bayard northwest through Paris and Osnaburg townships, 
passing through the villages of Kobertsville and Osnaburg. 
Boulders of large size are found a little back from this .line in 
the eastern part of Paris township, some of them measuring 
between 7 and 8 feet. Two and a half miles southeast of Paris 
post office the last indications of ice-action are a few boulders 
in Section 15, one measuring 4x3x2 feet. West of Osnaburg 
the fringe becomes merged- with the main accumulation. 

The moraine proper passes through the northern sectiousof 
Paris and Osnaburg townships. One mile east of Paris post- 
office granitic boulders are numerous, and cuts in the till show 
it to be at least 10 feet deep upon the hills, and probably 20 
feet. Three-quarters of a mile southwest of Paris, in the val- 
ley of Black Creek, the terrace of water-worn material is 15 feet 
above the stream, which is here small. The terraces are par- 
tially ridged, and contain shallow kettle-holes. On the farm 
of D. P. Sell, Section 6 of Paris township, wells are reported 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 231 

30 feet deep, the first 8 feet being yellow till, the remaining 22 
feet blue till. Another, 20 feet deep, ended in quicksand. This 
is on the high lands. Till completely envelops the southeastern 
corner of Nimishillin and the northeastern of Osnaburg town- 
ships. Kettle-holes are also apparent on the farm of H. Miller. 
In Section 2, Osnaburg township, on the farm of G. Hennigs, 
wells are reported 18, 20 and 26 feet, all in till. On a little 
higher land, in the southwest corner of Section 2, J. Anthony 
reported a well 14 feet through till. Till of unknown depth 
completely envelops the region for three miles south of Louis- 
ville post office. There are kame-like ridges in Section, 3 Osna- 
burg township, in a shallow valley along a branch of East Nimi- 
shillin Creek. The whole appearance of the country is as if 
filled up with till. Till continues on the road from Louisville 
to Osnaburg, where it suddenly ceases, at the corner of the 
diagonal road running to Robertsville. Fi'om Osnaburg south- 
west, for three miles, thence northwest three miles towards 
Canton, not a pebble or boulder was discovered. Much of the 
way the road is on high land, deep valleys opening southward- 
it being on the watershed between Nimishillin and Big Sandy- 
On crossing a small branch of the Nimishillin two and a half 
miles southeast of Canton, in the southwestern corner of Sec. 
tion 14 in Canton township, we struck suddenly into till on the 
north bank. From this point to Canton City till is continuous 
and granitic boulders are abundant. The depth of the till is 
unknown, but at various places cuts show it to be at least sev- 
eral feet deep. Sections 11 and 12, north of the Osnaburg road, 
are completely enveloped with till. A few rods northeast of 
the cemetery, about one mile east of Canton, are shallow ket- 
tle-holes in till. Upon the east branch of the JSTimishillin the 
terrace facing the stream and a short distance back is 41 feet 
above the floood-plain. This contains many pebbles 16 inches 
and more in diameter. All are well rounded, and many are of 
local material. The cemetery, 20 rods farther east, is 16 feet 
higher, and is upon till. On the west side of the west branch of 
the Nimishillin the terrace rises in successive stages more than 
80 feet, and its surface is very uneven. A mile and a half south 
of the city, below the junction of the two branches, there are 



232 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

two well-marked terraces, the first of which is much the broader, 
and is 38 feet above the bed of the stream. The upper terrace, 
on the east side, is 36 feet higher, or 74 feet above the stream. 
The pebbles in the upper terrace were a mixture of granite and 
local rock, some of them a foot or more in diameter. One 
granitic pebble was more than 2 feet in diameter. The terrace 
on the west bank, near the Starr Mills, was by measurement 5 
feet higher than that on the east. 

A remarkable cluster of kame-like ridges covers the north- 
western portion of Canton township and the northeastern of 
Perry, extending an unknown distance to the north. Meyer's 
Lake and Sippo Lake are enormous kettle-holes, and the whole 
region has much the appearance of Plymouth tcAvnship in 
Massachusetts. Upon the south this kame-like belt is called 
Buck Eidge, and comes to a sudden termination near the cross- 
ing of the Fort "Wayne and Chicago Eailroad, two miles south- 
west of Canton City. Here an excellent section is made by the 
railroad. The kame rises 85 feet above the railroad, is coarsely 
stratified in places,contains many granitic pebbles (one of which 
measured 55x46x18 inches), and was 21^ feet higher than the 
railroad. There were large spaces in which no stratification 
appeared. There were pebbles upon the summit from 2 to 5 
inches in diameter. The section exposed shows a base of 570 
feet, with an altitude of 85 feet. The slope upon the east side 
varies from 18° to 25°: on the west side it is a little more gen- 
tle. (See cut in Geological Survey Ohio, vol. 2, p. 44.) An 
extensive sandy plain, full of gentle swells and ridges, stretches 
to the westward, while the space towards Canton is occupied 
by the more nearly level terrace. About 150 yards north of 
this section is a dry kettle-hole 25 feet deep.containing a granitic 
boulder 51x25x31 inches. Another dry kettle-hole near by is 
about 300 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 40 feet deep, with sides 
sloping inward 24". The rims of these kettle-holes are at the ' 
summit of the kame. 

From my experience elsewhere, I should expect to be able tO' 
trace a series of kames northward from this point, and find it 
enclosing the lakes in the southern part of Summit county, 
and particularly abundant south of Akron. 



Detailed Re-port for Ohio. . 233 

From Canton westward the fringe pretty much disappears, 
and the moraine bears rapidly southward, running across the 
southeastern corner of Perry township, and continuing in a 
south-southwestern course to the southern part of Bethlehem 
township, crossing the Tuscarawas River about two miles above 
Bolivar; thence it bears more westward, crossing the southeast- 
ern portion of Sugar Creek township, and the northwestern 
corner of Wayne township in Tuscarawas county, entering 
Holmes county east of Weinsburg. 

It is difficult to exaggerate the sharpness of this portion of 
the boundary line. Retracing our course, our notes show that 
the line bounding the till passes through the middle of Section 
29 Canton township, where it crosses a small stream running to 
the north. This, like many other similar cases, showed signs 
of having been dammed up, thus producing a small temporary 
glacial lake. T-o the north and west the till is continuous, and 
probably of great deptlj; to the east it suddenly disappears, 
half way up a low hill. From Ricliville to the southeastern 
corner of Perry township till and boulders are continuous, and 
the deposit apparently of great depth. One of the boulders a 
short distance beyond the till measured 6x4| feet. A detour 
through Section 6, Pike township, and Section 32, Canton 
township, demonstrated a total absence of glacial signs in that 
region. The whole country to the southeast Avas broken and 
hilly, in striking contrast to that in the opposite direction, 
which seems to have been leveled up by glacial material. Upon 
the hills in Section 1, Bethlehem township, cuts in the till 6 
feet in depth disclose large granitic boulders lying stiil deeper. 
The road running south, between Sections 11 and 12, and 13 
and 14, is upon the very edge of the glaciated region. Detours 
of a few rods to the east lead into a region in which there is only 
rock in place and the soil formed by its disintegration. South- 
westward from this point to the river, the boundary is near an 
unfrequented road passing one-half mile north of the first 
Moravian settlement in thid region. 

At the upper end of the great ox-bow iu the Tuscarawas River 
upon which Bolivar is built, but on the north side of the river, 
is an immense kame-like accumulation, containing boulders 



234 Detailed Re'portfor Ohio. 

from 2^ to 3 feet in diameter. The terrace is here 36 feet above 
the river, and the kame-like accumulation is 118 feet higher. 
The space included in the ox-bow is occupied by a gravel deposit 
whose surface is 51 feet above the river. From this point down, 
the river occupies a narrower valley, with diminishing terraces. 
Five miles below, at Zoar, wells in this terrace 30 feet deep do 
not go through the gravel. Above the ox-bow, and on the west 
side of the river — opposite the kame-like deposit just described 
— the terrace is 61 feet, which continues up the river a mile or 
more without change. 

Going west along a road near the county line in Bethlehem, 
a little till appeared when the higher land was reached, but on 
ascending the hills to the left (south) it disappeared, and is 
wholly absent in the extreme southwestern corner of Bethle- 
hem township. But the hills in Section 30, immediately to the 
north, are covered with till containing large granitic boulders, 
some of which are between 3 and 4 feet in diameter. Till is 
continuous, and of unknown depth, all the rest of the way to 
Navarre, displaying to some extent the familiar kettle-holes 
and knolls of the moraine belt. The small streams emptying 
north also display the well-known signs of temporary ice-dams. 
One of the numerous boulders of red granite over this area' 
was between 200 and 300 feet above the Tuscarawas Eiver, j 
and measured 7x5 feet, 3 feet out of ground. 

The characteristics of the moraine just described continue 
through the southern portion of Sugar Creek township, cross- 
ing Sugar Creek below Beech City. One and a half miles below 
Beech City, towards DeardofE's Mills, the accumulations of 
gravel in the valley are immense. The valley is here about one 
mile wide. The gravel is thrown up into hummocks and ridges 
from 20 to 30 feet above the general level, enclosing many ket- 
tle-holes. The country from this point to Wilmot, and from 
Wilmot south to the county line, is completely enveloped in till. 
One boulder measured 7x6 feet, 2^ feet out of ground. But on 
the road from Deardoflf's Mills, across the northern part of 
Wayne township in Tuscarawas county, toward Weinsburg in 
Holmes county, no till or boulders appeared for several miles. 
The road leads over the summit of the land, and displays, to 



Detailed Re^port for Ohio. 235 

good effect on either side, the contrasts between the glaciated 
and unglaciated region. One mile and a half east of the 
Holmes county line granitic boulders begin to appear, and ac- 
companied after a little with till, continue to increase to Weins- 
burg. This east and west road enters the moraine at an acute 
angle, the direction of the moraine being here west-southwest. 
The northeast portion of Paint township, in Holmes county, is 
covered with till to an unknown, but evidently to a great depth. 

HOLMES COUNTY. 

The glacial boundary in Holmes county is very sharply de- 
fined, dividing the county into two nearly equal portions. It 
enters the county on the east, in Paint township, near the cor- 
ner of Stark and Tuscarawas counties, and passes diagonally 
to the northeast corner of Berlin township, where it turns 
more nearly west, passing through Hardy township, crossing 
the Killbuck below Millersburg; thence, bearing slightly to the 
north, it passes through the centre of Monroe and the north- 
ern part of Knox township, to the eastern side of Hanover 
township in Ashland county. Through all this distance the 
contrasts between the regions north and south of this line are 
very marked. 

In Paint township there is bnt little till south of the diag- 
onal road leading from Wilmot through Weinsburg to Berlin. 
Driving one-quarter of a mile south of Weinsburg, till sud- 
denly disappears. There is a noteworthy collection of granitic 
boulders a few rods southeast of the village, at the crossing of 
the road from 81atersville. South of this there is no till. Oc- 
casional boulders were reported, but none were seen by us in a 
drive of half a mile. To the north and east of Weinsburg the 
deposit of till is continuous, and evidently of great depth. 
Weinsburg is on the watershed between Sugar Creek and Indian 
Trail Creek, and according to our barometer was 600 feet above 
the valley of the Killbuck at Millersburg. The southwestern 
part of Paint and the southeastern of Salt Creek townships are 
likewise covered with till, which is evidently very deep. A 
granitic boulder on the road between Weinsburg and Mount 
Hope measured 7x6 feet, 3 feet out of ground. 



236 [Detailed Report for Ohio.' 

BERLIN" TOWNSHIP. 

A detour of several miles through the southern portion of 
this township disclosed no sign of glaciation, except in the 
valley of Dowdy Creek. In this valley there are extensive ter- 
races down as far as within one mile of the southern boundary. 
At that point the terrace is 50 feet above the stream and about 
150 yards wide, and contains some scratched pebbles. The 
boundary of the till runs between Sections 13 and 8, and crosses 
the western boundary of the township one-half mile south of 
the road running between Berlin and Millersburg. The eleva- 
tion here is 475 feet (B) above the Killbuck. Granitic boulderg 
are abundant all along this road. At Berlin post oflBce it is 
600 feet (B). On driving north from Berlin post office we strike 
immediately into till, which seems to be very deep. Near the 
corner of the road turning east one-quarter of a mile north, in 
Section 6, are extensive kame-like accumulations containing 
numerous boulders, and enclosing a large kettle-hole. Till is 
continuous northward. 

HARDY TOWNSHIP. 

On the road from Millersburg to Berlin till is found on the 
tops of the hills all along to the township line. Going east 
from Millersburg the first hill is 250 feet above the railroad, 
the second 350 feet, thence rising at the town line to 475 feet. 
The depth of the till is at least several feet. In Section 14 a 
boulder measured 7x5 feet, 3 feet out of ground. The most 
southerly deposit of till on the east side of the Killbuck is 
where the north bianch of Sandy Run touches Section 16, two 
miles and a half southeast of Millersburg. Three-quarters of 
a mile northeast of this point a small accumulation of till and 
boulders occur, at a height of 375 feet above the run; east and 
south the country is entirely free from it. 

The terraces upon the Killbuck are extensive, both above 
and below the glacial limit. One mile and a half below Mil- 
lersburg on the west side, on the farm of A. Uhl, is a terrace 
about a quarter of a mile wide, containing kame-like ridges 
and knolls, the surface of which is 102 feet above the flood- 
plain. This gradually rises until it is merged in the till of 



238 Detailed Bejportfor Ohio. 

the hills beyond. Two miles further south, in the northwest 
corner of Mechanic township, near Stuart's Mills, the terrace 
is composed of finer material, and is level topped and gradu- 
ally descends towards the south, being here but 71 feet above 
the flood-plain. Still further below the glacial limit at Ox- 
ford is a terrace on the east side of the creek, extending across 
the open ends of the ox-bow which the stream here forms. 
The intervale is here about one-third of a mile wide, and 25 
feet above low-water mark. The terrace is 76 feet higher. 
On the west side of the creek, between Shimplin's Eun and 
Black Creek, and one-quarter mile west of the Killbuck, are 
terraces of fine material containing some granitic gravel* 
which are 61 feet above the flood-plain. 

Driving up from Millersburg, on the west side of the Kill- 
buck, there are no terraces for the first mile. The valley is 
about one-half mile wide. But Just above where a small 
stream comes in from the west is a kame-like accumulation of 
coarse material, 50 feet in height, extending about one-eighth 
of a mile. On the north side of this small stream the mate- 
rial is finer, and the surface much more uneven, extending to 
the road running over the hills to Holmesville. 

Near Holmesville — five miles above Millersburg — Paint, Kill- 
buck, and Martin's Creek come together nearly at right angles. 
About their junction there is an extensive intervale not far 
from two miles in diameter. The village is built upon a ter- 
race about 25 feet above the intervale. Between the Killbuck 
and Martin's Creek, which conies in from the east, there is a 
kame-like accumulation of rather fine material (the pebbles 
being ordinarily not more than three inches in diameter) ex- 
tending about one-eighth of a mile N. W. by S. E. The sur- 
face is very much broken, displaying many kettle-holes. A 
railroad cutting through it shows some scratched stones in the 
material, and a depth of 61 feet at the railroad; but it rises 
about 40 feet higher to the north. From this point to Millers- 
burg, on the east side, there are no terraces, the intervale being 
about one-sixth of a mile wide. One-half a mile north of 
Millersburg, as the road rises over the hill, a fresh cut in the 
till of 20 feet disclosed no bottom to it. 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 239 

On the west side of the Killbuck, in Hardy township, till 
ceases, two miles and a-half southwest of Millersburg, on the 
farm of William Lisle. There is here a small stream, and 
the till appears upon the north side of the stream, but 
not upon the south. The general elevation of the country 
(which is much broken) is 350 feet above the Killbuck. 
Southeast, for two miles, till is totally absent, while to the 
north it is abundant, and boulders are numerous. It contin- 
ues west to the works of the Hardy Coal Company, from 
which .place to Oxford no till appears. 

MONROE TOWNSHIP. 

From Oxford we drove in a northwest direction up a small 
stream which rises in the centre of Monroe township. No 
boulders or till appeared below Centreville ; but there were 
terraces of fine material containing some granitic pebbles, and 
diminishing in height as we ascended the stream. North 
from Centreville granitic boulders began to appear, and were 
frequent all along up the valley to the watershed, where, near 
W. S. Cam's, a large deposit of till appeared, enveloping 
everything and forming large dome-shaped hills. Cuts from 
10 to 15 feet disclose no rocks. The road is 300 feet (B) 
above the Killbuck, but hills covered with till are about 150 
feet higher. 

Oak Grove Nursery, a short distance to the west, is 475 (B) 
above the Killbuck. One-quarter of a mile farther west, on 
lower ground, the deposit of till and boulders is very marked: 
one of granite measured 10^x6^ feet, 3^ feet out of the ground. 
Elevation 430 feet (B). Till is continuous one mile west, and 
south to the farm of R. Martin. For the next mile and 
a half there were occasional boulders, but no till. On the 
next road west, struck suddenly into till by a school-house, 
whose elevation is 610 (B) above the Killbuck. Beyond this 
there were occasional boulders to the road near the western 
line of the township, leading to Napoleon. Some boulders 
were seen half a mile farther south. This is about five miles 
northeast of Napoleon, which is situated in the valley of 
Black Creek, which is about one-eighth of a mile wide, and 



240 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

from 400 feet to 500 feet below the general level. A striking 
feature along this creek, and especially in the vicinity of 
Napoleon, is the great blocks of sandstone, formerly occupy- 
ing the summits of the hills, which have been broken off, and 
have gradually crept down towards the bottom as the under- 
lying shale and talus have been removed. These blocks are 
sometimes as large as a house, and are in all stages of ad- 
vancement in their progress towards the valley. They resem- 
ble in most respects what is to be seen in the valley of the 
Alleghany south of Salamanca, and in the neighborhood of 
Rock City. Instead of being due, as some have supposed, to 
glacial action, these phenomena are pretty certain evidence of 
the absence of any glacial movement, and exist either alto- 
gether south of the line of glaciation, or, as here, and at Eock 
City, on the very margin, where the ice-movement ceased, 
and where glacial abrasion was reduced to zero. 

KNOX TOWNSHIP. 

From Napoleon we followed up the narrow valley of Black 
Creek on the road to Nashville. Tlie valley continues to be 
about one-eighth of a mile wide, and for five miles is remark- 
able both for the abundance of the sandstone blocks referred 
to above, which are creeping down the sides, and for the 
absence of granitic boulders. Upon reaching the farm of 
A. Cline, a little south of the watershed, till appeared in 
great quantities. This is 375 feet (B) above Napoleon. From 
here to Nashville till is continuous for 3^ miles, as also south- 
west of Nashville to the hill south of the farm of S. H. Vance. 
Boulders continued to the cross-roads south of the house of 
A. Bell, where all signs of glaciation had ceased. West of 
this there are no signs of glaciation as far as the next cross- 
roads. Elevation 450 feet (B) above Napoleon. Turning 
north, one mile brought us into a kame-like deposit in a shal- 
low valley by the cross-road, near G. Uhlman's, one mile 
south of Washington township, and three miles east of Han- 
over township in • Ashland county. This kame is about 25 
feet high, and its course is nearly parallel with that of the 
shallow valley in which it is situated, which drains into the 
Mohican. What is marked near here, on the county atlas, as 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 241 

an ancient mound is more ancient than the map-maker sup- 
posed, it being not artificial, but a small mound of slate left 
by erosion. From here northwest, to a point a little above 
the junction of Lake Fork with Mohican River, till auJ boul- 
ders are continaous. This is near the southwest corner (Sec- 
tion 12) of Washington township. From this point down to 
the junction and a half mile beyond, is a terrace of very 
coarse material, largely composed of granitic pebbles. Ele- 
vation above the river 107 feet. No till was discovered in the 
western projection of Knox township. From this point we 
drove through Xashville to Millersburg, on a road parallel 
with the glacial boundary, and about two miles north of it. 
Till is continuous, and evidently deep, there being but few 
out-cropping rocks in the whole distance. Cuts in the till 
frequently showed a depth of from 10 to 15 feet, with no 
signs of bottom. Two wells were reported, on the hills 
crossed, as going 25 feet without striking rock. Boulders 
are everywhere abundant. To the north stretches the charac- 
teristic levelled area of the glaciated region. The ice, with 
its burdens, evidently came up to the watershed between 
Paint Creek and Black Creek — its serrated edge barely sur- 
mounting it. 

KNOX COUNTY. 

The boundary line of the glaciated region, which, in the 
western part of Holmes county, was bearing slightly northr 
ward, suddenly turns to the south in the eastern part of Han- 
over township, Ashland county; passing thence into Jefferson, 
the northeastern township of Knox county, and thence tiirough 
the western portions of Union, Butler, and Jackson townships, 
along the eastern margin of the county. The change of direc- 
tion was so abrupt as at first to confuse, and afterwards to 
startle us. But, as usual, we found the departure from the gen- 
eral law of glacial movement less than would at first seem to 
be the case. From Salamanca, in New York, the moraine, with 
slight variations, bears continually southward, as well as west- 
ward . 



242 Detailed Beport for Ohio. 

JEFFEESON TOWNaHIP. 

There are a few granitic boulders, and some glacial gravel, 
on the road from Jelloway to Greersville, one-half mile east 
of Greersville. Near the same place on the Danville road, 
by the Methodist church, there is a larger collection of peb- 
bles, and perhaps till. This is in a valley, on a branch of the 
Jelloway, running south. But the hill to the west is free 
from drift ; likewise the hill to the east, occupying Sections 
4 and 7, is without till. But in the valley of a small tribu- 
tary to the Mohican, a little south and east, in Sections 3 and 
8, there are accumulations of till in ridges from 10 to 15 feet 
high. These are best shown upon the farm of G. Greer, in 
Section 8. From this point to the south line of the township 
till is continuous, but does not extend eastward into Sections 
12 and 19. The Cleveland, Akron, and Delaware Eailroad 
enters the glaciated region from the east through a cut in till, 
one mile east of Danville, and very nearly upon the line 
between Jefferson and Union townships. This cut is 375 
paces long, and is from 20 to 36 feet in depth. The pebbles 
average from 2 to 3 inches ; but there are a few boulders of 
considerable size. The hills to the southeast show no till. 

UNION TOWNSHIP. 

The old village of Danville is built upon a hill in the ex- 
treme northwestern part of the township. The height of 
this hill is by barometer exactly the same as that of the depot 
at Mount Vernon. This hill is composed of till. A. J. Work- 
man reports a well 126 feet deep as passing through yellow clay, 
blue clay, gravel, quick-sand, and cemented gravel, and still 
not reaching rock. Another well of 65 feet, through similar 
material, was reported. One and a half mile south of Dan- 
ville, on the Millwood road, a large deposit of till forms the 
divide between Owl Creek and Mohican Kiver. The east and 
west line of this deposit is sharply defined, running through 
the eastern part of Section 14, and the central part of Section 
17, to Millwood. On the east side of the small brook, run- 
ning into Millwood from the north, drift is absent ; but on 
the west side it is bounded by a range of gravelly knolls and 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 243 

kame-like ridges. These are composed of glacial material, and 
are 117 feet above the brook on the north of the village. 

BUTLEE TOWNSHIP. 

On the south side of Owl Creek a thin deposit of till 
covers the whole western range in Butler township, the boun- 
dary line swinging a little to the east until it enters Jackson 
township in the northeastern corner of Section 4. But the 
deposit is nowhere so marked in this township as to deserve 
to be called a "terminal moraine." The limit, however, is 
pretty sharply defined. 

JACKSON TOWNSHIP. 

In this township the boundary line enters upon the north, 
two miles east from Clay township, and continues in a south- 
easterly direction to the south line, about three miles east of 
Clay township. At the cross roads in Section 8, we turned 
east into till of considerable evident depth. This disap- 
peared in three-fourths of a mile, and did not reappear until 
we had gone one mile south to the church in Section 12, and 
turned west one-half mile. Here, on turning the summit of 
the hill, two miles north from the south, and 2| miles east of 
the west line, we struck into a continuous deposit of till 
stretching westward. This is upon the watershed, and is 300 
feet (B) above Wakatomaka Creek. Upon crossing this creek, 
and striking the Zanesville road in the northeast corner of 
Eden township, Licking county, and driving northwest to 
Martinsburg, found till of great depth all the way. Occasion- 
ally the tops of the hills exposed rock in place, but Paul Euu 
is nearly filled with till. 

LICKING COUNTY. 

The glacial boundary line enters Licking county in the 
northeast corner of Eden township, passes through the north- 
west corner of Mary Ann, the eastern sides of Newark and 
Licking townships, nearly on the line between the latter and 
Franklin and Bowling Green townships. 



244 Detailed Re-port for Ohio. 

EDEN TOWN"SHIP. 

From Fallsburgh Post Office to Simpkin's corner, in the ex- 
treme northwestern portion of the township, the road follows 
the watershed. No till or boulders whatever appear upon it. 
At Simpkin's corner a few granitic pebbles appear, but there 
is no till until reaching the farm of A. D. Larrason, in Eden 
township, one-eighth of a mile south of the Knox county 
line, and three-quarters of a mile west from the line between 
Fallsburgh and Eden township. This is upon a height of land 
about 350 feet above the creek, and granitic boulders three 
and four feet in diameter are abundant. Patches of till con- 
tinued to appear upon the road following the watershed south 
for 2-| miles; crossed Rocky Fork near J. Elliott's ; there 
was but little drift in this valley at this point. Upon ascend- 
ing the watershed to the west, in Section 13, found a consid- 
erable depth of till, which continued for a half mile west and 
a quarter of a mile south ; but the diagonal road running 
southeast, and keeping along the watershed between Rocky 
Fork and Wilkin's Run shows no till to the town line ; but 
a few white granitic boulders were observed. Till, however, 
appeared 1^ miles west in the valley of Wilkin's Run. 

MARY ANN TOWNSHIP. 

The deposit of till is not continuous over the western part 
of Mary Ann, but a considerable amount appears in Section 
6, and the southwestern corner of the township is completely 
enveloped in a deep deposit. 

The terrace deposits in the neighborhood of Wilkin's Run 
post office are noteworthy. One-half mile southwest of the 
post office this terrace is 92 feet high, and composed of water- 
worn pebbles with no large boulders. This continues up the 
small branch nearly to the line of Madison township, where 
it merges into the deposit of till. Two miles east of Wilkin's 
Run the deposit is still noteworthy, and presents the appear 
ance of extensive kames. The southwest corner of this town 
ship, and the southeast of I^fewton, are deeply enveloped in 
till. Wilkin's Run was one of the glacial outlets, and the 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 245 

terrace deposits are such as usually mark the streams as they 
emerge from the boundary of the glaciated region. 

NEWARK TOWNSHIP. 

At the city of Newark the three forks of the Licking Eiver 
unite. All of these drain the glaciated region upon whose 
eastern border Newark is situated. The extensive gravel 
plain upon which the city is built is about 30 feet above the 
river, and is the deposit of these streams in the last stages of 
the glacial period when still swollen by the floods of the melt- 
ing glacier; while terraces of a still higher altitude surround 
the plain, marking the size of the floods at a somewhat earlier 
date, when at their greatest extent. The terrace upon which 
the city cemetery is situated is 108 feet above Licking Eiver. 
Southeast of the city, a terrace near the river is something 
over 60 feet above it. The eastern limit of till in this town- 
ship coincides in the northern part with the east line of the 
township, though in this part of the township many of the 
hills are free from till. As, however, you go east from the 
North Fork, along the town-line road, between Newark and 
Newton, the till appears to be of great depth, and stretches 
away to the north in such hummocks and ridges as usually 
characterize the moraine. The elevation here is 200 feet (B) 
above the North Fork. South of the city, on the Linnville 
road, till envelops everything to the summit of the high 
lands, where it is evidently of great depth. The elevation is 
about 300 (B) above Newark. 

LICKING AND FRANKLIN TOWNSHIPS, 

The glacial boundary follows very closely the line between 
Licking and Franklin townships. To the west everything is 
enveloped in till ; to the east are the familiar rocks and gorges 
of the unglaciated region. Many boulders were found, and 
a considerable amount of drift, along Claylick Creek, in the 
centre of Franklin township. This, however, seems to be a 
water deposit, formed by streams and floating ice, which 
came over the low place between Swamp Eun and Claylick 
Creek. The gap in the watershed between these streams is 



246 Detailed Beport for Ohio. 

150 feet lower than that of the hills to the north and south, 
and the valley through which Claylick Creek now empties to 
the north appears to be very narrow. There certainly is no 
till on the hills, either to the northwest or southeast of this 
depression. The road along the town line, from Hog Kun to 
Amsterdam, in the southwest corner of Franklin, is all the 
way over a deep deposit of till containing many granitic boul- 
ders. Amsterdam is 400 feet (B) above Newark, and com- 
mands a most extensive view of the fertile and level glaciated 
region to the west, and of the broken region to the east. 
Near the Presbyterian Church upon the most commanding 
point near Amsterdam, is an Indian mound 21 feet high, and 
124 paces in circumference. East of Amsterdam a drive of 
three miles to Linnville disclosed no till, but south and west 
the deposit is continuous and deep. In the southeastern part 
of Licking township, east of the reservoir, the road runs for 
half a mile upon the summit of a ridge of kame-like hills con- 
taining many granitic boulders. This ridge seems to cross the 
valley, and to be a true moraine barrier, restraining the waters 
of Eeservoir Lake. The railroad near here shows very good sec- 
tions of this ridge, and of other ridges parallel to its They 
are from 15 to 30 feet above the level of the valley, but how 
much of their base is obscured by subsequent deposits there 
is no means of telling. Through this depression east of the 
reservoir, on the line between Licking and Perry counties, 
there was evidently a great overflow of glacial water, empty- 
ing through Jonathan Creek into the Muskingum, below 
Zanesville. 

PEEKY COUNTY. 

The moraine passes in this county, in a north and south 
direction, through Thorn and Eeading townships. 

THORN" TOWNSHIP. 

We have already described the glacial accumulations east of 
the reservoir, where they pass from Licking county into this 
township. The reservoir occupies a great kettle-hole. The 
railroad which here cuts through the moraine follows for sev- 



Detailed Beportfor Ohio. 247 

eral miles towards the southeast an outlet for the glacial 
j9.oods. This occupies a valley about a mile wide, through the 
middle of which kame-like ridges of gravel 15 to 20 feet in 
height extend ; but these are flanked on either side by depos- 
its of black muck. On turning up a tributary towards Som- 
erset, these deposits cep.se. The headwaters of the stream 
are in an unglaciated region. 

Thornville is upon a hill of till containing numerous gran- 
itic boulders, and which is about 300 feet (B) above Newark. 
A well upon this hill was reported as passing through 10 feet 
of soil, 25 feet of blue clay. Southeast from Thornville the 
till is, for the first mile, very deep, with very numerous and 
large granitic boulders. Till continues a mile farther to Sec- 
tion 23, and thence south to the northwest corner of Reading 
townshij). But from Section 23, Thorn township, to Somer- 
set (seven miles southeast), and thence west to the brnnch of 
Rush Creek, a mile west of New Reading, the country is wholly 
unglaciated. 

READING TOWNSHIP. 

The northwestern section of Reading township presents a 
level and rich expanse of territory, produced by the glacial 
floods coming down from the southern part of Thorn town- 
ship. The contrast between the western sections of this town- 
ship and everything east of Rush Creek is very marked. The 
road running south, near the western line of this township, is 
through a region deeply enveloped in till, as far as the pike, a 
little east of Rushville, A drive on the pike, of half a mile, 
into Reading township, toward Somerset, brings one into the 
unglaciated region. 

FAIRFIELD COUNTY. 

The glacial boundary enters Fairfield county, a little south 
of the Somerset and Lancaster pike in Richland township, and 
crosses the northwest corner of Rush Creek township, the 
southeast corner of Pleasant township, the northwest corner 
of Bern, through the center of Hocking township, and the 
western sections of Madison township to the line between Pick- 
away and Hocking counties. 



248 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

RIGHLA]SrD TOWNSHIP, 

The Somerset and Lancaster pike suddenly enters extensive 
deposits of till, upon passing from Perry to Fairfield county, a 
mile and a half east of East Rushville; but a drive of a half 
mile south carries one entirely beyond the range of till. From 
Rushville one must drive a mile and a half south to reach the 
unglaciated district. But here on both sides of the creek, the 
passage from the glaciated to the unglaciated is sudden. On 
the north part of H. Geiger's farm, east of Rush Creek, and 
one-half mile north of the township line, tlie glacial limit is 
marked by hummocks of till, which are at least 50 feet in 
depth ; while on the west side of the creek the boundary is near 
the town line in Rush Creek township, on the farm of J. D. 
Martin. Large granitic boulders abound along the glaciated 
margin through Richland township. The elevation is 250 
feet (B) above Lancaster, and about 200 feet above Rush Creek. 
There is no barrier in this vicinity to stop the southern pro- 
gress of the ice. A detour of several miles to Bremen demon- 
strated the absence of till to the southeast. 

EUSH CI^EEK TOWlSrSHIP. 

The characteristics of the glacial boundary through Rush 
Creek township are very similar to those in Richland. The 
remnants of a boulder of dark, hornblendic rock, on the farm 
of J. D. Martin, one-fourth south of West Rushville, measured 
10x8x3 feet out of ground. Probably one-third had been re- 
moved by blasting. The elevation is 250 feet above Lancaster, 
and there is no southern barrier to account for the sudden ter- 
mination of the till. Four or five miles to the south, across 
the valley of the west branch of Rock Creek, an escarpment of 
Waverly sandstone hills is a striking feature of the landscape. 
There is no till in Sections 17 and 18 of this township. 

PLEASANT TOWNSHIP. 

From Rushville to Lancaster the pike bears southwest. The 
glacial boundary enters Pleasant township, one mile south of 
the pike, intersecting the pike again near where it passes from 
Pleasant township to Bern. The road running to Lancaster, 




^ "%v 



PLATE XII 



250 Detailed Beportfor Ohio. 

parallel with the pike, and about one mile northwest, is through 
a region everywhere enveloped with till, a great amount of it 
resting upon the hills 250 feet above the city. It is at the in- 
tersection of this road with that to Pleasantville that the cele- 
brated granitic boulder referred to by Professor Andrews (see 
his Geology, pp. 211, 212) is found. This is in the valley of 
Baldwin's Eun, is hornblendic in character, and measures 
18x12x6 feet out of ground. Boulders were left upon the 
summit of Pleasant Mountain, a mile north of Lancaster, and 
about 300 feet above it. 

BERN TOWNSHIP. 

The moraine enters the northwest corner of Bern township, 
near the city of Lancaster, but its course is here somewhat 
disguised by the water action in the Hocking Valley, which it 
here intersects. The Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley Eail- 
road, east of Lancaster, passes through a low valley into the | 
tributaries of Eush Creek. This valley is bounded upon the \ 
south by an escarpment of Waverly sandstone, rising about 
250 feet. A drive across the country, back of this escarpment, \ 
from Lancaster to Bern Station, failed to disclose any signs of j 
glaciation ; but the valley itself is partially filled with gravel, | 
brought in by the various glacial tributaries from the north. 
This deposit of gravel is especially noticeable near Bern Station, 
where the gravel accumulation brought down by Eaccoon Creek, 
forms a hill 50 or 60 feet in height. Till and boulders appear 
between the Logan and Chillicothe road, at an elevation of 
about 50 feet, one mile south of Lancaster. 

HOCKING TOWNSHIP. 

The course of the Mayesville and Zanesville turnpike, through 
Hocking township, is everywhere over a vast deposit of till. 
Tbis is true not only when it follows up the valley of Hunter's 
Eun, parallel with and close to the railroad, but after it crosses 
the railroad to the south, and- rises upon hills which are 450 
feet above Lancaster, near the southwest corner of the town. 
Here the till is piled up to a great height, upon the summit of 
the sandstone escarpment which overlooks the plains to the 
north made smooth and fertile by glacial action. On the 



Detailed Eeportfor Ohio. 251 

farm of S. Peters, in Section 20, 450 feet above the canal at 
Lancaster, a well was reported 40 feet in till ; another, near 
by, 30 feet. The parallel road, two miles southeast, shows no 
till from Hamburg post office toward Lancaster,for three miles, 
to its intersection with Arnoy's Run; for the rest of the 
distance till is continuous and deep. But occasional granitic 
boulders crown the summit of the sandstone hills running 
parallel with these roads and half-way between them, and 
rising 450 feet above the canal. Muddy Prairie, in the south- 
western corner of this township, is a shallow kettle-hole of 
great size, which has been filled by the accumulation of peat. 
Its natural drainage is by a long circuit to the west, but by a 
little ditching it is made to empty by a shorter course through 
Muddy Prairie Eun. 

MADISOISr TOV^^NSHIP. 

On leaving Lancaster the glacial boundary turns rapidly 
toward the south, and passes through Madison township nearly 
in a north and south direction, through Sections 4, 9, 16, and 
21. It crosses Clear Creek at Clearport, near the junction 
with Muddy Run, at an elevation of about 200 feet (B) above 
Lancaster. Everywhere along this distance the glacial accu- 
mulation abuts closely against an escarpment of Waverly sand- 
stone ; yet covers hills to the west, in Clear Creek township, 
of equal height with them, namely, 450 feet above Lancaster. 
The line bends a little west as it emerges from this township, 
and enters Hocking county. 

PICKAWAY AND HOCKING COUNTIES 

The moraine follows so nearly the line between Pickaway 
and Hocking counties that we shall do best to consider them 
together. 

Driving east from Tarleton, in Pickaway, to the line of 
Hocking, till and granitic boulders are'continuous and abundant 
to the Hocking line, and for nearly a mile farther east ; but 
here they suddenly cease, and do not reappear on turning 
north until reaching Section 20, in Madison township, Fair- 
field county. Driving southeast from Tarleton, till is continu- 
ous until crossing the county line, northwest of South Perry 



252 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

postofl&ce. A section of till upon the county line here shows 
at least 30 feet in depth. The elevation is 300 feet above 
Circleville. One mile east of the county line till had entirely 
disappeared. There is no till in the valley of Laurel Eun for 
a mile and a half west of South Perry. Hills of Waverly sand- 
stone arise on every side about the village. There is no till 
upon them, but a granitic fragment 6 in. by 4 in. was found 
upon a hill a few rods north of the village, and 225 feet (B) 
above it. This is 300 feet above Circleville. Across the Eun, 
on the south side, the ridge road to Adelphi rises 375 feet in 
one and one-half miles, and turns west upon the summit, 
near the southern line of Perry township, and three miles 
from its western boundary. This is by barometer 450 feet 
above Circleville, and the level touches the tops of the hills 
in all directions. This road continues for three miles west 
upon the summit of a narrow ridge of sandstone, left by the 
erosion of the streams. From it one looks down on either 
side into gorges between 300 and 400 feet in depth. On driving 
upon this ridge about three miles westward, we struck a col- 
lection of granitic pebbles upon the very summit, about one 
mile northeast of the southwest corner of the township. The 
pebbles were small, but of a variety of kinds. Three-fourths 
of a mile farther west, while still 275 feet above South Perry, 
began to find till. Granitic boulders continue frequent to 
Laurelville, at the junction of Salt Creek and Laurel Creek. 
The level of the stream is here 75 feet lower than that at 
South Perry. 

EOSS COUNTY. 

Nowhere in Ohio is the glacial boundary marked by larger 
accumulations than in Eoss County, through which it extends 
diagonally from the northeast corner to the southwest — passing 
through the northwest corner of Colerain, the southern part 
of Green, the southern part of Union, the northern edge of 
Twin, the southeastern part of Paint, and the western part ol 
Paxton townships. 

COLEEAIN TOWNSHIP. 

The village of Adelphi occupies the northeast section oi 
Colerain township, and is built upon an irregular deposit ol 



Detailed Rejport for Ohio. 253 

till worthy to be compared with the terminal moraine on Cape 
Cod in Massachusetts, and with that upon the Pocono plateau 
in Pennsylvania, and that west of Canton in Stark county. 
Salt Creek bursts through this moraine a few rods northeast 
of the corner of the county, and makes off to the southeast, 
through a narrow valley 450 feet deep, and for a short dis- 
tance is bounded on the east by extensive gravel terraces. 
The moraine accumulation upon which Adelphi is built abuts 
upon this creek towards the east, and there is here a perpen- 
dicular exposure of till 188 feet in depth. The creek is con- 
stantly undermining it, and an extensive slide is in progress 
which has already carried away a considerable portion of the 
cemetery. The height of this cemetery was taken by level. 
West of the village where the land is higher the barometer 
indicated more than 200 feet. On driving south from Adel- 
phi, up Brimstone Hollow, till continued for one mile, and 
occasional granitic pebbles were found for two miles farther, 
where the summit of the Waverly sandstone escarpment was 
reached, at a height of 400 feet (B) above Salt Creek. Turn- 
ing west upon this ridge, a little till was found upon the very 
summit after going a mile, and just before beginning to 
descend towards the north into the valley of Reed's Ford. 
On descending into this valley, a hundred feet or more, drift 
began to appear. This was at first water-worn, and in terraces, 
as would be natural in a valley beginning, as this does, a little 
south of the glaciated line, and opening to the north. On 
reaching Section 14, near the residence of Isaac Delong, till 
appeared in large quantities, with many granitic boulders, 
some of them from 6 to 8 feet in diameter. On going a mile 
and a half farther north, this road reaches the turnpike, two 
miles from Adelphi, which, over all this distance, follows the 
summit of a true moraine deposit. To the northwest, stretch 
the fertile plains of Pickaway county, lying fully 150 feet 
lower than the summit^of this moraine. To the south rises, 
near by, the escarpment of Waverly sandstone, which forms 
the northwestern boundary of the great coal formations of 
the State. The granitic pebbles which we had found upon the 
summit of that escarpment in Ross, in Hocking, and in Fair- 



254 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

field counties, show that the ice was at least 400 feet thick over 
all the plains to the north. 

This moraine ridge continues southwest from Adelphi in 
about the same proportions, and in similar relations, to the 
plain upon the north, and to the hills upon the south, until it 
enters Green township, two miles from the southern border. 
All along through Colerain township, in driving a mile 
south from the pike, one strikes out of the till, and after 
crossing a little valley, plunges into tlie deep gorges which 
everywhere characterize the sandstone regions beyond. Pro- 
fessor Orton had noted the boundary with great accuracy. 
(See Ohio's Geol. Report, Vol. II, pp. 651, 652.) 

GEEEN TOWNSHIP. 

The moraine enters G-reen township from (he east in Sec- 
tion 24. Till continued to the northern edge of Section 25, 
where it suddenly disappeared on the watershed. A drive of 
two miles south into Harrison township demonstrates the 
total absence of till over the southeast corner of Green. On 
driving over the diagonal road northwest till appeared at the 
watershed in Section 25, nearly one mile from the south line, 
and a mile and a half from the east line of Green township. 
The accumulation of till is large along the road between 
Sections 26 and 27. The diagonal road running southwest 
through Sections 27 seems directly upon the moraine, and 
between this glacial accumulation and the rocky hills to the 
south there is a space of about half a mile, occupied by a 
small stream whose headwaters are in Section 33. In the 
southern part of Section 29 there are enormous kame-like 
ridges of gravel, from 100 to 150 feet (B) in height, and run- 
ning north and south. The material of this kame is rather 
tine, and is largely composed of limestone pebbles. The Pick- 
away plains here contract into the valley of the Scioto, which, 
through the rest of its course, is nowhere more than two or 
three miles wide, and is bounded on either side by precipitous 
hills of slate and sandstone. In the northeast corner of Sec- 
tion 31, the water-worn material of the kame gives place to 
till, which contains many granitic pebbles a foot or more in 
diameter. In crossing the head of the Scioto Valley, on a 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 255 

road running east and west through this point, three parallel 
ridges are encountered, running nearly north and south, each 
one in order toward the river extending farther south. 

k' SPRINGFIELD TOWJS'SHIP. 

About halfway between Hopetown, in Springfield township, 
and Chillicothe the first terrace (over which the railroad runs) 
is about a half mile in width. The second terrace, which occu- 
pies the remaining space to the hills on the east, which is also 
about a half mile in width, rises abruptly 48 feet above the 
river. 

UNION TOWNSHIP. 

In driving up the Scioto, upon the west side, from Chilli- 
cothe, the I'oad follows ihe first terrace, which is about a mile 
wide, and 30 feet above the river. Kame-like ridges appear in 
Union township, nearly opposite the southwest corner of 
Green, and just above the second toll-gate, where the Clark- 
son pike branches off to the west. The cross-road leading 
directly west from this point ascends 400 feet (B) in the first 
mile. Granitic boulders are abundant at this elevation, and a 
well one-half mile south passes 33 feet through what was called 
''gravel," but is doubtless "till." Granitic boulders appear 
upon this plateau for a half mile or so farther south. The till 
is of great depth, one-half mile north of the centre, on the 
farm of J. A. Hurst. From the centre, southwest, past the 
houses of M. A.' Pinto and W. R. Bowdle, to the Frankfort 
pike, the road continues upon the highlands, and passes many 
granitic boulders, and through occasional deposits of till, but 
the till is not deep. There is considerable development of till 
at the cro?s-road near the house of Susan Beard, and again* 
upon descending the hill to the turnpike near the house of 
Jacob Flescher; but no till appears along the pike to the west 
for a mile, where, upon descending about 150 feet, the road 
enters, at about 150 feet above the north fork of Paint Creek 
and about a mile and a half east of Frankfort in Concord 
township, a deposit of till which is unbroken to the north and 
northwest. The railroad from Chillicothe to Eoxabel strike 
into extensive drift deposits at Anderson's, upon the north 
fork of Paint, which is specially abundant at Musselman's, 



256 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

The deposit here is at least 25 or 30 feet deep, and looks like 
till, though the material is very fine. 

COKCOED AND TWIN TOWNSHIPS. 

One-half mile south of Musselman's, upon the Greenfield 
pike, in Twin township, there is a small deposit of till, near 
the school-house, upon the farm of C. C. Plyley. The road 
is here 550 feet (B) above Chillicothe, and continues at this 
height west to Lattaville, in Concord township. A mile east 
of Lattaville, a well upon the farm of J. McConnell passed 
through 12 feet yellow clay, 3 or 4 feet blue clay, 10 feet yel- 
low clay, 5 feet gravel. About 13 feet from the top a piece of 
wood 3 or 4 feet long and 3 inches through was found in clay. 
From this point the eye surveys a vast extent of till in the 
valley of the North Fork of Paint, which is about 400 feet 
lower. But the hills facing the north are here completely 
enveloped in till. The ice seems for a long while to have 
crowded down to this rocky escarpment, and for a short time 
to have overlapped it upon both sides of the North Fork. 

Lattaville, in Concord township, is built upon a striking 
development of the moraine. The turnpike follows the mo- 
raine across the southeast corner of Concord township. The 
general elevation is from 150 to 200 feet above the valley of 
the creek, while knolls and ridges of till rise 50 or 60 feet 
higher. About one mile south is the continuation of the 
rocky hills 200 or 300 feet higher, through which the North 
Fork of Paint Creek has cut its way below Frankfort. One 
mile south of Lattaville till and many granitic boulders ap- 
peared near T. M. McDonald's, upon the very summit of the 
plateau, 625 feet (B) above Chillicothe. A mile southwest, 
upon the other side of the watershed, in the upper valley of 
Lower Twin Creek, there is a small amount of till near the 
school-honse. South and east of this to the valley of Paint 
Creek there is no more till. There are some remarkable 
kames and terraces in these two townships which deserve 
notice. As we have said, the North Fork of Paint Creek, 
above Frankfort, flows through a broad expanse of glaciated 
country everywhere enveloped in till and dotted with granitic 
boulders. Two miles southeast, near Musselman's, it enters a 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 257 

narrow valley about 400 feet deep, and a half mile wide, in 
which it continues for about 5 miles ; when it comes out into 
a broader valley, and flows southeast until it unites with the 
Scioto below Chillicothe. Before the river enters this gorge 
separating Union from Twin Township, the valley is marked 
by numerous kame-like ridges, running nearly parallel with 
the stream. Between Frankfort and Roxabel numerous kettle 
holes appear. One and a half mile south of Frankfort, on 
the south side of a small tributary to the creek, is a kame 57 
feet above the general level of the valley. Granitic pebbles 
are numerous in this. One near the summit measured 3 feet. 
This kame runs at least three-fourths of a mile to the south- 
east. Upon emerging from the gorge below Frankfort, in the 
eastern angle of Twin township, between Paint Creek and 
North Fork, extensive kames are found to connect the two 
valleys along the line of Cat Tail Eun. The material in these 
kames is water- worn, and ranges from pebbles of granite 2 feet 
through to fine sand. Granitic boulders 3 feet through occur 
on the top of the gravel ridges. These ridges are more than 
180 feet high, and descend upon each side at an angle of 25 
or 30 degrees. Near the residence of Captain Phill. A. Rodes, 
facing Faint Creek, near the outlet of Wilcox Run, the kame 
is 158 feet high, and encircles a kettle-hole of great dimen- 
sions. 

It is very clear, as Professor Orton surmised (see Geological 
Survey of Ohio, vol. II, p. 653), that Paint Creek, in pregla- 
cial times, passed northward, and joined the North Fork, 
near the eastern angle of Twin township ; but in glacial 
times that outlet was obstructed by ice, and partly filled with 
gravel, so that the creek left its broad valley, and has cut a 
channel for three miles across the rocky escarpment, which 
here formerly separated it from the Soioto. This post-glacial 
channel, which it now occupies, is "not more than 200 feet in 
width at the base, is bottomed with rock, and is bounded by 
precipitous cliffs not less than 300 feet in height. After fol- 
lowing a southeast course for three miles, it turns again to the 
northeast, and regains its old valley two miles west of the south 
line of Chillicothe." 



258 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

From the fact that the old valley of Paint Creek is filled 
only to about one-third the height of the surrounding hills, it 
seems clear that the ice-front itself rested over the eastern angle 
Twm township long enough for the creek to wear the gorge 
just described to nearly its present depth. Perhaps this 
would require 3,000 or 3,000 years. 

BUCKSKIJSr TOWNSHIP. 

The boundary of the deep accumulation of till enters Buck- 
skin township a half mile or more south of the Greenville 
pike, and crosses in a pretty direct line to Paint township, one- 
half mile or more south of Salem. The road from the Green- 
ville pike, near Henry Parrett's, to Salem, leads over a contin- 
uous deposit of till thrown up into low hills and ridges. The 
rocky escarpment extending from the Scioto Kiver through 
Union and Twin township, crosses Buckskin township about 
a mile and a half southeast of Salem. We did not ascend it 
in this township, but from what we have described in Twin 
township, and from what we shall describe in Paint township, 
it is probable that the ice-sheet overlapped these hills, which 
are all along from 400 to 500 feet above the land to the north. 

PAINT TOWNSHIP. 

With the exception of the northwestern corner, Paint town- 
ship consists of sandstone ridges left from the erosion of a 
continuous plateau, which was from 500 to 550 feet (B) above 
the valley of Paint Creek at Bainbridge. The ice surmounted 
these summits, and left considerable dej^osits of till and gran- 
itic boulders upon them, near the residence of D. H. Pricer, 3 
miles south of Salem, and at various places along the ridge 
road south to Bainbridge as far as Henry Benner's. Near D. 
H. Pricer's, at an elevation of 550 feet (B) above Bainbridge, 
was a boulder of hornblendic rock, about 5x3x2 feet. Many 
boulders 2| feet through appeared at this elevation farther 
south. 

PAXTON TOWNSHIP. 

No till was observed in Paxton township, except near the 
woolen factory on Buckskin Creek, whence it appears at in- 
tervals both on the road leading up the creek to the north, 




PLATE XV. 



260 [Detailed Report for Ohio. 

and also on the road to the right, leading upon the hill along 
whieh we marked the line of till and boulders in Paint town- 
ship. A little till also appears in the northwestern corner of 
the town, near Eocky Fork. 

Bainbridge is in a valley about a mile wide, which has been 
cut down through parallel strata of sand rock and shale to a 
depth of about 500 feet. The village is built upon a terrace 
whose surface is about 25 feet above high-water mai'k. The 
material varies from coarse sand to well-rounded pebbles 4 or 5 
inches through. Limestone prevails, though granite is also 
present. A granitic boulder 4 feet in diameter was observed. 
One mile west of Bainbridge the terrace rises suddenly 15 feet. 
Just below the junction of Rock Fork till appears in small 
hillocks. The elevation is 125 feet (B) above Bainbridge. 
From this point to Hillsboro, in Highland county, signs of 
glaciation are continuous. 

PIKE COUNTY. 
Following south from Paint Creek, along the Ross county 
line, till disappears suddenly one-quarter of a mile north of 
Cynthiana, in the extreme northwest corner of Pike county. 
To the west and southwest till is abundant. 

HIGHLAND COUNTY. 

The boundary enters Highland county, near the northeast 
corner of Brush Creek township, and continues, in a south- 
west direction to Marshall township, about one mile north of 
its southeast corner. The deposits are continuous along the 
road from Cynthiana to Carmel post office, south southwest to 
the school-house by J. West's, near the head of the middle fork 
of Brush Creek, and three-quarters of a mile south of the road 
from Sinking Sj)ring to Marshall. To the southeast of this 
line across Brush Creek township, there are hills of sand rock 
and shale of great height. On the east side of these hills, two 
miles south of Carmel post office, near the residence of D. W. 
Scammahorn, there is, however, an extensive deposit of till, 
which continues on the road south nearly to Baker's Fork, but 
there disappears. From this point around to Cynthiana no 
till was observed. 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 261 

MARSHALL TOWNSHIP. 

There are heavy deposits of till all over the northern part 
of Marshall township. It is specially abundant south and 
west of the village, with many grdinitic boulders 3 and 4 feet 
in diameter. Towards the southeast part of the town the 
spaces upon which there is no till are extensive. But at the 
corner, by Jacob Kesler's, is a small deposit of till, with gran- 
itic boulders. There is none upon the road east to Brush 
Creek, and none south to Jackson township. The distance 
from eacli of these townships is about a mile. But a half mile 
west from Mr. Kesler's an extensive and deep deposit of till 
begins, and is continuous to the west for at least a mile. 

JACKSON TOV^^NSHIP. 

The moraine may be said to enter Jackson township one 
mile northwest of North Uniontown. Upon the road from 
Marshall to Belfast till is continuous to the west branch of 
Elk Run, and on the road from Uniontown to Belfast there is 
no till for two miles. Upon descending to Elk Run, near 
R. B. Matthew's, granitic pebbles appeared at an elevation of 
50 feet above the bridge. Upon ascending the west bank 
there were occasional appearances of till all along, which, at 
the cemetery, near J. Weaver's, one-half mile northeast of 
Belfast, was very abundant. From Belfast, upon the pike 
towards Hillsboro, saw no till for three miles ; but there wns 
an occasional boulder, one of which, a mile north of the town- 
ship line, was between 3 and 4 feet in diameter. North of 
this, till was continuous. West of Belfast no till appeared in 
the valley of Brush Creek ; but two miles northwest, near 
Joseph McCoy's, was a considerable deposit of till. Granitic 
pebbles occurred upon the ridge a mile farther south, near the 
school-house, by Mrs. Phoela Ford's. This is at an elevation 
of 600 feet (B) above Cincinnati, and 400 feet (B) above Bel- 
fast. On the Ridge road from here to Newmarket there was 
scarcely any till, but scattered granitic pebbles. The elevation 
is between 600 and 700 feet (B) above Cincinnati. From New- 
market there was a continuous sheet of till, in places very 
deep. 



262 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

Along the town line south of Fairfax to Adams county 
there is a continuous and extensive accumulation of till at an 
elevation of 650 feet above Cincinnati. Upon the road run- 
ning southeast from Fairfax granitic boulders are occasionally 
found for three-quarters of a mile, but beyond that are absent, 
and no more could be found upon the east side of Rocky Run. 

ADAMS COUNTY. 

The boundary line of the glaciated region enters Adams 
county in the northwest corner of Scott township, near the 
line between Concord and Jackson townships, in Highland 
county. Between Winchester Post Office and Mount Lee the 
till is nearly continuous, though not deep. The west fork of 
Brush Creek is remarkably free from drift material, and no till 
appears upon the road from Mount Lee to North Liberty 
On the railroad from Winchester to Youngsville, on the east 
side of Elk Run, two miles from Winchester, is a cut in till 
from 10 to 20 feet in depth. Angular granitic boulders are 
found near here from 2|- to 3 feet through. On the road 
northwest from North Liberty large deposits of till occur, 
near Elk Run, two miles southeast of Winchester Village. 
The deposit was from 5 to 20 feet in depth. In driving from 
Winchester to Eckmansville, on the south border of Wayne 
township, till is continuous to within a mile of Eckmansville, 
where it disappears. On turning southwest from Eckmans- 
ville, across the northwest corner of Liberty township, the 
deposit of till is re-entered near the county line. 

BROWN COUNTY. 

On the road from Eckmansville to Ripley till is continuous 
through Byrd township. Two miles and a-half southwest of 
Decatur, near the Christian Church, and not far from Jeffer- 
son Post Office, is a granitic bo alder 2 or 3 feet through. Till 
continued to Red Oak Post Office, in Jefferson township. The 
road from here to Ripley descended through a gorge 450 feet 
deep. Found some small pebbles upon the summit of the hills 
north of Ripley ; also, in Lewis township, upon the summit of 
the hills, 2 miles north of Higginsport, found thin deposits of 




PLATE XVII. 



264 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

till. A granitic boulder, measuring 3^x2^, and 1| feet out of 
ground, was found in a small brook about half way up these 
hills. Franklin and Washington townships, in Clermont 
county, I have not examined, but I presume the glacial boun- 
dary approaches pretty close to the river, (See remarks below 
upon Kentucky.) Mr. Charles W. Smith informs me that 
there are small granitic boulders on the high lands two or 
three miles northeast of Ripley, and that on the highest hills 
in Ohio, opposite Augusta, Ky., pebbles of diorite and jasper 
are abundant ; but diligent search upon the Kentucky hills, 
near Augusta, disclosed nothing but local debris of the strati- 
fied rocks of the region, except an occasional quartz pebble as 
large as the end of one's finger. 

HAMILTON COUNTY. 

At Walnut Hill Station is an extensive deposit of till from 
10 to 20 feet in depth. Scratched stones and small granitic 
fragments are abundant in it. This is about 350 feet above 
the river. At North Bend the Cincinnati, Indianapolis and 
St. Louis Railroad passes from the valley of the Ohio to the 
valley of the Miami by a tunnel, through an extensive deposit 
of till. The height of this deposit above low water-mark is 
upwards of 160 feet. No large granitic pebbles were seen in 
it, but the examples of striated pebbles were numerous and 
excellent. Below North Bend the space between the Ohio 
and the Miami is occupied by a remnant of the limestone 
plateau through which the rivers have worn their present 
deep channels. This is 375 or 400 feet (B) above the river, 
and is about 4 miles long and 2 miles wide. Till and granitic 
pebbles 2 feet through are found upon this summit. They 
are also found in Indiana upon the summit, of equal height 
to the west and southwest, across the broad valleys of the 
Miami and the White Water. 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 265 



KENTUCKY. 

The glacial boundary enters Kentucky in Campbell 
County, crossing the Ohio River about two miles north of 
the Pendleton county line. I have not examined sufficiently 
the northern part of Campbell county, and I can only fix the 
limit near the river. We crossed the river from New Eich- 
mond, in Ohio, and ascended through the channel of a small 
brook to the summit of the Kentucky hills, near Carthage. 
ThesG hills are about four hundred feet above the river, and 
the ascent is very steep. Granitic pebbles were numerous in 
the bed of this small stream, and, upon reaching the summit, 
we found the surface cov.ered with till to the depth of ten or 
fifteen feet, in which granitic boulders a foot through Avere 
numerous, and in which it was not difficult to find beautiful 
specimens of scratched stones. From this point we went 
south, keeping upon the summit of the plateau from one and 
a half to three miles from the river. Indications of glacial 
action continued, but in a somewhat diminishing degree, 
until reaching Flag's Spring, where they ceased entirely. 
But to make sure, we went on in the same direction about 
four miles farther, and came down to the river at Motier, 
without seeing any farther glacial marks. At Flag's Spring 
there is an extensive accumulation of post-glacial conglom- 
erate like that at Split Eock, soon to be described. 

L KENTON COUNTY. 

i-* My examination of Kenton county has been too brief to be 
very satisfactory, but what I have seen may serve as a guide to 
others. Three miles southwest of Covington the hills are 
covered with loam from 15 to 40 feet deep, at an eleva- 
tion of 400 feet (B) above the river. There are occasional 
small quartz pebbles in this loam ; but I saw no sure signs of 
the actual presence of ice. In my not(!s I have said : "This 
seems like the bottom of a temporary lake when the ice 
dammed the river below." On going across from the pike a 
little south of this, so as to strike the Licking River, two miles 



266 Detailed Report for Ohio. 

south of Covington flats, no glacial marks were observed. At 
Erlanger, however, the first station south of Ludlow, on the Cin- 
cinnati Southern Eailroad, a railroad cut shows clay to a depth 
of six feet or more containing pebbles of quartzite, limestone, 
and occasionally granite, near the bottom. All, however, 
were small, none of them more than three inches in diameter. 
The elevation is about five hundred feet above the river. 

BOONE COUNTY. 

The glacial deposits over the northern part of Boone county 
are unmistakable in character. On ascending the hill along 
the line of the Covington and Petersburg pike from Ludlow 
to Hebron, we encountered about one mile east of Hebron, 
and about 450 feet (B) above the river, a deposit of till, twelve 
or more feet of which in depth is exposed by a little stream 
running to the north. The whole surface of the country 
about Hebron is covered with a loamy deposit containing oc- 
casional scratched stones and granitic boulders. On ascending 
the hill from Taylorsville to Hebron small granitic boulders 
abound all along the bed of the little stream, and are found of 
considerable size in the clay upon the summit. On the pike 
between Florence and Burlington, and two miles west of Bur- 
lington, where a small tributary of Gunpowder Creek, which 
runs to the south, crosses the pike, a large number of granitic 
boulders are collected, they having been washed out of the till 
which caps the hills. The elevation above the river is 400 
feet (B). Three-fourths of a mile to the east the elevation is 
575 feet (B), and the headwaters of this tributary, a mile and 
a half or two miles north, near Hebron, are 500 feet (B.) I 
counted within a few rods of each other 15 granitic boulders, 
one of which measured 3t|- feet in diameter. There were three 
or four boulders composed of metaphoric conglomerate, con- 
taining the beautiful red jasper pebbles characteristic of the 
eastern shore of Lake Superior, and of the region north of 
Lake Huron. They are identical in composition with boul- 
ders that are scattered over Michigan, Northern Indiana, and 
with one in the Oberlin Museum, found by Professor Allen 
in Brownhelm. Colonel Whittlesey brought a mass of this 



Detailed Report for Ohio. 267 

rock from its native ledge, near Lake Superior, on the west 
side of St. Mary's River^ and has adorned the yard in front of 
his residence with it. These boulders in Kentucky are 
found about five miles south of the Oliio Eiver, and south of 
the watershed in that part of the county. 

In a drive from Petersburg to Hebron, the hills were found 
to be covered with till to a height of several hundred feet. 
The barometer read about 400 feet above the river. The red- 
ness of the soil was everywhere noticeable, showing that the 
iron was thoroughly oxidized. A detour to the south, from 
Florence to Union, and from Union across Gunpowder Creek, 
towards Bellevue (now called Grant P. 0.), demonstrated the 
absence of glacial deposits until reaching the headwaters of 
Middle Creek, about half way between Burlington and Belle- 
vue. Here the tops of the hills are covered with a gravelly 
deposit, containing occasional grr.nitic pebbles several inches 
in diameter. Near the headwaters of the southern branches 
of Middle Creek, and especially at Kock Spring, the deposits 
arc of very coarse material, are of great extent, and are 
cemented together by an infiltration of lime like that already 
spoken of at Flag's Spring, and soon to be described at Split 
Rock. This conglomerate consists largely of pebbles of lime- 
stone, but contains also granitic pebbles. Ii Avas noticed as 
early as 1845 by Professor Locke, and described in the Cin- 
cinnati Gazette, and more recently by Dr. Sutton, of Aurora, 
who specially notices its great elevation above the river. Dr. 
Sutton's paper may be found in the jDroceedings of the A. A. 
A. S. for 1876, and reprinted, with additional information by 
Prof. E. T. Cox, in the Geological Survey of Indiana for 
1878, pp. 108-113. 

The most accessible place in which to study this deposit is 
near the mouth of Woolper Creek, about four miles north- 
west of the headwaters of Middle Creek, and about four miles 
south of Petersburg. The formation is here known as "Split 
Rock," and rises directly from the Oliio River, both above and 
below the mouth of Woolper Creek. Professor Locke "re- 
garded this conglomerate as evidence of the destruction of a 
great arch of rocks which united the coal-fields of Ohio with 



268 Detailed Report for Ohio, 

those of Indiana and Kentucky." Mr. Eobert B. Warder, in 
the Greological Keport of Indiana, for 1872, also directs atten- 
tion to this Split Rock conglomerate, and suggests, possibly, 
it is the terminal moraine of an ancient glacier. With this 
view Dr. Sutton and Professor Cox substantially agree. But 
Dr. Sutton and Prof. Cox suppose that the deposits upon the 
highland above Middle Creek are far more ancient than those 
in the valley of the Ohio about the mouth of Woolper Creek. 
As we read the facts, however, now, in the light of the most 
recent investigations, these deposits upon the highlands of 
Boone county, and at Sjjlit Kock, are probably contempora- 
neous, the ice of the glacial period extending down to a con- 
tinuous line which crosses the river at Woolper Creek. The 
vast current of water which flowed down at the melting of 
the continental glacier, was not determined in its course by 
the present channels as now, for these were in many cases 
filled with ice, and for a time the southward flowing currents 
were borne completely across the channel of the Oliio, flowing 
in a trough of ice, whose bottom was as high as the summit of 
Boone county. 

The pebbles in the cemented mass of Split Eock are mostly 
of limestone, and are very coarse — individual i^ebbles fre- 
quently being from three to four feet in diameter. Granitic 
pebbles are infrequent. One was found, however, measuring 
two feet in diameter. The cliffs of this conglomerate, at the 
mouth of Wool^Dcr Creek, rise not far from one hundred feet 
above the river, and the material is cemented together by an 
infiltration of lime. Kame-like ridges extend for two miles 
south of Woolper Creek, on the way to Bellevue. These are 
composed of rather fine material, and are 160 feet above the 
river. The terrace upon this, the Kentucky side of the river, 
is, for two miles or more below Woolper Creek, remarkable for 
its height, being more than 100 feet above the river, and 56 
feet higher than the high-water mark of January, 1883. 



APPENDIX. 



ABSTRACT OF THE BEARINGS OF GLACIAL 
STRI^ AND GROOVES IN OHIO. 



COMPILED BY COL. CHARLKS WHITTLESEY. 



NORTHEASTERN COUNTIES. 

Ashtabula County — 

No observations, the rocks principally shale. 

Trumbull County — 

Farmington township ... S. 30° West. 

Vernon township S. 20° 30° and 40° East. 

Brookfield S. 5° East. 

Over the Pennsylvania line, Shenango Valley S. 5° East. 

Fowler township S. 4°, 30° and 45° East. 

Braceville S. 45° and 50° West. 

Lordstown South and S. 20° East. 

Mahoning County Line— 

Austintown S. 30° and 35° East. 

Average of four exceptional observations, S. and W. S. 31° West. 
Average of ten observations to the East of South, S. 22 4-10° East. 

Geauga County— 

Thompson S. 40° and 50° West, and 50° East. 

Hampden S. 10° and 15° East. 

Chardon S. 10° East, 

Chester S. 50° and 70° East. 

Russell S. 50° and 70° East. 

Bainbridge S. 49° East. 

Parkman S. 30° West. 

Lake County — 

Leroy S. 45 ° West. 



270 Appendix. 



Portage County — 

Mantua S. 30° and 40° East. 

Four observations "W. of Soulb Mean S. 41° West. 

Ten observations E. of South S. 37 4-10° East. 

Cuyahoga County — 

Solon S. 45° East. 

Euclid S. 20° and 25° East. 

Independecce S. 20° East. 

Average S 27 12° Ea&t. 

Summit County — 

Portage near Akron S. 10° to 35° East. 

K Hampton S. 30° to 60° East. 

N. Hampton S. 30° and 35° East. 

Middlebury, exceptional East and West. 

Tallmadge Coal Hill S. 30° and 40° East. 

Cuyahoga Falls S. 45° East. 

Twinsbury S. 40° and 45° East. 

Medina County — 

Copley S. 30° West- 
Sharon S. 40° East. 

Wayne County— 

Doylestown West and South. 

Average, not anomalous S. 36 6-10° East. 



WEST END OF LAKE ERIE. 

Between Buffalo at the East end of tliis Lake, and the It-lands, the 
rocks near the water level are generally too soft to retain the ancient 
ice-markings. On the lime rock at Buffalo, there are numerous and dis- 
tinct etchings, that bear from South 25° to South 30°West, and run under 
water. Their bearings aie nearly parallel with the yxis of the trough of 
the Lake, At the mouth of Detroit River, near Gibraltar, the limestone 
beds are grooved andpollshed.and the bearings are also South 30° West. 
The Islands, and the limestone shores to the South and West, are every- 
where scoured and grooved in the same way; but the bearing is generally 
more to the West, differing by nearly a right angle with the general bear- 
ing in the Northeastern Counties. 

Kelley's Island and Adjacent — 

Southeast corner, ac water level, long grooves S. 75° West. 

Southeast corner, cross striae N. 80° West. 

Calkins' Quarry, north side, deep grooves S. 80° West. 



Appendix. 271 

Kelley's Island and Adjacent — Continued — 

Calkias' Quarry, striae S. 70° West. 

Calkins' Quarry, water level, strise N. 80° West. 

Calkins' Quarry, one heavy groove S. 45° West. 

Calkins' Quarry, one strise S. G0° West. 

Mean of twelve observations in different parts of Island, S. 80° West.. 

West Sister Lland, mean 8. 80° Wesf 

Put-in- Bay, mean of twenty observations S. 80° West. 

Sandusky City, mean of four observations S. 78°,; West. 

Sandusky City; mean of two observations S. 80° West. 

Sandusky City, mean of one. observation S. 81° West. 

Erie County— 

Belleville 8. 75° West. 

Belleville S. 65° West. 

Ottawa County— 

Geneva S. 65° West. 

Lucas County — 

Sylvauus, five observations S. 50° West. 

Monclova, four observations S . 63° West. 

Whitehouse ..S. 50° West. 

Near Maumee River, seven observations S . 62° West. 

Wood County — 

Portage, three observations S. 50° West. 

Otsego, three observations S. 64° West, 

Defiance S. 45° West, 

Paulding County— 

Junction, three observations S. 45° West. 

Van Wert County— 

Middlepoint, two observations S. 15° West. 

Hancocs County— 

Findlay, three observations S. 43° West. 

Putnam County — 

Blanchard ,' S. 20° West, 

Sugar Creek S. 50" West. 

Auglaize County — 

Auglaize S. 48° West, 



272 Appe7idix. 



Seneca County— 

Seneca S. 5° East. 

Senfca S. 23° West. 

Wyandotte County — 

Crawford S. 20° West. 

Crane S. 5° West. 

Marseilles S. 10° West 

Marion County — 

Grand Prairie North and South. 

Miami County — 

Troy Glaciated surface: hearings not given. 

Highland County— 

Near Lexington, according to Professor Orton, very marked roches 
moutonnees. Dr. John Locke, in the Second Report of the First 
Geological Survey, 1838, page 330, has given a fac simile of pol. 
ished limestone from Light's quarry, near Dayton, Montgomery 
County. It was done by placing a surface block in a ruling ma- 
chine, by which it engraved itself to perfection. The grooves are 
from the 1-40 to the i of an inch deep, and from aline tof of aninch 
wide. Both the grooves and tbe finer striae are in groups, or fas- 
cicles, as high as ten in number. They were perfectly straight, and 
covered by two feet of earth. The average bearing is about S. 26^ 
East, ranging from 19° to 21°, 31° and 33°; but the greater number 
of the most pronounced are S. 26° East. 



The above abstract is compiled froin the observations of Professors 
Newberry, Read, Winchell, and Gilbert of tbe Second Ohio Survey, and 
from those of Colonel Whittlesey. Most of the irregular and exceptional 
bearings can be accounted for by the local topngrapliy turning aside the 
general movement. The highest elevalions are 625 to 650 feet above tbe 
Lake, above which the ice sheet must have risen several hundred feet. 



Appendix. 273 



EFFECTS OF THE GLACIAL DAM AT CIN- 
CINNATI ALONGTHEUPPER BASIN 
OF THE OHIO. 



BY PROFESSOR I. C. WHITE, 

OF THE PENNSYLVANIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



Among the papers read before the geological section at the recent 
ineeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
at Minneapolis, 1883, was the following by Professor I. C. "White, of 
the University of West Virginia, on the Glacial Dam at Cincinnati, 
and the evidences of the West Virginia portion of tlie vast lake made 
by that dam : 

"In a paper read before the Boston Society of Natural History, March 
7, 1883, Rev. G. F. Wright has shown that the southern rim of the great 
northern ice sheet crossed the Ohio River, near the site of New Rich- 
mond, a few miles above Cincinnati. Mr. Wriglit believes that one 
effect of this invasion of the Ohio Valley by the glacial ice, was to form 
an immense dam of ice and morainic deb7'is 500 or 600 feet high, whicii, 
effectually closed the old channel way, and set back the water of the 
Ohio and its tributaries, until rising to the level of the Licking River 
divide, it probably found an outlet through Kentucky around the g-lacial 
dam. As this divide is 500 or 600 feet higher than the present bed of 
the Ohio at Cincinnati, Mr. Wright states that the site of Pittsburgh 
would have been submerged to the depth of 300 feet, and adds: It 
remains to be seen how much light this may shed upon the terraces 
which mark the Ohio and its tributaries in Western Pennsylvania. 

"Having resided for nearly a score of years in the valley of the Monon- 
gahela River, the writer is necessarily familiar with its terraces and sur- 
face deposits in general ; and in reply to the above query of the eminent 
glacialist, would answer that his admirable work throws a flood of light 
upon the Monongahela terraces, and proffers for them and the deposits 
along other tributaries of the Ohio, the only satisfactory explantion 
that has ever been advanced. 

"Of course, tf the Ohio River was ever so obstructed for any consider- 
able period of time, it would follow, as a necessary result, that many of 
the tributary streams and the Ohio itself above the limit of the dam, 



274 Ai:>pe7uUx. 

would have their old valleys silted up with vast heaps of trash— clay, 
sand, gravel, boulders, drifted logs and other rubbish— carried down by 
the streams from the regiou not sheeted with ice, and dumped into the 
great inland lake stream which extended from Cincinnati far up toward 
the sources of the Monongahela. 

" That the valley of the latter stream has been refilled with trash during 
some period of its history lo a height of 250 or 300 feet above its present 
bed, the evidence is most conclusive, for the remnants of this deposit 
still cover tl)e surface to a great depth in long lines of terraces extending 
from Pittsburgh, Pa , southward along the river to Fairmount, W. Va., a 
distance of 130 miles, and very probably much further, as 1 have never 
examined the river valley above the latter town. 

"The striking peculiarity of these terrace deposits is that they suddenly 
disappear at an elevation of 1050 or 1075 feet above tide, not a single 
rounded and transported boulder ever being found above the latter hori- 
zon, though occurring in countless numbers below this level. 

"The hills along the river often rise 300 or 400 feet higher than the 
upper limit of the deposits, so that there can be no mistake about the 
elevation at which the terrace deposits disappear. The composition of 
these great heiips of surface debris is, along the immediate valley of the 
river, a heterogeneous mixture of sand, clay, gravel, rounded boulders 
of sandstone of every size, from an inch in diameter up to four feet, 
pieces of coal, leaves, logs of wood, and every other species of rubbish 
usually transported by streams. Back from the channel of the river, 
however, and especially where the surface configuration would make 
quiet water, there occur thick deposits of very fine, bluish white clay, in 
which great numbers of leaves are most beautifully preserved. These 
clays have been extensively used for the manufacture of pottery at 
Geneva and Greensboro, Pa., and also to some extent at Morgantown 
and Fairmount, W. Va. Though the clay deposits occur at nearly 
every horizon, they are purest near the upper limit of the terraces, and 
these are consequently the only ones that have hitherto been much 
explored. 

" In the vicinity of Morgantown, terraces of transported material occur 
at the following approximate (measured by barometer) elevations : 





Ft. above 


Ft. above 
tide. 




30 
75 
175 

275 




Second Terrace . . .... 


865 
965 
990 













' ' The first terrace is the present flood-plain of the river, consisting prin- 
cipally of fine sand, mud and gravel. It seems to possess some respect- 



¥ 



B Appendix. 275 

able antiquity, however, since Mr. "Walter Hough, one of my students, 
dug some teeth and bones from five feet below its top, which were iden- 
tified by Professor O. C. Marsh, as the remains of a species of peccary, an 
animal that has not inhabited the region in question within the Ameri- 
can historic epoch. 

"All of the other terraces have thick deposits of transported material, 
wherever the original contour of the surface has favored its preservation 
from erosion. From the top of the fourth teirace Mr. Keck dug a well 
through 70 feet of clay, gravel and boulders without finding bed rock. 
He also encountered logs of wood in a soft or semi-rotten condition netr 
the bottom. 

"Many other wells on Ihe third terrace have been sunk to depths of 20 
and 30 feet without reaching bed rock. 

"The fifth terrace of this Morgan town series marks the height to which 
the pre-glacial valley of the Monongahela was silted up, partially or 
entirely during the existence of the glacial dam at Cincionati, since, as 
already stated, no clay beds, roundtd boulders, or other transported 
mat( rial are ever found above its top, but instead only angular fragments 
of the country rock, and thin coverings of surface material which has 
accumulated in situ. 

"Owing to the considerable elevation— 275 feet— of the fifth teirace 
abo^ e the present river bed, its deposits are frequently found far inland 
from the Monongahela, en tributary streams. A very extensive deposit of 
this kind occurs on a tributary one mile and a half northeast of Morgan- 
town, and the region, which includes three or four square miles, is signifi- 
cantly known as the 'flats.' The elevation of the 'fla's'is275 feet above 
the river, or 1065 feet above tide. The deposits on this area consist almost 
entin ly of clays and fine sandy material, there being very few boulders 
intermingled. The depth of the deposit is unknown, since a well sunk 
on the land of Mr. Baker passed through alternate beds of chiy, fine 
sand, and muddy trash to a depth of 65 feet wiihout reaching 1 ed rock. 
In some portions of the clays which make up this deposit, the leaves of 
our common forest frees are found most beautifully preserved. Whether 
or not they show any variations from the species growing in that region, 
the writer has not yet had time to determine, but when a larger collec- 
tion has been obtained, this subject will receive the attention that it 
deserves, since if the date of the glacial epoch be very remote, the 
Species must necessarily show some divergence from the present flora. 

" Of animal remains the only fragment yet discovered in this higliest of 
the terraces is the tooth of a mastodon, dug up near Stewartstown, 
seven miles northeast from Morgantown. 

" The other tributaries of the Monongahela, on which the writer has 
noted the clay and other deposits of the fifth terrace, are Decker, Dun- 
kard, Whitely, Muddy, and Ten Mile creeks, and in each case the depos- 



276 Appendix. 

its disappear at the same absolute level at which they cease along the 
river. 

"The Great Kanawha River, another principal tributary of the Ohio^ 
draining a region that was never glaciated, also exhibits water-worn 
boulder deposits which disappear at 200 to 300 feet above the present 
level of that stream, though I have not determined the exact limit. 

"The glacial dam at Cincinnati presents a complete explanation for the 
origin of Teazes valley, an ancient, deserted river channel 20 miles long 
and one or two miles wide, which leaves the Great Kanawha 15 miles 
below Charleston, W. Va., at Scary, and passing through Putnam and 
Cabell counties, extends to the valley of Mud River, a tributary of the 
Guyandotte, which empties into the Ohio at Huntington. 

" This valley, although having an elevation of 200 feet or more above 
the Kanawha, is filled to a great depth with rounded boulders of sand 
stone, chert, cannel coal, and other trash, which has plainly been trans 
ported down the Kanawha from above Charleston, so that although it 
was clearly seen that the water of the Kanawha had once found an out- 
let to the Ohio by way of this valley and the Mud and Guyandotte 
rivers, yet why this ancient channel should have beea abandoned for the 
present much more circuitous one had always remained a mystery until 
Mr. Wright furnished the key in the discovery of the great ice dam at 
Cincinnati. For it is now clear that such a barrier would set back the 
water of the Kanawha, until rising above the divide which had previously 
peparared it from Mud River, it sent an arm across to the Ohio by way of 
the Guyandotte 50 miles below where the other arm and main stream 
reached the same river at the present mouth of the Kanawha, thus con- 
verting portions of Putnam, Mason and Cabell counties into a large, 
triiugular island, the base of which was formed by the swollen Ohio, 
and the sides by the two arms of the Great Kanawha. The meltinsr 
away of the Cincinnati dam withdrew the water from the western or 
Mud- Guyandotte arm of the Kanawha, leaving the abandoned valley 
high and dry, but littered up with transported trash, as we now see it, 
while the Kanawha continued on to the Ohio in its present and pre- 
glacial outlet. 

"A summary view of these and other facts in the writer's possession 
seems to prove, beyond any reasonable doubt, that Mr. Wright's hypoth- 
esis concerning the damming up of the Ohio by the glacial ice in the 
region of Cincinnati was an actual reality ; that during the period of its 
continuance the principal tributaries of the Ohio had their valleys filled 
with sediment carried down and dumped into them by the mountain 
torrents, and other streams which drained the area south from the 
glaciated region ; that subsequently, when the barrier disappeared, the 
rivers recut their channels through the silt deposits, probably by spas- 
modic lowering of the dam, in such a manner as to leave the deposits in 



Appendix. 277 

a series of more or less regular terraces, which, in favored localities, sub- 
sequent erosion has failed to obliterate, though from steep slopes it has 
removed their every trace. 

"The elevation of this dam at Cincinnati, as determined from the upper 
limit of the fifth Monongahela river terrace, would be somewhere 
between 1050 feet and 1075 feet above tide, or about 625 feet above low 
water there in the present Ohio." 

Professor "White has still more recently (see The Virginias for Sept., 
1883,) called attenlion to additional and confirmatory evidence, con- 
sisting of small, rounded boulders on the summit of the knob in Sisters- 
ville, Tyler county. West Virginia, between five hundred and six hundred 
feet above the river. 

Certain phenomena in Boyd county, Ky., which had been referred to 
as evidence of direct glacial action I found on examination to be also 
natural results of the supposed ice dam. 

Boyd county is in Northeastern Kentucky, bordering upon West Vir- 
ginia, and upon the remarkable bend of the Ohio River where it receives 
the waters of the Big Sandy. Through the attention of Mr. John Camp- 
bell of Ironton, O., and Mr. J. H. Means of Ashland, Ky., I was assisted 
in making a pretty thorough examination of the region. Upon going 
back about two miles into Kentucky from the Ohio River, opposite 
Ironton, we find ourselves in a valley two miles wide, running parallel 
with the Ohio River, and two hundred and twenty feet above it. This 
valley extends for many miles, reaching the river towards the west at 
Greenup, and contiouing some miles, at least, above Ashland. It is 
known as Flat Woods. The level is remarkably uniform; and the hills 
upon either side of it rise about two hundred feet, with numerous lateral 
openings toward the Ohio. When upon the farther side, and looking 
northward, one sees the reeky bluffs of the old channel rising so like 
those facing the river itself that he can scarcely resist the illusion that 
he is in the present valley of the stream. The supposed glacial phe- 
nomena consist of numerous water-worn pebbles of quartz and quartzite 
scattered along the whole range of this old valley. Most of the pebbles 
are small, and perfectly rounded, though some were a foot or more in 
diameter; and one observed was about two feet and a half through, 
and only slightly worn. These pebbles are not found upon the hills 
back from this channel, on the Kentucky side, nor, according to Mr. 
Campbell, who is a most competent witness, anywhere in Lawrence 
county, O., back from the river. Plainly enough they are the result of 
water-transportation. Whether they were deposited at the very early 
period when the Ohio flowed at the level of two hundred and twenty 
feet higher than now, and regularly occupied this old channel, or 
whether they were brought into place during the existence of the glacial 
dam which I have supposed at Cincinnati, I will not venture to say; 
though the latter theory would seem more in accordance with the facts 



278 Appendix. 

published by Professor White concerning the old channel followed by 
the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad, extending from the Kanawha River ' 
to the mouth of the GuyandoUe in West Virginia. The elevation of the 
Kanawha-Guyandotte channel is nearly the same as that of the one I am 
describing, and this seems to be a prolongation of that. At any rate, 
the pebbles can only be indirectly referred to glacial action, and would 
be a very natural result of my theoretical ice dam at Cincinnati. 

In Science for Sept. 28, 1883, Mr. G. H. Squier describes some phe- 
nomena observed by him in the valley of the Licking and its larger 
tributaries in Kentucky which had independently, though on less direct 
evidence, led him to the same conclusions with myself as to the existence 
of an ice dam near Cincinnati. Mr. Squier has kindly furnished me 
in a private letter many additional facts for wliich I gladly give him 
credit. 

In Bath county he found over an extensive region of low table land, 
between Slate Creek and Licking River, and for some distance to the 
north, large numbers of water-worn pebbles, composed of white quartz 
chert, black shale and sands'^oue, and most remarkable of all, fragments of 
water-worn coal. These are spread not only over the low table land and in 
the valleys, but over the lower hills; but do not extend vertically as high 
as the watershed. The pebbles of sandstone and coal must have been 
brought down the streams at least twenty miles, and it is evident that 
they could not have been left upon this table land and these low hills 
by running water. The Cincinnati ice dam supposed would furnish 
the required conditions by making a temporary lake into which floating 
ice from the east could bring and deposit the materials in tlie situations 
indicated. To use Mr. Squier's own words, " The general level of the 
area near the junction of Slate Creek and Licking River is so low that, 
save a few hills, it must have all been overflowed [during the existence of 
such an ice dam] and the great body of floating ice from above must, 

of necessity, have passed directly across it. " So strongly did the above 
facts point to a temporary damming of the river, that even in the face 
of what I regarded as improbable I was led to the conclusion that the 
glacier must have crossed the Ohio." 

In the same number of Science (Sept. 28) Professor Lesley publishes a 
letter in which he speaks of this dam as "furnishing precisely the expla- 
nation we need for the local drift terraces of the Monongahela and the 
rolled northern drift terraces of the lower Allegheny, Beaver, and upper 
Ohio rivers." 



'M% 



wvn 



■'^■fm'' 



t J