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December, 1916 



Extension Bulletin 9 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 

Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 



Gladiolus Studies— I 

Botany, History, and Evolution of the Gladiolus 

Alvin C. Beal 




Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8. 1914 



December, 1916 



Extension Bulletin 9 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 

Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 



Gladiolus Studies— I 
Botany, History, and Evolution of the Gladiolus 



Alvin C. Real 




VORK 
NICAL 



Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act ot Congress of May 8, 1914 



PREFACE 

The American Gladiolus Society was organized at Boston. Massachu- 
setts, on the 27th of Alay, 1910, and the first meeting was held at Roch- 
ester, New York, in August of the same year. Among the objects of the 
society were the following: " to establish a standard nomenclature; to 
test out new varieties and give them the recognition they deserve; and 
to disseminate information relating to this flower." 

Through a cooperative arrangement between the society and Professor 
L. B. Judson, representing the Department of Horticulture at Cornell 
University, the trial grounds of the society were located at Ithaca, New 
York. On the resignation of Professor Judson, who was in charge of the 
trials, the direction of the tests devolved on Professor John Craig, who 
placed George J. Burt in charge of the detail work. Mr. Burt made the 
notes in the field during 191 1, and in the greenhouse in the winter of 
1911-12. Since March, 191 2, A. C. Hottes has had charge of the trials, 
at first under the direction of Professor Craig and later under the super- 
vision of the writer. On October i, 19 13, the Department of Floriciilture 
at Cornell University was organized, and the gladiolus trials were con- 
tinued as a part of the investigative work of the department. 

All the varieties included in these studies have been tested for more 
than one season, and thus a more satisfactory estimate of the merits of 
each variety has been obtained than would otherwise have been possible. 
If the work has seemed prolonged, it is due in part to the unusual and 
unavoidable changes in its supervision, but in larger measure to the 
difficulty encountered in procuring stock of varieties suspected of being 
synonymous with the varieties already known. 

The thanks of the American Gladiolus Societ}^ and of the Department 
of Floriculture at Cornell are due to all who have assisted in the work 
either by the donation of corms or by furnishing information. Those 
connected with the trials are indebted also to the present and the former 
officers of the society for their cooperation and support. 

The present bulletin is intended to trace the development of the gladi- 
olus up to the present time. Succeeding bulletins will treat of its culture 
and of the varieties that have been tested in the Craig gardens of the 
New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University. 

Alvin C. Beal, 
Professor of FloricuUural Investigations, Cornell University. 
Chairman Nomenclature Committee, American Gladiolus 
Society. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Botany of the gladiolus 94 

History of the genus 95 

Evolution of the gladiolus 121 

History of garden species 137 

Hybrid gladioli i44 

History of gladiolus in America 154 

Bibhography of the gladiolus 163 

Botanical works 1 63 

Special works 166 

History and development 1 68 

Color plates and figures 171 

Gladiolus species 171 

Hybrid gladioli 1 7 5 

Horticultural varieties 176 

Index 183 

Species 183 

Groups of varieties 187 

Horticultural types 187 

Growers mentioned 187 




GLADIOLUS GANDAVENSIS 



ADAPTED FROM VAN HOUTTE'S FLORE DES SERRES ET 
DES JARDINS DE L'EUROPE 



GLADIOLUS STUDIES— I 

BOTANY, HISTORY, AND EVOLUTION OF THE 
GLADIOLUS 

Alvix C. Beal 

And the small wild pinks from tender 

Feather-grasses peep at us 
While above them bums on slender 

Stems the red gladiolus. — Lord Lytton. 

Among the summer garden flowers, few, if any, have made more rapid 
progress in popular favor in recent years than the gladiolus. The sho"^y 
character of the tall spikes of flowers, their long period of bloom and com- 
parative ease of culture, render them poptilar garden subjects. Popular 
as they now are, they deserve to be better known until they are found 
in every garden or door\'ard where flowers are grown. 

Although gladiolus blossoms have been sold on some markets for many 
years, it appears that only during the last fifteen years have the merits 
of this plant as a stmimer cut flower come to be known and appreciated 
by florists and the flower-buying public. At the present time, gladioli 
rank among the first of the summer cut flowers for market, their keeping 
qualities rendering them very satisfactory^ for table and other decorations. 

The name gladiolus is variously pronounced and from time to time 
during the last fifty years its pronunciation has occasioned some contro- 
versy in the horticultural press. The word is a Latin diminutive oE gladiiis 
(a sword) and means little sword. If the pronunciation follows the Latin 
rule, according to which derivative endings in oliis have a short penulti- 
mate syllable, the o is short. Furthermore, according to the nile for Latin 
pronunciation, a vowel is regularly short before another vowel, which 
makes the i short. Latin dictionaries give the first vowel in gladiiis and 
gladiolus as short. The word should therefore be marked thus: gladiolus.^ 
The rule for accent is as follows: " Words of more than two syllables 
are accented upon the penult (next to the last) if that is a long syllable, 
other^vise upon the antepenult (second from the last)." - Gladiolus, having 
a short penult syllable, o, would have the accent on the i, or antepenult 
syllable, thus: gla-di'-6-lus. The plural is properly gladioli, although the 
EngHsh sometimes write it gladioluses. 

' Latin pronunciation English pronunciation 

a as in Cuba a as in fat 

1 as in cigar i as in pin 

6 as in obey 6 as in nol 

• Bennett, C. E. A Latin grammar. Revised edition, page 5. 1908. 

93 



94 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



BOTANY OF THE GLADIOLUS 

The gladioli are cormaceous plants belonging to the family Iridaceae, 
which embraces more than thirty genera of ornamental plants in American 
culture, including Crocus, Ixia, Freesia, and Iris. Crocus and Iris are 
distinguished at once from Gladiolus, Ixia, and Freesia by the fact that 
they normally have more than one flower to a spathe. Ixia has equilateral 
stamens and a regular perianth, while in Freesia, Lapeyrousia, and 

Watsonia the style branches 
are bifid and the stamens uni- 
lateral. Botanists have had 
some difficulty in determining 
whether various plants of this 
section of the iris family belong 
to the genus Gladiolus, Lapey- 
rousia, Babiana, or Antholyza. 
Babiana is distinguished by 
its ver}^ hairy, plaited leaves, 
while Antholyza has the tube 
suddenly dilated at the middle 
instead of gradually widening 
as in the genus Gladiolus. 

The corms of the different 
species of Gladiolus vary con- 
siderably in size, shape, and 
color. Usually the body of 
the corm is white, yellowish, 
or red, and it is covered with 
a brown skin. The height of 
the plants varies considerably, 
ranging from a few inches to 
four feet or more. The leaves, 
which contribute so much to 
the beauty of the plant, vary 
in length, breadth, and color, 




Fig. 3. GLADIOLUS SEGETUM 



and also in number, some of the species having only two leaves while others 
have from four to six. The leaves are graceful, often bending backward 
toward their points as if to give greater prominence to the stem which 
arises out of them as they recurve from either side. The flowers form a 
spike on the summit of the stem, in some species arranged on one side of 
the stem only, in others on opposite sides. In the more modern cultivated 
varieties the flowers open so widely as to form a spike of matchless beauty. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



95 



HISTORY OF THE GENUS 

The botanists and herbalists of the sixteenth and early seventeenth 
centuries, dealing only with the plants of Europe, did not give much 
attention to gladioli. Therefore Uttle is found concerning this plant in 
the writings of Cordus, Clusius, the Bauhins, Dodoens, Caesalpinus, and 
Lobelius, and it is not until after 1750 that one finds numerous addi- 
tions to the number of 
gladioli. The history- 
of the plant is as 
follows : 

Gerarde (1597)^ 
mentions the follow- 
ing: 

C. Xarhonensis, French 
com flag. Flowers purple 
and arranged on both sides 
of the stalk. 

G. Italicus, Italian com 
flag. Flowers purple, sim- 
ilar in form to the preced- 
ing but arranged on one 
side of the stalk. A variet\- 
of this has pale-colored 
flowers. 

The other forms 
mentioned — G. Laciis- 
tris, water sword-flag 
(mentioned in second 
edition, page 105), and 
G. palttstris, water 
gladiole — were plants 
belonging to difi'erent 
genera. 

Gerarde sa>'s fur- 
ther: 

These kinds of come 
flags growe in medowes, 
and in eareable grounds among come in many places of Italy, as also in the parts of 
Fraunce bordering thereunto. Neither are the fields of Austria and Moravia without 
them, as Cordus writeth. We have great plentie of them in our London gardens, 
especially for the garnishing and decking them up, with their seemely flowers.* 

The gladiolus flowered from iVIay to the end of June. 

Bradley (1728) describes sLx forms of gladioH: 

G. Narbonensis, French com flag. Flowers reddish purple and arranged on one 
side of the spike. 

' Dates in parenthesis refer to bibliography, page 163. 

* It may be notei that Gerarde, in gi\-ing the various names of this plant, says that " Valerius Cordus 
calleth corne flag Victorialis foemina; others \'irlorialis rotunda: In the Germanic toong, Seigtcurtz." 






Fig. 4. FLOWER of gladiolus SEGETUM 



96 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

G. flore rubenle, Blush corn flag. Resembles the French corn-flag except that it has 
pale red flowers. 

G. flore albo, white corn flag. Similar to the last except that the flowers are white. 

G. purpureiis minor, small purple corn flag. Has smaller leaves, stalk, and flowers 
than the French corn-flag, which it otherwise resembles. The flowers are arranged 
on one side of the spike. 

G. Italicus, Italian corn flag. Flowers a little darker than those of the French corn- 
flag, and arranged on both sides of the spike. 

G. Byzantinus, corn flag of Constantinople. Flowers deeper red in color and larger, 
and with larger roots and leaves, than the French corn flag, and arranged on one side 
of the spike. Blooms after the other species are past. Plant more tender than the 
preceding. 

Breyne (1739b) describes Gladiolus tristem, G. angustem, G. plicatum, 
and G. puniceuni Lam. The last-named is considered a synonym of 
G. villosus Ker. G. angustus was described in Hortus Cliff ortianus under 
the name G. foliis linearibus. 

Linnaeus, in his Hortus Cliff ortianus (1737), describes the following 
species and gives references to the names of these in the writings of other 
botanists: 

1. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, major. Bauh. pin. 41. 

Gladiolus sive Xyphion. Bauh. hist. 2. p. 701. 

Victorialis rotunda. Besl. eyst. 66. f. 2. 

Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, major & procerior, flore purpureo- 

rubente. Tournef. inst. 365, Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 365. 
Gladiolus. Riv. mon. 163. 
Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, major & procerior, flore candicante. 

Tournef. inst. 365. 
Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, minor 8z humilior. Tournef. inst. 365. 
Gladiolus, floribus uno versu dispositis, minor. Tournef. inst. 366. 
Gladiolus carnei coloris. Tournef. inst. 365. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 127. 
Gladiolus utrinque floridus. Bauh. pin. 41. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 126. 
Gladiolus utrinque floriferus. Dod. pempt. 209. 
Gladiolus utrinque floridus, flore rubro. Tournef. inst. 366. 
Gladiolus utrinque floridus, flore albo. Tournef. inst. 366. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 127. 
(Native of Italy and around Monspelium.) 

2. Gladiolus foliis linearibus. Vid. Tab. 

Gladiolus africanus, folio gramineo, floribus carneis, macula rhomboidea purpurea 

inscriptis, uno versu positis. Boerh. lugdb. 2. p. 127. 
(Native of Africa.) 

In Species Planiarum, Linnsus (1753 b) describes the following species: 

communis. I. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus, floribus distantibus. 

Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus. Hort. cliff. 20. Hort. ups. 16. 

Gladiolus caule simplicissimo, foHis ensiformibus. Roy. lugdb. 19. 

Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis. Bauh. pin. 41. 

Habitat in Europa aiistrali. 
imbricatus. 2. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus, floribus imbricatis. 

Habitat in Russia citeriore. 

Flores parvi versus iinum latus imbricati. 
spicatus. [Not at present included in the genus Gladiolus. Is Watsonia spicata.] 

angustus. 4. Gladiolus foliis linearibus, floribus distantibus,- corollarum tubo 
limbis longiore. 

Gladiolus caule simplcissimo, foliis linearibus, floribus altemis. 
Roy. lugdb. 19. 

Gladiolus foliis linearibus. Hort. cliff. 20. *t. 6. 

Habitat in Africa. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 97 

ramosus. [Not at present included in genus Gladiolus. Is Melasphaerida 

graminea.] 
capitatus. [Not at present included in genus Gladiolus. Is Aristea capitata.] 

The second edition (1762) includes in addition to the above: 

alatus. 4. Gladiolus foliis ensiformibus, petalis lateralibus latissimis. Amen, 

acad. 6 afric 2* 

Sisyrinchium \'iperarum. Pluk. phyt. 224. /. 8. 

Habitat ad Cap. b. spei. 
plicattis. (Now included in genus Babiana as B. stricta.] 

tristis. 6. Gladiolus foliis lineari-cruciatis, corollis campanulatis. 

Gladiolus bifolius & biflorus, foliis quadrangulis. Trnu. ehret. t. 39. 

Habitat in .Ethiopia. 



alopecuroides. [Now known as Watsonia plantnginea.] 

In the I^ncyclopedie Botanique (Lamarck, 1786) twenty-six species are 
described, but in addition to the species of Linnaeus only the following are 
now recognized: G. biniacidatus [=involutus\\ G. ptmiceus [=viUosus(})]; 
G. luteus Lam.; G. montainis Linn; and 6". recurvus. The other species are 
now included in Babiana, Ixia. Lapeyrousia. Melasphaeruia, and Watsonia. 

John Bellenden Gawler (who later changed his name to Ker, also given 
in the bibliography) was the most prominent investigator working on 
the order Iridaceae during the first thirty or forty years of the nineteenth 
century. He pubHshed (Gawler, 1805) a complete synopsis of all the 
twenty-six genera, with a list of the two hundred and twentv-five species 
then known. In this paper many genera now recognized were for the 
first time named and fully characterized. Among these are Anomatheca, 
Aristea, Babiana, Geissorhiza, Hesperantha, Marica, Alelasphaerula. 
JVIorphixia, Pardanthus, Sparaxis, and Tritonia. The following list of 
species of Gladiolus is given :^ 

Cunonia (Antholyza) B. M. t. 343. 
Watsonius, B. M. t. 450. 

Quadrangularis, B. ^I. t. 567 [Baker places this in Antholyza]. 
Namaquensis, B. M. t. 592 [Baker gives this as a variety of G. alatus]. 
Alatus, B. M. t. 586. 

Viridis, Hort. Kew. 3 p. 481 [Ker later places this in Tritonia]. 
Viperatus, B. M. t. 688 [Baker gives this as a synonym of G. orchidiflorus Andr.]. 
Permeabilis, De la Roche Diss. 27. 

Versicolor, B. M. t. 556 [Baker places this under G. grandis Thunb.]. 
Tristis, B. AI. t. 272. 
Hyalinus, Jacq. Ic. var. 2. t. 242. 
Tenellus, Jacq. Ic. var. 2. t. 248. coll. 4. t. 3. f. i. 
Setifolius, Thunb. Diss, de Glad. 18. 
Gracilis, B. M. t. 562. 

Carinatus, B. M. t. 578 [Baker places this under G. recurvus Linn.]. 
Hirsutus [B. M. plates cited are not figures of this species]. 

Flexuosus, Thunb. Diss, de Glad. t. i. f. i [Baker places this species in the genus 
Acidanthera]. 



^ Citations to plates that were not later confirmed by Baker have been omitted, so that persons 
desiring to look up the species of Gladiolus known one hundred years ago may do so without error. The 
comments in brackets after some of the species, e.xcept in the first case, were added by the writer from 
an examination of later works on the subject. 



g8 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Carneus, B. M. t. 591 [Baker regards this as a synonym of var. ventricosus Lam. 

of G. ctispidatus Jacq.]. 
Cuspidatus, B. M. t. 582. 
Blandus, B. M. t. 625, 645, 648. 
Angustus, B. M. t. 602. 
Undulatus, B. M. t. 647. 
Floribundus, B. M. t. 610. 
Milleri, B. M. t. 632. 
Cardinalis, B. M. t. 135. 

Bvzantinus, B. M. tab. nondum evulgata (347). 
Communis, B. M. t. 86. 
Segetum, B. M. t. 719. 

For many years Ker added to the knowledge of Iridaceae through his 
contributions to Curtis s Boianical Magazine. Later he joined Sydenham 
Edwards in establishing the Botanical Register. He pubHshed separately 
at Brussels in 1827 a paper entitled Genera Iridearmn, in which he gives 
a synoptic list of a little over three hundred species classified in thirty 
genera. Under Gladiolus he recognizes the following in addition to those 
named above: speciosus Thunb.; merianellus Thunb.; villosus Ker; aphyllus 
Ker; brevijolius Jacq.; laevis Thunb.; Breynianus Ker; suaveolens Ker; 
elongatus Thunb.; trichonemifolius Ker; inflatus Thunb.; recurvtis Linn.; 
trimaculatus Lam.; vomerculus Ker; involutus De la Roche; edulis Ker; 
imhricatus Linn.; lutens Lam. Altogether he gives a synoptic list of 
forty-six species of Gladiolus, with a list of eight additional names of 
species doubtfully placed. With the publication of this paper the labors 
of this botanist on the order appear to have ceased. 

After the death of Dean Herbert in 1847 there was no recognized 
authority on the Iridaceae for about thirty years. Dr. F. W. Klatt, 
of Hamburg, between 1863 and 1895 pubhshed several papers which 
collectively give a fairly good synopsis of the order. 

In 1878 John Gilbert Baker pubhshed his Systema Iridacearum in the 
Journal of the Linnean Society, in which he classified about seven hundred 
species in sixty-five genera. His Handbook of the Iridece appeared in 1892, 
and in this are fully described nine hundred and tw^enty-six species 
belonging to fifty-seven genera. The following generic description and 
Hst of subgenera of Gladiolus are taken from the latter work. No key 
is given to the one hundred and thirty-two species described, but the 
number of species included under each subgenus is given. 

Gladiolus Linn. 
Perianth-tuhe usually funnel-shaped; segments of the limb more or less unequal 
in shape and direction, oblong, spathulate or unguiculate, the upper of the outer row 
generally the largest. Stamens inserted at the throat of the perianth-tube, contiguous 
and arching; filaments short, free; anthers linear, basifixed. Ovary 3-celled; ovules 
many, superposed; style long, arcuate; stigmas cuneate, entire. Capsule oblong, loculi- 
cidally 3-celled. Seeds globose or discoid, sometimes distinctly winged. — Rootstock 
a tunicated corm. Produced leaves distichous, superposed on the stem, generally linear 
or ensiform. hiflorescence snicate; flowers i to a spathe, sessile; spathe-valves linear 
or lanceolate. Flowers very various in size and colour. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



99 



Subgenus Eugladiolus. — Perianth-tube funnel-shaped; segments not distinctly 
unguiculate. 

Species of Europe and Western Asia. 

Seeds flat, winged Sp. 1-5. 

Seeds globose Sp. 6-8. 

Seeds unknown Sp. 9-15. 

Species of the Cape and Tropical Africa. 
Leaves subterete or linear. 

Perianth-segments acute Sp. 16-31. 

Perianth-segments obtuse Sp. 32-72. 

Leaves ensiform Sp. 73-109. 

Subgenus H. Hebea. — Perianth-tube short; segments distinctly tmguiculate. 
Spathes large Sp. 110-124. 

Subgenus IIL Schwhiggera. — Flowers small; segments distinctly unguiculate. 
Spathes small Sp. 123-126. 

Subgenus IV. Homoglossum. — Perianth-tube like that of a Watsonia; segments 
subequal Sp. 127-132. 

The following key to eighty-one of the Cape species appears in Flora 
Capensis (Baker, 1896-97). The European, Asiatic, and central African 
species are of course not included. 

Subgenus L Eugladiolus. Spathe-valves large, green, 
lanceolate; perianth-segments not distinctly unguiculate. 

A. Leaves terete or linear: 

Perianth-segments acute: 
Perianth-tube 1 5-2 in. long: 
Leaves subterete: 

Perianth-segments long and gradually pointed . (i) grandis. 
Perianth-segments shortly pointed: 

Perianth pale or slightly flushed with dark 

lilac (2) tristis. 

Perianth dark lilac (3) recur\-us. 

Leaves linear: 

Segments with a short cusp (4) angustus. 

Segments with a long cusp (5) cuspidatus. 

Perianth-tube about an inch long: 
Leaves subterete: 
Flowers horizontal: 

Flowers pink (6) hastatus. 

Flowers blue-lilac (7) gracilis. 

Flowers yellowish (8) tenellus. 

Flowers suberect (9) trichonemifolius. 

Leaves linear: 

Flowers lilac (10) vomerculus. 

Flowers yellowish (l l) strictus. 

Whole flower not above an inch long: 

Leaf with scarcely any free point (12) pubescens. 

Leaf slender, subterete (13) Lambda. 

Leaf linear, long (14) rachidiflorus. 

Perianth-segments obtuse or obscurely cuspidate: 
'■ Stem-leaves with only verv' short, free points: 
Sheaths glabrous: 

Flowers pink or lilac: 

Perianth-tube half as long as the segments. . (15) microphyllus. 

Perianth-tube as long as the segments (16) bre\nfolius. 

Perianth-tube longer than the segments (17) tabularis. 

Flower-segments white with a red keel (18) inandensis 

Sheaths pilose (19) Woodii. 



loo Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Stem-leaves with long, free points: 
Leaves subulate or very narrow: 
Flowers erect or suberect: 

Segments shorter than the tube (20) tenuis. 

Segments equalling the tube (21) debilis. 

Segments rather longer than the tube (22) Bolusii. 

Segments 2-3 times the length of the tube: 

Flowers bright lilac (23) biflorus. 

Flowers pale yellow (24) erectiflorus. 

Flowers horizontal with a curved tube: 
Flowers 1-4 in a spike: 

Upper segments 3-5 in. broad: 

Flowers white (25) cochleatus. 

Flowers bright red (26) Rogersii. 

Flowers pink (27) Pappei. 

Upper segments |-f in. liroad: 

Corm-tunics of fine fibres (28) inflatus. 

Corm-tunics of wiry strands (29) spathaceus. 

Flowers many in a spike (30) involutus. 

Leaves linear: 

Leaf -sheaths glabrous: 

Perianth-tube i§ in. long (31) hyalinus. 

Perianth-tube i in. long (32) vittatus. 

Perianth-tube f in. long (33) striatus. 

Perianth tube 5-5 in. long: 

Segments half as long as the tube (34) paludosus. 

Segments twice the length of the tube: 

Produced leaves 2 (35) niveni. 

Produced leaves 3-4: 

Stamens half as long as limb (36) punctatus. 

Stamens as long as the lower segments (37) iDrachyscyphus. 
Leaf-sheaths hairv' (38) villosus. 

B. Leaves ensiform. 

Parviflori. Perianth-tube under an inch long. 
Spikes equilateral; flowers very numerous: 
Flowers red: 

Perianth-tube \ in. long (39) crassifolius. 

Perianth-tube f in. long (40) Elliotii. 

Flowers yellow: 

Stem pubescent (41 ) Ludwigii. 

Stem villose. . (42) sericeo- villosus. 

Spikes secund; flowers fewer: 

Flowers yellow (43) ochroleucus 

Flowers red: 

Upper segments | in. broad: 

Perianth-tube | in. long (44) Kirkii. 

Perianth-tube | in. long (45) Eckloni. 

Upper segments f in. broad; two inner lower with a 
large dark blotch: 

Flowers yellow (46) purpureo-auratus. 

Flowers purple: 

Outer spathe-valve i-i^ in. long (47) PapiHo. 

Outer spathe-valve I5-2 in. long (48) Rehmanni. 

Blandi. Perianth-tube 1-2 in. long ; flowers white or pale red. 
Segments obovate, obscurely pointed: 
Sheaths and leaves hairy: 

Segments as long as the tube (49) hirsutus. 

Segments shorter than the tube (50) salmoneus. 

Sheaths and leaves glabrous: 

Perianth-tube i-i j in. long (51) scaphochlamys. 

Perianth-tube i J-2 in. long (52) fioribundus. 



Gladiolus Studies — I loi 

Segments oblong, distinctly pointed: 
Perianth-tube curved: 

Segments 5-I in. broad (53) oppositiflorus. 

Segments ^i in. broad (54) blandus. 

Perianth-tube nearly straight : 

Segments nearly concolorous (55) Milleri. 

Segments with a bright red central band (56) undulatus. 

Cardinales. Flowers large, bright red, with a nearly 
straight tube, and upper segments not distinctly hooded. 

Segments subequal, shorter than the tube. ., (57) Macowani. 

Upper segments as long as the tube (58) Adlami. 

Segments unequal, longer than the tube: 

Upper segments |-i in. broad (59) cardinalis. 

Upper segments obovate, 1-I5 in. broad: 

Lower bracts 1 5—2 in. long (60) splendens. 

Lower bracts 3-6 in. long (61) cruentus. 

Dracocephali. Flowers large, with a much-curved tube 

and upper segments hooded. 
Flowers dull-coloured: 

Leaves f-i in. broad (62) dracocephalus. 

Leaves 1-2 in. broad (63) platyphyllus. 

Flowers bright red: 

Limb shorter than the tube (44.) psittacinus. 

Limb as long as the tube: 

Perianth 2-3 in. long (65) Leichtlinii. 

Perianth 4 in. long (66) Tysoni. 

Limb longer than the tube (67) Saundersii. 

Flowers bright yellow (68) aurantiacus. 

Subgenus IL Hebea. Spathe-valves large, green, ob- 
long-lanceolate. Perianth-segments all with a narrow claw. 
Side-segments about 5 in. broad: 
Flowers red: 

Leaves with many close equal ribs (69) alatus. 

Leaves with only a thickened midrib and edge (70) spathulatus. 

Flowers greenish -yellow (71) orchidiflorus. 

Side-segments about \ in. broad: 

Flowers dull reddish (72) pulchellus. 

Flowers yello\\ish (73) bicolor. 

Side-segments about \ in. broad: 

Stems stout ; flowers few to a spike ... (74) arcuatus. 

Stems slender; flowers many to a spike: 
Segments cuspidate: 

Upper segments i-ij in. long (75) formosus. 

Upper segments j— i in. long: 

Tunics of fine parallel fibres (76) edulis. 

Tunics lacerated from the base (77) Scullyi. 

Segments not cuspidate: 

Claw of upper segments very narrow (78) Dregei. 

Claw of upper segments not ver}- narrow (79) permeabilis. 

Subgenus IIL Schweigger.v. Spathe-valves small, 
brown, rigid. Segments aU with a distinct slender claw and 
small blade. 

Perianth-limb h-\ in. long. (80) arenarius. 

Perianth-limb i in. long (81) montanus. 

Of the Cape species included in the foregoing key, Gladiolus erectiflorus, 
G. inflatiis, and G. platyphyllus are new species and were not described 
in Baker's Handbook of the Irideco. 

Many species from other parts of the world are described in the last- 
named work. The fifteen European and Asiatic species are named on 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



pages 199 to 202. The following are from troiD-ical Africa: andongensis 
Welw. ex Baker; angolensis Welw. ex Baker; atropurpureus Baker; 
benguellensis Baker; brachyandrus Baker; hrevicaulis Baker; Buchanani 
Baker; BneUneri Pax; coerulescens Baker; corneus Oliv. ; decoratus Baker; 
Grantii Baker; gregarius Welw.; Hanningtoni Baker; kilimandscharicus 

Pax ; laxifloru s Baker; 
liiridtis Welw.; Melleri 
Baker; micranihus Baker; 
multiflorus Baker; newii 
Baker; Oatesii Rolfe; 
paucifiorus Baker; prim- 
uliniis Baker; Quartini- 
anus A. Rich.; splendens 
Baker; sulphur eus Baker; 
TJiomsoni Baker; ungui- 
culatiis Baker; Welwitschii 
Baker; zamhcsiacus^aker. 
From central Madagascar 
are reported G. Garnieri 
Klatt and G. luteus Lam. 
Further study has resulted 
in the discovery that G. 
andongensis Welw. ex 
Baker, G. angolensis Welw. 
ex Baker, G. kilimand- 
scharicus Pax, G. newii 
Baker, G. primulinus 
Baker, and G. Welwitschii 
Baker, are really syn- 
onyms of G. Quartinianus 
A. Rich. 

Since the publication of 
the Handbook of the Iridece 
and the Flora Capensis, 
a niimber of species of 
Gladiolus from tropical 
Africa and elsewhere have been described. Some of these have been 
published by Mr. Baker and are therefore new species. Others have 
been described by persons who have not made any monographic studies 
on the genus. It is not improbable that some of them are forms of the 
apparently very variable G. Quartinianus A. Rich or of other known 
species. A few new specific names have appeared among the European 




Fig. 5. GLADIOiA'S LEICHTLIKII BAKER 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



species, but it is not probable that the supposed new species of Jordan 
are more than varietal forms of species already known. 

The following is a complete Hst of the supposed new species from 
Europe and Africa: 



affinis De Wild. 
antiinesii Baker, 1897 
aphanophyUus Baker, 1898 
Arnoldianns De Wild. 
arvaticus Jord. 
atrorubens Brown, 191 4 
Bakeri Klatt, 1893 
Baumi Harms 
bellus Wright, 1906 
brachylimhus Baker 
brevispathus Klatt, 1893 
calothyrsus Vaupel, 1912 
carmineiis Wright, 1906 
Carsoni Baker, 1895 
caiidatus Baker, 1895 
Conrathi Baker 
cyclocarpus Jord. 
cymbarinus Baker 
decipiens Vaupel, 1912 
densiflonis Baker 
elegans Vaupel, 1912 

Elloni Baker, 1890 
Flanagani Baker 
flexuosus Baker, 1894 
jusco-viridis Baker 

gallacensis Vaupel, 1912 

garuanus Vaupel, 1912 

Gawleri Jord. 

gazensis Rendle 

germanicus Jord. 

glauciis Heldr., 1896 

Goetzei Harms, 1900 

gracilUmus Baker, 1895 

Hanru Jord. 

Harmsianus Vaupel, 1912 

heterolobus Vaupel, 1912 

inconspicuus Baker 

Johnsioni Baker, 1897 

junodi Baker 

karendensis Baker 

hubangensis Harms 

Lannesii Jord. 

linearijoliiis Vaupel, 1912 

littoralis Jord. 

longanus Harms 

Mackinderi Hook. 



macrophlebius Baker, 1898 
malangensis Baker 
Masoniorum Wright, 1910 
massoni Klatt, 1893 
masukiiensis Baker, 1897 
micranthus Baker 
microsiphon Baker 
minis Vaupel, 191 2 
morrumbalaensis De Wild. 
mosambicensis Baker 
Miinzneri Vaupel, 191 2 
numidicus Jord. 
nyikensis Baker, 1897 
oliganthus Baker, 1898 
oligophhbius Baker 
oreocharis Schltr., 1896 
paUidiis Baker, 1898 
platyphyUus Baker, 1893 
porrigeus Jord. 
pretorius Kuntze 
prismatosiphon Schltr., 1899 
puberiilus Vaupel, 191 2 
pnbescens Pax 
punctatus Dam., 1889 
quilimafiensis Baker, 1898 
reductus Baker 
remorifoliiis Baker 
rigescens Jord. 
rigidif alius Baker 
rupicola Vaupel, 191 2 
ruricola Jord. 
Schlechteri Baker 
spectabilis Baker 
Staiidtii Vaupel, 19 12 
stenophyllus Baker, 1897 
subaphyllus Brown, 1909 
subiilatus Baker, 1898 
Taubertianus Schltr., 1899 
trichostachys Baker 
tritoniaeformis Kuntze 
tritonoides Baker, 1895 
uhehensis Harms, 1900 
venidosus Baker, 1897 
Verdickii De Wild. 
vexiUare I\Iartelli 
Whytei Baker, 1897 



The reader is reminded that plants of these species, as well as of the 
majority of the species that have been known longer, are not offered by 
dealers in plants — are not procurable even from botanical gardens; 
and that the specimens of these species are to be found in European 
herbaria which the writer has not had the opportunity to examine. The 
writer, therefore, cannot vouch for the authenticity of any of these 



I04 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

names as distinct species, nor can a complete key be made of all the spe- 
cies. It is desired, however, to call attention to the present status of 
the subject, and it is hoped that some person favorably located may carry 
forward the work so ably begun by Mr. Baker and Dr. Klatt. 

The following list of synonyms is as complete as present knowledge of 
the genus will admit : 

affinis Pers.= cuspidatiis Jacq. 
alatus Jacq.= orchidiflorus 
alhidus Jacq.= a variety of blandiis 
aleppicus Boiss.= atroviolaceus 
algoensis Sweet = alatus Linn. 
alpigenus C. Koch, 1848 ^ illyricus 
ambigims Roem. & Schult.= hirsntiis 
andongensis Welw. ex Baker = Qiiartinianus 
Andrewsii Klatt = brevifoliiis Jacq. 
angolensis Welw. ex 'Qaker ^=Quartmianus 
angustifolius Salisb.= angustus Linn. 
angiistus Herb. Linn.= blandus, undulatus 
angustus Jacq. ex. Thunb.= hastatus 
angustus Thunb.= undulatus 
aphyllus Ker-Gawl., 1827 = brevifolius 

biflorus Roem. & Schult.^ hirsutus 
bimaculatus Lam.= involutus De la Roche 
binervis Sweet = grandis 
Borneti Ardoino = segetum 
Boucheanus Schlecht. , 1 832 = palustris 
brevicollis Klatt = brevifolius Jacq. 
BreynianusK.er-Ga\v\., \'&2T = recurvus 
hyzantiuus ^10^.^= segetum 
b'yzantinus Coss ex. Ball, 1878 = illyricus 

calvatus Baker = a variety of Ludwigii 

campanulatus Andr.^ var. carneus of G. btaudus 

carinatus (Soland.) Ait.= recurvus 

carneus Andr.^ brevifolius 

carneus De la Roche = var. carneus of G. blandus 

carneus Herb. Banks = hirsutus 

carneus Jacq.^ var. ventricosus of G. cuspidatus 

carneus Klatt = Eckloni 

caucasicus Herb., 1842 = segetum 

citrinus Klatt = trichonemifolius 

cochleatus Baker, 1876 = unguiculatus 

collinus Salisb.= communis 

communis Cav.^ illyricus 

communis Linn, in part = segetum 

communis Thunb.= carneus 

communis Vahl. in part^ byzantinus 

commutatis Bouche = segetum 

concolor Salisb.^ var. concolor of G. tristiis 

Cooperi Baker = var. Cooperi of G. psittacinus 

cordatus Thunb.^ angustus 

crispiflorus Herb., 1842 = imbricatus 

cuspidatus Andr.^ var. ventricosus of G. cuspidatus 

dalmaticus Tausch = segetum 

dichotomus Thunb.= permeabilis De la Roche 

dubius Guss.^ illyricus 

dubius Parl.= spathaceus 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



elatus Balb.^ byzantinus 

elongatus Thunb.= gratidis 

ensif alius Baker = ctispidatus Jacq. 

equitans Thunb.^ var. namaqiiensis of G. alatus 

excelstis Ker-Gawl.= blandus 

fasciatus Roem. & Schult.= vittatus 

festivus Herb., 1844 = hrevifolius 

flabellifer Tausch, 1836 = oppositiflorus 

floribundiis Hort. Batav. ex. Tausch = oppositiflorus 

formosus Pers.= striatiis 

galeatus Bum.= alatus 

galiciensis Bess.= imbricatus 

GaiL'leri Klatt = a variety of Watsonius Thunb. 

gracilis Licht.= scaber 

grandiflorus Andr.^ floribundus 

Gueinzii Hunze, 1847 ^ blandus 

Guepini Koch, 1840 = segetum 

hastatus Ker = vomerculus Ker 

hirsutus Ker = i^llosus 

hirtus Steud.= hirsutus 

hygrophUus Boiss. ex. Baker, i8~j =^ imbricatus 

inarimensis Guss.= segetum 
infest us Bianca = segetum 
italicus Miller = communis 

kilimandscharicus Pax = Quartinianus 

laccatus Thunb.= villosus 

laei'is Thunh.= grandis 

Lamarckii Roem. & Schult.^ vilhsus 

Lemonia Pourr. ex Steud.= blandus 

leucanthus Bouche = i^gf/i^m 

libanoticus Boiss. = a variety of imbricatus 

liliaceus Houtt.= angustus, gracilis, etc. 

Ludoviciae Jan.= segetum 

luridus Homem.= trichonemifolius 

luteus Klatt in part = bicolor 

Macowaniensis Klatt, 1885 = angustus 

maculatus Sweet ^ recun'us Linn. 

Marchallii Poir.= imbricatus 

monostachyus Roem. & Schult.= hastatus, etc. 

Mortonianus Stend.^ blundus 

Mortonius Herb.^ blandus 

mucronaius Lam.= hirsutus 

namaquensis Ker-Gaw^= var. namaquensis of G. alatus 

narbonensis Bub.^ illyricus 

natalensis Reinw.= psittacinus 

neglectus Schult = palusiris 

neu'ii Baker ^ Quartinianus 

notarisii Parl.= communis 

odor us Salisb.= recurvus 
oppositifolius Hort., 1893 = oppositiflorus 
orchidiflorus Pers. non Ar\dT.= arenarius 
ornatus Klatt, 1885 = inflatus 
orobranche Red. Lil.= brevif alius Jacq. 



^°^ Cornell Extension Bulleti> 



N 9 



papthonacens Lichtst.= alatus Linn 
pamiflonis Jacq.= montanns Linn. 
pauciflorus Berdaw = imbricatus 
petraeus Boiss.= atroviolaceus 
pictus Sweet = blandus 
pilosiis Eckl.= villosus 
pratensis Dietr.= paliistris 
primulinus Baker, 1890 = Qiiartinianus 
pterophyllns Pers.= gracilis Jacq. 
pimctatiis Jacq.= recurvus Linn. 
punctulatus Schrank, 1822 = villosus (?) 
puniceus Lam.= villosus Ker 

Raddeanus Trantv., 1875 = imbricatus 
ramosus Baker = a variety of montanus Linn 
Keuteri Boiss.= var. Reuteri of G. illyricus 
rmgens Andr.^ recurvus 
ringens var. midulatus Andr.= niveni Baker 
rtngens Eck].= inflatus 
roseus Andr.= hirsutns 
rossicus Pers.= imbricatus 
rubromarginatus Schrad.= hirsutus 

sagittifer vSalisb.= blandus {?) 

saltatorum Baker, 1S75 = Quartiniunus 

schimpcnanus Steud. ex Baker, 1S77 = Quartinianus 

segetahs St. Lag.= segetum 

serotinus Welw.= var. Reuteri of G. illyricus 

serotinus Willd.= illyricus 

setifolius Eckl.= gracilis 

spathaceus Parl.= segetum 

speciosus Eckl.= cardinalis 

speciosus Thunb.= alatus 

spilanthus Klatt in part = brevifoHus Jacq 

spilanthus Klatt in part = hastatus Thunb 

spijanthus Spreng. ex Baker, 1877 = gracilis 

spiralis Pers.= tristis 

splendens Welw. ex Baker = Quartinianus 

stnatus Andr.= undulatus 

strictus Jacq.= liyalittus 

suaveolens Ker. = recurvus 

subbiflorus Boiss.= imbricatus 

sulcatus Lam.= mollis 

tabularis Pers.= montanus Linn. 

Taylorianus Rendle = Quartinianus 

telifer Stokes = angustus 

Templemanii Klatt, 1885 = bicolor Baker 

tenmflorus C. Koch, 1848 ^ illyricus 

tenuis Bieb.= imbricatus 

tenuis Salzm.= palustris 

Thunbergii Eckl.= hastatus 

tigrinus Eckl. ex Baker, 1877 = vomerculus Ker 

trtmaculatus Lam.= angustus 

triphyllus Bertol.^ palustris 

tristis Herb. Linn, ex Baker, 1877 = grandis 

tristis Thunb.= tenellus 

undulatus Linn, in part = cuspidatus Jacq. 
undulatus Scheev.= vittatus 
uniflorus Klatt, 1882 = alatus 



Gladiolus Studies — I 107 

ventricosus Lam.= var. ventricosus of G. cuspidatus 

lersicolor Andr.= grandis 

villosiusculus Soland. ex Baker = villosus 

vintiliis KlatX, iSS^ = vittatus 

violaceus Pers.= recurvus 

viperatiis Ker-Gawl.= orckidiflorus 

virescens Thunb.= orckidiflorus 

vittatus Zuccag.= undidatus Jacq. 

Welwitschii Baker, iSj8 ^ Quartinianus 

The foUow-ing species have been described as gladioli, but belong to other 
genera : 

abbrevialiis Andr.= Antholyza quadrangularis 
aequinoctialis Herb., 1842 = Acidanthera aequinoctiaiis 
aletroides Vahl.= Wat son ia aletroides 
alopecuroides Linn.= Watsonia plantaginea 
alopectiroides Linn.^ Watsonia spicala 
amabilis Salisb.^ Lapeyrousia juncea 
amoentis Roem. & Schult.= Tritonia rosea 
amoentis Salisb.= Watsonia meriana 
anceps Linn, in part = Lapeyrousia compressa 
anceps Linn. ex. Baker, 1877 ^= Lapeyrousia Fabricii 
angustifolius Lam.= Babiana tubiflora 
antholyza Vorr.= Antholyza nervosa 

hicolor Thunb.= Synnotia hicolor 
biflorus Thunb.= Salemoneus biflorus 
bracteatus Thvinb.= Lapeyrousia fissifolia 
bracteolatus Lam.= Watsonia punctata 
Burmanni Schrank, 1S22 = Ixia Burmanni 

capitatus Linn.^ .4 r/5/^a capiiata 
caryophyllaceus Poir.= Watsonia huntilis 
caryophylleus Houtt.= Watsonia brevi folia 
coccineus Schrank, 1822 = Ixia speciosa 
crisptis hmn.=^Tritonia crispa 
crocatus Pers.= Tritonia crocata 
runonia GaeTt.= Anthoiysa cunonia 

denticulatus Lam.= Lapeyrousia Fabricii 
distichus Roem. & Schult.= Babiana distichia 

elongatus Salisb.= Babiana tubiflora 
excisus Jacq.= Lapeyrousia juncea 
exscapus Thunb.= Acidanthera tubulosa 

Fabricii Thunb.= Lapeyrousia Fabricii 
falcatus Lirm.= Lapeyrousia Fabricii 
fi,ssif alius Jacq.= La peyrousia flssifolia 
fistulosus Jacq.= Watsonia spicata 
flavus Soland.= Tritonia flava 
flexuosus Linn.= Acidanthera tubulosa 
flexuosus Thiinb.= Acidanthera flexuosa 
fragrans Jacq.= Babiana pHcata 

galeatus Jacq.= Synnotia galatea 

Garnierii Klatt (in Decken, Reis. Bot. 3:73) = Antholyza Watsonicndes 

glnmaceus Thunb.= Watsonia rosea 

gramineus Linn.^ Melasphaerula graminea 



io8 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

inclinaliis Red. Lil.= Bahiana tiibiflora 
indiciis Miller = Ferraria undulata 
infundibuliformis Schrank, 1822 = Watsonia meriana 
iridifolins Jacq.= Watsonia meriana 
ixioides Thunb.= Tritonia paniculala 

jimceus Burm.= Lapeyrousia juncea 

laccaius Jacq.= Watsonia humilis 

laceratus Burm.^ Tritonia crispa 

latijolius Lam.^ Bahiana obtusifolia 

laxus Thunb.^ Meristosligma laxa 

lineatus Salisb.= Tritonia lineata 

lomenia J. F. Gme\.^ Lomenia borbonica 

longicollis Baker, 1876^ Acidanihera plaiyphylla 

longiflorus Andr.= Babiana tuhata 

longiflorus Herb. Linn, ex Baker, 1H77 = Acidanthera tubulosa 

longiflorus Jacq.= Tritonia pallida 

longiflorus Linn. Suppl.= Ixia paniculata 

lucidor Baker = Homoglossum lucidor Baker 

marginatus Linn.= Watsonia marginata 
marmoratus Lam.= Lapeyrousia juncea 
nierianellus i:h.mih.=^ Antholyza merianella 
merianus Thunh. =^ Antholyza aletroides 
minor Baker =^ Antholyza Watsonioides 
minutiflorus vSchrank, 1822 = Watsojim plantaginea 
mucronatus Jacq.= Babiana mucronata 
mucronatus Red. Lil.= Babiana stricta 

nanus Andr.^ Babiana rosea 

nervosus Baker = A ntholyza nervosa Thunb. 

nervosus Lam.= Babiana stricta 

odorus Schrank = Ixia Jragrans 

paniculatus Pers.= Lapeyrousia juncea 

papiliotiaceus Vahl.= Watsonia Laniarckii 

pectinatus Soland. ex Baker, 1877 = Tritonia crispa 

plantagineiis Pers.= Watsonia plantaginea 

plicatus Jacq.^ Babiana distichia 

plicatus Linn.= Babiana stricta 

plicatus Thunb.= Babiana plicata 

polystachyus Andr.= Lapeyrousia juncea 

polystachyus Thunb.= Babiana plicata 

Pottsli McNab = Tritonia Pottsii 

praecox Andr.^ Antholyza revoluta 

punctatus Roem. & Schult.= Watsonia punctata 

puniceus Vahl.= Babiana stricta 

purpureus Vahl.= Babiana villosa 

pygameus Roem. & Schult.= Babiana sulphurea 

pyramidalis Andr.= Watso?iia rosea 

pyramidalis Lam.= Watsonia iridiflora 

quadrangular is K<ir-Gvi\\\.= Antholyza quadrangularis 

ramosus Linn.= Melasphaerula graminea 
ramosus Murr.= Moraea ramosa 
recurvus H(mtt.= A ntkolyza revoluta 
recurvus Thunb. == Hesperantha radiata 
reflexus Lichtst.= Babiana plicata 
refractus Jacq.^= Freesia refracta 



Gladiolus Studies — I log 

resubspinatus Pers.= Freesia refracta 
ringens Thnnb.= Babiana coronata 
roseo-albiis Jacq.= Watsonia inerianus 
roseus Jacq.= Tritania rosea 
roseus Willd.== Ixia amoena 
rubens VaH.== Watsonia punctata 
rubrocyanus Vahl.= Babiana striata 

secundus Thunb.= Babiana secunda 

securiger Soland.= Tritonia securiger 

setifoltus Linn.= Lapeyrousia juncea 

silenoides Jacq.= Lapeyrousia silenoides 

sparmanni Thunb.= Freesia refracta 

spatheceus Lirm.^ Babiana spathatea 

spicatus Lam.= Watsonia Lamarckii 

spicatus Linn.^ Watsonia spicata 

splendens Herb., 1843 = Antholyca cajTra 

Sprengelianus Schult.^ Watsonia siricta 

stenophyllus Schrank. 1822 ^Babiana plicata 

stolonijerous Sahih.^ Antholyza aethiopica 

striatus Herb. Banks = Watsonia rosea 

striatus Soland. ex Baker. 1876= Tritonia Baheri 

strictiflorus Delile = Watsonia humilis 

strictus Soland.= Babiana stricta 

subulatus Vahl.^ Watsonia punctata 

sulphureus ]aix{.^^ Babiana stricta 

testaceus Vahl.^ Watsonia brevifolia 
Thunbergii F. G. Y^iet.= Acidanthera tubulosa 
triticeus Thtmb.^ Watsonia plantaginea 
tubatus Jacq.= Babiana tubata 
tubiflorus Linn.= Babiana tubiflora 
tubulosus Burm.^ Watsonia spicata 
tubulosus Jacq.= Watsonia aletroides 

venosus Willd.= Tritonia lineata 

villostUus Roem. & Schult.= Babiana stricta 

viilosus Burm.^ Synnotia bicolor 

villosus \'ahl.^ Babiana stricta 

viridis Alton = Tritonia viridis 

Watsonioides BakeT = Aniholyza Watson ioides 
Watsonius Thunh.= Antholysa revoluta 

xanthospilus Red. Lil.^ FreesHi refracta 

Brief descriptions of some species of Gladiolus are given in the following 
table : 



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Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



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Gladiolus Studies — I 117 

The following described species are those concerned in the development 
of the cultivated gladiolus. The majority of them, if not all. are still 
offered in the catalogs of European dealers. Except as otherwise noted, 
the descriptions are horn. Flora Capensis (Baker. 1896-97). 

G. alatus (Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2,53"); corm small, globose: tunics biown. mem- 
branous; basal leaves 3-4. linear, rigid in texture, the lowest the longest, i-i ft. long. 
|— i in. broad, closely and strongly ribbed: stem ^i ft. long including the inflorescence: 
spiice usually simple, few-flowered, ver\- lax, with a very flexuose axis; spathe- valves 
broad, green, oblong-na\-icular. the outer i-ij in. long; perianth pink; tut^ h in. long, 
funnel-shaped at the top: upper segment cuctillate, obovate, ctmeate, with a short 
claw, li— 1| in. long, 5— f in. broad; side ones shorter, suborbicular, not unguiculate; 
3 lower deflexed, with a small obovate blade and a long distinct claw; stamens reaching 
nearly to the tip of the upper segments: anthers lanceolate. 5 in. long. Thunb. Diss. 
Sc. 15, ex parte; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 8; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 5S6; Gen. Irid. 132: Baker, 
Handb. Irid. 221,. G. speciostis, Thunb. Fl. Cap. i. 196. G. papilionaceus, Lichten. in 
Roem. et Sckull. Sysi. T>?. i. 408. Hebea galeata, Eckl. Top. Verz. 41. 

Var. p, G. namaquensis (Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 592) ; more robust, with lanceolate leaves 
sometimes ij-2 in. Vroad. 9-10 flowers, and upper perianth-se^jments an inch broad. 
Ker, Gen. Irid. 132. G. equitans, Thunb. Ft. Cap. 192. G. gaUaius, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 122. 

G. atroviolaceus Boiss. Diagn. xiii. 14. [Description from Baker, 1892.] G. aleppicus 
and petraus Boiss. — -Corm ovoid, \-\ in. diam.; ttmics of matted fibres, reticulated 
upwards. Leaves 3, firm, linear, closely ribbed, 5—1 ft. long, \-\ in. broad. Stem slender, 
i-It ft. long. Flowers 4-8 in a lax secund spike; outer spathe- valve lanceolate, green, 
x~i in. long. Perianth-tube cur\-ed, narrowly funr.el-shaped, \ in. long: limb dark purple, 
about an inch long: segments obcvate, obtuse; upper \ in. broad; lateral shorter; 3 lower 
as long as the upper, with a claw as long as the blade. Anthers as long as the filaments, 
mucronate. Capsule oblong, torulose, 5 in. long. Seeds globose, not winged. 

G. blandus (-\it. Hort. Kew. i. 64); corm globose, middle-sized; tunics of parallel 
strand- of matted fibres; produced subbasal leaves 4, ensiform, firm in texture, glabrous, 
the outer -J— i ft. long, h-\ in. broad; stem 1-2 ft. long including inflorescence, some- 
times branched; flowers white with a tinge of red, 4-8 in a lax distichous spike, all 
ascending; outer spathe- valves green, lanceolate, I5-2 in. long; perianth-tube atx)ut 
1 5 in. long, much dilated and curxed at the top: limb rather longer than the tube, 
segments oblong-spathulate, narrowed to a point, the top one about | in. and the 
others about \ in. broad at the middle; stamens reaching more than halfway up the 
hmb. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 625: Gen. Irid. 140; Baker, Handb. Irid. 217. G. angustus. 
Linn. herb, ex pete .' 

V.\R. ^, G. albidus (Jacq. Ic. t. 256); flower pure white. G. blandus, Andr. Bet. 
Rep. t. 99. C. bloidus. lar. niveus, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 648. 

V.VR. >, G. Mortonius i^Herb. in Bot. Mag. t. 3680); flowers suberect; segments 
white, with copious, faint, vertical, pink streaks. 

V.AR. 9, G. escelsus (Sweet, Hort. Brit, edit: 2, 501); taller than the typQ, with longer 
leaves and a perianth-tube 2 in. long. 

V.\R. =. G. cameus (Delaroche. Descr. 30, t. 4); more robust than the tj-pe. with 
more numerous, more spreading pink flowers, with broader, less acute segments. G. eam- 
panulatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 188. G. blandus, var., Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 645. 

Var. Hibbertii, Hort., has pink flowers with verj- distinct, red, spade-shaped marks 
on the three lower segments. 

G. byzantinus (Bankin), Miller. Diet. ed. vii. Xo. 3; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 874; Reich. 
Ic. Crit.. t. 643. [Descriprion from Baker, 1S92.] G. elatus Balb. — Corm globose, | in. 
diam.; tunics brown, membranous. Leaves generally 3, ensiform, about a foot long, 
^-| in. broad, laxly ribbed. Stem 1^2 ft. long. Spike lax, man^'-flowered, 6-9 in. 
long; outer spathe- valve lanceolate, i-i§ in. long. Perianth-tube slightlv cur\-ed, 
\-k in. long: segments dark purple, i-i^ in. long, about equal in length; 3 upper shghtly 
imbricated in fully expanded flower, i-| in. broad; 3 lower with a claw as long as the 
blade, and a white line down the centre. Anthers 5 in. long, exceeding the filaments. 
Capsule turbinate, | in. long. Seeds turgid, with a distinct membranous wing. 



ii8 Cornell Extension Bulletin g 

G. cardinalis (Curt. Bot. Mag. t. 135); conn large, globose; stem 3-4 ft. long; pro- 
duced leaves 4-6, ensiform, rather thin in texture, glaucous green, reaching 2 ft. or 
more in length, f-i in. broad; flowers 12-20 in a spike ^-i ft. long, all more or less 
ascendin.g; spathe- valves green, thin in texture, lanceolate, acute, I5-3 in. long; perianth 
bright scarlet; tube nearly straight, i| in. long, funnel-shaped in the upper half; upper 
segments oblong-spathulate, acute, concolorour., 2 in. long, f-i in. broad; 3 lower 
shorter and narrower, conspicuously mottled with white at the throat; stamens reaching 
more than halfway up the limb; anthers lanceolate, ^ the length of the filaments. 
Schneev. Ic. t. 27; Red. Lil. t. 112; Ker, Gen. Irid. 143; Baker, Handb. Irid. 219. C. spe- 
ciosiis, Eckl. Top. Verz. 41, non Thunb. 

G. communis Linn. Sp. Plant. 52, ex parte; Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 86; Ker in Bot. 
Mag. t. 1575; R^d. Lil. t. 267; Reich. Ic. Crit. tab. 598; Fl. Germ. tab. 349, fig. 777. 
[Description from Baker, 1892.] — Corm f in. diam.; tunics of matted parallel fibres, 
reticulated upwards. Leaves 3-4, ensiform, §-i ft. long, j-f in. broad, laxly nerved. 
Spike lax, secund, 4-8-flowered; outer spathe-valve green, an inch long. Perianth- 
tube curved, funnel-shaped, \-\ in. long; segments bright purple, an inch long, about 
equal in length, all connivent when fully expanded; 3 lower with a long claw and white 
central line. Anthers \ in. long, equalling the filaments. Capsule turbinate, § in. 
long. Seeds broadly winged. 

G. cruentus (Moore in Gard. Chron. 1868, 1138); corm large, globose; stem 2-3 ft. 
long; produced leaves about 4, ensiform, dark glaucous green, i|-2 ft. long, f- x in. 
broad; spike rather dense, distichous, 6-io-flowered; bracts very large, lanceolate, 
the lower sometimes 3-6 in. long; perianth bright scarlet; tube 1J-2 in. long, nearly 
straight, funnel-shaped in the upper half; upper segments concolorous, obovate-spathu- 
late, obscurety cuspidate, 2-25 in. long, I1-I5 in. broad; 3 lower about i| in. long, i in. 
broad, with a large white blotch at the throat with small red spots; anthers lanceolate, 
reaching halfway up the limb. Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5810; Baker, Handb. Irid. 219. 

G. cuspidatus (Jacq. Ic. t. 257); corm globose; tunics of fine, parallel strands of 
matted fibres; stems simple, 2-3 ft. long; leaves 3-4, linear, rigid in texture, glabrous, 
the lowest i\-2 ft. long, about \ in. bioad; flowers 4-8, in a lax secund spike; spathe- 
valves green, lanceolate, outer 2-3 in. long; perianth white or pale pink; tube slightly 
curved, 2-3 in. long, clavate in the upper third; segments oblong, ih in. long, \-\ in. 
broad, narrowed into a long, wavy point, the three lower with a spade-shaped purple 
blotch; stamens reaching halfway up the limb. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 582; Gen. Irid. 
139; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 219; Red. Lil. t. 136; Baker, Handb. Irid. 205. G. undulattis, 
Linn. Manf. 27; Tliundb. Fl. Cap. i. 206, e.x parte. C. affinis, Pers.-Syn. i. 45. 

Var. /?, G. ventricosus (Lam. Encyc. ii. 727); flowers pink; point of the segments 
shorter and less wavy. G. cuspidatus, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 147; Red. Lil. t. 36. G. carnetis, 
Jacq. Ic. f. 255; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 591, non Delaroche. 

Var. V, ensijfolius (Baker) ; whole plant under a foot long; leaves short, rigid, ensiform. 

G. dracocephalus (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5884); corm large, depresso-globose ; 
stem simple, about 2 ft. long; produced leaves ensiform, 1-I5 ft. long, f-i in. broad, 
moderately firm in texture; flowers few, arranged in a very lax secund spike; outer 
spathe-valVe lanceolate, green, 2-3 in. long; perianth-tube much-curved, greenish, 
i|-2 in. long; limb i^ in. long, yellowish-green, minutely grained and spotted with 
duU purple; upper segments obovate, permanently hooded, f-i in. broad; lower lanceo- 
late, reflexing; stamens reaching near to the top of the segments; anthers lanceolate, 
less than half as long as the filaments. Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. 176; Handb. 
Irid. 220. 

G. floribundus (Jacq. Ic. t. 254); corm globose; tunics of matted fibres; produced 
leaves 3-4, ensiform, 1-2 ft. long; stems i|-2 ft. or more long including the inflorescence, 
branched when at aU luxuriant; flowers white with a pink tinge, 4-12 in a very lax 
distichous spike, all ascending; outer spathe-valve oblong-lanceolate, 1 1-2 in. long; 
perianth-tube nearly straight, I5-2 in. long, funnel-shaped in the upper third ;_ segments 
as long as the tube, obovate-spathulate, deltoid at the tip, the upper |-i in. broad; 
stamens reaching \ or 5-way up the limb. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 610; Gen. Irid. 143; Baker, 
Handb. Irid. 218. G. grandifiorus, Andr. Bot. Rep., t. 118. 



Gladiolus Studies 



119 



G. grandis (Thunb. Fl. Cap. 
i. 186); corm globose; tunics 
of thick, parallel, wir\- fibres; 
stem slender, terete, 1-2 ft. 
long; leaves 3, supeiposed, 
terete, strongh' ribbed, firm 
in texture, the lowest i-i| ft. 
long; flowers fragrant, 2-6 in a 
very lax secund spike; spathe- 
valves green, lanceolate, the 
outer 2-2 1 in. long; perianth 
2^-3 in. long, with a cur\-ed 
tube funnel-shaped in the 
upper third; segments yellow- 
ish-white, more or less tinged 
with purplish-brown, espe- 
cially on the keel, oblong, ^-| 
in. broad, narrowed into a 
long point; stamens reaching 
halfwa}- up the limb; capsule 
oblong, membranous, I5 in. 
long. Klatt in Linncea xx.xii. 
714; Baker, Handb. Lid. 202. 
G. trisiis, Linn, herb.! C. tris- 
tis, var. grandis, Thvnb. Diss. 
No. 8. G. versicolor, Andr. 
Bot. Rep. t. 19; Ker in Bol. 
Mag. t. 1042; Gen. Irid. 135. 

G. hirsulus Jacq. Ic. t. 250; 
Red. Lil. t. 278. [Description 
from Baker, 1892.] G. roseiis 
Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 11. G. 
hirsulus var. roseus Ker in 
Bot. Mag. t. 574. — Corm 
middle-sized, globose, crowned 
with a ring of bristles. Leaves 
4-5, superposed, ensiform, 
strongly ribbed, both the 
sheath and short blade finely 
hairy. Stem i-i| ft. long. 
Flowers 3-6 in a very lax 
secund spike; spathe- valves 
lanceolate, green, lower outer 
1 5—2 in. long. Perianth bright 
red, with a curved tube i^ in. 
long; segments obovate, cus- 
pidate, as long as the tube, 
the upper f in., the lower 5 in. 
broad. Stamens more than 
half as long as the segments. 

G. oppositiflorus (Herb, in 
Bot. Reg. 1842, Misc. 86); 
corm large, globose; tunics 
of matted fibres; produced 
basal leaves about 4, ensi- 
form, firm in texture, i-i| ft. 
long, f-l in. broad; stem 3-4 
ft. long including the inflores- 
cence, often branched; flowers 
up to 30 or 40, arranged in a 
distichous spike often a foot 




FrC. 6. GL.^DIOLUS P.^PILIO 



I20 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

long; spathe-valves green, lanceolate, acute, thin in texture, i-i^ in. long; perianth 
white; tube curved, i-if in. long, slender up to the top; limb horizontal, ij in. long, 
with oblong- spathulate acute segments not more than 3-^ in. broad at the middle; 
stamens half as long as the limb. Baker, Handb. I rid. 218; Bot. Mag. t. 7292. 

G. Papilio (Hook. fill, in Bot. Mag. t. 5565); corm middle-sized, globose; tunics of 
parallel strands of fine matted fibres; produced subbasal leaves about 4, ensiform, 
glabrous, rigid in texture, 1-I5 ft. long, f-i in. broad at the middle; stem 2-3 ft. long 
including the inflorescence; flowers pale purple, 6-12 in a lax spike; spathe-valves 
oblong-navicular, cuspidate, the outer 1-I5 in. long; perianth horizontal; tube curved, 
\ in. long, broadly funnel-shaped in the upper half; limb i\-ih in. long; 3 upper seg- 
ments obovate-spathulate, §-f in. broad, upper not reflexing; 3 lower oblong-unguicu- 
late, with a large reddish spade-shaped blotch edged with yellow at the throat; stamens 
reaching halfway up the limb. Baker in- Joiirn. Linn. Soc. xvi. 175; Handb. I rid. 216. 

G. primulinus Baker in Gard. Chron. 1890, ii. 122. [Description from Baker, 1892.] 
— Corm large, globose. Basal leaves 3, ensiform, subcoriaceous, strongly ribbed, 
the lowest a foot long, f in. broad. Stem li ft. long, the upper short and adpressed. 
Spike lax, secund, 4-5-flowered; spathe-valves lanceolate, green, 1-I5 in. long. Perianth 
uniform primrose-yellow; tube much curved, an inch long; upper segments obtuse, 
much imbricated, ij in. long; 3 lower smaller. Stamens reaching halfway up the 
segments. 

G. psittacinus (Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 3032); corm very large, depresso-globose ; 
tunics of parallel strands of matted fibres; produced leaves about 4, ensiform, rigid 
in texture, 1-2 ft. long, 1-2 in. broad; stem 3-4 ft. long including the inflorescence; 
spike very lax, reaching a foot or more in length; spathe-valves green, oblong-lanceolate, 
2-3 in. long; perianth-tube curved, 15-2 in. long, sub-cylindrical in the upper half; 
limb about equalling the tube; upper segments obovate, dark crimson, hooded, f-i in. 
broad; lower segments much smaller, reflexing at the top, red and yellow mi.xed; sta- 
mens reaching nearly to the tip of the segments; anthers ^ in. long; filaments about 
I J in. long; capsule large, oblong. Bot. Reg. t. 1442; Reich. Exot. t. 116; Baker, Handb. 
Irid. 220. G. naialensis, Reinw. ex Hook, in Bot. Mag. sub t. 3084; Sweet, Brit. Flow. 
Gard. ser. 2, /. 281; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 1756. Watsonia natalensis, Eckl. Top. Verz. 34. 

Var. /?, G. Cooperi (Baker in Bot. Mag. t. 6202); perianth-tube 2^-3 in. long; 
segments more acute. 

G. purpureo-auratus (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5944); corm large, globose; tunics 
of parallel strands of matted fibres; leaves ensiform, glabrous, rigid in texture, much 
shorter than the stem; stem 3 ft. long including the infloresence; flowers 10-15 iri a 
lax secund spike a foot long; spathe-valves green, oblong-lanceolate, i-i| in. long; 
perianth primrose- yellow ; tube much curved, funnel-shaped, under an inch long; upper 
segments plain, obovate-spathulate, ij-i| in. long, f in. broad; lower obovate-unguicu- 
late, the two inner with a spade-shaped red-brown blotch at the throat; stamens reaching 
halfway up the limb. Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. 175; Handb. Irid. 216. 

G. recurvus (Linn. Mant. 28); corm globose, |-i in. diam.; tunics of parallel wiry 
fibres; stems slender, simple, 1-2 ft. long; leaves 3, firm in texture, terete, strongly ribbed, 
the lowest about a foot long; flowers very fragrant, 2^, in a very lax secund spike; 
outer spathe- valve green, lanceolate, I5-2 in. long; perianth-tube curved, I5-2 in. 
long, clavate in the upper third; limb i-ij in. long, yellowish-white, much flushed 
with dark lilac; segments oblong, acute, \ in. broad; stamens reaching more than 
halfway up the limb; capsule oblong, membranous, 1-I5 in. long. Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 
578, non Thunb.; Baker, Handb. Irid. 203. G. punctatus, Jacq. Ic. t. 247. G. tristis, 
var. punctatus, Thunb. Diss. No. 8. G. carinatus. Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 64. G. ringens, 
Andr. Bot. Rep. tt. 27 and 227; Red. Lit. t. 123. G. odorus, Salisb. Prodr. 40. G. violaceus, 
Pers. Syn. i. 43. Watsonia recurva, Pers. Syti. i. 43. G. breynianus, Ker, Gen. Irid. 
135. G. maculatus. Sweet, Hort. Brit. edit, i, 397; Klatt in Linnrca xxxii. 708. 

G. Saundersii (Hook. fil. in Bot. Mag. t. 5873); corm large, depresso-globose; pro- 
duced leaves 4-6, ensiform, rigid in texture, strongly ribbed, 1-2 ft. long, f-i in. broad; 
stem 2-3 ft. long including i'nfloresc en .-e ; spike ver}- lax, ^ ft. long, 6-8-flowered; spathe- 
valves green, lanceolate, 1^-2 in. long; perianth-tube curved, 1-I5 in. long, broadly 
funnel-shaped in the upper half; limb bright scarlet; 3 upper segments concolorous, 
oblong-spathulate, acute, an inch broad; 3 lower shorter, h in. broad, with a great 



Gladiolus Studies — I 121 

blotch of white spotted with scarlet at the throat; stamens reaching nearly to the tip 
of the segments; anthers | in. long, half the length of the filaments. {Baker in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. xvi. 176; Handb. Irid. 220.) 

G. segetum Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 719; Reich. Ic. Crit. t. 600; Fl. Germ. tab. 353, fig. 
781. [Description from Baker, 1892.] G. communis Linn, ex parte; Sibth. & Sm. Fl. 
Gragc. t. 37. G. infestus Bianea. G. italicus Gaud. G. inarimensis Guss. G. Ludovidce 
Jan. G. caucasictis Herb. Sphcerospora imbricata Sweet. — Corm globose, f-i in. diam.; 
tunics of matted parallel fibres, reticulated upwards. Produced leaves 3-4, ensiform, 
i-i§ ft. long, ^-f in. broad, laxly unequally nerved. Stem i-i^ ft. long. Spike lax, 
6-io-flowered; outer spathe-valve green, lanceolate, i-ij in. long. Perianth-tube 
curved, \-\ in. long; segments i-i\ in. long, bright purple, obovate, obtuse; the upper 

5 in. broad, with a short claw; the lateral shorter; the 3 lower as long, with a long narrov; 
claw and white line down the keel. Anthers \ in. long, exceeding the filaments. Cap- 
sule turbinate, h in. long, torulose when mature. Seeds brown, globose. 

G. sericeo-villosus (Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 5427); corm large, globose; leaves about 

6 in a subbasal distichous rosette, ensiform, glabrous, strongly ribbed, I5— 2 ft. long, 
|-l in. broad; stem 3-4 ft. long including the inflorescence, clothed throughout with 
soft, crisped, white, spreading hairs; spike distichous, 20-30-flowered, with a flexuose, 
densely villose axis; outer spathe-valve oblong-lanceolate, villose, scariose in the upper 
half; flower bright yellow; perianth-tube curved, funnel-shaped, \-\ in. long; limb 
rather longer than the tube; upper segments oblong-spathulate, \ in. broad; lower 
narrower, unguiculate; stamens reaching halfway up the limb. Baker, Handb. Irid. 215. 

G. tristis (Linn. Sp. Plant, edit. 2, i. 53, ex parte); corm globose, i in. diam.; tunics 
of fine parallel strands of matted fibres; stems slender, simple, 1-2 ft. long; leaves 3, 
superposed, terete, with 3-5 much-raised, stramineous ribs, the lower i-\\ ft. long; 
flowers 3-4 in a very lax secund spike, fragrant; spathe-valves green, lanceolate, i\-2 
in. long; perianth-tube curved, ih-2 in. long, funnel-shaped in the upper third; limb 
yellowish-white, sHghtly flushed on the keel of the segments with purpHsh-black; 
segments oblong-spathulate, acute, \-\ in. broad; stamens more than half as long as 
the perianth-limb; capsule oblong, membranous, an inch long. Thiinb. Diss. No. 8, 
e.x parte; Curt, in Bot. Mag. t. 272; Jacq. Ic. t. 243; Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1098; Gen. Irid. 
136; Baker, Handb. Irid. 203. G. spiralis, Pers. Syn. i. 43; Red. Lil. t. 35. 

Var. 3» G. concolor (Salisb. Parad. t. 8); flowers almost concolorous, and a purer 
white than in the type. G. tristis, Jacq. Ic. t. 245. 

EVOLUTION OF THE GLADIOLUS 

There are fifteen species of Gladiolus in Europe, Asia Minor, and Persia. 
These are, according to Baker: atroviolaceus Boiss.; hyzantinus Miller; 
communis Linn.; halophiliis Boiss.; humilis Stapf; illyricus Koch; imhri- 
catus Linn.; Koischyamis Boiss.; micranthus Stapf; palustris Gaud.; per- 
sicus Boiss.; segeium Ker; sintensii Baker; tricolor Stapf; triphylhis Sibth. 
Only a few of these have been cultivated; G. communis and G. segetum, 
however, have been cultivated for several centuries. It is not improbable 
that the Greeks and the Romans used the flowers of native species, 
gathered from their grain-fields,'' in their floral decorations. The plant 
may even have been cultivated by these peoples.' However this may be, 
there is no definite record of the time when the plant came into cultivation. 
The two species just named either grew in Britain or were taken there in 
early times, and, according to Gerarde (1597), were important garden plants. 
G. hyzantinus, the Constantinople corn flag, was introduced prior to 1629. 

f Dioscorides says that a purple-flowered gladiolus {probably G. communis) grew mostly in cultivated 
grounds. 

• Atheneus says gladiolus was planted on the graves of virgins. 



122 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



An idea of the garden gladioli of three centuries ago may be obtained 
from Hortus Eystettensis (Besler, 1613), in which six colored figures of 
gladiolus appear. These are as follows : 






Gladiolus Narbonensium 
flore purpureo 



Gladiolus sylvestris 



FROM HORTUS EYSTETTENSIS, 1613 

Gladiolus Narbonensis 
flore incarnate 



Fig. 7. GARDEN GLADIOLI THREE CENTURIES AGO 

Folio 10 II. Gladiolus svlvestris Cordi {Victorialis rotunda^ 
Runde Sigwurz mit rother blumen. 

A small slender plant bearing three flowers on the spike. 
III. Gladiolus Narhonensinm flore. purpureo. 
Schwertelbrauner. 
A spike bearing nine flowers is shown. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



123 



Folio 12 



IV. Gladiolus Narhonensis flore incarnalo. 
Leibsarb Schvvcrtel. " 
A spike bearing six flowers is shown. 
T. Gladiolus Italicus flore rubra. 
Roth Welsch Schwertlilien. 
A five-flowercd spike is shown. 




Gladiolus Hispanicus 
flore albo 



Gladiolus Italicus 
flore rubro 



FROM HORTUS EYSTETTENSIS, 16 

Gladiolus Narhonensis flore in- 
carnato. intensiore, seu magis 



IL 



III. 



Fig. 8. g.\rden gladioli three cextiries ago 

Gladiolus Hispanicus flore alba. 

Weiss Spanisch vSchwertliHcn. 

A seven-flowered spike is shown. 
Gladiolus Narbonensis flore incarnalo, intensiore, seu macis roseo 

Leibsarb \arbonische Schwertlilien. 



124 Cornell Extension Bulletin g 

The flowers shown in foho lo appear to belong to different species. 
Ker identifies Figure ii with G. imhricatus Linn, and Figures in and iv 
with G. communis Linn. The plants shown in Figures ii and in of 
folio 12 are probably of the same species, possibly G. segetum, while 
Figure i belongs to a secund-flowered species. 

Ray (1686-1704) writes of the corn flag as of no great esteem, and only 
consents to admit the plant to the flower garden because the flowers bloom 
at a season — in June and July — when there are not many other flowers. 
He mentions Gladiolus byzantinus, G. flore suave rubente, and G. flore alba, 
and names three other commoner varieties — two French corn flags, 
one with ash-colored and the other with red flowers, and the Italian com 
flag "that beareth saddei red flowers on both sides of the stalks." He 
says further that G. byzantinus is somewhat tender and should be pro- 
tected, but the others are hardier. 

Miller (1731) describes the following species: 

1. Gladiolus utriiique floridiis. C. B. P.^ Cornflag with Flowers on both Sides 
the Stalks. 

2. Gladiolus carnei coloris. Swert. Flor.^ Flesh-colour'd Cornflag. 

3. Gladiolus florihus una versu dispositis, major, fieri s colore purpilreo-rubente. 

C. B. P. Great Cornflag, with reddish-purple Flowers rang'd on one Side 
the Stalk. 

4. Gladiolus major Byzantinus. C. B. P. Great Cornflag of Constantinople. 

5. Gladiolus utrinque floridiis, floribus albis. H. R. Mons.'" Cornflag with white 

Flowers rang'd on each side the Stalk. 

6. Gladiolus inaximus Indicus. C. B. P. The largest Indian Cornflag. 

In a later edition (1 7 54) he adds the following: 

7. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, major and procerior, flore candicante. 

C. B. P. Greater and taller Cornfl.ag, with whitish Flowers rang'd. all on 
one vSide. 

8. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, minor and humilior. C. B. P. Snrialler 

and lower Cornflag, with Flowers ranged on one Side. 

9. Gladiolus minor, floribus uno versu dispositis incarnatis. H. L. Smaller Corn- 

flag, with flesh-coloured Flowers ranged on one Side. 

10. Gladiolus utrinque floridus, flore rubra. C. B. P. Cornflag with red Flowers 

on both Sides. 

11. Gladiolus floribus uno versu dispositis, minor. C. B. P. Smaller Cornflag, with 

Flowers ranged on one Side. 

It is probable that among the latter species nos. 7, 8, 9, and 11 are 

varieties of no. 3, and that nos. 5 and 10 are varieties of no. i. Miller 

says that all these sorts of com flag are 

propagated by their tuberose Roots, which the first, second, and fifth Sorts produce 
in great Plenty; so that in a few Years, if they are sufifer'd to remain unremov'd, they 
will spread very far, and are hardly to be intirely rooted out, when they have once 

gotten Possession of the Ground These roots may be taken up 

in July, when their Leaves decay, and may be kept out of the Ground until October. 



^ C. B. P.= Casper Bauhin's Pinax. 

9 Swert. Flor.^ Swertius' Florilegium. 

1° H. R. Mons.^ Catalogue of Royal Garden at Montpelier. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 125 

The third and fourth Sorts are the most valuable, producing taller Stalks, and 
fairer Flowers: nor are these so apt to increase; which renders them fitter for the Borders 
of a Flower-garden; so that since these have been introduced, and become common, 
the other Sorts have been rejected, unless in some old Gardens, or for large Wilderness- 
quarters, where they will grow better than the two last-mentioned. 



The Indian Comflag is tender, and must be preserved in a warm Green-house, or 
a moderate Stove, during the Winter-season. These Roots should be planted in pots 
filled with a light sandy soil. The best time to transplant them is any time from 
May till September. 

A study of these species — G. communis, G. segetum, and G. hyzantinus 
— leads to the conviction that the greatest possible advance had been 
made as earh- as the time of Parkinson. No further improvement in 
garden gladioli was made for about one hundred and fifty years, when 
other species were introduced. . • 

It is not definitely known which of the African species from the Cape 
of Good Hope was first introduced into Europe. The evidence points to 
G. angnshis and G. tristis, since they are mentioned by Breyne (1739 b) and 
the former was figured by Linnaeus in Hortus Clifortianns (1737). G. 
tristis was flowered by Miller in 1745, and G. alatiis and G. recurvus (the 
latter under the name Breynianus) were also, according to Ker, known 
to Breyne. These were followed by G. Milleri, 1751, G. involutus, 1757, 
and G". undulatiis, 1760. 

Soon a great many irids from tlie Cape were described under the genus 
Gladiolus, but later a large proportion, if not the majority, of these were 
transferred to new genera. This, together with the confusion concerning 
the identity of the species, makes it quite impossible to fix with certainty 
the date of introduction of these older forms. For example, Lamarck's 
Enc\-clopedia (1786) describes thirty-two species, of which only eight — 
alatiis Linn., angiistiis Linn., communis Linn., imbricatus Linn., lutetis 
Lam., montanus Linn., recurvus Linn., and tristis Linn. — are now recog- 
nized as true species of Gladiolus, most of the others being now included 
in Babiana and Watsonia. 

G. blandiis was introduced in 1774, G. cardinalis and G. floribundus in 
1789. These species gave the first impetus to gladiolus improvement. 

The attention of amateurs and gardeners appears to have been directed 
toward the early-flowering species, which yield flowers during the early 
stmimer when planted in the fall. This was possible because many of the 
species were fairly hardy in England and the Low Countries. Such species 
as cardinalis, communis, bla)uius, and tristis were especially adapted for 
garden planting. The plants seeded freely, and since cross-fertilization 
is easily accomphshed in gladioli it is not surprising to find a ntmiber of 
new forms soon appearing in the gardens. 

The first important hybrid appears to have been G. Colvillei, or Colville's 
com flag, which was raised in 1823 at Colville's Nursery, Chelsea, England. 



126 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

from seeds of G. concolor fertilized by the pollen qf G. cardinalis. G. con- 
color is now regarded by botanists as a variety of G. tristis. The flowers 
were bright scarlet, with lanceolate blotches of white on the three lower 
segments. The flowers were fragrant, which points to G. tristis as one of 
the parents. This hybrid is stiU in the market and is, at least in America, 
the most important variety for growing under glass. 

Although the production of G. Colvillei was the first important achieve- 
ment in the improvement of gladioli, it was not the result of the first 
efforts in this field. The earliest attempts to hybridize gladioli appear 
to have been made by the Honorable William Herbert, Dean of Manchester, 
early in the last centur}^ In 18 18 he wrote the Horticultural Society of 
London as follows (Herbert, 1820:196): 

Having raised two beautiful and hardy species of Gladiolus, by impregnating Cardinalis 

with Blandus and Blandus with Cardinalis, I propose to call one 

Gladiolus Blando-Cardinalis, and the other Gladiolus Cardinali-Blandus. These two 
new species of Gladiolus which have flowered make seed freel3^ I have also mules 
from Gladiolus tristis impregnated by the large flowering blue Gladiolus recurvus. 



Later, in 18 19, in nis classic paper On the Production of Hybrid Vegetables 

(Herbert, 1822a: 44-45) , he wrote : 

Of Gladioli I possess the following mules: G. blando-cardinalis, G. cardinali-blandus, 
G. angusto-blandus, G. tristi-blandus, G. fioribundo-blandus; G. cardinali-angusto- 
blandus; G. tristi-hirsutus; G. ringenti-tristis, and G. versicolore-hirsutus. I have this 
year seeds from further intermixtures, and mules may probably be obtained with endless 
variety of colour. These mules flower most beautifully in the open border, in a mixture 
of sand and peat, in patches amongst the Azaleas. It is perhaps best to take up the 
bulbs, and dr}^ them, when the seed is ripe; but I have left African Gladioli unmoved 
for several years, in the border. I have never seen the least approximation to each 
other in the natural seedlings of G. blandus, G. tristis, G. cardinalis, G. hirsutus, and 
G. recurv'us. 

Dean Herbert was an enthusiastic cultivator of gladioli, as well as an 

authority on the Cape bulbs. The following prophecy, written in 1S20 

(Herbert, 1822b), will be of interest to all lovers of gladioli: 

I am persuaded that the African Gladioli will become great favorites with florists, 
when their beautv in the open border, the facility of their culture, and the endless 
variety which may be produced from seed tn- blending the several species, are fully 
known, nor will they be found to yield in beauty to the Tulip and Ranunculus. 

In 1837 he wrote as follows: 

The hybrid Gladioli, of which a large portion are sufficiently hardy, flower about the 

same time as the roses These hardy crosses are between G. Cardinalis, blandus, 

carneus, inflatus, angustus, and tristis, and they vary with every shade of colour from 
white to scarlet, rose, coppery, and blackish purple, and some are exquisitely speckled 

in consequence of the cross with tristis The beautiful crosses with hirsutus, 

recurvus, and versicolor are more delicate plants, and do not succeed well in the border. 

Ten years later, in the Journal of the Horticultural Society of London, 

he wrote (Herbert, 1847): 

Forty years ago I first crossed the large and brilliant scarlet and white Gladiolus 
cardinalis with the smaller, but more freely flowering, G. blandus, which sports with 



Gladiolus Studies — I • 127 

white, purple, and rose coloured flowers, and (under the name of cameus, which was 
in truth rather a local variety of the same) of a coppery flesh-colour. The result was 
a fertile breed of great beauty, of which the prevailing colour was purplish roseate. 
Crossed again with cardinalis it 3'ielded florid plants, scarlet, copper-coloured, rose- 
coloured, white, and purple with endless variation. By a cross of the first mule and 
of cardinalis itself with G. tristis, of which the flower is pale yellow with brown specks, 
deeper tints and rich speckling were introduced, with a difference in the foliage and 
seeds, the seed of G. tristis being smaller and longer, its leaves rigid and quadrangular, 
the transverse section exhibiting a cross. The seeds of cardinalis are like those of 
blandus, but larger. There can scarcely be two species more dissimilar than cardinaHs 
and tristis in any genus which has the form of the perianth uniform, the latter having such 
remarkable leaves, narrow, rigid, and erect, a slender stem, with night-smelling flowers, 
and the former very broad semi-recumbent glaucous foliage, and an inclined half- 
recumbent stem with large scarlet and white blossom; yet the produce of these inter- 
mixed is fertile, and where the third species blandus has been also admitted into 
the union, it is fertile in the extreme (incomparably more so than the pure G. cardinalis) , 
and by that triple cross the tall strong Gladiolus oppositiflorus of Madagascar has 
also produced offspring, which, though not disposed at present to make seed freely, 
has produced some this year. Again, the first of these mules was fertilized by G. hirsutus 
(known at the Cape by the name roseus), a plant with flowers straighter than usual 
in the genus, and strongly scented, the leaves hairy and margined with red. That 
cross has not as yet proved fertile. The same G. hirsutus was crossed by Mr. Bidwell 
at Sydney, where the Cape bulbs thrive more freely than here, with G.'alatus (which 
Ecklon wished to turn off into a genus Hebea), having hard rigidl}- ribbed leaves, 
a short stem, and orange flowers. The cross-bred plants flowered here last autumn, 
being intermediate in foliage and flower. The only opportunity I have had of crossing 
G. alatus with the first-named mules was defeated, n<»twithstanding much precaution, 
through the introduction of pollen b}^ the humblebees, which are dangerous marplots 
to such experiments. 

The second important hybrid was G. ramosus, which, according to the 
Revue Horticole for 1838, was obtained at Haarlem from seed of G. blandus, 
or "fioribunda." It was first flowered in France by M. Rifkogel in 1838. 
Meanwhile (in 1835) it had been introduced into England and a figure 
of it was published in Paxtons Magazine of Botany (volimie 6 [1839], 
pages 99 and looj. The flower was openly funnel-shaped, bright red with 
deep blotches at the base of the three lower segments, and resembled 
G. blandus. The plant was tall, with hea\^-, broad leaves. Although it 
was not entirely hardy, requiring a heavy mulch for protection, it was 
necessary to plant it in the fall in order to get results. Nevertheless 
the varieties of this t\^pe, owing to the fact that they flowered later than 
those of G. blandus and G. cardinalis, formed an important group for at 
least the next twenty years and have not yet entirely disappeared from 
European lists. 

A ntmiber of hybrids were obtained by crossing G. Horibundus and G. 
ramosus. Some of these, figured by color plates in works of the time, 
were Triomphe de Louvain (Carolus, 1845), Countess Coghen and 
Madame de Vilain (Rosseels, 1847), Leopoldii (Carolus, 1848), and 
Mademoiselle Sosthenie (Truffaut fils, 1848). 

Up to 1840, in spite of the efforts to improve the gladiolus and not- 
withstanding the amount of variation that had resulted from these efforts, 
the plant remained little more than a plant for the attention of interested 



128 



Cornell Extension Bulletin q 



amateurs. Before that time it does not appear to have received general 
attention or to have been an important plant in the seed or nursery trade. 
In the following table the names of varieties of gladioli are given, with 
their prices, as taken from advertisements of Messrs. T. & C. Lockhart, 
156 Cheapside, London. The table shows the varieties cultivated in 
England prior to the introduction of G. gandavensis. 









Ye 


ar 






Species or variety 


1^37 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 




Per 

dozen 


Per 

dozen 


Per 

dozen 


Per 
dozen 


Per 
dozen 


Each 


albus . 


s. d. 
4-0 
2-0 
5-0 
3-0 


s. d. 
4-0 
3-0 
6-0 


s. d. 
4-0 
3-0 

5-0 
2-6 




s. d. 
I-o 
2-6 . 
6-0 
2-0 


s.d. 




0-2 




0-6 




0-3 








Each 
s. d. 


Each 


Each 


Each 


Each 


Each 


Colvillei 


s. d. 

i-o 
i-o 

2-6 

I-o 
I-o 
1-0 
I-o 
20-0 


s. d. 

2-6 
"2-6' 

"2-6' 

2-6 

1-6 

2-6 

15-0 


s. d. 
2-0 

2-0 
2-0 

15-0 

2-0 
12-6 


s. d. 
2-0 
0-6 
2-6 

3-6 
2-6 

15-0 
5-0 
2-6 
2-6 
1-6 
2-6 
5-0 


s.d. 
I-o 


floribundus 


1-4 


I-o 




1-6 






2-0 


hirsutus 






inflatus blandus 




1-6 
1 0-0 






3-6 






I-o 






1-6 


tristis 




I-o 






I-o 






5-0 









At this time came the real starting point of the modern garden gladiolus, 
in G. gandavensis, sent out by Louis van Houtte in 1841. This gladiolus 
originated with M. Beddinghaus, gardener to the Due d'Aremberg, who 
decided to produce hybrids between G. psittacimis, G. floribundus, G. 
ramosus, and G. cardinalis, all of them tall, showy species. He obtained 
seed in 1837, and in 1839 and 1840 he exhibited his seedlings in flower 
at Enghien. A seedling, a hybrid between G. psittacinus {G. natalensis 
Reinw.) and G. cardinalis, was admired by those who saw it. M. Van 
Houtte purchased it and introduced it through the medium of his catalog. 
Later he published a color plate of it in his Flore des Serres, with the follow- 
ing description by Lemaire (1846 b) : " Le Gladiolus gandavensis a le port 
et I'inflorescence du G. natalensis, mais dans des proportions plus grandes, 
le coloris du G. cardinalis, mais plus riche et plus varie." 



Gladiolus Studies — I ^ 129 

This hybrid created a furor in the gladiolus world, and the interest 
in the plant steadily grew after this form was introduced. It was soon 
followed b>' G. gandavensis var. citrinus, a citron yellow flower having 
a red stripe down the middle of each of the three lower segments. 

Dean Herbert, w^ho at this time had had long experience in hybridizing 
gladioli, doubted the parentage of G. gandavensis as given by M. Van 
Houtte. He said (1837:365): "I have not succeeded in obtaining 
any cross, on the correctness of which I can depend, by admixture with 
Gladiolus psittacinus (Nathalensis), and I do not believe that it will 
breed with any of the above " (referring to G. cardinalis, blandtis, carneus, 
inflahis, angnstns, tristis, hirsutiis, reaircus, and versicolor). 

It appears that in the discussions of the time G. floribimdus was con- 
fused, at least in commercial circles, with G. oppositiflorns — a not 
unnatural result when it is considered that the true plants are closely 
allied botanicaUy. Both are allied to G. blandiis. The flowers of the 
two first named are white or only tinged with pink; and considering 
the ntunber of flowers produced on a spike, it is reasonable to suppose 
that these species would be used in crossing. In fact there is evidence of 
G. Uoribundiis having been used. Among the first of its hybrids were 
those of Mr. Cole, gardener for Mr. WiUmore at Oldford. England, who 
sent out the following varieties in 1850: 

Wilhnoreanns, a hybrid between G. gandavensis and G. floribundus, 
creamy white, the three upper divisions streaked delicate rosy purple. 

Oldfordiensis , delicate salmon color marked with purple. Flowers 
large. 

Roseo-purpurens , deep rosy red, marked \\'ith deep purple-red. Flowers 
of medium size. Two years later Wellington, a deep orange-red variety, 
was sent out from the same source. 

The record is not clear as to G. oppositiflonis unless the plant used by 
Mr. Cole was really this species. However one may regard the state- 
ments concerning the origin of G. gandavensis, there is no escaping the 
conclusion, after studying present-day varieties of this group, that G. 
oppositiflorus either was one of the parents of the original hybrid or has 
been used in hybridizing with it. Without herbariimi specimens of the 
first varieties of gandavensis, it is of course difficult to determine whether 
they exhibit any characteristics of G. oppositiflorus. On examination 
of the colored figures of this form, it would seem as though the distichous 
arrangement of the flowers on the spike was apparent from the beginning. 
Paxton (1844) figures G. gandavensis and gives a botanical description 
wherein he states that it is distichously spicate. Although this is placed 
in that part of the description referring to the genus, the author must 
have known that most of the species of Gladiolus have secund spikes. 



I30 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

among them being G. cardinalis and G. psittacinus , the reputed parents 
of G. gandavcnsis. The evidence is strongly in favor of the idea that G. 
gandavensis is a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. oppositiflorus. 

About this time appeared G. hrenchleyensis , raised by Mr. Hooker, 
of Brenchley. The earliest record (1848) of this gladiolus states that it 
is a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. florihundus, but since then it 
has usually been considered as a form of G. gandavensis . Whatever its 
origin, it ranks next to G. Colvillei in being the oldest of existing types 
of gladioli. ^^ 

Prior to 1850 — ^ except for the work of Dean Herbert, whose breeding 
of gladioli was perhaps more scientific than practical — there had been 
no sustained effort in the improvement of the gladiolus. Every flower 
that has won an important place has had one or more great geniuses 
to develop it and thus make it known to plant lovers. M. Eugene Souchet, 
gardener for Napoleon HI at Fontainebleau, was the greatest of the 
many breeders of gladioli. He began his labors about 1850 and continued 
them until shortly before his death in 1880. It is quite probable that 
he used G. floribundus and G. ramosus in crossing the varieties of G. ganda- 
vensis, but such was his ability as a breeder that his varieties took foremost 
rank at once and maintained the lead throughout his life. The work 
was then carried on by his nephews, Messrs. SouiUard and Brunelet. 

It must not be inferred that Eugene Souchet had a clear field as a 
gladiolus breeder, even in France, for others were at work. M. Courant, 
of Poissy, raised and introduced such varieties as Docteur Marjolin, 
Madame Thibaut, Keteleer, M. Loyre, in 1855, and Claire Courant, 
Keteleeri, Miniatus, in 1858. M. Truffaut fils, who worked much with 
forms of G. ramosus, produced in that section the following varieties: 
Mademoiselle Sosthenie, a famous hybrid between G. ramosus and G. 
floribundus, in 1848; Bernard de Rennes and Madame Bertin, in 1850; 
Madame Vilmorin and Imperatrice Eugenie, in 1855; Comtesse de Saint 
Marsault, Arc-en-ciel, Madame Hardy, President Decaisne, in 1858; and 
Comte de Paris, Marguerite Regaud, Napoleon III, in i860. Among 
the G. psittacinus x gandavensis hybrids produced by M. Truffaut 
were Madame Souchet, Madame Truffaut, and Charles Rouillard, sent 
out in 1855. M. Domage, of Montrouge, offered Premices de Mont- 
rouge, in 1858, Eugene Domage, Mademoiselle Marsault, Solferino, 
in i860, Solfaterre, in 1861, and Madame Domage, in 1862. A. Malet, 
of Plessis-Picquet, introduced Antiope, Madame Marc Caillard, Madame 
Place, Madame Vilmorin, in 1858, and Anacreon Cardinal, M. Morel, 
Gustave Malet, in 1861. M. Duval, of Petit Bicetre, placed before 
the public Madame Duval, M. Leroy, and Ernest Duval, in 1862. Eugene 

" G. ramosus is regarded as a group of which the original form is probably lost. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 131 

Verdier, of Paris, sent out Eugenie Verdier, Aladame Eugene Verdier, 
Olympe Lesctiyer, and Victor Verdier, in 1858. 

A few years after M. Souchet began the improvement of gladioli, an 
event occurred which had far-reaching results — if not politically, at least 
in the histor}^ of the gladiolus. This was the visit of Queen Victoria 
to Fontainebleau in August, 1855. During her visit the flower borders 
were enlivened with cut spikes of gladioli thrust in vases of water among 
the common border plants. The result is best described in the words 
of a wTiter of the time (Anonymous reference, 1862) : 

Few flowers have made in so short a space of time such rapid progress in pubHc 

favour as the Gandavensis varieties of the gladickis The French were 

beginning to draw our attention to the bulbs, and new varieties were reaching us from 
tlie other side, when our gracious Sovereign gave a great impulse to their culture by 
taking them under her special patronage. Their being placed on the royal table led 
tlie frequenters of the Court to follow the example set them, and a demand almost 
unprecedented in the history of flowers has arisen. Fortunately they increase very 
rapidly, and hence they are being generally distributed over the country-; and before 
this unhappy war broke out in America were being eagerly sought for there, for one 
Paris firm this time last year was looking out for 30,000 bulbs to supply one order. 

EngHsh breeders had not kept pace with their brethren in Belgium 
and France, and with the exception of the achievements of Dean Herbert 
and Mr. Cole there is little to record until about 1859 or i860, when 
John Stan dish began to grow seedlings. He continued the work for several 
3'ears. Many of his varieties were figured by color plates in the floral 
magazines of the time, but inasmuch as he was not given ftdl credit for 
his efforts attention should be called to the great number of varieties 
originated by him. Among these were Adam Bede, Adele Souchet, 
Agnes, Alice Gray, *Alice Wilson,^- Aurelian, Bacchus, Basil, Beauty of 
Bagshot, Belle of Bagshot, Blair Athol, Brian Boru, Bridesmaid, Carlotta 
Grisy, Carminata, Caroline, Castor, *Charles Davis, Clara, Colleen Bawn, 
Colonel Hood, Cordelia, Daphne, Diana, Dr. Blount, Dr. Hogg, Don- 
ald Beaton, Don Juan, Duchess of Sutherland, Earl Carlisle, Edith 
Dombrain, *Eleanor Norman, Elfin, Etna, Eugene Domage, Excelsior, 
Garibaldi, General Cabrera, General Lee, Goldfinder, Guido, Harlequin, 
Herr Rosenberg, Ivanhoe, John Leach, *John Standish, Joseph Maston, 
Juliet, Kathleen, Ketterii, *Lady AHce Hill, Lady CaroHne Legge, Lady 
Emily Seymour, Lady Marshall, Lady M. Hood, Lady Morgan, Lem- 
onade, Lord Clyde, Lord KenHs, Lord Shaftesbury, Lucy Neal, Mile. 
Patti, Alinerva, Miss Foster, Miss Glegg, Miss Graham, Miss Howell, 
Miss Ingram, Mr. Duflfield, *Mr. J. W. Lane, Mr. Menzies, Mr. Rucker, 
Mrs. Dix, *Mrs. Dombrain, Mrs. E. Nott, Mrs. Hogg, Mrs. Menzies, 
*Mrs. Moore, Mrs. Peach, *Mrs. Reynolds Hole, Mrs. Ridley Htmter, Mrs. 

'-The varieties marked with an asterisk have been figured by color plates in the Florists' Magazine 
or similar publications. 



132 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Siddons, *Mrs. Standish, Mowbray More, Nomia, Oberon, *Our Little 
Lucy, Poniatowski, Prime Minister, *Randle Jackson, Reine Victoria, 
Reverend Joshua Dix, Robin Hood, Rose of England, vSamuel Weymouth, 
Scottish Chief, Senior Jackson, Sir Isaac Newton, *Sir James Clarke, 
Sultane, Susan Ingram, The Cahph, The Cardinal, The Colonel, The 
Dauphin, The Ensign, Thurza, Tom Moore, Viola, Whipper-in, WilHam 
iMenzies. 

These were excellent exhibition varieties, equal if not superior to those 
sent out in France; but it seems that the conditions were not so favorable 
for their multiplication, and thus the varieties were never generally dis- 
tributed and consequently in a few years were lost. Later Mr. Standish 
moved to Ascot, where he again took up the breeding of gladioh, pro- 
ducing some brenchleyensis-cruentus hybrids. 

Meanwhile J. Sladden produced some seedlings of merit — Hector, 
Lord Clyde, Prospero, and Volunteer — which won the first prize of the 
Royal Horticultural Society in 1863. Although the efforts of Standish 
served to promote to a certain extent the popular interest in gladioli 
through exhibitions, there appeared simultaneously with him one who 
may be regarded as the Souchet of England, James Kelway. Kelway, 
establishing himself at Langport under different conditions and with 
a keen judgment of the requirements demanded of new seedlings, was 
successful; and his successors have maintained the high reputation 
of the firm for high-grade gladioli. Kelway sent out his first varieties 
in 1866. 

The species purpureo-auratus , introduced in 1870, was found to be 
perfectly hardy at Nancy, France. Victor Lemoine discovered after 
a test of two or three years that original corms had multipHed so as to 
form good-sized clumps. The varieties of G. gandavensis had not proved 
successful in the soil at Nancy, and so, very naturally, Lemoine conceived 
the idea of hybridizing the hardy species with the more brilhant-fiowered 
garden type. He procured some of the best varieties of G. gandavensis 
and used pollen from them on his G. purpureo-auratus plants in 1875. 
The result was three seedHngs, of which two were afterward named and 
the third was suppressed because its colors were not desirable. The hybrids 
proved to be hardy, hke the female parent. Lemoine says that the seed- 
lings were identical in habit, hardiness, height, size and form of flowers, 
and size and form of the blotches on the lower segments, which were purple 
bordered w4th yellow. The named varieties were distinguished' by the 
general color of the corolla, which in G. Lemoinei was rosy white and in 
Marie Lemoine was straw color. These varieties were put on the market 
in 1880; in 1882 five more varieties were offered, and in autumn of the 
same year seven varieties were added to the Hst. In 1881 the EngHsh 
journal The Garden called attention to a similar hybrid, called G. pur- 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



^35 



ptireo-auratus hybridiis Froebeli, which very much resembled the variety 
Marie Lemoine. 

Other plant breeders used the Lemoinei varieties to cross with the 
best varieties of G. gandavensis. Among these producers were: Deleuil, of 
Marseilles; Trefoux, of Auxerre; Torcy-Vaunier. of Melun; Souillard 
and Bninelet, of Fontainebleau; Haage & Schmidt, of Erfurt ; and Krelage. 
of Haarlem. 

Although developed simultaneously with G. Lemoinei, the hybrid 
gandavensis x Sounder si i — produced by Herr Leichtlin and known as 
G. Leichtlinii and later as G. Childsii — was not generally distributed 
until after G. nanceianus. When the stock of G. Leichtlinii passed into the 
hands of M. Godefroy-Lebeuf, it is said that he sold mixed corms but 
did not name any of the seedlings of this class. Hax-ing purchased some 
of the stock and having also some corms from Herr Leichtlin. M. Lemoine 
was aware of the improvement shown in this group and therefore was led 
to undertake the crossing of G. Lemoinei and G. Saundersii which resulted 
in producing G. nanceianus. G. Childsii (formerly called G. Leichtlinii) 
seems not to have interested European growers, probably because of their 
interest in the fine varieties of \L Lemoine. In America, on the other 
hand, the Childsii varieties found favor, and through the efforts of American 
cultivators the flowers have been improved in substance. ^L Froebel, 
of Zurich, in 1889 sent out G. turicensis, a variety produced by crossing 
G. Saundersii with G. gandavensis, which is the same cross as that made by 
Herr Leichtlin and therefore has been regarded as the same as G. Childsii. 

The purptireo-auratus-gandavensis hybrids, kno^Ti in horticultural 
literatiire as G. Lemoinei, were crossed on G. Saiitidersii (introduced in 
1872) by ]\L Lemoine in 1883. The result was four seeds from which 
the seedlings afterward named President Camot and Maurice de Vilmorin 
were chosen in 1885. These varieties were remarkable for their large 
flowers and ntmierous dots of color. The originator claimed that this 
class was also hardy. The first varieties (nine in number) from this 
cross were introduced in 1889, and these with other seedlings were shown 
at the Universal Exposition in Paris in that year. This group has been 
known as G. nanceianus. 

G. Victorious was introduced in 1893 by Dammann & Co., of San 
Giovanni a Teduccio, near Naples. This variety was described as a 
hybrid between G. byzantinus and G. cardinalis, or between a European 
and a Cape species, and, if correct, it was the first hybrid of such parentage 
on record. The finn's catalog for 1893 stated that the variety was hardy 
and belonged to the early-flowering class or group. In habit the plant 
was intermediate between the parents; the flowers were pink or dark red, 
and the inner segments were striped as in G. cardinalis. The season 
was about the middle of April and the flowers were somewhat scented. 



134 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

The class was recommended for market and for cutting, and especially 
for hybridizing. Five varieties were offered, as follows: Amathusia, 
Amphitrite, Andromeda, Penelope, Eris. It appears that specimens were 
sent by Mr. Sprenger, of the firm of Dammann & Co. to J. G. Baker, 
who described this new gladiolus in the Gardeners' Chronicle of May 20, 
1893, but ascribed it to a cross between G. communis and G. cardinalis or 
G. Colvillei. Endicott (1897) says that G. Victorialis is not so good as G. 
byzantimis, and that he saw no evidence of African blood. Apparently 
the class was of little value, since it seems not to have been cataloged by 
the introducers for more than a year. 

When the above-named specimens were sent by Mr. Sprenger to Mr. 
Baker there was included a papilio-gandavensis hybrid, which was described. 
Later Mr. Sprenger sent six hybrids, as follows: communis x Colvillei; 
communis x Colvillei albus; communis x cardinalis; ramosus x cardinalis; 
papilio X cardinalis; papilio x angustus. These were not described, and 
the writer could not ascertain whether or not any of them found their 
way into the market. They are of interest to botanists and plant breeders 
in view of Dean Herbert's opinion regarding the possibility of uniting 
the species of Europe and South Africa. 

Another interesting class of gladioli was the Glaieuls a epi rond, the first 
varieties of which, Triomphe de Paris and IMme. Casimir-Perier, were 
introduced by Cayeux et Le Clerc in 1902. These gladioli with flowers 
all around the stem were a novelty, and the following additional varieties 
were sent out: Eureka (Lem., 1903); Triomphe de Nancy (Lem., 1905); 
Caprice (Lem., 1906); Cotironnement (Lem., 190S). They were of passing 
moment, however, and have ahnost disappeared. 

In 1905 Roger de la Borde exhibited his Giant-flowered Hybrids, which 
he claimed were the result of crossing several species with a very severe 
selection of the seedlings. The flowers were large, some of the varieties 
having flowers twenty-two centimeters in diameter, while the American 
varieties under the same conditions were only thirteen centimeters. The 
colors were delicate. The spikes were furnished with from four to six 
flowers open at one time. 

G. primulinus, which flowered at Kew in 1890, has in recent years been 
used in hybridizing with other races and species of gladioli. This species 
seems to have come into coinmercial notice in France in 1905, and in the 
United States through Thorbum in 1908. Cayeux et Le Clerc obtained 
a number of seedlings of G. primulinus, using different and more or less 
yellow-flowered varieties of G. Lemoinei, G. nanceianus, and G. gandavensis. 
They also made reciprocal crosses. Crosses with such gandavensis varieties 
as Hohenzollern and Safrano gave the best results. vSeventy per cent of 
the seedlings were yellow and hooded, as in the type. The nanceianus 
crosses gave less pure colors, the flowers being striped with shades of 



Gladiolus Studies — I 135 

red and in several cases ^-ith novel shades of copper or coppery bronze. 
With the Lemainei variety Henr\- Lemoine, the seedlings ranged in color 
from almost pure yellow to pure yeUow, but retained the pronounced 
hooded upper petal. 

These first hybrids were crossed \\-ith the largest yeUow-flowered ganda- 
vetisis varieties. The resulting hybrids, flowering in 1909, had large. 
weU-open flowers, in colors ranging from clear yellow to golden yellow. 
In addition, distinct salmon and chamois shades appeared, which offered 
a field for further work in gladiolus development. 

Langprim gladioli is the name given by Kelv\-ay for his strain of primii- 
limis hybrids produced by crossing \\-ith varieties of G. Kelivayi and G. 
gandavensis. G. prinmlitnts used on the Kelwayi varieties has thus far 
given the best results. The seedlings show marked primidinus char- 
acters, especially in regard to color and form, gi\"ing a series of colors 
ranging from lemon-white to orange, suffused with red. 

Lemoine evidently began experimenting vs'ith G. primidinus soon after 
its introduction into Europe, and in the autumn of 1908 he offered G. 
primidinus major, G. primidinus macidatus, and G. primulinus salmoneus. 
In 19 10 he sent out G. primulinus concolor and G. primulinus erectus. 

Recent development in the gladiolus is marked by the attempt of the 
French gladiolus breeders to produce a type that will flower in the interval 
between the early dwarf varieties, G. Colvillei, G. communis, and G. 
segetum on the one hand, and G. nauceianus on the other. 

About 1902 M. Porcher-Dionneau, of Ponts-de-Ce. conceived the idea 
of crossing G. nauceianus \s-ith G. Golvillei to produce an earUer-flowering 
strain. Each year he selected from the seedlings those that flowered first 
but that retained the rich coloring and large size of G. nanceianus. He 
exhibited his varieties in 19 10 and they are figured in the Revue Horticole, 
where it is stated on M. Porcher-Dionneau's authority that, when planted 
with G. Colvillei in March, the Glaieuls hdtifs Ponts-de-Ceais flowered at 
the same time, but the flowers measured from sixteen to twenty-two centi- 
meters in diameter and had the rich colors of the nanceianus class. 

Cayeux et Le Clerc. in 19 13, introduced G. vitriacensis, a hybrid between 
a Lemoinei variety and some of the early dwarf hybrids known as G. nanus. 
The plant grew one meter high and bore mediiim-sized flowers ha\'ing 
the characteristic blotches of the dwarf type. The period of bloom was 
in the inter\-al between the season of the early-flowering varieties and 
the late-flowering group. 

These results indicate that where the dwarf types are hardy it is possible 
to have gladioU in the open ground from April or May until the latest of 
the tall late varieties are over — a period of six months. 

The parentage of some of the principal hybrid species is shown in the 
folloN\-ing table : 



136 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



-.5 a- 



^05 






'■£0 



— « CD 



Gladiolus Studies — I , i37 

HISTORY OF GARDEN SPECIES 

Gladiolus alatiis Linn. (Wing-flowered Gladiolus) is a native of the 
Cape of Good Hope and was among the first species introduced into 
Europe. The corm is round, compressed, and small, about the size of 
a small crocus. The leaves are from three to four in number, narrowly 
sword-shaped, somewhat leathery, without a middle nerve but streaked 
with parallel fine furrows. The stem varies from a few inches to a foot 
in height, and bears from five to ten flowers. The segments are very 
unequal, the uppermost being one-half the width of the two lateral ones 
and the lower segments narrower. The flowers are bright red, and small 
like those of sweetbrier. Ker thinks that presirmably the specific name 
was suggested to Linnaeus by the extended wing-like appearance of the 
upper lateral segments of the corolla, rather than by the somewhat winged 
stems. Although it is one of the so-called hardy species, it endures but 
little cold; vet, on the other hand, it cannot be kept out of the soil except 
for a short period. According to Ker it is propagated very easily by 
seeds and cormels, although it is not so easily brought into flower, which 
he attributes to lack of sufficient heat. 

This species is common in the western coast districts of South Africa, 
where it flowers in the spring. In the south it inhabits the low hills and 
flats; in the north, due to the less amount of rainfall, it is not found on 
the plains, but only on motmtains in locations where soil and moisture 
are congenial to it. When the plant is not set deep enough it throws 
out se\'eral anchor roots which, according to Mar loth, ser^^e, when 
shriveling at the beginning of the dr\' season, to drag the new corm 
downward until by a series of annual descents the plant has reached its 
proper depth. 

G. angustus Linn. (Narrow-leaved Gladiolus) was one of the first (if 
not the very first) of the African species to be introduced into Europe. 
The leaves are narrow, upright, shorter than the stem, and with a single 
prominent midrib. The stem is from one to two feet high. The flowers 
are from three to five in number, about four inches long, straight, narrow 
funnel-form, one-ranked, and scentless. The three upper segments are 
broad, the middle one being the broadest, the lower ones rather narrower, 
all flat and spreading. The color is usually described as white, and the 
lower segments are marked by a spade-shaped purple blotch. The color 
plate in Curtis' s Botanical Magazine (tab. 602) shows a red blotch with a 
distinct eye of the same color as the segment, and the spot is connected 
with the base by a red line down the center of the petal. The flowers 
appear in June. This species, says Ker, propagates easily by seeds or 
cormels. The species was probably first noticed by Breyne, and was 



138 Cornell i^xtension Bulletin 9 

described and figured by Linnasus in Hortus Cliff ortiamis in 1737. It 
was cultivated by Miller in 1757. 

G. atroviolaceus Boiss. was introduced in 1889. It is therefore not 
very well known commercially. The plant grows from one to one and 
one-half feet tall, bearing linear, closely ribbed leaves. The spikes are 
not thicker than a slender pencil and bear from four to eight flowers. 
These are narrow and tube-like, with a small hood, and the colors are 
navy blue, purple, and white. Fuld (19 12) reports that corms of this 
species planted in a cold frame in October and covered during the winter 
with sash, were discovered in active growth in March. Later the sash 
were removed, and the plants flowered on May 15. Bulbs planted in 
a greenhouse in December, according to Fuld, were in flower within two 
months. While the stems were not so long as those on the plants grown 
in the cold frame, the flowers were as graceful. If this proves to be the 
general experience, there can be no doubt as to the usefulness of this 
species for growing under glass, and it may prove a foundation for the 
development of a true forcing type. 

G. hlandus Ait. (Fairest Gladiolus) has corms of medium size. The 
leaves are sword-shaped, nerved, and shorter than the stem, which is 
from one to two feet high and bears from three to ten large flowers. The 
segments vary much in size and form in the different varieties; the lower 
segments are the narrower. The perianth is white, tinged with red, the 
lower segments with a reddish blotch at the throat. The flowers appear 
in June and are scentless. The plant blooms freely and propagates 
readily by both seed and comiels. The species was introduced into 
Kew in 1774 by Masson. In the figure of the species in Curiiss Botanical 
Magazine, the plant is shown with conspicuous red lines or markings 
on the spathes. 

G. hlandus var. alhidus Jacq. (Snow-white Gladiolus) has stems one 
foot long, which bear three flowers. The flowers are almost pure white, 
there being only a very light stain on the backs of the petals before they 
expand. 

G. hlandus var. carneiis De la Roche (Pale Purple Gladiolus), known 
in the early lists as G. campamdatus Andrews, is a more robust form, 
with larger, lilac or mauve, flowers. The upper segments are broad 
and overlap one another; the lower ones are narrower but overlap, are 
lighter in color than the upper segments, and are marked by a crescent- 
shaped red spot. This form was introduced in 1796. 

G. hlandus var. excelsus Sweet is a taller-growing and larger-leaved 
form of the species. 

G. hlandus var. Hihhertii Hort. has pink flowers with very distinct 
spade-shaped blotches on the three lower segments. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 139 

G. blaudns var. Morton ins Herb, has steins one and one-half feet long. 
The flowers are white, unth copious faint vertical streaks. The variety 
was introduced about 1835. 

G. cardinalis Curt. (Superb Gladiolus), a beautiful Cape species, was 
given its common name because it grows from three to four feet high, 
bearing from twelve to twenty bright scarlet flowers, with the lower 
segments of the perianth marked by a large diamond-shaped white blotch. 
It is figured in Curtis' s Botanical Magazine, tab. 135 (1790), where 
the statement is made that the species was introduced into England from 
Holland by Grafter and was first flowered by Lewis &Mackie at Kingsland. 
Aiton says it was introduced by Grafter in 1789. The species flowers in 
July and August. It is just hardy in England, and dampness affects 
the corms— which, however, are intolerant of being out of the ground 
long, and consequently it was the practice of growers to plant this 
species in the fall. Allen says it rarely flowers if planted in the spring. 

This species is one of the parents of G. Colvillei, G. ramosus, G. 
pitdibtindiis, G. candidus, and G. incarnatns. It is thought by some to 
be a parent of the gand<jvensis race, but the plant -breeding e\'idence, 
and to a certain extent the characters of the early varieties of this type, 
are against this being a fact. A rose-colored variety called subrosetis 
was raised from G. cardinalis by Jacques in 1847 from seed produced in 
1S44. According to Marloth, this species is found on the moist cHffs 
and grassy ledges of waterfalls in the Wellington, Paarl, and Frenchhoek 
^Mountains, flowering in midsummer (January'). The conn is smaU but 
is provided with numerous long, thin, much-branched roots, which spread 
widely in the bogg\- soil. The species appears to flourish under conditions 
favorable to Disa uniftora, and sometimes the two may be found flowering 
together. The flowers are bright scarlet and crimson; the uppermost 
petal, the largest and hooded, is somewhat paler; the three lower petals 
and sometimes those adjoining them have a white blotch. The flowers 
are faintly scented like some lilies. In nature the plant hangs from 
cliffs, the stems are from three to four feet long, the leaves are from two 
to three feet long, and there are from five to ten flowers on the hanging 
spike. "UTiether the spike is hanging downward (as found under natural 
conditions) or is cut and placed in an upright position in v,-ater, the 
flowers are always in the normal position — that is, with the hooded 
segment uppermost. This is due to a turn of the tube which enables the 
flowers to adjust themselves to conditions under which the individual 
buds open, and appears to be an adaptation for butterflies and birds, 
which visit the flowers for the nectar in the narrow tube and accomplish 
fertilization of the flowers by brushing against the stamens or the stigmas 
that arch over underneath the hood. 



I40 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

G. cruentus Moore (Blood-red, or Bloody, Gladiolus) was introduced 
into England by William Bull, of Chelsea, in 1868. In his catalog for 
187 1 he offered the novelty and thus describes it: 

A very beautiful and entirely novel species of this popular genus introduced from 
Natal. It is not only a very showy plant, but also one of a very distinct character 
and is an acquisition for the flower garden on account of its vigorous habit of growth 
and large brilliantly coloured flowers. It produces a tall scape, two feet high or upwards, 
furnished with long flag-like glaucous leaves nearly an inch wide, the scape terminating 
in a distichous spike of large, broadly campanulate, subringent flowers of a bright 
blood-red colour, the upper segments uniformly coloured and the lower smaller ones 
crimson at the base and scarlet at the apex. The two lateral segments of the lower 
lip are marbled about halfway down with a white zone dotted with crimson, which 
on the exterior edge runs out into a long point, like the flame of the Florist Tulip. This 
distinct species has been figured both in the Botanical Magazine and in the Florist 
and Pomologist. The price per corm is one guinea. 

The flowers are from six to ten in number and appear late in September. 
The spikes possess the valuable quality of de\"eloping after being cut and 
placed in water. The conns are distinguished by their bright yellow color, 
globular form, large size, and thin covering. 

This species is very sensitive to soil conditions, but, according to Van 
Fleet, if healthy conns are planted in nearly pure sand with a stratum' 
of peat for a root run, kept fairly moist, and afforded plenty of sunshine, 
the plants will be strong and leafy with plenty of bloom. The plants will 
not grow in clay soil and seldom thrive in rich garden loam. 

The first hybridizer to use this species was John Standish, of Ascot, 
England, who in October, 187 1, exhibited a hrenchleyensis-cruentus hybrid 
before the Royal Horticultural Society. The following year this hybrid 
was named Alice Wilson. A color plate of it appears in the Florist and 
Pomologist for 1873, P^ge 73. T. Moore says it has more the form of a 
lily than that of an irid. The flowers were comparatively small, with a 
white center, a marginal coloration of rosy carmine, and little of the 
flame-like marking on the lower perianth segments, thus rendering the lily- 
like illusion all the more striking. 

G. princeps was originated by Van Fleet from G. emeritus crossed 
with G. Childsii {G. gandavensis x Saundersii). This variety, says 
the originator, almost exactly reproduces the crimson-scarlet coloring 
with white and cream feathering in the lower segments, but the flat, 
circular flower is expanded to six inches in diameter both ways. The 
plant also is doubled in size in aU its parts. This hybrid retains the pecu- 
liarity of G. eriientus in producing blunt-appearing spikes with apparently 
few flowers. Growth continues, however, until sometimes as many as 
twenty flowers are produced. The spikes show something of the same 
tendency when cut and placed in water that is kept fresh by frequent 
changing. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



141 



G. cuspidatus Jacq. (Tall Gladiolus), a 
native of Cape Colony, was introduced 
more than a centur\" ago. The conns 
are small, being less than three-fourths 
of an inch in diameter. The three leaves 
are narrow, flat, and rigid. The stem 
is from two to three feet long. The 
flowers var\- from four to eight in 
number. The segments are shorter than 
the tube, and generally waved. The 
upper segments are broadest ; the upper- 
most one is nearly straight, but is 
recur\-ed at the end. The color, accord- 
ing to Baker, is white or pale pink, with 
a spade-shaped blotch on each of the 
three lower segments. The plate in 
Ctirtis's Botanical Magazine for 1802 
(Ker, 1 749-182 5. tab. 5S2) shows a 
yellowish white flower, with blotches of 
red. white center, and margins of purple ; 
the anthers are shown as blue. The 
flowers appear in May. This species 
was introduced into Europe in 1785. 

G. dracocephalus Hook. f. (Dragon's 
Head Gladiolus), a Xatal species, was 
introduced by Wilson Saimders and 
flowered at Reigate, England, in August, 
1S70. It was discovered by Cooper in 
that part of Xatal west of the Drach- 
enberg Mountains. The flowers are 
yellow-green closely striped with dull 
purple-red on the upper segments, and 
bright green spotted with purple on the 
lower segments, which are much smaller 
and are recur\-ed. The two outer seg- 
ments are wing-hke with recur\-ed tips; 
the upper segment is arched and hooded. 
The stem is one and one-half feet high, 
bearing from five to seven flowers. This 
species has been used in crossing with 
G. gandavettsis and G. Lemoinei. 





Fig. 9. GL.ADIOLUS DRACOCEPH.\LUS 



142 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

G. grandis Thunb. (Large Brown Afrikander) . is found in the western 
part of Cape Colony, where it flowers in the spring. The larger flowers 
are sweet-scented in the evening. The perianth is yellowish, more or 
less tinged with purplish brown. The flowers vary from one to five, on 
stems from two to two and one-half feet long. The two or three leaves 
are strongly ribbed. The corms are small, from one-half to three-fourths 
inch in diameter. 

Marloth (19 15) distinguishes between G. recurvus and G. maculatus 
Sweet (Small Brown Afrikander). The latter, though similar in shape 
and color of flower to G. grandis, is only about half the size, and flowers 
in the autumn (May- June in the South Temperate Zone). The color 
is a deeper brown. Marloth says it is readily known by its extremely 
strong, almost narcotic, scent, which is especially noticeable in the evening. 
Baker makes G. maculatus Sweet a synonym of G. recurvus, but Marloth 
says G. recurvus has a pleasing fragrance and a different season of flowering, 
as well as a different form of leaves. 

G. oppositiflorus Herb, is found in Transkeian Kaffraria, not, as Herbert 
supposed, in Madagascar; no collector has found it in the latter country. 
The corms are large. The leaves are from three to four in number, some- 
times as many as six, crowded, ensiform, glabrous, and shorter than the 
stem. The whole plant is usually three feet tall, and occasionally five 
feet. The flowers number from thirty to forty in a dense, two-ranked 
spike. The flowers are large, and white with mauve-purple or amethyst 
stripes. Van Fleet says this species is of tall growth, bearing from eighteen 
to twenty-four blooms almost simultaneously, of delicate peach and white 
tints. The species has been looked upon as the parent of the light-colored 
gandavensis forms, and plant breeders have sought to obtain the long- 
desired, meritorious, pure white variety by continued crossing of the best 
white varieties with the purest white seedlings of this species. The results 
indicate that such pure whites as have been obtained are of low vitality 
and reproducing power. 

This species was described by Dean Herbert (1842), but had already 
been noted by him in his work on the Amaryllidaceae in 1837. Herbert 
called attention to the fact that the species was sold by Dutch nurserymen 
under the name of G. floribundus, an old name for a different plant — 
G. floribundus Jacq. The same plant was known as G. flabellifer Tausch, 
and Tausch (1836) states that G. floribundus Hort. Holland (non Jacq.) 
is a synonym. The citation of the same synonym seems to leave little 
doubt that the same species was under consideration, especially when 
there is nothing contrary in the descriptions. 

The reference just given indicates some of the difficulty of deteiTnining 
what species were used in hybridizing. An illustration of G. oppositiflorus 



Gladiolus Studies — I 143 

was published in Citrtis's Botanical Magazine from specimens collected more 
recently, but it is there stated that the plant was identical with herbarivmi 
specimens left by Herbert. 

G. primulintis Baker is from Usagara Mountains, in Africa, and was 
first flowered at Kew in 1S90 from corms sent by J. F. Last, who discovered 
it in 1 8S 7. It was reintroduced by Francis Fox, who procured some plants 
from Rain Forest, Victoria Falls, and flowered them at Wimbledon, Eng- 
land. C. E. Allen says it grows in " one of the wettest spots near the Falls 
in a perpetual deluge." WTien this species was introduced it was regarded 
as a distinct species, but later it was referred to G. Quart: nianits A. Rich., 
which was introduced into cultivation by Sir John Kirk in 1884. The clear, 
tmiform primrose color of the flowers, without any tendency toward 
markings, warrants its retention for hortictiltural purposes. At least 
G. primuliuus has now become better known than G. Ouartinianiis, and 
in garden Hterature it will doubtless be retained. 

G. psittacinns Hook. (Splendid Com Flag) is from the Cape and has 
been called the parrot, or perroquet, gladiolus. In Holland it was early 
known as G. Daeleni, after Dr. Dael, of Brussels, who is said to have 
been the first in Europe to flower it. Reinwardt named it G. natalensis, 
and under one or the other of the latter names it appears in early literature. 
It was first flowered in Great Britain by Richard Harrison, of Liverpool, 
in 1830. from corms procured from Prince de Salm-Dyck. The species was 
figured in the Botanical Register (1831), tab. 1442, and in Curiis's Botanical 
Magazine, tab. 3032. 

Sweet (1832-35) figured and described this species under the name G. 
natalensis Reinw.. Xatal Com Flag. He says it was "* introduced by 
Professor Reinwardt, of Leyden, who has liberally distributed bulbs of 
it to various collections both in this country* and on the Continent. It 
is by far the largest in growth, and in beauty of its flowers it is not sur- 
passed by any others of the genus. The plant seems to be quite as hardy 
as G. byzantintis and requires the same soil and treatment as that species." 
G. psittacinns is one of the parents of G. gandavefisis Hort. 

G. psittacinns var. Cooperi Baker has segments more acute than in 
the type, and the tube is from two and one-half to three inches long. 

G. purpureo-Guratus Hook. f.. from Xatal. was introduced by William 
Bull, of Chelsea (who also introduced G. criientus), and was first flowered 
in England in August. 187 1. This is the hardiest of the African species. 
The corms are large, and the cormels are produced on the ends of running 
rootstocks. The leaves are somewhat glaucous, narrow, and stiff. The 
stems are from one and one-half to two feet tall. From ten to fifteen 
blooms are borne in one rank on the spike. The color of the flowers 
is greenish yellow, with a diamond-shaped maroon blotch on the two 



144 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

lower segments. The flowers are bell-shaped and the spikes bow-like. 
This species is valuable, not for its beauty, but as a parent of garden 
forms. It was used in the development of G. Lemoinei. 

G. recurvus Linn. (Violet-scented Gladiolus) is a native of Cape Colony, 
and was grown by Miller from seed and flowered at Chelsea before 
1760. The stem is from one to two feet tall, is slender, and bears three 
strongly ribbed leaves. The flowers are from two to six in number, sulfur- 
colored, suffused and broadly edged with lilac, and with three stripes on 
each petal. The flowers are very fragrant, with a scent described by 
some writers as similar to that of violets or orris root. The species 
flowers in the northern hemisphere in April and May. This species is 
considered the most fragrant of the genus. It is somewhat intolerant 
of moisture when not in flower, but other\vise it never fails to bloom 
when the corms attain proper age. Marloth, who distinguishes between 
this and G. maculatus Sweet, says the three upper segments are broader 
than the lower, and are pale or dark lilac, and the lower segments are 
yellow with mauve or lilac points and similar streaks. The plant is fre- 
quent in the Cape flats and elsewhere, where it flowers in the spring 
(August) and is known by the common name Mauve Afrikandes. This 
species was introduced into Kew in 1774, where it was named G. carinatus. 
Miller's description is full and complete, but his figure is incorrect as 
the stem is not branched. 

G. tristis Linn. (Sad-colored Gladiolus), an African species, was given 
its name by Linnaeus because of the color of its flowers, which, however, 
are scarcely somber enough to deserve the name. The color is pale 
yeUow, with dark brown spots. The blossoms are sweet-scented from 
dusk to dawn. The flowers appear in April and May on stems one and 
one-half feet high. The leaves are linear, four-sided, and furrowed. 
This was one of the first species brought from the Cape, and was cultivated 
by Philip Miller as early as 1745. 

G. tristis var. concolor vSalisb. was formerly known as G. concolor. This 
plant is so named because of the almost concolorous white and pale yellow 
flowers. Like the type, it is fragrant in the evening. The foliage has 
the peculiar characters of G. tristis. Like the type also, it endures little 
cold, and because of its early flowering must be grown in a frame. 

HYBRID GLADIOLI 

The variety Bellona is a hybrid between G. cuspidatns and G. papilio, 
raised and introduced by Dammann in 1899. In his catalog for the 
year Dammann described it as " an early -flowered gladiolus of most 
peculiar form and color. Leaves green, narrow and lanceolated, stalk 
about sixteen inches high, very rich-flowered. Petals long, rolled and 



Gladiolus Studies — I 145 

pointed; leaves dark salmon, steel blue with black spots. A new gladiolus 
not yet seen." 

G. brenchleyensis is usually considered a form of G. gaiidavcnsis, although 
the persistency with which it has retained its individuality through a 
period of more than sixty-five years might lend weight to the belief that 
it is more than G. gmidavensis . The early histor}^ of G. brenchleyensis is 
not definitely known. In 1848 this variety was recorded as a hybrid 
between G. psittacinns and G. florihundus, raised by Mr. Hooker, of 
Brenchley, about 1846.^^ The stock, or a considerable proportion of it, 
passed into the possession of the Youells. of Yarmouth, who were for 
years the largest growers of G. brenchleyensis in England. Their notable 
displays of this h}-brid did more to direct the attention of the public 
to the merits of this excellent variety than did the eftorts of any one 
else. The flowers are vivid scarlet, with pencilings of yellow in the 
throat. They are only medium in size, but the great number open at one 
time produce a briUiant eftect. The plant is therefore ver}- useful in the 
garden, where it is a vigorous grower. It is considered by many growers 
to be the best scarlet variety, and is grown for its good color for table 
decorations. In Europe this gladiolus is often recommended for bedding 
with Galtonia candicans. Barr, in 1905, introduced ^Mikado, a sport of 
G. brenchleyensis which was described as having flowers of a pale blush-rose 
shading to cream, with the lower petal striped crimson on a primrose- 
colored ground. 

G. candicans is a blandus-carditialis hybrid producing a pure white 
flower of good size and appearance. This was raised by Mr. Miller, of 
Bristol, about 1837. 

G. cajididns is a h^'brid between G. blaudns and G. cardinalis, raised 
by Mr. Miller, of Bristol, about 1837, and figured in Smith's Floral 
Magazine. 

G. Childsii has been one of the most important types in America. It 
is a hybrid between G. gaiidavcnsis and G. Saundcrsii, originally produced 
by Max Leichtlin, of Baden-Baden, Germany. Leichtlin was perhaps 
the first to appreciate the value of G. Saundersii, which he used in 1874 in 
crossing with some of the best varieties of G. gandavensis. The first flowers 
appeared in 1877 and the influence of the cross was especially manifest in 
the size of the flowers, which, according to LeichtHn, measured four inches 
across. The results of this hybridization work were reported in 1882. 

Leichtlin appears to have disposed of his stock in the autumn of 1882 
to Godefroy-Lebeuf, of Argenteuil, France. This new class of hybrids, 
however, seems not to have met with favor at the hands of European 

'^ George Bunvard stated in igio that his firm obtained G. brenchleyensis from Hooker and sold it to 
the Youells. Henry Youell (igii). in an address before the American Gladiolus Society, gives an 
entirely different account of its origin. 



146 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

growers, who were attracted by the new Lemoinei group, and corms of 
G. Leichtlinii Hort. passed into other hands. The stock was purchased 
in 1884 (Childs says 1887) by V. H. Hallock, who continued to raise 
seedHngs until 1891, when he sold the entire stock to John Lewis Childs. 
Until that time these gladioli were usually known as G. Leichtlinii, after 
the originator; but as none of the stock was in the hands of commercial 
growers, Childs decided to change the name of the group to G. Childsii, 
and under this name he sent out the following varieties in 1893: Ben 
Hur, Columbia, Dr. Sellew, Henry Gilhnan, Mrs. Beecher, William 
Falconer. These were shown in a color plate in Childs' catalog for the 
year mentioned. The price was one dollar per corm, or five dollars for 
the set of six varieties. In 1894 the varieties Aurea Superba, Mrs. La 
Mance, Ruby, Splendor, Torchlight, and Tuxedo were added. No 
varieties were added the following year, but in 1896 thirty-four varieties 
were introduced. Thirteen were added in 1897, seventeen in 1898, and 
twelve in 1899. 

Since 1899 many varieties have been sent out, and, while it is probable 
that at present there is not a distinct Childsii group except in so far as 
it is represented by some of the original varieties remaining in the market, 
it can be safely said that this group revolutionized gladiolus culture in 
America. Although the first varieties sent out were not favorably received 
by European and some American growers, nevertheless the general superi- 
ority of these varieties to the gandavensis varieties was recognized, and 
G. Childsii served as a foundation for further improvement by American 
hybridizers. 

G. Colvillei is generally regarded as a hybrid between G. cardinalis 
and G. tristis var. concolor. Dean Herbert thought it was a hybrid between 
G. cardinalis and G. blandus. The variety originated with Mr. Colville 
at Chelsea in 1823. Sweet (1826-27) states that it was raised by Colville 
from seeds of G. concolor that had been fertilized by the pollen of G. 
cardinalis. He publishes a color plate of the flowers and gives the 
following description of the plant: 

Stem slightly flexuose (in our specimen about 18 inches in height), leafy, slightly 
angular, glaucous. Flowers secund or all facing one side. Perianthium tubular, 
ringent with a six-parted spreading limb, of a bright red, with pale purple margins; 
tube scarcely as long as the spathe in the lower flowers and rather longer in the upper 
ones, bent forward near the limb; lacinise unequal, obtuse, upper one more than double 
the size of the others, elliptic, slightly twisted or incurved near the point, the others 
oblong with the margins also incurv-ed or involute near the points; three lower ones 
marked with a white spot which is lanceolate in the lower one and ovate in the others 
running down in a narrow line to the base of the lacinias, on each side of which it is 
bright purple. Pollen white. 

Baker (1892) describes this hybrid as having "bright scarlet sub-erect 
flowers, with oblong acute segments, with a lanceolate blotch of bright 



Gladiolus Studies — I 147 

yellow at the base of the three lower." The color as shown in the color 
plate in Flore des Serres (Van Houtte, 1873) shows yellow blotches bordered 
with white, which contrast with the bright color. The flowers of G. Col- 
villei are fragrant, which points to G. tristis or G. tn'stis var. concolor as 
one of the parents. 

The white variety of G. Golvillei seems to have been discovered about 
1872. It is said to have appeared as a sport in two horticultural estab- 
lishments in Holland in the same year. It was figured, together with 
G. Cohillei, in Flore des Serres (Van Houtte. 1873). The plate shows 
a pure white variety with yellow lanceolate blotches on the lower segments. 
This sport, known as G. Cohillei albus. had colored anthers and was sup- 
planted later by the variety -n-ith white anthers known commercially as 
G. Cok-illei The Bride. 

G. Colvillioid^s, a hybrid produced by crossing a variety of G. Lenioinei 
with G. angustus (the latter a form closely related to G. tristis), resembles 
G. Cohillei but has yellow flowers. The leaves are long and straight, with 
prominent ribs. The stems are slender and erect, and bear medium-sized 
flowers. The color is a pure chrome yellow, \s-ith three triangular black 
spots or blotches. The normal time of flowering is the early part of July, 
but if the conns are planted in the autumn and protected during the 
winter by glass frames they may be made to flower with G. Cohillei. 
This hybrid was originated by Lemoine and was offered as a novelt}- in 
the autumn of 1903. 

G. delicahis is a hybrid between G. rcaircus and G. hlandus, raised by 
Dean Herbert. 

G. dracocephalus has long been known, but sesms not to have been 
employed in hybridizing until recent years. Jackson (1889) described 
the dracocephalus-gandavensis hybrids of C. Sander as being of great 
size, strong, and floriferous. He states that a large proportion bear 
flowers entirely free from the stripes in the lower petals common to 
G. gandavensis. This is due to the dracocephalus blood and is a 
step toward self-color. "UTiether these hybrids were introduced is 
unknown. 

The veteran hybridizer. Lemoine. offered his dracocephalus hybrids in 
1900. These were produced by crossing G. dracocephalus and some of the 
varieties of G. Lemoinei. The form of the flowers indicates their origin, 
while the singular spots, or macules, produce a striking eftect. The first 
varieties sent out were Cheret. Forain. Leonnee. Luc-OHvier Merson, 
Paul Baudn.-. and Roty. Since 1900 other varieties have appeared each 
year. A list of these varieties, together with the dates of their introduction, 
follows : 



148 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



Aiiequin 

Benvenuto Cellini.. 

Cham 

Chaplain 

Cheret 

Crafty 



Daumicr . 
Dubufe . . 



Eugene Manuel . 

Falguiere 

Fatalite 

Figaro 

Forain 

Fragonard 

Frangois Villon . 



Henriot . 
Illusion. 



1904 

1902 

1900 
1901 
1900 
1900 

1900 
1901 

1901 

1908 
1907 
1906 
1900 
1904 
1913 

1900 
1907 



Le Masque 

Leonnee 

Louis Frangais 

Luc-Olivier Merson . 



Mars 

Mascaraade . . 
Michel- Ange . 

Miracle 

Misanthrope. 
Mohican. . . . 
Mystere 



Nabab 

Nostradamus . 



Papillon 

Paul Bai'.dry . . . 
Pierre Gringore . 



1904 
1900 
1901 
1900 

1900 
1907 
1902 
1907 
1906 
1908 
1904 

1906 
1907 

1904 
1900 
1903 



Quasimodo 1904 



Rabelais. 
Radiant . 



1903 
1901 



Ribera 1902 

Rigoletto 1908 

Robinson 1904 

Rodin 1908 

Ronsard 1903 

Roty 1900 

Semaphore 1901 

Spirite 1907 

Tabarin 1903 

Tharsis 1906 

Thebiade 1906 

Turlupin 1906 

Tyran 1907 

Ugolin 1907 

Velasquez 1902 

Vendetta 1908 

Virgile 1902 

Watteaw 1904 

Werther 1902 

Willette 19^0 



Earl}^ Gladioli, Glaieuls Precoces, are hybrids produced b}^ Lemoine 
and offered by him in his catalog no. 149, for 1901-1902. It is there 
stated that these varieties are hybrids between some of Lemoine's earliest 
varieties and the Httle-known species G. Leichtlinii and G. aiirantiacus. 
This race flowers, it is said, about a month in advance of the earliest of 
the previously introduced varieties. When set out in April the plants 
flower in June; and if set out in the autumn with the protection of a 
glass frame, they develop their flowers at the same time as G. Colvillei. 
The varieties offered in the autumn of 1901 were Eclaireur, Mesager, 
Pleiade, and Precocite. Since these were introduced there have appeared 
the following: 



Favori 1904 

Fraicheur 1905 

Giralda 1906 

Grenade 1906 

Gyges 1910 

Melrose 1908 



Melusine 1910 

Oasis 1908 

Parnasse 1910 

Phenix 1905 

Success 1905 

Vision 1904 



Alhambra 1 906 

Aurora 1908 

Brasier 1905 

Calchas 1910 

Carmen 1906 

Couquete 1908 

Emblemc 1910 

G. excelsior covers hybrids of the best varieties of G. gandavensis crossed 
with G. nanceianus. The flowers are described as very large and open, 
ranging in color from salmon-scarlet to soft blush-rose with a scarlet or 
cream- colored blotch, or a crimson blotch on a white ground. Barr 
offered these varieties as a new strain in his catalog for 1903. 

The name Express Gladioli has been applied to the crosses of G. alatus 

with G. cuspidatiis produced by C. G. van Tubergen, jr., of Haarlem, 

Holland. Van Tubergen (1907:440) describes them as follows: 

A selection of crosses between G. alatus and G. cuspidatus aie dwarf -growing, very 
free-flowering gladioli which flower in the open ground quite three weeks before the 



Gladiolus Studies — I 149 

earliest of the nanus or ramosiis sections, which, as is well known, precede the gandavensis 
and other strains in time of flowering from tliree to four weeks. These alatiis x 
cuspidatus gladioli, apart from their usefulness in flowering so early in the open ground 
(end of May\ are ver\- welcome additions to the gladiolus family, as each bulb 
produces from two to five spikes of about a foot in height, with flowers of fair size and 
of a charming colour of rosy-salmon with golden-brown markings. They are admi- 
rable for filling small glasses for table decoration, and other choice floral work. This 
strain I named "Express." 

G.Jormosissimus is a hybrid uniting the abundant jflowering of G. ramosus 
with the colors of G. cardinalis, though not so brilliant as the latter. It 
first flowered in 1S42, and for many years was one of the leading varieties 
of the early-flowering group. 

G. fragrans is a hybrid between G. recurvus and G. tn'siis, raised by Dean 
Herbert. The flowers are variegated and sweet-scented. The plant is 
moderately hardy. 

G. gandavensis is probably a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. oppos- 
itiflorus. It was originated by M. Beddinghaus, gardener to the Due 
d'Aremberg at Enghien, who made some crosses in 1837. One of the 
restdting seedlings, which was much admired by all who saw it. passed 
into the control of Louis van Houtte. of Ghent, who named it G. ganda- 
vensis and introduced it in his catalog no. 6, for 1S41. He described it 
in glowing terms, as follows: " In stateliness and color it exceeds aU others 
we have seen among gladioli. Its dimensions sttrpass ramosus; its majestic 
flowers to the nimiber of eighteen or twenty are of the most charming 
vermilion; their inferior petals, adorned with chrome, amaranth, and 
brown, are relieved by anthers of an azure blue which descends to the 
center of the flower. At the moment I write all Ghent comes to admire it." 
Van Houtte thought it a hybrid between G. psittacinus and G. cardinalis, 
but this is doubtful. 

This variety was the fovmdation of a new race which has been known 
as Gladiolus gandavensis. Probably two thousand varieties have been 
named and sent out. This group led all others for garden planting from 
about 1850 to 18S0, when the Lemoinei varieties came in, closely followed 
by the nanceianus and Cliildsii varieties. It. is stiU important, and may 
be regarded as holding a position in gladiolus development in some respects 
analagous to that of the hybrid perpetual roses in the avolution of 
garden roses. 

G. haylockianus is a hybrid between G. recurvus and G. blandus, raised 
by Dean Herbert. Mrs. Loudon describes the flowers as pale and slightly 
variegated. 

G. Herbertianus is a hybrid between G. tristis and G. spofforthianus, 
raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. incarnatus is a hybrid between G. blandus and G. cardinalis, raised 
about 1837 by Miller, of Bristol. It produces large, weU-formed flowers 
of a pale pink color. 



i^o- Cornell Extension Bulletin y 

G. insignis is described in Paxtons Magazine of Botany (volume 7, 
pages 223 and 224) as a handsome hybrid with very long narrow leaves, 
and apparently drooping flower stalks on which the blossoms are borne 
chiefly on the upper side. The flowers are of a rich reddish crimson hue, 
with a dash of bluish purple in the center of the lower segments of the 
perianth. The parentage of this hybrid is unknown, but it was probably 
raised by Colville, as it was found in a collection purchased by Lucombe 
Pince & Co., of the Exeter Nursery, at the sale of Colville's nursery. 
It flowered with the new owiiers in July, 1839, and is figured on a color 
plate in Paxtons Magazine of Botany, voltune 7 (1840), page 223. 

G. Lemoinei (Large Spotted Gladioli) forms a group which had its 
origin in a hybrid made by Victor Lemoine between G. purpureo-auratus 
and some of the best G. gandavensis varieties. The original cross was made 
in 1875, and three seedlings were obtained, of which two — Lemoinei and 
Marie Lemoine — were named and later sent out. The new hybrids 
were exhibited at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1878, where they 
attracted considerable attention from amateurs. The two varieties were 
identical except in general color effect. Lemoinei was rosy white and 
Marie Lemoine straw color, both having on the lower segments large 
blotches of purple bordered with yellow. The two varieties were hardy, 
like the female parent, in the open ground at Nancy. In 1880 these 
varieties were offered for sale, and in 1882 five additional varieties — 
Lafayette, Cavaignac, L'Abbe Gregiore, John Thorpe, and Rochambeau — 
were introduced. To these were added, in the autuinn of 1882, Enfant 
de Nancy, Victor Hugo, Stanley, AdeHaque, Cleopatre, Christophe 
Colombo, Incendie, and Mars. 

Varieties with a tendency toward blue appeared early in the development 
of this type. Gambetta (1885), Emile Galle (1887), Baron Joseph Hulot 
(1896), represent the successive steps in the development of the blue 
varieties. 

G. Lowii is said by De Jonghe (1843) to have the same parentage as 
G. gandavensis. It was offered by Jacob Makoy in 1842. 

G. mas sinensis is a hybrid of G. psiitacinus and G. gandavensis, and 
was announced by Krelage as a new race in 1892. The hybrid was the 
result of testing the opinion held by some growers, that in order to secure 
greater vigor and resistance to disease it would be necessary to turn 
again to the world's species and use these in further crossing. This 
hybrid had, it was said, all the bad qualities of G. psiitacinus, and it was 
apparent that the modern gladiolus had certain qualities resulting from 
its fifty years of improvement which could not be ignored by plant 
breeders if their results were to meet the approval of gardeners and 
florists. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 151 

G. mitchamiensis is a hybrid resulting from crossing G. tristis and G. 
hirsutus. It is named after ]Mitchain. where Dean Herbert, who raised 
it, resided about 18 10. The flowers are beautifully variegated. incUning 
toward G. tristis. 

G. nanceiamts is a hybrid produced by crossing G. Saundersii with 
some of the first Lenioinei varieties. The flowers are larger than the 
Lenioittei varieties, well open, and marked with pecuhar mottling or 
with short, fine, often parallel, strokes of contrasting colors. The plants 
of the different varieties van.- considerably in ^"^go^, some exceeding any 
of the varieties of the other garden groups. The spikes of some of the 
more vigorous nanceiamis varieties are often six feet high and bear 
flowers seven inches across. As in the case of G. Let)ioinei, the varieties sent 
out by Lemoine are hardy under conditions similar to those of the place 
of origin. The first varieties. President Camot and Maurice de Vilmorin, 
resulted from the crosses between G. Lemoiuei and G. Saundersii in 
1S83. The seedlings flowered in 1885 and were placed on the market in 
18S9. These forerunners of a new type were shown at the Universal 
Exposition in Paris in 1889, and exhibited in the same year by Veitch & 
Son at the meeting of the Royal Hortictdtural Society in London. 

G. nanus (Dwarf Gladioh) is the tenn apphed to a nvmiber of earlv- 
flowering dwarf gladioli which differ from one another in the arrangement 
of flowers and in the disposition of the spots of color. Most of them 
are probably derived from G. cardinalis and G. ramosus, although G. 
hlandus, G. tristis, and some others are probably concerned. This class 
lias been largeh' developed by florists of the Channel Islands and in the 
Low Countries. The literature concerning the varieties is scantv or 
not readily available. G. Colvillei is undoubtedly the oldest varietv of 
this class, and its white fonn (G. Colvillei albus. The Bride) is extensivelv 
employed for forcing. 

G. odoraius is a hybrid between G. hirsutus and G. spoforthiamis, 
raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. praecox forms a group reported to have arisen from intercrossing 
the earHest varieties of G. gandavetisis , G. Lemoinci, G. Ckildsii, and G. 
nanceianus. It is said that in color and size the flowers are the equal 
of those of any other group. The especial merit of this new group is 
that it can be grown from seed since seedlings flower the first year. The 
group was originated by Frederick Roemer. 

G. princeps is a hybrid between G. cruenius and G. Childsii, produced 
by \'an Fleet, who gave the histor\- of it as follows (Van Fleet. 1904) : 

Gladiolus Cruenius has round. wridel\--opened blooms about two inches across when 
:ullv developed, bright blood-red in color, with broad white markings in the throat, 
particularly at the bases of the lower petals or perianth di\-isions. It grows two or 
more feet high, with broad, handsome foliage, with a characteristic droop to the tips 



152 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

of the leaves. It is usually short-lived under cultivation, thriving best in well-drained 
peaty soils. 

Mrs. Beecher, the pollen parent of G. Princeps, I understand, is one of the original 
Childsi varieties grown by the late Herr Max Leichtlin, of Baden Baden, Germany — ■ 
from seed of G. Saundersi pollinated with a superior Gandavensis variety. Plants 
of Mrs. Beecher grow over four feet high with long, straight spikes of widely-opened 
blooms often five inches across. The color, though disposed very much in the manner 
of G. Cruentus, is rather dull crimson with speckled white throat. 

Owing to the similarity of color pattern of the two varieties I made many pollinations 
in 1895 of Cruentus with Mrs. Beecher and seventy-two seedlings resulted, blooming 
in 1896-7. Princeps was the most vigorous and in some respects the most attractive 
and was so named by Herr Leichtlin, who introduced it to the Botanic Gardens of 
Europe in succeeding years, on account of its great international value and wide general 
recognition. I have since made many hundreds of crosses of Cruentus, which is a very 
shy seeder, with the best procurable species and varieties, resulting in some exceedingly 
handsome hybrids, but have found few worthy to send out as companions of Princeps. 

The stock of Princeps was sold in 1902 to Vaughan's Seed Store for $1000 — a record 
price at the time, but since greatly exceeded for the stocks of successful novelties — 
and introduced by them the succeeding year. 

Princeps has probably the most extensive list of high awards from representative 
horticultural societies ever achieved by a Gladiolus variety and is still frequently 
exhibited and commented on in home and foreign gardening periodicals. 

G. propinquus is a hybrid between G. florihimdus and G. blandus, 
resembling the latter. It wsls raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. pudibundus (Blush-flowered Corn Flag) was figured by Sweet (1832- 
35), and described by him as follows: 

This is a hybrid, we believe, between Gladiolus cardinalis and blandus and was raised 
by the Honorable and Reverend William Herbert to whom we are obliged for the 
specimen figured in the plate. 

Stem from two to three feet high, straight, cylindrical, smooth. Leaves broadly 
ensiform, acuminate, ribbed, of a pale green. Flowers large, ofa brillant rose color, 
about ten in number, distantly alternate and disposed in a distichous spike. The 
three lower segments marked with a pale whitish lanceolate spot having a deep red 
edge. Anthers purple. Filaments and style declinate, white. Stigmas linear-cuneate, 
notched, concave, copiously papillose. 

G. ramosissimus is probably a hybrid. It is mentioned in Gardeners' 
Chronicle, 1842, page 171, as ranking next to G. cardinalis and 6^. psittacinus 
in beauty. The plant is tall, and bears a profusion of pale rosy pink 
flowers. 

G. ramosus (Branching Gladiolus) is a hybrid which originated at 
Haarlem from seed of G. blandus or G. floribundus, according to a writer 
in Revue Horticole in 1838. Some persons regarded it as a distinct species 
from the Cape of Good Hope. These doubtless confused it with the G. 
ramosus of Linnaeus, which has since been referred to the genus Melas- 
phaerula Ker. Baker thinks this form is a hybrid between G. oppositi- 
florus and G. cardinalis. 

The plant is tall, with heavy, broad leaves. The flowers are openly 
funnel-shaped, bright red, with dark blotches at the base of the three 
lower segments. The flower has a general resemblance to that of G: 
blandus. This type blossomed later than the varieties of the blandus 
and cardinalis groups, and was for a long time an important one in the 



Gladiolus Studies — ^ I i^o 

garden. The corms should be planted in the fall, since the variety does 
not flower well if planted in the spring. It is not hardv, and can be 
brought safely through the winter only by planting in weU-drained soil 
and protecting with a heavy mulch, or by planting in a cold frame. 

G. rigidus is a hybrid between G. tristis and G. hlandiis, but inclining 
toward the latter. It was raised by Dean Herbert. 

G. schivarizenbergianus is a hybrid with the same ancestrv as G. ganda- 
vensis, and was listed by Jacob Alakoy in 1S42. 

G. splendidus is another hybrid with the same parentage as G. gmtda- 
vensis, offered by Jacob Makoy in 1S42. 

G. spofforthianus is a hybrid between G. cardinalis and G. hlandus, 
raised by Dean Herbert. The flowers show more resemblance to G. 
blandus than to G. cardinalis. The name was given to honor Spofforth, 
the home of its originator. 

G. Sternii is a hybrid raised by Beddinghaus and introduced bv Jacob 
Makoy in 1842. 

G. turicensis is a hybrid between G. Saundersii and G. gandavensis, 
oftered by "SI. Froebel, of Zurich, Switzerland, in 1S89. This hvbrid 
was cataloged in the United States by Peter Henderson in 1891. 

G. Victorialis is a hybrid between G. byzantimis and G. cardinalis. It 
originated with Dammann, who oftered it in 1893 with the following 
description : 

A new early-flowering class of gladioli standing the winter well. It is the first hybrid 
gladiolus between a European and a Cape species. The habit of the plant stands 
between those of its parents. It is dwarf, robust, and rich flowering. The flowers 
are pink or dark red, and the inner segments are striped like those of the -\frican 
Gladiolus cardinalis. They appear about the middle of April, are large, ver}- open, 
and somewhat scented. The Gladiolus Victorialis offers quite a new field to the' grower 
as he may further tr}- to imite the beauty of the African species and the hardiness 
of the European kinds. Well adapted for the market and cutting. 

G. vitriacensis is a hybrid between one of the Lemoinei varieties and 
some of the early-flowering forms known as G. nanus. The flowers are 
reported as being of meditmi size and brick red in color, with the character- 
istic blotches of the dwarf type. The plant, however, is taller and more 
\'igorous than the dwarf type. This form was offered in 19 13 by Cayeux 
et Le Clerc, who have seedlings of other colors ready for introduction. 
The value of this type is that it fllls the gap between the early- and late- 
flowering groups. 

G. Willmoreanus is a hybrid of G. gandavensis and G. floribuitdus. The 
flower is creamy white, with the three upper segments streaked deHcate 
rosy purple. It resembles G. psittacinus in form, but not in color. The 
variety was introduced as G. natalensis var. Willmoreanus. Alhed to 
this were the follo^Hng varieties: G. oldfordiensis — flowers large, deHcate 



154 Cornell Extension Bt^^letin q 

salmon marked with purple; G. roseo-purpureus — flowers of medium size, 
of a deep rosy red marked with deep purple-red ; Wellington — flowers 
large, deep orange-red. All these were raised by Mr. Cole, gardener to 
Mr. Willmore, of Oldford, and were noted in the Floricultiiral Cabinet 
for 1850, page 295. 

HISTORY OF GLADIOLUS IN AMERICA 

The gladiolus was not an important garden flower in America one 
hundred years ago, and in comparison with other flowers it received 
scant treatment in the garden books of the period. McMahon (1806) 
mentions "gladioluses," or "gladiolus's," incidentally in his brief dis- 
cussion of the culture of hardy bulbs, and likewise in connection with 
Cape and greenhouse bulbs. A list of species with the common name 
of each, taken from English garden works, is given at the end of his book. 
As will be seen later, these species were not cataloged in this country. 
Green (1828) does not mention gladioli. Sayers (1838) names the following 

species : 

Tender bulbous plants 

Gladiolus versicolor Variegated May, June 

G. cardinalis Dark red May, July 

G. psittacinus Yellow 

Florists' flowers 

Gladiolus alatus, bright orange G. floribunda 

G. hyzantium, delicate purple G. fragrans recurvus 

G. carneus, flesh-colored G. hirsutus rosea 

G. cardinalis, superb scarlet G. psittacina (parrot-like) 

A few years later the works of Breck (1851), Bridgeman (1847), and 
others gave more space to the culture of gladioli, but it was not until 
the time of the Civil War that there seems to have been a,ny considerable 
interest in the flower. 

The most extensive collection of gladioli offered by any of the pioneer 
American seedsmen was that of William Prince, who in 1825 offered the 
following species and varieties : 

Gladiolus (Com flag, or sword lily) 
Class, Triandria; Order, Monogynia 

1. Gladiolus communis, purple 

2. Gladiolus communis, rose-colored 

3. Gladiolus communis, large red 

4. Gladiolus communis, flesh-colored 

5. Gladiolus byzantinus, or Turkish flag 

6. Gladiolus segetum 

7. Gladiolus Watsonius, or scarlet flag 

8. Gladiolus tyger, yellow 

9. Gladiolus, large African 



ch 


Per dozen 


■50 


$5.00 


•25 


2.50 


•50 


5.00 


•50 


3.00 


•50 


5.00 


■50 


5.00 


50 


5.00 


50 


5.00 



Gladiolus Studies — I lee 

Under Greenhouse Plants the following are given: 

735. Rose-colored gladiolus, G. africanus roseo 

736. Yellow gladiolus, G. africamis lutec 

737. Xarrow-leaved red gladiolus, G. angustifolia rubra 

738. Two-spotted gladiolus, G. bimaculatus 

739. Sad-flowering gladiolus, G. triste 

The first species was offered at 12 cents for each bulb, the next three 
kinds at 20 cents, the fifth kind at 25 cents, the sixth at 50 cents, and all 
the others at Si each. 

The oldest American catalog constilted in this work was that of Grant 
Thorbiirn for 1824. Here are offered "Gladiolus, or Sword Lily, beau- 
tiful," at 12 cents, and "Gladiolus by name, superb varieties," at 50 
cents each. Thorbum offered in 1827 the following gladioli, the prices 

of which also are interesting: 

E; 

alatus, or wing-flowered Bright orange $ 

byzantimis, or Turkish flag Delicate purple 

carneus Flesh-colored 

cardinalis, or large-flowered Superb scarlet 

floribundus, or cluster-flowered 

fragrans recurviis, or sweet-scented 

Jrimiculata 

hirsutis roseo, or rose-colored 

The catalog of Thorbum for 1832 includes psittax:ina (parrot-like), a 
new and splendid variety sold at 75 cents each or $6 a dozen. Frimi- 
culata was dropped. Aside from these two changes the hst is similar to 
the preceding. 

Landreth in 1828 cataloged G. undulahis and G. carneus. 

The editor of American Gardeners' Magazine stated in 1835 that G. 
byzantimis, G. cardinalis, and G. communis were the only kinds observed 
in the gardens around Boston. In the same year S. Sweetser read a paper 
at the January meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultiu-al Society, 
entitled Remarks on the Management of Gladiolus natalensis (now properly 
known as G. psittacinus) . He had flowered the species the year before 
from bulbs procured from Thorbum, who imported the species in 1832 
and offered it to his customers. Later (in 1835) it was stated that G. Col- 
villei and G. tristis were flowered by Mr. Gushing. Baron von Ludwig 
sent a collection of bulbs to the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 
1836, and among them were G. hirsutus, G. blandus, and G. alatus. Marshall 
P. Wilder flowered and exhibited G. floribundus and G. pudibundus (a 
hybrid raised by Dean Herbert) in 1837. 

Hovey & Co. in 1839 offered corms of G. natalensis at 20 cents each, 
and of G. floribundus at 50 cents each. 

R. Btiist in 1844-45 cataloged the species bimacidatus, blandus, byzan- 
tinus, cardinalis, Colvillei, floribundus, formosissimus, galeatus, hirsutus. 



156 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

inflatus, insignis, praecox, psiUacinus, pudihundus, ramosus, roseus, and 
undulatus, and the variety Queen Victoria. G. ramosus, G. insignis, 
and G. formosissimus were $2 each, while Queen Victoria corms were 
$2.50 each. 

The editor of the Magazine of Horiicidture says (on page 6 of volume for 
1846) that the variety Queen Victoria, and the species G. gandavensis 
and G. ramosus, have already flowered in this country. G. Christianus 
was exhibited on July 18 of the same year, and G. belvideriis on August i. 
G. Wilhelmus and the variety Lizette were exhibited on June 26, 1S47, a^i^d 
G. Liebnitzii was exhibited on July 24. 

The culture of gladioli, however, was not very common at this time. 
An amateur florist wrote as follows (Anon\"mous reference, 1848 a) : 

The Gladiolus. — This is one of the finest l^ulbs in the world for the open border in 
this country. The common Gladiolus, or "sword lily," (G. comnmnis,) with purple 
flowers, and the green striped, or Parrot Gladiolus, (G. psittacina,) are well known 
hardy border, flowers. But the finer new hybrid species and varieties, so well known 
in Belgium, (where they cultivate above forty sorts,) are very seldom seen in the United 
States, except in the gardens of the largest collectors. 

They are well worthy of more attention. The roots of these new sorts are very 
easily preserved through the winter in a cellar or green-house; and nothing can well 
be more gay, brilliant, or delicate than the colours of many of the finer sorts, — 
G. cardinalis, gandavensis, roseus, etc., with all the shades of flesh colour, rose, pink, 
deep scarlet, and purple, in their long spikes of blossoms. They also come into bloom 
at midsummer, when there are comparatively few flowers in our borders. Good, 
rich, sandy loam, and an open exposure, will, in this climate, grow them to our great 
satisfaction. 

Hovey in 1852 listed the following species and varieties under the head 
Greenhouse Bidhs: blandus, cardinalis, Colvillei, floribundus, gandavensis, 
Lord John Russell, natalensis. Prince Albert, pudibundus. Queen Victoria, 
ramosus. In 1854 the following were added: Apollon, Eugenie, Inter- 
medius, psiUacinus major, rosea carnea, Ulysses. 

From the foregoing it is evident that many, if not all, of the new kinds 
appearing in Europe were offered to American growers. That the importa- 
tions were made is sufficient indication of an interest in gladioli, but up 
to 1852 the writer -has not discovered any record of new varieties being 
produced in America. 

E. S. Rand, jr., as chairman of the floral committee of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, published with his report for 1858 a paper on the 
culture of the gladiolus, in which he expressed the hope that seedlings 
would be raised. It appears later that Mr. Rand and others acted upon 
the suggestion, for the following statement is found in the history of the 
above-named society: "This year [1863] witnessed the commencement 
of those profuse and beautiful displays of seedling gladioH." Mr. Rand 
exhibited in 1863 seedHng no. 12, rosy salmon, which was commented 
upon favorably by the committee. A week later, on September 5, he 



Gladiolus Studies — I 157 

exhibited no. 2, white, a fine hybrid between Sulphuria and Berthe 
Raboiirdin. On September 12 he exhibited seedling no. 13, light sahnon 
in color. John Hogan exhibited five seedlings on August 22, and James 
McTear nine on August 29 and one on September 12. 

W. C. Strong, E. S. Rand, jr., George Craft, Francis Parkman, and James 
AIcTear were the principal exhibitors of seedlings in 1864. Craft won 
the silver and bronze medals. Elnora (Craft), the variety awarded the 
silver medal, was a pure white, in some cases faintly flaked with violet, the 
center petal feathered maroon on delicate lemon ground; it was charac- 
terized by a bold spike, a large flower, a neat and compact face, and 
vigorous habit. Colonel Wilder Wright (Craft), the variety awarded 
the bronze medal, was of the reverse-flowered form, carnation in color, 
marbled and mottled with carmine, the lower petals heavily marked and 
feathered with carmine-purple; its size, form, and habit were good. 
McTear exhibited Jeanie Dean, which was white marked with crimson- 
puq^le; other varieties from the same exhibitor were Salmonia and Exem- 
plar. Strong was awarded a first class certificate for a variety which was 
brilliant cherr\'-carmine in color, shaded violet-purple, the lower divisions 
of the petals marked vdth a distinct white line. The report for 1864 
would indicate that there must have been a remarkable interest in the 
production of new varieties, for McTear exhibited twelve, Parkman 
twenty. Craft thirty-eight, and Strong forty-two seedlings during that 
season. 

James McTear won the silver medal for the best seedling exhibited 
in 1865. George Craft exhibited, among other seedlings, the varieties 
Mrs. Westcott, Elnora, and Fair}^ W. C. Strong exhibited his new 
seedling Parkmanii. 

Silver medals were awarded to George Craft and J. S. Richards in 1867; 
to J. S. Richards for his seedling The Bride, and to Francis Parkman, 
in 1868; to J. S. Richards in 1869; to J. S. Richards for Elegantissima in 
1871; to A. McLaren in 1872; and to James Comley in 1S74. Bronze 
medals were awarded to J. S. Richards in 1872, and to W. H. Spooner for 
Diamond in 1878. First class certificates were awarded to Francis Park- 
man in 1866; to J. S. Richards for the seedling named Joseph Breck in 
1868; to J. S. Richards for the seedling M. P. Wilder, and to George Craft 
for the seedling Thomas Sheren, in 1869 ; to A. McLaren in 1872 ; to J. C. F. 
Hyde in 1875; and to J. W. Clark in 1882. 

The development attained by these American growers may be under- 
stood by the following extract from the report of the floral committee 
for 1872: "The gladioli were all that could be expected, and nothing 
seemed to please the strangers so much. Indeed they were astonished 
when informed that they were American seedlings. Gentlemen capable 



158 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

of judging on any flower were delighted to know that such progress had 
been made in the standard of this popular and useful flower." 

The credit for introducing the first American seedling has not been 
definitely determined, owing to the fact that all available catalog files 
were incomplete. It is quite certain that some of the producers of the 
new seedHngs that have been named were the first to introduce their 
novelties. In the fifteenth edition (1868-69) oi the catalog of Curtis & 
Cobb, of Boston, Massachusetts, Craft's Elnora, Finette, Imprimis, Lieu- 
tenant Stearns, and Viola, and McTear's Salmonia, are fully described. 

The bound catalogs of Washburn & Co. for 1868 contain what is prob- 
ably the first color plate of any variety of gladiolus published by an Amer- 
ican seedsman. The varieties figured are G. hrenchleyensis and Berthe 
Rabourdin. The first American variety shown by a color plate, so far 
as the writer can discover, was Innocence, a variety originated by James 
Vick and figured in his magazine for February, 1885. The two original 
varieties of G. Lemoinei were shown by means of an excellent color plate 
in American Gardening in 1882. 

Although Curtis & Cobb appear to have been the first to. catalog named 
American seedlings, nevertheless attention should be given to the List 
of Gladiolus Roots, No. xv, 1870, of George Craft, of Brookline, Massa- 
chusetts, wherein are described Blythe, Freedman, Gordianus, Grenadier, 
Jores Morthen Jongman, Lisette, Napoleon I, Theophila, Hesba, Yosemite, 
Finette, Katarina, Lieutenant Stearns, Lucilla, Mariana, Morningside, 
Petit Bonnet, Rosalind, Sarah P. Pearce, Scrooby, Statuiskii, Una, and 
Violenta. It is stated that these are Craft's own seedlings. It is 
more than probable, therefore, that Craft offered his seedlings prior to 
the time when the same varieties were offered by Curtis & Cobb. In 187 1 
Craft offered Alphonso, Ariadne, Leyden, Lucio, Mrs. Westcott, Naseby, 
Thomas Sheren, Valentine, and Virginie as new, with the following in 
his general list: Adriana, Blonde, Early, Golden Lily, Orlando. No new 
varieties appear in the lists for 1874 and 1875, which complete 
the lists consulted. There was a lessened production of seedlings after 
1873 until about 1890, and the present interest in gladioli dates from 
about 1908. 

Meanwhile the interest in the French varieties of Souchet was increasing. 
Barnes & Washburn, Spooner & Co. (later Strong & Spooner), Henry 
A. Dreer, Eugene A. Baimiann, George Such, and C. L. Allen had 
extensive collections of varieties. The last named, in his catalog of 
spring bulbs for 1869, stated that he had over two hundred varieties, 
and in 187 1 he announced over three hundred varieties. He was at 
that time the largest grower of corms. In 1870 he had seven acres, and 
in 1873 fifteen acres, devoted to growing gladioli. The cut blooms were 



Gladiolus Studies — I 159 

shipped to New York in large quantities, occasionally as many as ten 
thousand spikes being sent in one day. 

A ntunber of seedlings were raised at Rochester, New York, and 
introduced in 1883 by James Vick. These were Brunette, Bryant, 
Charlotte Cushman, David Copperfield, Dr. Warder, Henry Clay, Holmes, 
Innocence, Longfellow, Lowell, and Rainbow. This list, with the excep- 
tion of the last-named variety, was cataloged for several years. 

The variety Snow White was raised by J. C. F. Hyde, of Newton, 
Massachusetts, and exhibited before the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society in August, 1879, when it was awarded a first class certificate. 
In 1 88 1 it was recommended by the floral committee for the prospective 
prize of $40 as the best flowering plant. Hallock & Son bought the 
stock in 1883 and changed the name from Hyde's Seedling — or Hyde's 
White, as it was locally known — to Snow White, and introduced it 
in 1890. 

Among the American varieties of gladioli produced between 1880 and 
1890 were Bayard Taylor, Emma Thursby, E. M. Stanton, General 
Phil Sheridan, Golden, Isaac Buchanan, Joseph's Coat, Martha Washing- 
ton, President Lincoln, and Augusta (Hallock). 

Meanwhile Luther Burbank had been breeding gladioli, and about 
1890, after twelve years of experimenting, he placed on the market a 
strain the flowers of which had greater substance, and therefore withstood 
the bright sun and dry atmosphere of California much better, than the 
older types. This strain had strong, stiff stems which were not so tall 
as in the usual types, but the flowers were large and had all the usual 
colors. Among the varieties were California, Cisco, Mariposa, Santa 
Rosa, Shasta, and Yolo. Later, probably in the following year, Igo, 
Modesto, Mono, and Pohono were added to the list. The price of Cali- 
fornia and Santa Rosa was $2 a conn, but the set of ten varieties was 
offered at $8. Unnamed seedlings and seed were offered for sale. The 
variety California was remarkable from the fact that the flowers were 
arranged close together all around the stem. The development of a num- 
ber of similar varieties in France may possibly have started from this sin- 
gular variety developed by Burbank. The variety California was notable 
also in another respect, and that was its habit of sometimes producing 
double flowers. If this tendency appeared when the variety was grown 
outside of California it does not seem to have impressed lovers of the 
flower, for nothing resulted from it. 

The work of Matthew Crawford began about 1880, but he did not 
catalog gladioli until 1888. Prior to 1891 he offered his gladioli in mix- 
tures. The first seedlings which he named and introduced were Bertha, 
Lulu, Mabel, and May, in 1891. In the subsequent years he offered 



i6o Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

only mixed gladioli until 1895, when he again offered the varieties named. 
Unnamed seedlings one and two years old, raised from English-, French-, 
German-, and American-grown seed, were offered in 1891, and no doubt 
many of the later introductions of other growers came from this or 
similar sources. Isabel, Jessie, Margaret, and New America are some 
of Crawford's more recent varieties. 

Then came the introduction of the Childsii varieties, remarkable for 
their vigor of growth and large flowers. These have had an important 
part in the development of American gladioli and in the increase of the 
flower in popular favor. 

Any account of the development of American gladioli would be incom- 
plete without mention of the work of H. H. Groff, of Simcoe, Ontario. 
His work was begun prior to 1890, and for years he has been breeding 
to eliminate the weakness of existing types. Using the strongest parents, 
and particularly those of individual merit (and he is unexcelled in his 
knowledge of varieties), he has practiced a rigid selection among his 
seedlings. The resiilt is that the name Groff's Hybrids, as applied to 
his own named varieties, has become a synonym of merit. Through 
cooperation with Arthur Cowee, whose ability as a grower and exhibitor 
equals that of Mr. Groff as a breeder, these hybrids have become widely 
and thoroughly known. 

The popularity of gladioli as garden flowers is due to Mr. Cowee in 
larger degree than to any other person. He has labored for many years 
to bring the merits of the flower to the attention of the people. The 
splendid exhibits he has made at expositions and fairs, his attractive 
advertising in magazines and in his catalogs, and more than all his personal 
enthusiasm, have served to place gladioli in the foremost rank among 
the garden flowers of the United States. Without the interest of the 
people many of the present growers would not find a market for their 
bulbs. All the growers, and garden lovers generally, owe much to the 
pioneer efforts of the gardeners of Boston, and to Childs, Crawford, 
Cowee, and Groff. 

The ruffled gladioli produced by A. E. Kunderd, of Goshen, Indiana, are 
a distinctly new and original American type. The flowers are distinguished 
by the peculiar ruffling or fluting of the petals, producing an artistic effect 
approaching that seen in waved sweet peas. The first variety introduced 
was Kunderdi Glory. The ruffled gladioli are the result of experiments, 
begun about 1896, in crossing and selection of plants showing the ruffled 
tendency. 

American growers do not depend on the novelties sent out by foreign 
firms, for they have produced niimerous varieties better suited to this 
soil and climate. A studv of these varieties often reveals the fact that 



Gladiolus Studies — I i6i 

they are not clearly of any particular type of gladioli, and they are referred 
to as America)!, by which is meant that they have been produced here 
and are the result of so much intercrossing of previous forms that they 
stand alone. As has been done with the carnation, the gladiolus growers 
are making a new and distinctly American type of jDlant and flower. 
Through the breaking of Old World fetters and limitations the way is 
open to further achievement, for which the future holds bright prospects 
for American gladiolus breeders. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 163 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GLADIOLUS 

BOTANICAL WORKS 
Aiton, W. 

1789 Hortus Kewensis 1:62-66. 

Andrews, H. C. 

1799-1831 Botanists' repository, tab. 8, ii, 19, 27, 99, iii, 118, 122, 147, 188, 
219, 227, 240, 241, 275, 589. 

Baker, J. G. 

1875 Gladiolus angustus, comeus, saltatorum. Linn. Soc. Trans. 29:154-155. 

Balbis, G. B. 

1813 Gladiolus elatus. Catalogus stirpium horti bat taurensis, p. 38. 

Bauhin, Caspar 

1671 Pinax theatri botanici, p. 41. 

Bauhin, Johann 

1651 Hisloriae plantarum universalis 2:701. 

Besler, B. 

1613 Hortus eystettensis (aestivalium) , quartus ordo, folios 10 and 12. 

Boerhaave, H. 

1727 Index alter plantarum qual in horto academico lugduno-batavo aluntur 2:127. 

Boissier, E. 

1884 Flora orientalis sive enumeratio plantarum in Oriente 5:1,39-143. 

Boissier, E. P. 

1842-54 Diagnoses plantarum orientalium 7:102. 
1852 Pugillus plantarum novarum hispanicum, p. 112-113. 

1854-59 Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novanim, additis nonnuUis Europaeis 
et boreali Africanis 13:7-15. 

Boissier, E. P., and Renter, G. F. 

1852 Pugillus plantarum Africae borealis hispaniaeque australis. 

Bouche, Carl 

1838 Beobachtungen liber einige europaische Gladiolus-Arten. Linnaea 12: 
477-485- 

Bradley, R. 

1728 Dictionarium botanicum: or, a botanical dictionary for the use of the 

curious in husbandrs^ and gardening i : •. 

Breyne, J. P. 

1739 a Icones rariorum et exoticarum planatanun. 
1739 b Prodromi, fasciculi rariorum plantarum, etc. 

Bunnan, N. L. 

Prodromus florae capensis 2 : . 

Dodoens, R. 

1578 A nievve herball, or historic of plantes (translated by Henry Lyte), book 2, 

p. 197. 
1616 Stirpium historiae pemptades sex. 

Ecklon, C. F. 

1827 Topographisches Verzeichness der Pflanzensammlung, p. 38. 



164 - Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Ecklon, C. F., and Zeyher, C. 

1834-37 Enumer. pi. Africae Australis extra-tropicae. 

Ehret, G. D., and Trew, C. J. 

1750^73 Plantae selectae, tab. 39. 

Engler, A. 

1901 Die von W. Goetze und Dr. Stuhlmann im Ulugumgebirge, sowie die von 
W. Goetze in der Kisaki- und Khutu-Steppe und in Uhehe gesammelten 
Pflanzen. Bot. Jahrb. 28:365-366. 

Gerarde, John 

1597 The herball, or generall historie of plantes, p. 95-97. 

Hallier, Ernst 

1873-75 Deutschlands Flora, oder Abbildung ixnd Beschreibung der wildwach- 
senden Pflanzen in der mitteleuropaischen Flora. 9th ed. 

Hornemann, J. W. 

1813-15 Hortus regius botanicus Hafuiensis 2:950. 

Jacquin, N. J. 

1764-71 Observationes botanicae. In Collectanea ad botanicum 4: 1 50-1 71. 

1781-93 Icones plantarum rariorum 2: tab. 233-260. 

1796 Collectaneorum supplementum cum figuris coloratis, p. 17-29. 

1809 Fragmenta botanica 3: 12. 

Koch, Karl 

1848 Beitrage zu einer Flora des Orientes. Gladiolus. Li nnaea 21 : 634-636. 

Koch, W. D. J. 

1844 Synopsis florae germanicae et helveticae 2:805-807. 

Lamarck, J. B. P. 

1786 Encyclopedic methodique. Botanique 2:2: 723-728. 

La Roche, Daniel de 

1766 Descriptiones plantarum aliquot novarum. Lugd. bat., p. 27-30, tab. 2-4. 

Lichtenstein, H. 

1811-12 Reisen in siidlichen Africa in den Jahren 1803-1806. 

Linnaeus, C. 

1737 Hortus Cliffortianus, p. 20, tab. 6. 
1748 Hortus upsaliensis i : 16. 
1753 a- Sy sterna plantarum 1:52. 

1753 b Species plantarum i :36, 37. 
1759 Amoenitates academicae 5:353. 
1762 Species plantarum, 2d ed. 1:52-54. 

1767 Mantissa plantarum 1:28. 

LobeUus, M. 

1 58 1 Icones. 

Marloth, Rudolf 

191 5 The flora of South Africa 4. 

Miller, Philip 

1731 The gardeners dictionary. 

1754 Same. 4th ed. 

1771 Figures of the most beautiful, useful, and uncommon plants described in 
the gardeners dictionary 1:95, pi. 142. 2:157, pi. 235; 15S, pi. 236, 
fig I ; 297. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 165 

Pappe, L. 

1850 Flgre capensis medicae prodromus. 

Parkinson, John 

1629 Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris, p. 189-191, i fig. 
1640 Theatrum botanicum, p. 1197, 1250. 

Pax, F. 

Engler's Hochgeb. fl. trap. Africa, p. 175. 

1893 Iridaceae Africae. Bot. Jahrb. 15: 150-157. 

Persoon, C. H. 

1805 Synopsis plantarum 1:43-46. 

Ray, John 

1686-1704 Historia plantarum 3:559-561. 

Redoute, P. J. 

Les liliacees, tab. 35, 36, 112, 122, 123, 125, 136, 267, 273, 344, 377, 425. 

(Often cited as Red. Lib, i. e., Redonte's Liliacees.) 

Reichenbach, H. G. L. 

1823-32 Iconographia botanica seu plantae criticae, tab. 598, 599, 600, 643. 

Richard, Achilla 

1847-51 Tentamen florae Abyssinicae 2:307. 

Roemer, J. J., and Schultes, J. A. 

1817-30 Systema vegetabilium 1:407-445. 

Salisbury, R. A. 

1806-07 Paradisus Londinensis, tab. 8. 

Schlechtendal, D. F. L. von, and others 

1880 Flora von Deutschland, 5th ed. 4:62-67, pi. 307-311, 353. 

Schlechter, R. 

1900 Plantae Schlechterianae novae vel minus cognitae describunter. II. Bot. 
Jahrb. 27: 102-103. 

Schneevoogt, C. V. 

1793 Icones plantarum rariorum, tab. 12, 19, 27, 40. 

Schrank, 

1822 Bot. Ges. Regensburg. Denkschr. 2:195, 197. 198, 202, 204, 206, 207, 
210, 212. 

Sibthorp, John 

1806 FlorEe Grsecse 1 : 25-26. 

Sov/erby, James, and Smith, J. E, 

1842 English botany, or coloied figures of British plants, 2d ed. 9: — . 

Stapf, Otto 

1885 Irideae. In Beitrage zur Flora von Lycien, Carien, und Alesopotamien. 
K. Akad. Wiss. [Vienna], Math. Naturw. CI. Denkschr. 50:81-83. 

Sweert, Emanuel 

1612 Florilegium tractans de variis floribus, tab. 42, fig. i. 

Tausch, J. F. 

1836 Botanische Beobachtungen, no. 57-58. Flora 19:421-422. 



i66 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Thunberg, K. P. 

1 794-1 805 Prodromus plantarum capensium quas promontorio bona^ spei Af rices, 

annis i 772-1 775, p. 184-185. 
1807-12 Flora capensis 1:173-206. 
1823 Flora capensis sistens plantas promontorii bonae spei Africes, p. 40-54. 

Trew, C. J. 

1750 Tabulcfi ehretii, tab. 39. 

Vahl, M. 

1790-94 Symbolae botanicae. 

1805-06 Enumeratio plantanim vel ab aliis vel ab ipso observatarum 2 : 82-103. 

Willdenow, C. L. (Editor) 

1797 Linnaeus, Species plantarum 1 : 208-22 1. 

SPECIAL WORKS 
Babington, C. C. 

1863 Gladiolus illyricus as a British plant. SeemanH's Journ. bot. i : 97-98. 

Baker, J. G. 

1875 Gladiolus Cooperi. Curtis's Bot. mag. ioi:tab. 6202. 

1876 Gladiolus crassifolius, Milleri, Newii, ochroleucus, etc. Joum. bot. 14: 

333-335- 

1877 a Gladiolus ochroleucus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 103: tab. 6291. 

1877 b Gladiolus Eckloni. Curtis's Bot. mag. 103: tab. 6335. 

1878 Systema Iridacearum. Joum. Linnean Soc, Bot. 16:170-178. 

1879 Gladiolus brachyandrus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 105: tab. 6463. 
1884 Gladiolus Quartinianus. Curtis's Bot. mag. no: tab. 6739. 
1886 Gladiolus Kotschyanus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 112: tab. 6897. 

1889 Gladiolus Leichtlini Baker n. sp. Gard. chron. ser. 3:6:154. 

1890 Gladiolus primulinus, n. sp. Gard. chron. ser. 3:8: 122. 

1891 a Gladiolus paludosus, G. Elliotii, G. antholyzoides. Journ. bot. 29:70-71. 

1891 b Gladiolus Milleri. Gard. chron. ser. 3:10:393. 

1892 Handbook of the Irideae, p. 198-229. 

1893 a Gladiolus oppositiflonis. Curtis's Bot. mag. 119: tab. 7292. 
1893 b Hybrid gladioli. Gard. chron. ser. 3: 13:596. 

1896-97 Gladiolus, Linn. Flora capensis 6: 135-165. 

Dyer, W. T. Thiselton- 

Flora of tropical Africa 7:576-577. 

Gawler, J. B. 

1805 Ensatarum ordo. or natural order Ensatae. Konig & Sims' Annales of 
botanv i : 219-247. 
{See also Ker, J. B.) 

Geel, van 

1829 Gladiolus Daleni. Sect. bot. 2: tab. 19. 

Herbert, William 

1837 On crosses and hybrid intermixtures in vegetables. In Amar^dlidaceae, p. 
335-380. 

1842 Gladioli crispiflorus, Caucasicus, aequinoctialis, oppositiflorus. Bot. reg. 

28: misc. 81, 82, 97, 98. 

1843 Gladiolus splendens. Bot. reg. 29: misc. 61. 

Hooker, J. D. 

1866 Gladiolus Papilio. Curtis's Bot. mag. 92: tab. 5565. • 

1869 Gladiolus cruentus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 95: tab. 5810. 

1870 Gladiolus Saundersii. Curtis's Bot. mag. 96: tab. 5873. 

1871 Gladiolus dracocephalus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 97: tab. 5884. 

1872 Gladiolus purpureo-auratus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 98: tab. 5944. 

1901 Gladiolus sulphureus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 127: tab. 7791. 

1902 Gladiolus Mackinderi. Curtis's Bot. mag. 128: tab. 7860. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 167 

Hooker, W. J. 

1830 Gladiolus psittacinus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 57: tab. 3032. 

1839 Gladiolus Mortonius. Curtis's Bot. mag. 65: tab. 3680. 
1864 Gladiolus sericeo-\Tllosus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 90: tab. 5427, 

Ker, J. B. 

1 749-1825 Gladiolus descriptions in connection with color plates. Bot. mag. 13, 
tab. 450. Curtis's Bot. mag. 15, tab. 538: 16, tab. 562, 574, 578, 
582, 586, 591, 592: 17, tab. 602, 610, 625, 632; 18, tab. 645, 647, 
648, 688; 19, tab. 719, 727: 21, tab. 823; 22, tab; 874; 26, tab. 
1042; 36, tab. 1483; 38, tab. 1564, 1575; 52, tab. 2585. 
182 1 Gladioli species. Bot. reg. 7; appendix. 
1827 Genera Iridearum, p. 1-158. 

iSee also Gawler, J. B.) * 

Klatt, F. W. 

1863 Revisio Iridearum. Linnaea 32; 689-725. 

1867-68 a Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Irideen. Linnaea 35; 291-308. 

1867-68 b Diagnoses Iridearum novarum. Linnaea 35:377-384. 

1882 a GladioH Andrewsii, arcuatus, etc. Xaturf. Gesell. Halle. Abh. 12; — . 

1882 b Erganzungen und Berichtigungen zu Baker's Systema Iridacearum. 

Xaturf. Gesell. Halle. Abh. 15:335-404. 
1885 Determination and description of the Cape Irideae, chiefly collected by 

R. Templeman and contained in the herbarium of P. Macowan. South 

Africa Philosoph. Soc. Trans. 3; 197. 
1895 Gladiolus in Th. Durand and Hans Schinz Conspectus florae Africae 5:214. 

Koch. W. D. J. 

1840 Charactere der deutschen Gladiolus- Arten. Deut. Xaturf. Versamml. 

Ber. 1840; 122-123. 

Lehmann, J. G. C. 

1836 Gladiolus Ecklonii. Ann. sci. nat. 2;6; 107. 

Lindley, John 

183 1 Gladiolus psittacinus. Bot. reg. 17: tab. 1442. 

Loddiges, Conrad, and Sons 

1825 Antholyza montana. Bot. cab. ii;tab. 1022. 

1831 Gladiolus natalensis. Bot. cab. i8;tab. 1756. 

1833 Gladiolus Watsonius. Bot. cab. 20; tab. 1949. 

Molkenboer, 

1850 Gladiolus sulphureus. Jaarboek Tuinbouw, p. 39. 

Moore, Thomas 

1868 Gladiolus cruentus, Moore, sp. n. Gard. chron. 1868; 1 138. 

Neubert, Wilhelm 

1863 Ueber Gladiolus tmd deren Kultur. Deut. ^lag. Gart. u. Samenk. 1863: 
353-362. 

Nickles, Napoleon 

Xotice sur les gladiolus de France et d'AUemagne, n. d., color plate. 

Pucci, Angiolo 

1898 Gladiolus Cohillei var. alba. Bui. Roy. Soc, Toscana On. 23:228. 

Rendle, A. B. 

1899 Catalogue of African plants collected by Dr. Welwntsch 2 ; i ; 28-30. 

1912 Gladiolus gazensis. In Contributions to our knowledge of the flora of Gaza- 
land. Linn. Soc. Joum. 40:210. 



i68 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Stapf, Otto 

1885 Gladiolus atroviolaceus. In Die botanischen Ergebnisse der Polak'schen 
Expedition nach Persien im Jahre 1882. K. Akad. Wiss. [Vienna], Math. 
Naturw. CI. Denkschr. 50:19. 

Sweet, R. 

1826-27 Gladiolus Colvillei, G. viperatus, and G. alatus British flower garden, 

ser. I, tab. 155, 156, 187. 
1832-35 Gladiolus cochleatus, G. pudibundus, and G. natalensis. British flower 
garden, ser. 2, tab. 140, 176, 281. 

Syme, J. T, Boswell 

1863 Remarks on Gladiolus illyricus Koch and its allies. Seemann's Journ. 
bok i: 130-134. 

Thunberg, K. P. 

1782 Dissertio de Iride. 

1810 Beskrivelse over 19 artes of gladiolus fra africas sondre odde. Skriv. Nat. 

Selsk. Kiobenhavn 6:1-15. 
1814 Om gladiolus sparmanni ett nytt species. Akad. Handl. Stockholm 35: 

189-194. 

Vaupel, F. 

1913 Iridaceae africanae novae. Bot. Jahrb. 48:533-543. 

Wright, C. H. 

1906 Gladiolus carmineus, Gladiolus primulinus. Curtis's Bot. mag. 132: tab. 
8068, 8080. 

1914 Gladiolus Masoniorum. Curtis's Bot. mag. 140: tab. 8548. 

1915 Gladiolus Melleri. Curtis's Bot. mag. 141 : tab. 8626. 

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 

(Anonymous) 

1839 Gladiolus ramosus. Flor. cab. 7:143, color plate. 

1848 a The gladiolus. Hort. 2:488. 

1848 b Gladiolus Brenchleyensis. Ann. hort. 1848:523. 

1862 The gladiolus. Journ. hort. and cottage gard. 2:312-313. 

1876 Australian gladioli. Journ. hort. n. s. 31 : 228. 

1892 Hardy hybrid gladioli. Garden 41 : 542. 

1894 Gladiolus Saundersi hybridus. Garden 46: 116. 

1906 Gladiolus nanus. Florists' rev. 18:583. 

1907 Gladiolus praecox. Florists' ex. 23 : 803. 

1908 a Gladiolus The Bride. Florists' rev. 21: Feb. 20:6. 

1908 b Hardiness of Gladiolus praecox. Florists' ex. 25:215. From Hort. trade 

journ. [England]. 
1908 c Hybrids of Gladiolus primulinus. Florists' ex. 25:684. 

Allen, C. L. 

191 1 Bulbs and tuberous-rooted plants, p. 101-130. 

Beaton, D. 

i860 Gladiolus Colvillii sport. Cottage gard. 24:259-260. 

Bois, D. 

1913 Gladiolus x Vitriacensis, nouvelle race de glaieuls hybrides a floraison 
hative. Revue hort. 85 : 369-370, I fig. 

Breck, Joseph 

185 1 The flower garden or book of flowers. 

Bridgeman, Thomas 

1847 The florists' guide. New ed. 

Bunyard, George 

1910 Gladiolus brenchleyensis. Gard. chron. ser. 3:48:83. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 169 

Carriere, E.-A. 

1879 Gladiolus hybridus Lemoinei. Revue hort. 51 :3.30-,s.3i, color plale. 

Childs, J. L. 

1893 The gladiolus, its histon-, species, and cultivation, p. 1-30, 7 figs. 

Cole, J. 

1850 On cross-breeding and culture of gladiolus. Gard. mag. bet., hort., and 
flor. 1850: 169-172. 

Crawford, M. 

1901 Groff's hybrid gladioli. Amer. gard. 22: 131-132. 

Crawford, Matthew, and Van Fleet, W. 

191 1 The gladiolus, p. 1-98. 

Dauthenay, H. 

1897 L'origine des glaieuls cultives. Re\-ue hort. 69: 194. 

Dombrain, H. H. 

1873 The gladiolus, its history-, ctiltivation, and exhibition, p. 1-56. 

Endicott, W. E, 

• 1888 The species of Gladiolus. Gard. and for. 1:363-365. 

1891 Some hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 4:403. 
1897 Garden notes. Gard. and for. 10: 277. 

Fitzherbert, W. 

1911 Gladiolus tristis. Handb. Xat. Glad. Soc. (Eng.) 1911:18-20. 

Fuld, Maurice 

1912 Gladiolus nanus. Amer. Glad. Soc., Bui. 4:16-21; also, Hort. 15 : 458-459; 

also (1914), Mod. glad. grow. 1:107-109. 

Gamier, Max 

1910 Glaieuls hybrides de primulinus. Revue hort. 82:578-579, color plate. 

Green, Roland 

1828 A treatise on the cultivation of ornamental flowers. 

Grignan, G. T. 

1908 Le gladiolus primulinus. Re\'ue hort. 80:8-10 (i fig.1, 416. 

Groff, H. H. 

1907 Practical plant -breeding, more especially in relation to the gladiolus. Rov. 
Hort. Soc. [London]. Rept. 3d Intemat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 421-425. 
1910 Hybridizing gladiolus. Florists' ex. 29:884. 

Harlot, P. 

1892 Gladiolus tristis. Jardin 1892:88-89. 

Hatfield, T. D. 

1897 The hybrid gladioh. Gard. and for. 10:335-336. 

Herbert, William 

1820 Instructions for the treatment of Amar>ilis longifoha, as a hardy aquatic, 
with some observations on the production of hybrid plants, etc. Hort. 
Soc. London. Trans. 3:187-196. 

1822 a On the production of hybrid vegetables; with the result of many experi- 
ments made in the investigation of the subject. Hort. Soc. London. 
Trans. 4:15-50. 

1822 b On the culture of the African gladioh, and other Cape bulbs, in the open 
borders. Hort. Soc. London. Trans. 4:153-155. 

1847 On hybridization amongst vegetables. Hort. Soc. London. Journ. 2: 81-107. 



170 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Hottes, A. C. 

1915 Garden gladioli. Journ. hered. 6:499-504, 3 figs. 

Houtte, L. van 

1846 Gladiolus gandavensis. Flore des serres 2:3, tab. I. 

1848 Gladiolus recurvus. Flore des serres 4:422. 

1849 Gladiolus gandavensis citrinus. Flore des serres 5 : tab. 539. 

1850 Gladiolus Willmoreanus. Flore des serres 6 ; tab. 639. 

1873 Gladiolus purpureo-auratus, Colvillei Swt. Flore des serres 19 : tab. 1992, 
1993- 

Jackson, R. T. 

1889 Hybridization of gladioli. Gard. and for. 2:88-91. 

Jacques, 

1849 Rapport sur la collection de glaieuls de MM. vSouchet pere et fils a Fon- 
tainebleau. Ann. Soc. Hort. Paris. Rept. 40:259-261. 

Jonghe, J. de 

1843 Des glaieuls. Revue hort. 5:395-399. 

Krelage, E. H. 

1892 Hybrid gladioli. Garden 41: 190-192, i color plate, i fig. 
1896 a The origin of garden gladioli. Gard. chron. ser. 3:20:701. 
1896 b The origin of garden gladioli. Gard. and for. 9:446. 

Kunderd, A. E. 

1908 Ruffled gladioli. Hort. 7:165, 

Leichtlin, Max 

1889 Auch Etwas liber Gladiolen. Gartenflora 38: 102. 

Lemaire, Charles 

1846 a Glandiolus gadavensis (hybridus). Revue hort. ser. 2:5:141-142, color 
plate. 

1846 b Gladiolus gandavensis (hybridus). Flore des serres 2 : pi. i , March. 

Lemoine, E. 

1890 Les glaieuls hybrides rustiques, p. 26. (French reprint of paper read 

before the Royal Horticultural Society, London, 1890.) 

McMahon, Bernard 

1806 American gardener's calendar. 

Mottet, S. ^ 

1912 A propos des glaieuls hybrides du G. primulinus. Revue hort. 84:448-450, 

I fig. 

Paxton, Joseph 

1836 Gladiolus pudibundus. Paxton's Mag. bot. 2 : 197. 

1839 Gladiolus ramosus. Paxton's Mag. bot. 6 : 99-100. 

1840 Gladiolus insignis. Paxton's Mag. bot. 7 : 223-224. 

1844 Gladiolus gandiensis. Paxton's Mag. bot. 11: 27-28. 

1847 Gladiolus Gandiensis superba. Paxton's Mag. bot. 13 : 190. 

Rand, E. S. 

1864 The gladiolus. Downing's Hort. 19:333-337. 

1868 The gladiolus. Amer. journ. hort. and flor. comp. 4:78-82, i fig. 

Reider, J. E. von 

1827 Gladiolus cardinalis. Annalen der Blumenisterei 2:125-128, color plate. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 171 

Rudolph, Jtiles 

1899 Les glaieuls hybrides nains. Revue hort. 71:111-114, color plate, 3 figs. 

1910 Glaieuls hatifs Pont-de-Ceais. Revue hort. 82:523, i fig. 

Sayers, Edward 

1838 American flower garden companion adapted to the northern States. 

Such, George 

1867 The gladiolus. Gard. monthly 9:110-111. 

Tubergen, C. G. van, jr. 

1907 Hybrids and hybridisation among bulbous plants. Roy. Hort. Soc. [Lon- 
don]. Rept. 3d Intemat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 438-445. 

Van Fleet, W. 

1904 Hybridizing gladiolus species. In Proceedings International Conference on 
Plant Breeding and Hybridization, 1902. Hort. Soc. New York. Mem. 
1:143-149. 

1914 Histor\' of Princeps. Mod. glad. grow. 1:79-80. 

Verdier, Eugene 

1874 Culture of gladiolus. Flor. world 1874: 10. 

Watson, W. 

1892 Gladiolus oppositiflorus. Gard. and for. 5:545-546. 

1893 Hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 6:243-244. 

Wheadon, E. T. 

1915 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:2-4, 14-16. From Guernsey Growers' 

Assoc, Yearbook 1914. 

Wohlforth, 

1852 Xotizen liber die Cultur der Gladiolus frei aus dem Franzosischen nach 
Tniffaut mit Zusatzen versehen. Gartenflora 1:73-81. 

YoueU, H 

191 1 The gladiolus. As we knew and grew it fifty years ago. Hort. 13:420. 

COLOR PLATES AND FIGURES 

GLADIOLUS SPECIES 
Gladiolus: 
alatus Linn. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 8. 1799. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 16, tab. 586. 1802. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 155, tab. 47. 1915. 

Sweet, Brit. flow, gard., ser. i, tab. 187. 1827. 
alatus var. namaqiiensis Ker 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 122 under title G. galeatus. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 16, tab. 592. 1802. 
angustus Linn. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 589. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 252. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 17, tab. 602. 1802. 

Redoute, Les liUacees, tab. 344. 
blandus Alton 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 17, tab. 625. 1803. 
blandus var. albidus Jacq. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 99 under title G. hlandus. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 256. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 18, tab. 648 imder title G. hlandus var. niveus. 1803. 



172 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Gladiolus {continued): 

blandiis var. carneus De la Roche 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 188 under title G. campaniilatus. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 18, tab. 645. 1803. 
hlandus var. Mortonius Herb. 

Hooker, W. J., Curtis's Bot. mag. 65, tab. 3680. 1839. 
brachyandrus Baker 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 105, tab. 6463. 1879. 
brevif alius Jacq. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 240 under title G. carneus. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 249. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 19, tab. 727 under title G. hirsutis vars. ayhyllus and 
brevif oiius. 1804. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 125 under title G. Orobranche. 
byzanlinus (Bauhin) Miller 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 22, tab. 874. 1805. 

Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant, crit., tab. 643. 
cardinalis Curt. 

Curtis, Bot. mag. 4, tab. 135. 1790. 

Herbier generale de I'amateur i, tab. 22. 1816. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 154, tab. 46. 1915- 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 112. 

Reider, Annalen der Blumenisterei 2: 125. 1827. 

Schneevoogt, Icones plant, rar., tab. 27. 
car mine us Wright 

Wright, Curtis's Bot. mag. 132, tab. 8068. 1906. 
cochleatus Sweet 

Sweet, Brit. flow, gard., ser. 2, tab. 140. 
communis Linn. 

Curtis, Bot. mag. 3, tab. 86. 1789. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 38, tab. 1575. 1813. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 267. 

Reichenbach, Icones florae germ, et helv. 9, tab. 349. 

Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant, crit., tab. 589. 

Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4, tab. 308. 1880. 

Hallier, Deutschlands Flora, tab. 396. 1873-75. 
criientus Aloore 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag. 95, tab. 5810. 1869. 

Moore, Florist and pomologist, 1869, p. 121. 
cuspidatus Jacq. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 219. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 257. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 16, tab. 582. 1802. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 136. 
cuspidatus var. ventricosus La.m. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 147 under title G. cuspidatus. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 255 under title G. carneus. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag., tab. 591 under title G. carneus. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 36 under title G. cuspidatus. 
debilis Ker 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 52, tab. 2585. 1825. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 155, tab. 47. 19 15. 
dracocephalus Hook. f. 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag., tab. 5884. 
Eckloni Lehm. 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 103, tab. 6335. 1877. 
edulis Burch. ex Ker 

Ker, Bot. reg. 2, tab. 169. 1817. 
florentiae Marl. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 155, tab. 47. 1915. 
floribundus Jacq. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 118 under title G. grandiflorus. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 254. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 173 

Gladiolus {continued) : 
floribiindiis Jacq. {continued): 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 17, tab. 610. 1802. 

La Belgique horticole, 1859, plate 23. 
gandavensis 

Paxton, Mag. bot. 11:27. 1844. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 2, tab. i. 1846. 

Van Houtte, Revue horticole 18: 141-142. 1846. 
gandavensis var. citrinus (Lemonier) 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 5, tab. 530. 1849. 
gandavensis var. superba 

Paxton, Mag. bot. 13 : 190. 1847. 
gracilis Jacq. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 246. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 16, tab. 562. 1802. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 153, tab. 46. 1915. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 425. 
grandis Thunb. 

Andrew.s, Bot. repos., tab. 19. under title G. versicolor. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag., tab. 1042 under title G. versicolor: 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 157, tab. 48. 191 5. 
hirsiitus Jacq. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 11 under title G. roseus. 

Herbier generale de Tamateur 2, tab. 127 under title G. hirsutus var. roseus. 1817. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 250. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 16, tab. 574 under title G. hirsutus var. roseus. 1802. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 273. 
hyalinus Jacq. 

Jacquin, Icones plant rar., tab. 242 under title G. strictiis. 
il lyric us Koch 

Babington, Seemarm's Joum. bot. i, tab. 4. 1863. 

Reichenbach, Icones florae germ, et helv. 9, tab. 352. 

Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:65, tab. 309. 1880. 

Sowerby and Smith, Enghsh botany 9, tab. 1493. 1842. 
imbricatus Linn. 

Reichenbach, Icones florae germ. et. helv. 9, tab. 350. 

Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant, crit., tab. 599. 

Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:66, tab. 310. 1880. 
Kotschyanus Boiss. 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 112, tab. 6897. 1886. 
Ludu'igii var. calvatus Baker 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 103, tab. 6291 under title G. ochroleucus. 1877. 
Mackinderi Hook. 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag. 128, tab. 7860. 1902. 
maculatus Sweet 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 158, tab. 48. 1915. 
Masoniorum Baker 

Wright, Curtis's Bot. mag. 140, tab. 8548. 1914. 
Melleri Baker 

Wright, Curtis's Bot. mag. 141, tab. 8626. 19 15. 
Milleri Ker 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 17, tab. 632. 1803. 
montanus Linn. 

Loddiges, Bot. cab. 11, tab. 1022 under title .Iw/Z/o/vr^ montana. 1825. 
niveni Baker 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 275 under title G. ringens var. undulatus. 
oppositiflorus Herb. 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 119, tab. 7292. 1893. 

Watson (?), Garden 45:440-441. 1894. 
orchidiflorus Andr. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tab. 241. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 259 under title G. alatus. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 18, tab. 688 under title G. viperatus. 1803. 

Sweet, Brit. flow, gard., ser. i, tab. 156 under title G. viperatus. 1826-27. 



174 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Gladiolus (continued) : 
paluslris Gaud. 

Reichenbach, Icones florae germ, et helv. 9, tab. 351. 

Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:62, tab. 307. 1880. 
papilio Hook. 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag. 92, tab. 5565. 1866. 
psittacinus Hook. 

Hooker, W. J., Curtis's Bot. mag. 57, tab. 3032. 1830. 

Lindley, Bot. reg. 17, tab. 1442. 1831. 

Loddiges, Bot. cab., tab. 1756 under title G. natalensis. 

Reichenbach, Exot., tab. 116. 

Sweet, Brit. flow, gard., ser. 2, tab. 281. 1835. 
psittacinus var. Cooperi Baker 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. loi, tab. 6202. 1875. 
purpureo-auratus Hook. f. 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag. 98, tab. 5944. 1872. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 19, tab. 1992. 1873. 
Quartinianus A. Rich. 

Baker, Curtis's Bot. mag. no, tab. 6739. 1884. 
recurvus Linn. 

Andrews, Bot. repos., tabs. 27 and 227 under title G. ringens. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 247 under title G. punctatus. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 16, tab. 578. 1802. 

La Belgique horticole, 1859, plate 23 under title G. ringens Andr. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 156, tab. 47. 1915. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 123 under title G. ringens. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 4, tab. 422. 1848. 
Saundersii Hook. f. 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag. 96, tab. 5873. 1870. 

Saunders, Garden 12:64. 1877. 
segetum Ker 

Hallier, Deutschlands Flora, tab. 386. 1873-75. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 19, tab. 719. 1804. 

Reichenbach, Icones florae germ, et helv. 9, tab. 353. 

Reichenbach, Icon. bot. seu plant, crit., tab. 600. 

Schlechtendal, Flora von Deutschland 4:67, tab. 353. 1880. 
sericeo-villosus Hook. 

Hooker, W. J., Curtis's Bot. mag. 90, tab. 5427. 1864. 
spathaceus Pappe 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 158, tab. 48. 1915. 
striatus Jacq. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 260. 
sulphureus De Graaf 

Hooker, J. D., Curtis's Bot. mag. 127, tab. 7791. 1901. 

Molkenboer, Jaarboek Tuinbouw, 1850, p. 39. 
tenellus Jacq. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 248. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4: 157, tab. 48. 1915. 
trichonemif alius Ker 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 36, tab. 1483. 1812. 
trislis Linn. 

Curtis, Bot. mag. 8, tab. 272. 1794. 

Ehret and Trew, Plantae selectae, 1 750-1 773, tab. 39 under title G. bifolius et 
hifloriis, folius quadrangularis. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 243. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag., tab. 1098. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 35 under title G. spiralis, 
tristis var. concolor Salisb. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 245 under title G. tristis. 

Marloth, Flora South Africa 4, tab. 46. 191 5. 

Salisbury, Paradisus Londinensis, tab. 8. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 175 

Gladiolus {continued): 
undulatus Jacq. 

Jacquin, Icones plant, rar., tab. 251. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 18, tab. 647. 1803. 

Redoute, Les liliacees, tab. 122. 
villosiis Ker 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 21, tab. 823 under title C. hirsutus var. 1805, 
vittatiis Hornem. 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 15, tab. 538 under title C undulatus. 1801. 

Schneevoogt, Icones plant, rar., tab. 19 under title G. angustus. 
vomerculus Ker 

Ker, Curtis's Bot. mag. 38, tab. 1564 under title G. hastatus. 181 3. 

HYBRID GLADIOLI 

Gladiolus: 
antwerpiensis 

Flor. cab. 10:265. 1842. 
Christianus 

Revue hort. 23:341. 1 85 1 . 
Colvillei 

Maund, Bot. gard. 5:4, tab. 167, fig. 5. 

Mrs. Loudon, Ladies' flow, gard.. Bulbs, tab. 13, fig. 5, p. 61. 1841. 

Sweet, Brit. flow, gard., ser. i, tab. 155. 1826-27. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 19, tab. 1993. 1873. 
Colvillei albiis 

Pucci, Bui. Roy. Soc. Toscana Ort. 23, tab. 7. 1898. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 19, tab. 1993. 
Delbariniis (Delbaere) 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3, tab. 158. 1847. 
hybridus Lemoine 

Amer. gard. n. s. (1:5). 1882. 

Garden 17:306. 1880. 
ignescens 

Maund, Bot. gard. 6:136, tab. 233, fig. 2. 
insig7ns 

Pa.Kton, Mag. bot. 7:223. 1840. 
Lemoinei 

Amer. gard. n. s. 1:5. 1882. 

Revue hort. 51 : 330. 1879. 
Leopoldii (Carolus) 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 4, tab. 194. 1848. 
mitchamiensis 

Herbert, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 4, tab. 2 under title G. tristi -hirsutus. 
oldfordiensis (Cole) 

Moore, Gard. mag. bot., hort., and flor., 1850, p. 249. 
picta blaudas (Plant) 

Flor. cab. 6:264. 1838. 
primiilinus hybrids 

Garden 76:391. 1912. 

Gamier, Revue hort. 82:578-579. 1910. 
prince ps (Van Fleet) 

Revue hort. 76:208-209. 1904. 
pudibundus (Herbert) 

Pa.xton, Mag. bot. 2: 197. 1836. 

Sweet, Brit. flow, gard., ser. 2, tal). 176. 1833. 
Quartinianus superbus 

Garden 55:388-389. 1899. 
ramosus 

Flor. cab. 7: 143. 1839. 

Maund, Bot. gard. 6: 165, tab. 238, fig. 2. 

Mrs. Loudon, Ladies' flow, gard., Bulbs, tab. 12, fig. i. 

Paxton, Mag. bot. 6:99. 1839. 



176 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Gladiolus (continued) : 
rigidns (Herbert) 

Herbert, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 4, tab. 2 under title G. tristi-hlandus. 
ringente-tristis (Herbert) 

Herbert, Trans. Hort. Soc. London 4, tab. 2. 
roseo-piirpureus 

Flor. cab. 19:6. 1851. 

Moore, Gard. mag. bot., hort., and flor., 1850, p. 249. 
Willmoreanus (Cole) 

Moore, Gard. mag. bot., hort., and flor., 1850, p. 169. 

Van Houtte, Flore des serres 6, tab. 639. 

HORTICULTURAL VARIETIES 

Ad. Brongniart (Souchet) 

Floral mag. 6, tab. 363. 1867. 
Aida (Haage & Schmidt) 

Deut. ]Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371. 
Alice Wilson (Standish) 

Flor. and pomol., 1873, p. 73. 
Alphonse Lavallee 

L'hort. frang., 1856, tab. 20. 
Alsace 

Revue hort. Beige 13:227, tab. 23. 1887. 
Alsace-Lorraine (Lemoine), nanceianus var. 

Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 

Prakt. Ratgeber Obst u. Gartenbau 19:360. 1904. 
Aristote 

Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 4. 1857. 
Arlequin (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 

Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 8. 1857. 
Atroroseus 

Florists' joum. 3: 177. 1842. 
Bala (Kelway 191 1) 

Garden 76:437. 1912. 
Baron Joseph Hulot (Lemoine 1896), Lemoinei var. 

Revue hort. 71:404. 1899. 
Beatrice 

Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Ben Hur (Childs), Childsii var. 

Garden 48: 420. 1895. 
Bernard de Rennes (Truffaut) 

Revue hort. 23:341. 
Berthe Rabourdin 

Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1859, p. 97. 

Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 5. 1857. 
Blushing Bride 

Garden 34:580. 1888. 

Revue hort. 71: iii, fig. 4. 1899. 
Boussingault (Lemoine 1887) 

Revue hort. 50:228. 1888. 
Bramfarine (E. Aragon) 

Revue hort. 39: 131-132. 1867. 
Calypso 

Illus. hort. 6, 227, fig. 5. 1859. 

Illus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Canari « 

Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. i. 1859. 

Illus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Charles Davis (Standish) 

Flor. mag. 3, tab. 171. 1803. 



Gladiolus Studies — I xtj 



Charles Mcintosh 

Re\-ue hort. 71 : 1 1 1, fig. 5. 1899. 
Christophe Longueil (Dr. d'Avoine) 

Ann. Soc. Ro}'. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Cochenille ( Verdi er pere) 

L'hort frang., 1851, tab. 23. 
Comte de Kerchove (Lemoine 1896), Lemainei var. 

Revue hort. Beige 23 : 2 1 7. 
Countess Coghen 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3:51. 1847. 
Countess Craven (Kelway) 

Flor. mag. 20:465-466. 1881. 
Couranti carneus (Thibaut et Keteleer) 

L'hort. frang., 1852, tab. 15-16. 
Crepuscule (Lemoine 1899) 

Prakt. Ratgeber Obst u. Gartenbau 19:360. 1904. 
Dame Blanche (Haage & Schmidt) 

Revue hort. 68:540. 1896. 
Demi-deuil (Lemoine 1899), Lemoinei var. 

Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Diane 

lUus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 8. 1859. 

Illus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Docteur Spae (Truffaut) 

L'hort. frang., 1851, tab. 19, fig. 2. 
Due de Malakoff 

Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 3. 1859. 

Illlus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Ed. Pynaert-Van Geert (Lemoine) 

Revue hort. Beige 18, tab. 19-20, fig. 5. 1892. 
Eleanor Xorman 

Flor. mag. 4, tab. 222. 1864. 
Eh'ira 

Revue hort. 71:111, fig. 7. 1899. 
Emile Galle (Lemoine 1887) 

Re\-ue hort. 63 : 568. 1891. 
Emperor Xapoleon [=Marechal Vaillant] (Leveau, Loise 1866) 

Re\nie hort. 38:8-9, fig. 2. 1866. 
Ethiope (Lemoine 18981, Lemoinei var. 

Revue hort. 71 : 404. 1899. 
Eugenie Bourdier (Truffaut) 

Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. i. 1851-52. 
E. V. Hallock (Lemoine), Lemainei var. 

lUus. hort. 37: 107, tab. 115, fig. 3. 1890. 
Ferdinand de Lesseps (Lemoine) 

Re\'ue hort . 63 : 568 . 1 89 1 . 
Ferdinand Kegeljan (Lemoine), nanceianus var. 

Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 
Fille de I'Air (Lemoine 1897), nanceianus var. 

Revue hort. 71 :404. 1899. 
Flaming Sword (Kelway 191 1) 

Garden 76: 182, tab. 1449. 1912. 

Garden 76:437. 
Francis Herincq 

L'hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. 
Gen. Changarnier (Truffaut) 

Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 3. 1851-52. 
General Grant 

Re\aie hort. 71 : 1 1 1, fig. 6. 1899. 
General Scott 

Garden 34:580, fig. 3. 1888. 
Georges Frick (Lemoine), nanceianus var. 
Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 



178 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Georges van Rye (Dr. d'Avoine) 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Goethe (Haage & Schmidt) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371-378. 
Gohath (Souchet) 

lUus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. i. 1857. 
Harry Veitch (Lemoine 1890), nanceianus var. 

Garden 41 : 190. 1892. 
Henri Vautier (Lemoine 1898), nanceianus var. 

Revue hort. 71 : 404. 1899. 
Henry Irving 

Revue hort. 71:111, fig. 2. 1899. 
Horace (Souchet 1869) 

Flor. mag. 9, tab. 507-508. 1870. 
Imperatrice Eugenie (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 14, tab. 504, fig. i. 1867. 
Innocence (Vick 1883) 

Vick's mag., Feb. 1885. 
Iris (Ragot) 

Revue hort. 85:35. 1913. 
IsoHne 

Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 2. 1859. 

Illus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Jacob (E. Aragon) 

Revue hort. 39 : 1 3 1 . 1 867 . 
James William Kelway (Kelway 191 1) 

Garden 76:437. 1912. 
Jean Ragot (Ragot) 

Revue hort. 85:35. 1913. 
John Laing (Lemoine) 

Illus. hort. 37: 107, tab. 115. 1890. 
John Standish (Douglas) 

Flor. and pomol., 1872, p. 169. 
John Standish (Standish) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1863, p. 353. 

Flor. fruit and gard. misc., i860, p. 231. 

Flor. mag. i, tab. 36. 1861. 
John Waterer (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 14, tab. 504, fig. 3. 1867. 
Julia (Kelway) 

Flor. mag. 7, tab. 405. 1868. 
Jupiter (Souchet 1871) 

Flor. mag. n. s. 11, tab. 43. 1872. 
King of Gladioli (Kelway 1905) 

Garden 70:6. 1906. 
Kleber (Lemoine 1890) 

Garden 41 : 190. 1892. 

Revue hort. Beige 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. i. 1892. 
Konigen Wilhelmina 

Gartenflora 46, tab. 1437. 
Lady Alice Hill (Standish) 

Flor. and pomol., 1868, p. 241. 
Lady Muriel Digby (Kelway 1904) 

Garden 76: 182, tab. 1449. 1912, 
La France (Lemoine) 

Garden 30:76. x886. 
L'Alsace (Lemoine) 

Garden 30:76. 1886. 
Le Chamois (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Le Grand Carnot (Lemoine 1890), nanceianus var. 

Revue hort. Beige 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 6. 1892. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 179 



Leopoldii 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 4: 173. 1848. 
Le Pactole 

Revue hort. 63 : 568. 1 89 1 . 
Louis Van Houtte (Truffaut) 

Revue hort. 60:228. 1888. 
Madame Chau\*iere (Tniffaut) 

L'hort. frang., 1851, tab. 19, fig. i. 
Madame de Vilain 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3:51. 1847. 
Madame Dombrain (Souchet 1868) 

Flor. mag. 8, tabs. 463-464. 1869. 
Madame Eugene Verdier 

L'hort. fran^., 1856, tab. 20. 
Madame Ferdinand Cayeux (Lemoine 1900), Lemainei var. 

Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Madame Furtado (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 4. 1851-52. 
Madame Herincq (Verdier pere) 

L'hort. frang., 1851, tab. 23. 
Madame Lemichez (Truffaut) 

Flore des serres 7, tab. 697, fig. 5. 1851-52. 
Madame Leseble (Souchet) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1863, p. 353. 

Flor. mag. i, tab. 36. 1861. 
Madame le Vicomtesse Vilain 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand 3:51. 1847. 
Madame Pele (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Madame Riviere 

L'hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. 
Madame Rougier 

L'hort. franp., 1853, tab. 20. 
Madame Vilmorin (Souchet) 

L'hort. frang., 1864, tab. 2t,. 
Mademoiselle Olympe Lescuyer 

L'hort. frang., 1856, tab. 20. 
Mademoiselle Sosthenie (Truffaut) 

Re\-ue hort. 25:41. 1853. 
Marechal Fabert (Lemoine 1899) 

Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 
Marie Lemoine (Lemoine), Lemainei var. 

Amer. gard. n. s. 1:5. 1882. 

Garden 17:306. 1880. 

Revue hort. 51:330. 1879. 
Marot 

RevTie hort. Beige 13:227, tab. 23. 1887, 
Marquis de Saporta (Lemoine 1 886) 

Re\-ue hort. 63 : 568. 1891. 
Marquise de Pompadour (Leveau, Loise 1866) 

Re\aie hort. 38 : 8-9. 1866. 
Masque de Fer (Lemoine) 

Garden 30:76. 1886. 
Mathilda 

Re\-ue hort. 71:111, fig. 3. 1899. 
Mathilde de Landevoisin (Souchet) 

lUus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 6. 1859. 

lUus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Milton (Souchet) 

Flor. mag. 5, tab. 315. 1865. 
Mr. J. W. Lane (Standish) 

Flor. mag. 3, tab. 123. 1862. 



i8o Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Mrs. Bates (Kelway) 

Garden 15:240. 1879. 
Mrs. Beecher (Childs 1893), Chtldstt var. 

Garden 48 : 420. 1895. 
Mrs. Dombrain (Standish) 

Flor. mag. 2, tab. 77. 1862. 
Mrs. Marshall 

Flor. mag. 20, tab. 465-466. 1881. 
Mrs. i\loore (Standish) 

Flor. mag. I, tab. 36. 1861. 
Mrs. Reynolds Hole (Standish) 

Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1861, p. 289. 
Mrs. Standish (Standish) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1863, p. 353. 
Flor. fruit and gard. misc., i860, p. 321- 
Mons. Ch. Henr>' 

Revae hort. Beige 13:227, tab. 23. 1887. 
Monsieur Domage 

L'hort. frang., 1853, tab. 20. 
Monsieur Legouve 

Flor. mag. 8, tab. 463-464. 1869. 
Monsieur Vinchon (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Napoleon III (Souchet) 

L'hort. frang., 1864, tab. 23. 
Neogenes (Kelway) 

Flor. mag. 13, tab. 102. 1874. 
Ne Plus Ultra 

Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Nestor (Souchet 1870) 

Flor. mag. 11 n. s., tab. 3. 1872. 
Neue Bleue (Lemoine 1890), Lemoinei var. 

Revue hort. Beige 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 7. 1892. 
Newton (Souchet) 

Flor. mag. 6, tab. 364. 1867. 
Oherpresident von Seydenwitz 

Gartenflora, tab. 1268. 
Ophir (Souchet) 

lUus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. ~. 1859. 
Illus. Gart. Ztg., i860, p. 128. 
Oracle (Souchet) 

lUus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 6. 1857. 
Oriflamme (Lemoine 1887) 

Revue hort. 60:228. 1888. 
Orion (Haage & Schmidt) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 37ic 
Orphee (Souchet 1869) 

Flor. mag. 9, tab. 507-508. 1870. 
Our Little Lucy (Standish) 

Flor. and pomol., 1866, p. 65. 
Pactole (Lemoine), Lemoinei var. 

Illus. hort., 37:107, tab. 115, fig- i- 
Parure (Lemoine 1898), nanceianus var. 
Jardin, 1900, p. 348. 

Flor. joum. 3:177- 1842. 
Paul Marguerite (Lemoine), Lemoinei var. 

Illus. hort. 43 : 345, tab. 70. 1 896. 
Pegase (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 3- 1857. 
Phebus (Souchet 1871) 

Flor. mag. 12 n. s., tab. 63. 1873. 



Gladiolus Studies — I 

President Camot (Lemoine 1889) 

Illus. hort. 37:107, tab. 115, fig. 4. 1890. 

Revue hort. Beige 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 3. 1892. 
Prince Imperial (PauUn) 

L'hort. fran?., 1862, tab. 20. 
Princess Mathilde 

Garden 17:156. 1880. 
Professeur Lambin (Lemoine 1891) 

Re\tie hort. Beige 18, tab. 19-20, fig. 2. 1892. 
Queen Man.- (Kelway) 

Flor. rriag. 17, tab. 295. 1878. 
Queen Maud (Kelway 1908) 

Garden 76: 182, tab. 1449- 1912. 
Queen Victoria (Plant) 

Flor. cab. 6:264. 1838. 
Randle Jackson (Standish) 

Flor. mag. 4, tab. 184. 1864. 
Raphael (Lemoine 1897), nanceianus var. 

Jardin, 1902, p. 216. 
Rebecca (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 7. 1857. 
Regnerus Bruitsma (Dr. d'Avoine) 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Reine Victoria (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 14, tab. 504, fig. 2. 1867. 
Rembertus Dodonaens (Dr. dWvoine) 

Ann. vSoc. Roy. Hort. Gand, 1849, tab. 239. 
Reverend W. Wilks (Lemoine) 

Illus. hort. 37: 107, tab. 115, fig. 2. 1890. 
Robert Lodge (Douglas) 

Flor. mag. 10, tab. 556. 1871. 
Rosea Maculata 

Garden 34:580, fig. 4. 1888. 
Rosv Gem 

'Garden 34: 580, fig. 2. 1888. 
Schwaben (Pfitzer) 

Revue hort. Beige 38:377. 1912. 
Sir George Xares (Kelway) 

Flor. mag. 17, tab. 296. 1878. 
Sirius (Haage & Schmidt) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371. 
Sir James Clarke 

Flor. mag. 5, tab. 266. 1865. 
Sulphureus (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 4, tab. 154, fig. 2. 1857. 
TaU Blue 

B\il. Rov. Soc. Toscana Ort. 22: 112, tab. 5. 1897. 
Thecla (Haage & Schmidt) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371. 
The Fairy 

Garden 17: 156. 1880. 
Triomphe de Louvain (Carolus) 

Ann. Soc. Roy. Hort. Gand i, tab. 353. 1845. 
Triumph von Hietzing (Lesemann) 

Illus. Gart. Ztg. 14:209. 1889. 
Ulysse (Souchet) 

Flor. mag. 8, tab. 419. 1869. 
Undine (Haage & Schmidt) 

Deut. Mag. Gart. u. Samenkunde, 1878, p. 371, fig. 4 
v'alleda (Souchet) 

Illus. hort. 6, tab. 227, fig. 4. 1859. 

Illus. Gart. Ztg. i860, p. 128. 



1 82 Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 

Van Gagern 

Flor. fruit and gard. misc., 1851, p. 193. 

Van Speyke 

Garden 17:156. 1 880. 
Venus (Plant) 

Flor. cab. 6:264. 183&. 
Vesta (Souchet) 

Flore des serres 12, tab. 1246. 1857. 
Vicomte de Narcillac (Verdier pere) 

L'hort. frang., 1851, tab. 23. 
Victor (Plant) 

Flor. cab. 6:264. 1838. 
Voltaire 

Revue hort. Beige 13:227, tab. 23. 
Wilhelm III 

Revue hort. 71 : 11 1 , fig. i . 1 899. 
W. Watson (Lemoine 1891) > 

Revue hort. Beige 18:217, tab. 19-20, fig. 4. 



INDEX 



SPECIES^ 



Gladiolus (continued) : PAGE 

arvaticus 103 

atropurpureus , 102, no 

atrorubens 103, no 

atroviqlaceus 104, 106, no, 117, 121, 138 

aurantiacus loi, no 

aureus no 

Bakeri 103 

Baumi 103 

bellus 103, no 

belviderus 156 

benguellensis 102, no 

bicolor loi, 105, 106, no 

bicolor 107 

biflorus 100, no 

biflorus 104, 107 

bimaculatus 97, 104, 155(2) 

binervis 104 

blandus. . ..qS, roi, 104, 105(5), 106(2), no, 117 
125(2), 138, 155(2), 156 

albidus 104, 117, 138 

cameus 104(2), 117, 138 

excelsus 117, 138 

Hibbertii 117, 138 

Mortonius 117, 139 

blandus 117(2) 

niveus • 117 

Bolusii 100, no 

Borneti 104 

Boucheanus 104 

brachyandrus 102, no 

brachylimbus 103 

brachyscyphus 100, no 

bracteaius 107 

bracteolalus 107 

brenchleyensis 130, 145, 158 

brevicaulis 102, 1 10 

brevicollis 104 

brevifolius 98, 99, 104(4), 105(2), 106, no 

brevispathus 103 

Breynianus 98, 104, 120, 125 

Buchanani 102, no 

Buettneri 102, no 

Burmanni 107 

byzantinus. .96, 98, 104, 105, no, 117, 121, 124 
125, 128, 154, 155(3) 

byzantinus 104(2) 

byzantium 154 

calothjTSUs 103, 1 10 

calvatus 104 

campanulatus 104, 117, 138 

candicans 14S 

candidus I4S 

capitatus 97, 107 

cardinalis 98, lor, 106, in, 118, 125(2), 139 

154(2). 155(3), 156(2) 

inflatus 128 

subroseus I39 

carinatus 97, 104, 120, 144 

carmineus 103, 1 1 1 

carnei coloris 124 

cameus 104, 154, 155(2) 

cameus 98, 104(5), 118 

Carsoni 103 

caryophyllaceus 107 

caryophylleus 107 

caucasicus 104, I2i 

caudatus 103, 1 1 1 

Childsii I33. I4S 

Christianus IS6 

citrinus 104 

coccineus 107 

cochleatus 100, in 

cochleattts 104 

♦Species names in italics are synonyms. Page numbers in bold-faced type indicate pages on which 
descriptions of species are given. 



Acidanthera: PAGE 

aequinoctialis 107 

flexuosa 97 1 107 

platyphylla 108 

tubulosa 107(2), 108, 109 

Antholyza : 

aethiopica 109 

aletroides 108 

cafira 109 

cunonia 97, 107 

merianella T 108 

nervosa 107, 108 

quadrangularis 97, 107. 108 

revoluta 108(2), 109 

Watsonioides 107, 108, 109 

Aristea : 

capitata 97, 107 

Babiana: 

coronata 109 

distichia 107, 108 

mucronata 108 

obtusif olia 108 

plicata 107, 108(3), 109 

rosea 108 

secunda 109 

spathacea 109 

stricta 97, 108(4), 109(5) 

sulphurea 108 

tubata 108, 109 

tubiflora 107(2), 108, 109 

villosa 108 

Ferraria : 

undulata 108 

Freesia : 

refracta .108, 109(3) 

Gladiolus : 

abbreviatus 107 

Adlami loi 

aequinoctialis 107 

afBnis 103 

affinis 104, 118 

africanus 155(2) 

alatus 97 (2), 101, 104, 105, 106(3), no, 117 

125(2), 137. 154. 155(2) 

namaquensis 97, 105(2), no, 117 

alatus 104 

albidus 104 

albiis 128 

aleppicus 104, 117 

aletroides 107 

algoensis 104 

alopecuroidcs 97, 107(2) 

alpigenus 104 

amabilis 107 

ambiguus . 104 

amoenus. ....'. 107(2) 

anceps 107(2) 

andongensis 102(2), 104 

Andrewsii 104 

angolensis 102(2), 104 

anguslem 96 

angiisli folia 155 

angustifolius 104, 107 

angustus 96(2), 9S, 99, 104(2), 105(2) 

ic6(3), no, 125(2), 137 

angustus 104(3), 117 

antholyza 107 

antunesii 103, 1 10 

aphanophyllus 103, no 

aphyllus 98 

aphyllus 104 

arcuatus loi, no 

arenarius loi, 105, no 

Amoldianus 103, no 



183 



1 84 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



Gladiolus {continued) : page 

coerulescens 102, 11 1 

coUinus 104 

Colvillei 12s, 128, 146, 151, 155(2), 156 

albus 147. ISI 

Colvillioides I47 

communis. . . .96, 98, 104, 105(2), iii, 118, 121 
124, 125(3). 154(4). ISS. IS6 

communis 104(4), 121 

commutatis 104 

concolor 104, 144 

Conrathi 103 

Cooperi 104 

cordatus 104 

comeus 102, 11 1 

crassifolius lOO, 1 1 1 

crispiflorus 104 

crispus 107 

crocatus 107 

cruentus loi, m. n8, 140 

cunonia 97. 107 

cuspidatus. . .98. 99, 104, 105, 106, iii, 118, 141 

ensifolius 1 1 1, 1 18 

ventricosus 98, 104(2), 107(2), iii, 118 

cuspidatus 104, 118 

cyclocarpus 103 

cymbarinus 103 

Daeleni 143 

dalmaticus 104 

debilis . . . , 100, in 

decipiens 103, 1 1 1 

decoratus 102, in 

deiodes m 

delicatus I47 

densiflorus 103 

denticulatus 107 

dichotomiis 104 

distichus 107 

dracocephalus loi, in 118, 141, 141, 147 

Dregei loi, i n 

dubius 104(2) 

Eckloni loo, 104, 1 1 1 

edulis 98, loi. III 

elatus 105, 117 

elegans 103. m 

Elliotii 100, 1 1 1 

Elloni 103 

elonzatus 98, lOS, 107 

ensifolius lOS 

equitans 105, 117 

erectiflorus lo^, loi, in 

excelsior 148 

excelsus 105 

excisus 107 

exscapus / 107 

Fabricii 107 

falcatus 107 

fasciatus IDS 

feslivus los 

fissifolius 107 

fistulosus : 107 

flabellifer los, 142 

Flanagani 103, in 

flavus 107 

flexuosus 103, III 

flexuosus 97, 107(2) 

jiore alba (or albo) 96, 124 

florentiae in 

flore rubente 96 

flore suave rubente 124 

floribunda I54 

floribundus 98, 100, 105, in, 118. 125, 128 

129, 155(4). 156 

floribundus los, 142 

floribus uno versu dispositis 124(5) 

foliis ensiformibus 96 

foliis linearibus 96 

formosissimus I49> I5S. 156 

formosus loi, in 

formosus 105 

fragrans 149 

recurvus IS4. I5S 

fragrans IC7 



Gladiolus (continued): page 

frimiculata 155(2) 

fusco-viridis 103, in 

galeatus 105, 107, 117, I55 

galiciensis 105 

gallacensis 103, 112 

gandavensis 128, 1/9, 156(3) 

citrinus 129 

Gamieri 102, 112 

Garnierii 107 

garuanus 103, in 

Gawleri 103 

Gawleri lOS 

gazensis 103, 112 

germanicus 103 

glaucus 103 

glumaceus 107 

Goetzei 103, 112 

gracilis 97. 99. 105. 106(3), 112 

gracilis 105 

graciUimus 103, 112 

gramineus 107 

grandiflorus lOS, 118 

grandis 97, 99, 104, 105(2), 106, 107, 112 

119, 142 

Grantii 102, 112 

gregarius 102, 112 

Gueinzii lOS 

Guepini 105 

halophilus 112, 121 

Hanningtoni 102, 112 

Hanru 103 

Harmsianus 103, 112 

hastatus 99, 104, I05, 106(2), 112 

hastatus los 

haylockianus 149 

Herbertianus 149 

Herbertii 128 

heterolobus 103, 112 

hirsutis roseo 15S 

hirsutus 97. 100, 104(3), 105(2), 106(2), 112 

119, 128, 155, 156 

roseo 154 

hirsutus 105 

roseus 119 

hirtus 105 

hispanicus flore albo 123(2) 

humilis 112, 121 

hyalinus 97, 100, 106, 112 

hygrophilus 103 

illyricus 104(4). 105. 106(2), 112, 121 

Reuteri 106(2) 

imbricatus 96, 98, 104, 105(4), 106(5), 112 

121, 124, 125 

inandensis 99, 112 

inarimensis 105, 121 

incarnatus 149 

inclinalus 108 

inconspicuus 103 

indicus 108 

infestus 105. 121 

infiatus 98, 100, loi, 105, 106, 112, 156 

blandus 128 

infundibuliformis 108 

insignis 128, 150, 156(2) 

involutus 97, 98, lOO, 104, 112, 125 

iridifolius 108 

italicus 95. 96, 105, 121 

flore rubro 123(2) 

ixioides 108 

Johnstoni 103, 112 

junceus 108 

junodi 103 

karendensis 103 

kilimandscharicus 102(2), 105 

Kirkii 100, 112 

Kotschyanus 112, 121 

kubangensis 103. 112 

laccatus 105. 108 

laceratus 108 

lacuslris 95 

laevis 98. 105 

Lamarckii 105 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



185 



Gladiolus (continued): page 1 

lambda 99, 1 13 

Lannesii 103 

latifolius 108 

laxiflorus 102, 1 13 

laxus 108 

Leichtlinii loi, 102, 113 

Leichllinii 133 

Lemoinei 132, 150, 158 

Lemonia 105 

leucanthus 105 

libanoticus 105 

Liebnitzii 156 

liliaceus 105 

linearifolius 103,113 

lineatus 108 

littoralis 103 

Loddigesii 128 

lomenia 108 

longanus 103 

longicollis. .'. 108 

longiflorus 108(4) 

Lowii 150 

lucidor 108 

Ludoviciae 105, 121 

Ludwigii 100, 113 

calvatus 104 

luridus 102, 113 

luridus 103 

luteolus 113 

luteus 97. 98, 102, 113, 125 

luteus 105 

Mackinderi 103, 113 

Macowani ~. loi, 113 

Macowaniensis ' 105 

macrophlebius 103, 113 

maculatus 142 

maculatus lOS, 120 

major byzanliniis 124 

malangensis 103, 1 13 

Marchallii 105 

marginatus 108 

marmoralus 108 

Masoniorum 103, 113 

massiliensis 150 

massoni 103 

masukuensis 103, 113 

maximits indicus 124 

Melleri 102, 113 

merianellus 98, 108 

merianus loS 

micranthus i<:2. 103, 113(2), 121 

microphyllus 99, 1 13 

microsiphon IC3 

Milleri 98, loi, 113, 125 

minor 108 

m.inntiflorns 108 

minis IC3, 113 

mitchamiensis 151 

mollis 106 

monoslachyus 105 

montanus 97, loi, 106(2), 113, 125 

morrumbalaensis 1 03 

Mortonianus 105 

Mortonitis 105 

mosambicensis 103 

mucronatiis 105, 108(2) 

multiflorus 102, 113 

Miinzneri 103, 113 

namaquensis 97, 105, 117 

nanceianus 133, 151 

nanus 151 

nanus 108 

narbonensis 9S(2), 105 

flore incarnato 122, 123 

flore incarnato intensiore 123(2) 

narbonensium flore purpurea 122(2) 

natalensis 105, 120, 143, 155(2), 156 

neglectus 105 

nervosus 108(2) 

newii 102(2), 105 

niveni 100. 106, 1 13 

notarisii . . . .... 10 s 



Gladiolus (continued) : page 

numidicus 103 

n>-ikensis IC3, 113 

Oatesii 102, 113 

ochroleucus 100, 1 13 

odoratus 151 

odorus 105, 108, 120 

oldfordiensis 129, 153 

oliganthus 103, 113 

oligophlebius 103, 113 

oppositiflorus . . .101, 105(3), II3. II9. 129, 142 

opposilifolius 105 

orchidiflorus 97, loi, 104, 107(2), 113 

orchidiflorus 105 

oreocharis 103, 113 

ornatus 105 

orobranche 105 

pallidus 103, 113 

paludosus 100 

palustris 104, 105, 106(3), 121 

paluslris 95 

paniculatus 108 

papilio ICO, 119, 120 

papilionaceus 106, 108, 117 

Pappei 100, 113 

parviflorus 113 

parviflorus 106 

parvulus 114 

pauciflorus 102, 1 14 

pauciflorus 106 

pectinatus 108 

penneabilis 97, loi, 104, 114 

persicus 114, 121 

petraeus 106, 117 

piclus 106 

pilosus 106 

plantagineus 108 

platyphyllus 101(2), 103, 114 

plicatum 96 

plicatus 97, 108(3) 

polyslachyus 108(2) 

porrigeus 103 

Poltsii ic8 

praecox 128, 151, 156 

praecox 108 

pratensis 106 

pretorius 103 

primulinus 102(2), 1 14, 120, 134 

concolor 135 

erectus 135 

maculatus 135 

major 135 

salmoneus 135 

primulinus 106, 143 

princeps. 140, 151 

prismatosiphon 103, 1 14 

propinquus 152 

psittacina 154, 155, 156 

psittacinus .... loi, 105, 114, 120, 128, 143, 154 

155, 156 

Cooperi 104, 1 14, 120, 143 

major 156 

pterophyllus 106 

puberulus 103, 1 14 

pubescens 99, 103, 1 14 

pudibundus 152, 155, 156(2) 

pulchellus loi, 114 

punctatus 100, 103, 1 14 

punctatus 106, 108, 120 

punctulatus 106 

puniceum 96 

puniceus 97, 106, 108 

purpureo-auratus 100, 114, 120, 143 

hybridus 132 

pur pureus 108 

purpureus minor 96 

pygameus 108 

pyramidalis 108(2) 

quadrangularis 97, 108 

Quartinianus 102(3), 104(2), 105(2). 106(5) 

107, 114, 143 

quilimanensis 103. 114 

rachidiflorus 09. 1 14 



i86 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



Gladiolus (continued): page 

Raddeanus io6 

ramosissimus 152 

ramosus 127, 128, 152, 156(4) 

ramosus 97, 106, 108(2) 

recurvus..97(2), 98, 99, 104(2), 105(2), 106(3), 107 
114, 123, 125(2), 142, 144 

recurvus 108(2) 

reductus 103 

reftexus 108 

refra'liis 108 

Rehmanni 100, 114 

remorifolius 103 

resubspinaius 109 

Reuteri 106 

rigescens 103 

rigidifolius 103 

rigidus 1 53 

ringens 106(2), 109, 120 

undulattis 106 

Rogersii 100, 114 

rosea camea ^ 156 

roseo-albus 109 

roseo-purpureus 129, 154 

roseus 128, 156(2) 

roseus 106, 109(2), 119 

rossicus 106 

rubens 109 

rubrocyanus . . lop 

rubromarginatus 106 

rupicola ■. 1 03 , 114 

ruricola 103 

sagiltifer 106 

salicatus 128 

salmoneiis 100, 114 

saltatorum 106 

Saundersii loi. 114. 120 

scaber 105 

scaphochlamys 100, 114 

schimperianus 106 

Schlechteri 103 

schwartzenbergianv.s ". 1 53 

Scullyi loi. 1 14 

secundus 1 09 

securiger 109 

segetalis 106 

segetum.. .94. 95, 98. 104(6), 105(5), 106(2), lis 
121, 121. 124, 125, 154 

sericeo-villosus . loo, lis, 121 

serotinus 106(2) 

setif olious 97 

setifoiius 106, 109 

silenoides 109 

sintensii iiS, 121 

sparntanni I09 

spathaceus lo^. 104. iiS 

spathaceus 106 

spalheceus 109 

spathulatus loi . 1 1 5 

speciosus 98 

speciosus 106(2), 117, 118 

spectabilis 103 

spicatus US 

spicatus 96,109(2) 

spilanthus 106(3) 

spiralis 106, 121 

splendens loi, 102, 115 

splendens 106, 109 

splendidus US, 153 

spofforthianus I53 

Sprengelianus 109 

Staudtii 103, i iS 

stenophyllus 103, I IS 

stenophyllus 109 

Sternii I53 

stoloniferous 109 

striatus 100, 105, i iS 

striatus 106, 109(2) 

stricliflorus 109 

strictus 99, IIS 

strictus 106, 109 

suaveotens 98. 106 

subaphyllus 1 03 , 115 



Gladiolus (continued) : PAGE 

suhbiflorus ■ 106 

subuiatus 103, 115 

subulatus 109 

sulcatus 106 

sulphureus 102, 115 

sulphureus 109, 

sylvestris ■. 122(2) 

tabularis 99, 115 

labularis 106 

Taubertianus 103, 115 

Taylorianus 106 

telifer 1 06 

Templemanii 106 

tenellus 97, 99, 106, 115 

lenuiflorus 106 

tenuis 100, 115 

tenuis 106(2) 



testaceus 

Thomsoni 102, 

Thunbergii 106, 

tigrinus 

trichonemifolius 98, 99, 104, 105, 

trichostachys 

tricolor 115, 

trimaculatus 98, 106, 

triphyllus 115, 

Iriphyllus 

triste 

tristem 

tristis 97(2), 99, 106, 115, 121, 125(3), 

144, 

concolor 104, 115. 121, 

tristis 106(2; ,119. 

grandis 

punctatus '. . , 

triticeus 

tritoniaeformis 

tritonoides 103, 

lubatus 

tubiflorus 

tubulosus ; 109 

turicensis I33. 

tyger 

Tysoni loi, 

uhehensis 103, 

undulatus 'y8, loi, 104(2), 106, 

IIS, 125, 155, 

undulatus 106(2), 

unguiculatus 102, 104, 

uniflorus 

utrinque floridus : 

flare rubro 

floribus albis 

venosus •. . . 

ventricosus 

venulosus 103, 

Verdickii 103, 

versicolor 9/, 107, 119, 

vexillare. 

Victorialis 133. 

villosiusculus 

villosulus 

villosus. .96, 97. 98, 100, 105(3). 106(3), 107. 

villosus 109(2) 

vinulus 

violaceus i07. 

viperatus 97. 

virescens 

viridis 97. 

vitriacensis i3Sj 

vittatus 100, 105, 106. 107, 

vittatus » 

vomercukis 98, 99, ICS. 106, 

Watsonioidcs 

Watsonius 97. 105. 

Watsonius 

Welwitschii 102(2), 

Whytei 103, 

Wilhelmus 

Willmoreanus 129, 

Woodii 99. 

xanthospilus ; 



Gladiolus Studies — I 



187 



Gladiolus {cont.nued): page 

zambesiacus 102, 1 16 

zanguebaricus 116 

Hebea: 

galeala 117 

Hesperantha : 

radiata 108 

Homoglossum : 

lucidor 108 

Ixia : 

amoena 109 

Burmanni 107 

fragrans 108 

paniculata 108 

speciosa 107 

Lapeyrousia : 

compressa 107 

Fabricii 107(4) 

fissifolia ■ 107(2) 

juncea 107(2), 108(4), 109 

silenoides 109 

Lomenia : 

borbonica 108 

Melasphaerula : 

graminea 97. 107, 108 

Meristostigma : 

laxa 108 

Moraea : 

ramosa 108 

Salemoneus: 

biflorus 107 

Sphaerospora : 

imbricala 121 



Synnotia: page 

bicolor 107, 109 

galatea 107 

Tritonia : 

Bakeri 109 

crispa - 107, 108(2) 

crocata 107 

flava 107 

lineata 108, 1 09 

pallida 108 

paniculata 108 

Pottsii 108 

rosea 107, 109 

securiger 109 

viridis 97, 109 

Watsonia : 

aletroides 107, 108 

brevifolia 107, 109 

humilis 107, 108, 109 

inerianus 109 

iridiflora 108 

Lamarckii 108, 109 

marginata , 108 

nieriana 107, 108(2) 

naialensis 120 

plantaginca 97, 107, 108(2), 109 

punctata 107, 108, 109(2) 

recurva 120 

rosea 107, 108, 109 

spicata 96, 107(2), 109(2) 

stricta 109 



GROUPS OF VARIETIES 



PAGE 

Burbank's I59 

Cayeux et Le Clare's i34, i35. i53 

Childs' ij6 

Cole's T 129 

Craft's 157, 158 

Domage's 130 

Duval's 130 



PAGE 

McTear's ;■ 157 

Richards' ■. 157 

Sladden's 132 

Standish's 131 

Truffaut's 130 

Verdier's (Eugene) 131 

Vick's , 159 



HORTICULTURAL TYPES 



PAGE 

Bellona I44 

Cardinalis inflatus 128 

Childsii hybrids. I33, I45. 160 

Dracocephalus hybrids 147 

Early, or Precoces 148 

Excelsior 148 

Express 148 

Giant-flowered Hybrids 134 

Glaieuls a epi rond 134 

Glaieuls hatifs Ponts-de-Ceais 135 

Glaieuls precoces 148 



PAGE 

Langprim 135 

Lemoinei hybrids 133, 150 

Nanceianus hybrids ^ 133 

Praecox 151 

Precoces 148 

Princeps 140, 151 

Purpureo-auratus hybridus Froebeli 132 

Ruffled gladioli 160 

Victorialis 133, 153 

Wellington 129, 154 



GROWERS MENTIONED 



P.\GE 

Allen, C. L 158 

Baker, J. G 134 

Barnes & Washburn 158 

Barr 145, 148 

Baumann, Eugene A 158 

Beddinghaus 128, 149, 153 

Borde. Roger de la 134 

Brunelet 130, 133 

Buist, R I5S 

Bull, William 140, 143 

Bunyard, George 145 

Burbank, Luther ' 159 

Carolus, Henri 127(2) 

Cayeux et Le Clerc 134(2), 135, 153 

Childs, John Lewis 146, 160 

Clark, J. W 157 

Cole 129, 154 



P.\GE 

Colville 125. 146, 150 

Comley, James 157 

Courant 130 

Cowee, Arthur 160(2) 

Craft, George. I57(6), 158 

Crawford, Matthew 159, 160 

Curtis & Cobb 158(3) 

Gushing 155 

Dael 143 

Dammann & Co 133, 144, 153 

Deleuil 133 

Domage 130 

Dreer, Henry A 158 

Duval 130 

Pox, Francis 143 

Froebel 133, 153 

Godefroy-Lebeuf 133, 145 



iS8 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 9 



PAGE 

Graffer 139 

Groff. H. H 160(2) 

Haage & Schmidt 133 

Hallock & Son 159 

Hallock, V. H 146 

Harrison, Richard 143 

Henderson, Peter 153 

Herbert, William 126, 147, 149, 151(2) 

152(2), 153(3), 155 

Hogan, John 157 

Hooker 130, 145 

Houtte, Louis van 128, 149(3) 

Hovey & Co 155, 156 

Hyde, J. C. F 157. I59 

Jacques 139 

Kelway. James 132, 135 

Kirk, Sir John 143 

Krelage. E. H 133, 150 

Kunderd, A. E 160 

Landreth, D '. 15s 

Last, J. F 143 

Leichthn, Max 133, 145 

Lemoine, Victor. . . .132, 133, I3S, 147(2), 150, 151 

Lewis & Mackie 139 

Lockhart, T. & C 128 

Lucombe Pince & Co 150 

Ludwig, Baron von 155 

McLaren, A 157(2) 

McMahon, B 154 

McTear, James I57(5) 

Makoy, Jacob 150, i53(3) 

Malet, A 130 

Masson 138 

Miller i45( 2), 149 

Miller, Philip 125, 138. 144(2) 



PAGE 

Parkman, Francis 157(4) 

Pince (Lucombe) & Co 150 

Porcher-Dionneau 135 

Prince, William 154 

Rand, E. S., jr 156, 157 

Reinwardt 143 

Richards, J. S 157(7) 

Rifkogel 127 

Roemer, Frederick 151 

Rosseels 127 

Sander, C 147 

Saunders, Wilson 141 

Sladden, J . . . 132 

Souchet, Eugene 130, 158 

Souillard 130, 133 

Spooner & Co 158 

Spooner, W. H 157 

Sprenger 134 

Standish, John 131, 140 

Strong & Spooner ■ 158 

Strong, W. C ' I57(4) 

Such, George 158 

Thorburn, Grant 134, 155(3) 

Torcy-Vaunier 133 

Trefoux 133 

Trufifaut fils 127, 130 

Tubergen, C. G. van, jr 148 

Van Fleet, W 140, 151 

Vaughan 152 

Veitch & Son 151 

Verdier, Eugene 131 

Vick, James 158, 159 

Washburn & Co 158 

Wilder, Marshall P I5S 

Youell, Henry 145 



December, 1916 



Extension Bulletin 1 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 

Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 



Gladiolus Studies— II 

Culture and Hybridization of the Gladiolus 

Alfred C. Hottes 



htii 







Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 



December, 1916 



Elxtension Bulletin 1 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 

Published by the New York State CoUege of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 



Gladiolus Studies— II 
Culture cind Hybridization of the Gladiolus 

Alfred C. Hottes 




Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 



PREFACE 

The data for this bulletin are based on the results of four years of work 
in the trial grounds of the American Gladiolus Society, and on conversa- 
tions and correspondence with many gladiolus experts. In 19 13 question 
blanks were mailed to members of the American Gladiolus Society 
and to some of the growers in Europe. Much information was derived 
from this questionnaire. The writer wishes to thank the following for 
their assistance in this work : 

Mrs. K. Atkinson, The Flagstaff, Locksheath, Southampton, England 
Mrs. A. H. Austin, Way land, Ohio 

B. C. Auten, Carthage, Missouri 

G. B. Babcock, Jamestown, New York 
J. G. Baker, Kew Gardens, England 
E. T. Barnes, Spencer, Indiana 
J. M. Bassett, Hammonton, New Jersey 

C. Betscher, Canal Dover, Ohio 
G. D. Black, Independence, Iowa 
A. P. Bonvallet, Wichert, Illinois 
Ernest Braunton, Los Angeles, California 
C. W. Brown, Ashland, Massachusetts 
W. C. Biill, Ramsgate, England 
Luther Burbank, Santa Rosa, California 
Montague Chamberlain, Wellesley, Massachusetts 
Madison Cooper, Calcium, New York 

Arthur Cowee, Berlin, New York 

Matthew Crawford, Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 

N. L. Crawford, Grafton, Ohio 

E. H. Cushman, Sylvania, Ohio 

E. N. Fischer, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts 

E. T. Flanagan & Sons, Belleville, Illinois 

Maurice Fuld, New York City 

L. M. Gage, Wellesley, Massachusetts 

H. H. Groff, Simcoe, Ontario 

I. S. Hendrickson, Flowerfield, Long Island, New York 

Dr. C. Hoeg, Decorah, Iowa 

R. E. Huntington, Painesville, Ohio 

J. B. Hutchinson, Haddonfield, New Jersey 

E. H. Krelage, Haarlem, Holland 

A. E. Kunderd, Goshen, Indiana 

E. R. Macomber, Woodfords, Maine 

J. L. Moore, Northboro, Massachusetts 

J. F. Munsell, Ashtabula, Ohio 

H. H. W. Pearson, National Botanic Gardens, Cape Town, South Africa 

H. A. Richardson, Woodfords, Maine 

191 



ig2 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

De Ruyter & Hogewonig, Noordwijk, Holland, 
S. E. Spencer, Woburn, Massachusetts 

E. E. Stewart, Brooklyn, Michigan 
C. S. Tait, Brunswick, Georgia 

F. C. Thomann, Rochester, New York 

B. H. Tracy, Wenham, Massachusetts 

C. G. van Tuber gen, jr., Haarlem, Holland 
W. Van Fleet, Glenn Dale, Maryland 

W. Watson, Kew Gardens, England 

B. F. White, Terry ville, Connecticut 

W. W. Wiknore, jr.. Wheat Ridge, Colorado 
Henry Youell, Syracuse, New York 

C. F. van Zanten, Hillegom, Holland 

C. Zeestraten & Sons, Oegstgeest, Holland 

The writer has had valuable correspondence with many others, and 
regrets that each person may not be given due credit. 

Alfred C. Hottes 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The gladiolus as a cut flower and as a garden subject 195 

Soils for the gladiolus 199 

Fertilizers and their use 201 

Time and manner of planting 204 

Spring and siinuner culture 205 

The gladiolus bloom 208 

Ideals in flower and in growth 212 

Hybrids and hybridization 222 

General discussion 222 

Crossing technique 233 

Possibilities for improvement 237 

Use of wild species 237 

The most needed improvement 240 

Gathering and planting seeds 241 

The corm 244 

Storage of corms 248 

Cormels 249 

Indoor culture 251 

Insect and animal pests 254 

Gladiolus diseases 256 

Bibliography 259 

Index 270 



193 




INDOOR TYPE OF GLADIOLI 

NANUS VARIETIES I PEACH BLOSSOM (PINK) 
AND MODESTY (WHITE) 



GLADIOLUS STUDIES — n 



CULTURE AND HYBRIDIZATION OF THE GLADIOLUS 

Alfred C. Hottes 
THE GLADIOLUS AS A CUT FLOWER AND AS A GARDEN SUBJECT 

" Gladioli to cut, cannas for out-of-doors," writes B. C. Auten. In 
the same strain ex-President Hendrickson (1911),^ of the American Gladi- 
olus Society, writes: 

The gladiolus is essentially a cut flower, and will rival nearly any other in keeping 
qualities, as they can be kept fresh and beautiful after cutting for a period of five to 
ten days by changing the 
water daily and removing 
each day the withered 
blooms, it also helps to nip 
off the ends of the spike 
when changing the water. 
If the spikes are cut when 
the first two or three 
flowers have opened, the 
entire stalk will open out 
for us after it has been put 
in water. They are ver\^ 
adaptable to send to friends 
at a distance, as they will 
arrive in excellent condi- 
tion if just a little pains 
are taken when shipping. 
If we want to do this the 
spikes should be cut when 
the first flower opens, and 
put in water in the cellar or 
cool place for two or three 
hours, so they can take up 
a good drink, after which 
they will stand the journey 
of two or three days, and 
when placed in water will 
quickly respond and unfold 
their gorgeous petals. 

Miss Re Shore 
(191 1) speaks further 
of the gladiolus as a 
cut flower. She writes 
that they are " best 
with their own foliage 
and in tall, slender, 
clear glass vases. . . .' 
One special feature to 
their credit is that they 
do not fall to pieces 
in the house." 




LENT BY MRS. B 



Fig. 10. ROUGE torch 

Soft creamy yellow in color with a brilliant red tongue on the lower 
petals. This is one of the slender-stemmed varieties, and lends itself 
particularly well to all manner of arrangement 



1 Dates in parenthesis refer to bibliography, page 259. 

195 



196 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

Groff (1906 b) gives the following excellent suggestions for the care 
of the cut blooms : 

Cut the spike when the first flower opens and place in water without overcrowding. 
Remove the terminal buds soon, as tliis checks stalk development and throws the 
strength into the larger and earlier maturing flowers. The end of the stalk should 
be shortened and the water renewed daily with frequent cleansing of the vases. In 
shortening the stalk cut diagonally, to insure free absorption of water by the spike 
without the contamination and obstruction, caused by sediment, if cut at a right angle. 

. . . Blooming the spikes in the shade of room or piazza modifies the field colors, 
from bright shades and tints to delicate flushes and shadings, and also reduces the 
latter types to the faintest tinge of color or white. . . . 

The advent of my new hybrids producing the most intense and deep shades of 
violet, purple, crimson and scarlet . . . makes it desirable that these brilliant 
combinations be preserv'ed when the spikes are cut for decorative purposes. 

To ensure this most desirable result, place the vases of these highly colored types 
in the early morning sun for an hour or two daily, preferably after renovation and 
renewal of the water. . . . 

********** 

One of the causes of. the popularity of the gladiolus as a decorative flower, is the 
fact that it has no perfume, as there are few flowers used for this purpose that are 
not distasteful to some one — particularly in closed rooms — either from personal 
preference or painful association. 

Where the pollen proves irritating to the tissues of the respiratory organs . . . 
the anthers may be easily pinched out during the dail}^ renovation. . . . This 
removal of the anthers is desirable in the highly colored Jtypes, . . . where the 
shed pollen dulls the brilliancy of the petals on which it may fall. 

The consideration of the gladiolus as a cut flower is not complete with- 
out a discussion as to the proper way to cut a spike. A conn is a thick- 
ened base of a stem, and this being the case there must be leaves re- 
maining to nourish and feed this corm. Thus, in cutting the blooms, 
two or three leaves should always be left on the plant. The spike may 
be cut with a short enough stem to accommodate this balance, or one may 
merely cut into the leaves and through the stem, taking onh' enough leaves 
to be used in the bouquets. Cutting the stems too long is a common mis- 
take of the amateur. 

The spikes are being used more and more in the making of floral designs, 
for bases of standing wreaths, and in large clusters for sprays. The indi- 
vidual flowers have in many cases taken the place of liHes and orchids 
in wedding and presentation bouquets and baskets. The graceftil spikes 
of the Gladiolus nanus varieties are especially valuable for corsage bou- 
quets or for small baskets, or arranged in flower holders, or japanas, 
placed in bowls of water. If these varieties were better kno^^m and appre- 
ciated, the demand wotild be great. Many of the large flower shops 
use them when they can be obtained. As a summer flower for large dec- 
orations the gladiolus is unexcelled, especially when placed in large vases 
or hampers and used on porches or yachts, or in hotels, simmier resorts, 
churches, or automobiles. 

Excellent results are obtained by careful selection of the receptacle 
for the flowers. Wall vases containing a few spikes, carefully arranged, 



Gladiolus vStltdies — II 



197 



are sure to be interesting. Plain vases and simple baskets are to be pre- 
ferred to highly decorated ones, since the gladiolus is gay in itself. Many 




PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY MRS. B. H. TRACY 



Fig. II. DAYBREAK 

A charming rose-bowl decoration. These spikes had been cut for a week. A suggested use for spikes 
that are nearly through blooming 

of the individual spikes are so beautiful that if arranged alone in a vase 
their separate charms are more effective than if more than one are used. 



iqS Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

Curved spikes are indispensable for some of the most effective arrange- 
ments, especially in huge hampers. Large vases of one variety, such as 
Brenchleyensis, Hazel Harvey, Mrs. Francis King, and some other darker 
varieties, are effective when combined with the variegated-leaved corn 
{Zea mays var. japonica). Mrs. B. H. Tracy deserves much credit for 
popularizing this flower in a decorative way by exhibiting the blooms 
properly, for she has made many advances in arrangement o^^er 
the ordinary method of using uninteresting vases and inappropriate 
receptacles. 

In addition to the value of the gladiolus as a cut flower, it is especially 
attractive also as a garden subject when planted thickly in clumps or 
beds. Soil well prepared will allow a good development of the spikes, 
even if the corms have been very closely set. Unless used in masses, 
the plants are likely to appear rather spindling; but when properly planted, 
the bed of gladioli is one of the most showy features of stmmier or autumn. 
The beds so used need not be for gladioH exclusively, but may have some 
annuals or perennials growing with them. Good combinations result 
from planting early in the spring a bed of white Phlox Drummondii, and 
later using the gladiolus America between the plants; or pink phlox and 
the gladiolus Rochester White may be combined. Especially effective 
is the combination of gladiolus with the summer hyacinth {Galtonia 
[-Hyacinthiis] candicans), the tall spikes of white bloom and the bold 
foliage of the latter seeming especially harmonious. No better combina- 
tion is available than that which results from the planting of some corms 
among irises, which have leaves in perfect harmony with the gladiolus 
and which bloom in a widely separated season. 

The stately spikes are attractive when used in large clumps of one 
variety among shrubbery. Care must be taken not to place the plants 
within the detrimental influence of large tree roots or in too much shade. 
Gardeners frequently start certain good varieties in boxes or pots, and, 
when in full growth, transplant them in clvimps to places in the border 
where a bit of color is needed after some other plants have failed. 

Miss Andres (19 14) advocates combining colimibines, petunias, and 
gladioli, not only because of their colors, but also, and mainly, for the 
excellent succession of bloom provided. 

Bold masses of Gladiolus primulinus hybrids (fig. 12) are extremely 
effective, since their various colors blend so well. Blue Jay and Baron 
Joseph Hulot are violet and blue varieties which harmonize well with 
yellow varieties, such as Golden King or Sulphur King. 

Excellent combinations have been made with roses and gladioli. 
The June-flowering roses are best for this purpose, since they are entirely 
out of season when the gladiolus is at its best. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



199 



The accusation that the gladiolus is stiff and formal does not now hold. 
The modem gladiolus is stately and 
dignified, and deserves prominent 
consideration and a place in ever}^ 
home or palace. It is a regal flower 
available to all. 

SOILS FOR THE GLADIOLUS 

Soil technologists emphasize the 
fact that a proper physical condi- 
tion of the soil is quite as important 
for the gro^^'th of a crop as is the 
richness; in other words, the tilth 
and handling of the soil is as much 
to be considered as the actual 
chemical analysis. Various opinions 
have prevailed, and still persist, 
regarding proper garden soil for 
gladioli. 

Dombrain (1873) mentions the 

former belief that there was no soil 

too poor for the gladiolus, and 

states that ad\dce was given that if 

the soil were not poor enough it 

had better be charred or burned to 

make it so. However, as he says, 

experience proved this to be unsound, and 
a rich soil was considered by no means 
unsuitable. Then came the high pressure 
treatment; heaps of manure in the soil, 
hea\y top-dressings above it, and then 
what blooms we shall have! But the 
strongest advocates of this system found 
that they had been a little too fast, and 
that although they obtained fine blooms, 
they lost their bulbs. Since then a more 
moderate system has been practised. 

The depth of planting ^\'ill obvi- 
ously differ with the soil. The lighter 
the soil, the deeper the corms may 
be planted. Deep planting is espe- 
cially successful in dry seasons, be- 
cause the roots are in cool, moist 
soil. Usually, with deep planting, 
staking will be unnecessary. There is danger in deep planting in a heavy, 




Fig. 12. PRiMULixus seedlings 

The primulinus seedlings include a group of grace- 
ful varieties all of which have distinctly hooded 
blooms. The colors are charming, following the in- 
fluence of the clear primrose-yellow of the primulinus 
parent as well as of the delicate intermediate colors 
possessed by other parents, which in many cases are 
Lemoinei. Childsi , or nanceianus varieties 



200 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



moisture-holding soil. The soil may be too wet and may cause a rotting 
of the young shoots as well as the conns. If the soil is too clayey the 
shoots may not have strength enough to emerge, or they may be twisted, 
and thus made unable to produce a good, strong spike. The following 
data are valuable for showing the various practices and opinions as to 
the best soil for proper growth of the plants: 



Grower 



Atkinson 

Austin 

Auten 

Babcock 

Barnes 

Bassett 

Betscher 

Black 

Bonvallet 

Brown 

Bull 

Burbank 

Crawford, M 

Crawford, N. L 

Dombrain 

Fischer 

Flanagan 

Fuld 

Gage 

Hoeg 

Huntington 

Hutchinson ...;....,.. 

Macomber 

Moore 

Munsell 

Rand 

Re Shore 

Richardson 

de Ruyter & Hogewonig 

Spencer 

Stewart 

Tait 

Thomann 

Tracy 

Van Fleet 

White 

Wilmore 

van Zanten 

Zeestraten 



Depth 

to plant 
finches) 



4 

4 

3-4 

3-5 

4 

4-6 

3-6 

2-6 

4 
4-6 

4 
6 

4 

5 

4 

4-6 

5-6 

6 

6 

5 

3-4 

4 

2-4 

4 
4-5 
2-4 
6-8 

6 



4-6 
3-5 
4-7 
4-6 

6 
4-6 
3-6 



Type of soil 



Light loam 

.Sandy loam 

Prairie 

Gravelly 

Sandy loam 

Light and sandy .... 
.Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 

.Sandy 

.Sandy loam 

.Stiff loam 

.Sand and heavy clay 
Heavy clay loam . . . 
Loam and sandy loam 

Light loam 

Clay loam 

Heavy clay 

Sandy loam 

Dark clay loam 

Light 

Light loam 

.Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 

I J inches sand 

Sandy loam 

Gravelly loam 

.Sand 

Light, not very sandy 

Gravelly 

Sandy loam 

Sandy loam 

Sand 

Sandy 



Soil preferred 



Light loam, good bottom 

drainage 
Sandy loam 
No limestone nor dressings 

of lime 

Sandy loam 

Good clay loam, but depend- 
ent on season 

Sandy loam 

.Sandy loam 

Considerable sand 

Stiff loam 

Sandy loam; new soil 

Sandy loam 

Loam for large corms ; for the 
smaller, much lighter soil 

Medium 

Rich, level, sandy 
Heavy clay 
Sandy loam 

Heavy 

Light loam, but damp 
Light loam, not heavy 
Rather light to heavy 



Light loam 

Sandy for most; plants are 

healthier 
Sandy loam 
Loam 

Sandy loam 
Rich, deep, well-drained, not 

too heavy 
Gravelly or sandy 
Any soil good for potatoes 
Moist loam, porous subsoil 
Well-drained swamp with 

sandy loam bottom 
Clay for some, sand for 

others 
Sandy soil, well drained 



Gladiolus Studies — • II 201 

It is seen that many of the growers consulted prefer a sandy loam. 
E. H. Cushman says that the gladiolus does equally well on any soil, 
if given the proper culture. The commercial grower, however, who must 
produce stock at a profit, will choose soil as nearly ideal as possible — in 
other words, a light loam. 

FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USE 

Fertilizers applied to plants are valuable in proportion to the amount 
of the needed plant-food that is available. Only such nutriment as is 
soluble can be taken into the plant, and therefore much food is locked 
up, or unavailable. Some fertilizers are applied for their value in 
unlocking, or freeing, plant-food, rather than for their actual fertilizer 
value. 

The production of gladiolus corms is very analagous to the production 
of a crop of potatoes. A good standard special potato fertilizer is therefore 
recommended. Such a fertilizer will be rich in phosphoric acid and 
potash. The gladiolus is a rank grower and a gross feeder, and responds 
to any treatment that increases the available plant-food. Either manures 
or chemicals may be applied as a fertilizer, both of which are valuable 
in their wa^^ The first kind, stable manure, is of prime importance, 
but each year it is getting more difficult to obtain this. When possible 
it is well to use cow, pig, sheep, or poultry manure, rather than that 
from the horse. It must be borne in mind that sheep manure and 
poultry manure are especially strong and cannot be applied too abundantly 
without danger of causing too great vegetative growth, watery corms, 
or perhaps even a burning of the whole plant. It is thought that the 
gladiolus is very susceptible to the presence of any manure in contact 
with its roots. All manure, then, should be thoroughly incorporated 
with the soil, rather than left in Itmips. This is best accomplished by 
application in the autumn. 

Burrell (1898) writes: 

I avoid as much as possible adding anything to the soil likely to create an excess of 
humus, which is harmful, in generating disease. It is generally supposed that gladioli 
require a light sandy soil, but ... I would prefer to plant in heavy yellow loam. 
. . . Corms raised on well-prepared hea\^ loam I find have greater life and vigour 
than the large, soft, watery ones from light sandy soils, and that the size of flower 
and spike in no way suffers on the former, I think our exhibits over a long number of 
years fully bear out. 

The general opinion has been that a sour soil is injurious to the gladiolus, 
but Chamberlain (1914 b) doubts this. He says: " Some plants thrive 

best in a sour soil, and is Mr. [ ] dead sure that the gladiolus 

is not one of these? I have heard an experienced grower assert that 
the gladiolus prefers the acidity." 



202 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

All humus-making material produces acidity when rotting in the soil. 
This can be easily overcome, or neutralized, by the use of lime. B. C. 
Auten is emphatic in his denunciation of lime. He writes: " Two years' 
planting upon ground limestone nearly put me out of business." Cooper 
(1914 c) believes that it will be necessary to use lime "rather freely where 
heavy applications of stable manure are made or where green manure 
crops are plowed under, to prevent possible excessive acidity and fungoid 
or scab diseases." 

A method of soil treatment and enrichment is outlined by W. P. 
Wright substantially as follows in Popular Garden Flowers: In autumn 
remove the top soil and break up the subsoil, turning in a dressing of 
three inches of decayed manure. If the ground is very stiff, leaf mold 
and sand may be added. Leave the surface lumpy. In February, 
spread on a coat of wood ashes, with an additional quantity of bone 
flour, at the rate of three ounces per square yard, and fork it in. This 
operation will simultaneously reduce the limips to small particles. 

H. H. Groff has used the same land for fifteen years, and the only 
fertilizer he has needed is stable manure and hardwood ashes applied 
in the autumn before plowing. Hardwood ashes are rich in potash and 
phosphoric acid as well as in calcium. 

B. C. Auten prefers dried blood and steamed bone, with a top-dressing 
of nitrate of soda and potassium sulfate or muriate. The fertilizer is 
applied in the seed drill at the bottom of the furrow. Steamed bone 
and bone meal are to be strongly advocated, since they possess the 
necessary phosphoric acid and potash. 

Luther Burbank has used a complete fertilizer. 

G. B. Babcock uses a 4-9-1 1 Bowker's Market Gardener's Fertilizer 
at the time of planting. 

N. L. Crawford has used an application of five hundred pounds of 
potassium sulfate per acre at the time of planting, and from three to 
five hundred pounds more in July or August. 

L. M. Gage applies barnyard manure in the fall, and a complete 
potato fertilizer (4-7-10) in the drills at the time of planting. 

J. M. Bassett manures the soil thoroughly either in -spring or in fall, 
and at planting time a commercial fertilizer is scattered along the furrow. 

S. E. Spencer places a little sheep manure in the furrow at the time 
of planting, and works a chemical phosphate into the soil when the 
buds start. 

C. W. Brown has used seven cords of manure per acre in the late fall, 
plowing it under at opce to kill the witch grass. 

C. Hoeg distributes hardwood ashes at planting, and nitrate of soda 
two or three times during the growing season. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 203 

W. C. Bull, of Ramsgate, England, uses " stable dung dug in during 
the winter, and superphosphate of lime at the rate of a double handful 
per square yard, dusted over the surface of the soil immediately after 
planting." 

Mrs. K. Atkinson applies bone meal two weeks before planting. When 
the growth is about an inch and a half high, and again when the plants 
are ready to flower, they are dressed with Bull's Mixture for Plants. 

J. L. Moore uses hen manure and stable manure once in three years. 
Besides this, he sows a cover crop of rye after the bulbs are dug, and 
plows under the green growth in the spring. 

C. Betscher also seeds rye at the time of the last cultivation, the earlier 
the better. This he would, no doubt, plow under when in greatest growth 
and full of sap, for the green crop should not be allowed to get woody, 
thereby losing its greatest value as a humus maker. 

W. W. Wiknore, jr., recommends bone meal and sheep manure (one 
part of bone meal to four parts of sheep manure) at the rate of two tons 
per acre, using it when the plants are about a half foot tall, thoroughly 
mixing it with the soil by hoeing and cvdtivating. 

B. H. Trac}^ suggests the use of bone meal and lime applied in the 
early spring. 

H. A. Richardson applies a good grade potato phosphate at the rate 
of one thousand pounds per acre, spreading it broadcast after the spring 
plowing and harrowing it in. 

E. T. Barnes prefers well-rotted stable manure, applied either in the 
fall or in the spring before planting, often after planting and used as 
a mulch. 

C. Zeestraten, besides applying cow manure, has used Chile saltpeter 
when the flowers are grown for cutting. 

M. Cra\\^ord uses a complete fertilizer in the grain drill before planting, 
and believes nitrate of soda a valuable substance if used properly. For 
small areas he dissolves one ounce of nitrate of soda in ten quarts of water. 
When using the dry crystals, he distributes it evenly over the surface 
of the soil at the rate of one pound to a square rod. It is best not to risk 
applying the fertilizer along the row. 

F. C. Thomanh has used, besides sheep manure and hardwood ashes, 
a great deal of soot. It seems impossible to account for the freedom 
from disease of his Rochester White gladioli in any other way than by the 
probability that the soot prohibits the spread of the infection. 

W. Van Fleet applies a 4-4-8 potato or truck fertilizer broadcast 
in the row at the rate of six hundred or one thousand pounds per acre, 
and works it in well before planting. He recommends the avoidance of 
an excessive use of tankage. 



204 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

J. F. Munsell uses a 2-8-10 or a 4-6-10 fertilizer placed in the furrow 
before dropping the corms, or on top of the soil when the corms are 
partially covered. 

Maurice Fuld advises sheep manure only, applied after the plants 
have made their appearance above ground. 

Hamilton (1913) writes as follows: " Those who mix their own fer- 
tilizers use the following formula, in many cases varying it somewhat to 
suit individual needs: nitrate of soda, 100 pounds; sulfate of ammonia, 
100 pounds; tankage, 100 pounds; acid phosphate, 100 pounds; sulphate 
or muriate of potash, 200 pounds." 

Coleman (1914 b) writes: "We make our own fertilizer, so do not 
have to pay freight on ' filler.' A formula that has given us the best of 
satisfaction and that the Glads respond to, is represented by 50 per cent 
sulphate of potash, 25 per cent sulphate of ammonia and 25 per cent 
nitrate of soda, by weight." This is applied sparingly along the top of 
the row at planting. 

Summarizing, it is seen that fertilizers may be applied (a) a ^^-ear before 
planting, (b) immediately before planting, (c) in the furrow when half 
filled, (d) on the surface of the soil at planting, or (e) throughout the 
season, especially when the buds are developing. It is interesting to note 
the wide range of chemical fertilizers advocated by the various growers, 
for each of whom his particular mixture is perhaps the best. 

TIME AND MANNER OF PLANTING 

In the Northern States gladiolus corms may be planted in April or 
May, according to the season, or they may be kept until July if they 
do not sprout in their place of storage. They should not be planted until 
the danger of hard frosts is passed, although a slight frost when the shoots 
are still below the surface of the soil will not injure them. It is necessary 
to wait until the soil is somewhat dried, especially with clay soil. A corm 
naturally begins sending out shoots at the approach of spring, so that 
if the storage conditions are rather warm the corms must be planted 
before these growing shoots have exhausted their resources. They must 
be planted so as to allow the shoots to emerge readily from the soil. The 
shoots often grow around the corm and are difficult to manage, so that 
the corms need to be planted properly. 

When possible a succession of bloom should be planned, the corms 
being planted in lots every week or ten days until July. In this way an 
excellent yield of blooms from a favorite variety may be obtained 
throughout the season. 

Corms that are to be grown for rapid increase in size should be planted 
as early as possible, so that they may have a longer growing period and 



Gladiolus Studies — II 205 

make good vegetative growth as well as mature a large corm. Seeds 
and cormels also need to be planted as early as possible, so that they 
too may have a long growing season. 

Dombrain (1873) describes a method of planting individual corms for 
the home garden. With a trowel he digs a hole six or seven inches deep 
and about five inches across, and fills this hole " with a mixture of sand, 
powdered charcoal, and light soil in about equal proportions, so that the 
bulb, when it begins to start and throw out its rootlets, has a light and 
dry material into which to penetrate, and thus is likely to be saved from 
rotting, and taking care that the top of the bulb is about four inches 
beneath the surface." This method, although slow and laborious, might 
be adaptable in the planting of choice seedlings. Usually, however, for 
small beds the corms may be planted with a dibber, or the bed may be 
dug out evenly from a depth of from six to eight inches and the corms 
put in place and covered evenly. 

The commonest commercial method is to plant in rows, the corms 
being placed a little more than their own diameter apart ; that is, two-inch 
corms are placed two and one-half or three inches apart. All bulbs over 
an inch in diameter are placed right side up; others are merely sown in 
the row as seed. B. F. White (191 1) recommends setting the corms with 
the eyes lengthwise of the row. Many of the corms send up two or three 
flower stems, which will not lean over crosswise of the row as they would 
if the corms were planted promiscuously, for in the way suggested they 
help to support one another. 

In large plantings the rows are frequently three feet apart. This allows 
for horse cultivation. The furrows are made with the plow. The fertilizer 
may be applied at the bottom of the furrow, which is leveled with a hand 
hoe. Two or three rows of corms are frequently placed in each furrow 
by bulb growers, since they do about as well as if planted otherwise, and, 
as Gage (1914 b) suggests, " it is surely much more economical to plant 
100,000 bulbs on one acre than the same number using two acres or more." 
When planted in single rows, however, the blooms usually become larger, 
so that for cut-flower or exhibition purposes this method is the better. 

SPRING AND SUMMER CULTURE 

While the gladiolus does not require a great deal of care, it responds 
to good culture by increase in size of both flower and corm. After the 
corms are planted it is very essential that the soil be stirred frequently, 
in order to keep do\\Ti weeds and to destroy an}^ crust through which 
the young shoots cannot burst. Weeds are especially difficult to pull 
in a rather heavy soil after they have attained any size. By cultivation 
air is permitted to enter to the roots, making more plant-food available. 



206 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



Shallow cultivation results in a dust mulch, which conserves the moisture 
by lessening the evaporation from the soil. M. Crawford says that 
cultivation cannot be overdone; a crop can be cultivated every day, 
provided the soil is in a favorable condition. It is best not to touch 
a clay soil when it is too wet. Care should be exercised that the culti- 
vation be shallow. When the corms are not planted deeply, many of 
the main roots will be near the surface, and hand weeding may be 
necessary; otherwise the roots are easily injured. 



Fig. 13. THE TRIAL GROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN GLADIOLUS SOCIETY 

The rows were three feet and si.x inches apart, and the bulbs were placed nine inches apart in the row. 
Each stake marks a separate variety 

Instead of cultivating the gladiolus a mulch of strawy manure may 
be applied, or some other loose material used to imitate the same condi- 
tions as cultivation. This is not believed, however, to be as beneficial 
as cultivation. 

When grown commercially for corms in vast acreages, it is not profitable 
to use any form of stake for the gladiolus. When cut flowers are wanted, 
it sometimes becomes necessary to employ a method of support which 
shall be inexpensive and efficient. Gladioli break at the union of stalk 
and corm. It is in order to prevent this that stakes are used. L. M. 
Gage places upright posts five feet apart, with two strands of cheap 



Gladiolus Studies — II 207 

twine to which the plants are tied. C. Zeestraten uses stout stakes, 
with a string around the plants at a height of twelve inches. J. L. 
Moore prefers a " heavy cord both sides of the row every ten feet, and 
cross twining." For individual plants slender bamboo stakes are best, 
the plants being tied to them with rafha or green string. 

The value of deep planting in holding the plants erect has already 
been considered, and it has been stated that close setting of the conns 
will help to maintain a good, strong, self-supporting row. " Many growers 
throw up the soil on both sides of the row. This is only done after the 
plants have reached a good height, and it helps to keep the blooming 
spikes from the mud. 

An excellent method for the amateur is described by Rexford (1910). 
He advocates the use of green-painted barrel hoops, across which coarse 
binder twine is laced. This support is placed at the height of eighteen 
inches above the ground. In early growth the shoots can be properly 
directed into the meshes. 

The majority of growers agree that the modem gladiolus should stand 
alone without support. But many varieties that are excellent in flower, 
color, and form do not possess a good upright habit. They must therefore 
be encouraged. 

W. W. WiLmore, jr., of Wheat Ridge, Colorado, grows his gladioli under 
irrigation. This he feels to be necessary, since the early spring rains 
start the crop into good vigorous growth, which is checked by the heat 
and drouth of July and August, the only resource left being the nourish- 
ment stored up for the next season. This makes weaker corms, which 
in turn may be expected to produce smaller flower stalks. By the use 
of irrigation the plants are kept in continual growth. Wilmore (1914 a) 
describes his system of irrigation as follows: 

For irrigation the streams are tapped by canals, which carry water into adjoining 
sections. The canals are tapped at intervals by sub-canals, and these in turn spread 
out into laterals which distribute the water directly to the fields or into reservoirs 
which are generally located on the highest point of the farms in order that the water 
may have a natural flow to all parts of the premises. It is sometimes necessary to 
build dikes or flumes to convey the water to these points, and in cases of long distance 
the water is piped in ordinary* sewer pipe which is carefully cemented. 

********** 

At the blooming season cultivation ceases, so well defined ditches may be made 
to carry water for the balance of the season. At the lower extremities of the rows, 
waste ditches are made to catch and carry off the surplus water as it passes out at 
the end of the rows. The waste is conveyed by this means to other plots of land or 
in some cases to the main lateral where it is again used. 

Irrigation water is measured by inches and feet. One inch of water is that amount 
which will continually flow through a hole one inch square under a five inch water 
pressure. Ten inches of water is generally allotted to a ten acre tract of land or an 
appro.Kimate number of inches to each acre in a tract of larger or smaller proportions. 

In extremely dry seasons irrigation is carried on b}' means of pumping from wells. 
These wells vary in size according to the amount of water needed. One of the best 



2o8 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

I have seen is on our farm at Wheat Ridge. It is made of boiler iron in four sections, 
each section being four and one-half feet long and six feet in circumference, making 
the well eighteen feet deep. At the location of this well the water level is only six feet 
below the surface which gives a standing body of water twelve feet deep. When 
pumping, the engine throws a stream of nearly ten inches (irrigation measure) which 
continues almost two hours as the water runs in nearly as fast as the pump can take 
it out. Three pumpings can easily be made per day. For convenience wells are much 
more satisfactory but are more costly to operate. 

On the approach of frost the gladioli must be dug up. Many of the 
varieties will not be very much ripened by that time, so that it is 
advisable to allow the plants to remain in the soil as long as possible. 
An ordinary frost is not injurious to the corms, but if left in the ground 
during a freeze they may be injured. The stock is much easier to handle 
if the tops are green. 

Two methods are used in giving the proper treatment after digging. 
Some growers cut off the tops about an inch and a half above the corm, 
while others leave the tops on for a month or two. It is held by the 
latter that the leaves contain much plant-food, which they continue to 
deposit in the corms even after these are dug. Cutting off the tops thus 
produces a more poorly matured corm. Those who remove the tops 
immediately contend that the leaves, in trying to continue to grow, 
exhaust the food from the corm, and poor corms are thus produced. 
It is a difficult question to settle. The writer has tried both methods, 
and with the comparatively small nimiber handled has preferred to let 
the tops remain, storing the plants in an airy place until October or 
November. Then the tops, the old corms, and the cormels are removed, 
and the whole stock is thoroughly cleaned for winter storage. For small 
lots, ten-pound sacks left open at the top have been used. 

If the weather is favorable, it is well to allow the stock to lie on the 
ground to dry a little before taking it indoors. The heavy dews of autumn, 
however, ma}' make the stock more moist if it is allowed to remain out 
over night than it would be if taken directly under shelter. A great 
deal of the soil can be easily shaken from the corms in the field, especially 
if the soil is sandy or loam^^ 

THE GLADIOLUS BLOOM 

The gladiolus bloom consists of six perianth segments fused at their 
bases. There are an outer and an inner row, the outer row being con- 
sidered as sepals, the inner as petals; collectively they form the perianth. ^ 
The flower may be divided also into upper and lower segments. 

The perianth segments are various!}^ arranged. The most frequent 
arrangement is that in which the uppermost segment is without, over- 
lapping the adjoining segments, the lowermost is within, embraced by 

2 The horticulturist often applies the term petal to any segment of the perianth. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



209 




the contiguous segments, and the upper pair of laterals are overlapped 
by the lower pair of laterals. The segments may have a directly opposite 
arrangement, in which the upper segment 
of the perianth is within. This arrange- 
ment of the various segments has been 
caUed anthotaxy by Jackson (1889). who 
styles the differences in arrangement A 
and B. The term should be cBStivaiion, 
and the various arrangements designated 
as one-, two-, and three-spotted aestiva- 
tion. Jackson says: 

A single spike may be composed of flowers of 
the first arrangement (.4 ) wholly, or it may have 
flowers of both arrangements in var^nng numerical 
proportions; but the first (.-1 1 as far as noted 
always predominates. Flowers of the second 
arrangement (B) may be the first, last, or scatter- 
ingly intermediate on the spike. The two arrange- 
ments are fundamental in the flower, they are not 
brought about by twists in the segments. The 
arrangement of the cell in the ovar\- coincides 
with the var>-ing relative position of the segments. ^^ ^^ longitl-din.^ section 

In Gladiolus dracocephalus and G. pur- °^ gl.^iolus bloom 

, . . , The outer part of the flower is made up of 

plireO-anratUS, the arrangement is of the perianth segments (H). commonly caUed 

J „ . . . , petals, to which are attached the stamens, 

second type. G. pSlttaCinilS is the only which are made up of anthers (B) and 

. filaments (D). At the center of the flower 

species noted m which there was a van- is the pistil with its feather>-, three-lobed 

... T 1 • • stigma (A), the long thread-like style 

ation m arrangement, in this speaes (C), and the ovar>-, or o%-uiar>- (F), which 

. , _ . . _ bears the o\niles. or potential seeds (G). 

most 01 the llowerS are as m the hrst The base of the flower is surrounded by two 
, . . ,, , leaf-like spathe-v-alves (E) 

arrangement, but a few follow the second 

type of aestivation. Jackson states that the existence of two types of 
perianth arrangement on a single spike in a true species would be 

anomalous, and its 
occurrence in hy- 
brid gladioH should 
be considered as 
the inheritance of 
a mixed blood, the 
occurrence of the 
one-spotted lip 
being due to one 
type or species, 
and the inheritance 
of the other type being due to other species. He thinks this sug- 
gestion is borne out by the hybrids of G. piirpureo-auraUis. for 




.ESTIVATION" IN GL.\DIOLUS 



A, two-lipped, the upper inner segment is a trifle arched 

the outer segments are frequently somewhat reflexed 



B, one-lipped, 



2IO 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



both arrangements are found in hybrids although the two-lip is 
characteristic. 

J. G. Baker suggests terming the various lip markings as monospite 
when one-spotted and dispite when two-spotted. 

It is quite possible that by studying this character 
one might find out the original parentage of many of 
the garden hybrids. Perhaps closer relations could 
be found between certain species by this means. 

Bliss (1916) considers that there are four types 
of gladiolus bloom, as follows: 

1. The zygomorphic, or normal, form 

2. The reversion form 

3. The actinomorphic form 

4. The semi-peloriate, or florist, form 

He believes these forms to have appeared due 
to variations caused by exceptional or changed 
culture, rather than by genetic origination. In other 
words, they are not the results of the influence of 
the parent species. He differentiates the various 
forms as follows: 

The normal flower is zygomorphic, or bilaterally 
symmetrical. All the flowers face in one direction 
and rather horizontally. The three outer seg- 
ments of the perianth are about equal in size and 
are larger than the inner segments. The inner seg- 
ments are unequal in size and vary in form and 
color. The upper segment is usually considerably 
hooded, while the lower segments are convex and 
have markings characteristic of the variety. The 
zygomorphic flowers seem ideal in form and color 
for attraction of insects. It is thought that they 
have been developed from a more primitive form — 
tlie actinomorphic, radiating, or regular form. 

In the reversion form the outer segments are 
similar in shape and color. The inner segments 
also are similar, and all three have markings charac- 
teristic of the variety. The flowers of the acti- 
nomorphic and reversion forms are erect and face in two directions, while 
the normal, or zygomorphic, form and the florist form are front-facing. 
The florist form seems intermediate between the zygomorphic and 
actinomorphic forms, but it is still zygomorphic. In the florist form the 



Fig. 16. EUREKA 

This variety illustrates the 
peculiar upright, lily-like 
blooms 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



211 



flowers are partly horizontal-facing, and are more erect than in the normal 

and less so than in the actinomorphic form. At the same time the flower 

often varies a little, in that one segment onh' is blotched. Flowers that 

are naturally irregular but 

become regular through a 

symmetrical repetition of 

the irregularity, are known 

as peloric,. or peloriate. 

The florist form is thus 

semi-peloric. 

Careful obser\'ation will 
determine whether this is 
a fair explanation of the 
forms. Varieties differ 
much in their arrangement 
of the various forms cf 
flowers found on a single 
spike. According to Bliss 
(1916), there are fewer 
florist type flowers " when 
young, or crowded, or in 
poor soil, and more when 
at full size and under most 
favourable conditions. 
. . . If the stem of a 
variety which usually pro- 
duces all or many semi- 
peloriate flowers is partly 
cut through and bent over, 
the flowers, when they 
open, will be chiefly, if not 
all, of the normal form — 
and some even of the 
reversion form." 

Among the varieties on 
the trial grounds at Cor- 
nell University, Eureka 
and Chalice seem excellent 
examples of the reversion form. In both cases the flowers are Hly-like 
and erect. The variety Dandy produces many flowers of the acti- 
nomorphic form. Bird of Paradise follows rather closely the arrangement 
of Gladiolus oppositiflorus. 




Fig. 17. BIRD OF PARADISE 

This variety illustrate"; the extreme Gladiolus opposiiiflorus char- 
acters in the arrangement and large number of its flowers 



2 12 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

It would seem that this variation in form of flower is due to hybridity, 
or the minghng and blending of forms from various species, rather than 
to the external influence of ecological factors. The angular bloom of the 
typical Gladiolus gandavensis crossed with the more bell-shaped bloom 
of G. purpureo-auratus would seem to offer a possibility of getting the 
semi-peloriate form, which would be intermediate and should face nearly 
front, due to its parents G. psittacinus and G. purpureo-auratus, though 
oftsn tending toward the decidedly opposite or two-direction facing of 
the parent G. opposiiiflorus. G. cruentus and G. oppositiflorus seem 
to have been potent influences in eliminating the hooded character, or, 
in other words, to have caused a greater symmetry, or actinomorphy. 
It must be admitted, however, that neither solution explains the mixed 
arrangement of forms on a single spike. 

IDEALS IN FLOWER AND IN GROWTH 

The ideal form for the gladiolus bloom may now be considered. In 
most cases the bloom should be nearly round in outline, the upper segments 
broader than the three lower ones, the central segment slightly arched 
but not enough to be really hooded. Usually the segments should be as 
broad as long. The three lower segments, according to some ideals, 
should be equal in size and symmetrical; the lip segment or segments 
should not be narrow or pointed, nor smaller than the others. It must be 
remembered that the species Gladiolus primulinus is hooded and seems to 
transmit this quality to its seedlings. These should not be condemned 
for this, however, but admired. Certain other varieties, though much 
admired, are faulty in having extremely small and narrow lower seg- 
ments. 

The gladiolus is remarkable for its range of color, which varies from 
the most brilliant scarlet to pure white, from bright rose to clear yellow, 
gorgeous purple, and rich velvety maroon, beside all the intermediate 
shades, tints, and colors in endless combinations, together with the most 
unique markings. These markings are described as dots, stippling (very 
fine dots), splashes (long, irregular patches of color, or dashes), feathering 
(fine markings originating at the outer edges of the segments), mottling 
(irregular spots), blotches (regular, large areas of color found on the lower 
segments in Lenwinei varieties and other groups), penciling (fine lines in 
the throat, found especially in gandavensis and Ckildsii varieties), suffusion 
(colors laid on as though painted over another color), marbling (inter- 
mixed or clouded eftects), blends (gradual transitions of one tone to 
another), and flecking (small dashes). Each of the wild species has con- 
tributed to this motley array of beauty. Where is there a flower with 
such a range of diverse markings? 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



213 



For commercial use, the general consensus of opinion is that the bloom 
should be white, pink, scarlet, yellow, or red, or perhaps blue. Maurice 
Fuld objects to blue in that it does not appear to good advantage in 




Fig. 18. M.\RKINGS FOUND IN PERIANTH SEGMENTS OF VARIETIES OF THE GLADIOLUS 

A, flecks (very small dashes); B, dashes or splashes (long irregular dashes): C, feathering (dashes or 
fine markings that originate at the outer edges of the segments); D, mottling (irregular spots wider and 
more prominent than dashes); E, suffusion (colors laid on as though painted on another color); F, blend 
(gradual transition Trom one tone of a color to another of the same color, or from one color to some 
other different color); G, clear throat (unmarked in any way); H, dots; I, stippling (very fine dots in the 
throat); J, penciling (lines of the throat); K, mottling (irregular spots in the throat); L. blotch (regular, 
large areas of color, on lower segments); M, marbling (an interm.ixed or clouded effect! ; N, the loz- 
enge blotch found in many of the nanus varieties in which the center is clear and the outer edge much 
deeper in color. 

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G are found in various parts of the perianth. H, I, J. K, L, M, and N are 
throat markings 

artificial light. Matthew Crawford writes: "The color should be choice, 
high-priced, more like carmine than vermillion. Colors may be tinted, 
but should not appear bleached, washed out or faded." B. C. Auten 
emphasizes the importance of having the colors lively, rather than dull. 



214 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 




Fig. 19. LA LUNA 

This is an excellent white variety attractively blotched on the lower seg- 
ments with maroon. For straightness o£ spike, regularity of form, and 
clearness of the glistening white color, few varieties excel this one 



F. C. Thomann's 
ideal is a color that 
does not fade when 
the flowers are cut. 
Most growers 
agree that clear, 
decided colors are 
the best, and the 
nearer the con- 
color type the 
better; G.B.Bab- 
cock and G. D. 
Black say that the 
blotch is very 
often objection- 
able. Florists de- 
mand a light-col- 
ored bloom, usu- 
ally because it can 
be used for a 
greater variety of 
purposes; but 
there seems to be 
a difference of 
opinion as to this. 
E. T. Flanagan 
says that the 
darker colors are 
in demand only 
when the lighter 
ones are scarce. 
J. F. Munsell uses 
more than one- 
half red varieties, 
andH. A. Richard- 
son finds only from 
fifteen to twenty 
per cent as great 
a demand for the 
darker colors as for 
the Hght. Several 
growers agree that 



Gladiolus Studies — II 215 

the darker colors are especially valuable for decorations when quanti- 
ties of color are needed. Mrs. K. Atkinson, secretan- of the National 
Gladiolus Society of England, writes that scarlet is one of the best selling 
varieties in England. Dombrain (1873) states that when colors are not 
clear they should be without splashing, and E. T. Flanagan adds that 
the variegated blooms are not to be so widelv admired. M. Crawford sums 




Fig. 20. 


DIVERSE MARKINGS 


OF 


VARIETIE 


S 




A. Estella 


G. Minnesota 








L. 


Papillon 


B. Herold 


H. Tavistock 








M. 


Sidtane 


C. Paul Bohme 


I. Hazel Harvey 








X. 


Xezinscott 


D. Winsome 


J. Sangiiine 








0. 


HaUey 


E. Wilhelm Steinhausen 


K. Marie Lemoine 








P. 


Hofgartener Stapf 


F. Stewart Xu. 573 














These segments are reduced to 


approximately one-half natural 


size 







up the color question by saying that fine coloring is the one requirement, 
without which aU other perfections go for naught. 

In considering the value of colors for landscape use. B. F. White con- 
siders all colors admissible so long as they are bright and briUiant. 
Burbank prefers the soHd colors. Mrs. A. H. Austin and Mrs. K. Atkinson, 
and Messrs. Van Fleet, Macomber, Burbank, Bassett, Black, Spencer, 



2i6 . Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

Brown, Hoeg, Tracy, Wilmore, Richardson, and Moore, agree that bright, 
briUiant, and distinct colors are demanded for a landscape variety. 

As to size, most growers prefer a medium large bloom — one large 
enough to show the color well. Perhaps the bloom of the variety America 
is large enough. However, the craving for monstrous flowers is mani- 
fested among the gladiolus enthusiasts. Large blooms are especially 
admirable when associated with long spikes and extreme vigor in growth. 

The general opinion is that the blooms should be as wide open as pos- 
sible. However, W. C. Bull, of Ramsgate, England, prefers a bloom not 
too open, though the tips of the petals may recurve somewhat. 

The substance of a bloom should be tough, thick, and leathery, not 
brittle, but firm and not easily damaged. For landscape purposes the 
blooms need to be " atmospheric in outline," as H. A. Richardson 
expresses it. Keeping quality is associated with substance, and is of 
prime importance in the consideration of either landscape or commercial 
cut-flower varieties. 

The spike should be long enough to allow cutting of the bloom ten 
inches below the lower flowers. C. W. Brown says, " The stem should be 
only strong or stiff enough to hold up all buds till they open." A stem 
that is rather thin and wiry, rather than thick and stiff, is to be preferred; 
but it must be strong. One of the greatest advances to be made is in 
just such an ideal stem. C. Betscher and M. Crawford emphasize the 
fact that the stem must be large enough to take up sufficient water. This 
defect is present in some Lemoinei varieties. 

The question as to the nimiber of blooms that should be open at one 
time is a perplexing one. A great mass of bloom out at once may be 
desired, or one may prefer to have a few flowers only, so that the spike 
may bloom for a longer period. Van Fleet says " three or four "; Fuld, 
" as many as possible " ; N. L. Crawford, " two each day " ; Gage, " several, 
and if large, three or four "; Moore and Huntington, and Mrs. Atkinson, 
" many." In the landscape varieties, Fuld, Burbank, and Moore con- 
sider that it is better to have a large number open at once; and Moore 
adds that the blossoms should remain open for some time before they 
wilt. N. L. Crawford considers that from six to eight should be the right 
number. 

The old Gladiolus oppositiflorus (fig. 1 7) type of inflorescence has now 
passed out, and it is desired that the blooms shall face in one direction only. 
W. W. Wilmore, jr., and Mrs. Atkinson, consider that the flowers should be 
closely set on the spike, while many others prefer the looser arrangement. 

A subject of further controversy is the matter of branches and their 
value to either a commercial or a landscape variety. Hoeg, Babcock, 
Betscher, White, Thomann, Wilmore, Bonvallet, and Hutchinson consider 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



217 




PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY MRS. B. H. TR*CY 



Fig. 21. NIAGARA 

This is one of the finest creamy white varieties, for it is beautiful in all stages of bud and bloom. 
The lower segments of the flower are faintly penciled with lavender. This variety makes a very 
strong growth 



2l8 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



branches of value in the garden varieties in that they indicate stronger 
growers. Burbank remarks that they improve the appearance of " the 
dwarf, sturdy varieties"; Auten beheves them of value because they 
heighten the effect " when they bloom at the same time as the main," 
and Betscher because they may " extend the season." Bonvallet values 
branches chiefly because they relieve the stiffness of the plant. Brown, 
Spencer, Bassett, N. L. Crawford, Stewart, Flanagan, Van Fleet, M. 
Crawford, Zeestraten, Moore, Bull, Tait, and Mrs. Atkinson are of much 
the same opinion — that branches are of a decided advantage for cut- 
flower use. Branches may, however, be considered of value to the florist 
who uses the individual flowers in design work. On the other side, there 
is a group of growers who believe that branches are objectionable; some 




Fig. 22. TRANSFORMATION OF A STAMEN INTO AN EXTRA PERIANTH SEGMENT, OR PETAL 

A is a normal stamen, which in B shows a tendency of the filament to widen. C, D, E, F show 
successive stages of the transformation of the filament, in each step of which the anther area is 
plainly visible. G is a stamen fully converted into a perianth segment in which the blotch repre- 
sents the anther area. These forms were found on one spike of a seedling 

of these believe that the branches reduce the vigor of the main, and others 
hold that branched spikes are difficult to pack properly. 

Fuld notes that commercial varieties should be those that may be cut 
when only one blossom is open, with the ability to open the others in the 
dark. A requisite of a commercial variety is also that it may be packed 
without bruising and shipped easily without injury. 

The quaUties of a good variety adapted to landscape planting are as 
follows: First of all, the color should be bright, striking, and distinct; 
the markings, if any, should be decided. The spike should be straight, 
stiff, upright, and stronger than in commercial varieties. Branches are 
rather advantageous. There should be tall, mediimi, and dwarf varieties, 
so that few varieties would be objectionable for this reason. The blooms 
should be larger than in the commercial varieties, provided the plants 
have the power of producing flowers of uniform size all the way up the 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



219 



stem; they should be of good form, well open; the grow'th should be erect 
and remain so; and the plant should be compact in habit, due to heaw 
foUage. Varieties adapted to landscape planting should further be of 
such constitution that they stand the sun without fading. 

There is a great difference of opinion in regard to the value of curved 
spikes. Fuld, Macomber, Van Fleet, Betscher, Richardson, Fischer, 
Zeestraten, Tait, Wilmore, Brown, Spencer, Stewart, Auten, and Burbank 
commend them, believing them to be more graceful and artistic than the 




Fig. 23. DOUBLE flower of klondyke 

This flower has six stamens, two pistils, and twelve perianth segments 

straight. Tait Hmits their value to the varieties bearing small flowers. 
Auten thinks them valuable for funeral sprays. Many growers consider 
them good for vases. It is the common complaint, however, that the 
florists do not want them. 

Would doubling be an improvement, was the question asked of two 
hundred gladiolus enthusiasts. The answers were varied. Bull thinks 
the idea " too horrible to contemplate." Richardson writes thus: 
" Simplicity rather than complexity is one of the most desirable char- 
acteristics to be sought for. The simple spacing arrangement and abandon 



220 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

of the single flowers on the spike of such varieties as Peace and Rosella, 
add greatly to their artistic value." Hutchinson, Zeestraten, Tracy, 
Krelage, Tait, Barnes, Fischer, Van Fleet, Betscher, M. Crawford, Wilmore, 
White, Hoeg, Babcock, Black, Macomber, Gage, Huntington, Munsell, 
Fuld, Flanagan, and Mrs. Austin believe that doubling would not be an 
improvement. Bonvallet argues that doubling would make the flowers 
more durable. Spencer says: " Any new feature would add greatly to 
the popularity of the flower, as did the cactus dahlia." Thomann 
thinks a semi-double variety might be an improvement. Auten believes 
that it depends on what form the flower takes in doubling. 

The following card has been devised for use in describing varieties 
of gladioli on the trial grounds of the American Gladiolus Society at the 
Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station:^ 

CORNELL VARIETY TEST OF GLADIOLI No 

Name Old Nos. 



Synonyms 








Originator 


Date Intro. 


Donated by 




Species 


Observer 


Date 





B LOO M — Size — Very large-large-medium-small. 

Color marking • 

Segments — Equal-unequal; connivent-separate. 

Upper — -Horizontal-hooded-reflexed; broad-narrow. Lower — straight-reSex; broad-narrow. 

Stamens — Color of filament; of style; 

Tube — Straight-curved; slender-stout; long-short; compact-loose. 

gpi (^E — Tall-medium-short; erect-curved-drooping; free-fair-bloomer-no bloom. No. blooms 

Branched? 

REMARKS ON BLOO M — Compact, loose; keeping quality ; substance 

HABIT OF PLANT — Erect-drooping; tall-medium-dwarf. Height of plant 

Spreading-compact. 
GROWTH — Good-medium-poor. Season — Early-mid-season-late. 
PROLIFICACY — No. CoRMS — Many-few. Size — Large-small. No. Cormels — Many-few. Size — 

Large-small. 
FOLIAGE — Well-furnished-medium-poor; broad-medium-narrow; veins prominent-obscure. 
COMMERCIAL VALUE — Cut Flower — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 

Landscape — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 
VALUE AS A WHOLE — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 

remarks: 

Estivation 



No. corms sent No. that grew No. bloomed. 



'The introductory paragraphs of Cornell Extension Bulletin ii, Gladiolus Studies— III. Varieties of the 
Garden Gladiolus, explain the methods used in describing varieties. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 221 

It will be interesting to note the score card devised by the Gladiolus 

Society of Ohio. 

Score Card, Ohio Gladiolus Society 

The ideal, or perfect Gladiolus combining all the qualities here enumerated, should 
score 100 points. Approximation to the ideal standard, which is all that can be looked 
for at this time, should be designated by the award of points ranging from o to the full 
total in each case, according to the excellences of the specimen under consideration. 

1. spike — 20 Points. 

Long, 5; Straight, 5; Many blooms, 5; Facing together, 5 20 

2. FLOWER — 25 Points. 

Large, 5; Widely opened, 5; Broad, round petals, 5; Svibstance and tex- 
ture, 5; Beauty of bud, 5 25 

3. COLOR — 20 Points. 

Attractive, 10; Either clear self, or strikingly marked, 5; Adapted to cut 
flower trade or florists' use, 5 20 

4. FOLIAGE — 15 Points. 

Dark, healthy green, 5; Broad, 5; Abundant, 5 15 

5. DURABILITY ID PointS. 

Continuance of bloom on spike, 5; Lasting qualities as cut flower, 5 10 

6. GENERAL EFFECT — ID Points. 

In mass, bed or field, 5; In vase or cut display, 5 10 

100 



At the annual meeting of the American Gladiolus Society at Baltimore 
in 1911, a scale of points was adopted to be used in conferring an Award 
of Merit. Mrs. Frank Pendleton is the only variety that has been ex- 
amined according to this standard and has received the Award of Merit. 

American Gladiolus Society Scale of Points for Conferring 
Award of Merit 

Resistance to disease 5 

Texture of bloom 10 

Duration of bloom 10 

Size of bloom 10 

Color of bloom 15 

Form of bloom 10 

Form of spike 10 

Stem, length and stiffness 10 

Number of blooms on spike 15 

Vigor (aside from disease resistance) 5 

100 

In the enumeration of ideals, adaptability to a great range of soil, 
disease resistance, blooming entirely around the stem, variegations of the 
leaves, fragrance, greater value for indoor culture, hardiness, keeping 
qualities, number of blooms on the spike, and color of the stem, have 
been omitted. Certain of these ideals are at present fulfilled, others 
will be attained, and some are not worth seeking. 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



Groff (1907 a) said: " If the breeder uses his full opportunity, this 
ideal will be a progressive quality, and his standard will advance yearly 

as he sees the results attained by 
unlocking the treasuries of ages of 
the past in scientific, though unre- 
corded, practical plant-breeding." 

HYBRIDS AND HYBRIDIZATION 

GENERAL DISCUSSION 

The first record of the crossing 

of plants was in 17 19, when Thomas 

Fairchild, an English gardener, 

crossed a carnation {Dianthus caryo- 

phyllus) with sweet william (Dianthus 

barbatus). David Fairchild (191 2) 

writes: 

This seems a long time [referring to the 
two centuries since the first hybrid was 
made] if measured in the terms of mechan- 
ical invention, but when it is remembered 
that with most plants such a cross as that 
first one produced can be made only once a 
year, the accomplishments of plant "hybridi- 
zation appear truly remarkable. A me- 
chanic makes a new machine and tests it 
at once ; a plant breeder makes a new cross, 
but must wait for the following season, and 
if his plant is a tree or shrub he must wait 
for many seasons before he knows whether 
he has obtained from his cross something 
worthless or a new hybrid which is an 
improvement over that which the world 
already has. 

The inventor makes his machine, patents 
it, or keeps some feature of its manufacture 
secret, and on the basis of his secret or his 
patent convinces capital that some kind of 
a monopoly can be maintained by which 
the exploitation of the invention can be 
made profitable. The plant breeder, on the 
other hand, can not patent his new variety, 
neither can he keep its origin secret to any 
material advantage ; consequently he must take the risk of growing a stock of his new 
plant on the ground of his personal conviction that it will be profitable, and then, if 
he can, he must sell this stock of plants to the pubHc at paying prices. How difficult 
is his task of making a large amount of money out of a single new plant hybrid becomes 
apparent when we consider how easily any one can obtain a few seeds or cuttings by 
dishonest methods, from these produce the identical plant, and in a few years have a 
stock of plants of the same kind for sale, and even claim to have himself originated 
it by crossing. Coupled with this difficulty, which seems to be inherent in the creation 
of plant hybrids, is a still greater one, that of adequately testing the new variety before 
putting it on the market. One can therefore see the reason, or at least one of the 
reasons, why even more has not been done to make new forms of plants which com- 
bine old characters or bring into expression new ones. 




Fig. 24. MRS. FRANK PENDLETON 

One of the superb pink varieties. The lower 
segments are gorgeously blotched with French 
purple. The growth is strong, and the flowers 
abundant 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



223 



Perhaps few words have been so universally discussed as the term hybrid. 
Many definitions state that a 
hybrid is the result of the 
crossing of two species- Since 
Mendelism has gained promi- 
nence, a hybrid is defined as 
the offspring of crosses be- 
tween individuals of a dis- 
tinctly different nature. The 
word cross is now used inter- 
changeabh' with the term 
hybrid. 

A sport, or mutation, is a 
sudden departure from the 
type of the race, and is cap- 
able of breeding true to seed. 
It is to be remembered, in 
considering so complex a h}- 
brid as the garden gladiolus, 
that all sorts of unusual forms 
appear from time to time, 
which are not mutations but 
are hybrid forms that would 
logically be expected from 
such crosses. New forms that 
arise from seed should not be 
considered sports; a careful 
study of the constitution of 
the parents will determine 
their character. It is possible 
that forms such as Colvillei 
albus can be considered mu- 
tations, but perhaps they are 
merely recessive forms in 
hybridization. 

Stewart (1914) illustrates 
and describes a gladiolus 
sport from the variety Black 
Beauty which has the normal 
red flowers on one side of 
the spike and several white flowers 




Fig. 



MRS. MONTAGUE CHAMBERLAIN" 



This white bloom is most daintily penciled. The openness 
of the bloom adds to its attractiveness 



resembling La Luna, on the other 



224 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 




Fig. 26. CHICAGO white 

This IS one of A. E. Kunderd's varieties. It is exceptional in having a long spike of white blooms 
penciled with Tyrian rose. A good commercial variety and very attractive as a cut flower, being 
of good substance and attractive color, and having many blooms open at one time 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



225 



side. This is known as a bud sport, and, being localized, would not be 
expected to be propagated (fig. 27). 

Except for examples of this sort mutations would be very difficult 
to recognize, since in order to be propagated a sport must originate in 
the corms or the cormels, in which case it might easily be taken as being 
due to a mixture in the corms. The greatest care is necessary to keep 
varieties from getting mixed either by allowing a few corms or cormels to 
remain in the soil or by their 
becoming mixed in storage. 

The fact that some v.-hite 
varieties become heavily 
feathered mth pink is not 
attributed to sporting and 
should not be so considered. 
This condition is due to an 
environmental influence and 
is not permanent. 

There are a few fundamen- 
tals that seem essential for 
intelligent breeding to-day. 
Breeding that is haphazard 
may produce results, but if 
properly directed thought is 
given, the work will be 
crowned with greater success. 
The practical breeder and the 
scientific man both deal with 
the same materials, but in 
vastly different ways. The 
practical breeder is concerned 
with the maintenance and 
improvement of his crop. The 
student of heredit}' is inter- 
ested in how the characters 
are transmitted. He often places the idea of improvement in the back- 
ground, preferring to study the factors related to his problem ; while the 
practical breeder is not concerned in the interpretation of the results, 
but centers his attention on the ultimate attainment of an ideal."* 

Although men have bred plants for years, it was not until 1900 that 
a scientific explanation was offered for the behavior of plants in crosses. 




Fig. 27. BUD SPORT of black beauty 

E. E. Stewart found among the stock of Black Beauty, 
a deep crimson variety, one spike which produced four or 
five blooms much resembling La Luna. This is a remark- 
able case of a bud sport. The blotch on the lower seg- 
ments differs widely from the more or less intermixed throat 
markings of Black Beauty 



* These ideas are inspired from reading the introductory' words from Breeding and the Mendelian Dis- 
covery, by Darbishire (191 1). 



226 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

In that year a very important paper by Gregor Mendel, the Abbot of 
Brunn, was discovered. Although the paper was published in 1865, 
the facts were not known nor appreciated during the intervening thirty- 
five years. Previous to the knowledge of this publication, generalizations 
only were made as to the result of crosses. Breeders noted that in many 
cases the offspring was rather intermediate in the first generation, and 
that later crossings gave some plants like the original parents but mostly 
of a very heterogeneous nature. Unlike his predecessors, Mendel did 
not consider plants as a whole, but studied individual characteristics. 
He illustrated by experiments with the garden pea that there are law 
and mathematical proportions in the results to be obtained. He first 
found that crosses between tall varieties and dwarf varieties gave tall 
forms, but that on propagating from these the tall forms broke up so 
that seventy-five per cent of the offspring were tall and twenty-five per 
cent were dwarf. Of the seventy-five per cent tall forms, one-third were 
pure; the remaining two-thirds were impure and apparently of the same 
constitution as their hybrid parents. The dwarf forms continued to 
breed true. Two facts were brought out in this experiment. The first 
is dominance, or the complete resemblance of the first generation to 
one parent, the characteristics of the other parent being entirely masked; 
the second is segregation, or the separating in the second generation into 
definite proportions of the characters concerned in the cross. Obviously 
all cases are not so simple. 

As stated by the writer in a previous article (Hottes, 191 5 a), the gladiolus 
offers an excellent example of a genus of plants that has been improved for 
garden purposes by the incorporation of a number of species into more 
complex multiple hybrids than in the case of most garden flowers. The 
china aster {Callistephus hortensis), the sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus), 
the peony {Paeonia albiflora), and the Boston fern {Nephrolepis exaltata 
var. hostoniensis) have been improved solely by the selection of variations 
and mutations within a single species. Phlox, German iris, larkspur 
(Delphinium), dahha, columbine (Aquilegia), begonia, and chrysan- 
themum varieties have arisen from the hybridization of several species. 
The rose, the orchid, the pelargonium, and the gladiolus, however, 
often have in the make-up of their best varieties from three to seven 
species, each contributing characteristics to the modern degree of 
perfection. 

It is thus seen that every gladiolus variety dealt with is at the start 
a multiple hybrid. The variety Princeps is at least a fifth-generation 
hybrid in which are resident the characters from at least six species. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 227 

The wild species have in most cases come to be looked upon as " pure 
types," that is, plants that when self-fertilized will produce the parental 
characters identically. In hybridization these types are crossed, and, 
as before mentioned, the result is a new type bearing the characters of both 
parents, the characters of the weaker, or recessive, being at first masked 
by the predominating influence of the stronger. It is this type that is often 
preferred, and when it is self -fertilized the result is a mixture of seedlings, 
of which some are identical with one of the two parents and others possess 
the parental characters in combination. It is therefore advantageous 
that the gladiolus propagates \^egetatively, for only in this way could 
a pure strain of the first-generation hybrid be preserved or any other 
subsequent forms be obtained. 

Jackson (1889) published an account of hybrids made between Gladiolus 
purpureo-auratus and G. gandavensis, and it is truly remarkable to see 
how close his results are to true Mendelian proportions. It must be 
remembered that it is very doubtful whether Jackson had ever seen 
Mendel's paper, which was not widely known until 1900. To appreciate 
his results the parents may best be briefly described. 

In G. purpureo-auratus the flower is deep, bell-shaped, and tubular. 
The two lower petals are marked with broad, elongate blotches of maroon- 
crimson. At the base of the blotch near the center of the flower, the 
color heightens to a deep, rich crimson over a very small area. This 
rich coloring is an important factor in the result obtained in the colors 
of hybrids, in which the whole blotch is commonly a rich crimson. On 
the margin of the blotches is a lip-like splash of golden yellow. The 
color of the remainder of the flower is pale yellowish green. The plant 
has foliage narrower than that of the gandavensis varieties. The spikes 
are graceful and subarcuate, or bow-like. The flowers are rather far 
apart, all facing one way; and in view of the arcuation of the flower 
stalks, and the pendant bell-shape of the flowers, their interior is not 
easily seen. 

Van Houtte, in his catalog for 1841, the year of its introduction, 
describes G. gandavensis as follows: "Its dimensions surpass ramosus; its 
majestic flowers, to the number of eighteen or twenty, are of a most 
charming vermilion, their inferior petals adorned with chrome, amaranth, 
and brown, are relieved by anthers of an azure blue which descend to the 
center of the flower. "^ The lower petals are usually penciled by lines 
of amethyst or maroon, this being one of the most prominent character- 
istics of the variety. 

5 Translation from the original French. 



228 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

The results of Jackson's crosses are here noted, without the knowl- 
edge whether these hybrids are the results of selfed individuals. The 
results approximate a second-generation 1:2:1 ratio in the inheritance 
of markings. 

Inheritance of markings 
Theoretical 
amount that 

should have Actual result 

obtained 
(per cent) 

25 26 per cent marked on lower segments with purpureo-auratus blotch; 

in many cases not maroon-crimson but a rich crimson. (A 
color found at the base of the blotch in the parent species.) 
50 53 per cent possessed a combination of the linear stripe of ganda- 

vensis and a blotch-like stripe of piirpureo-auratus. 
25 18 per cent had gandavensis penciling. 

The occurrence of a white patch in the petalage seems to be the effect 
of an inheritance of the pattern. The yellow splash at the margin of the 
maroon blotch is often wanting, but usualh^ inherited, showing that 
this yellow splash and maroon blotch are not inseparable, but are trans- 
mitted independently. 

In the case of the other characters noted, which may be due to multiple 
factors, the results are not of the simple 1:2:1 ratio, but are of interest 
to note: 

Inheritance of shape of bloom 

80 per cent, form sub-open or flaring; an intermediate between the two 
parents. Some were as widely flaring as the magnolia. This proportion 
may be a little large since the shape is difficult to determine. 

8 per cent were of the bell-shaped bloom of the purptireo-aiiratus. 

Inheritance of foliage and habit of plant 
90 per cent of cases intermediate. 

10 per cent, tendency toward the greater size and increased rigidity of foliage; 
a character of the gandavensis. 

Inheritance of stoloniferous habit 

Generally inherited. Contributed by purpureo-auratus. 

Inheritance of aestivation 

This character concerns the arrangement of segments of perianth which are, 
in most species, disposed so that there are two inner lower petals; but often 
there is but one. 

Most of the flowers show the two-lipped type of aestivation; at least 75 
per cent should have done so, for the species purpureo-auratus is character- 
istically so and the species psittacinus, a parent of gandavensis, possesses 
both forms. The one-lipped aestivation occurred only as scattering individ- 
uals upon a spike. 

Fischer (19 14) writes: 

I see no reason why we should not benefit by the use of the Mendelian method in 
the practical side of gladiolus breeding; that is in the creation of new types by the 
recombination of pre-existing characters. To begin, one must have an ideal form or 



Gladiolus vStudies — II 229 

variety in mind, and then choose parents having characters, that being combined, 
should tend to produce this ideal result. These parents are then crossed. . . . 

The cross-bred seeds thus produced are sown. . . . 

. . . These hybrids must be self-fertilized, and it is important to lay stress on 
the necessity of sowing a large amount of seed from which your family of the second 
generation is to be grown. There must be enough to give a chance for the combination 
of your desired qualities, and the possibility of other rarer combinations to appear 
in order to obtain novelties. 

Fischer has noted dominance and the recombination of preexisting 
characters. For example, " in crossing a large red flower with a small 
white one, the offspring all came in different shades of red in the first 
generation, and all were large sized flowers; in the second generation 
the majority again came red, but a few came light colored and white 
with large sized flowers." 

Growers have noted that the colors in certain varieties change, due 
to an external influence of various heat, moisture, or soil conditions. It is 
known that when the hydrangea flower is given a treatment of iron it 
becomes a clear blue; and the red flower of Primula sinensis var. rubra, 
when grown in a temperature of from 15° to 20° C., yields white flowers, 
while it wnll again produce its red flowers under normal conditions. 
Obviously, the variety alba, which has white flowers, produces them 
at any temperature. When a transplanted variety is again grown in 
its original locality, the old characters should return. Growers who have 
contended that there are various types of certain varieties due to the 
locality in which they are gro^\Ti, can easily determine whether or not 
these varieties are identical b}^ growing all of them on trial grounds for 
several years and observing whether they resume their normal or identical 
appearance. If not, the varieties are different. 

It must not be forgotten that, as J. A. S. Watson (19 12) suggests, for 
the breeder of plants the environment is of first-rate importance, for it often 
sets a very definite limit to what he can accomplish. Our better varieties 
of apples and carnations can reach their full perfection only under closely 
regulated conditions; and improvement is frequently made possible only 
when we find means of improving the environment. Nurture, in the 
wide sense, must remain a matter of extreme importance for the race, 
even if, as seems likely, its effects pass awaj^ with individual life. 

Weismann, the great German biologist, has given the basis for this 
belief in the non-inheritance of acquired characters, in pointing out the 
fact that germ and body plasm are quite separate, the germ plasm depend- 
ing on the body plasm only for its nurture. The body plasm responds 
quickly to external changes, but this tissue is but temporary and lives 
for one generation only, while the germ plasm is carried over from one 
generation to the next. Characters to be inherited must be impressed upon 
the germ plasm. At present no way is knowTi by which the body cells 
can influence the germ cells other than by transfer of food. 



230 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

Modern observation, through experimentation, has established the 
fact that hybridity does not necessarily mean weakness. On the contrary, 
in many cases hybrids have attained greater vigor than their parents. 
The modern gladiolus, with its great size of bloom and vigor, is superior 
to any species as yet employed in hybridization. Very probably this 
progress in vigor is due to hybridity and continued selection rather than 
to the inheritance of any acquired character resulting from modified 
culture or ecology. Plant breeders in the main have rejected the theory 
of Lamarck that races are developed by the accimiulation of the effects 
of use and disuse, because experimental data are lacking to substantiate 
the contention. Colors do change, often due to a changed environment; 
but, as Goodrich (191 2) explains, each variety will reproduce its like 
in its own locality; but seeds of an alpine plant (he has been speaking 
of a divided dandelion plant, one-half planted in alpine altitudes, the other 
half upon the lowlands — each has developed new characters) will produce 
only the lowland form if sown there, and vice versa; the seeds of the low- 
land form will grow into the alpine form in the mountains. This change 
is accomplished by the new growing tissues, for the old and already-formed 
tissues are no longer capable of altering. Once fully differentiated, they 
are fixed. So we see the organism is moulded by its environment. It is 
not the developed result which is transmitted; it is not the modification 
which is inherited, but the capacity for modification in certain directions — 
the modificability. 

Besides white, which is due to the absence of color pigments, there 
are three classes of colors in flowers — the plastid, the cell-sap, and the 
combination colors. Plastid colors are resident in chromoplasts, the colors 
of which vary from yellow to red (Bailey and Gilbert, 1915) according 
to the predominance of yellow xanthophyll or orange-red carotin. 

Cell-sap colors are often due to a chemical substance known as antho- 
cyanin, which is (Bailey and Gilbert, 191 5) 

blue in an alkaline and red in acid reacting cell-sap, and, under certain conditions, 
also dark red, violet, dark blue, and even blackish blue. . . . The different colors 
of flowers are due to the var^/ing color of the cell-sap, to the different distribution 
of the cells containing the colored cell-sap, and also to the combinations of dissolved 
coloring matter with the yellow, orange, and red chromoplasts and the green chloro- 
plasts. There is occasionally found in the cell-sap a yellow coloring matter known 
as xanthein; it is nearly related to xanthophyll, but soluble in water. 

Xanthophyll is the yellow pigment in chloroplasts. To summarize the 
nature of these colors, Bailey and Gilbert (191 5) write: 

Yellow, cream, and related colors are due to a yellow pigment either associated 
with green in the chloroplasts or found alone in the chromoplasts, generally the latter. 
Yellow may sometimes come from the cell-sap. 

Red color may, under certain circumstances, be due to the presence of that pigment 
in the chromoplasts, but it is ordinarily a cell-sap color. 

Most of the remaining colors, purple, blue, generally red, pink, etc., are due to pig- 
ments in the cell-sap. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 231 

The colors in the third class are the result of both cell-sap and plastid 
colors. They are termed combination colors. Judging by cases of Gladiolus 
primulimis hybrids noted, this species seems capable of altering the colors 
in such a way that the bright reds are subdued to salmon, apricot, ecru, 
and cream yellow, no doubt traceable to a dilution of the cell-sap reds 
by the yellow plastid colors from G. primulinus. The resulting colors are 
combination colors. 

Reciprocal crosses are crosses in which both the male and the female 
functions are ser\'ed by each plant ; in other words, crosses in which each 
parent is used alternately as a seed bearer and as a pollen producer. 
Naudin (1866), in describing crosses between Datura fer ox and D. laevis, 
says that the two groups of offspring of this reciprocal cross were so identi- 
cally like each other that the two sets might easily be regarded as one. 
In other words, either species could be alternated as pollen or as seed parent 
without an appreciable difference in result. Dan\'in (1888) \sTites: 

" Hybrids raised from reciprocal crosses rarely differ in 

external characters." Colonel Trevor Clark foiind no difference in 
reciprocal crosses between Begonia Dregei and B. heracleijolia, or B. 
cinnabarina and B. Pearcei. 

With gladiolus the results seem to differ from the above-mentioned 
cases, perhaps due to the extreme hybridity. Lemoine obtained Gladiolus 
nanceianus by crossing G. Sounder sit and G. Lemoinei, G. Sounder sii 
being the seed parent. The reverse cross gives many fine flowers, but 
none so rich in color nor so characteristic in shape. G. Colvillei is the 
result of crossing G. cardinalis on G. tristis concolor, and the reciprocal 
cross is not mentioned as being identical. In R. T. Jackson's hybrids 
between G. gandavensis and G. purpureo-auratus, the latter was used as 
the male parent; the reverse order gave little success, but no notes were 
kept. It is generally considered that G. gandavensis is a good seed parent, 
as results were better when it was so used with G. purpureo-auratus, G. 
dracocephaliis (figs. 28 and 29), and G. Saundersii. Perhaps in all these 
cases the species were not pure types, but hybrids; in which event seed- 
lings of the generation first obsen^ed would vary among themselves as 
much as they would in reciprocal crosses. When one parent is stronger 
or more vigorous than the other, obviously the stronger one should be used 
as the female because of a supposed superiority for seed production. In 
many cases a morphological characteristic causes an incompatibility 
between the parents. The style of the pistil may be so long that the 
pollen tube of another species cannot fertilize the o^alles. 

In A. E. Kunderd's mind the ideal was a strain of gladioli which should 
have ruffled segments. For more than twenty-five years varieties sho\Nang 
a tendency toward ruffling have been in existence, such as White Lady 



232 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 




PHOTOGRAPH LENT 



NEST BRAUNTON 



Fig. 28. GLADIOLUS dracocephalus hybrid 

A. Gladiolus dracocephalus, a wild species characterized by having a dull yellowish green bloom finely 
marked throughout the perianth wth brownish red. 

B. A scarlet seedling designated as No. i Scarlet by Ernest Braunton. 

C. The hybrid between G. dracocephalus and No. i Scarlet. It is intermediate in color, the perianth 
bearing the characteristic G dracocephalus markings and the larger flaring form of the pollen parent, 
No. I Scarlet 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



233 



and especially Safrano. Kunderd has for a number of years selected 
such varieties, and has bred them together until he has a type that is 
rather distinct from any of the others, not only in the matter of ruffling 
but also in shape of bloom 

(fig- 30) • 

There are several ways of 
explaining the origin of these 
varieties. There is a possi- 
bility that they are progres- 
sive mutations; in other 
words, that a tendency 
toward waving arose by a 
sport and continued to in- 
tensify. Another explana- 
tion is to consider ruffling as 
due to several factors vari- 
ously combined to cause a 
gradual progression in the 
degree of variation. 




CROSSING TECHNIQUE 

The normal, complete 
flower of the gladiolus con- 
sists of a show^ six-parted 
perianth, of no practical 
value in the production of 
seed. Attached to the peri- 
anth are three stamens, 
with rather fleshy filaments, 
and anthers which in many 
cases are rather large; the 
varieties differ widely in 
this character. Most varie- 
ties are abundant pollen 
bearers, but the variety 
Rochester "WTiite, because 
of its complete albinism, 
produces no pollen. The 
pollen is of various colors ranging from white to almost blue. From the 
center of the flower rises the long pistil, bearing aloft the three-forked 
stigma. When the stigma is mature, which is a little time after the 
stamens begin to shed pollen, the surface becomes rather feathery and 



Fig. 29. AMERICA X GLADIOLUS DRACOCEPH.\LUS 

The hybrid is indian red penciled and flecked with yellow 

and bronze. This is one of Ernest Braunton's hybrids 



234 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



is then receptive to pollen. The flowers are usually protandrous, which 
means that the stamens and pistil mature at slightly different times. It 
is interesting to note that in Gladiolus segetum the pistil curls down to 
receive the pollen, the stamens and pistils being ripe simultaneously. 

The first operation in 
crossing is to protect the 
pistil from foreign pollen 
or pollen not wanted as a 
parent of the cross. This 
is done by taking out the 
stamens or removing the 
whole corolla to which the 
stamens are attached. This 
process is known as emas- 
culation. Unless the sta- 
mens are removed when 
they are undeveloped, 
which is before the bloom 
opens, the purpose of this 
operation will be defeated. 
W. C. Bull and L. M. Gage 
consider emasculation un- 
necessary, but the fact 
remains that pollen often 
retains its fertility until 
the pistil is ripe. In many 
cases the top of the spike 
is removed in order to con- 
centrate the energy of the 
plant on the flowers re- 
maining. 

At the time the spike is 
removed, the emasculated 
flower is usually bagged, 
in order to keep out bees. 
The method of bagging 
differs greatly. E. N. 
Fischer uses a special hood consisting of a wire frame covered with 
cloth, the wire projecting at the bottom and the hood closed by 
a piece of tape fastened to the cloth. Much experimental evidence is 
presented to show that cloth bags do not absolutely keep out foreign 
pollen, so that for scientific results a waxed paper bag should be used, 




Fig. 30. AZALEA, A RUFFLED VARIETY 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



235 




which will admit the sunlight and will also protect against contami 

nation by other pollen. 

The various methods of pollination are best 

tabulated for comparison. The significant points 

to be borne in mind are: (i) that the pollen is 

shed almost as soon as the flower opens, which 

is as soon as the sun is up; (2) that perhaps 

self-fertilization takes place much more readily 

than one thinks, since it is a rather easy matter 

for the pollen to reach the pistil either by the 

action of insects or by the wind. This makes 

emasculation in the case of the gladiolus more 

necessary than for some other flowers. 

The workers in the Bureau of Plant Industry- 

at Washington, D. C, according to Dr. C. E. 

Leighty, carry the pollen in a small vial, which 

is secured to the thtmib of the left hand by 

means of a rubber band, thus allowing fiill play 

to the fingers. In the right hand the worker 

carries either a pair of forceps with which to 

remove the stamens from the vial, or a small 

brush to be dipped in the pollen. 

Douglas (1885) dusts the seed-bearing parents 

about four times. "It is easy to do this," he 

wTites, " because at the time of setting the 

blossoms we go over the flowers twice a day. 

In the morning between nine and ten, and in the afternoon between 

two and three." 
After pollina- 
tion the bags 
should again be 
placed over the 
blooms, in order 
that foreign and 
undesired pollen 
may not come 
into contact with 
the stigma and be 

more congenial to 
Fig. 32. CROssiXG technique ^1 ■ ^.. .-, , , 

. „■,• ^v,.ur,.,ru.u r ,-t, the pistil than the 

A small vial is secured to the thumb of the left hand by means of a rubber ^ 

band; the fingers are thus left free to hold the flower. With the right hand the pollen a P D 1 i C d 
stamens are easily removed by the use of forceps, and dropped into the vial ^ ^ ^ 

previously. 
It is always desirable to carefully label the crosses. This is best done 



CROSSING TECH- 
NIQUE 

By reference to figure 14 one 
may see that the stamens are 
attached to the perianth tube. 
Therefore, if the perianth is 
removed, the stamens are re- 
moved. This is a simple method 
of emasculation 




236 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 



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Gladiolus Studies — II 237 

by using small watch tags and placing on them the time of emasculation 
as well as the date of pollination, together with the name of the pollen 
parent. Perhaps a ntunber which refers to a record book will be sufficient 
and more satisfactory than writing the full name of the parent. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the nimiber of seed capsules to be 
allowed per spike, some growers holding that as many should be allowed 
to develop as will, others that the strength of the plant should be con- 
centrated into a few seed capsules only. Seed production is thought 
to exhaust the corms, so that few capsules should be allowed to develop 
if they are not wanted. 

POSSIBILITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT 
USE OF WILD SPECIES 

In the hybridization of the gladiolus only about a dozen species have 
as yet been incorporated into hybrids. For some years many hybridists 
have been working on the use of other species. Some think that great 
future progress is to be made by their use; others feel that the species 
thus far used include all that are of value. When one considers the value 
of the various species in producing new types and diverse blotchings 
and stripings, it is difficult to believe that there is no further possibility 
along this line. 

The first species to be used extensively in hybridizing was Gladiolus 
cardinalis, which gave the excellent white throat lozenge to the G. Colvillei 
hybrids. The next species of great importance was G. oppositiflorus, 
a form contributing height, length of spike, arrangement of flowers, and 
markings, to its hybrids G. ramosus and G. gandavensis, for this species 
attains a height of six feet and bears from twenty-four to forty blooms, 
which are arranged so as to face in two directions. It has taken years 
of breeding to eliminate this last character, which is rather objectionable. 
Most of the gandavensis varieties are also marked with the characteristic 
stripes or penciling from the G. oppositiflorus. 

Another species concerned in the gandavensis strain is G. psittacinus, 
which has given its rich scarlet and chrome yellow to the hybrids, G. 
oppositiflorus being a white species. Some years previous to 1878, 
G. purpureo-auratus was used in crossing. This introduced, through the 
Lentoinei forms, the bell-shaped, hooded blooms facing in one direction, as 
well as the diamond-shaped, rich maroon blotch characteristic of the 
varieties at present so popular. G. Saundersii has had its influence on the 
Childsii, nanceianus, and turicensis varieties in making the blooms large 
and exceedingly well open. G. cruentus has contributed the charming white 
throat and fine dots found in the variety Princeps. G. papilio is usually 
credited with the production of the finest blue varieties. Recently there 



238 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



has come to the attention of the breeder the Maid of the Mist gladiolus 
{G. primulinus) , a pale yellow, primula-scented, hooded species which 
has toned down the deeper colors of the other varieties and impressed 
its hooded character on the majority of its seedlings. 

The foregoing discussion covers only a few of the species used. In the 
practical hybridist's mind, each species represents certain desirable char- 
acteristics to be incor- 
])oratcd into a hybrid. 
Too often there arc 
many unfavorable 
features, the consider- 
ation of which should 
not be entirely neg- 
lected. 

Dr. Van Fleet and 
Maurice Fuld are op- 
timistic of the results 
in using new species 
in the future. H. A. 
Richardson writes 
that the " infusion of 
new blood at anytime 
offers a promising field 
as a basis for further 
selection and improve- 
ment." S. E. Spencer 
feels that the wild 
S|:)ecies are valuable 
" to a limited extent 
to get vigor and hardi- 
ness and develop new 
types and colorings." 
W. W. Wilmore, jr., 
notes that "the wild 
species may be used to 
develop some lacking 
quality," otherwise a backward step is taken. W. C. Bull thinks it is very 
doubtful, so far as form and color are concerned, whether the gladiolus can 
be improved by the use of wild parentage, but "if constitution could 
be improved it would be worth any amount of time and trouble." B. F. 
White feels that at present tlie si)ecics are not promising, as all "the 
good ones have been tried. Should new ones be discovered, it would pay 
to try. The farther we get away from the species, the better the flowers 




I'lii- 33- 



KUFKLEO 



I'KIMUl.lNUS 



SKEDLING KKOM I. 



The color of this variety more closely approximates orange than any 
other variety seen. It shows the characteristics of its parent ClaJinlus 
primulinus in the hooded bloom and penciled throat, as well as in its 
color. It is beautifully frilled and ruffled 



Gladiolus Studies — II 239 

are." C. Betscher believes that "few species are needed, for quite as 
many points can be secured without them." Luther Burbank \vrites that 
"it is slow, uncertain work when using wild species." 

Groff (1907 a) believes the only system to follow for the production 
of the highest types for commercial value, is that 

of breeding from domestic specific types as sires on selected females. . . . The 
use of wild species mth the hope of attaining a similar ratio of such results -'s relatively 
absurd, as the only value that any wild species can have to a breeder for practical 
results is as foundation or laboratory stock, to be discarded yearly with their early 
hybrids as he advances step by step towards his ideal. 

********** 

. . . By using all obtainable species he multiplies the possibilities for practical 
results and increased diversity in the material to be evolved from the product of future 
years, and yearly discarding species and early hybrids as they are superseded in the 
course of his operations. 

Wild species are only of value so far as they may supply some desirable quality 
for incorporation into a domestic type containing other good qualities, such as size, 
vigour, vitality, and adaptability. . . . 

. . . Breeding from wild species is therefore of little practical value, as the farther 
our removal from their many objectionable features the better, when b}' proper 
selection their best qualities can be controlled and applied according to our knowledge 
and discretion. 



How many animal-breeders would be satisfied with sires whose progeny were largely 
weeds? How were these high-class animal sires produced? How are new domestic 
races and strains of cattle, sheep, dogs, poultry, pigeons, and other animals and birds 
obtained? Certainly not by the general practice of plant-breeders. 

Of what practical value is the knowledge of the component ratios of life forces in 
simple hybrids, in comparison with that knowledge giving results in the highest ratios 
of useful and valuable qualities? — thereby saving labour, time, space, and e.xpense, 
and giving, in the place of curios, the highest possible percentage of quality in economic 
types. ^ 

. . . Select and develop domestic races and sections of such high quality, vitality, 
and general adaptability, that their progenj' will not only be of higher quality than 
the parents, but that this quality will be produced in quantity in the highest possible 
ratio. This is practical plant-breeding. 

Again, before the American Breeders' Association, Groff (1907 c) 
expresses his opinion " that no simple or limited crossing can produce 
the value, quality and satisfaction equal to those resulting from unlimited 
removals from the wild species on the lines of scientific selection, guided 
by learned human intelligence." 

As has been stated by the writer in a previous paper (Hottes, 19 15 a), 
it must be admitted that greater progress can often be made by inter- 
breeding established varieties; but when new features are to be added, 
the employment of new species is advisable, or even imperative. These 
should be the basis of hybridization. As years pass, the inferior seedlings 
may be discarded, and the ideal form may be far removed from the wild 
species; but the ancestor is necessary. 



240 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

the most needed improvement 

In answer to the question, What is the improvement most needed, 
M. Crawford, Van Fleet, Spencer, Fischer, Richardson, and Bonvallet 
consider clear and self colors a great ideal for which to strive. Richardson, 
M. Crawford, Flanagan, Burbank, Black, Spencer, White, and Fischer 
consider it necessary to make an effort to greatly increase the substance 
of the bloom. Healthier plants should be the only ones retained; aU 
those of inferior quality should be barred from distribution and destroyed. 
Slender, graceful spikes should be developed, write Mrs. Austin, Zeestraten, 
and Fischer. Wide-open flowers are preferred by Mrs. Austin and by 
Van Fleet and Richardson. Mrs. Austin, Koerner (191 1), and Spencer 
welcome the introduction of new and unusual forms. Kunderd (191 1) 
writes : 

In addition to the reported foliage with white striping, great improvement may be 
expected with the normal color. For a number of years I have been selecting and 
breeding with this object in view, and find the gladiolus as susceptible along this line 
as in the improvement of its flowers. We should have tall, wide, rich green foliage; 
tall, slender and graceful foliage, of forms best suited to the usual straight-stemmed 
varieties, and some beautiful, slender and drooping foliage, best suited to blend with 
what are known as bent or crooked-stemmed varieties. That there is a future of 
usefulness for the last named form of stem, I feel confident, if the flower is specially 
attractive. 

Another feature of promise is the colors of the stem. Some of the stems are almost 
white and others are fine cream or yellow. This, no doubt, will become a feature of 
usefulness in the gladiolus of the future. 

. . . I am confident the long wished for sweet-scented varieties will be perfected 
in the hands of Lemoine, Burbank, or Van Fleet. 

Fuld emphasizes the value of having an ideal toward which to work. 
N. L. Crav^ord wishes that growers would attain a higher ideal before 
putting their varieties on the market. Zeestraten would have a better 
shape in the gladiolus. Gage thinks the whole Lemoinei class needs 
improvement. 

As to the type of bloom the hybridists are using as the parents to attain 
the high degree of perfection desired, Groff (1907 a) writes : " For practical 
and valuable economic results it is therefore not sufficient that the breeder 
should be able to produce types of symmetry and beauty, but he must 
add the qualities of stability and adaptability to changed conditions 
to ensure due satisfaction for the ultimate grower." Wilmore thinks 
the variety America is the best type of parent, as it produces seed freely, 
is vigorous, and is of a color that blends well. Thomann uses light colors 
only as parents. Mrs. Austin, Burbank, and Betscher use seedlings, 
mostly of their own origination, which combine the different types. Van 
Fleet beheves " G*. primuUnus and the garden varieties to be most 
promising." Fuld is breeding for size, and therefore uses the larger- 
blooming varieties. Zeestraten uses the most vigorous growers and the 
best multipliers. 



Gladiolus Studies - — II 



241 



The following varieties are mentioned 
used as parents: 

America 

Badenia 

Baron Joseph Hulot 

Blanche 

Blue Jay 

Canary Bird 

Chicago White 

Cordelia 

Dr. Dotter 

Elizabeth Kurz 

Europa 

Glory 

Golden King 

HaUey 

Harvard 

Heliotrope 

Isabel 

Lady Howard de Walden 

Liebesfeuer 



as having possibilities when 

Mastodon 

Mrs. Frank Pendleton 

Mrs. G. W. WiUock 

Niagara 

Panama 

Parure 

Peace 

Princepine 

Princeps 

Princess Louise 

Prophetesse 

Rochester White 

Schwaben 

Sparta 

Sulphur King 

Victory 

White Excelsior 

White Lady 



GATHERING AND PLANTING SEEDS 

After the fertilization of the ovules the capsules soon begin to develop, 
and when they have attained their full size they ripen speedily. The 
pods crack from the top downward, and the seeds can be gathered as 
soon as this takes place. They should be dried in an airy room. The 
pods or the seeds may be placed in cloth sacks to which air can be admitted. 
It is necessary to remember always that seeds are young plants and for 
their proper germination should be stored in a cool, not too dry, place. 

Opinions differ as to the proper time for sowing. Fuld prefers to sow 
the seeds in December in the greenhouse, and then have some young corms 
to set out in May, thereby saving a year in the production of new varieties. 

Douglas (1885) writes as follows: 

My plan is to prepare a hot-bed for them, and to sow about fifty seeds in a seven- 
inch pot, using good light compost. The seeds vegetate in two weeks, and the way 
to be successful is to keep the young plants growing on without any check. The 
plants grow very rapidly, but it is best not to disturb them. As they increase in size, 
gradually admit more air, until by the end of May the lights may be removed entirely; 
placing them over the frames only in very rough and frosty weather. By the end 
of September or not later than the middle of October, the young seedlings have 
completed their growth, and the pots will be full of bulbs varying in size from a marrow 
pea to a filbert. The pots may be laid on their sides until the leaves decay, when the 
next step will be to shake the bulbs out, wTap them up in paper, and store the packages 
in a dry place where frost cannot reach them. 



242 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



Somewhat the same system is in vogue with Jackson (1889), who writes: 

The hybridized seeds were planted in April, 1886, in shallow boxes, and so grown 
throughout the summer. About midsummer, when the leaves attained a considerable 
height, fine sifted cow-manure was spread over the soil in the boxes to the depth of half 

an inch or more. This proved beneficial as a mulch and 
source of liquid-manure at each watering. In autumn the 
bulbs were sifted out of the earth. . . . The second year 
the seedlings were planted thickly in rows in the open ground. 

Gage (1913 ?) gives the following directions for 
the care of the seed bed ; he recommends sowing 
out-of-doors about May 15, when the ground has 
become warm: 

Many growers place their gladiolus seed bed under shade 
during the first year, but I think that this is wrong, for 
after testing both methods I am convinced that seedlings 
grown under shade do not produce as large or as strong 
corms as those grown under the open sunshine. 

It is, of course, desirable to keep the seed bed covered 
with matting or other suitable material for two or three 
weeks after planting, to conserve the moisture and facili- 
tate germination; but after the seeds have started to grow 
and roots are formed, the bed should have an abundance 
of air and sun; also plenty of water should be added if 
the bed is liable to suffer from drought. 

I prefer to have the soil in my bed rather sterile, because 
the weaker seeds will not survive long in a poor soil and 
much of the struggle for existence — for the survival of 
the fittest — is ended in the seed bed and I am thus 
saved the labor and bother of growing weaklings; but after 
the plants are well started I begin to feed them, giving 
them an occasional top dressing of some good commercial 
fertilizer, and later I apply hard-wood ashes. 

Hendrickson (19 n) writes that seed 

will have to be carried over until the following 
spring, when it can be planted in shallow drills, 
covering about one-eighth to one-fourth inch 
with soil, they will only make a sHght grass like 
growth the first year, 
and must be taken up 
in the fall and housed 
away from frost; the 
following spring they 
can be planted as one 
would sow garden peas 
and covered about one 
and one-half inches 
deep; they will make a 
little more growth and 
perhaps a small per- 
centage will flower, but 
the bulbs will have to 
be lifted and planted 
Fig. 34. GLADIOLUS SEEDLING once more before a 

Note the thick roots at the base and the large cormels. This is shown' gOOd showmg of flowerS 
after si.x months' growth from seed can be expected. 




Gladiolus Studies — II 243 

Betscher (1914a) gives the following excellent suggestions regarding 
seed beds: 

Presuming that one has good soil to begin with the next step is the right handling 
of it. Where possible to do so, it is very good to have the plot planted to clover — alsike 
planted about July 15 or rye later on — and given a good mulching of manure, but 
not heavy enough to ruin it. This will feed the clover and leave the ground in extra 
fine shape. When severe freezing sets in about November 15, or later in an open winter, 
spade the plot about eight inches deep, turn so top soil and clover is at bottom, leaving 
rough so that freezing will penetrate deeply. About January when an open spell comes 
as soon as it gets colder and the top is frozen two or three inches deep, dig this plot 
up with mattock or pick about three to four inches deep so that it will freeze deeply, 
leave as rough as possible. We do this a number of times during the winter but not 
after severe freezing is at an end. . . . When a severe change to colder, about 
March 15 or later rake it level, and even if a bit wet the freezing will leave it very fine. 
This will bring out early weeds so that when the soil is ready to plant about April 15 
or later it may be hoed and raked thoroughly. It will be in fine shape to plant any 
time after April 15 in central Ohio. 

Granting that the soil is in very fine condition — perfectly level — we now begin 
to plant. Very often ground is not what it should be, and seedlings do not turn out 
well. For this reason we plant several rows of large bulbs alongside and if soil is wrong 
the large bulbs also will show it. 

Our iDeds are about forty feet long. We take several eight inch boards to walk on. 
Then take a wide flat shovel and scoop out the soil about three-quarters to one inch 
deep. Make perfectly level with back of rake. Make beds from four inches to twenty- 
four inches wide. Plant seed quite thick so ground is covered ; then scoop soil and cover 
seed carefully. We level carefully before moving boards ahead so rain does not form 
puddles on the beds. In this way we plant thirty-five to fifty pounds of seed. 

These beds may be covered with old carpets, old sacks or burlaps, and left on until 
plants are two inches high. Mats or straw may be used. 

Until seed is pretty well up it should be kept damp say for four or five weeks after 
planting. Water evenly and thoroughly. 

Whenever the beds partially dry out we give them a thorough watering. Never let 
the seedling bed get dry. 

We prefer watering very early in the morning, but in hot dry weather about sun- 
down. When done thoroughly it may be done any time during the day. 

Planted so thickly it soon requires feeding. We have a heap of well rotted manure 
to which has been added bone flour, wood ashes, soot and lime mixed one part to which 
we add two parts good soil — mix thoroughly — sieve through fine sieve and put evenly 
through the plants about June 20 and July 15. This must be done with care. We 
water as fast as we get several beds mulched so ammonia, etc., does not escape. Do 
not put on too thickly. 

Go over the plants often. Do not let weeds get a start; once a week is best. 

When planted April 1 5 to April 30, they will be ripe enough to dig August 15. Earliest 
types August i — latest types about August 30. 

Do not sieve or rub much. We loosen the soil with a stiff trowel then pull the plants 
out, sieving the balance lightly, although it is better to pick out all that do not pull out. 

Put in shallow boxes about two inches deep, then put in a dry cool shed or cellar. 
Do not leave where winds or drying occurs as often they harden easily, especially so 
when bruised in sieving. Rub roots off lightly when ready to plant. 

Do not keep near fire heat as they deteriorate greatly. 

Plant about April 10 to May 15 three inches deep below soil level. Draw the rake 
through them when coming up. Do this every week or after every rain until plants 
are about eight inches high. Keep soil loose about them until August. Many perish 
if ground becomes crusty. 

Thomann sows his seeds in flat trap's in early March and takes the 
trays out of doors when the weather permits. The plants shotild be 
disturbed as little as possible. Van Fleet uses six-inch pots, or if sowing 



244 " Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

in May he prefers seed beds. N. L. Crawford scatters the seeds in three- 
foot rows, six inches wide, covering the soil deeply with leafy boughs 
until the sprouts appear. He protects the seedlings with a cheesecloth 
screen, placed about one foot above them, during the heat of the day. 
Burbank sows his seed both in beds and in boxes. Huntington keeps 
his seedlings under lath screens. Wilmore drills his seed in trenches, , 
which are made ten inches deep to allow for irrigation and hoeing. Black 
covers his seed with a layer of sandy soil. M. Crawford believes straw 
to be the best material to use for covering in order to insure germination. 

About 1906 Frederick Roemer, of Quedlinburg, Germany, originated 
what he called a new group, giving to it the name Gladiolus praecox. By 
some growers the varieties in this group are called Annual gladioli. This 
term should not be used, since annuals are plants that live for only one 
year, whereas the meaning in this case is that the plants are brought 
into bloom in one year from seed. The praecox strain is obtained by 
intercrossing the earliest plants of G. gandavensis, G. Lemoinei, G. Childsii, 
and G. nanceianus. The seeds (Anonymous reference, 1907 d, should be 
started in a temperate frame the first of March. They germinate 
in from three to four weeks. As growth advances and weather permits, 
ventilation should be given in order to get good, sturdy plants. A trans- 
planting, although not essential if the seeds have been sown thinly, is of 
great benefit. Soon the seedlings are strong enough to stand feeding, 
and a mulch of bone dust or sheep manure should be applied. During 
the first year the corms attain the size of a crocus bulb; the second year 
they are as large as those usually offered in commerce. Two-years-old 
corms produce two or more spikes of normal size. 

Burpee seems to have evolved a strain much like the praecox, which he 
calls Fordhook hybrid gladioli. Some of these seedhngs seem to be very 
excellent both in color and in size. It is of great value to get such precocious 
varieties. 

Kerr (19 13) prefers to sow the seed where it can be left to bloom, as 
the seedlings do not transplant well. He states that great pains should 
be taken to give the bed a careful preparation before planting the seeds. 

THE CORM 

The underground stem of the gladiolus is not a bulb, but a corm. 
A corm is defined as a thickened base of a stem, usually subterranean, 
in which food is stored. It differs from a bulb in that the greater share 
of the bulk of a bulb is not stem, but bulb scales, which are really thickened 
bases of leaves, the stem being merely a much-flattened plate from which 
roots and bulb scales arise. Corms also are covered with tunics, or scales, 



Gladiolus Studies — II 



245 




The husks, or tunics, are really the 
bases of the last year's leaves 



but these are scarious, and are called husks, or tunics, in the case of the 

gladiolus. These scales are bases of leaves, but are not thickened as they 

are in bulbs. Botanically considered, a bud 

or the potentiality for a bud exists in the 

axils of all leaves. There should be one bud 

for each layer of tunics, or husks. Because 

of the manner of growth of the gladiolus, 

which is in one plane, these buds should 

have an opposite arrangement, thus causing 

them to lie in one straight line through the 

center of the corm. 

It takes from one to four years, according 

to the variety, for a seedling to produce a Fig. 35. gladiolus corm 

corm of blooming size. It takes one year less 

for a cormel to flower. Gladiolus purpureo- 

auratus has the character of blooming quickly from seed, and has trans- 
mitted this character to its offspring; it was therefore a great factor 

in the production of the praecox strain. 

Every stem that makes vigorous growth has at its base a corm. Each 

corm has several buds, of which each one that grows will produce a new 

corm on top of the one planted. Seven bulbs of blooming size in one 

season are reported by Higgins (1912). In this way the grower's stock 

is not only reproduced each season, but also rapidly increased, provided 

good soil and proper cultivation are given. 

The vigor and the thickness of a corm 
depend much on the proper growth of 
foliage. If in cutting the spike little 
vegetative growth is left above the soil, 
only small quantities of food can be 
manufactured by these abbreviated 
leaves, and the base of the stem, or 
corm, in which the food is stored, suffers. 
The failure of amateurs to carry over 
stock is often due to cutting the shoots 
near the surface of the soil, the corms 
thus being able to make little or no 

1 IG. 36. GLADIOLUS CORM FROM j , ^ ^i . , . 

WHICH THE TUNIC HAS BEEN dcvelopmcnt. i hc suggestion, then, is 
REMOVED that if one wants an annual renewal of 

Note the scars due to the bases of the old , 1 •1,1 

leaves, The buds are in a straight line, and COrmS, CarC muSt be CXCrClSed tO Icave 
there is one bud for each ring on the corm „, «:„: j. r t tj. j^i_- ji m 

sufficient fohage after cutting the spike. 

It is the general opinion that corms which have been allowed to bloom 

every year for three or four years become thinner and thinner. These 




246 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 



thinner conns do not produce long- 

blooming spikes. So that in order to 

''™^"^" maintain the quality of the bulbs and 

the correlated quality of the blooms, 
\'ery old corms should not be allowed 
to bloom, or else new stock must be 
grown from cormels. The more nearly 
spherical corms, in other words the 
thicker ones, are the better. With age 
the flat corms frequently send up five 
or six shoots, causing the production of 
not one or two blooming-sized corms, 
but small ones that need a year's growth 
before they will bloom again. However, 
corms vary greatly in size, it being the 
characteristic of some varieties to pro- 
duce small corms. It is usually blooming 
i JH age, rather than blooming size, that is 

important. In choosing corms from mix- 
tures, therefore, it is not wise to select 
only the large ones. Some of the blue 
hybrids produce small corms, and this 
color might be omitted if large corms 
onh' were purchased. The variety Baron 
Joseph Hulot never produces as large a 
corm as do some of the other varieties, 
and many varieties, for example Mrs. 
W. E. Fr\^er, produce flowers from very 
small corms. 
- JK i^i^n-^H Corms are graded officially by the 

American Gladiolus Society as follows : 

Grade Diameter 

ist, or no. I i^ inches and up 

2d, or no. 2 ij to i| inches 

3d, or no. 3 I to I J inches 

4th, or no. 4 f to I inch 

5th, or no. 5 8 to I inch 

Fig. 37. FIVE CORMS from one ^^^^^^ .^^ ^j^.^ ^^nner, numbers i, 2, 

When the corms have produced flow- - r i i • • "nt t. _ 

ers for a series of years, they become and 3 are of blOOmmg SlZC. JNumber 4 

flatter. When corms of this kind are plant- . , , , . ,. u 1 i„ 

ed. they often produce five or six small- oftCn blOOmS, but IS USUally SOld Only tO 

sized corms instead of one or two of bloom- , ,. . j ^.y u ^ ^ •„ i. 

ing size the wholesale trade. Nimiber 5 is not 




Gladiolus Studies — II 247 

supposed to bloom, but often does. The smaller sizes are sorted with sieves 
of from |-inch to i^-inch mesh. The other sizes are sorted by hand. 

Endicott (1886) mentions the division of individual corms as a method 
of more rapid multiplication. He writes: " One way of propagating 
varieties is by cutting the bulbs into pieces. If a bulb be stripped of 
its husks, there mil usually be found two large buds at the top and 
smaller ones in a line dowTi each side, every one of which may be made 
to grow and form a bulb." 

Mr. Banks, of England, according to Dombrain (1873), divides the 
corms into several pieces in the case of scarce varieties. If the corm is 
left entire, it often happens that one of the shoots will not start because 
of a decay, which infection may spread through the whole corm, causing 
its entire loss. 

Woodruff (1915 b) takes the precaution to dust the cut surface with 
soot, although he is not persuaded that this is of real value. 

It is a common opinion that gladioli change from one color to another 
after having grown for a few years, as already stated (page 225). This 
may be due to the rapid multiplication of some varieties and the more 
rapid deterioration of others. The slower propagation of certain ones 
merely increases their proportions. There is a greater tendency, it is 
thought, for the lighter-colored varieties to run out first; and the white 
ones are in all cases of rather weaker constitutions. 

In the spring one often obsen^es certain corms which have not been 
stored in the best conditions and which have turned brownish; though 
not diseased, they are considerably changed in color and dried. WTiile 
actually the corms are not so good as normally colored ones, their change 
is due to a conversion of some of their starch into sugar. When planted 
they generally bloom well. 

Regarding a correlation between color of corm and color of bloom, 
Co wee (191 5 a) says: 

Although we are able, from years of e.xperience in handling gladiolus bulbs, to sort 
out from mixtures many named varieties by reason of color of bulb and other charac- 
teristics, I believe it is quite impossible to determine with any degree of accuracy the 
shade of bloom bulbs of certain colors \\'ill produce. From our experience we find 
that red shades produce a larger proportion of yellow bulbs, light, medium and dark 
(about 50 per cent), about 25 per cent of red bulbs, and about 25 per cent divided 
equally between white, flesh and pink. Pink shades rarely produce red bulbs, the 
shades of yellow predominating about 50 per cent, the balance being di\'ided between 
pink and white bulbs, the latter predominating. White shades produce about equal 
quantities of white and yellow bulbs, a smaller proportion of pink bulbs, and a smaller 
proportion of red bulbs. Yellow shades rarely produce other than yellow and pink 
bulbs. Blue shades rarely produce other than yellow or white bulbs. 

You will note from the above, which is a careful record of investigations made that 
it would be quite impossible to determine the color of flower from the color of the bulb. 

The writer's observations show further that some of the corms are 
intermediate in color between red and veUow, while manv can trulv be 



248 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

called white. For example, Blue Jay, Golden King, and Viking, respec- 
tively blue-, yellow-, and French-purple-flowered varieties, have white 
corms; while White Excelsior, Frilled Pink, Scarsdale, Lemon Drop, and 
Independence, although they are white-, pink-, magenta-, yellow-, and 
carthamin-red-flowered respectively, all have yellow corms. 

STORAGE OF CORMS « 

Gladiolus corms should be stored in a cool, airy place, not too moist 
nor too dry. The temperature should range between 35° and 50° F. 
in the coldest weather. If the storage house is protected sufficiently by 
dead-air spaces in the walls, little artificial heat is required. Large 
corms may be placed in crates; the depth is of less importance than when 
storing the smaller corms or the cormels, which become somewhat packed 
together, causing a heating due to fermentation. The small corms should 
be stored in shallow flats not over 2 or 3 inches deep. 

Commercial growers handling bulbs on a large scale construct special 
storage houses. B. H. Tracy has a building that is thought to be fireproof. 
It is 80 feet long and 60 feet wide, and is constructed of concrete and 
terra cotta blocks with a " slapdash " finish. Enough space is afforded 
in the second story for a showToom, offices, and bulb storage space. The 
first fioor contains the wholesale flower room, garage, carpenter shop, 
and additional space for bulb storage. 

J. L. Childs has constructed his storage house of hollow cement blocks 
covered with stucco. The temperature during the winter is maintained 
between 40° and 50° F., a temperature which not only keeps the bulbs 
in good condition but is not too cold for the men to work about the building. 
The bulbs are placed in flats 3 inches deep, 30 inches wide, and 4 feet 
long. Throughout the entire room used for storage, racks are constructed 
8 feet high, each rack holding seven flats. The first flat is placed 18 
inches above the floor. 

Oberlin (1891) writes substantially as follows of his storage method 
and the trays he uses: The cellar joists are 9 inches wide and 20 inches 
apart. It is this space that is used for storage purposes. Roofing laths 
are nailed 20 inches apart at right angles to the joists. The laths for 
another row should be placed 4 inches from the first so as to leave room 
for shifting and moving the trays. The trays are of plastering lath also, 
unplaned, i| inches wide, 4 feet long. Nine and one-third laths are 
required for each tray. If the following measurements are used there 
will be no waste material, the remaining two-thirds being used to make 
the next tray. Two laths are taken for the sides and 31I inches are 
sawed from these; the other two pieces left for ends should be 15! inches 



' The proper condition for the storage of cormels is considered under the discussion of cormels (page 250). 



Gladiolus Studies — II 249 

long. The end pieces are nailed, thin i-inch nails being used. One 
lath makes three pieces for the bottom. From six laths eighteen pieces 
15! inches long are sawed. These are nailed to the bottom with a space 
between them equal to the thickness of one lath. The tray is finished 
by nailing two pieces at the bottom lengthwise. It is then lined with 
paper, and is ready to receive the corms. In this cellar three trays may 
be placed one above another. The work should be done in the spare 
moments of the dull season. In such a place the bulbs are away from 
dampness, and are in a temperature a few degrees higher than on the 
floor, as the living-room above communicates the heat to a stratum of 
air beneath the floor. 

Many of the smaller growers feel that storage in the home cellar is 
as effective as in a special bulb storage house. Any place adequate 
for the proper keeping of potatoes over winter will be admirable for the 
storage of gladiolus corms. 

It is best not to store in too deep boxes or in bushel baskets, since under 
such conditions the corms easily ferment and become heated. 

Kunderd (191 5 a) recommends the use of sand to cover the corms when, 
small lots of each kind are maintained. It serves to prevent them from 
shrinking and keeps them in a good, plump condition. This seems espe- 
cially advisable when frost may possibly enter the storage place. Further- 
more it is a protection against too much moisture under damp storage 
conditions. Henry Youell advocates mixing fine, dry soil with the corms, 
which is sifted out at planting. He remarks that, according to the con- 
dition of the soil, some growers recommend dampening the soil imme- 
diately before planting. 

CORMELS 

Soon after the base of the growing stem of the gladiolus has begun to 
thicken, small corms are found to have formed between the old and the 
new corm. These are properly called cormels. The}^ are covered with 
a hard shell, thus differing from seedling gladioli of the same size, which 
have a covering more like a husk, composed of the dried bases of the 
previous season's leaves. 

To keep up the standard of the stock and for rapid propagation, repro- 
duction by cormels is essential. Cormels range from one-sixteenth to 
three-fourths inch in diameter, and will produce corms of blooming size 
in a year less time than will seeds. According to the variety, thev flower 
in from one to four years. A single corm has been known to produce as 
many as two hundred cormels in a season. 

Regarding the growing of cormels, Crawford (Crawford and \^an Fleet, 
191 1) recommends having the soil as rich as possible at corm-planting 



250 



Cornell Extension Bulletin io 



time. A bed four feet wide should be laid out and raked smooth. Drills 
should be made one inch deep and far enough apart to allow for hoeing 
(six inches). The bulblets should be placed one inch apart, and covered 
at once with sifted sand about two inches deep, then pressed down to 
the level of the surface. Sand is preferred to most kinds of soil, because 
it never bakes and also because it shows where the rows are so that hoeing 

can be done before the 
plants are up. 

Peeled cormels grow as 
much in one year as un- 
peeled ones do in two 
years ( Falconer , 1 8 9 1 ) , 
and every cormel grows. 
M. Crawford's experience 
is that it is better to peel 
cormels the same day 
that they are planted; a 
nimiber of his corms 
molded one year. It is 
essential that great pains 
be taken not to injure 
the cormels when peeling 
them, for any abrasion in 
the surface offers a place 
for the entrance of dis- 
ease. If they are not 
peeled, they should be 
soaked for a day before 
planting. 

The cormels should be 
planted early so that 
they may have a long 
season of growth, in 
order that they may gain 
a large size. Although it is advantageous for the same reason to allow 
them to remain in the soil until late in the fall, commercially they can be 
much more easily handled if taken up when the tops are somewhat green. 
This leads to the question of proper storage, which is about the same 
as for mature corms. Cormels are often stored in soil (Moore) just as 
removed from the parent corms, in a place where the temperature is 
approximately from 40° to 45° F. (Wilmore), where they are always 




Fig. 38. GLADIOLUS CORM AND CORMELS 

At the base of the large corm are usually found small corms, or 
cormels. These are unlike young corms; they are covered with a 
hard shell, or husk 



Gladiolus Studies — II 251 

moist and cool (Flanagan). Under these conditions they start much 
better than if dried out. C. S. Tait, a Georgia grower, writes: " When 
dug I pack them in dry sand, and they keep finely. I left them in the 
ground this season as we seldom have frosts that freeze deeper than one 
inch. They are coming up now [October 31, 19 13]." 

Cormels are frequently stored in cheesecloth bags, but oftener in trays. 
Thomann spreads the cormels on trays, grading them in three sizes by the 
use of sieves. 

Summarizing, it may be said that cormels should be either peeled 
before planting, or soaked in rather warm water to soften their hard, 
dry coats. Besides this treatment, covering the bed with a burlap sack 
will result in a greater percentage of growth. 

INDOOR CULTURE 

Almost since their introduction, gardeners have grown gladioli as pot 
plants. The nanus varieties, Gladiolus Colvillei, or the standard gandaven- 
sis and Lemoinei hybrids, may be planted with equal success. It seems 
inadvisable to use the term forcing in this connection, since that word 
often carries with it the idea of high temperatures causing a premature 
blooming. The gladiolus apparently does not stand such treatment. 

The following species are mentioned by Endicott (1888) as being adapted 
to pot culture: G. tristis, G. recurvus,G. gracilis, G. cuspidatus,G. Watsonius, 
G. villosus, G. Milleri, G. alatus, G. stdphureus, G. carneus. Each of these 
species has small corms producing dwarf plants and small flowers. In late 
autumn they should be placed in four- or five-inch pots, in a light, rich soil. 

G. Colvillei and its white variety, The Bride, have been grown under 
glass to a considerable extent, but the whole nanus group has been neg- 
lected. Many of the nanus varieties are three weeks earlier than the 
Colvillei. Moreover they are not quite so rigid, and in many of them 
the foliage maintains its deep green color to a much greater extent than 
does the foliage of Colvillei varieties, since the latter is very likely to turn 
brown, at least at the tips. As the season begins with the first of April or 
May the plants bloom at a time when few others are in their prime. 
The flowers do not all come at one time but their blooming periods vary, 
thus extending their season of usefulness for the florist. 

The corms should be potted not later than the first of December, and 
preferably in October or November. If the corms are placed five or six 
in a five-inch pot or individually in smaller pots, they can be shifted to 
larger pots or transplanted to the greenhouse bench. If preferred, they 
may be planted directly in benches. Fuld (191 2), in describing cultural 
methods, says: 

_ Many commercial growers to-da.y plant it right between the carnations without 
giving it any extra, space, thus getting two crops where formerly they reaped but one. 



252 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

They are exceedingly slow in showing growth and actually make but little growth 
until spring when the sun rises higher. At that time carnations are plentiful and cheap 
and many growers throw them out, thus making room for the gladiolus, but that is 
not at all necessary. While the above method may perhaps be handiest, these gladioli 
can be better grown if planted in flats and stored away in a cold frame and brought 
in during February or March when even then they should be forced with only moderate 
heat. 

A slow growth produced by gentle forcing allows the foliage to develop perfect but 
if much forced the tip becomes yellow and brown and injures the sale of the flower. . . . 
This type is often called " early flowering " and this is right because the flowers appear 
from two to three weeks earlier than the earliest variety of any other type. 

The conns may be placed in flats twelve by twenty-four inches in 
size, and when planted in this way fifty or seventy-five conns are required 
for each flat. 

It seems best to afford some method of staking the plants when they 
are not grov/n among carnations. Several stakes, one at each end of 
the rows crosswise of the bench, with string stretched between, are 
sufficient. 

The nanus varieties are very susceptible to attacks of red spider, and 
unless thoroughly and frequently syringed the crop gets badly dried up, 
resulting in a poor development of the spikes. 

A few sorts that have been tried by the writer and found inexpensive 

as well as pretty are : 

Apollon — fine deep pinlc. 

Mathilde — white, faintly suffused with lavender; early; rather dwarf; said by many 

to be superior to The Bride. 
Pink Perfection — a very robust variety. 
Blushing Bride — lilacy white (7-1)^, the throat sulfury white (14-111), bordered by 

rosy magenta (169-111); a fine, well-open bloom; early. 
Peach Blossom — a dainty rosy pink (118-1) bloom with a Rose Neyron red (119-11) 

throat blotch, and sulfury white (14-1) medial lines; a little larger bloom than 

most of the Gladiolus nanus varieties, and early; one of the best varieties in the 

group. 
Minerva — an intensely bright geranium lake (89-iv) bloom with splashed blotches 

of deep cherry red (91-iv) and carmine (116-11) medial lines; seems inclined 

to have rather poor foliage. 
Jeanne Poter — a good dark pink or deep cerise (123-1), blotched carmine-purple 

(156-11), fading lighter toward the center; produces a large number of blooms, 

and is well furnished with foliage. 
Duchesse de Parma — a good, bright poppy color (84-1), with throat of lemon-yellow 

edged with crimson-carmine; blooms possess excellent substance and are weU. 

arranged on the spike; rather late- blooming; tall. 
Virginie — an exceedingly dainty pure white bloom, with faint markings of Rose 

Neyron red; a compact bloom of good substance; excellent-appearing spike. 
Bertha Johannsen — excellent rosy pink (118-11), more salmony in appearance than 

Peach Blossom; there is no blotch on the lower segments, but a slight marking 

is often found on the upper lateral petals; blooms of good size. 
Roseus Maculatus — excellent Rose Neyron red (11 9-1), blotched with deep cerise 

(123-iv), the medial line of which is lighter; good substance, but rather loose. 
Ackermanni — rich salmon-orange or rosy scarlet (90-1) flowers, very large and hand- 
some; spikes very strong. 
Konigan Wilhelmina — lilacy white (7-1), lower petals blotched with deep rose-pink 

(120-iv), medial lines of blotches lighter. 



'These numbers refer to plates in Riperloire de Cotdeiirs published by Soci6t6 Frangaise des Chrysan- 
themistes and Rene Oberthiir. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 253 

The taller-growing and late-blooming varieties also are grown under 
glass to a great extent. Varieties are chosen for forcing which bloom 
early, ha^'e clear, light colors, and are vigorous and health}'. As before 
mentioned, one of the best methods of commercial culture is to place 
the corms a.mong carnations. "When planted in the short rows crosswise 
of the bench, they do not seriously interfere with the proper cultivation 
of the carnations. Cowee (1907), writing on this practice, says: 

Most florists who force gladioli are apt to cut the spike too near the soil 

The bulb is damaged and will not the next year, either under glass or if grown 
outside, do as well. I have found that to give the forced bulbs one year in the ground 
before forcing the second time increases their vitaUty. . . In solid beds I have 
produced excellent spikes in ninety days with the earliest varieties, but among car- 
nations it usually takes from ninety-eight to one hundred and five days. 

While the roots are forming on the bulbs, the temperature should not be over 50° 
at night, 60' during the day, but after they are well established 55° at night and 65° 
during the day is not too warm. ... A light dressing of three parts of ashes 
and one of bone meal applied at the time of planting the bulbs will more than repay 
for the trouble and expense. 

It is not necessary to first plant in pots, but most growers prefer to 
give the plants a good start by placing the potted corms underneath 
the bench in the carnation houses until good root systems are formed 
and tops are weU started. If planted directly in beds the corms should 
be placed at a depth of two inches or more, for it is well to let the depth 
of planting provide a means of support. 

Taft (i9"i3) wT-ites: 

The bulbs need to complete their period of rest before they are started into growth, 
and nothing ^\411 be gained by planting them before the last of December, unless bulbs 
are used that have been forced the pre\-ious year. They can be grown either in beds, 
boxes or pots, but one of the latter will generally be found preferable, as it admits of 
keeping them in a cool place until the roots have formed, which is desirable. 
It vdW be best to start them in pots and transplant them to the beds after the pots have 
become filled with roots. 

They can be grown in the boxes about the same as Holland bulbs, using rather heavier 
and richer soil. The bulb should be barely covered with the soil, and as there is danger 
of the damping off of the shoots if over-watered, it is a good plan to have the surface 
half-inch of sand. Water thoroughly and place under the benches, where the tem- 
perature will be 50°, until the roots have filled the soil and the leaves have started. 
Gradually increase the heat to 60° and to 75'. When the buds begin to form, give 
liquid manure once a week. If properly handled, the flowers will be ready to cut 
by Easter. 

Bebbington (1907) prefers to maintain a temperature of 50° at night 
and 60° in the da^'time, and holds that a temperature of 70° is too high. 

John Thorpe (Allen, 1911, pages 121-122), of Pearl River. New York, 
writes as foUows of his experiences: 

To force gladiolus successfully, however, requires attention at just the right time, 
and its wants should always be anticipated and supplied. Here is the routine of my 
practice: The bulbs I forced this year were also forced last year. They were then 
planted February 8, and the first twenty-five flowers were cut May 30. This vear's 
work began December 27 by potting each bulb in a four-inch pot, using sandy loam, 
without manure, and placing the bulb on the top, pressing it down to hold it without 
any other covering; they were watered and then placed underneath the benches of 



2 54 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

a carnation-house until the beginning of February. At that time those plants which 
had grown to the height of four inches were brought to the light and again watered. 
Placing them close together on a bench near the light, a little water was given from 
time to time, retarding the top growth, and encouraging root-action as much as possible. 
By the twentieth of the month the plants were gone over, and all those of an even size 
were planted together in rows about a foot apart, and nine inches apart in the rows. 
After planting those of one size, then another batch a size less was handled. This 
selecting into sizes pays for all the trouble it costs in preventing strong plants from 
overcrowding the weaker ones. My soil is rather a heai'^^ sandy loam, and in this 
the bulbs were planted, the depth of the entire bed being a little more than four inches. 
The bulbs were scarcely covered even at this time, and this, I find, prevents the damping 
off of the plants during dull days, when they have commenced to grow rapidly, and 
are checked either by dark weather or by a cold spell. By the middle of Ivlarch each 
plant was tied securely to prevent its faUing over, which is generally ruinous to the 
flower-spike; a light mulching of stable-manure was then put on and well watered. 
From that time until the flowers were cut a good soaking of liriuid manure was given 
each week. The gladiolus delights in moisture when well along in growth, but in 
its earlier stages too much water is death to it. The first twenty-five flowers were 
cut for Easter, or six weeks earlier than last year. The temperature was never higher 
than 50° at night, and during the daytime the house was ventilated whenever it could 
be kept above 70° F. 

Another object of indoor culture is to extend the season of bloom in 
the conservatory. For this purpose the method of culture described 
by Kelway (191 3) is substantially as follows: If it is desirable to have 
gladioli late, for decorating the conservatory, they may be grown with 
tolerably good effect. The corms should be potted singly in six-inch 
pots about the end of May, using a rich compost of yellow loam, old 
hotbed manure, and silver sand. They should then be plunged in a 
bed of very rich soil the rims of the pots being placed about two inches 
below the surface. In dry weather they will require to be kept tolerably 
moist with frequent waterings. As soon as frosts commence the pots 
shotild be hfted and placed in a cold greenhouse or vinery, and they 
should be brought into the conservatory as soon as the buds begin to open. 

It is frequently recommended that some bulbs be potted of such 
varieties as are useful early in the spring or simimer, four or five corms 
being placed in a six-inch pot and started in a temperature of 50° F. 
These can later be planted in the ground, and four or five weeks can thus 
be gained in blooming. Often, however, this method does not prove 
successful. It is difficult to handle the plants without breaking the 
tops, and they should be staked immediately on being placed in the 
garden. 

INSECT AND ANIMAL PESTS 

It seems safe to say that there is really no insect that is seriously 
injurious to the gladiolus. Dombrain (1873) reports serious damage in 
England due to wireworms. He believes that freshly turned-up sod 
should not be used, and writes as foUow^s: " Three years ago I planted 
mine in a part of my garden which had up to two years before that been 
a meadow, and the previous season had potatoes in it. Half my roots 



Gladiolus Sti'dies — II 255 

were devoured by wireworms, the destnictive little things eating throtigh 
the shoot just as it appeared above ground." W. P. Wright also mentions 
wireworms, in Popular Garden Flowers. He states that the grubs fasten 
on the corms in myriads, and soon make short work of a large collection. 
He recommends that if the corms are planted on new land from pasture, 
the turf should be taken away, not turned in, however deeply, and in 
the spring before planting Vaporite or Aporite should be dug in nine 
or ten inches below the siu"face. 

The writer has seen no reference to injiu^' from ^dreworms in this 
country. Weathers (191 1) recommends trenching three feet deep in 
autumn, bur\4ng the topsoil containing the worms, and perhaps other 
grubs, at the bottom of the furrow. By this practice the worms are 
completely stifled and deprived of their vegetable diet; the subsoil will 
thus be free from the pest, and if well manured and exposed to the weather 
it will be in a good fertile condition in the spring. 

The writer has noted a slight amount of injun,- due to the small wiry 
millepede, a Chilognatha. This may be the " wireworm " already referred 
to. The millepedes may be observed in the ashes under pots of 
gladioli grown indoors, and many of them are also noticed on the outdoor 
corms at the time they are being overhauled for winter storage. The 
condition known as scab may be due to these millepedes, but this is not 
definitely proved. If the corms are left to dry in a bam for som.e time, 
the holes bored by the millepede are filled with a jelly-like substance 
which one might at first think is frost. The injury due to these millepedes 
differs from diseased corms in that the areas of their attack are of regular 
shape and are metallic in appearance. 

Most of the damage to gladioli caused by insects is on the parts of 
the plant above ground. The black aster beetle seems troublesome to 
many growers, the damage being to both buds and flowers. This is 
especially true late in the season. 

H. A. Richardson reports the occurrence of arctiid moths, undoubtedly 
a species of the genus of tiger moths, Eyprepia. These moths are 
gregarious in habit, and they injure the flowers and spikes, but mostly 
the cuticle of the leaves. Grasshoppers and katydids have been reported 
as eating the blooms. 

The red spider (Tetranychus telarius Linn.) is especially troublesome 
in a very dn- season. This is a small mite, one-fiftieth of an inch long, 
which spins minute threads that are scarcely perceptible to the naked 
eye but that when ven,^ abundant give a grayish appearance to the leaves. 
The insects are rather reddish, though somewhat orange-tinged. Their 
principal injuries are to indoor plants, but they are also found in the 
open. When only a few are present they are not noticeable; but when 



256 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

they are abundant, the leaves become pale in color and stunted. They 
effect their injury by sucking the juices from the leaves. Indoors they 
are more resistant to fumigation than are aphids or thrips. As they 
are very sensitive to moist conditions, the main method of control is 
by a thorough syringing with water. Sanitary methods of keeping down 
all weeds harboring them, and burning infested parts of the plants, are 
of prime importance. 

A number of cases of injury by a black blister beetle have been reported. 
This is no doubt a beetle of the genus Epicauta, or possibly Meloe. 

Van Fleet and others report the occurrence of a Diabrotica beetle. 
These are yellowish green, much like the cucumber beetles. On the trial 
grounds at Cornell they caused some injury by eating the unopened buds. 
If very plentiful they may be shaken on to sticky paper, as recommended 
by the California State Commission of Horticulture. 

In Success with Flowers (Anonymous reference, 1901), a subscriber who 
inquires as to effective treatment for a root aphis, or root louse, which it 
is difficult to reach with insecticides, is answered as follows: 

The piece of ground to be planted with gladiolus may be cleared of the insects by the 
use of coarsely ground tol^acco that can be purchased at about ten cents a pound. 
A heavy dressing of the tobacco can be spread on the ground and forked in immediately 
before planting, or it may be dug in between the plants later in the season. . . Potash 
salt in the form of kainit has been found to be injurious or destructive to the insects; 
nitrate of soda produces similar efifects. If, therefore, these substances should be 
used as fertilizers, . . . they would at the same time destroy the pests, or at 
least lessen their number to the extent of rendering them harmless. 

Cutworms have been especially abundant of late. They are the noc- 
turnal larvae of owlet moths, and according to Powell (191 5) " start their 
depredations early in May, or even in late April, and continue until about 
the middle of June." The best remedy seems to be a poisoned bait made 
in one of various ways. For small garden spots a little paris green is 
mixed with some bran, the mixture then being made into a thick mush 
by the addition of sufficient molasses and water. This is sprinkled 
along the rows of gladioH. Alunroe (19 15) states that when large 
fields need to be treated, it is best to spread the bran, perhaps about a 
hundred pounds, on a barn floor, and sprinkle it with sweetened molasses 
water (enough to make it cnimbly) ; over this is then scattered a pound 
of paris green, and the whole is mixed together thoroughly. 

GLADIOLUS DISEASES 8 

Dr. L. M. Massey, of the Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell 
University, contributes the following brief resume of the gladiolus diseases; 

« The Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University is investigating the diseases of the 
gladiolus, and all samples of diseased plants or corms, as well as all correspondence concerning treatment 
for the prevention of disease, should be addressed to that department. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 257 

There are at least three important diseases of the gladiolus, namely, 
hard rot, dn,' rot, and scab. The first two are characterized b}' necrotic 
lesions of various sizes in the corms, the diseased area blending more 
or less gradually into the healthy tissue. Scab lesions have a sharp line 
of demarcation, a distinct ridge being formed around the border of the 
depression. The surface of the depression has a somewhat metallic luster. 
In the older scab spots there is a cavity beneath the metallic film, appear- 
ing as if eaten out by some insect. 

The lesions of hard rot and dry rot are usually small in the autumn, 
when the corms are dug. The diseases advance while the corms are in 
storage, until by spring many corms are reduced to dry mummies. Scab 
lesions do not enlarge after the corms are placed in storage. 

Hard rot and dry rot are caused by fungous pathogenes whose life 
histories do not materially dift'er. The two fungi live over winter in the 
corm and are thus carried to the soil at planting time. The fungi do not 
grow from the old corm directly into the offspring, but either grow out 
into the soil, whence they attack the corms, or else work along the sheath- 
ing leaf bases. In the majority of cases a diseased corm may be expected 
as a result of planting one that is diseased. 

The cause of the scab disease is unknown. Attempts to connect some 
fungus with the diseased areas on the corms have failed. The lesions 
may be due to the attacks of certain insects, such as wireworms or milli- 
pedes, but no experimental data are at hand to prove or disprove this 
suggested possibility. 

Various soil and corm treatments have been used in an effort to control 
the hard rot and the dry rot of the gladiolus. Corms have been treated 
with formalin, corrosive sublimate, hot water, dry heat, and so forth, 
at strengths as high as the corms would permit without injury. None of 
these treatments have proved effective. Soil has been treated with lime, 
acid phosphate, sulfur, lime and sulfur, and iron sulfate, in strengths as 
high as the grower could afford to use them, without protecting the 
corms from the attacks of these fungi. 

The selection of healthy corms, which are planted in soil in which no 
gladioli have ever been grown, is the one process that has unfaiHngly 
resulted in the production of healthy offspring. This requires a rigid 
selection. No corms should be planted which show any signs whatsoever 
of disease after the husks are removed. Care should be exercised during 
the growing season to see that no infested soil nor diseased plant parts 
are carried to the soil in which the healthv corms are growing. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 259 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(Anonymous) 

1892 Hardy hybrid gladioli. Garden 41 : 542. 

1894 Gladiolus Saundersi hybridus. Garden 46 : 1 1 6. 

1898 Studies in stiff flowers. Amer. florist 14:337-338. 

1901 Gladiolus and root lice. Success with flowers 11: 186. 

1906 Gladiolus nanus. Florists' rev. 18:583. 

1907 a Gladioli. Florists' rev. 20: Oct. 3:6. 
1907 b Gladioli. Florists' rev. 20: Oct. 17: 10. 
1907 c Gladioli. Florists' rev. 20: July 4: 1 1. 

1907 d Gladiolus praecox. Florists" ex. 23:803. 

1908 a Ruffled gladioli. Florists' rev. 21: Jan 23: 10. 
1908 b Gladiolus The Bride. Florists' rev. 21 :Feb. 20:6. 
1908 c Gladiolus praecox hardy. Florists' rev. 21: Feb. 27:36. 
1908 d The soldier-flower. Sat. rev. 106:202-203. 

1908 e Hardiness of Cxladiolus praecox. Florists' ex. 25:215. From Hort. trade 
journ. [England]. 

1908 f Black spot on gladioli bulbs. Amer. florist 29:614. 

1909 a Gladioli for Memorial Day. Florists' rev. 24: Xov. 4: 17. 

1909 b Gladioli on Pacific coast. Florists' rev. 25: Nov. 25:59. 

1910 a Gladiolus bulblets. Florists' rev. 26: May 26: 17. 
1910 b Gladioli in California. Florists' rev. 26: July 7:49-50. 

1910 c Gladioli as a winter crop. Florists' rev. 26:Sept. 15:7. 

1911 a Fertilizer for gladioli. Florists' rev. 27: Feb. 2: 15. 
191 1 b Gladioli for outdoors. Florists' rev. 27: Feb. 23: 11. 
1911 c Gladiolus ColviUei. Florists' rev. 28:Aug. 3: 13. 
1911 d Gladioli in benches. Florists' rev. 29: Dec. 21 : 17. 
191 1 e Gladioli a second year. Florists' rev. 29: Dec. 28:56. 
1914 a Early gladioli in California. Mod. glad. grow, i : 10. 
1914 b Forcing gladioli for florists. Mod. glad. grow, i : 18. 
1914 c Gladioli bloom for market. Mod. glad. grow. 1:34. 

1914 d International registration of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:98-99. 

1915 Diseased gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 2:99. From Rural Xew- Yorker. 

Adams, J. M. 

1914 a Planting gladiolus seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1:106. 
1914 b What is an amateur? Mod. glad. grow, i : 158. 

AUen, C. L. 

191 1 Bulbs and tuberous-rooted plants, p. 101-130. 

Andres, Orfa 

1914 Gladiolus, columbine, and petunias. Mod glad. grow. 1:4. Fro}7i Park's 
floral mag. 

Atkinson, Mrs. K. 

1914-15 Gladiolus growing for the amateur. Xat. Glad. Soc. Glad, annual, 
p. 29-31. 

Austin, A. H., Co. 

1914 Cutting spikes of gladiolus bloom. Mod. glad. grow. 1:29. 

Austin, Mrs. A. H. 

1911a Variegated gladiolus leaves. Florists' rev. 28: Oct. 5:22. 

191 1 b Gladiolus topics. Florists' rev. 29: Xov. 30:24. 

1914 a Selection. ^lod. glad. grow. 1:23. 

1914 b Be ready. Mod. glad. grow. 1:37-38. 

1914 c Preparation of soil and planting. Mod. glad. grow, i : 53-54. 

1914 d Weeding and later plantings. Mod. glad. grow, i : 69-70. 

1914 e Gladioli and hardy plants. Mod. glad. grow. 1:85. 

1914 f The cut flower shipping package. Mod. glad. grow, i : loi. 



I9i4g 


1914 h 


19141 


1914J 


1914 k 


1915 a 


1915 b 


1915 c 


I9i5d 


19156 


Auten, B. C 


1914 a 


1914 b 


1915 a 


1915 b 



260 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

Austin, Mrs. A. H. (continued) 

Gladiolus improvement and exhibitions. Mod. glad. grow, i : 117-M8. 
Gladiolus seed. — Digging bulblets. — Army worms. — Asters as a sideline. 

Mod. glad. grow, i : 134. 
A day in October. Mod. glad. grow, i : 149-150. 
The season of thankfulness. — The $1,000 bulb. Mod. glad. grow. 

i: 163-164. 
Is gladiolus growing a success? Mod. glad. grow, i : 177-178. 
Gladioli in the window garden. Mod. glad. grow. 2:5. 
Naming gladiolus seedlings. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 17. 
Gladiolus gardens. Mod. glad. grow. 2:61-62. 
Gladiolus digging in October. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 138. 
The gladiolus everyw-here. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat. Glad. 

Exhib., p. 37. 

Photographing flowers. Mod. glad. grow, i : 104. 

Inducing rapid increase. Mod. glad. grow. 1:121-122. 

Does the gladiolus sport through its cormels? Mod. glad. grow. 2 :66. 

Period of rest. Mod. glad. grow. 2:80. 

Bailey, L. H., Cushman, E. H., and Groff, H. H. 

1909 Gladiolus. Cyclop. Amer. hort. 2:646-649. 

Bailey, L. H., and Gilbert, A. W. 

1915 Mendelian inheritance of color. In Plant-breeding, p. 185-187. 

Bailey, L. H., and others 

1915 Gladiolus. Stand, cyclop, hort. 3: 1339-1346. 

Baker, J. G. 

1892 Handbook of the Irideae, p. 198-229. 

1896-97 Gladiolus, Linn. Flora capensis 6: 135-165. 

Banning, Frank 

1899 The gladiolus. Florists' rev. 3 : 61 4. 

Barber, C. F. 

1914 a A multi])licity of gladiolus types desirable. Mod. glad. grow. 1:72. 
1914 b Hybridizing gladioli for amateurs. Mod. glad. grow, i : 133, 136. 

Barron, Leonard 

1913 The most gorgeous summer flowering bulb. Gard. mag. [New York] 

17:241-242. 

Beal, A. C. 

1914 International registration of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow, i: 103. 

1915 Gladiolus registration. Mod. glad. grow. 2:38. 

1916 Gladiolus studies — I. Botany, history, and evolution of the gladiolus. 

Cornell extension bul. 9:89-188. 

Bebbington, J., & Sons 

1907 Growing gladiolus with carnations. Florists' ex. 23:318-319. 

Betscher, C. 

1914 a Growing of gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow, i : 15-16. 
1914 b Forcing gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:36. From Florists' ex. 
1914 c Gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1:45. 
1914 d Behavior of bulbs in dry weather. Mod. glad. grow. 1:62. 

Black, G. D. 

1914 a Testing new varieties. Mod. glad. grow, i : 1 1. 

1914 b Some observations on the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow, i : 21-22. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 261 

Black, G. D. {coulinued) 

1914 c Treating diseased gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:35. 

1914 d Holland-grown gladiolus bulbs. — Treating with formaldehyde. — Damage 

from sprouting and root growth. Mod. glad. grow, i : 1 1 1. 
19146 Gladiolus exhibits. Mod. glad. grow, i : 123, 129. 

1915 a Gladiolus " Independence." Mod. glad. grow. 2:6. 

1915 b Treating gladiolus corms -nnth formaldehyde. Mod. glad. grow. 2:69-70. 

1915 c Life histor>^ of the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:92, 102. 

Blair, Gertrude 

1904 Vase arrangements. — II. Gladioli. Florists' rev. 14:703. 

Bliss, A. J. 

1916 The florist's gladiolus. Gard. chron. ser. 3:59:25. 

Braunton, Ernest 

1914 Breeding new plants. Method by which this maj' be accomplished. Mod. 
glad. grow, i : 162. From Los Angeles times. 

Brown, C. W. 

1914 Trouble from rot or disease. Mod. glad. grow, i : no. 

Bull, W. C. 

1903 The gladiolus. Garden 64:252-253, 265. 

Burrell, J, 

1898 Gladiolus gandavensis hybrids. Garden 53:210. 

Chamberlain, Montague 

191 1 Fertilizers. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 3:27-28. 

1914 a The gladiolus in design and decorative work. Mod. glad. grow, i : 14. 

1914 b Acidity. Mod. glad. grow, i : 28. 

1914 c The status of the amateur. Mod. glad. grow, i : 176. 

Charlton, Ralph, jr. 

1914 Gladioli from seed the first year. Mod. glad. grow, i: 137. 

Childs, J. L. 

1907 Leaf blight of gladiolus. Florists' e.x. 23:541. 

Chittenden, F. J. 

1907 The influence of the parents on the colour of the hybrid. Roy. Hort. Soc. 

[London]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 213-217. 

Christy, W. A. 

1908 Ruffled gladioli. Florists' rev. 21 : May 7:29-31. 

1911 Hybridists and hybridizing. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 2:12-16; cont., Bui. 

3:13-19. .4/50 (1912), Xat. Glad. Soc. [England]. Handb. 1912:39-48. 

1912 Hybrid vs. cross-breed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 5:4. 
1914 a Staking gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:61. 

1914 b Trouble from rot or disease. Mod. glad. grow, i : i lo-i 1 1 . 

1914 c Developing bulblets in small quantities. Mod. glad. grow, i : 128-129. 

1915 Gladioli on same ground successively. Mod. glad. grow. 2:39-40. 

Clute, W. N. 

1915 Do varieties run out? Mod. glad. grow. 2: 109. 

Coblentz, P. O. 

1908 Ground for gladioli. Florists' rev. 22: Oct. 8:33-34. 

Cole, Norman 

1915 Do bulblets sport? Mod. glad. grow. 2:35. 



262 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

Coleman, Joe 

1914 a Gladioli in a dry season. Mod. glad. grow. 1:3. 
1914 b Acidity. — Liming. Mod. glad. grow, i : 60. . 
1914 c Fertilizer. Mod. glad. grow. 1 172. 

1914 d Selling cut flowers. — Prices. — Shipping packages, etc. Mod. glad, 
grow. I ; 91-92. 

1914 e Growing gladioli for cut flowers. Mod. glad. grow, i : 127-128. 

1915 a A prophecy and a plea for gladiolus popularity. Mod. glad. grow. 2:78. 
1915 b Securing early bloom. Mod. glad. grow. 2:105. 

Cooper, Madison 

1914 a Raising gladiolus seedlings. Mod. glad. grow. 1:13-14. 

1914 b Cut flowers vs. bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:24. 

1914 c " Starved or fed." Mod. glad. grow. 1:24-25. 

1914 d Planting bulblets in cold frame. — Gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 

1:45-46. 
1914 e Growing the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:66-67. 
1914 f Curing, storage, and forcing of gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 1:71. 
1914 g Distance for planting gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:92. 
1914 h Hardy gladioli? Mod. glad. grow, i : 161. 

1914 i Harvesting, curing, and storing. — Gladiolus bulbs and bulblets. Mod. 
glad. grow, i : 168. 

1914 j Wood ashes as fertilizer for gladioli. Mod. glad. grow, i : 182. 

1915 a Fireproof bulb storage. Mod. glad. grow. 2:7. 
1915 b Do bulblets sport? Mod. glad. grow. 2:8. 

1915 c Forcing gladioli in California. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 12. 

1915 d Exhibiting gladioli at fairs. — Suggestion for staging, etc. Mod. glad, 

grow. 2:23. 
1915 e Packing gladiolus corms for shipment. Mod. glad. grow. 2:33. 
1915 f Angle worms in soil. — Various questions on growing gladioli. — Fcrtflizers, 

etc. Mod. glad. grow. 2:69. 
1915 g Quantity of fertilizer to use on gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2:83-84. 
1915 h Gladiolus corms produce plurality of sprouts. Mod. glad. grow. 2:115. 
1915 i Removing tops from gladiolus corms at digging time. Mod. glad. grow. 

2: 140. 
1915 j Cold storage of cut flowers. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 150. 
1915 k Testing of varieties. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 158. 

Cowee, Arthur 

1904 The gladiolus. Florists' rev. 13 : 814-815. 

1905 Forcing gladioli. Florists' rev. 16: 1405-1406. 

1907 Growing gladiolus with carnations. Florists' ex. 23:453. 

1908 a Cultivation of gladioli. Florists' ex. 26:48; also, Amer. florist 30:1220- 

1221; also. Florists' rev. 22: July 9:6-8; also, Hort. 8:40-41. 
1908 b Rust on gladioli. Florists' rev. 22: July 30: lo-ii. 

1910 Mulching gladioli. Florists' rev. 25: Feb. 24:8. 

191 1 Gladiolus nomenclature. Florists' rev. 27: Apr. 6:42. 

191 2 a Renaming varieties of gladioli and the disposition of synonyms. Nat. 

Glad. Soc. [England]. Handb. 1912:49-53. 

1912 b White gladioh. Xat. Glad. Soc. [England]. Handb. 1912:54-55. 

1912 c Wilting before packing. Florists' rev. 29: Mar. 28:40. 

1914 a Branching habit gladioli. Mod. glad. grow, i : 16. 

1914 b Treatment of gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow, i : 40-41. 

1914 c Rust in gladioli. Mod. glad. grow, i : 154. 

1915 a Color of bulbs and color of blooms. Mod. glad. grow. 2 :40. 
1915 b Packing gladiolus corms for shipment. Mod. glad. grow. 2:65. 

Crane, May B. 

191 1 Gladioli. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 2:7-8. 

Crawford, Matthew 

1914 a Fertilizer at blooming time. Mod. glad. grow, i : 111-112. 

1914 b Rapid multiplication of gladioli. — Pollenating and hybridizing. Mod. 

glad. grow, i : 128. 
1914 c Trouble from rot or disease. Mod. glad. grow, i : 154. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 263 

Crawford, Matthew, and Van Fleet, W. 
1911 The gladiolus, p. 1-98. 

Cushman, £. H. 

1896 Packing gladiolus flowers. Amer. florist 12: 11. 

1906 The gladiolus. — A summer cut flower. Florists' rev. 17: 1401-1402. 
191 1 Cutting gladiolus spikes. Florists' rev. 28: Aug. 3: 14. 

1915 Commercial cultivation for stock or bulbs. In Gladiolus. Stand, cvclop. 
hort. 3:1342. 

D:u-bishire, A. D. 

191 1 Breeding and the Mendelian discover}-, p. 1-2. 

Darwin, Charles 

1888 The origin of species by means of natural selection. Sixth ed., 2: 14-15. 

Dombrain, H. H. 

1873 The gladiolus, its history-, cultivation, and exhibition, p. 1-56. 

Douglas, James 

1885 Raising new varieties of gladiolus. Gard. monthly 27: 166. 

Endicott, W. E. 

1886 Gladioli. Amer. florist i : 214-2 15. 

1888 The species of Gladiolus. Gard. and for. i : 363-365. 
1891 Some hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 4:403. 

Errey, Gilbert 

1915 Gladiolus gro\\ing from an Australian viewpoint. Mod. glad. grow. 
2:136-137. 

Fakbanks, C. F. 

1914 The standing of an amateur. Mod. glad. grow, i : 175-176. 

Fairchild, D. 

1912 Plant introduction for the ]ilant breeder. U. S. Agr. Dept. Yearbook 

1911 :4ii-422. 

Falconer, William 

1891 Peeling gladiolus bulblets. Amer. florist 7:227. 

Field, Henry 

1909 Gladioli. Florists' rev. 24: Sept. 2:34-45. 

Fischer, E. N. 

1912 The classitication of the gladioli. Am. Glad. Soc. Bui. 4:8. 

1914 The application of Mendel's law in the breeding of gladioli. Mod. glad. 

grow. 1 : 100, 112. 

Fuld, Maurice 

1912 Gladiolus nanus. Amer. Glad. Soc, Bui. 4: 16-21 ; also, Hort. 15:458-459; 
also (1914), Mod. glad. grow. 1:107-109. 

1915 a How to have succession of gladioli in the garden. Amer. Glad. Soc. 

Program Xat. Glad. Exliib., p. 27. 
1915 b How to produce the best blooms for exhibitions. Amer. Glad. Soc. 
Program Xat. Glad. Exhib., p. 40. 

Gage, L. M. 

1910 a The gladiolus. A few observations from my 1909 notebook. , Hort. 11:71. 
1910 b More gladiolus notes. Hort. 11 : 182. 

I9i3(?) The gladiolus seed bed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 7:3. 

1914 a Packing bulbs for shipment. Mod. glad. grow, i : 7. 

1914 b Gladioli in rows. Mod. glad. grow. 1:46. 

1915 a Good gladioli. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Xat. Glad. Exhib., p. 34. 
1915 b Potato fertilizer for gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2:70. 



264 Cornell Extension Bulletin 10 

Gerard, J. N. 

1894 Gladioli. Gard. and for. 7:296-297. 

Gilbert, A. W. 

1915 Heredity of color in Phlox drummondii. Journ. agr. research 4:293-301. 

Goodrich, E. S. 

1912 Changes in coloration due to environment. In Evolution of living organisms, 

p. 36. 

Groff, H. H. 

1906 a Culture and care of cut spikes. Florists' rev. 17: 1565. 

1906 b The modern gladiolus. Florists' ex. 21:558-559. 

1907 a Practical plant -breeding, more especially in relation to the gladiolus, 

Roy. Hort. Soc. [London]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, 

p. 421-425. 
1907 b Results in growing gladioli. Florists' ex. 24: 171. 
1907 c Breeding gladioli. Florists' rev. 19:707-708. 

1907 d Groff 's hyl^rld gladioli. Florists' rev. 19: 1349-1350. 

1908 Ruffled gladioli. Florists' rev. 21 : May 14:32-33. 

191 1 The modern gladiolus. Amer. Glad. Soc. IBul. 2:8-9. 
1914 Care of gladioli as cut flowers. Mod. glad. grow, i : 70. 

Guiheneuf, D. 

1895 Les plantes bulbeuses, tuberculeuses, et rhizomateuses ornementales de 

serre et de pleine terre, p. 276-290. 

Hamilton, S. A. 

1913 Gladiolus culture. Country gent. 78:718-719. 

Hatfield, T. D. 

1897 . The hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 10:335-336. 

Henderson, Peter 

1890 Gladiolus. In Handbook of plants and general horticulture, p. 166-167. 

Hendrickson, I. S. 

191 1 Gladioli. Amer. Glad. vSoc. Bui. 3:5-13. 

1914 a The ga}- gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:2-3. I^oni Florists' ex. 

1914 b Gladiolus praecox. Mod. glad. grow. i:i6S. 

1915 Culture of the gladiolus. /» Gladiolus. Stand, cyclop, hort. 3: 1341-1342. 

Herbert, William 

1837 Amaryllidaceae, p. 365-366. 

1847 On hybridization amongst vegetables. Hort. Soc. London. Journ. 2:81-107. 

Hicks, D. C. 

1906 Notes upon gladiolus and its culture. Vermont Hort. Soc. Rept. 1906:34. 

Higgins, E. A. 

1912 Marvellous grace and beauty. Elmira telegram, Feb. 2. 

HUdreth, Mrs. H. A. * 

1914 Remedies for cut worms. Mod. glad. grow. 1:138. 

Hinkle, C. R. 

1915 The gladiolus; why and how. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 161-164. 

Holben, F. J. 

1915 Fertilizing value of wood ashes. Mod. glad. grow. 2:126. From Penn- 
sylvania farmer. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 265 

Hottes, A. C. 

1914 a Trial ground work. Mod. glad. grow, i : 19-20. 

1914 b E.Kperiments with gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:50-52. 

1915 a Garden gladioli. Journ. hered. 6:499-504; reviewed in Gard. chron. 

ser. 3:59:34- 
1915 b Gladiolus ideals. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Xat. Glad. Exhib., p. 31-34. 
1915 c Indoor culture. /« Gladiolus. Stand, cyclop, hort. 3: 1342. 

Jackson, R. T. 

1889 Hybridization of gladioli. Gard. and for. 2:88-91. 

Jacob, Joseph 

1915 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 2:135. Prom Biitish nursen,'man and 
seedman. 

Jones, C. R. 

1915 Cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:122. From Farm news. 

Kelway, James, & Sons 

1913 Manual of horticulture, p. 318. 

Kerr, G. W. 

1913 Gladiolus blooming the first year from seed. Gard. mag. [New York] 

17:260. 
1915 Gladioli — Flowering the first year from seed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program 

Xat. Glad. Exhib., p. 35-36. 

Keur, C, & Sons 

1915 Artistic effects in floriculture. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 106, 117. 

King, Mrs. Francis 

191 1 Garden color combinations with gladioli. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 2:5. 

1913 New gladiolus. Gard. mag. [Xew York] 17:242. 

Kirscht, Herman 

1915 Remedy for cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 142. 

Koerner, H. W. 

1908 Some more about gladiolus. Florists' rev. 21: Feb. 27:36-37. 
1911 Hybridizing and culture. Florists' rev. 29: Dec. 21 : 12. 

Krelage, E. H. 

1892 Hybrid gladioli. Garden 41 : 190-192. 

1896 The origin of garden gladioli. Gard. and for. 9:446. 

Kunderd, A. E. 

1908 a Ruffled gladioli. Hort. 7:165. 

1908 b The ruffled gladiolus. Florists' rev. 22: June 4:7-8. 

1911 Gladiolus and its future. Florists' rev. 29:E)ec. 21:12-14; o^'^^. Florists' 
ex. 32:1263. 

1914 a A pure white gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow, i : 1 1. 
1914 b Foliage of the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow, i :26. 

1914 c Planting gladiolus bulblets. Mod. glad. grow, i : 62. 

1915 a Covering bulbs with sand while in storage. Mod. glad. grow. 2:35. 
1915 b Do gladioli deteriorate? Mod. glad. grow. 2: 157. 

Landis, I. H. 

1914 The gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. i:i6o. 

Larousse, Pierre 

1872 Glaieul. In Grand dictionnaire universel du XIX*^ siecle 8: 1290. 



266 Cornell Extension Bi'lletin io 

Lawrence, J. R. 

1914 Rome of the newer gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 1:9-10. From Florists' ex. 

Le Moyne, F. J. 

1912 Raising gladiolus from seed. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 4:11-12. 

Lounsberry, A. 

1914 Beauty, individuality, and variety of the modern gladiolus. Craftsman 
26:41^6-496. 

McNeely, W. M. 

1914 Oladioli and ferns. Mod. glad. grow. 1:5s. 

Massey, L. M. 

1915 Diseased gladiohis corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:99. From Florists' rev. 

1916 Gladiolus corm diseases. Mod. glad. grow. 3:70-7,^. 

Massey, W. F. 

1914 a Rot in gladioli. Mod. glad. grow, i :4. From New York tribune farmer. 

1914 b Growing gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 1:60. From Progressive 

farmer. 

Mead, T. L. 

1915 Gladioli from seed in Florida. Mod. glad. grow. 2:81, 86. 

Meader, H. E. 

191 1 From a gladiolus specialist. Florists' rev. 29: Nov. 30:24. 

1912 a Ideals in gladiolus growing. Florists' rev. 29: March 28:40. 
1912 b Keep up the standard. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 5:3-4. 

Miller, C. C. 

1915 Petal arrangement of gladioli. IVIod. glad. grow. 2: 160. 

Miller, E. S. 

1910 Crooked gladiolus stems. Florists' rev. 26: Sept. 15:7. 

Mitchell, S. B. 

1915 Culture in California. In Gladiolus. Stand, cyclop, hort. 3:1342. 

Morton, F. S. 

1914 a Planting suggestions. Mod. glad. grow. 1:36. 
1914 b Growing gladioli from seed. Mod. glad. grow. 1:54. 

1914 c Many new varieties of gladioli produced. Mod. glad. grow. 1:159-160. 
From Portland (Maine) evening express and advertiser. 

1914 d Storing bulblets in small quantities. Mod. glad. grow, i: 181. 

1915 a An experiment with weak bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 2:20. 
1915 b Planting, fertilizing, and marking. Mod. glad. grow. 2:68. 

1915 c Cultivation. — Cut worms. — Watering, &c. Mod. glad. gnnv. 2:82. 
1915 d Growing gladioli from bulblets. ]\Iod. glad. grow. 2:94. 
1915 e Digging, storing, and curing gladiolus corms. — Other fall suggestions, 
^lod. glad. grow. 2:143. 

Munroe, J. E. 

1915 Remedy for cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:116. 

Naudin, M. 

1866 Reciprocal crosses. Roy. Hort. Soc. [London]. Journ. 1866:2. 

Oberlin, T. J. 

1891 Cheap trays for gladiolus bulbs. Amer. florist 6:534. 

Parkinson, John 

1629 Paradisi in sole paradisus terrestris, p. 189-191. 



Oladiohs Studies — II 267 

Patterson, R. J. 

1914 Gladioli and cut worms — how to prevent them. Mod. glad. grow. 1:137- 
I3«. 

Perkins, L. A. 

1914 An inexpensive grader. Mod. glad. grow. 1:38. 

Powell, E. C. 

1915 Remedy for cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:111. 

Pryal, W. A. 

191 1 Gladiolus topics. Florists' rev. 29: Xov. 16:33-34. 

Putnam, Bessie L. 

1914 Gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. i:ii6. From The national farmer and stock 

grower. 

Rand, E. S. 

1873 Bulbs, p. 179-193. 

Reading, H. G. 

1915 a Harmony or discord in a vase of gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2 : 108. 
1915 b Cutworms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:141-142. 

Reddick, Donald 

1915 a Gladiolus diseases. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 19. 
1915 b Gladiolus diseases. Mod. glad. grow. 2:41. 
1915 c Controlling fungoid growths on gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:79. 

Re Shore, Grace 

191 1 Gladioli for amateurs. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 3:23-26. 

1912 New ruffled gladioli. House beautiful 31: sup. 38. 

1915 Preparing and selecting gladiolus corms for planting. Mod. glad. grow. 
2:62. 

Rexford, E. E. 

1910 Four seasons in the garden, p. 79-81, 90-91. 

Roenrer, Frederick 

1906 Annual gladioli. Florists' rev. 18:778. 

Rose, Jack 

191 1 The gladiolus. Market grow, journ. 8:308-309. 

Rudolph, Jules 

1902 Culture forcee des oignons a fleurs, p. 92-96. 

Scott, William 

1899 The florists' manual, p. 109-110. 

1901 a Forcing gladiolus. Florists' rev. 8:449. 

1901b Gladiolus The Bride. Florists' rev. 8:512. 

Seliger, Mrs. Wilhelmina 

1914 The modem gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow. 1:167. From Hartford times. 

Skinner, J. H. . 

1915 Lice on gladiolus corms. — Wild cucumber to 1-c avrmlod. Mod. glad. 

grow. 2:95. 

Societe frangaise des Chrysanthemistes and Rene Oberthiir 
1905 Repertoire de couleurs, ]j. 1-82, i-ii, 1-365, 

Stewart, E. E. 

1914 A rare gladiolus sport. Mod. glad. grow, i: 146 



268 Cornell Extension Bulletin io 

Swanson, A. S. 

1914 A flower for everybody's garden. Mod. glad. grow, i : 7H-79. From 
Northwest, agr. 

Taft, L. R. 

1913 Forcing the gladiolus. In Greenhouse management, p. 101-103. 

Thomann, Jacob 

1914 " Rochester White " and " White Lady." Mod. glad. grow. 1:60. 

Thorpe, John 

Forcing the gladiolus. From Gard. and for. Reprinted in Bulbs and 

tuberous-rooted plants (Allen, 191 1, p. 121-123). 

Tracy, B. H. 

191 1 Forced gladioli are too little known. Amer. Glad. Soc. Bui. 2:10. 

Tracy, Mrs. B. H. 

1915 Competitive brotherhood. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., 

p. 17. 

Tubergen, C. G. van, jr. 

1907 Hybrids and hybridisation among bulbous plants. Roy. Hort. Soc. 

[London]. Rept. 3d Internat. Conf. 1906 Genetics, p. 438-445. 

Tull, R. E. 

1910 Propagating gladiolus. House and garden 17:77. 

Umpleby, J. H. 

1914 a Cultural hints on the gladiolus. Mod. glad. grow, i :68. 

1914 b Growing gladioli from seed. — - Storing bulblets, etc. Mod. glad. grow. 

l: 109. 
1914 c Leaves of gladioli turning brown. Mod. glad. grow, i : 153. 

Van Fleet, W. 

1904 Hybridizing gladiolus species. In Proceedings International Conference on 
Plant Breeding and Hybridization, 1902. Hort. Soc. New York. Mem. 
1:143-149. 

1908 Hybrids of Gladiolus primulinus. Florists' ex. 25:684. From Rural 

New-Yorker. 
1914 a History of Princeps. Mod. glad. grow. 1:79-80. 
1914 b Gladiolus types. Mod. glad. grow. 1:93. 

Vos Mz, P. 

1914 Some gladiolus history. Mod. glad. grow, i : 124-126. 

Wallace, E. A. 

1907 Gladiolus The Bride. Florists' rev. 19:550. . . 

Ward, P. L. 

1914 a The gladiolus has arrived. Mod. glad. grow. 1:63-64. From Rural 

New-Yorker. 
1914 b Gladiolus notes. Mod. glad. grow. 1:155. From Rural New-Yorker. 

Warncke, Mrs. F. C. 

1914 Rapid increase of stocks. Mod. glad. grow. 1:94. 

Watson, J. A. S, 

1912 Heredity, p. 43. 

Watson, W. 

1892 Gladiolus oppositiflorus. Gard. and for. 5 : 545-546. 

1893 Hybrid gladioli. Gard. and for. 6:243-244. 



Gladiolus Studies — II 269 

Weathers, John 

191 1 The bulb book, p. 1-47 1. 

Wheadon, E. T. 

1915 The gladiohis. Mod. glad. grow. 2:2-4, 14-16. From Guernsey Growers' 
Assoc, Yearbook 1914. 

Whetzel, H. H. 

1911 Gladiolus bull) rot. Florists' rev. 27:Apr. 27:10-11. 

White, A. 

1915 The gladiolus in Australia. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 154. 

White, B. F. 

191 1 Gladiolus growing. Amcr. Glad, Soc. Bui. 2:10-11. 

White, E. A. 

1915 Gladiolus. In Principles of floriculture, p. 432-435. 

Whitney, G. A. 

1915 " Treating " cedar marking stakes. Mod. glad. grow. 2:79-80. 

Wild, H. 

1914 Gladioli for every garden. Aincr. homes 11 : 153-155. 

WilHams, C. L. 

1915 Lice on gladiolus curms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:35. 

Wihnore, W. W., jr. 

1914 a Growing gladioli under irrigation in Colorado. Mod. glad. grow, i: 

55^56- 
1914 b Breeding gladioli scientifically. Mod. glad. grow. 1:83-84. 

1914 c " Forcing " gladioli. Mod. glad. grow, i: 144-146. 

1915 a Treatment of old bulbs to restore and preser\-e vitality. Mod. glad. 

grow. 2: 11-12. 

1915 b Loss of vitality in old gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:23-24. 

T915 c Gladiolus species. Mod. glad. grow. 2:58-60, 72-74, 84. 

1915 d The scientific structure of the plant. Mod. glad. grow. 2:120-122. 

1915 e Soils and fertilizers. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 134-135. 

1915 f Planting and harvesting. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 152-154. 

1915 g Curing and storing corms and cormels. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 166-167. 

Woodruff, G. S. 

1915 a Planting forced gladiolus bulbs. Mod. glad. grow. 2:66. 
1915 b Cutting gladiolus corms. Mod. glad. grow. 2:80. 
1915 c White gladioli. Mod. glad. grow. 2: 168. 

Wright, M. F. 

1914 vSecuring early gladiolus bloom. Mod. glad. grow. i:ii8. 

Wright, W. P. 

1903 Pictorial practical bulb growing, p. 106-113. 
Popular garden flowers, p. 186. 

Youell, Henry 

191 1 The gladiolus. As we knew and grew it fifty years ago. Hort. 13:420. 

1915 a A plea for flower shows. Mod. glad. grow. 2:30. 

1915 b Looking backward. Amer. Glad. Soc. Program Nat. Glad. Exhib., 
P- 15- 



INDEX 



PAGE 

Acid phosphate 204 

Acquired characters 230 

Actinomorphic blooms 210 

.'Estivation 209 

Annual gladioli 244 

Anthocyanin colors 230 

Aphis, root 256 

Arctiid moth 2SS 

Aster beetle, black 255 

Award of merit 221 

Bagging flowers for crossing 234 

Beds 

Seed 242 

Bibliography 259 

Blends, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Blister beetle 256 

Blooms 

Actinomorphic 210 

Characters of 208, 233 

Doubling, value and disadvantages of 219 

Ideal form of 212 

Indoor arrangement of 196 

Number open at once 216 

Peloric 211 

Reversion form 210 

Semi-peloriate . 210 

Zygomorphic 210 

Blotches, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Bone flour 202 

Bone meal 202, 203 

Branches 

Advantages of 216, 218 

Disadvantages of 218 

Bulbs 

Definition of 244 

Diff'erence between bulb and corm 244 

(See also Corm.) 

Caosules, number to allow to develop 237 

Cell-sap colors 230 

Chile saltpeter, use of 203 

Chilognatha 255 

Color 

Bloom, color of, not correlated with color of 

corm 247 

Changes due to environment 225, 229, 230 

Commercial 213 

Nature of, in flowers 230 

Range found in gladioli 212 

Commercial types 213-218 

Corm 

Characteristics of a good corm 246 

Correlation in color with that of bloom 247 

Definition of 244 

Dividing corms 247 

Grading 246 

Multiplication of 245 

Old corms 246 

Relative value of sizes of 246 

Sizes of 246 

Storage of 248 

Cormels 

Culture of 249 

Peeling 250 

Reproduction by 249 

Season of growth of % 250 

Sizes of 249 

Soaking 251 

Storage of 250 

Time to bloom 249 

Value of 249 

Cornell variety test card 220 

Cover crop 203 

Crosses 

Definition of 223 

Possible reason for lack of 231 

Reciprocal 231 

Technique of making 234 



Cultivation page 

Time for 205 

Value of. 205-206 

With irrigation 207 

Culture 

Of Colvillei varieties 251 

Of indoor gladioli 251 

Of nanus varieties 251 

To extend season of bloom 254 

Curved spikes 219 

Cut flower 

Gladiolus as a 195 

Cutting 

Blooms, method of 196 

Corms 247 

Cutworms, poison bait for 256 

Dashes, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Diabrotica beetle 256 

Digging 208 

Dots in throat of flower 212 

Double flowers 219 

Dried blood 202 

Dry rot 2S7 

Emasculation 234, 236 

Epicauta 256 

Eyprepia. 255 

Feathering, a.form of markin:^: in blooms 212 

Fertilizer ■ -* 

Commercial 201-204 

Manure as a 201 

Time to apply 201-204 

Flecking, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Forcing. (See Culture of indoor gladioli.) 

Fordhook hybrid gladi')li 244 

Garden value 

Among shrubbery 198 

With columbine 198 

With Galtonia [- Hyacinthus] candicans., . . 198 

With iris 198 

With petunias ,. . 198 

With phlo-K 198 

With roses 198 

Gladiolus 

alatus, pot culture of 251 

cardinalis 

As a parent of Colvillei 231, 237 

Contribution of, to hybrids 231, 237 

carneus, pot culture of 251 

Childsii 212, 237, 244 

Colvillei 

Indoor culture of 251 

Parentage of 231 

Variety albus 223 

Variety The Bride 251 

cruentus, contribution of, to hybrids. . .212, 237 

cuspidatus, pot culture of 251 

dracocephalus 209, 231 

gandavensis 

As a seed parent 231 

Characteristics of 212, 227 

Hybrids of 227, 231, 237, 244 

gracihs, pot culture of 251 

Lemoinei 

As a parent 231 

Blotches 212 

Contribution of, to hybrids 237, 244 

Milleri, pot culture of 251 

nanceianus 231, 237, 244 

nanus 

Indoor culture of '. . 251 

Use of _. . 196 

Variety descriptions 252 

oppositiflorus 

Arrangement of flowers 211 

Contributions of, to hybrids 237 

papilio, contribution of, to hybrids 237 

praecox 244, 24s 



>70 



Gladiolus Studies 



II 



271 



Gladiolus {(oniintud) page 

primulinus 

As a promising parent 240 

Behavior of color in hybrids 231, 238 

Contribution of, to hybrids 212, 238 

Form of bloom 212, 238 

Use of 198 

psittacinus 

Estivation of 209 

Characters of 212 

Contribution of, to hybrids 212, 237 

purpureo-auratus 

Estivation of 209 

Characters of 212, 227 

Contributions of, to hybrids . . . . 231, 237, 245 

Hybrids of 227 

ramosus 227, 237 

recur\'ns, pot culture of 251 

Saundersii, contributions of, to hybrids. 231, 237 

segetum 234 

sulphureus, pot culture of 251 

tristis, pot culture of 251 

tristis concolor, as a parent of Colvillei .... 231 

turicensis 237 

villosus, pot culture of 251 

Watsonius, pot culture of 251 

Grasshoppers, injuries by 255 

Hard rot 257 

Hybridist, compared with an inventor 222 

Hybrids 

Definition of 223 

General discussion of 222 

Greater vigor due to hybridity 230 

(See also various species concerned.) 
Improvement 

Greatest need for :■.■.••. -49 

List of varieties, with possibilities when used 

in hybridization 240-241 

Indoor culture 251 

Inheritance of acquired characters . . . 230 

Intermixtures, a form of marking in blooms. . . 212 

Irrigation 207 

Katydids, injuries by 255 

Lamarck 230 

Landscape 

Characteristics of a landscape variety 218 

Colors of gladioli for 215 

Leaf mold 202 

Lice, root 256 

Lime 

Injury from 202 

Use of 202-203 

Manures 

Cow 201 

Horse ■ 201 

Injury due to too heavy application 201 

Poultry 201, 203 

Sheep 201-204 

Marbling, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Markings of flowers 212 

Meloe 256 

Mendel and MendeUsm 226 

Mendelism in relation to gladioli 227 

Millepedes 255 

Mottling, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Mulching with manure 206 

Mutation 223, 233 

Nitrate of soda 202-204 

Peloric flowers 211 

Penciling, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Planting 

Danger of deep planting 199 

Depth of 199 

Distance apart 205 



Planting (continued) p.\GE 

Early, for cormels or seeds 205 

Individual corms 205 

Setting of corms 205 

Succession 204 

Time of 204 

Value of deep planting 199, 207 

Pollination 

Methods of 23s, 236 

Time of .... 235, 236 

Potassium muriate 202, 204 

Potassium sulfate 202, 204 

Potato fertilizer for gladioli 203 

Reciprocal crosses 231 

Red spider '. 25s 

Reversion form of bloom 210 

Rot 

Dry 257 

Hard 257 

Ruffled gladioli • . 231, 233 

Scab 2S7 

Score card, Ohio Gladiolus Society 221 

Seed 

Beds 242-243 

Fertilizers for seed beds 242 

Gathering 241 

Sowing 241 

Seed capsules 237, 241 

Semi-peloriate form of bloom 210 

Soil 

Proper soil for gladioli 199-201 

Sour, preferred by gladioli 201 

Soot, use of 203, 247 

Species, use of, for improvement 237-239 

(See also Gladiolus, for various species men- 
tioned.) 
Spikes, curved 

Advantageous 219 

Disadvantageous 219 

Splashes, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Sports 223, 225 

Staking 

Inadvisability of 207 

Method for amateurs 207 

Method of 206-207 

Stippling, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Storage 

In cellars 249 

Of cormels 250 

Of corms 248 

Storage houses 248 

Temperature for 248 

Use of sand or soil for 249 

Substance of bloom 216 

Succession planting 204 

Suffusion, a form of marking in blooms 212 

Sulfate of ammonia 204 

Superphosphate of lime 203 

Tankage 203-204 

Temperature 

For indoor culture 253 

For storage 248 

Test card, Cornell 220 

Tiger moth 255 

Uses of gladioli 

As cut flowers -. I9S 

As substitute for orchids and lilies 196 

For bridal bouquet 196 

In funeral work 196 

In general decoration 196 

In the garden 198 

Weismann 229 

Wireworms, injuries by 254, 255 

Wood ashes, use of, as fertilizer 202 

Zygomorphic flowers 210 



December, 1916 



Extension Bulletin 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 

Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 



Gladiolus Studies— III 
Varieties of the Garden Gladiolus 

Alfred C. Hottes 




Field of Gladioli at Ithaca. New York 



Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 



December, 1916 



Extension Bullerin 1 1 



Cornell Extension Bulletin 

Published by the New York State College of Agriculture 
at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

A. R. Mann, Acting Director of Extension Service 



Gladiolus Studies— III 

Varieties of the Garden Gladiolus 

Alfred C. Hottes 




Field of Gladioli at Ithaca, New York 



Published and distributed in furtherance of the purposes provided for in the 
Act of Congress of May 8, 1914 



PREFACE 

Since its foundation in 191 1, the American Gladiolus Society has had 
its official trial grounds on land owTied by Cornell University tinder the 
management of the Department of Floriculture. One of the main objects 
of the work has been to test as many varieties of gladioli as possible 
in order to prepare descriptions which shall be the standards for those 
varieties. Seedlings also have been tested, in an attempt to determine 
their individuality as well as their value. Some s\Tion\TQs have been 
foiuid and noted in the descriptions of varieties. 

The study has taken a longer time than was contemplated at its begin- 
ning, because some growers have been rather delinquent in sending varieties 
the first 3-ear they were requested. The work is by no means completed, 
since many varieties in the American market are as yet imdescribed and 
the question of synon>Tns has hardly been touched. 

The writer M-ishes to thank those who have contributed to the trial 
grounds, especially the following: 

Austin Gladiolus Company, Wayland, Ohio 

B. C. Auten, Carthage, Missotui 

G. B. Babcock, Jamesto-^-n. Xew York 

H. H. Baer, Xew Hyde Park, Xew York 

Frank Banning, Kinsman, Ohio 

Alvin Berger, Ventimiglia, Italy 

G. D. Black, Independence, Iowa 

A. T. Boddington, 120 Chambers Street, Xew York City 

C. W. Brown, Ashland, Massachusetts 
George Burchett, Hampton, Virginia 

W. Atlee Burpee & Co.. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
John Cavers, Oak\-ille, Ontario, Canada 
Montague Chamberlain, Wellesley, Massachusetts 
John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, Xew York 
W. A. Christv, Kinsman, Ohio 
E. F. Clark & Son, Wayland, Michigan 
P. O. Coblentz, X'ew Madison, Ohio 
Arthur Cowee, Berlin, Xew York 
M. Crawford & Co., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 
E. H. Cushman, Sylvania, Ohio 
H. A. Dreer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
E. T. Flanagan & Sons, Belleville, Illinois 
Franken Bros., Deerfield, Illinois 
W. E. Fr\-er, Mantorvdile, Minnesota 
L. M. Gage, Wellesley, Massachusetts 
C. B. Gates, Mentor,' Ohio 
Haage & Schmidt, Erfurt, Germany 
Haentze & Co., Fond du Lac, Wisconsin 

275 



276 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Max Herb, Naples, Italy 

Dr. C. Hoeg, Decorah, Iowa 

P. Hopman & Sons, Hillegom, Holland 

R. E. Huntington. Painesville, Ohio 

Iowa Seed Co., Des Moines, Iowa 

Kelway & Sons, Langport, Somerset, England 

C. H. Ketcham, South Haven, Michigan 
W. E. Kirchhoff, Pembroke, New York 
H. W. Koerner, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
E. H. Krelage, Haarlem, Holland 

A. E. Kunderd, Goshen, Indiana 
Victor Lemoine et Fils, Nancy, France 
Mallory & Brown, Madison, Wisconsin 
L. L. May & Co., St. Paul, Minnesota 
Robert Mehlmann, Oshkosh, Wisconsin 
S. C. Mellinger, Youngstown, Ohio 

Henry F. Michell Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
J. L. Moore, Northboro, Massachusetts 
Munsell & Harvey, Ashtabula, Ohio 
Perkins-King Company, West Mentor, Ohio 
Wilhelm Pfitzer, Stuttgart, Germany 
Kristian Prestgard, Decorah, Iowa 
H. A. Richardson, Woodfords, Maine 

D. W. C. Ruff, St. Paul, Minnesota 
H. F. Smith, Geneva, New York 

E. E. Stewart, Brooklyn, Michigan 

E. Y. Teas & Son, Centerville, Indiana 
J. Thomann & Son, Rochester, New York 

B. H. Tracy, Wenham, Massachusetts 
J. A. Travis, Elkhom, Wisconsin 

N. E. Tully, Hubbard, Ohio 

John Umpleby, Lake View, New York 

Vaughan's Seed Store, Chicago, Illinois 

K. Velthuys, Hillegom, Holland 

P. Vos Mz., Sassenheim, Holland 

Warnaar & Co., Sassenheim, Holland 

B. F. White, Terry ville, Connecticut 
W. A. Wilkinson, Morgan Park, IlHnois 

W. W. Wilmore, jr.. Wheat Ridge, Colorado 
G. S. Woodruff, Independence, Iowa 
M. F. Wright, Fort Wayne, Indiana 

C. Zeestraten & Sons, Oegstgeest, Holland 

Alfred C. Hottes 




/// 



i 



(//'■ 




AMERICA 
THE STANDARD PINK VARIETY 



GLADIOLUS STUDIES — III 

VARIETIES OF THE GARDEN GLADIOLUS 

Alfred C. Hottes 

After nearly five years of testing varieties, the writer now ventures 
to publish descriptions of most of the varieties received for trial on the 
grounds of the Department of Floriculture in cooperation -u-ith the 
American Gladiolus Society. 

The Modern Gladiolus Grou-er for November, 191 5, editorially expresses 
the ^Titer's attitude exactly in regard to the time necessar}- for testing 
varieties. It says: 

The tendency of some growers, both amateur and professional, to condemn varie- 
ties of gladioli on one year's trial only is certainly wrong. In conversation recently 
with one of the most experienced commercial growers he stated that a variety could 
not be properly judged until it had been grown for three successive seasons, and this 
suggestion should be carefully remembered by those who are inclined to condemn vrith- 
out sufficient trial. Unfavorable climatic or local cultural conditions might account 
for failure to perform properly the first year a variety was tested. On the other hand, 
conditions for growing may be more favorable the first year and after growing for 
two or three years the results might be quite different. Don't be in too much of a 
hurr>' to accept or reject any particular variety as one of your standards until you 
have time to judge it. 

The -uTiter is especially concerned with synon}Tns. ]Much confusion 
in nomenclature has been caused by a diiTerence in the standards or the 
tastes of hybridists. Groff, Coblentz. Kunderd, and many others, in 
the early years of their work, produced an excellent lot of seedHngs which 
have been disseminated unnamed about the whole cotuitn.-. Other growers 
have recognized enough merits in them to justify naming. The result 
has been that two or more growers have named the same seedhng. In 
many cases growers have mixed these miscellaneous bulbs with their own 
seedlings and felt that they had originated them. Adjustment can usually 
be made if it can be properly determined who first christened the variety. 
The confusion is becoming somewhat cleared up by the Nomenclature 
Committee of the American Gladiolus Society, whose business it is to 
register each new variety requested and establish a standard description 
of that variety. 

Unfortimately it is impossible to settle all questions of this kind. One of 
the most puzzling has been the question of the proper name for Coblentz 
No. 312, or William Mason. Air. Coblentz is sure that he originated 
No. 312, and that he sold it to Mr. Huntington and Vaughan's Seed 
Store. Mr. Huntington named it Grenadier, and Mr. Vaughan Velvet 

277 



278 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

King. The name Grenadier had been used previously by both Viknorin 
and Lemoine. The next oldest name is thus Velvet King. Mr. Crawford, 
who originated the variety William Mason some twenty years ago, does 
not believe this is the same variety as the above-mentioned. However, 
on the trial groimds, the variety William Mason from Crawford, from 
Mallory & Brown, and from Teas was identical with Grenadier from 
Huntington and Velvet King from Vaughan. It is interesting to note 
that several other names have been applied to this variety, namely, Emma 
(by Coblentz), Richmond Red (by Teas), and Sidney Grant (by Ruff). 

Under such circtmistances, no matter how the question of a variety 
name is settled, some one feels that an injustice has been done. 
Nevertheless some authority must be vested in the Nomenclature 
Committee, else its existence is useless. It is now determined wise to 
submit, through the leading florists' pubHcations, the names and descrip- 
tions of varieties before they are finally named. In this way any ques- 
tion of priority of name and individuality of variety can be openly 
discussed previous to final judgment. 

METHODS USED IN TESTING AND DESCRIBING VARIETIES 

When a variety is received for trial purposes, the name is copied on 
a fihng card, together with the name of the donor, the date received, 
and if possible a short description of the variety as given by the firm from 
which the stock has been received. In the latitude of Ithaca planting 
can hardly be done before April 30, and often not until early May. Each 
year a new piece of ground is chosen for the planting in order to escape 
the possibility of disease due to a previous crop. The rows are plowed 
out about seven to eight inches deep and three and one-half feet apart. 
As the soil is a rather heavy clay loam, it is thought best not to plant 
deeper. With a shovel the furrows are made a little more level, and the 
loose limips are removed. The varieties are placed one to each numbered 
stake, the corms standing approximately seven inches apart. 

About a week after planting, according to weather conditions, the 
crust is broken over the rows in order that the young shoots may easily 
reach the surface of the soil. A coarse-toothed surfacer has been found 
to be about the best tool for this purpose. The particular tool used on 
the trial grounds resembles a rake except that it has only three long 
teeth. Up to the time of blooming, cultivation is continued both by 
horse and with the hoe. 

Each day as the varieties come into bloom they are noted on the 
description blanks. Since the first bloom is often hardly characteristic 
in color and markings, the flower characters are noted several days after 
the first one opens. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 279 



CORNELL VARIETY TEST OF GLADIOLI No. 

Name Old Nos. 



S-i-N'ONYMS 


Originator 


Date Intro. 


Donated by 


Species 


Observer 


Date 



BLOOM — Size — Very large-large-medium-small. i 

Color marking ■< 

Segments — Equal- unequal; connivent-separate. ( 

Upper — -Horizontal-hooded-reflexed; broad-narrow. Lower — straight-refle.\; broad-narrow. 

St.^mens — Color of filament; of style; 

TcBE — Straight-cun'ed ; slender-stout; long-short; compact-loose. 

SPIKE — Tall-medium-short; erect-curs'ed-drooping; free-fair-bloomer-no bloom. No. blooms 

Branched? 

REMARKS ON BLOOM — Compact, loose; keeping quality ; substance 

HABIT OF PLANT — Erect-drooping; tall-medium-dwarf. Height of plant 

Spreading-eompact. 
GROWTH — Good-medium-poor. Season — Early-mid-season-late. 
PROLIFICACY — No. CoRMS — Many-few. Size — Large-small. No. Cormels — Many-few. Size— 

Large-small. 
FOLIAGE — Well-furnished-medium-poor; broad-medium-narrow; veins prominent-obscure. 
COMMERCIAL VALUE — Clt Flower — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 

L.a.ndsc^pe — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 
VALUE AS A WHOLE — Extra good-good-medium-poor. 

remarks: 

.^stiv.\tion 



No. corms sent No. that grew No. that bloomed. 



At the time of describing the varieties, little time is available for 
noting the name of the originator and the date of introduction. These 
facts are filled in later, usually during the winter. From catalogs and 
by correspondence u-ith men who have introduced varieties, dates of 
introduction are noted. 

An attempt is made in describing each variety to note all the important 
points in regard to growth and structure. The trial grounds usually 
possess from three to five bulbs of each variet}', and it is therefore 
impossible to make authoritative notes descriptive of certain points. 
For example, it would be difficult to determine definitely that a variety 
was of good keeping quality. It might be possible to get an idea of the 
keeping quality, but since temperature and environmental factors through- 
out the blooming season van,- so much it has been felt that this question 
would almost bear special investigation. 



28o Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

A definite standard of size has not been accepted, owing to the fact 
that ideas differ much as to just what is to be considered large and what 
small. In general, blooms ten centimeters or over in diameter are called 
large; those below seven centimeters, small; those between the two limits, 
medium-sized. (One inch equals approximately two and one-half centi- 
meters.) Since the varieties tested here were given equal and identical 
culture, the sizes of the blooms should be proportional. Many of the 
varieties will be reported much too small. No attempt has been made 
to give exceptional culture for results; the plants have merely been given 
ordinarily good care. 

The color of the perianth is carefully compared with the most com- 
prehensive color chart available. The one used on the trial grounds 
here and accepted by the Color Chart Committee of the American 
Gladiolus Society is that of the Societe Frangaise des Chrysanthemistes, 
and is called the Repertoire de Couleurs. There are three hundred and 
sixty-five plates, and four variations of each color on each plate. Con- 
cerning each color, the chart indicates the names of certain other flowers 
that are of this particular color. Each person has a different conception 
of colors, so that it is highly valuable to standardize the color nomencla- 
ture. Black gives an interesting description of the variety Independence, 
the color of which is variously called by the catalogs light scarlet, light 
red, rosy pink, deep rosy pink to orange scarlet, and deep pink bordering 
on scarlet. By reference to the color chart, the color is found to be 
carthamin, or Lincoln, red (Plate 88, Shade II; in the descriptions the 
color is indicated only as 88-11). The color chart here shows the variety 
to be of the same color as Euphorbia splendens and of several zonal 
pelargoniums. 

Besides the main color of the bloom, careful descriptions are prepared 
of the markings. The terms used in designating the characteristic 
markings are given beneath the drawing on the opposite page. In 
determining the colors of the stamens the color chart is not used, 
the color being merely a matter of personal opinion of the one 
describing the variety. The bloom is divided into two segments 
when comparing their positions and widths. When the upper and 
lower segments are together — in other words, when there has not been 
a decided division of the bloom horizontally — the term connivent is 
applied; the opposite condition is expressed by the term separate. When 
the upper segment is not erect nor decidedly hooded, the condition is 
caUed horizontal. The term reflex is applied to cases where the segments 
are rolled back in any way. The character of the perianth tube is not 
of great importance except as an additional means of identification of 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



2»I 







Fig. 39. MARKINGS FOUND IN PERIANTH SEGMENTS OF VARIETIES OF GLADIOLUS 

A, flecks (very small dashes) 

B, dashes or splashes (long irregular dashes) 

C, feathering (dashes or fine markings that originate at the outer edges of the segments) 

D, mottling (irregular spots wider and more prominent than dashes) 

E, suffusion (colors laid on as though painted on another color) 

F, blend (gradual transition from one tone of a color to another of the same color, or from one 
color to some other different color) 

G, clear throat (unmarked in any wav) 
H, dots 

I, stippling (very fine dots in the throat) 

J. penciling (lines of the throat) 

K, mottling (irregular spots in the throat) 

L, blotch (regular, large areas of color on lower segments) 

M, marbling (an intermixed or clouded efifect) 

N, the lozenge blotch found in many of the nanus varieties in which the center is clear and the 
outer edge much deeper in color 

A, B, C, D, E, F, and G are found in various parts of the perianth H, I, J, K, L, M, and N are 
throat markings 



282 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

a variety in which the character seems rather constant. The substance, 
the form, and the peculiarities of the bloom are carefully noted. Compari- 
sons with other somewhat similar varieties are made. It has been inter- 
esting, also, to get a little information concerning the number of blooms 
open at one time on a spike. 

As each variety comes into bloom it is tagged, and the date recorded. 
Each year these dates are compared. Seasons vary greatly as regards 
temperature, moisture, and in various other ways, so that it is difficult 
to say that a certain variety blooms in a definite number of days. This 
year perhaps the season is hot and moist, and the variety blooms in 
seventy-five days; the next year conditions are wholly different, and it 
takes eighty-five days. The method followed has been to take the 
average number of days from planting to blooming. The condition or 
maturity of the corm also has much to do with the precocity of blooming, 
but as an indicator of relative earliness and lateness, it has seemed of 
value to give a definite number of days. 

In describing the spike, those above one hundred centimeters are 
considered tall, those below sixty centimeters rather dwarf, and the others 
of medium height. Height is measured from the soil to the tip of the 
spike. The number of blooms per spike is given. Here again criticism 
would be just, since exceptional corms might produce many more blooms. 
The average is taken as the number to be recorded. The number of 
shoots and spikes per corm is also noted. 

The habit of a gladiolus really resolves itself into a consideration of 
erect ness, height, and whether of spreading or of compact growth. Com- 
pact plants are those in which the leaves are not decidedly divergent 
nor drooping. 

The question of vigorous growth is judged by abundance and excellence 
of broad foliage as well as by strength of spike. 

Due to the heavy soil of the trial grounds, cormels do not attain a 
large size, and many times do not develop. The notes in regard to 
prolificacy should thus be read with these points in mind. In deter- 
mining the size of the corm, the size when received or when planted is 
compared with the size at digging. If the corm attains on the average 
a large size, the variety is given the benefit of the doubt and is said to 
produce large corms. With age, corms normally large break up into a 
number of smaller ones. The size has been judged from corms supposedly 
in their prime. From year to year the descriptions are compared. If 
they differ widely from previous years, they are changed. The writer 
has not found such great changes in color from year to year as m9,ny 
growers report. The chief difference is found in so-called white varieties,^ 

1 Gladiolus studies — II. Culture and hybridization of the gladiolus. Cornell Extension Bulletin 10, 
p. 230. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 283 

which often develop a considerable rose tinge in the perianth during 
certain seasons or on certain soils. This coloration has been noted in the 
variety Peace, which is always rather feathered on this trial ground. 

In the cases where descriptions of varieties were to be had from catalogs, 
they were considered, and often excerpts from them are included in the 
descriptions. 

Careful drawings were frequently made, showing the markings of the 
petalage. Numerous photographs have been taken of the varieties. More 
attention has been given to procuring the proper representation of flower 
characters than to obtaining artistic results and fuU or perfect spikes. 

On the line with the originator in the descriptions that follow, are 
noted such varieties as have been registered by the nomenclature com- 
mittee of the American Gladiolus Society, in each case mention being 
made of the year of registration and the name of the person registering the 
variety, if it differs from that of the originator. 

A. B. DA VIES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 

Croup — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube almost straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and slightly ruffled, the lower reflexed, broader than 
the upper. Stamen filaments white, red tinge; anthers rose, violet sutures. 
Perianth Lincoln red (88-1) very thickly splashed with cerise (91-111), white stripe 
on each of lower segments. Blooms well arranged, of an attractive color, per- 
haps too mottled for commercial value. 

Season — Early ; 68 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (84 cm.), erect, fair number of blooms (10), slender. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with short, medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ABDELKADER Originator— White 

Croup — 
Stock from White 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pink tipped; anthers violet. Perianth deep carmine- violet 

(174-111). A compact bloom of good tough substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 89 to 95 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), not branched. 

Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Poor; plant well furnished with narrow leaves, much diseased. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ADELINA Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (12.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. 
Stamen filaments pink; styles white. Perianth madder lake (brighter than 
122-iv) with carmine lake pencilings on a yellow-green throat. Medial lines of 
lower segments deeper in shade. Bloom good clear pink, wide open. 



284 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 91 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, branched, a fair number of blooms (18 on main, 

7 on secondary). 
Hahit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

ADOLPHE JAENICKE Originator ~ ChWds. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth brighter than rosy pink 

(118-iv), mottled Tyrian rose (155-1) over a white throat. Color good and clear; 

the mottled throat delicate. Substance medium good, shape good, but bloom 

rather loose. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 106 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), drooping, a fair number of blooms (11), not branched. 

Two spikes often Isorne per corm. 
Hahit — Drooping, medium height, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad 

leaves. 
Cjrms — Small or medium size; cormels, few or none. 

AFTERGLOW (Christy) Originator — Christy. Seedhng 1903 

Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Medium large (8-10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper broad and reflexed, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers delicate lavender. Perianth 
greenish white (15-iv), often with suffusion of carmine on upper segment. Large 
blotches of ox blood red (94-11), bordered with pale yellow-green on the lower 
segments. The bloom much resembles that of Madame Lemoinier, but Madame 
Lemoinier does not have the bordering of yellow-green. The flower possesses 
good shape and medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season, first week of August; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (97 cm.), erect, though often crooked, thin, a fair number of 
blooms (12), generally unbranched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Groivth — Medium; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prohfic, large. 

AFTERGLOW (Cowee) Originator — Gm^, 1904. Reg. A. G. 

S., 1 91 4, Cowee 
Group — ■ 
Stock from Cowee 
(Described from cut spikes.) 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower narrower. Stamen filaments 
pinkish cream; anthers cream, Hlac sutures. Perianth salmon-fawn, Tyrian rose 
(155-1) blotch terminates in white medial line. A rather loose bloom of medium 
good substance, well open. 
Season — Mid-season to late, September 9, 1913. 

Spike — Me6\\xm. tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall. 

Growth ^Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — 



Gladiolus Studies — III 285 

AJAX Originator — Childs 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Small (6.5-7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth cardinal-red 
(112-1), striped on white ground. Tyrian rose (155-11) stripes on each of lower 
segments. Flowers often on all sides of the spike. 

Season — Mid- August; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium dwarf (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

» 
ALASKA Originator — Childs. Intro. 191 1. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1912 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed 
and narrower than the upper. Stamen filaments cream; anthers \'iolet. Perianth 
lilacy white (7-1), with Tyrian rose (155-1) penciling or dotting on lemon-yellow 
throat. A compact bloom of medium good substance. Five blooms open at 
once. 
Season — Early September; 113 days. 

Spike — Medium height (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ALICE CAREY Originator — 

Group — Childsii 

Stock from Teas; Babcock 

Synonyms — Probably same as Snowcrest of Li\'ingston Seed Company; much like 
Snowbank of Cowee. 

Bloom — Medium size (7 cm. and larger). Tube perfectly straight, medivmi slender, 
long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper slightly reflexed and broader than 
the lower narrower segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers dark blue. 
Perianth pure white with solferino-red (157-iv) splashes in throat. This variety 
does not contain the areas of yellow that are found in Snowbank. An excellent 
nearly clear white landscape or commercial variety. Rather good substance, 
often blooms on aU sides of spike. 

Season — Mid-season, early August ; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 5 on 
secondary'), more branching than Snowbank. Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium taU, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant growth medium poor, lax foliage, inferior to Snowbank in 
foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific, tnedivun size. 

ALICE CHAMBERLAIN Originator — Kunderd 

Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, ver\' slender, medium long. Segments 

tmequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments red: anthers deep violet. Perianth brighter than plum violet 

(172-iv) with white areas at the sides of the throat. Segments edged with white. 

The color is the same as that of Empress of India (Velthuys) except for white 

edging of the segments. 
Season — September 3, 1913; 113 days. 



286 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, drooping leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

ALICE ROOSEVELT. See HoUandia. 

ALL-A-GLOW Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments imequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments reddish white; anthers red. Perianth scarlet (85-iv), with an amber- 
white throat speckled and penciled with French purple (i6i-iv). A compact 
bloom of medium substance. Excellent glowing color. Seven blooms open at 
one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium height (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21), two branches. 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

ALOIS NERGER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 191 4 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers lilac. Perianth carthamin red (88-1), feathered 
and suffused with pale slate-lilac, throat blotched with near blood red (93-iv). 
A rather muddy color. Somewhat ruffled edges. A compact bloom of excel- 
lent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. Two spikes 
usually produced per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

AMARYL Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Tracy 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red. Perianth poppy color (84-1), amber-white 
(12-1) medial lines, and throat blotched with blood red (93-iv). Good clear colors, 
attractive throat markings. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

AMERICA Originator — Banning, GrofT, and 

Christy (intro. 1900) all claim the 
honor 
Group — Gandavensis X Lemoinei (May 

X Madam Auber) 
5tocfe/rom Childs; Umpleby 
Synonym — Banning's name for this variety was Reuben H. Warder. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 287 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper slightly reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers lavender. Perianth lavender-pink, a 
more rosy tint of mauve-rose (153-iv), the color blending to ahnost white as it 
approaches the throat; the throat marked vvith Tyrian rose (155-111). This is the 
standard commercial variety at the present time' A delicate color, well formed. 
Not so good substance as that of Panama. (See descriptions of Mapleshade and 
Panama.) Seems excellent for forcing. 

Season — Mid-season, mid- August; 87 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair nimiber of blooms (20 on main, 7 and 10 
on branches). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

AMERICA'S LADY Originator — White 

Group — 

Stock from White 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, meditmi long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose, 
with a lemon-yellow throat spotted with Tyrian rose. A rather loose bloom of 
rather good substance. 

Season — September i ; 1 1 1 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished \%nth medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; few cormels formed, but the originator says that the variety is 
prolific. 

AMETHYST Originator — Stewart 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth rosy magenta (169-lv), 
with blotch of amaranth-red (i68-iv) terminating in dash of lemon-yellow. The 
lower lip segment is ver>^ narrow. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Latter part of August, 19 13; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12-15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished u*ith medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium small; cormels, few or none. 

ANDRE CHENIER Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, stout, ver>' short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments dirty white; anthers light lavender. Perianth pale reddish 
lilac (131), splashed and feathered deeper. Lower segments with yellow-green 
(16-iv) tips, and blotched with purple-garnet (165). Good substance, excellent 
colors. Too small. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 112 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few or none. 



288 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

ANGELINA Originator — Kelway 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, con- 
nivent; the upper rather hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; styles white. Perianth madder lake (122-iv), splashed 
occasionally with red. A yellow blotch in throat streaked with geranium (iii-i). 
Good keeping qualities. 
Season — • Mid-August; 85 to 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — • Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, prominently veined. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size, few. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

ANNIE WIGMAN Originator — Ho^marx 

Group — • 
Stock from Warnaar 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower refle.xed 
segment. Stamen filaments cream; anthers light lavender. Perianth yellowish 
white (13-111), with lemon-yellow (21-1) throat on which is a lilac-purple (i6o-iv) 
splashed blotch. A compact bloom of medium good substance and dainty color. 
Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — ■ Mid-season, mid- August; 96 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, medium prolific. 

ANTON BUCHNER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers white, violet sutures. Perianth carthamin red 
(88-1) with amber-white (12-1) throat and medial lines. Segments feathered with 
deep carthamin red (88-iv). Good color. Six blooms open at once. 

Season — 

Spike — Medium tall (105 cm.), erect, many blooms (22), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

APRIKOSA Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 19 13 

Group — Gandavensis or Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth pale blush (137-1), very 
thickly feathered with crimson-carmine (159-iv), and a large attractive blotch of 
French purple (161-11) bordered by amber-yellow (28-11). An excellent spike of 
a bright, showy color. A compact bloom of excellent substance. Nine to eleven 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — • Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — ^ Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, 

Corms — Large size; cormels, prolific. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 289 

ARIZONA Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — 
Stock from Wright 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cun^ed, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers salmony. Perianth lilac-rose (152-iv), medial lines of 
lip French purple (ii6-iv) shading lighter on each side into a blotch. A compact 
bloom of good color and substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with broad leaves. 

Conns — Medivim size; cormels, prolific. 

ARTHUR TOMS Originator — Kelway, 1900 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the edges incun,-ed, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender, violet sutures. Perianth 
fierx' red (8o-lv); in some there are no markings, in others crimson-red (114-iv) 
pencilings merging into fier\- red form a blotch. The outer segments are con- 
spicuously larger than the inner. The color is rich, brilliant, and velvety. 

Season — First of August ; 73 daj'S. 

Spike — Medium tali (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20). Two spikes 
often borne per corm. 

Habit — Ver\' erect, medium tall, medium compact. 

Growth — Vigorovis ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ASHES OF ROSES Originator — Christy 

Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and somewhat hooded, the lower 
but slightly reflexed and broader. Stamen filaments rose; anthers lavender. 
Perianth, tips of segments in most cases violet-lilac (175-111) merging into flesh 
color (139-iv), blotches of Corinthian red (105-11), medial lines somewhat reddish. 
Christy saj's: " Seems very good for funeral work with wreaths of Uke color." 
Color is inexplicable, somber, washy. 

Season — Mid-August; 88 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium short (61 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

ATTRACTION Originator — Childs. Intro. 1906. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium large (10 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium stout, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower 
straight segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers dark violet. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-1), with a white streak on lower segments, and a creamy white throat. 
No markings except this. The flower is well open, the color clear and bright. 
Season — Rather early, August 2, 1912, to August 9, 1913; 72 days. 



290 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes 

often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

AUGUSTA Originator — Hallock 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Umpleby ; Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) splashed and 
feathered with solferino-red (157-1), the medial lines of the lower segments also 
solferino-red. Throat penciled. Much lilac is usually developed so that it can 
hardly be called pure white. 

Season — Mid- August; 102 days. 

Spike — Tall (118 cm.), erect, an abundance of bloom (18 on main, 9, 10, and 11 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, prominently 
veined. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, small. 

AURORA (ChUds)2 Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Small (6-7 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent: the upper hooded and broad, the lower refiexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments rosy white; anthers lilac. Perianth light violet-rose (154-1) thickly 
feathered with solferino-red (157-iv) and blotched with plum-violel^ (172-iv), 
tipped by spot of yellow. A bright color. A compact, bell-shaped bloom of good 
substance, but very brittle. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather early; 72 days. 

Spike — Rather tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

AURORA (Hoeg). See Hiawatha. 

AUSTIN No. 25 Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Ver>' large (12-13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper broad, the lower narrower. Stamen filaments 
salmon-pink; anthers lavender. Perianth madder lake (122-1, but more reddish) 
with a large blotch of deep madder lake (122-iv, but brighter). The bloom is 
very loose, the segments rolled and ruffled — an objectionable feature. 

Season — Early September; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, producing blooms freely (20 on the main and 
9 on the secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific, large. 

^Lemoine also catalogs a variety by this name. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 291 

AUSTIN No. 30 Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and broader. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth pure mauve (181-111 and -iv), 

with an amaranth-red (i68-iv) blotch in the throat and Ughter medial Unes. 

An excellent clear glistening color, but the substance is not ver\- good. 
Season — September i ; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

AUSTIN No. 52 Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Very large (12 cm.). Tube slightly curved, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen 
filaments pinkish white; anthers lavender. Perianth pure white with a T^'rian rose 
(155-111) intermixed throat. The segments are also slightly suffused with Tyrian 
rose. The bloom is large, well arranged, nearly clear white, and well open. It could 
be well called an extra good cut-flower and landscape variety. 

Season — Mid-September; 105 to no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, producing blooms freely (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small. 

AUSTIN No. 55. See Rose Wells. 

AUSTIN No. 56 Originator — Anstin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers gray. Perianth somewhat 
brighter than madder lake (122) and pinker than poppy color (84), with large 
scarlet (85-111 and -iv) irregular blotches on pale yellow-green throat, white medial 
hnes. Color bright, and substance fairl}^ good. 

Season — September i ; 1 02 days. 

Spike — Tall (112 cm.), erect, free blooming (19 on main and 6 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large ; cormels, prolific. 

AUSTIN No. 57 Originator — \nst\n 

Group — - 

Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (ii8-iv) 
with large broad blotches of scarlet (87-1) on lower segments. Color fades from 
outer edge of segment toward center. Bloom well open, well arranged, and 
excellent in color; substance not exceptional. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 107 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 



292 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

AUSTIN No. 58 Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, with refiexed edges, the lower broader 
and refiexed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers yellow. Perianth rosy pink 
(118-iv) with the edges marked slightly darker, the lower segments with a scarlet 
(87-1, only more russety) throat and deep medial Hne. Bloom of good substance 
and delicate color. 

Season — 'Eaxly August to early September; 92 days. 

Spike — Tall (107 cm.), erect, free blooming (20), two branches. Two spikes frequently 
occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

AUTEN'S 7--2 Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly 
refiexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth deep 
cerise (123-iv), a sulfur-white throat marked with a deep French purple (i6i-iv) 
blotch. Color somewhat mottled, not clear. Bloom of good form and substance; 
color fairly acceptable, even though not clear. 

Season — September 5, 1912; 106 days. 

Spike — Tall (loi cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 5 on secondary). 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — ■ Exceptionally vigorous. In one case five shoots were produced per corm. 
Plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, very prolific, small. 

AUTEN'S 8-1 Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper refiexed and narrow, the lower refiexed and 
broader. Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth 
coral-red (76-111), with a strawberry red (iio-iv) blotch on lower Hp fading to 
coral-red and terminated by a light yellow-green dash. Color good and clear. 
Auten says: " Color dull in indoor light." 

Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 70 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

AUTEN'S 9-14 Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower narrower 
and refiexed. Stamen filaments white; anthers reddish lilac. Perianth Lincoln 
red (88-1) with a deeper Lincoln red intermixed blotch in the throat. Bloom 
of good shape, well open, of good substance, but not of a clear color. 

Season — • Late July to August; 72 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, free blooming (23), branched. 

Habit — ■ Erect, tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium prolific. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 293 

A. W. CLIFFORD Originator — Kunderd. Intro. Brown 

Group — 
Stock from Brown 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.)- Tube nearly straight, medium slender, very long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed anl 
narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers \'iolet. Perianth old carmine-rei 
(107-iv) with amaranth-red (i68-iv) throat and lighter Hlacy-tinted medial lines. 
Rather compact bloom of medium substance, slightly ruffled. Four blooms open 
at one time. 

Season — Early; 69 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10), branched. 

Habit — • Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large ; cormels, medium prolific. 

Azure Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1909 

Group — Lemoinei (?) 
Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — • Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper hooded and narrower, the- lower straight and broader. 

Stamen filaments lilac; anthers \-iolet. Perianth bright \'iolet (198-11) with a near 

amaranth-red (i68-iv) blotch. Bloom exceedingly compact and of good substance, 

but color is rather washy. 
Season — Mid-season; 82 to 87 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, proUfic. 

BALTIMORE Originator — Cowee, 1910. Reg. A. G. 

S., 1914. Cowee 
Group — ■ 
Stock from Woodruff 

Synonym — Formerly called Salmon Queen by Woodruff. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments salmony; anthers salmony white. Perianth sal- 
mon-pink ( 1 26-1), color deeper at edges; lower hp blotched with fire red (80-1 v) 
and deeper. Excellent color. Rather loose bloom of medium good substance. Two 
or three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9-12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium \'igorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

BARCLAY Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curv'ed, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-ivj with 
an amber-white throat. Bloom well open and of good substance. 
Season — August 26. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, with 8 

on secondan.'). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few, medium size. 



204 



Cornell Extension Bulletin iI 



BARON JOSEPH HULOT Originator — hemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer ; Gage 
Synonyms — Also written Josef Hulot. This variety has often been erroneously 
given as a synonym of Blue Jay (Groff); Blue Jay (Childs) is, however, a 

synonym. 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). 
Tube curved, slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and narrow, 
the lower reflexed and narrow. 
Stamen filaments lilac; styles 
whitish. Perianth velvety pur- 
ple with lemon-yellow (21-11) 
dash on medial lines of lower 
segments. Resembles Heliotrope 
except that Heliotrope has red 
dashes on lower segments, while 
Baron Joseph Hulot has lemon- 
yellow dashes. The pollen shed 
on the dark velvety segments 
causes them to appear 
shabby. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 
82 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, 
often curved, blooms freely. 

Habit — Drooping, medium height, 
spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well fur- 
nished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

BEACON FIRE 

Originator — Christy 
Group — 

Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube 
curved, medium slender, medium 
short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent ; the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments red ; 
anthers red- violet. Perianth 
cherry-red (91-iv) with drab 
feathering and drab-red inter- 
mixtures in the throat. Almost 
a self color, excellent, deep, 
the blotch not contrasting. 
Bloom compact and of good 
substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late, late 

August; 112 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (16), branched. Two spikes often appear per corm, as 
well as many suckers. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — -Medium size; cormels, many. 




Fig. 40. BARON JOSEPH HULOT 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



295 



BEAUTY 

Originator — May 
Group — 
Stock from May 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, 

slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 

vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the 

lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 

filaments red; anthers \'iolet. Perianth 

deep carmine-purple (156-iv), darker dash 

in throat. Exceedingly brilliant. A self 

color except for verj- slightly deeper line in 

throat. Compact bloom of medium good 

substance. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair 

number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with 

mediiim broad leaves. 
Conns — Medium size; cormels, prohfic. 

BELLE MAUVE 

Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei (?) 

Stock from Wamaar 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium 
slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, 
the lower slightly reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers 
\-iolet. Perianth pure mauve (181-1) often 
feathered deeper, with lilacy white throat 
and a deep mauve (i8i-iv) blotch. Well- 
open, compact bloom of rather good sub- 
stance. Three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Early August; 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of 
blooms (21). 

Habit — Ven,- erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with 
broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium pro- 
lific. 

BEN HUR 

Originator — Childs 

Group — 

Stock from Teas 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curx^ed, 
medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower straight and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, scarlet 
tips. Perianth hght scarlet (85-11) feath- 
ered with deeper scarlet, the lower seg- 
ments -R-ith a finely lined blotch of scarlet 
(85-iv, but -^s-ith less yellow thaniv). Teas describes the color as salmon- rose. 

Season — Mid-season; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 




Fig. 41. BERTHA COMSTOCK 



296 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 




Fig. 42. BERTREX 



Growth — ■ Good to medium; 
plant medium well fur- 
nished with medium nar- 
row foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, 
few. 

BERTHA COMSTOCK 

Originator — Coblentz 

Group — 

Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). 
Tube curved, medium 
stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal with 
slightly ruffled edges and a 
trifle narrower than the 
lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments white; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
carmine-purple (156-1), 
thickly feathered with dark 
carmine-purple (156-iv). 
Could be called a red-and- 
pink-striped bloom. 

Season — -Mid-season, late 
August; 94 to 97 days. 

Spike — Attractive, long (145 
cm.), erect, blooms freely 
(26 on main, 17 and 18 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — ■ Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Exceptional; plant 
well furnished with broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 

BERTREX 

Originator — Austin. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 

Group — 

Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). 
Tube nearly straight, slen- 
der, long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper 
slightly reflexed and broad, 
the lower reflexed and 
broader. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers white, pur- 
ple sutures. Perianth lilacy 
white (7-11), two Tyrian rose 
( 1 55-1) fines in the throat 
and pale yellow-green me- 
dial lines. A nearly pure 
white, dainty bloom of 
medium substance. Seems 
good for forcing; blooms are 
produced in about 112 days. 
Six blooms open at onetime. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 297 

Season — Middle to late August; 97 to 102 days. 

Sp^ike — Medium short (61 cm.), erect, a fair ninnber of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Extra vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves 

Conns — Large; cormels, prolific. 

BESSIE RAND Originator — V^hite 

Group — 
Stock from \Miite 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth rosy pink (118-11) with clear 

yellow-green blotches on lower segments. A good color. The two lower lateral 

segments are laterally folded. 
Season — Mid-season, late August; 84 to 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (108 cm.), erect, blooms freely (17 on main, 6 on side branches). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium to narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, borne abundantly. 

c • 

BIG MEDICINE Originator — Teas 

Group — 
Stock from Teas 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, coimivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower 
reflexed segment. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers violet. Perianth rosy 
pink with faint Tyrian rose (155-1) intermixtures on a lemon-yellow Up. A very 
dainty color ; bloom well arranged and of good substance. 

Season — Late, late September; 120 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9-12). 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, small, few. 

BIRD OF PARADISE Originator — Isaiah Lower 

Group — Gandavensis 
Slock from Wilmore; Flanagan 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth ro?,\ pink (i 18-11) 
thickly splashed and feathered ^-ith Lincoln red (88-11), with a lemon-yeUow 
throat penciled with crimson-carmine. The segments are pointed, and the whole 
spike shows strong Gladiolus oppositiflorus characters. 

Season — -Mid-season; 82 days. 

Sp>ike — -Rather dwarf (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant furnished ^"ith medium narrow fohage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, freely produced. 

BIRD OF PARADISE (Kunderd). See Gaiety. 

BIZARRE Originator — Christy 

Group — 

Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 



298 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy 
white (7-IV) with faint splashes and feathering of Tyrian rose (155-1) and large 
blotches of Tyrian rose (155-iv) on lower lip. The blotch has a lemon-yellow 
line running through it. 

Season — Mid-August; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19 on main, 4 on 
secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant furnished with medium poor foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

BLACK BEAUTY Originator --Stewa.Tt, 191 1. Reg. A. 

G. S., 1914 
Gr.oup — 

Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 

filaments with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-red (113-iv) with 

French purple medial lines and lighter streaking on each side. A rich, deep color. 

Season — Mid-August. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, blooms freely (15). Two spikes often borne 

per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Good to medium; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium sized; cormels, few. 

BLACK'S SEEDLING H-2 Originator — Black 

Group — 
Stock from Black 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish white; anthers reddish violet. Perianth canary-yellow 
(17-1), the upper segment suffused or tinted with rose, the two lower segments 
with old carmine-red blotches. Substance good. Blooms are of good form. 
This variety differs from Lemon Drop only in that the upper segments are rose- 
tinted, which tinting seems a blemish. 

Season — Mid-August to late August ; 92 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). Two spikes 
frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Excellent; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large. 

BLANCHE Originator . Intro. 1899 

Group — 

Stock from Dreer 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed, narrow, 
and pointed. Stamen filaments lilacy white. Perianth hlacy white, penciled 
with Tyrian rose (155-iv) on the throat. Medium good substance. 

Season — Late August; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Conns — Large ; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



299 




Fig. 43. BLANCHE 



300 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

BLOOD SPOT Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Wright 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet. Perianth 
antique red (104-1) thickly feathered and flaked with near dull purple lake (170-iv). 
Lower segments with lemon-yellow throat blotched and bordered by French purple 
(161-iv). A dull color. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (25), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

BLOTCHED ROSELLA Originator — Aviten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — -Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower slightly 
reflexed and broad. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth 
deep carmine (112-1), with a large carmine-purple (156-111) blotch on a light 
yellow-green throat. Color is excellent — bright and showy. Bloom smaller 
than that of Rosella, and not much like that variety. 

Season — • Early; 81 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (74 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — - Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Fairly vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few but large. 

BLUE 4 X Originator — • Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 
B/oo?w — Medium size (7 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream; anthers red-violet. Perianth solferino-red (157-1), with 

amber-white (12-1) throat penciled and dotted with French purple (i6i-iv). 

A peculiar color. 
Season — ■ Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

BLUE JAY (Childs). See Baron Joseph Hulot. 

BLUE JAY (Grofif) Originator — Gro^, 1904 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Christy and others 

Synonym — See Baron Joseph Hulot. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments bluish white; anthers blue-violet. Perianth lobelia blue 
(205-1) 'splashed with deeper lobelia blue (205-iv). Lemon-yellow throat 
blotched with rich pansy violet (191-iv). Color is not quite so clear as it should 
be. Bloom compact and of medium good substance. The variety Baron Joseph 
Hulot is frequently given as a synonym, but Blue Jay is distinctly bluish in color, 
while Baron Joseph Hulot is a velvety purple. 

Season — Mid-season; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 



Gladiolus Studies — III 301 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Conns — Medium size; cormels, medium few. 

BOSTON Originator —ChWds. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-iv), 
^■ith white throat dotted and intermixed with Tyrian rose (155-1) and darker. 
Bloom rather loose and substance medium good. 
Season — Latter part of August; 103 days. 

Spike — • Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

BOUQUET D'OR Origma/or — Stewart. Intro. 191 1 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. Stamen 
filaments white; styles yellowish white. Perianth cream tinted rosy pink (118), 
the lower segments yellow-green with carmine-red (113-iv) blotch. 

Season — Mid-August; 94 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

BRENCHLEYENSIS Originator — Unknown. Intro. Youell 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Umpleby 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube almost straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and narrow, the lower reflexed and often broader. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-iv), segments 
feathered darker, throat yeUow-green marked with scarlet \%-ith a French purple 
medial line. Color bright. One of the oldest, but ever a favorite landscape variety. 
Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 106 days. 

Spike — -Medium taU (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Gro'i.i'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — ■ Medium size; cormels, few. 

BRIGHTNESS Originator — Kelvray . Intro. 1909 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kehvay 

Bloom — Medium large (9-1 1 'cm.). Tube cur\'ed, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments nearly equal, connivent; the upper narrower than the lower, and the 
edges of both upper and lower segments reflexed. Stamen filaments white with 
red tips; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-iv) with a sulfurj' white throat 
spotted and penciled with scarlet. Bloom possesses medium good substance; 
three open at one time. Seems a good cut flower because of its straight spike 
and clear colors. 

Season — Early August; 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (73 cm.), very erect, a fair number of blooms (14). Two 
spikes per corm. 



302 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Habit — Very erect, medium tall, medium compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

BRITANNIA Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — • Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments equal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and as broad as the upper. Stamen 
filaments pink; styles pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88-111) with a blood-red-and- 
white-speckled throat. 
Season — Mid-August. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — ■ 

(Described by George J. Burt.) 



BURCHETT NO. 389 Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers yellow, with violet suture lines. Perianth rose- 
pink (brighter than ii8-iv), with lemon-yellow throat and large penciled blotch 
of carmine. Good color and substance. 

Season — - Late August; 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (118 cm.), erect, blooms freely (25 on main, 12 and 13 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Large; cormels, prolific. 

BURREL Originator — WoodruflE. Reg. A. G. S., 

191 4, Black 
Group — ■ 
Stock from Woodruff 

Synonym — Napoleon of Darling and Beahan. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth cherry red (91-1), with blood 
red (93-iv) intennixed blotch bordered by yellow-green. A slight feathering 
of slate in edges of the segments. Compact blooms of good substance, arranged 
well on the spike. 

Season — Early August ; 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Extra vigorous; plant well furnished with broad, though somewhat drooping, 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

BUSTER BROWN Originator — Auten 

Group — Gladiolus dracocephalus hy- 
brid 
Stock from Auten 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments dull gray; anthers red- violet. Perianth amber- 
white (12-1) thickly speckled and flecked with currant red (115-iv), throat lemon- 
yellow. A very peculiar color. Much resembles its parent, Gladiolus dracoceph- 
alus. A good shape. Five blooms open at one time. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 303 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Sp^ike — Medium tall (9.S cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Grcnuth — \'igorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Conns — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CALIFORNIA^ Originator — Coxvee, 1907. Reg. A. 

G. S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube cur\"ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments violet-rose; anthers violet. Perianth light Tynan 
rose (155) marked with a bit deeper Tj^rian rose (155-1), with an amber-white 
throat nearly covered by large areas of Tynan rose dots. The size and color are 
acceptable. 

Season — August ; 96 days. 

Spike — Ven.- tall (115 cm.), drooping, a fair number of blooms (15 on the main, 
II and 12 on two secondaries); branches are badly curved. 

Habit — Drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

CANADA. See Meadoi^'\-ale. 

CANARY BIRD Originator — Chxlds. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chi Ids 

Bloom — Medium size (8-10 cm.). Tube curved, rather slender, rather long. Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish; anthers pale lilac. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1), 
the two lower inferior segments a deeper lemon-yellow (21-11), a Uttle narrower than 
the other segments. A sUght suffusion of rose is found in the perianth seg- 
ments. A dainty bloom of medium substance. For use in landscape, the colors 
combine well with Baron Joseph Hulot. 

Season — ■ Mid-season to late; 96 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (110 cm.), erect, a large niunber of blooms (30), often two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Rather \'igorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium sized; cormels, few. 

CANDID UM Or/g/mi/or — Austin. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper broad ^nth refiexed edges, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers delicate lavender. Perianth 
Ulacy white (7-1) with faintest tinge of pale yeUow-green on the lower Up. A 
sUght tinge of carmine feathering develops as the bloom fades. There is deep 
carmine at the base of the throat. A delicate color. Feathering develops 
when the variety is forced. 

Season — Mid- August; 89 to 95 days. Forces in about 112 days. 

Spike — Tall (loi cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main, 8 and 11 on two secondaries). 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium wide leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

'Another California was introduced by Burbank in 1890. 



304 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

CANICULE Originator — Souchet - V i 1 m o r i n . 

Intro. 1904 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock fram Vaughan 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Sta- 
men filaments cream; anthers flesh color with violet sutures. Perianth scarlet 
(87-111) with amber- white (12-1) throat. A good color. Compact bloom of good 
substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), one branch. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

CAPRICE * Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower straight ones. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers pinkish lavender. Perianth violet-rose (154-iv) with 
a crimson-red (114-iv) penciled blotch and a slight dash of yellow-green on the 
medial line. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season, early to mid-August; 82 to 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (97 cm.), erect, free-blooming (20 on main, 13 on secondar>'), one branch. 
Two spikes often occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CAPTAIN C. B. TANNER Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — LsLTge (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper with tips reflexed, the lower broader and reflexed. 

Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers dark blue-violet. Perianth Rose 

Neyron red (119-11), sparsely marked with crimson. Splashes on segments seem 

blemishes to an otherwise good pink. 
Season — Early, late Julv ; 69 to 70 days. 
Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Three spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific, large. 

CAPTAIN W. L. REEVES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1910 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth scariet (87-iv), throat yellow- 
green penciled with dark scarlet. Medial hnes sHghtly lighter in color. Color 
clear, and bloom possesses good substance, is compact and well open. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medinm tall (93 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 
Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, medium spreading. 

« There is also a Caprice from Kelway, and another from Vilmorin. 



Gladiolus Stl'dies — III 305 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large: cormels, few, small. 

CAPTIVATION » Originator — Miller 

Croup — 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower (often 
the lower segment is the broader). Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. 
Perianth creamy white (lo-iv), with amber- white (12-iv) throat marked with 
rosy magenta (169-11). An excellent cream-colored bloom. A compact bloom 
of medium poor substance. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), extremely erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CARDINAL (Childs)« Originator — ChMs. Intro. 1904 

Croup — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curv^ed, slender, medium long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish with white tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-iv) with geranium red (iii-i) finely intermixed blotches on lemon-yeUow 
throat. Bloom well open, of a bright showy color. 

Season — Late, September; 120 days. 

Spike — Medium height (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with rather broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, medium prolific, small. 

CARDINAL (May) Originator — May 

Group — 
Stock from May 

Synonym — May's Cardinal. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower with reflexed edges and 
narrower. Stamen filaments with reddish tips; anthers red- violet. Perianth 
- urple-garnet (165-11) with amber-white (12-1) throat stippled with purple- 
garnet (165-1). A good deep color. A compact bloom of good substance. 

Seaso7i — Early; 76 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medivun broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

CARDINAL 5 X. See Great Cardinal. 

CARDISAN Originator — Austin 

Group — 

Stock from Austin 
Bloom — Ver\' large (12 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish spotted; anthers almost black. Perianth much deeper 
than blood red (93-iv), the throat nearly black. Color could be described as 
a ver\' deep wine color. 
Season — Mid-season, mid-August; 93 to 100 days. 

* There is also a Captivation from Kelway. 

' There is a Lemoine and a Vilmorin variety by this name. 



3o6 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Mtxliuin tall (87 cin.\ erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
//ij^i7 — Erect, rather tall. ^.xMnpact. 

Grcnvth — Vigoaiiis; plant well furnisheil with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, medium prolitie. 

CAVERS NO. 29 Originator — Cavers 

Group — 
Stock from Cavers 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.t. Tube curved, medium slender, me«.iium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and bnxid, the lower nearly 
straight and nanxnver. Stamen filaments white: anthers \nolet. Perianth Naples 
yellow ug-iii") \\-ith large carmine-purple (,156-iv') blotches. A slight rose suffusion 
is usually present in the segments. A good shape and a dainty color. 

Season — Earlv September; 106 days. 

Sf»ke — Tall (u\^ cm.), erect, few blooms (6), often branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

GroiL'th — Vigoams; plant rather well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium sized; connels, pailitic. 

CECIL Originator — May 

Group — 
Stock from May 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink. Perianth light carthamin red (S8-i) with lemon-yellow 
throat blotched with blood red v^^-iv). A compact bloom of medium substance. 
Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 1 10 days. 

Spike — Medium short ((xt cm.\ erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, meilium tall, spreading. 

Groxcth — Vigorous; plant well fumishet^l with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Meviium size: connels, pailific. 

CEDAR ACRES MAUVE. Se^^ Scarsdale. 

C. E. J. ESDALE Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Seg.nents 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen tilainents red; anthers \-iolet. Perianth reddish purple (.i6i-iv) with 
pale yellow-green lines as the only markings. The cvlges of the segments are 
darkest. Color good, and flower has a ven.- velvety appearance. Six blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season, mid- August; 89 days. 

S(>ike — Tall, erect, blooms freely, wth two secondary' spikes. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size: cormels, few. 

CELLINI Originator — Kelway 

Group — 

Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube straight, stout, short. Segnients unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments pink; 
stvles lighter pink. Perianth vennilion-red (87-111), Tyrian rose (,I55) medial 
line on lower segments, lighter on each side. Tint of this lighter color along 
edge of all segments and on the back. 
Season — August. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 307 

Spike. — Medium short, erect, a fair number of bkxjms. 

Ilabit — • Erect, medium tall, comjjact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with broarl leaves. 

Corms — 

(Described by George J. Burt.) 

CERES Originator — Souchet-Vilmrmn. Ad- 

vertised 1877-78 
Group — riandavensis 
Slock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, Cf>nnivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white with jjink fjases; anthers yellowish brown with 
violet sutures. Perianth lilacy white (7-1), with a deep lemon-yellow throat 
blotched with Tyrian rose (155-IV). Segments slightly feathered with rose. Bloom 
is compact, of medium good substance, attractive, and bright. 

Season — Mid-season to late, early September; 102 to no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

CHALICE Originator — Umpleby 

Group — Strong Gladiolus oppositiflorus 

characters 
Stock from Umpleby 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and Vjroad, the lower much reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white 
(7-1), often pure white with a faint dash of Tyrian rose (i 55-11) on the lower seg- 
ments, and the base of the lower segments marked with crimson-carmine (159-1). 
Upper segments often strongly feathered with Tyrian rose. Segments are pointed 
and of good substance. Blooms have po<jr arrangement and poor shape. 

Season — Mid- August; 93 to 100 days. 

Spike — Very tall (130 cm.), erect, blooms freely (24). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with merlium broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium prolific. 

CHAMAELEON Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large fii cm.). Tube almost straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, and the segments variously 
embossed in different parts, the lower straight. Stamen filaments pink; anthers 
violet. Perianth, three outer segments madder red fading into lighter shrimp 
pink (75); lower lip yellow-green, penciled with lilac-rose; back of segments with 
violet-tinged medial lines. Flower very bright in color. Eight blooms open at 
one time. 

Season — Medium late; loi days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Ilahit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific, small. 

CHAMONT Originator — Childs 

Group — Gandavensis 
Slock from Childs 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper longer, horizontal, and rather narrow, the lower reflexed and 



3o8 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

narrower. Stamen filaments pink; styles nearly white. Perianth violet-rose 
(154-1) feathered with Tyrian rose, with lemon-yellow throat penciled with 
Tyrian rose. The flowers, though small, form a compact spike. Mr. Burt, in 
191 1, noted that the flowers are frequently doubled and possess nine segments. 
Ten blooms open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; in days. 

Spike — Tall (75 cm.), erect, blooms freely, not branched. 

Hahit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 

CHARITY Originator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper hooded and rather narrow, the lower 
reflexed and broad. Stamen filaments lilac; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy 
white, thickly feathered with Tyrian rose (155-111), lemon-yellow throat slightly 
marked with Tyrian rose. A rather compact bloom of good substance. Would 
be better if the featherings of Tyrian rose on the edges of the segments were 
absent. 

Season — Late August ; 89 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). Two spikes fre- 
quently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 

CHARLES L, HUTCHINSON Originator — Van Fleet 

Group — Princeps seedling 
Stock from Vaughan 

Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and narrower than the lower reflexed; often the 
upper is the broader. Stamen filaments red; styles red. Perianth cherry red 
(91-iv) feathered with dark red, with light blood-red-and-yellow-speckled throat. 

Season — Late ; 1 1 o days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Hahit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

CHARLES MARTEL Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small. Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and narrow. Perianth lilac-rose, 
the lower segment with primrose yellow lip blotched with ox blood red. Back 
of segments splashed. 
Season — August 9, 191 1. 

Spike — Medium short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — 

(Described by George J. Burt.) 

CHARLOTTE. See Mary Fennel. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 309 

CHARLOTTE PFITZER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — • Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers lavender. Perianth pale 
lilac-rose (178-1), darker at edges of segments. Lower lip lined with single dash 
of amaranth-red (168-iv). A good color. About same color as that of America. 
Blooms face various directions. A medium loose bloom of medium substance. 
Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — ^ Tall (115 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20). Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

CHARMER 7 Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii ; Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower retiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-1), 
deeper at edges, and blotched with Tyrian rose (155-iv), deeper at medial line. A 
compact, round bloom of medium good substance. Blooms are spaced far apart. 

Season — Mid-season; St, days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

CHEERFUL Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Woodruflf 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur%^ed, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers red- violet. Perianth deep rose-pink 
(120-iv), with amber-white (12-1) throat marked wath a lined blotch of French 
purple (161-iv). Compact bloom of good shape and medium good substance. 
Well-arranged blooms. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — ■ Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CHERRY DL^MOND OrzgJ»a/or — WoodrufE 

Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, mediimi slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth carmine lake (121- 
lii) with whitish medial lines, each lower segment blotched with Tyrian rose 
(155-iv) bordered by lemon-yellow. Blotch not of a decided shape. A compact 
bloom of medium substance. Blooms rather far apart. 

Season — Called " early " by Woodruff; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 



'There is also a variety by this name from Groff. 



3IO Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

CHERRY RED Originator — Auten 

Group — ■ 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth carmine lake 
(121-11) with lemon-yellow (21-11) throat blotched with deep carmine-purple 
(150-iv). An attractive color. " Wilts too readily," says Auten. 

Season — Mid- August; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (91 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14 on main, with 9 
and 6 on two secondaries). Often two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, prolific. 

CHERRY RED, WHITE CENTER Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Small (6.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow with edges slightly ruffled, the lower 
straight and broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth cherry red 
(91-iv), the edges darker; the throat amber-white (12-111) finely flecked and 
dotted with deep cherry red. Dotting is fine and attractive. 

Season — Mid- August; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 7 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small but abundant. 

CHICAGO WHITE Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and slightly narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth pure 
white, medial lines of amber-white, and lines of solferino-red (157-1) on the lower 
segments at the base of the throat. The lines are very fine and inconspicuous, 
making this a nearly pure white variety. The blooms are often rather small. 
It should be called an excellent commercial variety, as well as useful for the 
landscape. 

Season — Mid-August. Gage calls it the earliest white, as it blooms before July 18. 
Forces in 107 days; out of doors 75 to 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (96 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 9 on 
secondary), branched. Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium in size and number; cormels, few and small. 

CHIEFTAIN Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers lavender. Perianth scarlet (87-1), with large French purple 
(161-iv) blotches on the lower segments. The color of the blotch is really more 
bright and more reddish than French purple, and is very shiny and attractive. 
Substance excellent. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 85 to 90 days. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 311 

Spike — Very tall (135 cm.), erect, blooms freely {22 on main spike, 8 on secondary), 

a very strong spike. 
Habit — Erect, very tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant unusually well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — • Large; cormels, prolific and large. 

CHOCOLATE DROP Origma/or — Stewart. Intro. 1912. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish slate. Perianth near reddish lilac 
(179-1), becoming bluer as it ages, with a purple-garnet (165-11) blotch terminating 
in a nearly white medial line. The color seems too ding>\ The bloom is compact, 
and the substance excellent. 

Season — Late August; 89 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CHRISTMAS CANDY Originator — \Nh.\\.e 

Group — Princeps X Lemoinei 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Medium large (9-10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and broader. Perianth pure white with slight markings of light crimson-carmine, 
and a deep crimson-carmine (159-iv) veined throat. The flower possesses good 
substance, and is a good shape. 

Season — Early September; 108 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with drooping, medium broad leaves. 

Corms — - Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

CLARICE Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Rose Neyron red (119-1), 
splashed and feathered with carmine lake (121-iv), medial line of blotch deep 
carmine lake (121-iv). Flowers well opened, of medium substance. Four or 
five open at once. 

Season — Mid- August; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

COBLENTZ NO, 003 Originator — Coblentz 

Group — • 

Stock from Coblentz 
Bloom — -Large (13 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with crinkled edges, not regular, 
and broader, the lower much reflexed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. 
Perianth very light scarlet, blending to bright rose (128-iv), throat striped with sol- 
ferino-red (157-1). A good pink bloom of good substance on a compact spike. 
Perhaps not a commercial color. 



312 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



Season — Mid- August to late August; 71 to 75 days. 
Spike — Tall (122 cm.), drooping (1913), blooms freely 




(21 on main, 8 and 12 on 
secondaries). Often three 
spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Drooping, tall, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — • Very vigorous ; plant 
well furnished with broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, pro- 
hfic. 



COBLENTZ NO. 304. 

Mrs. Scott Durand. 



See 



COBLENTZ NO. 309 

Originator — Coblentz 

Group — 

Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube 
curved, slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, 
red tips; anthers red-vio- 
let. Perianth cherry red 
(9 1 -11), marked a little 
darker, lower segments 
with large blood red (93- 
iv) blotch, white medial 
lines. A good color. 

Season — Late August; 97 to 
no days. 

Spike — Short (58 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms 
(11), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous ; 
plant medium well fur- 
nished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 



COBLENTZ NO. 

Velvet King. 



312. 



See 



COBLENTZ NO. 400 

Originator — Coblentz 

Group — 

Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — Large ( I o cm . ) . Tube 
almost straight, stout, 
short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper hori- 
zontal and broad, the 
lower straight and also broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers pale lavender. 
Perianth amber-white (12-1) with large cardinal-red (112-iv) blotch shght suffu- 
sion of rose on upper segments. Buds rather yellow. Resembles La Luna, but 



Fig. 44. COBLENTZ NO. 400 



Gladiolus Studies — III 313 

the blotch is brighter in color than in that variety. The blotch in La Luna is old 

dark blood red and is more circular in outline. 
Season — Mid- August to late; 89 days. 
Spike — Tall (iii cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 13 and 12 on 

secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. Growth superior to 

that of La Luna. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

COLONEL A. C. SLOCUM Originator — 

Group — - Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers red- violet. Perianth geranium lake 
(89-11) with white medial lines, amber-white to lemon-yellow throat blotched 
with French purple (i6i-iv). Good color. A compact bloom of medium good 
substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — ■ Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant rather poorly furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

COLUMBIA . Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium stout, medium short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower 
reflexed segment. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln 
red (88-1) with crimson-carmine lines in the throat. Bloom rather loose and 
of good substance. The color is described by Childs as light orange-scarlet. 

Season — Mid-season, late August; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Rather vigorous ; plant medium well furnished wnth medium narrow 
foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CONTRAST Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur^-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth intense 
scarlet (87-iv), with a large light lemon-yellow throat; no markings. A compact 
bloom of excellent substance. Good contrast in color. Five blooms open at 
one time. 

Season — ■ Mid-season, late August; 88 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium short (67 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with rather broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



314 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

CORA Originator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) 
with a blotch lighter than Tyrian rose (155) cut by a lemon-yellow medial line, 
and with a deep lemon-yellow throat. A rather loose bloom of good substance. 
Blooms well arranged on the spike, rather far apart. Buds are slightly yellow. 

Season — Mid-season to late, early August; 1 10 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with rather narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, rather prolific. 

CORNISHMAN Originator — Kehvay. Intro. 1898 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium large (8-10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper broader with edges decidedly reflexed, 
the lower slightly reflexed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth 
a tint lighter than Lincoln red (88-1) splashed and feathered with darker Lincoln 
red (88-iv), the lower segments have a large canary-yellow spot penciled 
with lilac-purple (160-111). The bloom has an objectionable closed appear- 
ance; the color is not quite clear enough; and the substance is not the best. 

Season — In 1911, it bloomed on August 9; in 1912. on August 8; in 1913, on 
August 2. Mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), branched. Often 
two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Grmvth — ^ Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large though few. 

COUNTESS AMY Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1899 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-rose (i 52-11) 
thickly splashed with carmine lake (121-iv), with an amber-white (12-1) 
throat. The splashing does not seem so pronounced some seasons. The color 
is rather contrasting, the shape excellent, and the flower has a charming attraction. 

Season — Mid-season, second week in August; 82 to 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (94 cm.), erect, branched, a fair number of blooms (13 on main, 
6 on a branch). 

Habit — • Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very good ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, large. 

COUNTESS OF LEICESTER ' Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

B/ooOT— Extremely large (18 cm., or 7 in.). Tube straight, medium slender, 
medium short. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed 
edges and very broad, the lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments white, 
salmon-pink tips; anthers salmon-pink. Peria,nth Lincoln red (88-111); speckled 
yellow-green throat. Bloom well open, of good color, and of rather good sub- 
stance for so large a bloom. 

Season — Early, July 29; 68 to 70 days. 

Spike — Tall (107 cm.), erect, but very much curved, a fair number of blooms (16 on 
main, 5 on secondary). 



Gladiolus Studies — III 315 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large ; cormels, large. 

COUNTESS OF SUFFOLK Or/gma^or — Kelway 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower 
broad refle.Ked segment. Stamen filaments white, rose tips; anthers violet. Stig- 
mas lavender. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-111), very thickly feathered with 
carmine (116-11); outer segments more thickly marked than the inner; primrose 
yellow (19-1) throat; a rosy white medial line on each segment. Color is not clear. 

Season — IVlid-season, early August; 80 to 90 days. 

Sbike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Not \agorous; plant with medium poor foliage, narrow and rather drooping. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few and small. 

CRACKER JACK Originator — Cowee, 1903. Reg. A. G. 

S., 1 914. Cowee 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
inents unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth velvety 
carmine-red (113-lv and deeper); throat yellow-green irregularly marked with 
amaranth-red (i68-iv), often splashed and feathered with drab. Good shape 
and color. Velvety appearance. 

Season — Mid-season; 87 to 92 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

CREAM PINK. See Faerie. 

CRIMSON LAKE Originator — ^oodtMS. 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth brighter than carmine- 
purple (156-iv), blotched with purple-garnet (165-iv). Colors unusually bright 
and shining. A rather loose, wide-open bloom of good substance. 

Season — Rather earl}'; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

CRIMSON RED NO. 8 Originator — Banning. Intro. Perkins- 

King Company- 
Group — 

Stock from Perkins-King Company 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth crimson-carmine (i 59-1 11), 



3i6 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

lighter in center, blotched with deeper crimson-carmine on nearly pure white 
throat. Segments possess lighter medial lines. Compact bloom of medium 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

CRYSTAL WHITE Originator — Baer 

Group — 
Stock from Baer 

Synonym — Formerly called Paper White. 

Bloom — MeAmm size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers bluish. Perianth white, blotched 
with Tyrian rose (155-iv). Compact bloom of good substance. Five blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — August 8, 1915. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19-21). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

CYNOSURE Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth near lilac-rose (152-1), flecked in seg- 
ments and blotched with French purple (i6i-iv). A good deep rose. A com- 
pact bloom of medium good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (125 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

DAISY RAND Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly straight. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth " soft rose-pink, splashed with a 
darker tone, the petals bearing a small patch of pale buff penciled with rosy 
pink," say Chamberlain & Gage. Excellent shape and a waxy looking bloom of 
excellent substance. 

Season — Early August. 

Spike — Medium tall (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Fairly vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. ' 

DANDY Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small (6.5 cm.). Tube straight, stout, and very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth French purple (i6i-iv), 



Gladiolus Studies — III 317 

an area of yellow4sh sap green (265-111) on each segment; five of the segments 
blotched wth vinous purple (171-111). Colors rich and contrasting; blooms 
compact and of unusual substance. 

Season — Mid- August. 

Sfnke — Tall (85 cm.), erect, curved, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with long, broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

DANNECKER Originator ~V<ntzer. Intro. 191 4 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers white, blue- violet sutures. Perianth pale lilac (176-1) 
faintly feathered with lilac and blotched with deeper than lilac-purple (i6a-iv), 
the blotch margined mth bluish. A good color. An excellent compact form. 
Good substance. Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

DARK CRIMSON Originator ~ Xuten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube long, curved, slender. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower segment. Stamen 
filaments dark red; anthers red with violet sutures. Perianth cochineal red 
(83-11), with fiery red throat and deeper medial line. Markings not conspicuous. 
Excellent substance. Well-open bloom. Color extremely rich and clear. 

Season — Early; 68 days. 

Spike — ^ Tall (125 cm.), erect, tip of spike often cur\-ed, branched, a fair number of 
blooms (13 on main, 7 on a branch). Two or three spikes per conn. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium large ; cormels, ver>' prolific. 

DARKNESS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal with two upper inferior segments laterally incurved, the upper 
exterior reflexed; the lower broader and reflexed. Stamen filaments white, 
red tips; anthers hlac with violet sutures. Perianth blood red (93-iv) with 
the back of the segments mottled blood red and white. 

Season — Last week in August; 99 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large. 

DAWN (Tracy) Originator — 

Group — 

Stock from Stewart ; Tracy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth salmon-carmine (125-iv), the 



3i8 



Cornell Extension Bulletin n 



outer edges of segments often deeper. Amber- white (12-1) throat penciled with 
amaranth-red (168-iv). An excellent color, and good arrangement of blooms on 
spike. Compact bloom of medium good substance. Good keeping quality. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 

days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 
cm.), erect, a fair 
number of blooms 
(15), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium 

tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous ; plant 
well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; 
cormels, prolific. 



DAZZLER 8 

Originator — Miller 
Group — -Childsii; 

Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube curved, 
stout, short. Seg- 
ments unequal, con- 
nivent ; the upper 
horizontal and broad, 
the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stame;n 
filaments yellowish; 
anthers lilac and 
greenish yellow. Per- 
ianth violet-purple 
( 1 92-11), with lemon- 
yellow throat blotched 
with plum -violet 
(172-iv). Compact 
bloom of excellent sub- 
stance. Five blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 
days. 




Fig. 45. DECORATION 



Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — - Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Groivth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 



DE CHEVILLE (Stewart). See Lamarck. 



DECORATION Originator — Hoeg. Reg. A. G. S., 

1912 

Group — ■ 
Stock from- Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white, sutures dark violet. Perianth Lincoln 



' There is also a variety of this name originated by Groff. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 319 

red (88-iv), becoming lighter toward the base of tha throat. There is a yellowish 

sheen to the lower segments; edges of segments are sUghtly crinkled. Excellent 

substance; well open. 
Season — Late August; loi to 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (91 cm.), erect, a fair nimiber of blooms (17), not branched. 

Frequently two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size, prohfic. 

DELICATISSIMA Originator — Christy. Seedling of 

1903 
Group — 

Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.'-. Tube cur\*ed, slender, long. Segments equal, con- 

nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower broader. Stamen filaments 

and styles lilac-white. Perianth lavender-rose, often near lilacy white, feathered 

with solferino-red (160-1) on yeUow-green throat. Color verj- intermixed, not 

clear, not harmonious. 
Season — Mid- August to late August; 99 days. 
Spike — Rather tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 

The branches, says Christy, " form a harp-shaped cluster making it one of the 

most fioriferous sorts." Two spikes often occur per coma. 
Habit — Erect, medittm height, spreading. 

Growth — Rather vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Cormels — Moderately proUfic. Christy writes: " MultipUes freely both by di\-ision 

and by the production of cormlets." 

DESDEMONE Originator — Vilmorin 

Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Very large (13 cm.). Tube cur\^ed, medium slender, medium long. S^- 
ments xinequal, connivent; the upper refiexed and broader than the refle.xed lower 
segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender-pink. Perianth deep rosy 
pink (120-IV), with a hlac-purple blotch (i6o-iv) on a lemon-yellow throat, 
merging to Ulacy white. The color might be described as an ashen hue. The 
bloom is wide open and of good substance. 

Season — Late August; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, cur\-ed, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Good ; plant well furnished with ver\' broad leaves. 

Corms — Large ; cormels, few. 

DEUIL DE CARNOT Origi wa/or — Lemoine. Intro. 1894 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer 
Bloom — Medium small. Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments and styles red. Perianth carmine-red (113) streaked with verj^ deep 
red. Both sides of the throat are speckled ^ith yellow. 
Season — September 6, 191 1. 
Spike — - Short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

DEUIL DE ST. PIERRE Originator — 'Lexnome. Intro. 1894 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Vaughan 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 



320 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



filaments reddish ; anthers 
violet. Perianth violet-lilac 
(175-iv), blotched with ama- 
ranth-red (168-iv) termi- 
nated by dash of white. A 
smoky color. Bloom compact 
and of medium good sub- 
stance. Seven blooms open 
at once. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a 
fair number of blooms (18), 
branched. 

Habit — ■ Rather drooping, tall, 
spreading. 

Growth — -Vigorous; plant well 
furnished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, 
few. 



DICTUM 

Originator — Burchett 

Group — 

Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube 
straight, stout, very short. 
Segments unequal, connivent ; 
the upper reflexed and broad, 
the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments 
white with red tips; anthers 
violet. Perianth currant red 
(11 5-1), with carmine-red 
(113-iv) intermixed throat. 
Yellow-green dashes in the 
lower segments. Each seg- 
ment appears to be outlined 
with violet. Well-open 
bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-August to late 
August; 97 days. 

Spike — Very tall (122 cm.), erect, 
blooms abundantly (17), not 
branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth. — Vigorous ; plant well 
furnished with broad promi- 
nently veined leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, abun- 
dant. 



DIRECTOR 

Originator — Burchett 
Group — 

Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). 
Tube curved, medium slender, 
medium long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) often 




Fig. 46. DESDEMONE 



Gladiolus Studies — III 321 

strongly, sometimes but lightly, feathered with lilac (176-1), with a blotch of 

amaranth-red (168) on the two lower segments. Good substance and attractive 

arrangement. 
Season — Early to mid- August; 91 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, blooms freely (19 on main, 14 and 12 on 

secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium \-igorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large: cormels, large but few. 

DR. DOTTER Originator — V^tzer. Intro. 19 11 

Group — - Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments cream; anthers yellow. Perianth amber-yellow (28-1), lower lip deeper 
3'ellow (28-11); a sUght feathering of rose often develops in outer segments. A 
good yellow. A compact bloom. Meditun substance. Eight blooms open at 
one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium \-igorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

DR. ERWIN ACKERKNECHT Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1913 

Group — Xanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments ; anthers . Perianth carmine (116-1) thickly 

splashed with carmine-red (113-1), with a bright lemon -j^ellow (20-1) throat 
marked with ox blood red (94-iv). An immense blaze of color. A compact 
bloom of good substance. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, proHfic. 

DR. SELLEW Orig/Ha/or— Childs. Reg. A. G.S., 1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth deeper than carmine (ii6-iv), with 
a lemon-yellow throat penciled and dotted with French purple (i6i-iv); a slight 
feathering of carmine often occurs in the edges of the segments. Rather loose 
but of excellent substance. Six blooms open at one time. Blooms often face 
several directions. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

DR. WILLIAMS Originator — White 

Group — Princeps seedling 
Stock from White 
Bloom — Large (i i cm.). Tube curs-ed, somewhat twisted, slender. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 



32 2 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth Rose Neyron red (119-iv), 

with white throat marked with Unes of crimson-carmine. White says: " Might 

be called Pink Princeps." 
Season — Early September; no days. 
Spike — -Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), not branched. Often three spikes 

borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

DORENE Originator — • Kunderd. Intro, about 

1913. Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers lilac. Perianth lilacy white (7-1), often 
so thickly feathered with mauve-rose that the bloom appears to be mauve-rose. 
A light throat very sparsely dotted with Tyrian rose (i 55-11). The compact 
blooms are of medium substance and are borne erect on the spike. Six to eight 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — • Late August; 107 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

DOROTHY BURNHAM Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom— Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers reddish lilac. Perianth scarlet (87-iv) with 
a large light lemon-yellow throat, segments often splashed with slate. The 
blooms are large, well open, and attractive except for the slate markings. 

Season — September; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 

DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1885 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper broad with refiexed edges, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth bright rosy scariet 
(124-1) slightly feathered with darker rosy scarlet. Throat yellow-green with 
sparse dottings of Tyrian rose (155-ni) and deep penciUngs of the same color deep 
in the throat. Color appears as a dainty, clear salmon-pink. 

Season — Mid- August to late August ; 80 to 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, free blooming (19 on main, 10 and 11 on two second- 
aries). Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few but large. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 323 

DUKE OF RICHMOND Originator — Kelway 

Group — Kelwa\"i 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large. Tube cun-ed, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper broad with pointed segments, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; styles white. Perianth tomato red i,8i- iv) splashed and 
streaked deeper, faint medial Unes, yellow- white throat, a blotch of carmine 
penciling. Bloom is attractive, and Kelway commends the arrangement on the 
spike. 
Season — Early September. 

Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves with prominent 
veins. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

EARL COMPTON Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium long, stout. Segments nearh- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal except for the reflexed edges, the 
lower a trifle narrower than the upper. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers 
\-iolet. Perianth deep cerise (i 23-11, but with a slight effect of yellow), the upper 
segments with an area slightly marked darker, the lower with a sulfur-yellow 
throat on which are amaranth-red pencilings (168-111). The color is light, delicate, 
and clear. 

Season — Early; 67 to 69 days. 

Spike — Mediimi tall (77 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Good; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

EARLY AMETHYST Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from, Crawford 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower straight and 
broad segment. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy 
magenta (169-1), thickly feathered with deeper rosy magenta. Lower lip deep 
rosy magenta, a yellow splash on the medial line. Color is attractive, and spike 
well arranged. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (88 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groivth — Medium \-igorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Ven,' large; cormels, few or none. 

EARLY PINK' Originator — Black 

Group — Xanceianus 
Stock from Black 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers and stigma lavender. Perianth bright rosy 
scarlet (124-1), with a white throat finely marked or intermixed with French 
purple (161-11). Blooms well open, of good substance and good color. 

Season — Early ; 72 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 
6 and 7 on two branches). Four spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

' Black sa>-s that this variety is a selection of stock furnished by S. Huth of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 



324, Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow foliage. 
Corms — Large; cormels, very prolific. 

EASTER. See Madame Lemoinier. 

EASTER BELLS Originator — kv&tm. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — 

Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth lemon- 
yellow (21-1), deeper yellow throat very faintly feathered with Tynan rose (155-1). 
Were it not for the feathering it would closely resemble Victory and Isaac Buchanan 
in color. 

Season — Late August; 108 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

EDISON Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1896 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
(Described from cut spike.) 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white with rose tips; anthers lilac, violet sutures. Perianth 
reddish old rose (142-11) with a madder lake (122-iv) blotch terminating in a white 
dash. A compact bloom of rather good substance. 
Season — Early August. 
Spike — Medium long, erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

EL CAPITAN Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — 
Stock from Brown 

(Described from cut spike.) 
Synonym — Formerly called Tallest Yellow. 
Bloom — -Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream; anthers drab. Perianth amber- white (12-1), the yellow 

lip neatly marked with deep Tyrian rose (155), although many of the blooms 

possess no markings. An excellent light color. 
Season — 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, free flowering (23). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — 

ELDORADO 1° Originator — Lemoine. Intro, previous 

to 1897 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Boddington 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellow. Perianth lemon -yellow (21-1), the 
lower lip deeper yellow and blotched with ox blood red. Compact bloom of good 
substance. A good, deep yellow. 

1" There is a gandavensis variety of this name originated by Souchet. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 325 

Season — Mid-season; 94 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, few. 

ELECTOR Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad with the edges reflexed, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, tinged with pink; anthers lavender 
with violet sutures. Perianth currant red (115-iv), throat amber-white (12-1) 
marked and finely dotted with carmine-purple (156-iv). Compact bloom of 
good color and velvety texture. 

Season — • Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (109 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with short, rigid, broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific. 

ELECTRA Originator — Hopman 

I Group — Gandavensis 

Stock from Velthuys; Hopman 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curv^ed, rather slender, rather long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers reddish with violet sutures. Perianth cochineal 

red (83-1), with a lemon-yellow throat blotched with scarlet (85-iv). A good, 

clear color. Compact bloom of medium substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, slightly curved, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ELIZABETH KURZ Originator — Pfitzer 

Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\^ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure white, edges of segments 
tinted pale rosy pink (129-1), the lower segments slightly tinged with yellow in 
the throat. A compact bloom of medium substance and delicate color. Six to 
eight blooms open at one time. "Good for garden and cutting," say Chamberlain 
& Gage. 

Season — Mid- August ; 99 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

ELLA 11 Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 

Group — ■ July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine lake (121-11), throat lemon-yellow. 
On some flowers, segments other than those of the throat are touched with yellow. 
Pointed segments; good substance. 

" Krelage catalogs a variety Ella introduced in 1892. Childs also has a variety named Ella. 



326 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 




Fig. 47. EMBOSSED YELLOW 



Season — Mid-season; 89 
days. 

Spike — Medium tail (90 
cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (15). 
Often three spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — -Erect, medium tall, 
spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant 
well furnished with 
broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; 
cormels, prolific. 

EMBOSSED YELLOW 

Originator — Stewart. 

Intro. 19 1 2. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 

Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube slightly 
curved, slender, me- 
dium long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal, 
rather hooded, and 
broad, the lower nar- 
rower. Stamen fila- 
ments creamy white; 
anthers lavender-rose. 
Perianth canary-yellow 
(17-1), upper segments 
suffused with rose. The 
deeper yellow throat is 
blotched with straw- 
berry red (iio-i), and 
the blotch is pierced 
by a dash of yellow. 
Each segment is some- 
what raised on the 
medial line, which gives 
the name " Embossed " 
to the variety. Re- 
sembles Henri Lemoine. 
The flowers are set 
close on the spike. 

Season — -First week in Aug- 
ust; 74 to 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 
cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms ( 1 5), slen- 
der, two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, 
rather compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; 
plant furnished with 
medium poor narrow 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; 
cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Stl'dies — III 327 

EMMA (Coblentz). See Velvet King. 

EMMA THURSBY Originator — ChMs. Intro. 1892 

Group — Gandavensi«; 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — ^ Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cun-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white, often much feathered 
with Tynan rose (155-111) and with large French purple (i6i-iv) blotches. The 
bloom is compact and of good substance, but the color is perhaps a little too mixed. 

Season — Late August. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Grozvth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

EMPIRE (Stewart). See Lacordaire. 

EMPOCLES Originator — Kobxax. Intro. 1908 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large size. Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen filaments 
and styles pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88-111), with a large yeUow throat penciled 
slightly with Tyrian rose (155). The lower segments are smaller, and the flowers 
are wide open. 
Season — Late August. 
Spike — Tall, erect, blooms freel3\ 
Habit — Erect, medium tall., compact. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

EMPRESS OF INDIA Or/g/«a/or — Velthuys. From seed 

1908 
Group — 
Stock from Velthuys 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
cormivent; the upper horizontal and slightly hooded, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower than the upper. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers darkest 
violet. Perianth brighter than plimi-violet (172-iv), a white dash in the throat 
around which the color is lighter. Color almost black, and very velvety in appear- 
ance. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Early to mid- August; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium short (62 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium to dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

ENCHANTRESS 1- * Originator — 'Hodman. Intro. 1892 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Hopman 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth violet-mauve 
(195-1), the inner segments darker than the outer, the lower segments penciled 
with amaranth-red (i68-iv). A ver\" beautiful, dainty color. A compact bloom of 
medium poor substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 davs. 



■^Souchet originated a variety of this name introduced in 1886. In 1893 E. S. Miller sold to Childs 
a blush-white variety of the same name. 



328 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



ERICA VON BARCZAY Originator — V^izev. Intro. 19 11 

Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments reddish; anthers lilac. Perianth crimson-red 
(114-1), rather drab, deeply feathered with plum- 
violet (172-iv) and blotched with carmine blood-red. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of 

blooms (18). Two spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium 

broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. ^ 

ERWIN MAYER 

Originator — Pfitzer. Intro, before 1906 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white, red tips; anthers maroon. Perianth 
deeper than ox blood red (94-iv), very deeply feath- 
ered, a white area deep in the throat. An excellent 
deep color. A compact bloom of tough substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium nar- 
row leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ESTELLA 

Originator — 
Group — 

Stock from Wright 
Bloom — Very large (16 cm.). Tube curved, medium slen- 
der, medium long. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and broad. Stamen filaments rosy 
white; anthers pinkish lavender. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-1), with amber-white throat, speckled with French purple (i6i-iv). 
A rather compact, wide-open bloom of excellent colors and unusual substance 
for one so large. 
Season — Mid-season; 78 to 89 days. 

Spike — Very tall (117 cm.), erect, a great number of blooms (21), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with extra broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

ETEOCLES Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments ahnost 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed. Stamen 




Fig. 48. ESTELLA 



Gladiolus Studies — III 329 

filaments vermilion; anthers lavender. Perianth poppy red '^•ith geranium red 

(89) streaks on a lemon-yellow (21) throat. Color good. 
Season — Mid- August; 84 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium short (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 
Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Conns — • Small ; cormels, few. 

ETHEL Originator — ChMs (?) 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments salmon-white; anthers red- violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1), 
amber-white throat marked with crimson-red. A rather compact bloom of 
medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. Woodruff calls this variety 
salmon-rose in color so that this may not be the same one cataloged by him. 

Season — Medium late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Groiiih — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

EUCHARIS Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1899 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Dreer 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth white, faintest tinge of 

blush, lower lip of yellow-green and faintly feathered with pinkish orange. A 

ver\' dainty, clear color. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad, prominently 

veined leaves. ' 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

EUGENE SANDOW Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1900 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube cur^-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments white with rose tips; anthers lavender. Perianth Lincoln red (88-iv), with 
a pale lemon-5-ellow throat on which is a large blotch of blood red (93). Edges 
of segments are feathered -^^ith ver}' dark violet. Kelway gives it as an example 
of excellent substance, but here it is only medium.. Bloom well open. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), very erect, blooms borne freely (20 on main, with 8 on a 
secondan,"). 

Habit — ■ Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous, spreading; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Yevy large; cormels, large though few. 

EUGENE SCRIBE 0/-/g/?;a/oi- — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1868 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs ; Umpleby 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments equal, 
connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 



330 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

filaments white. Perianth Hlac-purple (160-1), edges of segments feathered with 

rosy magenta, yellow throat thickly dotted with lilac-purple. 
Season — Mid-August to late August; 93 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (22). Two spikes often 

borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — ^ Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, prominently 

veined leaves. 
Corms — • Medium size; cormels, few. 

EULER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Very large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and 
narrow. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth intermediate 
between bright rosy scarlet and russet-orange, throat creamy white, thickly 
speckled with cochineal red. Bloom wide open, of good size, and color accept- 
able. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), rather drooping and curved, a fair number of blooms 
(13), two branches. Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Not so erect as it should be, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Fairly vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small and few. 

EUREKA Originator — Franken Brothers 

Group — 
Stock from Franken Brothers 

Bloom — Medium small (7 cm. across and much longer). Tube nearly straight, medium 
slender, medium long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and 
narrow, the lower straight and broader. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. 
Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1), deeper shading, feathering, and pencilings of 
crimson-carmine (159-iv). Good substance, but not well open. 

Season — Mid- August ; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect; a fair number of blooms ( — ), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, rather compact. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

EUROPA Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 191 1 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth pure white, lower segment 
tinged with amber-white, and the faintest indication of crimson-carmine in the 
throat, though not visible. The bloom is well arranged, well open, and perhaps is 
the best white for this reason on the trial grounds. Better arrangement than that 
of Lily Lehmann. Extra good for commercial use. 

Season — September 8; 108 to no days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Two spikes 
often borne per corm. 

Habit — Often rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 331 

EVA ^ Originator — Michell 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Michell 
-Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, cormivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower sUghtly reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers \-iolet. Perianth madder lake (122-iij ■with carmine 
lake stripes on a white throat. Edges of segments feathered with dull purple 
lake (170-11). A good color. 
Season — ^Iid- August to late August; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (72 cm.), erect, a medium quantity of bloom (14 on main, 3 on 

secondary,-) . 
Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Gro'.cth — Medium \igorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

EVALINE Originator — Groff 

Group — 
Stock from Woodruff; Stewart 

Synonyms — Stewart No. 11, Smok\' Violet; Large Purplish; John Schmelzer. 

Bloom — Large (10-12 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, cormivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers \-iolet. Perianth crushed strawberr\- 
(109-111), segments feathered with vinous purple (171-11). A ding\-, muddy 
color. Well arranged to form an excellent spike of bloom. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 72 days. 

Spike — Medixim tall (86 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Gro'u.'th — Vigorous ; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

EVOLUTION Originator — Groff. 1904. Reg. A. G. 

S., 1914. Cowee 
Group — 
Stock from Cowee 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 

cormivent; the upper much reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers \-iolet. Perianth pale Ulac-rose 

(i 78) , freely feathered with \-iolet-rose, white throat blotched with carmine. Bloom 

wide open, but color often is not so clear as it should be. 
Season — - Mid-season to late; 90 to 108 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, much curved, a fair nimiber of blooms (12), 

bare for nearly half its length. Two spikes frequently borne per conn. 
Habit — Erect, meditmi tall, ven.- spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few, medium large. 

EXPANSION Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Mediimi size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, medium long. S^:ments 
unequal, cormivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers \-iolet. Perianth scarlet (87-1) blotched with 
blood red (93) on a white throat. Widely expanded blooms. Childs' description, 
" white, pink and crimson," is rather misleading. Good substance. 

" Vilmorin, in 1872, introduced a gandarensis variety of this name. Krelage, in 1899, introduced 
a Lemoinei variety of the same name. Childs originated and introduced a rose-colored variety in 1896. 



332 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Season — Mid-season to late; 112 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

FAERIE Originator — Kunderd 

Group — 
Stock from Cushman 

Synonym — Cream Pink; not Fairy (Stewart). 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white, pink tips; anthers white, lavender sutures. Perianth rose-pink 
(120-1), with lemon-yellow (21-1) throat speckled and penciled with French purple 
(i6i-iv). A compact bloom of medium good substance. One of the daintiest 
pinks. Well open. Several blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 76 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groivth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

FAIR MAID Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (11.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments creamy white; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white 
(much deeper in color in 1913, due to continued sunny and hot conditions) with 
a Tyrian rose (155-i-iv) blotch deepening from light to dark in center, and with 
yellow-green medial lines. Color is dainty, and bloom is of good size. In 1913, 
color somewhat resembled that of America. 

Season — Early August; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

FAIRY" Originator — Stewart 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Synonym — Mrs. James Lancastershire (Tracy). Exhibited in 1909 as Fairy Queen, 
changed in 19 13 to Fairy. 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower slightly refiexed 
and broader. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth dehcate salmon 
flesh (138-111), upper segments with purple-rose (150-111) faint splashings; as the 
flower gets older, these markings become violet-rose (154-iv). The lower seg- 
ments are often devoid of blotches; in others one or two lower segments are 
blotched with crimson-red (114-11) surrounded by Naples yellow (29-iv). Buds 
are distinctly orange colored. Color is rather dainty. Substance though not 
the best is fairly good. Five blooms open at once. 

Season — • Early; 67 to 68 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, only a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium good; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific. 

FAIRY QUEEN. See Fairy. 

"Another variety named Fairy was introduced by Craft in 1865. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 333 

FANTASTIC Originator — C h i 1 d s. Intro. 1902. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and 
narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth bright scarlet 
(85) with white throat marked with crimson-red (114-11). A good color. 
Season — Mid- August ; 94 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant furnished with rather poor foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

FARMINGTON Originator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, meditun slender, long. Segments 
nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purpie 
(160-1) blotched with crimson-carmine (159-111). Blotch is not of a decided 
shape, but is stippled. Could be called a good pink variety. Bracts wither 
before flower opens. An unusually bright pink. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (88 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Rather erect, medium tall, spreading. Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Conns — Medium size; cormels, few. 

FASCINATOR Originator — Miller 

Group — • 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, very short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed 
segments. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth Rose Neyron red 
(119-1) with a Tyrian rose (115-11) intermixed blotch. Compact bloom, not 
of exceptional substance. 

Season — Early August; 85 to 90 days. 

Spike — Long (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Rather vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size. 

FAUST (Wamaar). See George Paul. 

F. BERGMANN Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers Hlac. Perianth madder red (86-111) becoming lighter 
toward center, blotched with ox blood red (94-11). Segments somewhat mottled — 
an objection. Rather loose bloom of good substance. 

Season — Medium early; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 



334 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

FERDINANDO CORTEZ Originator — Vilmorin. Intro. 1902 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 

B/oom ^ Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, very long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white. Perianth near amber-yellow (28-11) with dull violet- 
old-rose (115-lv) stripes in throat. Blooms compact, and substance excellent, 
segments being tough rather than brittle. Three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 96 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — - Medium large; cormels, few. 

FLAMBEAU Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (87-11), with an 

amber-white (12-1) throat thickly stippled to form blotch of Tyrian rose (155-iv). 

Rather loose bloom of medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 84 days. 
Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two spikes 

per corm. 
Habit — Erect, taU, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very abundantly furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

FLANAGAN NO. i Originator — Flanagan 

Group — 
Stock from Flanagan 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Segments are pointed. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers large, cream-colored, 
with violet sutures. Perianth vermilion-red (87-1), feathered with drab-scarlet 
and with slight penciUngs of geranium lake (89-iv) on a whitish throat. A good 
color. A compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (128 cm.), model of erectness, a large number of blooms (26), two long 
branches. 

Habit — Erect, ver>' tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, proHfic. 

F. L. OAKLEY Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii ' 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, rather slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and a trifle 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers yellow with violet sutures. Perianth 
scarlet (85-lv) with a pale lemon-yellow (21-1) throat. Good substance. Very 
showy. 

Season — Mid-September. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12 on main, 5 on 
secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 335 

FLORENCE Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1907 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage; 
Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium long, medium slender. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments lilaey white ; anthers red-violet. Perianth brighter 
than reddish violet (180-11), -with a white throat and a stippled blotch of Tyrian 
rose (155-iv). Bloom rather compact and of good substance. 
Season — Alid-season ; 98 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, blooms freely (19), branched. Two spikes occur per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant very well furnished with very broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

FLORIDA Originator — . Intro, about 1904 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Moore 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\^ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth crimson-red (114-111), with amber- 
white (12-1) throat blotched with currant red (115-lv), slight tinting of slate in 
outer edge of segments. Rather good color. Compact bloom of medium substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

FRA DIAVOLO Originator — Sonchet-Vihnonn. Intro. 

1886 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers light lilac, rather elongate. Perianth carmine 
lake (121-11), two shades intermixed with whitish medial lines and edges of outer 
segments marked with purple-brown (166-1); the lemon-yellow throat marked 
lightly with Tyrian rose. Bloom compact, substance excellent. Six blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Early August; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched, compact. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Groivth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Very large; cormels, few. 

FRAU C. P. STRASSHEIM Orfgma/or — Pfitzer. Intro. 191 2 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (7 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 

and narrower. Stamen filaments ; anthers . Perianth glowing 

salmon-red, flamed darker — a much spotted color. A compact bloom of medium 
substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 1 1 1 days. 

Spike — - Medium tall (73 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium small; cormels, prolific. 



336 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

FRAU DORA LIEBAU Originator — PfUzer. Intro. 1913 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white, with reddish sutures. Perianth 
pure white, often tinted rose at edges of segments, blotched with magenta (182-1) 
or purplish mauve (186-1). An attractive blotch. Flowers face opposite directions, 
which seems a serious fault. ' A compact bloom of medium substance. Eight 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

FRAU GABRIELE CHARTON Originator — V?^tzev. Intro, before 

1906 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (7-9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. Perianth pure white, 
slight lemon tinge to the lower segments, faint touch of crimson-carmine at base of 
throat. Less lemon than in Lily Lehmann. Slight splashings of Tyrian rose often 
appear in segments. Resembles Reine d'Anjou, but the latter variety seems to 
possess more of the Tyrian rose splashings. Both of these varieties have mixed 
aestivation. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike ^-Medinm short (67 cm.), rather erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branches 
not observed. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific but small. 

FRAU HERME SEIDEL Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909- 

1912 

Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth slate-violet (173-111) with heavy 
splashes of madder lake (122-iv), apparently showing through the slate- violet. 
Throat sulfur-yellow. Color peculiar and does not seem pleasing. 

Season — Mid-season ; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, rather prolific. 

FRAULEIN Originator — Scheubel 

Group — 

Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, stout, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower broad segment. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white. Perianth amber-white (12-111), with 
light lemon -yellow (23-1) intermixture in the throat. Excellent substance, dainty 
color, and compact and admirable shape. 
Season — Early September ; 1 1 1 days. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 337 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

FRAU OTTO BEYRODT On ginalor — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 

Croup — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segment, 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red- violet. Perianth ver\- light lilac 
(176-1), feathered edge, and rose-mauve (153-iv) tinted throat penciled on medial 
line with Tyrian rose (155-1). Color called " white, flamed lilac-rose " by Pfitzer. 
Rather loose bloom of medium substance, good color, well open. 

Season — Mid-season; 96 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Growth — Ver}' vigorous ; plant well furnished ^-ith medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

FREDERIKA ' Originator — 

Croup — 
Stock from Warnaar 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers blue- violet. Perianth light scarlet 
(87-1) with white medial lines and lemon-yellow (21-1) throat, blotched with 
blood red (93-iv) and dotted around the margins. Fine form, compact, attractive 
colors, good arrangement. 

Season — Mid-season; 9c to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium taU, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant weU furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 

FRILLED PINK (2-518) Originator — WoodmS 

Croup — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 
Bloom — Medium large (10 cm.). Tube cun,-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream; anthers lavender. Perianth peach blossom (127-1), 

blotched with Tyrian rose (155-iv) bordered with lemon-yellow. Glistening color. 

Buds orange. Edges of segments slightly frilled. Compact bloom of good substance. 
Season — Early; 75 days. 

Spike — ■ Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

FRITH JOF Originator — Krelage 

Croup — Gandavensis or Childsii 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red- violet. Perianth scarlet (85-iv) 
with a trifle deeper medial line in throat. Really a self color. Compact bloom 
of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 



338 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Cornis — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GAIETY Originator — Kunderd 

Group — Nanceianus 

Stock from Chamberlain &Gage; Cushman 
Synonyms — Pigeon ; Bird of Paradise. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broader than the lower straight 
segment. Stamen filaments white, reddish tips; anthers lilac with violet sutures. 
Perianth light starlet (87-1) splashed with deeper scarlet (87-iv), the lower segments 
more thickly splashed. A pure white throat blotched and penciled with crimson- 
red (114-111). Good open 
bloom of striking color and 
excellent substance. - At- 
tractive. 
Season — • Mid-season; 75 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), 
erect, a fair number of 
blooms (14), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, 

spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous ; plant well 
furnished with medium 
broad foliage. 
Conns — Large; cormels, many. 

GALLIENI 

Originator — Souchet- 
Vilmorin. Intro. 1899 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chamberlain 
& Gage 
Bloom — Large (11 ctn.). Tube 
straight, stout, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and broader. Sta- 
men filaments reddish; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
scarlet (87-iv) becoming 
lighter, with lemon-yellow 
throat. Blooms not wide 
open, compact, and of good 

SUDStS^TlCP 

Fig. 49. FRILLED PINK 5ea50w — Early September; I II 

days. 
Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

GATES' WHITE Originator — Gates 

Group — 
Stock from Gates 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and often narrower than the lower reflexed segment. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers violet. Perianth white with broad dash 
or blotch of Tyrian rose (155-iv) in throat. Bloom compact and of good sub- 
stance. Six to seven blooms open at one time. 




Gladiolus Studies — III 



339 



Season — Medium late; no days. 

Spike — Very tall (130 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), three branches. 

Two or three spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Ven,^ vigorous; plant exceptionally well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

GAY BUTTERFLY Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube cur^^ed, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments salmon -white; anthers reddish lilac. Perianth light old carmine- 
red ( 1 07-1), blotched with fiery red (80-iv). Compact bloom of excellent substance. 
Three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Mediimi tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small ; cormels, few or none. 

GENERAL DE NANSOUTY Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1895 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Boddington 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac-red; anthers lilac-red. Perianth light 
violet (190-1), feathered and flecked with pansy violet (190-111) with a large 
intermixed blotch of purple-garnet (165-iv). Not a clear color. Pollen badly 
soils the blotch. Compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GENERAL KUROKI Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper slightly refiexed at the tips, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers white with blue suture 
lines. Perianth crimson-carmine (inner segments 159-1-111, outer 159-iv). Medial 
lines and throat near white. The dark color seems crj'stalline in the sunshine; 
foliage approaches base of spike well. Bloom well open. Five blooms open at 
one time. Kelway calls color purple. 

Season — Mid-season; 70 to 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, well arranged, a fair number of blooms (16 on 
main, 8 on branch). Each of the corms bloomed at the same time. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Upright, vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rigid leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many, small. 

GEORGE BETSCHER. See Taconic. 



GEORGE B. REMSEN 



Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). 



Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Seg- 



ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower broader. 



340 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth crimson-carmine 
( 1 59-1), two inner segments with yellow-green medial lines and stripes of deeper 
crimson-carmine. Blooms often rather bunched on the spike. 

Season — Early September; 77 days. 

Spike — Rather short (50 cm.), erect, a small number of blooms (6), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Not vigorous; plant has poor foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium large, few. 



GEORGE HAUSSER 

Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, 
slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
red; anthers red- violet. Perianth ox blood 
red (94-iv) with lighter medial line and 
whitish areas deep in throat. Compact bloom 
of good substance. Six blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 89 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, prolific. 



GEORGE PAUL'S 

Origiitator — Lemoine. Previous to 1894 
Group — Nanceianus 
^^^^^ Stock from Munsell; Childs; Warnaar; 

^ S^^^^B Cowee 

1 ^^^^^ Synonym — Faust sent by Warnaar; Harvard 

M""^ ^...JHtlA^^I (Tracy). 

W^ Jr AIb^H Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, stout, 

short. Segments unequal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
straight and broader. Stamen filaments 
white, red tinge; anthers dark red-violet. 
Perianth crimson-red (114-iv), with green- 
ish-white throat thickly marked with crim- 
son-red. Bloom well open, of good substance, 
and of excellent rich color. 

Season — Mid- August to late August ; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, blooms freely (14), not branched. 

//a6// — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreadmg. 

Grow'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medmm narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 




Fig. 50. GENER.\L KUROKI 



GEORGE VOLLMAR 



Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
5/ooOT — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, rather slender, long. Segments 

unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen 'filaments cream; anthers cream with lilac sutures. Perianth salmon-flesh 



15 Distinct from Harvard of Teas and most other Harvards. 



Gladiolus Studies — III - 341 

(138-1) feathered ^-ith carmine, lemon-yellow throat and medial lines. Xo 
markings in throat. Good color, attractive shape, and well arranged on spike. 

Season — Early September; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), ven,- erect, blooms freely (20), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous : plant well furnished ^nth medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Mediimi large; comiels, few. 

GERTRUDE. See Taconic 

GIANT LAVENDER. See Mary Fennel. 

GIGANTIC 1° Originator — Hopman. Intro. 1912 

Group — 
Stock from Hopman 

Bloom — Medium size (9 crrr.). Tube cur\-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers lavender. Perianth white, blotched, intermixed with 
rosy magenta (near 169-iv), and often with a slight feathering of rose in the 
segments. An excellent white. Compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, many blooms (20), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GIL BLAS Originator — Lemoine. Previous to 

1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Boddington 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, cormivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments lavender- white; anthers lavender. Perianth salmon- 
carmine (125-1) with ox blood red (94-11) blotch, becoming at the sides hghter 
in color and more scarlet. Blotch bordered with light lemon-yellow. Good 
color. Well open, attractive shape. Compact and of good substance. Color 
" salmon- rose " is given by Boddington. 

Season — Early ; 67 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large ; cormels, few. 

GLARE Originator — Childs. Intro. 1908. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, ver\' stout, ver\- short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower refiexed 
and broad segment. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet 
(85-11) with a lilac-purple (160-iv) intermixed blotch. Compact bloom of excel- 
lent substance. Often blooms on aU sides of spike. 
Season — Mid-August; 96 to 98 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (68 cm.), ven.- erect, a fair number of blooms (10), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, many. 

■* Burbank has cataloged a variety of this name. 



342 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

GLEAM Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (ii cm.)- Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet with nearly black sutures. Perianth 
near currant red (115-111) blotched with purple-garnet (165-iv), Hghter at sides. 
Good clear color. Did not seem an attractive shape. Medium good substance. 

Season — Rather early; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large ; cormels, few. 

GLORY (Childs) Originator — Childs. Intro. 1908 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium large (9-1 1 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth more pinkish than salmon-pink 
(126-n) with a crimson-carmine blotch, darker on the medial Hne; slight feath- 
ering of rose-pink in upper segments. Does not seem to be a good keeper. Good 
color. 

Season — Early September; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (89 cm.), often much curved and twisted, a fair number of 
blooms (11), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant poorly furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GLORY (Kunderd) Originator — Kunderd. Intro. 191 1. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 

Synonym — Registered as Kunderdi Glory. 

Bloom — Large (lo-i i cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish white; anthers violet. Perianth amber-white (12-lv), often 
becoming lilacy white (7-111), slightly suffused with light rose, especially in 
outer edges of segments. Buds rose tinted. Lower segments with rosy magenta 
(169-iv) lines in the throat. Ruffled; fine compact form of excellent substance. 
Flower bracts are large. Bloom often described as light yellow. 

Season — Late August; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, fair number of blooms (14), one branch. 

Habit — Very erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad (3 cm.) foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 

GLORY OF HOLLAND Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Velthuys 

Bloom — Medium large (9-1 1 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white. Perianth pure white with faintest Tyrian 
rose (155-1) blotch. Dainty color and compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — September 25, 1913; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



343 




Fig. 51. GLORv .kuxderd) 



344 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

GLOWING COAL Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Croup — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — • Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the straight, broad 
lower segment. Stamen filaments white; anthers red- violet. Perianth scarlet 
(85-iv) with a French purple (161-iv) blotch on a lemon-yellow throat. Good 
color, large bloom, of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GOETHE Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer ' 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments lavender; anthers lavender. Perianth bright violet (198-1) deeply 
feathered (198-iv) amber- white (12-iv) throat broadly dashed and dotted with 
violet-purple (190-iv). Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

GOLDBUG Originator — White 

Croup — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
row. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white with violet sutures. Stigmas red. 
Perianth scarlet (85-iv), throat brilliant lemon-yellow (20-1) spotted and striped 
with crimson-red (114-111) with medial line of same color shading into scarlet. 
Often a small area of yellow at each side of the upper segments. Extraordi- 
nary contrast of deep yellow and red. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, medium small. 

GOLDENES VLIESS Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellow. Perianth yolk yellow 
(24-1), with lemon-yellow (21-1) center, often feathered with carmine. A compact 
bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. Often 
two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prohfic. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 345 

GOLDEN KING Originator — Black. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Seedling of Golden Queen 
Stock from Black 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments cream; anthers cream with \-iolet sutures. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) 
with blotches of blood red (93-iv). Color a trifle darker than that of Golden Queen. 
Blooms face several directions. Often double. Compact bloom. Excellent 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, very crooked, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Extra good ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many. 

GOLDEN NUGGET (Teas). See Klondyke. 
GOLDEN QUEEN (Stewart). See Klondyke. 

GOLDFINDER Originator — Pfitzer 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments yellow; anthers yellow with \'iolet sutures. Perianth amber-yellow 
(28-11) penciled with crimson-red (114-iv). A good yellow. Compact bloom 
of excellent substance. Six to seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GOLDQUELLE Originator — VfitzeT. Intro. 1913 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stvck from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

coimivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments yellowish. Perianth lemon-yellow (21 -i), the lower Up a deeper 

color, no markings. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14-16), two branches. 

Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

GORGEOUS Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii ; nanceianus 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream; anthers reddish violet. Perianth poppv color (84-1), 

with amber-white (12-1) throat. Segments often slightly feathered with drab. 

Excellent color. Compact bloom of medium good substance. Five blooms open 

at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 



346 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (,90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

GOVERNOR McCORMACK Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper refiexed and broad, the lower reflexed and broader than the 
upper. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin-red (88-iv), 
with lemon-yellow throat blotched and mottled with amaranth-red (i68-iv). 
Bloom rather loose, of good color, and of good substance. 

Season — Mid-August; 94 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (71 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

GRACE Originator — Iowa Seed Company 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Iowa Seed Company 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers pale lavender with violet sutures. 
Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1) with lighter medial lines and blotch of French 
purple (161-iv) tipped with yellow. A good color. A compact bloom of medium 
good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant rather poorly furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

GRACE HENRY Originator — Crawford 

Group — 

Stock from Mallory & Brown; Craw- 
ford 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, medium long. Segments 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight. Stamen 
filaments pinkish; anthers dark violet. Perianth blood red (93-iv) with slightly 
Hghter medial lines, yellow-green throat, penciled with strawberry red (iio-iv). 
Bloom somewhat bell-shaped, of excellent color, good substance, and satiny 
luster. It should be a trifle more open. 

Season — Mid-season ; 85 days. 

Spike — Tal] (113 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main spike, 11 and 13 on two 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

GRACILIS Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — havge (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-iv) 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



347 



with carmine-purple lined blotch on an amber- white (12-1) throat, slaty blue 
featherings in margins of segments. An excellent jiink, but feathering is quite a 
blemish. 

Season — Mid-August; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, blooms freely (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, 
prolific. 

GRAFIN DEGENFELD 

Originator — Pfitzer 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube 
curved, medium slender, me- 
dium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers lilac-white. 
Perianth amber-white (12-11) 
blotched with blood red (_93-iv) 
and suffused with rose in the 
segments. Rather compact 
bloom of medium good sub- 
stance. Nine blooms open at 
one time. One of the best 
varieties of this type. 

Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spread- 
ing. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, pro- 
Ufic. 



GRAHAME-WHITE 

Originator — Kelway. 



Intro. 




1911 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube 

straight, slender, medium long. 

Segments unequal, connivent; 

the upper very broad and hori- 
zontal with edges of segments 

reflexed. Stamen filaments light 

salmon; anthers lavender. Peri- PiG. 

anth shrimp pink (75-1) with 

salmon-pink (76-11) markings; a yellow-green throat penciled and dotted with 

French purple (i6i-iv). Wide open and large. 
Season — IMid-August ; 85 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main and 5 on 

branch) . 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 



52. GRAFIX DEGEXFELD 



34^ Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific but small. 

GREAT CARDINAL Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Synonym — Cardinal 5 X. 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and broader. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers red- violet. Perianth 
deeper than cardinal (112-iv), markings not conspicuous, merely white flecks 
showing through the cardinal throat. Well open, good substance, clear colors. 

Season — Mid-season, late August; 93 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (81 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, rather tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many and large. 

GRENADIER (Huntington). See Velvet King. 

GROFF No. 224 Originator — Groff 

Group — 
Stock from Richardson 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur^^ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth white, throat amber-white (12-11) 
slightly intermixed with Tyrian rose (155-1). The buds are very salmony. Bracts 
are bronze. A rather compact bloom of medium good substance. Seven to eight 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23), two branches. Two 
spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

GROSSFURSTIN ELISABETH Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers red-violet. Perianth bright salmon-pink 

( 1 26-1), intermixed throat of geranium red (near iii-i). A compact bloom of 

good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 84 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large size ; cormels, prolific. 

H ALLEY Originator — Velthuys. Intro. 19 10 

Group — 

Stock from Velthuys 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.), wide. Tube curved, stout, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth madder lake (122-111) with fine 
stripes and dots of Tyrian rose (i5_5-iv) on a lemon-yellow throat. Though it is 
cataloged as salmon, it has considerably more of a pinkish appearance An 
attractive color. Substance excellent, and bloom compact. Four or five blooms 
open at once. 



Gladiolus Studie: 



III 



349 



Season — Early, last of July ; 70 days. 

Spike — Medium tail (100 cm.), erect, often cur\-ed, blooms freely (13), branched. 

Often two or three spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium height, rather compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, many. 

HARLEQUIN 

Originator — C h i 1 d s . 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium large (10 
cm.). Tube curved, 
slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the 
u p p er horizontal and 
broad, the lower straight 
and narrow . Stamen 
filaments reddish; an- 
thers %-iolet. Perianth 
lilac-rose (,152-1) feath- 
ered and striped with 
carmine-red (113-iv), 
and with a carmine 
throat penciled with car- 
mine-red ( 1 1 3-IV) . Very 
much mottled. The 
medial Unes are em- 
bossed. 

Season — Mid-August; 90 

days. 
.Spike — ^ledinm tall (85 
cm.), erect, often cur\"ed, 
a fair number of blooms 
(15 on main, 6 on 
branch). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, 
somewhat spreading. 

Growth — Medium \-igorous ; 
plant medium well fur- 
nished with narrow 
leaves. 

Corms — Meditun size; corm- 
els, medium nimaber, 
good size. 

HARVARD (Teas) i" 
Originator — 
Group — 
Stock from Teas 
Bloom — Medivmi size (8 cm.). Tube straight, mediimi slender, mediimi long. 
Segments unequal, cormivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the 
lower much narrower and reflexed. Stamen filaments white; style lavender. 
Perianth crimson-carmine (159-iv) with a white throat. Flowers appear at various 
sides of the spike. Color bright, and bloom compact. Seven blooms open at one 
time. 
Season — Earlv August; 83 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12-18). Two and three 
spikes borne per corm. 




Fig. 



" This is not the Harvard of Tracy, which is George Paul. 



350 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, slightly spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium sized; cormels, large. 

HARVARD (Tracy). See George Paul. Often cataloged as Faust. 

HARWINTON Originator — White 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Medium size (7 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower straight 
segment. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth carmine 
(i 16-1-11), a white area at base of lower inner segment is the only marking. A good 
distinct color, showy, brilliant. 

Season — Mid-August; 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (24), often branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium brown leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 

HAUFF Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth milk white often hghtly splashed 
with rose and with Tyrian rose deep in the throat. A good white. Blooms face 
opposite directions — a fault. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium height, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HAZEL HARVEY Originator — Munsell & Harvey. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Munsell & Harvey 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-red (113-1), amber-white 
(12-1) throat penciled with carmine purple (156-iv). A good compact bloom, 
good clear colors, and good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to medium late; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, blooming freely (21 on main, with 6 to 8 on secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Exceptionally vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large, " increases by divisions "; cormels, prolific. 

HELEN Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, rather slender, long. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) striped and feathered with crimson- 
carmine (159-iv); on the lower segments the color shades into carmine lake 
(121-1), spotted with carmine lake (121-111) on yellow-green. 
Season — Mid-August; 89 days. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



351 




Fig. 54. HAZEL HAR\'^Y 



352 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 5 on 

secondary). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

HELEN SILL Originator — Crawford 

Group — 

Stock from Crawford 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments nearly 

equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments deep pink; style a lighter pink. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) 

ground streaked with Tyrian rose (155-111), and with a deep Tyrian rose (155-iv) 

blotch. Bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — ■ Early September; 106 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, blooms freely (18). 
Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth -, — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HELEN TRACY Originator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth light Lincoln red (88-1 and Hghter), 
the lower segments with lemon-yellow finely dotted throat. Segments sHghtly feath- 
ered with Lincoln red. A purplish tinge surrounds the lemon-yellow throat. Good 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Tall (109 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20). Often two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, many. 

HELIOTROPE Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments nearly equal, 

connivent; the upper segment rather hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and 

narrower. Stamen filaments deep pink ; style lilac- white ; anthers heliotrope. 

Perianth violet-purple (192-iv) with a dash of carmine-purple (156-iv) in the 

throat. A fine deep, rich, velvety bloom. 
Season — Mid- August; 99 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groivth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, few. 

HENRI LEMOINE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1903 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Dreer 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, short, stout. Segments nearly equal, conni- 
vent; the upper rather hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments hlac-white; anthers lilac. Perianth canary-yellow (17-1), with 
crimson-red (114-iv) blotch on lower segments cut by a lemon-yellow line. The 
upper segments are rosy tinged and somewhat frilled. Described by Dreer as 
orchid-like flowers. About four blooms open at one time. 

Season — First to twentieth of August; 82 to 88 days. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 353 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), often rather drooping, slender, a fair number of blooms 

(10), two branche,-. 
Habit — Erect, rather taU, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous : plant meditmi well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormeis, few. 

HENRY GULMAN Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broader. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips: anthers violet. Perianth deep poppy color (84-n"), 
with weak washy speckling in the throat and white medial lines. 
Season — Early September: 102 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (91 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with mediima broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size: cormeis, few, medium size. 

HERMANN FISCHER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1910 

Group — Gandavensis, but has a dis- 
tinct Lemoinei blotch 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish: anthers lilac. Perianth carmine (ii6-iv) "with a large area of 
French purple (i6i-iv) in throat. Segments often feathered and flamed with 
deeper than carmine (116-iv). Good deep color. A rather compact bloom of 
good substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), branched. __ 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormeis, prolific. 

HEROLD Originator — Krelage 

Group — Xanceianus 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments reddish; anthers red-\-iolet. Perianth near reddish %-iolet (i8a-iv, a trifle 
more reddish), blotched with deep carmine-\-iolet (174-iv), deeper at the medial 
line. Color is not clear. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Early to mid-season; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes often 
borne per conn. 

Habit — Erect, mediimi tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormeis, few. 

H. G. Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 
Bloom — Medium large (9-10 cm.). Tube cun-ed, mediinri slender, short. S^;ments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers \-iolet. Perianth deep poppy color 
(84-iv), \s-ide lines of geranium red Un-iv) on an amber-white throat (12-1). 



354 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Attractive markings. Variety named from Henry Gillman, which it somewhat 

resembles, because it has the same color in the perianth; laut it does not have 

the large blotch and so light a throat as Henry Gillman. 
Season — August 8:87 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21), not branched. Two spikes 

often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size. 

HIAWATHA Originator — Koeg. Reg. A. G. S., 

1912 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Synonym — Formerly called Aurora. 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower refiexed in such a way that 
the whole face of the bloom is approximately in one plane. Stamen filaments 
white with pink tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-iii-iv) with yel- 
low blotch on lower segments spotted and finely dotted with crimson-red(ii4-iv). 
Segments often splashed. A very neat looking bloom. Three to four blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — ■ Medium late; 112 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Rather large, good keepers; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 6 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white, with violet sutures. Perianth geranium red 
(iii-i) with large blotch of French purple (i6i-iv) in the throat bordered by pale 
yellow-green. The outer segments have more of a scarlet tinge than geranium. 
Compact and of exceptional substance. 

Season — Early September; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (79 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12 on main, 5 on 
secondary) . 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. II Originator — Roeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purple (160-iii-iv) with yellow- 
green throat almost covered by a large French purple (i6i-iv) blotch. Good 
substance, bright color, well-open bloom. Resembles Indiana (Kelway), but is 
superior to that variety. 

Season — Mid-August to late August; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — ■ Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main, 9 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



355 



HOEG NO. 17 Originator — Roeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (i 1.5 cm.)- Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color (84-iv) with white throat, marked 
with ox blood red (94-11). Well open, of deep color. 

Season — Late August; 85 to 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 6 on secondary). 
Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spread- 
ing. 

GroTvth — Vigorous; plant 
well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, 
many. 

HOEG NO. 19 

Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 

Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube cun-ed, 
medium slender, me- 
dium short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower 
refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments 
white; anthers violet. 
Perianth deep rose- 
pink ( 1 20-11) with a 
lemon-yellow throat 
blotched -with car- 
mine-purple (156-111). 
Flowers well arranged, 
and colors clear. 
Bloom compact and 
of good substance. 

Season — August 23; 112 
da^^s. 

Spike — Medium short (65 
cm.) , erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (11), not 
branched . 

Habit — 'Erect, medium Fig. 55. hoeg no. 17 

tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 




HOEG NO. 27 0/-/gma/or — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curv^ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth reddish old rose (142-1) 
with amaranth-red (168-111) blotches on dirty amber- white throat. Lighter tinted 
medial lines. Good substance, and a compact bloom. 



356 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Season — Early September ; 94 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, blooms freely (19 on main, 6 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, somewhat diseased. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 30 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper laterally refiexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth sulfury white (14-iv) with large ox 
blood red (94-iv) blotches on lower segments and suffusion of rose on upper. 
Rather loose bloom, not of good substance. 

Season — Latter part of August; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 7 on a 
branch). Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 31 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth geranium red 
(iii-i), the lip marked with dark geranium red (iii-iv). Lower lip appears 
velvety, but the segments are somewhat rolled, and the color is not clear. 

Season — Early; 71 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, blooms freely (21 on main, with 7 and 12 on secondaries). 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 38 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium .slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white with violet sutures. 
Perianth bright rose (128-iv) blotched with carmine-purple (156-iv). Good 
color. Bloom compact and of good substance. 

Season — Early vSeptember; 1 12 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (9), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 42 Originator ~ Koeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-iv) with 
a pure, unmarked lemony white throat. Bloom compact, of good substance, good 
shape, and a clear contrast of colors. Seems a good commercial cut flower. Four 
blooms open at one time. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 357 

Season — Mid-season to late; 98 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous, plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 46 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers . Perianth crushed strawberry 

(109-1) with lighter medial Hnes and Tyrian rose (155-iv) area on lower lip. Bloom 
rather compact and of medium good substance. Six to eight blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of, blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 64 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) with Tyrian 

rose (155-iv) lines in the throat. Bloom compact, of medium good substance, 

well open, of good shape. 
Season — Mid-season ; 97 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), not branched. 

Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium height, rather compact. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 69 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — ■ 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, cormivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed 

and narrower. Stamen filaments ; anthers '- . Perianth 

yellow-green (16-11-111), lower segments deeper in color than upper and with 
penciled medial hnes of amaranth-red (i68-iv). Bloom compact and of good 
substance. One of the best yellows. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — - Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms (8-10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 72 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — - 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color (94-11) 
with a geranium lake (89-111) blotch merging into dots on the sides, the throat 
a deep lemon-yellow. Bloom compact, of excellent substance. Edges seem to 
dry up before the rest of the bloom is past. 



35^ Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 




Pig. 56. HOEG NO. 69 



Gladiolus Studies — III 359 

Season — Mid-August; 96 days. 

Spike — Medium short (66 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — - Erect, medium dwarf, rather spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Conns — Large; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 76 Originator — Roeg 

Group — Nanceianus (?) 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 

and narrower. Stamen filaments ; anthers . Perianth 

poppy color (84-iv), amber-white (12-1) throat, dotted and penciled to form a 
blotch of scarlet (85-iv). A wide-open, deep-colored, compact bloom of rather 
good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 79 Originator ~ Koeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose (i 53-1) 
with a Tyrian rose (155-1) area in the throat terminated by a dash of amber- 
white. A rather compact bloom of medium good substance. Four blooms open 
at one time. 

Season — • Rather late; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — - Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

HOEG NO. 96. See Zingari. 

HOEG NO. loi Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments deep red; anthers violet. Perianth Hlac-purple (i6o-iv) with 

lemon-yellow throat blotched and dotted with ox blood red (94-111). Good deep 

color, well-shaped bloom of good substance. 
Season — Late August. 

Spike — IMedium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 
Habit — • Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 

HOEG NO. 116 Originator — Yioeg 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube very curved, medium slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers hlac. Perianth light crushed 
strawberry- (109-1) with broad penciHngs of French purple (161-1) in the throat. 
A vers- attractive clear pink, compact, wide open, but rather poor substance. 
Four blooms open at one time. 



360 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), straight, but falls over badly, a fair number of blooms 

.(^2). 

Habit — Drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 132 Originator — Uoeg 

Croup — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth rosy white 
(8-2), lemon-yellow throat blotched with Tyrian rose (155-111), segments feathered 
with rose. 

Season — Medium late; 105 to no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 136 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-purple (156-111) 
with French purple dots on a yellow-green throat terminating in violet. A 
bright color. 

Season — • Medium late, late August; loi days. 

Spike — Medium tall (93 cm.), erect, blooms freely (14). Two or three spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 137 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers cream. Perianth white, blotched with carmine- 
red (113-iv) bordered with amber-white (12). Rather compact bloom of medium 
good substance. This is the La Luna type of bloom, but is inferior to that variety. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 174 Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 

narrower. Stamen filaments — ; anthers . Perianth pale 

rosy pink (129-1) with lemon-yellow throat blotched with dull Tyrian rose 
(155-1). Compact bloom of medium good substance. Good clear pink. Three 
blooms open at one time 



Gladiolus Studies — III 361 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous : plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOEG NO. 175. See Jack Frost. 

HOFGARTNER STAFF Originator Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube cun,-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni vent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Perianth near 
geranium lake (89-11) with amber-white (12-1) throat. Segments thickly feathered 
with deeper geranium lake (89-iv), whitish medial lines. A handsome, rich- 
appearing bloom. Edges of segments somewhat ruffled. A strong opposite 
arrangement of blooms. A rather loose bloom of medium substance. 

Season — Early to mid-season; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Gro'd.'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with mediiun broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

HOLLANDIA i^ Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Cushman 

Synonyms — Mikado, Alice Roosevelt, Yellow Brenchleyensis. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments vmequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth reddish salmon (73-1) thickly 
suffused and feathered ^-ith shrimp pink (75-1). the lemon-yellow throat penciled 
■nith carmine-purple (156-iv). Rather loose bloom of medivun good substance. 
Ten blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groii'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished vsith medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

HOSTES Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medivun slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and broader. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers \-iolet. Perianth near scarlet 
(87), but brighter and possesses more yellow, v^ith a greenish yellow throat almost 
completely covered with geranium red (iii-iv); faint feathering of drab in edges 
of s^ments. Bloom possesses good substance, but the drab markings are objec- 
tionable. 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair nimiber of blooms (21 on the main, with 8 and 12 
on two secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, rather compact. 

Groi.i'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

" Cayeux et Clerc, 1908, catalogs a variety under the name of Hollandia. 



362 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

HUISH TOWER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth vermilion-red (87-iv) with whitish 
medial lines, A whitish tinge in the throat, and faintest solferino red dash in 
each of lower segments. Good clear color. 

Season — Mid-August ; 92 days. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, very rigid, blooms freely (18), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

HYDE PARK Originator — Baer. Reg. A. G. S., 

191 5. Intro. Vaughan 
Group — Gandavensis. May X Shakes- 
peare 
Stock from Baer ; Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers white with lilac sutures. Perianth 
rosy white becoming Rose Neyron red (119-1) at outer edges of segments; lemon- 
yellow throat weakly shaded with deep rose-pink (120-iv); segments feathered 
with the same color, especially so when forced. 
Season — Mid-season; 104 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Often 

two spikes per conn. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

IDA VAN Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-1) with a few markings deep in the throat of deeper cardinal-red. Color 
seems to fade in the sun. Compact bloom of medium substance. Six to seven 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). Two spikes 
borne per corm. 

Habit — • Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ID ELLA Originator — Coblentz 

Group — • 
Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broader. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-1) with an irregular fading 
blotch of lilac-purple (160-111). Dainty color and excellent substance. 

Season — Early August; 81 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms, branched. Two spikes 
often produced per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 363 

IMPROVED BRENCHLEYENSIS Originator — Christy 

Group — 

Stork from Christy 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube cun-ed, stout, short. Segments equal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
red; styles red. Perianth deep scarlet, streaked with deeper shade, blood red 
medial line and a faint blotch. 
Season — Early September. 

Spike — Medium short, erect, a fair nimiber of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow, prominently veined leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

IMPROVED 1900 Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Babcock 

Bloom — Large (9-10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. vSegments unequal, connivent; 
the upper slightly reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers dark violet. Perianth scarlet (87-iv), amber- white 
(12-1) throat marked with a cherr^'-red (91-iv) blotch. A well-open bloom of 
rather good substance. Does not resemble 1900 in the shape of bloom. Also 
distinct from Mrs. Malcolm Mackay, which has also been called Improved 1900. 

Season — Mid-August; 94 days. 

Spike — Tall (113 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Often two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

INCENDIARY Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube medium straight, stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper somewhat hooded and broad, the lower straight 
and broad. Stamen filaments pink; anthers yellow with lavender sutures. 
Perianth near vermilion-red (87-1), color becoming lighter toward the base of th'> 
flower. Lower segment smaller than the others and blotched with French purple 
(161-iv), the medial line of the blotch deeper in color. Excellent substance. 
An attractive color. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Late August; 105 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

INDEPENDENCE Originator — Woodruff 

Group — 

Stock from Iowa Seed Company; 

Black; Wilkinson; Fr\-er; Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin red (88-11) blotched 

with French purple (161-11). There are white areas at each side deep in the throat. 

Clear color. Compact bloom of good substance. Well arranged on spike. Five 

blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 

per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 



364 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

INDIANA 

Originator — Kelway 
Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size 
(8-9 cm.). Tube 
curved, slender, me- 
dium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper 
horizontal and 
broad, the lower re- 
flexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments 
white; anthers dark 
violet. Perianth 
lilac-purple (160). 
Color lighter on 
each side of the me- 
dial line of the lower 
segment so that a 
stripe of lilac-purple 
is formed. Hoeg's 
seedling No. 11 re- 
sembles this variety 
in color, and is an 
improvement on 
Indiana. 

Season — Mid-August; 
89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (73 
cm.), erect, a fair 
number of blooms 

(14). 

Habit — Erect, medium 
tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant 
medium well fur- 
nished with medium 
narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, 
few. 

IRENE 

Originator — Childs. 
Reg. A.G.S.,1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube nearly 
straight, slender, 
medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper 
horizontal and 
broad, the lower re- 
FiG. 57. INCENDIARY flexed and narrower. 

^' Stamen filaments 

pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth crimson-carmine (159-1), becoming much lighter 
in the center of the bloom, with white medial lines, large crimson blotches, and 
often feathered with rose. A good color. 




Gladiolus Studies — III . 365 

Season — Late August; 107 days. 

Spike — Medium short (67 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

IRMA Originator — Krelage 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments orange- white: anthers red- violet. Perianth more russety than 
rosy pink (ii8-iv), blotch of scarlet (87-iv) with deep purple-garnet (165-iv) 
medial line. Good shape and excellent color, well arranged, medium good 
substance. 

Season — Medium early; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tail, spreading. 

Grou-th — Vigorous ; plant medium well furnished with mediimi broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

ISAAC BUCHANAN Originatar — ChMs. Cataloged 1892 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, mediimi slender, long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Outer row of segments larger than the inner row. Stamen filaments pinkish white ; 
anthers white. Perianth lemon-yellow (duller than 21-1) with crimson-carmine 
feathering in edges of outer segments, each of lower inferior segments with Tyrian 
rose medial lines. This variety- resembles Victor\-, but has more splashes in upper 
segments, and edges of segments are more ruffled. 

Season — Mid- August to late August. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, blooms freely (24), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium good; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, abundant though small. 

I. S. HENDRICKSON Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock fram Childs 
Synonym — Also written Isaac S. Hendrickson. 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, meditmi slender, mediimi long. 

Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 

and broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers \'iolet. Perianth white, the edges 

thickly feathered with crimson-carmine (159-1), a Ulac-purple (160-111) veined 

throat, darker on each side of the medial line. A good shape. Childs describes 

• the color thus: " Irregular mottling of white and bright pink; in some the pink, 

and in others the white predominating." 

Season — Mid-August: 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14 on main, with 8, 7, 

and 2 on secondaries). 
Habit — Rather drooping, medium taU, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant mediimi well furnished with broad foliage. 
Corms — Small ; cormels, few. 

JACK FROST Originator— noeg. Reg. A. G. S.. 1915 

Group — 

Stock from Hoeg 
Synonym — Hoeg Xo. 175. 

Bloom — Medium large (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 



366 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Stamen filaments ; anthers . Perianth pure white 

penciled with Tyrian rose (155-1) on an amber-white (12-1) throat. An excel- 
lent compact white bloom of good substance. Three blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — -Mid-season; 82 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

JANE DIEULAFOY. See Jean Dieulafoy. 

JAY Originator — ChM?,. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — ^ Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
cream-white; anthers with lilac sutures. Perianth near light carmine lake (i 22-11), 
with a lemon-yellow throat penciled and dotted with French purple (161-lv). 
A compact bloom of good substance, well open, handsome throat. 
Season — Late August; 109 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

JEAN DIEULAFOY Originator ~ Lemoine. Intro. 1894 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Babcock; Flanagan 

Synonyms — Sara, Jane Dieulafoy. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers white. Perianth rosy white 
(8-iv), large geranium lake (89-iv) blotches on lower segments, upper segment 
suffused with salmon-carmine. There are several types of Jean Dieulafoy in the 
trade varying in minor ways. One type has less suffusion in upper segments, 
another possesses a less clearly defined blotch. 

Season — Medium early; 79 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous;- plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium small; cormels, medium prolific. 

JEANNE D'ARC. See Reine de I'Anjou. 

JESSIE 13 Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Vaughan 

Bloom — ■ Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, stout, very short. Segments unequal, 
connivent ; the upper with reflexed tips and broader than the reflexed lower segment. 
The two lower inferior segments reflexed around the basal segment. Stamen fila- 
ments creamy white; anthers with delicate lavender sutures; the backs being creamy 
are presented to the front, making them very conspicuous. Perianth blood red 
(93-111) with an old carmine-red (107-iv) stripe on each of the three lower segments. 
The stripe terminates in a yellow-green dash. Color is good, deep, and glowing. 
Blooms do not look up enough, however, though they possess good substance. 
Childs calls it "an improvement of Brenchleyensis." 

Season — Early ; 69 to 74 days. 

*' A variety by this name was introduced by Crawford. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 367 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11-18). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, short, rigid leaves. 

Corms — Meditmi size; cormels, medium few. 

JESSIE PALMER Originator — Kunderd. Intro. 

Chamberlain & Gage 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth amber- white (12-1), blotched with 
blood-red (93-iv) and suffused with rose in the upper segments. A compact bloom 
of good substance, well open; attractive, contrasting blotch. 
Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cni.), erect, a fair ntunber of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, medium taU, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished u-ith medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

J. L. CLUCAS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 

Group — Princeps hybrid 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, stout, mediimi long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers deep violet. Perianth scarlet (85), speckled with 
carmine (i 16-11) on a white throat. Good color, excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 to 90 days. 

Sp'ke — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, large, few. 

JOHN CHURCHILL CRAGLE. See Sir John Cragle. 

JOHN LEWIS CHILDS Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1910 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed. Stamen 
filaments hght vermilion; anthers vermilion. Perianth rosy pink (ii8-iv) with a 
yellow-green throat marked and penciled with Tyrian rose (155). Substance 
fairly good. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 84 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20 on main, 10 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium size, prolific. 

JOHN SCHMELZER. See EvaUne. 
JOSEF HULOT. See Baron Joseph Hulot. 

JUMBO Originator — Prestgard, 1914 

Group — 
Stock from Prestgard 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
. the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 



368 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

ments cream; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine lake (121-11), with an amber- 
white (12-1) throat stippled with deep carmine lake (121-iv). A good color, 
excellent shape, well arranged. Five blooms open at one time. An excellent 
variety. 

Season — Mid-season; 96 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

KARK LUZ Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1913 

Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 

B/oom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers nearly black. Perianth geranium lake (89-iv), deeper at 
the edges. A wide penciling of near black in the throat. A good clear color. 
A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — - Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium dwarf (65 cm.), erect, a fair ntunber of blooms (12). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

KATE Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1 904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (7-10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight. 
Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth rosy white 
(8-iv) marked with deep rose-pink, lower segments blotched with large area of 
carmine-purple (156-111). Color rather mixed, not very acceptable. 

Season — • Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few. 

KATHRYN. See Rosella. 

KEARNEY Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium small (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, compact. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper refiexed and broad, the lower slightly broader. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth bright 
rose, white throat spotted with rose. Good clear color. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium short (56 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (6-8). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium poor; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 369 

KING GEORGE Originator — Kelway 

Group — 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium large. Tube straight, slender, long. Segments equal, connivent ; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; style white; stigma crimson-red. Perianth scarlet, base of lower 
segments yellowish white. Tips of segments with crimson-red streaking and 
penciling. Good substance. A bright color. 

Season — Early ; 60 days. 

Spike — Medium short, ver\- erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rigid foliage, extending 
well along the spike. 

Corms — Medium size. 

(Described by George J. Burt.) 

KING HUMBERT Originator — 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Teas 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 

Segments equal, connivent; the upper as well as the lower segments reflexed. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-iv), medial 

line of each segment white, throat white striped with geranium lake (89-iv). 

Bloom is a good clear color, of an unusual shape due to angular segments, making 

it rather conspicuous. 
Season — - Mid-season; 82 to 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, glaucous green foliage. 
Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

KING OF GLADIOLI Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 

Group — Kelwa}^ 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white tipped with vermilion; anthers red-violet. Perianth 
poppy color (84-iv), yellow-green throat covered partly by a dotted blotch of 
scarlet (85-iv). A good clear color, of good substance. Kelway remarks: " One 
of the finest in existence." 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (112 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — -Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, prolific. 

KING OF SCARLETS. See Prince Henrj^ of York. 

KING PHILIP Originator — '^Tiite 

Group — 
• Stock from White 

Bloom — Large (9.5-13 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1) with white 
throat blotched with blood red (93-iv). A rather loose bloom of medium substance. 
Six blooms open at one time. Good arrangement on spike. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 



370 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — -Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (i8), branched. Three spikes 

per corm. 
Habit — ■ Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large size; cormels, very prolific. 

KLONDYKE Originator — Christy. Intro. 1907, 

Livingston Seed Store 
Group — Lemoinei characters 
Stock from Stewart ; Tracy ; Christy 

Synonyms — -Golden Queen (Stewart); Golden Nugget (Teas). 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broader. Stamen 
filaments yellowish; anthers lavender. Perianth amber- white (12-111) with a 
large lilac-purple (160-iv) diamond-shaped blotch. Not very open, of good sub- 
stance. Seven blooms open at once. Some blooms double. 

Season — - Mid-August ; 96 days. 

Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Often two spikes per corm. 

Habit — • Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Very vigorous; x^lant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — ■ Medium large; cormels, very prolific. 

KUNDERDI GLORY. See Glory (Kunderd). 
KUNDERD'S ORANGE. See Princess of Orange. 

LA CANDEUR Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1869 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lilac sutures. Perianth amber-white 
(12-11), upper segment often tinged with rose; throat lemon-yellow (21-1), base 
shaded with Tyrian rose (155). Not of good form, but of excellent substance. 
Season — ■ Mid-season; 85 to 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21). 
Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

LACORDAIRE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1895 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from .Stewart 

Synonym — By Stewart cataloged as Empire. Robertson and Hogg catalog an Empire 
introduced by Groff in 1910, apparently of same color. 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper narrower with edges reflexed laterally, the lower 
slightly refle.xed. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Peri- 
anth scarlet (87-iv), with no markings except slight indication of white lines 
deep in throat. An especially good, clear, deep, rich color; well open; resembles 
Princeps in color except that it does not possess the Princeps blotch. It seems 
an excellent deep scarlet. • 

Season — -July 20, 1913, and September i, 1912; 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. Often two 
spikes per corm. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



371 




Fig. 58. KLON'DYKE 
Note the double flower at the right 



372 Cornell Extension Bulletin h 

LADY HOWARD DE WALDEN Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1898 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Large size (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and somewhat hooded, the lower straight. Stamen 
filaments light yellow; anthers yellow, rather conspicuous. Perianth cream-yellow 
(30-111) with large French purple (161-111) blotch bordered by lemon-yellow (20-1); 
a slight suffusion of carmine appears in the segments. Excellent substance. A very 
attractive bloom with an admirably shaped blotch. Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — ■ Early August; 76 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with rigid, broad, silvery green leaves. 

Corms — ■ Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 

LADY WARWICK Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curv^ed, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments lavender; anthers violet, with a greenish streak. Perianth 
nearly reddish violet (i8o-iv), with French purple (i6i-iv) medial line and lined 
blotch somewhat lighter than French purple. Good color, velvety appearance. 
Blooms well arranged on the spike. 

Season — - Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (89 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — ■ Few, large; cormels, medium prolific. 

LADY YOUNG Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments rather wide; anthers blue-violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-iv) 
sparsely splashed with Tyrian rose (155-iv), with white medial lines. Good sub- 
stance, a compact bloom, pleasing color. 

Season — Late August; 92 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Good; plant well furnished with broad, stifif, prominently veined leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

LAEL Originator — ■ Childs. Cataloged 1896. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — • Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — ^ Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
.Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and broader. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth soft pink with an 
intermixed blotch of carmine-red (113-1), surrounded by orange " having a metallic 
luster " (Childs). Bright, clear color. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 95 to 100 days. 

Spike — ■ Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branched. 
Habit — • Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 373 

LAFAYETTE Origituitor — Lemoine. Intro. 1894 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments tmequal, connivent; the upper rather hooded, the lower refle.xed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers blue. Perianth dark cream (straw- 
yellow 31-1). throat deeper cream blotched with French purple (161-111), the 
segments slightly suffused \\-ith Tyrian rose (155-1). A compact bloom of good 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium small ; cormels, few. 

LA FRANCE » Ortgtwo/or — Souchet-Vihnorin. Intro. 

1877 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Wamaar 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and often rather narrow. Stamen filaments pink; 
anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) thickly splashed with light Tyrian 
rose (155-1), blotched with deeper Tyrian rose (155-iv). Compact. Medium 
good substance. Six blooms open at one time. Segments often crinkly edged. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 11 1 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair nvunber of blooms (17-25), two branches. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — ^ledium size; cormels, few. 

LA LORRAINE Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1904 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish \-iolet. Perianth cochineal red (83-111), 

lemon-yellow throat blotched with deep French purple (i6i-iv). A good color, 

a finely shaped, compact bloom of excellent substance. 
Season — ^Iid-season; 97 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (21). Two spikes produced 

per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

LA LUNA Originator — Grofl. Intro. 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Cowee 
Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube slightly cur\-ed, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
broader. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers Ulac. Perianth pure white to 
cream-yellow (30-1), with large handsome blotch of blood red (93-iv), and with 
a faint stiffusion of rose on the upper segment. " Flowers almost round, superior 
petals broad and overlapping the others " (Cowee). An excellent form. Good 
substance. Five flowers open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

* Possibly this is not the same variety introduced by Vilmorin nor the variety introduced by Lemoine 
in 1886. 



374 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large ; cormels, few. 

LAMARCK Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei 

Stock from Childs; Stewart (under name 
of DeChevi]le) 
Synonym — De Cheville (Stewart) 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers greenish violet. Perianth madder lake (122-iv) 

with a deep lemon-yellow throat blotched with crimson-red (114-iv). Compact. 

Exceptional substance. Rich colors. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

LARGE BUFF Originator — Kunderd 

Group — 
Stock from Wright; Brown 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink bases; anthers white, tinted lavender. 
Perianth pale yellow flesh (68-11) with amber-white throat (12-iv) penciled with 
Tyrian rose (155-iv). Buds yellow. Compact bloom of tough substance. Seven 
-blooms open at one time. 

Season — - Mid-season ; 82 to 84 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 
or three spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

LARGE PURPLISH. See Evaline. 

LAVENDER QUEEN Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers lavender. Perianth lilac 
(176-1) with large rosy magenta (169-111) blotches. Often with rosy magenta 
medial lines. Clear color. Good substance. " New colors, entirely distinct " 
(Childs). 

Season — Mid-season to late; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — • Often rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad, rather drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

LEMON DROP - Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\^ed, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, rather hooded, and broad, the lower 'reflexed 



Gladiolus Studies — III 375 

and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers blue-lavender. Perianth yeUow- 

green (16-1) with large French purple (161-1) blotches on the lower segments. 

Good shape and excellent substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 72 to 86 days. 
Spike — Tall (128 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. Two spikes 

often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. • 

Grow'h — Vigorous; plant well furnished uith medium broad leaves. 
Conns — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

LEONARD JOERG Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, rose tips; anthers creamy lilac, \'iolet 
sutures. Perianth \-iolet-rose (,154-111) thickly splashed and mottled wTth Tynan 
rose (155-iv). deep yeUow throat -with penciled blotch of blood red. Not a clear 
color. An attractive throat. Good, compact spike of bloom. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season to late: 104 days. 

Spike — Medium taU (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Gro'd'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medivmi size; cormels, few. 

LEON DUVAL Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1899 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Cavers 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white. Perianth amber- white 
(12-iJ blotched with fier>' red (80-iv), the medial line being darker. Upper 
segments often rose tinted. Upper segments often somewhat laterally reflexed. 
Four blooms open at one time. A rather loose bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium dwarf (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

LE POUSSIN Originator — Souchet. Pre\-ious to 

1877 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium smaU (6 cm.). Tube cun,'ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
cormivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red-\-ioIet. Perianth scarlet (87-11) becoming 
lighter toward the center, throat and medial hnes amber-white, lower segments 
faintly marked vrith Tyrian rose (155-11). Compact bloom of good substance. 
Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 92 days. 

Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Grotvth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

LE RADIUM. See Reine de I'Anjou. 



376 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

LE TRIOMPHE Originator — Brunelet 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

(Described from cut spike.) 

Bloom — Medium large (9-10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac tipped; anthers violet. Perianth violet- 
rose (154-1) with white throat and slight splashings of Tyrian rose (155-I1) in 
segments. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season. 

Spike — Medium tall, erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 



LIEBESFEUER Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Warnaar 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet-red. Perianth scarlet (85- 
iv) with a carmine-red (113-iv) dash in the throat. Compact bloom of medium 
good substance. Nine blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

LILLIAN 21 Originator — 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish. Perianth amber- white (12-1) blotched with luminous 
blood red (93-1), the upper segments suffused with a color pinker than crushed 
strawberry (109-111). A variety of the Jean Dieulafoy type. Good compact 
bloom of medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

LILLIAN MORRISSEY Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (8^ cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth crimson- 
red (114-iv), the lower segments darker, the lip rosy white with a broad dash of 
crimson-red. Velvety texture, compact, medium good substance; spikes some- 
times fasciated. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on a main, 8 and 6 
on secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



21 Kelway catalogs Lilian; it may be this variety. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 377 

LILY COE Originator — May 

Group — 
Stock from May 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cun/ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red- lavender. Perianth near carmine lake 
(121-1) with penciled blotch of currant red (115-rv'). Good color. Segments seem 
to be folded back at tips a great many times; compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair nimiber of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Grou-th — Medium \ngorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

LILY LEHMANN Originator — Alkemade. Intro. 1909 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Velthuys 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. 'Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments ; anthers . Perianth pure white, often develops 

a rosy suffusion or featheiing. Lower segments slightly tinged with lemon. P. Vos 
calls this a fine rose color, for it is apparently more pinkish in Holland. It possesses 
a strong oppositiflorus arrangement of flowers. The blooms are hardly so well 
formed or so well arranged as in Europa andi Rochester White. 

Season — Early ; 84 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, though a trifle cur\-ed, a fair nvunber of blooms 
(12-15), always branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, ven," spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

LITTLE BLUSH Originator — Childs. Intro. 1898. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Michell 
Bloom — Medium large (9-1 1 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white (7-iv), more 
pinkish, often thickly splashed ^-ith lilac-rose (152-11). A dainty color. Xot an 
especially good shape. 
Season — Mid-season to late; loi to 105 days. 

Spike — Medium dwarf (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, meditun dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Large, medium number; cormels, few, small. 

LITTLETON Originator — Groff 

Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
vermilion; anthers lilac. Perianth scarlet, the lower segments more Lincoln red; 
color becomes lighter in the throat; large penciled blotches of old carmine-red 
(107-iv) bordered by yellow-green in the throat. Color good, veiy bright. Good 
substance, well open. 

Season — • Mid-season; 89 to 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (104 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes per conn. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plants medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 



378 Cornell Extension Bulletin h 

LIVONIA Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1) 
with geranium red markings on a lemon-yellow throat, the blotch tipped by a dash 
of lemon-yellow. Compact bloom, good substance. 
Season — • Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — MediiHn size; cormels, few. 

LIZZIE Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white 
(7-1) with Tyrian rose (155) blotch. The bloom is rather loose, of medium sub- 
stance, and well open. 
Season — Mid-season to late; no to 120 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

LORD ALVERSTON Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1900 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, broader than the lower 
reflexed segment. Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth turkey red 
(92-lv) ; edges of the outer segments darker, a blood red ; inner segments carmirie 
(116-11). Slight, inconspicuous penci lings of carmine in the throat. Bloom is 
well open and of a good clear, deep color. The intense color of the flower per- 
vades the whole plant making spike and bracts bronze, with the leaves a deep 
green. Five to six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Early ; 72 to 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Branches 
often blooming after the main spike. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth -=— Medium vigorous; plant furnished with medium broad, rather drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

LOUIS WALTER Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine-red 
(113-1) feathered lighter (nearly white) and darker (deep blood red) and blotched 
with lilac-purple (i6o-iv) cut by a light medial line. Not a clear color. A rather 
loose showy bloom of medium substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 379 

LOVELINESS Originator — Van Konijnenburg. Intro. 

1912 
Group — 
Stock from Zeestraten 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white, violet sutures. Perianth 
pale reddish salmon (73-1), amber-white (12-iv) throat penciled with near rosy 
magenta (169-iv) with a slight feathering of rose in segments. A good light 
color, excellent form, compact, and of fairly good substance. Eleven blooms 
open at one time. Blooms face around the spike. 

Season — Mid-season; 92 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Cornis — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

LUCEIL. See Miss Luceil. 

LUCILLE Originator — Stewart. Exhibited 1909. 

Intro. 1912 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curv^ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower slightly reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers light lavender. Perianth crushed 
strawberry (109-1) with a sulfur-yellow throat very faintly dotted with crimison- 
carmine. Compact, well-formed, daintily colored bloom. 

Season — Mid-season ; 89 to 92 days. 

Spike — • Tall (108 cm.), erect, a large niunber of blooms (23 on the main spike, 8 on a 
secondary). Two spikes often occur per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, rather drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, few. 

LUCRETIA 22 Originator — Wamaar 

Group — 
Stock from Wamaar 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lilacy. Perianth creamy white (lo-i) with lilac-purple 
(160-iv) blotches bordered by a slight cream tinting; there are often suffusions 
of lilac. Compact, of medium good substance, rather bell-shaped, and not well 
open. Six blooms open at once. 

Season — Early August ; 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20 on a main, with 13 and 
5 on secondaries). Often three spikes per corm. 

Habit — Medium tall, erect, spreading. 

Growth — Slender, vigorous; plant well furnished with medium slender foliage. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 

LUSTROUS Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii or Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color 
(84-iv), lemon-yellow throat slightly dotted with Tyrian rose (155-iv) with lighter 
medial lines. A good color, bloom well open. Five blooms open at one time. 

^ Krelage, 190S, catalogs an early, dwarf variety of this name. 



380 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), three branches. Two 

spikes often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

LYDIA Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) suffused with crimson-carmine, the lower 
segments marked and striped with crimson-carmine, medial lines of currant red 
(115-iv). Color rather too mottled. 
Season — Mid-season ; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — • Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

McALPIN Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Tracy 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments rosy white; anthers red-violet. Perianth carmine (116-1) with 
an amber-white (12-1) throat blotched with carmine-purple (156-iv). A good 
color and shape, excellent substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

^KDklA BUTTERFLY ' Originator — Groff. Intro. Tracy 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Biown; Tracy 

Synonym — Yellow Jacket (?). 

Bloom — -Medium size (9 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers light lavender. Perianth amber- 
yellow (28-iv) with a pinkish cast, often thickly feathered with salmon-carmine 
(125-1) with lines of French purple (i6i-iv) on deep yellow throat. Bloom rather 
compact, of good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — ■ Small ; cormels, few or none. 

MADAME BRUNELET Originator — Vilmorin-Andrieux. Intro. 

1902 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 381 

Stamen filaments pinkish ; anthers \'iolet. Perianth pale light lilac (187-1) feathered 
and blotched ^-ith magenta (182-1), blotch is cut by a lemon-white medial line. 
A rather compact bloom. 

Season — Mid-season ; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, blooms freely (20), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, mediiun tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medivun size; cormels, few. 

MADAME LEMOINIER Originator — Lemoine. Pre\-ious to 

1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Synonym — Easter. 

Bloom — • Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower shghtly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers hlac. Perianth greenish 
white (15-lv). with a large blotch of ox blood red (94-11) on lower segments 
bordered by pale yellow-green. Bloom possesses good shape and rather good sub- 
stance, but the blotch does not have a very acceptable color. Seems excellent 
for indoor culture. 

Season — Mid-season; 75 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (13-15), 
branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium taU, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad rigid leaves. 

Corms — Medium large: cormels. 

MADAME MONNERET Originator — Souchet. Pre\-ious to 

1877 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Moore 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 

filaments ; anthers . Perianth reddish old rose (142-1) 

with a broad dash of French purple (161-1) in the throat. A rather compact 
bloom of medium good substance. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Mediimi tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medimn tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MADHI Originator — 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cun-ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth ox blood red becoming 
lighter toward the throat, feathered with drab (light and dark), throat lemon- 
yellow. Compact bloom of good substance, color fairly acceptable. Five blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium taU, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

MAGENTA. See Mrs. G. W. Moulton. 



382 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

MAGNATE Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
pink; anthers almost black. Perianth bright scarlet, throat striped with Tyrian 
rose (155-111), the lower segments slightly deeper in color — a distinct tint. 

Season — Medium late; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (114 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MAGNIFICUS Originator — S o u c h e t-V i 1 m o r i n. 

Intro. 1886 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments pink; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-11) with a lemon-yellow 
throat dotted and penciled with carmine-purple (156-iv). Compact bloom of 
good shape and good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Medmm tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes 

per corm. 
Hahit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

MAHARAJAH OF KHOLAPUR Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1903 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac-white; anthers violet. Perianth lighter than strawberry 
red (iio-i), throat and medial lines of lower segments greenish yellow. 

Season — Medium late; 102 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (76 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

MAIZE Originator — ■ Umpleby. Reg. A. G. S., 

19 14, Tracy 
Group — 

Stock from Tracy ; Umpleby 
Synonym — Identical with Umpleby No. 5. A segregation from a Farquhar hybrid 

sold by Umpleby to Tracy. 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal, the lower nearly straight. Stamen filaments white; 

anthers lavender. Perianth amber-yellow (28-1) with a well-defined, dull crimson 

blotch on lower lip. Bloom very neat in appearance. Four to five blooms open 

at one time. 
Season — Early to mid-season; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), very erect, blooms freely, branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 



Gladiolus Studies — • III 3 S3 

MAJOR RHEINHARDT Oigtmi/or — Pfitzer. Intro. 191 1 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments imequal, 

cormivent: the upper horizontal and broad, the lower broad and slightly reflexed. 

Stamen filaments red; anthers \-iolet. Perianth blood red (93-iv) with darker 

shades in the throat. Color deep, excellent. 
Season — Late ; 1 1 1 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18 on main, 8 on a 

secondan,-). 
Habit — Erect, mediimi tall, spreading. 

Groti'/A ^ Vigorous : plant well furnished with medium broad, rather drooping leaves. 
Cormf — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MAPLESHADE Originator — ChiisV,-. Seedling of 

1903 
Parentage — Same as America (May X 

Madam Auber) 
Stock from Christ\- 

Bloom — Large (9.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, cormivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers %-iolet. Perianth mauve- rose 
(153-11) with Tyrian rose (155-iv) dashes and veinings in the throat. Very 
much resembles America that is well grown. Mapleshade is larger and a better 
color; the flowers are wide open but of only medium substance, seem more fragile 
than those of America. Christ\- writes that Van Fleet, Burbank, and Stewart 
think this variety- better than America. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — About the same as that of America, mid-season; 90 to 100 davs. 

Spike — Medium taU (93 cm.), sometimes cur\-ed, a fair number of blooms (18-23), 
longer than that of America. 

Habit — Rather drooping, " as tall as any Childsii," spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with long, medium broad leaves, broader 
than those of America. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific, inferior to those of America. 

MARC MICHELI Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1896 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Small (6.7 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac- white: anthers lilac. Perianth lilacy white or ver^- light 
lavender, the throat almost covered by large deep carmine-\-iolet (i74-n') blotches, 
each blotch with a small dash of yellow running partly through it. Compact 
bloom, good substance. 

Season — Mid-season ; 93 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair nvunber of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MARGARET Originator — 

Group — 

Stock from Vaughan; Crawford 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
cormivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments lilac-white; anthers \-iolet. Perianth strawberr\' red (no) with 
whitish medial line and yellowish white throat, edged with carmine and splashed 
with same color on back. Striking color contrast, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late: 105 to no days. 
Spike -= Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large numbier of blooms (23). 



384 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Conns — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MARIANNE Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1910 

Group — Gandavensis, but possessing 

Lemoinei blotch 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white with violet sutures. Perianth white 
with a large amaranth red (168-111) blotch and an amber-white tinting of lower 
segment. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Cortns — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MARIE LEMOINE Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Boddington 

Synonym — Mary Lemoine. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream; anthers cream. Perianth yellowish white (13-11) blotched 
with large area of French purple (i6i-iv). Buds when first opening and the lower 
lip when open are yellow-green (16-1). Attractive blotch. Bell-shaped bloom 
of excellent substance. 

Season — • Medium early; 78 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), slender, erect, a fair number of blooms (13), branched. 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MARION Originator — Chi Ids. Intro. 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish ; anthers white, violet sutures. Perianth 
iilacy white (7) feathered with lightest rose, lined with blotch of Tyrian rose, 
shaded at edge by lemon-yellow. Compact bloom of medium substance. 
Season — Late; 115 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

MARY FENNEL Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Synonyms — Charlotte; Giant Lavender. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth pure mauve 
(181-11), lower segments primrose yellow, penciled and suffused dimly with pure 
mauve. Well-open, compact bloom of medium substance. Three to five blooms 
open at one time. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 385 

Season — Mid-season; 95 daj^s. 

Spike — Medium tall (71 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 

spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

MARY LEMOINE. See Marie Lemoine. 

MASQUE DE FER Originator — Lemoine. Pre%-ious to 

1894 
Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
(Described from cut spike.) 
Bloom — Small (6-7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac, nearly white. Perianth deep blood red, 
near ox blood red (94-iv), lower lip with slight dash of yellow. A rich color. 
Bloom compact and of good substance, but rather small, not showy. 
Season — 

Spike — - Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, slender, a fair number of blooms (19). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

MASTODON Originator — Van Fleet 

Group — Princeps hybrid 
Stock jrom Vaughan 
Bloom — Verj' large. Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 
red; styles red. Perianth vermilion-red, blotched with blood red with yellow 
streakings at base and ^-ellow medial line. Onty about five blooms open at 
one time, but they are so large that they present a good appearance. About 
the finest of its color. 
Season — September i, 191 1. 
Spike — Tall, erect, free blooming. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 
(Described hy George J. Burt.) 

MAY Originator — Crawford 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Teas; Umpleby; Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper rather refiexed and broad, the lower refiexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers yellow, violet sutures. Perianth rosy white finely flaked 
with crimson-carmine, throat amber-yellow (28) marked lightly with Tyrian rose 
(155-11). Good substance, a good white. 

Season — - Mid-season to late; 105 days. 

5^/)fee — Medium tall (98 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (23 on main, 10 on 
secondary-). Often two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — \''igorous ; plants well furnished with meditun broad leaves. 

Corms — Mediiun large; cormels, few, small. 

MAYOR Origittator — Childs. Cataloged 191 2 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (10.5-11 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper with refiexed tips and narrower, the lower refiexed 



386 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

and broad. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth near 

pure red (less blue than 159-1), lower lip stippled with lilac-purple (l6o-iv). 

Catalogs call the color rich purple-rose. Well-open, compact bloom of medium 

substance. 
Season — Mid-season ; 83 to 90 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (84 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 7 and 6 on 

secondaries) . 
Habit — • Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few or none. 

MAY'S CARDINAL. See Cardinal (May). 

MEADOWY ALE Originator — Co wee. Intro. 1900. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Stewart ; Cowee 
Synonyms — Purity (Stewart), exhibited 1910; Canada. 
Bloom — -Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 

Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 

and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. 

Perianth rosy white (8-111) with crimson-carmine (159-1) lines in the throat and 

also areas deep in the throat. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (98 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium to narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MEHLMANN NO. 326 Originator — Mehlmann 

Group — 

Stock from Mehlmann 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 

the upper horizontal often reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pink; anthers lilac. Perianth light carmine lake (121-iv); throat 

lemon-yellow blotched with turkey red (92-iv). A dainty color, bloom well open. 

Five blooms open at one time; blooms face various directions. 
Season — ■ Mid-season to late; 90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Often three 

spikes per corm. 
Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MEHLMANN NO. 329 Originator — Mehlmann 

Group — 
Stock from Mehlmann 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-purple 
(darker than i6o-iv). Wide-open, compact bloom of excellent substance, rich 
color. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 387 

MELROSE^' Originator — Chi Ids. Intro. 1904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
cormivent : the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers \"iolet. Perianth white, flaked ver\' sparsely with carmine; 
throat with crimson-carmine blotch. Good color, substance does not seem the best. 
Season — Mid-season to late: 100 days. 
Spike — Tall (103 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes per corm. 

Bracts tinged vdth. bronze. 
Habit — Erect, tall, medium compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with mediiun narrow leaves. 
Corms — - Large, prolific; cormels, few or none. 

MEPHISTOPHELES Originator — Lemoine 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, mediimi slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish ; antherb \-iolet. Perianth bright cardinal- 
red (112-IV) blotched with carmine-red on all segments, bordered by broad yellow 
bands. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

METEOR-* Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1906 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, red tips; anthers dirty red. Perianth cochineal red 
(83-1) blotched w-ith purple-garnet (165-iv) with a mere dash of white at the 
medial line. The bloom is compact and of mediimi good substance. Five blooms 
open at one time. A bright and show\- bloom. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MICHIGAN 25 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, mediimi long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and often broader. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers \-iolet. Perianth Lincoln 
red (88-1, more red than reddish old ros? 142-iv). Might be called a rose-pink. 
Well-open bloom with excellent arrangement. 

Season — Medium late; 102 days. 

Spike — Rather tall (97 cm.), erect, a fair niunber of blooms (17). Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

^ Lemoine also catalogs a variety by this name. 

*• Kelway. Vos. and Childs each catalog a variety by this name. Meteor (Vos) has been changed 
by the Haarlem Floral Committee to Red Emperor. 
*^ Kelway catalogs a \-ariety of this name. 



388 Cornell Extension Bulletin h 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MIDSHIPMAN Originator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with abruptly reflexed edges, the lower 
narrower with abruptly reflexed edges. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers 
violet. Perianth somewhat like old blood red (103), with a violet tinge in outside 
of segments, yellow-green line covered by old blood red markings. An unusual 
looking bloom, has a rather closed appearance. 

Season — Mid-season; 92 to 99 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main and 4 on 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

MIDSUMMER QUEEN Originator — Christy 

Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Medium to small (6-8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the lower straight and broader. Stamen 
filaments lilacy white; anthers lavender. Perianth mauve-rose (153-1) 
blotched with amaranth red (i68-iv), with yellow-green medial lines through the 
tip of the blotch; segments somewhat suffused with violet-rose (154-1). Color 
would be best described as rosy or lilacy white. Bloom compact, of medium 
substance. vShould be a good landscape variety. 

Season — • Medium early; 72 to 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), curved, a fair number of blooms (20), two branches. 
Usually two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MIKADO. See Hollandia. 

MILDRED Originator — May 

Group — 
Stock from May 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower retiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red- violet. Perianth carthamin red (88-1) 
feathered and flecked deeper (88-1 v), geranium lake (89-1 v) in the throat. A rather 
loose bloom of medium substance. The feathering of the segments seems 
objectionable. 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

MINNEHAHA Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and rather narrow, the lower broader. 
Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth geranium red (resembles iii-iv) 



Gladiolus Studies — III 389 

shaded deeper in throat, slightly intermixed with white. Almost a self color, 
a good deep red. An excellent variety. Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Conns — Large ; cormels, prolific. 

MINNESOTA Originator — Ruff 

Group — 
Stock from Ruff 
Synonym — Sterling. 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth amber- white (12-1) with pale 

suffusion of rose and flamed blotch of crimson-carmine (114-iv and deeper). 

Compact bloom of excellent, tough substance. Good color. Five blooms open 

at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 76 6.a.ys. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

MISS KELWAY Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1905 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (9-10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
the upper and lower segments quite separate; the upper slightly refiexed and 
narrower, the lower refiexed. Stamen filaments white with pink tips; anthers 
violet. Perianth mauve-rose (153-11) thickly splashed with lilac-rose (152-111); 
each of the five lower segments have j^ellow-green centers and bases, the lower 
segments with pencilings of magenta (169-1). A rather decorative variety 
though the colors are not clear. 

Season — Mid-season; 75 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (17 on main). The 
main decorative value of this variety lies in the fact that it generally bears three 
branches of approximately li blooms each. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — - Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few. 

MISS LUCEIL Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Wright 

Synonym — Luceil. 

Bloom — IMedium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers white or greenish. Perianth 
lighter than mauve-rose (153-1) with amber-white throat (12-1) marked at base 
and at sides with Tyrian rose (155-iv). A rather compact bloom of medium 
good substance. Blooms frequently on all sides of the spikes. 

Season — Mid-season; 81 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19), two branches. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 



390 



Cornell Extension Bulletin h 




Fig. 59. MRS A. c. beal 



Gladiolus Studies — III 391 

MISS ZENA DARE - Originator — Kelv.'ay. Intro. 1905 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelwaj^ 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and narrow, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth creamy white (lo-iv), the lower 
segments yeUow-green (17-1) fading to creamy white, striped with dark old rose 
(149-iv) also with the faintest sp lashings of carmine-purple (159-iv) at tips of 
outer segments. Dainty color. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — - Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MRS. A. C. SEAL Originator — Umplebv. Reg. A. G. S., 

1915 
Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Umpleby 

Synonym — Umpleby No. 385. 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube cun^ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers light lavender. Perianth rosy white 
blotched with Lincoln red (88-1) in which the medial line shades to old carmine-red 
(107-iv). A fine color and an attractive blotch. Four blooms open at one time. 
The buds are ven,- salmony when first opening. Flowers well arranged. 

Season — Early ; 70 days. 

Spike — Tall (93 cm.), erect, often curv^ed, a fair number of blooms (16 on main and 
9 on secondar\0- Two or three spikes borne per conn. Because of curved spike 
it does not pack well in shipping. 

Habit — Often rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

MRS. BEECHER Ongma/or — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Synonym — Also cataloged as Mrs. H. W. Beecher. 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments nearly 

equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. 

Stamen filaments reddish; style reddish. Perianth cardinal-red (112-11) with 

white throat streaked with carmine-red (113). Good color, well open. Two or 

three blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant weU furnished with narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MRS. FRANCIS KING Originator — Cohlentz 

Group — Nanceianus (Gage) ; Childsii 

(MiUer, Hoeg, and Robertson) 
Stock from Teas ; Tracy 
Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, cormivent; the upper horizontal with edges slightly incurved, the lower 
almost straight and narrower. Stamen filaments white with red bases; anthers 
nearly white with blue suture lines. Perianth vermilion-red (87-11) sparsely 
splashed with deeper vermilion-red (87-111), and often penciled to form a blotch 
on two lower segments of vermilion-red. Bloom well open and the standard of 
substance, shape excellent, and the color clear. Six blooms open at one time. 



392 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



Season — Mid-season ; 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (120 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. Three spikes 

often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — • Large ; cormels, prolific, large. 

MRS. FRANK PENDLETON 

Originator — ■ Kunderd. 
Reg. A. G. S., 191 4 

Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Gage 

Synonym — Formerly the word 
Jr. was added to the name. 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube 
curved, stout, short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pinkish white ; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
rosy pink (118-1-11) with a 
large ox blood red (94-11) 
blotch. Excellent color, 
good size, good substance, 
well arranged. Four or 
five blooms open at once. 

Season — Early August; 83 
days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms 
(16 and 6). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Good ; plant well fur- 
nished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; corm- 
els, few. 

MRS. G. W. MOULTON 

Originator — • Kunderd. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain 
& Gage 
Synonym — Magenta. 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). 
Tube curved, stout, short. 
Segments unequal, conni- 
vent ; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower re- 
flexed and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish tips; anthers violet. Perianth 
lilac-purple (i6o-iv), throat lemon-yellow marked with French purple (i6i-iv). A 
fine velvety deep red. Some of the blooms are slightly double. A compact bloom 
of good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season ; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), very erect, a large number of blooms. Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 




Fig. 60. MRS. FRANCIS KING 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



393 



MRS. G. W. WHLOCK Originator — Kel\ray 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large. Tube cun-ed, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, connivent; the 

upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 

pirikish; style yellow. Perianth lilac- white at the outer edge deepening to rosy 

pink, lower segments 

with solferino red 

splashings on canar\'- 

yellow throat ^-ith 

French purple medial 

line. 
Season — August 9, 191 1. 
Spike — Medium tall, erect, 

a fair number of 

blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium 

tall, compact. 
Growth — Vigorous : plant 

well furnished with 

medium narrow 

leaves. 
(Described bv George J. 

Burt.) 

MRS. H. W. BEECHER. 

See Mrs. Beecher. 

MRS. JAMES LANCAS- 
TERSHIRE. See 

Fairy. 

MRS. LA MANCE 

Originator — Child?. 
Reg. A G. S., 19 1 4 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium large (10 

cm.). Tube curved, 

stout, medium long. 

Segments tmequal, 

connivent; the upper 

horizontal and broad, 

the lower reflexed and 

narrower. Stamen 

filaments pink ; an- 
thers violet. Perianth 

lilacy white (7-1) with 

intermixed blotch of 

Tyrian rose (155-111). Compact bloom of medium substance 
Season — Medium late; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 




Fig. 61. MR5. FR.\NK PENDLETON 



Clear color. 



394 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



MRS. MILLINS 

Originator — White 
Group — Lemoinei 
. Stock from White" 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube 
straight, medium slender, me- 
dium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers dark red. Peri- 
anth purple-brown (more red 
than 160-11), throat purple-gar- 
net (165-iv) with a small yellow 
dash. A dark velvety color. Six 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (14), 
branched. Two spikes often 
borne per corm. 

Hahit — Erect, medium tall, spread ■ 
ing. 

Groivth — -Vigorous; plant well fur- 
nished with medium broad 
leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

MRS. MONTAGUE CHAMBER- 
LAIN 

Originator — Kunderd. InLro. 
Chamberlain & Gage. Reg. 
A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain & 
Gage 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube 
slightly curved, medium stout, 
medium short. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper hori- 
zontal and broad, the lower 
straight and slightly narrower. 
Stamen filaments white ; anthers 
lilac. Perianth pure white, 
Tyrian rose (155) shading deep 
in the throat, each segment pen- 
ciled on medial lines. A com- 
pact bloom of medium substance. 
Exquisite shape, crystalline color, 
well-open bloom. Good com- 
mercial color. 
Season — Late September; 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, 
a fair number of blooms (18), 
not branched. Two spikes per 
corm. 
Hahit — Erect, medium tall, spread- 
ing. 

Grotuth — Vig'.rous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 




Fig. 62. MRS. MILLINS 



Gladiolus Studies — III 395 

MRS. R. A. GOLDSMITH Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — ■ Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube very crooked, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and somewhat broader, the 
lower reflexed. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth nearly madder 
lake (122-111), white throat spotted and dashed sparsely with madder lake 
(122-iv). 
Season — Rather late; iii days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — • Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — • Medium size; cormels, few. 

MRS. SCOTT DURAND Originator — Cohlentz 

Group — 
Stock from Vaughan 

Synonym — Coblentz No. 304. 

Bloom — Medium large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, pink tipped; anthers reddish violet. Perianth bright 
scarlet (87-iv) with old blood red (103-iv) blotches on lower segments and yellow- 
green medial lines. Excellent substance, good shape. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 to 93 days. 

Spike ^TaW (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 6 on a branch). 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

MRS. WATT Originator — Crsiwiovd 

Group — 

Stock from Crawford 

Bloom — Medium size (8 crn.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and broader. Stamen filaments red; styles lighter. Perianth crimson- 
red (114-111) with a lighter medial line on lower segment, and a light base of 
inferior, lower segment. The color is an excellent deep red. Blooms have good 
substance and are well arranged on a neat spike. Burt, in 191 1, states that it 
is the best red in the plot. Four blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-season, early August ; 90 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — -Vigorous; plant well furnished with erect, medium broad, blue-green leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, though small are prolific. 

MRS. W. E. FRYER Originator -— Kunderd 

Group — 

Stock from Fryer; Wright (Red Canna) 
Synonym — Red Canna (Wright) . 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments scarlet; anthers red-violet. Perianth poppy red (84-1) with 

amber-white (12-1) throat, penciled to form a blotch of crimson-red (114-iv). 

A bright-colored, wide-open, compact bloom of medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 



396 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

MRS. W. L. THOMPSON Originator — Crawford 

Group — 
Stock from Crawford 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower reflexed segments; 
the lower segments smaller than the upper. Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers 
white. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-1) rather deeply splashed with deep rose-pink 
(120-iv), with a white medial line and a yellow-green throat. Flowers are well 
arranged. Colors dainty. Eight blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-season ; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — ^ Tall (100 cm.), erect, free blooming (20 on main, 8 on secondary), often two 
branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, very spreading. 

Growth — ■ Good ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, prolific. 

MRS. W. N. BIRD Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth carmine (116-1) or 
lilac-rose (Childs) with lines of lilac-purple (i 60-11) on a lemon-yellow throat. 
Compact, good substance. A good rose-colored variety. Four blooms open 
at one time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 89 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (77 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), branched. 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

MOHONK Originator — Childs,. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet, throat 
white stippled with geranium lake (89-iv). Good shape and color. Childs calls 
the color " deep, dark pink." 

Season — • Medium to late; 1 16 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

MONGOLIAN Originator — Kunderd. Intro. Brown, 

1913 

Group — 

Stock from Brown 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yellowish white; anthers lilac. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) 
with dull Tyrian rose (155-1) pencilings and a small blotch, slight feathering of 
rose in segments. A compact bloom of medium good substance. Five to seven 
blooms open at one time out of doors, and eight to twelve in water. 

Season — Early to mid-season. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms ; cormels, . 



Gladiolus Studies — III 397 

MONSIEUR A. BRONGNIART Originator — Brunelet 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers pinkish with violet sutures. Perianth deep 

rose-pink (120-1) splashed with Lincoln red (88-1), throat lemon-white. Compact 

bloom of good substance, dainty color, and good shape. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 105 days. 
Spike — -Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. Two 

spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 

MONSTER Originator — ChWd?,. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Large (12.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and very broad, the lower reflexed and 

much narrower. Stamen filaments pink; anthers white with violet sutures. 

Perianth " pink, mottled salmon with a blue tinge." A good pink. Rather loose. 

Good substance for so large a bloom. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 103 days. 

Spike — - Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

MORNING GLORY Originator — WamajSir 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Warnaar 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, hooded, and broad, the lower 
slightly reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth 
scarlet (85-iv) blotched with crimson-red (114-iv) with a deeper medial line and 
the slightest dash of yellow on the medial line of the blotch. Compact and of 
excellent substance. Well arranged on the spike. 

Season — Mid-season; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow, short, rigid leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, many. 

MOTTLED AMERICA Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Wright 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers lilac. Perianth lighter than 
Rose Neyron red (119-1), thickly feathered with deeper than Rose Neyron red 
(119-1), throat intermixed carmine-violet (174-1). A somewhat loose bloom of 
medium good substance. Not the shape of America, nor does it in any way resemble 
America. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 



398 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

MURIEL Originator — Pfitzer 

Croup — • Lemoinei or nanceianus 
Stork from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.)- Tube curved, stout. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen fila- 
ments pink; anthers lilac with violet sutures. Perianth pale lilac-rose (178-1) 
thickly suffused, feathered, and blotched with plum- violet (172-iv). A compact 
bloom of exceptional substance. Color hardly pleasing. Blooms face downward. 

Season — Early to mid-season ; 74 days. 

Spike — -Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of Ijlooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — \^er\' vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

NANCY RAY Originator — CohXeniz 

Group — • 
Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — -Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, xevy stout, medium short. Segments equal, 
connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white with crimson bases; anthers lavender to violet. Perianth rosy 
white (8-iv), inner segments pale pink (135-111), the lower segments blotched 
with crimson-red, often throat is not blotched and merely has a small area of 
color deep in the throat. Bloom symmetrical, that is, it can hardly be separated 
into upper and lower segments. Remarkable substance. Excellent light color. 

Season — RIedium early; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (94 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19 on main, 16 on 
secondar}'), usually two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, medium spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad, clean, silver-green foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, small, prolific. 

NAPOLEON. See Burrel. 

NEGERFURST Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1905 

Group — - Nanceianus 
Stock from Boddington 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, long. vSegments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, red tips; anthers deep red-violet. Perianth deep 
crimson-red (114-iv), deeper at edges and feathered almost black; throat amber- 
white (12-1) intermixed with crimson-red (114-1), often with lighter medial Hues. 
Compact, handsome bloom of velvety texture and tough substance. Six blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 89 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

NELLIE Originator — Coblentz 

Group — 
Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and 
broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers almost 
black. Perianth scarlet (85-111), throat lemon-yellow (21-11) thickly splashed 
with geranium lake, the color darker at the edges of the segments. Color good 
and clear. Four blooms open at one time. Extra good landscape variety. 
Seems to have Brenchleyensis blood in it, as it closely resembles that variety, 
but has wider segments. 

Season — Mid-season ; 8 1 days. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



399 



SpT^ke — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19 on main, 13, 11, 

and 10 on secondaries). Two spikes often borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

NEW AMERICA (Crawford) Originator — Crawford. Cataloged 

1911 

Group — 

Stock from Crawford 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth bright rose (i 28-11) streaked 
a bit darker, throat Hght yellow-green marked with Tyrian rose (i 55-11), segments 
rather pointed. Often blooms appear rather irregularly on the spike. 

Seaso7i — Medium late; 106 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, large. 

NEW AMERICA (Mallory & Brown) Originator — Mallory & Brown 

Group — 
Stock from Mallory & Brown 

Bloom — -Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth lilac-white (7-1), 
though often the color appears to be more pinkish. In any case the variety is 
lighter in color than America. Segments often feathered rosy pink. Throat with 
a yellowish green band penciled with Tyrian rose (155-iv). 

Season — ■ Rather late; 115 days. 

Spike — ■ Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (24). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

NEW CENTURY. See 1900. 

NEZINSCOTT Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 

Stock from Boddington; Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish purple. Perianth 
poppy color (84-iv) with a purple-garnet almost black (165-iv) dash and penciling 
in the throat, which is white at the base. An excellent color. 

Season — Medium early; 78 days. 

Spike — Short (50 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow, drooping 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

NIAGARA Originator — Banning 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Banning 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth yellowish white 



400 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

(13-iv), throat and tips of segments feathered and splashed with crimson-carmine 
(159-iv). Splashes deep in throat are often not present. Excellent light color. 
" Leads cream-colored varieties." 

Season — Mid-season ; 98 days. 

Spike — Tall (121 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (18-22). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

1900 Originator — Kennell 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Teas 

Synonym — New Century (Iowa Seed Company) . 

Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers lavender. Perianth cardinal- 
red (112-iv), throat yellow-green marked with reddish violet (180-111). Good 
substance, brilliant color, segments acute or pointed. 

Season — Late; 105 to 115 days. " Blooming till frost " (Christy). 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, often curved, a large number of blooms (17). Two 
spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — • Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large ; cormels, small, few. 

NONPAREIL Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments bright pink; styles bright pink. Perianth Lincoln red (88), throat 
yellowish white forming a sharp point, blotched with carmine-purple (156-iy). 
Excellent shape and substance. Color might be called a salmon-rose. Five 
blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19), two branches. 

Habit — • Drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Unhealthy ; plant well furnished with very broad but drooping leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

OBERAMMERGAU Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1912 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

J5/oom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and 
often broader. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers lavender. Perianth amber- 
white (12-11), lower lip very faintly tinted yellow-green (16-1), also a faint tinting 
of salmon in the outer segments. A good white. Seven lalooms open at one 
time. Excellent spike of compact blooms of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), two branches. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with broad, prominently veined leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

OBERBURGERMEISTER VON BORSCHT Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909-1913 

Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tubs curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 



Gladiolus Studies — ■ III 401 

narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth scarlet (87-1), the 

lower lip a glowing poppy red (84-11) with a broad dash of French purple (161-iv). 

A striking contrast between the upper and the lower segments. Compact bloom 

of medium substance. Four blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 93 da3's. 
Spike — Short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. Two 

spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, few. 

OCTOROON Originator — Child?,. Cataloged 1891 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers blue- violet. Perianth near reddish 
salmon (73-n) slightly feathered and suffused with carmine, throat lemon-yellow 
marked and penciled with Tyrian rose (155). A compact bloom of medium 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season: 99 days. 

Spike — Medhim tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

OPHIR^ Originator — Christy. 1^04. 

Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — Large (12.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent ; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth yellowish white (13), often deeper, with 
a crimson-carmine (159-lv) blotch, the medial line of which is lilac-purple (.160- 
iv). Rose-colored featherings are often found. Rather loose bloom of medium 
substance. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-August ; 73 days. 

Spike — ■ Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

ORCHID (Kunderd) Originator — Kunderd. Intro. Flana- 

gan 
Group — 

Stock from Flanagan 
Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. Perianth amber- 
white (12-1), lower segments yellow, penciled with Tyrian rose (T55-IV). Com- 
pact bloom of medium substance and good color. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (.16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

* Souchet originated a variety of this name; it was cataloged by Vilmorin in 1877. 



402 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

ORCHID (Woodruff) Originator — Woodruff. Intro. 1914 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, very stout, very short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure white, 
blotched with Tyrian rose (155-iv), margined with amber-white (12-iv). A 
round, compact bloom of excellent substance. Six blooms open at one time. An 
excellent spike of bloom. 

Season — Mid-season; 73 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Hahit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large ; cormels, few. 

ORIENT ' Originator — Christy. Seedling of 1907 

Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — ■ Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth pale rosy pink (129-1) shading from 
light to darker (129-iv), throat Hght cadmium yellow (23-1). Segments splashed 
and feathered with various tints of rosy pink. A dainty pink variety, called 
by Christy salmon-pink. 

Season — Mid-season, mid- August; 87 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, well arranged, a large number of blooms (15 on 
main, 7 and 8 on two branches). Four spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — " Freely increasing by multiplication of large corms rather than production 
of cormels " (Christy). Corms large; cormels, large, proHfic. 

PACTOLE (Lemoine) Originator — ■ Lemoine. Previous to 

1894 
Group — • Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small (5-6 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellow. Perianth lemon-yellow (2 i-i) 
blotched with blood red. A very deep yellow. Very compact. Exceptionally 
good substance. 
Season — Late; 11 1 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

PACTOLE (Souchet) Originator — Souchet. Intro. 1894 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth " pure light yellow 
bordered rose, the inferior divisions generally darker yellow, blotched carmine- 
rose." Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few or none. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 403 

PAINTED LADY Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cun^ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. vStamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth white with fine 
Tyrian rose (155-111) lines in the throat. About the same sort of variety as Snow- 
bank but of different shape and markings. (Snowbank not at hand for com- 
parison.) Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Late; no days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Cornts — Medium small; cormels, few. 

PANAMA -^ Originator — Banning 

Group — Gandavensis X Lemoinei 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet; style red. Perianth lavender- 
pink, a little more rosy tinted than mauve-rose (153-iv), the color becomes almost 
white in the throat. Lip marked vnth Tyrian rose (155-111), not quite so decided 
as in America. The color is slightly darker than that of America, and the substance 
is better. (See America.) 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

PAPER WHITE. See Crystal White. 

PAPILIO MAJOR Originator — 

Group — Gladiolus papilio 
Stock from Lemoine 

Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube very curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal, somewhat hooded, and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers reddish violet. Perianth near 
dark old rose (149-n) feathered and flecked deeper and blotched with deep crimson- 
red (114-iv) bordered by lemon-yellow. Compact, bell-shaped bloom of excellent 
substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

PAPILLON28 Originator — tutelage 

Group — Lemoine 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube very stout, very short, curved. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream-white; anthers lilac, green tipped frequently. Perianth 
light mauve-rose (lighter than 153-1), blotched with French purple (brighter 
than 172-iv) with a small area of yellow in the center of the lower segment. A 
most attractive lip. Compact bloom of good substance. 

Seasofi — Medium early; 74 days. 

" Gravereau originated a variety by this name, " about 1906," rose-carmine in color. 
'sVilmorin catalogs a gandavensis variety by this name, originated in 1882. 



404 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 

Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

PARLIAMENT Originator — ^ Kelway. Tntro. 1906 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom ^ Large (15 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white, pink tipped; anthers red-violet. Perianth brighter 
than rose-pink (ii8-iv) with blotches and medial lines of white. An excellent 
clear pink. Substance not the best. Seven blooms open at one time. Blooms 
appear on all sides of the sj^ike sometimes. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on the main, 8 on 
a secondary). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Conns — Large; cormels, few. 

PARODY Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower re^exed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth salmon-pink (126-1) 
very thickly splashed and feathered with madder lake (122-iv), in fact the mark- 
ings make the ground color negHgible. Throat yellow-green finely dotted with 
madder rose. Bloom angular. Color not good, various seasons causing a great 
variation in the degree of splashing. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.\ erect, a fair number of blooms (13 on main, 6 on a sec- 
ondary) . 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groivth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, many, small. 

PARURE^^ Originator — Souchet-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1895 
Group — Gandavcnsis 
Stock from Gage 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and often broader. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers pink. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) with a light 
lemon-yellow throat slightly splashed with carmine. A ver>' attractive color. 
Excellent substance. Five blooms open at once. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 to 92 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), usually not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

PAUL BOHME Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 191 1 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 

^ Lemoine catalogs a nanceianus variety by this name introduced in 1898; this may be the same. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 405 

and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers orange. Perianth madder lake 

{122-1) with lighter medial lines, throat penciled with carmine lake (121-iv), 

a feathering of plum in outer segments. Not a clear color. 
Season — Medium early; 78 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 

spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

PEACE Originator — GroflF. Intro. 1899. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — 
Stock jrom Cowee 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers lavender. Perianth white, 
usually lilacy white (7-1), each of the lower segments striped with \-iolet-rose 
(154-iv), the upper often suffused and penciled with violet-rose (154-1). A 
dainty color. In many localities it is one of the best whites, at least it is an excel- 
lent lilacy white. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 96 days. 

Spike — Tall (120-130 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22), often branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Ver\- vigorous; plant ver\- well furnished with exceptionally broad, promi- 
nently veined foliage. 

Corms — Ven.' large; cormels, prolific. 

PERFECTION. See Taconic. 

PHILADELPHIA Originator — Cowee. Intro. 1905. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — 
Stock from Cowee 

Bloom — Medium "ize (9 cm.j. Tube cun.-ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrower. Stamen filaments spotted red; anthers violet. Perianth Rose 
Neyron red (more salmony than 119-1) splashed with deeper rose. Large blotches 
of carmine-purple (156-iv) on lower segments. Bloom well open, of good sub- 
stance, much spotted. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 to 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms u6 on main, 6 on a secondary-). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant medium weU furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific; cormels, few. 

PHLEGETON Originator — Brunelet-\'ilmonn. Intro. 

1910 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Vaughan 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.)- Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pirikish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-iv) 
with a blotch of intermixed Tyrian rose (155-iv) tipped by a dash of white. A 
well-open, compact bloom of good substance. Eight to ten blooms open at one 
time. 
Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 



4o6 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

PIGEON. See Gaiety. 

PINK BEAUTY Originalor — Yon Thol, 1893. Intro. 

Vos, 1909 
Group — 
Stock from Vos 

Bloom — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, short, stout. Segments un- 
equal, connivent; the upper as well as the lower have the edges gracefully 
reflexed, the lower but slightly narrower than the upper. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers lavender with blue suture lines. Perianth purple-rose (150-iv) 
with a blotch on the lower segments shading from ox blood red (94-iv) to blood 
red (93-111). Large number of blooms out at one time. Neat-looking bloom 
of good substance, but color is too bright for a commercial variety. 

Season — Very early; first to bloom in 19 13 (July 14); 63 to 70 days. 

Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two spikes usually 
produced per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad, short, rigid leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. " First size cormels are good for sale in a year " (Vos). 

PINK LADY Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth mauve-rose (153-1) 
with a slight shading of mauve-rose (153-lv) in the lower segment. Compact, 
of excellent substance. A good pink. Two to four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; 1 13 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

PINK PERFECTION Originator — Hopman 

Group — 
Stock from Hopman 

Bloom — Large (i i cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments pink; anthers . Perianth rosy pink (118-11) with an amber- 
white (12-1) throat lined with carmine-purple (156-11). A rather loose bloom 
of medium good substance. Ten blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with rather narrow leaves. 

Corms — Small; cormels, few. 

PIONEER Originator — Souchet. Intro. 1907 

Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Synonym — Spelled Pionier by the introducer. 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers pinkish lilac. Perianth deep rose-pink (120-1), 
throat lemon-yellow speckled and penciled with French purple (161-iv). Good 
clear color, showv and bright. Wide-open, compact bloom of excellent substance. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 407 

Season — Early to mid-season; 74 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Cormi — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

PLEIADE Originator — Lemoine. Intro. 1901 

Group — Precoces 
Stock from Lemoine 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers reddish violet. Perianth scarlet (85-111) 
\%nth large lemon-yellow throat marked with French purple (i6i-iv), a lined 
blotch. A compact bloom of good substance. A good scarlet. Four blooms 
open at once. 

Season — Earh- ; 66 days. 

Spike — Short (60 cm.), very erect, a fair number of blooms (15), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, few. 

POCAHONTAS Originator — Hoeg. Reg. A. G. S., 

1915 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments creamy white; anthers violet. Perianth amaranth 
red (168-lv) with a lemon-yellow throat, blotched -with plum-violet (172-iv). 
Color excellent, deep, attractive. Compact bloom of excellent substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late, early September; 121 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), usually not 

branched. Two spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large ; cormels, few. 

PORTLAND Originator — Childs. Intro. 1902. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medivun long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth near 
carmine lake (121-11), throat amber-white (12-1) mottled and dotted with currant 
red (115-iv). Compact bloom of good substance. Five blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medivun tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

PRECOCITE Originator — Lemoine, 1901 

Group — Precoces 
Stock from Lemoine 
Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube much curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper hooded and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 



4o8 Cornell Extension Bx'lletin ii 

filaments reddish; anthers reddish gray. Perianth scarlet (85-iv), throat pure 
lemon-yellow (21-1) spotted and marked with scarlet (85-ni). Loose bloom, 
poor substance, not especially attractive except for earliness. 

Season — Extremely early ; 44 days. 

Spike — Dwarf (55 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 

Groivth — Medium poor; plant poorly furnished with narrow, short, inconspicuous 
leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

PRECURSEUR Originator — Krelage 

Group — Lemoinei 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender-pink. Perianth flesh 
color (139-111) blotched with purple-garnet (165-iv) bordered with deep lemon- 
yellow. A rather good color; bloom compact, of good substance, and well arranged 
on spike. 

Season — " The chief merit of this variety is its remarkable earliness" (Krelage). 67 
days. 

Spdke — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium Ijroad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

PREMIERE Originator — Kunderd 

Group — 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 
Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, short, stout. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments reddish; anthers pale lilac. Perianth creamy white (lo-i) 

blotched with amaranth red (i68-iv) with a sHght feathering of Tyrian rose. 

This variety resembles Renown in color and shape of bloom, but the blotch of 

the latter is smaller. Buds rather yellowish. Bloom compact, of good substance. 

Eight blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season ; 73 to 75 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, often curved, a fair number of blooms (12-17), 

not branched. Bracts bronze. Two spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Exceptional; plant very well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

PRESCOTT Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
often broader. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink 
(118-1), throat with a large blotch of Tyrian rose (155). Color not clear, rather 
washy. 

Season — Mid-season; 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (78 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — 111 409 

PRESIDENT TAFT ^ Originator — Stewart. Intrc >. 1 1 o. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 
and narrow. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink 
(118-111), throat yellow-green blotched with camiine, medial lines lighter. Dainty 
pink, well open. 

Season — Mid-season: 80 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (9,^ cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 8, 7, and 
T, on branches). Two spikes per comi. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furni.shed with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

PRIDE Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with the edges reflexed, the 
lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth 
carmine-red (113-iv) with a verj- large area of yellow-green (17-1) in the lower 
segments. A striking contrast in color. Interesting and odd. Excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 12 and 7 on 
branches). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

PRIDE OF GOSHEN Originator — Kundert]. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
vStamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth light reddish salmon (73-1) 
blotched with ox blood red (94-11). Compact bloom of excellent substance. 
Season — Medium late; iii days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with very broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

PRIMULINUS HYBRID (12 Ruffled) Originator — 

Group — Ruffled primulinus 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, decidedly hooded, and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. vStamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth salmon- 
pink (74-iv), yellowish green throat with solferino red (151-lv) lines. Almost 
the identical markings of G. primulinus. A real salmon color, very attractive. 

Season — Mid-season, mid- August; 92 days. 

Spike — Very tall (114 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (2o\ six branches. Pour 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Exceptionally vigorous; plant well furnished with leaves six centimeters wide. 

Corms — Ver}^ large; cormels, very prolific. 

*" Vilmorin catalogs a gandavensis variety bv this name, originated by Brunelet and introduced 
in 1911. 



4io Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

PRINCE GEORGE Onginator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower 
straight and broader. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-1) with white blotches almost completely covered with dots and intermixtures 
of currant red (115-iv). Colors clear and attractive, bloom compact. 

Season — Mid-season; 76 to 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), inclined to be drooping, a fair number of l)looms (18 on main, 
q on a branch). Two .spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Not very erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Not vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium l:)road leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, small, few. 

PRINCE HENRY OF YORK Originator — Kelwsiy. Intro. 1901 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Synonym — King of Scarlets. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, inedium stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal, the lower reflexed. One of the lower segments very 
small. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth bright fiery red (79-111), 
area of crimson-carmine (159-iv) on lower segment. Good, clear color. Excellent 
substance. 

Season — 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Medium vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, large. 

PRINCE OF INDIA Originator — Ch\kh. Intro. 1904. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium .slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed 
and often broader. Stamen filaments salmony; anthers salmon-pink. Perianth 
madder carmine (141-11) feathered and splashed with violet-lilac (175-iv), blotched 
with carmine-purple (156-iv). A rather loose bloom of good substance. Color 
not clear. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 

PRINCEPINE Originator — Kirchhoff. Intro. 1910 

Group — Princeps hybrid 
Stock from Kirchhoff 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth vermilion-red 
(87-iv), throat cream-yellow blotched with geranium red (iii-iv). Bright in 
appearance. Three blooms open at one time. " Good keeper and long dis- 
tance shipper." 

Season — ■ Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, spreading. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few, medium size. 



Gladioli's Studies — III 411 

PRINCEPS Originator — Van Fleet. Bloomed 1897. 

Intro, by Vaughan, 1903 
Group — - Cruentus X Childsii 
Stock from \''aughan : Teas 

Bloom — Large (12-16 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and often broader. 
Stamen filaments scarlet; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-iv) with yellow- 
green medial lines and throat, throat penciled and dotted a deep shade of scarlet. 
Good clear color; bloom well open and fiat; usually only two blooms are out at 
one time; e.xcellent substance. Called the amaryllis-flowered gladiolus. 

Season — Late; 1 1 1 da^'S. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, often crooked, a fair number of blooms (16 on 
main, 7 on a secondary). 

Habit — Often drooping, medium tall, very spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with rather narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 

DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PARENTAGE OF PRINCEPS 

G. oppositiflm-us hybrids X G. psittacinus 

■u ., ^ _. 

G. Saundersii X G. ^andavensis 



G. cruentus X G. Childsii 

(Mrs. Beecher) 



Princeps 

PRINCESS OF ORANGE Originator — Kunderd 

Group — 
Stock from Brown 
(Described from cut spike.) 

Synonym — • Formerly Kunderd 's Orange. 

Bloom — -Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearl}- straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white, reddish tips; anthers dark violet. Perianth 
russet -orange (82-iv, really brighter than color given in color chart), throat lemon- 
yellow, rounded with a pointed dart foreward and bordered with a carmine-like 
coloration. A good bright-colored vari.ety. Good substance, ships well. 

Season — Mid-season. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

PRINCESS SANDERSONI. See Snowbank. 

PRINZESSIN VIKTORIA LUISE Origitiator ~V?\i7.ev. Intro. 1910 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube cvr\'ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and^ narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red- violet. Perianth light carthamin red 
(88-1) with a lemon-yellow spot in throat edged by crimson-purple shading. 
Often feathered in outer edges of segments; slightly rufifled. A well-arranged 
spike of bloom. Tweh'e blooms open at one time. A compact bloom of 
extraordinan,' substance. 

Season — Medium late; 11 1 days. 

Spike — Ver}' tall (120 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



412 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 




PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY VAUOHAN'3 SEED STORE 



Fig. 63. PRiNCEPS 



Gladiolus Studies — III 413 

PROFESSOR FLEISCHER Otgmc/or — Pfitzer. Intro. 1909- 191 1 

Group — • Lemoinei 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cun'ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent ; the upper decidedly hooded, causing it to separate from 
the others, the lower segment reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white 
with red tips: anthers lavender. Perianth tomato red (81-111) blotched %\-ith blood 
red (93-1 v) with fine lines of yellow-green through the blotch, base of throat 
whitish. Shape extraordinan,-, good color. 

Season — Mid-season to late: 95 days. 

Spike — Short (63 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, few. 

PROMETHEUS Or/gfHo/or — Krelage • 

Group — 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Very large (13.5 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish white; anthers white mottled mth lavender. Perianth 
poppy color (84-111); throat amber-white (12-1) penciled thickly so as to form 
a blotch of French purple (i6i-iv), the color becomes lighter at the base of the 
throat; the segments usually strongly feathered with poppy. Bloom well open, 
of good substance. Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Early ; 67 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, slender, graceful, a fair number of blooms (11), usually 
not branched. 

Habit — ; Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

PURITY (Stewart'. See Meadow-^-ale. 

QUEEN ESTHER Originator — Mellinger 

Group — 
Stock from Mellinger 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broader than the lower, which is also reflexed. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth Tyrian rose (155-1-11, the two 
shades are intermixed) blotched with deep Tyrian rose (155-iv). Bloom very 
compact, weU shaped. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16 on main, 10 and 7 on sec- 
ondaries). Three spikes frequently developed per corm. Spike is often weak 
at the tip. 

Habit — Erects medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

QUEENLY * Originator — GvoS 

Group — 
Stock from Woodniflf 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers lavender. Perianth creamy white with blotches 
of solferino red (157-iv) bordered by yellow-green. Featherings of solferino red 
often develop. Bloom circular in outline, and of good shape, color, and sub- 
stance; seems a commercial color. 

Season — Medium early; 72 lo 75 days. 



414 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (77 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), usually two 

branches. Often two spikes per corm. 
Hahit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, small, prolific. 

QUEEN OF SHEBA Originator — May 

' Group — 
Stock from May 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth vermilion-red (87-1) 
with penciled blotch of geranium lake (89-iv) on an amber- white (12-1) throat, 
segments often feathered. Bloom well open, of good shape, attractive color, 
and excellent substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 83 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large, red; cormels, prolific. 

RADIANCE Originator — Miller 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments bluish; anthers violet. Perianth crushed strawberry (109-iv), 
throat amber-white (12-1) dotted with crushed strawberry, segments frequently 
feathered. Nine blooms open at one time. 

Season — Late; no days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19), branched. 

Habit — • Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large ; cormels, few. 

RAY Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight, though slightly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers lavender. 
Perianth carmine lake (121-11), the color becoming lighter toward the base of 
the segments; medial lines of upper segments white; the three lower segments 
blotched with carmine (112-1); within the carmine blotch and extending forward 
the medial lines are yellow-green. Segments rather thin, making them rather 
dainty though they do not lack substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, blooms freely (12), branched. Spikes rather weak 
when opened indoors. 

Hahit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — ■ Large; cormels, many. 

RED CANNA. See Mrs. W. E. Fryer. 

RED LION Originator — Burchett 

Group — 

Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper vertical and broad, the lower reflexed and often 
broader. Stamen filaments white with vermilion tips; anthers violet. Perianth 



Gladiolus Studies — III 415 

fierj- red (near 79-11) blotched with crimson-carmine USQ-iv), a dash of yellow- 
green on the meidial line runs into the blotch. Bloom rather laterally depressed; 
good colors. 

Season — Medium early; 78 to 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (86 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (22 on main, 12 and 4 
on branches). Two spikes often per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — \"igorous; plant well furnished with verj^ broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

RED, WHITE CENTER Originator — Xnten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth cochineal red (83-11), color becom- 
ing lighter in the throat, the lower segments with a large area of lemon-yellow 
(21-1) finely and sparsely dotted with crimson-carmine. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season ; 85 to 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (24 on main, 10 and 9 on 
branches). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, small. 

REINE BLANCHE. See Reine de I'Anjou. 

REINE DE L'ANJOU" Originator — 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Ketcham ; Velthuys (White 
Excelsior) 

Synonyms — Reine Blanche; Le Radium; Jeanne d'Arc; White Excelsior; Schnee- 
wittschen. 

Bloom. — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white: anthers lavender. Perianth pure white 
except deep in throat, where there is an area of Tyrian rose. A good white. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 97 days. 

Spike — TaU (112 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21 on main, 13 and 11 on 
branches). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant w^ell furnished with excellent broad foliage. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few or none. 

RENOWN Originatcr — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube cun.'ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexfed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments lavender; anthers thin, a delicate \-iolet. Perianth amber- white 
(12-11) often with slight Tyrian rose (155) markings (not found in spikes that have 
been opened indoors), lined blotch of Tyrian rose (155-111). The color though 
not clear, is good; the blotch is well defined; good substance. Three blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Medium early ; 75 to 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (109 cm; V, erect, a large number of blooms (21 on main, 12, 8, and 10 
on branches). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

" Lemoine catalogs a nanceianus variety of the name of Reine d'Anjou, introduced in 1906, which 
is carmine. 



4i6 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad stiff leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

REUBEN H. WARDER. See America. 

REXFORD Originator — Crawford 

Group — 

Stock from Mallor\' & Brown; Craw- 
ford 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers deep lilac. Perianth rose-pink (118) thickly 
feathered with carmine (116-iv), white medial lines extend to the tips of the 
segments, throat amber-white (12-1) with Tyrian rose penciling and intermixtures. 
Season — Mirl-season; 100 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (68 cm.), erect, a fair number of l)looms (18). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, ver}- spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium to narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 

RICHARD MILNER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1900 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent ; 
the upper horizontal and not broad, the lower reflexed and narrower, the lower 
inferior segment small, narrow. Stamen filaments lilacy white; styles yellowish. 
. Perianth white thickly splashed and feathered with crimson-carmine, yellow 
throat penciled with reddish along the medial lines. 
Season — • August 30, 191 1 . 
Spike — Short, erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with narrow leaves promi- 
nently veined. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

RICHARD STRAUSS Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. .Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers white, blue sutures. Perianth pure white with 

an amber-white (12-11) throat penciled with lilac (176-1). Good light color; 

blooms sometimes double, compact, and of good substance. Seven blooms open 

at one time. 
Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20), branched. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

RICHMOND RED. See Velvet King. 

ROCHESTER WHITE Originator — Thomann 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Thomann 

Synonym — White Queen. By many this variety is said to be a synonym of Weisse 
Dame, or White Lady. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 417 

Bhom — Medium size (.9.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, meditmi slender, medium 

long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 

reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pure white: anthers creamy white. 

Perianth pure white w4th a slight tinge of lemon-yellow on the three lower segments. 

This description also applies to Weisse Dame. Bloom compact, of good substance. 

As grown by Thomarm it is imsurpassed by any other white, but it seems rather 

difficult for others to grow. 
Season — Mid-season; 85 days. Seems a little earlier than Weisse Dame. 
Spike — Tall (.100 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (l7\ branched. 
Habit — - Erect, tall, spreading. 
Grtrwth — More \-igorous than Weisse Dame: jilant well furnished ^\-ith broad bright 

green foliage. 
Cortns — Medium large; cormels, few, small. 

ROMANCE Originator — Burchett 

Group — 

Stock from Burchett 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, stout, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream-white; anthers cream, sutures lavender. Perianth vellowish 

white (13-iv) with deep Tynan rose (155-iv) markings to form a blotch surrounded 

by yellow-green. 
Season — Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spnke — Tall (112 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — - Vigorous : plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Large: cormels, few or none. 

ROSEANN Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stack front Childs 
Bloom — • Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers \-iolet. Perianth scarlet (85-1), throat lemon- 
yellow penciled and blotched with blood red (93-iv). A clear color. 
Season — ^Iid-season; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (.85 cm.t, erect, a fair number i>f blooms (.15)- 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

ROSEDALE Originator ~ Childs. Cataloged 1896. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, often somewhat twisted, medium slender, 
medium long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, 
the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments red; anthers red-\Tolet. 
Perianth deep lilac-rose (151), striped blotch of blood red (93-lv) on am bar- white 
(12-1) throat. Segments rather pointed in appearance. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 107 days. 
Spike — Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14;. 
Habit — Rather drooping, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium \-igorous; plant well furnished \%nrh medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large: cormels, few or none. 



4iS Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

ROSELLA Originator — Cowee, 1904. Reg. A. 

G. S., 1914 
Group — Lemoinei (Gage) ; nanceianus 

(Woodruff) 
Stock from Cowee 
Synonym — Kathryn. 

Bloom — Very large (13 cm.)- Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and narrower. Stamen filaments 
pink; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-purple (156-n), large blotch of French 
purple (161-111) on a yellow-green throat. Color clear, bloom well open, compact. 
An excellent variety. The color might be described as a bright, deep rose. 
Mrs. Francis King, speaking of the use of this variety in the garden, says: 
" Rosella above Ageratum Stella Gumey cannot fail to be a success in color 
paintings; Rosella below vSalvia Azurea, with the annual pink mallow near by; 
and last, Rosella with Baron Hulot, that small-flowered but ever-needed Gladiolus 
of the color known as Bishop's violet. I am myself minded to grow Baron Hulot 
in the midst of Ageratum Stella Gumey — precisely as one lets a colony of Tulips 
appear above Forget-me-not ; and Baron Hulot would be also most perfect among 
the fine, creamy flowers of Chrysanthemum Garza." 
Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (82 cm.), erect, a fair numl)er of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, prolific. 

ROSE QUEEN 32 Originator — Christy. Intro. 1903 

Group — 
Stock from Christy 

Bloom — ■ Large (10- 11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink tipped; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-11), 
throat lemon-yellow, segments thickly feathered and splashed with cardinal-red 
(112-11). Good open appearance, color mottled, lower segments often folded 
laterally, substance not extra. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (97 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, few. 

ROSE RED Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments nearly equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers white. Perianth 
nearly carmine lake (r2i-ii) blotched with crimson-carmine. Bloom wide open, 
nearly round, well arranged. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), two branches. 

Habit — -Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, large, prolific. 

ROSE SALMON EXTRA Originator — Auten 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Auten " ' 

Bloom — Large (12 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 

2'- Franken Brothers catalog a variety by this name. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 419 

and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth salmony 
poppy red (more salmony than 84-1), large blotch of carmine lake (121-iv), which 
is rather inconspicuous, making the bloom almost a self color. Color good, bright ; 
substance good. Few blooms open at one time. 

Season — Usually early September; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), ver\' erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

ROSE WELLS Originator — Austin. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Synonym — Austin No. 55. 

Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. Stamen 
filaments white, pinkish tips; anthers gray. Perianth light mauve-rose (153-1) 
with a blotch of Tyrian rose (155-iv shading to 1 55-11) bordered by deep yellow- 
green. Bloom is large, substance rather poor, colors clear and attractive. ' 

Season — Early September; 103 days. 

Spike — Tall (lli cm.), erect, blooms freely (17 on main, with 5 and 6 on two 
secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

ROSY SPRAY (9n"g/«a/or — C h i 1 d s. Intro. 1910. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — -Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broad. 
Stamen filaments white, red flecked; anthers purple. Perianth lilacy white 
feathered and mottled with crimson-carmine, the lower segments striped with 
a broad penciling of crimson-carmine. The segments are reflexed so as to appear 
pointed. The splashing in the segments is so pronounced that the bloom should 
be called variegated. 

Season — Late; 115 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

ROUGE TORCH Originator — Groff. Intro. Tracy, 

1914 
Group — 
Stock from Brown 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur.-ed, stout, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent: the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white; anthers cream. Perianth amber-white (12-1) thickly 

suffused with salmon-carmine (125-1) blotched with deep carmine-red (114-iv). 

A compact bloom of good color and substance, well arranged on spike. Four 

blooms open at one time. 
Season — Mid-season. 
Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). Two spikes per 

corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Small; cormels, prolific. 



420 Cornell Extension Bulletin 1 1 

ROYALE Originator — Tracy 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Tracy 

Bloorti — Medium size (7-8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-iv), 
blotched with Tyrian rose (deeper than 155-iv). Compact bloom of good sub- 
stance. 

Season — Medium early; 75 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium l>road leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

ROYALTY*^ Originator — Christy. Seedling of 

1907 
Group — 

Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth French purple (near 161-1). 
throat lemon-yellow bordered by lilac-purple (160-iv), medial lines whitish. Wide- 
open bloom with rounded segments, good substance. 
Season — Mid-season to late: 105 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). Two spikes 

per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

RUFFLED BIG FACE Originator — Kunderd 

Group — - Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pink; anthers lilac, sutures violet. Perianth lilacy white (7-1 ) 
but so thickly splashed and veined with Tyrian rose (155-111) that the color appears 
diflferent, throat stippled and marbled with Tyrian rose (155-iv), medial lines 
deep Tyrian rose, an intermixture of yellow in the throat. An attractive sort, 
compact, excellent substance, ruffled. 

Season — Medium late; 1 10 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, proHfic. 

RUFFLED SALMON Originator — Kunderd 

Group — Riaffled 
Stock from Kunderd 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers with violet sutures. Perianth 
Lincoln red (near 88-1) blotched with cardinal-red (112-111). Compact bloom 
of excellent substance, good shape, wide open, ruffled. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (8-9). 

Habit — Erect, rather dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels. few. 

's Kelway introduced a variety by this name m ipil. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



421 




Fig. 64. RUFFLED SALMON 



422 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



RUFFLED YELLOW 



Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). 




Fig. 65. RUFFLED YELLOW 



Originalor — Kundcrd 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 
Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
^•cnt; the upper horizontal 
and broad, the lower 
r e fl e X e d and narrower . 
Stamen filaments reddish 
white ; anthers white, 
sutures blue. Perianth 
cream-yellow (30-11), 
throat splashed with Tyr- 
ian rose (155-iv). Com- 
pact bloom of good sub- 
stance. Excellently 
arranged spike. vSix blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 
103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), 
erect, a fair number of 
blooms (18). 

Ilahit — Erect, medium tall, 
spreading. 

Croivth — Vigorous; plant well 
furnished with medium 
broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few, 
large. 



RUTH 

Originator — Stewart. 
Intro. 1912 

Group — 

Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). 
Tube very curved, medium 
slender, rather short. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; 
the upper reflexed and 
broad, the lower also re- 
flexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; 
anthers violet. Perianth 
bright rose (128-iv), which 
in the throat blends into 
Tyrian rose (155-1), set- 
ting off a yellow-green 
throat dashed with deep 
Tyrian rose. Dainty 
color, good substance. 
Season — -Mid-season to late; 
103 days. 



^pikg — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 7 and 8 

on secondaries). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



423 



RUTHONY LONGSIDE 



Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1910 
Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.)- Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen 'filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth carmine-red (113-lv), throat 

lemon-yellow marked deep carmine-red (113 deeper than iv). Very good bloom 

of velvety texture. 
Season — Not so early as 

the term July Flowering 

would implv; 100 days. 
Spike — T!k\\ U 13 cm.), 

erect, a fair numl>cr of 

blooms (14). 
Habit — Erect, tall, very 

spreading. 
Growth — \"i gorou s : y>\s. n t 
. well furnished with 

medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium si ze ; 

cormels, few. 

SAFRANO 

Originator — vSouchet. 

Intro. iSgq 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 

cm.). Tube curved, 

medium slender, me- 
dium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the 

upper horizontal and 

broad, the lower re- 
flexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments 

cream; anthers cream 

with violet sutures. 

Perianth near Xaiiles 

yellow (29-in), called 

by Childs Xankeen 

yellow, with very pale 

violet-old-rose (i45" 

III?) markings in the 

throat. A trifle ruffled, 

dainty shape. Segments 

thick but brittle. 
Season — Mid-season, mid- 
August to late August; 

90 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (89 

cm.), erect, a fair 

number of blooms (16), 

branched. 

Habit — ■ Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant ven,- well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few but large. 

ST. LOUIS Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 1914 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexefl 




Fig. 66. s.\fr.\no 



424 Cornell Extension Bi lletin ii 

and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers yellow. Perianth scarlet (87-iv), 
the inner segments more rosy than 87-iv, medial lines and throat a lighter shade. 
Outer segments slightly ruffled and rather pointed. Spike not very well arranged. 

Season — Medium late; 108 daj's. 

Spike ■^— Tall (100 cm.), erect, a fair number of lilooms (12). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

SALEM Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — ■ Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium blender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and Ijroad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white, reddish tinge; anthers violet. Perianth 
madder lake (122-1) blotched with carmine- red (133-111). 
Season — • Mid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms I'll). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad foliage, silver-green in 

color. 
Corms — Large; cormels, small. 

SALMON Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1912. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — • Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Mediiun size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (118-iv but more 
yellowish), the throat striped with deep crimson-carmine (159-ivj on a white 
background. A good color. Childs calls the color salmon-pink. 
Season — Rather late; 1 10 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (92 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (10). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

SALMONIA *» Originator — Childs. Intro. 1 904. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — - Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Small (7 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments yellowish; anthers violet. Perianth salmon-pink (74-1), lower inner 
segments pure aureoUne yellow (22-1) with crimson-carmine medial lines, upper 
segments with yellowish green medial lines. A distinct color. 
Season — Mid-season to late; 105 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (88 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SALMON QUEEN (Woodruff). See Baltimore. 

54 Another Salmonia was introduced in 1864 by McTear. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 425 

SALMON RED NO. 16 Originator — Banning. Intro. Per- 

Idns-King Company 
Group — 
Stock from Perkins-King Company 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\'-ed, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin red (88-11) thickly 
feathered deeper, lemon-yellow throat speckled and penciled with carthamin 
red (88-1 v). A rather loose bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Tall (i 1 1 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms {22), often two branches. Two 
spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Hahit — Erect, medium tall, rather compact. 

Growth — Not vigorous; medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

SANDERSONI. See Snowbank. 

SANGUINE Originator — Cataloged 1912 

Group — 
Stock from Tracy 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth poppy color (84-iv) 
with a stippled throat of crimson-red (114-ivj dots on amber-white (12-1). Good 
color, attractive throat. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (18), two branches. Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

SANS PAREIL^ Originator — Vihnorin. Intro. 1902 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers white with lavender sutures. Perianth scarlet 
(87-11) becoming lighter toward the center, throat and medial lines amber-white. 
A compact bloom of good substance. Childs describes the color thus: "Ver}' 
bright orange-rose, slightly striped vermilion with a large white spot." 

Season — 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Hahit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — The great susceptibilit}- to disease almost limits its culture. Medium 
vigorous; plant medium well furnished \\'ith medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SARA. Sec Jean Dieulafoy. 

SARATOGA Originator — Ch.\\<^s. Intro. 1898. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight 

^' Krelage, 1905, catalogs an early, dwarf variety of this name. 



426 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

and narrower. Stamen filaments white, scarlety tips; anthers red- violet. Perianth 
scarlet (87-11, considerable more orange than real scarlet), an amber-white throat 
marked with deeper scarlet. A rather poor-shaped bloom. 

Season — Mid-season to late. 

Spike — Tall (106 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

SCARLET LETTER Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed laterally and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 
Stamen filaments scarlet; anthers violet. Perianth darkest scarlet (87-iv) with 
a large blotch of dark plum- violet (172-iv). Segments somewhat feathered with 
slatish scarlet. An excellent color. Five blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid- August to late August; 95 to 97 days. 

Spike — Tall (119 cm.), erect, but often needs support, blooms freely (21 on main, 10 
and II on secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

SCARLET VELVET Originator — Groff 

Group — 
Stock from Woodruff 

Bloom — -Large (12 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. vStamen filaments white, red tips; anthers red-violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-iv), throat amber-white (12-1) blotched with blood red (92-iv). A good 
color. Well open. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — - 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size ; cormels, few. 

SCARSDALE Originator — Cowee. Intro. 1903. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914, Cowee 
Group — 
Stock from Cowee 

Synonym — Cedar Acres Mauve. 

Bloom — Very large (13 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments nearly equal, 
connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments white with pink tips; anthers violet. Perianth a little lighter than rosy 
magenta (169-1), splashed throughout the segments with deeper rosy magenta, 
the throat penciled with the same color. Bloom large and showy, but under 
certain conditions the splashings make the bloom very mixed in color. The 
color is not very popular with some persons. 

Season — Mid-season ; 80 days. 

Spike — Very tall (135 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 

Habit — Very erect, but falls over badly when not staked, it being one of the few 
varieties on the trial grounds that absolutely need staking. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with broad foliage. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, medium large size. 

SCHNEEWITTSCHEN. See Reine de I'Anjou. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 427 

SCHWAB EN Originator — Pfitzer. Intro. 1913 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments amber-white; anthers amber, violet sutures. Perianth amber-yellow 
(28-1) blotched in the throat with amaranth red (168-II1) and shaded with lemon- 
yellow. A compact bloom of excellent substance. Six to eight blooms open at 
one time. Spike a little too thickly set with blooms 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20-22), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium height, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with rather broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

SCRIBE Originator — Childs. Intro. 1906 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large (11-13 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white, red tips; anthers white. Perianth lilac-rose (lighter than 152-1), 
throat with light solferino fine lines and intermixed area making a blotch. Segments 
often lightly feathered with carmine. A dainty color. A good shape. Nine blooms 
open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 100 days. 

Spike — Tall (113 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21 on main, 7 on secondary). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

SEPTEMBER Originator — White 

Group — 
Stock from White 

Bloom — - Large (10 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than tjie lower reflexed 
segment. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth violet-rose (154-1) 
with a crimson-carmine (159-1) stippled throat blotch and a dash of lemon-yellow 
at the medial line of the blotch. White calls it " Cattleya orchid color, — no 
better gladiolus on earth for commercial use." Compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Early September; no to 115 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), not branched. 
Two spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow grass-like foliage. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

SHAKESPEARE (Cowee) Originator — ^onchei. Cataloged 1877, 

Vilmorin 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Cowee 
Bloom — Medinm size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrow. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers lavender. Perianth lilacy white 
with crimson-carmine dash in the throat. Bloom a good light color, a standard 
commercial variety. Differs from Michell's Shakespeare in that the latter is 
more angular, gandavensis-like, and the edges of the segments are regularly suffused 
and splashed, besides more blooms open at once. 
Season — Mid-season; 87 to 89 days. 



428 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium to dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Good; plant medivmi well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

SHAKESPEARE iMichell and others) Originator — Souchet. Cataloged 1877, 

Vilmorin 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Crawford ; Michell 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, medium slender, long. Segments 
vmequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white with red tips; anthers violet. Perianth white 
suffused and feathered with carmine-purple (156-1), with a large crimson- carmine 
(159-iv) blotch. Nine blooms open at one time. The bracts surrounding the 
bloom are often ver^- long. 

There are several Shakespeares, but, so far as those observed, they would all fit 
the description given, the main differences being in the shape and the degree of the 
feathering of the petals. 
Season — Medium early ; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SHIRLY Originator — ^ Stewart. Intro. 1910 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Small (6.5-7 tm.). Tube straight, very stout, very short. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and broad. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers faintest lilac. Perianth pale rosy pink (129-11) 
slightly feathered with deeper pink. Large French purple (i6i-iv) blotch on lower 
segments surrounded by lemon-yellow (21-11), a faint greenish white medial line 
on each segment. Striking bloom. Good substance. 

Season — Mid-season: 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), rather erect but often cuiA-ed, a fair number of blooms 
(15 on main, and 11 and 7 on secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, rather spreading. 

Growth — JVIedium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SIDNEY GRANT (Ruff). See Velvet King. 

SIEGER Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Velthuys 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, con- 
nivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (84) with a lemon-yeDow throat 
penciled -^Tth Tyrian rose. A bloom of excellent color, leathery substance, well 
open, and compact. 

Season — Mid-season ; about 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14), not branched. 
Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size, prolific; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 429 

SILVER STATE Originator — WWmore 

Group — 

Stock from Wilmore 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.)- Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-11) with a 

white throat marked with French purple (161-111). .V rather loose bloom of medium 

good substance. 
Season — IVIid-season; 97 days. 

Spike — Short (30 cm.), erect, a fair numlier of blooms, usually not branched. 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium small; cormels, prolific. 

Sm H. D. WOLFF Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1898 

Group — Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Medium size. Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrow. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers white. Perianth cardinal-red, white medial lines, lower part of 
small segments white with red penciling and striping. 
Season — August 9, 191 1 . 

Spike — • Medium tall, erect, a large number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves prominently 
veined. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

sm JOHN CRAGLE Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 

Group — ■ Kelwayi 
Stock from Kelway 

Synonym — John Churchill Cragle. 

Bloom — Large (lo-ii cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unec|ual, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (87-1) 
with pure amber-white throat, no markings. A good color. 

Season — Mid-season to late; no days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large, prolific ; cormels, small, few. 

sm MARCUS SAMUEL Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
nearly as broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth bright 
rosy scarlet (124-1), wide feathering or splashes of vermilion extending deep 
into the throat. A finely speckled throat of carmine-purple (156-iv). A fine 
looking bloom. 

Season — Mid-season; 95 to 100 days. 

Spike — Verj' tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Rather drooping because of the great height, spreading, long branches. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 



430 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

SIR THOMAS DEWAR Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Childsii 
Stock from Kelway 

Synonym — Also cataloged as Sir Thomas Drew. 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly 
straight and narrower. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers blue-violet. Peri- 
anth Lincoln red (88-1), edges of segments splashed with dull purple lake, the 
lower segment with a lemon-yellow (21-11) spot penciled with ox blood red (94-1). 
Color not clear, splashing seems rather objectionable. 

Season — 82 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20 on main, 9 on a 
branch). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

SIR THOMAS DREW. See Sir Thomas Dewar. 

SIR WILLIAM INGRAM Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1908 

Group — Princeps seedling 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, long. Segments nearly 
equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and narrower than the lower straight 
segment. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers darkest violet. Perianth scarlet 
(87-1) splashed with vermilion-red (87-iv); same marking in throat as Princeps 
has, but the markings are not so thick. Compared with Princeps, the color is 
less clear, it is earlier, and the throat markings more decided. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 83 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (94 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), not branched. 
IT wo spikes often occur per corm. 

Ilabtt — Rather drooping, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant very well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

SMOKY VIOLET. See Evaline. 

SNOWBANK Originator — Cowee. 1900. Reg. A. 

G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Cowee 

Synonyms — Sandersoni or Princess Sandersoni. Much like Alice Carey (Teas) and 
Snowcrest. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
sometimes narrower. Stamen filaments pure white; anthers lilac. Perianth pure 
white, throat penciled and shaded laterally with solferino red (157-iv), with an 
area of yellow at the side of the solferino red. Compact. Medium good substance. 
Eight blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, meditun tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SNOWCREST. See Snowbank and Alice Carev. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 431 

S. PARNELL Origiftator ~ ChMs. Intro. 1908. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth rosy pink (ii8-iv), 
the lower segments with dashes of deep crimson-carmine. Good substance. 
The specimens from the two corms in the plots for 1912 were so arranged that 
the main spikes and laterals were fused so that the blooms apparently came out 
from all sides of the spike in a whorl. Twenty-nine blooms occurred in the space 
of 30 centimeters. 

Season — Medium late; in days. 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (29). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size. 

SPILLER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1909 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal, slightly hooded, and broad, the 
lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips: anthers lilac. 
Perianth rosy pink (ii8-iv), fades lighter at the base. Each upper segment has 
a white medial line. Lower segments have carmine-purple (156-iv) pencilings 
on a canary-yellow throat (17-1). Medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 80 to 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, and 10 
and II on secondaries). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, compact. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large ; cormels, few. 

SPLENDOR Originator — ChMs. Intro. 1893. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — - Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curv^ed, medium slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower straight and 
broad. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Lincoln red (88-1) 
blotched v/ith strawberry red (iio-iv). Excellent substance, good color. Childs 
calls the color " soft rose, large magenta stain." 
Seaso7t — Mid-season; 100 days. 

Spike — Short (61 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; rather poor narrow foliage, perhaps abnormal. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SPOT Originator — ChMs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curv^ed, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrow. Stamen filaments pink; anthers violet. Perianth lilacy white 
splashed with Tyrian rose, throat mottled with Tyrian rose, making an attractive 
lined blotch. Medium substance. Well open. Six blooms open at one time. 
Season — 92 to 100 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12). 



43^2 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow lea\-es. 

Corms — Medium size: cormels, medium prolific. 

SPRING SONG Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. 

S., 1914 
Group — 
Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and narrow, the lower reflexed. Stamen filaments 
white; anthers lilac. Perianth lemon-yellow (21-1) with deep canarj^ -yellow 
throat marked and feathered with Tyrian rose (155-111). A slight feathering 
throughout the segments. Bloom compact and of rather good substance. Four 
to seven blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid- August;. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. Two 
spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

STERLING. See Minnesota. 
STEWART NO. 11. See Evaline. 

STEWART NO. 30 Originator — Stewart 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed, 
also broad. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth a little pinker 
than yellowish salmon sparsely feathered with deep rose-pink (120-11), throat 
marked by Tyrian rose (155-iv and lighter). A delicate color. 

Season — Mid-season; 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15 on main, 7 on 

secondary^ • 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, often drooping 

leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

STEWART NO. 74 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 1912 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8-9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ment? unequal, connivent; the upper reflexed and broad, the lower narrower and 
reflexed. Stamen filaments j-ellowish; anthers \iolet. Perianth light pure pink 
(134) splashed with deep rose-pink (120-1) with a lined blotch of crimson-carmine 
on a pale yellow throat. Bloom neat in shape; the color marbled; flowers show 
a strong oppositiflorus tendency. 

Season — Mid-season to medium late; 90 to 100 days. 

Sfrike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (17), two branches. Two 
spikes or three shoots often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, large, prolific. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 433 

STEWART NO. 98 Ongiuator — Stevjari. Intro. 19 12 

Group — 
Stock from vStewart 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and also 
broad. Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-ivj but 
with a drab tinge, throat lined with carmine-red (113-iv). Seems a dainty color; 
well open ; a rather compact bloom of good substance. 

Season — Rather late; loi to 105 days. 

Spike — Medium short (65 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11). 

Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 

Croivth — Medium vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Conns — Medium size; cormels, few. 

STEWART NO. 99 Originator — Stewait. Intro. 1912 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, verj- short. Segments unequal, 
connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refie.xed and narrow. Stamen 
filaments cream; anthers violet. Perianth reddish purple (161-1 V) with a lemon- 
yellow throat, finely and sparsely dotted with reddish purple. Lemon-yellow 
mecfial lines in all segments. Would be called a good deep red. A compact bloom 
of medium good substance. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), not branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, medium prolific. 

STEWART NO. 102 Originator — Stewart 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Large (13 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. vStamen filaments 
reddish; anthers red- violet. Perianth scarlet (85-1 v) speckled and lined with 
scarlet, throat amber-white (12-1). Good deep color. Si.x blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 to 100 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (74 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes per 
corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

STEWART NO. 103 Orig/?;c/o/- — Stewart. Intro. 1912 

Group — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments pinkish; style white. Perianth scarlet (87-1) 
fading to crushed strawberry (109-1), medial line and faint streaks of raspberry 
red (117-iv) on a yellowish pink throat. 

Season — Mid-season; 87 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Groicth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



434 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

STEWART NO. io8 Originator — Stewart. Intro. 191 2 

Group - — 
Stock from Stewart 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers red-violet. Perianth purple-garnet (165-1) 
becoming much lighter at the edges, the amber throat thickly dotted with 
purple-garnet. Compact bloom of medium substance. Six blooms open at one 
time. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). Two spikes often 
borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large size; cormels, prolific. 

STEWART NO. 113 Originator — Stewart 

Group — 

Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers violet. Perianth deep cerise (123-iv) splashed 

with deeper cerise, blotch of raspberry red (117-iv) bordered with lemon-yellow. 

A good pink. Bloom well open and of medium good substance. 
Season — - Mid-season to late; 104 days. 

Spike — Medium tall {75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — ■ Medium large; cormels, medium prolific. 

SULPHUR KING Originator — Childs. Intro. 1904. Reg. 

A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium long, medium slender. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly 
reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments white ; anthers lavender. Perianth creamy 
white (lo-iv), yellow-green blotch on lower segments, edges of segments marked 
with crimson-carmine. Bloom not ver\' well open. 
Season — Early to later August; 102 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (20). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SULPHUR QUEEN Originator — Stewart. Intro. 191 1. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — 

Stock from Stewart 
Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth light canary -yellow 
(17-1), touch of Tyrian rose deep in the throat, no blotch. A good tlear color. 
Bloom possesses good substance. Four blooms open at once. 
Season — Mid-August; 93 to 95 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, blooms freely (23 on main, 1 1 and 9 on secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, proHfic. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



435 



SULTANE Originator — Krelage 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — ^ledium size (8 cm.)- Tube cur\-ed, medium slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and nar- 
rower. Stamen fila- 
ments cream-w h i t e ; 
anthers cream-white. 
Perianth rosy or 
amber-white blotched 
with turkey-red (92- 
IV), the medial line 
being deeper in color. 
Attractive colors. A 
compact l^loom r^f me- 
dium substance. 

Season — Medium early; 72 
days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 
cm.), erect, a fair num- 
ber of blooms (.14), 
branched. Two spikes 
per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium 
tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous ; plant 
well furnished with 
medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; 
cormels, prolific. 

SUNBEAM 

Originator — 
Group — Primulinus 

seedling 
Stock from Vaughan 

Bloom — Medium size (8 
cm.). Tube curved, 
slender, long. Seg- 
ments unequal, conni- 
vent ; the upper hooded 
and broad, the lower 
refle.xed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments yel- 
low ; anthers yellow 
with \-iolet sutures. 
Perianth near light 
cadmium yellow (23- 
l), medial line of lower 
segment ox blood red 
(94-1 v) not blotched, 
the outer segments 
faintly feathered. A compact bloom of good substance and good clear color. 

Season — Early August; 63 davs. 

Sptke — Tall (no cm.), erect, graceful, a fair number of blooms (13 on m.ain, 7 on a 
branch), the branches long. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with good broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, prolific. 




Fig. 67. suLTAXE 



436 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

SUNSET 35 Originator — 

» Group — 

Stock from Tracy 

Bloom — Large (11-12 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, rather short. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower nearly 
straight and broad. Stamen filaments dirty white; anthers lavender; style 
yellow. Perianth nearly madder lake (122-111). Good color, good substance, well 
open, attractive blotch. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 107 days. 

Spike — ■ Medium tall (98 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — IMedium size; cormels, prolific. 

SUNSHINE" Originator — Childs. Cataloged 1904 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — ■ Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.\ed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers cream with lilac sutures. 
Perianth lemon-yellow (21), throat dashed with Tyrian rose (155-1). Much 
resembles Victor^s Isaac Buchanan, and others. Flowers have a tendency to 
double. A compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Medium late; 11 1 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (95 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (20), branched. 

Habit — Tall, erect, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

SURPRISE33 Originator — Childs 

Group — 
Stock from Cavers 

Bloom — Small (5.5 cm.). Tube curved, slender, short. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments white: anthers gray. Perianth outer segments geranium red (iii-i), 
.inner segments rosy pink (118-1), blotches of carmine-purple (156-iv) cut by 
medial line of amber-white. Not a good color. Not a ver\' attractive variety. 
Four blooms open at one time. 

Season — Rather late; 103 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

TACONIC Originator — Cowee. Intro. 1900 

Group — 
Stock from Cowee 

Synonyms — Perfection; Gertrude. George Betscher said to be a synonym. 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth rosy pink (ii8-iv) flecked 
with Rose Neyron red (119-iii-iv), throat lighter in color. On the lower segments 
is a blotch of strawberry red (iio-i) deeper at the medial line, the blotch tipped 
by a dash of lemon-yellow. A good color, well-arranged spike, medium substance. 
Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 86 days. 



* Childs catalogs a pink variety of this name. 

" Kelway originated a variety by this name in 1902. 

s^Lemoine and Vilmorin have each originated varieties by this name. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 437 

Spike — Tall (100 cm.), erect, blooms freely (17-22). Two spikes per corm. 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with prominently veined leaves. 
Corms — Medium size ; cormels, medium prolific. 

TALLEST YELLOW. See El Capitan. 

TALLYHO Originator — Austin 

Group — • 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and nearly as broad 
as the upper. Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth lilacy white 
(7-1) blotched with Tyrian rose (155) bordered by a slight shading of yellow. 
Flowers face various directions; the segments have a tendency to roll; a rather 
loose bloom of good substance. 

Season — jMid-season to late; 108 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, very spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

TAVISTOCK Originator — Gage 

Group — Princeps hybrid 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — -Large (13 cm.). Tube curv-ed, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refle.xed and narrower. Stamen filaments 

; anthers violet. Perianth scarlet (85-111), throat amber- white 

(12-1) penciled with crimson-carmine (114-iv). Mr. Gage writes: "The 
red is not quite so bright, and the light blotch is less conspicuous than in Princeps." 
Compact bloom of medium good substance. Seven blooms open at one time. 

Season — Medium late; no days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium S'ze; cormels, prolific. 

THALIA Originator — Vilmorin. First cata- 

loged, 1877 
Group — • Gandavensis 
Stock from Childs 
Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube almost straight, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, conmvent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers violet. Perianth lilacv white 
splashed with light Tyrian rose (155-1), Tyrian , rose (155-111) pencilings in 
the throat. Good light color, a compact bloom of good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — ■ Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

THE GEM Originator — Chnsiy 

Group — 

Stock from Christy 
Bloom — Small (6 cm.). Tube nearly straight, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and broader. 
Stamen filaments lilacy white; anthers white with lilac suture Unes. Perianth 



438 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

lilac (176-1), a trifle dark to be called lilacy white although the color is often very- 
light, blotched with reddish violet (180-1) terminating in a faint lemon-yellow 
point or dash. A very dainty color; a round open bloom, attractive, compact, 
and of good substance. 

Season — • Christy calls it among the earliest; 88 days on trial grounds. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, slightly cun^ed, a fair number of blooms (18), 
branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — - Medium size; cormels, few. 

THOMASENA Originator ~RuR. Reg. A. G. S., 1914 

Group — 
Stock from Ruff 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 

unequal, conn i vent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and nanower. 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-violet. Perianth near madder lake (122-11) 

blotched with near blood red (93-1 v). A rather loose bloom of medium poor 

substance. 
Season — ■ Mid-season; 81 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), branched. 
Habit — ■ Erect, though often drooping, medium tall, spreading. 
Growth — Vigorous; plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

TIGER Originator — Tracy 

Group — 
Stock from Tracy 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube slightly curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments equal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and broad. Stamen filaments vermilion; anthers violet. Perianth carthamin red 
(88-1) blotched with old blood red (103-iv) marked with garnet-brown. Not 
a clear color, but odd. 

Season — Mid-season; 93 days. 

Spike — • Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (19). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium Inroad leaves. 

Corms — • Large; cormels, large. 

TITANIC Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Large (14 cm.). Tube straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, conni- 
vent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen 
filaments w-hite; anthers white, sutures blue. Perianth lilac-purple (160-iv) with 
white medial line in throat and darker areas on each side. A loose bloom of 
rather good substance. Four blooms open at once. 

Season — Mid-season; 105 days. 

Spike — ■ Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15;. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

TRIOMPHE DE CAEN 0«gma/or — Barette-Vilmorin. Intro. 

1903 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Dreer 
Bloom — -Large. Tube straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, connivent; the upper 
horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments lilac 
tinged; styles greenish. Perianth creamy white, each segment strewed and 
splashed with pure mauve (181-11). 



Gladiolus Studies — III 439 

Season — • September i, 191 1. 

Spike — Medium tall, crooked, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with narrow leaves. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

UMPLEBY NO. 5. See Maize. 

UMPLEBY NO. 65 Ongmaior — Umpleby 

Group — 

Stock from Umpleby 
Bloom — Medium size (7.5 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and also broad. 

Stamen filaments lavender; anthers lavender, sutures violet. Perianth magenta 

(182-iv) blotched a very deep reddish violet (i8o-iv) on a lemon-yellow throat. 

The lower inner segment very small and narrow. 
Season — • Mid-season to late; 99 days. 
Spike — Tall (108 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (14 on main, 8 and 6 on 

secondaries). 
Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, prolific. 

UMPLEBY NO. 385. See Mrs. A. C. Beal. 

VELVET KING Or/gma/or — Coblentz 

Group — 

Stock from Crawford (William Ma- 
son); Mallory & Brown (William 
Mason); Babcock (William Mason); 
Vaughan (Velvet King) 
Synonyms — Coblentz No. 312; Emma (Coblentz); Grenadier (Huntington); Sidnev 
Grant (Ruff); William Mason (Crawford); Richmond Red (suggested by Teas). 
Bloom — -Large (9-10 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and often broader. Stamen filaments red; anthers violet. Perianth cochineal 
red (83-111), throat marked with crimson-red, the outer edges penciled with drab. 
Ver^^ attractive velvety appearance. Compact bloom of good .substance. 
Season — ]Mid-season ; 85 days. 
Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (19), branched. Two or 

more spikes per corm. 
Habit — Tall, erect, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

The name given to this variety is chosen because it is the first one used which has 
not been applied to another variety previously. 

VICTORY Originator — Christy, "probably 1903"; 

Cowee, 1909. Both claim the honor. 
Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Gandavensis 
Stotk from Christy; Co"wee 
Bloom — Medium size (9.5 cm.). Tube almost straight, stout, medium long. Seg- 
ments unequal, connivent: the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers white, sutures violet. Perianth 
lemon-yellow (21-1) splashed with old rose (144-in) in throat. A clear yellow; 
well arranged. Six blooms open at one time. Burt notes that the spike opens 
up well in water. 
Season — Mid-season; 89 to 93 days. 



440 



Cornell Extension Bulletin h 




Fig. 68. umplery no 65 



Gladiolus Studies — III 441 

Spike — • Tall (102 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Two spikes per corm. 

Habit — Erect, m^edium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, fairly prolific. 

VIKING Originator — Krelage 

Group — • 
Stock from Krelage 

Bloom — Aledium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, reddish tips; anthers red- violet. Perianth French purple 
(161-1), throat lemon-yellow stippled and penciled with French purple (161-iv). 
As the bloom ages, a lilacy tinge develops over the throat and edges of the seg- 
ments, at the same time the segments have a tendency to roll. 

Season — Early; 71 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

VIPER Originator — Kelway. Intro. 1906 

Group — July Flowering 
Stock from Kelway 
Bloom — Large (11 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, long. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white deepening to dark red; anthers reddish violet. Perianth 

blood red (93) penciled with deeper ox blood red on a yellowish throat. \'ery 

deep color; an extremely well-open, flat bloom. 
Season — Mid-season; 80 to 84 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), slender, erect, a fair number of blooms (13). Two 

spikes borne per corm. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow foliage. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

VISTA (Austin) 'Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

5/oow — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower refiexed and 
usually broader. Stamen filaments white; anthers lavender. Perianth white 
tinted with lavender and blotched with hehotrope (188-111). The bud has a 
ruffled appearance. 

Season — Mid-season; 98 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad, drooping leaves. 

Corms — Large ; cormels, few. 

VISTA (Burchett) Originator — Burchett 

Group — 
Stock from Burchett 

Bloom — Large (10.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower slightly refiexed and 
narrower. Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers lavender; stigmas red. 
Perianth vermiHon-red (87-11) blotched with canar\^-yellow on lower segments, 
throat finely speckled. Bloom somewhat angular; segments slightly ruffled. 

Season — Mid-season; 96 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). Often two spikes per 
corm. 



442 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves, which often have 

a tendency to droop. 
Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

V. L. S. R. Originator — Auten 

Group — 
Stock from Auten 

Bloom — Medium to large (ii cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, short. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper and broader segment with the edges reflexed, 
the lower straight. vStamen filaments light lilac; anthers lilac, sutures dark 
blue. Perianth coral-red (near 76-iv) with large carmine- red blotches on a yellow- 
green throat. Attractive color; bloom well open; excellent, decorative variety. 

Season — Early to mid-season; 80 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (90 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 10 on a 
branch). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groiuth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, small, few. 

WACHUSETTS Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 

Group — ■ 

Stock from Chamberlain & Gage 

Bloom — Medium size (8.5 cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers red-violet. Perianth near salmon (lighter 
than 72-1), edges of segments deeper, a penciled blotch of deep French purple 
(161-iv) on the lower lip. Excellent color; compact bloom of excellent substance, 
velvety texture, and good form. Six blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (83 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. Two 
spikes frequently borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Ver>- vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

WANDA Originator — Coblentz 

Croup — 
Stock from Coblentz 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube straight, very stout, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and often 
broader. Stamen filaments pinkish white; anthers blue-violet. Perianth Tyrian 
rose (155-1) gradually merging to violet-rose toward the throat, medial lines 
amber- white, large blotch of deep Tyrian rose (155-iv) on a canary -yellow throat. 
Striking. 

Season — Mid-season; 88 to 95 days. 

Spike — Very tall (132 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17 on main, 8 on a branch). 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Very vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

WAUKESHA Originator — Childs. Cataloged, 1896. 

Reg. A. G. S., 1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 
B/ooOT — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white, red tips; anthers violet. Perianth vermilion-red (87-1) 



Gladiolus Studies — III 443 

with a lemon-yellow throat penciled and dotted with French purple (i6i-iv), 
each of the inner segments often blotched. A rather loose bloom of medium 
good substance, well open. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season to late; 102 days. 

Spike — -Tall (115 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (13), usually not branched. 

Habit — Erect, tall, spreadmg. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant medium well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 

Corms — Medium large; cormels, few. 

WEISSE DAME. See White Lady and Rochester White. 

WHITE AND GOLD Originator — 

Group — Lemoine'i 
Stock from Wright 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments cream-white; anthers white, suture lines lavender. Perianth 
white, often slightly rose tinted, throat lemon-yellov; blotched with deep purple- 
garnet (165-iv). Compact bloom of good substance. A good variety, but does 
not compare with La Luna of which type it is. 

Season — - Early to medium early; 76 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, few. 

WHITE CREPE Originator — Austin 

Group — 
Stock from Austin 

Bloom — Large (10 cm.). Tube straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, connivent; 
the upper horizontal and broad, the lov/er reflexed and broad. Stamen filaments 
pinkish; anthers white, sutures lavender. Perianth lilacy white (7-1) splashed 
with rosy magenta (169-1) in outer and lower segments, a deep medial line on 
lower segments shades lighter on each side to form a blotch. Good substance, 
segments crinkled like crepe cloth. Three blooms open at one time. 

Season — Early; 70 days. 

Spike — Tall (105 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16-18), two branches. 

Habit — • Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 

WHITE EXCELSIOR. See Reine de I'Anjou. 

WHITE KING Originator — Kunderd. Reg. A. G. S., 

IQI4 
Group — Ruffled 
Stock from Kunderd 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments cream; anthers lavender, sutures violet. 
Perianth amber- white (12-11) blotched with Tyrian rose. This is undoubtedly 
a seedling of Glor\', which it closely resembles in form and color of blotch, but 
the color is lighter than that of Glon,' and the blotch is bordered bj' deeper yellow- 
green. Excellent form. Five blooms open at one time. 

Season — Mid-season ; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (21), two branches. 
Two spikes borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous: plant well furnished with ver\- broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, prolific. 



444 Cornell Extension Bulletin h 

WHITE LADY Originator — H a a g e & Schmidt. 

Intro. 1897 
1 Group — Gandavensis 

Stock from Haage & Schmidt; 
Haentze & Company 
Synonyms — Vv'eisse Dame. By many said to be a synonym of Rochester White, 

also of White Queen. 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, medium slender, medium long. 
Segments unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed 
and narrower. Stamen filaments white; anthers creamy white. Perianth pure 
white, with a slight lemon-yellow tinge in lower segments. See Rochester White 
for comparison with this variety. Under certain conditions a feathering of carmine 
develops in the segments. 
Season — Mid-season, later than Rochester White; 95 to 100 days. 
Spike — Mediimi tall (75 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Not vigorous; plant well furnished with medium Inroad bright green leaves. 
Corms — Medium large; cormels, few, small. 

WHITE QUEEN. See Rochester White and White Lady. 

WILD ROSE Originator — Childs. Reg. A. G. S., 

1914 
Group — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower leflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments reddish; anthers violet. Perianth Ijright rose (128-iv) penciled 
with Tyrian rose (155) in the throat, segments slightly feathered and suffused 
with carmine. A good pink; bloom well open; flowers often somewhat bunched 
on the stem. 

Season — Rather late; 1 13 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (70 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (u). 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

WILHELM STEINHAUSEN Originator — Vfitzev. Intro, before 

1906 
Group — Nanceianus 
Stock from Pfitzer 
Bloom — Medium large (9-10 cm.). Tube cur\'ed, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments orange; anthers violet. Perianth poppy color (84-1) becoming 
lighter in the throat, blotched with carmine, segments feathered a slightly deeper 
poppy color. Rather loose bloom of medium substance, bright color, well open. 
Season — Rather early ; 74 days. 

Spike — ]\Iedium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (15), branched. 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Medium vigorous; plant well furnished with medium Ijroad leaves. 
Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 

WILLIAM MASON (Crawford). See Velvet King. 

WINIFRED Originator — Crawford 

Group — 

Stock from Crawford 
Bloom — Small size. Tube straight, slender, long. Segments equal, connivent; the 
upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. Stamen filaments 



Gladiolus Studies — III 445 

light pink; styles whitish. Perianth poppy red (84) with a cream-white throat 
and white medial lines, throat often has a faint Tynan rose (155) streak. Com- 
pact spike. 

Season — - 

Spike — Medium tall, erect, free blooming. 

Habit — Erect, medium dwarf, spreading. 

Crozi'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium narrow leaves. 
(Described by George J. Burt.) 

WINSOME Originator — MiUer 

Croup — Childsii 
Stock from Childs 

Bloom — Large do cm.). Tube nearly straight, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal with reflexed edges, the lower reflexed and nar- 
rower. Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers red-\-iolet. Perianth lilacy white 
thickly suffused u-ith violet-rose (154-1), with a large French purple blotch 
(161-IV). A weU-open, round, compact bloom of good substance; color not so 
clear as it might be; edges of segments slightly niffled. 

Season — Mid-season; 77 days. 

Spike — Tall (no cm.), ven,- erect, a fair number of blooms (16), two branches. 

Habit — - Ven." erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Groicth — \'igorous ; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium large; cormels, prolific. 

WOODRUFF NO. 2-701 Or/g/«a/or — Woodruff 

Group 

Stock from Woodruff 
Bloom — Meiium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium stout. Segments 

unequal, connivent ; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments white, pink tips; anthers \-iolet. Perianth hlacy white [J-IK 

often with a salmony tinge, feathered with lilac-rose, lines of deep iilac-rose on a 

yellow-green throat. As the bloom ages carmine develops. 
Season — Mid-season to late; loi days. 
Spike — Medium tall (87 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms {22 on main. 6 on 

a branch). 
Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 
G'^ozcth — - Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 
Cyins — Large; cormels, few. 

WOODRUFF NO. in Originator — WoodruS 

Group — • 

Stock from Woodruff 
Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube cur\-ed, slender, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent: the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments reddish; anthers cream. Perianth amber- white (12-1) often 

completely suffused u-ith rose, attractively blotched with crimson-red (114-iv; 

bordered with deep amber- white (12-iv). A rather loose bloom of good substance. 

Four blooms open at one time. 
Season — Early; 78 days. 

Spike — - Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms. 
Habit — - Erect, medium taU, spreading. 

G'ozi'th — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Co'-ms — Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

YELLOW BIRD Originator — 

Group — 
Stock from Wright 

Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube curved, stout, short. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upp>er horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 



446 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 

Stamen filaments pinkish; anthers yellow. Perianth yellow (really amber-white 
12-iv) with a broad dash of Tyrian rose in the throat surrounded by lemon-yellow 
(21-1). Compact bloom of medium good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 85 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (80 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (17), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — • Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

YELLOW BRENCHLEYENSIS. vSee Hollandia. 
YELLOW JACKET. See Madam Butterfly. 

YELLOWSTONE Originator — Hoeg 

Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower, 
Stamen filaments yellow; anthers yellowish. Perianth lemon-yellow (21 -11) 
blotched with amaranth red (i68-iv). Resembles Lemon Drop, but has a larger, 
broader blotch than the latter, as well as yellow anthers instead of lavender. 
Yellowstone is the larger bloom. Blotch well defined, excellent pubstance, well 
open. 

Season — - Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — Medium tall (74 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (16), branched. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 

Corms — ■ Medium size; cormels, prolific. 

ZEPHYR Originator — Krelage 

Group — Lemoinei hybrid 
Stock from Krelage 
Bloom — Medium size (8 cm.). Tube nearly straight, stout, short. Segments unequal, 

connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments cream ; anthers pink. Perianth reddish old rose (142-1), blotched 

with carmine (116-1) bordered with lemon-yellow. Attractive pink, excellent 

shape, compact, medium good substance. 
Season — Mid-season; 82 days. 
Spike — Medium tall (85 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (12), branched. Two 

spikes per corm. 
Habit — • Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — Vigorous; plant well furnished with medium broad leaves. 
Corms — Large; cormels, few. 

ZEPPELIN Originator — "P^itzer. Intro. 1914 

Group — Gandavensis 
Stock from Pfitzer 

Bloom — -Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, medium long. Segments 
unequal, connivent; the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 

Stamen filaments ; anthers . Perianth pure 

white with a slight tinge of Tyrian rose (i 55-11) on lower segments. Excellent 
clear white; blooms face various directions; compact; good substance. 

Season — Mid-season; 90 days. 

Spike — -Tall (100 cm.), erect, a large number of blooms (25), branched. Two spikes 
borne per corm. 

Habit — ■ Erect, tall, spreading. 

Growth — • Vigorous; plant well furnished with broad leaves. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



Gladiolus Studies — III 447 

ZINGARI Origi'ialor — Hoeg. Reg. A. G. S., 

1915 
Group — 
Stock from Hoeg 

Synonym — Formerly Hoeg Xo. 96. 

Bloom — Medium size (9 cm.). Tube curved, slender, long. Segments unequal, 
connivent: the upper horizontal and broad, the lower reflexed and narrower. 
Stamen filaments white; anthers lilac. Perianth Rose Xeyron red (119-111), 
the edges of the segments light Rose Xeyron red (119-1), blotched with carmine- 
purple (156-111) with a dash of lemon-yellow at the tip of the blotch. Compact 
bloom, good substance, an especially good pink. 

Season — • Mid-season to late; no to 120 days. 

Spike — Medium short (60 cm.), erect, a fair number of blooms (11), not branched. 
Two spikes often borne per corm. 

Habit — Erect, medium tall, spreading. 

Growth — \'igorous; plant well furnished with broad lea\es. 

Corms — Medium size; cormels, few. 



448 Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



VARIETIES REGISTERED BY THE NOMENCLATURE COMMIT- 
TEE OF THE AMERICAN GLADIOLUS SOCIETY, BUT NOT 
DESCRIBED ON THE TRIAL GROUNDS 

VARIETY ORIGINATOR REGISTERED BY 

Registered jqtj 

Fireflare Childs Childs 

Fireking Childs Childs 

Mrs. F. M. Lupton Childs Childs 

Rarerav Childs Childs 

Shedowa Childs Childs 

Southampton Childs Childs 

Registered igi4 

A. D. Dimmick Cowee Cowee 

Aline Childs Childs 

Berkshire Cowee Cowee 

Berlinia Cowee Cowee 

Brilliant Childs Childs 

Burhngton Childs Childs 

Cardinal King Kunderd Kunderd 

Cherry King Kunderd Kunderd 

Compacta.- Childs Childs 

Cremilde Cowee Cowee 

Day tona Cowee Cowee 

Deborah Childs Childs 

Display Groff Cowee 

Dominion ' Cowee 

Duchess Childs Childs 

Edna Childs Childs 

Empire Cowee 

Evolution Perfectus Groff Cowee 

Excelsa Groff Cowee 

Faust Cowee Cowee 

Giant Pink Cowee Cowee 

Governor Hanley Kunderd Kunderd 

Harmonia Childs Childs 

Imperial Pink Childs Childs 

Improved May Kunderd Kunderd 

Intensity Cowee Cowee 

Ivorv Kunderd Kunderd 

Keokuk Childs Childs 

Lavandula Groff Cowee 

Little Violet Childs Childs 

London Groff Cowee 

Magnum Groff Cowee 

Mary Bancroft •. . Kunderd Chamberlain & Gags 

Mrs. A. E. Kunderd Kunderd Kunderd 

Mrs. Malcolm Mackay Kunderd Chamberlain & Gage 

Morning Star Childs Childs 

Myrtle Kunderd Kunderd 

Norma Dee Childs Childs Childs 

Oddity Childs Childs 

Old Oxford Childs Childs 

Papilio Rose Groff Cowee 

Passport Groff Cowee 

Peachblow Groff Cowee 

Rajah Kunderd Chamberlain & Gage 

Rutland (loi 4-J Cowee Cowee 

Sibonev Childs Childs 



Gladiolus STiDiEb — III 



449 



VARIETY ORIGINATOR REGISTERFD BY 

Registered 1914 

Silver Star Groff Cowee 

Snowbird Groflf ... Cowee 

Sunlight Childs Childs 

Superb Childs Childs 

Torchlight Childs Childs 

Variabilis Childs Childs 

Vi\-id . ." Groff Cowee 

War Groff Cowee 

White Cloud Cowee Cowee 

William Falconer Cliilds Childs 

Witch Cowee Cowee 

Wyandauch Childs Childs 

Youell's Favorite Kunderd Kunderd 



LARGE-FLOWERED VARIETIES 



All these varieties are at least 11 centimeters in diameter. 



52 
56 
57 
58 



Adelina 

Adolphe Jaenicke 

Afterglow (Cowee) 

AU-a-glow 

America 

Anton Buchner 

Arthur Toms 

Austin Xo. 25 

Austin Xo. 30 

Austin Xo. 

Austin Xo. 

Austin Xo. 

Austin Xo. 

Barclay 

Brightness 

California 

Candidum 

Captain C. B. Tanner 

Captain W. L. Reeves 

Cardisan 

Chamaeleon 

Charles L. Hutchinson 

Clarice 

Coblentz X'o. 003 

Countess of Leicester 

Dark Crimson 

Desderaone 

Dr. Erwin Ackerknecht 

Dr. WilUams 

Early Pink 

Electra 

Envin Maver 

Estella 

Eugene Sandow 

Euler 

Europa 

Evaline 

Fair Maid 

Fantastic 

Gallieni 

General Kuroki 

George Paid 



Gleam 

Glorj^ (Childs) 

Glory (Kunderd) 

Glory of Holland 

Governor McCormack 

Grahame-White 

Great Cardinal 

Grossfurstin EHsabeth 

Halley 

Hauff 

Helen 

Henri Lemoine 

Hiawatha 

Hoeg Xo. II 

Hoeg Xo. 17 

Hoeg Xo. 30 

Hoeg X'o. 31 

Hoeg Xo. 136 

Hofgartner Stapf 

Hostes 

Jumbo 

King of Gladioli 

King Philip 

Lacordaire 

Little Blush 

Littleton 

Louis Walter 

Magnate 

Mastodon 

Mayor 

Mehlmann No. 329 

Melrose 

Minnehaha 

Mrs. A. C. Beal 

Mrs. Francis King 

Mrs. Frank Pendleton 

Mrs. G. W. Willock 

Mrs. Montague Chamberlain 

Mrs. W. E. Fryer 

Monster 

Nancy Ray 

Niagara 



4SO 



Cornell Extension Bulletin ii 



Nonpareil 

Ophir 

Panama 

Parliament 

Parody 

Peace 

Pink Perfection 

Pioneer 

Pocahontas 

Primulinus Hybrid (| Ruffled) 

Prince George 

Princeps 

PrometKeus 

Queen of Sheba 

Ray 

Red Lion 

Rosella 

Rose Queen 



Rose Salmon Extra 

Rose Wells 

Rosy Spray 

Royalty 

Ruthony Longside 

St. Louis 

Scarlet Velvet 

Scarsdale 

Scribe 

Sir John Cragle 

Sir William Ingram 

Stewart No. 102 

Sunset 

Tavistock 

Titanic 

Triomphe de Caen 

Viper 

V. L. S. R. 



TALL VARIETIES 

All these varieties are at least 105 centimeters tall; the tallest ones 
are marked with an asterisk (*). 



Alois Nerger 

Anton Biichner 
*Aprikosa 

Arizona 

Augusta 

Aurora (Childs) 

Austin No. 56 

Austin No. 57 

Austin No. 58 

A. W. Clifford 
*Bertha Comstock 

Bessie Rand 

Blood Spot 

Britannia 

Burchett No. 389 

California 

Canary Bird 

Canicule 
*Chalice 

Charlotte Pfitzer 

Charmer 
*Chieftain 
*Coblentz No. 003 

Coblentz No. 400 

Countess of Leicester 
♦Crystal White 
♦Cynosure 

Dannecker 
♦Dark Crimson 

Desdemone 

Deuil de St. Pierre 
♦Dictum 

Dr. Erwin Ackerknecht 

Duke of Buccleuch 

Elector 

Erica von Barczay 

Erwin Mayer 



Estella 

Eugene Sandow 

Flambeau 
♦Flanagan No. I 

Florence 

Frau Dora Liebau 
♦Gates' White 

Gigantic 

Goethe 

Grace Henry 

Groff No. 224 

Grossfiirstin Elisabeth 

Hazel Harvey 

Helen Tracy 

Hostes 

Improved 1900 

King Humbert 

King of Gladioli 

King Philip 

La Candeur 

La Lorraine 
♦Lemon Drop 

Lucille 
♦Lucretia 

Lustrous 

Magnate 

Margaret 

Meteor 

Mildred 
♦Mrs. Francis King 

Mottled America 

Muriel 

Negerfiirst 

New America (Mallory & Brown) 
♦Niagara 

Nonpareil 

Oberammergau 



Gladiolus Studies — III 



451 



Orchid (Woodruff) 
Papilio ^lajor 
*Peace 
Philadelphia 
Phlegeton 

Primtdinus Hybrid (| Ruffled) 
Princess of Orange 
Prinzessin Viktoria Luise 
Reine de I'Anjou 
Renown 
Richard Strauss 
Romance 
Rose Red 
Rose Wells 
Ruffled Big Face 
Ruthony Longside 
Salmon Red Xo. i6 



Sanguine 

Saratoga 

Scarlet Letter 
*Scarsdale 
*Scribe 

Sir Marcus Samuel 

Sir Thomas Dewar 

Stewart Xo. 74 

Stewart Xo. 103 

Sunbeam 

Ta\-istock 

Umpleby Xo. 65 

Velvet King 

Vista (Burchett) 
*Wanda 

Waukesha 

White Crepe 

Winsome 



GOOD COMMERCIAL AND EXHIBITION VARIETIES 

Seventy-five varieties chosen because of their present poptilarity or 
promise of future use. 



Afterglow (Cowee) 

Alaska 

Alice Carey 

America 

Aprikosa 

Attraction 

Augusta 

Austin Xo. 52 

Badenia 

Baron Joseph Hulot 

Bertrex 

Blanche 

Brenchle^-ensis 

Canan,- Bird 

Ceres 

Chicago White 

Coblentz Xo. 003 

Dawn (Tracy) 

Decoration 

Elizabeth Kurz 

Empress of India 

Europa 

General Kuroki 

George Paul 

Glory (Kunderd) 

Golden King 

Goldfinder 

Grace Hemy- 

Grafin Degenfeld 

HaUey 

Hazel Har\'ey 

Hollandia 

Independence 

Jean Dieulafoy 

Klondyke 

La Luna 

Liebesfeuer 

Lilv Lehmann 



Loveliness 

May 

Meadowvale 

Michigan 

Mrs. A. C. Beal 

Mrs. Francis King 

Mrs. Frank Pendleton 

Mrs. Montague Chamberlain 

Mrs. W. E. Fr}er 

Mongolian 

Myrtle 

Xiagara 

Oberammergau 

Panama 

Paper White 

Peace 

Pink Perfection 

President Taft 

Primulinus Hybrid (| Ruffled) 

Princeps 

Prophetesse 

Reine de I'Anjou 

Richard Strauss 

Rosella 

Safrano 

Schwaben 

Scribe 

Senateur Volland 

Snowbank 

Sulphur King 

Sulphur Queen 

Sultane 

Sunset 

Taconic 

Velvet King 

Victory 

War 



^1 .-« ^'i.T ''°''" 3o>anical Garden Library 

QL 59 .G55m B42 pt. 1 -^ aen 

Bea , Alvin Casey/Gladiolus studies 




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