(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Glass and glass manufacture"

ii / 
ii 



; iililN COMMODITIES 
NDUSTRIES 



Glass and Glass 
Manufacture 




GLASS 



re 

PITMAN'S COMMON COMMODITIES 

AND INDUSTRIE S 

_- 



GLASS 

AND GLASS MANUFACTURE 



BY 

PERCIVAL MARSON 

CONSULTANT UPON REFRACTORY MATERIALS, ETC., 
HONOURS AND MEDALLIST IN GLASS MANUFACTURE 




LONDON 

SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD., 1 AMEN CORNEA, E.G. 
BATH, NEW YORK AND MELBOURNE 






// 1', I 



PRINTED BY SIR ISAAC PITMAN 
& SONS, LTD., LONDON, BATH, 
NEW YORK AND MELBOURNE 



ECTRONIC VERSIC I , 




CONTENTS 



CHAP. PAGE 

PREFACE . . . . V 

I. HISTORY ...... 1 

. II. THE CHEMISTRY OF GLASS-MAKING AND THE 

MATERIALS USED . . . . .4 

HI. THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 

OF GLASS . . . . . .15 

IV. THE COMPOSITION OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS 

OF GLASS ...... 24 

V. COLOURED GLASS AND ARTIFICIAL GEMS . 28 

VI. DECOLORIZERS 32 

VII. THE REFRACTORY MATERIALS USED . . 36 

VIII. GLASS HOUSE FURNACES . . . .43 

IX. GLASS-MELTING POTS AND THEIR 

MANUFACTURE . ' . . . .59 

X. LEHRS AND ANNEALING . . . .71 

XI. THE MANIPULATION OF GLASS 

GLASS-MAKERS' TOOLS AND MACHINES 76 



X CONTENTS 

CHAP. PAGE 

XII. CROWN, SHEET, AND PLATE GLASS . . 89 

XIII. TUBE, CANE, AND CHEMICAL GLASSWARE 98 

XIV. OPTICAL GLASS 104 

XV. DECORATIVE GLASSWARE . . . . .108 

XVI. ENGLISH AND FOREIGN METHODS OF GLASS 

MANUFACTURE COMPARED . . .118 

APPENDIX . . . . . .123 

INDEX . 125 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

AN OLD ENGLISH GLASS HOUSE, A.D. 1790 Frontispiece 

HORIZONTAL CRACKING-OFF MACHINE ... 16 
INTERIOR VIEW OF AN ENGLISH GLASS-MELTING 

FURNACE ....... 44 

EXTERIOR VIEW OF AN ENGLISH GLASS-MELTING 

FURNACE ....... 46 

SIEMENS SIEGBERT REGENERATIVE GLASS-MELTING 

FURNACE 

FIG. A. CROSS SECTION ..... 48 
. B. SECTIONAL PLAN ..... 49 
C. SECTIONAL ELEVATION .... 50 
A MODERN GLASS HOUSE. HERMANSEN's CONTINUOUS 
RECUPERATIVE GLASS-MELTING FURNACE, 12 
COVERED POT TYPE ..... 52 
HERMANSEN'S CONTINUOUS RECUPERATIVE GLASS- 
MELTING FURNACE, 8-POT TYPE . 53 

HERMANSEN FURNACE 

FIG. A. SECTION THROUGH GAS PRODUCER . . 54 

,, B. CROSS SECTION THROUGH GAS PRODUCER . 55 

,, C. SECTIONAL PLAN ..... 56 

" THE HARLINGTON " BOTTLE-MAKING MACHINE. . 79 

GLASS WORKER'S CHAIR ..... 81 

GLASSWARE BLOWN IN MOULDS, FIG. A. AND B. . 85 

VERTICAL CRACKING-OFF MACHINE ... 87 

FOUR STAGES IN CROWN GLASS MAKING (A, B, C, D) . 90 

SIX STAGES IN SHEET GLASS MAKING (A, B, C, D, E, F) . 91 

MACHINE FOR SMOOTHING BOTTOMS OF TUMBLERS . HO 

GLASS ENGRAVING 113 



XI 



GLASS AND GLASS 
MANUFACTURE 



CHAPTER I 

HISTORY 

THE discovery of making glass is attributed to the 
early Phoenicians. Pliny states that certain mariners 
who had a cargo of soda salt, having landed on the 
banks of a river in Palestine, started a fire to cook 
their food, and, finding no stones to rest their pots on, 
they placed under them some lumps of the soda from 
their cargo. They found that the heat of their fire had 
melted the soda and fused it with the sand of the river 
bank, producing a transparent glass. The natives in 
the vicinity where this discovery was made took it up, 
and in process of time carried on the practice of fusing 
sand with soda and other materials to make glass, until 
they succeeded in improving and bringing the art to a 
much higher degree of excellence. Discoveries amongst 
the ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum present some 
first-rate examples of the skill attained by the ancients 
in glass- making: glass was found to have been used there, 
admitting light into dwellings in the form of window 
glass. 

The ancient Egyptians have left us many distinct 
proofs that glassmaking was practised in Egypt. At 
the same time, the glazing of pottery was also carried 
out, proving that they knew the mode of mixing, 

1 

i (1465) 



2 GLASfc 

fusing, and inciting the proper ingredients for glass- 
making. Among the tombs of Thebes many speci- 
mens of glass and glazed pottery beads have been 
found, which suggests a date about 3,500 years ago. 

From the Egyptians, the Greeks and Romans acquired 
the art of glassmaking, which in Nero's tim'e was so 
highly developed that clear crystal glasses were produced 
in the form of drinking cups and goblets, which super- 
seded the use of gold cups and were much prized by the 
Emperor in those days. 

Many specimens of old Roman glass discovered have 
been preserved in the British Museum, and, although 
many valuable pieces have been lost by disintegra- 
tion and collapse due to the influence of years of expo- 
sure, there still remain some very fine examples which 
show that the Romans were highly skilled in glass- 
making. One of the finest examples of the work of 
the ancient Romans in glassmaking is the Portland 
Vase, which was unearthed near Rome. This is an 
ornamented vase showing white opaque figures upon a 
dark blue background. The white opal appears to 
have been originally cased all over the blue and the 
beautiful figures carved out in cameo fashion, with 
astonishing patience and skill upon the part of the 
operator. 

The Venetians and Muranians followed the Romans 
in the art, and examples of old Venetian glassware 
show rare skill and ingenuity. To the Venetians 
belongs the honour of first making glass at a cost to 
allow of its being more generally used, and they also 
introduced the art of making window glass and drinking 
vessels into this country. Jacob Verzelina, a Venetian, 
introduced such glassmaking into England, working at 
a factory in Crutched Friars, London, between 1550 
and 1557, where he made window glass, afterwards 



HISTORY 3 

carrying on similar work in other places about the 
country until his death in 1606. 

Not until 1619 were glass works started in the neigh- 
bourhood of Stourbridge. There we find some remains 
of a factory worked by Tyzack about that date in 
making window glass in the village of Oldswinford. 
That Stourbridge should have been selected as one of 
the early centres for glassmaking is probably due to 
the presence in that locality of the fire-clay so necessary 
and important to glass manufacturers in building their 
furnaces and pots, and the coal used for maintaining 
the fires for melting their glass. 

Stourbridge was known for a long time before this as 
a centre for the mines producing fire-clay, and eventually 
this clay was adopted for making glass-house pots; 
now many other sources are available for these fire- 
clays. Much of the antiquity of the glassmaking of 
England is hidden in the neighbourhood of Stourbridge, 
and the writer has himself found a few antique specimens 
of old green devitrified window glass embedded in the 
subsoil of some fields near Oldswinford, probably relics 
of the Huguenots, who practised and extended the 
art of glassmaking in that district. Other important 
centres for glassmaking now are Yorkshire, London, 
Manchester, Edinburgh, Newcastle, and Birmingham; 
but, although glassmaking has reached a high degree 
of excellence in this country, there is nothing yet 
comparable with the extensive factories which exist 
abroad. The conservatism of many English manu- 
facturers, and the adverse influence of the Glass Makers' 
Society, considerably restrict the progress of this trade 
compared with the broad and progressive manner in 
which it is carried on abroad. l 

1 See article " Trade Unionism," in last chapter. 



CHAPTER II 

THE CHEMISTRY OF GLASSMAKING AND THE 
MATERIALS USED 

THE term " glass," in a general sense, is applied to the 
hard, brittle, non-crystalline, transparent, opaque or 
translucent vitreous substance which results from 
fusing silicic acid with active mineral solvents or 
fluxes, such as the alkalies, earthy bases, or metallic 
oxides. Silicic acid, or silica, exists in great abundance 
in a free natural state in the form of flints, quartz, and 
sand, and in the latter form it is now most generally 
used for glassmaking. When sand alkali and lead 
oxide are heated together to a high temperature, the 
sand is dissolved by the solvent action of the fused 
alkali and lead oxide until the whole became a molten 
mass of glass. The solvent action of the alkalies, soda 
potash or lead oxide is very energetic whilst 
being heated, and the mass boils with evolution of 
gases until, at last, the solution, becoming complete, 
settles down to a clear quiescent molten liquid metal, 
which is quite soft and malleable, after the nature of 
treacle. In this condition it is ready for working. 
The time and temperature necessary for melting such 
mixtures vary according to the proportions and 
composition of the ingredients. 

Silica, combined with alumina and other oxides, is 
freely distributed in nature in the form of clays, granites, 
and felspars, which are also available for use in glass- 
making. Originally glass was made by using crushed 
and ground flint stones as the source for the silica: 
hence is derived the old name of " flint " glass; but now 
4 



THE CHEMISTRY OF GLASSMAKING 5 

the large extensive deposits of white sand present a 
much more convenient and less expensive source, and 
sand has become universally used. Fine white sand is 
obtained from Fontainebleau, near Paris; other sources 
are Lippe, Lynn, Aylesbury, Isle of Wight, Holland, and 
Belgium. x These are the sources preferred by crystal 
glass manufacturers and makers of fine quality glass, 
such as chemical ware pressed glass, tube, cane, and 
medical bottles, on account of their greater purity. The 
commoner varieties of sand from Reigate and Bagshot 
and even red sand have been used in the manufacture of 
the lower grades of glass such as beer bottles and jam 
jars, where a greater latitude in the chemical impurities 
present is permissible. Only the best and purest silica 
sands are used for making cut crystal and optical glasses. 
In these trades the sand is always cleaned by washing 
it in water to clear it from any salt, chalk, or other 
impurities which may possibly be present. The sand, 
after washing, is heated to redness, or " burnt," in order 
to burn off any organic or vegetable matter, and when 
cold it is sifted through a fine screen to take out any 
coarse grains or lumps. In this prepared state, the 
sand is ready for weighing out into the proportions 
desired for mixing with the other materials, and is 
stored for use in covered wooden compartments situated 
in or near the mixing rooms, along with the other 
materials which may be used in the glass mixtures. 

Tin- alkalies, potash or soda, or a mixture of both, 
arc ( -oninionly used in making glass in the form either 
of carbonates, sulphates, or nitrates. The soda and 
potash silicates form very fusible glasses, but they are 
not permanent, being soluble in water; therefore they 

1 See " British Glass Sands " (Boswell), " British Glassmaking 
Sands " (Peddle); papers read at the third meeting, Society of 
Glass Technology, Sheffield, for further information. 



6 GLASS 

cannot be used alone. In making glassware for domestic 
use, other bases, such as lead oxide, barium, or lime, 
have to be added to form more insoluble combinations 
with the silicic acid or sand. 

Carbonate of Potash or Pearlash, which before the 
war was imported into this country by glass makers 
from Strassfurt, is much prized by crystal glass makers 
on account of the colourless silicate it forms when fused 
with the best white sand. It is now very expensive 
and difficult to get, and is less used on this account. 
Potash carbonate is very hygroscopic and absorbs much 
moisture from the air; therefore it is necessary to keep 
it within sealed chests while in store. 

Potash and soda each have an influence upon the 
colour of the resulting glasses in which they are respec- 
tively used. The potash silicate gives better and clearer 
glasses than the soda silicate. 

Carbonate of Soda, or Soda Ash, is now more generally 
used. Being a less expensive form of alkali, it consti- 
tutes a base in most of the commoner varieties of 
glassware. Carbonate of soda is manufactured in 
England from common salt, of which there are large 
deposits in the Midlands. This common salt, or chloride 
of sodium, is treated chemically and converted into the 
carbonate, in which form it is supplied to the glass 
manufacturers as soda ash. 

Sulphate of Soda (Salt Cake) is the form of alkali 
used in window and bottle glassmaking. In mixtures 
containing sulphate of soda it is necessary to use a small 
proportion of carbon in some form, such as charcoal 
or coal, in order to assist the decomposition of the salt 
and the formation of the sodium silicate. Sulphate of 
soda is used in this class of glassware on account of its 
cheapness. Glasses made from sulphate of soda mix- 
tures are not so clear and colourless as those in which 



THK CHEMISTRY OF GLASSMAKING 7 

the source of alkali is potash or soda carbonate. On 
this account, the best crystal glasses cannot be made 
from sulphate of soda. 

Potash Nitrate (Saltpetre) is used in glass mixtures to 
oxidise the molten metal and improve the colour of 
the glass. In fusing it disengages oxygen gas, which 
purifies the glass while melting, and assists the decolor- 
izers in their action by keeping up an oxidising condition 
within the molten mass. 

Soda Nitre, or Chili Nitre, is the corresponding soda 
salt to potash nitre. It is much cheaper, but less 
pure; it has a similar but not nearly so powerful an 
oxidising action in the glass as potash nitre. It is 
exported from Chili, where it exists naturally in a crude 
state as " Calliches," from which the nitrate is refined 
by recrystallisation. 

Boric Acid acts as an acid in glass, as does silicic 
acid. It renders glass more fusible and brilliant; it 
has a searching action upon the colourising properties 
of certain metallic oxides when they are dissolved in 
the glass. It is an expensive ingredient, but is con- 
siderably used in optical and special chemical glassware 
in replacing a portion of the silicates ordinarily used and 
forming borates. It cannot be used in large amounts, 
as an excess produces glass of a less stable nature. 

Borax, or Borate of Soda, consists of boric acid 
combined with soda. It is a very useful glassmaking 
material and is an active fluxing agent. If used in 
excess in glass mixtures it causes considerable ebullition, 
or boiling of the metal. In moderate proportions it is 
used in the manufacture of enamels for glass, as it 
helps to dissolve the colorific oxides and diffuse the 
colouring throughout the enamel mass. 

Tincal, and Borate of Lime, are other forms in which 
boratts may be introduced into glass. 



8 GLASS 

Carbonate of Lime, Limespar, Limestone, Paris White, 
or Whitening are all forms of Calcium Carbonate. It is 
an earthy base and is added to the simple alkaline 
silicates and borates to form insoluble combinations or 
double silicates of soda and lime. By the use of lime, 
glasses are rendered more permanent and unchangeable 
when in use. Lime forms a very powerful flux at high 
temperatures. The quantity used must be carefully 
regulated according to the proportion of other bases 
present; otherwise an inferior or less stable glass may 
be produced. In excess it causes glass to assume a 
devitrified state. 

Dolomite is a Magnesium Limestone, and is a natural 
stone which is available for use in making glass in tank 
furnaces. 

Fluorspar, or Fluoride of Lime, is used in giving 
opacity and translucency to glass. It can only be 
used in small amounts, as the presence of any large 
proportion attacks the clay of the pots, causing serious 
damage by the sharp cutting chemical action due to 
the evolution of fluorine gas. 

Phosphate of Lime is another material which pro- 
duces opacity and translucency, but does not seriously 
attack the pots. Bone ash is a form of phosphate 
of lime, and is procured by calcining bones until all 
organic matter is consumed. 

Carbonate of Barium, or Barytes, is a very heavy, 
white powder, and is a form of earthy base available 
for use in glassmaking. It can be used to replace lime, 
with similar results. By replacing other elements in 
the glass which are of lower density, barium can be 
used to increase the density of glass. Like lime it is 
a very powerful flux in glass at high temperatures. 
It gives increased brilliancy and little coloration. For 
this reason it is very useful in the manufacture of 



THE CHEMISTRY OF GLASSMAKING 9 

pressed glassware, giving a glass which leaves the moulds 
with better gloss than is found to be the case with lime 
glasses. 

Magnesia and Strontia are other bases which are less 
used in glassmaking. 

Zinc Oxide is a base used in the manufacture of 
many optical glasses. With Boric Acid it gives silicates 
of a low coefficient of expansion and special optical 
values. Used with cryolite, it forms a very dense opal 
suitable for pressed ware. It is rather more expensive 
than the other bases used. 

Cryolite is a natural opacifying ingredient used in 
making opal glasses. It consists of a combination of 
the fluorides of alumina and soda, and is one of the most 
active fluxes known to glass and enamel makers. Its 
cutting chemical attack on the fire-clay pots is very 
intensive. It is imported from Greenland. An arti- 
ficially manufactured form of cryolite is known, which 
is a little cheaper than the natural variety and gives 
similar results in opacifying glass. 

Alumina. This is sometimes present to a small 
extent in glass makers' sands. As such it is not a danger- 
ous impurity. It exists in combination with silica and 
potash to a large extent in felspars, china clays, and 
granites. Alumina, when used, has a decided influence 
upon the viscosity and permanency of glass. In large 
proportions it noticeably diminishes the fusibility of 
glass, and makes it more or less translucent. Owing to 
the refractory nature of alumina it is with difficulty 
that it can be diffused in alkaline silicates, borates, or 
lead silicates; consequently any considerable proportion 
present in glass causes cords or striae, which are 
objectionable defects in the glass. 

Oxide of Lead. Red Lead, or Minium, is much used 
in the manufacture of enamels, table glassware, and 



10 GLASS 

heavy optical glass. It gives great brilliancy and 
density to all glasses in which it is used, but if used in 
excess the glass is attacked readily by mineral acids 
and becomes unstable. Red lead is a powerful flux, 
even at low temperatures, and forms the chief base in 
making best crystal ware and enamels. The red oxide 
of lead used by glass manufacturers is a mixture of the 
monoxide and peroxide. Glass manufacturers, in buy- 
ing red lead, should realise that it is the peroxide 
present which is the active oxidising agent, and that at 
least 27 per cent, should be present. A dull, dark red 
oxide shows a low percentage of peroxide; a bright 
orange red a high percentage. Impure red oxides of 
lead may be adulterated with barytes, finely divided 
metallic lead, or added water. Such impure varieties 
should be avoided. The red oxide of lead is preferred 
to the other oxides and forms of lead for glassmaking, 
on account of its greater oxidising action, which .is 
desirable in producing crystal glassware. 

Tin Oxide and Antimony Oxide are used as opacifiers. 
When used they generally remain suspended in a finely 
divided form in the glass. Used in small quantities 
they have a favourable influence in the development 
of ruby-coloured glasses. 

Manganese, Arsenic, and Nickel Oxides are used in 
glassmaking as " decolorizers," which will be treated 
in a later chapter. 

Gullet. In all glasses a proportion of "cullet," or 
broken glass scrap, is used. This cullet is usually of 
the same composition as the glass mixture or " batch." 
The use of cullet facilitates the melting, and assists in 
giving homogeneity to the resultant glass by breaking up 
the cords and striae which tend to develop in most glasses. 

In the commoner varieties of bottle glass Basalt and 
other igneous rocks are crushed and used. These are 



THE CHEMISTRY OF GLASSMAKING 11 

naturally occurring silicates containing lime alumina, 
alkalies, iron, and other elements in varying proportions. 
They are used more on account of their cheapness, 
and produce dark, dirty-coloured glasses, which in the 
case of common bottles are not objected to. In some 
instances iron manganese or carbon is added to produce 
black bottle glass. 

Of the various silicates used in glassmaking, the 
silicate of alumina is the most refractory. The silicates 
of lime and barium are rather refractory, but under a 
strong heat and in the presence of other silicates they 
can be readily formed. The silicates of the alkalies, 
lead, and many of the other metals are formed at much 
lower temperatures. In the case of the silicate of iron, 
manganese, or copper, a strong affinity is shown between 
the metal and the silica, and a black or dark-coloured 
slag with a very low melting point is formed. Such 
slags are very active in corroding the fire-clay masonry 
and pots of the furnace. 

No single silicate is entirely free from colour. Each 
gives a slight distinctive coloration, the lead silicate 
being yellowish and the soda silicate greenish, but by 
the judicious mixture of different silicates and the use 
of decolorizers, such as manganese, nickel, etc., com- 
pound silicates are obtained, giving less perceptible 
colours or crystal effects. In optical glassmaking the 
use of the ordinary decolorizers is not permissible, and 
the purity of the materials used becomes the most 
important factor. 

The raw mixture of the various materials used in 
making glass is termed a " batch." The mixing is 
usually done by hand, but in many cases mechanical 
batch mixers are used. If the mixing is done by hand, 
the materials are first weighed out in their correct propor- 
tions by means of a platform weighing-machine. As they 



12 GLASS 

are weighed out, one by one, they are introduced into 
a rectangular wooden arbour or box, large enough to 
hold the whole unit weight of the batch and allow of its 
being mixed and turned from side to side. The batch 
is then sieved, and all the coarse materials reduced 
or crushed to a size not coarser than granulated sugar. 
By sieving and turning the batch several times a 
thorough mixture of the ingredients is obtained. A few 
ounces of manganese dioxide are then added, according 
to the unit weight of the batch weighed out, and 
the proportion of decolorizer necessary; which varies 
according to the heat of the furnace and the amount 
of the impurities present. 

The whole batch is then put into barrels and conveyed 
to the glass house, where the furnace is situated. Here 
it is tipped into another arbour or box in a convenient 
position near to the melting pot, and, a proportional 
quantity of " cullet " being added, the mixture is then 
ready for filling into the pots. The stopper of the pot 
mouth is taken away and placed aside, and a man shovels 
the mixture or batch into the hot pot until it is full. He 
then replaces the stopper, and, after a few hours, when 
the first filling has melted and subsided, another filling 
of batch into the pot takes place until it becomes full 
of glass metal in its molten state. The batch melts 
with considerable ebullition, owing to the chemical 
reactions taking place under the heat of the furnace, 
giving off at the same time large quantities of gas. 
By the evolution of these gases the batch shrinks in 
volume so that it becomes necessary to fill a pot more 
than once with the batch before it becomes full of 
molten metal. The capacity of the pots varies between 
250 and 1,200 kilogrammes, according to the type of 
glass and nature of the goods made. 

Much care is required in mixing and sieving batches 



THE CHEMISTRY OF GLASSMAKING 13 

containing lead and other poisonous ingredients, to 
prevent the inhalation of the dust by the mixer. There- 
fore, where such materials are used, exhaust fans and 
ventilating ducts should be provided and fitted in the 
mixing rooms. A proper respirator should be worn by 
the mixer in charge to prevent any absorption into his 
system of the poisonous dust. Cases of poisoning are 
not unknown, but these are due to gross carelessness. 
A small regular weekly dose of Epsom salts should be 
taken by the mixers who have to prepare lead batches. 
This salt tends to remove any lead salts absorbed in 
the system by converting them into insoluble lead 
sulphate. 



14 



CHEMICAL FORMULA AND MOLECULAR 
WEIGHTS. 



Materials. 


Formulae. 


Molecular 
Weight. 


Alumina .... 


A1 2 3 


102 


Antimony Oxide 


Sb 2 3 


287 


Arsenic . . . 


As 2 3 


197 


Bismuth Oxide 


Bi 2 3 


468 


Boracic Acid 


H 3 BO 3 


62 


Borax .... 


Na 2 B 4 7 10H 2 O 


382 


Calcined Borax 


Na 2 B 4 7 


202 


Calcined Potash 


K 2 C0 3 


138 


Carbon .... 


C 


12 


Carbonate of Barytes 


BaCO 3 


197 


Carbonate of Magnesia 


MgC0 3 


84 


China Clay 


2SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 2H 2 O 


258 


Chrome Oxide . 


Cr 2 3 


153 


Cobalt Oxide . 


Co 2 3 


105 


Copper Oxide (Red) 


Cu 2 O 


143 


Copper Oxide (Black) * . 


CuO 


79 


Cryolite 


6NaFAloF 6 


210 


Dolomite 


CaOMgO2CO 2 


184 


Fluorspar . . . 


CaF 2 


78 


Gold Chloride 


AuCl 3 2H 2 O 


339 


Iron Oxide 


Fe 2 3 


160 


Lime .... 


CaO 


56 


Lime Spar 


CaC0 3 


100 


Manganese Oxide 


MnO 2 


87 


Nickel Oxide . 


NiO 2 


75 


Nitre .... 


NaNO, 


85 


Phosphate of Lime . Ca 3 (PO 4 ), 


310 


Potash Carbonate . | K 2 CO 3 (2H 2 O) 


174 


Potash Felspar . . 6SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 K 2 O 


556 


Red Lead . . . Pb 3 O 4 


683 


Saltpetre 


KN0 3 


101 


Sand .... 


Si0 2 


60 


Soda Carbonate 


Na 2 C0 3 


106 


Sodium Fluoride 


NaF 2 


61 


Sulphate of Soda 


Na 2 SO 4 


142 


Tin Oxide 


SnO. 


150 


Uranium Oxide 


U0 2 " 


272 


Zinc Oxide 


ZnO 


81 



CHAPTER III 

THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 
OF GLASS 

THE main essential and peculiar property of glass is 
its transparency. When subjected to a gradually 
increasing temperature, glass becomes softened, and 
whilst hot it is plastic, ductile, and malleable, in which 
state it can be cut, welded, drawn, or pressed. A 
thread of glass can be drawn so thin and fine that it 
can be twisted and bent to a remarkable extent, showing 
that glass is flexible. 

The above properties shown by glass while softened 
under heat permit it to be shaped and formed by a 
variety of methods, so that in the manufacture of the 
different kinds of glass we find goods pressed, blown, 
drawn, moulded, rolled and cast from the hot metal. 
Upon cooling, the form given to them is retained 
permanently. 

Another property of glass is its conchoidal fracture 
and liability to crack under any sudden change of 
temperature. Advantage is taken of this peculiarity 
in dividing or cracking apart glass when necessary, 
during the stages of the manufacture of any glass article. 

If a glass worker, in making an article of glass, 
desires to detach or cut apart certain sections, he 
applies a cold wet substance, such as an iron file 
wetted with water, to any portion of the hot glass, 
which causes it to fracture at the point of contact with 
the cold metal, and a slight jar is then sufficient to break 
the two portions apart. This method of chilling heated 
glassware to divide it is applied in the mechanical process 

15 



16 



GLASS 



of cutting up the long cylindrical tubes of glass into 
short sections for use as miners' safety lamp chimneys. 
Wherever it is desired to cut them through, a narrow 
section or line round the cylinder is first heated by a 




By permission of Melin 6- Co. 

HORIZONTAL CRACKING-OFF MACHINE 

sharp, hot pencil of flame projected from a burner against 
the rotating cylindrical tube of glass at equidistant 
short sections, and the divisions chilled by contact 
with a cold, steel point, or the heated area may be 
gently scratched with a diamond point, when a clean, 
sharp fracture results exactly where the chill or scratch 



THE PROPERTIES OF GLASS 17 

has been "applied and spreads round the whole circum- 
ference in a circle, giving neat, clean-cut divisions. In 
cutting narrow tube and cane, the fracture caused in the 
structure of the glass by scratching its surface with a 
steel file or diamond is sufficient to cause it to break 
apart without the application of heat. 

A piece of hot glass will weld on to another piece of 
hot glass of similar composition. The glass maker 
uses this method of welding for sticking handles on to 
jugs, etc., during the process of making table glassware. 

The density of glass varies according to its composi- 
tion. Certain classes of lead and thallium glass for optical 
work are of very high density. The specific gravities 
of such glasses may vary from 3-0 to well over 4-0. 
In soda-lime glasses the density is less and approaches 
24. Ordinary crystal glass approximates to a specific 
gravity of 3-1. 

The elasticity and thermal coefficient of expansion 
of glass can be regulated within normal limits. Glasses 
are now manufactured which can be perfectly sealed to 
copper, iron, nickel, and platinum wires. 

Glass, if kept heated for any length of time at a 
temperature just short of its softening or deformation 
point, becomes devitrified and loses its transparency, 
becoming opaque and crystalline. In this state it has 
much of the nature of vitreous porcelain and is totally 
different to manipulate, being tough and viscid on 
further heating. This devitrified state may occur 
during glassmaking, where the metal is allowed to remain 
in the pot or tank furnace for a considerable time under 
low temperature. Small stars or crystals first develop 
throughout the glass and continue to grow until it 
becomes a stony, white, opaque, vitreous mass. " Reau- 
mur's Porcelain " is a glass in a devitrified state, and is 
used for pestles and mortars, devitrified glass being less 

2 (141,5) 



18 GLASS 

brittle than ordinary glass and similar to vitrified 
porcelain. 

Glass can be toughened to an extent which is surpris- 
ing. Bastie's process consists of plunging the finished 
glass article whilst hot into a bath of boiling oil, 
which toughens the glass so much as to make it extremely 
hard and resistant to shocks, losing most of its brittle 
nature. Strong plates of glass are produced by a 
process of toughening under pressure. These plates of 
glass are used for ship porthole lights and in positions 
where great strength is required. Toughened or 
hardened glass is of great value in the production of 
miner's lamp glasses and steam-gauge tubing. Glass, 
when hardened, is difficult to cut even with the diamond, 
and difficulty is experienced in finding suitable means 
to cut it into shapes to suit commercial requirements. 

" Rupert drops," or tears, exhibit the state in which 
unannealed glass physically exists. These are made 
as a curiosity by dropping a small quantity of hot 
metal from the gathering-iron into a bath of water 
and then taking the pear-shaped drops out quickly. 
These pear-shaped drops of glass will stand a hard blow 
on the head or thicker portion without breaking, but, 
if the tail is pinched off or broken, the whole mass 
crumbles and falls to powder. This well illustrates the 
latent stresses or strains apparently in a state of tension 
and thrust within the structure of unannealed glass. 

Glass is not a good conductor of heat. This accounts 
for the necessity of slow cooling or annealing glass- 
ware, and also applies when re -heat ing glass, which 
must be done slowly and evenly to allow time for the 
conduction of the heat through the mass gradually. 
Glass is a non-conductor of electricity, and is used to a 
considerable extent in the electrical trades for insulation 
purposes. Most glasses are attacked slightly, but not 



THE PROPERTIES OF GLASS 19 

readily, by water and dilute mineral acids. Continued 
exposure to a moist, humid atmosphere causes slight 
superficial decomposition, according to the stability and 
chemical composition of the glass. Old antique speci- 
mens of glass show the superficial decomposition caused 
by long continuous exposure to atmospheric moisture. 
Many antique specimens have been known to collapse 
instantly upon being unearthed. The first change in 
antique glass is exhibited by a slight iridescence forming 
on the surface, gradually increasing towards opacity; 
afterward disintegration sets in, until it finally collapses 
or crumbles to powder. Glasses high in lead are 
readily attacked by the acid vapours met with in the 
atmosphere, but the harder soda-lime glasses are more 
resistant ." An excess of boric acid, soda, or potash 
also renders glass subject to disintegration and decay. 

Hydrofluoric acid attacks all silicate glasses, liberating 
silicon fluoride. Use is made of this acid reaction in 
decorating glasswares in " Etching," by exposing the 
surface of glass to the fumes of hydrofluoric acid gas 
in some form. 

The most permanent glasses are those containing the 
highest proportion of silica in solution, but the available 
heat necessary to decompose such highly silicious 
mixtures is limited by the present known refractory 
materials which can be procured for constructing the 
furnaces. Quartz glassware is a highly silicious glass. 
It is now made and used in the manufacture of special 
chemical apparatus and laboratory ware such as cruci- 
bles, muffles, etc., which have to withstand severe 
physical and chemical tests. This quartz glass possesses 
remarkable features in its low coefficient of expansion 
and resistance to heat changes. It is highly refractory. 
Articles made of this glass can be heated to red heat 
and plunged directly into cold water several times 



20 GLASS 

without fracture. Several varieties of quartz glass are 
now manufactured, and a new field for investigation is 
presented in applying the features and properties of 
this glass for use in chemical processes. 

In a purely physical sense glass is a supercooled 
liquid, the silicates are only in mutual solution with 
each other, and they appear to be constantly changing. 
Glass carmot be described as a homogeneous or definite 
chemical compound. Many of the after effects and 
changes which occur in glass, and the formation of 
crystals in the devitrification of glass tend to prove the 
above assertion. The colour changes which take place 
when ruby and opalescent glass is re-heated, and even 
the change in colour of glass going through the lehr, 
cannot be explained unless in the above sense of viewing 
these remarkable changes. Glasses with an excess of 
lime in their composition are more subject to devitrifica- 
tion than lead glasses or those of moderate lime content 
constructed from more complex formulas. The presence 
of a small proportion of alumina in glass prevents this 
tendency to devitrification and ensures permanency. 
Those glasses which have the highest silica content, 
and which have been produced at the highest tempera- 
tures, show the greatest stability in use. Bohemian 
glasses of this type contain as much as 75 per cent, 
silica, and are produced in gas-fired regenerative or 
recuperative furnaces, where the heat approaches 
1,500 Centigrade. Such glass is much sought after 
for enamelling on, being harder and less easily softened 
by the muffle heat firing on the enamels used. Taking 
two corresponding glasses of the same basicity, or pro- 
portion of silicic acid to the bases present, those formulae 
which have the greater complexity of bases produce 
the more fusible glasses. A multiple of bases con- 
stituting a more active flux than a single base content, 



THE PROPERTIES OF GLASS 21 

it follows that a compound mixture of silicates fuses or 
melts at a lower temperature than the respective simple 
silicates would. These facts are useful in constructing 
commercial formulae for glasses. 

Glasses containing lead oxide as an ingredient are 
subject to reduction when exposed to flames of a car- 
bonaceous nature. The carbon partially reduces the 
lead oxide to its metallic state, forming a black deposit. 
On this account, lead glasses cannot be used in blowpipe 
working with the ease with which soda-lime glasses 
can be worked, without reduction taking place. English 
crystal glass, which contains a high percentage of lead, 
is usually melted in hooded or covered pots to prevent 
the carbonaceous flames of the furnace reducing the 
lead and otherwise destroying the clearness of the 
glassware. Soda-lime glass and others without the 
presence of lead can be melted in open pots without 
any fear of reduction. Modern gas-fired recuperative 
furnaces, in which more complete combustion of the 
carbon takes place, can now be used for melting lead 
glasses in open pots, thus presenting a great saving in 
the fuel required to melt and produce such glass, 
besides permitting the use of a cheaper form of pot. 
This cannot be done with the ordinary English coal- fired 
furnaces. 

Advantage is taken of the reducing action of the 
coal-gas flame when producing lustre and iridescent 
glassware. A small proportion of easily reducible metal, 
>iu li as silver or bismuth, is introduced into the glass 
and first melted under oxidising conditions. It is then 
reduced in after-working by flaming, which deposits 
the metal in a thin sheen upon the surface of the glass, 
where it comes in contact with the reducing flames. 
An example of this effect is shown in Tiffany lustre 
ware, in which silver chloride is used and reduced 



GLASS 

within the glass, giving a pretty coloured iridescence 
on the surface, due to the reflection of light from the 
particles of metal deposited under the surface. 

" Aventurine " is a form of glass in which copper 
and iron oxides are introduced under reducing con- 
ditions during melting. The glass is then allowed to 
cool slowly. The metallic copper tends to separate out 
in small spangled crystals, which give a pretty sparkling 
effect. The use of strong reducing agents with very 
slow annealing is necessary to produce this effect. 
Copper and gold ruby-coloured glass presents other 
instances of partial precipitation of the metal by 
reduction within the glass. According to the extent 
of reduction, the glass ranges in colour from yellow ruby 
to brown. 

The manganese silicate is readily affected by oxidising 
or reducing conditions, the purple colour being present 
under oxidising influences and a greenish-grey colour 
under reducing conditions. In using manganese as a 
decolorizer, the glass maker may have added too much 
of it to his glass, in which case it shows too prominent 
a purple colour. To destroy this excess of colour he 
pushes either a little strip of green willow wood or a 
clean potato to the bottom of the pot of metal. The 
reducing action of the carbonaceous gas involved takes 
out the excess of purple colour by partially reducing the 
manganese present to a colourless state. 

The colour of glass is gradually affected in course 
of time by sunlight. This change in colour is often 
noticeable in old plate windows, the glass having 
developed a yellowish green tint in course of time 
from the action of the solar rays. 

Glass which has been incompletely fused or not 
sufficiently melted to give a complete solution of the 
materials present is in a weakened state of cohesion 



THE PROPERTIES OF GLASS 23 

and is liable to disintegration. An excess of alkali, 
lead, or borates used in the glass compositions also tends 
to early disintegration. A continual exudation and 
crystallisation of salt takes place upon the surface until 
the glass wholly disintegrates away to a white powdered 
salt. 

Glass is a poor conductor of heat. When a piece of 
glass has been expanded under the influence of heat, 
and is rapidly cooled, the superficial outer portions 
become intensely strained and contracted upon the 
interior portions, which retain the heat longer. Under 
these conditions of cooling, glass is apt to " fly," or 
collapse and fall to pieces, owing to the outer portions 
giving way under the great strain. These stresses or 
strains are relieved in the process of annealing, under 
which they are gradually eased by a slow and regular 
cooling from the heated condition. Certain glasses, the 
composition of which shows considerable differences in 
the density of the respective bases present, are more 
subject to this defect than those in which the bases are 
of more even density and homogeneous in character. 
Such glasses should be " de-graded " and re-melted in 
order more thoroughly to diffuse and distribute the 
denser portions throughout the mass. In de-grading 
glass, the hot glass is ladled out and quenched in cold 
water, dried, and re-used as " cullet." 



CHAPTER IV 

THE COMPOSITION OF THE DIFFERENT 
KINDS OF GLAffS 

THE composition of glasses may be simple, compound, 
or complex, according to the number of bases or acids 
which may be present in the mixture. 

The Simple types of glass are exhibited in the soda 
silicate, potash silicate, and lead silicate. The two 
former silicates are of most industrial value. 

Soda Silicate is made from a fusion of 100 parts of 
sand with 50 parts of soda carbonate and 5 parts of 
charcoal. The charcoal is added to facilitate the 
decomposition. The fused mass when cool is trans- 
parent and of a pale, bluish, sea-green colour. Upon 
boiling it in water it dissolves and gives a thick viscid 
solution called " Water Glass." This is extensively 
used in the various arts and manufactures. Textile 
fabric and woodwork saturated with this solution and 
dried are rendered fireproof. In the manufacture of 
artificial stone it forms, with lime and other basic 
oxides, very stable cements. Mixed with silicious 
fire-clay or ganister it forms the well-known fire cements 
for repairing the cracks in fire-clay retorts, muffles, 
etc. Water glass is also used in soap, and colour 
making, and for preserving eggs. 

Potash Silicate is less used, being more expensive. 
It is produced from a fusion of 100 parts sand, 60 parts 
potash carbonate, and 6 parts charcoal. 

Lead Silicate is composed of 100 parts sand and 66 
parts of red lead fused together. This silicate is mostly 
used in the manufacture of soft enamels and artificial 

24 



THE COMPOSITION OF GLASS 25 

gems, and goes under the names of " Rocaili flux," 
" strass metal," and " diamond paste." 

There is another form of soluble glass which is a 
combination of the soda and potash silicates. This is 
really a double silicate and may be produced by fusing 
sand 100 parts, soda carbonate 25 parts, potash carbonate 
30 parts, and 6 parts of charcoal. This silicate is used 
in soap making. Soluble glass can also be formed by 
using sulphate of soda as the alkali. In this case, a 
larger proportion of the alkaline salt has to be used, 
also a larger amount of carbon, in order to complete 
the decomposition of the sulphate. A mixture of sand 
100 parts, saltcake 70 parts, and carbon 16 parts would 
produce sodium silicate. The boron silicate and borate 
of alumina are two other forms of soluble glass used in 
their simple states. 

The Compound Glasses may be flint or crystal glass, 
soda-lime glass, Bohemian glass, pressed glass, and 
sheet glass. These are the general type of glasses 
used in the manufacture of domestic glasswares. 

Crystal Glass, which is a silicate of lead and potash, 
is made from best sand 100 parts, red lead 66 parts, 
potash carbonate 33 parts, cullet 50 parts, to which a 
small proportion of potash nitre, arsenic, and manganese 
dioxide is added. The bulk of English cut-glass 
table ware and fancy goods are made from this type of 
glass. It gives very brilliant and colourless results, 
more especially when cut and polished. A second-rate 
quality of crystal glass for table ware may consist of 
a silicate of lead and soda, as follows: sand 100 parts, 
red lead 66 parts, soda carbonate 25 parts, cullet 50 
parts; with small proportions of Chili nitre, arsenic, 
and manganese. 

Bohemian Glass is made from sand 100 parts, potash 
carbonate 35 parts, lime carbonate 15 parts, cullet 



26 GLASS 

50 parts; with small proportions of potash nitre, arsenic, 
and manganese dioxide. This type of glass is used 
mostly by continental manufacturers for chemical ware, 
table and mirror glass. It is a hard, brilliant, and stable 
glass, very suitable for enamelled glassware. It is a 
silicate of potash and lime. 

Pressed Glass consists of sand 100 parts, soda carbonate 
50 parts, barium carbonate 15 parts, cullet 50 parts; 
together with soda nitre, arsenic, manganese, and 
cobalt. This is used by manufacturers of pressed glass 
table ware or moulded ware. It is a silicate of soda 
and barytes, the barytes having a direct influence in 
giving a good surface to the pressed goods. 

Crown Glass consists of a silicate of soda and lime; 
sand 100 parts, soda carbonate 36 parts, lime carbonate 
24 parts, soda sulphate 12 parts, cullet 50 parts; with 
traces of manganese and cobalt. This glass is used for 
making sheet window glass by the crown, disc, and 
cylinder methods. 

Plate Glass is a silicate of soda and lime; sand 100 
parts, soda sulphate 55 parts, limestone 30 parts, coal 
or anthracite 5 parts; with traces of nickel oxide, 
cobalt, or antimony oxide. This is used for cast plate 
glass, rolled plate, cathedral glass, window and mirror 
glass. 

The Complex Glasses may be described as those in 
which more than three bases are introduced, and 
constitute such types of glasswares as bottles, 
thermometer tubes, chemical ware, etc. 

Common Bottle Glass may be described as an example 
of complex formulae. Common bottle glass, or tank 
metal, is made from a silicate of soda, alumina, lime, 
magnesia, and iron, as follows : Common sand, con- 
taining iron and alumina, 100 parts; greenstone or 
basalt (a silicate of alumina, iron, lime, magnesia, and 



THE COMPOSITION OF GLASS 27 

potash), 25 parts; dolomite limestone (magnesia and 
lime), 30 parts; sulphate of soda, 35 parts; carbon, 5 
parts. Felspathic granites may be also used in sueh 
glasses. 

Bottle glasses require intense heat to melt, and are 
usually dark in colour when made from igneous rocks, 
owing to the large amount of colorific oxides present 
in such materials. These dark colours are not objected 
to in bottles for stout, wine, and beer. 

It will be noticed these formulae cover a long range, 
from the best table glass to the commonest dark bottle 
glass. Besides these, opal, opalescent, and fancy 
glasses are made, in which either arsenic, tin, alumina, 
antimony, zinc or barium oxides or borates phosphates 
and fluorides may enter into the compositions. 

Glass makers' recipes vary considerably in the pro- 
portions of the various materials used, according to 
the locality and the type of furnace used. Generally, 
it will be found that, where a gas-fired furnace is in 
use, a larger proportion of sand can be used and a 
cheaper metal produced. 

The metals produced in covered pots are usually 
softer and contain more lead and fluxes than those 
produced in open pots. In using open pots the heat 
of the furnace has direct access to the surface of the 
metal therein. In the case of covered pots, the heat 
has to be conducted through the cover of the pot, which 
retards the heat to a certain extent. On this account, 
softer mixtures are used in covered pots. 



CHAPTER v 

COLOURED GLASS AND ARTIFICIAL GEMS 

IN colouring glass, either or several of the following 
colorific oxides may be used. They are added to the 
batch before fusion. Varying proportions are added, 
according to the depth of the colour desired. Occa- 
sionally the colour is influenced by the nature and 
composition of the rest of the batch. In some instances 
several colouring oxides are used. In this way many 
delicate tints are obtained; in fact, there are but few 
colours that cannot be produced in glass. 

For Green Glasses the following oxides may be used: 
Chromium oxide, 2 'to 6 per cent, of the batch; black 
oxide of copper, -5 to 3 per cent.; red iron oxide, -5 to 
1 per cent.; or a mixture of two or three of the above 
oxides in less proportions. Salts of chromium, copper, 
or iron may be used as the carbonates, sulphates, and 
chromates. 

For Blue Glasses, cobalt oxide, -1 to 1 per cent, of 
the batch; zaffre blue or smalts, 1 to 3 per cent.; nickel 
oxide, 2 to 4 per cent.; iron oxide, 1 to 2 per cent.; 
black oxide of copper, 2 per cent. 

For Violet and Purple, manganese oxide, 2 to 4 per 
cent, of the batch. 

For Rubies, red oxide of copper, gold chloride, purple 
of cassius, antimony oxysulphide, selenium metal in 
small proportions. 

For Yellows, uranium yellow, 4 to 6 per cent, of the 
batch; potassium antimoniate, 10 per cent.; carbon, 
6 per cent.; sulphur, 5 per cent.; ferric oxide, 2 to 4 per 
cent. Silver nitrate and cadmium sulphide are also used. 

28 



COLOURED GLASS AND ARTIFICAL GEMS 29 

Black Glass is obtained from mixtures of cobalt 
oxide, nickel oxide, iron oxide, platinum and indium. 
Many very dark or black bottle glasses are obtained by 
using basalt, iron ores, or greenstone in a powdered 
form, added to the batch ingredients. 

White Glasses or Opal are obtained by using phosphate 
of lime, talc, cryolite, alumina, zinc oxide, calcium 
fluoride, either singly or in double replacements of the 
bases present in the glass batches. 

Many of the colouring oxides give distinctive colours 
to glass of different compositions; also the resulting 
colours may vary with the same colouring ingredient, 
according to reducing or oxidising meltings. Thus, in 
a batch of reducing composition, red copper oxide gives 
ruby glass, but in oxidising compositions the colour 
given is green or bluish-green. Iron oxide in an 
oxidising batch gives a yellow. In the reducing batch 
it gives bluish or green results. Manganese is similarly 
affected. 

Many colouring oxides give more brilliant tints with 
glasses made from the silicates of potash and lime than if 
used in glasses composed from silicates of lead and soda. 
For many colours the lead glasses are preferred. In 
colouring the batches, the colouring oxides must be 
intimately mixed with the batch materials before fusion, 
more especially in the preparation of the pale tints, 
where only small quantities of colouring are necessary. 
It is a well-known fact that careful mixings give good 
meltings, for then the materials are more evenly dis- 
tributed and uniformly attacked during the melting. 
Careful and exact weighings are necessary when using 
colorific oxides, and a pot is kept for each respective 
colour melted, so that the different colours and crystal 
glasses do not get contaminated with each other. When 
open pots are used for colours, the colour pots should 



30 GLASS 

be kept together in one section of the furnace, so that 
whilst melting, especially during the boiling up of the 
batches, the colours do not splash over into the other 
pots containing crystal metal. 

As a rule, smaller pots are used for coloured glass; 
generally they are only a third of the size of crystal 
melting pots. When this is so, they are set together 
under one arch of the furnace, and the workman informed 
which pots contain the respective colours. All colour 
cuttings and scraps should be kept separate from other 
cullet for re-use. Coloured glasses are expensive, and 
no waste of glass should be permitted. 

Artificial Gems. In the manufacture of the glasses 
for imitation " paste " jewels, every effort is made to 
procure pure materials and colorific oxides. The base 
for making artificial gems is a very heavy lead crystal 
glass termed " Strass paste, ' ' which gives great brilliancy 
and refraction. The composition of such a paste 
would be: Best white sand 100 parts, pure red oxide of 
lead 150 parts, dry potash carbonate 30 parts. These 
should be thoroughly well melted until clear and free 
from seed, and the molten mass ladled out of the pot 
and quenched in cold water, or " de-graded." This 
assists in making the paste homogeneous. After 
repeated melting and de-grading, the paste or cullet is 
collected, dried, and crushed for use in making the 
coloured pastes. Usually, this strass metal is melted 
in small, white porcelain crucible pots holding about 
5 to 10 kilogrammes of the metal and heated in 
a properly regulated gas and air injector furnace. The 
coloured paste is kept in fusion for a whole day, after 
which it is slowly cooled and annealed within the pot, 
and the gems cut from the lumps of glass thus obtained. 
The following are some of the compositions used in the 
preparation of the respective gems. 



COLOURED GLASS AND ARTIFICIAL GEMS 31 

Opal. Powdered strass paste, 1,000 parts; white 
calcium phosphate, 200 parts; uranium yellow, 5 parts; 
pure manganese oxide, 3 parts; antimony oxide, 8 parts. 

Ruby. Powdered strass paste, 1,000 parts; purple of 
cassius, 1 part; white oxide of tin, 5 parts; antimony 
oxide, 10 parts. 

Beryl. Powdered strass, 1,000 parts; antimony oxy- 
sulphide, 10 parts; cobalt oxide, -25 parts. 

Amethyst. Powdered strass glass, 1,000 parts; purest 
manganese oxide, 8 parts; pure cobalt oxide, 2 parts. 

Emerald. Powdered strass glass, 1,000 parts; green 
chrome oxide, 1 part; black copper oxide, 8 parts. 

Sapphire. Powdered strass glass, 1,000 parts; pure 
cobalt oxide, 15 parts. 

Topaz. Powdered strass glass, 1,000 parts; antimony 
oxide, 50 parts; uranium yellow, 10 parts. 

Garnet. Powdered strass glass, 1,000 parts; antimony 
oxysulphide, 100 parts; gold chloride in solution, 1 part; 
pure manganese oxide, 4 parts. 

Turquoise. Powdered strass glass, 1,000 parts; cobalt 
oxide, -5 parts; black copper oxide, 10 parts; white 
opal glass, made with tin oxide, 200 parts. 

After suitable pieces of glass of the requisite tints are 
obtained, they are cut and ground on a Lapidary's 
wheel, then polished, engraved, and set as gems. 

Artificial Pearls are now cleverly made in glass. 
A tube of the requisite size made of translucent or 
opal glass is cut into small sections, which are heated 
on a tray to softening point whilst set in a rotatory 
movement. As the heat increases they gradually melt 
in and seal at the openings, when they are removed 
from the tray and sorted. 



CHAPTER VI 

DECOLORIZERS 

DECOLORIZERS are the agents employed by the glass 
maker to neutralise or subdue the objectionable tints 
given by the colouring action of small traces of iron 
oxide, which exists as an impurity present in the 
materials used or otherwise become accidentally admixed 
during the process of the manufacture of glassware. 

The small additions of manganese dioxide, arsenic, 
nitre, nickel oxide, selenium, antimony, oxide, etc., to 
glass batches may be considered as decolorizers. The 
most commonly used of these materials is manganese 
dioxide, so the action of this material will be explained. 
Every glass maker finds that one or other of the raw 
materials he uses may contain impurities. It is seldom 
that glass makers' sand can be obtained that does not 
contain traces of iron oxide present as an impurity. 
Again, the cullet collected from the glass house often 
contains iron scale or rust from the blowing-irons, 
which firmly adheres to the glass and gets admixed 
with the batch for ^re- melt ing. The presence of even 
very small traces of iron in glass becomes evident as a 
pale sea-green tint when viewed through any thickness 
of metal. The chemical action of the glass upon the 
walls of the pot is continually dissolving a minute 
quantity of iron from the fire-clay and diffusing it 
throughout the metal, giving it a tendency to the 
pale-green tint. 

To subdue or neutralise this objectionable tint in 
the glass, the glass maker uses certain metallic oxides 

32 



DECOLORIZERS 33 

which give delicate counter-tints. Only those glasses 
which are made from the purest materials can be 
decolorized to become sufficiently clear to use in making 
the best table glassware. In optical glassware, 
where the use of manganese is not permissible, the 
greatest care has to be taken in the selection and testing 
of the materials to be used. If manganese oxide be 
used in making optical glass, although the eye may 
not be sensitive enough to observe the actual colour 
absorption, a glass is produced in whicH the solar rays 
are obstructed, and much less light is transmitted by 
the glass when used as an optical lens or prism. 
Therefore the optician avails himself of those glasses 
which have not been decolorized as being more satisfac- 
tory for his purpose, as more light is transmitted by 
such glasses. 

Apart from the pale sea-green tint given to glass by 
the presence of small traces of iron, certain of the 
silicates themselves produce natural colours. The soda 
silicate present in soda-lime metal tends to give a pale 
bluish-green tint when viewed through any thickness 
of glass. The lead silicate has a yellowish hue. Each 
of these influences has to be counteracted if clear crystal 
glass is desired. The decolorization of glass by man- 
ganese dioxide depends upon the purple tint it gives to 
glass. This purple colour, being complementary to the 
pale green colour given by the presence of iron, serves 
and acts as a counter-tint, and by the absorption of the 
green light a less perceptible colouring is produced. 
In the same way, rays of red, blue, and yellow light 
when imposed on each other produce a colourless white 
light to the eye; the same applies when red, blue, and 
yellow sheets of glass are superimposed. In the case 
of the decolorization of glass, we get the red and blue 
of the purple subduing the blue and yellow or green tint 

3 (1465) 



34 GLASS 

given by the iron. But certain other factors are neces- 
sary. The purple colour from manganese oxide is 
given only to glass in the presence of oxidising agents, 
and in the absence of sufficient oxidising agents in the 
glass batch, the purple manganese colour is unstable 
and its action as a counter-tint is lost. Therefore, the 
glass maker uses strong oxidising agents in his glass 
mixtures for crystal effects, usually in the form of potas- 
sium nitrate and red lead, which liberate oxygen. Whilst 
undergoing decomposition in the glass melt, the presence 
of this free oxygen keeps the manganese used in a higher 
state of oxidisation, and gives the necessary purple, 
coloration. It is also evident that, if the glass melting 
in the pot is kept at a high temperature for any consider 
able length of time, this period of oxidisation cannot last, 
and, after all the free oxygen gas has been evolved, 
any further heating tends to turn the glass greenish 
again or of poor colour, by the conversion of the man- 
ganese into the lower state of oxidisation in which the 
purple colour is not so evident. If by chance the glass 
maker has added too much manganese to the glass, 
and the purple colour becomes too evident, he resorts 
to the use of a small amount of carbonaceous reducing 
agent, such as a piece of charred wood or potato, which 
he plunges or pushes to the bottom of the pot by means 
of a forked iron rod or pole, where it vaporises, giving 
off moisture and carbonaceous gases which reduce the 
manganese purple colour to a lower oxidised colourless 
state, and in a very short time the excess of purple 
colour has disappeared and the glass appears colourless. 
Much of the success of crystal glassmaking depends 
upon the proper adjustment of the decolorizers used 
and obtaining the best colourless effect. The quality 
of the manganese is important; only pure manganese 
dioxide should be used. In many cases the mineral 



DECOLORIZERS 35 

ore, pyrolusite, is used on account of its cheapness. 
This is objectionable, as much iron may be present 
in the ore, when its use as a remedy is worse than 
the defect. The necessity of taking advantage of 
the services of a consultant chemist here becomes 
apparent, for, if glass manufacturers would only have 
their different consignments of materials examined and 
tested from time to time, many of the disappointments 
and difficulties experienced by them at present would 
be obviated. A considerable saving in the cost of 
batch materials can be made by the judicious selection 
of more suitable qualities in preference to inferior or 
adulterated varieties. In many cases, a chemist can 
substitute for certain of the expensive batch materials 
other cheaper materials introducing the same elements 
at less expense. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE REFRACTORY MATERIALS USED 

OF the greatest importance to the glass manufacturer 
are the refractory materials upon which the life of his 
furnace and pots depends. A few notes giving a descrip- 
tion of them and dealing with the manufacture of the 
fire-resisting blocks used in building the furnaces will 
be of interest. 

The chief and most generally used of such materials 
are the fire-clay goods. The best known deposits of 
fire-clays in this country are those in the Midlands, 
Stourbridge, Leeds, and Glasgow districts. In each of 
these districts the mining of fire-clays and the manufac- 
ture of fire-resisting goods for furnace work forms an 
important industry. The theoretical composition of 
a true fire-clay would be a double silicate of alumina, and 
in this pure state it would be of a very refractory 
nature. But, naturally, fire-clays show the presence 
of other bases, such as iron, lime, magnesia, titanium, 
and alkalies, which, if present to any appreciable 
extent, lower the degree of resistance to heat or refrac- 
toriness of the clay. These other bases may be con- 
sidered as impurities or natural fluxing agents. The 
characteristics of a highly refractory clay suitable for 
glass manufacturers' requirements would be: (a) that 
such a clay should show no signs of softening alt the 
highest heat of the furnace; (b) a melting point not below 
Cone 31 or 1690 Centigrade; (c) a high alumina content 
not below 30 per cent.; (d) the greatest freedom from 
impurities; (e) a fine grained texture; and (/) a high 
degree of plasticity. These are the qualities most 

36 



THE REFRACTORY MATERIALS USED 



37 



essential for glass house work. The figures given by 
the chemical analyses of good fire-clays would probably 
fall within the following limits 



Silica 

Alumina 

Ferric Oxide 

Titanium Oxide 

Lime . 

Magnesia . 

Total Potash and Soda 



49% to 65% 



48% 

0-5% 

nil 

nil 

nil 

0-5% 



31% 
1-5% 
1-5% 
0-5% 

2% 

1-8% 



Clays of higher silica content than 70 per cent, would 
not be considered suitable as pot-clays owing to the 
ease in which glass attacks silicious clays. It is impor- 
tant that chemical analyses of fire-clays should be 
compared with results obtained from the analysis of 
fired or burnt samples, or they should be recalculated 
to allow of such comparison, so as to exclude the figures 
for the hygroscopic and chemically combined water 
of the clays. 

The writer gives the following particulars of a fire- 
clay very suitable for glass house pot-making. It is 
plastic and highly refractory, and is now being con- 
siderably used by the trade. The clay is supplied by 
Mansfield Bros., Church Gresley. The figures are from 
a report made by Mr. J. W. Mellor, D.Sc., of the County 
Laboratory, Stoke-on-Trent, and are as follows 

Raw Fire-clay Dried at 109 Cent. 
Silica 

Titanic Oxide 
Alumina 
Ferric Oxide 
Manganes 
Magnesia 
Lime 
Potash 
Soda 

Loss wher 

The melting point is given as equal to Seger Cone 33 
or 1730 Centigrade. 



:'ide ' 1 

de 
Oxide 








46-45 per 
2-65 
35-32 
1-31 

0-09 
0-41 


cent. 


calcined over 


109 


Cenl 




1-08 
76 
12-14 





38 GLASS 

The physical properties of fire-clays vary as well as 
their chemical properties. The analysis alone of a 
fire-clay is not always sufficient indication as to its 
ultimate behaviour when in use. Many physical tests 
have to be carried out before a clay can be proved 
satisfactory for a particular purpose, and much informa- 
tion can be gained by engaging the services of a specialist 
upon refractory materials to carry out petrographic, 
pyrochemical, and physical tests, and report upon the 
suitability of the material for its specific purpose. 
Fire-clays should be plastic, and this plasticity should 
be developed to its utmost to increase the binding 
properties of the clay when used. To develop the 
plasticity, fire-clays should be weathered or exposed in 
thin layers to the action of atmospheric influences. 
The heat of the sun and rain, and the action of frosts 
have a direct influence in breaking up the clay and 
developing its better properties. The use of new 
unweathered clay is the cause of much trouble to the 
glass manufacturer who makes his own pots and furnace 
goods, and on this account he should insist upon having 
his clays weathered for some time before use, so as to 
have them thoroughly matured. Before fire-clays are 
weathered or used for important work they should 
undergo a process of selection and cleansing. When 
first raised from the mines all foreign and inferior por- 
tions, carbonaceous matter, vegetation, iron pyrites, and 
stones are removed. The best and cleanest portions of 
the fire-clay are sorted out and removed to the weathering 
beds, where the lumps are broken down to small pieces 
about the size of an egg, and left to mature and season 
by weathering. 

This fire-clay is then spread out in a layer about 
2 ft. deep, and, after a period of exposure to the action 
of the weather, the heap is turned by men shovelling 



THE REFRACTORY MATERIALS USED * 39 

the clay from one side to the other. The clay, under 
the continued action of the wind, frost, and rain, dis- 
integrates and slacks down until it is reduced to a mild, 
line grained mass, which condition shows it to be well 
seasoned and ready for use. Fire-clays vary in this 
respect : some clays season quickly in the course of a 
few months, others take years to develop their proper 
nature. The former may be classed as mild fire-clays, 
the latter as strong fire-clays. 

After weathering, the clay is carted or conveyed to 
the clay-grinding plant, where it is stored under cover 
until it is dry enough to be ground on the clay-mill. 
Here the clay is fed into a revolving pan, and crushed 
under heavy iron runners, and, after passing through 
perforations in the bottom of the pan, it is elevated on 
to screens which sieve the clay to a requisite degree of 
fineness. It is then admixed with a large proportion of 
ground burnt fire-clay and the mixture is tempered with 
water until it forms a plastic mass or dough, which is 
conveyed to the workshops where the furnace blocks 
or pots are to be made. These making and drying 
shops have false or double floors, under which steam or 
heated air is passed by means of pipes or flues below the 
floors, giving the steady and uniform heat which is 
necessary to dry the fire-clay goods as they are made. 
Heavy fire-clay goods should on no account be hurried 
in drying, lest trouble should occur through the goods 
cracking or warping. 

In making the blocks for the furnaces the workman 
takes a portion of the prepared clay and tramps the 
plastic mass into a wooden frame, or mould, the shape 
and size of the block required, with due allowance made 
for shrinkage. The blocks are made on the warm floor, 
which is of cement or overlaid with fire-clay quarries. 
When the mould is filled the surplus clay is cut off and 



40 ' GLASS 

the wooden frame is lifted up, leaving the clay block 
on the floor. The empty mould is then cleaned and 
refilled. The blocks are left until they attain consider- 
able stiffness from the evaporation of the water present 
by the heat of the room. They are then dressed and 
cut to the final shape desired, after which they are 
further dried until they become quite hard and white. 
When thoroughly dry the blocks are removed from the 
drying sheds to the kiln for burning. 

In burning thick and heavy blocks much care and 
vigilance is required in expelling the chemically com- 
bined water present in the clay, and, as the tempera- 
tuie rises and approaches red heat, the rate of 
heating should be retarded to allow proper oxidisation to 
take place throughout the structure of the fire-clay 
blocks, and prevent black cores being formed. In 
all fire-clays, besides the mechanically admixed water 
used in preparing the clay to a plastic mass, which is 
mostly driven off whilst in the drying shed, there 
exists water in a chemically combined state. This 
combined water is not expelled below 250 Centigrade, 
and is tenaciously held by many varieties of mild 
fire-clays. Due care has to be exercised in dehydrating 
goods made from such clays; therefore the man in 
charge of the burning regulates his fires, keeping the kiln 
at a moderate heat for some time to allow this chemically 
combined water to be properly and completely expelled. 
This dehydration stage in burning clay goods occurs 
between the temperatures of 300 and 650 Centigrade. 

After the dehydration stage of burning is completed, 
the fireman raises the temperature within the kiln to a 
dull red heat, when the next stage in the process of 
burning begins. This is the oxidisation period, during 
which any organic carbonaceous matter present in the 
clay is expelled. During this stage in burning, fire-clay 



THE REFRACTORY MATERIALS USED 41 

goods require an extended time, so as to allow for the 
heated air to permeate and get to the interior portions 
of the blocks and oxidise the cores; otherwise the blocks 
are badly burnt. 

After the oxidisation stage is completed, the fireman 
raises the heat quickly until he obtains a high tempera- 
ture, sufficient to eliminate and complete the shrinkage 
of the goods. When this heat is sufficient to complete 
the fire-shrinkage, the kiln is finished and is allowed to 
cool down. The blocks, when cold, are then withdrawn 
and delivered to the furnace builder. 

For the erection of the furnaces several grades of 
fire-clay blocks are used, according to the conditions and 
nature of the heat they have to resist. In the presence 
of reducing agents, fuel ash, or glass, fire-clay goods 
vary greatly as to their suitability. So the local con- 
ditions to which they are to be subjected whilst under 
heat should be first ascertained, and the mixtures for the 
blocks adapted accordingly. So many differences exist 
in the pyrochemical and physical properties of clays 
that their misuse is often apt to occur if the conditions 
under which they are to be used are not properly 
understood and allowed for. A fire-clay may show a 
high degree of refractoriness under a fusion test, and 
yet be less suitable for a specific purpose than one of 
less refractoriness showing better physical properties 
and of more suitable chemical constitution. The size 
of grain in both the burnt clay and raw clay used in 
the mixtures for making glass house furnace blocks is 
of the greatest importance. In many cases it is neces- 
sary to grade the ground-burnt material used, so that 
the proportion of coarse grains to the fine flour can be 
regulated to suit requirements. The burnt clay used in 
making the furnace blocks should be hard and well 
burnt, so as to prevent any after-shrinkage of the goods 



42 GLASS 

when they are used in the furnace. Fire-clay goods for 
glass house furnaces should not be burnt at a lower 
temperature than Cone 12, and in the construction of gas- 
fired furnaces and tanks, burning the blocks at a higher 
temperature, Cone 14 would give much better results. 
On the Continent the glass manufacturers usually 
grind and mix their own fire-clays, with the result 
that they know exactly what they are using in 
making their pots and furnace goods, and they are not 
then dependent upon outside firms to carry out their 
wishes. English glass manufacturers usually buy their 
clays ready mixed, and as often as not have perforce to 
take the mixtures offered by the clay firms. Unfortu- 
nately, in Great Britain many of the firms who supply 
the refractory requirements of the glass trade are 
exceptionally backward in applying technical knowledge 
to their trade; consequently, progress is somewhat 
retarded in the glass trade as far as the refractory 
materials are concerned. So obstinate is this ignorance 
of science that quite recently one well-known fire-clay 
firm replied to an inquiry for samples of fire-clays to be 
sent for important research work then being undertaken 
upon the fire-clay resources of the country, stating 
" that, as their clay product was perfect, any research 
work was quite unnecessary." It often turns out that 
their conservatism is simply a cloak to hide ignorance, as 
it is quite evident to any technicist that there is ample 
scope for improvement in the present fire-clay goods 
on the market, and such an open opportunity for a 
scientific investigation into the nature of their fire-clays, 
however well known they may be, should be welcomed 
with delight, and every facility and assistance offered 
for research chemists to improve their material, and 
apply tests with the object of developing the best 
properties of such refractories for special purposes. 



CHAPTER VIII 

GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 

THE pots within which the raw materials are melted 
are set within a strongly heated chamber called the 
glass furnace. The old circular type of English furnace 
usually contains six or .twelve pots and will be described 
first. The pots stand in a circle upon a form of hob 
called the " siege," which constitutes the floor of the 
furnace. In the centre of this chamber arid below the 
level of the siege is the " eye " of the furnace, through 
which the flames come from the furnace fire below. The 
burning fuel is contained in a circular or cylindrical- 
shaped fire-box, about 4 ft. deep and 5" ft. in diameter, 
and is supported by a number of strong iron bars across 
the bottom of the fire-box. Passing under the fire-box, 
and across the whole width of the glass furnace, there 
is an underground tunnel called the " cave," each end 
of which is exposed to the outside air, which is drawn 
in through the caves by the draught of the chimney 
cone above the fires. These caves are of sufficient 
height and width to allow the fireman, or " tizeur/' 
as he is called, to attend to the stirring of the furnace 
fires from time to time. Using a long hooked bar 
of iron, he rakes out the dead ashes and clinkers, as 
they are formed, and stirs the fire through the bars by 
prodding the fuel with a long poker. The coal is fed 
upon the furnace fire through a narrow mouth situated 
in the glass house leading into a chute which runs under 
the siege, from the glass house floor level towards the 
fire-box of the furnace. The fuel is pushed down this 



44 



GLASS 



chute and falls into the fire-box and is fed at intervals 
of half to three-quarters of an hour, according to the 
heat desired and the draught allowed. 

Above the siege and over the pots is a covering 
called the crown of the furnace, which is supported by 




INTERIOR OF ENGLISH TYPE OF GLASS-MELTING 
FURNACE 

fire-brick pillars. This is built of the most refractory 
material possible to be obtained, as the hottest flames 
from the furnace fires beat against this crown and are 
reverberated downwards upon the surrounding pots. 
The flames, continuing their course, pass between the 
pots into small openings or flues leading from the siege 
floor and passing upwards through the pillars which* 



GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 45 

are situated between each pair of pots, they then escape 
from little chimneys leading into the outer dome or 
conical-shaped structure so familiar to outsiders. This 
outer truncated cone-shaped structure constitutes the 
main chimney of the furnace. The furnace chamber 
containing the pots is constructed entirely within this 
cone. The fire-clay blocks are carefully shaped, neatly 
fitted, and cemented together with a mortar made of 
fine, plastic, raw ground fire-clay mixed to thin paste 
with water. The presence of any molten glass which 
escapes from a cracked pot, and the fluxing action of the 
fuel ashes, cause severe corrosion of the blocks forming 
the siege and fire-box, and these necessarily have to be 
made of extra thickness in order to extend the life of the 
furnace. When the furnace crown or siege becomes 
badly corroded away, the furnace has to be put out for 
repair; so generally an auxiliary furnace is kept at 
hand, in order that it may be started and the workmen 
transferred from one furnace to the other whilst the 
repairs are being done. 

The action of the glass upon the siege of the 
furnace is very active, and any leakage quickly 
destroys the fire-clay blocks, leaving fissures which 
gradually increase in size until the blocks are eaten 
right through. Consequently, every care is taken to 
preserve the pots from losing metal. If by chance any 
pot develops a crack through which the metal leaks into 
the furnace, the glass working is ceased at that par- 
ticular pot, and every endeavour is made to ladle out 
what remains of the metal, and so prevent any more 
running on to the siege and causing further mischief. 
The metal is ladled out of the pot by means of thick, 
heavy, iron spoons, with which the hot metal is scooped 
out of the pot and dropped into a large cauldron con- 
taining water. This is very exhausting work, but there 



46 



GLASS 



is worse trouble still if the metal is allowed to continue 
to run through the crack in the pot and over the siege 
into the eye of the furnace, for it then fluxes with the 
ashes of the fuel, causing them to form into a big 
mass of conglomerate, which, lying in the fire, interferes 




EXTERIOR VIEW OF ENGLISH GLASS-MELTING 

FURNACE 
Pot Trolley in foreground 

with the draught and combustion of the fuel within the 
furnace, and before the furnace can be got to work pro- 
perly again has to be cut away, piece by piece, through 
the firebars whilst hot, until it is all removed. At the 
sign of any glass running down into the fires and through 
the bars, the tizeur hurries up to give the word that a 



GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 47 

pot is leaking in the furnace, and when the pot is 
isolated the work of ladling the hot metal out into 
water begins in earnest. A pot which has cracked 
and leaks is useless for any further work of melting glass, 
and at a convenient time it has to be withdrawn from 
the furnace and a new pot must be substituted. Glass- 
melting pots form a very expensive item in the glass 
manufacturer's costs; consequently, every care is taken 
to prevent the pots within the furnace from getting 
chilled by inadvertently allowing the fires to burn too 
low or allowing cold air to rush through the bars, 
through unskilful clinkering and inattention to the 
furnace fires. Sometimes these furnaces are fitted with 
a Frisbie Feeder. This is a mechanical firing arrange- 
ment fitted underneath the furnace bars, by which the 
fuel is fed upwards into the furnace box, so that all 
smoke given off by the fuel baitings has to travel 
through the hot fuel above, and thereby is more com- 
pletely consumed, giving better combustion than when 
the black fuel is thrown on the top of the hot bed of 
fuel. A mechanically operated piston pushes up small 
charges of fuel from within a cylindrical-shaped box, 
which works on a swivel backwards and forwards as 
the fuel is fed into it. 

In the old type of English furnace containing twelve 
pots, each 38 in. diameter and holding about 15 cwts. 
of metal, the furnace would be capable of melting 
7 to 8 tons of glass a week, taking 40 tons of best fuel. 
The more up-to-date glass-melting furnaces are con- 
structed upon a much better principle than the coal- 
fired old English type of furnace just described. These 
are usually producer gas-fired and give more economy 
and greater convenience in every way. 

In these better types of modern furnaces some form 
of regeneration or recuperation of the waste heat is 



48 



GLASS 



usually adopted. These furnaces are much smaller and 
more compact; being gas-fired, they give much higher 
temperatures, more complete combustion of the fuel, 
greater ease in regulation, cleaner conditions, and far 
greater production than the older types of English 
furnaces. Considering the reasonable initial cost that 
the latest types of these modern furnaces can be built 




Cross Section. 

FIG. A 

SIEMENS SIEGBERT TYPE OF REGENERATIVE 
GLASS-MELTING FURNACE 

for, it appears incredible that so many of the old out-of- 
date English furnaces still remain in use in this country. 
As examples of the types of regenerative and recupera- 
tive furnaces, a description will be given of the Siemens 
Siegbert Gas-fired Regenerative Furnace and the 
Hermansen Recuperative Furnace for glass-melting, 
which are extensively used on the Continent and are 
giving remarkably good results. 



GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 



49 



In the Siemens Siegbert type, the furnace may be a 
rectangular or an oval-shaped chamber, approximately 
18ft. by 9ft., the crown of which is about 4ft. 6 in. 
high. No outer cone-shaped dome exists, and the pots 
within the chamber are arranged much closer together 
and practically touching each other round the furnace. 
The furnace chamber is heated by a mixture of producer 




Sectional Plan. 

FIG. B 

SIEMENS SIEGBERT TYPE OF REGENERATIVE 
GLASS-MELTING FURNACE 

gas and heated air, the gas being generated in an 
independent gas producer situated outside the glass 
house and some little distance away from the furnace. 
At either end of the furnace, beneath the floor of the 
siege, are two blocks of regenerators. These are deep 
rectangular chambers containing an open lateral arrange- 
ment of fire-brick chequers, through which the air or 
products of combustion pass on their way to or from 
the furnace. Port-holes are situated directly above 
these regenerators which lead the gases through the 

4 (1465) 



50 



GLASS 



floor or siege into the furnace chamber. The draught 
is induced by a tall stack, which draws the gas from 
the gas producers through a duplicate arrangement of 
flues to the port -holes at one end of the furnace, where 
it is mixed with the air which has been drawn and 
heated in its passage through the regenerator beneath. 




Sectional Elevation. 
FIG. C 

SIEMENS SIEGBERT TYPE OF REGENERATIVE 
GLASS-MELTING FURNACE 

This gaseous mixture, whilst in combustion, is drawn 
across the furnace chamber to the other end of the 
furnace. The flames playing across the tops of the pots 
on either side pass down through the port-holes and 
regenerator at the opposite end. The hot gases or 
products of combustion, in passing through the lateral 
channels of this regenerator, leave behind their heat by 
the absorptive cr conductive capacity of the fire-brick 
chequers through which the hot gases have passed on 
their way to the stack. The direction of the current is 
reversed at intervals of half an hour or less by using 
an arrangement of valves 'situated in the gas and air 



GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 51 

flues, so that the currents are made to travel in the con- 
trary direction, the air necessary for combustion then 
being drawn through the hot block of regenerators 
which was previously heated by the exit gases. On its 
way through these lateral channels the air becomes 
intensely heated, and, when it is admixed with the coal 
gas at the porthole, this pre-heated air accelerates the 
combustion and calorific intensity of the gaseous 
mixture. The direction of the current is continually 
being reversed at the interval of half an hour or less by 
the manipulation of the valves, so long as the high 
temperature is desired. 

In practice, however, the regenerators are only used 
whilst the batch materials are being melted during the 
night, and by morning, when the metal is melted and 
" plain," the heat is brought back, or retarded, by 
using the gas from the gas producers and cool atmos- 
pheric air under natural draught, instead of the regen- 
erated hot air. This cooler mixture, naturally not being 
so active in combustion, maintains just sufficient 
temperature for working the metal out during the day. 
Later in the day, when the pots are emptied and refilled 
with batch, the regenerators are re-connected and the 
founding proceeds again through the night, and the 
metal is again got ready for the workmen coming in 
next morning. 

It will be seen that this method of 'melting and 
working out the metal does away with night work, 
the furnace man alone remaining in charge during the 
night. All firing is done outside the glass furnace 
room, which is well lighted, clean, and free from coal 
dust, totally different conditions from those existing 
in many English glass houses of to-day. 

A Siemens Siegbert furnace taking ten open crucible 
pots, and filled each day, turns out 15 to 18 tons of 



52 



GLASS 



metal a week. The crucibles are about 30 in. in diameter 
and have a capacity of 5J cwts. of metal each. The 
amount of fuel consumed is about 18 tons a week. 
This type of furnace costs about 1,600 to 2,000 to 
build. In the writer's opinion, a disadvantage of this 




A MODERN GLASS HOUSE 

The Hermansen Continuous Recuperative Glass-melting 
Furnace in foreground (Twelve Covered Pot Type). 

furnace is that, during the reversing in the direction of 
the fire gases, the greatest heat is suddenly brought to 
bear on the cooler pots, resulting in short life for the 
pots. The temperature of the incoming air is not so 
constant as with the recuperative type of furnace; 
however, with proper control, these defects may be 
obviated to some extent. 

By the kindness of Messrs. Hermansen, the patentees, 
I am permitted to illustrate their Recuperative Glass- 
melting Furnace, eight pot type. 



54 



GLASS 



The Hermansen furnace, like the Siemens furnace, is 
producer gas-fired. The gas producer is built within 
the body of the furnace, (P) below the glass house floor. 
On either side of this gas producer the recuperators are 
situated. These are constructed by an arrangement of 
fire-clay tubes, designed to give two distinct continuous 
channels, the one horizontal and the other vertical. The 




Sectional Elevation. 
A 

HERMANSEN'S CONTINUOUS RECUPERATIVE 

GLASS-MELTING FURNACE 
P. Producer. B. Burner. G.P. Glass Pocket. 

vertical channels are connected with the atmosphere 
and supply the air necessary for combustion. The 
horizontal channels (R) are the flues through which the 
hot waste products of combustion are continually being 
drawn from the furnace by the stack. It will be 



GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 



55 



evident that, the horizontal channels being intermediate 
to the vertical tubes, the waste heat is continually 
being absorbed by the air travelling inwards. In other 
words, the air is pre-heated by passing through flues 
which are surrounded by the hot waste gases. There- 
fore, in this type of furnace there is no necessity for 
reversing the currents to procure the necessary pre- 
heated air for combustion, and the regulation of the 




HERMANSEN FURNACE 

Cross Section through Gas Producer. 

P. Gas Producer. R. Recuperators. 

furnace heat becomes a simple matter of controlling the 
draught by means of the dampers provided in the 
main flue. In this type of furnace the glass is melted 
nightly; open or covered pots may be used, the capacity 
of which varies between 5 and 12 cwts., according to 



56 



GLASS 



the class of glassware manufactured. The furnace is 
designed in four, six, and eight pot types, and several 
are now working in this country. These Hermansen 
furnaces are capable of producing 20 tons of metal, with 
a fuel consumption of 16 tons. 

The Hermansen Continuous Recuperative Furnace 
is the most efficient furnace known to the writer. It is 
easier to control than the regenerative types. Being 




PLAN OF HERMANSEN S FURNACE 
(Eight Pot Type) 

compact, it takes up little space and is easy to repair, 
and its life well surpasses other types. The initial 
outlay and cost of erection varies from 850 to 1,200. 
The combustion in this type of furnace is so perfect that 
it is used with open crucible pots for melting lead 
crystal glasses. On the Continent this furnace is in 
general use for all types of glassware, and, from the 
amount of glass it will melt, its efficiency is greater than 
the regenerative type. 



GLASS HOUSE FURNACES 57 

Tank Furnaces are at present used for the melting 
of the commoner and cheaper types of glass. They are 
so constructed as to contain a single rectangular-shaped 
compartment, or tank, about 18 in. to 2 ft. deep, and 
from 30 to 100 ft. long. The bed and retaining walls 
of this tank are constructed of specially selected fire- 
clay blocks; no pots are used. Tank furnaces are simple 
and melt the glass economically, but the metal produced 
is not nearly so good a quality as pot metal. 

Tank furnaces are chiefly used for making the cheaper 
glasswares, such as wine, stout, and beer bottles, gum 
bottles, ink-pots, sauce bottles, and like goods, where a 
large production is essential. Improvements are con- 
tinually taking place in the design of this type of furnace, 
and much finer and clearer metals are being produced. 
It is quite probable that in the future tanks will be 
preferred for making cast plate and sheet window glass, 
as a larger body of metal is held by them when com- 
pared with pot furnaces. Like the Siemens and Her- 
mansen furnaces, they are gas-fired, but the port -holes 
by which the gas and air are introduced and the products 
of combustion are withdrawn from the melting chamber, 
are situated on either side, above the level of the metal, 
whilst the glass blowers work at one end of the furnace. 
The melting and working of the metal is continuous. 
The tank is divided by a shallow bridge, which is 
partially submerged and situated midway between the 
two ends of the furnace, dividing it into two sections, 
respectively the melting and working compartments. 
This bridge keeps back all unmolten material and allows 
only that portion which is melted to travel forward 
to the working compartment. The tank is crowned 
or arched over, and at the working end openings are 
provided to enable the glass workers to gather the 
metal from within. Small rings, or syphons, are used, 



58 GLASS 

which, floating on the metal, serve further to refine the 
glass as it is gradually used. The batch mixture is 
rilled through a convenient opening near to the port- 
holes. Tank furnaces vary in capacity. Some have 
been constructed to give an output of 300 tons of glass 
a week. This pace can only be kept up with the aid 
of automatic bottle-making machinery; in which case 
hand labour is practically eliminated. 

Liquid fuel or oil-fired glass furnaces have not proved 
a success, being very costly in repairs on account of 
the local heating effects of the flames issuing from the 
burners vaporising the oil. 

Electric furnaces for glass-melting have been tried 
with partial success. These are expensive in main- 
tenance compared with their efficiency in producing 
glass. 



CHAPTER IX 

GLASS-MELTING POTS AND THEIR 
MAN UFACTURE 

GLASS house pots are large hollow vessels made of 
refractory fire-clay in which the glass manufacturer 
melts the materials of which his glass is composed, and 
which retain the molten metal whilst in a state of 
fusion for the workmen's use. In the case of the lead 
crystal glass, the materials, whilst being melted, require 
protection from the flames, smoke, and fuel ash present 
in the old English types of furnace chambers, which 
would otherwise reduce the lead present to a metallic 
state and spoil the glass; therefore, such glasses are 
melted in covered or hooded pots and thus protected 
from the direct action of the flames. Consideration has 
to be given to the extra amount of heat required from 
the furnace to find its way through the hood of the pot. 
For crown plate and chemical glassware, the metal is 
usually melted in open or uncovered pots. In this case 
the fusion is facilitated by allowing the heat of the 
furnace to come into direct contact with the materials 
within the pots. 

Pots which are covered or hooded have an opening 
cut out in the front, in a position just above the level of 
the molten metal. Through this opening the workman 
gathers the hot metal. In the case of open pots, the 
crucible is set in a similar position within the furnace, 
but the working hole or mouth is built to form part of 
the construction of the furnace in front of the crucible. 

Good pots are of the greatest importance to the glass 
manufacturer, and upon their life much of the success 

59 



60 GLASS 

of glassmaking depends. They have necessarily to 
resist the corrosive action of the raw materials and 
molten glass within, and, at the same time, withstand 
the very intense heat of the furnace without giving 
way under the great weight of the glass within them. 
Should a pot of metal give way whilst in the furnace, 
the loss is considerable and very serious, for not only 
has the metal been wasted, but much of it has flooded 
the floor of the furnace and siege, and, finding its way 
into the fire-box, attacks the furnace walls, fusing 
and melting with the fuel ash, checking the draught, 
and causing endless trouble. 

Glass house pots are very difficult and expensive to 
manufacture, and upon an average each pot has cost 
10 by the time it is set within the furnace; therefore 
every care is taken to extend their life by procuring the 
best possible materials for their manufacture. 

Only the best selected pot -clays available are used, 
and every endeavour is made to keep them clean and 
free from foreign contamination. Only the best por- 
tions of the fire-clay seam are taken for this purpose, 
and a considerable amount of diligence and stringent 
precaution is taken to procure the best qualities. As 
the clay is raised from the mine, clay pickers look 
over the lumps and select out the best portions. A 
foreman of long experience is stationed at the head 
of the mine, and it is his duty to supervise the clay 
pickers and see that every care is exercised to guard 
against any unfortunate results which would naturally 
attend any indiscriminate or indifferent selection. The 
best portions having been selected and placed aside, 
the lumps are scraped on the surface to remove any 
dirt, and broken into pieces about the size of an egg, 
which are again carefully examined on all sides and 
c/eaned from foreign matter such as pyrites or bluish 



GLASS-MELTING POTS 61 

parts. If this is carefully done, and the clays analysed 
and tested from time to time, a good pot-clay is obtained. 

The clay for burning is treated in a similar way and 
dried. It is then burnt to a very high temperature and 
taken to the mill to be ground to the necessary fineness 
of grain. All pot -clays are well seasoned and weathered 
before use. They are first ground to a very fine flour 
and then mixed with ground burni: clay, or " chamotte:" 
The proportion of raw clay to burnt varies with most 
manufacturers, but depends very much upon the 
plasticity or binding property of the raw pot-clay used. 
The burnt clay is preferable if ground to a size about 
1 to H mm., being sieved to take out any coarser 
particles. Some clays are more plastic than others, 
so the proportions in the pot-clay mixtures may vary 
from six parts of burnt clay to five of raw, down to 
one part of burnt clay to three of raw clay. The 
proportions are reckoned by volume, not by weight. 
The mixture is sieved into a trough and mixed with 
water to form a stiff paste, and removed into a large 
tank, where it is allowed to soak for some time. It is 
then well tempered by treading with the bare feet 
until the whole mass becomes plastic and tough. The 
clay mass is turned and trodden several times, in order 
thoroughly to consolidate the clay particles. Many 
efforts have been made to do this work mechanically, 
but without success. The fact remains, and experience 
has proved that, in the process of treading, the clay is 
more consolidated than by any mechanical method of 
preparation. The tempered and toughened clay is then 
allowed to sour and mature for a few weeks before use. 
It is then ready for the pot maker to begin the work 
of building the pots. 

The room in which the pots are to be made is kept 
evenly warm by means of a series of hot water circulating 



62 GLASS 

pipes arranged around the outer walls. Usually a 
temperature of between 60 to 70 Fahr. is maintained. 

Double doors are provided at the entrance, with a 
porch, so as to prevent sudden inrushes of cold air and 
prevent draughts in the pot-making room. All unau- 
thorised persons are prohibited entrance, and only those 
who work therein are allowed free access. They are 
made responsible for keeping the place clean, as well as 
looking after the clay and taking care of the pots 
whilst they are being made. 

The usual shape of a pot is of round section, 38 in. 
in diameter and 42 in. high, but many other shapes 
and sizes are used, according to the class of goods being 
manufactured. Thus, for colours, a very much smaller 
pot, less than one-third this size, is used, three of 
them, taking the position of one large pot, being set 
within one arch. For sheet and optical glass, a covered 
pot with a very large mouth or working opening is used. 

In some instances, as in the Hermansen furnace, the 
pots are oval or egg-shaped. These are used on account 
of their larger capacity in relation to the space occupied 
in the furnace. Other pots have an interior division, 
which has a syphonic refining action upon the glass; 
such pots permit of continuous melting and working, 
instead of the intermittent process adopted when the 
regular or common shape is used. For plate glass, open 
crucible or bowl-shaped pots are used. 

In regard to the manner in which the pots are made, 
and their subsequent treatment in annealing, the utmost 
care and control is necessary. In making the pots, 
the pot maker begins by making the pot bottom first, 
working the -plastic clay paste into rolls about the 
size of a large sausage. He takes these rolls and 
applies them one after another in a circular form upon 
a round level board, the size of the bottom of the pot. 



GLASS-MELTING POTS 63 

This board is supported on a low table. As he applies 
each roll, he presses them together so as to exclude all 
air spaces between them, and continuously works the 
rolls on the top of each other in circles, until he gets 
a circular flat slab of clay in thickness about 4 
in. and the width of the pot bottom. He then has 
the necessary thickness and size of the pot bottom 
formed as a clay slab, which is smoothed and levelled 
over the face with a knife or straight piece of wood. 
The slab of clay is then reversed upon another board, 
covered with a strong hurden cloth and a layer of 
ground burnt clay, which prevents the clay from 
sticking to the board, and facilitates drying of the pots. 

The first board is then removed, and the pot maker 
begins to build the sides or walls of the pot upon the 
circular clay slab by working the clay in rolls round the 
circumference of the slab to a thickness of 3 in., which 
gives the thickness of the pot walls. As he works and 
presses on each roll with his right hand, he supports 
the inside of the curve with his left hand, and presses 
roll after roll round the circumference of the slab of 
clay, increasing the height of the walls until he attains 
a height of about 6 in. The height of this wall is 
increased about 6 in. every other day or so; these 
time intervals allow each section built to stiffen a little 
before beginning upon the next section. 

The workman passes from one pot bottom to another, 
building up these sections until he builds each to a 
height of about 30 in., when he places within each pot 
a clay ring about 18 in. in diameter, which he has pre- 
viously made. 1 After placing these rings within the pots, 
the pot maker begins to form the hood or dome of the 

1 These rings, floating on the metal, are used by the glass 
makers to keep back the scum of the glass away from the middle 
portion from which he gathers. 



64 GLASS 

pot by working on the clay rolls, and at the same time 
drawing the sides inwards towards the middle, lessening 
the thickness of the walls and gradually diminishing 
the open space until it is covered and sealed in. Whilst 
the clay is still soft, the mouth or working opening is 
worked on and cut out of the dome, and the whole 
finished and smoothed by means of wooden tools. 

The pots are now completed and ^ are left to dry 
gradually at a moderate heat, which is increased a little 
at the end of a few months in order to thoroughly dry 
them. They are then removed from the boards and 
are ready for the furnace. 

Crucible pots are made in a similar way, except that 
at the height of about 27 to 30 in. the pot maker finishes 
off the top edge of the walls and leaves it in that form 
to be dried. 

Many efforts have been made to manufacture pots 
by other methods. One which has been tried with a 
fair amount of success is to cast the whole pot or portions 
thereof by using a case mould and pouring in liquid 
clay slip. Another method which has been tried is to 
press the form by means of a hydraulic press and mould. 
Other mechanical contrivances have been used, but few 
of them have given such satisfactory results as the 
hand-made pots. 

MIXTURE FOR POT-CLAY 

By volume. 

(Base) Fine ground strong Fire-clay . . 5 parts 
(Binder) Fine ground mild Plastic Fire-clay .4 
(Grog) Ground burnt Chammotte . .2 

Ground selected Potsherds . : J part 

The fusion point of the mixture should not be less 
than Cone 32, or 1710 Centigrade. 

Strong fire-clays are those coarser and harder grained, 
and are usually more silicious and less plastic than the 



GLASS-MELTING POTS 65 

mild fire-clays. Mild fire-clays are very fine-grained, 
plastic, and easily weathered clays. They act as the 
binder portion in fixing the burnt grog used in pot-clays. 

The raw clays should be ground very fine and separ- 
ately from th3 burnt clays. The ground burnt should 
be crushed from hard and well-burnt fire-clays, and 
should pass a sieve of ten meshes to the linear inch. 

The mineralogical composition of the fire-clays 
for making pots is important. The presence of pyrites 
renders fire-clays unsuitable as pot-clays. Some indica- 
tion as to the subsequent behaviour of a fire-clay can 
be obtained by submitting it to a petrographic examina- 
tion, and the usual pyro-chemical and physical tests 
carried out in testing refractory materials. In this 
country, Stourbridge pot-clays are chiefly used for 
pot-making, and so conservative are the majority of 
glass manufacturers that they will not use other clays, 
although, in the writer's opinion, better clays exist in 
Great Britain and have now been introduced and used 
by some firms for pot -making. 

Ground potsherds are selected pieces of old broken 
pots, cleaned from any adhering glass. These selected 
pieces are crushed and ground in a similar way to the 
burnt clay, and sieved to the same degree of fineness 
before use. 

Plumbago glass house pots are sometimes used. 
These are made from mixtures of graphite, or plumbago, 
and raw fire-clay. They are very refractory and 
withstand the attack of very basic glasses, where such 
have to be manufactured. 

Pot rings are made by taking a long roll of clay 
about 3 in. in thickness and shaping it round a circular 
frame. The two ends are joined and finished smoothly, 
the frame taken away, and the ring dried. A ring is 
placed in each pot. 
5 (1465) 



66 GLASS 

Stoppers are the lids used to close the mouth of 
covered pots whilst the metal is being melted. These 
are made in plaster case moulds by pressing a bat of 
clay into the desired shape and releasing the outer 
case by turning the whole upside down upon a board 
and lifting off the mould. An indentation is made 
in the middle, forming a small hole. An iron rod 
can there be inserted, by which the stopper can be 
lifted away from the pot mouth whilst hot. Stoppers 
are burnt before use, and are made in various sizes to 
fit the mouths of different pots. 

It is always advisable for the glass manufacturer to 
make his own pots and prepare his own clay, as he then 
knows exactly what he is using, and he is not dependent 
upon outside firms for his pots as he has them ready 
at hand when needed. The conveyance of pots from 
one district to another by rail or road is always accom- 
panied by considerable risk, as the vibrations given 
them in such journeys often cause mischief. As they 
are very heavy and fragile, their loading and unloading 
into the wagons is often attended with mishap. As 
often as not, latent strains are caused, which only 
develop when the pot is put in the furnace. 

Annealing and Setting the Pots in the Furnace. The 
pots, when made and dried, being of raw clay have 
to be carefully annealed before they can be introduced 
into the hot furnace. In doing this, the pot is removed 
from the drying rooms and placed within a small 
auxiliary furnace called a pot arch, which is constructed 
purposely to anneal them and get them hot before 
placing them in the glassmaking furnace. The pot is 
moved by picking it up on a long three-pronged iron 
trolley, made purposely to lift and move them about. 
The pot is set within the pot arch, resting upon two or 
three rows of fire-bricks, which allows the trolley to 



GLASS-MELTING POTS 67 

be removed and brought away, leaving the pot in a 
raised position in the pot arch. The doors of the pot 
arch are then closed and sealed with a stiff clay paste 
or mortar, and slow fires started which gradually heat 
the pot, until at the end of a week it is got to a white 
heat, and the pot is ready to be removed and set within 
the furnace for melting the glass. 

At a convenient time, arrangements are made for 
setting the pot. All other work about the glass house 
has to cease, as all hands are required to help in the 
strenuous and arduous work. The old pot in the 
furnace, which has done work for several months, has 
to be withdrawn from the furnace and the new pot 
from the pot arch has to take its place. We see gangs 
of men here and there. Some are pulling down the wall 
of bricks from the front of the old pot, making an 
opening in readiness to remove it. Another gang of 
men advance with long, heavy, strong iron crowbars, 
sharpened at the points, with which by heavy blows 
and levering they end savour to loosen the old pot from 
the floor of the siege, to which it has become firmly 
cemented by the heat and any leakage of glass which 
may have taken place. Eventually, by their combined 
exertions, they succeed in loosening the pot, and then, 
levering it up, they place the low iron pot trolley under 
it and drag it out of the furnace, whence it is taken 
away and thrown aside. 

The old pot having been removed from the furnace, 
the glowing heat radiates more intensely than ever into 
the faces of the men at work, who endure it in relays 
whilst they work clearing away the old bricks and pre- 
paring the siege for the new setting. When this is done, 
a gang of men open the pot arch doors, and, placing 
the iron trolley under the new pot, convey it to the 
opening in the glass furnace from which the old pot has 



68 GLASS 

been removed. Facing th^ terrific heat, they struggle 
to push the new pot into its place in the furnace, with 
the aid of crowbars, and working in relays, in turn face 
the heat till at last it is got into position. Naturally, 
everything has to be done in a hurry, so that the new 
pot may not be chilled before it is got into the furnace 
by being exposed too long to the outside air. The 
whole work proves very exhausting to the men, as there 
is little protection from the heat. After the pot is set 
in its place, the trolley is brought away and the wall of 
bricks rebuilt up in front of the pot to protect it, clay 
being daubed over the exterior of the brick wall to 
prevent any inrushes of air, which would cause the pot 
to crack by finding a way through the joints in the 
brickwork. 

The furnace, during these operations, is driven and 
worked to its full capacity, so as to allow for the very 
considerable loss of heat which takes place whilst the 
opening is being made and the pots removed. 

The above is a description of the usual method of 
pot setting. In more modern and up-to-date works 
a travelling chain screen is used. This screen is like 
a curtain of loose chains, which is adjusted to hang 
in front of the open arch of the furnace and protects 
the workmen from the fierce heat. At the same time 
it permits the workmen to see and carry out the work 
of pot setting with greater ease and convenience. 
In using this screen arrangement whilst setting, the 
pot is pushed through the chain screen, which closes 
upon it after it has passed through. The workmen 
are thus enabled to get closer to their work by manipu- 
lating the crowbars through the screen as the heat is 
not radiated full on to them. 

The newly set pot is allowed to stand empty in the 
furnace for a day or two to regain heat before it is 



GLASS-MELTING POTS 69 

filled with batch. It is first glazed on the inside by 
a workman taking a gathering of glass from another 
pot and plastering or covering the inside all round with 
the hot metal, which flows down and glazes the surface 
of the pot, giving it a certain amount of protection 
from the attack of the raw batch materials which are 
to be introduced later. 

The founder, or glass melter, now takes charge of 
the pot, and he brings up the mixture of batch and 
cullet and shovels it into the empty pot until it is filled 
well above the mouth or level of the opening. The 
heat of the furnace melts the batch, and after several 
hours it becomes liquid and shrinks in volume so 
that probably only two-thirds of the height or capacity 
of the pot is occupied. The pot is then again filled 
with more batch materials until it is full of molten 
metal up to the level of the mouth of the pot. 

The furnace is kept going at its full heat until the 
founder, drawing a small portion of the glass on the 
end of an iron rod, examines it and finds that it is 
melted clear and free from seeds or bubbles of gas. 
When clear, the metal is " plain," and at this stage is in 
a very liquid, fluid, and watery state, too liquid to be 
easily gathered. It is, therefore, allowed to cool off 
by removing the stopper down and leaving the mouth 
of the pot open, until the glass becomes more viscid, 
or of a stiffer nature. The glass is then skimmed by 
dragging off any scum present on the surface, which is 
due to undecomposed salts that may have risen during 
the melting. 

The metal is now ready for the glass blowers to begin 
work. Upon looking into the pot, the fire-clay ring 
will now be noticed floating on the surface of the glass. 
This ring keeps back from its interior any further scum 
that may arise whilst work is. in progress. The glass 



70 GLASS 

blower always gathers from within this ring, where the 
metal is cleanest; and from time to time the metal 
within the ring is skimmed in order to keep that portion 
in the best condition. When the greater part of the 
metal within the pot has been gathered or worked out, 
the heat of the furnace is raised again and fresh batch 
materials filled and the process repeated. 

The time taken to melt the glass depends upon the 
heat of the furnace. A gas-fired furnace will melt the 
batches in eight hours, but the old type of English 
furnace takes much longer, usually two to three days. 



CHAPTER X 

LEHRS AND ANNEALING 

OWING to the peculiar structure of glass, and its liability 
to fly or collapse when exposed to sudden changes of 
temperature, a process of annealing becomes necessary 
in order to produce a more equal distribution of the 
tensions throughout the structure of the glass; other- 
wise, glassware of any thickness would be in such a 
state of tension as to be extremely liable to fracture 
when passing through any sudden change in the atmos- 
pheric temperature, especially in frosty weather. In 
this state it is useless or dangerous for general purposes. 
On this account most glasswares undergo a form of 
annealing at some time during the process of their 
manufacture. And in the case of certain goods, such 
as table glass, lamp glasses, optical glass, etc., special 
'care and time are devoted to this process of annealing. 
Often in the case of improperly annealed glass, instances 
are known where its unhomogeneous structure has 
suddenly given way as the result of derangements set 
up by internal tension. Friction, or rough handling 
whilst cleaning, at the ordinary temperature of the 
atmosphere, is sufficient to cause a rupture. Therefore 
annealing cannot be too carefully attended to. 

For annealing the glass manufacturer uses a lehr, 
which is an arched tunnel with a fully exposed opening 
at the exit end and partially closed at the entrance 
end, where the goods are introduced. The lehr is 
heated at the entrance end to a temperature of about 
350 Cent., which temperature is gradually diminished 
towards the exit end, which is quite cool. The hot end, 

71 



72 GLASS 

or entrance, should be constantly at a temperature 
just short of the actual deformation or softening point 
of the glass introduced; usually the entrance is in a 
position near, or convenient to, the glass furnace around 
which the glass blowers make the goods. 

In old-fashioned works coal-fired lehrs are used, but 
they are very unsatisfactory and difficult to regulate. 
The heat of the lehrs in modern works is maintained 
and regulated by a series of gas burners situated under 
the floor of the tunnel or lehr. Along this floor are 
placed iron trays linked up with each other to form a 
continually travelling track, which gradually moves 
towards the cold end of the lehr; these trays are operated 
by a mechanical jack and gears. As each tray of goods 
comes out of the cooler end of the lehr it is taken off 
and conveyed to the warehouses for cleaning and 
packing, and the empty tray is sent back to the entrance 
end to be linked up and refilled again with fresh goods. 

These tunnels, or lehrs, are about 40 ft. long, and as 
the glasswares travel through on the trays they are 
subjected to the gradually diminishing heat, until they 
are ultimately removed at the cooler end in an annealed 
condition, in which state they are less liable to fracture 
in use. The time occupied in travelling through the 
lehr is usually about three days. But this period 
varies according to the nature of the ware being manu- 
factured. In special glasses, and in the annealing of 
optical glass, the glass may undergo a process of anneal- 
ing that takes as long as ten days, and in other cases, 
where the glassware is made very thin, no annealing at 
all is necessary. Usually the thicker and heavier 
articles require the longest time in annealing. Table 
glass which is made thick and heavy for cutting or 
decoration requires a little more extra care and time in 
the lehr than ordinary plain glassware, as the abrasive 



LEHRS AND ANNEALING 73 

action of cutting quickly develops any latent strains 
and causes fracture. 

In some works, especially on the Continent, several 
small externally-heated kilns are used for annealing, 
in which the hot glassware, as it is made, is packed in 
tiers ; when full, these kilns are closed up and then 
allowed to cool of their own accord; after which they 
are opened and the goods taken out to the warehouse. 
This is an intermittent process of annealing, and is 
quite satisfactory for certain classes of goods, such as 
lamp shades, which are usually of equal thickness 
throughout their form. 

The travelling or continuous form of lehr admits 
goods of more unequal thickness in form and variety. 
Thus, wine-glasses, jugs, and bowls may be annealed 
together with less risk of malformation in their shape 
than would be present if they were annealed together 
in kilns. The manufacturer can, by suitably arranging 
the temperature of the gas burners, give more heat to 
one side of the lehr than to the other. He then places 
the heavier goods on the hotter side and reserves the 
other for lighter goods, such as wines, etc. They then 
tiavel down together side by side under the most 
suitable conditions for the annealing of each class. 

Many physical changes take place in the glass passing 
through the lehr. One remarkable effect is the slight 
change in colour which occurs in glass decolorized with 
manganese. It is noticed that the glass becomes a 
greener tint in passing through the lehr when the 
decolorization is just on the margin of efficiency. 

The state in which the structure of glass exists when 
quickly cooled and the action of annealing might be 
explained. When glass is quickly cooled, being a bad 
conductor of heat, insufficient time is allowed for the 
middle or interior portions of the glasswares to settle 



74 GLASS 

down and assume their normal state of solidification. 
The outer portion, or crust, will first cool and contract 
with an enormous strain upon the hot interior. This 
difference in the state of tension between the outer and 
interior portions gives a want of uniformity, and stresses 
of tension and thrust are developed, which cause the 
whole to collapse with the slightest external scratch 
or heat change. In annealing, this strained or forced 
condition in the structure of the glass is relieved by 
subjecting the glass to a pre-heating, and gradually 
diminishing the temperature, allowing a sufficient time 
for the different layers mutually to adjust themselves 
to their comparative normal positions, and thus relieve 
the strains within the mass. Much depends upon the 
pre-heating temperature and the rate at which the 
diminution of the temperature take? place. If this 
is properly provided for, the best results are obtained 
in the stability of the resulting glass. The presence of 
any stress can be determined by using a polariscope. 

The average British glass manufacturer has little 
knowledge of the value of a polariscope, or stress 
viewer, in ascertaining the physical state of his glass- 
wares, and until he adopts its use there is little prospect 
of an improvement in his annealing methods. Much 
faulty annealed glass is being turned out which the 
glass manufacturer is not aware of, and which could be 
avoided by the intelligent use of such a simple instru- 
ment, which detects badly annealed glass at once by 
the aid of crossed nicols and a selenite plate. 

Owing to the unequal densities of the various silicates 
present in the heavy lead and barium glasses, they are 
more subject to striation and require more careful 
annealing than the soda-lime glasses, in which the 
silicates present are of more equal density. However, 
much depends upon the proper " founding " and melting 



LEHRS AND ANNEALING 75 

of such glasses. The use of a larger proportion of cullet 
assists in breaking up striation. The presence of striae 
or cords in glass disqualifies it for most purposes, as it 
is usually found that, apart from their defective appear- 
ance, they tend to produce stresses within the glass. 
Transparency, brilliancy, stability, and homogeneity 
are important factors in producing perfect glassware, 
and the proper development of these distinguishing 
properties requires considerable skill on the part of the 
glass manufacturer, alike from a technical, physical, 
and practical standpoint. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE MANIPULATION OF GLASS 
GLASS MAKERS' TOOLS AND MACHINES 

THE tools used by the glass blowers are few and simple. 
The greater part of the crude form is produced by 
blowing out the hot glass into a spherical or pear-shaped 
bulb and regulating the size and thickness by gathering 
more or less material. The tools are mainly employed 
in finishing and shaping this bulb into the desired form, 
such as shearing, forming the neck spout, crimpling, 
and sticking on the handles to the various shapes made. 

According to the type of the goods manufactured, 
different manipulative methods in forming the articles 
are adopted in various works. 

The best English table glassware is mostly hand-made 
blown ware, generally entirely executed by the handi- 
craft of the workman without the aid of moulds to form 
any part of the articles, and a considerable amount of 
skill and practice is necessary before the workman is 
competent enough to shape a number of articles exactly 
to the form of his model. It is astonishing to notice 
the skill and precision with which a workman produces 
wine glasses one after another, so uniform that one 
cannot trace any dissimilarity between them. 

A second class, or cheaper form, of tableware is made 
by blowing the sphere or bulb of hot glass within a 
mould, to give some part, or the whole form, of the 
desired article. If only a portion of the intended 
shape is thus formed by the mould, it is afterwards 
finished by hand with tools. This is the general con- 
tinental method of working, and has only been partially 

76 



GLASS MAKERS' TOOLS 77 

adopted by this country for making tableware. Where 
a number of articles of one shape have to be produced, 
this is by far the most economical method. Glass 
tumblers, honey pots, and rose bowls illustrate this 
class of ware. 

Another class of. tableware produced by a method of 
pressing the form is known as " Pressed glassware." 
The hot metal is gathered from the pot and a portion 
cut off, and allowed to fall into an iron mould fixed 
within a lever press, which carries a plunger fitting 
within the mould formed to shape the interior and 
exterior, with the thickness of the glass as the inter- 
mediate space between them. As the hot glass is 
introduced, the workman brings down the lever arm 
and the plunger presses the hot metal to shape. The 
plunger is then released and the mould reversed, turning 
out the pressed form of glass, which is then carried 
away to be fire-polished or further manipulated with 
tools before it goes to the lehr. The case or mould 
portion is made in two halves, to facilitate the removal 
of the hot glass after being pressed. Pressed glass 
tableware can be recognised by the presence of seams, 
showing these divisions of the mould. Many exquisite 
designs imitating cut glass tableware are executed in 
pressed glassware. The moulds are a very expensive 
item, as there is much tool work in cutting the patterns 
and refacing them after prolonged use. In making 
pressed goods, an oily, carbonaceous liquid is used to 
give the moulds some protection and prevent the 
oxidisation of the iron. This liquid is from time to time 
applied, as the work of pressing proceeds, by mopping 
the interior of the mould with a mop dipped in the 
preparation. 

Another process in glassmaking is that of bottle- 
making by automatic machinery, in which the glass 



78 GLASS 

worker does little but gather the requisite quantity 
of glass from the pot and place it into the revolving 
clips of a bottle-making machine, which does the work 
of formation, by the aid of compressed air delivered 
from a supply main. This is largely of American 
introduction, and is the method adopted in making 
common bottles. In some cases the bottle neck may be 
finished by a hand tool after a mould has done its part 
of forming the bottle. Modern machines have been 
perfected to do the whole work of gathering the metal, 
forming the shape, and completing the bottle; a number 
of arms travelling round a track carry the mould forms, 
which alternately dip into water to keep them cool, 
open to receive the hot metal, close, deliver a requisite 
pressure of air to extend the hot glass within the mould, 
and then deliver the bottle on to a travelling belt, 
which takes them to be annealed. 

In the manufacture of bottles by machines, hand 
labour is practically eliminated as far as the actual 
making of the bottle is concerned. The bottle-making 
industry is undergoing great changes by the introduction 
of such machinery. In some plants a ten-armed 
machine will produce automatically 120 gross of 16 oz. 
bottles in twenty-four hours, at an average cost of 
Is. 6d. a gross. 

Owen's Bottle-making Machines are of this type. 
Such machines produce 700 bottles an hour, according 
to their size and the number of arms fitted to the 
machine. 

As an illustration of the less complicated bottle- 
making machine, " The Harlington " may be described. 

This machine consists principally of a table, on which 
is arranged on the left-hand side a parrison mould, and 
on the right-hand side a column with a revolving table 
carrying two finishing moulds. 




By permission of 

" THE HARLINGTON 



Co. 



BOTTLE-MAKING MACHINE 



80 GLASS 

Below the table, near the parrison mould, is arranged 
an air cylinder, through which a piston runs, operated 
by a hand lever. On the upper part of the column, on 
which revolves the table with the two finishing moulds, 
is also arranged an air cylinder operated by a hand lever. 

The method of working ^s now as follows 

A gatherer puts the metal into the parrison mould, 
into which it is sucked by moving the left-hand lever. 
Through this operation the head of the bottle is formed 
and finished. By reversing the lever, air enters the 
parrison, thus blowing the same out to the height of 
the parrison mould. The parrison mould is now opened 
and the parrison hanging in the head-mould held by 
the tongues is placed under the blowing cylinder above 
the open finishing mould. Now the latter is closed, 
and by moving the lever, the bottle is blown and 
finished. Whilst this last operation is being effected 
by a boy, the table is revolved and the previously 
finished bottle is taken out and another parrison is made 
ready to be handled in the described way. This 
machine produces 200 bottles per hour. 

The Glass Blower's Tools. The glass maker's chief 
tool is the blow-iron. This is a tube of iron J to 1J in. 
wide and about 4 to 5 ft. long, one end of which is 
shaped or drawn in so as to be convenient for holding 
to the lips, and the other end is slightly thickened into 
a pear-shaped form, on which the hot metal is gathered. 

In making crystal tableware the workman manipu- 
lates the glass he has gathered on this blow-iron by 
marveling it on a marver. This is a heavy slab of iron 
with a polished face about 1 ft. by 1 ft. 6 in., and 1 in. 
thick, supported on a low table. Sometimes this marver 
may be a block of wood with hollows of definite forms, 
in which the workman rotates the hot glass he has 
gathered to regulate the form and thickness of the metal 



GLASS MAKERS' TOOLS 81 

to suit his work before beginning to blow it out into a 
hollow bulb. 

The pontil is a solid rod of iron of similar length and 
thickness to the- blow-iron. By gathering a little wad 
of hot glass on the pontil and sticking it against the end 
of the bulb attached to the blow-iron, the workman can 
detach the bulb from the blow-iron and hold it by the 
pontil to which it has been transferred, and which 
enables him to work on the other end or opening in the 
bulb which is exposed in detaching it from the blow-iron. 




GLASS WORKER'S CHAIR 

After re-heating the glass, he may shear it with his 
& i^sors or shears, open it out with his pucellas, crimple 
it with his tongs, measure and caliper it, or shape it 
to a template. 

Whilst he is doing such operations he sits in a 
glass worker's chair. This chair has two long 
extending arms, which are slightly inclined, and along 
which he rolls his blow-iron or pontil, with the glass 
article attached, working upon the rotating form, turning 
the iron with one hand, whilst he uses his tools with 
the other hand, to shape or cut the glass to its requisite 
form whilst it is hot, soft, and malleable. 

The shears are like an ordinary pair of scissors, and 
are used for cutting the hot glass, or shearing off the 
tops of bowls and wines to their proper height. 

6 (1465) 



GLASS 

The pucellas is a steel, spring-handled tool in the 
form of tongs, which the workman uses to widen, 
extend, or reduce the open foims of glass by bringing 
pressure upon the grips of the tool whilst applying it 
to the hot glass. 

The glass maker also uses another form of spring 
tool in taking hold of hot glass or pinching hot glass to 
form. These are the tongs. 

The battledore, or pallette, is a flat board of wood with 
a handle, used for flattening and trueing the bottoms 
of jugs or decanters, etc. 

The chest knife is a flat bar of iron, usually an old 
file, used for knocking off the waste glass remaining on 
the blow-irons and pontils after use. A chest or iron 
box is kept for collecting such waste glass for further 
use. A pair of compasses, calipers, and a foot rule 
complete the glass maker's outfit of tools. 

Making a Wine-glass. The manipulations in the 
manufacture of a wine-glass will now be described. 
A common mule wine-glass is formed from three distinct 
pieces of glass: (a) the bowl; (b) the leg; (c) the foot. 

A wine " shop," or " chair," consists of three men; 
a " workman," whose main work consists of finishing 
the wine-glass; a " servitor," who forms or shapes the 
bulb; a " foot maker," who gathers and marvers the 
glass; and a boy who carries away and cleans the 
blow-irons. 

The " foot maker " of the " chair " gathers on the end 
of a blowing-iron sufficient glass to form a bowl. This 
is then shaped on a marver until the required shape 
is obtained. The footmaker then blows this out to a 
hollow bulb similar in size to the pattern to which he 
is working. When the bulb leaves the footmaker it is 
the shape of the bowl of the wine-glass. 

This is then handed over to the servitor, who drops 



GLASS MAKERS' TOOLS 83 

a small piece of hot glass on to the end of the bulb, 
and heats the whole by holding it in the furnace. This 
serves to make the joint of the two pieces perfect. The 
servitor next proceeds to draw out the leg from the 
small piece of glass at the end of the bulb, leaving a 
button of glass at the end of the leg. The servitor 
then dips the end of the leg into the molten glass within 
the pot and gathers on sufficient glass to form a foot. 
He spreads this portion of the glass out to the required 
shape and size with a pair of wooden clappers, with 
which he squeezes the hot glass to form the foot. 

The servitor has now done his part of the work, and 
the glass is handed to the workman. It is then cracked 
off, and the foot caught by a spring clip arrangement 
attached to a pontil, called a " gadget." The workman 
now re-heats or melts the top edge of the glass by 
holding it within the furnace, and when it is hot he 
cuts off the surplus glass with a pair of shears. A line is 
chalked on at the correct distance from the foot, and 
guides the workman in cutting the glass to the proper 
height. He then melts the top again and opens it out 
with his spring tool to the required shape, after which 
the glass is taken to the annealing lehr by the boy, to 
be annealed. 

Other forms of wine-glasses are made, and various 
methods are adopted, according to the district and class 
of workmen. 

For instance, the method of making the above 
common mule wine-glass varies in different districts. 
Instead of gathering the metal for the foot upon the leg 
of the glass, the workman may drop a piece of hot glass, 
which has been gathered by the servitor, on to the 
button at the end of the leg, and by means of a pair of 
wood clappers spread the hot glass to form the foot. 

In another method of making a wine-glass, the stem 



84 GLASS 

or leg is drawn out from the body of the bulb by pinching 
down a knob at the end of the glass. The servitor 
draws the leg out of this "knob and knocks off the 
extreme end. Meanwhile, the footmaker has been pre- 
paring a foot, gathering a small portion of metal on a 
blow-iron and blowing it out and shaping it into a 
double globule. The end globule forms the foot and 
the second merely acts as a support. The footmaker 
takes these globules, and the servitor sticks them on 
to the drawn stem of the wine whilst it is hot; the 
blow-iron holding the globules is knocked away, leaving 
them adhering to the leg of the wine-glass. The foot- 
maker then knocks off the second globule at the line 
between the two and, re-heating the bulb at the foot 
of the glass, opens and widens the edges out. The 
glass then goes to the workman to be finished in the 
same way as the common mule wine-glass. 

Many articles of glassware are formed with the aid 
of moulds. Take as an illustration the manufacture of 
tumblers and honey pots. A quantity of glass is 
gathered on the blow-iron, marvered, and blown out 
into an elongated bulb, which is introduced into a 
mould divided in two halves, which open or shut by 
hinges, a handle being fixed on either half to facilitate 
the operation. The interior of the mould is made to 
the shape of the article, and as the bulb of hot glass is 
introduced it is shut, and the workman blows down 
his blow-iron and extends the glass until it expands and 
fills the space within the mould, giving the complete 
form of the article with a surplus of metal just where 
the blow-iron is attached to the glass at the top. These 
tops are then cut off and finished, either by the workman 
re-heating the article by attaching the bottom to a 
pontil and shearing off the top edges, or the glass is 
annealed in its unfinished state and the top surplus 



GLASS MAKERS TOOLS 



portion cut off by an automatic machine specially 
constructed for cracking off such goods. 

Such machines consist of a set of revolving tables upon 
which the glass articles are centred, and each in turn 
revolves in front of a thin, pointed, hot jet of gas flame, 
which impinges on the glass at the height at which the 



(CL) 




--> te 





(b) 



GLASSWARE BLOWN IN MOULDS SHOWING PORTIONS 
CRACKED OFF 

(a) Tumbler. (6) Honey Pot 

glass is to be cracked off. After one or two revolutions in 
front of this hot pencil of flame, it is removed, and, by 
applying a cold steel point so adjusted as to touch the 
part where the jet has heated the glass, a chill is 
imparted which causes the upper portion of the glass 
to crack away in a clear, sharp line round the glass. 
This top portion of surplus glass is thrown aside and 
returned to the furnace for re-melting as cullet. 



86 GLASS 

The tumbler or honey pot is then conveyed to another 
machine which fire-polishes the edges to a smooth finish. 

This machine consists of a circular revolving frame 
carrying small supports, which themselves rotate on 
their own centres. Upon each support an article is 
placed to be fire-polished and the frame carries them 
round, and they travel into another section of the 
machine, passing under a hooded chamber, which is 
heated by a fierce jet of flame. The jet of flame, 
which is localised on to the top edges of the tumblers 
or other goods passing through the hood, gives just 
sufficient heat to melt and round off the sharp edges 
of the glassware where they have been cracked off by the 
previous machines. By using these machines in this 
way labour is considerably economised, and as many 
as 300 or more articles an hour can be cracked off and 
fire-polished with unskilled labour. 

These machines are extensively adopted in the manu- 
facture of electric light bulbs, shades, and lamp 
chimneys. 

Moulds are usually opened, shut, and dipped by boys, 
but in up-to-date glass works an automatic machine 
called a " Mechanical Boy " is used. With this machine, 
the mould is operated at the desire of the workman 
and not at the desire of the boy. The output is con- 
siderably expedited by the use of these automatic 
devices for opening and shutting the moulds. 

It is obvious that whatever the shape of the mould, 
or whatever the design within the case, the glass takes 
the impression and retains it in after working. In 
this way, square sections, fluted indentations, or raised 
bosses can be formed with facility and regularity. 

The Glass Workers' Union consider that the intro- 
duction of machinery deprives men of their independ- 
ence and right to work, but as yet the glass blowers 




liv p. -r mission of 



Melin & Co. 



VERTICAL CRACKING-OFF MACHINE 



88 GLASS 

have been always fully occupied with useful work about 
the factories in which such machines have been intro- 
duced, so it cannot be said that they have been forced 
to be idle. 

The advantages possessed by these automatic 
machines in their larger output at so much less cost 
-compared with hand labour is the great factor in in- 
ducing their adoption; and in these days of progress 
and competition such machines enable the glass manu- 
facturers to cope with the increasing demand and go 
far towards bringing a factory up to date and making 
it well equipped. 

Manufacturers should certainly turn their attention 
to these mechanical methods, as their use is quite 
general on the Continent and in America, and by their 
use the metal can be worked out of the pots or tanks 
much more quickly, increasing considerably the turnout 
or capacity of the furnace against the fuel consumption. 
Much of the glassware imported into this country is 
composed of such articles as would have been manipu- 
lated by machines, and, unless a similar method of 
manufacturing them is adopted here, we cannot hope, 
to compete with other countries in supplying our own 
needs. In the writer's opinion, it is mainly due to the 
adoption of machinery for producing glassware that 
the continental people have been enabled to undersell 
us in our own market, and English manufacturers could 
produce at a much cheaper rate if they would only 
adopt similar methods of manufacture and the gas-fired 
furnaces as used abroad. 



CHAPTER XII 

CROWN, SHEET, AND PLATE GLASS 

THE glass used in windows may be either crown, sheet, 
or plate. 

Crown Glass is made in the form of circular flat discs 
about 4 ft. in diameter. The workman, by repeated 
gatherings, collects sufficient glass on the end of his 
blow-iron until he has a mass approximately 10 or 
14 Ib. in weight, which he marvers into a pear-shaped 
lump by rotating the hot glass in the hollow of a wooden 
block. He then blows the glass into a spherical bulb (a), 
which, by quick rotation, is widened and assumes a 
mushroom shape (b). Another workman attaches a pontil 
to the outer centre of this bulb by welding it on with a 
small portion of hot metal. 

The blow-iron is then detached by wetting and chilling 
the glass near to the blow pipe, which breaks away, 
leaving an opening in the bulb where it has become 
detached (c). 

This is then carried to an auxiliary heated furnace, 
which has a wide opening emitting great heat, and by 
resting the pontil upon a convenient support and 
rotating it quickly the action of centrifugal force and 
heat causes the glass to spread out at the opening, 
which becomes larger and larger until the glass finally 
opens out into a flat circular disc of fairly even thickness 
throughout, with the pontil still at the centre, forming 
a bullion point or slight swelling, due to the knob of 
glass used in affixing it (d). 

Next, the workman, keeping the disc in rotation, 
89 



90 



GLASS 



brings it away from the furnace and allows the metal 
to stiffen and set by cooling, when it is carried to the 
annealing oven and detached from the pontil. The 
discs are then stacked up for annealing. When 
annealed, these are afterwards cut across in sections 
or squares of convenient size by using a glass cutter's 
diamond. 




FOUR STAGES IN CROWN GLASS-MAKING 



It is evident that the centre portion, containing the 
bullion point or bull's eye, is useless for plain window 
glazing, but occasionally these are sought after by glass 
decorators for use in coloured leaded lights for door 
panels, etc. 



CROWN, SHEET, AND PLATE GLASS 



91 



Sheet Glass is made in the form of thin, walled, hollow 
cylinders of glass, which are split along their length 
and round the cap and then opened out by heat and 
allowed to uncurl until each sheet lies out flat. The 
workman gathers a sufficiency of glass upon his blow- 




six STAGES IN SHEET GLASS-MAKING 

iron by repeated gatherings, and marvers it into a 
ball about as big as one's head. This is blown out (a) 
and widened by rotating the blow-iron until he gets a 
mushroom shape (b), with a heavier bulk of glass at the 
extremity than at the sides. 

This extra thickness of glass at the extremity of the 
bulb tends to lengthen the bulb of glass as he swings 
it in a pendulum fashion, and by blowing and swinging 
it alternately he gets an extended form (c). 

To permit the workman to swing the mass of glass 
out conveniently to the full length of the intended 
cylinder, a long, narrow pit or trench is provided below 
the floor level, and by standing alongside this trench 



92 GLASS 

the workman is enabled to swing the glass within the 
trench at arm's length until the requisite length and 
width of cylinder are obtained. This work requires a 
high degree of skill and strength. The shape of the 
cylinder of glass is now as shown on page 91 (d). 

The extremity of this cylinder is now re-heated and 
opened with the aid of a spring tool with charred wooden 
prongs, until the opening is enlarged and drawn out 
to the same diameter as it is throughout the cylinder. 
It is now in the form of an open-ended cylinder (e). 

The cap of the cylinder at the blow-iron end is now 
cracked off. A thread of hot glass is wrapped round 
the shoulder near the cap, and the line chilled by using 
a curved, hook-shaped rod of iron. Whilst the cap 
is being cracked off, the cylinder is allowed to rest 
supported by a wooden cradle (/). 

The cylinder is now open at both ends and is taken 
to the flattening kiln or furnace. This kiln has a level, 
smooth floor, heated from below, upon which the 
cylinders are flattened out. Placing the cylinder on 
the floor in front of him, the workman places along the 
inside length of the cylinder a long red-hot iron rod 
touching the glass, and then chills the line with a touch 
from a cold iron rod. This causes a split to take place 
along the whole length of the cylinder. As these 
cylinders are split open, they are removed to a hotter 
zone within the flattening kiln, where the heat causes 
the cylinder to uncurl and gradually flatten out. 

As the sheet becomes flat the workman levels it out 
with a flat block of charred wood called a polisher. This 
is attached to a long handle, and is rubbed over the face 
of the sheet of glass. The weight of the wooden block 
is just sufficient to smooth out any creases and assists 
in levelling out any irregularities of the surface. It is 
essential that the floor upon which the glass is resting 



CROWN, SHEET, AND PLATE GLASS 93 

should be perfectly smooth and level, and uniformly 
heated. As each sheet is levelled, it is removed to 
the annealing oven and afterwards stacked up until 
cool, after which the rectangular sheets are cut up 
to the various sizes required for window panes. 

It is evident that the crown glass method gives more 
waste in cutting up, and does not provide such large 
sheets as the cylinder method. On the other hand, 
cylinder glass always shows a certain amount of waviness 
on the surface, and is not so brilliant as crown glass. 
The better surface of crown glass no doubt is due 
to the fire-polishing it receives when being expanded 
out into the disc. It appears to be somewhat difficult 
to get a perfectly smooth level face to cylinder glass 
by using the wooden polisher. 

Plate Glass is used as mirror glass and in glazing 
shop windows and showcases. It may vary between 
and | in. in thickness, and is more expensive to produce 
than crown or cylinder glass. 

In the manufacture of best plate glass, the materials 
are melted in open crucible-shaped pots of varying 
sizes; sometimes, in making large, heavy plate, their 
capacity reaches 25 cwts. of metal. When the metal 
is plain and clear from seeds it is either ladled out into 
smaller crucible pots for casting, or, as in the case of 
casting large sheets, the whole crucible of metal is 
lifted bodily out of the furnace by means of a crane, 
and, after being skimmed, is conveyed by an overhead 
travelling derrick to the casting table. 

This table is a level iron bench the size of the plate 
to be cast, the face of which consists of thick sheets of 
iron plate rivetted together to form a level top; along 
the whole length of each side of this table is a raised 
flange of a height sufficient to give the thickness of the 
plate of glass to be cast: resting on these two outer 



94 GLASS 

edges a long, heavy metal roller runs, covering the full 
width of the table. The crucible of hot metal is brought 
to a convenient position and the contents poured out 
on the table in front of the metal rollers. These rollers 
then travel along and squeeze or roll out the hot metal 
over the surface of the table to the thickness regulated 
by the side pieces, which also prevent the metal from 
flowing over the sides. The empty crucible is then 
conveyed back to the furnace for refilling. 

The cast plate of glass is then trimmed from any 
excess of glass at the ends, and when set and stiff is 
lifted at one end slightly and pushed forward into a 
conveniently situated annealing oven, where it is 
re-heated and subjected to a gradually diminishing 
temperature to anneal it. The plate of glass, as delivered 
from the annealing oven, shows surfaces somewhat 
rough, wavy, and uneven, from the marks left by the 
table and the roller, and it has to be ground and polished 
level and smooth on both sides. This is done by fixing 
one face of the glass plate in a plaster of Paris bedding 
and setting it within a mechanical grinding machine. 

This machine carries several revolving arms, to which 
are attached other smaller plates of glass. These are 
used as the rubbers, a slurry or paste of sharp sand 
and water, or abrasive powder, being interposed 
between the two. The revolving circular motion of 
the arms causes a grinding action between the two 
plates, which wears down any irregularities and 
gives a more even face. After this, finer grades of 
abrasive materials are employed, and, finally, polishing 
powder, until the face of the glass plate is polished 
smooth and level. The large plate of glass is then 
reversed and the process of grinding resumed on the 
other side. 

Much care is necessary in handling these large plates, 



CROWN, SHEET, AND PLATE GLASS 95 

and every attention is necessary and devoted to get the 
largest pieces of plate without defects. All portions 
showing defects have to be cut away, and, consequently, 
reduce the size of the plate when finished. 

In another method of making plate glass the molten 
metal is fed between two or more parallel rollers, which 
are spaced apart to the thickness of the glass required 
(about Jin.). These rollers squeeze the glass out to a 
uniform thickness. A roughly decorated surface is 
sometimes given to this glass intentionally, by the 
metal rollers being indented with some form of set star 
pattern. This glass is not ground or polished, and is 
sold under the name of muffled or cathedral glass. 
It is mostly used for roof lighting, where the transparency 
may be somewhat obscured. 

Wired glass, or strengthened plate, is formed by 
embedding in the soft glass, whilst being rolled, a net- 
work of metallic wire of special composition to suit the 
temper of the glass. This wire is fed from a separate 
roller into the space between the parallel rolls as the 
hot metal is fed in from either side. It is necessary 
that the wire should be made from a metallic alloy 
which is not easily oxidised. Another method of 
strengthening plate glass consists in sealing together 
two plates with an intersecting film of celluloid. 

A decorated coloured rolled plate is made for use 
in leaded lights by mixing portions of several differ- 
ently coloured glasses together in a small pot and 
slightly agitating the contents so as to intermix the 
respective colours. When the glass is rolled out, a 
pretty agate or marbled effect is obtained, due to the 
distributed coloured glasses becoming intermixed. As 
a rule, these glasses are more or less opalescent, and 
are only used for decorative purposes, church lights, etc. 



CHAPTER XIII 

TUBE, CANE, AND CHEMICAL GLASSWARE 

LABORATORY and chemical glassware consists of thin 
blown ware in the form of flasks, beakers, test tubes, 
etc., used in chemical operations. Most of these goods 
are blown in hinged moulds mechanically or automati- 
cally operated by the worker. The lips and flanges of 
the necks are neatly formed afterwards by re-heating 
and working the edge to a form allowing them to pour 
cleanly, and prevent any fluid contained therein from 
running down the sides of the flask or beaker whilst in 
use. The heavier glassware, in the form of desiccators, 
measuring cylinders, specimen jars, and three-necked 
bottles, are made by handwork. Chemical apparatus 
has necessarily to be made from a permanent stable 
highly refractory glass, so as to resist the solvent actions 
of mineral acids, alkaline solutions, and boiling water, 
as well as sudden changes in temperature. 

The manufacture of tube and cane glass for various 
purposes forms a large and extensive portion of the 
glass trade. Considerable quantities of tube and cane 
glass in various sizes are used by lamp workers in the 
manufacture of certain forms of chemical apparatus and 
filling electric light bulbs. By re-heating glass tube and 
working before a blow-pipe flame, the various forms of 
test tubes, pipettes, burettes, soda-lime U-tubes, and 
condensers are made. Generally, for chemical apparatus 
two classes of tube are made, one a soft soda tube, and 
the other hard combustion tubing. Particular care has 
to be devoted to the grading and sorting of the various 
sizes. The bore of the tube, the thickness of the walls, 

96 



TUBE, CANE, AND CHEMICAL GLASSWARE 97 

and the outside width have all to be checked and the 
lengths classed accordingly. 

In the manufacture of tubing, unless the glass is of 
large size or great thickness, it is not annealed, and 
shows a case-hardened condition which materially 
increases the strength of the tube to resist internal 
pressure, as is the case with boiler gauge tubing. In 
the manufacture of apparatus from tube and cane, 
care must be taken that the various pieces used in 
welding together the different portions of the apparatus 
should be of the same temper and composition, and 
supplied from one source, so that they may join and 
work perfectly together. 

The lamp worker or glass blower should take care 
to get his supplies from a reliable source, so that the 
glass pieces will be adapted to work together. Trouble 
occurs when odd tubings from various makers are worked 
together. The same applies to fancy glass working, 
where various coloured canes are worked into ornaments. 
Reputable firms can always supply from stock such 
colours and tubing properly adapted for their specific 
purposes, and they take every precaution to see that 
the various colours join and work together. Supplies 
of glass rod can be had that will join on to platinum, 
nickel, iron, or copper wire with sound joints. 

In making cane glass, the workman gathers sufficient 
metal upon a pontil: for thin cane he would gather less 
than for heavy thick cane. After gathering, he marvers 
the metal into the form of a solid cylinder. Meanwhile, 
an assistant gathers a little metal on a post or pontil 
with a flattened end. The metal he has gathered has 
covered the flat end of the post, and he holds this in 
readiness for the workman, who is now re-heating the 
cylinder of glass at the pot mouth. As the cylinder of 
glass becomes soft, he withdraws it and allows the end 
7 (1465) 



98 GLASS 

of the cylindrical shaped mass of glass to fall gently 
upon the flat end of the post, to which it adheres. 
They then carry the glass between them to a wooden 
track or run-way, along which they walk at a smart 
pace in opposite directions; stretching out the hot glass 
between them, it gradually thins out and rests on the 
floor. The pace the men separate apart from each 
other is regulated according to the thickness of the cane 
desired: for very thin cane a smart trot is necessary, 
but for a thick cane a slow walk is sufficient. As the 
glass is drawn out it is allowed to rest on wooden sup- 
ports, and when cool is cut up into convenient lengths 
by scratching the glass with a steel file. These lengths 
are collected and bundled up for sorting and classifica- 
tion. All portions distorted or over-size are returned 
as cullet for re-melting and re-use. 

In tube making, instead of a solid cylinder as in 
cane making, the workman, by gathering the glass on a 
blow-iron and blowing and marvering it, obtains a 
thick- walled, hollow, cylindrical form. This is re-heated 
and the end stuck to a post and drawn apart as before 
described in cane making, forming a tube of a width 
proportional to the rate the two have travelled apart in 
drawing it out, and to the quantity of metal gathered. 
In this way the respective sizes and thicknesses are 
regulated. A narrow cane or tube may be drawn out 
for 300ft., but for a thick or wide one probably only 
30 ft. may be drawn. In making the larger widths, 
some method, of cooling, or fanning, is adopted, to 
ensure uniform size by cooling the hot glass quickly 
as it is drawn out. It is evident that, whatever shape 
is given to the original mass of glass whilst being mar- 
vered, the tube will bear a similar shape in proportion, 
either within or outside the glass. In this way, square, 
triangular, or oval sections can be produced in both 
tube and cane. 



TUBE, CANE, AND CHEMICAL GLASSWARE 99 

The manufacture of white opal, coloured cane, and 
tube is carried out on like methods to those used in 
ordinary cane and tube making. 

We will now describe the manufacture of Filigree. . 
This is rod or tube containing opal or coloured threads, 
either straight, spiral, or interlaced within a trans- 
parent glass; these threads follow the whole length of 
the cane or tube. 

This curious form of glasswork was originated by the 
Venetians,' who are exceptionally skilled in producing 
some elegant and ornamental filigree decorated glassware. 

The method of producing filigree cane consists of 
first taking a number of short lengths of opal or coloured 
cane previously drawn and cut to about 6 in. lengths. 
These are then placed in vertical positions around the 
inner circumference of an iron cup mould, which may 
be about 5 in. in diameter. The opal strips of cane 
are supported vertically in small recesses provided in 
the rim of the mould at equidistant intervals. A ball 
of hot crystal glass is gathered on a pontil and is lowered 
into the inside of the mould, the hot metal coming in 
contact with the opal strips of glass adheres to them, 
and upon withdrawing the glass it brings the opal strips 
away with it arranged in sections round the circum- 
ference of the ball of glass. This is now re-heated and 
marvered until the canes or strips of opal are well 
embedded in the hot glass. Then the workman gathers 
another coating of hot glass over the whole, marvers it 
again into a cylindrical form, and then proceeds to draw 
it out as described in cane making. 

If a spiral form of lines is desired, the workmen, 
whilst drawing out the cane, turn or twist the pontil 
and post in contrary directions. These rotations cause 
the opal veins or threads to assume a spiral or twisted 
form within the glass. Various coloured cane may 



100 GLASS 

be used in the above process, and by placing them 
in alternate positions to the opal strips within the cup 
mould some very pretty and curious filigree work is 
obtained. These twisted filigree canes are used and 
manipulated over again in the process of making the 
various Venetian goblets and wine stems. Some fine 
effects in the application of filigree decoration can be 
seen in the specimens of Venetian glassware exhibited 
in the British Museum. 

Millefiore work is produced by the workman, first 
spreading a layer of an assortment of small coloured 
glass chips of varying sizes (between J and Jin. cube) 
over the face of the marver, and then taking a gathering 
of crystal metal on his blow-iron and rolling the ball of 
hot glass into the coloured mixture on the marver. 
The hot glass collects up a coating of the coloured 
chippings, and is then re-heated and again marvered, 
another gathering of crystal metal is made, which 
incases the whole. This is then blown out and worked 
into some form of ornament, such as a paper weight, 
inkpot, or bowl, producing a curious result that shows 
blotches of colours embedded within the glass, the 
effect of which is increased if a backing of opal glass 
has been used in the first gathering: this shows the 
coloured effect against a white background. 

Spun Glass. Another curious form of glass is the 
spun glass which is much employed in making fancy 
ornaments. Glass can be spun into a thread so fine 
and flexible that it can be worked into a fabric like any 
textile material. In this way, glass ties can be made 
by plaiting the spun glass threads into the required 
form. Spun glass fibre is used in making the brushes 
used for cleaning metals with acids. On account of its 
greater resistance to acids than is shown by ordinary 
cloth, an endeavour is being made to use spun glass 






TUBE, CANE, AND CHEMICAL GLASSWARE 101 

cloth in certain industries as a commercial application. 
Spun glass is used for making a form of filter cloth 
which is being used successfully in filtering acid residues 
in certain chemical processes, and, no doubt, when the 
elasticity and strength of the glass threads can be more 
developed, the scope for its use in other industrial 
processes will be increased. 

The method of making spun glass thread consists in 
melting the end of a plain or coloured glass rod (which 
may be square, round, or triangular in section) in a 
blow-pipe flame and grasping the end which is^ melting 
with a pair of pincers, drawing it out and affixing it 
to a wooden drum, which is turned rapidly away from 
the glass being heated. The drum may be 2 or 3ft. 
in diameter, and as the glass is continually fed into the 
heat it is drawn out into a very thin thread by the 
rapidl^ revolving drum, and coiled up until a sufficient 
quantity has been obtained. The thread is then cut 
across the drum, collected, and used for plaiting or 
braiding into the fabric or cloth. 

The iridescence and variety of colours yielded by the 
refraction of light between the glass threads gives spun 
glass its peculiar effect, very evident in the forms in 
which it is used in decorating small ornaments such as 
forming the tails of glass birds. 

Glass wool is made in a somewhat similar way, and 
is successfully used as a non-conductive packing material 
for insulation from heat. 

Glass frost or snow is made by blowing small gather- 
ings of glass out to a bursting point. These very thin 
shells are then crushed and the flakes collected, and used 
for such purposes as surfacing sand paper or decorating 
Christmas cards, being sieved to the requisite size and 
affixed with a siccative to the paper. 

Dolls' eyes and artificial human eyes are made by 



102 GLASS 

well-trained operators working before a blow-pipe flame 
and manipulating tube and cane of delicately coloured 
tints to form the pupil and shell of the eye, the veins 
being pencilled on with thin threads of red-coloured 
glass. A considerable amount of skill and adaptation 
is necessary to do this class of work, and much depends 
upon the matching of the coloured cane glass used to 
give the natural effects. When properly made, so clever 
and natural are these glass imitations of the human eye 
that it is with difficulty that the ordinary observer can 
tell that they are not real. A skilled worker will make 
the artificial eye to fit the muscles of the socket and so 
move. In this way much ingenuity has been shown in 
fitting the eye sockets damaged during the war. 

Aventurine is a golden coloured glass containing 
minute yellowish spangles or crystals reflecting upon 
each other and giving its peculiar effect. Thfs glass 
is obtained by the use of an excess of copper with strong 
reducing agents in the glass, whereby the copper is 
partially reduced within the glass, giving the pretty 
spangled effect. This glass is often used in the form of 
jewel stones, being cut and polished and fitted in orna- 
ments. The process of making this glass was originated 
by the Italians, and for some time it remained a 
secret with them, and even now is styled " Italian 
a vent urine." 

Chrome aventurine is another form, giving a green, 
spangled effect. This is got by using an excess of 
chromium in the presence of reducing agents. 

The successful production of aventurine depends 
upon slowly cooling the molten glass so as to assist 
crystallisation. 

Mica schist, or flake mica, is used to give another 
curious effect in glass. A gathering of some dark- 
coloured glass is rolled or marvered upon a thin layer of 



TUBE, CANE, AND CHEMICAL GLASSWARE 103 

flaked mica, and then a further gathering or coating of 
clear crystal metal is made. The whole is then blown 
and formed into some fancy ornament or vase. When 
finished, the mica flakes show through against the 
coloured background, giving a curious silvery reflection. 



CHAPTER XIV 

OPTICAL GLASS 

THE manufacture of optical glass forms a very important 
section of the glass industry, and presents some of the 
most difficult problems the glass maker has to deal 
with. It is in this section of the glass trade that 
applied physical and chemical science becomes of the 
utmost importance to the manufacturer. The produc- 
tion of optical glass is impeded by any defects which 
become evident in the structure of glass when examined 
under a polariscope. The presence of any striae, seeds, 
or stresses within the structure of the glass disqualifies 
it for any important optical work. It is a difficult 
matter to get pieces of optical glass only a few inches 
in diameter of the right optical constant and refractive 
index that are homogeneous enough to allow of the 
light rays passing without some dispersion when set 
up for use. It becomes necessary, therefore, to achro- 
matise one glass with another in the form of doublets 
to correct aberration. A high degree of transparency 
and durability is necessary in all optical glasses. 

The persistent evidence of stresses developed in the 
solidification of the glass upon cooling, even when the 
glass is slowly and carefully annealed, is a most difficult 
factor to deal with. In annealing optical glass, the 
various temperatures and time periods have to be 
delicately adjusted and controlled, or big losses result. 
Even then many efforts may be made before a suitable 
piece of glass is obtained, and the costs keep accumu- 
lating with each attempt, and some idea of the amount 

104 






OPTICAL GLASS 105 

of labour involved in the undertaking to produce 
optical glass at once becomes evident. The use of 
decolorizers and many other materials is not permissible, 
on account of the absorption and consequent resistance 
to the passage of light rays. The annealing, instead 
of occupying one or two days, is sometimes extended 
over a course of ten or fifteen days, in order gradu- 
ally to relieve any stress present. The pots in which the 
glass is melted may only once be used, as the glass is 
usually allowed to cool down gradually and undergo 
the process of annealing within the pot. 

The temperature of the furnace is controlled by 
regulating the draught by means of dampers in the 
main flues, arranged to act so as to carry out the anneal- 
ing of the glass within the furnace. The regulation of 
the temperature within the furnace is of the greatest 
importance; if too hot the glass dissolves the clay of 
the pot, and if retarded too much it gives difficulty in 
freeing the metal from seeds, and plaining or fining the 
glass properly. Small furnaces containing two or three 
pots give the best results. These furnaces are worked 
on an intermittent process of first melting the glass and 
then gradually cooling to anneal the glass within the 
pots in mass, the furnace being allowed to die out 
gradually. When cool, the pots are broken away from 
the glass, which is then cleaved into lumps. Each 
lump is carefully examined for any defects and the best 
pieces selected for re-annealing. These are afterwards 
ground to the desired shape in the form either of a lens 
or prism. The chances are that not many pieces of 
perfect glass can be obtained from each p >t of metal, 
and probably out of a whole pot only a fifth would be 
suitable for use after the process of selection and cleaving 
has taken place. 

In the manufacture of optical glass, batch materials are 



106 GLASS 

chosen that do not differ greatly in specific gravity. 
Every effort is devoted to obtain the purest materials 
possible; the batches are finely ground and well mixed 
before melting. The glass melting pots should be made 
of the purest and most refractory fire-clay obtainable 
in order to prevent the solution of any impurities into 
the glass whilst it is melting. In heating the pots for 
melting optical glasses every endeavour is made to heat 
them equally all round the top, bottom, and sides, so as 
to dissolve all portions of the glass evenly and com- 
pletely together. Sometimes the melted glass is stirred 
with a bent iron rod encased in a porcelain tube, and 
the glass agitated in order thoroughly to mix the 
components whilst fusing, and keep the composition of 
the glass as uniform as possible. After the metal has 
melted and plained clear from all seed and cords, the 
pot of metal is annealed, and when cooled the glass is 
extracted in lumps and examined for any defective 
pieces, which are rejected. The selected pieces are 
afterwards ground to the desired shape and, if necessary, 
re-annealed. In this process the pots being used only 
once, are expensive items, and they considerably 
increase the cost of production. 

Before the war the optical glass trade was confined 
to a few firms in this country, who supplied only a 
fraction of our needs. We have been dependent mostly 
upon continental supplies of optical glass, and it is 
only quite recently that Government state assistance 
has been forthcoming in giving scientific aid to manufac- 
turers by investigating and reorganising this section of 
the glass industry. It is to be hoped that this state 
assistance will continue, and that the optical branch 
of the glass trade will be perfected to such an extent 
that we may in future be independent, and produce 
for ourselves all the optical glass requirements of our 



OPTICAL GLASS 107 

navy and army. It is to be regretted that this industry 
did not receive state assistance before the war. If it 
had, we should certainly have been better prepared 
and equipped than was the case at the start of the 
Great War. 



CHAPTER XV 

DECORATED GLASSWARE 

CERTAIN methods of decorating glass are carried out 
whilst the glass is being made by the workmen. Other ' 
methods consist in decorating the glass after it has been 
made, such as cutting, fluting, etching, engraving, and 
enamelling. In another form of decoration the method 
consists of a combination of two or more of the above 
processes. The crystal glass may be cased over with 
a thin covering of coloured glass by the glass worker, 
and this outer coloured casing cut through by the glass 
cutters, exposing and showing through the colourless 
crystal underneath with very effective results. 

A small portion of coloured glass, such as citron green, 
topaz, blue, or ruby metal is gathered from the pot by 
an assistant, and the workman, gathering a ball of 
crystal glass on his blow-iron, allows a portion of the 
coloured metal held by the assistant to fall or drop 
upon the ball of crystal. Upon blowing the whole out, 
the coloured metal is spread as a thin casing upon the 
outside of the bulb of crystal. This bulb is then worked 
into a wine-glass or other article, which, after annealing, 
is sent to the glass cutter, who decorates the outer 
surface by cutting the glass on his wheel. The colourless 
glass then shows through against the coloured surface 
where it has been cut to the pattern, the colour standing 
out in relief. 

In another form of decoration, the workman allows 
small pear-shaped tears or drops of coloured glass to 
fall upon the outer surface of a bowl or vase, in equi- 
distant positions round the circumference of the article. 

108 






DECORATED GLASSWARE 109 

By placing and working the coloured glass into position 
in this way, some pretty artistic results are obtained, 
dependent upon the skill and artistic taste of the 
workmen. 

In another method of decoration, certain coloured 
glasses are used, the composition of which causes them 
to turn opalescent upon re-heating the glass to a dull 
red heat. The re-heating of the tops of crimpled flower 
vases made from such glass gives pretty results, showing 
a gradual fading opalescence, extending from the top 
edges to "a few inches down the vase, into a clear coloured 
glass at the foot of the stand. A similar effect, without 
the opalescence, is obtained by the workman gathering 
a small piece of coloured glass on the tip of his blow-iron, 
and then taking a further gathering of clear crystal 
metal. The whole is then blown out and worked into a 
vase or wine-glass, thus obtaining a coloration denser at 
the top edges, where the vase or wine-glass has been 
sheared off, and gradually fading away to a colourless 
glass a few inches towards the foot, which is clear 
crystal. 

There are also certain compositions which, when 
worked into a vase, and re-heated on the edges, strike 
or turn to a colour such as pale blue or ruby. These 
are self-coloured glasses, in which the colouring remains 
latent until the glass is re-heated, like the opalescent 
glasses. In these glasses the composition is the more 
essential factor. 

Glass cutting is an effective way of decorating 
glassware. In using this method, the crystal glassware 
is made fairly heavy and strong, so as to permit of the 
deep cuttings which refract the light and show up the 
prismatic patterns so brilliantly. 

In cutting glassware, the glass cutter works in front 
of a rotating disc of iron carried in a frame. This wheel 



110 



GLASS 



has a bevelled edge upon which a fine jet of sand and 
water is allowed to drip from a tundish above. The 
abrasive action of the sand cuts into the glass, and the 
workman, by holding the glass dish or bowl against the 
wheel, follows the design or pattern in diagonal lines 
across the article. These cuttings are recrossed, and 




MACHINE FOR SMOOTHING BOTTOMS OF TUMBLERS 

the intermediate diamond spaces filled in with lightly 
cut set patterns, until the whole of the intended design 
is " roughed " out over the surface of the glass, after 
which the glass is taken to another frame carrying 
a stone wheel, which is of much finer abrasive action. 
This stone wheel smooths the rough cuts done by the 



DECORATED GLASSWARE 111 

previous wheel. After this the cuts are polished suc- 
cessively on a wood wheel and brush with polishing 
powders, until a smooth and polished cut is obtained. 

As the value of the glass is greatly increased by 
cutting, only the best and clearest articles of table glass 
are so treated. The work of cutting becomes technical 
and expensive, according to the richness of the cutting 
demanded. The crystal table glass made from lead 
gives the most brilliancy in cutting. Soda-lime glasses 
are found to be hard to cut and do not give such bril- 
liant and prismatic effects as the glass made from lead 
compositions. 

An automatic machine for grinding, smoothing, and 
polishing the bottoms of tumblers, etc., " bottoms " 
or grinds, smooths, and polishes tumblers at the rate 
of 2,000 a day. Four vertical revolving wheels are 
fixed within a frame, one iron, two stone, and one wood. 
Over each of these is a rotating spindle carrying the 
tumbler so that the bottom of it is automatically pressed 
against each vertical wheel in turn. The first wheel 
does the roughing, the two second the smoothing, and 
the third the polishing. These machines are simple 
and require only unskilled labour to operate, and go 
far towards cheapening production. 

Glass engraving and intaglio work is a much lighter 
and more artistic method of decorating glass than the 
deep cutting before described. In these processes the 
glass is cut or ground to a less extent, and a more free 
treatment of design is possible. Floral ornamentation 
and natural forms of applied designs can be carried out, 
and portions may be left rough or polished, according 
to the effect of light and shade required. The workman, 
whilst engraving, works before a small copper or metal 
wheel rotating in a lathe, and uses fine grades of emery 
or carborundum powders made into a paste with oil, 



112 GLASS 

as the abrasive medium. The frame turning these 
wheels is like a lathe, and may be worked by a foot 
treadle. The wheels are interchangeable, and an assort- 
ment of various sizes, having different bevelled edges, 
is kept at hand in a case, from which the engraver 
selects the one most suitable for the particular work 
to be done. 

Glassware for engraving and intaglio may be made 
much lighter than that required for cutting. 

Etching is a method of decorating glass by the chemical 
action of hydrofluoric acid. This acid in its various 
combinations attacks glass, decomposing its surface 
and giving a dull or semi-matt effect. Only those 
portions of glass which constitute the design are 
exposed to the acid paste or fumes. The other portions 
are protected by a covering of beeswax, which is un- 
affected by the acid and protects any portions covered 
by it. 

The process carried out is varied in many ways. 
In some cases pantograph and etching machines are 
introduced to give the designs. A warm copper plate, 
with the design or ornament engraved thereon, is 
covered with a wax paste, and the surplus cleaned off 
with a palette knife or pad of felt, leaving the paste 
in the recesses of the engraving; a piece of thin tissue 
paper is laid over the engraved plate and takes an 
impression of the design in wax. This tissue is 
then transferred to the glass to be decorated, the 
wax design adheres to the glass, and the paper is drawn 
away. A further resist or coating of wax is painted 
round the design to protect the rest of the glass, and a 
paste composition giving the action of hydrofluoric 
acid is applied, which after a short time eats into the 
exposed portions of glass. After another short interval, 
it is washed off, and the wax coating removed by washing 







GLASS ENGRAVING 



8 (1465) 



114 GLASS 

the glass in hot, soapy water. The design then appears 
in a matt state against the clear, unattacked glass. 

The mechanical method of etching the design is 
carried out by first dipping the whole glass into a bath 
of hot liquid wax, allowing a thin coating to set and 
cool upon the surface of the glass. The article is then 
introduced into a machine which has a number of 
needles, worked by sliding gears in an eccentric fashion. 
These needles are adjusted just to scratch away the thin 
coating of the wax into a design, and expose the glass 
in the form of a decorated scroll or band round the 
glass. The glass is then dipped into a vat or bath of 
dilute hydrofluoric acid for a few minutes, after which 
it is removed and washed, and the wax recovered by 
heating the glass upon a perforated tray, when it melts 
and runs off the glass, and is collected for further use. 
The article is then washed and cleaned and shows the 
scroll or etched portions where the needle has traced 
the design. Another effective result is obtained by 
etching a design on the back of a plate glass panel. 
After cleaning and silvering or gilding the back, the 
design appears in a matt silver or gilt lustre upon 
viewing it from the front of the mirror. 

Glass which has been sand-blasted has a similar 
appearance to etched glass, but a rather coarser surface. 
The portions of the glass plate to be decorated are 
exposed to the action of a blast of air, into which fine, 
sharp-grained quartz sand is automatically fed. An 
abrasive action, due to the force with which the particles 
of sand are blown against the glass, takes place, render- 
ing the surface opaque or matt. This method is 
generally adopted in printing trade names or badges 
upon bottles, etc. A stencil of parchment or lead foil 
is cut out to form, and used to protect the glass and 
resist the abrasion where required. Rubber gloves are 



DECORATED GLASSWARE 115 

worn by the operator. The work of sand-blasting is 
executed within a small enclosed dust-proof chamber 
fitted with glass panels. The operator manipulates the 
glass through openings in the sides of the chamber. 
The air blast is supplied by a motor-driven air com- 
pressor and is regulated by a foot pedal. The action 
is very sharp and quick, and is a cheap and effective 
way of badging hotel glassware and proprietary bottles. 

Glassware may be decorated by being enamelled 
with coloured enamels. In this method of decorating, 
soft, easily-fused, coloured enamels are used, containing 
active fluxes such as borates of lime and lead, which 
melt at low temperatures. These enamel colours are 
prepared by being fused and then ground to fine powders, 
which are mixed with a siccative or oil medium, and 
painted upon the glass. The painted ware is then 
heated within a gas or wood-fired enamelling furnace or 
muffle, until the painted designs are melted and fused 
Well upon the glass. The glass is re-annealed in cooling 
down the muffle. For this form of decoration, a hard 
refractory glass is required that will not soften easily 
under the heat of the muffle; otherwise the glassware 
becomes misshapen too easily under the heat necessary 
to flux or fuse the enamels properly. 

A form of staining glass is also practised which 
consists of applying compositions containing silver salts 
to portions of the glass and firing at a low heat. The 
silver stains the glass a deep yellow. The colour may 
be varied by the use of copper salts, when a fine ruby 
stain is obtained wherever applied. 

Iridescent glassware is produced by several methods. 
Sometimes a small proportion of silver and bismuth is 
added to a coloured glass batch, and by manipulating 
the resulting glass in a carbonaceous flame the silver 
is partially reduced within the glass, forming a pretty 



116 GLASS 

iridescent reflection on the glassware. By a suitable 
adjustment of the oxygen content in the composition of 
such glasses, the iridescence can be regulated to such an 
extent that the slightest flash or reducing influence 
gives a beautifully finished lustre over the ware. 

Iridescence can also be formed by re-heating crystal 
glassware within a chamber in which salts of tin, barium, 
aluminium, and strontium are volatilised. This method 
produces a superficial iridescence which is not quite 
so permanent as the previous process. 

Glass Silvering. The silvering of mirrors is carried 
out by taking a thoroughly cleaned plate of polished 
glass and floating one surface in a solution of silver 
nitrate, to which a reducing agent is added. The 
silver is thereby precipitated or deposited in a thin 
lustrous film upon the glass, which causes reflection by 
th^ rays of light striking against the silvered background. 

After silvering, the back of the plate is coated with a 
protecting paint or varnish, which dries and preserves 
the silver deposit and gives it permanency. 

In the manufacture of fancy ornaments, such as birds, 
hat pins, and small animals, various coloured glass 
cane and tube are worked together by the operator 
melting and welding the respective colours together 
before a blow-pipe flame, the tails of the birds being 
formed by sealing in a fan of spun glass into the body 
of the bird, which has been blown out and formed from 
a piece of tube. Some very curious ornaments are 
formed in this way. Glass buttons, pearl, and bead 
ornaments are formed by working cane and tube of 
various coloured compositions before the blow-pipe, 
sticking and shaping the various forms on to wire. 

Mosaic glass decoration is used in jewellery in a mural 
or tessellated form. In this method small cubical or 
other shaped cuttings of various coloured opaque glass 



DECORATED GLASSWARE 117 

are inlaid in mastic cements or pastes to form the 
design, the face being afterwards ground and polished 
smooth, and mounted or set within the ornament. 

Larger cuttings may be inlaid in cement for pavement 
or mural decoration. 



CHAPTER XVI 

ENGLISH AND FOREIGN METHODS OF GLASS 
MANUFACTURE COMPARED 

THE continental methods of glassmaking differ so much 
from the English methods that a few remarks giving 
comparisons will be of interest. It is noticeable that 
chemical and engineering science is more thoroughly 
applied in the manufacture of glassware abroad. Their 
method of specialising wherever possible, and the 
introduction of mechanical and automatic machines 
have done much toward increasing their production 
and efficiency. 

The flourishing and extensive state of glassmaking 
abroad is shown by the size and extent of the glass 
works, some of which work as many as forty or fifty 
furnaces and employ 3,000 to 5,000 hands. Gas-fired 
regenerative or recuperative furnaces are more generally 
used, which permit higher temperatures, cheaper metal, 
and greater economy in fuel and labour. 

The present type of English furnace is very wasteful, 
and even with good fuel it is difficult to maintain high 
temperatures and regularity in working. Our method 
of firing, raking, and teasing is very exhausting to the 
workmen in attendance. 

In many English glass works, especially those in the 
St our bridge district, it is the practice to fill the pots 
on a Saturday morning and take until the following 
Monday night to melt and plain the glass, no glassware 
being made for three days of each week. Starting on 

118 



ENGLISH AND FOREIGN METHODS COMPARED 119 

Monday night or Tuesday morning, the glass makers 
work in six hour shifts day and night until Friday night 
or Saturday morning, when the pots are again filled 
and the weekly course starts over again. Abroad the 
pots are filled nightly and hold just sufficient metal to 
last out the work during the day, and are built of a 
capacity to suit the articles being made. The disadvant- 
ages of our method are obvious when a comparison is 
made with the continental method of melting the glass 
nightly and working it out daily, especially when the 
efficiency or output of the furnaces as compared with 
their fuel consumption is taken into consideration. 

Abroad the furnaces are small and compact; they take 
up less floor space, yet they are far greater in efficiency. 
As they are gas-fired, the combustion is more complete, 
and by the use of regenerators or recuperators greater 
heat is available for melting the glass quickly. Larger 
proportions of sand are used in the glass mixtures, 
which, being the cheaper component, cheapen the 
production of their glass wares. 

Owing to the more perfect combustion which takes 
place within the chambers of gas-fired furnaces abroad, 
lead glasses are successfully melted within open crucible 
pots. When the heat comes into direct contact with 
the batch materials being melted, it does its work 
quicker and with less fuel consumption than is the case 
if it has first to be conducted through the hood of 
covered pots which have necessarily to be used in the 
old English type of furnace. 

It is particularly noticeable that the glass workers 
abroad do not spend so much time upon producing an 
article as is usual under the English method of working. 
By the extensive use of moulds fitted to mechanical 
contrivances operated by the foot, their work is expedited 
and made simple and easy. 



120 GLASS 

Technological education in the glass industry abroad 
is more thorough and general. The glass workers, not 
having to work at night, have the evenings free for 
recreation and education. It would do much towards 
developing the English glass trade if night work for 
boys could be abolished. The adoption of the con- 
tinental system of melting the metal during the night 
and working only during the day (by using gas-fired 
furnaces) would do much in this direction. One cannot 
expect the youths of the glass trade, who have to work 
during nights, to attend the evening classes for educating 
themselves, without a severe strain upon their con- 
stitutions. This fact partially accounts for the repeated 
failure to establish technical classes and trade schools 
in the glassmaking centres of this country. The con- 
servatism and lack of support from the glass manufac- 
turers themselves account for much of the slow progress 
and development of the trade. As a rule, it will be 
found that the manufacturers have everything to gain 
by the better technical education of their employees. 
It is with pleasure we notice that a few at least are now 
taking this broader view and giving such schools their 
hearty support and financial aid. In the glassmaking 
centres abroad there are established state-aided technical 
and trade schools, where, for a small nominal fee, the 
youths of the glass works are trained and taught the 
principles of their industry. Apprenticeship in the 
factories then becomes unnecessary. 

The working hours abroad are usually sixty hours 
a week (ten hours a day), compared with the English 
forty-four to fifty hours' week (six hour shifts). 

The trade unions of the glass workers abroad are 
more progressive, and their officials do not interfere 
with the manufacturers' endeavours to increase efficiency 
and cheapen production by introducing machinery. 



ENGLISH AND FOREIGN METHODS COMPARED 121 

The promotion of the workpeople goes by merit, and 
not by the dictation of the trade union officials, as is 
too often the case in this country. Here, very little 
sentiment or good-fellowship exists between the glass 
workers' union and the employers, and in its place 
the rank officialdom of unionism has become so evident 
as to be a bar to the progress of the industry. Instead 
of assisting the progress of the trade, and mediating 
in cases of dispute, the union appears to exist as a 
buffer of antagonism between the glass workers and 
their employers. Many a capable youth in the glass 
trade here has been kept back from promotion to a 
better position solely by the dictation of the union to 
which the men belong. Cases are known where the 
union have restricted the workman's output when he 
may be working under piece rate. The best induce- 
ments may have been offered him by the employer to 
increase his output, and, although the workman may 
be willing to accept the master's terms, we find a union 
official stepping between them, and fixing the maximum 
number of the articles that shall be made in his six 
hour shift. Usually, this fixed quantity is got through 
in four hours, yet the workman is not allowed to make 
more than the stipulated number fixed by the union, 
or he is fined. Another incredible fact is that the 
employer here, when in need of a workman, is not 
allowed to choose his own men. He must apply to 
the union, and the man remaining longest on the society's 
unemployed book is then sent to him. Whatever his 
inefficiency may be, the employer is bound to take him; 
if he employs anyone else, a strike results. Such action 
is despotic and shows up the worst features of trade 
unionism that can possibly be conceived. The English 
glass industry has been repeatedly disorganised by this 
obstinate attitude of the glass makers' .union, and a 



122 GLASS 

consequence is that the foreigner has seized the oppor- 
tunity to step in and increase his market, to the detri- 
ment of our own trade; with this extended market, 
increased output, and cheaper production, the foreigner 
undersells us in our own country. 

It is to be hoped these adverse conditions will soon be 
remedied and the English glass industry restored to a 
more flourishing state by the prompt and united action 
of the men and masters, realising the gravity of the 
position and acting accordingly. 



APPENDIX 

JOURNALS AND BOOKS FOR REFERENCE 

American Pottery Gazette." (New York, U.S.A.) 
Boswell's Memoir on Sands Suitable for Glassmaking." 

(Longmans, Green & Co., London.) 
Pottery Gazette." (Scott Greenwood, London.) 
Spreechall." (Coburg, Germany.) 
Painting on Glass and Porcelain." Hermann. (Scott 

Greenwood.) 

Decorated Glass Processes." (Constable, London.) 
Jena Glass." Horestadt. (Macmillan & Co.) 
Glass Manufacture." Rosenhain. 
Producer Gas-Fired Furnaces." Ostwald. 
Glass-Making." By A. Pellatt. (Boque, London.) 
Gas and Coal Dust Firing." Putsch. (Scott Greenwood.) 
The Collected Writings of H. Seger." (Scott Greenwood.) 
Ceramic Industries." Vol. T. By Mellor. 
Modern Brickmaking " ; " British Clays, Sands, and 

Shales " ; " Handbook of Clay Working." By A. B. 

Searle. (Griffin & Co.) 
Glass Blowing." By Shenstone. 
Asch's Silicates of Chemistry and Commerce." 
Clays." By A. B. Searle. (Pitman, London.) 
Fuel and Refractory Materials." Sexton. (Mackie & 

Sons.) 
1 Furnaces and Refractories." Harvard. (McGraw, New 

York) 

SOCIETIES' JOURNALS AND TRANSACTIONS 

'The Society of Glass Technology, Sheffield." 
The American Ceramic Society." (Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.) 
' The English Ceramic Society." (Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs.) 
' Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry." (Westminster, 
London.) 



123 



INDEX 



ABERRATION, 104 

Acids, action of, on glass, 18, 19 

Action of glass on fireclay, 45 

Alkali, 23 

Alumina, 9-11, 20 

Amethyst, 31 

Analysis of fireclay, 37 

Ancient glass, 1 

Annealing glass, 18 

pots, 66 

Arsenic, 31 
Artificial eyes, 101 

cements, 24 

pearls, 31 

Aventurine, 22-102 

BARYTES, 8-26 

Basalt, 10 

Bastie's Process of hardening 

glass, 18 
Batch, 11-13 
Beads, 31-116 
Black glass, 29 
Blowing glass, 80, 82 
Blow iron, 80 
Blue glass, 28 
Bohemian glass, 25 
Berates in glass, 7, 8, 9 
Boric acid, 7 
Bottle glass, 26, 27 
Bottle-making, 77, 79 
Bull's eye, 90 
Buttons, 116 

CANE, 97 

Capacity of pots, 51-52 

of tank furnace, 56 

Carbonate of soda, 6 
Cements, 24 

Chain screen, 68 
Chair, Glassmakers', 81 
Chemical properties of glass, 
415 



Chemical Formulae, 12 
Chimneys, Lamp, 16 
Clays for pots arid furnaces, 36 
Coloured glasses, 28, 29 
Colour of silicates, 1 1-22 
Complex glass, 26 
Composition of glass, 4-25 
Compound glasses, 25 
Conductivity of glass, 23 
Continental glass, 3, 88, 1 18 
Covered pots, 21-27 
Cracking-off glass, 15, 17, 85 
Crown glass, 26-89 
Crucible pots, 21, 27, 64 
Gullet, 10, 85 
Cutting glass, 8, 10, 16 

DECAY in glass, 2 
Decomposition, 2, 19 
Decorated glass, 108 
Decolorants, 32 
Defects, 9, 23, 34 
De-grading glass, 23 
Density, 16 

Devitrification, 3, 8, 20 
Discovery of glass, 1 
Doll's eyes, 101 

EDUCATION, Technical, 120 
Electric furnaces, 58 
Emerald, 31 
Enamelling glass, 115 
English type of furnace, 43 
Engraving glass, 111 
Etching, 19-112 
Expansion, Thermal, 16 
Eye of furnace, 43 
Eyes, Artificial, 101 

FANCY glass, 1 16 
Filligree, 99 
Fireclay, 3, 11-36 
analyses, 37 



125 



126 



INDEX 



Fireclay, blocks, 39, 45 

, Burnt, 39, 41, 61 

crucibles, 64 

, Grinding of, 39 

, Melting point of, 64 

, Mild, 39, 65 

- pots, 62 
, Properties of, 36-38, 41 

rings, 65 

, Selection of 38 

stoppers, 66 

Strong, 39, 64 

, Tempering, 39, 61 

, Weathering, 39, 61 
Flint glass, 4 

stones, 4 

Fluorspar, 8 
Foot maker, 82 
Formulas, 12, 21 
Frisbie's Feeder, 47 
Furnaces, 21, 41, 51, 57 
Fusibility of glass, 9 

GADGET, 28 

Garnet, 31 

Gas-fired furnaces, 47, 51, 55 

Gathering, 76, 77 

Glass, Afterworkings of, 86 

, Alkalies in, 23 

.Alumina in, 9, 11, 20 

, Ancient, 2 

, Annealing, 71 

: , Cane, 97 

, Coloured, 28 

cloth, 101 

, Cut, 109 

, Enamelled, 115 

, Founding of, 69, 74 

furnaces, 21, 41, 51, 56 

, Gauge, 18 

, Grinding of, 94 

, Hardened, 95 

, Homogeneity of, 23 

house pots, 62 

, Moulds for, 77 

, Melting of, 69 

, Plasticity of hot, 4-16 

, Polishing of, 92-94 



Glass, Properties of, 15 

, Process of making, 15, 

76 

.Sand-blasted, 114 

-, Scum on, 69 

, Seeds in, 105 

, Silvered, 116 

snow, 101 

-, Stress in, 74 

, Strengthened, 95 

, Temperature of melting, 

20 

, Tube, 96 

, Types of, 15, 25 

, Wired, 95 

- wool, 101 

, Yellow, 28 

Grinding tumblers, 110 
plate glass, 92, 94 

HARDENED, 18, 23 
Hermansen's Furnace, 52, 53 
History, 1 
Homogeneity, 23 
Honey-pot making, 85 
Hydrofluoric acid, 19 

INTRODUCTION of glassmaking 

in England, 2 
Iridescence, 21-101 
Iron in glass, 32 
Italian Aventurine, 102 

LABORATORY glass, 25 

Ladling glass, 45 

Lamp glass chimneys, 16 

Lead glass, 21 

poisoning, 14 

Lehr, 71 

Light and glass, 33 

Lime glass, 25, 26 

MACHINES in glass-making, 

79, 111 

Mechanical boy, 86 
Millefiore, 100 
Moulds, 85 



INDEX 



127 



OPALESCENT glass, 95-109 
Opal glass, 29, 31 
Optical glass, 5, 9, 33, 104 
Oxidising agents, 7 

PEARL ash, 6 
Pearls, 31, 116 
Phosphates in glass, 8 
Polariscope, 74 
Potash, 6 

glass, 24 

Pots, 8-13, 27-58 
, Annealing, 66 

cracking, 45, 69 

clays, 37, 64 

, Glazing, 69 

, Making, 62 

, Open, 21, 27, 64 

, Plumbago, 65 

, rings, stoppers, 63-65, 66 

sherds, 65 

, Setting, 67 

, Trolley, 46 
Plaining glass, 4, 51, 69 
Plasticity, 11, 16 
Plate glass, 26, 93 
Plumbago, 65 
Pressed glass, 26, 77 
Pucellas, 82 

QUARTZ glass, 19 

REAUMUR'S Porcelain, 17 
Recipes for glass making, 25, 26 
Recuperative furnaces, 52-54 
Reduction in glass, 28, 31 
Regenerative furnaces, 49 
Rocaille flux, 25 
Roman glass, 2 
Ruby glass, 28, 31 
Rupert drops, 18 

SALTPETRE, 7 
Sands, 4 
Sand-blast, 114 
Scratching glass, 16 
Screens for pot setting, 68 
Seeds in glass, 4, 13, 105 



Servitor, 83 
Shearing glass, 81, 83 
Sheet glass, 91 
Siemens Furnace, 48 
Siege of furnace, 43, 44 
Silica, 4, 5 
Silicates in glass, 24 
Silvering glass, 116 
Simple glasses, 24 
Soda lime glass, 21-26 
Soft glass, 5 
Soluble glass, 24 
Spun glass, 15, 100 
Stirring glass, 105 
Strengthened glass, 95 
Stress in glass, 18, 104 
Striae, 9 
Sulphates, 5, 25 

TABLE glass, 25, 76, 77 

Tank glass, 26, 57 

Technical Education in glass 

manufacture, 120 
Temperature of furnaces, 20, 

105 

Thermal expansion of glass, 16 
Tin oxide in glass, 10 
Tizeur, 43, 46 
Tools, 76 
Topaz, 31 

Trades Unionism, 86 
Tube, 26, 98 
Tumblers, 85, 110 
Turquoise, 31 

URANIUM, 28 

VARIETIES of glass, 25, 102 
Venetian glass, 2 
Violet glass, 28 

WASTE glass, 30 
Waterglass, 24 
Wine-glass making, 82 
Window glass, 1 
Wired glass, 95 
Working hours, 120 

ZINC oxide, 9 



Printed by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., Bath, England 
T (1465) 




- AN ABRIDGED LIST OF THE 

COMMERCIAL HANDBOOKS 




OF 



SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD. 




LONDON: 1 AMEN CORNER, E.C.4 

BATH : Phonetic Institute. NEW YORK : 2 West 45th St 

MELBOURNE : The Rialto, Collins St 



The Prices contained in this Catalogue 

:: apply only to the British Isles :: 

TERMS 

Cash MUST be sent with the order, AND MUST INCLUDE AN APPROXIMATE AMOUNT FOR THR 

POSTAGE. When a remittance is in excess of the sum required, the surplus will be returned. 

Sums under 6d. can be sent in stamps. For sums of 6d. and upwards Postal Orders or Money 

Orders are preferred to stamps, and should be crossed and made payable to 

SIR ISAAC PITMAN & SONS, LTD. 

Remittances from abroad should be by means of International Money Orders in Foreign 

Countries, and by British Postal Orders within the British Overseas Dominions. Colonial 

Postal Orders are not negotiable in England. Foreign stamps CANNOT BE ACCEPTED. 



ARITHMETIC 



FIRST STEPS IN COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. By ARTHUR E. WILLIAMS, M.A., 

B.Sc. In crowu 8vo, limp cloth, 80 pp. ....... Net 

THE ELEMENTS OP COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. By THOMAS BROWN. In 

crown 8vo, cloth, 140 pp. ......... Net 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC. Part L In crown 8vo, cloth, 120 pp. I/-. Answers 
BUSINESS ARITHMETIC. Part IL In crown 8vo, cloth, 144 pp. 1/6. Answers 
COMPLETE COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. Contains Parts I and II above mentioned. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 264 pp. g/6. Answers 

SMALLER COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. By C. VV. CROOK, B.A., B.Sc. In 

crov,-n 8vo, cloth . . . ... 1/3 net. Answers Net 

FIRST STEPS IN WORKSHOP ARITHMETIC. By H. P. GREEN. In crown 8vo, 

limp cloth, about 80 pp. ......... Net 

COMPLETE MERCANTILE ARITHMETIC. With Elementary Mensuration. By 

H. P. GREEN, F.C.Sp.T. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, with Key, 646 pp. . Net 

Complete book without Key, 600 pp., 4/- net. Key separately, I/- net. Also in 

three parts. Part I, 300 pp., 2/8 net. Part II, 208 pp., 1/6 net. Part III, too pp. 

I/- net. 
COUNTING HOUSE MATHEMATICS. By H. W. PORRITT and W. NICKLIN, A.S.A.A. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 120 pp. ........ Net 

ARITHMETIC AND BOOK-KEEPING. By THOS. BROWN, F.S.S., and VINCENT E. 

COLLINGE, A.C.I. S. In two parts. Part i, 124 pp. Part 2, 115 pp. Each in 

crown 8vo, cloth ...... . Net 

LOGARITHMS FOR BUSINESS PURPOSES. By H. W. PORRUT and W. NICKLIN, 

A.S.A.A.. In crown 8vo, limp cloth ....... Net 

RAPID METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. By JOHN JOHNSTON. Revised and Edited by 

G. K. BUCKNALL, A.C.I.S. (Hons.). New and Enlarged Edition. In foolscap 

EXER V CISES IN RAPID METHODS IN ARITHMETIC'. By JOHN JOHNSTON. In 
crown 8vo, cloth . . . . . . . . . . Net 

METHOD IN ARITHMETIC. A guide to the teaching of Arithmetic. By G. R. 
PCRDIE, B.A. In crown 8vo, cloth, 87 pp. ...... Net 

1 
S II 



91 

I 

1/8 
18 
04. 
4/8 



1/8 



1/3 
Bi 



9d. 

1/8 



BOOK-KEEPING AND ACCOUNTANCY 

FIRST STEPS BOOK-KEEPING. By W. A. HATCHARD, A.C.P., F.B.T. In 

crown 8vo, limp cloth, 80 pp. ........ Met 9d. 

PRIMES OP BOOK-KEEPING. Thoroughly prepares the student for the study of 

more elaborate treatises. lu crown 8vo, cloth, 144 pp. . 1/3. Answers, Net 1 3 

EASY EXERCISES FOR PRIMER OF BOOK-KEEPING. In crown 8vo, 48 pp. . td. 

BOOK-KEEPING FOR BEGINNERS. A first course in the art of up-to-date Book- 
keeping. With Answers to the Exercises. By W. E. HOOPER, A.C.I.S. In 
crown 8vo, cloth, 148 pp. . . . . . . . . . .13 

THE ELEMENTS OF BOOK-KEEPING. By W. O. BUXION, A.C.A. (Hons.). In 

crown 8vo, cloth, 157 pp. ......... Net 13 

BOOK-KEEPING AND COMMERCIAL PRACTICE. By H. H. SMITH, F.C.T., 

F.Inc.S.T. In crown 8vo, cloth, 152 pp. ....... 1/9 

BOOK-KEEPING SIMPLIFIED. Thoroughly revised edition. By W. O. BUXTON, 

A.C.A. (Hons.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 304 pp. . . 2/6. Answers, Net I/- 
ADVANCED BOOK-KEEPING. In crown 8vo, cloth, 187 pp. 2/6. Answers, Net l/- 

HIGKER BOOK-KEEPING AND ACCOUNTS. By H. W. PORRITT and W. NICKLIN, 
A.S.A.A. In crown 8vo, cloth, 304 pp., with many up-to-date forms and 
facsimile documents .......... Net 2/8 

FULL COURSE IN BOOK-KEEPING. By H. W. PORRITT and W. NICKLIN, A.S.A.A. 
This volume consists of the popular text-book Higher Book-keeping and Accounts, 
to which has been prefixed a section on elementary Book-keeping. In crown 8vo, 
cloth gilt, 540 pp. Net 3/8 

COMPLETE BOOK-KEEPING. A thoroughly comprehensive text-book, dealing with 

ah 1 departments of the subject. In crown 8vo, cloth, 424 pp. 3/6 net. Answers, Net 2/6 

ADVANCED ACCOUNTS. A Practical Manual for the Advanced Student and Teacher. 
Edited by ROGER N. CARTER, M.Com., F.C.A. In demy 8vo, cbth gilt, 988 pp., 
with many forms and facsimile documents ...... Net 6/- 

DICTIONARY OF BOOK-KEEPING. A Practical Guide and Book of Reference for 
Teachers, Students and Practitioners. By R. J. PCRTERS. In demy 8vo, cloth 
gilt, with facsimiles, 780 pp. ........ Net 6/- 

BOOK-KEEPING FOR RETAILERS. By H. W. PORRIIT and W. NICKLW, A.S.A.A. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 124 pp. ........ Net 1 3 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN BOOK-KEEPING, Nos. I d H. New Editions. 

In crown 8vo, 56 pp. .... Each, 8d et. Answers, each, Net 6d. 

BOOK-KEEPING TEST CARDS. Elem. and Inter. Per s i . . . .Net 1/8 

BUSINESS BOOK-KEEPING TRANSACTIONS. No. L I/- net ; No. II, 21- net. 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON BOOK-KEEPING AND ACCOUNTANCY. By J. BLAKK 

HARROLD. A.C.I.S., F.C.R.A. Cloth, G\ in. by ^ in., s6 pp. . . Net 17- 

HOW TO POST THE LEDGER (BOOK-KEEPING DIAGRAMS). By JAMES McKEE. 

In crown 8vo, 36 pp. .......... Net 6d. 

HOTEL BOOK-KEEPING. With illustrative forms a:id exerci.es. In crowa 8vo, 

cloth, 72 pp Net 2-6 

BALANCING AND SELF-BALANCING LEDGERS. By C. A. Moss, A.C.I.S. In 

demy 8vo, 24 pp. Net 6d. 

BOOK-KEEPING AND ACCOUNTANCY PROBLEMS. By G. JOHNSON, F.C.I.S. 

In croiva 8vo, cloth gilt, 112 pp. ........ Net ?/- 

HOW TO TEACH BOOK-KEEPING. By H. W. PORRITT and \V. NICKLI.V, A.S.A.A. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp. ........ Net 2/8 

COMBINED MANUSCRIPT BOOK FOR BOOK-KEEPING. In crown 4 to, stiff paper 

wrapper, 96 pp. ........... !/- 

IDEAL MANUSCRIPT BOOKS FOR BOOK-KEEPING. Specially ruled and adapted 
for working the exercises contained in the Primer of Book-keeping, The sets 
consist of : Cash Book; Purchase Book; Sales Bo_>k and Journal; Ledger. Each 4i. 

AVON EXERCISE BOOKS FOR BOOK-KEEPING. Specially adapted for the exer- 
cises in Book-keeping Simplified or Advanced Book-keeping. Foolscap folio. 

Journal, 5d.; Cash Book, 5d. ; Ledger 74. 

DOUBLE ENTRY IN ONE LESSON. Bv R. FLEMING, A.C.I.S 6d. 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON MUNICIPAL ACCOUNTANCY. By W. G. DAVIS. 

A.S.A.A.__Si_ze _61 i^j^.sijn-^cloth, 56 pp. . _._ . . _ ._ Net l/- 



BALANCE SHEETS: HOW TO READ AND UNDERSTAND THEM. By PHILIP 

TCVEY, F.C.I.S. In foolscap 8vo 
HOW TO BECOME A QUALIFIED 



TCVEY, F.C.I.S. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, 85 pp., with 26 inset Balance Sheets Net 15 
~ ACCCUNTANT. By R. A. WITTY, A.S.A.A. 



Second Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth, 120 pp. ..... Net /- 

ACCOUNTANCY. By F. W. I'IXLEY, F.C.A., Barrister-at-Lotr, la demy 8vo, cloth, 

318 PP Net 5/- 

AUDITING, ACCOUNTING AND BANKING. By FRAVK HOWLER, A.C.A., and E. 

KAURI?, A.I.B. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 3-8 pp. . . . Net 5/- 



MANUFACTURING BOOK-KEEPING AND COSTS. By G. JOHNSOW, F.C.I.S. In 

demy Svo, cloth gilt, 120 pp Net 8/8 

DEPRECIATION AND WASTING ASSETS, and their Treatment in Computing Annual 

Profit and Loss. By P. D. LEAKE, F.C.A. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 257 pp. Net 10/6 

PRACTICAL BOOK-KEEPING. By the same Author. In demy Svo, cloth, 420 pp. 

Net 5/ 

THE PRINCIPLES OF AUDITING. By F. R. M. DE PAULA, F.C.A. In demy ftv , 

cloth gilt, 224 pp. . . . . . . . . . . N :t 5/- 

COST ACCOUNTS IN PRINCD7LE AND PRACTICE. By A. CLIFFORD RIDGWAY, 

A.C.A. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 120 pp Net 5/- 

GOLD MINE ACCOUNTS AND COSTING. A Practical Manual lor Officials, 
Accountants, Book-keepers, Etc. By G. W. TAIT. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 
93 pp Net 6/- 

LNCOME TAX ACCOUNTS AND HOW TO PREPARE THEM. (See p. 8.) 

COMPANY ACCOUNTS. A complete, practical Manual for the use of officials in 
Limited Companies and advanced students. By ARTHUR COLES, F.C.I.S, In 
demy Svo, cloth gilt, 320 pp. Net 5/- 

THE ACCOUNTS OF EXECUTORS, ADMINISTRATORS AND TRUSTEES. By 
WILLIAM B. PHILLIPS, A.CA. (Hons. Inter, and Final), A.C.I.S. In demy Svo, 
cloth gilt, 152 pp Net 5/- 

RADLWAY ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE. The Railway Companies (Accounts and 
Returns) Act, 1911. By ALLEN E. NEWHOOK, A.K.C. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 
148 pp Net 5/- 

THE FARMER'S ACCOUNT BOOK. Compiled by W. G. DOWSLEY, B.A. A Simple 
and concise System of Account Keeping specially adapted to the requirements 
of Farmers. Size, 15$ in. by 9$ in., half leather, 106 pp., with interleaved 
blotting paper Net 6/8 

THE PERSONAL ACCOUNT BOOK. By the same Author. Size, 15* in. by 9 J in., 

half leather, 106 pp., with interleaved blotting paper .... Net 6/6 

BUSINESS TRAINING, COPY BOOKS, ETC. 

COMMERCIAL READER (Junior Book). Our Food Supplies. By F. W. CHAMBERS. 

With over 70 illustrations, 240 pp. ........ 1/9 

COMMERCIAL READER (Intermediate Book). Our Manufacturing Industries. In 

crown Svo, cloth, 240 pp. Over 150 illustrations ...... g/- 

COMMERCIAL READER (Senior Book). An introduction to Modern Commerce. 

Contains over 160 black and white illustrations. In crown Svo, cloth, 272 pp. . 8/- 

OFFICE ROUTINE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS. In three stages. Each in crown Svo, 

64 pp Each 8d. 

FIRST STEPS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By V. E. COLLINGE, A.C.I.S. In crown 

Svo, limp cloth, 80 pp. Net Sd. 

COUNTING-HOUSE ROUTINE. 1st Year's Course. By VINCENT E, COLLINGE, 
A.C.I.S. In crown 8vo, cloth, with illustrations, maps, and facsimile commercial 
forms, 162 pp. . . ......... Net 1/3 

COUNTING-HOUSE ROUTINE. 2nd Year's Course. By VINCENT E. COLLINGE, 
A.C.I.S. In crown Svo, cloth, with illustrations, maps and facsimile commercial 
forms, 188 pp Net 1/9 

THE PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS. By JAMES STEPHENSON, M.A., M.Com., B.Sc. 

Part i. In crown 8vo, cloth, 217 pp. ...... Net 2/- 

Part 2. In crown Svo, cloth, 320 pp. ...... Net 2/6 

MANUAL OF BUSINESS TRAINING. Contains 66 maps and facsimiles. Eighth 
Edition, thoroughly revised and considerably enlarged. In crown Svo, cloth, 
302 pp 2/9 

THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF COMMERCE. By J AMES STEPHENSON, M.A., 
M.Com., B.Sc. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 648 pp., with many illustrations, 
diagrams, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . Net 5/- 

COMMERCIAL PRACTICE. By ALJ-KKD SCHOHKLD. In umvn Svo, cloth, 

296 pp Net 2/6 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF COMMERCE. Being a Complete Guide to 
Methods and Machinery of Business. Edited by F. HEELIS, F.C.I.S., Assisted 
by Specialist Contributors. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 620 pp., with many facsimile 

forms Net 5/- 

Also in 2 vo's., each .......... Net 2/6 

HOW TO TEACH BUSINESS TRAINING. By F. HEELIS, F.C.I.S. In crown Svo, 

160 pp .Net 2/8 

QUESTIONS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By F. HEELIS, F.C.I.S. In crown Svo, 

cloth, io8pp Net 13 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS LN BUSINESS TRAINING. By the same Author, lu 

crown Svo, cloth, about 160 pp. ...... Net 2/~ 

A COURSE HI BUSINESS TRAINING. By G. K. BUCXNALI.. A.C.T.S. Tn crown 

8vo, 192 pp 2, 6 

3 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By the same Author. In 

crown 8vo, cloth, 269 pp. . Net 2, 8 

FACSIMILE COMMERCIAL FORMS. New, Revised, and Enlarged Edition. Thirty- 



five separate forms in envelope ........ Net 83. 

Forms separately, per doz. ......... Net 4d. 

EXERCISE BOOK OF FACSIMILE COMMERCIAL FORMS. In large post 4 to, 32 



FACSIMILE COMPANY FORMS. Thirty-four separate forms in envelope . Net 1/3 
Forms separately, per doz. ........ Net 6d. 

COMMERCIAL COPY AND EXERCISE BOOKS. In foolscap folio, 32 pp. Each 7<L 

" NEW ERA " BUSINESS COPY BOOKS. By F. HEELIS, F.C.I.S. Civil Service 
Style. In three books, Junior, Intermediate, and Senior. Each in stout paper 
covers, large post 4.10, 32 pp. ......... 5iL 

BUSINESS TRAINING EXERCISE BOOK. Part L By JAMES E. SLADEN, M.A. 

(Oxon.), F.I.S.A. In large post 4to,-64 pp Net 8d. 

MANUSCRIPT LETTERS AND EXERCISES. In envelope Net 8(L 

OFFICE ROUTINE COPY BOOKS, Nos. 1, 2, and 3. Each in large post 4to, 24 pp. 4d. 

COMMERCIAL HANDWRITING AND CORRESPONDENCE. In foolscap 4 to, 

quarter cloth, 80 pp 2/- 

BUSINESS HANDWRITING. Seventh Edition, Revised. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

HOW TO WRITE A GOOD HAND. By B. T. B. ROLLINGS. In crown 8vo, oblong, 

)K FOR COMMERCIAL TEACHERS. ' By FRED 'HALL, M.A., Bicom.', 

F.C.I.S., etc. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 200 pp Net 2/8 

THE BUSINESS GIRL'S HANDBOOK. By C. CHISHOLM, M.A., and D. W. WALTON. 

Foreword by SARAH BERNHARDT. In crown 8vo, cloth, 176 pp. . . Net 1/8 
THE BOY'S BOOK OF BUSINESS. By the same Authors. Foreword by Lieut. - 

Gen. Sir R. S. S. BADEN-POWELL. In crown 8vo, cloth, 176 pp. . . Net 1/8 

BUSINESS METHODS AND SECRETARIAL WORK FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN. 

By HELEN REYNARD, M. A., In crown 8vo, cloth, 96 pp. .... Net 1/3 
THE JUNIOR WOMAN SECRETARY. By ANNIE E. DAVIS, F.Inc.S.T. In 

crown 8vo, cloth, 100 pp., with illustrations . . . . . . Net 13 

CLERKS: THEIR RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS. By EDWARD A. COPE. In 

foolscap Svo, cloth, 160 pp Net 1/6 

GUIDE TO BUSINESS CUSTOMS AND PRACTICE ON THE CONTINENT. By 

EMIL DAVIES. In crown Svo, cloth, 154 pp. ..... Net 2/6 

HOW TO GET A SITUATION ABROAD. By EMIL DAVIES. In crown Svo, cloth, 

70 pp Net 1/6 

HOW TO START IN LIFE. By A. KINGSTON. A Popular Guide to Commercial, 

Municipal, Civil Service, and Professional Employment. Deals with over 70 

distinct kinds of Employment. Second Edition. In crown Svo, cloth, 128 pp. Net 1/8 
GUIDE TO THE MERCANTILE MARINE. By R. A. FLETCHER. A Guide to all who 

wish to join it. With illustrations. In crown Svo, cloth, 132 pp. . . Net 1/8 
THE JUNIOR CORPORATION CLERK. By J. B. CARRINGTON, F.S.A.A. In 

crown Svo, cloth gilt, with illustrations, 136 pp. ..... Net 1'8 

POPULAR GUIDE TO JOURNALISM. By A. KINGSTON. 4 th Edition. In crown 

Svo, 124 pp., cloth .......... Net 1/8 

PRACTICAL JOURNALISM AND NEWSPAPER LAW. By A. BAKER, M.J.I., and 

E. A. COPE. In crown Svo, cloth, 180 pp. ...... Net 2/8 

CIVIL SERVICE 

CIVIL SERVICE GUIDE. By A. J. LAWFORD J ONES. In crown Svo, cloth, 129 pp. Net 1 8 
DIGESTING RETURNS INTO SUMMARIES. By A. J. LAWFORD JONES, of H.M. 

Civil Service. In crown 8vo, cloth, 84 pp. ...... Net 1/8 

COPYING MANUSCRIPT, ORTHOGRAPHY, HANDWRITING, etc. By the same 

Author. Actual Examination Papers only. In foolscap folio, 48 pp. . Net 2/- 
CIVIL SERVICE HANDWRITING GUTOE AND COPY BOOK. By H. T. JESSOP, 

B.Sc. In crown 410, 32 pp. ......... Net 6d. 

CTVTL SERVICE AND COMMERCIAL COPYING FORMS. In crown Svo, 40 pp. Net 6d. 
RULED FORMS FOR USE WITH THE ABOVE. Books I and U. Each foolscap 

folio, 40 pp. ............ 8i. 

CIVIL SERVICE AND COMMERCIAL LONG AND CROSS TOTS. Two Series, each 

in crown Svo, 48 pp Net 8d. 

CIVDL SERVICE ARITHMETIC TESTS. By P. J. VARLEY-TIPTON. In crown Svo, 

cloth, 102 pp Net 1.3 

CIVIL SERVICE ESSAY WRITING. By VV. J. ADDIS, M.A. In crown Svo, limp 

cloth, 108 pp Net 1/8 

JAY WRITING. By V. P. PEACOCK. In crown Svo, 64 pp. Paper Net 8d. 

Cloth Net M. 



CIVIL SERVICE PRACTICE IN PRECIS WRITING. Edited by ARTHCR REYNOLDS, 

M.A. (Oxon.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp. ...... Net t/6 

ELEMENTARY PRECIS WRITING. By WALTER SHAWCROSS, B.A. In crown 8vo, 

cloth, 80 pp/ Net i/- 

GUIDE TO INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. By W. J. WESTON, M.A., B.Sc. 

(Lond.), and E. BowKER. In crown 8vo, cloth, 110 pp. . . . Net 1/8 

INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. By A. J. LAW FORD JONES. la crown 8vo, 

cloth, 144 pp . . .Net 1/6 

EXERCISES AND ANSWERS IN INDEXING AND PRECIS WRITING. By W. J. 

WESTON, M.A., B.Sc. (Land.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 144 pp. . . . Net 1/8 

ENGLISH AND COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE 

FIRST STEPS IN COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. By W. J. WESTON, M.A., B.Sc. (Lend.). 

la crown 8vo, limp cloth, 80 pp. ........ Net 8d. 

FIRST STEPS IN BUSINESS LETTER WRITING. By FRED HALL, M.A., B.Com., 

F.C.I.S., etc. In crown 8vo, limp cloth. 80 pp. ..... Net 81. 

GUIDE TO COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE AND BUSINESS COMPOSITION. 

By W. J. WESTON, M.A., B.Sc. (Lond.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 146 pp.,with many 

facsimile commercial documents ......... 1/6 

MANUAL OF COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. By WALTER SHAWCROSS, B.A. Including 

Composition and Precis Writing. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 234 pp. . . Net 2/8 
HOW TO TEACH COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. By WALTER SHAWCROSS, B.A. In 

crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 160, pp. ........ Net 8/6 

COMMERCIAL.CORRESPONDENCE AND COMMERCIAL ENGLISH. In crown 8vo, 

ENGLISH' MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE, in crown sVo, cloth gut, 260 P p* 2/8 

FIRST STEPS Df BUSINESS COMPOSITION. Edited by R. W. HOLLAND, M.A., 

M.Sc.,LL.D. In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 80 pp Net 81 

ENGLISH COMPOSITION AND CORRESPONDENCE. By J. F. DAVIS, D.Lit., M.A., 

LL.B. (Lond.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 118 pp Net 1/3 

A GUIDE TO ENGLISH COMPOSITION. By the Rev. J. H. BACON. 112 pp. Paper 1- 

Cloth 1/6 
ENGLISH GRAMMAR. New Edition, Revised and Enlarged by C. D. PUNCHARD, 

B.A. (Lond.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 142 pp. ...... Net 1/8 

ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION. By W. J. WESTON, M.A., B.Sc. 

(Lond.). In crown 8vo, cloth, 320 pp. ....... Net 2/6 

SELF-HELP EXERCISES IN ENGLISH (Reform Method). In crown 8vo, cloth, 

80 pp Net l/- 

NOTES OF LESSONS ON ENGLISH. In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp. . . Net 8/6 
PUNCTUATION CHART. Size 7j in. by 9$ in., mounted on card eyeletted and 

strung Net 2d 

PUNCTUATION AS A MEANS OF EXPRESSION. By A. E. LOVELL, M.A. In 

crown 8vo, cloth, 80 pp Net l/- 

rrmG a } (S CIVIL SERVICE, page 4 and above.) 
STUDIES. IN ELOCUTION. By E. M. CORBOOLD (Mrs. Mark Robinson). With over 

too selections for Reciters and Readers. ID crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 270 pp Net 2/8 
POCKET DICTIONARY. Royal 32010, 5 in. by 3 in., cloth gilt, 362 pp. . . Net 1/3 
COMMERCIAL DICTIONARY. In foolscap 8vo, paper boards, 192 pp. . . Net l/- 
BOOK OF HOMONYMS. With copious Exercises on Homogeneous, and Homo- 

phonous Words and chapters on Compound Hyphenated Words, etc. By B. S. 

BARRETT. ID crown 8vo, cloth, 203 pp Net g/- 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY 

FIRST STEPS IN COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. By JAMES STEPHEN-SON, M.A., 
B.Com. There are 16 maps and diagrams included. In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 

THE WORLD AND ITS COMMERCE. In crown 8*vo, cloth, 1*28 pp., with 34 maps *. fg 

THE ELEMENTS OF COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. By C. H. GRANT, M.Sc., 

fr'.R.Met.Soc. In crown 8vo, cloth, 140 pp . Net 1/8 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH ISLES. In crown 8vo, cloth. 
150 pp., with 34 coloured maps and plates, three black and white maps, and 
other illustrations .......... 1/4 

COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE BRITISH EMPEIE ABROAD AND 
FOREIGN COUNTRD3S- In crown 8vo, cloth, 205 pp., with 35 coloured maps 
aud plates, n black and white maps, and end-paper maps 1/9 

6 



COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD. In crown 8vo, cloth, 350 pp., with 

about 90 maps and plates ......... 3/. 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY. By W. P. ROTTER, 

M.Com. Size 6$ in. by 3$ in., cloth, 120 pp Net 1/8 

COMMERCIAL ATLAS, In crown 4to, cloth, 128 pp., s8 maps and explanatory 

t'xt , Net 2/- 

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. (Set "ECONOMICS" below.) 

COMMERCIAL HISTORY 

THE ELEMENTS OF COMMERCIAL HISTORY. By FRED HALL, M.A., B.Com., 

F.C.I.S. In crown 8vo, cloth, 164 pp Net 1/8 

COMMERCIAL HISTORY. By J. R. V. MARCH ANT, M.A. In crowa 8vo, cloth 

gilt, 272 pp 3/8 

INDUSTRIAL AND SOCIAL HISTORY. By GEORGE COLLAR, B.A., B.Sc. (1. .,.!.). 

In crown 8vo, cloth, with over 100 illustrations, 284 pp. .... 2/- 

ECONOMIC HISTORY. (S " ECONOMICS " below.) 

ECONOMICS 

THE ELEMENTS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. By H. HALL, B.A. In crown 8vo, 

cloth, 140 pp Net 13 

GUIDE TO POLITICAL ECONOMY. By F. H. SPENCER, D.Sc., LL.B. In crown 8vo, 

cloth gilt, 232 pp Net 2/8 

OUTLINES OF THE ECONOMIC HISTORY OF ENGLAND : A Study in Social 
Devaiopment. By H. O. MEREDITH, M.A., M.Com. la demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
376 pp Net 6/- 

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY. By JOHN MCFARLANB, M.A., M.Com. In demy 8vo, 

cloth gilt, 568 pp., 18 illustrations Net 7/6 

THE HISTORY AND ECONOMICS OF TRANSPORT. By A, W. KIRKALDY, M.A., 
B.Litt. (Oxford), M.Com. (Birm.), and A. DUDLEY EVANS. In demy 8vo, 
cloth gilt, 350 pp. . Net 7/6 

LABOUR, FINANCE, AND THE WAR. Being the Results of Inquiries arranged by the 
Sjction of Economic Science and Statistics of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, during the years 1915 and 1916. Edited and with a 
Preface by ADAM W. KIRSALDY, M.A., B.Litt. (Oxford), M.Com. (Birm.). In 
dmv 8v->, ^50 pr> Net 8'8 

FINANCE AND INDUSTRY; War Expedients and Reconstruction. Edited by 

ADAM W. KIRKALDY, M.A., B.Litt. In demy 8vo Net 86 

DICTIONARY OF ECONOMIC AND BANKING TERMS. By W. J. WESTON, M.A., 
B.Sc. (Lond.), and A. CREW, Barrister-at-Law. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 150 pp. 

Net 2/8 

ECONOMICS FOR BUSINESS MEN. By W. J. WESTOK, M.A., B.Sc. (Lond.). In 

crown 8vo, MO po., cloth ......... Net 1/6 

THE ECONOMICS OF TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES. By JOHN LEE, M.A. 

la crowu 8vo, cloth gilt, 92 pp. ........ Net 2/6 

BANKING 

THE ELEMENTS OF BANKING. ByJ.P.GANDY. In crown 8vo, cloth,~i40 pp. Net 1/3 
BANK ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND ACCOUNTS. By J. F. DAVIS, M.A., 

D.Lit., LL.B. (Lond.) In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 165 pp., with forms . . Net 6/- 
MONEY, EXCHANGE, AND BANKING. la their Practical, 'Theoretical, and Legal 

Aspects. By H. T. EASTON, A.I.B. Second Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, 

cloth, 312 pp iKlfl' -lAH -Net 5/- 

PRACTICAL BANKING. By J. F. G. BAGSHAW. With Chapters on The Principles 

of Currency, by C. F. HANNAFORD, A.I.B., and Bank Book-keeping, by W. H. 

PEARD, In demv 8vo, cloth gilt, about 400 pp. ..... Net 6/- 

BANKERS' SECURITIES AGAINST ADVANCES. By LAWRENCE A. FOGG, 

Cert. A.I.B. In deray 8vo, cloth gilt, 123 pp Net 6/- 

DICTIONARY OF BANKING. A Complete Encyclopaedia of Banking Law and 

Practice. By W. THOMSON, Bank Inspector. Recently Revised. In crown 4to, 

half l^ath-j- e''t, 618 pp Net 217- 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND FOREIGN BILLS IN THEORY AND IN PRACTICE. By 

W. F. So'fMv, Ort. A.I.B. T-> H-mv 8vo, ck>th ofTt. ?.-" no. . . Nat 5/- 

EASTERN EXCHANGE. By W. F. SPALDING. In demy 8vo, cloth, 375 pp.. 

illustrated Net 10/6 

BANK BALANCE SHEETS AND HOW TO PREPARE THEM. By J. F. G. BAGSHAW. 

la demy 8vo, 16 pp . . Net 64, 



INSURANCE 

THE ELEMENTS OF INSURANCE. By J. ALFRF.D EKE. In crown Svo, cloth. 

140 pp Net 1/8 

INSURANCE. By T. E. YOUNG, B.A., F.R.A.S. A complete and practical exposition 
for the Student and the Business Man. With sections on Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Insurance, by W. R. STRONG, F.I. A., and The National Insurance Scheme, 
by VYVYAN MARR, F.F.A., F.I.A. Third Edition. Revised and Enlarged. In 
demv 8vo, cloth gilt, 440 pp Net 7/6 

GUIDE TO LD7E ASSURANCE. By S. G. LEIGH, F.I.A. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 

192 pp Net 2/6 

INSURANCE OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND ACCOUNTS. By 
T. E. YOUNG, B.A., F.R.A.S., and RICHARD MASTERS, A.C.A. Second Edition, 
Revised. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 146 pp. ...... Net 5/- 

GUTOE TO MARINE INSURANCE. By HENRY KEATE. In crown Svo, cloth giit, 

203 pp. ............ Net 38 

THE PRINCD7LES OF MARINE LAW. (See p. n.) 

SHIPPING 

SHIPPING. By A. HALL and F. HEYWOOD. In crown Svo, cloth, 136 pp. . Net 1 3 
SHIPPING OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT, AND ACCOUNTS. By 

ALFRED CALVERT. In demy 8vx>, cloth gilt, 203 pp. .... Net 5/- 
THE EXPORTER'S HANDBOOK AND GLOSSARY. "By F. M. DUDEKEY. With 

Foreword by W. EGLINGTON. la demv Svo, cloth gilt, 254 pp. . . Net 5/- 
CONSULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPORTERS AND SHIPPERS TO ALL PARTS 

OF THE WORLD. By J. S. NOWERY. In crown Svo, cloth, 82 pp. . Net 2. 6 

CASE AND FREIGHT COSTS. The principles of calculation relating to the cost 

of, and freight on, sea or commercial cases. By A. V/. E. CROSFIELD. In crown 

Svo, cloth, 62 pp Net 1/3 

EOW TO DO BUSINESS WITH RUSSIA. By C. E. W. PFTFRSSON and W. BARNKS 

STBVENI. In demy Svo, cloth, 200 pp. ...... Net 6/- 

SECRETARIAL WORK 

COMPANY SECRETARIAL WORK. By E. MARTIN, F.C.I.S. In crown Svo, 

cloth, 154 PP Net 1/8 

GUIDE TO COMPANY SECRETARIAL WORK By O. OLDHAM, A.C.I.S. In 

crown Svo, cloth gilt, 256 pp. ........ Net 2/8 

TH3 COMPANY SECRETARY'S VADE MECUM. Edited by PHILIP TOVEY, F.C.I.S. 

Second Edition, Enlarged and Revised. In foolscap Svo, cloth, 247 pp. . Net 2/- 

GUIBE FOR THE COMPANY SECRETARY. By ARTHUR COLES, F.C.I.S. Illus- 
trated with 75 facsimile forms. Second Edition, Revised and L'nlargad. In 
demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 432 pp. . . . . . . . . Net 5/- 

SECRETARY'S HANDBOOK, Edited by HERBERT E. BLAIN. In demy Svo, 

cloth gilt, 168 pp Net 5/- 

TH CHAIRMAN'S MANUAL. By GURDON PALIN, of Gray's Inn, Barrister-at-Late, 

and ERNEST MARTIN, F.C.I.S. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 192 pp. . . Net 8'6 

PROSPECTUSES : HOW TO READ AND UNDERSTAND THEM. By PHILIP 

TOVEY, F.C.I.S. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 109 pp . . . . . Net 21- 

OUTLINES OF TRANSFER PROCEDURE LN CONNECTION WITH STOCKS, 
SHARES, AND DEBENTURES OF JOINT STOCK COMPANIES. By F. D. 
HEAU, B.A. (Oxon), of Lincoln's Inn, Barrisier-at-Law. lu dmy Svo, cloth 
gilt, 112 pp '. .Net 2/8 

THE TRANSFER OF STOCKS, SHARES. AND OTHER MARKETABLE SECURI- 
TIES. A Manual of theLaw and Practice. By F. D. HEAD.B.A. (Oxon). Second 
Edition, Revised and Enlarged. In demy Svo, cloth gilt, 220 pp. . . Net 5/- 

WHAT IS THE VALUE OF A SHARE P By D. W. ROSSITER. In demy Svo, limp 

cloth, 20 pp Net 2/6 

HOW TO TAKE MINUTES. Edited by E. MARTI.V, F.C.I.S. Second Edition, 

Enlarged and Revised. In demy Svo, cloth, 126 pp. .... Net 2'8 

DICTIONARY OF SECRETARIAL LAW AND PRACTICE. A comprehensive Ency- 
clopaedia of information and direction on all matters connected with the work of 
a Company Secretary. Fully illustrated with the necessary forms and documents. 
With sections on special branches of S?cretarial Work. With contributions by 
nearly 40 eminent authorities. Edited by PHILIP TOVEY, F.C.I.S. In oue vol., 
half leather gilt, 940 pp. Second Edition^ Revised and Enlarged . . Net 35,'- 

FACSIMILE COMPANY FORMS. {Set p. 4.) 

COMPANY ACCOUNTS. (Sec p. 3.) 

COMPANY LAW. (Set p. u.) ' 



INCOME TAX 

PRACTICAL INCOME TAX. A Guide to the Preparation of Income Tax Returns. 
By VV. E. SNELLING, of the Inland Revenue Department, In crown 8vo, cloth, 
136 PP Net 2/6 

INCOME TAX ACCOUNTS AND HOW TO PREPARE THEM. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

136 pp Net 2/6 

INCOME TAX AND SUPER-TAX PRACTICE. Including a Dictionary o! Income 
Tax and specimen returns, showing the effect of recent enactments down to the 
Finance Act, 1917, and Decisions in the Courts. By VV. E. SNELLING. In demy 
8vo, cloth g.lt, 450 pp Net 10/6 

INCOME TAX TABLES, and Guide to the Deduction of Tax from Dividends, Interest, 
Ground Rents, etc. Compiled by W. E. SNELLING. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
18=5 pp. . Net 6/- 

INCOME TAX AND SUPER-TAX LAW AND CASES. Including the Finance Act, 
1917. With an Analysis of the Schedules, Guide to Income Tax Law, and Notes 
on Land Tax. By W. E. SNELLING. Third Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, 
cloth gilt, 432 pp Net 10/6 

EXCESS PROFirS (iicludiag Excess Mineral Rights) DUTY, and Levies tinder the 
Munitions of War Acts. Incorporating the Provisions of the Income Tax Acts 
made applicabb by Statute and by Regulation, also the Regulations of the Com- 
missioners of Inland Revenue, and of the Minister of Munitions. By W. E. 
SNELLING. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 
262 pp Net 10/6 

BUSINESS ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT 

1HE PSYCHOLOGY OP MANAGEMENT. The Function of the Mind in Deter- 
mining, Teaching, and Installing Methods of Least Waste. By L. M. GILBRETH. 
In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 354 pp. ........ Net 7/6 

OFFICE ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING SECRETARIAL 
WORK. By LAWRENCE R. DICKSEE, M.Com., F.C.A., and H. E. BLAIN. 
Fourth Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 306 pp. . . . Net 6/- 

KUKICIPAL OFFICE ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT. A comprehensive 
Manual of information and direction on matters connected with the work of 
Officials of Municipalities. Edited by W. BATESON, A.C.A., F.S.A.A. With 
contributions by eminent authorities on Municipal Work and Practice. In 
crown 4to, half leather gilt, with 250 forms, diagrams, etc., 503 pp. . . Net 25/- 

COUNTDfG-HOUSE AND FACTORY ORGANISATION. By J. GILMOUR WILLIAMSON. 

In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 182 pp. ........ Net 5/- 

soLicrroRS' OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT. AND ACCOUNTS. By 

E. A. COPE, aad H. W. H. ROBINS. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 176 pp., with 

numerous forms .......... Net 6/- 

COLLIERY OFFICE ORGANISATION AND ACCOUNTS. By J. W. INNES, F.C.A., 

a ; id T. COLIN CAMPBELL, F.C.I. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 135 pp . . Net 6/- 
CLUBS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT, By FRANCIS W. PIXLEY, F.C.A. Of the 

Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 240 pp. . . Net 7/6 
DR-APERY BUSINESS ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTS. By 

J. ERNEST BAYLEV. la demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 302 pp. .... Net 5/- 
GROCERY BUSDJESS ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT. By C. L. T. 

BEECHING. With Chapters on Buying a Business, Grocers' Office Work and 

Book-keeping, and a Model Set of Grocer's Accounts. By J. ARTHUR SMART. 

la demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 160 pp., with illustrations ..... Net 5/- 
INDUSTRIAL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT. By GEO. B. LISSENDEN. With a 

Foreword by C. E. Mu ;GRAVE. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 260 pp. . . Net 7/8 
SHIPPING ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTS. (See p. 7-) 
INSURANCE OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTS. (S<* p. 7.) 
BANK ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT. (See p. 6.) 
STOCKBROKERS' OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTS. 

(See p. 10.) 
THE CARD INDEX SYSTEM. Its Principles, Uses, Operation, and Component 

Parts. In crown 8vo ? cloth, 100 pp. ....... Net 1/8 

FILING SYSTEMS. Their Principles and Their Application to Modern Office 

Requirements. By E. A. COPE. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 200 pp., with 

illustrations Net 2/6 

A MANUAL OF DUPLICATING. By W. DESBOROUGH. In demy 8vo, cloth, 90 pp. 

Net 2/- 

ADVERTISINQ AND SALESMANSHIP 

ADVERTISING. By HOWARD BRIDGEWATER. In crown 8vo, cloth, 120 pp. . Net 1/3 
HANDBOOK OF ADVERTISING. By CHRISTOPHSX JONES. In crown 8vo, cloth 

g. ;t, 144 pp. Witb Illustrations Hit 8/1 



ltti THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ADVERTISING. By WAITFR DILL SCOTT, Ph.D. 

la large crown 8vo, cloth, with 6z illustrations, 240 pp. .... Net 8,' 
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING. By the same Author. In large crown 8vo, 

cloth gilt, with 6? illustrations, 282 pp Net 6/- 

ADVERTISING AS A BUSINESS FORCE. By P. T. CHERINCTON. In demy 8vo, 

cloth gilt, 586 pp Net 7/8 

THE PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING ARRANGEMENT. By F. A. PARSONS. 

Size 7 in. by toj in., cloth, 128 pp., with many illustrations . . . Net 6/- 
THE NEW BUSINESS. By HARRY TIPPER. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 406 pp. Net 7/8 
THE CRAFT OF SILENT SALESMANSHIP. A Guide to Advertisement Construction. 

By C. MAXWELL TREGURTHA and J. W. FRINGS. Foreword by T. SWINBORNE 

SHELDRAKE. Size, 6$ in. by 9$ in., cloth, 98 pp., with illustrations . Net 8/5 
SALESMANSHIP. By W. A. CORBION and G. E. GRIMSDALE. la crown 8vo, cloth, 

iS6pp Net 2/6 

PRACTICAL SALESMANSHD7. By N. C. FOWLER, assisted by 29 expert Salesmen, 

etc. In crown 8vo, cloth, 337 pp. ....... Net 5'- 

COMMERCIAL TRAVELLING. By ALBERT E. BULL. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 

T7opp Net 2/6 

BUSINESS HANDBOOKS AND WORKS OF 
REFERENCE 

COMMERCIAL ENCYCLOPAEDIA AND DICTIONARY OF BUSINESS. Edited 
by J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Lond.). Of the Middle Temple and North-Eastern 
Circuit, Barrister'at-Law. Assisted by upwards of 50 specialists as contributors. 
A reliable and comprehensive work of reference on all commercial subjects, 
specially designed and written for the busy merchant, the commercial student, 
and the modern man of affairs. With numerous maps, illustrations, facsimile 
business forms and legal documents, diagrams, etc. In 4 vols., large crown 4to 

(each about 450 pp.), cloth gilt Netl 10s. 

Half leather gilt Net 2 2s, 

COMMERCIAL SELF-EDUCATOR. A comprehensive guide to business specially 
designed for commercial students, clerks, and teachers. Edited by ROBERT \V. 
HOLLAND, M.A., M.Sc., LL.D. Assisted by upwards of 40 Specialists as con- 
tributors. With many maps, illustrations, documents, Diagrams, etc. Complete 
in 2 vols., crown 4to- cloth gilt, about 900 pp., sprinkled edges . . . Net 18'- 

BUSINESS MAN'S GUIDE. Edited by J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. Seventh Edition, 

Revised. In crown 8vo, cloth, 520 pp. ....... Net 3/6 

PUBLIC MAN'S GOTDE. Edited by J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Lond.). A Hand- 
book for all who take au interest in questions of the day. In crown 8vo, cloth 

LECTURES 4 ON BRITISH COMMERCE, INCLUDING FINANCE, INSURANCE, 
BUSINESS AND ^TJUSTRY. By the RT. HON. FREDERICK HUTH JACKSON, G. 
ARUITAGE-SMITH, 'M.A., D.Litt., ROBERT BRUCE, C.B., etc. In demy 8vo, cloth 
gilt, 295 PP Net 7/8 

THE MONEY AND THE STOCK AND SHARE MARKETS. By EMIL DAVIES. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 124 pp. Net 1'8 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE MONEY MARKET (1385-1915). An Historical and 
Analytical Study of the Rise and Development of Finance as a Centralised, Co- 
ordinated Force. By ELLIS T. POWELL, LL.B. (Lond.), D.Sc. (Econ., Lond.), 
Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, the Royal Ecotiomic Society, and the 
Institute of Journalists; of the Inner Temple; Barrister-tit- Law. In demy 8vo, 
cloth gilt, 748 pp Net 10/8 

THE HISTORY, LAW, AND PRACTICE OF THE STOCK EXCHANGE. By A. P. 
POLEY, B.A., BarrisUr-at-Law, and F. H. CARRUTHERS GOULD, of the Stock 
Exchange. Second Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt. 3.18 p. . Net 6/- 

STOCKBROKERS' OFFICE ORGANISATION, MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTS. 

By J. E. DAY. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 242 pp Net 7/8 

DICTIONARY OF THE WORLD'S COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS. By J. A. SLATER, 

B.A., LL.B. (Lond.). Second Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth, 163 pp. . 2/6 

OFFICE DESK BOOK. Second, Revised and Cheaper Edition. In crown 8vo, 

cloth, 309 pp. Net 1 6 

TELEGRAPH CIPHERS. A condensed vocabulary of 101,000,000 pronounceable 
artificial words, all of ten letters. By A. W. E. CROSFIELD. Size 12 in. by 12 in., 
cbth Net 21/- 

MASTERS' NEW READY RECKONER. Pitman's Edition. Contains 63,000 

calculations. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, 358 pp. ...... Net 1/6 

DISCOUNT, COMMISSION, AND BROKERAGE TABLES. By ERNEST HEWINGHAM. 

Sue 3 in, by 4} in., doth, 160 pp. Ht I/- 



BUSINESS TERMS, PHRASES AND ABBREVIATIONS. Fourth Edition, Revl-d 

and Enlarged. In crown 8vo, cloth, 280 pp Net 2/6 

MERCANTILE TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS. Containing over 1,000 terms 

and 500 abbreviations used in commerce, with dennrtions. Size sin. by 4! in., 

loth, 126 pp .Net l/- 

TRAMWAY RATING VALUATIONS AND INCOME TAX ASSESSMENTS. By 

F, A. MiTCHESoy. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt ...... Net 2/8 

THE TRADER'S GUIDE TO COUNTY COURT PROCEDURE. In foolscap 8vo, 

cloth, 112 pp Net 16 

A COMPLETE GUIDE TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MEMORY. By the late 

Rev. J. H. BACON. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, ir8 pp Net l/- 

HOW TO STUDY AND REMEMBER. By B. J. DAVIES. Third Edition. In 

crown 8vo Net 6d. 

THE NEW REGISTER-ACCOUNT BOOK. Compiled by H. R. STANILAXD, P.C.T., 

A.C.T.S. Size Q in. by sj in., 50 pp., specially ruled, qr. cloth . . .Net 3'- 
TRADER'S HANDBOOKS. In crown 8vo, cloth, 260 pp. . . . Each Net 8,8 

Drapery and Drapers' Accounts. By RICHARD BEYKON. 

Grocery and Grocers' Accounts. By W. F. TUPMAN. 

Ironmongery and Ironmongers' Accounts. By S. W. FRANCIS. 

COMMON COMMODITIES OF COMMERCE 

Each book in crown 8vo, cloth, with many illustrations, about 130 pp. . Net 8/- 

TEA. From Grower to Consumer. By A. IBBETSON. 

COFFEE. From Grower to Consumer, By B. B. KEABLE. 

SUGAR, Cane and Beet. By GEO. MARTINEAU, C.B. 

OILS. Animal Vegetable, Essential, and Mineral. By C. AINSWORTH MITCHELL, 

13. A., FI,C 

WHEAT AND ITS PRODUCTS. By ANDREW MILLAR. 
RUBBER. Production and Utilisation o! the Raw Product. By C. BEADLE and 

H. P. STEVENS, M.A., Ph.D., F.I.C. 

IRON AND STEEL. Their Production and Manufacture. By C. HOOD. 
COPPER. From the Ore to the Metal By H. K. PICARO, Assoc. Royal School of 

Mines, Mem. Jnst. of Min. and Met. 
COAL. Its Origin, Method of Working, and Preparation for the Market By FRANCIS 

H. WILSON, M.Inst.M.E. 

TIMBER. From the Forest to its Use in Commerce. By W. BULLOCK. 
LEATHER. From the Raw Material to the Finished Product By K. J. ADCOCK. 
COTTON. From the Raw Material to the Finished Product By R. J. PEAKE. 
SILK. Its Production and Manufacture. By LUTHER HOOPER. 
WOOL. From the Raw Material to the Finished Product. By J. A. HUNTER. 
LINEN. From the Field to the Finished Product. By ALFRED S. MOORE. 
TOBACCO. From Grswsr to Smoker. By A. E. TANNER. 
CLAYS AND CLAY PRODUCTS. By ALFRED B. SEARLE. 
PAPER. Its History, Sources, and Production. By H. A. MADDOX, Silver Medallist, 

Papcr-;naJtin%, 1009. 

SOAP. Its Composition, Manufacture, and Properties. By WILLIAM A. SIMMONS. 
fc. B.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S. 

Other volumes in preparation. 

LAW 

THE ELEMENTS OF COMMERCIAL LAW. By A. H. DOUGLAS, LL.B. (Lond.). 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 128 pp Net 1/3 

THE COMMERCIAL LAW OF ENGLAND. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Lond.). 

la crowu 8vo, cloth, 252 pp. Sixth Edition ...... Net 2/6 

THE LAW OS 1 CONTRACT. By R. W. HOLLAND, M.A., M.Sc., LL.D. Of the Middle 

Temple, Bartister-at-Law. In foolscap 8vo, cloth, 120 pp. . . . Net 1/6 
QUESTIONS A.ND ANSWERS IN COMMERCIAL LAW. By J. WELLS THATCHER, 

Barri$ter-?t-Lnw. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 172 pp. .... Net 2/6 
EXAMINATION NOTES ON COMMERCIAL LAW. By R. W. HOLLAND, M.A., M.Sc. 

LL.D. Cloth, 6J ID. by sJ in., 56 pp Net II- 

EUilfiSNTAKY LAW. By E. A. COPE. In crown 8vo, cloth, 228 pp. . . Net 2/6 
LEGAL TEEMS, PHRASES, AND ABBREVIATIONS. By E. A. COPE. Third 

Editiosi. It) erown 8vn. cloth, 216 pp. ....... Net 2/6 

SOLICITOR'S CLERK'S GUIDE. An Introduction to the work of a solicitor's 

office; wfth a chapter on Costs. By the same Author. la crown 8vo, cloth 

gilt, ?r6 pp . . .Net 2/6 

CONVEYANCING. By E. A, COPE. In crown 8vo, cloth, 206 pp. . . Net ft/6 

10 



WILLS, EXECUTORS, AND TRUSTEES. With a Chapter on Intestacy. By 

1. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Load.). la foolscap fcvo, cloth, 122 pp. . Net 1/6 
THE LAW RELATING TO TRADE CUSTOMS, MARKS, SECRETS, RESTRAINTS, 

AGENCIES, etc,, etc. By LAWRENCE DUCKWORTH, Barristcr-at- Law. In 

foolscap 8vo, cloth, 116 pp. ........ Net 1/6 

MERCANTILE LAW. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Load.). In demy 8vo, cloth 

gilt. 464 pp. Third Edition, Revised Net 5'- 

EUJLS, CHEQUES, AND NOTES. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. Second Edition, 

Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 214 pp. ...... Net 6/- 

PRINCIPLES OF MARINE LAW. By LAWRENCE DUCKWORTH. Third Edition, 

Revised and Enlarged. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 400 pp. ... Net 7/8 
OUTLINES OF COMPANY LAW. By F. D. HEAD, B.A. (Oxon.). In demy 8vo, 

cloth, 100 pp Het 2/- 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO COMPANY LAW. By R. W. HOLLAXD, M.A., M.Sc., 

LL.D. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 203 pp. . . . . . . Net 2'6 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON COMPANY LAW. By R. VV. HOLLAND, M.A., M.Sc., 

LL.D. Cloth, 6 in. by 3$ in., 56 pp Net l/- 

COMPANIES AND COMPANY" LAW. Together with the Companies (Consolidation) 

Act, 1908, and the Act of 1913. By A. C. CONNELL, LL.B. (Lond.). Second 

Edition, Revised. In demy 8vo, cloth g'it, 348 pp, .... Net 5/- 

COMPANY CASE LAW. A digest of leading decisions. By F. D. HEAD, B.A. (Oxon.). 

In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 314 pp Net 7/6 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO RAILWAY LAW. By ARTHUR E. CHAPMAN, M.A., 

LL.D. (Camb.). In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 200 pp Net 2/8 

KADLWAY (REBATES) CASE LAW. By GEO. B. LISSENDES. In demy 8vo, 

cloth gilt, 450 pp Net 10/8 

THE LAW RELATING TO SECRET COMMISSIONS AND BRIBES (CHRISTMAS 

BOXES, GRATUITIES, TIPS. etc.). The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1906. 

By ALBERT CREW, of Gray's Inn, and the South-Eastern Circuit, Barrister-at-Law. 

In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 198 pp. ........ Net 5/- 

HOUSEHOLD LAW. By J. A. SLATER, B.A., LL.B. (Lond.). In demy 8vo, cloth 

gilt 316 pp Net 5/- 

THE LAW OF CARRIAGE. By J. E. R. STEPHENS, B.A., of the Middle Temple, 

Barrister-at-Law. In demy 8vo, cloth g^lt, 340 pp. .... Net 5/- 
THE LAW RELATING TO THE CARRIAGE BY LAND OF PASSENGERS, 

ANIMALS, AND GOODS. By S. VV. CLARKE, of the Middle Temple, Barrister- 
at-Law. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 350 pp. ...... Net 7/8 

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO BANKRUPTCY LAW AND WINDING UP OF 

COMPANIES. By F. PORTER FAUSJET, B.A., LL.B., Barrister-at-Law. In 

crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 196 pp Net 2/6 

BANKRUPTCY, DEEDS OF ARRANGEMENT AND BILLS OF SALE. By W. 

VALENTINE BALL, M.A., and G. MILLS, B.A., Barristers-at-Law. Third Edition, 

Revised and Enlarged. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 364 pp. . . . Net 5/- 
1' ARM LAW. By M. G. JOHNSON. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 160 pp. . . Net 8/8 
GUIDE TO THE LAW OF LICENSING. The Handbook for all Licence Holders. 

By J. WELLS THATCHER. In demy 8vp, cloth gilt, 196 pp. . . . Net 5/~ 
LAW OF REPAIRS AND DILAPIDATIONS. A Handbook for Students and Prac- 



titioners. By T. CATO WORSFOLD, M.A., LL.D. la crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 

104 pp, Net 

THE LAW OF EVIDENCE. A Handbook for Students and Practitioners. By 



W. NEMBHARD HIBBERT, LL.D. (Lond,), Barrister-at- Law of the Middle Temple. 

In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 144 pp. Second Edition, Revised . . . Net 5'- 
THE LAW OF PROCEDURE. A Handbook for Students and Practitioners. By 

the same author. In demy 8vo, cloth gilt, 122 pp. .... Net 5/- 

HANDBOOK OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW. By J. WELLS THATCHER. In 

large crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 250 pp. ....... Net 8/3 

THE LAW RELATING TO THE CHILD : ITS PROTECTION, EDUCATION, AND 

EMPLOYMENT. By R. W. HOLLAND, M.A., M.Sc., LL.D. In demy Svo, cloth 

eilt, 166 pp Net 6/- 

1NCOME TAX AND SUPER-TAX LAW AND CASES. (See p. 8.) 

FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

FRENCH 

A CHILD'S FIRST STEPS IN FRENCH. By A. VIZETELLY. An elementary French 

reader with vocabulary. Illustrated. In crown 8vo, Ihup cloth, 64 pp. . . 9^. 

FRENCH COURSE. Parti. In crown 8vo, 94 pp. . Paper.6d.net; cloth Net Si 

FRENCH COURSE. Part IL In crown 8vo, 112 PP. . Paper, gd. : cloth 10J. 

KEY TO PITMAN'S FRENCH COURSE. Parts I aid IL In crown 8vo, each He4 Bd. 

11 



PRACTICAL FRENCH GRAMMAR. With copious Vocabulary and Imitated Pro- 
nunciation. In crown 8 vo, 1 20 pp. ..... Paper, I/-, cloth 1/8 

EASY FRENCH CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. In crown 8vo, 32 pp. . Net 6d. 
ADVANCED FRENCH CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES, la crown 8vo, 32 pp. Net 6d. 
EXAMINATIONS IN FRENCH, AND HOW TO PASS THEM. Iu crown 8vo, 32 pp. 6d. 
EXAMINATION NOTES ON FRENCH. By F. W. M. DRAPER, M.A., B. e; L. Size 

6i in. by -ft in., cloth, 50 pp Net II- 

TOURI3TS' VADE MECUM OF FRENCH COLLOQUIAL CONVERSATION. Handy 

siz- for the pocket, cloth . Net l/- 

FRENCE TRANSLATION AND COMPOSITION. By LEWIS MARSH, M.A., Cantab. 

Li crown 8vo, cloth, 187 pp. Net 2/8 

FRENCH PHRASES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS. By EDWARD J. KEALEY, B.A. 

New, Revised and Enlarged Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth, 140 pp. . . Net 1/6 
FRENCH PROSE WRITERS OF THE XKth CENTURY AND AFTER. By VICTOR 

LEOLIETTE, B. es L., A.K.C. An advanced French Reader with Biographical 

and Critical Notes in French and Literary and Bibliographical Notes in English. 

In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 350 pp. ........ Net 8/- 

FRENCH RECITER : LE ROI LION ET SES GRANDS VASSAUX. By F. W. M. 

DRAPER, M.A., B. es L. In crown 8vo, limp cloth, 56 pp. . . . Net 8d. 
COMMERCIAL FRENCH GRAMMAR. By F. W. M. DRAPER, M.A., B. 6s L. In 

crown 8vo. cloth gilt, 1 66 pp. ........ Net 2/8 

RAPID METHOD OF SIMPLIFIED FRENCH CONVERSATION. By H. W. 

HIBBERD. In crown 8vo, cloth, 192 pp Net 2/- 

GR \DUAT2D FRENCH -ENGLISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. By 

MAURICE DENEVE. In crown 8vo, r6crpp. ...... Net 2/- 

FRENCH BUSINESS LETTERS. First Series. In crown 410, 32 pp. . . Net 6d. 
FRENCH BUSINESS LETTERS. By A. H. BERNAARDT. Second Series. In 

crown 8vo, 48 pp Net 6d. 

COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN FRENCH. In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp. . 2/6 
MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE. English-French. In crown 8vo. cloth 250 pp. Net 2/8 
MODELS AND EXERCISES IN COMMERCIAL FRENCH. By E. T. GRIFFITHS, M.A. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 180 pp. ........ Net 2/6 

FRENCH COMMERCIAL PHRASES AND ABBREVIATIONS WITH TRANSLATION. 

In crown 8vo, 32 pp. ........... 6J. 

FRENCH BUSINESS CONVERSATIONS AND INTERVIEWS. In crown 8vo, 80 pp., 

limp cloth Net 2/- 

READINGS IN COMMERCIAL FRENCH. With Notes and Translations in English. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 90 pp. ........ Net l/- 

FRENCH COMMERCIAL READER. In crown 8vo, cloth, 208 pp. . . Net 2/6 
ENGLISH-FRENCH AND FRENCH-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF BUSINESS WORDS 

AND TERMS. Size 2 in. by 6 in., cloth, rounded corners, 540 pp. . . Net 2/6 
VEST POCKET LIST OF ENDINGS OF FRENCH REGULAR AND AUXILIARY 

VERBS. With Notes on the Participles and the Infinitive. Size 2* in. by if in. 

48 PP Net 2<L 

GERMAN 

KEY TO GERMAN COURSE. In crown 8vo Net 1/6 

PRACTICAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. In crown 8vo, 102 pp. Pap?r, I/- ; cloth 1/6 

EASY LESSONS IN GERMAN. By J. BITHELL, M.A. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

116 pp. ..... . ...... Net l-'8 

EASY GERMAN CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. In crown 8vo, 32 pp. . Net 6d. 
ADVANCED GERMAN CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. In crown 8vo, 32 pp. Net 6d 
TOURISTS' VADE MECUM OF GERMAN COLLOQUIAL CONVERSATION. In 

crown 8vo, cloth . . . . . . . . . . Net l/- 

EXAMmATION NOTES ON GERMAN. By A. HARGREAVKS, M.A., Ph.D. Cloth, 

6J in by 3$ in., 56 pp. ......... Net l/- 

GERMAN EXAMINATION PAPERS WITH MODEL ANSWERS. In crown 8vo, 

48 pp Net 6d. 

COMMERCIAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. By J. BITHELL, M.A. In crown 8vo, cloth 

gilt, 182 pp Net 2/8 

GERMAN BUSINESS INTERVIEWS, Nos. 1 and 2. Each in crown 8vo, limp cloth. 

No. i, 100 pp. ; No. 2, 74 pp. ........ Net 1/8 

ELEMENTARY GERMAN CORRESPONDENCE. By LEWIS MARSH, M.A., In 

crown 8vo, cloth, 141 pp. ......... Net 27- 

roWMKHCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN GERMAN. In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp. . 2/6 
MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE. English-German. Iu crown 8vo, cloth, 

250 pp. ............ Net 2/6 

GERMAN BUSINESS LETTERS. First Series. In crown 8vo, 48 pp. . . Net 6d. 
GERMAN BUSINESS LETTERS. By G. ALBBRS. Second Series. In crown 8vo, 

48 PP . Net M. 

12 



GERMAN COMMERCIAL PHRASES. In crown 8vo, 3 pp Net M. 

GERMAN COMMERCIAL READER. In crown 8vo, clotb, 208 pp. . . Net 2/8 
READINGS IN COMMERCIAL GERMAN. With Notes and Translations in English. 

In crown 8v\ cloth, 90 pp. ........ Net l/- 

ENGLISH-GERMAN AND GERMAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY OF BUSINESS WORDS 

AND TERMS. Size a in. by 6 in., rounded corners, cloth, 440 pp. . . Net 2/6 

SPANISH 

PRACTICAL SPANISH GRAMMAR. In crown 8vo, 108 pp., paper, I/-; cloth 1/8 
EASY SPANISH CONVERSATIONAL SENTENCES. In crown 8vo, 32 pp. . Net 6d. 
ADVANCED SPANISH CONVERSATIONAL EXERCISES. In crown 8vo, 32 pp. Net 8i. 
TOURISTS' VADE MECUM OF SPANISH COLLOQUIAL CONVERSATION. 

Cloth Net l/- 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON SPANISH. By ALFRED CALVERT. Cloth, 6* in. by 

3i in., 56 pp Net V- 

COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR. By C. A. TOLEDANO. In crown 8vo, cloth 

gilt, 250 pp ' . . . Net 2/8 

Key . Net 21- 
SPANISH VERBS, Regular and Irregular. By G. R. MACDONALD. In crown 8vo, 

cloth. 180 pp Net 2/8 

COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SPANISH. In crown 8vo, cloth, 240 pp. . 2/8 
MANUAL OF SPANISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. By G. R. 

MACDONALD. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 328 pp. ..... Net 8/8 

LESSONS IN SPANISH COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. By the same Author. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 107 pp. . . . . . . . . Net 1/8 

SPANISH COMMERCIAL READER. By G. R. MACDONALD. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

178 pp Net 2/6 

READINGS IN COMMERCIAL SPANISH. With Notes and Translations in English. 

In crown 8vo, cloth, 90 pp. ......... Net l/- 

SPANISH BUSINESS LETTERS. First Series. In crown 8vo, 32 pp. . . Net 6(L 
SPANISH BUSINESS LETTERS. By E. MCDONNELL. Second Series. In crown 8vo, 

48 pp Net 8d. 

SPANISH COMMERCIAL PHRASES. With Abbreviations and Translation. In 

crown 8vo, 32 pp Net 8<L 

SPANISH BUSINESS INTERVIEWS. With Correspondence, Invoices, etc. In 

crown 8vo, 90 pp, limp cloth Net 1/6 

SPANISH-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-SPANISH COMMERCIAL DICTIONARY. By 

G. R. MACDONALD. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 652 pp. .... Net 7/6 

ITALIAN 

TOURISTS' VADE MECUM OP ITALIAN COLLOQUIAL CONVERSATION. 

cloth Net l/- 

COMMERCIAL ITALIAN GRAMMAR. By LUIGI RICCI. In crown 8vo, cloth gilt, 

154 PP . Net 2/8 

MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE. English-Italian. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

250 pp. . . . ......... Net 36 

ITALIAN BUSINESS LETTERS. By A. VALGIMIGLI. In crown 8vo, 48 pp. . Net 6d. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

MERCANTILE CORRESPONDENCE. English-Portuguese. In crown 8vo, cloth, 

250 PP Net 3/8 

DICTIONARY OF COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, 
GERMAN, SPANISH, ITALIAN, PORTUGUESE, AND RUSSIAN. Third 
Revised Edition. In demy 8vo, cloth, 718 pp. . . . Not 7/8 

THE FOREIGN CORRESPONDENT. By HMIL DAVIES. In crown 8vo, cloth. 

80 pp. . . Net 1/8 

COMMERCIAL TERMS IN FIVE LANGUAGES. Being about i ,900 terms and phrases 
,used in commerce, with their equivalents in French, German, Spanish, and 
Italian. Size 3 in. by 4$ in., cloth, 118 pp Net I/- 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND 

All books are in foolscap 8vo size unless otherwise stated. 

INSTRUCTION BOOKS 

Centenary Editions. 

PITMAN >S SHORTHAND TEACHER. An elementary work suited for self-instruction 

or class teaching ..... M 

KEY TO "PITMAN'S SHORTHAND TEACHER" . .* .' .' . .' S3; 

13 



PITMAH'S SHORTHAHD EXERCISES ........ 2d. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND PRIMERS. In three Books : Elementary, Intermediate, 

and Advanced . ..... . . Each, 8d. Keys, each 8d. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND READING LESSONS. Nos. i, 2 and 3 . . .Each 6d. 

KEYS TO - PITMAN'S SHORTHAND READING LESSONS," Nos, i, 2, and 3 Each 2d. 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND COPY BOOKS. Nos. i, 2, 3, and 4. An entirely new 

series covering the theory of the system. Foolscap 4to (8J in. by 6J in.) .Each 3d, 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND DRILL EXERCISES. Oblong ..... 8d. 

COMPEND OF PITMAN'S SHORTHAND ......... Id. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND INSTRUCTOR. Complete Instruction in the System. Cloth 3/8 

Key. I/- ; cloth 1/8 

THE CENTENARY CHANGES IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. In crown 8vo . . Id. 
SUMMARIES FROM "PITMAN'S SHORTHAND INSTRUCTOR." Size, 2J in. 

by 4 in ..... ......... 3d. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND MANUAL. Contains instruction in the Intermediate Style, 

with 100 Exercises ........... 1/8 

Cloth 2/- 

PITMAN 'S SHORTHAND GRADUS. Writing Exercises in ordinary print for Manual fc 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND REPORTER. Containing instruction in the Advanced 

Style : with 52 Exercises .......... 21 - 

Cloth 2/8 

Key 6d. 
REPORTING EXERCISES. Exercises on all the rules and contracted words. In 

ordinary print, counted for dictation ...... 6d. ; Key l/- 

PETMAN'S SHORTHAND CATECHISM. In crown 8vo .... i/- 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND WRITING EXERCISES AND EXAMINATION TESTS. In 

crown 8vo, paper boards . . . . . . . . . . 1/8 

EXAMINATION NOTES ON PITMAN 'S SHORTHAND. By H. W. B. WILSON. 8 in. * 

by 3* in., cloth ............ 1/3 

GRADED SHORTHAND READINGS. 

Elementary, with Key. In crown 8vo, oblong ...... 6<i. 

Intermediate, with Key. In crown 8vo, oblong ...... 8d. 

Advanced, with Key. In crown 8vo, oblong ..... 8d. 

GRADUATED TESTS IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. Illustrating all the rules in the 

Intermediate Style. In note-book form, post 8vo (6J in. by 4^ in.), with ruled 

papsr .......... 6d. 

PROGRESSIVE STUDIES IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND ...... I/- 

TALKS WITH SHORTHAND STUDENTS. By JAMES HYNES . . . .I/- 

GHATS ABOUT PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. By GEORGE BLETCHER . . i/- 

PHMAN'S SHORTHAND RAPID COURSE. A Series of Twenty Simple Lessons 

covering the whole of the system and specially adapted for business purposes. In 

crown 8vo ........... Cloth 3'8 

Key 18 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND RAPID COURSE, ADDITIONAL EXERCISES ON . 8d. 
READING EXERCISE S ON THfi RAPID COURSE (In Shorthand), crcwn 8vo, 62 pp. l/~ 
PITMAN'S SHORTHAND COMMERCIAL COURSE. Specially adapted for com- 

mercial students .......... Cloth 38 

Key, 1/8; Additional Exercises l/- 
PITMAN'S EXERCISES IN BUSINESS SHORTHAND. By A. BENJAMIN, I.P.S. 

(Hons.), F.C.Sp.T. ........... l/- 

GRAMMALOGUES AND CONTRACTIONS 

GRAMMALOGUES AND CONTRACTIONS. For use In classes . 2d. 

VEST POCKET LIST OF GRAMMALOGUES AND CONTRACTIONS OF PITMAN'S 

SHORTHAND. s|in. by if in., limp cloth ....... 2d. 

EXERCISES ON THE GRAMMALOGUES AND CONTRACTIONS OF PITMAN'S 

SHORTHAND. By J. F. C. GROW. In Shorthand, with Key. In crown 8vo, 

limp cloth ............ 6d. 

HOW TO PRACTISE AND MEMORISE THE GRAMMALOGUES OF PITMAN'S 

SHORTHAND. Compiled by D. J. GEORGE. Size 7f in. by 5 in. . . . (Jd. 

SHORTHAND DICTIONARIES 

PITMAN 'S ENGLISH AND SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. In crowo 8vo, cloth, 820 pp. 6'- 

Cloth 



rmflAN'S SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. Crown 8vo(7i in.by 5$ in.), 3780?. Cloth 4'- 

PITMAN 'S POCKET SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. Royal 3 2 mo (35 in. by 4* in.). Cloth 1/3 

PITMAN'S REPORTER'S ASSISTANT. In crown Svo, cloth .... 2/8 

14 



SHORTHAND PHRASE BOORS, ETC. 

PHONOGRAPHIC PHRASE) BOOK. I/- ; Cloth 1/6 

SHORTHAND WRITERS' PHRASE BOOKS AND GUIDES. Each in foolscap 8vo, 

Cloth Net 1/8 

Electrical and Engineering, Shipping, Railway, Estate Agents, etc., Printing and 
Publishing, Insurance, Banking, Stockbroking and Financial Commercial, Legal, 
Municipal, Iron and Steel Trades, Civil Engineering, Naval and Military. 
Others in preparation. 

MEDICAL REPORTING IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. By H. DICKINSON. With 
an Introduction and Lists of Phraseograrns, Outlines, and Abbreviations. In 
crown 8vo, cloth .......... Net 3/- 

SHORTHAND CLERK'S GUIDE. By VINCENT E. COLLINGE, A.C.I.S. In crown 8vo, 

cloth 1/8 

DICTATION AND SPEED PRACTICE BOOKS 

SPECIALISED CORRESPONDENCE BOOKS. (1) The Chemical Trade. (2) The 

Paper Trade. (3) The Building Trade. In ordinary print . . . Each 6d. 

GRADUATED DICTATION BOOKS. (1) Political Speeches. (2) Sermons. (3) Com- 
mercial. (4) Speeches (Commercial) and Addresses. In ordinary print. In 
crown 8vo. ........... Each 4d. 

GRADUATED DICTATION BOOKS. (New S.ries) I and II. . - . Each 6d. 

GRADUATED COMMERCIAL LETTERS FOR DICTATION. 8| in. by 6 in. . . 8d. 

REPORTING PRACTICE. In crown 8vo, cloth 2/- 

PROGRESSIVE DICTATOR. Third Edition. In crown 8vo, cloth . . . 28 

SHORTHAND CANDIDATE'S DICTATION EXERCISES. In crown 8vo, cloth . l/- 

COMMERCIAL DICTATION AND TYPEWRITING V- 

8PEED TESTS AND GUIDE TO RAPE) WRITING IN SHORTHAND. In crown 8vo, 

cloth 21- 

FIVE MINUTE SPEED TESTS. With Introduction on Acquisition of Speed by 

P. P. JACKSON. In crown 8vo, cloth ........ 2/- 

CUMULATIVE SPELLER AND SHORTHAND VOCABULARY. By CHARLES E. SMITH. 

In crown 8vo, cloth ........... 1/3 

POCKET DICTATION BOOKS, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 2? in. by 3 | in. . . Each 2d. 

SPEED TRAINING IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. By T. F. MARRINER . . 6d. 

ACQUISITION OF SPEED IN SHORTHAND. By E. A. COPE. In ordinary print. 

In crown 8vo ............ 6d. 

BROWN'S SHORT-CUTS IN SHORTHAND. By GEORGE BROWW, F.I.P.S. In 

crown 8vo. ............. l/- 

THE STENOGRAPHIC EXPERT. By W. B. BOTTOME and W. F. SMART. In demy 

8vo, cloth Net 5/- 

SHORTHAND COMMERCIAL LETTER- WRITER. Advanced Style . I/- ; Key Gd. 

OFFICE WORK IN SHORTHAND. Specimens of Legal and other Professional 

Work commonly dictated to Shorthand clerks, in the Advanced Style I/- ; Key 6d. 

COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE IN SHORTHAND. In crown 8vo, cloth . 26 

BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE IN SHORTHAND. In the Advanced Style. I/- : Key 6d. 

TRADE CORRESPONDENCE IN SHORTHAND. In the Advanced Stvle. I/- ; Key 6d. 

MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE IN PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. First, 
Second, and Third Series. Advanced Style, with Keys in ordinary print. Each 
in crown 8vo, oblong. Linip cloth . . . . . . . I/- 

SHORTHAND READING BOOKS 

la the Elementary Style. 

AESOP'S FABLES 84. 

EASY READINGS. With Key M. 

LEARNER'S SHORTHAND READER. Illustrated 6d. 

STIRRING TALES 8d. 

In the Intermediate Style. 

PITMAN'S PHONOGRAPHIC READER, No. 1. With K- y M. 

GULLIVER'S VOYAGE TO LILLIPUT. By JONATHAN SWIKT. With Key. Cloth 1/8 

SUBMARINE X7 AND OTHRR STOREES." Illustrated !/- 

1HE VICAR OF WASEFLELD. By OLIVER GOLD.-MITH. Illustrated. 2/- ; Cloth 2/6 

TALES AND SKETCHES. By WASHINGTON IP.VING. With Key. I/-; Cloth 18 

TALES OF ADVENTURE. By various Authors . . . . . . l/- 

TH RUNAWAY AIRSHIP AND OTHER STORIES 1'- 

THS SILVER SHIP OF MEXICO. An abridgment ut J. H. INGRAHAM'S Story 

Cloth 1/8 

SELECT READINGS. Nos. 1 and 2 . Each 8d. 

THE BOOK OF PSALMS. Bible Authorised V-T.ion. Cl >lh ^:t, r?d cdg-s . . 2/8 

15 



COMMERCIAL READERS LH SHORTHAND. (1) Commercial Institutions. (2) 
Commodities. (3) Leaders o! Commerce. (4) Gateways of British Commerce. 

Each 8d. 
In the Advanced Style. 

PHONOGRAPHIC READER IL With Key 84. 

A CHRISTMAS CAROL. By CHARLES DICKENS I/-; Cloth 18 

TALES FROM DICKENS 1/8; Cloth 2/- 

THE SIGN OP FOUR. By SIR A. CONAN DOYLE . . . .1/8; Cloth 2/- 
THE RETURN OF SHERLOCK HOLMES. Vols. I and IL By Sir A. CONAN DOYLB. 

Each, cloth 1/8 

SELF-CULTURE. By J. S. BLACKIE. . . . . I/-; Cloth, 1/8 ; Key 2/8 

SELECTIONS FROM AMERICAN AUTHORS. With Key l/- 

THE LEGEND OF SLEEPY HOLLOW. By WASHINGTON IRVING. With Key . 8<i. 

RIP VAN WINKLE. By WASHINGTON IRVING. With Key 6d. 
A COURSE IN BUSINESS TRAINING. By G. K. BUCKNALL, A.C.I.S. (Shorthand 

Edition), 288 pp 3/- 

SHORTHAND TEACHERS' BOOKS 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND TEACHER'S HANDBOOK la crown 8vo, cloth . . 1/9 

NOTES OF LESSONS ON PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. Size 8 in. by 3* in., cloth . 2/- 
PREPARATION FOR A SHORTHAND TEACHER'S EXAMINATION. Size Sin. 

by 3* in., cloth ............ 1/8 

A COMMENTARY ON PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. By J. W. TAYLOR. In foolscap 

8vo, cloth gilt, 448 pp. 4/8 

THE METHODS OF TEACHING SHORTHAND. By E. J. MCNAMARA, M.A. In 

crown 8vo, cloth . . . . . .-. . . . . 2/ 

CHART OF THE PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET. 22 in. by 35 in. . . .24. 

Mounted on canvas with rollers and varnished 2/- 
CHARTS ON PITMAN'S SHORTHAND. Twenty large Charts (22 in. by 35 in.) 

The Set 73 

Mounted on canvas 15/- 



TYPEWRITING 



THE JUNIOR TYPIST. By ANNIE E. DAVIS. Demy 8vo, cloth . . 18 

NSW COURSE IN TYPEWRITING. By Mrs. SMITH CLOUGH. Large post 4to . 1'8 

PITMAN'S TYPEWRITER MANUAL. Can be used with any machine. Sixth 

Edition. Large post 4to, cloth ......... 3/- 

PITMAN'S TYPEWRITING EXAMPLES for any machine- 
On cards, 48 examples, foolscap folio ....... 3/- 

In oblong note-book, for standing by the side of the machine .... 2/- 

In note-book form, in covers ......... 1/8 

PITMAN'S EXERCISES AND TESTS IN TYPEWRITING. Foolscap folio. Quarter 

cloth. Third Edition, revised 3/- 

HOW TO TEACH TYPEWRITING. By KATE PICKARD, B.A. (Lond.). Crown 4 to. 

cloth Net 3/- 

PRACTICAL COURSE IN TOUCH TYPEWRITING. By C. E. SMITH. English 

Edition, revised and enlarged. Size, 8 in. by n in. . . . . 2/- 

PRACTICAL TOUCH TYPEWRITING CHART. Size, 30 in. by 40 in. . Net 2/8 

REMINGTON TYPEWRITER MANUAL. For Nos. 5 and 7, 10 and i r. With Exer- 
cises and Illustrations. Ninth Edition. Large post 4to. . . 1/3 J Cloth 1/8 

THE UNDERWOOD TYPEWRITER MANUAL. By A. J.SYLVESTI R. Large post 4 to 21- 

BAR-LOCK TYPEWRITER MANUAL (Group System of Touch Typewriting). By 

H. ETHERIDGE. Largp p-.>.st 410 ......... 2/- 

INSTRUCTIONS ON THE REMINGTON (Nos. 7, 8, 10 and n), YOST (No. 10), and 

BARLOCK TYPEWRITERS. Each, demy 8vo 6d. 

MODERN-TYPEWRITING AND MANUAL OF OFFICE PROCEDURE. By A. K. 

MORTON. 6j in. by Q- in., cloth ......... 3/8 

A TYPEWRITING CATECHISM. By Mrs. SMITH CLOUGH. In large post 4to Net 2/6 

PERIODICALS 

Complete list post fret on application. 
PITMAN'S JOURNAL. Subscription, which may begin at any time, IQ/'JO Mcr iiuum, 

post free. (Estab. 1842)* 32 PP- .... Werklv 2d.. by post S1H. 

PITMAN'S SHORTHAND WEEKL1. (Estab. 1892.) . Weekly 2d., by post SJrf. 

Pitman's Complete Commercial and Shorthand Catalogues containing FULL particulars of Ou 

books referred to in it-is Catalogue will be sent finst free on application. 
i AMEN CORNER, LONDON, E.G. 4. AND AT BATH, NEW YORK & MFLBOURNB 



19 

3 

in 



I 
1 



CO 

ni 



CO 

3 



o 

EH 



fe 



University of Toronto 
Library 



DO NOT 

REMOVE 

THE 

CARD 

FROM 

THIS 

POCKET 




Acme Library Card Pocket 

Under Pat. "Ref. Index File" 

Made by LIBRARY BUREAU