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iPARTMfiN-t OF COMMtlSCE 

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MISCELLANEOUS SBRIES-f«a an 



THE GLASS INntlflTRY 




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PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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CONTENTS, 



Page. 

Letter of aubmittaJ 9 

Introduction 11 

EstabliBhment of the American glaos industry 11 

Eaxly development 11 

Adoption of coal for fuel 11 

Introduction and development of tank furnaces .,?... 11 

Influence of the fuel supply 12 

Introduction of machinery 13 

Making of bottles 14 

Pressed tableware 16 

• lighting goods 17 

Plate glass 20 

Window glass 20 

Besults of overproduction 22 

Specialization in manufacture 22 

Effects of the European war 23 

Future of the glass industry 24 

General statistics of the industry 24 

Scope and method of the investigation 31 

Group classification of establishments 33 

Distribution of industry by States 35 

Summary 37 

General results of the investigation 37 

Materials, machinery, and processes 41 

Capital, net sales, and turnover 42 

Depreciation 44 

Cost and profit by establishments 45 

Cost and profit by specified units 46 

Industrial conditions 46 

Selling expense and conditions ; 48 

Wages and labor conditions ^ 49 

Needs of the industry 51 

Imports and duties 62 

Exports 54 

Chapter I. — ^Materials, machinery, and processes 55 

Raw materials used 55 

Sand 55 

Alkaline bases ^ 56 

Metallic bases 57 

Cullet 57 

Decolorizers 57 

Colorants 68 

Mixtures for American glass 59 

Machinery, tools, and equipment 60 

Types of furnaces 60 

Blowpipe 62 

3 



K 



CONTENTS. 



Cnapter 



I. — ^Materials, machinery, and processes — Continued. 

Machinery, tools, and equipment — Continued. Page. 

Molds 62 

Blowing machine 62 

' Paste-mold blowing machine 63 

Automatic bottle machine , 63 

Flowing device , 64 

Pressing machine 64 

Window^lass machine 65 

Air-puminng system 65 

Reheating furnace 65 

Aiy^ealing oven, or leer 6$ 

Conveyor devices 66 

Manufacturing processes 66 

Batches for various products 66 

Preparation of the batch 68 

Window 0ass 68 

Plate glass • 70 

Rolled figured glass 71 

Wire glass 71 

Opalescent glass 71 

Bottles 71 

Tableware 72 

Lifting goods 74 

Chapter II. — Capital, nets^es, and turnover 76 

Operating and final profit .-; 76 

Percentages of profit on capital and net saleB 78 

Profit or loss of each establishm^it 79 

Number of establishments showing iM!ofit or loss 83 

Variations in profits and losses 84 

Turnover of capital 85 

Chapter III . — Depreciation of plant and equipment 86 

Importance of the charges 86 

Various methods employed 86 

Neglect of charges by glass-making plants 88 

Relation to net sales, capital, and investment 90 

Effect on profits 90 

Chapter IV. — Cost and profit by establishments 94 

Cost and profit based on net sales 94 

Cost and profit based on sales value of goods produced 99 

Method of determining sales value of goods 99 

Average production costs by groups 100 

Materials 106 

Labor 107 

Fuel, power, etc 109 

Taxes and insurance 109 

Salaries 109 

Royalty 110 

General expense 110 

Selling 110 

Profit Ill 

Depreciation Ill 

Interest Ill 

Miscellaneous expense and miscellaneous income 112 



CONTENTS. 5 

Chapter IV. — Cost and profit by establishments — Continued. Page. 

Cost and profit in individual establishments 112 

Handmade window glass .* 112 

Machine-made window glass 116 

Plate glass 120 

Wire and opalescent glass 122 

Handmade bottles 124 

Machine-made bottles 129 

Hand and machine made bottles 132 

Jars.. 137 

Blown tableware 141 

Blown and pressed tableware 143 

Lighting goods 146 

Lamp chimneys 149 

Miscellaneous articles 151 

Cost based on total expenses, excluding depreciation and interest 154 

Lowest and highest cost establishments 157 

Sales in previous years 161 

Profits in previous years 166 

Chapter V. — Cost and profit by specified units 171 

Tabulation of cost and profit by articles 171 

Unit cost for window glass 176 

Handmade product 177 

Machine-made product 180 

Manufacturing costs by items 183 

Production at a profit and at a loss , , 186 

Chapter VI. — Industrial conditions 187 

Fuel as a factor in location and operation ^ 187 

Increase in output of building glass 188 

Window glass 189 

Effect of selling agencies on prices 190 

Number and equipment of hand and machine plants 190 

Production affected by machinery 192 

Factories operated on part-time basis 192 

Effect of machines on glass blowers' earnings 193 

Price list and discounts 194 

Definition of grades 197 

Hand production classified by g^ade, size, and strength 198 

Proportion of production by hand and machine 199 

Cooperation among manufacturers 200 

Increased demand for first grade and for small sizes 200 

Manufacturing to fill orders and for stock 201 

Conditions outlined by manufacturers 201 

The sheet-glass machine 205 

Plate glass 205 

Increase in production • 205 

Number and equipment of plants 206 

Trend of prices and sizes 206 

Bottles 209 

Production affected by machinery 230 

Number of establishments and their equipment 211 

Number of automatic machines 212 

The problem of standard capacity 214 

Localization in the industry 215 

Pressed and blown ware 216 

Number, location, and equipme 216 



' s 



6 CONTENTS. 

Chapter VI. — Induatrial conditions — Continued. Page. 

Cut tableware ,. 217 

Superiority of American cut glass 218 

Imports and exports 219 

Methods of manufacture 219 

Imitation cut glassware 221 

Incandescent lamps 221 

Types of lamps 221 

Manufacture of bulbs 222 

M Chemical glassware 222 

^ Germany former source of supply 223 

Imports free of duty for schools, colleges, etc 223 

Development of American industry 224 

High quality of American product 226 

Present conditions in the industry 226 

Proposed restriction of free importation 227 

Photographic glass 229 

Comparatively high cost of production 229 

Amount consumed — Tariff rates 230 

Chapter VII. — Selling expense and conditions 231 

Selling expense 231 

Selling methods 233 

Distribution of goods 233 

Views of a bottle manufacturer 234 

Imperial Window Glass Co. case 235 

' European plate-glass trust 236 

European watch-crystal selling agreement 237 

Selling factors 237 

Trade abuses 239 

Trade acceptances 239 

Economies possible through cooperation 240 

Chapter VIII. — ^Wages and labor conditions 242 

General data relating: to the industry 242 

Wages in glass and other industries compared 245 

Employees by sex and age 250 

Days worked during year •. 250 

Number of employees in the industry 251 

Average working hours and earnings 253 

Classification of occupations 289 

Window glass .^ 290 

Advantages of location : 290 

Wages and wage scales 291 

Labor-union regulations 295 

Bottles 299 

Effect of shop system on labor 299 

Piece prices, 1907 to 1917 300 

Glass Bottle Blowers* Association 303 

Hours of labor 306 

Summer stop 308 

Apprentices 308 

Extension of labor organization control 309 



CONTENTS* 7 

Chapter VIII. — Wages and labor conditiona — Continued. ' Page. 

Tableware and lighting goods 309 

Number of union workers t 310 

Number employed and unemployed.. 310 

Strikes and lockouts 811 

Piece and time work 311 

Hours of labor 312 

The * * move " system 313 

Summer stop and holidays 314 

Apprentices and child labor 314 

Women employees.. 315 

Chapter IX. — Needs of the industry 316 

Lack of efficiency in manu^ture and selling 316 

Chemistry 316 

Machinery 317 

Buildings 317 

Selling 318 

Other desirable improvements 318 

Methods of computing costs 319 

Ruinous price cutting caused by crude cost finding 319 

Advantages of modem cost keeping 320 

Theper-pound method 321 

The shop-hour method 322 

Overhead expense in making window glass 326 

Predetermined costs 327 

General accounting conditions 332 

Chapter X. — Imports and the tariff 334 

Production, imports, and exports compared 334 

Imports compared with rates of duty 335 

General imports 336 

Value of imports by class of products 337 

Imports from principal countries 338 

Increases in imports 340 

Window glass imported 342 

Plate glass imported 344 

Other building glass 346 

Bottles and jars 346 

Pressed and blown ware 347 

Statistics of imports for consumption 351 

Cylinder, crown, and common window glass 352 

First three brackets of window glass 356 

Plate glass, cast, polished, and unsilvered 357 

Bottles, vials, demijohns, and carboys, empty 360 

Ornamented articles 366 

Other cylinder, crown, and common window glass 368 

Other plate glass 369 

Bottles, vials, demijohns, and carboys, filled 369 

Miscellaneous glassware 370 

Tariff classifications 370 

Decisions regarding classification of imports 370 

Principal branches of the glass industry 373 

Classification under tariff act of 1913 374 

Suggested clasaification , 376 



8 COKTBHTB. 



Cbiq^ter XL^-Pfodncto exported 378 

Gfowth ol tade in recent yean 378 

Total exports by monthe 378 

Exportfl of principal pfoducte by monthB 380 

Dedine in worid trade in 1914 381 

Export! of principal products by continents 382 

Exports of principal products by countries 383 

Effects of European war 390 

Establiriiments in foreign trade 391 

Export methods 392 

Chapter XII. — Opportunities in the export trade 394 

Imports of fordgn countries 395 

Suggestions lor increasing foreign trade 403 

Appendixes 405 

A. List of references on the glass industry 405 

B. Schedules used in the investigation 424 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 

Washington^ May SI, 1917. 

Sir: I beg to submit herewith a report on the conditions in the 
glass industry and the cost of production in its various branches. 
This report is the ninth of a series of reports issued by the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce regarding the cost of production 
in different industries. The investigation w^s begun in January, 
1916, and conducted in accordance with the act of Congress approved 
August 23, 1912. 

The report contains principally cost of production data. In addi- 
tion, information is given concerning labor and industrial conditions, 
factory equipment, selling methods, and suggestions regarding better 
general accounting and more accurate cost-finding methods. The 
suggestions are based on interviews with manufacturers and on the 
personal observations of the special agents. A comprehensive bibli- 
ography, prepared in the Library of Congress, is appended. 

The investigation was planned and directed by Walter B. Palmer, 

a special agent of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

In the field work and in the preparation of the report he was assisted 

by Special Agents David M. Barclay, Harry Gtell, Marion C. Howard, 

Frank B. Meador, Thomas Mills, Thomas C. Stewart, Stanley D. 

Winderman, and Charles F. Yauch. 

E. E. Pratt, 

Chief of Bureau. 
To Hon. William C. Redfield, 

Secretary of Cofnmerce. 

9 



COST OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



IKTEODUCTION. 

ESTABLISHMSKT OF THE AMEBICAIT GLASS INDUSTBT. 

EARLY DEVELOPMENT. 

The manufacture of glass in the United States was begun by the 
first English colonists in 1608 or 1609, when they established a glass 

{)lant near Jamestown. Wood was plentifid and potash was made 
rom wood ashes. The product was probably only bottles, although 
the claim is made that wmdow glass also was made. The great inter- 
est in tobacco soon caused glassmaking to be neglected. In 1621 
Italian workmen were induced to come to Virginia to make beads 
for trade with the Indians, funds having been raised to erect a new 
glasshouse. 

In 1639 a glass plant was erected at Salem, Mass.; glass was made 
in New York during the Dutch regime and in 1747 in Connecticut. 
The first factory in New Jersey was established by Wistar at Allo- 
waystown between 1760 and 1765, and upon the failure of this plant 
in 1775 the workmen went to Glassboro, N. J., and established a fac- 
tory which is still in operation. This is the oldest continuously oper- 
ated factory in the United States. In 1769 Baron Stiegel, of Ger- 
many, estabhshed a glass plant at Manheim, Pa., for the manufacture 
of richly colored bowls, and goblets. By 1800 other factories had 
been established in Philadelphia, New York City, Connecticut, Brook- 
lyn, Germantown (Quincy), Mass., Salem County, N. J., Temple, 
N. H., Boston, Albany, and Keen, N. H. The product of these lac- 
tones was mainly bottles or bottles and window glass. 

ADOPTION OF COAL FOR FUEL. 

Messrs. Craig & O'Hara estabhshed glass works near Pittsburgh in 
1796. This plant was the first to use coal for fuel. Wood had been 
the fuel used up to this time. The introduction of coal as fuel was 
intentional and not due to any lack of wood. As late as 1810 it was 
only the glass plants around Pittsburgh that used coal for fuel. The 
plant of Craig & O'Hara made window glass, but, like most of the 
plants in the early glassmaking days, one or more pots were used for 
making bottles, flasks, and other hoUow ware. The nearness of coal 
and the abundance of excellent sand in adjoining rivers resulted in 
the phenomenal rise of the Pittsburgh district as the glass center. 

INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TANK FURNACES. 

The desire to increase production and to meet the very keen com- 

J)etition that had sprung up led soon after 1870 to improvements in 
urnaces. 

11 



12 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

In 1861 Siemens introduced, in Grennany, the first regenerative 
glass furnace. Up to the time of the Siemens furnace direct firing 
was the universal rule, that is, the hea£ of artificially dried wood or 
coal was applied directly to the pots. With wood or coal direct firing 
only was possible. 

In the Siemens furnace the fuel was first converted into gas outside 
the furnace and then heated, generally with preheated air, on the 
principle of the Bimsen burner. The gas and the air were heated 
separately by means of regenerators placed beneath the furnace, which 
utilized the waste heat from the gases of combustion. By this method 
a great saving was made in the fuel, the melting time was reduced, 
the output was increased and the quality of the glass improved. In 
the seventies other gas-pot furnaces, such as those of Nicholson and 
GiU, were introduced in the vicinity of Pittsburgh. 

It was not Siemens' original furnace — a pot furnace — ^but the tank, 
which covers the whole area of the furnace and does away entirely 
with the use of pots, that reached its greatest development in this 
country. In 1872 the tank furnace was divided into tnree compart- 
ments by means of two transverse floating bridges; the batch was 
melted in the first compartment, the glass was refined in the second, 
and the third held the purified glass. A later improvement did away 
with these floating bridges bj substituting refining vessels tihat were 
floated opposite each gathenng hole. 

The introduction of the tank furnace was made possible only by 
the use of gas as fuel, and the commercial utilization of natural ^as 
greatly stimulated its extension and development. Direct firmg 
ceased, to exist. Because of its size, a tank can not be p>roperlj 
heated by direct firing. In order to reach the contents effectively, it 
is necessary that the flames be forced across the top of the tank and 
this is possible only by the use of gas. 

In the last 25 or 30 years a large number of the pot furnaces have 
been replaced by tank furnaces. The only efficient plants that use 
pots at present are plate-glass plants, those that manufacture very 
nne qualities of tableware and other goods, and establishments in 
which a great diversity of colored glass is made. 

The use of the continuous tank enables a plant to work 24 hours a 
day. Tanks are more economical, regular, and durable, and produce 
a more uniform molten glass. While the flrst cost of the tank is large, 
the tremendous expense for pots, which last but a short time, and 
the time lost in removing and setting them make tanks just as cheap 
for a permanent investment. The adoption of tanks increased the 
production of the blower, due to the possibility of using shorter gath- 
ering irons, which skim the glass from the surface of the tank more 
rapidly than the long irons formerly necessary to gather glass from 
the pot. 

Several furnaces have been patented for melting glass by electricity 
but none has as yet been perfected so as to majke its commercial 
introduction possible. 

INFLUENCE OF THE FUEL SUPPLY. 

The cost of fuel is, exclusive of labor, generally the largest single 
expense that enters into the manufacture of glass. It is not surpris- 
ing therefore to find manufacturers influenced to a very great extent 



INTRODUCTION. 18 



in locating their plants by the source of the fuel supply. Fuel is the 
prime reason for locating factories at a particular place. The glass 
industry in its early days was established along the Atlantic coast, 
that being the first settled section of the country. Wood, which was 
dried to expel aU moisture, was to be had in almost every section of 
this territory. With the adoption of coal as fuel in Pittsburgh in 
1796, the glass industry moved west of the AUeghenies and centered 
in the Pittsburgh district. Wood and coal were used for direct firing. 
Siuce the introduction of the Siemens furnace, however, improve- 
ments have been in the direction of substituting gaseous for solid 
fuel. 

The discovery of natural gas and cheap oil in western Pennsylvania 
caused factories to locate in the gas and oil regions of that State, and 
the disco verv of natural gas, first in Ohio and then in Indiana, caused 
the glass industry to move farther west. Hundreds of '^mushroom " 
factories sprang up over night. On the failure of the natural-gas 
supply some plants moved to new fields, but the '^mushroom" plants 
as well as many old-established factories were compelled to quit busi- 
ness. In recent years the natural gas of West Virginia has oeen the 
direct cause for tne erection in that State of some of the largest fac- 
tories in this country. When natural gas failed, oil was substituted 
and proved to be an excellent fuel. 

Gas, either natural or artificial, is an ideal fuel; it is free from ashes 
and dirt, and gives a uniform heat which is essential in the manufac- 
ture of glass. It gives an almost perfect combustion, and the flame * 
is easily appUed and controlled. Natural gas is preferred because it 
is cheaper than artificial gas and gives a greater heat; but it is unre- 
liable, as the supply is usually imcertain. Oil furnishes an intense 
and easily regulated heat, but is as yet too expensive for xmiversal 
use. 

In the days when natural gas was the chief fuel because of its low 
cost, plants moved about from year to year following the gas supply. 
This moving was made possible because of the cheap cost of con- 
structing the frame builaiiigs and the absence of any great amoxmt 
of machmery. At the present time, however^ factories are large, the 
buildings are more or less substantial, and, smce the machinery and 
equipment are costly and not easily moved, the industry is com- 
paratively stable, rlants now, as formerly, prefer to use natural 
gas, and when this supply is exhausted, generally change to artificial 
(producer) gas or oil. Electricity may probably prove to be the ideal 
fuel, but as yet has not been used commercially as a glass fuel. 

INTRODUCTION OF MACHINERY. 

The invention, introduction, and development of machinery in the 

glass industry has resulted from the desire to displace the skilled and 
ighly paid blower and to increase production and cheapen cost. 
The making of glass from earUest history down to recent times was 
a handicraft, and much glass is stiU blown by the breath of a glass 
maker. Later molds were invented to assist the blower in shaping 
the articles. The machine for pressing the simpler articles in molds, 
without the aid of blowing, has been used since 1827. It has been 
chiefly in the manufacture of bottles, jars, and window glass that 
machmery has been invented and developed. 



14 THE GLASS IKDUSTBY. 

MAKING OF BOTTLES. 

Early nineteenth-century product. — ^From about 1808 to 1870 an 
important branch of the glass industry was the manirfacture of fancy 
pocket flasks and bottles. These were blown in engraved metal 
molds. The early bottles had mouths cut with shears when in a 

;lastic or soft condition, which resulted in a rimless, irregular edge, 
'he base has a circular scar made where the bottle was broken from 
the punty rod which held it while workmen finished the neck. Later 
this scar was removad from the finer products by grinding. In the 
fifties a ^'snap'' was used to hold the bottle, which came from the 
mold with a smooth hollow base. A rim or beading formed by a 
'HooV' was also added to the mouth. All the early bottles were 
green in color and it was not until 1861 that flint glass was used for 
prescription bottles. 

Beginning of the shop system, — ^In order to increase production there 
was mtroduced in bottle factories about 1870 what is Joiown as the 
"shop system.'' Instead of the single blower, who previous to this 
time naa produced the entire bottle, three men ("the shop") worked 
together, two of them gathering and blowing while the third made the 
neck smooth and otherwise finished the bottle. The average output 
of bottles for each gang of three men working together in this way is 
275 to 300 dozen per day; in the case of especially expert men the 
daVs work is often much larger. Formerly, the smgle blower, 
working with only the mold-shutting and snapping-up boys' help, 
was regarded as having produced a very good day's work when he 
made 40 or 42 dozen per day.^ The "shop system" is still in vogue 
in plants where bottles are made by hand. 

Machinery. — ^Ashleigh, an Englishman, made the first automatic 
bottle machine, but it was unsuccessful for narrow-neck bottles, 
because only a small percentage of the ware had a good enough neck 
to be marketable. In 1882 the process of prepressing a blank, form- 
ing the neck in the pressing operation, then transferring the neck to a 
blow mold and blowing it into the finished form by compressed air was 
invented by Arbogast, of Pittsburgh. 

There are three methods of making wide-mouth bottles xmderthe 
Arboffast patent. By the first the pressed blank is transferred from 
the blank mold to the blow mold and blown by means of a disk with 
a handle to which compressed air, controlled by a stopcock, is fed 
through a rubber hose. Later, to increase production, tne blank and 
blow molds were moimted on separate revolving tables. By the 
second method the blank mold is telescoped into the blow mold against 
the shoulder forming the neck. This system was invented by 
Windmill, of England, and was used successfully for fruit jars, but 
legal entanglements and litigation caused manuJFacturers to discard 
it. The third method consists in pressing the blank in the blank 
mold. 

About 1896 a machine was perfected which, though commercially 
successful, was somewhat crude and restricted to the making of wide- 
mouth bottles and jars. This machine was not automatic. H 

Since about 1900 any number of bottle-jnaking machines that 

required one, two, or three skilled operators have appeared on the 

— ■ I ■ « ■ ' II I ■ 

1 Twenty-eighth Annual Beport, Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries of New Jersey, 1905, 
p. 201. 



INTKODUCTION. 15 

market; these machines are usually designated as one, two, or three 
man machines. In 1900 a two-man machine for making wide-mouth 
bottles was invented. Shortly after the automatic machine was 
introduced, there appeared on the market the '* Johnny Bull," or 
United, an EngUsh thr^e-man machine for narrow-mouth bottles. 
In 1908 there appeared a three-man machine for narrow-neck bottles^ 
in 1912 a one-man machine for wide-mouth bottles, and in 1914 a 
one-man machine for narrow-neck bottles. 

Owens (mtomatic macTiine. — ^In 1903 the Owens automatic machine., 
invented by Michael J. Owens, of Toledo, was introduced com- 
mercially. The machine revolutionized the entire bottle-making 
industry, and since its introduction has greatly increased the standard 
of efficiency in the bottle-manufacturing plants of the United States 
and has made possible the gradual reduction in the price of bottles 
that has been noted during the years since its invention. 

Tlie first Owens machine that appeared on the market had six 
arms; the latest type of machine has 15 arms. Improvements have 
been made so that to-day practically any kind or shape of bottle from 
one-tenth of an oxmce to 13 gallons in capacity can be made upon 
some one of the four types of Owens machines. 

The operating speed of the 16-arm machine is indicated by the fact 
that more than 75,000 quart fruit jars are manufactured by a single 
machine in a 24-hour day. The machine is entirely automatic, 
gathering its own glass and blowing the bottle, and wiien an auto- 
matic conveyor is used, dehvering it to the leer without the touch of a 
worker's hand. The machine can be run for 24 hours a day and every 
day in the year. 

The machine is very costly, and the special equipment necessary 
to operate it makes the initial outlay exceedingly large. This fact, 
together with a serious doubt as to the machine's competitive ability, 
kept manufacturers from installing it generally. Pnor to 1908 the 
Owens machine was restricted almost exclusively to licensing on a 
basis of royalty. In that year, however, the Owens people began the 
manufacture of bottles. In a report by President Libbey, of the 
Owens Bottle Machine Co., he states that, exclusive of the plants 
controlled by the Owens Bottle Machine Co., there are 15 factories 
operating 114 machines and having a normal annual production of 
over 850,000,000 bottles.* There are installed in the United States 
at present 6 fifteen-arm, 97 ten-arm, 87 six-arm, and 1 special machine, 
making a total of 191 machines. There are 13 machines in Canada. 

The Owens European patents were sold in 1907, to a European 
combination controlled by German shareholders, for 12,000,000 marks. 
The first three Owens machines were sold in Europe in 1908, and 
there are now 60 or 70 machines in use. It is significant that Japanese 
capitalists, despite the cheap hand labor to be had in that country, 
have purchased the Owens Japanese patents and are now installing 
the most modem Owens machines. 

Flowing device, — From the time of the ancient Egyptian glass blow- 
ers up to 1903, when a patent for a flowing device was issued to Homer 
Brooke, and the Owens machine, which gathered its own glass, was 
commercially introduced, hand gathering was the first step in the 
process of glassmaking. Brooke's device consists in permitting the 

1 National Glass Budget, Apr. 1, 1916, p. 2. 



16 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

molten glass to flow continuously and freely from the furnace, and 
then severing this flowing stream below its point of exit from the 
furnace to obtain the desired imformed molten mass, allowing the 
severed mass to fall in the mold and supporting the upper portion of 
the stream, which continues flowing from the furnace untu another 
mold comes into position to receive another mass to be severed. 

In hand gathenn^g, which was the universal method up to this time, 
the ^lass gathered is usuidly more than the amoxmt necessary for the 
required ware. The glass is dropped into the mold and the proper 
amount has to be cut off by shears or by other means. TTie Brooke 
patent accomplished the gathering and cutting automatically. 

Previous to Homer Brooke's invention many attempts had been 
made to do away with hand gathering. Haley devised a machine 
which manipulated the gathering rod in exactly the same manner as 
in the hand operation. In 1885 Rylands patented a device (British 
patent) to staxt and stop the flow of glass by means of a lever. In 
1890 came the Schulze-Berge patent, by which desired quantities of 
glass were forcibly ejected from the furnace by means of a plunger 
acting in the furnace or by means of air pressure in the furnace. 
Eimsen (British patent) started and stopped the flow oif glass by 
means of a revolving cyUnder with pockets in its periphery. The 
difficulty with all these intermittent start-and-stop devices was that 
the glass adhered to the cut-off device or stopper, or congealed and 
did not flow. The Brooke patent provided for a continuous flow, 
thus preventmg the fflass from congealing. 

The advantages claimed from the use of the Brooke patents are 
greatly increased production, uniform quantities, reduced cost of 
manufacture, and ability to work throughout the hot months, when 
it is difficult to get hand gatherers to work. 

It appears that other manufacturers have been working on flowing 
or pourmg devices since Brooke received his patent, and some claim, 
to nave perfected and to be using such systems. There are 10 or 12 
firms making bottles and jars by the flowing method.^ 

PRESSED TABLEWARE. 

The discovery of a process for pressing glass in 1827 is credited to 
a carpenter of Sandwich, Mass. Deming Jarves in that year made ^"' 
the first pressed tumbler. Up to this time all glassware not cast ba(r ^ 
been blown. The shaping oi glass to the desired form and size l> 
means of a mold and pressing was at first used only for the common 
grades of goods. This discovery revolutionized the industry.,;' 
greatly reduced the cost of production, making it possible for immfei r^ 
quantities of the same article to be turned out at a low cost,- ar 
permitted the imitation of fine ware. Toward the close of the sixt... 
goblets and wineglasses were made by the pressed method and wc . 
almost as fine and dehcate as those made by blowing and cutting.^* ' ^ 

Up to 1864 the finer pressed-glass articles were made of flint gls:-^^ 
composed of the best sand, pearl ash, refined saltpeter, and oxide'^fef^ 
lead, while the cheap tumblers and other common ware were made'r ^'^ 
German flint glass composed of soda ash, lime, nitrate of soda, ai* 
sand. About 1864 WDham Leighton, of Wheehng, discovered . 

1 D. A. Hayes, president of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Asscciation, in The Glassworker, July 22, 1916, 
p. 3. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

method of making a clear brilliant glass which revolutionized the 
pressed-glass business. By his process the batch was made of bicar- 
bonate of soda, pure sand, Hme, and refined nitrate of soda, and its 
cost was about one-third that of the lead-flint batch. 

LIGHTING GOODS. 

Lamps and lamp chimneys. — ^There was a great depression in the 
glass industry from 1860 to 1860, but this was followed by a great 
development in the flint-glass business, due to the making of coal oil 
from coal and the later discovery of petroleum. Though lamp chim- 
neys were manufactured about 1855, it was not untU about 1859, 
when refined petroleum for lighting purposes was commerciallj mar- 
keted, that their manufacture assumed large proportions. With the 
introduction of petroleum the demand for lamps and lamp chimneys 
grew by leaps and bounds until the introduction of gas and electricity 
about i885 led the manufacturers to commence the making of modem 
lighting goods. Lamp chimneys, and oil lamps are mantuactured in 
the Umted States in considerable quantities at the present time and 
are exported to countries where gas and electricity nave not yet been 
introduced. Lamp chimneys were at first blown off-hand and some 
with flat sides were made in molds. In recent years lamp chimneys 
have been manufactured in a paste-mold machine. 

Bulbs for incandescent Icrnips. — ^The first glass bulbs used for in- 
candescent lamps were made from tubing by manipulating the latter 
over a flame. This practice was followed imtil such time as the in- 
candescent lamp began to assume commercial importance, when 
the manufacturers began to cast about for a cheaper and more 
expeditious method of production. 

As far as is known, the first attempts to make bulbs on a blow 
iron (i. e., a glassworker's blowpipe) direct from the molten glass 
were' made in Corning N. Y., in the late seventies. After laborious 
experiments with glasses of different composition and with different 
methods of manipulation, a process was evolved for making a so- 
called '^ off-hand bulb, which was a distinct improvement over the 
bulb previously used, in that it was more uniiorm in shape and 
size, was of a satisfactory and fairly uniform thickness, and possessed 
r ther physical properties — correct coeflBicient of expansion, fusibil- 
7 1^^ freedom from visual defects, etc. — necessary to successful use. 
7'\^^.type of bulb moreover was susceptible of manufacture in exist- 
Ji^jglass plants by workmen then available. This no doubt was an 

j»oj^tant consideration, as it was desired to get bulbs promptly in 
i/ ^>yere then considered large quantities. 

|||Will be imderstood that while these off-hand bulbs were a great 
imim)vement over those made from tubing and temporarily met 
th requirements of the lamp manufacturer, the art of lamp making 
\\.^ then distinctly a hand art, and uniformity was not needea. 
Ap^^flae art of lamp making progressed, attempts were made to ex- 
uc^te the process by substitutmg machinery for hand operators. 
T-irxact, it became obvious that machinery must be substitute4 if 
•jxi^ndescent electric lighting were to assume the importance hoped 
I'v'r it. 

102511**— 17 2 



18 THE GI-ASS INDUSTRY. 

With the development of machines for holding and manipulating 
lamps in process, the need of greater accuracy in the manuf actiu'e 
of the bum became imperative, and the glass manufacturer met the 
situation by substituting the ''wooden-mold" process for that 
previously employed. 

In the off-hand process the glassworker gathered a small ball of 
glass on the end of his iron hj dipping the latter in the molten 
mass and quickly rotating and withdrawing it. He then rolled the 
"gather'' on a pohshed iron plate, cooling it and causing it to assume 
any approximate cylindrical shape. Then, by a combination of 
blowing and swinging, he caused the glass to elongate and distend 
to the proper shape. It is needless to say that this was an opera- 
tion requiring a high degree of skill and great care. No measuring 
tools or gauges could be touched to the plastic glass, and the uni- 
formity of the product was strictly dependent on the abihty and care 
of the operator. 

The wooden-mold process had long been in use in the glass trade 
for the production of globes, chimneys, and similar articles. Just 
why it was not originally adopted for the making of bulbs instead 
of the off-hand process is not known. The preUminary steps in 
both processes are identical. In the wooden-mold process, however, 
the "gather'' or blank when only partially distended is introduced 
into a hardwood water-soaked mold, whereupon the operator blows 
into the iron and at the same time rolls it between the palms of his 
hands, thus imparting a rotary motion to the blank, while it assumes 
the contour of the mold. As soon as the glass becomes sufficiently 
stiff, but before it has entirely lost its plasticity, the mold is opened 
and the bulb still attached to the iron is removed. Finally the bulb 
is removed from the iron by cracking close to the latter with a wet, 
or at least a cold, file or "knife." 

This wooden-mold process was a distinct advance in the art. 
The product was much more imiform in size and shape, had a high 
polish due to the rotary motion of the glass while in contact with 
the mold, and could be made faster and more cheaply than previ- 
ously. The hand process of bulb making in vogue at the present 
time is a direct development of this wooden-mold process, and differs 
from it only in the refinement of tools employed. 

As the development of machinery for lamp making progressed, 
the requirements of the lamp maker became more and more exacting, 
and tne glass manufactiu'er soon began to cast about for a more 
reliable material than wood from which to make his molds, for it 
was found that wooden molds soon warped and burned out of shape, 
with resultant inaccuracies in the product. This more rehable ma- 
terial was soon forthcoming in the form of cast iron, coated with a 
so-called "paste" of linseed oil and charcoal or hardwood sawdust. 

As nearly as can be ascertained this new or "paste" mold was de- 
veloped in France and introduced here by certain itinerant French 
chimney or tumbler blowers. These men traveled from place to 
place as suited their whims, carrying their molds with them, and 
acqepting employment wherever offered or whenever necessity urged 
them. They guarded most jealously the secret of their paste and 
it was some Uttle time before Americans acquired the secret. How- 
ever, in the late eighties American glassmakers did learn how to 
properly coat or paste their molds, and from that time until the pres- 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

ent day practically all incandescent lamp bulbs made in America/ 
have been blown in these iron molds coated with carbonaceous paste. I 

It is a rather surprising fact that this process was not generallyjN 
a.dopted in European countries and in Japan until very recent years.l 1 
Iron molds of great accuracy are now used by all bulb manufacturers, I 
and with proper handling these continue accurate through years of I 
constant use. * 

Briefly the process of ^'pasting'' is as follows: The inner surface 
of the mold is spread with a thin layer of boiled linseed oil, appUed 
with a brush like paint. Other substances, such as wax or rosin, 
are sometimes dissolved in the oil. The mold is then dipped in 
powdered charcoal, in fine sawdust (usually of apple wood), or more 
recently in cork flour, which is powdered cork sifted or bolted to 
make it of imiform grain. The mold is then shaken or tapped to 
remove the surplus powder and immediately placed in a baking oven, 
where it is subjectea to suflB.cient heat to partially carbonize the oil and 
coating without warpir^ the mold. 

After carbonization has progressed sufficiently, the mold is re- 
moved from the oven and allowed to cool. A heavy '^gather'' or 
blank is prepared on a blow iron and introduced into the mold; 
the latter is closed and the blank is blown up tight against the coated 
surface. The extreme heat of the glass blauK serves to complete 
the carbonization of the paste, and upon opening the mold its 
working surface is foimd to be coated with an exceedingly thin, 
smooth, and closely adhering coating of carbon, almost graphitic 
in character. 

The mold is then dipped in water and is ready for use. This dip- 
ping in water is a vital part of the process and must be repeated each 
time before a bulb is blown. Without the water it is impossible 
to rotate the blank in the mold, and the resultant article has a rough 
or pitted surface. The high poUsh of a paste-mold bulb is doubt- 
less due to the rotation oi the glass over the '' graphitic" surface 
lubricated by water and water vapor. 

As already stated, save for the introduction of the paste mold and 
the use of semiautomatic devices for opening, closing, and wotting 
molds (so-called ''dummy mold holders '') the process of making 
bulbs by hand is much the same as 20 years ago. Recently, however, 
a variety of machines have been introduced, both semiautomatic 
and automatic, which give promise of both cheapening and improv- 
img the incandescent lamp bulb. Such machines are in use in sev- 
eral manufacturing plants and are turning out a satisfactory product. 
There is much development work still to oe done on these machines, 
but it seems probable that within a few years they will largely 
supersede the hand process. 

These machines have not introduced any really new fundamental 
principles in the art of bulb making; the individual stops in the pro- 
cess are similar to those in the manual process and the sequence of 
steps is the same. The machine simply imitates with great precision 
the movements of the adept artisan and produces a very uniform 
product. 

From a small beginning 30 years ago, the business of bulb making 
has grown to considerable importance. There are now in the United 
States alone about 4,000 persons, mostly men, employed in the making 
of glass bulbs and tubing for incandescent lamps. Throughout thp 



20 THE GLASS INDITSTBY, 

world there are probably from 10,000 to 12,000 so employed, though 
definite statistics are not available. It is estimated on good authority 
that production of incandescent lamp bulbs in the United States is 
now going on at the rate of 20,000,000 per month or nearly 1,000,000 
for each working day. 

Decorated lighting glassware, — ^The principal items of lighting glass- 
ware are incandescent bulbs, lamp chimneys, lamp shades, Tantem 
f lobes, arc-light globes, reflectors, and decorated globes and shades. 
)ecorated gfobes and shades are made in a variety of shapes and 
designs, both for ornamental and practical purposes. They are 
pressed or blown, plain or decorated, machine-cut or hand-cut. 
needle-etched or acid-etched, and are made from flint, opal, ana 
colored glass. It is claimed that American lighting goods are now 
superior to those made in Germany and, except in mie colors, are 
better than the products of Austria and Venice. 

PLATE GLASS. 

The making of plate glass in the United States was first attempted 
in Brooklyn, N. i., in 1852. In 1869 John B. Ford, after visiting 
the Lenox works, where plate glass had previously been made, and 
securing all possible information from the imported workmen, estab- 
lished a plant at New Albany, Ind., which, though successful in 
manufacturing plate glass, was not piofitable financially. This plant 
was equipped with imported machmes for grinding, smoothing, and 
polishing. In 1872 the newly formed American Plate Glass Co., 
erected a plant at Crystal City, Mo. This plant, like Ford's, was not 
financially successful at the outset, though it manufacturea a good 
quality of glass. Mr. Ford operated two other plants subsequent to 
operating the New Albany plant, but it was not until 1881, when he 
established a large plate-glass factory at Creighton, Pa., that plate 
glass was profitably manufactured. This plant is one of the original 
works of the present Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 

Previous to 1880 every investment in plate-glass manufacturing 
in the United States had resulted in financial failure. The wonderfiu 
progress and development of the plate-glass industry began in 1880 
ana has continued until the present day, when American plate glass, 
it is claimed, is the equal oi the European in clearness, finish, and 
freedom from flaws and defects. Regular plate glass is one-quarter 
of an inch thick. There are, however, American companies at the 
present time that are specializing in the manufacture of a very thin 
or a very thick plate glass. 

The first process for making commercially successful wire glass was 
patented by Frank Shuman in 1892. Since 1890 there has been a 
wonderful development in the manufacture of cathedral, opalescent, 
and art sheet glass, and all kinds of figured, ribbed, and colored 
glass. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

Crown glass, a variety of blown glass, was the original form of 
mod em window glass. A bulb of glass was blown, and after the lower 
part of the bulb nad been opened by shears, the bulb was flared out 
to a sheet by a rapid rotation of the blowpipe. Tlie circular sheet or 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

disk was cut into two half circles and squared for glazing. From 
the crescent shape of the cut halves was derived the term crown glass. 
The cylinder process of forming window glass probably originated in 
Italy and about 1830 was introduced into England from France. 

The great development in window-glass manufacture dates from 
1880. rrevious to that time American window glass was of poor 

Suality and was made in the old type of pot furnace, whereas the 
IngUsn and Be^ium window-glass manufacturers had adopted the 
tank furnace, it is estimated that fully 25 per cent of the window 
glass used in the United States at that time was imported/ In 1888 
Jojnes Chambers, after visiting the European glass factories and 
securing alj possible information, built at Jeannette, Pa., a plant 
equipped with tanks, and although opinion forcasted its failure, it 
was successful from the start in the continuous and regular production 
of clear, faultless glass which was superior to that in which the batch 
had been melted in pots. 

Cylinder macMnery, — In 1854 Loup introduced a device (French 
patent) for the mechanical production of cylinders of glass. A ''bait 
member '' drew a cylinder from the molten glass iato which it had been 
lowered, air pressure forming the cylinder. In 1886 Martin Andreas 
Oppermann, a Belgian glass manufacturer, designed and constructed 
another machine iot the making of window glass in cylinder form. 
This machine was so arranged tnat cylinders of considerable length 
could be made, compressed air being used to blow out the cylinder 
and mechanical means appUed for drawing the ^cylinder. Opper- 
mann stated in his patent that he anticipated using this machine as 
a means for drawing such cylinders from a tank or bath of molten 
^ glass, as also from a bath of glass contained within a refractory 
receptacle, whereby segregated portions of glass taken from the pot 
or tank could be operated upon, so that either cylinders or otner 
forms of glass could be made. 

Numerous other attempts wore made betweqn 1890 and the time 
that Lubbers (in 1903) brought out his window-glass cylinder machine. 
However, the various ideas and designs which nad been brought out 
by several different inventors were but little developed, owing to the 
skepticism of manufacturers and the antagonism of the dominant 
labor unions in that branch of the industry. 

The Lubbers machine was brought out m 1903 and was taken up 
bv the American Window Glass Co. and installed at Alexandria, Ind. 
It did not, however, reach a stage of commercial utiUty imtil approxi- 
mately 1905. This n^achine is used in the plants oi the American 
Window Glass Co. Several other machines for the making of window 
glass have been installed and are now producing large quantities of 
commercial glass of high qu^^lity, among which is the He^ machine, 
owTQed and controlled by the ConsoUdated Window Glass C!o., and the 
Frink machine, invented and owned by Robert L. Frink. The Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Co. has also several factories operating under 
methods which it owns and controls for the production of window 
glass, in conjunction with its plate-glass business. Other types of 
machines used are the Douchamp, the Douchamp-Hen^haw, and the 
Olwulgee. It will be seen therefore that macmne making of win- 
dow glass has to a great extent supplanted the old hand process. 

1 James Gillinder, in One Hundred Years of American Commerce, Vol. I, p. 281. 



22 TI3E GLASS INDUSTRY. 

It is claimed that hand-blown window glass is not so apt to break 
as machine-made glass because it is better tempered, due to the con- 
stant reheating in the blowing process. Machine-made glass is drawn 
which, it is claimed, makes it more brittle. 

Sheet-plass machinery . — ^In 1882 Clarke attempted the mechanical 
production of sheet glass. Since then nimierous inventors have at- 
tempted to solve the same problem. About 1908 Irving W. Col- 
bum, of Franklin, Pa., perfected a machine that draws continuous 
sheets of plass of any desired width and thickness. The width is 
regulated by a perfected device that makes it imiform. The thick- 
ness of the glass is varied at the will of the worker. It is stated that 
single-strength ^lass can be drawn at a linear speed of 56 inches a 
minute and double-strength at 48 inches a minute. The only worker 
required is a cutter to cut the sheet into various sizes as it emerges 
* from the leer. The people who successfuUv produced the Owens 
. machine for bottles are now erecting a large plant for the manufacture 
of sheet glass by the process which Colburn invented and perfected. 

BESULTS OF OVERPRODUCTION. 

Until recently, the establishment of a glass factory required a com- 
paratively small investment; a cheap Same structure built near a 
sand supply or fuel field was the only building necessary. The cheap- 
ness of wood and sand was no doubt responsible for the building of 
numerous plants. With the discovery of natural gas many towns 
offered lai^e bonuses and other inducements, such as free sites and 
free or cheap gas, and people entered the business who had neither 
the knowledge nor the ability successfully to conduct a glass plant. 
The overproduction which followed, together with the general busi- 
ness ignorance of many who had recently entered the field as a get- 
rich-quick speculation, resulted in a period of price cutting. 

In numerous instances manufacturers attempted by purchase or 
organization to remedy the evil results of this keen competition and 
overproduction. In 1885 almost all the large glassware plants in 
New Jersey formed a manufacturers' association for the purpose of 
fixing prices, and in 1891 a number of manufacturers formed a stock 
company, known as the United States Glass Co., which bought up 15 
of the largest and most complete press-manufacturing plants in the 
Country, located in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia. The 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., formed in 1895, purchased all the plate- 
glass factories in the United States with the exception of three. 
Many manufacturers, it is stated, have been deterred irom combining 
for tne purpose of fixing prices by fear of the Sherman Act. At the 
present time many window-glass manufacturers market their prod- 
uct through the same selling agent, and manufacturers in other 
branches of the glass industry are contemplating some such arrang- 
ment. 

SPECIALIZATION IN MANITFACTURE. 

There is a tendency in glass manufacturing, as in most other indus- 
tries, toward speciauzation, and its cheaper cost of production and 
improvement of quality. Specialization would, for one thing, 

S'eatly lessen the expense for molds, which is very large. Users of the 
wens machine usually manufacture only a few products and other 



INTEODUCTION. 28 

manufacturers have also begun to concentrate on one product or one 
line of goods. This specialization, probably due to keen competition 
and the perfection of various machines, is likely to continue. 

FoUowmg is a brief description of the specialties manufactured by 
the leading glass-producing coimtries of Europe: 

England: Beautiful, pure, brilhant, lead nint ware; cut and en- 
graved ware and excellent quality of colored ware. 

France: Polished plate glass that is considered the standard; 
stained glass windows; enameled and etched fancy ware; lenses; 
ware with elegance of shape, lightness of design, and beauty of glass. 

Belgium: Window glass of mie quality at a low price. 

Germany: Mirrors; cheap tableware; colored vases. 

Austria-Hungary (Bohemia) : Beautifully cut, engraved, and deco- 
rated glassware oi beautiful color and purity of glass; glass gems, 
beads, pearls, and buttons. 

EFFECTS OF THE EUROPEAN WAR. 

The war in Europe has had, indirectly, a beneficial eflfect on the 
American glass industry. Manufacturers and inventors in this in- 
dustry, as m others, have been concerned chiefly with increased pro- 
duction and lower labor cost, and all their energies, consequently, 
have been spent in perfecting the mechanical end of the business and 
the invention and miprpvement of machinery. The batch and the 
application of chemical principles, however, have been neglected. 
This most important detail of successful manufacturing, a knowledge 
of the glass itself, its behavior, the ingredients that go to make up the 
batch, was lacking. A manufacturer made glass as. his father made 
it before him (empirically) or as his competitor made it. At the time 
of this investigation the agents found comparatively few plants that 
employed a chemist of any kind and only one that had a chemical 
phwicist. 

With the advent of the war, glass manufacturers faced the same 
situation that confronted the users of dyes tuffs. They had learned 
to depend upon foreign coimtries for many of the principal ingre- 
dients of glass. Shut off from their usual supply, manufacturers 
began to grope about for themselves and a great impetus was given 
to chemical research. Soda ash has been manufactured in this coun- 
try for many years. Since the war started another chemical has been 
substituted for pearl ash, heretofore considered indispensable. A 
substitution was also made for zinc oxide when its price went up, and 
one manufacturer stated that he had discovered a decolorizer to take 
the place of manganese. The war has of necessity compelled Ameri- 
can manufacturers to shift for themeslves in a field of their business 
which they had heretofore neglected. The start has been made, and 
it is hoped that American manufacturers will continue the work so 
well begun, so that before many years there will be a thorough knowl- 
edge of glass chemistry. 

Laboratory and chemical glassware was not manufactured to any 
extent in the United States prior to the European war, being imported 

Erincipally from Germany. With its importation impossibfe, colleges, 
ospitals, laboratories, etc., looked about for Amencan-made goods, 
ana several manufacturers were quick to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity of the times and began to manufacture the much sought-for 
chemical and laboratory ware. For the short time they have been 



24 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



engaged in manufacturing these products, remarkable process has 
been made. It is claimed that a new branch of the glass industry 
has been estabUshed and that it will remain after the war is over. 

FUTURE OF THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

There is at present a tendency toward large factories with then* 
greater production and correspondingly lower overhead cost, greater 
opportunity for eflB.ciency, and increased purchasing power. The 

J)rofitable factory of the future will probably be a large one. Manu- 
acturers are gradually installing modern machines, specializing in one 
product or Ime of goods has been begun, and the manufacture of 
chemical glassware has been developed to comparatively lai^e pro- 

Eortions. With the perfection of machines and the elimination of a 
irge amount of hana labor, it is probable that the annual production 
will greatly exceed the domestic demand. This will necessitate some 
plants withdrawing from the business or the entrance of the industry 
m general into the export trade on a large scale. 

American glass of almost every kind equals the foreign product • 
in some lines, such as lead cut glass, all forms of pressed ware, ana 
machine-made fruit jars and bottles, the domestic glass is superior 
in purity of glass, pattern, design, utility, and is lower in price. The 
demand for glass products is increasing rapidly and should grow to 
immense proportions. With the present total absence of foreign 
competition of any kind and with the high prices now prevailing, 

flass manufacturers have the opportunity to remedy the evils of the 
rade, improve their factories, put themselves in sound financial con- 
dition, and so put their house in order as to insure future stabihty and 
Srosperity regardless of the outcome of the war, its effects or in- 
uences. 

QSNEBAL STATISTICS OF THE INDUSTBY. 

General statistics of the glass industry shown in Tables 1 to 10 
were furnished by the Bureau of the Census 

Table 1. — ^Value of Glass Production, by States. 
[Data from the Buretm of the Census.] 



States. 



PflmLsylvania... 

Ohio 

Indiana 

West Virginia. . . 

Illinois 

New Jersey 

New York 

Missouri 

Oklahoma 

Maryland 

Kansas 

Virginia 

Ma^achusetts. . . 

CaUfomia 

Kentucky 

Michigan 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire. 

Iowa 

All other States. 



United States. 



1879 



9S, 



2, 
2, 



720,584 
549,320 
790,781 
748,600 
901,343 
810,170 
420,796 
919,827 



687,000 



254,345 
140,000 
388,405 

90,000 
160,000 

70,000 
3,500 



21,164,571 



1889 



$17,179,137 
5,649,183 
2,995,409 
945,224 
2,372,011 
5,218,152 
2,723,019 
1,215,329 



1,256,697 



431,437 
(») 
(«) 



1,065,397 



41,051,004 



1699 



$22,011,130 
4,547,083 
14,767,883 
1,871,795 
2,834,398 
5,093,822 
2,756,978 
765,564 



557,895 



418,458 



(«) 



924,706 



56,639,712 



1904 



$27,671,693 
9,026,208 
14,706,029 
4,598,563 
5,619,740 
6,450,195 
4,279,766 
1,781,026 

589,589 
958,720 
549,031 
1,011,873 
915,446 



(«) 



1,449,719 



79,607,998 



1909 



$32,817,936 

14,358,274 

11,893,094 

7,779,483 

5,047,333 

6,961,088 

4,508,790 

1,992,883 

(a) 

1,038,368 
2,036,673 
681,900 
(a) 

(«) 
(«) 
(«) 



3,279,481 



92,095,203 



1914 



$39,797,822 

19,191,342 

14,881,372 

14,631,171 

7,680,343 

7,697,754 

5,166,714 

3,882,420 

2,006.736 

1,500,982 

728,681 

690,420 

(•) 

(•) 



(») 



5,340,263 



123,085,019 



a Included in "All other States." 



INTBODUCTION. 



25 



Table 2. — Pkopoktion op Production ani> Bank of States in Manufacture of 

Glass. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



States. 


Per cent of total production value. 


Rank. 


1879 


1889 


1899 


1904 


1909 


1914 


1879 


1889 


1899 


1904 


1909 


1914 


P(ITipSylvftTllft 


41.22 
7.32 
3.74 
3.54 
4.28 
13.28 
11.44 
4.35 


41.85 
13.76 
7.30 
2.30 
5.78 
12.71 
6.63 
2.96 


38.93 
8.04 

26.10 
3.31 
5.01 
9.01 
4.88 
1.35 


34.76 
11.34 
18.47 
5.78 
7.C6 
8.10 
5.38 
2.24 


35.63 
15.60 
12.60 
8.43 
5.48 
7.56 
4.90 
2.16 


32. 33 

15.59 

12.09 

11.89 

6.24 

6.17 

4.19 

3.16 

1.63 

1.22 

.59 

.56 


1 
4 
8 
9 
6 
2 
3 
5 


1 
2 
4 
9 
6 
3 
5 
8 


1 
4 
2 
7 
5 

I 

8 


1 

3 

2 

6 

5 

4 

7 

8 

21 

12 

10 

13 

9 

11 


1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
5 
7 
9 

""io" 

s 

13 


1 


Ohio.r 


^ 


Indiana 

West Virginia 


3 
4 


HI inois 


5 


Now .Jersey 


6 


New York 


7 


Missouri 


8. 


Oklahoma 


9^ 


Maryland 


2.77 


3.06 


.99 


.74 
1.20 

.69 
1.27 
1.15 


1.13 

2.21 

.74 


10 


7 


9 


10 


Kansas 


11 


Virginia 












13 
10 
12 


12- 


Massachusetts 


4.04 
.66 

1.84 
.43 
.76 
.33 
.02 


1.05 


.74 


7 

13 
11 
14 
12 
15 
16 


10 
14 
11 
17 




California 






...... 




Kentucky 














Michisan '. 












16 


15 






Connecticut 






New Hampshire 





















Iowa 


















i 


Wisconsin 












13 


11 


14 
16 
18 
19 
17 
20 






South Carolina 




















Tennessee 
























Georgia 
















12 
15 

16 


15 
17 
14 




-•■••• 


Colorado 




















Delaware 
























2.60 


1.64 


1.82 


3.56 


4.34 

























Table 3. — General Statistics of the Glass Industry. 
{Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Items. 


1869 


1879 


1889 


1899 


1904 


1909 


1914 


Number of estab- 
















lishments 


154 


169 


294 


355 


399 


363 


348 


Persons engaged. 


(«) 


(«) 


(«) 


55,256 


67,105 


72,573 


78,804f 


P r prietors 
and firm 






























members. . 


(«) 


(•) 


(») 


170 


96 


87 


9a 


Salaried em- 
















ployees 

wage earners 


(«) 


(») 


(•) 


2,268 


3,040 


3,576 


4,200- 


(average 
















number)... 
Primary horse- 
power 


15,367 


1 24,177 


44,892 


52,818 


63,969 


68,911 


74,502 


1,857 
tl3,826,142 


5,672 
$18,804,599 


28,241 


62,943 
$61,423,903 


91, 476 


123, 132 


If 3, 1.39- 


CM>ltai 


$40,966,350 


$80,389,161 


$129,288,384 


$153,925,876 


Salaries and 








wMes 


7,589,110 
(«) 
(«) 


9,144,100 
<«) 
(«) 


22,118,522 

(») 
(«) 


29,877,086 
2,792,376 


41,228,441 
3,940,293 


44,293,216 


55,204,723 
6,548,904 


Varies 


4,993,591 


Wages 


27,084,710 


37,288,148 


39,299,624 


48,655,819- 


Paid for contract 
















work 


(«) 


(«) 


(«) 


(«) 


56,848 


85,864 


150,185 


Bent and taxes 
















(including in- 
















ternal revenue) 


(«) 


(«) 


(«) 


(•) 


6 357,121 


606,633 


882,222- 


Cost of materials. 


6,864,365 


8,028,621 


12,140,985 


16,731,009 


26,145,622 


32,119,499 


46,016,504 


Value of prod- 
















ucts 


18,467,607 


21,154,571 


41,051,004 


56,539,712 


79,607.998 


92,095,203 


123, 085, 019- 


Value added by 
















manufacture 
















(value of prod- 
















ucts less cost of 
















materials) 


12,603,142 


13,125,950 


28,910,019 


39,808,703 


53,462.476 


69,976,704 


77,068,515 



a Figures not available. 

^ Exclusive of internal revenue. 



■26 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Tablb 4. — Per Cent of Inckbase " in Baoh Cbnsus Period avteb 1869. 

[Data (rom tlie Biueaa of the Census.] 



Claasifloation. 


18W-18T9 


„^,m 


ig»»-i8eB 


IBW-IBW 


72.2 
33.S 

ee.2 

Si 

«.2 


.1=:;;: 


N be t tablishmenta 


S.7 


nc, 


aa.7 


|s 

4E.1 

«.a 

W.7 
8J.fi 
Ba7 




























Wage earners (average number) 


20.$ 


117.9 


l! 


g.'i 










































74.2 




30.9 

4.1 


»tl 

ma 


37.7 

















Table 5. — Detail o 



l> Figures not strictly eompaiBbio. 
H TSE Qlasb Indubtrt, bt States, in 





Nmnbei 

lisb- 
mmts. 


Total 


_ 


l'^ 


Clerks, etc. 






Btata. 


membeti. 


tendents 

and 
managers. 


Male. 


Female. 


ol em- 
ployees. 




i 

18 




3 

'1:^2! 


a 


68 

22 
29 

70 
1ST 

426 

246 
61 


1 

227 
657 




a 

'k 
2 






















j 
































3',SM 












United States 


3« 


78,804 j TO 


1,386 


2,026 


788 1 74, SOI 

1 




Wage earners. 


Total. 


16 and over. 


Under IS. 


State. 


Number, Ifith day 01- 




FemalB. 


Male. 

9 
IIW 


Fe- 




Maximum. 
Jan. i,337 

s; ":s\ 

is. ',;2 

Mar. 2e,39I 
Mar. 4,030 


Minimum. 




,8M 


Illinois 


Sept. 2,604 

?^- "''^ 
Aug. 681 
Aug. 1,839 
Aug. 1,883 
Aug. 1,760 
AU|- '.^ 
July' i8,06fl 


4,028 
10,488 

S:S 

em 

3,273 

^'66» 
10,566 




159 

35 
222 

102 


ll 


S;::::::::::::;::::: 


1,043 
3,060 

'!« 


' 29 




VlrgiX 

SfSSfev:::::::::: 


284 


united Steles 


Mar. 8a, 481 


Aug. 49,861 


-'■'■" 






■■■""> 


l.m 1 361 



iinode Island, l; South Catolim 



INTBODUOTION. 



[Data liom tbe Bureau d[ the D 



Expenses for Balaries and wages. 



OOdala. Clerks, 



Uarylondl 

Missouri 

Newlemy— .. 

New York 

Ohio. 

OkJaboma 

PeuDsylranlft... 

-Vtrgiiik., 

^Veat Virginia.. 
All other Stalo. 

United SU 



9,7fl3,4C 

s.mw 

8,950,M 



10,000 
28^400 



' Expeiuea lot materials. 



Tsi«9, in- 
Rent of eluding I 
foct<^. internal n 



Maryland.... 
Missouri 



PeimaylTaiila... 

WestVli^nia!!! 

All other 'States. 



034,028 123,055,019 



Table 7. — Value or Production in Main Divibiomb or QiiAss Manufacture, b 

States. 

[Dat» from tbe Burmn Ot the Cansua.] 



Fiodnct and State. 



leso 



Building glass, total value tI7,0M,234 

Illinois 24,000 

Missouri'.!!!!;!! !!;;;!!!;!;!;;;;!!!;!!;!!"!!! !!!!"i""s65|6M 

New Jersey I 274, oil 

New York 1 346,790 

WB3t Virginia.!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 'loi'wa 

.Ml other states 24?; 712 



>> Included In "All other States" lo avoid Individual dlsclceures. 



























1.;^ 













173,387 
2,741,813 



2,3U,e4fl 
3,122,703 



28 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



Table 7. — Yajajz of Production in Main DiviaioNs of GhJkss Manufacture, by 

States — Concluded. 



Product and State. 



Pressed and blown glass, total value. 



Indiana. 
Kansas.. 



Maryland 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania . - 
West Virginia.., 
All other States. 



Bottles and jars, total value. 



California 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Maryland 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma , 

Pennsylvania . . , 

Virginia , 

West Virginia. . . 
All other States . 



All other products. 



United States . 



1890 



$17,076,125 



2,601,787 



100,000 

21,300 

1,178,784 

2,738,280 



1004 



121,056,158 



8,453,560 

1,379,706 

517, 709 



21,676,701 



2,678,780 
6,327,468 



2,850,087 

64,607 

46,101 

181,550 

1,032,524 

3,054,660 



0,406,183 

2,620,665 

800,502 



1009 



127,308,445 



33,631,063 



346,683 

260,000 

4,452,210 

1,105,276 

1,058,055 



4,162,990 

(a) 

381,847 
812,623 



600,562 



56,530,712 



855,446 

4,049,156 

7,213,456 

407,868 

536,478 

607,383 

6,066,714 

1,866,245 

2,961,727 

5,951,144 
549,031 
602,002 

1,064,413 



2,774,128 
202,696 
508,492 
1,019,836 
1,926,852 
6,160,707 

9,847,228 

4,806,528 

651,978 



36,018,388 



878,434 

4,804,795 

6,982,378 

651,376 

528,767 

(«) 
5,884,605 
1,884,394 
4,717,658 

(«) 

7,778,787 
681,900 
646,521 

l,088,71£ 



1914 



$30,279,290 



2,926,296 

(«) 

(«) 

(0) 
2,237,960 
6,490,498 

220,620 

11,241,496 

6,263,554 



61,968,728 



2,322,916 2,369,967 



79,607,998 | 92,01^203 



6,680,700 
9, 155, 163 



1,244,760 

759,627 

7,176,787- 

2,343,683 

7,422,402 

603,559 

8,930,255 

690,420 

3,777,445 

3,173,927 



4,022,932 



123,085,019 



a Included in *' All other States" to avoid individual diselosures. 

Table 8. — Quantity and Value of Production in the .Glass Industry, by 

Articles. 



[Data from the Bureau of the Census.} 



Product. 



Building glass: 
Window glass- 
Square feet 

Value 

Obscured glfi», Inolu^lng <aithe<)r^ And sky- 
light— 

Square feet 

Value 

Plate glass- 
Total cast, square feet 

Polished- 
Square feet 

Value 

Rough, made for sale- 
Square feet 

Value 

Wire glass- 
Polished— 

Square feet 

Value 

Rough, made to be sold as such— • 

Square feet 

Value , 

All other building glass, value , 



Total value, building glass. 



1899 



217,4)64,100 
$10,879,355 



12,696,a55 
$732,338 

21,172,129 

16,883,578 
$5,158,598 

628,684 
$75,887 



$250,056 



$17,096,234 



1904 



242,^15,750 
$11,610,851 



21,870,634 
$972,014 

34,804,986 

27,293,138 
$7,978,263 

17,784 
$3,529 



(«) 
(«) 
$1,133,214 



1909 



346,080,550 
$11,742,959 



22,815,946 
$1,358,574 

60,105,694 

47,370,254 
$12,204,875 

205,690 
$37,431 



ffi 



$964,599 



1914 



400,908,803 
$17,495,056 



43,040,079 
$2, 417, 25a 

75,770,261 

60,383,516 
$14,773,787 

131,492 
$25,859 



1.707,848 
$534,322 

13,980,996 

$1,056,612 

$520,280 



$21,097,861 $26,308,438 



$36,824,069 



a Not reported separately. 



INTBODUOTION. 



2d 



Table 8.— Quantity and Value op Pboduction in the Glass Industry, bYv 

Articles — Concluded . 



Product. 



Pressed and blown glass: 

Tableware 100 pieces. . 

Jellies, tumblers, and goblets dozen. 

Lamps do — 

Chimneys do — 

Lantern globes do — 

Globes and other electrical goods do 

Shades, globes, and other gas goods do 

Blown tumblers, stem ware, and bar goods 

dozen. . 

Opal ware do 

Cut ware do 

Decorated glassware do 

Total value, pressed and blown glass. . . 

Bottles and Jars: 

Prescription bottles, viah, and druggists* 

wares gross. . 

Beer, soda, and mineral do 

Liquor bottles and flasks do 

Milk jars do.... 

Fruit jars do 

Battery jara and other electrical goods, .do 

Patent and proprietary medicine do 

Packers' ana preservers' do 

Demijohns and carboys dozen. . 




655,141 
8,544,050 

807,765 
6,901,192 
1,044,816 

2,673,854 

6,127,867 

3,750,443 

134,726 



$17,076,125 



2,423,932 

1,351,118 

985,374 

146,142 

789,298 

1,296,131 

784,588 

83,243 



Total value, bottles and jars $21, 676, 791 



All other products, value . 



$690,562 



Grand total value I $56,639,712 



1,283,974 
7,346,214 

487,017 
7,039,756 
1,765,247 
1,901,415 

878,244 

6,282,606 

1,091,208 

83,736 



$21,956,158 



3,202,586 
2,351,852 
2,157,801 
253,651 
1,061,829 

19,974 
1,657,372 
1,237,065 

64,450 



$33,631,063 



$2,322,916 



& $79, 607, 998 



1,286,056 

11,687,086 

322,482 

6,652^967 

952,620 

11,738,798 

1,541,449 

9,182,060 
3,095,666 

206,336 

(«) 



$27, 398, 44o $30, 279, 290 



1,554,056 

18,030,348 

580,196 

6,989,694 

1,363,562 
10,461,848 

2,016,800 

11,377,310 

4,636,051 

297,957 

1,158,077 



3,624,022 
2,345,204 
1,887,344 

440,302 

1,124,48,') 

9,981 

1,637,798 

1,237,175 

122,570 



$36,018,333 



4,893,416 
4,573,610 
2,089,022 
1,188,891 
1,198,952 
79,211 
1,384,689 
3,271,174 
160,796 

$51,958,728 



$2,369,987 



C$92,095,203 



$4,022,932 



$123,065,019 



a Not reported separately. 

b In addition . glasswu-e to the value of $9,663 was made as subsidiary products by establishments engaged 
primarily in other lines of manufacture. 

c In addition, 42,639 gross of bottles and jars, valued at $90,490, were made by establishments engaged 
primarily in other lines of manufacture. 

Table 9. — Proportion op Glass Production, by Value, in the Main Divisions 

OP Manufacture . 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.} 



Product. 



Window glass ; 

Obscured glass, including cathedral and skylight. 
Plate glass: 

Polished 

Rough, made for sale 

Wire glass: 

Polished 

Rough, made to be sold as sudi 

All other building glass 



Total building glass. 
Pressed and blown glass. . 

Bottles and jars 

All other products 



1899 


1904 


Per cent. 
19.25 
L30 


Per cent. 

14. 59 

1.23 


9.12 
.18 


10.02 


(ft) 
.44 


!L 


30.24 

30.20 

38.34 

1.22 


27. 20 

27.58 

42.24 

2.92 



1909 



1914 



Per cent. Per cent, 

12.75 14.22 

1.48 1.96 



13.25 
.04 

1.05 



28.57 

29.75 

39.11 

2.57 



a Less than one one-thousandth of 1 per cent. 



12.02 
.02 

.44 
.86 
.42 



29.92 

24. (lO 

42.21 

3.27 



b Not reported separately. 



80 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 10. — Ikcrease in Fbodugtion of Giasswabe Compared with Ikcrease 

IN Population in the United States, 1904 to 1914. 

[Data from the Buieaa of the Census.] 



Product. 



Estimated population, continental United States 

Window glass: 

Square feet 

Value 

Obscured glass, including cathedral and skylight: 

Square feet , 

Value 

Plate glass, polished: 

Square feet 

Value 

Plate glass, rough, made for sale: 

Square feet 

Value 

All other building glass, value 

Pressed and blown ware, value 

Bottles and jars, value 

All other products, value 

Total value 



1904 



82,466,551 



242,615,750 
$11,610,851 

21,870,634 
1072,014 

27,293,138 
$7,078,253 

17,784 

13,529 

$1,133,214 

$21,056,158 

$33,631,063 

$2,322,016 



$70,607,098 



1014 



06,646,401 



400,098,893 
$17,405,956 

43,040,079 
$2,417,253 

60,383,516 
$14,773,787 

131,402 

$25,850 

$2,111,214 

$30,270,290 

$51,058,728 

$4,022,932 



$123,065,019 



Increase, 

1904 
to 1914. 



Per rent. 
19.62 



65.28 
50.60 

06.70 
148.68 

121.24 
85.18 

630.38 
632.76 
86.30 
37.01 
54.50 
73.18 



54.6 



Referring to Table 6, it will be seen that the total value of glass 
products in 1914 was $123,085,019, and the amount paid wage earners 
was $48,655,819, or 39.53 per cent of the value. 

Table 1 shows that during the 35 years from 1879 to 1914, Pennsyl- 
vania was the leading State in value of production of glass and glass- 
ware. New Jersey changed from second to sixth rank among the 
glass-producing States, and New York from third to seventh rank. 

The production of glass of all kinds remained practically station- 
ary in Indiana during the 15 years from 1899 to 1914. In 1914 the 
production in West Virginia was sHghtly less than it was in Indiana, 
out during the 15 prior years it had increased nearly sevenfold in 
West Virginia, a greater rate of increase than in any other State. 
Cheap gas accounts for the great development of the glass industry 
in West Virginia and for the establishment of the industry in 
Oklahoma. 

Table 7 shows that during the years from 1899 to 1914 the produc- 
tion of bottles and jars considerably more than doubled in value; 
the production of building glass more than doubled, while the pro- 
duction of pressed and blown glass did not increase so rapidly. 
Nearly all of the production of glass in New Jersey consists of bottles 
and jars. New York, which was seventh among the States in the 
production of glass in 1914, produced very little building glass, while 
Illinois, which was fifth in order of production, produced practically 
no building glass or pressed and blown glass, neany all of its products 
being bottles and jars. 

Referring to Table 8, it will be seen that in window glass, obscured 
glass, poHshed plate glass, and poHshed and rough wire glass there 
were large increases in the production from 1899 to 1914. The table 
shows that 75,770,261 square feet of plate glass were cast in 1914, 
that 60,383,516 sauare feet were polished and 131,492 square feet 
were not polished. The waste, mostly from breakage, appears, 
therefore, to have been about one-fifth of the quantity cast. 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

In pressed and blown glass the largest number of articles pro- 
duced were jelly glasses, tumblers, and goblets, and the next largest 
number was of blown tumblers, stem ware, and bar goods. During 
the years 1899 to 1914 the number of glass lamps and of shades^ 
globes, and other gas goods decreased, the nimiber of lamp chimneys 
and lantern globes increased slightly, and the nimiber of globes and 
other electrical goods increased enormously. The increase in the 
nimaber of milk jars was large, which may be accounted for by the 
enactment of laws requiring that covered jars be used for the distri- 
bution of milk. The nimiber of prescription bottles, vials, and 
druggists' wares doubled during the 15 years, while the number of 
bottles for patent and proprietary medicines increased compara- 
tively little. 

Examining the section of Table 8 referring to bottles and jars, it 
will be noticed that from 1899 to 1914 there was a l^e increase in 
the number of liquor bottles and flasks produced. Though during 
that time prohibition was adopted by manj States and the saloons 
in them were closed, liquor was dispensed m bottles and flasks. It 
is also noticeable that there was a large increase in the number of 
beer, soda, and mineral bottles and of demijohns and carboys. 

There was an increase in thes number of fruit jars, but a much 
greater increase in the number of packers and preservers, which indi- 
cates that a less proportion of the preserved fruits and vegetables 
are canned in the nomes of the consumers than formerly. 

Table 10 shows that the percentage of increase in all kinds of glass 
and glassware specified by the Census of Manufactures during tho 
10 jears from 1904 to 1914 was very much larger than the percentage 
of mcrease in population. 

SCOPE AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION. 

This investigation of the cost of manufacturing glass and glassware 
was undertaken in compliance with the act of Congress approved 
August 23, 1912, which created the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, and which contained the following section providing for 
investigations of the cost of production of articles dutiable in the 
United States: 

Those certain duties of the Department of Labor, or Bureau of Labor, contained 
in section seven of the act approved June thirteenth, eighteen hundred and eighty- 
eight, that established the same, which especially charged it ^'to ascertain, at as 
early a date as possible, and whenever industrial changes shall make it essential, 
the cost of producing articles at the time dutiable in the United States, in leading 
countries wnere such articles are produced, by fully specified units of production, 
and under a classification showing the different elements of cost, or approximate 
cost, of such articles of production, including the wages paid in such industries per 
day, week, month, or year, or by the piece; the hours employed per day; and the 
profits of manufacturers and producers of such articles; and tne comparative cost of 
living, and the kind of living; what articles are controlled by trusts or other combi- 
nations of capital, business operations, or labor, and what effect said trusts, or other 
combinations of capital, business operations, or labor have on production and prices, "^ 
are hereby transferred to and shall hereafter be discharged by the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, and it shall also be the duty of said Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Conunerce to make such special investigation and report on particular sub- 
jects when required to do so by the President or either House of Congress. 

The investigation was greatly aided by the very hearty cooperation 
of most of the manufacturers visited. The number of plants that 
refused to furnish agents of the Bureau with the desired information 
was 19. 



32 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The information secured during the investigation was obtained 
directly from the manufacturers and from their books. No data 
regardmg the cost of production were accepted that the agents did 
not find recorded on the books of the establishment reporting. 
From the data obtained and entered on establishment schedules 
were derived the figures that show the various items in the cost of 
production and also the percentages of profit on net sales, on sales 
value of goods produced, and on the capital employed in the busi- 
ness. Other schedules, designated *^unit schediues," were used to 
ascertain the cost of manufacturing specified units of glass products. 
Copies of the forms used by the agents of the Bureau are reproduced 
in Appendix B (p. 424). 

In order to obtain permission to examine the books of manufac- 
turers, assurance was given that the information would be regarded 
as confidential and would not be used in such a way that the estab- 
lishment could be identified. The form of the assurance was as 

follows: 

Defabtuent of Commerce, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 

Washington, 



CONFIDENTIAL. 



[One copy of this agreement to be retained by the manufactoier and one copy to be forwarded to the Chief 

of the Bureau.] 

The informatioii which hajs been given to Mr , special agent of the 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, is furnished with the imderstanding 
that neither the name nor the address of the establishment will be written on the 
schedule; that the information on the schedule will be considered by the Bureau 
and its special agents as absolutely confidential, and that the information will not be 
divulged nor published in such a way that the identity of the establishment will be 
shown. 

This information, which appears on establishment schedule No , has been 

obtained from the books and from the officers of the establishment, and, to the best of 
our knowledge, is correct. 

Special agent's signature: 

Manufacturer's signature : 

Date: , 191... 

Many manufacturers were interviewed by special agents of the 
Bureau in regard to subjects relating to the glass industry that were 
not included in either the establishSaent schedule or unit ^schedule, 
and much valuable information regarding general trade conditions 
was thus obtained. 

The statistics regarding wages and hours of labor which appear 
in this report were secured from only those estabUshments, which, 
in the opinion of the agent, maintained accurate labor records. 
The period taken was the last full-pay period at the time of the 
agent's visit. 

The investigation was begun in January, 1916, and the field work 
was completed within seven months. Special agents of the Bureau 
secured reports from 213 estabUshments, owned by 189 companies 
or firms, operating 245 plants. Of these 245 plants, for which data 
were obtained, 69 are located in Pennsylvania and 53 in West Vir- 
ginia, where the industry is largely centered. Keports were soUcited 
from all plants engaged in the manufacture of glass products except 
those whose product was specialties or of such character as to mate 
their classification in the various groups impossible. The establish- 
ments varied greatly in size, the amount oi capital employed, and 



IKTBODUCTION. 33 

in the amount of business. Of the 213 establishments, 211 reported 
capital employed in business amounting to $89,103,387; two estab- 
lishments aid not report the amount of capital. The total net sales 
of the 213 estabUshments was $79,918,801. According to the 
Census of Manufactures, 1914, the value of the total production of 
all kinds of glass was $123,085,019. Of this total the net sales of 
the 245 plants that reported data for this investigation is 64.93 per 
cent. 

GROUP CLASSIFICATION 0^ UStABLISHMENTS. 

The 213 estabUshments for which data were obtained were classified 
into 13 groups according to their products and methods of manu- 
facture. These groups are as follows: 

Group I. — ^Thirty-seven establishments making hand-blown win- 
dow glass. 

Group II. — ^Twelve establishments making window glass by 
machine. 

Group III. — Six estabUshments making plate glass. 

Group IV. — Nine establishments making wire and opalescent glass. 

GrouJ) V. — ^Twenty*six establishments making hand-blown bottles. 

Group VI. — Eighteen establishments making bottles by machine. 

Group VII. — ^Twenty-seven establishments making bottles by hand 
and machine. 

Group. VIII. — Thirteen establishments making jars. This group 
includes plants manufacturing milk jars, fruit jars, and packer's and 
preservers'] ars. 

Group IX. — Eight establishments making blown tableware. 

Group X. — ^Twenty establishments mamng blown and pressed 
tableware. 

Group XI. — Eighteen establishments making %hting goods. 
This group includes plants manufacturing bulbs for incandescent 
lamps, lamp shades, headUghts, railroad lamps, semaphores, etc. 

Group. Xlt. — Six estabUshhxents making lamp chimneys. 

Group XIII. — ^Thirteen establishments making miscellaneous glass 
products. This group includes plants manufacturing marbles, nest 
eggs, demijohns, chemical Ware, milk testers, specialties, novelties, et(5. 

102511°— 17 3 



34 



THE GLASS HSTDUSTEY. 



The following table shows the number of establishments by groups 
and also the business period for which data were obtained. 

Table 11. — ^Establishments, by Groups, Showing Business Period for Which 

Data were Obtained. 





Group. 


Estab* 

Ush- 

ment. 




Business year ending- 




ClassifLcatlon. 


Oct., 
1914. 


Dec., 
1914. 

• • • 


Feb., 
1915. 


19ll! 


June, 
1915. 

7 

1 


July, 

1915. 


Establishments making— 

Window pIrss hv hand ..... ^ ... . 


I 

n 
m 

IV 

V 

VI 

vn 
viu 

IX 

X 

XI 

xn 

XIII 


87 
12 

6 

9 
26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 




2 


6 


Window glass by machine 

Plate glass 


1 










1 




Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 






1 




1 




2 


:.:; * * r 


3 
4 
7 


10 


TinttlA8 t>y TTiftfthlne , 


2 


Bottles by hand and machine 

Jars 






1 


5 




* 




Tableware, blown 




;::::::::;:::::!::::::: 


4 

10 
3 
5 

1 




Tableware, blown and pressed. . . 
l^icrhtiTifir iroods 










1 










2 


Lamn chimneys 












MtawIlapwMis articles.. . .......... 


•••••••• 






















Total 


213 


1 


2 


1 


3 


45 


27 











Group. 




Business year ending— 


Classification. 


Aug., 
1915. 


Sept., 
1915. 


Oct., 
1915. 

i' 


Nov., 
1915. 

2 


Dec., 
1915. 

4 
4 
6 
7 
6 
3 
6 
6 
4 
9 

12 
1 

11 


Feb., 
1916. 


June, 
1916. 


Establishments making- 
Window glass by hand 


I 

n 
111 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

xn 

XTTT 


7 
5 


9 






Window glass by machine 






Plate glass 






Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 










1 




3 
4 

8 
2 


4* 


1 

1 






Bottles by machine 






Bottles by hand and maohtne.... 






Jars 


1 


3 


1 






Tableware, blown 






Tableware, blown and pressed . . . 














Lighting goods 












1 


I»mponirnneys 










Miscellaneous articles 








1 


















Total 


20 


14 


6 


4 


79 


1 


1 


f 





INTEODUCTIdN. 



35 



Table 12 which follows gives the number of establishments from 
which schedules were secured, the number of plants operated, and the 
number of firms or companies owning such plants. 

Table 12. — Number of Cost Schedules Secured, Number of Gomfakies or 
Firms Represented, and Number of Plants Operated, by Groups. 



EstabUshments making- 



Window glass by hand 

Window glass by machine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine. 
Jars. 



Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed. 

Lighting goods 

Leunp ch&neys 

liiscellaneoas articles 



Total. 





Sched- 


Compap 


Plants 
operated. 


Groap. 


ules 
secured. 


nlesor 
firms. 


I 


37 


35 


38 


II 


12 


10 


12 


m 


6 


6 


6 


IV 


9 


9 


12 


V 


26 


26 


26 


VI 


18 


11 


21 


vn 


27 


25 


30^ 


VIII 


13 


7 


14 


IX 


8 


8 


9^ 


X 


20 


15 


26^ 


XI 


18 


18 


27 


xn 


6 


6 


T 


xni 


13 


13 


n 




213 


189 


atf 







DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY BY STATES. 

Table 13 that foUo'v^s shows the location of the 245 plants by States 
and also classifies them according to products produced. 

Table 13. — Plants Classified by Peoducts and States. 



states. 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Louisiana 

Maryland 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan , 

Missouri 

New Jersey. . . 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklc^oma 

Pennsylvania. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Virginia 

West Vir^a. 
Wisconsin 



II 



2 
5 
1 



4 
2 
9 



14 



-SB 



1 
1 
5 



60 

S 






O 60 



2 

2 






2 
3 

"l 

1 



6 
2 



9 



1 

1 



S' 

o 



3 

4 



6 

1 
1 



4 
1 



"2 • 

S9 



5 
3 
4 

'9* 
1 

i* 

1 




1 
1 
1 
6 



14 






•a 
3 



3 



1 
5 
7 






I 



2 
1 



2 



2 
6 
2 



I 



10 

20 

6 

2 

5 

a 
1 
2 

16 

17 

32 

6 

69 

1 

1 

2 

53 

1 



Total. 



38 



12 



6 



12 



20 



21 



30 



14 



9 



26 



27 



17 



345 



36 



THE GLASS IKBUSTEY. 



Table 14 shows the total numbet* and location by States of the 
glass plants listed in the Glass Factory Directory fof 19l6, and also 
the number for which cost of production schedules were obtained and 
the number omitted from the investigation, with the reason for such 
omission. 

Table 14. — Number op Plants Listed in the Glass Factory Directory, 1916, 
Number Furnishing Cost Schedules, and Number Omitted, with Reasons 
ton Omission. 





Sched- 
ules ob- 
tained. 


Plants 
closed. 


Schedules not secured because— 


Sched- 
ules 
secured 
and can- 
celed, c 


Wants 

omit- 

ted.a 


Pltots 

bot 
visited. 


states. 


Infor- 
mation 
refused. 


Infor- 
mation 
delayed. 


Less 

than one 

year.o 


Records 

Incom- 

plete.6 


California 










3 


Indiana 


i?' 

9 
4 


1 




2 


3 
1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


Illinois 


1 




Kansas 






1 






Kentucky 


1 














Louisiana 


2 

5 

2 

1 

2 

13 

14 

28 

6 

60 
















Maryland 




"■•■•*"■" 










2 




Massachusetts 
















Michigan 


1 
1 

3 
1 
2 










1 






Missouri 










2 

1 
1 

1 




New Jersey 


I 

3 
2 

8 


' 




1 






New York 




1 
4 






Ohio 


1 


1 

»1 

7 






Oklahoma 


1 
4 




Pdnnsylrania 

South Carolina 


6 


4' 

......... 


T 


4 
......... 


1 
1 


Tennessee 


1 
1 
2 
46 
1 














••*••••••( 




Texas 














1 




Virginia 










i 

1 






West Virginia 




2 


1 


V 


3 


5 




Wisconsin 










' 












Total 


213 


19 


19 


8 


22 


15 


11 


18 


6 







a A full year's schedule could not be secured for the period desired. 

b A complete schedule could not be secured because of methods of keeping books of account. 

c Schedules were canceled because of abnormal conditions existing in the plant, or period was less than 
a year, or equipment of plant was being changed. 

d These plants were not visited because of the class of product manufactured, change of ownership, plant 
in an experimental sta^e, or because the product was manufactured as a side line for consumption by the 
same company in a different business. 

A contemplated investigation by the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce of the cost of production of glass products in 
European countries was prevented by the war. 



ST7MMART. 

GBHXSAI. BESULTS 07 THE XNYESTIGATIOK. 

There are sever^il distinct branches of the glass industry, each 
different and complete in itself. Of the 331 establishment^ listed 
in the Glass Factory Directory of 1916, reports were secured from 
213 establishments operating 245 plants. The reports cover estab- 
lishments manufacturing hand and machine blown window glass, 
plate glaas, wire and opalescent glass, hand and machine blown 
Dottles and jars, blown and pressed tableware, lamp chimneys and 
other lighting goods, ^nd miscellaneous products. Some plants 
visited were found to have suspended operations, and some refused 
to furnish the information requested. A few schedules obtained 
(not included in the 213 reported) were not used because abnormal 
conditions existed in the plants. Schedules could not be secured in 
some establishments because the records in their books of account 
were incomplete. The investigation was greatly f aciUtated by the 
unreserved cooperation pf inost of the manufacturers visited. 

According to the Census pf Manufactures, the value of the tptal 
production of all kinds of glass and glassware in 1914 was $123,- 
085,019. Of this total the net sales oi the 213 estabUshments from 
which data were secured is 64.93 per cent. 

As shown by the census, the value of the production of all kinds 
of glass and glassware was 856,539,712 in 1899, $79,607,998 in 1904, 
and $123,085,019 in 1914. The increase in production (square feet) 
from 1899 to 1914 was 84.74 per cent for window glass and 357.65 
per cent for polished plate glass. The increase in value of produc- 
tion was 139.7 per cent for l)ottles and jars and 77.32 per cent for 
pressed and blown ware. This great increase in production during 
the 15 years is due, primarily, to the general introduction of machin- 
ery in some branches of the industry, which has replaced the highly 
skilled hand l£|,bor previously employed. 

The industry is to a great extent locahzed. Excepting labor, the 
cost for fuel is generally the chief item of expense. Manufacturers 
have therefore, erected plants where cheap fuel (natural gas, coal, 
or oil) could be obtained. This localization is shown by the fact 
that, according to the census of 1914, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana^ 
and West Virginia, in each of which cheap luel in some form is to 
be had, ranked highest, and in that order in value of production; 
and the value of the production in these four States was $88,501,707, 
or 71.90 per cent of the total value of the production in the 'United 
States during that year, $123,085,019. 

The introduction of automatic and other machinery has greatly 
increased production, lowered cost and selling prices, driven many 
highly skilled workers from the industry, and has been a disturbing 
factor in the respective branches of the industry where it has been 
installed. The automatic bottle machine, introduced about 1903, 
was followed shortly by the flowing device, which did away with the 
skilled gatherer. 

Manufacturers using the automatic machines or flowing device 
probably produce more than all other battle manufacturers. Those 

37 



38 THE GULSS INDUSTBY. 

who use other machines, which have been introduced in an eflfort to 
oflFset the lower cost of the automatic-machine product, or who make 
bottles by hand, unless their factories are very advantageously 
located, nnd it difficult to compete with manufautiu-ers usmg the 
automatics or flowing device, especially on large orders. 

The extended use of window-^lass machinery, introduced in 1903, 
resulted in overproduction. This led about 50 window-glass manu- 
facturers in 1909 to form the Imperial Window Glass Co., which 
curtailed production and raised prices. The officers and directors 
of this company were, in 1910, indicted and fined. In recent years 
the prices announced by the company that is the largest producer 
of wmdow glass in this country are followed by the other manufac- 
turers. At present the entire product of about half of the 51 hand 
factories and of a few machine factories is sold through one agent 
or broker. 

Many branches of the industry operate only a part of the year. 
Hand window-glass manufacturers work only about seven months; 
machine manufacturers usually average about eight months a year. 
Many other branches lose one or more months a year. The reasons 
are fear of overproduction, the inabUity of the men to work around 
the furnaces in the great heat of sunmier, the necessity for replacing 
pots, fixing tanks, regulating bad glass, repairs, etc. 

Despite the generally improved quality of the ware produced, the 
tendency, untfl the war changed normal business conditions, was 
for prices to decHne. This decrease was due to the introduction of 
macninery, which has considerably lowered costs, and to the very 
keen competition that is general in the glass industry. 

The prices of aU siz^ of plate glass have been reduced — in the 
size 5 to 10 square feet, from $0.60 per square foot in 1900 to $0.43 
in 1910 and $0.29 in 1915. In March, 1912, the price of the 16 by 
24 bracket, single strength, A quality window glass, was $1.74 per 
per box of 50 feet, and in January, 1914, $1.58; the same bracket 
and strength B quality, $1.63 in March, 1912, and $1.47 in January, 
1914. The price of incandescent lamps has decreased from some- 
thing over $0,036 per candlepower in 1907 to $0,006 in 1916. 

There is much inefficiency in the industry. Until very recently 
only a few manufacturers had an essential knowledge of the chem- 
istry of glass. In the plants visited not more than one in twenty 
employed a chemist. Most plants, except the few large ones erected 
in recent years, are poorly constructed and arranged. Accounting, 
generally, is not up to the standard expected in an important indus- 
try, and, with the exception of a few excellent systems found, there 
are no accurate cost-keeping methods or records. Many manufac- 
turers' do not even attempt to compute costs. 

At least two new branches of the industry have been recently 
established. Photographic glass, first made commercially in the 
United States in 1911, has been developed. Prior to the war only 
one American factory manufactured chemical glassware, and ite 
production was inconsiderable. A number of progressive manu- 
lacturers have begun to make such ware, and the quaUty of most 
articles produced in the United States is as good or superior to what 
was formerly imported. Men in the trade feel that with proper 
encouragement these new and necessary products will continue to 
be manufactured in the United States after the war. 



SUMMABY. 39 

Of the 213 establishments from which data were obtained the 
business year of 45 ended in June, 1915, 80 from July to November, 
1915, and 79 in December, 1915. The agents endeavored to obtain 
data for business periods ending in 1915, because up to late in that 
year the prices of raw materials had advanced very little, due to the 
practice of purchasing materials under long-term contracts, and 
because at that time selling prices were still comparatively stable. 

The capital turnover in the glass industry is exceptionally small. 
The average ratio of net sales to capital employed for the 211 estab- 
lishments reporting capital employed is in the proportion of 88 to 
100, the ratio varying from 174 to 100 for the himest group to 37 to 
100 for the lowest group. This low turnover is aue to the unusuallv 
large capital investment required by a ^lass plant for its land, build- 
ings, and equipment. The average capital for the 211 establishments 
is $422, 291. 

The average operating profit, computed after deducting deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans, for the 211 estabHshments that 
reported capital is 4.66 per cent on the capital employed. The 
highest percentage of operating profit, 15.48 per cent,- is shown by 
the miscellaneous gi'oup which manufactures novelties, specialties, 
etc., and the lowest percentage, an operating loss of 0.15 per cent, 
by the blown and pressed tableware group. The average operating 
profit on net sales of the 213 establishments, computed after deducting 
depreciation and interest, is 5.57 per cent. The average final profit 
of the 213 establishments, on the basis of the sales value of goods 
produced, is 6.12 per cent. 

Four of the 13 groups had greater average sales in 1915 than in 
previous years. Eight groups had smaller average sales in 1915 
than in either 1914 or 1913. One group had greater average sales 
in 1913 and smaller average sales in 1914 than in 1915. 

Five of the 13 groups showed a higher average percentage of final 
profit (based on the sales of each year) for the year 1915 than for 
1914, 1913, or 1912. Five groups showed lower average percentages 
of final profit for the year 1915 than for 1914, 1913, or 1912. Three 
groups showed lower average percentages of final profit for the year 
1915 than for 1914 or 1913 but greater percentages than for 1912. 

Of the 211 establishments that owned land, buildings, and equip- 
ment only 102, or less than haK, made a charge for depreciation. Of 
these 102 only 35 had separate depreciation charges for land, build- 
ings, and machinery and equipment. Depreciation for the 109 plants 
that made no charge for depreciation was computed for tables in this 
report at the average percentage of those plants in their respective 
groups that made such a charge. After this computed depreciation 
was added, 20 plants that had previously shown a final profit showed 
a final loss. . ^ 

Labor constitutes* the chief single item of expense. The labor cost 
for the 213 estabHshments is 40.57 per cent of their net sales; three 
groups show averages over 50 per cent. The highest percentage is 
shown by the hand window glass group, 58.53 per cent, and the 
lowest by the wire and opalescent group, 20.95 per cent. 

Practically all the skilled labor is on a piece-rate basis; aU other 
labor is on a time-rate basis. Females are employed only to an 
insignificant extent and in only a few occupations in the industry. 



40 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Owing to the desire to increase production and to the impractica- 
bility of extinguishing furnaces every day, the work in many branches 
of the industry, especially where continuous tanks are used^ continues 
day and night. The smiled workers usually alternate at day and 
night work, as do some of those less skilled who assist them. Most 
of the unskilled workers do not alternate but are more frequently 
either 4&y or night workers only. 

In the manufacture of hand window glass and also of blown and 

{)resseid ware, which includes tableware, bp.r goods, lighting goods, 
aboratory ware, vases, and miscellaneous articles, the labor unions 
restrict the output of the plants by limiting the maximum production 
of workers in each turn of ^ specified number of hours. This system 
decreases production and increases cost. 

Wages in the highly skilled occupations are relatively high. The 
hoTU^ of labor ^re compa^ratively snort, averaging between 46 and 
50 hours a week, and in some cases 45 hours or less. A week's work 
in some few of the unskilled occupations is 84 hours in 7 days, but 
the USU9.1 average for unskilled occupations is a week of 60 hours in 
6 days. 

SelUng expense is exceptionally low in this industry, being only 
4.01 per cent on net sales for all the establishments reporting. Due to 
the small turnover of capital, manufacturers generally prefer to sell 
their output to jobbers and large consumers who usually buy in con- 
siderable quantities and on comparatively short terms. 

Althougn. the Bureau prepared special forms for obtaining the cost 
of specified units in the various branches, it was generally foimd 
impossible to use them. In the groups that made diversified products 
it was impossible, generally, to obtain comparable costs. Many 
manufacturers had no cost records whatever, and even among those 
that kept records there was a lack of uniformity in the Considera- 
tion of the various items of expense. Unit cost data were obtained 
from only those plants which, in the opinion of the visiting agent, 
had reasonably accurate cost records. 

The average cost of each specified item of expense vas computed 
for a 50-foot box of single-strength window glass, both machine and 
hand made. For estabushments reporting wage data in detail costs 
were also computed for 50-foot boxes, A and B grades, by different 
brackets, the items consisting of the cost for materials, fuel, piece-paid 
labor, other factory labor, salaries, and all other cost. For all other 
units, which consist of bottles and jars, blown and pressed tableware 
and stem ware, lamp chimneys, and lighting goods, only the total 
cost, net selling price, and profit or loss were obtainable on a com- 
parable basis. 

Imports for consumption as compared with the domestic produc- 
tion have largely decreased. The percentage that imports for con- 
sumption (fiscal year) was of the domestic production (calendar 
year), as reported by the Bureau of the Census, was as follows: 15.51 
per cent in 1879, 18.91 per cent in 1889, 7.58 per cent in 1899, 8.33 
per cent in 1904, 5.75 per cent in 1909, and 6.68 per cent in 1914. 

The imports for consumption during the fiscal year 1913 (the last 
full year of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act) were $6,436,662. During 
the nscal year 1914 (the Underwood-Simmons Act became effective 
Oct. 4, i913) imports increased to $8,219,112. Since the war began 
imports have very materiaUy decreased. 



STJMMABY. 41 

Tile general dutiable imports during the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1914, were as follows: Cylinder, crown, and common window 
glass, $1,356,218; plate glass, cast, polished, and imsilvered, $727,- 
889; bottles, jars, etc., used for containers in transportation, $1,148,- 
460; articles cut or ornamented, $1,151,876; spectacles, lenses, and 
optical instruments, $721,560; all other, $2^468,128. The free gen- 
eral imports were: Plates or disks for optical purposes, $617,703; 
white enamel glass for watch and clock dials, $12,970. 

Window-glass manufacturers did not complain of the rates of 
duty on glass larger than the first three brackets. However, all 
those interriewed claimed that the rates on the first three brackets 
(384 square inches and under) were too low. Manufacturers of plate 
glass claimed that in their case also the smaller sizes were inadequately 
protected. 

The present tariff classification on imports has not been changed 
for many years. No criticism was made as to the classification of 
any kindf of building glass. Schedule classifications of other products, 
however, were criticised, and suggestions were made that some of 
them might be improved by making them more specific and descrip- 
tive. A proposed revision of these classifications is presented m 
the report. 

Glass exports from the United States increased from $2,252,799 
during the fiscal year 1905 to $3,729,623 during the fiscal year 1914. 
From the fiscal years 1905 to 1913 (the last full year under the Payne- 
Aldrich Tariff Act) the ratio of exports to imports increased from 
38 to 65 per cent. In 1914, due to the great business depression in 
all countries of the world, the ratio of increase fell to 45 per cent. 

Prior to the war most of the exports were '^all other kinds, " which 
includes heavy cut ware of whicn the exports are considerable and 
the imports very little. This ware went largely to Europe. This 
classification also includes lamp chimneys, of which a large quantity 
is exported. Most of the small amount of window and plate glass 
and bottles and jars that were exported went principally to Canada 
and Mexico. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, the total 
exports of glass and glassware were $12,321,338, an increase of 30.27 
per cent over 1914. The largest exports during the fiscal year 1916 
went to England, Canada, and Australia. 

MATEBIALS, MAGHIN£BY, AND PBOCESSES. 

The raw materials employed in glass making are usually silica, 
various alkalies, alkali earths, and metals. Cullet (broken glass) 
in varying amounts is generally added to the batch. Silica in the 
form of sand is usually 50 to 75 per cent of the batch. The alkaline 
bases usually employed are soda ash, salt cake, and potassium; the 
alkaline earths are lime and (occasionally) barium carbonate; the 
metallic bases are lead and (occasionally) aliuninmn, arsenic, and 
zinc. Manganese principally, and to some extent selenium, cobalt, 
and nickel, is used to neutralize the colors imparted by other ele- 
ments. A number of other elements used to color glass are enmner- 
ated in the report. 

There are two types of furnaces employed, the pot furnace and 
the tank furnace (day or continuous). They are heated by natural 
or artificial gas or fuel oil. Furnaces employ either the regenerative 



42 ' THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

or recuperative system of heating; the regenerative system is moie 
commonly used. A temperature of about 2,600° F. is necessary to 
melt the batch. 

An iron blowpipe from 4^ to 6^ feet in length is used for all hand 
blowing. Molds are used to facilitate blowing and are employed in 
all blowing (hand and machine) except in offhand blowing. 

There are automatic, semiautomatic, and other machines for 
blowing bottles, and a flowing device which dispenses with the 
skilled hand gatherer is installed in a few factories. There are paste- 
mold machines for blowing seamless ware such as tmnblers, lamp 
chimneys, etc. Presses are employed for certain lines of tableware 
and are either stationary or rotary. Several types of machines are 
in use for blowing cylinders of wmdow glass. 

The leer in general use is a long brick structure heated at dimin- 
ishing temperatures; the ware is tempered by being passed slowly 
through the leer. Various devices are employed for carrying ware 
from the blowing room to the leer and conveying boxes of packed 
ware. 

The cylinders from which window glass is made are blown either 
by hand or by machine. After it has been blown the cylinder is 
split lengthwise, flattened, and cut to size. 

Plate glass is cast on a smooth, highly polished table. A heavy 
roller passes over it. The glass is then ground and polished. 

Bottles are blown by hand or by automatic, semiautomatic, or 
other machines. 

Tableware is blown, made in a paste-mold machine, or pressed. 

Lighting goods are blown (offhana, in a mold, or in a paste mold) 
or pressed. The ware is often decorated by sand-blasting, etching, 
cutting, painting, or a combination of these methods. Bulbs for 
incandescent lamps are blown in a paste mold or by a machine. 

CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TTJBKOVEB. 

Of the 213 establishments for which data were obtained, 211 
reported capital employed in business amounting to $89,103,387, or 
an average of $422,291 per estabhshment. 

In tabulating the data, the establishments were divided into 13 
groups, according to the kinds of glass and glassware manufactured, 
as shown in the following table, which gives, for each group, the 
number of estabUshments, the number having operating profits and 
the number having losses on net sales, the average per cent of such 
profits or losses on the capital employed in business and on net sales 
(depreciation and interest on current loans considered in each case), 
and the ratio of net sales to capital: 



STJMMABY. 



48 



Table 15. — Opbratino Profits and Losses, Depreciation and Interest Con- 
sidered^ BY Groups of Establishment's. 



EstabUshments making— 



Group. 



Window glass by hand 

Window glass by machine 

Flate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine. . 

Jars '... 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed . . 

Iiightine goods 

Lamp cniinneys 

Hlsoellaneous articles 



All establishments re- 
porting 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

xn 

XIII 





Establishments 




having 


profits 




or losses on net I 


Ertab- 


sales. 




lish- 
monts. 


1 










Profits. 


Losses. 


37 


31 


6 


12 


7 


6 


6 


3 


3 


9 


6 


3 


26 


16 


10 


18 


16 


2 


27 


14 


13 


13 


10 


3 


8 


8 


. 


20 


12 


8 


18 


14 


4 


6 


5 


1 


13 


13 





213 


155 


58 



Per cent of profit-^ 



On capi- 
tal em- 
ployed. 



7.22 
2.14 

.08 
1.85 

a3.26 
7.39 
2.27 
4.97 

10.30 
6.16 

C9.64 
4.91 

15.48 



On net 
sales. 



5.33 
1.99 
.16 
4.99 
2.28 

10.79 
1.98 
5.04 
9.29 

&.15 
9.59 
2.91 
8.90 



<'4.66 




Ratio of 

net sales 

to capital. 



1.85 

1.08 

.51 

.37 

O1.40 

.69 

1.15 

• wo 

1.11 

L06 
C.91 
1.68 
L74 



d.88 



a Comprted on the basis of 25 establishments, 1 not reporting capital, 
b Operathig loss. 

c Comprted on the basis of 17 establishments, 1 not reporting capital, 
d Computed on the basis of 211 establishments, 2 not reporting capital. 

With the exception of Group X, all of the groups show an operating 
profit on both capital and net sales, depreciation and interest on 
current loans considered, this profit averaging only a fraction of 1 
per cent in Group III. The hig:hest average percentages of profit on 
capital are shown by Groups XIII and lA. The average operating 
profit for all groups was 4.66 per cent on capital and 5.67 per cent on 
net sales. 

Capital is not turned over so rapidly in the glass industry as in 
many other industries. The net sales of the 211 establisnments 
reporting capital amounted to 88 per cent of the capital they 
employed. The net sales of 8 of the 13 groups were larger, and of 5 
groups smaller, than their capital. 

A comparison of Groups I and II shows that the percentages of 
profits of establishments making window glass by hand averaged 
considerably more than the average percentages of establishments 
making window glass by machinery. Comparing Groups V and VI, 
it is seen that the converse is true, the percentages of profits of estab- 
hshments making bottles by machine averaging considerably more 
than the average percentages of estabUshments making them by 
hand. The turnover was greater in the cases of both window glass 
and bottles made by hand than of those made by machinery. 

Detailed tables in Chapter II show, by estabhshments, as well as by 
groups, the operating profit when depreciation and interest are not 
considered, and operating and final profits when these items are 
considered. The final profit was obtained by adding to the operating 

Srofit (depreciation and interest considered) items of income and 
educting items of outgo not strictly connected with manufacturing. 
As shown by Table 16, the number of estabUshments having 
final profits on net sales was 155 and the number having final losses 
was 68, depreciation and interest on current loans considered, but 



44 



THE QLASS INDUSTRY. 



reference to the tables in Qiapter II shows that when these items 
are not considered the number having operating profits was 189 and 
the number having operating losses was 24. 

Reference to these tables shows also that, when depreciation and 
interest aa current loans are considered, the greatest percentage of 
operating profit on capital was 251.71, earned by an establishment 
in Group AlII ; and the ^eatest percentage of operating loss on capital 
was 30.89, by an establishment in Group X; also that the ffl*eatest 
percentage of operating profit on net sales was 32.3, eamea by an 
estabUshment in Group AIII ; and the greatest percentage of operating 
loss on n.et sal^s was 33.19 by an establishment in Group V. 

DEPBECIATION. 

Of the 213 estabUshments reporting data, 109 did not provide for 
depreciation charges, while 2 manufacturers rented plants. Of the 
102 plants charging depreciation, only 35 had separata amounts for 
builaings, machmery, and other equipment; the others charged l^mp 
sums on the total value of the property. 

In tabulating the schedules secured from these 109 estabUshments, 
depreciation was calculated on the average percentage of depreciation 
reported by the other estabUshments in their respective groups. The 
total depreciation both charged and thus estimated amounted to 
$2,970,021, or 6.38 per cent of the total value of land, buildings, and 
equipment, $46,576,584. The number of estabUshments navine 
final profits or losses as reporibed, and the number after the estimated 
depreciation for the remamder is deducted, is shown in the following 
table: 

Tablb 16. — ^Establishments Hayinq Final Prohts or Losbbs, With and Without 

Depebcution. 



Establishments charging depreciation 

Establishments not charging depreciation. 



Total, as reported 

Total, after deducting estimated depreciation. 



Having 

nnal 

profit. 



87 
a88 



a 176 
a 155 



Having 
final 
loss. 



15 
93 



88 

58 



a Includes 2 rented plants; no depreciation charged. 



?otol. 



102 
#111 



• 2U 
«9U 



Excluding all depreciation, the total final profit of the 213 estab- 
lishments amounted to $7,844,111. The extent to which profits are 
affected by depreciation is shown by the fact that a deauctipn of 
$2,970,021, the depreciation charged by 1Q2 establishments and aver- 
age estimated depreciation for the remaining 109, reduces the ^al 
profit to $4,874,090. 



BUMUCABY. 



45 



COST AND PBOnr BT BdTABUBHMBKTS. 

The data secured from the 213 establishments showed that the 
average sales value of goods produced per establishment was $362,596; 
average operating profit without depreciation and interest, $38,035, 
and with aepreciation and interest, $20,199; average final profit, de- 
preciation and interest considered, $^ j200. When interest is included 
it is interest on current loans. In Table 17, which foUows, averages 
are shown for sales value of goods produced, cost of goods produced, 
excluding and including depreciation and interest, and the profits, by 
groups of establishments. 

Table 17. — ^Average Sales Value op Goods Produced, Average Cost op Goodb 
Produced, and Average Operating and Final Profits, by Groups op Estab- 
lishments. 



Bstal>U8hmenis making- 



Group. 



Window glass, by hand . . 

Window glass, by ma- 
chine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent goods 

Bottles, hy^ hand 

Bottles, by machine 

Bottlte, by hand and mt^ 
Qhine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tablew£U'e> blown and 
pre3S«l 

Lighttncr |;oods 

Lamp cnimne vs 

M'l^oellaneous articles 



Estab- 
lish- 

meuts. 



i Average 
I sales 
i value of 
I goods 
produced. 



All establishments. 



II 
III 
IV 

V 
VI 

yi| 

vnt 

XI 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



37 , $164,851 



12 
6 
9 

26 
18 

27 
13 

8 

2t) 

18 

6 

13 



213 



286>325 

800,985 
250,587 
175, 498, 
805,088 

248,225 
481,497 
235,483 

408,519 
648,711 
204,314 
228,876 



362,596 



Average cost of 
goods produced—" 



Exclud- 
ing depre- 
ciation 

and 
interesi^. 



$149,620 

259,518 
707,325 
225,463 
166,388 
675,157 

827,448 
437,248 
206,672 

387" 637 
658,251 
193,607 
199,671 



324,561 



Includ- 
ing depre- 
ciation 

and 
interest. 



$156,027 

279,819 
804,069 
240,694 
in, 740 
711,629 

341,069 
457,699 
213,406 

408,368 
588,342 
198, 446 
209.229 



342,397 



Average operating 
profit — 



Without 



With 



deprecia- deprecia- 
tion and tion and 
interest. I interest. 



$15,231 

25,807 

93,660 

25, 124 

9,105 

129,931 

20,777 
44,249 
29,811 

20,882 
90,400 
10,707 
29,205 



Average 
final 
profit, 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest 

con- 
sidered. 



$8,824 

5,506 

a 3, 084 

9,893 

8,753 

93,459 

2,156 
23,798 
22,077 

151 

60.369 

5,R68 

19,647 



38,035 1 20,199 



$9,256 

7,668 
2,308 

11,876 
4,475 

97,826 

9,709 
29,202 
22,163 

1,188 
64,451 

5,S13 
19,857 



22,200 



A Operating loss. 

The figures in the above table, when reduced to percentages based 
on the sales value of goods produced, show that the total cost of ^oods 
produced, excluding depreciation and interest, ranged from 83.86 per 
cent in bottles made by machine, Group VI, to 94.89 per cent in blown 
and pressed tableware, Group X; including depreciation and ihterest, 
the cost ranged from 88.37 pjer cent hi bottles made by machine, 
Group VI, to 100.39 per cent in plate glass, Group IV. 

The average operating profit for all estabUshments, computed with- 
out depreciation and interest, was 10.49 per centj computed with 
depreciation and interest, 5.57 per cent; final profit, depreciation and 
interest considered, 6.12 per cent. The establishments in Group III, 
plate glass, showed an average operating loss of 0.^9 per cent after 
aepreciation and interest were deducted. The'highest average profit, 
11.61 per cent, was found in Group VI, bottles made by machine. 

In Table 18, which follows, percentages, ba.sed on sales value of 
goods produced, are shown for the total cost of goods produced, 
excluding and including depreciation and interest, and for the profits, 
by groups of estabfishmenls. 



46 



THE GIASS INDUSTET. 



Table 18. — ^Percentages of Total Cost of Goods Produced, Operatino Profit, 
AND Final Profit, Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, bt 
Groups of Establishments. 





Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Sa'es 

value of 

goods 

produced. 


Per cent 
goods 
wasofsi 


cost of 
produoed 
£ies value. 

Includ- 
ing de- 
predation 
and 

interest. 


Operating profit. 


Final 
profit^ 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest 
consid- 
ered. 


Establishments making- 


Exclud- 
ing de- 
prec ation 

and 
interest. 


Without 
depreda- 
tion and 
interest. 


With 
deprecia- 
tion and 
Interest. 


Window glass by hand. . . 
Window glass by machine 
Plate gla^ 


I 

n 
III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VTI 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 
6 
9 
26 
18 

27 
13 

8 

20 

18 

6 

13 


100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 

100.00 
100.00 
100.00 

100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


90.76 
90.96 
88.31 
89.97 
94.81 
83.86 

94.03 
90.81 
87.34 

94.80 
86.06 
94.76 
87.24 


94.64 
98.07 
100.39 
96.05 
97.86 
88.37 

97.94 
95.06 
90.63 

99.96 
90.70 
97.13 
91.41 


9.24 

9.04 

11.60 

10.03 

6.19 

16.14 

6.97 

9.19 

12.66 

£.11 
13.94 

5.24 
12.76 


5.36 
1.93 
a. 39 
3.95 
2.14 
11.61 

2.06 
4.94 
0.37 

.04 
0.30 
2.87 
8.59 


5.62 

2.e» 

.29 


Wire and opalescent goods 
Bottles by hand 


4.74 
2.55 


Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and ma- 
chine 


12.15 
2.79 


Jars 


6.06 


Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 
pressed 


9.41 
.29 


Ll^tine goods 


9.93 


T/ftmn cni'^neys. . 


2.85 


liiscellaneous articles 


8..6S 


All e^tAhlisbniAnts . 


213 


100.00 


89.51 


94.43 


10.49 


5.57 


6.12 







a Operating loss. 
COST AKD PROFIT BY SPECIFIED XTNITS. 

The average cost and profit or loss in making a 50-foot box of single- 
strength window glass are shown by data furnished by 35 hand facto- 
ries and 11 machine factories. The costs of window glass of different 
grades and various sized brackets, single and double strength, are 
shown by data furnished by 18 hand factories and 3 machine factories. 

Data obtained from 29 estabUshments show the total cost^ net sell- 
ing price, and profit or loss in making 259 different imits, mcluding 
different kinds of bottles, jars, stem ware, tumblers, tableware, and 
lamp chimneys. Lack of uniformity in the records and cost systems 
employed by these establishments made it impossible to obtain in 
detail the cost of materials, labor, and overhead expense. 

mDirSTBIAL CONDITIONS. 

The glass industry is located mainly west of the AUeghenies and in 
districts, such as West Virginia and Oklahoma, where cheap natural 
gas can be obtained. The glass factories in the East use producer gas 
or oil for fuel, and the high cost of the fuel is an offset to the market 
advantage. The manufacture of building glass, that is, of window 
glass, plate glass, etc., more than doubled in the United States 
during the period 1899 to 1914. In 1916 there were 51 hand window- 
glass plants in the United States, with 1,737 pots and 25 machine 
Slants with 296 machines. The production by hand has decreased, 
eing only about 40 per cent of the entire production in 1915-16. 
The American Window' Glass Co. operated 116 of the 296 machines 
in the United States in 1916. 

The average value per box of window glass produced decreased in 
the period 1899 to 1909 from $2.51 to $1.70. This declme is not 
attrioutable to the Dingley tariff act, which was in force during this 



SUHMABY. 47 

period, but to intense competition among domestic manufacturers, 
which greatly increased after the manufacture of window glass by 
machinery began on a commercial basis in 1903. Prices again 
increased after the formation of a combination of manufacturers to 
control production and price. Since 1904 the increase in the number 
of machmes has depressed prices. The imion has shortened the time 
covered bj its agreements with manufacturers making window glass 
bv hand, m some years to only seven months, while machine wiadow- 
glass factories average about eight months a year. Sheet-glass 
machines are expected further to revolutionize the industry when 
they are successfully operated on a commercial basis. 

The production of plate glass in the United States has increased 
much more rcmidly than the production of window glass, although 
the number of factories manufacturing polished plate glass (15) is 
small compared with the number of wmdow-glass factories. The 
trend of prices has been downward. There has been an increased 
demand for plate glass of the smaDer sizes for use in place of window 
glass. 

The production of bottles and jars is not only lai^er but more 
widely distributed than the production of other varieties of glass and 
glassware. The automatic bottle-blowing machine and the flowing 
process which require no skilled labor to operate them, have caused 
great changes ia the bottle industry since 1903. Their production is 
probably much in excess of the production by hand and by hand 
machines. Nearly all the establishments that succeed by the older 
methods are favorably located with reference to cheapness of fuel or 
accessibility to markets. Recently the tendency toward the standard- 
ization of shapes and sizes has been increased by the greater produc- 
tion of bottles by machinery and has resulted m lower prices. The 
Glass Bottle Blowers' Association has endeavored to secure more 
uniformity in State laws regarding the capacity of containers. 

The American pubHc generally considers the heavy cut tableware 
manufactured in the United States superior to similar ware made in 
Europe. Before the war it was sold in all parts of Europe. 

The duty on ornamented glass, including cut glass, has been reduced 
frona 60 to 45 per cent ad valorem under the present tariff act; still 
the imports have been decreasing and are now very small. 

Among the reasons for the cheaper production of heavy cut-glass 
tableware in the United States than in Europe are: Differences in the 
methods of cutting glass and ia machinery and tools used; the use of 
blanks with pressed designs, which reduces the amount of cutting, 
and larger sales of each design in America than in Europe. Manu- 
facturers of high-grade cut glassware have made much complaint 
about imitation cut glassware, with which many people are deceived. 

In 1880 the regular manufacture of incandescent lamps was begim. 
By 1885 electric lighting became general and the manufacture of 
lighting good became an important branch of the glass industry. 
TTne number of electric lamps for domestic use produced in the United 
States in 1915 was about 125,000,000. In 1907 the tungsten lamp 
appeared and nearly revolutionized the industry. The Mazda lamp 
is the most recent development in high-efficiency illuminants. Glass 
bulbs for incandescent lamps are made in only five plants in the 
United States. About two-thirds of the total number produced are 
blown by hand. From 1892 to 1915 electric lighting was one of 



48 THE QLAfiS IHBUSTBY. 

the few well'knowti commodities to ahow a marked d^ecrease in costy 
and this reduction was due to the higher efficiency of the lamps 
produced. 

The development in the manufacture of chemical glassware in the 
United States since the war in Europe began is analogous to the 
development in the manufacture of dyedtuffs. Formerly few chem- 
ists in Amercia acknowledged that any ^chemical glassware made in 
the United States was equal to German or Bohemian ware. The 
war having caused a great reduction in imports, the serious shortage 
led in 1915 to a greatly increased domestic production. The product 
was soon recomized as of the highest quality. Beakers and flasks 
nbw made in America are better than even Jena ware. 

Glassware used for educational or scientific pui'poses has been 
admitted free of duty imder various tariiBfs. Manufacturers inter- 
viewed regarding the duty on chemical glassware colisider it much 
more important that there should be some duty on apparatus for 
educational or scientific use than that the rate of duty on the remain- 
der of such imports should be raised above 45 per cent ad valorem 
the present rate. Some college professots agree that apparatus 
imported for educational or scientinc use should pay a duty. 

The manufactiu'e of photographic glass, which is thinner than 
window glass, is a new industry in the United States. ' Manufac- 
turers claim that the rate of duty on photographic glass should be 
higher than on window glass, because of the very much greater 
labor cost, and the greater loss froni breakage. There is at present 
no tariff distinction between photographic glasd and window glass 
and no separate statistics of imports are kept. 

SELLING EXPEKS& AND CONBmOKS. 

The glass industry in general, compared with other industries, has 
a small selling expense. The total selling expense for all the estab- 
lishments reporting, based on the net sales, was 4.01 per cent. 
Goods are usually sold in lar^e quantities, generally to the jobber, 
large consumer, or distributor. About 30 window-glass manufac- 
turers sell their entire output through one sales agent. 

In 1909, 50 or more window-glass manufacturers organized the 
Imperial Window Glass Co. Foflowing the formation of this com- 
pany, prices greatly advanced. In 1910 the officers and directors of 
the company were indicted and fined. 

The cost for packing material, owing to the fragile nature of the 
product, is a very large item of expense. The losses due to bad 
debts are very small. The seasons have some effect on the indus- 
try. Although goods are usually manufactured long in advance, the 
tendency is for the size of orders to decrease. There are but few 
job lots. Trade abuses are not very serious, although there are 
some unjust claims, unwarranted cancellations, etc. No branch of 
the glass industry has as yet adopted the trade acceptance, although 
its use has been emphatically urged. 

It has been su^ested tnat if mahufacturers would cooperate, 
selling costs could be reduced. Such cooperation would include a 
uniform cost-finding system, standard contract, standardization of 
shapes, styles, etc., a credit and information bureau, a central sell- 
ing ot* show room, and a cessation of ^^ dumping'' in one another's 
regular seUing territory. 



WAQE8 AND LABOB GOHDiTIOKS. 

Labor cost is verv high in the glass industry. Table 36 of this 
report shows that the average labor cost based on sales value of 
product was 41.98 per cent; in one lamp-chimney establishment it 
was 71.69, and in one machine bottle plant it was 18.2 per cent. 
In none of the industries for which a cost of production report has 
been made by this Bureau, nor in the cotton and wool reports made 
by the Tariff Board was the proportion of labor to the sales value of 

Sroduct (Bureau reports) or to the cost of manufacture (Tariff 
►card reports) so lai^e as in glass. Of 334 industries reported by 
the Census of Manufactures for 1914, glass ranked thirteenth in 
labor cost based on the value of product. Its proportion was 39.53 
per cent. In 33 of these industries, each having a value of product 
exceeding $150,000,000, the average percentage of labor cost, based 
on the value of product, was 7.92. 

Data from various Government reports show the rates of wages 
to be very much higher in the skilled occupations of the glass indus- 
try than in the nigher-paid occupations of other trades and 
industries. 

The total number of employees in 208 factories during the busy 
season of their last business years was 60,375, the average being 
290.3. Of the total, 2.48 per cent were under 16 years of age. 
Females constituted 8.15 per cent of the total. More women were 
employed m the tableware and lighting goods groups than in any 
of the others; in foiu" groups none were employed. 

Fewer days were worked in the last business year than the average 
for the three preceding years, in all but three groups. 

According to the Bureau of the Census, 36,668 out of a total of 
68,911 employees in the glass industry worked 64 hours or less per 
week in 1909, and 51,250 out of a total of 74,502 in 1914. The 
latest increase in number of employees was in West Virginia. 

ray rolls for 19,092 employees, 18,235 male and 857 ^male, were 
furnished by 132 of the glass establishments visited. Of the total 
male workers 2,772 were employed in plants making window glasSi 
1,049 in plats-glass plants, 6,716 in bottle plants, 1,895 in plants 
making jars, 2,566 m tableware plants, 3,063 in plants making 
lighting goods and lamp chimneys, and 174 in plante making mis- 
cellaneous articles of glass. Of the total female workers, 135 were 
employed in bottle plants, 398 in tableware plants^ and 324 in plants 
making lighting goods and lamp chimneys. 

The folu)wing table shows the lowest and highest average earnings 
per hour and the average full-time weekly hours and earnings, for 
male workers in some of the more skilled occupations. 

102511**—17 4 



50 THE piASS INDUSTRY. 

Table 19. — ^Ma,lb Workers in Some of the More Skilled Occupations. 



Groaps and occupations. 



Window glass: 

Machine operators 

Blowers 

Gatherers 

Snappers 

Flatteners 

Cutters 

Plate glass: 

RouG;h-plate cutters 

Layers 

•Qrmders 

Polishers 

Tablemen 

Finishers 

Pot makers 

Bott'es: 

Ma 3hine operators 

Blowers 

Gatherers 

Finishers 

Stipper erinders 

Mold makers 

Jars: 

Machine operators 

Gatherers : 

Mold makers 

Tableware: 

Blowers.- 

Gatherers 

Finishers 

Pressors 

Foot casters 

Cutters 

Mold makers 

Lighting goods and lamp chim- 
neys: 

Blowers 

Pressors 

Gatherers 

B lockers 

Finishers 

De3oratnrs 

Mlssellaneous articles: 

Blowers 

Pressors 

Gaffers 

Gat herers 

Cutters-off 

Servitors 



Estab- 




Ush- 
ments 


Employ- 


report- 


60S« 


tag. 




7 


50 


24 


601 


21 


459 


22 


422 


25 


172 


27 


276 


3 


11 


3 


76 


2 


152 


3 


87 


2 


44 


3 


14 


3 


9 


22 


766 


29 


1,370 


5 


66 


6 


12 


2 


10 


12 


95 


4 


164 


4 


95 


5 


82 


15 


307 


22 


532 


17 


219 


18 


266 


2 


7 


8 


83 


10 


87 


12 


419 


7 


39 


14 


714 


7 


104 


3 


14 


2 


25 


1 


12 


98 


7 


1 


12 


1 


4 


1 


8 


1 


11 



Average earnings per hour. 


Full-tin 

Average 
hours. 


le week. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Avenge 
earnings. 


$0.25-10.30 


$0. 65-10. 70 


4&1 


S21.0» 


.35- 


.10 


1.50 and over. 


43.6 


41.99 


.45- 


.50 


1.50 and over. 


43.5 


35.06 


.20- 


.25 


.65- .70 


43.8 


15.55 


.45- 


.50 


1.50 and over. 


55.8 


45.79 


.25- 


.30 


1.25- 1.60 


59.0 


4a 42 


.25- 


.30 


.35- .40 


67.6 


19.48 


.20- 


.25 


.30- .35 


68.8 


16.72 


.16- 


.20 


.35- .40 


61.3 


14.34 


.15- 


.20 


.30- .85 


61.9 


13. IS 


.16- 


.20 


.30- .35 


71.5 


16l02 


.20- 


.25 


.30- .35 


63.4 


19.27 


.20- 


.25 


.40- .45 


61.3 


21.21 


.20- 


.25 


1.00-1.25 


48.6 


29.06 


.25- 


.30 


L 26- 1.60 


46.3 


27.87 


.25- 


.30 


.85- .90 


45.2 


23.50 


.25- 


.30 


.65- .70 


60.2 


24.85 


.60- 


.65 


1.00- 1.25 


63.0 


49.13 


.25- 


.30 


.65- .60 


63.3 


2L05 

- 


.15- 


.20 


1.00-1.25 


46.1 


27.01 


.25- 


.30 


.85- .90 


46.3 


23.01 


,15- 


.20 


,96- 1.00 


65.4 


23.10 


.3S- 


.40 


.90- .95 


46.2 


27.57 


.20- 


.25 


.70- .75 


45.0 


17.64 


.25- 


.30 


1.00-1.25 


44.9 


24.02 


.35- 


.40 


,85- .90 


44.6 


25.78 


.50- 


.55 


.75- .80 


44.6 


29.93 


.15- 


.20 


.46- .50 


60.9 


19.65 


.20- 


.25 


.60- .65 


62.1 


22.04 


.30- 


.35 


.90- .95 


49.9 


27.25 


.20- 


.25 


.75- .80 


50.6 


27.32 


.15- 


.20 


.65- .70 


50.8 


19.56 


.30- 


.35 


.70- .75 


45.8 


23.31 


.30- 


.35 


.60- .66 


46.4 


23.56 


.15- 


.20 


.40- .45 


66.0 


16.94 


.25- 


.30 


.40- .45 


49.5 


17.97 


.35- 


.40 


1.00-1.25 


46.0 


28.06 


.40- 


.46 


.85- .90 


49.6 


33.91 


.60- 


.55 


.66- .70 


54.0 


32.40 


.40- 


.46 


-.65- .70 


54.0 


31.27 


.40- 


.45 


.60- .65 


49.5 


24.95 



The average hourly earnings of workers other than those shown m 
the f oregomg table ranged m the various plants as follows : Window 
glass, male, 15-20 to 65-70 cents; plate glass, male, 10-15 to 35-40 
cents; bottles, male, 10-15 to 65-70 cents, female, under 10 cents to 
35-40 cents; jars, male, 10-15 to 40-45 cents; tableware, male, 10-15 
to 80-85 cents, female, imder 10 cents to 40-45 cents; lighting goods 
and lamp chimneys, male, 10-15 to 60-65 cents, female, under 10 
cents to 25-30 cents; miscellaneous product, male, 15-20 to 25-30 
cents. 

The skilled workers in hand window-glass factories earn more than 
those in the skilled trades of any other branch of glass manufacturing, 
but their season is very short— about seven months. 

In spite of the effect on labor produced by the introduction of 
machines for window-glass making, the skilled operatives in hand- 
made window glass, through the efforts of a strong labor union, have 
been able to maintain a nigh scale of wages. In some years from 



SUMMAEY. 51 

1904 to 1913 they were forced to accept lower piece price rates, but 
in the seasons ot 1914-15, 1915-16, and 1916-17 very substantial 
increases were given. 

There are ttSee labor organizations connected with window-glass 
manufacturing. The oldest and strongest is the National Window 
Glass Workers, it had a membership of 4,301 in 1915-16. It meets 
annually with the manufacturers' association to adopt a wage scale 
and to dispose of other matters coming up for settlement. 

Labor in bottle manufacturing was greatly benefited by the in- 
creased production that resulted from the estabhshment of the 
*'shop" system in 1870, and later from the substitution of the tank 
for the old-style furnace. 

Bottle machines were first commercially successful in 1896, but it 
was not until 1903, when the Owens automatic machine was intro- 
duced, that the remarkable production hj machines began to have a 
serious effect on labor. In factories using these machines skilled 
labor is not necessary, and in factories that competed with them 
piece rates for many years remained the same or were reduced. 
The first increase in many years was granted for the season 1916-17. 

The Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and 
Canada is the onl^ labor organization connected with bottle manu- 
facturing. It originated in 1847 and adopted a wage scale in 1861. 
It is one of the oldest labor imions, and its record presents one of the 
best examples of successful collective bargaining between labor and 
its employers. There has not been a national strike in the glass- 
bottle mdustry since 1884. 

The American Flint Glass Workers' Union, the only labor organi- 
zation connected with tableware or lighting goods, takes in the soiled 
workers of the various departments. Its membership has increased 
but slightly in several years; in 1916 it was 9,430. The number of 
members unemployed auring the season of 1914-15 was 1,075 and 
during 1915-16 it was 218. This branch of the business has been seri- 
ously affected by strikes ; in very few years has it been entirely free 
from strikes and lockouts. 

NEEDS OF THE INDXJSTBY. 

There is need in the glass industry for extensive chemical research 
and experiment; the buildings should be improved and modernized, 
so as to faciUtate production and lower manufacturing cost; machin- 
ery and labor-savmg devices should be investigated and installed; 
accounting conditions should be improved and accurate cost-keeping 
methods adopted. 

There is perhaps no industry in which a good cost-keeping system 
is more needed than it is in glass manufacturing. Not only have 
American glass manufacturers had to meet sharp foreign competion 
in several Tines, but there is probably no industry that has suffered 
more from intense competition among domestic manufacturers. The 
increased use of and improvements in machinery have made radical 
changes in the methods of manufacturing glass and glassware during 
recent years . Hand manufacturers have struggled desperately against 
the competition of those using machines, and often the market was 
demoralized in consequence. Ruinous competition is usually the re- 
sult of trying to fix prices without a knowledge of the unit costs of 
production. 



52 THE GLASS INDUSTET. 

A large proportion of the establishments that were visited during 
this investigation had crude cost-finding methods and poor genertu 
accounting systems. It is more difficult to determine the costs of 
units in manufacturing glass than in some other industries, and some 
manufacturers express the opinion that it is impossible to devise an ac- 
curate method that is adapted to this industry. This, however, is erro- 
neous. No association ol glass manufacturers has approved any cost- 
finding system, but the subject has been discussed in association meet- 
ings, and in the last few years some of the more enterprisinjj of the 
manufacturers have employed cost accountants to study their metii- 
ods of production and to install cost-finding systems. Articles ex- 
plaining improved methods of cost accounting, prepared by manufac- 
turers tnat nave given special attention to the subject, are embodied 
in the report. 

IMPOSTS Axm Dunxs. 

During the fiscal year 1913, the last full fiscal year under the Payne- 
Aldrich Tariff Act, the imports for consumption of glass and glassware 
into the United States were valued at $6,436,662; during the fiscal 
year 1914 they increased to $8,219,112. Since then they have de- 
clined greatly on account of the war in Europe. In the fiscal year 
1889 the imports were 18.91 per cent of the production of the calendar 
year 1889. This was more than twice as large as the proportion ia 
1899 or 1904 and about three times as large as the proportion in 1909 
or 1914. 

In 1872 the duties on the principal commodities were reduced 10 
per cent. Tariff acts, since that of 1872, were passed in 1883, 1890, 
1894, 1897, 1909, and 1913. The duty on glass and glassware aver- 
aged highest in 1894. In 8 of the 38 years it was over 60 per cent. 
Other statistics are given in tables in the chapter on general imports 
(p. 334 )j showing increases and decreases by months and imports by 
kmds of glassware and by exporting countries. 

While the imports of glass and glassware in general increased about 
one-fourth in the fiscal year 1914, as compared with the fiscal year 

1913, imports of plate glass more than doubled and imports of window 
glass ana bottles increased more than one-third. 

The general imports of cylinder, crown, and common window glass 
were $977,211 during the fiscal year 1913 and $1,356,218 during the 
fiscal year 1914, or 5.59 and 7.75 per cent, respectively, of the pro- 
duction during the calendar year 1914 as reported by the census, 
$17,495,956. 

Of the imports of window glass, more than 80 per cent was of the 
smaller sizes (of the first three brackets) during the fiscal year 1906 to 

1914. From 50 to 60 per cent of the domestic consumption is of 
single-strength glass of these sizes. 

The rates of duties have been lower on the smaller than on the larger 
sizes for 20 years. No manufacturer interviewed complained of the 
duties on glass larger than the first three brackets, and some admitted 
that these duties might be somewhat reduced. ' All, however, claimed 
that the rates on the first three brackets were too low. 

Imports of window glass before the European war came mostly from 
Belgium . Few of the imports go to interior points. Before the Euro- 
pean war some imports went by ocea» freignt to Pacific coast points 
and as far east as Salt Lake City. 



SITMMABY. 58 

Prices in the United States have at times been lower than the total 
of the Belgian price with the freight and duty added. The severe 
competition among American maxmf acturers was caused largely by the 
introduction of machinery for making window glass; this led to reduc- 
tions of wages in the hand factories, some of which were driven out of 
business. 

General imports of plate glass, cast, polished, and unsilvered, 
amounted to $321,605 m the fiscal year 1913 and $727,889 in the 
fiscal year 1914, or 2.18 and 4.93 per cent, respectively, of the pro- 
duction of polished plate glass in tne calender year 1914 as reported 
by the census, $14,773,787. The plate glass imported consists mainly 
of the finer and more expensive grades; its value averaged $0,224 per 
square foot in the fiscal year 1914. 

Most of the imported plate glass is used for mirrors and is of first 
quality. Most of the imports of plate glass, as of window glass, go ta 
Atlantic, Pacific, and Giuf ports and near-by points. 

Imports of other building glass are small. Rough plate glass is 
prob«u)ly made cheaper in the United States than anywhere else in 
the world. Our manufacturers compete successfully in Canada with 
English manufacturers who enjoy a preferential tariff. Most of the 
wire class and opalescent and cathedral dass used in the United States 
is of domestic manufacture; nearly all the antique glass, however, 
was imported before the war from Germany and England. 

The pressed and blown glass imported for consumption in the fiscal 
year 1913 amounted to $3,006,621, and in the fiscal year 1914 to 
$3,387,858, or 9.93 and 11.19 per cent, respectively, of the production 
during the calendar year 1914 as reported oy the census, $30,279,290. 
With lower duties on pressed ware, less of it was imported tJian of 
blown ware. All manufacturers of blown Ware interviewed com- 
plained of foreign competition. Yet the group of eight establish- 
ments, as a whofe, that manufactured blown ware exclusively had an 
operating profit (charges for depreciation and interest considered) of 
9.29 per cent on net sales, while the group of 20 establishments, as a 
whole, that manufactured both blown and pressed ware had an oper- 
ating loss of 0.15 per cent on net sales. 

Glassware of different colors is not made extensively in the United 
States. Though the wages of workers are higher in the United States 
' than abroad; the import of cut glass is small; it consists largely of 
novelties. 

The general imports of bottles, jars, etc., during the fiscal year 1914 
amounted to $1,148,460, or 2.21 per cent of the production of bottles 
and jars during the calendar year 1914 as reported by the census, 
$51,958,728. 

Extensive tables are also given in the chapter on imports to show 
the quantity, value, duty, etc., for the principal classes of glass en- 
tered for consumption. Other tables snow for years during which 
the last three tariff acts were in force the imports of glass and glass- 
ware for consmnption and the computed ad valorem rate of duty for 
specified classes. 

The duty on '* glassware composed wholly or in chief value of glass, 
blown, either in a mold or otherwise, '' is now higher (45 per cent) than 
the duty on glassware made by pressing (30 per cent). A court de- 
cision made in 1916 permits much blown stem ware to be imported at 
the lower rate. Manufacturers claim that this does not give them 
the protection Congress inter ' ariff act of 1913. 



54 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

SXPOBTS. 

The exports of glass and glassware from the United States amounted 
to $2,252,799 during the fiscal year 1905 and to $3,729,623 during 
the fiscal year 1914. The exports increased more rapidly than the 
imports during this 10-year period, which closed a month before the 
war in Europe began. The ratio of exports to imports increased 
from 38 per cent during the fiscal year 1905 to 65 per cent during the 
fiscal year 1913, the last full year under the Payne-Aldrich Tarin Act. 
It fell to 45 per cent during the following fiscal year, the Underwood- 
Simmons Act having gone into effect October 4, 1913. The decline 
in exports may be attributed to a business depression in the leading 
countries of the world, indicated by figures m Table 134, showing 
the decrease in the foreign trade of these countries in July, 1913, as 
compared with July, 1914. 

Before the war most of the small amount of the window glass, plate 
glass, bottles, and jars exported went to North American countries, 
principally Canada, Mexico, and Cuba. On the other hand, the 
exports of "aU other" kinds (pressed tableware, lighting goods, 
optical goods, etc.) went largely to Europe, where their superiority 
was recognized over European-made goods, and such exports increasea 
annuaUy. 

During the two fiscal years ending June 30, 1916, the total exports 
of glass and glassware increased 230 per cent. The largest increases 
in value were in exports to Europe, and second to North America. 
Of the 213 establishments for which data were obtained, 68 reported 
exports to 39 countries during 1915, and 41 reported $1,550,883 as 
the total of their exports. The largest exports went to England, 
followed by Canada and next by Austraha. Nearly all the manufac- 
turers reported large increases in foreign shipments in 1916, notwith- 
standing lack of shipping space and freight rates that were often pro- 
hibitive ; some sold products even to countries that have preferential 
tariffs. 

An embargo on imports of window glass, plate glass, and tableware 
into the United Kingdom went into effect August 21, 1916. Ameri- 
can manufacturers, however, expect to do a still larger business with 
other parts of the world during the war and to do a larger foreign 
business after the war than they did before it began. The usual 
method employed has been to sell through American export com- 
mission houses. 



CHAPTER I. 
Ji^ATEBIALS, HACHINEBT, AND PROCESSES. 

BAW MATEBIALS USED. 

Commercial glass is a fused mixture of silica, usually in the form of 
sand, in combination with at least two bases, one of which is an alkali. 
Glass at a high temperature is fluid and at lower temperatures is 
semifluid and solid. In its semifluid, plastic state it is ductile and 
capable of being cast, pressed, rolled, olown, or otherwise manipu- 
lated. 

The raw materials that enter the batch for the making of glass are 
usually sihca, various alkahes, alkah earths, and metals. The pro- 
portion of the ingredients varies with the kind of glass desired, the 
type of furnace, the custom of the plant, and the Imowledge or lack 
of knowledi^e of the individual under whose supervision the mixing 
is performed. 

Silica in the form of sand comprises the chief ingredient of the 
batch, usually from 50 to 75 per cent of the mixture. The sources of 
the alkaline mgredients were originally the ashes of plants and sea- 
weed. At the present time the source is the natural deposits and 
other compomias of sodium, potassium, and Uthium. The alkaliiifi. 
earths usually employed are calcium, barium, strontium, and mag- 
nesium. The metalhc sources are lead, zinc, and aluminum. Of 
all these elements, sand, sodium in the form of sodium carbonate 
(soda ash), sodium sulphate (salt cake), potassium in the form of 
potash, calcium^ and lead form the basi c ingredients for nearly all 
the glass made. 

SAND. 

Sand that is usually acknowledged to be superior to the foreign is 
found in abundant quantities in rennsylvania, West Virginia, Illi- 
nois, Missouri, New Jersev, Massachusetts, Ohio, Indiana, New York, 
Marvland, and many otner States. In the States enumerated the 
Sana is foimd practically pure in the form of rocks and stones, which 
are quarried and crushed. This sand is used for the finer grades of 
glassware. For cheaper products, like insulators and some fruit 
jars, the sand employed is often dredged from rivers. 

The sand is thoroughly washed to remove as much alumina, 
organic matter, and other foreign substances as possible, and is then 
dned. One glass chemist who has done much experimental work 
f has suggested the use of unwashed sand, thus not only saving the 
^^ost of washing and drying but preserving the otherwise washea-out 
alumina, whicn he considers one of the most valuable constituents 
of the sand in making glass. When over 75 per cent of sand is intro- 
duced the batch increases in refractoriness to such an extent as to 
make working very difficult. 

55 



56 THB GLASS INDtJBTBT. 

ALKALINE BASES. 

Soda ash (sodium carbonate, NaXJO.) is now manufactured from 
common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) by the Solvajr process, which 
decomposes the sodium chloride by means of ammonium bicarbonate. 
Soda ash is an active flux and reduces the melting point of the batch 
to a lower temperature than an equal amoimt of potash and when 
mixed with the proper proportion of lime makes an easily worked 
glass. 

Salt cake (sodium sulphate, NajSO^), derived bydecomposing sodium 
chloride b^ sulphuric acid . is not used bo extensively as soda ash. It 
is used prmcipally in window glass and green bottle glass. It is not 
so desirable as soda ash, because it is necessary to introduce with it 
carbon in some form, usually coal, to decompose it. Although salt 
cake is cheaper than soda asn, it requires extra time and excess heat 
in the furnace and its use tends to produce stony glass. 

Potassium is introduced into a glass batch generally in the form 
of the carbonate, which is known as pearlash or potash. Potash, 
hke soda, acts as a flux in a glass batch. It is not used extensively, 
as it is always considerably more expensive than sodium salts. It 
is a desirable flux, however, in optical glass or other glasses where a 
high brilUancy of color is desired. Lithium is sometimes used for 
optical glass, but its cost is too high for general use. 

Other alkali salts introduced occasionally for their oxygen are the 
nitrates of soda and potash and soda as borax. These salts are also 
more easily decomposed than the carbonates. An excess of alkali in 
glass causes it to imdergo what is known as ^'fading," which results 
&om the chemical action of the atmosphere and moisture upon the 
free alkah, soda, or potash that has not been satisfied by the siUca. 
Such a chemical process causes a deliquescence of the alkali salt and 
produces minute crystals that give to the glass an iridescent appear- 
ance. Sometimes this iridescence will cover but small areas and at 
other times it will appear throughout the entire ^lass, depending 
upon the care with which the glass nas been made or its homogeneity. 

ALKALINE EARTH BASES. 

LiTne in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCOg) or slaked lime 
(Ca(0H)2), when used as the other basic constituent, hardens the glass, 
giving it stability and permanency, and facilitates melting and refin- 
mg. An excess of lime prevents chords but increases the tendency 
to devitrification. Where Hmestones containing very Uttle iron are 
hard to obtain the better grades of burnt Ume are sometimes used. 
The hmestone rock is preferable, however, as the evolution of the 
carbon dioxide gas assists in the melting process. In many cases 
dolomitic Hmestones containing a considerable portion of magnesium 
carbonate are being used satisfactorily. The magnesium decreases 
the tendency to devitrify but makes the glass more refractory. 

Barium carionate, when substituted in small amoimts for hme, is 
said to increase the strength and brilliancy of the glass. Experience 
seems to show, however, that when more than 3 per cent of barium 
carbonate is used the glass is increasingly difficult to work. 



MATEBIAL?^ J4AQWlSnS»l, AND fBOCESSES. 57 

MSTALLIO BASES. 

Lead in the form of litharge (PbO) or red lead (PbgOJ imparts to 
the glass a brilliant color and increases its weight. Although red 
lead would seem most desirable because of its greater content of 
oxygen, litharge is used to a ^eater extent because of its constancy 
of composition and very small content of metalUc lead. Lead is a 
very active flux and is used in all glasses which must have a low soften- 
ing point; and where it is desired to weld a metal to the glass. 

Other metallic iaaes are aluminum, arsenic in the form of white 
arsenic (AsaO,), zinc oxide, and carbon (nonmetaUic). 

Arsenic is used chiefly to act as an oxidizing agent in removing 
carbonaceous material and to assist in freeing the glass from gas 
bubbles. 

Carbon is employed with salt cake to provide a reducing agent to 
assist in the decomposition of the sulphate, thereby reoucmg the 
deleterious and erosive effect on the furnace walls and flues. Car- 
bon is also used in amber glass as a coloring agent. It may be 
used in the form of coal or charcoal. 

Of the principal aforementioned substances the following are 
obtained in the United States: Salt cake, hme, red lead, litharge, 
soda ash, arsenic, and manganese. The following are imported: 
Nitrate of soda from South America, arsenic from England and 
British Columbia, manganese from Saxony and Russia, and potash 
from Germany. 

GULLET. 

In the making of glass there is usually added to the batch some 
cuUet (broken glass) of the same composition. The amoimt of 
cullet added varies from a small quantity up to about one-half the 
bulk of the batch as a maximum. Cullet is used for two reasons: 
First, because of the economy in remelting the broken glass about 
the plant, and, second, in tank furnaces because it provides a foun- 
dation in the molten bath whereby the batch or raw materials are 
maintained more compact and more positively in that portion of the 
furnace where the temperature gives the best melting conditions, 
for as soon as the cullet becomes plastic the batch constituents 
adhere to it and in that manner are to a degree cemented together 
until they have undergone sufficient temperature to carry out the 
complete melting process. The cuUet also assists in removing the 
gas nubbles. Too much cullet is said to make the glass brittle and 
difficult to work. 

DECOLORIZERS. 

Practically all the raw materials used in glass contain some iron as 
an impurity. This iron, when present in small amounts, imparts to 
the glass a pale green color, whict increases in intensity as the con- 
tent of iron increases. When a colorless glass is desired this green 
color must be removed, which is done by using decolorizers. If 
the total percentage of iron in the ordinary soda lime glass exceeds 
0.05 per cent, a sHght green color will be imparted to the glass. If 
the amount of iron exceeds 0.2 per cent the color is too intense to be 
destroyed. 



58 THB GLASS INDtJSTBY. 

Manganese, seleniiim, cobalt, and nickel are the chief decolorizing 
agents used. Manganese, selenium, and nickel act as decolorizers 
because of their chromatic action on the green color of iron by the 
complementary pink color they produce. Manganese is m.ost com- 
monly used; because it permits easy control of the color. In using 
selenium and nickel the quantity used must be very carefully con- 
trolled. These latter substances are desirable in window or plate 
glass, as glass decolorized with manganese changes to a pink color 
when exposed to light a great length of time. 

Cobalt in the form of powder blue is used in conjunction with 
manganese or selenium to destroy any pink color produced by an 
excess of the decolorizer. 

COLORANTS. 

There is no definite knowledge as to the cause of color in glass. 
What is known is that certain chemicals, such as metalUc compounds 
of manganese, nickel, selenium, etc., added to and melted with 
various batches will produce glass of a certain color. Glass made 
from sodium, potassmm, lime, and lead, wdth silica and the other 
necessary ingredients, has no color unless a large amount of iron is 
present as an impurity. The coloring agents are generally metallic 
oxides. While a very few elements produce a definite color, as the 
blue of cobalt, the color produced is generally uncertain. The same 
oxide may produce different colors with different batches and differ- 
ent oxides of the same element may also produce different colors. 

Following is a brief description oi the effects produced on glass by 
the various coloring agents employed. The coloring agents are 
arranged in the alphabetical order oi the elements: 

Aluminum. — Certain compounds of aluminima impart a white 
opacity to glass, such glass oeing known as opal glass. Aluminum 
sodium fluoride (cryolite) produces an opal glass, but is objectionable 
because it injures the pots. 

Antimony, — ^Antimony in large quantities produces white opacity. 
Antimony sulphide (SbS) exerts an uncertain color effect due to its 
volatility. In some cases it produces a fine yellow color. 

Arsenic. — ^Arsenic used in excess produces milkiness. 

Barium. — The sulphur compounds of barium produce deep green 
and yellow colors. 

Cadmium. — Cadmium sulphide (CdS) produces rich yellow colors. 

Carhon. — Carbon, when introduced for coloring purposes, produces 
a color ranging between straw yellow and a dark amber. Finely 
divided vegetable charcoal gives a yellow color. Carbon also affects 
the color of glass by reducing other substances that may be present. 

Chromium. — Chromium oxide produces a grass-^een color and is 
used considerably. In the form of potassium bichromate it pro- 
duces a bright green color. Chromium with iron gives a cold blue 
color; with copper, a sea green. 

Cobalt. — Cobalt produces all shades of blue and is generally used 
in the form of oxide of cobalt. 

Copper. — Copper or copper oxide (CuOj) produces a peacock blue 
which becomes emerald green if the proportion of copper oxide is 
increased. When full oxidation of the copper is prevented by the 



HATEBIALS^ MACKIKEBY^ AND PROCESSES. 59 

presence of a reducing agent and the glass is cooled slowly or reheated, 
the resulting color is an intense crimson-ruby. Cupric silicates pro- 
duce intense green to greenish-blue colors. 

Gold. — Gold produces a brilliant ruby which, though less crimson 
than the copper-ruby color, is more regular and uniform. 

Iron, — Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or pale blue according 
to the composition of the batch. Ferric oxide gives a yellow color. 

i^cK^.— Lead gives a pale yellow color. Lead increases the color- 
ing effect of other chemicals present fti the batch. 

Manganese, — The compounds of manganese, when other coloring 
ingredients are absent, produce colors between pinkish purple and 
violet according to the chemical nature of the glass, manganese 
dioxide (MnOj) develops a pink tint which neutralizes the green 
color due to the presence of iron compounds in the sand. Used in 
excess manganese gives an amethyst tint. Manganese used in 
excess with the oxide of iron or cobalt produces black. The violet of 
manganese, if neutralized by the oxides of copper or iron, results in a 
gray color. 

Nickel, — ^Nickel with a potash-lead glass gives a violet color; with 
a soda-lime glass, a brown color. 

Phosphorus. — Calcium phosphate (Ca2P04) produces an opalescent 
glass. It is, however, rarely used. 

Selenium, — Selenites give glass a pale pink or pinkish yellow color, 
and a ruby red under conditions of reduction. 

Silver. — Silver oxide (AgjO) mixed as a paint and spread on the 
surface of glass which is then heated results m a permanent yellow 
color. Silver is never applied to the batch but is used as a surface 
stain and gives a color from a delicate lemon to a deep orange in 
proportion to the quantity used. 

Sulphur. — Sulphur gases are very apt to produce a yellowish 
milkiuess. 

TeUurium. — ^Tellurium appears to give glass a pale pink tint. 

Thallium, — ^Thallium is introduced to increase the coloring effect 
of other substances. 

Tin. — ^Tin in conjunction with copper produces a copper ruby. 
Tin oxide in a finely suspended state produces opalescence and in 
large quantities white opacity. 

Vanadium. — ^Vanadium produces vivid yellow and greenish tints, 
but is too rare to be introduced in the batch. 

Uranium. — Uranium, though costly, is sometimes introduced in 
small quantities in the form of a chemical compound and produces 
a beautiful fluorescent yellow. Uranium oxide will produce a 
greenish yellow opalescent effect. 

MIXTUBES FOR AMERICAN GLASS. 

The following typical mixtures for American glass have been taken 
from the New International Encyclopsedia. These recipes are not 
intended as standardized batches to be strictly followed by manu- 
facturers. It has been pointed out that the batch will vary with 
the kind of furnace, the temperature, and numerous other factors, 
and the following formulas are intended only to indicate, in a very 



60 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



broad and general way, the ingredients and the proportions of ma- 
terials that enter the batches for various kinds of American glass: 

ReCIPSS rOK AUEBIGAN GXA88. 



Materials. 


Window glass. 


Plate glass. 


Green bottles. 


Lead flint. 


Sand . r . r , . . T . , - r . 


100.0 
44.0 


100.0 

40.0 

4.0 

sao 

&0 


100.0 
' 42.0 

4ao 

&0 


100.0 


loaoo 


100.0 

4ao 

*3&6" 

4.0 
•2.0 


loao 


loao 


loao 

38LO 


loao 


loaoo 


Salt cake 




Soda ash. 


sao 

24.0 
1.0 


36.00 

24.00 

.75 

1.00 


3&0 
310 

• • a. . .. 


3fi.O 
22.0 






Limestoiie. 


"2a.'6' 

4.0 


84.0 






Carbon....... 






Areenic ,.... 








"'Is' 


.15 


Charcoal 














&a 




Potash 



















3d. 6* 
4ao 

&0 
.3 


34.00 


Red lead 










i " 








48.00 


Niter 


















«.00 


Borax 












*'W 






.09 


Antimony.. 










1 








.02 













1 













MACHINSBY, TOOLS, AND EQT7IPMEKT. 



TYPES OF FURNACES. 

The oldest furnace for melting glass was a fire-brick box in which 
stood the pot with the fire of wood or coal on either side. Two 
general types of furnaces are now used for melting glass, pot furnaces, 
and tank furnaces. They are heated by natural or artificial (pro- 
ducer) gas or by fuel ou, and the usual temperature requirea to 
melt the batch is about 2,600° F. A temperature of about 2,000° F. 
is maintained at the gathering holes or working-out end of the furnace. 
These temperatures are not absolute ; they vary With the size of the 
furnace, the use of the pot or tank, the composition of the batch, 
and numerous other factors. 

Pot Jumace, — Pot furnaces are either conical, circular, elliptical, 
rectangular, or square, and usually have huge chimneys, the upper 
tapering half of which is usually above the roof of the building. 
The size of the furnace varies with the shape and the number of pots 
used, and the pots usually number from 6 to 12. Plate-glass furnaces 
employ the largest pots, usually about 20 in number, and have an 
opening opposite each pot to permit its hurried removal for casting. 

The walls are about 18 inches thick, with a number of openings at 
intervals, which are arched over. At the base of the cnimney is 
the central fire, about which, in all but square and oblong furnaces, 
the melting pots, varying in number and size with the establishment 
and the ware produced, are arranged in the arched-over openings. 
In oblong-shaped furnaces the pots are usually j)laced in two rows, 
one on either side of the fire, and the furnace is provided with a 
door at each end for removing and replacing broken pots. The 
heat from the central fire, forced outward by drafts, envelops the 

Eots and heats the batch until it is in the proper state for gathering, 
a rectangular furnaces the flame travels from one end of the furnace 
and by a manipulation of the draft is made to completely fill it. 

A covered pot is used for melting flint glass. In the manufacture 
of window and plate glass, bottles, and other glassware, open pots 
are used. Covered pots are usually used in a circular furnace and 
open pots in a rectangular furnace. The closed pot is beehive-shaped 
and has a hooded opening on one side near the top. This opening 



ICATEBIALS, MAOHZETBST, AHD PBOGESSES. 61 

projects to the wall of the fumaoe; through it the batch is charged 
and the molten glass extracted. Opea pots are open truncated 
conesi the smallest diameter bein^ at the bottom, and the batch is 
ehaiged through openings in the side of the furnace. 

Pots are made of fire day and their manuf actture is a long, careful, 
tedious process, rec^uiring many months for comoletion. They are 
costly and their life is comparatively short, closed pots lasting 
several months, open pots about six weeks, and the pots for plate 
glass only about 25 days. The installation and remoyal of pots is a 
laborious task. Pots have a limited capacity: continuous tanks have 
not, some being built to hold up to 500 tons of glass. When nots 
are used the work ceases when the pot has been emptied of the melted 
batch, and it is resumed again only after many hours, durmg which 
time a new batch has been melted. When a continuous tank is 
used the work is never interrupted. 

Tank furnace. — ^The tank furnace has generally displaced the pot 
furnace. The advantages claimed for it are increased production, 
continuous operation, regularity of work, more efficient utilization 
of the heat and flame of the furnace, greater durability, and better 
glass production, in that the molten ^lass in a tank can be main- 
tained at or near a constant level, which makes gathering easier. 
Tank furnaces are generally oblong in shape, the width being about 
one-fourth or onerfifth of the length, the depth from 3 to 6 feet; 
they contain about 6 to 20 ring holes. Tank tumaces hold the glass 
on the hearth of the furnace; the flame sweeps across the furnace 
and above the batch. Tank furnaces are of two types, the day 
tank and the continuous tank, and are usually constructed of the same 
material as are pots. 

The day tank, intermittent in its action, is practically a large pot, 
in which the batch is charged, melted, and then extracted, in some- 
what the same manner as in working the pot. It may be considered 
a pot furnace in which the one large open pot is square or rectangular. 

The continuous tank permits charging the batch at any time and 
continual extraction of the molten glass, irrespective of the time the 
batch is charged. The tank is always full or nearly full. The tank 
covers the whole area of the furnace and is divided, by means of two 
transverse floating bridges or partitions, into three compartments. 
The batch is charged into the ttrst or melting compartment, and the 
flames, entering at one aide or end of the furnace and escaping at the 
other, melt the batch. The released j^ases and acid vapors are carried 
off through the stack, thus preventmg injury to the furnace. The 
molten glass flows into the second compartment, where, by means of 
a higher temperature, it is freed of its impurities, and it then flows 
into the last compartment, where a reduced temperature prepares 
it for gathering. Many tank furnaces have only two compartments, 
one for melting and one for gathering the glass. 
. The more modem tanks dispense with the floating bridges. When 
the glass is melted it sinks and travels toward the gathernig holes at . 
the other end. A refining vessel, floated opposite each gathering 
hole, gathers the molten glass at the lowest depth in the tank, raises 
it to the surface, where it is completely refined in a compartment 
prepared for that purpose; then, on sinking, the glass flows only into 
the working-out end. The working-out end of the tank usually 
projects into the shop, is usually semicircular or crescent shaped., 



62 THE GLASS INDUBTBY. 

and contains a varying number of ring holes or openings through 
which the blowers or gatherers extract the glass. Furnaces employ- 
ing gaseous fuel use eitner the regonerative or the recuperative system 
of heating. Both systems employ the waste heat of the furnace 
gases to heat air for combustion. Tne regenerative system is the 
one generally used. 

Tae re^eaerative system employs two chambers, called regener- 
ators, one on each side of the furnace, which contain loosely stacked 
fire bricks. When the bricks in one regenerator have become hot 
from contact with the waste gases of combustion, the direction of the 
flames is reversed, and the air for combustion passes through the hot 
regenerator, while the waste gases now pass through the regenerator 
on the other side of the furnace. Reversing the direction of the flame, 
usually about every 20 minutes, results in heating the air before it 
enters the furnace proper while the waste gases are heating the other 
regenerator preparatory to the air passing through it. 

The recuperative system does not employ a reversal of cuirent. 
The incoming air absorbs the heat, which has penetrated the thin 
walls as the waste gases pass through the flues. 

BLOWPIPE. 

The blowpipe which is used to blow all glassware that is neither 
blown nor pressed by machine, is an iron pipe or steel tubing from 4i 
to 5i feet m length, and from about throe-fourths of an inch in the 
smallest part up to 1 J inches in diameter. A hole about one-fourth 
of an inch or more runs lengthwise through the pipe. At one end is a 
mouthpiece for blowing; the other end, upon which the. glass is 
gathered, is slightly enlarged and somewhat lunnel-shaped. 

MOLDS. 

Molds are used to facihtate the work of blowing. Molds that are 
not used in machines rest upon or above the floor, depending upon 
the height of the foot bench, or in pits. 

The joint open-and-shut mold in common use consists of two hol- 
low cast-iron pieces fastened together by heavy hinges. The mold 
opens and closes horizontally by means of two short handles. The 
parts of the mold which are cast in separate pieces can be removed 
and others, for ware of a different size and shape inserted. Each 
half of the top of the mold is indented so that when the mold is 
closed the top fits around the blowpipe and, in bottles, forms the 
long, narrow neck. 

BLOWING MACHINE. 

A ' ' gob '' of glass, the proper amount cut off by shears as the molten 
glass is dropped from the gathering iron, is deposited in the first or 

?ress mold, and a descending plunger presses the neck of the bottle. 
'he partially formed bottle is then transferred to the second or blow 
mold, and the bottle is then blown by means of compressed air. 
The latest machines have a revolving framework containing a series 
of molds. This machine is used for wide-mouth ware. 

One type of machine in use for wide-mouth and semiwide-mouth 
jars turns out 16 jai-s a minute. A greater speed is not possible, it 



MATEBIALS^ MAGHIKEBY, AND PROCESSES. 63 

is claimed, because the glass would not then have tune to settle and 
would cave in. The machine requires a gatherer and a turn-out boy, 
but if .a jlowing device is employed, only a turn-out boy is necessary. 
This blowing machine is generally employed only for wide-mouth 
bottles and jars. 

In some bottle-blowing machines, the plunger is raised to the proper 
point in the blank mold, after which the necessary amoimt oi glass 
IS dropped in the blank mold, sheared off, and forced down around 
the plunger by compressed air to form the neck of the bottle. The 
partially formed bottle is then inverted, and compressed air blows 
the bottle in a second mold. 

PASTE-MOLD BLOWING MACHINE. 

Seamless ware like lamp chimneys or tumblers can not be made in 
an ordinary mold but requires a mold (paste mold) coated with a 
carbon or other paste. Since 1898 a machine has been successfully 
producing this class of ware. 

The machine consists of a series of revolving paste molds. The 
blowpipe with its gather of glass, which has been shaped on the marver 
and slightly blown, is clamped perpendicularly into a socket exactly 
above the mold and so arranged that the bulb of glass just fits into 
the mold. The upper end of the pipe is connected with the valve 
controUing the compressed air. The revolving mold opens and 
receives its gather of glass; after it closes the connected pipe supplies 
the comjpressed air for blowing. The constant mechamcal rotation 
of the pipe and its bulb of glass while the compressed air is blowing 
prevents the formation of seams on the ware. After the machine 
has revolved halfway, during which time the ware has been com- 
pletely blown, the mold opens and, after the pipe and attached blown 
ware has been removed, dips into water. This bath is necessary to 
keep the paste Uning wet. 

One such blowing machine, in use for making light tumblers in 
paste molds, has five molds to the machine, and, with one tumbler 
to each mold, produces 12 to 14 tumblers a minute. Some machines 
have two tumblers to the mold. Not only does this machine produce 
ware much cheaper than when hand blowing is employed, but it is 
superior in that it blows articles of considerable length with the sides 
and walls absolutely uniform in thickness. 

AUTOMATIC BOTTLE MACHINE. 

The automatic bottle machine consists of a series of arms, radiating 
from a perpendicular axis, each terminating in a combination mold. 
The glass is melted in the furnace and flows to a refiner and then to a 
specially constructed revolving pot or tank, which suppUes the hot 
glass -that is constantly used. The arms, one after another, dip, and 
as the blank mold on the end of the arm projects into the molten 
metal in the revolving tank, it sucks up its capacity of glass. As the 
arm rises from the tank, the mold forms the neck of the bottle and 
gives the glass a general shape, cooling it so that it will not run. As 
the first mold withdraws, a second or finishing mold, rises and closes 
around the stiU red-hot glass form, and, when this mold is closed, 
compressed air which is turned on forces the glavss to take the shape 
of the mold. 



X 



64 THB GLASd Iimt76T&7. 

The process is continuous and uninterrupted, the forming of the 
bottle taking place while the molds are in motion. The arm having 
completed its circuit, the mold opens and the bottle drops out. 
When an automatic conveyor is used, the bottle drops onto the 
conveyor. 

This machine makes the bottle automatically from the gathering 
of the glass to the completed bottle that is to be put in the leer. It 
puts the same amount of glass into every bottle, and makes each 
exactly the same length, weight, finish, shape, and capacity, which 
is almost impossible by the hand method, even with the most skilled 
labor. The machine wastes no* glass and can be operated con- 
tinuously. 

FLOWING DEVICE. 

There are a numbar of machines which, with the application of a 
flowing or pouring device that doe^ away with the gatherer, are 
practically automatic. It will be sufficient to describe one such flow- 
ing device to illustrate the general principle and processes involved. 

As the revolving molds of a macnine pass below a specially built 
projection of the tank, a stream of glass flows down vertically into 
it. A cup-shaped cutter from the left of the down-flowing stream, 
and a blade from the right, are mechanically made to come together 
like the blades of a pair of scissors. The stream of glass is cut off, 
but continues to flow into the cup-shaped cutter instead of flowing 
into the mold. The cup-shaped device is then turned part way over, 
but still receiving the stream of flowing glass from the tank. As the 
next mold is brought into position, the cup-shaped device spills its 
accumulated glass into the mold, and the stream of glass from the 
tank then flows directly into this new mold. This operation is 
repeated as each mold comes into position. With the filling of the 
mold with the exact amount of glass required the work of the flowing 
device is completed. 

Flowing devices, it is claimed, have been successful only with wide- 
mouth bottles and jars. One manufacturer, however, claims to hare 
a flowing device which he has successfully used for manufacturing 
narrow-neck bottles. 

PRESSING MACHINE. 

Presses for tableware are either stationary or rotary. In the 
stationary machine the mold is filled with molten glass and, as the 
side lever is pulled, the overhanging plunger descends into the mold, 
pressing the plastic glass into the desired shape. The stationary 
machine is equipped with either one or two molds, which rest upon a 
stand and are removed by hand. The rotary machine consists of a 
series of revolving molds, usually four or eight in number.. The 
gatherer fills the passing molds and the glass is then pressed. 

The kind of ware that can be made on a pressing machine is limited 
to that class in which the opening tapers downward, thus permittii^ 
the plunger to be easily withdrawn. When a solid or block mold is 
used the outer surface of the articles, as smooth tumblers, smootii 
nappies, etc., must be of a downward tapering shape to permit 
removal after pressing. For ware with outer surfaces of other shapes, 
a joint mold is used, which is opened when the ware is to be removed 



MATEBIALS, MACSIJPIEX^ AND FBOCESSES. 65 

One of the rotary tiimbler presses in use employs 8 molds and 
produces about 18 tumblers a minute. This press is semiautomatic; 
with the aid of the flowing device, which one company uses in con- 
junction with this machine, it is practically automatic. 

WINDOW-GLASS MACHINE. 

A ring is dropped for a moment into the surface of the molten glass, 
and the glass adheres to it by molecular attraction. The ring is 
pulled upward and draws a cylinder of glass as it ascends. The rate 
of draw is from 1 to 2 feet per minute depending on the thickness, size, 
and temperature of the glass and on the type of machine. The 
diameter of the cylinder is regulated by compressed air, introduced 
in some machines through the oait to which the ring which draws the 
glass is attached, and in another through an aperture in the center of 
the pot. The thickness of the ^lass is regulated by the speed with 
which the ring is elevated. Cylinders 25 feet or even 35 feet long 
may be drawn. The machine operator occupies a tower, 12 or 15 
feet above the floor, and is called a towerman or a blower. Each 
towerman operates the electrical mechanism which draws two, and 
in some cases three, cylinders simultaneously, and controls the air 
pressure and speed. 

AIB-PUMPING STSTEM. 

Most factories have an air-pumping system, which forces a current 
of cool air upon molds and machines, preventing them from becoming 
so heated that the plastic molten glass would adhere to them. Where 
no such system is employed, the molds are cooled by playing a stream 
of cold water upon them. The air system also serves to cool the 
workers. 

REHEATING FURNACE. 

In addition to the furnace in which the batch is melted, bottle 
plants employ a reheating furnace, called a '^ glory hole," and table- 
ware factories use one usually called a warming-in furnace. These 
furnaces are used for partially reheating the ware, which facUitates 
the manipulation necessary to shape it to the desired pattern during 
the process of manufacture. 

ANNEALING OVEN, OR LEER. 

Practically all glassware must be annealed, or OTadually cooled, 
immediately after it has been blown or pressed. Grlass can not be 
annealed by exposure to the air, as this generally causes some of the 
pores, usually those in the exterior, to close more auickly than others, 
which results in an internal strain and a brittle glass, easily cracked 
or broken. One form of anneaUng is to place the ware in a heated 
furnace, box, or other receptacle, and gradually diminish the heat 
until it equals the temperature of the outside air. This method con- 
sumes much time and is rarely used at the present time, the kiln 
having been displaced by the leer. 

The leer is a long, narrow, tunnel-like, brick structure, closed on 
all sides but open at both ends. The heat is kept at about 1,200° F. 
at the end called the ''mouth,'' in which the ware is first put. The 

102511*— 17 5 



66 THB QLA8S Iin>U8TBY. 

ware is placed in iron pans resting on the bottom of the leer, which 
are pulled very slowly, by means of a moving-belt arrangement, 
through the leer's entire length. The heat, high at the mouth, is 
maintained at a gradually decreasing temperature throughout the 
length of the leer, and the ware, traveling very slowly through these 
various zones, is thoroughly annealed when it reaches the end. The 
length of time necessary for thorough anneaUng depends upon the 
Idnd of product, and grade of goocb manufactured. The pans are 
brought back from the rear of the leer to the front by means of 
pulleys swung from an overhead track. 

CONVEYOR DEVICES. 

In order that the ware may not chill after it is made, it is necessary 
that it be transferred to the leer as quickly as possible. Where 
conveyors are not used, bottles or jars, immediately after being blown, 
are carried to the leer on handled trays. Other ware is placed on a 
sliding tray in a wanning stove, and the tray when full is carried to 
the leer. 

In some factories mechanical conveyors are used to carry bottles 
or jars to the leer. An overhead track circles the shop and passes 
the leer door. Suspended cars are pushed around the shop and the 
ware is gathered therein as the car passes the various shops. When 
the sUding tray on which the ware is placed is full, the car is pushed 
to the leer and the ware transferred. 

Some factories have installed automatic conveyors which operate 
on the principle of the endless belt. The belt carries the bottles 
singly and runs from the shop to the leer, where the bottles are 
transferred by hand, or in some cases mechanically. 

In a few factories conveyors are in use which carry packed boxes, 
barrels, etc., from the paclan^ room to the warehouse, where they are 
stored, and thence to the freight car on the siding. On a decline the 
package descends by gravity over a series of roUers, but on an incline 
power is apphed, the package being hfted by an endless chain. The^e 
conveyors are comparative^^ cheap to construct and the packed ware 
is not injured or broken in transit. 

MANUFACTTTSIKa PROCESSES. 

The manufacturing processes described on the following pa^es are 
not given as standardized processes in the glass industry or to mform 
manufacturers as to the best possible method of production. They 
are intended to indicate in a very general way how the various 

Products are manufactured and the sequence of operations. All the 
escriptions omit anneaUng or tempering the ware, a description 
of which has been given. A description of packing and storing 
of the ware after it has come from the leer and been examii\ed has 
also been omitted, as these operations are not strictly manufacturing 
processes. 

BATCHES FOR VARIOUS PRODUCTS. 

Glass may be divided into the five following classes: (1) Lime-flint 
glass, (2) lead-flint glass, (3) plate glass, (4) window glass, and (5) 
optical and special glasses. Tnese are again subdivided according to 
the WQxe made from the glass under each of these classifications. 



MATEBIALS, MACHINERY, AND PBOOESSES. 67 

Lime flint is the glass which is used in manufacturing tableware, 
novelties, bottles, lamp chimneys, Ughting goods, and globes. In 
the making of Hme-flint glass, the compositions vary greatly, and 
until a few years ago each manufacturer or glassmaker had his own 
particular formula from which he made his glass. The composition 
often contained as many as 20 ingredients, of which sand was the 
principal one, and in addition to which there was used burned lime, 
soda ash, pearlash, magnesium carbonate, barium carbonate, anti- 
mony oxide, antimony sulphide, arsenic, feldspar, cryohte, fluorspar, 
borax, manganese, and cobalt, or '^blue*' (cooalt silicate). Of late 
years, however, the manufacturer has to a great extent dropped the 
use of many of the expensive chemicals last enumerated, and in the 
naaking of a Ume-flint glass confines himself to the use of sand, soda 
ash, and burned lime, with antimony, arsenic, or manganese as a 
decolorizer, or other chemicals like nickel, selenium, or cobalt, or 
combinations of these metals. 

For many years burned lime was supposed to be the only alkali 
earth which could be successfully used in making flint glass, and Ume 
obtained from certain locaUties was assumed to be particularly- 
adapted to its manufacture, for the reason that it contained a con- 
siderable quantity of magnesia. In recent years, however, particu- 
larly in tank-furnace operation, raw hme has come into successfiJ 
use, from which a glass has been produced equal in brilliancy and 
stability to that produced from burned Ume. In pot furnaces burned 
lime is still preferable, inasmuch as the increasea boiling action pro- 
duced by the raw lime causes the melting material to boil excessively 
and does not permit of as great a charge oeing made at any one time, 
and therefore increases the attention and labor necessary to obtain 
a fuU pot of glass. 

Lead flint is used for making cut glass, goblets, the better grade 
of tableware, etched ware, and novelties. This batch consists prin- 
cipally of sand, red lead (minium), and litharge in combination with 
soda ash, pearlash, and other alkali salts, and, as in Hme-flint 

flass, with antimony, arsenic, borax, and manganese as decolorizers. 
lore recently nickel, cobalt, and selenium, either separately or in 
combination with manganese, have been used as the decolorizing 
agents. Lead has also been used in combination with or partially 
replaced by lime, magnesia, or barium. 

PlcUe glass is melted in pots, cast, ground, and pohshed. The batch 
is usually made up of sand, soda ash, and lime. Sometimes salt cake 
replaces a portion of the soda ash, and with it some of the above- 
mentioned decolorizers are also used as required. 

Window glass is made by the hand-blown or machine method in 
cylinder form, being subsequentfy flattened into sheets and cut, but 
not groimd and polished. This batch is composed of sand, salt cake, 
and Time, with a small amoimt of powdered coal or charcoal, although 
in some instances soda ash replaces a portion of the salt cake. 

' Optical and other special glasses vary in composition, according to 
the uses for which they are intended and the respective physical prop- 
erties which are desired. Chemical glassware and special glasses will, 
of course, have formulas for their batches to meet the physical 
properties required of the finished product. 

Ijie preparation of the batch lor each of the foregoing classes or 
subclasses is largely dependent upon its composition and upon the 



68 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

procedure necessary to melt and refine it to the degree that will 
insure the product desired. 

PREPARATION OF THE BATCH. 

Sand contains iron, lime, alumina, and other impurities, to remove 
which it is first washed by stirring it in large volumes oi water and 
allowing it to settle. The sand is then burned by playing flames 
directly upon it, to expel the moisture and remove the organic and 
extraneous matter, ana is then sifted. The sand and other ingredi- 
ents that make up the batch are then weighed out according to the 
formula of the plant. The amounts are actually weighed in many 
estabUshments, out in some are only an approximation on the part of 
the mixer. The batch is then mixed. This may be done by hand, by 
hand and machine, or entirely by machine. H^d mixing is usually 
employed for small quantities. The various substances are mixed on 
a dean floor by turning them over with a wooden shovel. The 
mcichine for mixing consists of a hollow drum with revolving paddles 
which beat and mix the batch. The mixing machine has generally 
displaced the hand-manipulated wooden snovel, because its use 
results in a better and more uniform mixture. 

CuUet (broken glass), which aids fusion, is then added to the batch, 
which is then carted to the pot or tank on wheelbarrows, pr in modem 
plants is mechanically shot through tubes. When a pot or day tank 
IS used, the batch is generally charged in the mormng before work 
commences or at night when work is over. When a continuous tank, 
which is always at about the same temperature, is used, the charging 
goes on continuously so as to keep the glass at a constant level. 

During the melting of the batch there is a loss of material, due to 
evaporation and volatilization, which will generally average, it is 
\ claimed, about one-sixth the weight of the batch. 

The temperature necessary to melt the batch can not be stated 
positively. It depends on the use of furnace or pot and the com- 
position of the batch. The average actual temperature generally 
^ required is about 2,600° F. and in some few instances as much as 
2,850° F. (glass temperature). 

The molten glass is worked into commercial products by three 
methods — ^blowing, pressing, and casting. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

Window glass is made by the cyUnder process, blown by hand or 
machine, and by the automatic sheet method. In the cylinder 
method the difference is only in the blowing of the cylinder, either 
by the blower or by a machine. The subsequent treatment of the 
cyUnder is practically the same. 

In making hand-blown window glass the gatherer uses a blowpipe — 
an iron tube about 50 inches long, one end enlarged to approximately 
3 inches in diameter — which, being previously heated, he dips into 
the mass of glass contained in the pot or tank furnace. Rotating 
the pipe permits a film of glass to adnere to the enlarged head. The 
gatherer removes the head from the furnace and cools the pipe by 
immersing it in water or allowing water to flow upon it, coohng it 
and the glass gathered upon the head. By repeated gatherings 
and coolings in the cooling "buck" or tub, the gatherer obtains a 



MATEBIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 69 

sufficient quantity of ^ass of spherical form upon the pipe head as 
will in his judgment make a cylinder of the desired size and thick- 
ness, after which he places this in what is known as the ''block/' 
a concave iron receptacle so fashioned as to give the glass a pear- 
shaped form when it is rotated therein. 

The blower takes the blowpipe, and by blowing enlarges the glass 
bulb into the form of a huge cylinder. In doing this he swings his 
blowpipe through an opening or pit in the floor, and when the glass 
cools, reheats and softens it in tne furnace so that the cylinder can 
be easily elongated. The material is evenly distributed by the 
blowing and the glass is made single or double strength, or heavier, 
by the amoimt of molten glass that is gathered, the size of the cyhnder 
originally formed in the u'on mold, or block, the speed or rapidity 
with which the blower swings or elongates the cylinder, and the 
amoimt of air he puts into it. (A description of the machines that 
blow the cylinder of glass mechanically is given on page 65.) 

When by intermittent blowing and swinging a cylinder of proper 
length has been formed and the glass has sufficiently cooled, the blower 
brings it into a horizontal position upon a crane support. He then 
introduces the lower or closed end of the cyhnder into an opening 
in the furnace known as the ''blow furnace,'* or into an opening of 
the tank known as the "blow ring," permitting the heat of the 
furnace to come in contact with the small area of this closed end, 
so manipulating the cylinder as to have the more intense heat in 
the exact center of the closed end of the cyUnder. When the end 
has become sufficiently heated he blows into the cyUnder with con- 
siderable force, places his thumb over the open end of the blowpipe, 
and then by introducing a considerable portion of the cyhnder into 
the hot gases of the fiu*nace causes the air within the cyUnder to 
expand. The plastic glass is forced out over the intensely heated 
closed end of the cylinder and bursts an opening therein. A high 
temperature is again applied to this bursted opening until it becomes 
quite soft and plastic. The blower then removes the cylinder from 
tne horizontal position, drops it into the pit or "swing hole'* and by 
careful rotation and manipulation enlarges or opens up the hole to 
the full diameter of the cyhnder proper. 

The snapper then hfts the cylinder from the swing hole or pit 
and places it in a horizontal position upon wooden supports known 
as the "horse'* (usually made of wood filled with sawdust). He 
touches the neck, or that portion next to the head of the pipe, with 
a moist iron, which starts a check or crack in the glass, and by 

fently tapping the blowpipe he severs the cvlinder from the blowpipe, 
le then, with a small iron rod, gathers a few ounces of molten glass 
and with a pair of pincers draws it out into a thin thread which he 
wraps around the cyhnder, thereby heating a narrow zone to a tem- 
perature considerably in excess of the temperature of the main body 
of the cylinder. By applying a cold or moist iron to this heated 
zone, he separates from the body of the cylinder that portion which 
is known as the "cap." When required, a portion of the lower or 
hole end of the cyhnder is also severed from the main body of the 
cylinder in hke manner, thereby preparing the cyhnder for jlattening. 
when the cyhnder has been blown by machinery it is usual to employ 
an electrically heated wire instead oi a thread of glass. 



70 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The splitter, or opener, then splits the cylinder longitudinally or 
lengthwise by means of an iron rod heated at one end to a bright-red 
heat; he draws the rod back and forth through the cylinder and 
then touches this heated zone with a moist glove. 

The roller boy wheels the cylinder to the flattening oven, and the 
cracked cylinder is placed on a large, smooth, circiuar, stone table 
inside the oven. As the heat softens the glass and it begins to wilt, 
the flattener by means of a long-handled wooden block quickly 
flattens out the cylinder until it is a flat sheet. The stone on whicn 
the flattened glass rests is turned and the glass is then sent through 
the leer where it is tempered. 

Due to the fact that window glass made by flattening cylinders 
can not be flattened perfectly, it usually has a slight bend or bow 
Such glass also has a possible variation in thickness due to the 
blowing, though how the blower blows a practically imif orm cvlinder 
of glass is one of the wonders of the glass industry. These aef acts, 
however, are accepted by the trade. 

It is claimed that window glass made from hand-blown cylinders 
is generally of better quality than that made from machine-blown 
cyhnders, although some manufacturers assert that good glass blown 
by machine is of better quality than the hand-blown product, (As 
mentioned on page 205, a factory is being erected for the manufac- 
ture of window glass in sheet form, so that flattening will be 
unnecessary.) 

PLATE GLASS. 

As the door of the furnace is opened, the pot, usually containing 
about 1 ton of molten glass, is removed from the furnace by means 
of wrought-iron tongs attached to an electrically operated traveling 
crane, which, after the surface impurities have been skimmed oft, 
carries it to the casting table. 

The casting table is made of iron with a smooth, highly polished, 
trued surface, and is from 12 to 16i feet in width and from 20 to 27i 
feet in length. The pot is tipped, and, as the molten glass is poured 
or cast upon the table in front of it, a heavjr roller attached to the 
table quickly passes over the glass, rolling it into a sheet of uniform 
thickness. The roller is of cast iron and hollow, about 18 inches in 
diameter, covers the entire width of the table, and rolls over its entire 
length. Both the table and the roller are water-cooled by means of 
water circulating through them during the casting operation. The 
roller travels on adjustable strips or iron tracks on each side of the 
table, and the thickness of the glass depends on the thickness of 
these strips. When the glass has been rolled out and the sheet 
which has suifficiently hardened by cooling is pushed into the leer 
and by means of mechanical apphances, it is made to successivelv 
travel from one position in the leer to another, thus passing through 
a gradually diminishing temperature. 

After the glass has oeen removed from the leer it has a rough, 
opaque appearance. This is rough plate glass. The sheet is care- 
fully inspected, the rough edges are cut on, and the glass cut to the 
desired size. 

Tfe\fflass is then groimd. It is secured to a revolving iron table, 
25 or mwe feet in diameter, by means of plaster of Paris, and in some 
cases is lurther secured by wooden blocks. As the table revolves 
water an A sharp river sand are applied to the glass and revolving 



MATEBIALS, MACHINERY, AND PBOOEBSES. 71 

iron runners begin to grind. The table revolves slowly at first, but 
the speed is gradually increased as the grinding continues. The 
revolution of the table and the constant rotation of the runners 
insure the whole surface being evenly ground. After the sharp 
sand, emery is used in a similar manner. Formerly, after grinding 
one side, it was necessary to turn the glass and grind the other 
side before polishing. At the present time one side is ground and 
polished before work on the other side is begim. 

The glass, after being groimd, is placed on a special polishing table. 
Kouge and water are applied and felt-covered oscillating blocks or 
disks polish the glass. After it has been groimd and pohshed, the 
glass IS about one-half the thickness of the original rough plate, 
one-fourth being usually lost on each side of the plate during the 
processes of grinding and polishing. 

ROLLED FIGUBED GLASS. 

The process of making rolled figuri^d glass is similar to that of 
making plate glass, except that it is not ground and polished. The 
pattern which it is desired to produce is engraved on the roller 
which passes over the glass, these designs being known in the trade 
as ribbed, pyramid, etc. Sometimes the patterns are cut m the sur- 
face of the casting table. 

WIRE GLASS. 

Wire glass is manufactured by three different methods: (1) A 
sheet of glass is rolled and, while the glass is still soft, the wire is 
pressed in and embedded in the glass, which is then smoothed; (2) 
the wire mesh is placed over a thin sheet of glass which has been 
roUed and another sheet is simultaneously poured and rolled over it; 
(3) a wire netting is mechanically crimped, placed on the casting 
table and a sheet of glass is then poured upon it and rolled. 

OPALESCENT GLASS. 

The colorless glass is ladled out of the pot, and poured upon that 
part of the machine called the table. One or two workers (according 
to the size of the sheet) stand at the machine and turn this colorless 
riass over once or twice with a two-pronged iron shaped like a tuning 
fork. The colored glass is then ladled out and put on the glass aU 
ready on the table. The two glasses are mixed together by turning 
the glasses over several times. A worker then turns the crank (in 
some plants this is now done by electric power) which moves the table 
under and against a stationary roller which is part of the machine. 
The table runs along tracks. As the crank is turned, a boy pushes 
the glass against the roller, distributing it evenly. The roller flattens 
out the glass, after which it is lifted, by means of a padle, to a swing- 
ing pan suspended from an overhead track and moved to the leer, 
where it is pushed in to be annealed. After annealing, the sheets are 
cut up for decorative glass, window work, lamp shades, etc. 

BOTTLES. 

The blower or gatherer inserts his blowpipe into the tank or pot 
and a small lump, or ^'gob,^' of the molten glass adheres to the end 
of it. Sometimes it is necessary to return to the furnace two or more 



72 THE GLASS IKDXTSTEY. 

times to gather sufficient glass for the size of the bottle desired. By 
blowing gently, the bulb of glass is slightly enlarged and it is then 
rolled on a flat plate of iron or stone called a marver, until it assumes 
a symmetrical pear shape, and on being reheated to the proper tem- 
perature the glass is ready to be blown. The work up to this point 
may be performed by a gatherer who does no blowmg, or by the 
blower himself. 

A mold boy opens the iron mold into which the slightly enlarged 
ball of glass is lowered. When the boy has closed the mold the blower 
blows into the blowpipe sufficiently to force the glass to take exactly 
the shape of the mold. In some cases the mold is opened and closed 
by a treadle operated by the blower's foot. The bottle shows seams 
where the two halves of the mold join. Circular, seamless bottles are 
blown in a paste mold by twirling the blowpipe during the blowing 
process. 

Some ware, such as carboys (large bottles of several gallons capac- 
ity for mineral waters, chemical liquids, etc.), are blown oflFhand 
without the use of a mold, but aided by an arm arrangeraient upon 
which the heavy weight of a carboy can be supported without hinder- 
ing the blower in his work. This, the earliest method of blowing 
bottles and other ware, is seldom used at the present time. 

Continued blowing after the glass has taken the shape of the mold 
causes the glass above the top of the mold to break. After the mold 
has been opened and the bottle removed, a snapper-up seizes it 
with a pair of pincers and places it neck upward in a ^'snap,'' a sheet- 
iron can with an iron handle about 3 feet long, which is of the same 
size and shape as the bottle. 

. The snapper up rubs the jagged neck of the bottle on a piece of 
sheet iron and then inserts the bottle, still in the snap, into the ^' glory 
hole,'' or reheating furnace, the neck of the bottle just touching the 
flame. 

When the neck has been heated sufficiently to make it workable, 
the bottle is taken out of the glory hole. With his left hand the 
finisher rolls the handle of the snap on the horizontal arm of his 
bench, and with his right hand he finishes the neck of the bottle by 
means of a tool, one part of which, inserted in the neck, opens it out 
and the other part, a pair of hinged jaws, makes the Up as the bottle 
is turned. 

Three men, constituting ^^a shop," usually work together, two of 
them gathering the glass and blowing the bottle and the third finishing 
the neck. The three may interchangeably perform these operations. 

The carry-in boy then takes the bottles to the leer for annealing. 
In some factories the bottles are taken to the leer by a mechanicaUy- 
operated, or automatic, conveyor. 

(For a description of the blowing machine and the automatic 
bottle machine see p. 63. For a description of the flowing device, 
which does away with hand gathering and which is employed in the 
manufacture of Dottles and jars, see p. 64.) 

TABLEWARE. 

Though a large quantity of tableware is blown or made in paste- 
mold machines, a great portion of the production is made by a pressing 
process, in which the article takes its form from a mold under the 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 73 

pressure of a plunger, the exterior surface modeled by the mold, the 
interior surface by the plunger. Sometimes ware is ground and 
poUshed in order to enhan^ce ite appearance. . .« 

Pressed tableware. — In making pressed tumblers, dishes, nappies, 
jugs, tankards, goblets, vases, etc. (these articles may also be blown), 
the gatherer gathers his ^'moil^' of glass just as in hand blowing ana 
suspends the lump of glass immediately above the mold of the sta- 
tionary press or the revolving mc)ld of the rotary press, which is of 
the pattern of the desired article. As the soft glass drops into the 
mola the presser cuts off the exact amount with snears. The presser 
then pulls down the lever, which causes the plunder to descend and 
press the plastic glass to the pattern of the mold. The descent of 
the plunger is sometimes automatic. 

The ware is then fire polished by being put into the glory hole (on 
an iron pontee) , where it is heated sufficiently to melt out the mold 
marks on the surface of the glass article, after which it is buffed into 
shape again by a finisher using wooden tools. The fi.nisher either 
restores the article to its original shapfe as given by the mold, or he 
rubs the top out to form a bell shape or rubs it in to form a barrel 
shape. After this process the article is annealed. 

Plain jelly tumblers, commonly designated ^'unfinished," are an-r 
nealed at once after removal from molds. Such articles are used 
mostly for packing purposes. 

In many of the better grades of pressed ware the rough and uneven 
bottoms are ground down on a flat revolving stone to remove the 
marks of the pontee rod. This process follows annealing. (For a 
description of the pressing inachine see p. 64.) 

Blanks for cut glass are pressed for the cheaper grades and hand 
blown for the better grades. Cheap pressed glass is made to imitate 
good cut glass by molding the facets instead of cutting them and 
sharpening the angles. 

Paste-mold blovnng. — Practically all blown tableware is blown in a 
paste mold, an iron mold coated on the inside with a paste of carbon 
or other greasy coating, which is kept moist so that the glass when 
blown win not touch the mold itself. Such contact would result in 
roughening or crinkling of the glass. The blower gathers his ^^moil" 
of glass and proceeds as in ordinary blowing, except that as he blows 
he constantly rotates his pipe, so that the ridges formed where the 
two halves in the mold come together and other mold irregularities 
will not make an impression on the ware. The mold is opened and 
closed mechanically by the blower's foot. Only ware oi a round 
shape, which can be rotated in the mold, can be made in a paste mold. 
Paste-mold ware, it is claimed, is much better than iron-mold ware 
and can be made finer and more delicate. 

The blown ware is then taken out of the mold and a helper knocks 
it off the pipe. It is then carried to the leer for anneahng, after which 
it goes to the finishing department. In the case oi a tumbler, 
fimishing consists in cracking off the top of the tumbler, where it has 
been broken from the pipe, by means of a special fiat blowpipe flame 
or electrically heated wire, and grinding and glazing the top of the 
tumbler. Some ware is ground without glazing and other ware is 
only glazed. 

La the making of cheap wine glasses and goblets, the body is blowii 
in a paste mold. After the body of the glass has been knocked off 



74 THE GLASS IKDUSTBY. 

it goes to the finisher, who, receiving from a boy a thread of hot 
glass on a pipe, attaches one end of the thread to the body and cuts 
off the other end from the pipe with shears. With a tool he works 
this thread into the stem, to the free end of which is attached another 
''moil" of ^lass, which he works, with tools, into the foot or base. 
(For a description of machine paste-mold blowing see p. 63.) 

LIOHTING OOODS. 

lighting glassware is divided, as to qualities, into translucent^ 
semitransmcent, and opaque glass. Translucent glasses in general 
use include ordinary crystal glass and plain, decorated, and colored 
glasses of all colors, shades, and tints. Semitranslucent glass is glass 
m which the opacity is given by visible particles of opaque matter 
seemingly suspendea in a crystal glass. This class of glass is repre- 
sented oy a series of trade-named glasses, of which the ''Alba'' glass 
was the first. Opaque glasses are either opal, plated opal, or opal 
with a dense colored covering. Lighting glassware is made either Dv 
blowing or by pressmff. 

EUrnn glass. — In blown goods the articles are either handmade 
(blown offhand) or are blown in a mold, the mold beins either an 
iron mold or a paste mold. In all blown glassware the blowpipe is 
used as a gathering rod. 

The gatherer gathers the requisite amoimt of glass on the head of 
the blowpipe by dippiog it into the molten metal through the mouth 
of the pot. The treatment after the first eathering depends upon 
the method of blowing that is to be employed, if the article is 
handmade (blown offnand), it is manipmated entirely by hand, 
without the use of a mold, by the gatherer^ blocker, and finisher. 
If the article is blown in an iron mold, there is usually no additional 
^lass gathered, but after the gather has been uniformly distributed 
it is placed just above' an iron mold, which is of the design of the glass 
desired, and the glass is blown usually by the blower and not by com- 

Eressed air. If the article is to be blown in a paste mold, a small 
all of glass is gathered on which a sufficient additional quantity is 
gathered to maKe the article desired. Generally only plain articles 
that can be turned in the mold are blown in a paste mold. 

Pressed glass. — Pressed glass is stamped out by a machine operated 
either by power or by a hand lever. 

Decoration. — ^Lightmg glassware is ornamented by sand blasting, 
etching, cutting, paintmg, or by a combination of these methods, 
some 01 which are very expensive. In the decalcomania process the 
desired design is printed on paper, and, after it has been put on the 
glass,' the paper is rubbed off, leaving on the glass only the design 
traced in acid-resisting ink. The part of the glass not included m 
the design is then covered with paraffin to resist the acid when the 
ware is given an acid bath. The acid attacks the uncovered design. 

Lamp chimneys. — ^Lamp chimneys are blown offhand without uie 
aid of molds, in a paste mold, or made by machine. 

Incandescent lamps. — Glass bulbs for incandescent lamps are blown 
either in a paste mold or by a machine. The principal parts of an 
incandescent lamp are the glass bulb, the base, the filament, the 
inside stem upon which the nlament is mounted, and the leading-in 
wires passing through the stem and connecting the filament with the 



MATEBIALS, MAOHIKEBY, AND PBO0E8SE8. 75 

base.^ Some 50 different and distinct operations, with an equal 
number of additional handlings for inspection, are necessary in the 
practical manufacture of lamps. 

The first step in the maniuacture of an incandescent lamp is the 

Preparation of the bulb. As received from the glass works, tne bulb 
as considerable superfluous glass at the neck, which has to be cut off. 
The process of makmg the lamp consists first of melting a hole in the 
roimded end of the bulb. The exhaust tube is then welded to the 
bulb at this point, care being taken to maintain a free air passage 
so that later the air may be pumped out through this tube. 
C^'The tubulated bulb is then placed over the completed mount, both 
bein^ held in their proper relative positions. Bunsen flames are 
applied at the neck of tne bulb, and both the bulb and moimt are 
rotated slowly until the neck of the bulb is welded to the flare of the 
stem tube. The seal thus formed at the neck of the bulb must be 
absolutely air-tight. 

^ The exhaust tube is then connected to a vacuum pump and all 
air exhausted from the lamp. At the same time this is done the lamp 
is inclosed in an oven heated to a high temperature. After the au* 
is exhausted the tube is removed and the lamp is sealed, this operation 
formmg the tip which everyone has noticed^on incandescent lamps. 
The lamp is then based. One of the leading-in wires is brought 
down through and soldered to a cap at the end of the base. Tnia 
cap is insulated from the shell by black glass. The other leading-in 
wire is soldered to the brass shell, and the lamp is completed. 

In a newer type of lamp the bulb, after bemg exhausted, is filled 
with an inert gas, such as nitrogen. The presence of this gas retards 
the evaporation of the filament and permits its operation at a much 
higher temperature and hence with much greater efficiency. 



CHAPTER II. 

CAPITAL NET SALES, AND TXTKITOVEE. 

While data regarding the cost of pruduction in the glass industry 
were obtained from 213 establishments, capital employed in business 
is shown, in the following tables, for only 211 establishments, as 2 
did not report this item. 

OPERATING AKD FINAL PROFIT. 

Table 20, which follows, shows the amount of capital employed in 
business by each group of the 211 establishments reporting, the net 
sales and their ratio to capital, the operating profit when deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans are considered and when not con- 
sidered, and the final profit when these items are considered. 

The operating profit was found by adding the cost of goods pro- 
duced, the selling expense, and the cost of finished goods purchased, 
and from this sum deducting any increase in the stock of goods 
during the year or adding a,ny decrease in the stock of goods ; the 
deduction or addition of the difference in inventories, in each in- 
stance, gave the cost to the manufacturer of goods sold, which figure 
subtracted from th« net sales gave the operating profit. The opera- 
ting profit with depreciation and interest not considered was, of 
course, larger than with these items taken into account. 

Of the 213 estabhshments, only 102 charged off depreciation, 109 
did not show depreciation on their books, and 2 plants were rented. 
Before final profit or operating profit with depreciation and interest 
on current loans charged was arrived at, the average rate of deprecia- 
tion of establishments that actually charged depreciation in each 
group was apphed to establishments in that group which did not 
charge depreciation. 

What is called the final profit was found by adding to the operating 
profit (computed with depreciation and interest on current loans 
considered) the miscellaneous income from real estate, bank bal- 
ances, or investments outside the manufacturing business and 
deducting miscellaneous expenses. 

Salaries of active officers and the drawing accounts of individual 
owners or partners were included in the cost of production before 
profits or losses were figured. Also, before profits or losses were 
computed, aU expenses for selling were included in the cost of pro- 
duction. 

Each of the 13 groups shows an operating profit when deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans are not taken into consideration; 
when they are considered, Group X, embracing 20 estabhshments 
manufacturing blown and pressed tableware, shows an operating 
loss. 

76 



CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TUKNOVEE. 



I 



i! 



II 



If 



it 



M 



a$3SS8£S=£SSK 




Sa-'"8SS2''82'=S 



"«5£>?gSt<x^g| 



I. 



; ; 



N 



78 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



PERCENTAGES OF PROFIT ON CAPITAL AND NET SALES. 

The percentages of operating profit with and without consideration 
of depreciation and interest on current loans and of final profit with 
depreciation and interest considered, based both on capital employed 
in business and on net sales, are shown in the following taole by 
groups of estabUshments. 

Tabi»e 21. — ^Average Percentage of Operating and Final Profit on Capital 
Employed and on Net Sales, bt Groups of Establishments. 





Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Operating profit. 


Final profit, de- 
preciation and in- 
ferest considered. 


EstabUalmieiits maldiig— 


Computed without 

depreciation and 

interest. 


Computed with de- 
preciation and 
interest. 




On cap- 
ital. 

• 


On net 
sales. 


On cap- 
ital. 


On net 
sales. 


On cap- 
ital. 


On net 
sales. 


Window glass, by hand. . 
Window glaas,by machine 
Plate glass 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 
6 
9 
26 
18 

27 

13 

8 

20 

18, 

6 

13 


12.65 

ia39 

6.05 

3.82 

a7.04 

ia32 

6.55 

9.02 

li.t)6 

5.23 
C13.19 

&88 
22.52 


9.34 

9.22 

11.93 

10.29 

5.08 

15.07 

5.71 

9.16 

12.69 

4.96 
14.05 

5.27 
12.84 


7.22 
2.14 

.08 

1.85 

03.26 

7.39 

2.27 

4.97 

ia30 

6.16 
e9.64 

4.91 
15.48 


&33 
L99 
.16 
4.99 
2.28 
10.79 

1.98 
5.04 
9.29 

6.15 
9.59 
2.91 
8.90 


7.69 
2.97 
4.14 
2.11 
a3.82 
7.74 

3.07 

6.04 

ia34 

.11 

clO.25 

•4.86 

15.64 


5.60 

2L76 

.82 


Wire Euad opalescent glass. 
Bottles, by nand 


5.68 
2.65 


Bottles, by machine 

Bottles, by hand and ma- 
chine 


1L30 
2.68 


Jars 


6ul3 


Tableware, blown. 

Tableware, blown and 
pressed 


9.33 
.11 


Lighting goods 


10.19 


T^amp pnirnnev-s 


2.89 


Miscellfkneous articles 


&98 


All establishments 
reporting 


213 


<i9.11 


ia32 


d4.66 


5.57 


«»5.15 


&10 









a Computed on the basis of 25 establishments, 1 not reporting capital. 
6 Operating loss. 

e Computed on the basis of 17 establishments, 1 not reporting capital. 
<i Computed on the basis of 211 establishments, 2 not reporting capital. 

As the capital turnover varies in different establishments and in 
different groups of establishments, the relation between the profits 
based on capital employed in business and the profit on net sales 
varies accoroingly. Thus the operating profit, after deducting de- 
preciation and interest on current loans, based on capital employed 
m business was 4.66 per cent for 211 establishments, and on net sales 
5.57 per cent for 213 establishmnets. The same relation existed be- 
tween the final profit on cajpital employed in business, 5.15 per cent, 
and on the net sales, 6.1 per cent. 

Group XIII, estabhshjnents manufacturing miscellaneous products, 
shows tne highest per cent of final profit based on capital employed 
in business, 15.64 per cent followed by Group IX, blown tableware, 
and Group XI, lighting goods, with 10.34 per cent and 10.25 per 
cent, respectively. Group VI, bottles made by machine, shows the 
highest per cent of final profit based on net sales, 11.3 per cent, fol- 
lowed, in the order mentioned, by Group XI, lighting goods, and 
Group IX, blown tableware, with 10.19 per cent and 9.33 per cent, 
respectively. 

A comparison of Groups I and II shows that the average per- 
centages of profits are considerably higher for handmade winaow 



CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TUBNOVEB, 



79 



glass than for machine-made window glass. On the other hand, a 
comparison of Groups V and VI shows the converse to be true, the 
estabhshments making bottles by machinery showing considerably 
higher average percentages of profits than those in which bottles are 
blown by hand. However, as shown by Table — , the hand plants, 
in both window glass and bottles, show a greater capital turnover 
than the machine estabUshments in these lines. 



PROFIT OR LOSS OF EACH ESTABLISHMENT. 

« 

Table 22, which follows, shows for each individual establishment, 
as well as for each of the 13 groups, operating profit, when deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans are considered and when not consid- 
ered, on capital employed in business and on net sales; and final 
profit, when depreciation and interest on current loans are considered, 
on capital and on net sales. 

Table 22. — ^Percentaob op Opbrating'"and Final Profit on Capital Employed 
AND ON Net Sales, by Groups and by Establishments. 



* 


Operating profit. 


trivial 


_— AA 


Establishments. 


Computed without 

depreciation and 

interest. 


Computed with 

depreciation and 

interest. 


J5 mal uruuhf 

depreciation and 
interest considered. 




On On 
capital, net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sates. 


Group I.— Window glass by hand: 


24.63 
a 4. 13 
05.33 
39.19 
11.27 

6.23 
13.44 

1.05 
14.24 
12.48 
10.42 
15.07 
25.56 
15.52 
34.14 

5.74 
28.09 
30.99 
30.24 

4.61 
10.69 
37.72 
19.27 
13.27 
11.50 

1.63 

7.44 
11.39 
21.07 

6.25 
21.10 
17.93 
10.39 

7.96 
21.16 
14.40 
12.38 


12.00 

a 12. 35 

a 2. 92 

13.33 

8.71 

6.69 

12.09 

1.64 

8.88 

10.32 

8.06 

11.79 

5.62 

14.25 

14.34 

7.47 

14.73 

5.74 

4.97 

2.91 

6.31 

12.65 

14.55 

8.87 

7.98 

1.30 

4.57 

7.95 

15.36 

12.32 

14.82 

17.85 

3.65 

9.93 

11.98 

7.13 

10.37 


10.50 

a 9. 74 
013.15 

35.04 
7.44 
1.22 
7.91 

a6.39 
9.55 
6.27 
4.76 
9.65 

25.56 
9.06 

29.70 
.76 

25.24 

26.53 
7.64 


5.11 

29.11 

a7.22 

11.92 

5.75 

1.31 

7.12 

010.01 

5.96 

5.19 

3.68 

7.56 

5.62 

8.32 

12.48 

.99 

13.23 

4.92 

1-25 


9.84 

09.74 

013.02 

35.04 

7.44 

1.22 

7.91 

06.39 

9.55 

6.01 

4.76 

9.65 

26.49 

9.06 

29.70 

.76 

26.28 

26.53 

7.64 

0.96 

2.12 

28.60 

13.06 

4.38 

7.69 

1.42 

07.21 

11.68 

19.21 

2.48 

16.72 

16.30 

08.12 

4.44 

13.18 

n.07 

10.14 


4.79 


No. 2 


029.11 


JJo.3 : 

No. 4 


07. 16 
11.92 


No. 5 


5.75 


No. 6 


1.31 


No. 7 


7.12 


No. 8 


o 10. 01 


No. 9 


5.96 


No. 10 


4.97 


No. 11 


3.68 


No. 12 


7.65 


No. 13 


5.83 


No. 14 


8.32 


No. 15 


12.48 


No. 16 


.99 


No. 17 


13.77 


No. 18 


4.92 


No. 19 


1.25 


No. 20 


o. 96 a. 60 

2.12 1.25 
28.60 9.59 
13.00 9.82 

4.38 ' 2.93 

6. 13 4. 2A 


0.60 


No. 21 


1.25 


No. 22 


9.59 


No. 23 


9.88 


No. 24 


2.93 


No. 25 


5.33 


No. 26 


.05 
a7.99 

5.97 
18.66 

2.48 

16.55 

16.13 

8.12 

4.44 
12.94 


.04 
• 4.91 

4.16 
13.60 

4.89 

11.62 

16.05 

02.85 

5.54 

7.33 


1.13 


No. 27 


04.43 


No. 28 


8.15 


No. 29 


14.00 


No. 30 


4.89 


No. 31 


11.74 


No. 32 


16.22 


No. 33 


02. 85 


No. 34 


5.54 


No. 35 


7.46 


No. 36 


11.07 5.48 
9.92 1 8.30 


5.48 


No. 37 


8.49 






Average 


12.65 


9.34 


7.22 


5.33 


7.59 


5.60 







o Loss. 



80 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



Table 22. — ^Pbbcentage of OPEBATmo and Final Profit on Capital Emflotsd 
AND ON Net Sales, bt Gboups and by Estabushmbnts— Continued. 



Establiahments. 



Group n.— Window glass by machine: 

No. 38 

No. 39 

No. 40 

No. 41 

No. 42 

No. 48...., 

No.fl 

No. 45 

No. 46 

No. 47 

No. 48. 

No. 49 

Average 

Group in.— Plate glass: 

No. 60 

No. 51 

No.M 

No. 63 

No. 64 

No. 55. : 

Average 

Group IV.— Wire and opalescent glass: 

No. 56 

No. 57 

No. 58 

No. 59 

No. 60. 

No. 61 

No. 62 

No. 63 

No. 64 

Average 

Group v.— Bottles by hand: 

No. 65 

No. 66 

No. 67 

N0..68 

No. 69 

No. 70 

No. 71 

No. 72 

No. 73 

No. 74 .• 

No. 75 ! 

No. 76 

No. 77 

No. 78 

No. 79 

No. 80 

No. 81 

No. 82 

No.83 

No. 84 

No. 85 

No. 86 : 

No. 87 

No. 88 

No. 89 

No. 90 

Average 



Operating profit. 



Ck)mputed without 

depreciation and 

interest. 



On 
capital. 



03.44 
a 15. 77 

«.t)7 
15.49 
18.95 

7.65 
13.27 
19.25 
14.46 

7.33 

9.78 
16.65 



10.39 



6.48 
3.82 
12.60 
2.64 
8.82 
4.^ 



6.06 



2.09 
tt7.75 
21.73 
20.95 
15.73 
87.95 
6.44 
17.79 

2.87 



3.82 



2.22 

9.72 

1.73 

a 19. 03 

1.78 

4.08 

8.3S 

8.55 

7.71 

9.07 

7.35 

17.55 

15.28 

34.51 

1.76 

2.88 

12.94 

25.00 

22.47 

7.55 
«3.73 

6.01 
14.29 
15.38 

4.60 



On 

net sales. 



«7.04 



02.68 
a 12. 10 

a. 16 
10.55 
12.80 

6.16 

6.47 
11.80 
12.53 

7.10 
11.79 
14.03 



9.22 



6.15 

4.14 

24.97 

6.11 

12.09 

13.89 



11.93 



7.88 
18.45 
28.88 
11.08 
23.47 
18.66 
012.90 
16.71 
11.19 



10.29 



7.47 

14.08 

1.13 

27.42 

1.03 

2.10 

6.35 

6.17 

5.52 

13.99 

4.41 

8.21 

11.89 

10.84 

a 1.39 

1.14 

4.60 

13.90 

6.65 

5.97 

6.67 

1.36 

5.25 

8.24 

8.47 

4.39 



5.06 



Computed with 

depreciation and 

interest. 



On 
capital. 



015.06 

20.02 

3.14 

6.65 
14.58 

8.43 

7.96 
14.76 

2.33 
2.37 
02.47 

8.60 



On 
net sales. 






011.78 

al5.36 

7.09 

4.46 

9.86 

2.76 

3.88 

9.12 

2.02 

02.29 

03.00 

7.1^ 



2.14 



4.62 
6.01 

6.00 
02.36 

2.76 
01.34 



.06 



03.88 
010.18 
20.46 
15. r3 
13.83 
30.73 
08.17 
14.17 
1.12 



1.85 



a.45 

0.13 

03.24 

23.03 

0.20 

01.94 

al2.96 

3.50 

4.32 

6.78 

.65 

16.35 

13 65 

34.51 

06.54 

al.4l 

6.87 

21.83 

14.43 

1.30 
013. 51 
3.74 
11.33 
9.24 
2.77 



1.99 



4.38 

07.6O 

11.80 

04.55 

4.00 
03. 98 



.16 



14.63 

24.22 

27.18 

8.05 

20.64 

15.11 

016.37 

13.31 

4.37 



4.99 



01.63 

0.I8 

02.11 

033.19 

0.11 

01.00 

9.83 
2.53 
3.09 

10.46 

.39 

7.65 

10.62 
10.84 

05.17 
a.66 
2.44 

12.13 
4.27 
0.95 
1.14 

04.94 
3.26 
6.53 
5.09 
2.66 



e3.26 



2.28 



Final profit, 

depreciation and 

interest considered. 



On 
capital. 



04.40 

020.02 

3.14 

6.55 
14.58 

4.91 
10.25 
16. £9 

2.33 
02.37 
02.15 

9.45 



2.97 



4.62 
0.6.01 

6.00 
el. 90 

3.04 

0.83 



4.14 



03.86 

0IO.I8 

2QL48 

15.23 

14.42 

30.73 

07.98 

14.17 

1.42 



2.11 



0.45 

0.13 

03.24 

022.79 

.61 

01.94 

012.70 

3.85 

8.43 

6.78 

.65 

23.93 

14.11 

34.51 

04. 18 

01. 41 

5.14 

21.83 

14.43 

(6) 
1.30 
013.51 
3.69 
12.81 
9.52 
3.26 



e3.82 



On 



net 



03.43 
015. 36 

07. 09 
4.46 
9.8S 
3.95 
5.00 

16.21 
2. 02 

02.29 

02.61 
7.96 



2.76 



4.3S 

• 7.50 

11.80 

OS. 67 

4.41 

02.46 



.82 



14.56 

a 24. 22 

27.18 

8.05 

21.52 

15.11 

a 15.96 

13.31 

5.53 



5.68 



01.53 

0.I8 

02.11 

032. 84 

.35 

ol.OO 

09. 63 

2.78 

6.00 

10.46 

.39 

11. W 

10.97 

10.84 

03.30 

a. 56 

1.82 

12.13 

4.27 

0.95 

1.14 

04.94 

3.23 

7.JS 

5.24 

3.13 



2.6S 



o Lqis. b Capital not reported. EzdlusiTe of 1 establishment not reporting oapitaL 



CAPITAL, inST SALES, AKD TtJBNOVEB. 



81 



TabLB 22.— PEnCENTAOB OF OPKBAWNd AMD FinAL PeOWT ON GAFTTAL EMPLOYED 

AND ON Net Sales, by Gnotips and by Establibhhbntb— Conthiued. 



. 


Operating profit. 


INnol 


«._jkA 


Kstablinhmfinfi. 


Compnted without 

depred^iMi and 

intonot. 


Computed with 

depreciation and 

Interest. 


final uivuii, 
depredauon and 
taiterest oonslderedt 








On 


On 
iMtsatoB. 


On 


On 
netaatos. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


Group VI.— Bottles hj machine: 

1^0.91 


0.76 
15.01 
12.61 
16.93 
.60 
10.18 

4.20 
44.31 
19.18 
14.76 
17.81 
20.94 
31.30 
12.33 
16.77 

4.59 

8.90 
10.07 


0.64 

8.02 
17.46 
22.96 

3.83 
11.41 
29.08 
A 1.82 
24.61 
13.31 
17.90 
19.12 
24.39 
13.13 
24.76 
16.63 
21.88 

8.41 


oil. 73 

4.81 

6.52 

6.44 

.36 

1.70 

33.45 

013.04 

11.71 

.7.24 

14.89 

13. 3J 

18.18 

10.11 

9.91 

4.26 

8.52 

6.15 


08.31 

2.68 

9.02 

9.27 

2.85 

1.91 

28.13 

06.90 

14.97 

6.53 

14.97 

ILSO 

2a 82 

10.77 

16.55 

15.30 

20.96 

6.13 


011.73 

4.81 

6.52 

6.44 

0.16 

.1.70 

83.45 

• 15.87 

11.91 

.8.78 

14.97 

14.28 

18.98 

11.19 

9.91 

4.00 

8.46 

7.67 


8.31 


No. 92 


2.68 


Ko.98 


9.02 


No. 94 


9.27 


No. 95 


0.97 


No. 96 


1.91 


No. 97 


88.18 


No. 98 


«6.7a 

16. » 


No. 90 


No. 100 


7.92 


No. 101 


15.04 


No. 102 


18.06 


No. 108 


31.68 


Nal04 


11.91 


No. 105 


16.66 


No. 106 


14.81 


No. 107 


20.79 


No. 106 


6.40 






Average 


10.32 


15.07 


7.39 


10.7a 


7.74 


11.80 






Groap VII.— Bottles by hand and machine: 
No. 109 •. 


19.88 

11.07 

7.13 

13.60 

10.37 

oa76 

10.61 

2.10 

.55 

19.18 

.10 

3.18 

2.27 

.68 

07.69 

16.84 

25.24 

017.78 

8.83 

5.98 

32.75 

.20 

018.53 

14.86 

29.94 

14.72 

6.87 


10.73 
4.56 
9.68 
7.78 

12.74 

010.41 

7.73 

2.94 

.61 

9.22 

o.lt 

2.73 

.74 

1.05 

7.01 
0.13 

13.36 

07.58 
5.62 
8.55 

13.35 

.19 

014.14 

9.15 

15.58 

16.76 
7.21 


8.34 

04.23 

.0.47 

10.07 

5.68 

15.68 

4.36 

03. 29 

02.20 

12.50 

08. 62 

05. 36 

0.48 

02. 65 

010.17 

10.83 

16.18 

028.96 

2.83 

1.10 

19.58 

01, 96 

027.90 

1.94 

25.66 

12.57 

5.38 


4.50 

oL74 

0.68 

6.80 

6.96 

0I8.6I 

8.17 

04.47 

02.41 

6.01 

0I6.2I 

04. 61 

0.I6 

04.09 

09. 26 

3.94 

8.03 

012. 85 

L80 

1.58 

7.98 

01.86 

02L29 

7.36 

13.36 

14.31 

6.65 


8.81 
04.23 

4.25 
10.07 

5.68 
015.61 

4.36 
02.33 
01.75 
12.50 
06.00 
04. 98 

0.48 
02. 65 

0.72 

10.83 

15.42 

025.22 

2.88 

1.10 
21.91 

0.94 

021.00 

12.11 

27.48 

12.67 

4.64 


4.49 


No. 110 


01.74 


No. Ill 


0.34 


No. 112 


5.80 


No. 113. 


6.98 


No. 114 


018.53 




3.18 


No. 116 


03.17 




01. 98 


No. 118 


6.01 




09.41 


No. 120 


04.29 




0.I6 


No. 122 


04.09 




0.66 


No. 124 


3.94 




8.16 


No. 126 


olO. 75 




1.80 


No. 128 


1.58 
8.98 


No. 130 


0.89 




0I6.O2 


No. 132 


7.46 




14.80 


No. 134 


14.31 




4.87 








6.65 


5.71 


2.27 


1.98 


8.07 


2.68 


No. 136 


7.71 

84.60 

4.26 

8.37 

6.94 

81.20 

13.76 

6.16 

9.15 

13.96 

2.51 

13.37 

10.01 


8.60 
33.80 
16.99 
ia46 

4.62 
14.74 

7.17 

3.83 
14.71 

0.86 

O3.03 

11.34 

12.87 


8.00 

39.86 

04.90 

.97 

.66 

37.94 

9.67 

.16 

3.87 

6.07 

05.66 

10.71 

7.88 


8.81 
19.14 

• 1.84 
1.38 

• .44 

18.30 

&08 

.88 

6.86 

4.39 

• 4.40 
9.06 

10.14 


8.00 
39.86 

• 4.46 
3.98 

«.66 
37.94 
0.67 
3.66 
4.86 
6.07 

• 4.66 
11.63 

8.79 


8.81 




19.14 


No. 138 


0L68 




8.76 


No. 140 


•*U 




18.30 


No. 143 


6.08 




6.74 


No. 144 


7.81 




4.30 


No. 146 


• 8.76 


No. 147 


9.86 


No. 148 


11.81 






Aywagfi 


9.02 


9.16 


4.97 


6.04 


6.04 


6.18 







• Loss. 



102511*— 17 6 



82 



TBE GLASS VSTDJJ&TBY. 



Table 22. — ^Psscentaob of OpE&ATiNa and Fikal Profit on Capital Emplotbo 
AND ON Nbt Sales, bt Groups and bt Establishments — Oontinued. 



• 


Operating profit. 


Tn««At 


^A. 


Establishments. 


CompQted without 

depredation and 

interest. 


Computed with 

depreciation and 

hiterest. 


f mai prune, 

depreciation and 

interest considered 




On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 

net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


Group IX.— Tableware, blown: 

No. 149 


3.87 

8.02 

S7.12 

11.99 

11.00 

9.05 

9.88 

23.88 


5.28 

6.11 

16.86 

6.24 

8.82 

10.70 

11.49 

31.50 


.86 
3.86 

30.43 
1.05 
7.19 
5.62 
6.55 

31.60 


L18 
2.94 

13.82 

.64 

6.77 

6.65 

7.61 

19.46 


.86 
S.87 

30.43 
1.05 
7.19 
5.78 
6.58 

21.60 


1.18 


No. 160 


2.96 


No. 151 


13.82 


No. 162 


.54 


No. 153 


5.77 


No. 154 


6.84 


No. 155 


7.65 


No. 156 


19.45 






Average 


14.06 


12.09 


10.30 


9.29 


10.34 


0.33 






Oroap X.— Tableware, blown and pressed: 
1^0.157 


U.85 

6.67 

a 3. 28 

7.66 

a 3. 18 

5.95 

a 22. 88 

14.45 

6.20 

9.78 

33.76 

O2.07 

25.36 

13.26 

3.80 

3.17 

11.60 

1.04 

5.31 

5.34 


10.33 
9.71 

6.76 

7.21 

5.81 

6.17 

al2.99 

11.38 
3.60 
9.44 

11.36 
2.01 

20.81 
7.19 
4.34 
2.61 

10.89 
1.80 
2.68 
3.91 


7.70 

a. 75 

a 9. 91 

4.44 

a 10. 95 

4.26 

a30.89 

10.38 

a 2. 93 

2.53 

29.26 

a 7.56 

14.67 

8.76 

2.09 

a 2. 86 

7.31 

a6.66 

1.83 

L34 


6.71 

OL29 

a 20. 43 

4.18 

a 20. 04 

4.41 

«17.54 

&18 

1.70 

2.45 

9.83 

a 7.34 

12.04 

4.74 

2.39 

a 2. 36 

6.92 

a 9. 72 

.89 

.98 


7.70 

a. 76 

a 9. 91 

5.38 

a 10. 95 


6.71 


No. 158 


.«1.» 


No. 169 


• 20.43 


No. 160 


5.06 


No. 161 


a 90.04 


No. 162 


4.26 4.41 


No. 163 


a 30. 80 a 17.54 


No. 164 


10.80 1 fi^sn 


No. 165 


a. 06 
2.53 


o .03 


No. 166 


9 15 


No. 167 


29. 26 i 9 83 


No. 168 


a 7. 56 1 a 7 34 


No. 169 


14. 77 12. 13 


No. 170 


9.58 1 5.19 


No. 171 


2.33 i 2.67 


No. 172 


a 2. 86 1 a 2 36 




8.23 7 80 


No. 174 


a5.63 a 9. 68 




1.83 .89 


No. 176 


1.98 1.45 




1 


Average 


6.23 


4.96 


0.16 


a. 15 


.11 .11 






Group XI.— Lighting goods: 


.34 

17.85 

7.38 

27.30 

3.87 

9.97 

1&92 

29.66 

20.24 

9.07 

8.36 

32.94 

3.46 

1.63 

40.37 
2L34 
16.46 


.15 

9.80 

10.89 

11.02 

4.76 

14.45 

14.54 

ia76 

16.79 

10.72 

2.51 

10.70 

4.86 

6.29 

9.75 

21.42 

24.44 

13.67 


a 10. 61 

3.26 

1.40 

14.11 

a 7. 39 

7.62 

15.68 

23.88 

17.20 

5.64 

3.71 

21.47 

1.42 

a. 08 

38.02 
18.07 
11.14 


a 4. 80 

L79 

2.07 

5.70 

a 9. 06 

11.05 

12.06 

15.11 

14.27 

6.67 

1.11 

6.97 

2.00 

0.31 

a 2. 86 

20.18 

20.70 

9.86 


a 6.67 

3.26 

2.04 

14.11 

a 7.39 

7.86 


03.03 ' 


No. 178 


1 79 




3 01 1 


No. 180 


5 70 




aO 06 


No. 182 


11 40 




16.21 • 12 46 


No. 184 


24.67 i 15.61 


No. 185 


17.20 14 97 


No. 186 


6.42 


7-59 


No. 187 


3,71 

23.09 

1.42 

a. 08 

40.10 


l.ll 


No. 188 


7.50 


No. 189 


2 00 


No." 190 


o 35 


No. 191 


a2 86 


No. 192 


91 « 




18. 47 91 IS 


No. 194 


12.63 


11.17 






Average 


«13.19 


14.06 


C9.64 


9.59 


el0,25 


10.19 






Groap XII.— Lamp chimneys: 


29.94 
a 13. 11 
31.44 
20.38 
24.43 
4.52 


7.20 
10.88 
16.64 

6.27 
11.07 

3.22 


27.51 
19.27 
27.07 
1&82 
15.52 
1.20 


6.62 

15.99 

13.38 

4.87 

7.03 

.85 


27.51 
a 19. 27 
27.18 
18.82 
15.95 
1.07 


6l6S 


No. 196 


• 15 99 




13 43 


No. 198 


4 87 




7 23 ' 


No. 200 


76 






Average 


8.88 


5.27 


4.91 


2.91 


4.86 


2.89 







a Loss. b Capital not reported. « Ezdusive of 1 establishment not reporting capital. 



CAPITAL^ K£T SAJLES^ AND TUBiN^OVEB. 



83 



Tablb 22. — Pebcbntaob of Opbbaitno and Final Profit ok Capital Eicplotbd 

AND ON NbT SaLBS^ BT G&OUPS AND BT ESTABUSHMBNTB — Goncluded. 





OpenitlBg profit. 


VfMAl ■ 


_..^jiA 


EitehlMimfintti. 


Compoted wWioiit 

depmciaUoiLaiid 

interest. 


Gomptited with 

depreeiatioB and 

interest. 


depreoiaEioa Mid 
Interest considered* 








On 
oapilal. 


On 
netaalee. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


On 
oapitai. 


On 
n«t«lflii 


Oroap XIII.— Miscellaneous artielas: 

No. 201 


• 

22.61 
13.74 
10.01 
22.13 
34.48 
263.20 
38.31 
10.23 
17.22 
20.81 
22.01 
23.49 
26.84 


40.45 

4.21 

10.58 

17.11 

14.44 

19.49 

8.76 

10.92 

17.69 

18.15 

7.23 

13.61 

11.62 


18.06 
11.42 

6.73 

19.08 

23.38 

251.71 

25.69 

2.86 
15.04 
18.76 
19.14 
16.12 
13.46 


32.30 
3.60 
7.11 

14.76 
9.80 

18.64 
5.87 
3.05 

15.37 

16.37 
6.12 
9.34 
6.88 


1&05 
11.42 

7.22 

19.09 

23.38 

251.71 

26.69 

3.24 
16.06 
18.76 
19.64 
16.12 
13.68 


32.30 


No. 202 


3.50 


No. 203 * 


7.63 


No. 204 


14.76 


No. 205 


9.80 


No. 206 


18.64 


No. 207 


6.87 


No. 208 


3.46 


No. 209 


15.38 


No. 210 


16.37 


No. 211 


6.28 


No. 212 


9.34 


No. 213 


5.98 






Average - 


22.52 


12.84 


16.48 


8.90 


16.64 


8.98 







NUMBER OP ESTABLISHMENTS SHOWING PROFIT OR LOSS. 

The following table is a summary of the preceding table and shows 
for each group of estabhshments the number having operating profits 
and the numoer having operating losses (depreciation and interest 
on current loans considerea and not considered) on capital employed 
in business and on net sales, and also the number having final profits 
or losses (depreciation and interest on current loans considered). 

Tablb 23.-rNuMBER of Estabushuentb Havino Operating and Final Profits 

OR Losses. 



Establisbments making— 


Groups. 


Without deduction 

for depreciation 

and Interest. 


After allowance lor depreciation and 
interest. 


Operat- 
pr^t. 


Operat- 
ing 

lORR. 


Operat- 
proSt. 


Operat- 
ing 
loss. 


Final 
profit. 


Final 
loss. 


Window elass by band 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XTTT 


35 

9 

6 

7 

22 

16 

22 

12 

8 

16 

18 

5 

13 


2 
3 

2 
4 
2 
5 
1 

4 

1 



31 
• 7 

3 

6 
16 
16 
14 
10 

8 
12 
14 

5 
13 


6 
5 
3 
3 

10 
2 

13 
3 

8 
4 
1 



31 

7 

3 

6 

16 

15 

14 

10 

• 8 

12 

14 

5 

13 





Window glass by machine 

Pl^tA g'WB. ..... r - 


5 
3 


Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by Dand ,... 

Bottio-*! hy TTiftchii)e. 


3 

10 

3 


Bottles by band and machine . . 
Jf ars 


13 
3 


Tableware, blown 





Tableware, blown and pressed. . 
Liehtins eoods 


8 
4 


I/ainp cni™Ti«ys .,...,,...... 


1 


Miscellaneous articles 









Total 


189 


24 


156 


58 


164 


59 









The preceding table shows that of 213 estabhshments reporting, 
depreciation and interest not considered, 189 had operating profits 



84 



THE GLASS INDUSTBT. 



and 24 operatiiijg losses. When de})reciation and interest are consid- 
ered, 155 establShments had operating profits aikl 58 operating losses 
and 154 establishments had final profits and 59 final losses. Over 27 
per cent of the 213 establishments from which data were secured 
showed a final loss. 

Group IX, blown tableware, and Group XIII, miscellaneaous arti- 
cles, are the only groups which do not include establishnients showing 
losses. 

Of the establishments making bottles by hand. Group Y, over 38 
ner c^it had a final loss; of those making bottles by machine, Group 
Vl, over 16 per c^it; and of the establishments making bottles by 
hand and machine, Group VII, over 48 per cent. 

A much higher percentage of estabUshments in Group II, window 
glass made by machine, show a final loss than is shown oy establish- 
ments in Group I, winaow glass made by hand. 

VARIATIONS IN PROFITS AND LOSSES. 

Of the establishments in the 13 groups, depreciation and interest 
on current loans considered, the highest percentage of operating profit 
on capital employed (251.71 per cent) is shown by an establishment 
in Group XIIl, making miscellaneous articles of glass, and the great- 
est percentage of operating loss on capital employed (30.89 per cent) 
is shown by an establishment in Group X, making blown ana pressed 
tableware. 

Depreciation and interest on current loans considered, the highest 
percentage of operating profit on net sales (32.34 per cent) was also 
made by an establishment in Group XIII, manufacturing miscella- 
neous articles of glass, and the greatest percentage of operating loss 
(33.19 per cent) was made by an establisnment in Group V, manufac- 
turing bottles by hand. 

The following table shows, in percentages, the highest final profit 
and greatest final loss by any establishment in each group and the 
average profit for the ^oup based on capital employed and on net 
sales, depreciation, and interest on current loans considered and mis- 
cellaneous income and outgo included : 

Table 24. — Highest and Average Percentage of Final Profit and Greatest 
Percentage of Loss on Capital Employed and on Net Sales, bt Groups of 
Establishments. 





Group. 




OncapitaL 


* 


Onnetaalm. 


EstabUdunents making- 


Highest 
profit. 


Average 
profit. 


Greatest 
loss. 


Highest 
profit. 


Average 
profit. 


Greatest 
loss. 


Window elass by hand 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

vni 

IX 

X 

XI 

xn 
xin 


35.04 
16.53 
6.00 
30.73 
34.61 
33.45 
27.48 
39.85 
30.43 
29.26 
40.10 
27.51 
261.71 


7.59 
2.97 
4.14 
2.11 
3.82 
7.74 
3.07 
6.04 

10.34 
.11 

10.26 
4.86 

15.64 


13.02 
20.02 

6.01 
10.18 
22.79 
15.87 
26.22 

4.65 

a. 86 
30.89 

7.39 

19.27 

a3.24 


16.22 
10.21 
11.80 
27.18 
12.13 
23.13 
14.31 
19.14 
19.45 
12.13 
21.28 
13.43 
82.80 


6.60 
2.76 
.82 
6.68 
2.66 

11.30 

2.68 

6.13 

9.33 

.11 

10.19 
2.89 
8.98 


29.11 


Window glass by machine 

Plate glass 


15.31 
7.50 


Wire and opalescent goods 

Bottles bv nand , - . r r 


24.23 
32.84 


Bottles bv machine 


8.31 


Bottles by band and machine 

Jars.... - 


18.53 
3.75 


Tableware, blown 


a. 54 


Tableware, blown and pressed — 
JAthtine eoods 


20.43 
9.08 


I^amD onimnevs ^--,-^-.r. 


15.99 




03.46 







a Lowest profit; no establishments in this group shows a loss. 



CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TURNOVER. 85 

TUBKOVBH OF CAPITAL. 

Capital in the various braaohes of the glass industry is not turned 
over rapidly. In the 211 establishments for which capital employed 
in business was reported, Table 20 shows that the average turnover, 
or the ratio of net sales to capital, was as 88 to 100. In other words, 
the capital was turned over less than once during the course of a year's 
business. The table indicates that the amoimt of capital required to 
finance some glass factories is greater than the amount of net sales. 

Comparing Group I with Group II, it is seen that the average turn- 
over ot hand window-glass factories was greater than in the case of 
machine window-glass factories. A comparison of Groups V with VI 
shows, hkewise, that the average turnover of hand bottle factories was 
greater than in the case of machine bottle factories. 

The greatest average turnover by groups in order was in the manu- 
facture of miscellaneous articles; lamp chimneys; bottles by hand; 
window glass by hand; bottles by hand and machine; taoleware, 
blown; window glass by machine; and tableware, blown and pressed. 
In all of these groups the average sales exceeded the average capital 
employed. Groups in which the net sales were less than the capital, in 
the order of the largest turnover to the smallest, was in the manufac- 
ture of jars, Ughting goods, bottles by machine, plate glass, and wire 
and opalescent glass. 

The 1914 Census of Manufactures of the United States gives the 
value of the product of 348 establishments in the glass industry as 
$123,085,019 and the capital invested as $153,925,876, a ratio of prod- 
uct to capital as 80 to 100. 



CHAPTER III. 
DEPSECIATIOV OF PIAVT AVD EQITIPIEEVT. 

ZMPOBTANCS OF THS CHABOSS. 

The importance of considering depreciation as an dement of cost 
to be charged to operating expense or deducted from income is recog- 
nized by practicaliY all accountants. Many establishments believiDg 
that they were conducting a profitable business have found themselves 
facing financial ruin because the importance of providing for a depre- 
ciation reserve was not recognized. 

The invention of new and more efficient machinery necessitates 
the scrapping of obsolete equipment. Very frequently glass plants 
are compellea to move to different locations on account of a shortage 
of/natural gas. These elements of hazard are incidental to industry 
and must be guarded against by reserves or sinking funds. Unless 
they are taken into consideration, no cost or accounting system is 
scientifically accurate or safe. 

The amount or percentage and the taethod to be employed in 
charging depreciation is a mooted question. Little douot exists, 
however, that systematic provision must be made for it in order to 
arrive at the accurate state of affairs of any manufacturing business. 

The value of buUdin^, machines, and otner equipment deteriorate 
from many causes — ^from use, abuse, accident, oDsolescence, etc. In 
an article on the subject of depreciation appearing in the new American 
Handbook for Electrical Engineers, written by Wm. A. Del Mar, 
some of the factors that affect depreciation are defined as follows: 

Deterioration, — ^Any change in a propnerty due to wear and tear or the ravages of thi 
elements which tendis to impair eitner its usefidness or its life. 

Lose of useful association. — Any change in the associations of a property which tendi 
to impair its usefulness or its life. 

Obsolescence. — A loss of commercial ability in any property due to the advent of 
superior substitutes. 

Inadequacy. — Loss of commercial utility in a property due to its inability to meet 
increased business conditions. 

While it is possible to estimate quite accurately how much should 
be charged for wear and tear, it is impossible to do so for the elements 
of obsolescence and the like. It requires an * insurance" or reserve 
fund to overcome this industrial hazard. 

VABIOUS METHODS EMPLOYED. 

There is no uniform practice as to the percentage of original cost 
to be charged off for depreciation. The ** straight-line depreciation" 
consists of estimating the expected hfe of a machine and charging 
depreciation each year according to the percentage found by dividing 
the original cost by the number of years estimated. Estimating a 
certain percentage of depreciation each year, figuring this amount 
every year after the first on the depreciated or net value of the 
macnine, is also frequently employed. Another method is that of 
charging the amount of depreciation to a reserve account or sinking 
fund. 

The crude and inaccurate method of lumping all property and 
machinery and charging c^^ imiform percentage of depreciation is 

86 



DEPBECIATIOK OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 87 

absolutely incorrect and can only lead to a false statement of values. 
Some machinery and equipment must necessarily be treated dif- 
ferently than others. The amount to be chained is largely a matter 
of experience and sound business judgment, f he hazardous element 
of competition enters into the Ufe of machinery and equipment as it 
does in all branches of business and industry, and the wise business 
man will insure himself against this factor. 

To arrive at the proper amount of depreciation it- is essential to 
provide for a detailed inventory of the value' of buildings, machinery, 
and equipment. It must also be recognized that no amount of 
maintenance, repairs, or renewals can prevent depreciation. To argue 
that such charges cover depreciation is inaccurate. The time will 
arrive when a machine or even a building, regardless of the repairs 
and renewals, will have to be scrapped, either because it is worn out 
or obsolete or because of anj of the other causes mentioned above. 

Many manufacturers are in the habit of showing charges for depre- 
ciation when profits are exceptionally high, nedecting to do so wnen 
the business year shows a loss or only a smiul profit. This is fre- 
quently done in order to show the business in a better light, when 
applying for loans or commercial ratings. This method can not be 
too strongly condemned. An accumulated charge for depreciation 
covering several years should not be charsed against the cost of 
manufacturing or against surplus account oi a single business year. 
Depreciation differs in the different departments and therefore 
should not be charged at a common rate for the whole establishment, 
but the chaise should be made at a proper rate for each department 
separately. 

Most manufacturers visited during this investigation paid little 
attention to this subject. The books of many did not provide for 
depreciation accounts. Out of 102 establishments reportii^ such 
charges, only 35' charged depreciation separately on buildings and 
macnines and on different types of machines. The others charged 
off lump sums without regard to the classification of the property. 
In one instance an estabhshment charged off almost 50 per cent of 
the value of the plant and equipment for one business year, an amoimt 
which represented the accumulated depreciation for eight years. 

Some of the statements made by manufacturers in answer to the 
inquiry concerning depreciation are as follows: 

We usually charge for depreciation, but profits must warrant it. 
Five per cent annually it profits warrant; if not, no depreciation is charged for the 
business year but is doubled in the following year. 
Bepair account is sufficient to cover depreciation. 

Several of the establishments from which data were obtained pro- 
vided accurate methods of charging depreciation. One of these classi- 
fied its annual depreciation charges as follows: 

Buildings : Per cent. 

Brick 4 

Frame 4 

Concrete 2J 

Machines and tools: 

Ordinary 10 

Clay mixing, etc 20 

Equipment (blowing rods, etc.) 10 

Gas producers 10 

Furniture and fixtures 10 

Molds 10 



88 



XH£ GLASS IKDUSXBt. 



Of the 213 establishments reporting data, 109 did not provide for 
depreciation charges, but in tabulating the schedules secured from 
these 109 establishments depreciation was calculated on the average 
percentage of depreciation reported by establishments in their 
respective groups. This percentage was based on the total value of 
the plant, including the land, which in some cases was not reported 
separately from the bmldings and equipment. 

^ NXGLSCt OF CHABGS8 BT GLASS-HAXZNG PLAHTS. 

The following table shows in detail the number of establishments 
that charged and that did not charge depreciation, and the amounts 
charged and estimated, by groups: 

Table 25. — ^Value op Plants, Number op Establishments Chargino Deprecu- 
TioN AND Amount Charged, and Number Not Charging Depreciation, with 
Estimated Amount, bt Grottfs. 



Establishments 
manufacturing— 



by 



Window glass 

hand 

Wkidow glass by 

machine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent 



Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine. 

Bottles Dy hand 
andmacnine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown . . 

Tableware, blown 
and pressed 

Lighting |;oods 

I4unp chmaieys 

Miscellaneous arti- 
cles 



Total. 



Group. 



n 
m 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

vin 

IX 

X 

XI 

xu 
xm 



Number of establish- 
ments. 



Total. 



•J7 

12 
6 

9 

026 

18 

27 

13 

8 

20 

18 

6 

13 



ft213 



Charg- 
ing 
depre- 
ciation. 



10 

7 

4 

6 

8 
16 

12 

12 

5 

6 

11 

2 



102 



Not 
charg- 
ing 
depre- 
ciation. 



26 

5 
2 

4 

17 

2 

15 
1 
3 

14 
7 

4 

9 



Total 
value ot 

land, 
buildings, 
and equip' 

ment. 



109 



S2, 404, 400 

1,815,956 
6,176,876 

2,707,412 

2,221,981 

10,696,556 

3,506,898 

2,971,009 

786,030 

4,314,405 

7,425,008 

431,794 

1,118,199 



46,576,584 



Depreciation. 



Charged. 



S42,433 

80,313 
392,430 

80,772 

32,896 

535,459 

130,959 

176,501 

28,538 

137,251 

836,593 

3,609 

64,851 



2,051,096 



Estl- 
mated. 



1129,816 

74,252 
116,933 

13,328 
44,905 
19,093 

125,259 

7,357 

18,170 

233,117 
77,138 
16^089 

43,468 



918,925 



Total. 



8172,249 

154,565 
508,36a 

108, lAO 

77,801 

564,652 

256,218 

183,858 

46,708 

370,368 

413,731 

19,680 

107,810 



2,970,021 



Per 
cent of 
value. 



7.16 

8.51 
&2S 

3.81 
3.50 
&18 

7.31 
6.19 
5.94 

&S8 
5.57 
4.56 

9.64 



6.38 



a One plant is rented; no depreciation charged. 
h Two plants ar^ rented; no depreciation charged. 



DEPRECIATION' OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 



89 



One defect of the accounting systems used in many glass factories 
was shown by answers to inquiries as to whether there were reserves 
for bad dedts and for depreciation or whether an amount for depre- 
ciation was charged against the capital account. The answers to 
these inquiries are tabiSated below: 

Table 26. — ^Establishments Which Charge Off Depreciation and Which Hayb 
Reserves for Depreciation and Bad Debts, by Groups. 



EstabUshments manufacturing- 



Window glass by hand 

Window glass by machine 

Plate gla^ 

Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine. 

Jars 

Tableware , blown . . . .• 

Tableware, blown and plressed . 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



Total. 



Group. 



I 
II 

m 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



a 37 
12 

6 

9 

26 

18 

o27 

13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 



&213 



Deprecia- 
tion 
charged. 



Yes. 



10 
7 
4 
5 
8 

If. 

12 

12 
5 
6 

11 
2 
4 



102 



No. 



a26 
5 
2 
4 
18 
2 

a 14 
1 
3 
14 
7 
4 
9 



bl09 



Reserve for 
deprecia- 
tion. 



Yes. 



5 
5 

2 
3 
14 
8 
7 
1 
4 
3 
1 
2 



55 



No. 



32 

7 
6 
7 

23 
4 

19 
6 
7 

16 

15 
5 

11 



158 



Reserve for 
bad debts. 



Yes. 



1 
1 


3 
9 
5 
6 

2 
4 
1 
1 



33 



No. 



36 

11 
6 
9 

23 
9 

22 
7 
8 

18 

14 
5 

12 



180 



a Includes one rented plant; no depreciation charged. 
& Includes two rented plants; no depreciation charged. 

The preceding table shows that of 213 establishments, 158 had no 
reserve account for depreciation; 109 (not including 2 that rented 
factories) made no charge for depreciation against capital account, 
and 180 had no reserve for bad debts (though some stated that they 
had no bad debts). Probably all glass manufacturers realize that 
there is a shrinkage in the values of their buildings and equipments 
outside of repairs and additions from year to year, yet over naif of 
those that reported in this investigation did not charge off deprecia- 
tion in making up their profit and loss statements. Some charged 
off depreciation only after several years, and then in insufficient 
amounts; others only in years when they made an unusually large 
profit. Many establishments do not charge off depreciation every 
year for the reason that they wish to make favoraole showings in 
regard to capital and profits to bankers and commercial agencies. 

If proper charges for depreciation are made, some establishments 
that show final profits by tneir annual profit and loss statements are 
found to have had final losses when depreciation is deducted. This 
is illustrated by Table 28. As reported, 175 of the 213 establish- 
ments earned final profits and 38 had final losses, but when allow- 
ances were made for depreciation in the reports of those that did 
not charge off depreciation on their own booli (this allowance being 
at the average rate of those that did charge off depreciation), the 
number that earned a final profit was reduced from 175 to 155, and 
the number that had a final loss was increased from 38 to 58. 



90 



THE GLASS IimUSTBY. 



BXLATIOIX TO NXT SALBS, CAPITAL, AND ZNVBSTIOEHT. 

The following table clearly illustrates the relation between the net 
sales, capital employed in business, and the amount invested in land, 
buildings, and equipment. It will be noticed that the amount of 
plant value is over 50 per cent of the total capital invested. 

Table 27. — ^Amount of Net Sales, Gapftal Employed, Value of Plants, and 
Amounts of Depbeciation Charged bt Estabushments and Estimated, bi 
Groups. 



EstabUahments manufao- 
turing— 



Window glass, by hand 

Window glass, by machine . 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass... 

Bottles, by nand 

Bottles, by machine 

Bottles, by hand and ma- 
chine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 
pressed 

Ligltfineeoods 

Lamp cnimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



Total. 



Group. 



I 

n 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

vn 
vni 

IX 

X 

XI 

xn 
xin 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



37 
12 
6 
9 
26 
18 

27 

13 

8 

20 

18 

6 

13 



Net sales. 



16,918,686 
3,368,242 
4,930,141 
2,586,970 
4,969,281 

15,359,396 

9,856,970 
6,464,708 
1,820,229 

8,125,077 

12,136,579 

1,230,578 

3,151,944 



213 



79,918,801 



Capital 
employed 

in 
business. 



14,^70,347 

3,129,343 

9,720,629 

6,968,167 

0.3,402,516 

22,416,423 

8,593,877 
6,56^,943 
i; 642, 881 

7,691,784 
012,062,347 
730,454 
1,810,676 



689,103,387 



Invest- 
ment, 
land, 

buildings, 
and 

equipment. 



12,404,400 
1,815,956 
6,176,878 
2,707,412 
2,221 981 

10,696,556 

3,506,898 

2,971,069 

786,030 

4,314,405 

7,425,008 

431,794 

1,118,199 



Depreciation. 



Charj^ed 
by e!^b- 
lishments. 



842,433 
80,313 

392, 4-^) 
89,772 
32,896 

535,459 

130,959 

176,501 

28,538 

137,251 

336,593 

3,600 

64,351 



EsU- 
mated. 



46,576,584 2,051,096 



8129,816 

74,252 
116,9^ 
13,S28 
44,90$ 
19,003 

125, 2SB 

7,W 
18,171) 

233,117 
77, W 
16,0ft 
43, 4« 



918,« 



« One establishment in this group did not report capital. 
h Two establishments did not report capital. 



EFFECT ON PROFITS. 



That depreciation materially affects the operating cost and the 
profit is clearly shown in the following series of tables. Table 28 
shows the number of establishments having final profits and losses 
with and without charged and estimated depreciation. It also shows 
that after including an estimated amount for depreciation on plants 
that did not charge any, the number of plants showing final losses 
increased from 38 to 68. 



DEPBECIATION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 



91 



Table 28. — ^Number of Establibhments Cbabgino and Not Charoino Depre- 
ciation, AND Showing a Final Profit or Loss, by Groups. Igj 





As reported. 


Total, 
with de- 


EstablifiluneDts manui^cturiiig— 


Charging 
deprecia- 
tion. 


Not charg- 
ing depre- 
dation. 


Total. 


preciation 

charged 

or 

estimated. 


Window glass, by hand: 

Profit 


9 
I 


• 25 
2 


• 34 

3 


• 31 


Loss 


6 






Total 


10 


• 27 


• 37 


• 37 






Window glass, by machine: 

Profit........ 


5 
2 


5 


10 
2 


7 


Loss 


6 








Total 


7 


5 


12 

> 


12 






Plate glass: 

Profit 


3 

1 


1 

1 


4 
2 


3 


Loss 


3 






Total 


4 


2 


6 


6 


Wire and opalescent glass: 

Profit. .7, 


4 

1 


2 
2 


6 
3 


6 


Loss 


3 






Total 


5 


4 


9 


9 


Bottles, by hand: 

Profit 


6 
2 


• 13 
5 


• 19 
7 


• 16 


Loss 


10 






Total 


8 


• 18 


• 26 


• 26 


Profit 


15 

1 




15 
3 


15 


Loss 


2 


3 






Total 


16 


2 


18 


18 


Bottles, by hand and machine: 

Profit 


9 
3 


12 
3 


21 
6 


14 


LM9 


13 


<^^i>. ...■•••••■•■•.■••.•(•.•....................... 


/ 




12 


15 


27 


27 






Profit 


10 
2 


1 


11 
2 


10 


Loss 


3 


Total 


12 


1 


13 


13 






Tableware, blown: 

Profit 


5 


3 


8 


8 


Loss 




Total 


5 


3 


8 


8 






Tableware, blown and pressed: 


5 
1 


9 
5 


14 

6 


13 


Loss 


7 


Total 


6 


14 


20 


20 








10 

1 


5 
2 


15 
3 


14 


Loss 


4 


Total 


11 


7 


18 


18 






IVofit..... 


2 


3 

1 


5 

1 


5 




1 


Total 


2 


4 


6 


6 






Uiscellaneous articles: 


4 


9 


13 


13 


Loss 




TotaL 


4 


9 


13 


13 


a «« 




All £Tom)s: 


87 
15 


688 
23 


6 175 
38 


6 155 


Loss 


58 




102 


6 111 


6 213 


6 213 







• Includes one rented plant; no depreciation charged. 
6 Includes two rented plants; no depreciation charged. 



92 



THE GL-iSS lAULSim Y. 



The following taUe shoif^ the final profits, exdndin^ chaises for 
depreciation reported, including such cnarges and including reported 
and estimated charges. Trutse protits are based on the net sales. 
The table shows to what extent prv^tits are affected by depreciation. 
In two groups, viz, plate glass and blown and preyed tableware, 
profits of $549,572 in the ftrst case and ?379,036 in the second are 
reduced to profits of $40,2i>9 and *S.66S, respectively. 

Table 29. — ^Amount of Xet Sales. Fixal Psoftts Wrrn and Without Defbecu- 

TION ChABOKD, and AjfOUlfTS OF DePRECL&TIuX ChaSGEI> and EsmCATED, BT 

Groups. 



Fiml profit. 



DeptBfiiiition. 



Establishments 



Estab- 
lish- Nctsaks. 
mtnts. ' 



Vithoat 

any 

cfaanDBS \ <^ 

pre****" bv estab- 
lisb- 
ts. 



With cfaarjes for 
deprecauQO. 



As 

and 



byestab- Esti- 
lish- mated. 
Its. 



Total 



Window glass, by hand. 

Window glass, by ma- 
chine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent 
glass 

Bottles, by hand 

Bottles, by machine 

BotUes, by hand and 
machine 

Jan 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 
prrased 



a37j $5,91S,6S6 $301,022 U61,dS9 1331,773 MS; 433 $129,816 $172,249 



12 3,368,21? 
6' 4,980,141 



247.501 
549.072 



167.188 
157.142 



92,996 
40,209 



9 



I 



2,586.970 • 250.045 160.273 146,945 
26 4,969,281 209.713 176,817 131,912 
18 15,359,396 2,290,667 1,755,208 1,736,115 



Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys , 

ICisoeUaneous articles... 

TotaL 



27 

13 

8 

20 

18 

6 

13 



6 213 



80,313 74,252 \ 
392,430 116,933 

t I 

89,772 13,328 , 
32,896 44,905 
535,459 1 19^093 



9,856,970 520,076 389,117 263,858 1 130,959 125^259 
^»i^»l9§ ^»?36 408,725 396,3^1 176,501 7,357 



1,820,229 216,590 188,062 169,882 ; 28,538 

8,125,077 379,086 241,785 ^668 • 137,251 

12,136,579 1,650,517 1,313,9*24 1,236,786 330,593 

1,230,578 55,213 51,613 35,524- 3,000 

3,151,944 I 390,933 326,582 283,U4 , 64,351 ' 



18,170 

233,117 
77,138 
16,069 
43,468 



154,565 
509,363 

108,100 

77,801 
554,552 

256,213 

183,858 

46,706 

370,368 

413,731 

19,689 

107,819 



79,918,801 7,844,111 5,793,015 4,874,000 2,061,096 j 918,925 12,970, 



021 



a One plant ranted; no depredatiGn charged. h Two piants rented; no depcedatioii charged. 



The amounts shown in the preceding table are given in the form 
of percentages in the table which follows: 

Table 30. — ^Peb Cent of Finai, Profit, With and Without Depreciation 

Charged, Based on Net Sales, bt Groups. 



Establisbmants mana&ctariDg— 



Window glass, by hand 

Window glass, by machine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles, by hand 

Bottles, by machine 

Bottles, by hand and machine. . 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Table ware, blown and pressed. 

LighUng goods 

Lampchinmeys 

MiaoeUaneoufl articles 



Total. 



Group. 



I 

n 
in 

IV 

V 

VI 

vn 
vin 

IX 
. X 

XI 

xn 
xni 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



a 37 
12 

6 

9 

a26 

18 

27 

13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
IS 



Withoat I 
any chanes< 

)or de- 
preciation. 



b213 



Per cent of final profit on net s<iles. 



8.52 
7.35 

11.15 
9.67 
4.22 

14.01 
5.28 
8.98 

11.90 
4.67 

13.60 
4.49 

12.40 



9.82 



With eharges for 
depreolaaan. 



As charged 
stab- 
lents. 



by estab- 
lishm< 



7.80 
4.96 
3.19 
6.20 
3.56 

11.43 
3.96 
6.26 

10.33 
2.96 

10.83 
4.19 

10.86 



7.25 



As charged 
and esti- 
mated. 



5.00 
2.76 
.82 
5.68 
2. OS 

11.30 

2.68 

6.13 

9.33 

.11 

10.19 
2.80 
a98 



6.10 



a Bidades one rented plant; no depreciation charged. 
» Iiiclades two rented plants; no depreciation charged. 



DHPfiECIATION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 93 

Table 31, which follows, is similar in form to Table 29 except that 
operating profits are shown in place of final profits, trie latter in- 
cluding miscellaneous income and outgo items. The operating 
profita shown in this table differ from operating profits in other 
tables In that interest chaises have been included in the operating 
outgo. 

Tablb 31. — Amount or Nbt Salis, Ofibatimo Pkofits With and WrrHoni 
Defb£cutiom Chakqed, and Amounts of Depbeciation Charoed and Esn- 

HATED, BT GbOVFS. 





llsh- 

muits. 


NoltalM. 


Operating proat. 






Without 

any 


"JSSK.'i- 




Estl- 






# 


t 


tatiliab- 

menu. 


TDt.1. 


window ghus by h»nd 
W^dow Elan bj m^ 


aST 

•s 

13 
13 


*},S1S,SSS 

!:S1S 

IS, 359, 398 
9,356,^0 

!:S;3 

8,12s, 077 


1488,000 

232,208- 
190,933 
2,212,062 

Si 

3«;S 


tMS,UT 

111,SM 
124,788 

142, 43« 
168,087 

L, 078,803 

187,380 

1,240) 444 
SI 9« 
3*3> 


S31S.7S1 

•!;£ 

129,108 
t 12,072 

aso;38i 


IC,»33 

£•£ 

89,773 
S2,IM 
5M,4S9 

as 

3«,S3S 

11 


Il»,ffl8 

11 

as 


Ii7a,2« 










BottJes by haod 

BottlBsbymacliinB... 
Bottles by band and 


as 




•s 


TablB»-a«,bIowii 

Tableware, blovn and 


t|F™Eii--" 


19,889 
107,819 




= ai3 


79,918,801 


7,«8,071 


5,38fl,07S 


4,44S,0» 


^051.098 


fll8.B25 









■ One plant raatadj no depredation ehu^^. 



'D plants ranted: no depredation chaiged. 



The amounts shown in the preceding table are given in the form 
of percentages in the table which follows: 









XI I( 


























Total 



ol opeiBtli^ proQt on net 



• One plaDt rented; nadepiedBEl 



roplantarnQtal; no depredatioaifti 



CHAPTER IV. 

COST AVD PSOFIT BT ESTABUSEICESTS. 

The 213 establishments for which data were obtained have been 
divided into 13 groups. The 64 establishments in Groups I to IV, 
mclusive, produced goods used in the building trades; the 84 estab- 
lishments in Groups V to VIII, inclusive, produced prescription bot- 
tles, beer, soda, and whisky bottles, packers, preservers, jars, etc.; the 
28 establishments in Group IX ana X produced tableware, blown, 

Sressed, and cut; the 24 establishments m Groups XI and XII pro- 
uced all varieties of lighting goods, including such articles as in- 
candescent bulbs, gas and electric globes, bowls, lantern globes, lamp 
chimneys, etc.: the 13 establishments in Group XIII produced a 
great variety of articles, such as marbles, nest egffs, advertising nov- 
elties, specialties, chemical goods, and other articles which could not 
be assigned to one of the other groups. 

It must not be assumed, because an establishment was ussimed 
to a certain group, that it .produced exclusively goods of the kind 
described in that group. As an illustration of the method used in 
determining the group to which an establishment manufacturing 
goods of a different character should be assigned, we may take an 
establishment producing both tableware and lighting goods, which 
was not uncommon. In such a case the estabushment as a whole 
was assigned to the group which most fairly represented the product 
of the establishment. 

COST AND PBOFIT BASED ON NET SALES. 

In presenting the data secured from the 213 establishments, actual 
amounts are not shown by individual establishments, because by 
such figures it might be possible to identify establishments. The 
items of expense, sales value of goods produced, and the profits or 
losses are shown by percentages for individual establishments and by 
amounts, averages, and percentages for groups. In Table 33, which 
follows, total amounts for the various items are shown for all estab- 
Ushments and for each group. 

For the 213 establishments, the net sales amounted to $79,918,801; 
operating profit without charges for depreciation and interest, 
$8,247,016; total labor and royalty on bottle machines, $32,420,970; 
and total materials, $17,527,264. These figures, taken in conjunction 
with census figiu'es for 1914, which gave the value of glass products 
as $123,085,019, show that about 65 per cent of the industry was 
covered in this investigation. 

In Table 34 the amounts in Table 33 have been reduced to per- 
centages. 

94 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



95 



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TBOS GLASS INDTTSTRY. 



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II 




COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 99 

COST AND PROFIT BASBD ON SALES VALUE OF GOODS PRODUCED. 

The percentages in the preceding table will not correspond to the 
percentages shown in Table 36, which also shows percentages of cost 
and profit for all establishments and by groups. In Table 34 the per- 
centages are based on net sales and in Table 36 they are based on the 
sales value of goods produced. While at first glance the base used in 
each table appears to be the same, it is different, as explained below. 
The same general conditions applying to both tables, no discussion is 
made of the former. 

METHOD OF DETERMINING SALES VALUE OF GOODS. 

Up to this point the items of cost have been shown as they appear 
on the books of the various establishments. Table 33 gives actual 
returns for aU establishments and for establishments in the various 
groups. Table 34 shows in the form of percentages the relation of 
each item to the total net sales. 

It is necessary now to go a step further and segregate the items of 
cost pertaining to the goods produced. In order to accompUsh this 
certam adjustments are necessary. The original returns show for 
example the selling ex!penses, the loss from bad debts, and the operat- 
ing profit. All of these items are strictly speaking dependent on the 
amount of- goods sold rather than the amount of goods produced. 
To get the amount properly chargeable to goods produced, it is 
necessary to increase proportionately the selling expenses, bad debts, 
and profits, when the amount of goods produced exceeds the amount 
sold, and to decrease proportionately these items, when the amount 
of goods sold exceeds the amount of goods produced. 

ftom the books of the establishments are ascertained the cost of 
the goods produced within the business year, the cost of the goods 
purchased, and the increase or decrease in the stock of goods on nahd 
(imsold) at the end of the period as compared with the beginning of 
the period. Goods produced and goods purchased, increased of 
decreased by the change in the inventory, gives the cost of the goods 
sold. If the stock has increased during the business year, mofe 
eoods have been produced than have been sold and accordingly the 
difference must be subtracted. If, on the other hand, the inventory 
shows a decrease in stock, more goods have been sold than were pror 
duced within the period under consideration, and accordingly the 
difference must be added. 

Since selling expense and bad debts are incurred on the total 
amount of goods sold and the profit is obtained on the entire amount 
of goods sold, it is fair to adjust these figures in the ratio of goods 
produced to goods sold. The process can be made much clearer by 
an illustration. The data are nypothetical, but correspond more of 
less closely to returns from a number of establishments. The figures 
printed in roman t3T)e are obtainable directly from the books of the 
estabUshments, while derived figures are printed in italics. The 
problem is to ascertain from the original returns the amounts charge- 
able to goods produced during the business year. 



758283 



100 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



Items. 



Goods produced 

Ctoods parchased . . • . 
Jncreaae in inventory 

Goods sold..... 



Mannflinttiitng and 
administrative cost. 



Dollars. 
1,056,000 
15,000 
-50,000 



1,021,000 



Percent. 
lOS.iS 

-4-90 



SeUing 
expense 
and bad 

debts. 



Dollar*. 
91,099 
W 

-ism 




Dollars. 

108,430 

1,470 

-4.900 



100.00 I 80,000 I 100,000 



DoOm. 

1,190,^ 



1,151,000 



In this particular case the cost of the goods produced exceeded 
the cost of the goods sold by 3.43 per cent. The selling expenses, 
bad debts, and profit, as taken from the books, have therefore been 
increased in the same proportion. 

If the stock on hand had decreased $50,000 instead of increased 
by that amount — or, in other words, if $50,000 worth of goods moi© 
had been sold than were purchased or produced — ^the total value 
of goods sold during the business year would have been $1,121,000. 
In that case the cost of the goods produced would represent only 
94.2 per cent of the cost of the goods sold, and accordingly the sell- 
ing expenses, bad debts, and profits would have to be reduced 5.8 
per cent. 

The adjusted items for the establishments in each group were 
added to obtain the group averages shown in Table 35. 

AVEBAOE PBODUOnON COSTS BY GBOUPS. 

In Table 35, which follows, data are presented in the form of 
averages for all establishments and for groups of establishments. 
Exammation of this table shows that the average sales value of goods 
produced per establishment was over $500,000 in only three groups, 
being $800,985, $805,088, and $648,711, respectively, in factories 
makmg plate glass, Group III, those making bottles by machine, 
Group VI, and in those making lighting goods. Group Al. Of the 
remaming groups, two had an average of $400,000 to $500,000, one 
between $300,000 and $400,000, five between $200,000 and $300,000, 
and two between $100,000 and $200,000. 

The average operating profit with charges for depreciation and 
interest was $20,199 for all establishments. Group III, plate glass, 
with next to the largest average sales value of goods produced, 
showed an average loss per establishment of $3,084. Grroup VI, 
bottles made by machine, with $93,459, showed the highest average 
profit per establishment. Elsewhere in this report are tables showing 
percentages based on sales value of goods produced and on invest- 
ment, wmch are better ^des to the amount of profit earned in the 
various groups or in individual establishments. 

In the series of 14 tables, 36 to 49, inclusive, the sales value of goods 
produced is used as the basis. As has just been explained, this fiigure 
is derived by adding to the actual cost of goods produced the seUing 
expenses and bad debts properly chargeable to such goods and also 
the profit attributable to such goods. This basis has a distinct 
advantage over that used in previous reports of the cost of pro- 
duction division — the cost of goods produced. According to the 
new basis, the value rather than tne cost of the output is the criterion. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABUSHMEKT8. 101 

The sales value is obviously substantially the same, qualitv for Qual- 
ity, in different estabUshments, while the cost may diflfer wiaely. 
The new basis, therefore, makes it possible to show not merely the 
relative outlay for different items of expense but also differences in 
total cost for the various establishments. 

Table 36 shows percentages based on the sales value of goods 
produced for the various items of cost, for the operating profit com- 
puted without and with depreciation and interest, and for* the final 
profit by establishments grouped according to the character of the 
goods produced. 



102 



THE QLA8S IKDUSTBY. 



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104 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 






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106 THE 0LA88 INDUSTBY. 



MATBBIAL8. 



An interesting feature brought out by the above table is the 
differences in tne percentages for total cost of materials in the 
different groups. In four groups — factories making window glass 
by hand, Group I; window glass by machine, Group II; btown 
tableware, Group IX; and blown and pressed tableware, Group X— 
the percentages show relatively low costs for materials, which reflects 
a natural condition, inasmuch as the establishments in these groups 
produced light-weight goods as compared with the establishments 
m the other groups, and for every pound of glass used they obtained 
proportionately a greater number of units than those establishments 
producing heavier goods. This was especially true of blown table- 
ware group, and would be true in Group XII, lamp chimneys, were 
it not for the exceptionally high cost of packing materials. 

Of the groups showing relatively high pNBrcentages of cost for 
materials, those making jars. Group Vlfl, with 40.07 per cent, and 
wire and opalescent goods. Group IV, with 29.97 per cent, showed 
the highest percentage of cost and were the only groups in which the 
percentage of cost for materials was greater than the percentage of 
cost for labor. An examination of the items of materials in Group 
VIII will show that this high cost was due principally to the lajge 
amount of metal trimmings, rubber rings, etc., and pacldng materials 
required by establishments producing this class of ^ooas, and in 
Group IV it was due to the high cost of batch, which m some estab- 
lishments included wire. Omer groups showing relatively high 
S3rcentages of cost for materials were those making plate glass, 
roup in, and bottles by machine. Group VI. These groups showed 
relatively low percentages of cost for labor, and as materials assume 
greater importance, in mose establishments producing heavy-weight 
goods than in those producing light-weight goods, it follows that 
the percentages for materials must be higher and the percentages 
for other items must be lower. 

Of the different items under materials the percentages for batch 
were more than one-half the total cost of materials, except for 
establishments making jars. Group VIII, and lamp chimneys, 
Group XII. Attention has already been called to the high per- 
centages for packing materials in these two groups and for metal 
trimmjogs, ruober rings, etc., in Group VIII. In wire and opalescent 
goods. Group IV, the percentage for batch was considerably above 
me average lor all groups, being slightly more than twice the average. 
This high percentage ol cost is due largely to the heavy character of 
the goods produced and partly to the inclusion by some establishments 
of wire with batch materials. 

The next item after batch in importance was packing, with an 
average of 7.38 per cent of the total sales value of goods produced 
and a range of 2.73 per cent for plate glass, Group III, to 16.24 per 
cent for lamp chimneys, Group All. When the difference in the 
maimer of packing plate glass and lamp chimneys is taken into 
consideration, this wide vanation presents no unusual feature. 

The remaining items imder materials were relatively of httle 
importance, but the item of freight requires some explanation. In 
some establishments the books did not show freight separately and 
it became part of the cost of the materials. In otner estabUshments 



COST AlH) FBOFIT BY BSTABLI8HMBKT8. 107 

distinction was made only between incoming freight and outgoing 
freight, and no attempt was made by such estabUshments to charge 
the different materials with their proportion of freight. The per- 
centages for freight as reported in this table and the tables which 
follow therefore represent only that portion of incoming freight which 
was not distributed to other items under materials. 

LABOR. 

In tables showing percentages for the various items of cost, whether 
based on the total cost of manufacture, net sales, or value of product, 
perhaps no item receives more attention than that of labor. When 
it is taken iato consideration that only about 2.7 per cent of the 
industries in the United States, producing slightly over 3 per cent 
of the total value of products, show a labor cost, based on the value 
of products, of over 40 per cent, and that the glass industry is 
included in the above group, one fully realizes the important part 
that labor takes in the costs of this industry. 

In previous reports on cost of production issued by the Bureau of 
Foreim and Domestic Commerce, the percentages of costs for labor, 
based on net sales, were: 23.14 per cent in the knit-underwear 
industry; 22.07 per cent in the women's muslin-underwear indus- 
try; 25.77 per cent in the hosiery industry; 30.69 per cent and 
27.05 per cent, respectively, for collars or shirts and collars, and for 
shirts, in the shirt and collar- industries; and 31.23 per cent in the 
men's factory-made clothing industry. In the pottery industry 
the labor cost was 58.81 per cent of the total manufacturing cost, 
including decorating but excluding packing and selling expense, 
50.49 per cent of the aggregate cost, and 46.03 per cent of the net 
value of the product. These percentages would be somewhat higher 
were packing labor included as part of the manufacturing labor. 

It was not thought necessary to show labor by departments, and 
the only division made is between supervisory laoor and other 
factory labor. Other factory labor includes direct and indirect, 

))roductive and nonproductive, skilled and imskilled — ^in fact, all 
abor which could not be assigned to supervision. In addition, 
other factory labor in making bottles by machine, Groiip VI, bottles 
by hand and machine^ Group VII, and jars, Group VlII, includes 
royalty on machines. The principal reason for including royalty 
with labor was to avoid the possibiUty of disclosing the identity of 
individual establishments usmg certam automatic machines. The 
item ''Superintendent and foremen'' includes in some instances only 
part of the salaries of officials who devoted only a part of their time 
to the factory end of the business, provided an equitable basis for 
the distribution of salaries of such officers was furnished. 

Excluding royalty from the total labor cost the percentages would 
read: 40.26 per cent for all establishments reporting; 25.04 per cent for 
bottles by machine. Group VI; 48.04 per cent for bottles by hand 
and machine, Group VII; and 28.91 per cent for jars. Group VIII. 
In other words, the percentages for royalty on machines were, respec- 
tively, 1.72, 7.53, 0.23, and 1.17 of the sales value of the goods pro- 
duced for all estabhshments and the groups specified abbve. 

Another method of presenting data relating to royalty on machines 
without violating any confidences or disclosing the identity of estab- 



108 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

lishments is to show the percentage that royalty on machines is of 
total labor, including royalty. If based on actual figures, the per- 
centages would be for all establishments reporting, 3.66; for Group 
VI, bottles by machine, 23.12; for Group Vil, bottles by hand and 
machine, 0.47; for Group VIII, jars, 3.9. 

The difference in the labor costs between handmade and machine- 
made goods is strikingly brought out by the percentages for window 
glass. Groups I and fl. In (S'oup I, handmade, the labor cost was 
56.8 per cent of the selling value of goods produced, and in Group II, 
machine made, 47.74 per cent. This difference is even more strikingly 
shown by the percentages for bottles, Groups V to VII, inclusive. 
The percentages showing labor costs decreased inversely in propor- 
tion to the extent that automatic machines were employed in the 
production of bottles^ the percentages being 53, 48.27, and 32.57, 
iwpectivoly, for bottles by nand, bottles by hand and machine, and 
bottles by machine. Should the percentages for royalty be deducted 
from the two machine groups, the variation in the labor costs would 
be more marked. The low labor cost in Group VIII, jars, was also 
due partly to the use of automatic machines. 

Another interesting comparison is that between those branches of 
the industry employing a comparatively large amount of skilled 
labor and those branches employing a comparatively small amount 
of skilled labor. Included in the former mention may be made of 
factories making window glass by hand, bottles by hand, blown 
tableware, and Tamp chimneys, with percentages for total labor of 
56.8, 53, 53.68, and 52.4, respectively; and included in what may be 
termed the unskilled labor groups are factories making plate glass, 
wire and opalescent goods. Dottles by machine, and jars, with per- 
centages for total labor of 33.76, 24.03, 32.57, and 30.08, respectively; 
leaving in between the pronounced skilled and unskilled labor groups 
the factories making window glass by machine, bottles by hand and ma- 
chine, blown and pressed tableware, hghting goods, ana miscellaneous 
articles, with percentages for total labor of 47.74, 48.27, 48.01, 40.15, 
and 44.85, respectively. At first glance it would seem that the lower 
percentage for labor depended almost entirely upon the use of auto- 
matic machines. This, however, was not true, for certain types of 
machines used can not be classed as automatic, and the lower labor 
costs in plate glass. Group III, wire and opalescent goods. Group IV, 
and lighting goods. Group XI, must be ascribed to the unskilled 
character of the work and not to the use of automatic machines. 

The labor cost was found to be highest in window glass made by 
hand. Group I, 56.8 per cent; lowest in wire and opalescent goods, 
Group IV, 24.03 per cent; and the average for all establishments 
reporting was 41.98 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 
Eight groups showed a higher labor cost than the average for all 
establishments, foiu' of them having a labor cost of more than 50 
per cent of the sales value of the goods produced, and five groups 
showed a lower labor cost than the average. 

In no group was the percentage for superintendent and foreman 
above 3.05, and it is interesting to note that this occurred in Group 
IV, wire and opalescent goods, which had the lowest total labor cost. 
The average for all establishments was 1.69 pfer cent; the lowest was 
0.58 per cent, in Group I, window glass by hand, which had the 
highest total labor cost. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 109 

FUEL, ETC. 

The item fuel, power, light, and water, next to materials and labor, 
showed the greatest percentage of cost based on the sales value of 
goods produced, except in establishments making wire and opalescent 
goods, Group IV, in which the item general expense was about 2.5 
per cent higher. 

The variation in percentages for fuel, power, light, and water may 
be due to several reasons, chief among which may be mentioned: 
(1 ) Difference in cost of natural gas ; (2) character of glass produced — 
that is, the plate-glass branch of the industry may require more gas 
per unit for the fusion of materials than another branch; (3) use of 
tanks or pots, th6 fusion of the materials being accomplished in the 
former by direct contact with the flame of the gas, while in the latter 
the combustion is outside the pot and the heat must radiate through 
the pot to accomplish the fusion of materials; and (4) whether pro- 
ducer or natural gas is used. 

The average for all estabhshments was 8.45 per cent; the highest, 
13-24 per cent, was in Group III, plate glass, and lowest, 5.26 per 
cent, m Group XII, lamp chimneys. Four groups were above the 
average for all establishments and nine below. 

TAXES AND INSURANCE. 

Taxes and insurance were relatively unimportant items. The 
average expenditure for taxes by all estaolishments was 0.58 per cent, 
with a range for the different groups from the lowest, 0.25, in jars, 
Group VIU, to the highest, 1.05, in wire and opalescent goods, 
Group IV. For insurance the average was 0.65 per cent, the per- 
centages in the groups ranging from the lowest, 0.34, in blown and 
pressed tableware. Group X, to the highest, 1.45, in window glass 
made by machine. Group II. 

SALARIES. 

It has been previously explained that salaries of officials have in 
some instances been partly assigned to superintendent and foremen, 
under labor. A further distribution was made of salaries of officials 
in estabhshments where some of the officers devoted their whole 
time or part of their time to selling, provided such salaries were 
charged to selling in the books of the estabhshments, or in case where 
not so charged an equitable basis for distribution was furnished by 
the officials themselves. Also, in some estabEshments no charge 
was made by officials for services rendered by them, in which case 
an estimated amount for their services, if furnished by the officials, 
was charged and then the amount distributed according to the char- 
acter of tne work performed. The percentages for salaries of officials, 
therefore, do not represent the complete charge, but examination of 
the percentages for superin'^rident and foremen and for seUing in 
the mdividud establishment's in the different groups will to a cer- 
tain extent explain the variation in the percentages for salaries of 
officials. 

The average for total salaries for all estabhshments reporting was 
3.51 per cent, being about equally divided between salaries of officials 



110 THE 0LA8S INDUSTRY. 

and office force. A similar equal division was not found in the differ- 
ent groups or in individual establishments, as examination of the per- 
centages will clearly demonstrate. In no group was the percentage 
for total salaries in excess of 5.04 per cent of the sales value of tne 
goods produced; being in one group as low as 1.77 per cent. 

EOYALTT. 

In only two groups was royalty, other than on bottles and jars, a 

Eart of the charge of the cost of production. In window glass made 
y machine, Group II, the cost was 3.68 per cent, and in hghting goods, 
Group XI, 0.78 per cent, the former representing royalties paid on 
machines and the latter royalties on batch. 

GENERAL EXPENSE. 

General expense includes a great variety of chaises which could 
not be assigned to other items in the schedules, among which niay be 
mentioned factory supphes, office expenses other than office salaries, 
repairs, legal expense, welfare work, etc. Notwithstanding the num- 
ber of items included with general expense, the percentages for the 
various groups are not remarkably high. In only wire and opalescent 
goods, (Sroup IV, was this expense over 10 per cent of the sales value 
of goods produced. The average for all establishments was 7 per 
cent, and the lowest, 3.26 per cent, was in blown tableware, Group tX.. 

SELLING. 

Chapter VII, pa^e 231, is devoted to selling methods employed in 
the dinerent branches of the glass industry and shoidd be read in con- 
nection with the percentages For seUing in this and the following tables 
for a better understandii^ of the variations in the selling expenses 
for the different groups. 

Establishments making tableware. Groups IX and X, and lighting 
goods. Group XI, showed comparatively high percentages of cost for 
selling, and those making window glass. Groups I and fl, and bottles 
by hand, Group V, showed comparatively low percentages of cost for 
seUing. Plate-glass factories. Group lil, had the remarkably low 
selling cost of 0.25 per cent, nearly evenly divided between salesmen 
and other seUing expense. 

For all estabUshments reporting, the average for total selling 
expense was 3.92 per*cent, of which 3.01 per cent, or over three-fourths 
of the total selling expense, was for salesmen. 

Loss from bad debts was remarkably low in this industry. In no 
group was the loss equal to 1 per cent of the sales value of goods pro- 
duced, or, in other words, for every $100 selling value of goods pro- 
duced in Group VIII, jars, the amount recovered through sales was 
only 98 cents less. In estabhshments making window glass by hand, 
Group I, and plate glass. Group III, the loss from bad debts was less 
than 0.05 per cent, or, expressed in dollars and cents, the loss suffered 
through bad debts was less than 5 cents on every $100. For all estab- 
lishments the average loss from bad debts through converting goods 
produced into cash was 44 cents on every $100 sales value oi goods 
produced. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. Ill 

PBOPIT, 

The mai^in between the total cost and sales value of goods produced 
constitutes the profit, the aim and incentive of all business. The. 
wider the margin between these items, the greater the profit, and as 
competition in the main fixes prices on the one end, it is the desire of 
the manufacturer to keep the other end, his costs, as low as possible 
and thus secure for himsdf a margin between the total cost and selling 
value. The question naturally arises, What items are properly 
chargeable to costs? Perhaps on no items more than depreciation 
and mterest is there such a wide difference of opinion as to whether or 
not they are proper charges to cost; especially is this true of interest. 
For this reason it was thought advisable to show total cost of goods 
produced without charges for depreciation and interest and to show 
operating profit computed both without and with depreciation and 
interest. 

The tables are so constructed that one can easily determine the total 
cost including either depreciation or interest, or both, by simply 
adding the percentages for these items to the total cost. For one who 
believes that depreciation is a proper charge to costs and that interest 
is not, and who wishes to know wnat the operating profit would be if 
depreciation were charged and interest were not, Si that is necessary 
for him to do is to add the amount shown opposite *' Interest paid" 
to the profit shown immediately below, or iu case there was a loss 
reduce the amount of the loiss by the amount of interest paid. 

Operating profit on goods produced computed without deprecia- 
ciation and interest showed for all establishments an average of 10.49 
per cent on the sales value of goods produced, ranging from 5.11 per 
cent in blown and pressed tableware, Group X, to 16.14 per cent in 
machine-made bottles. Group VI. Six groups, or one less than half 
of all the groups, showed profits of more than 10 per cent. Of the 
remaining groups four showed profits between 5 and 6 per cent and 
three betweem 9 and 10 per cent. 

DEPRECIATION. 

Chapter III, page 86, is devoted to depreciation, and it is believed 
that a discussion of the subject in this part of the report would be a 
needless repetition. 

The average rate of depreciation based on sales value of goods 
produced was 3.85 per cent for all establishments. The highest 
average rate of depreciation was found in plate glass, Group III, 10.6 

8er cent, and the lowest iu lamp chimneys, Group XII, 1.61 per cent. 
>f the remaining groups, none showed an average rate in excess of 5 
per cent. 

INTEREST. 

Interest paid excludes interest on investment, bonds, mortgages,, 
and other Dorrowed capital in all establishments reporting such 
charges. 

Examiaation of the percentages will show that the average interest 
paid in all establishments on the total sales value of goods produced 
was 1.07, the highest, 2.6, in window glass made by machine, Group 



112 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

n, and the lowest, 0.54, in tableware, blown and pressed, Group X 
In five groups the average was less than 1 per cent; in seven groups 
oonsiderablj below 2 per cent, in only one group was the average 
over 2 per cent. 

MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSE AND HISGELLANEOUS INOOME. 

Miscellaneous expense and miscellaneous income are composed of 
such items as could not properly be chaiged or credited to the cost 
<rf operating. By taking these items into consideration, the average 
pront or loss for some groups is slightly modified. 

COST AND FEOVIT IN INDIVIDUAL ESTABUSHMSNTS. 

HANDMADE WINDOW GLASS. 

The following 13 tables show percentages of cost and profit based 
on the sales value of goodsproduced, by mdividual estabnshmeiits in 
the diflFerent groups. In Table 37, which follows, these percentages 
are shown for estabhshments making window ^lass by hand, Group I. 

Data were secured for 37 estabUshments, the ^eatest number in 
any one group. These establishments were located in West Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kansas, Indiana, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and 
Texas, more than 60 per cent of the establishments being located in 
West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

Hie total cost of materials varied from 7.11 per cent to 22.72 per 
cent with an average of 15.39 per cent for all establishments in tnis 

*oup. Batch was the principal item of cost, although in 10 estab- 

thments the cost of packing exceeded that of batch. 

Owing to the lar^e amount of skilled labor required in the various 
operations, the establishments in this group showed high percentages 
for total labor, the average being higher than in any other group. 
In no establishment was this item less than 50 per cent of the sales 
value of goods produced, and it was as high as 65.98 per cent in estab- 
lishment No. 2. It will be seen by an entimeration ol the percentages 
that there were 12 establishments with percentages for total labor 
ranging between 50 and 55 per cent, 17 between 55 and 60 per cent, 
7 between 60 and 65 per cent, and 1 over 65 per cent. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABUSHMEKTB. 



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116 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Superintendent and foremen carried a small percentage of the sales 
value of goods produced, due to several causes, chief amon^ which 
may be mentioned (a) cooperative estabUshments in which the own- 
ers received no salaries, but wages as workmen; (6) officials of the 
company acting as superintendents, but charging no part of their 
salaries to factory supervision; (c) officials acting as superintendents, 
but receiving no salaries and furnishing no estimates as to the value 
of their services. 

The percentages for fuel, power, light, and water were affected 
more by the location of the plant than were the percentages for other 
items. The establishments located in those States where gas is cheap 
had a decided advantage over those in other States where the natu- 
ral-gas supply is giving out or where producer gas is used. To 
locdize any individual establishment, even by State, might disclose 
the identity of that establishment, but it can be generally stated that 
the establishments located in West Virginia, Oluahoma, and Louisi- 
ana had an advantage over those in other States, although some of 
the establishments in the States named had higher percentages than 
the lowest in other States. 

Of the remaining items of cost, general expense, with an average 
of 4.33 per cent, was next in importance, followed by total salaries, 
2.74 per cent; total selling expense, 1.46 per cent; insurance, 1.39 
per cent; taxes, 0.53 per cent; and bad debts, 0.04 per cent. Lo^es 
from bad debts were reinarkably small for establishments in this 
group, only three estabhshments showing such losses. 

Oi the 37 estabUshments in this group, only 2 showed operating 
loss, computed without depreciation and interest, one showing a loss 
of 12.35 per cent and the other 2.92 per cent. Of the 35 establish- 
ments showing profits, 16 had profits of over 10 per cent and 6 less 
than 5 per cent. The average operating profit for aU establishments 
was 9.24 per cent; the highest was 17.85 per cent, in establishment 
No. 32, and the lowest 1.3 per cent, in establishment No. 26. 

Allowing charges for depreciation and interest, six establishments 
showed operating losses ranging from 0.21 per cent to 19.1 per cent, 
while all establishments showed an average operating profit of 5.36 
per cent. A number of the establishments showed expenses and 
mcome which could not be correctly charged or credited to the cost 
of production, and the final profit or loss m some establishments will 
vary from the operating profit to the extent that these items were 
found in the accounts of the various establishments. 

MAOHINE-MADE WINDOW GLASS. 

Table 38, which follows, is like the preceding one in that it deals 
with the cost of producing window glass, but with the machine- 
made product instead of the handmade. The percentages are based 
on sales value of goods produced. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



117 



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THE GLASS INDX78TBT. 



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COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 119 

Data were secured for 12 establishments, located in West Virginia, 
Pennsylv^ania, Ohio, and Oklahoma. Nearly 84 per cent of the estab- 
lishments were in the first two States named. 

Generally speaking, the average percentages for this group were 
somewhat nigner than they were for the group making wmdow glass 
by hand, with the exception of total labor. Since tne percentages 
for all items of cost and profit or loss must add to 100 per cent, it fol- 
lows that if for some reason the percentages for one or more items 
were lower in one OToup than in another, the other items must neces- 
sarily be higher. For example, take Group I, which showed 56.8 per 
cent for total labor, and Group II, 47.74 per cent; the diflPerence of 
9.06 per cent must be taken up by other items in Group II. 

Although in this group the average for batch was over 2 per cent 
greater than for packing, four establishments had a higher percentage 
for packing than for batch. The average cost of all materials was 
18.26 per cent, highest in estabhshment No. 45, 22.76 per cent, and 
lowest in estabhshment No. 49, 16.4 per cent. 

The total cost for labor in this group fell below 50 per cent in the 
average for all establishments and in seven of the individual estab- 
lishments, being as low as 36.86 per cent in estabhshment No. 43. 
The highest percentage for labor was 57.84, in establishment No. 49. 
In certain operations the machine-made window glass requires the 
same kind of skilled labor as in the handmade product, but the lower 
labor cost in the machine-made product must oe ascribed to the use 
of automatic machines, which do away with the highly skilled lahcr 
in blowing. 

The discussion of the item fuel, power, hght, and water in the pre- 
ceding table attempted to bring out the effect that location of estab- 
hshments had upon the cost of mel. In that discussion it was pointed 
out that establishments in certain States in which natural gas was 
abundant had a decided advantage over those establishments located 
in other States where natural gas was not so abundant or where pro- 
ducer gas was used. This in general is true. However, because an 
establishment is located in a natural-gas State, it does not necessarily 
follow that it can secure cheap gas, for it may be located in a district 
in which the supply is giving out, or it may be entirely outside a nat- 
ural-gas district, in which case it would nave to pay a higher rate 
than other establishments more favorably locatea or be compelled 
to produce its own gas. 

Two estabUshments, Nos. 38 and 39, with 21.78 and 19.95 per cent, 
respectively, had exceptionally high costs for fuel, power, etc., as com- 

{ >ared with other estabHshments m this group and with the average 
or all estabUshments, their costs being more than twice as much as the 
average and over five times as much the lowest cost, 3.72 per cent in 
estabhshment No. 49. It is interesting to note that these two estab- 
lishments were operated at a loss, and that if they were more nearly 
on a par with other estabUshments in regard to fuel they could greatly 
reduce their losses or operate at a profit. 

Taxes, insurance, and salaries were relatively of Uttle importance, 
the percentages for all establishments being 0.38, 1.45, and 1.77 per 
cent, respectively. 

Royalty, being a payment for the use of certain automatic machinesi 
was not found in the handmade window-glass group, and in compar* 



120 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

il]£ the labor costs in the two window-glass groups one must not lose 
sight of the fact that the lower labor cost in the machine group was 
somewhat offset by the payment of royalty. The average for roy- 
alty for the group was 3.68 per cent; three establishments showed 
no payments for royalty. 

General expense showed an average of 6.17 per cent for all estab- 
lishments, ranging from the highest in establishment No. 39, 13.72 
per cent, to the lowest in establishment No. 45, 1.56 per cent. 

Selling and bad debts accounted for 2.14 per cent of the 90.96 per 
cent comprising all costs in manufacturing, administration, and sell- 
ing. In no establishment was the total seUing in excess of 3.31 p^ 
cent of the sales value of goods produced, nor oad debts in excess of 
thirty-eight one-hundredths of 1 per cent. Eight establishments 
showed no losses from bad debts. 

A greater percentage of the establishments in the machine-made 
window-glass group were operated at a loss than in the handmade 
window-glass group. Three establishments showed operating losses 
when computed without depreciation and interest and two othier 
establishments showed losses after charging depreciation and inter- 
est, making in all five establishments, or over 40 per cent of the num- 
ber reported, operating at a loss. No establishment showed an oper- 
ating profit as great as 10 per cent after charging depreciation and 
interest, and in contrast one establishment suffered a loss slightly 
over 15 per cent of the sales value of the goods produced, or, in other 
words, there is a difference of 24.9 per cent in the cost of production 
between estabhshments No. 39 ana No. 42, which showed the great- 
est loss and the greatest profit. 

PLATE GLASS. 

Table 39, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percent- 
ages for plate glass, a branch of the industrv whose product, Eke that 
of the two preceding groups, is used in the Duilding trades. The per- 
centages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Data were secured for six estabhshments, one-half being located 
in Pennsylvania and one each in Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois. 

This branch of the glass industry requires an exceptionally large 
amount of suppUes, such as grinding sand, rock and lime, felt, emery, 
copperas, and muriatic acid for use in the grinding and polishiM 
department, and for this reason a separate fine was given to sucn 
supphes xmder materials, although they are not materials in the sense 
that they are constituent elements of the product. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY' B8TABLISHMENTS. 



121 



Table 39. — Percbntages of Costs, Bf Specified Items, and Profits or Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Vai^s of Goods Produced, bt Establishments Manu- 
facturing Plate Glass. 



Itenu. 


Aver- 
age. 


No. 60. 


No. 51. 


No. 52. 


No. 53. 


No. 54. 


No. 65. 


Materials: 

Batch 


11.38 

12.67 

2.73 


11.85 

10.02 

2.17 


12.54 
9.96 
2.28 


5.08 
7.12 
2.47 


14.05 

16.63 

2.61 


12 02 

19.89 

2.60 


11.96 


OHndfnfir and iwllsbjliur materials 


10.13 


Paddng 


3.49 






Total mtiterialii 


26.78 


24.04 


24.78 


14.67 


33.29 


34.51 


25.57 


" 




Labor: 


2.39 
31.37 


2.53 
32.10 


5.49 
37.81 


2.86 
32.32 


2.09 
25.60 


.2.20 
30.76 


1.00 


Oiner &ctory labor 


31.71 






Total labor 


33.76 


34.63 


43.30 


35.18 


27,69 


32.96 


32.71 






Fiifll. TJOWfliT. Iteht. and "Rtftr 


13.24 

1.03 

.73 


14.55 
1.07 
1.82 


19.28 

.72 

1.18 


14.72 
.36 


12.87 
.60 
.79 


10.19 
.45 
.46 


11.68 




2.10 


Insurance and workmen's compensation 


.48 


Salaries: 

Offlcials 


1.49 
1.09 


4.23 
1.09 


1.88 
.87 


1.21 
.60 


1.04 
.92 


1.16 
1.00 


.90 


Office force 


1.63 






Total salarif^. 


2.58 


5.32 


2.75 


1.81 


1.96 


2.16 


2.53 








9.92 


12.42 


3.36 


7.31 


17.28 


7.18 


10.78 






Total manulactuilng and administration 


88.04 


93.85 


95.37 


74.64 


94.48 


87.86 


85.84 


SeUing: 

RalMiTnAn .. 


.12 
.13 








.35 


"".'ds' 


.25 


Other selllne exDense 




.49 


.39 








Total selline exnense ................... 


.25 




.49 


.39 


.35 


.05 


.25 






Bad debts 


.02 








.06 




.03 












Total oost of goods produced 


8&81 
11.69 


93.85 
6.15 


95.86 
4.14 


75.03 
24.97 


94. ts9 
5.11 


87.91 
12.09 


86.11 


Operating profit on goods produced, com- 
puted withoat depreciation and interest . .. 

Operating loss on goods produced, computed 
without denreciation and Interest 


13. 8» 


















Total sales value of goods produced 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 




10.60 
1.48 


1.57 


9.44 
2.63 


10.94 
3.08 


7.81 
1.67 


7.89 


18.36 


Interest T)aid ............ ....r...... ....r 


1.65 






Operating profit on goods produced, com- 
puted ^th depreciation and interest 




4.58 


7.93 


10.95 


4.37 


4.20 




Operating loss on goods produced, computed 
with depreciation and interest ...... 


.39 


6.13 






Mincnllaneons income 


.68 








.87 


.40 


1.70 












Final profit, depreciation and Interest 
oonsWereo T ,,- 


.29 


4.58 


7.93 


10.95 


3.50 


4.60 




Final loss, depreciation and interest 
considered 


4.43 











Grinding and polishing materials were 12.67 per cent of the sales 
value of goods produced by all establishments, which was greater 
than the percentage for batch, the principal item under materials 
in all other groups with the exception of Group XI, lighting goods. 
In three of the establishments the cost of batch was greater than 
grinding and polishing materials. 

Total materials, with an average of 26.78 per cent for all establish- 
ments, ranged from 14.67 per cent in estabnshment No. 52 to 34.51 
Ser cent in establishment No. 54, or in other words there was a 
ifference of nearly 20 per cent between the lowest and highest cost 
of materials. 



122 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

The cost of labor for all establishments in this ^oup was 33.76 
per cent of the sales value of goods produced, of which 2.39 per cent 
was for supervision and 31.37 per cent for other factory labor. 
Three groups showed a lower total labor cost and eight a higher cost 
than the average for the group. The low labor cost in this branch 
of the glass industry as compared with other branches must be 
ascribed partly to the comparatively small amount of skilled labor 
required and partly to the higher percentage of cost for materials. 
In establishment No. 53 the percentage for total labor was 27.69 
per cent, the lowest, and in establishment No. 51, it was 43.3 per 
cent, the highest. 

Fuel, power, light, and water, with 13.24 per cent for all establish- 
ments and ranring from 10.19 to 19.28 per cent, was higher in this 
branch of the ^ass industry than in any other. 

Of the remaining items in the total cost of goods produced, exclud- 
ing depreciation and interest, general expense was the only one that 
showed a percentage of any great importance. When it is taken 
into consideration that this item is so general and is composed of 
all items that could not be assigned to other headings, it is not sur- 
prisinff that the percentages should be rather high and that they 
should vary considerably in the different establishments. The 
average for all establishments was 9.92 per cent, and ranged from 
3.36 per cent in establishment No. 51 to 19.28 per cent in establish- 
ment No. 53. 

Operating profit on goods produced, computed without deprecia- 
tion and interest, was 11 .69 per cent for all establishments and ranged 
from 4.14 per cent in establishment No. 51 to 24.97 per cent in 
establishment No. 52. The high percentage of profit in the latter 
establishment was due to its remarfcably low cost of materials. 

Allowing depreciation and interest as part of the cost of produc- 
tion, the establishments as a whole were operated at a loss, due 
princiapUv to the heavy charge for depreciation, which in this group 
amounted, to 10.6 per cent, being more than twice that shown for 
other groups. Three establishments were operated at a loss and 
three at a profit. 

WIRE AND OPALESCENT GLASS. 

Table 40, which follows, presents cost data in the form of per- 
centages for establishments manufacturing wire and opalescent 
goods, the last of those groups whose products are used in tne build- 
mg trades. The percentages are based on the sales value of the 
goods produced. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY E8TABUSHMEKTS. 



123 



Table 40. — Percentagbs of Costs, bt Specified Items and Profits ob Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, bt Establishments Manu- 
facturing Wire and Opalescent Glass. 



Items. 


Aver- 
age. 


No. 
56. 


No. 

57. 


No. 

58. 


No. 
59. 


No. 
60. 


No. 
61. 


No. 

62. 


No. 

63. 


No. 

64. 


Materials: 
RAtoh fttid whnft- ^ , ^ ^ 


24.74 
5.09 

.14 


11.96 
5.78 


13.38 
7.19 


13.88 
5.97 


19.10 
5.91 


13.82 
6.15 

3.95 


27.57 
3.20 


33.70 
5.55 


22.53 

4.76 


25.77 


Packing 


5.17 


Freight^ not Included in 
above items 


















1 






29.97 17.74 1 


20.57 


19.85 


25.01 


23.92 


30.77 


39.25 


27.29 


30.94 






1 




Labor: 
Superintendent and foremen 
Otner fEwstorv labor 


3.05 1 
20.98 


1 

1 

"i9J47' 


3.09 
34.55 


is.' 86*1 


3.28 
22.27 


2.98 
15.21 


1.23 
a8.23 


2.69 
27.91 


1.61 
23.71 


4.35 
18.78 








Total labor 


24.03 


19.47 


37.64 


18.86 25.55 


18.19 


19.46 


30.60 


25.32 


23.13 






Fuel, power, light, and water- 
Taxes, State, corporation, etc.. 
Insurance and workmen's oom- 
■nensatton ....,.r.T,,r-r 


10.13 
1.05 

1.01 


14.18 
.70 

.53 


8.56 
2.16 

3.96 


9.96 18.80 
2.01 ' .78 

.76 .41 


5.19 

.58 

.27 


8.74 
.17 

1.48 


3.68 
.57 

1.15 


13.01 
.61 

.75 


10.63 
1.49 

.97 






Salaries: 
Ofllclals. ......... w .. T ,,, - r - 


3.52 
1.52 


5.07 
1.69 


7.93 
5.16 


' ■ 1 

6.72 
1.67 


5.90 
l.lfl 


5.96 
3.10 


"lw' 


5.72 
1.70 


1.32 

.88 


3.66 


Office force. 


1.52 




1 




Total sftiflrfes..r , - 


5.04 


6.76 


13.09 


8.39 ! 7.06 


9.06 


LOO 


7.42 


2.20 


5.17 










Qeneral exnense 


14.28 


15.41 


21.51 


6.96 


5.54 


11.84 


16.37 


25.73 


13.28 


12.33 






Total manufacturing and 
administration 


85.51 


74.79 


107.49 


66.79 


83.15 


69.05 


78.08 


108.40 


82.36 


84.66 


Selling: 
Salesmen .t....t- r,r.-^ 


2.83 
.89 


16.58 
1L64 


5.16 


4.12 
.14 


4.71 


1.53 


.58 


4.50 


.93 


2.76 


Other selling expense 


1.39 














Total selling expense — 


3.72 


28.22 


5.16 


4.26 


4.71 


1.53 


.58 


4.50 


.93 


4.16 


Bad debts 


.74 


4.87 


5.80 


.07 


L06 


5.95 


2.68 
















Total eost of goods pro- 
duced 


89.97 
10.03 


107.88 


118.45 


71.12 
28.88 


88.92 
11.08 


76.53 
23.47 


81.34 
ia66 


112.90 
12.90 


83.29 
16.71 


88.81 


Operating profit on goods pro- 
duced, computea without 
depreciation and interest . . . 

Operating loss on eoods pro- 
duced, computea without 
depreciation and intATRSt ..-T 


11.19 


7.88 


18.45 




















Total sales value of goods 
produced 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.000 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 






Denreciation 


4.57 
1.51 


5.70 


3.60 
2.98 


1.75 


1.98 
1.02 


3.02 


3.83 
.12 


3.35 


2.79 
.43 


6.14 


Intermt paid r , r .. t r 


2.78 






Operating profit on goods pro- 

predation and interest 

Operating loss on goods pro- 
duced, computea with dfr- 
T>reclation and intenst 


3.95 






27.13 


8.08 


20.45 


14.71 


16.25 


13.49 


2.27 


13.68 


26.03 






















.18 
.97 


















.87 


MiscellanMim InoomA . , ^ . . . 


.06 








..94 




.87 




1.87 












Final profit, depreda- 
tion and interest con- 
sidered 


4.74 







27.13 


8.08 


21.39 


14.71 


16.88 


13.49 


3.77 


Final loss, depreciation 
nnd int^qrMt coos^dnred 


13.52 


26.08 



















Data were secured for nine establishments located in Pennsylvania, 
Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, and Ohio. TTiree were in rennsyl- 
vania, two each in Indiana and Illinois, and one each in West Vir- 
ginia and Ohio. 



124 THE GLASS INBUSTEY. 

The total cost of materials was higher and the total cost of labor 
was lower in this group than in any other. It has been pointed out 
before that all items of cost and profit must add to 100 per cent, and 
if some items bear, comparatively, a high percentage of cost, then 
other items must bear a correspondin^y low percentage of cost. 
This, however, does not accoimt entirely for the high and low per- 
centages of cost for these items, and other reasons must be assiened. 

In the case of materials, this high cost was partly due to the inclu- 
sion of materials not common to other branches of the glass industry; 
especially was this true of those establishments producing goods in 
which wire was part of the cost of materials. In the case of labor, 
the low cost was partly due to the relatively small amoimt of skilled 
labor required. 

The average cost of materials for aU establishments was 29.97 per 
cent of the sales value of goods produced and ranged from 17.74 per 
cent in estabUshment No. 56 to 39.25 per cent in establishment 
No. 62. Batch and wire, on the average, constituted about 80 per 
cent and packing materials about 20 per cent of the total materials 
used. 

Total labor, with an average of 24.03 per cent, varied froin IS. 19 

Ser cent in estabUshment No. 60 to 37.64 per cent in establisTiment 
To. 57. Three estabhshments had a labor cost of less than 20 per 
cent and two over 30 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

This group, next to the plate-glass group, showed the highest per- 
centage of cost for fuel, power, light, and water, the average being 
10.13 per cent. Four oi the establishments showed a higher per- 
centage of cost than the average, one establishment, No. 59, having 
18.8 per cent, the highest shown. 

Of the remaining items constituting total sales value of goods pro- 
duced, general expense, with an average of 14.28 per cent for aU 
establishments, was by far the most important. Selling expense 
showed a wide variation, being as low as 0.58 per cent and as high as 
28.22 per cent, the average being 3.72 per cent. The other items, 
with the exception of salaries, 5.04 per cent, were relatively of little 
importance and need no comment. 

Examination of the percentages for operating profit on goods pro- 
duced, computed without depreciation and interest, will show that the 
estabhshments in this group were either very successful or very unsuc- 
cessful. In no estabhshment was the profit on the sales value of goods 
produced less than 10 per cent, and in establishment No. 58 the per- 
centage of profit was 28.88 per cent. After charging depreciation 
and interest, six estabhshments showed operating profits ranging from 
2.27 per cent to 27.13 per cent, and three estabhshments showed losses, 
the loss in each establishment being over 10 per cent and as high as 
25.03 per cent in estabhshment No. 57. 

HANDMADE BOTTLES. 

Table 41, which follows, is the first of four tables that treat of the 
bottle and jar branch of the glass industry. 



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126 



THE GLASS INDUSTBT. 






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COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



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128 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

Data were secured for 26 establishments, located in Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, New York, Maryland, Virginia, West 
Virginia, and Louisiana. About one-third of the estaDlishments 
were in Pennsylvania and about one-fourth in New Jersey, no other 
State having more than three of the establishments reporting. 

The total cost of materials for the establishments in this group, 
like the preceding groups, is composed almost entirely of the cost of 
two items, batch and packing, although a new factor, that of metal 
trimmings, etc., enters mto the cost of materials in a few of the estab- 
Kshments. 

Apparently it is not the custom for the manufacturers of hand- 
mad!e bottles to furnish metal trinmaings, etc., for in only six of the 
establishments were such materials reported. One, however, must 
take into consideration the different kinds of bottles produced; that 
is, whether prescription, beer, soda, whisky, or cologne bottles, and 
whether fancy or plain, some of which may be equipped with patented 
stoppers, to suit the demands of customers. Even in those estab- 
lishments reporting such data it does not follow that the whole 
product of that establishment was equipped with trimmings. 

Batch, with an average of 11.22 per cent for all establishments and 
with a range from 22.01 per cent in establishment No. 67 to 5.21 per 
cent in establishment No. 86, was with few exceptions, the most 
important item in the total cost of materials. 

racking, with an average of 6.85 per cent, varied from 15.47 per 
cent in establishment No. 88 to 0.43 per cent in establishment No. 
85. This variation was due principally to the amount of packing 
required and the kind of bottles produced. An estabhshment which 
manufactures, say, soda bottles, may be located in the same city 
as a bottling concern and a great part of its product disposed of to 
that concern, in which case the cost of packmg would oe of httle 
importance, whereas, if the greater part of the product were disposed 
of to outside concerns, the cost of packing would be increased on 
account of the extra and better materials required in packing the 
product for safe shipment. 

As indicated by the title given to this group, the product was hand- 
made and required a highly skilled class of labor, especially in blow- 
ing. It is only natural, tnen, that the percentages for total labor 
for this group are high, being on the average more than 50 per cent 
^j>i the sales value of goods produced. In 15 establishments the 
total labor cost was more than 60 per cent, in 13 establishments it 
was between 50 and 60 per cent, in 7 establishments between 40 and 
50 per cent, and only in 1 establishment was the labor cost less than 
40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, etc., salaries, and general expense, with avert^es of 
8.13, 4.67, and 5.16 per cent, respectively, were items of expense 
which carried nearly 18 per cent of the sales value of goods produced, 
and together with materials and labor accounted for over 90 per 
cent of the cost, so that other items of expense, after taking into con- 
sideration operating profit of 5.19 per cent, constituted less than 5 
per cent of the sales value. In 5 establishments the percentage of 
cost for fuel, power, etc., was over 10 per cent, being 18.79 per cent 
in establishment No. 71. 

Of the 26 establishments in this group, 22 showed operating profit 
computed, without depreciation and interest, ranging from 1.03 per 



COST AN]> PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 129 

cent to 14.08 per cent, and 4 showed losses with a range from 1.36 to 
27.42 per cent. 

After charging depreciation and interest, the operating profit for 
all establishments was reduced from 5.19 per cent to 2.14 per cent, 
making a charge of 3.05 per cent for these items. This charge varies 
greatly in the different estabUshments, according to the manner in 
which the owners look upon depreciation; the amount so charged 
was not determined in many instances until the company found its 
earnings would warrant a charge for depreciation. 

MACHINE-MADE BOTTLES. 

Table 42 presents cost data in the form of percentages for those 
estabhshments manufacturing machine-made bottles. The por« 
centages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Data were secured for 18 establishments, located in Ohio, West 
Virginia, Indiana, Illinois, New Jersey,- Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 
and Oklahoma. About 80 per cent of the establishments were located 
in the first four States named. 

The average cost of materials for all establishments in the machine- 
made bottle group was somewhat higher than in the handmade bottle 
Soup, being 25.4 per cent in the former and 20.63 per cent in the 
bter. 

Of the different items under materials, two, metal trimmings, etc., 
and packing, showed a wide variation in the percentages and account 
principally for the variation in the total cost of materials. The 
variation m metal trimmings, etc., was due partly to the demands of 
the trade; that is, some customers prefer to secure such trimmings 
from concerns other than the manufacturers of bottles, while others 
depend entirely upon the bottle manufactures for such supplies. The 
variation in packing materials depended largely upon how the bottles 
were packed. If in carload lots, the cost of packing materials will be 
small, but if packed in crates, the cost (h such materials will be 
greatly increased. 

102511*— 17- 



130 



THE GLASS INDUSXBT. 



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132 THE GLASS IKDUSIBT. 

A comparison of the labor costs for the handmade product and the 
machine-made product will show a difference of about 20 per cent in 
favor of the machine-made product. The avwage for the former 
group was 53 per cent and for the latter 32.57 per cent. This, how- 
ever, was not true in individual establishments, for there were some 
establishments in the machine group which had high percentages for 
labor cost. An enumeration of the percentages for total labor will 
show that one establishment had a cost of 56.6 per cent, four between 
40 and 50 per cent, nine between 30 and 40 per cent, three between 
20 and 30 per cent, and one less than 20 per cent of the sales value of 
goods proauced. 

Fuel, power, light, and water, with an average of 9.92 per cent for 
all establishments and ranging from 2.47 to 20.09 per cent; salaries, 
with an average of 3.01 per cent and ranging from 0.80 to 6.96 per 
cent; general expense, with an average of 8.12 per cent and ranging 
from 0.46 to 19.54 per cent: and selling expense, with an average ol 
3.08 per cent and ranging from 0.24 to 5.07 per cent were tlie only 
other items constituting total cost of goods produced that showed an 
average cost of over 1 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

The items, taxes, insurance, and bad debts for all establishments were 
less than 1 per cent, although in some individual establishments the 
percentages were above 1 per cent, but in no establishment did they 
reach 2 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

Operating profit on goods produced, computed without depreciation 
and interest, for all establishments was 16.14 per cent, which was 
reduced to 11.61 per cent after charging depreciation and interest, 
and after taking into consideration miscellaneous expense and income 
the final profit was 12.15 per cent. 

Two establishments showed losses both before and after charging 
depreciation and interest, and throe a final loss, the inclusion of the 
third establishment being due to miscellaneous expense in establish- 
ment No. 45. 

The greatest loss suffered by any establishment after charging 
depreciation and interest was 8.07 per cent in establishment No. 91, 
and the greatest profit was 23.13 per cent in establishment No. 97. 
Two other establishments had operating profits, after charging 
depreciation and interest, of over 20 per cent, seven had profits 
between 10 and 20 per cent, and five leas than 10 per cent, only one 
of the latter in excess of 5 per cent. 

G^ the whole, the establishments manufacturing bottles by 
machine were more successful than those manufacturing bottles by 
hand. 

HAND AND MACHINE MADB BOTTLBS. 

Table 43, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percentages 
for establishments manufacturing bottles by hand and machine. 
The percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 



134 



THB GLASS INDUSTBY. 



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136 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Data were secured for 27 establishments in this group, and next 
to Group I handmade window glass is the laigest group in point of 
number of establishments inauded. Those establishments were 
located in 10 States, mainly in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, In- 
diana, and Now York. 

The wide variation in the percentages for metal trimmings, etc., 
and in packing found in the establishments of the two preceding 
groups was also found in the establishments of this group, and the 
reasons previously given for this variation need not be repeated, as 
they also account for the variations in this group. 

Total cost of materials, with an average of 19.4 per cent, was lower 
than in either of the other bottle groups. The vory high cost of mate- 
rials in establishment No. 110 was duo to the large amount expended 
for metal trimmings and packing material, and this was ono of the 
establishments in which the cost of materials was greater than the 
cost of labor. 

Labor was higher in this CToup than in the machine CToup but less 
than in the hand group, the average for all establishments being 
48.27 per cent as against 32.57 per cent in the machine group and 53 
per cent in the hand group. Three estabUshments had a labor cost 
of over 60 per cent oi the sales value of goods produced, 10 had a 
cost between 50 and 60 per cent, 11 between 40 and 50 per cent, and 
3' less than 40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, Ught, and water, with an average of 7.83 per cent for 
all establishments and a range from 3.51 per cent in establishment 
No. 110 to 14.01 per cent in estabhshment No. 120, was an item of 
considerable magnitude and one over which an establishment has 
Uttle control. Some plants were favorably located in respect to 
fuel and had the benefit of cheap gas, while other plants were not so 
favorably located in this respect. 

Salaries, general expense, and selling, with averages of 4.62, 7.19, 
and 4.63 per cent, respectively, and varying considerably in the differ- 
ent establishments, were items of expenses more or less under the 
control of the management. A study of tho percentages for these 
items in the different establishments will to some extent indicate those 
which were operated economically. However, an imf avorable con- 
dusion should not be drawn against those estabUshments whose per- 
centages appear to be high, as conditions affecting these items can 
not be given without the possibiUty of identifying establishments. 

Of the 27 establishments in this group, 22 showed an operating 
profit, computed without depreciation ana interest, ranging from 0.19 
to 16.76 per cent, and 5 snowed losses ranging from 0.19 to 14.14 
per cent. After charging depreciation and interest, the number oper- 
ating at a profit was reducea from 22 to 15 and the number operating 
at a loss was increased from 5 to 12. Estabhshment No. 134 had a 
profit of 14.84 per cent and estabhshment No. 131 had a loss of 21.39 
per cent. In the matter of profit the establishments in the hand 
group and the hand and machine group were, on the average, about 
on an equality, but both groups are at a considerable disadvantage 
when compared with the machme group. 

An examination of the percentages paid for interest discloses that 
two of the five estabUshments which showed no charges for interest 
paid were operated at a loss, and the loss in these two estabhshmoiits 
must be ascribed to reasons other than the lack of sufficient working 



COST AND PBOS'IT BY ESZABUSHMENTS. 137 

capital. Establishments Nos. 111,119, and 1 20 showed comparatiyely 
Ingh percentages for interest and two were operated at a loss. 

JABS. . 

Table 44, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percent- 
ages for establishments manufacturing jars, and is the last of the four 
tables relating to the bottle groups. The percentages are based on 
the sales value of goods produced. 

Data were obtained for 13 establishments, of which 6 were located 
in Pennsylvania, 3 in West Virginia, and 1 each in New York, Ohio, 
Illinois, and Oklahoma. 



US 



TUE GLASS INDUSTBT. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



189 



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140 THB GLASS IKDUSTBY. 

This group and the one making wire and opalescent goods, Group 
IV, were the only groups which on the average showed a higher per- 
centage of cost for materials than for labor. The averara for materials 
in all establishments in this group was 40.07 per cent, being exceeded 
by the percentages in establishments ]\ os. 138, 140, 146, and 148. Tiie 
high average for materials in this group and the high percentages 
in the individual establishments were due to the exceptionally large 
expenditures for metal trimmings, etc., or packing, or both. A 
perusal of the percentages for these items wul indicate the extent 
to which metal trimmings, etc., were furnished by the establisbmenta 
and the amount of packing material required. 

Royalty paid for the use of automatic machines has been included 
with labor. This was found necessary to avoid disclosing the identity 
of establishments and to offset the objections of the owners of the 
machines, who thought that if such data were shown separately it 
would disclose confidential information. On page 210 of this report 
there is a discussion of the relation between laoor proper and royalty 
for the different groups but not for individual establishments. 

The total labor cost for all establishments in this group was 30.08 

{)er cent of the sales value of goods produced and in onl^ one estab- 
ishment was the cost more than 50 per cent. Of the remaining estab- 
lishments one had a cost of 41.27 per cent, five a cost between 30 and 
40 per cent, and six between 20 and 30 per cent. 

Six establishments were above and seven below the average cost of 
7.81 per cent for fuel, power, light, and water. In establishment 
No. 144 the cost of this item was more than twice the average for all 
establishments and more than eight times the cost for establishment 
No. 38. 

Taxes and insurance combined did not in any estabhshment amount 
to as much as 1 per cent, the average for all being 0.61 per cent, of 
which 0.25 per cent was for taxes ana 0.36 per cent for insurance. 

The remaining items composing the total cost of goods produced 
were salaries, with an average of 2.37 per cent and ranging from 1.68 
to 3.98 per cent; general expenses, with 5.59 per cent and varying 
from 1.23 to 8.69 per cent; and bad debts, with 0.98 per cent and 
ranging in estabUshments reporting bad debts from 0.38 to 1.70 per 
cent. 

Before charging depreciation and interest, one establishment was 
operated at a loss of 2.03 per cent, while the others were operated 
at a profit ranging from 1.60 to 22.20 per cent. After cnarging 
depreciation and interest, four establishments were operated at a 
loss ranging from 0.05 to 4.51 per cent and 9 at a profit ranging from 
1.21 to 20.12 per cent. 

The average for depreciation was 2.94 per cent and for interest paid 
1.31, the former ranging from 1.1 to 11.77 per cent and the latter from 
0.16 to 2.67 per cent. Establishment No. 137 was the only one in 
which no interest charge was found, and it is interesting to note that 
it showed the highest percentage of profit. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



141 



BLOWN TABLEWARE. 

Table 45, which follows, presents cost data in the form of per- 
cent£^es for establishments manufacturing blown tableware. The 
percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Table 45. — Percentages op Costs, by Specified Items and Profits and Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Value op Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
facturing Blown Tableware. 



Items. 


Aver- 
age. 


No. 
149. 


No. 
150. 


No. 
151. 


No. 
162. 


No. 
153. 


No. 
154. 


No. 
155. 

5.35 


No. 
156. 


Materials: 

Batch 


7.59 
.34 
.02 

4.08 

.20 


8.13 
.60 


6.56 


7.84 


5.24 
.10 


11.24 


8.30 
.32 
.11 

3.26 


7.16 


Decorating 


1.08 


Metal trimrninKS, eto- ...,.,..,.., 








Packing 


9.49. 


4.58 


3.85 


7.26 


2.79 


4.17 


3.16 


Freight not included in above 
items 


.89 




















Total materials 


12.23 


18.22 


11.14 


11.69 


12.60 


14.03 


n.99 


9.52 


12.29 






LAbor: 

Superintendent and foremen 

Other factory labor 


1.99 
51.69 


"53."6i" 


4.62 
61.31 


1.04 
54.98. 


*62.'73" 


8.57 
50.90 


3.23 
50.04 


.66 
55.42 


1.84 
42.09 






Total labor 


53.68 


53.51 


65.93 


56.02 


62.73 


54.47 


53.27 


56.08 


43.93 






Fuel , power, light, and water, 


6.04 
.55 

.61 


7.41 
.29 

1.47 


4.60 
1.06 

.44 


4.29 
.89 

.72 


7.34 
.28 

1.04 


6.40 
.33 

.29 


6.58 
.81 

.90 


6.04 
.42 

.21 


6.43 


Taxes, state, corporation, etc 

Ins' 'ranee and workingmen's compen- 
sation 


.51 
.56 






Salaries: 


2.33 
1.06 


1.10 
1.25 


3.23 
1.91 


2.07 
1.01 


2.55 
1.03 


4.21 
.96 


1.36 
1.15 


.66 
1.28 


2.88 


OfBee force 


.71 






Total salaries 


3.39 


2.35 


5.14 


8.08 


3.58 


6.17 


2.51 


1.94 


8.68 






neneral expense 


3 26 


7.44 


3.16 


.98 


2.86 


2.93 


4.31 


4.32 


2.38 






Total man'ilBctnrlng and ad- 
ministratioiv 


79.76 


90.69 


91.47 


77.67 


9a 48 


83.62 


8a87 


77.58 


68.64 






RAllfngr: 

Salesmea 


6.81 
.28 


3.78 
.30 


L99 

.17 


5.17 
.30 


3.38 

■ ■ ■ 


7.12 

.16 


8.13 
.32 


9.67 
.96 


7.69 


Other -''eiMflff expense r , . - - . 






*""*** 


Total selling expense 


7.09 


4.03 


2.16 


5.47 


3.33 


7.28 


8.45 


10.62 


7.59 








.49 




.26 






.28 


.48 


.88 


1.27 










Total cost of goods prodnced. . . . 
Oiierating profit on goods produced 

interest 


87.34 
12.66 


94.72 
5.28 


93.89 
6.U 


88.14 
16.86 


93.76 
6.34 


91.18 

8.82 


89.80 
10.70 


88.51 
11.48 


78.60 
21.50 






Total sales valae of goods pro* 
duoed 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 






Depredation 


2.48 
.81 


1.24 
2.67 


2.73 

.78 


1.39 
1.60 


1.72 
3.66 


2.88 
.46 


4.18 


2.84 
.45 


2.03 


Interest paid 








Operating profit on goods produced 
computed with depreciation and 
interest 


9.37 


1.37 


2.60 


13.78 


.86 


6.98 


6.52 


8.20 


19.48 






Miscellapeous income. 


.04 












.19 


.03 
















■ 


Final profit, depreciation, and 
interest consicfered 


9.41 


1.37 


2.60 


13.78 


.86 


5.98 


1 
6.71 8.23 


19.48 











Data were secured for eight establishments, of which six were 
located in West Virginia and one each in Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

This group showed the smallest percentage of cost for materials; 
the average being 12.23 per cent, the highest 18.22 per cent, and the 



142 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

lowest 9.52 per cent. Batch was more than one-half of the cost of 
materials, except in two estabUshments, in which the cost for packing 
materials was greater than for batch. 

The average for total labor for the establishments in this group w^as 
53.68 per cent and, except that for handmade window-glass factories, 
Group I, was the highest shown. In only one establishment was the 
percentage of cost under 50 per cent of the sales value of goods pro- 
duced, and in two establishments the cost was over 60 per cent. The 
establishments in this group employed relatively a large amount of 
skilled labor, especially in forming and cutting the ware, which in a 
large measure accounts for the high percentage of labor cost. 

The percentage of cost for fuel, power, light, and water for all estab- 
lishments was 6.04, and in this respect they have a comparatively 
low cost. As about 75 per cent of the establishments were located 
in West Virginia, where cheap gas prevails, the low cost for fuel must 
be ascribed to the advantage of location. 

Taxes and insurance together amount to 1.16 per cent of the sales 
value of goods produced, of which 0.55 per cent was for taxes and 
0.61 per cent for insurance. Taxes varied from 0.28 to 1.06 per cent 
and insurance 0.21 to 1.47 per cent. 

Salaries, with an average of 3.39 per cent and ranging from 1.94 
to 6.17 per cent, and general expense, with 3.26 per cent and ranging 
from 0.98 to 7.44 per cent, present no imusual features and require no 
comment. 

Total selling expense, with an average of 7.09 per cent, was highest 
in this group. Four establishments were above the average andfour 
below. Elsewhere in this report (p. 233) is an article which shows the 
selling methods employed by the different groups of establishments 
and in a measure accoimts for the differences in percentages for this 
item. 

Each of the establishments in this g^roup was operated at a profit, 
even after charging depreciation and interest, and of only one other 
group, miscellaneous goods, can the same be said. This group 
ranked fourth in the per cent of profit earned, computed without 
depreciation and interest, and third after depreciation and interest 
were deducted. The average operating pront on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation and interest, was 12.66 per cent, 
and when computed with depreciation and interest was 9.37 per cent. 

After chargmg depreciation and interest, only two estabhshments 
showed a profit in excess of 10 per cent, one having 13.78 and the 
other 19.48 per cent. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



143 



BLOWN AND PRESSED TABLEWARE. 

Table 46, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percentages 
for establishments manufactm'ing both blown and pressed tableware. 
The percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Table 46. — Percentages op Costs, by Specified Items and Profits or Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
FACTURiNa Tableware. Blown and Pressed. 



Items. 


ATer- 
age. 


No. 
167. 

8.37 
1.42 

.77 
8.59 

1.53 


No. 
158. 


No. 

169. 

8.84 


No. 
163. 

9.47 


yo. 

161. 
10.03 


No. 
162. 


No. 
163. 


No. 
164. 


No. 
165. 


No. 
166. 


Materials: 

Batch 


9.02 
.54 
.89 

7.38 

.38 


7.96 


5.54 


8.46 
1.20 

*"7.'93 


8.63 
2.46 
2.12 


12.77 


9.25- 


Decorating 




MetAl tri'W'ninFS, etc 






2.05 
3.10 

2.70 


18.85 


.55 
6.38 

4.37 






Packing ^ ^ -,-,...--..,,.--,,. . 


5.03 


14.62 


3.85 


10.26 


14.77 


Freight not included in above 
items 




2.69 


















Total materials 


18.81 


23.68 


12.99 


23.46 


17.32 28.88 


16.84 


17.59 


17.06 


25.72 


24.09 






Labor: 

Superintendent and foremen.. 
Otner factory labor 


2.28 
45.73 


1.25 
42.94 


2.65 
47.35 


3.49 

45.03 


2.82 
49.39 


3.86 

41.62 


1.57 

52.80 


3.59 
65.16 


1 

2.84 3.31 
43.82 42. .^2 


1.7g 
40.57 












Total labor 


48.01 


44.19 


50.00 


48.57 52.21j 45.48 


54.37 


68.75 


46.66 


45.63 


42.36 






Pnel, power, light, and water. 

Taxes, State, corporation, etc 

Insuraxire and workmen's com- 
nensation 


8.12 
.53 

.34 


8.61 
.23 

2.38 


8.31 
1.02 

.12 


17.091 10.52 
.951 .90 

.30| .65 


11.78 
.78 

.12 


7.33 
.34 

.36 


12.41 
.27 

.62 


7.68 
.34 

.24 


14 59 
.41 

.41 


9.09 
.75 

.08 








Salaries: 

Officials 


2.07 
1.56 


1.28 
3.32 


.59 
L27 


.68 2.68 
1.43 1.23 


.64 
1.37 


1.99 
1.99 


1.19 
3.85 


1 

' 2.12 

2.06 2.20 


.64 


Office force 


1.36 






T"t4ii salf^ries 


3.03 


4.63 


1.86 


2.111 3.91 


2.01 


3.98 


5.04 


2.06 4.32 


2.00 






General expense 


8.56 


2.00 


7.99 


7.171 5.03 «.77 


6.02 


7.28 


ft. 06' 4 1A 


4.29 














Total manufaoturing and 
administration. 


87.97 


82.09 


82.29 


99.65i 00.54 


97.82 


89.24 


111.86 


80.10 


95.23 


82.58 


Selling: 

SaleffT"eii . , . 


4.62 
2.04 


3.93 
2.31 


L45 
6.30 


1.29 


^.2^ 


l-4'i 


4.59 


1.13 


6. 99 1. 10 


1.4fi 


Other selling exnense 


5.60, .62| 6.39 


1. 29 . «- 20 










1 " ' 


Total selling expense 


6.66 


6.21 


7.75 


6.89i L97i 7.75 


4.59 


1.13 


8.28 


1.10 


7.74 


Bad debts 


.26 


.77 


.25 


.22 


.28 5U 






.24 


m 


.24 
















Total cost of goods pro- 
duced 


94.89 
5.11 


89.67 
10.33 


90.29 
9.71 


106.76 

...... 

6.76 


92.79 
7.21 


105.81 


93.83 
6.17 


112.99 
12.99 


88.62 QA^^ 


90.56 


Operation profit on goods pro- 
duced, computed without de- 
pre-iation and interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation 
and interest 


1L38 


3.60 


0.44 








1 


1 




1 




Total sales value of goods 
produced 


100.00 


100.00 


1 i 1 

100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 100. 00 

1 


100.00 


1 

ioo.oo!ioo.ooioo.oo 






I>epreclation. 


4.53 
.54 


L5o 
L77 


9.35i 

1.20- 

1 


15.32 
1;31 


2.92 13.40 

i 1 9Ji 


1.70 
.07 


3.55 
1.15 


2.62 5.34 '^ (M 


Interest naid 


.101 


12* 






Operating profit on goods pro- 
duced, computed with de- 
predation and interest 


.04 


7.01 


t 

1 

1 


I 
4.29 


4.40 



17.60 


' 1 

1 
1 

8. 66 


2.24 


Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed with depreciation 
and interest 


1 
.84! 


1 

1 

23.30* 


1 on aA 




1 74' 








1 




Ifisoellaneous expense 


(•) 
.25 




1 


1 1 


Mli^^llaneous income 




.'.'.'.'.', \'.'.'.".\"".i}: i""" "".'.' 


. 2H 1. 72| 








1 . . 


4.40 

m § 9 • 


17.69 




Final profit, depredation and 
interest considered. 

Final loss, depre'^iation and 
interest considered. 


.29 


7.01 


J 


23.39 


5.U' 

1 

20.46 


fl.94 


AYl 


3.34 













• Less than ona one^niiidredth of 1 per vmi. 



144 



CHE GIj^SS tNDUSlKT. 



TaBIX 46.— PSBCBNTAOEft OT COtfTS, BT SpBGIFRD ItBXS AND PROFITS OR LO88BS, 

Based on Total Sales Value op Goods Produced, by Estabushmbnts Manu- 
rAcruRDfo Tableware, Blown and Pressed— Concluded. 



Materials: 

Batch. 

De cu i atliM : 

Metal trimming, etc 

Parkin?. 

Freight not faidaded in abore items. . 



Total materials.. 



labor: 

Snperintaidflnt and foremen . 
Otner factory labor 



Total labor. 



Fuel, powo*, light, and water 

Taxes, State, corporation, etc 

Insuranoe and workmen's compoiaatioB. 

Salaries: 

Officials. 

Office fcMTce. 



Total salaries.. 
General expense. 



No. 
1C7. 



I 



No. No. 
16S. 169. 



.1. 



No. * No. ' No. ' No. 
170. , ITL 171 ' 173. 



I 



8.23 



5.93 17. 2S 

• !.» 

.83 1 

5.14 3.81 3.641 
2L09 ! » 



&3S 
L72 
3.42 

ia47i 



5.91' 15.09 

L25 1 

3.78 

&G2 5w48 



No. 
174. 



iai7' 8.25 
.3S 
.97 
5l15 



9.43 



No. 

175. 



9.24 
1.34 
1.521 
5.97 



17.19 ILOO' 23.89; 23.99 1&56 20l57 1(L67. 17.68 



' i I 

2L74 3.03 L78 

48.72 6L08 38.67* 



I \ 

1.89 3.08 1.43' 1.25 

43.66' 45.84 34.08. 47.74 



3.52 
48.53 



18.07 



.36 
44.52 



5L46 64.11 43L45i 45.55 48.92, 3&51I 48.99 53L05 



7.36; 9.26< 6.79i 8.23 
.22, 1.09- .(61 .38. 
.41. .17 .25i .19* 



7.29 &31i 4.68 
.55 .69 .41 
.66, .18' .62 



I 1 

3.77) .65. 
L48: L39* 1.81 

4- 



Total mannlactaring and adminis- 
tration 



Selling: 

Salesmen 

Other selling expense 



Total selling expense. 
Bad debts 



Total cost of goods produced 

Operating profit on goods produced, 
kcompnted without depredation and 
Faod interest 



Operating loss on goods produced, com- 
puted without dejveciation and in- 
terest 

Totalsalesvalue of goods produced. 



Depreciation. 
Interest paid. 



OiMrating profit on goods inoduced, 
computed with depreciation and in- 
terest 

Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed with depreciation and in- 
lerest ...•..•...•...•..•••.•.•..••«•..• 



Miscellaneous expense. 
Miscellaneous income. . 



Final profit, depreciation and in- 
terest considered 

Final loss, depreciation and in- 
terest considered 



5.25 2.04- L81 



2.26! &35: 4.70 



84.15 94.02 74.94 



4.50 



L45' 4.17 
6.29! 



4.50 7.74 4.17 



88.65 



11.35 



100.0010a 00 



LIO 

.46) 



9.79 



9.79 



.251 .08 



102.01 79.19 



2a 81 



2.01 



4.32 
1.26 



7. 59 



7.69 



loaoo 



8.59 



12.22 



.08 



12.30 



I i 

L681 2L35! a44. 2L05 
.73* 2L50! .90 L58 



2.41; 4.94I 4.34t 3.63 



6l08; 4.701 1&78 



86.831 83.62 



3.52i 10.76 
2.18! LOO 



5.70' 11.76 



.28 



.28 



92.81 95.66 97.39 



7.19 



100.00 



2.43 
.09 



4.67 



.46 



5.13 



T 



4.34 



10a 00 



L52 
.54 



2.28 



.29 



2.57 



7.69 



8&3S 



&05 
.61 



8.66 



.35 



2.61 



100.00 



4.49 
.60 



2.48 



2.48 



82.69 



5.46 



5.46 



.96 



89.H 



ia89 



9.31 
.77 
.12 



44.88 



7,31 
.36 
.24 



.66 

L42 



2L08 



7.89 



2.40 
.83 



3.23 



17.04 



89.90 91.13 



L45 
&29 



&ao 



7.74 6.29 



.25 



97.89 97.42 



2L11 



loa 00 100. 00 loa 00 loa 00 



S.33 

.62 



6w89 



,01 

,89 



7.77 



2L58 



ILOO 
1.29 



10.18 



.04 



ia22 



1.71 



No. 
176. 



9.14 



9.17 



18.31 



2.93 
46.59 



49.52 



5.95 
.31 
.25 



4.5S 

L50 



6l17 



&« 



89.20 



4.46 
2.26 



6.72 



.17 



96iO0 



8.91 



2.21 
.11 



.87 



.87 



LSI 



.37 



1.96 



" 



Data were secured for 20 establishments, of which 11 were located 
in Pennsylvania, 4 in Ohio, 3 in West Virginia, and 2 in Indiana. 

Batch and packing were the two principal items mider materials. 
While percentages are shown for decorating and metal trimmings, 
etc., these items were not common to all establishments nor were 
they of great importance, as the percentages for each of the items in 
the establishments showing such data were less than for either batch 



COST AND PBOFIT BT EBTABUSHMEKia 145 

or packing materials. However, batch in some establishments 
included decorating materials and metal trimmings^ the accounts of 
these establishments being kept in such a manner as not to permit 
a segregation of materials. Total materials for the establishments 
in this group averaged 18.81 per cent of the sales value of goods 
produced and ranged from 28.88 per cent in establishment No. 161 
to 11 per cent in establishment No. 168. 

Total labor for aU establishments in this group was 48.01 per 
cent of the sales value of goods produced. In 7 establishments 
total labor amounted to 50 per cent or over, and in 2 it was over 
60 per cent. In 12 of the remaining establishments labor cost was 
between 40 and 50 per cent, and in 1 it was less than 40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, light, and water averaged 8.12 per cent. Of the 20 
establismnents in this group, 12 had a higher and eight a lower 
percentage of cost than the average. The highest cost was found in 
establishment No. 159, with 17.09 per cent, and the lowest in estab- 
lishment No. 173, with 4.68 per cent. 

Taxes and insurance amoimted to 0.84 per cent, of which 0.6 per 
cent was for taxes and 0.34 per cent for insurance. In only 2 
establishments were taxes and in only 1 establishment was insurance 
over 1 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

Salaries amounted to 3.63 per cent, of wmch 2.07 per cent was for 
o£5cials and 1.56 per cent for office force. In only three establish- 
ments did the total expenditures for salaries exceed 5 per cent, and 
in no establishment was it as high as 7 per cent. 

The percentage for total selling expense was comparatively hi^ 
in this group, being exceeded by only two other groups. The aver- 
age for the group was 6.66 per cent. The highest percentage was 
found in estaDhshment No. 171, with 11.76 per cent, and the lowest 
in establishment No. 165, with 1.1 per cent. 

Losses from bad debts were not found in four establishments. Of 
the establishments which had such losses, the hi^est was found in 
establishment No. 173, with 0.96 per cent, and tBe lowest in estab' 
lishment No. 165, with 0.07 per cent. 

On the average the establishments in this group had the lowest 
percentage of operating profit when computed witnout depreciation 
and interest. The average for the group was 5.11 per cent as 
{gainst 10.49 per cent for the 213 establishments. Ediablkfament 
No. 169, with 20.81 per cent, showed the highest profit, and, exclad- 
ing the establishments that showed losses, establkhment Xo, 174, 
with 2.11 per cent, the lowest. Four establishment^^ showed losses 
ranging from 12.99 per cent in ee^tablishment No, 163 to 2/il per 
cent in establishment No. 168. 

After charging depreciation and interr^t, eigi^it establishiiMnts 
showed losses, in two of which the loss was over 20 pfsr cent. On 
the average the establishment') in this grr>Tip, after charging dft;>ri*K 
ciation and interest, were barely op^^rated at a prr>fit, tn#^ areragftr 
for the group being only 0/>4 per cftnt. 

Depreciation hnd interest nrnonritM U> hSil per r:eTii, fA w:'.>.i* 
4.53 per cent was for deprw:iAnior» m\<\ i)'A j>^f e^»t \f/t xr.^jHt^^t. 
Depreciation no^ed from 15^:^2 p^ ^•J^it tA IJ p^r cj^^^y, ar^l irrVr-^* 
for those estabfiamient^ T^\jit)irXAX,% <^ni'!i\ dat^ iftfXti 1,77 y^ t^r^X Up 
0.07 per cent. 

102511*— 1 



146 



THE GLASS IISTDUSTBY. 



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148 THE GLASS INDUSXBT. 

Data were secured for 18 establishments, located in New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, and 
Indiana. There is no marked centralization of the establishments in 
any State. 

While in a few of the estabUshments decorating and metal trim- 
mings, etc., formed a considerable part of the total cost of materials, 
it can not be said that it \yas the general custom for manufacturers of 
lighting goods to decorate the ware or to furnish tlie metal trimmings. 
The average for materials was 20.05 per cent of the sales value of 
the goods produced. Six of the establishments were above the 
average and 12 below. The highest establishment. No. 188, had a 
cost for materials of 31.56 per cent, due largely to decorating and 
metal trimmings, and the lowest establishment, No. 182, had 14.85 
per cent, due to the comparatively low cost of packing materials. 

The labor employed by the establishments in this group may be 
said to be between the highly skilled labor employed in the handmade 
and blown ware groups and the unskilled labor in the machine-made 
ware groups. The average for all establishments in the group was 
40.15 per cent. Two estabUshments, Nos. 177 and 187, with 60.09 
and 55.21 per cent, respectively, were exceptions to the comparatively 
medium laoor coste in the group. Of the remaining establishments, 
five had costs of between 40 and 50 per cent, ten between 30 and 40 
per cent, and only one less than 30 per cent. 

/An examination of the percentages for fuel, power, light, and water 
will show that the highest cost, in establishment No. 185, was over 
three times as much as the lowest cost, in establishment No. 184. 
The percentages of cost for the other establishments were between 5 
and 14 per cent, centering around 7 per cent. 

The variation in the percentages for taxes and insurance was due 

i)artly to the laws of the various States in which the factories were 
ocated and partly, in the case of insurance, to the policy of the com- 
pany. The average for taxes was 0.52 per cent and in only one estab- 
lishment was it greater than 1 per cent. The average for insurance 
was 0.39 per cent, and in three establishments it was over 1 per cent 
but not greater than 1.65 per cent. 

Of the remaining items entering into the total cost of goods pro- 
duced, selling amounted to 6.72 per cent, general expense 5.91 per 
cent, salaries 4.29 per cent, royalty 0.78 per cent, and bad debts 
0.33 per cent. Owing to a peculiar condition existing in establish- 
ment No. 191, no selling expense was reported. Rovalty was reported 
in four establishments and, unlike royalty in otner groups, was a 
payment for the use of a batch formula and not for machines. 

The establishments in this group had an average operating profit 
when computed without depreciation and interest of 13.94 per cent, 
an operating profit when computed with depreciation and interest of 
9.3 per cent, and a final profit of 9.93 per cent. Two establishments, 
before charging depreciation and interest, showed an operating loss 
and four estabUshments showed a loss after charging depreciation 
and interest. Of the establishments operating at a profit after 
charging depreciation and interest, two had a profit of over 20 per 
cent, four between 10 and 20 per cent, four between 5 and 10 per cent, 
and four less than 5 per cent; and of those operating at a loss one had 
a loss of 9.22 per cent and three under 5 per cent. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



149 



Depreciation and interest together amounted to 4.64 per cent, of 
which 3.54 per cent was for depreciation and 1.1 per cent for interest 
paid. The two establishments having the greatest percentage of 
profit had no charges for interest. 

LAMP CHIMNEYS. 

Table 48, which follows, presents cost data in the form of per- 
centages for establishments manufacturing lamp chimneys. The 
percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Table 48. — Percentages op Costs, bt Spectfied Items and Profits and Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Valub op Goods Pboduosd, by Establishments Manu- 
paoturino Lamp Chimnbts. 



• 

Items. ' 


Avet- 


No. 10ft. 


Nal96. 


No, 197. 


No. 196. 


No. 199. 


Na30Q. 


MateiialB: 

fiat(di 


7.40 

.46 

.06 

16.24 


10.00 


6.75 
.18 


5.15 


4.12 
.12 


3.67 
.41 


9.17 


DeooratinE ......••...••.•. 


.04 


Metal trimmtnEt. «tc......***FT r^-.r*- 


.10 


Packing 


18.11 


"iii" 


iLis 


10.15 


15.67 


18.04 






Total matoriab >.«. 


24.16 


28.11 


14.14 


17.10 


14.30 


19.65 


28.55 






Labor: 

Suuerintendent and foremen 


ISO 
50.10 


"so'ei' 


3.00 
68.60 


1.60 
60.44 






3.44 


Other factorv labw ,.r,r r r 


6T.21 


66.40 


44.17 






Totfil labor t-t T---r t--- 


5140 


ft0.61 


71.60 


5104 


67.21 


06.49 


47.61 






Pnel. Dower. liebt. water 


6.26 
.46 
.43 


3.60 
.11 
.55 


4.87 
.24 
.70 


142 
.18 

.53 


1.92 
.38 
.37 


3.37 
.19 
.95 


6.87 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc 


.OS 


Insaranoe and workmen's oompensation 


.30 


fialaries: 

Officials 


2.13 
1.06 




5.60 
165 


179 
.97 


1.05 
.41 


156 
.64 


105 


Offieeloroa • 


1.26 






Total salaries r .......'....... . 


3.10 




6.24 


3.76 


1.46 


3.20 


3.81 






flpnwal exnense. w ..,,.,. . . r , . r , . . . . 


4. OS 


.85 


6.75 


5.86 


1.22 


1.94 


4.75 






Total mftnnfactnring and administration 


80.03 


83.83 


106.63 


81.89 


86.90 


85.79 


9101 


Sellins: 

Salesmen 


4.18 
.30 


8.07 


2.30 
.64 


131 


7.66 
.17 


1.69 


4.6tl 


Other sellinj! e^nwpse. 


.5S 






Total sallinB eimeiise .......... ^ ^ 


4.52 


&07 


8.08 


181 


7.83 


1.69 


4.67 






Bad debts 


.31 




1.22 


.26 




1.45 


.10 






Total cost of goods prodaoed 


04.76 
5.94 


92.80 
7.20 


110.88 


lass 


84.46 
15.54 


94.73 
5.27 


88.93 
11.07 


96.78 


Operating profit on goods prodnoed, oompated 
without aepreciatKm and interest 


3.22 






















100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


DepreciatiOB 1 


1.61 
.76 


.33 

.26 


174 
137 


105 
.18 


.41 


1.91 
111 


1.71 


Interest iMdd 


.65 






Operating profit on goods produced, oompnted 
with depredation and interest 


2.87 


6.61 


15.00 


13.81 


4.86 


7.05 


.86 


Ojierating loss on goods produced, computed 
with depredation and interest 


















If isoellaneous expense 


.05 
.03 




1 






.00 


Miscellaneous income 






.06 




.19 












Final profit, depredation and Interest 
considered. 


2.85 


6.61 


15.99 


13.37 


4.86 


7.24 


.77 


Final loEB, depredation and interest 
considered 



















150 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

Data were secured for six establishments, of which four were 
located in West Virginia and one each in Ohio and Oklahoma. 

Cost of materials for all establishments in this group averaged 
24.16 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. This compara- 
tively high percentage was due largely to the packing cost, which 
amoimted to 16.24 per cent for all establishments ana ranged from 
8.21 per cent in establishment No. 196 to 18.64 per cent in estab- 
lishment No. 200. 

Lamp chimneys, generally speaking, are packed for both the 
domestic and export trade with more care than any other of the 
glass products. The chimneys are generally wrapped in paper, 
placed in individual tubes or partitioned cardboard, and then placed 
m wooden cases, so that the comparatively high packing cost is dis- 
tinctive of this branch of the industry. 

This group ranked fourth in labor cost, the average being 52.40 
per cent. In establishment No. 196 the labor cost was 71.69 per 
cent and in establishment No. 198, 67.21 per cent. Of the remaining 
establishments three had a labor cost over and one imder 50 per 
cent of the sal^ value of goods produced- 

Fuel, power, light, and water was lowest in this group, the average 
being 5.26 per cent. The highest cost was in establishment No. 200, 
6.87 per cent, and the lowest in establishment No. 198, 1.92 per cent. 
This low cost was due to the location of the factories in districts where 
natural gas is cheap. 

On the average, taxes and insurance showed about the same 
percentage of cost, being 0.46 per cent for the former and 0.43 per 
cent for the latter, although an examination of the percentages for 
the establishments, at first glance, would not indicate this relative 

S)sition of these two items. Because of the effect of establishment 
O..200, the averages do not reflect the actual relative position of 
taxes and insurance in the other five establishments. 

In establishment No. 195 no salaries were reported, nor was any 
estimate given as to the value of the services rendered by the owners. 
The average of 3.19 per cent would be somewhat higher if the per- 
centage had been computed for only the five establishments reporting 
salaries. 

General expense amounted to 4,03 per cent and was lowest in 
estabUshment No. 195^ with 0.85 per cent, and highest in establish- 
ment No. 196, with 6.75 per cent. 

Selling expense showed no regularity and depended almost entirely 
upon the course pursued by the different establishments. The 
average was 4.52 per cent, the highest 8.97 per cent, and the lowest 
1.69 per cent. Bad debts were not found in two establishments 
and in those reporting such losses the range was from 0.1 per cent 
to 1.45 per cent. 

One estabhshment was operated at a loss of 10.88 per cent when 
computed without depreciation arid interest, the charges for these 
items increasing the loss to 15.99 per cent. One estabhshment wa^ 
barely operated at a profit after cnarging depreciation and interest, 
the profit being less than 1 per cent. Of trie remaining establish- 
ments, after charging depreciation and interest, one had a profit of 
13.31 per cent, two between 5 and 10 per cent, and one less than 5 
per cent. 



COST AKD PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 151 

Depreciation and interest paid amounted to 2.37 per cent, of which 
1.61 per cent was for depreciation and 0.76 per cent for interest 

i)aid. The former varied from 0.33 to 2.74 per cent, and the latter 
rom 0.18 to 2.37 per cent. 

MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 

Table 49 presents costs data in the form of percentages for es- 
tablishments manufacturing a variety of articles that could not be 
assigned to any one of the preceding groups. The percentages are 
based on the sales value of goods produced. 



162 



XHB GLASS INDTT8TBY. 



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COST AKD PBOFIT BT BSTABUSHMEirxS. 



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154 THE GLASS INDUSIBY. 

Data were secured for 13 establishments located in Massachusetts! 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania; West Virginia, Ohio, Indianai 
and Illinois. As is indicated by the number oi States, there ia no 
centralization of this branch of the glass industry. 

The establishments in this group, producing a variety of articles 
from ^lass marbles to chemical goods and using different grades and 
varieties of materials, showed a wide variation in the total cost of 
materials. The highest percentage of cost was found in establish- 
ment No. 202, which was twice the average of 21.51 per cent and 
almost six times the lowest cost of 7.63 per cent in establishment 
No. 204. 

While undoubtedly some of the estabUshments, on account of their 
product, require a greater amount of skilled labor than others, yet 
the variation in the percentages are not so marked as in materials. 
In two estabUshments the percentage for labor was over 50 per cent, 
in five estabUshments between 40 and 50 per cent, and in six estab- 
lishments less than 40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, light, and water also shows a wide variation in the 
percentages, the average being 5.57 per cent, the highest 10.55 per 
cent, and the lowest 1.09 per cent. Owing to the diverse products 
of the estabUshments in this group, the variation in the percentages 
did not depend entirely upon the location of the factories, but to 
some extent upon the difference in the amount of fuel consumed for 
the proper fusion of the materials. 

Taxes and insurance amounted to 1.07 per cent, of which 0.56 per 
cent was for taxes and 0.51 per cent for insurance. The highest 
percentage for taxes was found in estabUshment No. 212, with 1.49 
per cent, and for insurance in establishment No. 208, with 1.24 
per cent. In other estabUshments neither of these items amounted 
to as much as 1 per cent. 

Of the other items included in cost of goods produced, salaries 
ranged from 1.2 to 8.81 per cent, general expense from 0.95- to 13.1 
per cent, seUing from 0.48 to 11.97 per cent, and bad debts from 
0.02 to 2.07 per cent in those establisnments reporting such data. 

Although the average operating profit^ computed without depre- 
ciation and interest, was exceedea by the average profit in machme- 
made bottles. Group VI, and lighting goods. Group XI, yet a greater 
percentage of the estabUshments were operated at a profit of over 
10 per cent than in either of the other two groups. One of the estab- 
Ushments was operated at the remarkable profit of 40.45 per cent, 
but it so happens that this estabUshment has Uttle effect on the 
average. Four estabUshments were operated at a profit between 
15 and 20 per cent, five between 10 and 15 per cent, and three at 
less than 10 per cent. After charging depreciation aind interest, the 
average profit was 8.59 per cent, no establishment being operated at a 
loss. Depreciation ranged from 0.66 to 6.47 per cent and interest 
paid from 0.03 to 1.51 per cent in the estabUshments reporting such 
data. 

COST BASED OK TOTAL EXPENSES, EXCLUDING DEPBECIATION AND 

INTEREST. 

The preceding percentage tables in this section of the report were 
based on net sales or sales value of goods produced. The percentages 
for the items of cost based on the total cost of goods produced are 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 155 

different from those based on net sales or sales value of goods produced. 
If based on not sales or sales value of goods produced, profit is a 
part of the divisor, and in that case the percentage for each item of 
cost is smaller than when the computation is based on the total cost 
of goods produced: when there is a loss, the divisor is correspond- 
JngTy smaller and the resulting quotients or percentages are larger. 

I'orhaps the most striking waj to call attention to the difference 
between other percentage tables in this section and Table 50, which 
follows, is to state that the percentages in the former are based on 
receipts, or income, and those in Table 50 on expenditures, or outgo, 
whicn, however, excludes depreciation and interest. In the following 
table percentages are basea on the total cost of goods produced, 
excluding depreciation and interest. 



166 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 









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COST AND PBOFIT BT SSXABLI8HHENTB. 



157 



Since the same general conditions apply to all tables showing 
percentages by groups, it does not seem necessary to discuss the 
above table, in view of the fact that these conditions have already 
been discussed on pages 106 to 112. 

As three different bases have been used in computing percentages 
for the tables in this section of the report, it may be of interest to 
compare the percentages for certain items when computed on the 
different bases. Table 51, which follows, shows percentages for five 
items of expense when based on net sales, sales value of goods pro-r 
duced, and total cost of goods produced, excluding depreciation and 
interest. 

TabCb 51. — Comparative Summary op Percentages por Five Items op Expense 

Computed on Dipperent Bases. 



itonH. 



Materials... 
Total labor. 

Poel 

Salarin 

Total selling 





Sales valae 


Net sales. 


of goods 
produced. 




21.93 


22.70 


40.67 


41.08 


8.15 


8.43 


3.39 


3.51 


4.01 


8.93 



Cost(rf 

goods pro* 
uoed . ex- 
cluding 
depreda- 
tion and 
Intoiest. 



25.36 

46.90 

0.4i 

3.92 

4.38. 



It will be seen in the above table that the percentages when com- 
puted on net sales are lower than when computed on either the sales 
value or cost of goods produced ; that is, total net sales for all estab- 
lishments were greater in amount than either of the other bases. 

LOWEST AND HIGHEST COST ESTABLISHMENTS. 

Because of their location in natural-gas fields, some establishments 
had a decided advantage in fuel. Others had to produce their own 
gas from coal or pay a high rate for natural gas brought from distant 
fields. 

To bring the various establishments to a more comparable basis 
and confine the expenses to manufacturing and administration, the 
items of fuel, power, etc., selUng expense, and bad debts were de- 
ducted from tne total cost of goods produced. Percentages were 
then computed on this new base for the different groups and for 
establishments which showed the lowest and highest percentage of 
cost in each group. In Table 52, which follows, are given the per- 
centages based on the total cost, excluding fuel, etc., selling expense, 
bad debts, depreciation, and interest for the various groups and for 
the lowest ana highest cost establishment in each group. 



158 



THE GLASS IKDUSTBY. 



Table 52.— Avbragb Pbrcentaoes ot Costs bt Grotjps, and EsTABLisHifENTfl 
WITH Lowest and Highest Percentage op Cost in Each Group, bt SPEcmEB 
Items, Except fob Fuel, Power, Light and Water, Selung, and Bad Debts. 





Group L- 


-Window glass, hand. 


Group n.— 


Window glass, madiioe. 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 14. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 
No. 2. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
ILshment, 

No. 45. 


Highest 
cost estsb- 
Ushment, 

No.401 


Total materials for product 


18.96 


9.98 


20.12 


22.99 


3L21 


2L05 


Labor: 

Superintendent and foro> 
men 


.71 
09.25 




L34 
69.08 


2.07 
68.02 






Other factory labor 


76.08 


53.29 


67.35 


Total factory labor 


69.96 


75.06 


7a 42 


60.09 


53.29 


57.3S 


Taxes, State, corporation , etc. . 
Insurance and workmen's 
comjMnsation 


.65 
L71 


L15 
L40 


L35 
2.22 


.48 
L82 


.40 
2.77 


.76 
2.14 






Salaries: 

Officials 


1.90 
L48 


6.04 
.04 




.58 
L64 




l.» 


Office force 


2.14 


L84 


2.77 






Total salaries 


3.38 


6.98 


2.14 


2.22 


L84 


iS7 






Rovalty 








4.64 
7.70 


8.35 
2.14 


&32 


General expense 


6.34 


6.41 


3.75 


7.81 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


moo 




Groui 


>lir.~P]ate 


glass. 


Group IV 


.—Wire and opalescent 
glass. 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 52. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishn* 'nt. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 58. 


Highest 
costestab* 
Ushment, 

No. 62. 


Total materials for product . . . 


35.81 


24.49 


40.80 


39.76 


84.92 


37.4S 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 
men 


3.20 
4L04 


4.77 
53.04 


2.56 
3L37 


4.05 
37.82 




2.57 


Other factory labor 


33.18 


26.65 


Total factory labor 


45.14 


68.71 


83.93 


3L87 


33.18 


20.22 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc. 
Insurance and workmen's 
compensation 


L87 

.98 


.98 
.60 


.74 
.96 


L39 
L34 


8.64 
L84 


.51 

LO0 






Salaries: 

Officials 


L99 
L46 


2.03 
1.00 


L27 
1.13 


4.67 
2.02 


n.82 
2.96 


5.47 


Office force 


L6I 






Total salaries. 


3.44 


8.03 


2.40 


6.69 


14.77 


7.09 






General expense 


13.20 


12.19 


2L17 


18.95 


12.26 


34.8S 


Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



IT* 



Table 52. — ^Atkkaob 
WITH Lowest axd HicMBaiT 
Items, Excbft pok Fvwl. Pa 
Continued. 



aw Cost EC Ejlc 




T.— 



kr 



J* i. 14. 






i^ZZITirSt 



3.C ^:«:^. 






Total matamlsivpradDei J4.S 

Labor: 

ButittiiitBniiwit and iv^ 

men L7* 

Otbflr hctorr labor SLZi 

Total fMCory 

Taxes, State, itu y t Mmkm . «« 
Issmanoe and 
unpensatJ 

iiies: 

OfficiBls.... 

Offioeforee. 

Total 

talexf 

Total manuto L f Mgeig IX. 'r. 



*.** 



»f^li 



2L 2 






».£ 



44.:;! 



2.« 



«>. « 



-isL 


+4:4 


3a. tS 


#f.j: 


«.2 


«.s 




-4 


-*- 


Ll. 

.•V 




y 
^ 






4.C 



L'> 






1 TT 



^ »: 



CfT 



4.2i 



17? 



&2S 



-L* 



Xl 



IT >. 



U-id 



Lli5 



IX- X 



ix. y. 



I.e. X 



!.»:. K 



lOL » 



Crx::^ TIL — i-rrLJra- i.&i^i 4C«1 



pVnL— , 



. • "ST: 






2*:. -a. 



iar fr >- p. 



o. its. 



No. 135. 



Total materiali far 

Labor: 

Superfntendent aad 

men 

Other fMtcTf labor . . 

Total 

Taxes, State, ( 
Insoranoe and' v< 
Hnpenaat 

iries: 

Officials... 
Office lam. 

Total; 

Genen] 

Total 1 



M.Vi 



!ir- 



».T 



f»/ y. 



41 71 



9s.:a 



■a'i 






L» 



Vt« 



<! » 



4K 



2.^ 



i V5 
4.V* 



»-* 



iX A 






1 >: 



<• ^vi 



47 

1 7S 

7 */, 



M.T7 



i.V/ '/, 



ZOl^ • 


.'» 


1ft Vi 


nn 


41,44 


24.r/2 


,W 


,» 


-W 


.54 


hHt 


X73 


Li> 


,#7 


iJ/T 


J.W 


12. t A 


*i >/• 


U0t.*0i 


Mt,J0i 



160 



THE GLASS INDUSXBY. 



Tablb 52. — ^AvBRAOB Pbrcbntaoes of Costs bt Qboups, and BsTABUSHMsim 
WITH Lowest and Hiobbst Pbrcbntaob of Cost in Each Group, bt Sfbcipied 
Items, Except for Fuel, Power, Light and Water, Seixino, and Bad Debtb- 
Contiiiued. 





Group IX.— Tableware, blown. 


Group X.- 


-Tableware, 
pressed. 


blown and 


Iteou. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 156. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 150. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 169. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 
N0.1G3. 


Total materials for prodoet.. . . 


16.59 


19.44 


12.83 


23.57 


17.69 


30.65 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 
men 


2.70 
70.12 


2.97 
66.60 


5.82 

70.57 


2.86 
57.26 


3.61 
65.52 


2.61 


Other Caotory labor 


fiG.74 


Total laotory labor 


72.82 


69.51 


75.89 


6a 12 


69.13 


59.35 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc. . 
Insurance and workmen's 
oomp^nsation 


.76 
.82 


.80 
.88 


1.22 
.50 


.68 
.43 


.28 
.53 


.08 
.37 






Salaries: 

Officials 


8.16 
L44 


4.56 
1.12 


3.72 
2.20 


2.58 
1.96 


L19 
3.87 




Office force 


2.65 






Total salaries 


4.60 


5.68 


5.92 


4.54 


5.06 


2. 65 






General eTpense 


4.42 


3.69 


3.64 


10.71 


7.31 


6l90 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


loaoo 


100.00 


loaoo 




Group ^ 


CL— Lightln 


g goods. 


Group XIL— Lamp chimneys. 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 183. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 177. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment. 

No. 197. 


Highest 
costestab* 
Ushnient, 

No. 196. 


Total materiab tor product.. . . 


27.81 


27.13 


17.35 


28.54 


21.52 


U.90 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 
men 


3.63 
52.06 


L92 
5L72 




2.72 
69.17 


2.02 
63.47 


2.95 


Othd: factory labor 


66.53 


67.49 


Total factory labor 


55.69 


53.64 


66.58 
L16 
1.21 


61.89 


65.40 


7n.44 


Taxes, State, coropration, etc. . 
Insurance and workmen's 
comoensatlon 


.72 
.55 


.77 
1.24 


.64 

.51 


.22 
.67 


.69 






Salaries: 

Officials 


2.40 
8.55 


6.64 
5.48 


3.41 
3.01 


2.51 
L25 


3.52 
1.22 


5.59 


Office force 


2.50 






Total salaries 


5.95 


12.12 


7.02 


3.76 


4.74 


&09 






Royalty 


1.08 
8.20 












(ieneralexDense...... 


6.10 


6.73 


4.76 


7.36 


aei 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



161 



Table 52. — ^Ayebaoe Pbrgentaobs of Costs by Groups, and Establishmbnts 
WITH Lowest and SEighest Pbrcbntagb of Cost in Bach Group, by Specipibd^ 
Items, Except for Fuel, Power, Light and Water, Selling, and Bad Debts — 
Concluded. 





Group XXll.— Miscellaneous 
articles. 


Itema. 

• 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 201. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 202. 


Tntftl TT»»tPrWs for nroduct 


27.66 


23.04 


46.48 






Labor: 

SuDerintendent and foremen 


2.98 
54.67 




2^42 


Otneir lactorv labor 


09.06 


43.27 






Total factory labor 


57.65 


69.06 


45.09 






Taxes, State, corporation, etc 


.72 

.65 


.44 
1.38 


.09 


TTigllTanfift and workmAn's onmpftTisat^'^P , , . . 


.48 






Salaries: 

Officials 


2.77 
L99 




4.24 


OiTice force 


,4.14 








Total salaries 


4.76 


4.14 


4.24 






General expense .' 


8.57 


1.93 


3.02 






Total manofftotnHng cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 







The above table shows wherein the lowest cost establishment was 
operated at a lower percentage of cost than the highest cost estab- 
lishments or the average for the group and also wherein it was 
operated at a higher percentage of cost. 

As an illustration, take the group making window glass by hand. 
Group I. The lowest cost establishment had a lower percentage of 
cost lor materials, taxes, and insurance, but had a higher percentage 
for labor, salaries, and general expense than the highest cost estab- 
lishment. The greatest difference in cost was in materials, which in 
the main accounts for making establishment No. 14 the lowest cost 
establishment in this group. This difference in the cost of materials 
may be due to several reasons, among which may be mentioned 
(a) nearness to source of supply of materials, (b) quality of materials 
used, (c) greater effifiency m buying, (d) other items of expense 
relatively high. 

SALES m PREVIOUS YEABS. 

Sales were obtained not only for the year covered by the report 
but for previous years in as many estabhshments as possible. The 
object was to compare the sales m previous years with those of the 
last business year, 1915. In Table 63, which follows, percentages 
that sales of previous years were of 1915 sales are shown by estab- 
lishments ana groups. 



102511*'— 17- 



-11 



162 



THE GLABS INDUSTRY. 



Table 53. — ^Percentages that Sales in Previous Years Were op Sales in 1915, 

BY Establishments and Groups. 

GROUP I.— WINDOW GLASS, HAND. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 4 




77.01 


60.55 
82.33 
80.84 


71.56 
96.72 
87.16 
92.17 


77.83 
159.59 
111.49 
139.95 

72.77 
135.74 

54.51 

78.22 
128.68 
128.11 


57.12 

101.92 

92.03 

94.31 

60.90 

103.57 

39.10 

89.20 

76.22 

58.09 

138.32 

80.08 

94.06 


11.61 
89.87 
72.57 

100.85 
76.45 
92.29 
70.49 
92.70 
01.60 
80.30 

100.05 
85.50 
82.52 
86.02 
65.38 


83.24 
126.55 

82.30 
121.60 

74.09 
129.46 
102.78 

95.38 
106.69 
122.21 
127.54 
116.99 

70.49 
127.44 

90.71 

71.24 
145.37 
103.13 


04.63 

128.55 

110.80 

130.88 

78.75 

118.91 

100.08 

98.19 

113.05 

125.73 

127.45 

114.30 

96.86 

143.70 

80.60 

60.14 

02.84 

01.17 

110.80 

151.18 

102.26 

82.13 


loaoo 


No. 16 




loaoo 


No. 17 







100.00 


No. 15 






100.00 


No. 5 








loaoo 


No. 28. 




•••••••• 






100.00 


No. 25 










100.00 


No. 24 










1QO.0O 


No. 82 










100.00 


No. 35 










100.00 


No.7 










100.00 


No. 13 












100.00 


No. 29 












100.00 


No. 8 












100.00 


No. 36 














100.00 


No. 9 














100.00 


No. 12 
















loaoo 


No. 26 
















100.00 


No. 21 
















100.00 


No. 27 


















loaoo 


No. 34 


















100.00 


No. 80 


















100.00 






















Average: 
1 establishment. . . 




77.01 


60.55 
76.30 


71.56 
86.39 
87.80 


77.83 
118.65 
123.85 
108.09 


57.12 
86.57 
88.46 
76.88 
81.88 


11.61 
63.02 
72.25 
80.73 
82.64 
80.74 


83.24 
96.81 
102.86 
105.03 
103.02 
103.42 
103.81 


04.63 
112.57 
117.04 
110.86 
110.30 
108.41 
105.04 
105.53 


100.00 


8 establishments. . 




loaoo 


4 establishments. . 






100.00 


10 establishments. 








100.00 


13 establishments. 










100.00 


15 establishments. 












100.00 


18 establishments. 








r 




100.00 


22 establishments. 














loaoo 










• -•••••• •••••••• 




■ 







GROUP n.— WINDOW GLASS, MACHINE. 



No. 46 








70.30 


102.53 
23.50 


41.55 
27.00 


103.00 

20.80 

122.17 

182.09 

65.12 


82.23 

53.02 

118.26 

194.78 

57.84 


84.74 
76.60 
94.21 
203.81 
42.27 
52.95 


100.00 


No. 45 








loaoo 


No. 38 










loaoo 


No. 40 














100.00 


No. 42 














100.00 


No. 40 










. 




100. 00 


No. 30 










































Average: 
1 establishment ... 








70.30 


102.53 
48.25 


41.55 
32.16 


103.99 
46.79 
71.13 
70.09 


82.23 
62.14 
84.11 
79.58 


84.74 
79.14 
95.99 
86.74 
78.94 


100.00 


2 establishments.. 








100.QQ 


4 establishments.. 




•••••••• 






100.00 


6 establishments.. 















100.00 


6 establishments.. 




........I........ 








100.00 






1 















GROUP in.— PLATE GLASS. 



No. 51 






56.62 


82.04 


90.70 


82.07 
115.41 


74.05 

05.10 

13L78 


7L56 
103.88 
124.25 


88.03 
116.81 
132.86 

91.10 


100.00 


No. 56 






loaoo 


No. 50 












100.00 


No. 52. 














100.00 






















Average: 
1 4ff^bifi|hm4nt. . 






56.62 


82.04 


00.70 


82.07 
105.41 


74.05 
88.79 
06.64 


71.56 
04.18 
00.67 


88.03 
107.47 
112.11 
107.26 


100.00 


2 establishments.. 






loaoo 












100.00 


4 establishments.. 












100.00 





















COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



163 



Table 53. — Pekgentaoes that Sales in Previous Years Were op Sales in 1915, 

BY Establishments and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP IV.— WIRE AND OPALESCENT GLASS. 



EstablishmeDts. 


1906 


1907 


1906 


1900 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 57 










177.04 


243.47 

186.15 

99.53 


207.07 
177.18 
114.68 
125.12 
105.28 


220.00 
144.86 
144.61 
123.92 
102.79 
111.04 


195.34 
129.84 
106.42 
107.08 
87.76 
117.38 


100.00 


No. 56. 










100.00 


No. 64 












100.00 


No. 58 












100.00 


No. 60 














100.00 


No.59. 














100.00 




















Average: 
1 Mtahliffbrnent. . . 










177.04 


243.47 
107.23 


207.07 
119.79 
119.28 


220.00 
147.51 
144.14 
142.09 


195.84 
110.42 
109.10 
109.46 


100.00 


3 establishments.. 










100.00 


5 establishments.. 












100.00 


6 establishments.. 














100.00 





















GROUP v.— BOTTLES, HAND. 



No. 75 


81.05 

95.83 

100.77 

83.56 


96.15 

91.04 

105.48 

83.92 


112.97 
100.49 
102.09 
87.09 
116.90 


93.78 
96.57 
106.61 
64.22 
97.92 
90.32 


83.25 
99.90 
107.02 
90.85 
98.40 
71.46 


105.70 
95.00 
103.15 
100.67 
107.43 
83.03 
123.38 
138.36 
103.65 
133.07 


82.44 
91.62 
125.61 
102.51 
112.55 
89.64 
111.95 
108.45 
110.89 
138.11 
120.55 


' 132.54 

82.43 

124.71 

97.51 

108.67 

129.38 

125.05 

114.53 

121.25 

137.20 

112. 19 

173.97 

165.95 

60.92 


132.54 
110.21 
120.26 
123.95 
118.08 
171.87 
120.03 

96.19 
116. 16 
122.18 
120.45 
200.31 
110.41 

96.87 
123.56 

97.67 


100.00 


No. 79 


100.00 


No. 73 


100.00 


No. 85 


100.00 


No. 77 


100.00 


No. 89 






100.00 


No. 72 








100.00 


No. 81 




1 






100.00 


No. 87 












100.00 


No. 90 












100.00 


No. 88. 












100.00 


No. 67 








1 




100.00 


No. 86 















100.00 


No. 74 


"""•"•**i'""""" 




1 






100.00 


No. 66 
















100.00 


No. 78 


















100.00 




















Average: 
2 establishments. . 

4 establishments. . 

5 establishments . . 


90.28 
89.58 


92.95 
91.72 


105.19 

97.60 

100.74 


95.53 
85.41 
87.44 
88.46 


93.65 
94.99 
95.55 
86.98 


99.02 
100.41 
101.55 

94.97 
109.29 


88.17 
100.54 
102.49 

97.92 
110.42 
111.34 


101.27 
104.07 
104.82 
113.55 
118. 74 
118. 15 
121.49 


118.61 
120.98 
120.50 
138.76 
122.80 
122.59 
122.32 
121.48 


100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


6 establishments. . 






100.00 


10 establishments. 


........ 






100.00 


11 establishments. 












100.00 


14 establishments. 














100.00 


16 establishments. 
















100.00 


















V 





GROUP VL— BOTTLES, MACHINE. 



No. 100 


t 




63.44 


72.82 


77.41 
139.92 
103.19 

53.24 
120.34 


63.90 

95.91 
122.41 

60.69 
111.35 
106.35 
145.12 

55.97 
153.73 

90.88 


94.26 
130.49 
184.37 

79.25 
139. 18 
114. 16 
189.67 

86.51 
204.82 
109.83 
209.38 

78.05 

91.82 


107.70 
142.53 
158.06 
96.56 
133.21 
108.08 
212.45 
133.60 
220.38 
127.91 
160.66 
104.59 
120.07 


100.00 


No. 103 


1 




100.00 


No. 106 












100.00 


No. 104 












100.00 


No. 107 • 












100.00 


No. 92 












100.00 


No. 93 














100.00 


No. 94 














100.00 


No. 102 














100.00 


No. 105 














100.00 


No. 91...^. 














100.00 


No, 98 
















100.00 


No. 108 
















100.00 




















Average: 
1 establishment ... 








63.44 


72.82 


77.41 
97.40 


63.90 
94.28 
99.87 


94.26 
128.01 
132.96 
116.94 


107.70 
127.55 
138.44 
130.86 


100.00 


5 establishments. . 


1 




100.00 


10 establishments. 












100.00 


13 establishments. 














100.00 





















164 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 53. — Percentages that Sales in Previous Years Were op Sales in 1915, 

BY Establishments and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP Vn.— BOTTLES, HAND AND MACHINE. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 113 


152.00 


201.77 


318. 10 
47.45 
75.47 


221.93 
39.92 
83.64 

130.01 
80.47 


256.47 
55.42 
104.77 
137.29 
87.09 
155.66 
133.04 
237.23 
182.89 


250.45 

66.30 

112.52 

141.54 

83.65 

129.50 

163.86 

151.53 

157.96 

50.10 

121.48 

125.08 


232.47 

68.76 
123.17 
136.83 

94.14 
136.95 
128.23 
148.76 
143. 61 

69.06 
153.73 
140.20 

72.86 


240.52 
58.55 
110. T2 
135.49 
108.31 
162.06 
133.27 
152.08 
183.60 
142.43 
125.41 
138.22 
80.98 


209.50 

43.65 

107. 16 

121.45 

84.37 

153.92 

139.76 

141.66 

97.07 

122.87 

124.59 

128.52 

100.07 


100.00 


No. 124 


100.00 


No. 130 






100 00 


No. 122 






100.00 


No. 131 








100.00 


No. 109 






• 


100.00 


No. 116 




• 






100.00 


No. 119 










100.00 


No. 128 










100.00 


No. 120 










100. 00 


No. 126 












100.00 


No. 123 












100.00 


No. 132 












100.00 


















Average: 
1 estoblishment 


152.00 


201.77 


318. 10 
100.83 


221.93 
90.57 
92.96 


256.47 
112.00 
108.23 
133.78 


250.45 
118. 73 
111.70 
126.26 
120. 91 


232. 47 
120.55 
115. 14 
124.02 
124.84 
117.88 


240.52 
114. 21 
115.37 
132. 20 
132.60 
125.69 


209.50 
100.29 
100.61 
107.56 
111.86 
110. 27 


100.00 


3 establishments . . 


100.00 


5 establishments . . 






100. 00 


9 establishments . . 








100.00 


12 establishments . 










100.00 


13 establishments . 












100.00 
















1 



GROUP VIIL—JARS. 



No. 142 




1 






75.77 
102. 71 


101. 27 

128.88 , 
84.84 1 
70.77 1 
91.22 
81.69 1 
_ . 1 


39.48 

ias.24 

91.75 
77.12 
98.47 
89.65 


68.62 

113.54 

103.54 

93.27 

119.57 

82.50 

60.26 

121.30 

79.41 

91.95 


100.00 


No. 146 




1 
1........ 






100.00 


No. 147 




"■ 1 






69.94 
•69. 41 


100.00 


No. 148 :... 




t 






100.00 


No. 140 












100.00 


No. 145 














100.00 


No. 138 














100.00 


No. 139 












i i 


100.00 


No. 143 












i 


100.00 


No. 144 












1 


100.00 


















Average: 
4 establishments . . 












77.97 


1 

91.58 

90.41 1 

1 
. . . . . ' 


85.89 
86.96 


98.74 
98.75 
96.62 


100.00 


6 establishments . . 












100.00 


10 establishments . 














100.00 




1 












1 







GROUP IX.— TABLE'vVARE, BLOV/N. 



No. 150. 
No. 154. 
No. 149. 
No. 156. 



Average: 

1 establishment . . 

2 establishments. . 

3 establishments. . 

4 establishments. . 



65.21 



65.21 



85.51 
105. 47 



85.51 
99.64 



92.19 
87.63 



92.19 
88.96 



91.95 
99.48 



91.95 
97.28 



73.92 
114. 56 



73.92 
102. 70 



79.69 

116. 11 

43.40 



79.69 

105. 48 

96.31 



61.09 

119. 60 

89.40 



61.09 
102. 52 
100.59 



99.67 
120. 65 

99.13 
104. 13 



99.67 
114.53 
112.25 
108.57 



89.56 

102.65 

84.19 

91.40 



89.56 
98.83 
96.67 
94.28 



100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 



100.00 
100.00 

100.00 

100. 0") 



COST AND PBOFIT BT ESTABLISHMBKTS. 



165 



Table 53. — Percentages that Sales in Previous Years Were op Sales in 1915, 

BY Establishments and Groups — Concluded. 

GROUP X.— tableware, BLOWN AND PRESSED. 



EstAbli^hTnAntj;. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 

100.01 
112. 77 
152. 16 
126. 14 
190.67 
158.70 
128.85 
110.93 
136. 74 
100.84 
93.92 
76.31 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 






No. 167 

No.171 






76.26 
92.98 


05.49 
106.79 
120.86 
111.20 
120.63 
146.33 


112.62 
107.97 
154.64 
124.39 
169.25 
161.09 
123.64 
108.74 
129.15 
143. 17 
68.50 
64.00 


97.38 
107. 72 
125.49 
126.91 
168.89 
157.22 
117.10 
123.62 
134.36 
119.30 
108.82 
130.94 
55.05 
71.23 


93.02 

119.82 

116. 44 

118.42 

157. 19 

135.45 

111.74 

93.71 

122.50 

93.31 

112.25 

100.09 

74.99 

76.50 

84.79 


78.15 
126.05 
118. 76 
125.57 
129.51 
143.60 
142.83 

97.86 
118.25 

84.69 

94.36 
113.64 

74.65 
107.92 

97.67 


100.00 
100.00 


No. 158 






100.00 


No. 160 








100.00 


No. 161 








100.00 


No. 159 








100.00 


No. 168 








112. 62 


100.00 


No. 170 








110. 11 
108.13 


100.00 


No. 1^74 








100.00 


No. 163 








100.00 


No. 172 










100.00 


No. 173 










100.00 


No. 169 










100.00 


No. 166 














100.00 


No. 165 














100.00 


















Average: 
2 establishments . . 


« 




87.71 


103.23 
111. 11 


109.43 
124. 73 
108.48 


108.76 
128. 26 
114.49 


104.47 
124. 42 
122.85 
115.22 


111.38 
116.24 
112.31 
107.74 
106.84 


109.39 
114.87 
110.43 
107.63 
107.24 


100.00 


9 establishments . . 






100.00 


12 establishments . 








100.00 












100.00 


15 establishments . 














100.00 





















GROUP XL— LIGHTING GOODS. 



No. 183 : 






33.06 


39.72 
186,68 


64.44 

196.17 

76.95 

98.62 


68.06 

190.69 

77.91 

99.00 


72.22 

119. 51 

86.68 

100.99 

90.63 

61.39 

95.78 

145.50 

72.84 


90.00 
150.39 

9L16 
106.14 
108.02 

90.47 
124.61 
122.44 

90.51 
157.08 


87.50 
116.25 

81.34 
107.65 
109.74 
102.54 
138.35 
123.12 

96.88 
126.93 


100.00 


No. 181 






100.00 


No. 193 








100.00 


No. 186 










100.00 


No. 179 










100.00 


No. 184 














100.00 


No. 187 




•••••••" 










100.00 


No. 177 














100.00 


No. 188 










"••""•"• 




100.00 


No. 192 














100.00 




















Average: 
1 establisment .... 






33.06 


39.72 
94.51 




64.44 

107.28 

85.19 


58.06 

107.50 

86.60 


72.22 
89.85 
89.34 
86.48 


90.00 

112.61 

97.39 

99.15 

in. 63 


87.50 
98.22 
88.35 
96.37 
102.96 


100.00 


2 establishments . . 






100.00 


4 establishments . . 








100.00 


9estabHshTni»ntS- . 










100.00 


10 estAhlishments - 














100.00 










^ 











GROUP XXL— LAMP CHIMNEYS. 



No. 197 






« 








49.87 
72.24 
99.52 


88.16 
80.94 
98.79 
90.66 


98.83 
84.71 
84.09 
93.57 


100.00 


No. 199 














100.00 


No. 200 














100.00 


No. 195 














100.00 




















Average: 
3 establishments . . 















89.04 


94.65 
94.51 


86.02 
86.30 


100.00 


4 establishments . . 














100.00 





















GROUP Xin.— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 



No. 208 












97.95 

5L67 

64.61 

118.20 


100.58 
50.66 
61.97 

117.21 
67.79 


97.96 
6L45 
77.67 
132.00 
88.66 
76.00 


101. 18 
68.81 
82.19 

119.04 
89.00 
79.45 
60.30 


100:00 


No. 206 












100.00 


No. 210 












100.00 


No. 211 












100.00 


No. 207 












100.00 


No. 205 














100.00 


No. 201 
















100.00 






















Average: 
4 establishments . . 












83.90 


86.67 
83.93 


97.63 
96.36 
95.08 


96.52 
95.46 
94.46 
94.47 


100.00 


5 establishments . . 












100.00 


6 establishments . . 














100.00 


7 establishments . . 
















100.00 























166 



THE GLASS INDUSTET. 



An examination of the above table shows that all groups are repre- 
sented in only the years 1912, 1913, and 1914. The average sales in 
Groups II, VlII, XII, and XIII were greater in 1916 than in the years 
1912, 1913, and 1914. The average sales in the other groups were 
less in 1916 than they were in the other years, 

PROFITS m FBEVIOirS TEABS. 

Profits in previous years were also obtained from as many estab- 
lishments as possible. In Table 64 percentages are shown for the 
Erofits of previous years based on the sales of that year, by estab- 
shments and groups. 

Table 54. — Pebcentages op Final Profit, Based on Sales op Each Ybab, 1906 

TO 1915, BY Establishments and Groups. 

GROUP I.— WINDOW glass, HAND. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 1908 

1 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No.4 




3.05 


0.38 
5.02 
7.46 


0.40 

8.30 

11.61 

7.60 


3.18 

a2.34 

28.54 

20.70 

16.71 

22.98 

6.70 

6.54 

2SL90 

a 1.35 


a 8. 11 
12.77 

6.98 
2.67 

8.52 

a. 79 
a 18. 98 

4.90 
al.99 
a 1.96 
17.79 
a8.25 

8.22 


a 16. 17 
5.06 
9.92 
5.26 
6.77 
0.12 
5.24 
8.01 
2.42 
a. 35 
a5.33 
2.54 
5.35 
05.55 
5.07 


13.58 
13.76 
26.66 
21.15 
16.37 
26.30 
16.84 

9.20 
18.46 
13.52 
12.75 
12.95 

3.69 
03.75 
17.43 
30.92 

4.76 
12.70 


19.04 
12.41 
11.23 
16.56 
16.08 
14.58 
11.80 

6.48 
16.04 
14.36 
10.13 
12.38 
21.09 
a 1.84 

8.43 
32.75 

6.37 

2.27 

12.67 

.55 

9.99 
10.81 


12.95 


No. 16 




7.47 


No. 17 






14.53 


No. 15 






12.03 


No.6 








8. 06 


No. 28 










10. W 


No. 25 




1 




7.72 


No. 24 




' 




6.36 


No. 32 








15.77 


No. 35 




1 




7.35 


No.7 




. 1 




10.59 


No. 13 




1 






5.62 


No. 29 




, 




13.58 


No.8 




1 




a3.67 


No. 36 




1 






5.13 


No.9 










8.17 


No. 12 




1 








10.57 


No. 26 




1 








2.16 


No. 21 














4.35 


No. 27 
















0.72 


No. 34 




. . 1 . 










8.57 


No. 30 




l" 










7.20 


















Average: 
1 establishment . . . 




3.05 


.38 .40 
5. 22 7. 07 


3.18 
11.03 
13.70 
13.31* 


o8.ll 
6.71 
4.26 
1.07 
2.70 


a 16. 17 
6.49 
6.07 
4.05 
3.48 
3.19 


13.58 
18.44 
19.22 
16.15 
14.81 
14.02 
13.90 


19.04 
13.29 
14.19 
13.57 
14.04 
12.57 
12.36 
11.62 


12.16 


3 establishments. . . 




11.87 


4 establishments. . . 








7.86 


11.91 


10 establishments. . 




1 


10.30 


13 establishments . . 








10.36 


15 establishments . . 










9.09 


18 establishments. . 


••••••-• 




1 - 






8.71 


22 establishments . . 




• 








8.13 






I 













GROUP II.— WINDOW GLASS, MACHINE. 



No. 46 








4.54 


6.46 
13.55 


06.95 
04.99 


O1.04 

043.92 

18.71 

6.90 

1.29 


3.38 
24.56 

8.35 
18.29 

1.35 


12.75 

17.39 

a. 42 

14.88 

1.41 

0.57 


1.94 


No. 45 








2.09 


No. 38 










01.46 


No. 40 














6.29 


No. 42 














9.57 


No. 49 














7.84 






















Average: 
1 establishment . , . 








4.54 


6.46 
8.84 


06.95 
05. 78 


01.04 

014.15 

OL31 


3.38 
16.81 
13.70 


12.75 

15.84 

12.93 

9.45 


1.94 


2 establishments . . 








2.46 


5 establishments . . 










2.46 


6 establishments . . 














4.41 












1 









aLoSfU 



COST AND PBOFIT BT ESTABLISHMENTS. 



167 



Table 54. — Pbrcentagbs of Final Pbofit, Based on Sales of Each Year, 1906 
TO 1915, BY Establxshmbnts and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP ni.— PLATE GLASS. 



Establishments. 

« 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


191^ 


1913 


1914 

3.39 

a 1.19 

15.12 

12.17 


1916 


No. 51 






a5.18 


6.33 


21.19 


8.58 
8.54 


a 4. 11 
10.36 
21.49 


a 12. 41 
11.25 
19.24 


1.67 


No. 55 






02.4B 


No. 50 












6.15 


No. 62 






. 








11.80 






















Ayerage: 






5.18 


6.33 


21.19 


8.58 
8.54 


o4.ll 

6.74 

10.26 


a 12. 41 
5.91 
8.95 


3.39 

O.07 

3.22 

. 4.98 


1.67 


2 AstAhli.tfh'n^ptff . 






01.25 


3 AStAhliftf^m^ptfi . . 












.10 


4 estabUdunents . . 














2.80 























GROUP IV.— WIRE AND OPALESCENT GLASS. 



No. 57 










17.99 


25.60 

18.04 

5.92 


20.09 
18.42 
6.67 
29.33 
21.96 


8.06 
O9.09 

9.98 
28.79 
31.96 

4.17 


8.05 

oil. 88 

14.34 

24.23 

23.21 

5.63 


o21.0ft 


No. 56 










014.50 


No. 64 












5.52 


No. 68 












28.88 


No. 60 














21.61 


No. 59 














10.04 




















Average: 
1 wtoblishrnent. . , 










17.99 


25.60 
8.17 


20.09 
7.99 
0.61 


8.06 

9.40 

10.07 

10.74 


8.05 
13.14 
14.06 
13.67 


o 21.00 


Sdstablishmeiits. . . 










8.9D 


Sestablishments. . . 












6.01 


fiastabli.shtneint?. . . 














6.18 





















GROUP v.— BOTTLES, HAND. 



No. 75 

No. 79 


3.71 

.66 

5.92 


4.48 
3.15 
9.97 


15.58 
2.17 
8.28 

14.67 


16.45 
O.06 
9.27 

15.38 
5.73 


06.79 

.73 

4.44 

9.44 

3.74 


13.27 
1.10 
5.19 
6.35 
4.12 
9.54 
6.76 
4.67 


012.93 
02.80 
3.27 
8.15 
6.76 
10.72 
5.02 
1.31 
4.46 


11.42 

4.76 

3.66 

8.32 

3.81 

10.31 

6.62 

1.09 

7.60 

11.50 

8.76 

16.28 


6.77 

0.68 

0.31 

8.65 

4.43 

3.24 

1.29 

2.03 

7.64 

10.91 

01.19 

11.56 

3.82 

16.84 


3.84 
O2.07 


No. 73 


6. 73 


No. 77 


10.91 


No. 89 






6.78 


No. 72 








2.63 


No. 87 








••••••>« 




3.20 


No. 90 












3.11 


No. 88 












7.25 


No. 67 














0.18 


No. 86 










1 


3.41 


No. 74 










1 1 


12.27 


No, 66 










........ |. ...... . ........ 

• • ......*. a..... . ........ 


0.18 


No. 78 










1 




10.83 












*"""" 








Average: 

2 establishments. . 

3 establishments . . 

4 establishments. . 


1.69 
3.06 


3.67 
5.71 


7.59 
7.79 
9.60 


6.04 
7.07 
9.06 
7.64 


1.79 
2.66 
4.30 
4.09 


5.96 
5.74 
5.89 
5.19 
5.29 


06.36 
2.74 
4.17 
5.25 
3.48 
3.69 


«.19 
3.35 
4.55 
4.19 
3.29 
3.70 
8.18 


2.45 
1.62 
3.30 
8.91 
2.82 
8.81 
8.39 
3.70 


.15 
9.12 
4.24 


5 establishments. . 






6.37 


8 establishments. . 








4. 08 


9 establishments. . 












4.48 


12 establishments. . 














8.88 


14 establishments . 












......■• ........ 


4.87 























o Loss. 



168 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 54. — Percentages op Final Profit, Based on Sales of Each Year, 1906 
TO 1915, BY Establishments and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP VI.— BOTTLES, MACHINE. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 

• 


1915 


No. 100 








»L93 


as. 34 


a3.68 
10.62 
29.80 
6.70 
33.30 


a3.86 
21.05 
26.75 
17.34 
30.50 
4.90 
17.47 
30.35 
18.46 
29.93 


11.21 
10.49 
21.87 
13.84 
26.34 

9.66 
23.23 
17.84 
21.15 
42.85 
a2.23 
a 4. 78 

9.45 


8.92 
10.67 
22.93 
18.30 
28.02 

7.85 
25.75 
30.88 
21.68 
40.89 

4.80 
04.28 

5.69 


7.92 


No. 103 








20.36 


No. 106 












13.32 


No. 104 












10.77 


No. 107 












18.65 


No. 92 












2.35 


No. 93 














18.13 


No.94l 














16.93 


No. 102 












•«•••■ « 


12.04 


No. 105 














24.66 


No. 91 














a3.33 


No. 98 
















a3.32 


No. 108 
















4.31 








"•••"••• 












Average: 
1 esl^blishixient . . . 












a3.68 
22.26 


a3.86 
23.82 
23.53 


11.21 
20.13 
23.05 
18.35 


8.92 
21.05 
24.14 
17.23 


7.92 


5 establishments. . 












1158 


10 establishments.. 












15.77 


13 establishments . . 














U.46 





















GROUP VII.— BOTTLES, HAND AND MACHINE. 



No. 124 






10.40 
10.60 


17.07 
4.90 

10.26 
7.31 


11.29 
8.60 
4.92 
5.18 
7.08 
8.97 
4.11 

16.28 


9.45 

6.86 

7.06 

3.32 

5.37 

6.79 

a5.83 

10.74 

a 8. 89 

4.23 

2.66 


10.13 
9.47 
8.25 
2.43 
5.66 
8.90 
1.55 
7.86 

14.24 

.51 

2.58 

13.91 
4.18 


7.45 

0.84 

2.83 

2.03 

8.36 

1.12 

2.39 

9.49 

a. 60 

0.19 

2.61 

9.29 

5.14 


2.30 
. 5.23 

1.45 

03.09 

11.45 

4.51 
al.OO 

4.98 

6.88 
3.67 

2.61 

8.91 
10.06 


3.94 


No. 130 






.61 


No. 122 






.96 


No. 131 








oil. 74 


No.109 








4.13 


No. 116 










.87 


No. 119 










1.54 


No. 128 










4.84 


No. 120 










ol.ll 


No. 126 












alO.60 


No. 123 












.99 


No. 113 












9.38 


No. 132 














7.30 


















Average: 
2 establishments . . 






IP.55 


7.08 
7:88 


9.13 
7.13 
9.06 


7.41 
6.27 
6.03 
5.12 


9.59 
7.33 
6.88 
5.21 
5.71 


.77 
1.57 
3.94 
3.07 
3.65 


4.77 
1.86 
2.83 
2.30 
3.68 


1.66 


4 establishments. . 






02.62 


8 establishments. . 








0.51 


11 establishments. . 










O1.50 


13 establishments . . 










.05 






i 











GROUP Vin.— JARS. 



No.142 












10.90 

10.62 

.99 

3.47 


17.57 
2.99 

13.76 
3:66 
6.59 
6.42 


2.96 

.99 

15.13 

10.17 

5.25 

8.16 


0.06 

02.65 

14.51 

10.57 

6.34 

1.15 

1.83 

8.59 

8.58 

8.58 


5.03 


No.146 












4.49 


No.147 












9.85 


No.148 












11.31 


No.140 














2.05 


No. 145 














4.29 


No. 138 














01.68 


No. 139 


















3.76 


No. 143 


















5.74 


No.144 


















7.81 












1" 








Average: 
4 establishments. . 












5.94 


7.35 
7.23 


8.49 
8.24 


12.53 
11.32 
10.65 


15.83 


6 establishments . . 












14.05 


10 establishments. 














U.99 























o Loss. 



COST AND PBOFIT BT ESTABLISHMENTS. 



169 



Table 54. — ^Percentages of Final Profit, Based on Sales of Kach Year, tWW 
TO 1915, BY Ectabushments and Groups — Oontiimoil. 

GROUP IX.— TABLEWARE, BLOWN. 



Establishments. 


1006 


1007 


1008 


1900 
6.62 


1010 

05.06 
10.87 


1011 

3.01 

10.87 

8.00 


1012 

o 12. 40 
8.81 
6.70 


No. 150 


0.02 


6.28 


3.40 


No. 154 


No.149 




• 






No. 156 




























Average: 

1 establishment... 

2 estabhshments . . 


.02 


6.28 


3.40 


6.62 


5.06 
7.63 


3.01 

0.34 

15.87 


12. 40 
4.63 

4.77 


3 establishments . . 








4 establishments. . 




1 










1 











1013 



al.68 

10.14 

5.22 

17.17 



al.6H 
7.14 
6.80 

11.87 



GROUP X.— TABLEWARE, BLOWN AND PRKS8KI). 



No. 171 




1 2.88 


10.02 
2.74 
0.22 

16.37 
3.32 

10.34 
3.08 

18.05 


6.26 
7.42 
8.86 
5.82 
3.05 

10.20 
4.49 

11.24 
3.03 
0.26 
0.41 

14.42 


6.02 
17.28 
10.08 
15.80 

1.08 
16.03 

2.80 
20.61 

2.38 
8.10 

1.73 
14.24 


7.30 


No. 158 






14.87 


No. 160 




1 


10.13 


No.161 




• 


16.28 


No. 159 






5.02 


No. 168 






18.28 


No.170 






4.(J9 


No.174 






18.33 


No,162 






.44 


No. 163 








4.66 


No.172 








8.78 


No.173 








10.81 


No. 166 








1.80 


No. 160 i 










,21 


No.165 














Average: 
1 establishment... 










2.88 


10.02 


5.26 


6.92 


7.30 



8 establishments. ., - 10.47 

12 establishments. 

14 establishments. 

15 establishments. 



7.50 
8.34 



11.00 



12.14 
10.30 i 
0.76 



J 



4.73 

11.86 

11.66 

16.77 

1.35 

18.53 

6.44 

10.24 

4.82 

15.07 

3.72 

4.01 

H.35 

6.26 

.68 



4.73 
lL6fi 

9,2.0 

8.'/7 



I 



19U 


1016 


0.17 

12.54 

.05 

IH.«7 


A. 26 
10.66 

1.16 
1H.02 


.17 

0.27 

8.08 

12.74 


A. 26 

0.07 

7.00 

12.00 



4.84 
10.00 
10.68 
16.04 

0.63 
20.65 

5.16 
21.74 

2.00 

2.55 
10,30 

5.61 
30.86 

5.81 

5.87 



4M 
12.51 

10 r/t) 

11.27 



2.61 

8.50 

7.80 

o7.fW 

«7.H4 

»3.22 

6.06 

,62 

6. JO 

011,38 

2.03 

7.66 

8,2» 

20,00 

6.12 



1,W 
3,60 
3,e7 



GROUP XL— LIGHTING OOOUH. 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



183 «21J7 011.88 <iZ.Ki 

181 h),ifii 'i.TA 

193 2?,2? 

179 

184 _. 

187 

177 

188 

192 



21.04 



Average: 

1 establishment *2tx: «:: *J* *% ^, 

2establislmiaits 4 %>% '. V* 

3 establislunmts J.> X 

8 establishments 

9 establishments _,_. ___ 



17 ',7 



6, J// 

»7J,7 

2.' Zi 

«4 J0* 

V4. )7 

.74 

« 4A 

2.^ 



^ r/ 



* K 



ft 






«2.<« 

2»M 

«1 »>!? 



4 





77 



r, 

l.v iff 



*4t/l 
I '44 

24 '<! 

«7 'A 

n n 

K %4 

n n 






u.n 

*4,'S» 

I II 

7 W 
21. » 



an 

7 t» 

n 44 



o^'y:r x::^:Auy * ii;\4'^p'/r^. 



No. 107 

No. 199.. . 

No. 200 

No. 195 

Average: 

3 estahUyuneBCz. 

4 estabUduneaSs. 



4 V, 


,ff '/ft 


4 *•< 

4 »»/ 


7 Vv 


* w 






4^ 
4 /^ 



* >V»n. 



170 



THE GLASS INDXJSTBY. 



Table H. — PBKOSNTAaBs of Final Profit, Based on Sales of Each Ybab, 1906 
TO 1915, BY Establishments and Gboups — Concluded. 

GROUP Xin.— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1007 


1908 


1909 


1010 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 906 












13.63 
8.14 

16.05 
6.12 


9.45 
L17 
16.87 
6.01 
5.80 


2.53 

4.11 

n.05 

4.44 

aL70 

17.17 


2.48 

4.77 

18.73 

7.04 

5.38 

17.34 

20.68 


9.6 


No. 206 












19.48 


No. 210 












IS. 15 


No.211 












6.28 


No. 207 












8.17 


No. 205 














12.69 


No. 201 
















32.30 






















Average: 
4 esteblishments. . 












10.34 


0.22 
8.83 


5.86 
4.88 
5.50 


9.71 
9.14 
9.58 
9.61 


12.68 


5 establishments. . 












12.05 


6 establishments. . 














12.09 


7 establishments. . 
















lil5 























a Loss: 



A study of the above table shows the uregularity of profits, not only 
in individual establishments but of the average profit in each group as 
well. This irregularity, in some establishments at least, is due partly 
to whether or not depreciation was charged. Some establishments do 
not charge depreciation regularly, but only in those years which show 
a» substantial profit. In some years, then, depreciation may or may 
not have been considered in computing the rate of profit. No attempt 
was made to go behind the figures, the percentages being based on tne 

frofits and sales as shown on the books of the various companies, 
ive of the thirteen groups showed a higher and e^ht a lower average 
profit in 1915 than in 1914. Groups III, IV, and A reached their high- 
est average profit in 1914, Groups I, II, VI, and XII in 1913, and Group 
VII in 1912. 



CHAPTER V. 

COST AlSm PBOFIT BT SPECIFIED XJiriTS. 

The manufacturers who furnished data respecting their total pro- 
duction and net sales were requested to supply also data as to the 
cost of production of the specific articles of glassware that formed the 
major portion of the ware produced. Great difficulty was foxmd in 
obtaininff accurate cost data, not only because of the great variety 
of articles produced but more particularly because most of the 
establishments used very crude cost-finding systems, which in many 
cases were obviously maccurate. • 

Data were secured only from plants that had a reasonably accurate 
cost-finding sjrstem, based on actual records of imit . production. 
Wherever possible cost and prices were obtained as they were before 
they were affected by the war in Europe. 

Lack of uniformity in the systems and records of those plants that 
furnished cost data makes it mipossible to present the detailed items> 
of cost of materials, labor, ana overhead charges. For this reason 
only total cost, net selling price, and the profit or loss are shown. In 
a number of instances \diere splendid records were kept the agents 
could not use the data without divulging the identity of the estab- 
lishments. Such was the case in several plants manufacturing glass 
bulbs for the incandescent lamp industry. 

TABULATION OF COST AND PSOFIT BY ABTIGLES. 

Data were obtained for 259 separate units from 29 establishments 
that manufactured bottles, jars, stem ware, tumblers, other table- 
ware, and lamp chimneys. The total cost of producing and selling 
these articles, the prices at which they were sold, and 3ie profits oi 
losses are shown in the foUovrtng series of tables. 

The number of estabhshments reporting, the number of units of 
each class reported, and the number of units manufactured at a profit 
or loss are shown in Table 55, which foUows: 

Table 55. — ^Number of Establishments Reporting and Number op Units Show- 
ing Profits and Losses, by Class op Ware. 



Class of ware. 



Bottles 

Jars 

Tableware. J 

Stemware 

Tumblers 

Lamp chimneys . 



Total. 



Establish- 


Units 
reported. 


Units 


ments 
reporting. 


showing 
profits. 


11 


fi6 


54 


«» 
1 


28 


24 


9 


62 


52 


6 


16 


16 


10 


49 


45 ' 


4 


38 


30 


29 


259 


221 



Unats 

showing 

losses. 



12 

4 

8 



Units sold 
at cost. 



2 



4 

7 



35 



In the above table the figures in the column showing the number of 
establishments reporting do not add to the total for the reason that 
in some of the estabhsmnents more than one class of ware is made. 



171 



172 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 56. — Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manutacture op Lime-Glass 

Tumblers. 



Establish- 
ment. 


Description. 


Blown or 
pressed. 


Net 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


• 

No. 162 

No. 164 


Table tumbler, 10 ounces 

do 


Pressed . . . 

...do 

Blown 

Pressed . . ^ 
Blown o... 

Pressed . . . 
do 


$0.50 
.33 
.23 
.22 
.33 
.40 
.33 
.28 
.13 
.67 
.14 
.60 
.52 
.40 
.38 
.34 
• .28 
.47 
.37 
.30 
.28 
.25 
.42 
.37 
.32 
.27 
.23 
.41 
.32 
.27 
.48 
.25 
.18 
.18 
.33 
.23 
.18 
.18 
.22 
.18 
.18 
.18 
.26 
.53 
.24 
.40 
.20 
.80 
.31 


10.40 
.30 
.20 
.23 
.31 
.27 
.20 
.32 
.12 
.60 
.12 
.51 
.36 
.38 
.31 
.23 
.18 
.33 
.34 
.22 
.25 
.16 
.28 
.59 
.31 
.21 
.15 
.26 
.28 
.20 
.37 
.17 
.11 
.16 
.30 
.17 
.09 
.15 
.14 
.08 
.16 
.14 
.24 
.45 
.22 
.34 
.15 
.72 
.27 


10.10 
.03 
.03 

.02 
.13 
.04 

'"■.'62' 

.09 
.16 
.02 
.07 
.11 
.10 
.14 
.03 
.08 
.03 
.09 
.14 

'".6i" 

.06 
.08 
.16 
.04 
.07 
.11 
.08 
.07 
.02 
.03 
.06 
.09 
.03 
.08 
.10 
.03 
.04 
.02 
.06 
.02 
.06 
.05 
.08 
.04 




No. 176 

No. 188 

No. 171 

No. 165 


Table tumbler, 10 ounces, straight 

Table tumbler, 10 ounces, colonial tapered. . . 

Table tumbler, 9 ounces, blown light 

Table tumbler 


"*$6.'6i 


No. 158 


Tablfi tumbler, plaiti 




No. 188 

No. 171 


Table tumbler, plain, cut star bottom 

Table tumbler 


...do 

do.... .. . 


.M 


No. 182 

No. 176 

No. 182 

No. 162 


Ice tea tumbler, 12 ounces 

Ice tea tumbler. 9 ounces 

Soda tumbler, 12 ounces, optic 

Soda tumbler, 12 ounces, bell 


. . .do.... .. . 

...do 

...do 

. . .do..... . . 


.07 


No. 164 


do '. .' 


. . .do.. 




No. 188 


do 


Blown 

...do 

Pressed . . . 

...do 

. . .do. ...... 




No. 176 

No. 176 


do 

do 




No. 162 

No. 164 


Soda tumbler, 10 ounces, bell 

do 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 

. . -do.... ... 




No. 166 


do 




No. 176 


do 


Pressed... 

...do 

...do 

. - .do...... . 




No. 162 

No. 182 

No. 164 


Soda tumbler, 8 ounces, bell 

do 

do 


.2 


No. 176 


do 


Blown 

Pressed . . . 

...do 

. . .do...... . 




No. 176 


do 




No. 162 

No. 164 


Soda tumbler, 7 ounces, bell 

do 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 

Pressed . . . 

...do 

. . .do.... ... 




No. 158 


Rodft tiiTTihlftr plflin. 




No. 164 

No. 176 


Whisky tumSler, 3 ounces, plain. 

do 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 

Pressed... 

• - *\Xv« • « • * • • 

...do 

Blown 

Pressed... 
...do 

Blown 

...do..: 

Pressed . . . 
...do 




No. 158 

No. 164 

No. 176 

No. 176 


Whisky tumbler, 2 ounces, heavy bottom. . . 

Whisky tumbler, 2 ounces, plain 

W hisky tumbler, 2 ounces, fluted 

Whisky tumbler, 2 ounces, plain 




No. 164 


Whisky tumbler, 1 > ounces, plain 




No. 176 

No. 176 


wmsky tumbler, 1 oimceg, fluted 

Whisky tumbler, 1 ounces, plain 




No. 176 

No. 174 


Whisky tumblerj 1 oimce, plain 

Beer tiinibler, 8 oimces 




No. 162 


Beer tumbler, 7 ounces 




No. 174 


do 


Blown 

Prassed . . . 

Blown 

Pressed . . . 
Blown 




No. 162 






No. 166 


do 




No. 162 






No. 166 


do 











a Made of lead glass. 

Table 57. — Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manupacturb op Lime-Glass 

Stem Ware, Pressed. 



Establish- 
ment. 



No. 170 
No. 171 
No. 176 
No. 182 
No. 164 
No. 170 
No. 170 
No. 182 
No. 182 
No. 182 
No. 170 
No. 164 
No. 170 
No. 182 
No. 164 
No. 162 



Description. 



Goblet, 10 ounces, finished 

Goblet, 9 ounces, blown light (lead glass) 

Goblet, 9 ounces, blown 

Goblet, 9 otmces 

Goblet, 9 ounces, flat-footed 

Claret, 4 ounces, finished 

Claret, 4 ounces, unfinished , 

Wineglass, 3 ounces 

Sherry. 2* ounces 

Cocktail, 3 ounces 

Cordial, 1 omice, finished , 

Cordial, 1 ounce, flat-footed 

Cordial, 1 ounce, unfinished , 

Sherbet, 6 ounces, footed 

Sherbet, 4 ounces, fiat-footed , 

Grapefruit, 21 ounces 



Net 
selling 
price. 



SO. 30 
.86 
.70 
.09 
.40 
.26 
.18 
.43 
.35 
.53 
.19 
.16 
.13 
.69 
.87 

3.00 



Total 
cost. 



SO. 28 
.72 
.52 
.65 
.36 
.24 
.16 
.32 
.29 
.41 
.17 
.15 
.12 
.42 
.30 
2.10 



Profit. 



10.03 
.14 
.18 
.04 
.04 
.03 
.03 
.11 
.06 
.13 
.08 
.01 
.01 
.17 
.07 
.90 



COST AND PEOFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



173 



Table 58. — Cost and Profit peb Dozen in the Manupacture op Lamp Chimnbts, 

Gas Globes, and Lantbbn Globes, Blown. 



Establish- 
ment. 



No.aoo. 

No. 200. 

No. 197. 

No. 200. 

No. 200. 
No. 200. 

No. 200. 

No. 200. 
No. 200. 

No.200. 
No. 197. 
No.200. 

No.200. 

No.200. 
No.200. 

No.200. 

No. 200. 
No. 197. 

No.200. 
No. 200. 
No.200. 

No. 200. 
No. 197. 

No. 200. 



Description. 



Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 3, paste 

mold. 
Lamp chimney, student, Rochester, No. 

3, 10 inches, paste mold. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2, flint, 

in c^tons. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2, 10 

inches, paste mold. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2,oflhand 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2, paste 

mold. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 1, paste 

mold. 

do % 

Lamp chinmey, Rochester, No. 0, paste 

moid. 
Lanm chimney, Stm, No. 2, plain 

Lamp chinmey. Sun, No. 2, plain, off- 
hand. 

Lamp chinmey. Sun, No. 2, crimp top, 
ofTnand. 

do 

Lamp chinmey. Sun, No. 1, plain top, 
offhand. 

Lamp chimney, Sun, No. 1, crimp top, 
offnand. 



.do. 



Kind of glass. 



No. 184 

No.m 

No. 184 

No.lW ; 

No. 184 ' 

No. 184 

No.200 

No.200 

No.200 



No.200. 

No. 188. 

No.200. 

No.200. 
No. 200. 



Lamp chinmey. Phoenix, No. 2, flint, 

engraved, in tubes. ' 
Lamp chimney, Phoenix, No. 2, offhand 

ao , 

Lamp chimney, B. & H., No. 2, paste ' 

mold. ' I 

Lamp chimney, B. & H., No. 2, offhand.) 
Lamp chimney, electric, No. 2, flint, in . 

tubes. * , 

Lamp chimney, Bel^pan, No. 1, 10} , 

inches, paste mold. 

Gas globes, C. R. I., ball, 7 inches 

Gas globes, C. R . I., ball, inches 

Gas globes, r. R, T., ball. 5 inches 

Gas glot)es, timzsien, 8 inches, C. R, I,., 
Gas globes, tmi'/sten, 7 inches, C, K. I... 
Gas glo>)es, runsnen, r> inches, C. K. I... 
Gas elobes, f J-inch air hole, iron mold, 

opal. 
Cras dohes, 5 inche?. upri/ht, f>^«te mold . 
Gas globes. 4} inches,' inverted, /ro^,V;d, 

paste mold. 
Gas elobes, 5i inches, inverted, miv<i'in, 

paste mold! 
Gas globes, ^ inches, invert«:d, halJ- 

frosted apple. 
Lantern rlbbc, Junior, cold blart. No. 2, 

ironmokL 

do 

Lantern globe, tnb'iiar. irori m'^ld 



One-half lead.. 

do 

Lime 

One-half lead.. 

Lime 

do 

One-half lead.. 

Lime 

One-half lead.. 

Lime 

do 

One-half lead.. 

Lime 

do 

One-half lead.. 

Lime 

do 



do 

One-half lead.. 
do 

Lime 

One-half lea<i.. 

do 

Lime 



Net 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


$L00 


10.04 


.45 


.42 


.54 


.41 


.50 


.48 


.46 
.45 


.37 
.38 


.45 


.37 


.40 
.40 


.33 
.27 


.45 
.35 
.35 


.60 
.31 
.32 


.34 


.44 


.31 
.30 


.30 
.28 


.30 


.41 


.26 
.39 


.26 

.46 


.50 

..yj 

..jO 


.37 
.55 
.49 



.do. 



do.. 

.do.. 

.do.. 

do.. 



' » » * » ^M*9 * » » m » w » • 

do 

Lirnf; 

do 



do. 
Jit*. 



I 
.45 I 

.dO ; 

\.:a I 
1.29 

l.'iA I 

.84 ; 

.V, 

.22 
,%\ 

.2H 



Profit. 

10.06 

.03 

.13 

.02 

.08 
.07 

.08 

.07 
.13 



Loss. 



.37 
.41 . 

.47 

1.04 
.81 
.81 
.V, 
.71 

.rn ' 

,¥i ', 

.47 . 



Ar, 



1 1 



.24 



.04 
.03 



.01 ,. 

.02 I. 



.13 

.13 

'.'6i" 

.08 



.'Jf) 



f0.06 



.10 



.11 



.05 



• "'M »m*0m0mM 



.¥A . 
AH . 
.18 . 
.%) . 
.'£', I, 
.21 . 






<f7 ' 

/■/r «# » ■* « s t 

» 'rW » s » € 9 • ' 



174 

Table 59.- 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

-Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manufacture of Ldcb-Gubs 

Tableware, Pressed.. 



Establish- 
ment. 



No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No, 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No, 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 
No. 



174. 
182. 
165. 
162. 
170. 
188. 
170. 
170. 
176. 
164. 
162. 
165. 
174. 
164, 
182. 
182. 
174. 
162. 
165. 
164. 
170. 
188. 
170. 
170. 
176. 
162. 
165. 
182. 
174. 
164. 
188. 
182. 
164. 
170. 
188. 
162. 
165. 
174. 
174. 
174. 
162. 
188. 
176. 
176. 
182. 
174. 
162. 
182. 
182. 
182. 
188. 
162. 
165. 
188. 
166. 
162. 
174. 
170. 
164. 
174. 
162. 
165. 



Description. 



Nappy, 8 inches : . . 

!!!!!do;!;;ii;!!!!!!; !!!!!]!!!!!!;!!!!!!;; 
....do 

^^Ppy^ S inches, finished, joint mold.. . . 

Nappy, 8 inches, imitation cut 

Nappy, 8 inches, unfinished, block mold . 
Nappy, 8 inches, unfinished, joint mold . 

Nappy, 8 inches, joint mold 

Nappy, 7 inches 

Nappy, 6 inches 

!!!!!do!!;!!!!]!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 
do 

Nappy, 5 inches 

Nappy, 4 inches 

!!!!!do;;!!;!'!*!!!!!!!!]!!!!;;;!!;!!!!!!; 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Nappy, 4 inches, unfinished, joint mold. 
Nappy, 4 inches, unfinished, block mold. 

Nappy, 4 inches 

Creamer 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Sugar bowl and cover, handled 

Sugar bowl and cover 

do 

Sugar bowl and cover, star bottom. 

Sugar bowl, no cover 

do 



.do. 



Sugar bowl and cream set 

Jug, ice tea, 73 ounces 

Jug, ice tea, 65 ounces 

Jug, ice tea, 3 pints, imitation cut 

Jug,ice tea, 3 pints 

Jug, ice, 12 ounces, handled (blown) 

Tankard, ^ gallon 

Tankard, 63^ ounces 

Tankard, 3 pints (blown) 

Water bottle, 1 quart 

Decanter, 26 ounces, pressed stopper 

Cruet, oil or vinegar, 6 ounces, pressed stopper. 
Cruet, oil, 7 ounces, art neck, cut star bottom . 

Egg cup, 4 ounces 

do 



do 

Egg cup, double cup . . . 
Finger bowl, 11 ounces. 
do 



Finger bowl, 11 ounces, finished. 

Finger bowl, 10 ounces 

Plate, 6 ounces 

do 

do 



Net 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


$1.60 


$1.31 


1.59 


1.65 


1.50 


.88 


1.50 


1.18 


.72 


.62 


.70 


.67 


.60 


.43 


.60 


.48 


.50 


.47 


,75 


.79 


.85 


.60 


.80 


.65 


.76 


.62 


.60 


.64 


.68 


.66 


,.45 


.54 


.44 


.36 


.38 


.28 


.30 


.24 


.25 


.25 


.22 


.20 


.22 


.22 


.15 


.14 


.12 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.85 


.65 


.80 


.49 


.80 


.93 


.68 


.54 


.65 


.48 


.60 


.36 


1.21 


1.39 


.75 


.85 


.72 


.58 


.65 


.50 


1.35 


1.05 


.90 


.79 


.80 


.62 


.80 


.53 


2.40 


1.75 


2.50 


2.00 


1.10 


.99 


.75 


.57 


.90 


.54 


2.97 


3.52 


2.20 


1.73 


2.20 


1.85 


2.19 


1.80 


6.64 


5.00 


2.54 


1.40 


.48 


.38 


.45 


.35 


.40 


.25 


.35 


.29 


.37 


.34 


.80 


.50 


.60 


.50 


.42 


.34 


.50 


.40 


.44 


.37 


.40 


.30 


.30 


.24 



Profit. 



Loss. 



$0.29 

■".'62 
.32 
.10 
.03 
.17 
.12 
.03 

'"'.'25 
.15 
.14 



.02 



.08 
.10 
.06 



.02 



.01 
.01 
.01 
.20 
.31 



.14 
.17 
.24 



.14 

.15 
.30 
.11 
.18 
.27 
.65 
.50 
.11 
.18 
.36 



.47 
.35 
.39 
L64 
1.14 
.10 
.10 
.15 
.06 
.03 
.30 
.10 
.08 
.10 
.07 
.10 
.06 



OOST AND PBOFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



176 



Tabse 60. — Cost and Profit in the Manufacture of Machinb-Madb Milk Jars, 
Fruit Jars, and Packing and Preservinq Tumblers. 



Establish- 
ment. 



No. 142. 
No. 141. 
No. 142. 
No. 141. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 188. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 140. 
No. 174. 
No. 174. 
No. 174. 
No. 162. 
No. 176. 
No. 140. 
No. 174. 
No. 174. 
No. 188. 
No. 176. 



Description. 



Milk Jar, 1 quart, flint. 

MUlrjar, Ipint, flint.. 
do 



Mason jar, 32 ounces 

Mason jar, 26 ounces 

Mason lar, 20 ounces 

Mason jar, 10 ounces 

Packer, ^ gallon, ^lass ears, wooden handle. 

Preserver, 16 ounces, cylinder, olive 

Preserver, 10 ounces, octagon, Jam 

Preserver, 9i ounces 

Preserver, 8 ounces, octagon, pickle 

Preserver, 6 ounces, flat, pickle 

Preserver, 5 ounces, mustard jar 

Preserver, 4^ ounces, cylinder, olive 

Tumbler, 16 ounces, long 

Tumbler, 12 ounces, long 

Tumbler, 17 ounces, jelly 

Tumbler, 12 ounces, jelly 

Tumbler, 10 ounces, jelly 

Tumbler, 8 ounces, packer, metal cap 

Tumbler, 8 ounces, jelly, no cap 

Tumbler, 7 J ounces, Jelly , 

Tumbler, 7 ounces, jelly 

do 



Tumbler, 6 ouncra, jelly, crystal... . , 
Tumbler, 6 ounces, jelly, no cap. 



Unit. 



Gross 
do. 



.do.... 
.do — 
.do. ... 
.do. 



.do. ... 

do 

DoEcn 

Gross 

• « • • vViU* • • « ■ 

....do 



..do... 
..do... 
...do... 
..do.., 
..do... 



....do. 
Dozen. 
do. 



.do... 
.do... 
.do... 
.do... 



.do... 
.do... 
.do... 
.do... 



Net 

aelling 
price. 


Total 
oost. 


14.20 


14.00 


3.45 


8.27 


2.00 


2.76 


2.25 


2.21 


2.99 


3.12 


2.95 


2.91 


2.67 


2.55 


2.15 


2.10 


.57 


.44 


3.12 


2.60 


1.98 


1.70 


1.67 


1.52 


1.91 


1.66 


1.81 


1.47 


1.46 


1.22 


1.39 


1.34 


2.95 


2.76 


2.43 


2.24 


.25 


.22 


.19 


.17 


.18 


.16 


.50 


.47 


.09 


.10 


.11 


.12 


.12 


.11 


.10 


.08 


.11 


.09 


.08 


.00 



Profit. 



10.20 
.18 
.15 
.04 



.04 
.12 
.05 
.13 
.52 
.28 
.16 
.25 
.34 
.24 
.05 
.19 
.19 
.03 
.02 
.02 



LOiS. 



10.18 



.03 |. 






.01 




.01 


.01 ,. 




.02 ,. 




.02 1. 




1 


.01 



Table 61. — Cost and Profit per Gross in the Manufacture of Bottles. 



Estab- 
lish' 
mfiDt. 



No. 132.. 

No. 79... 

No. 87... 

No. 119.. 
No. 90... 

No. 132... 

No. 79.... 

No. 119.. - 

No. 87.... 
No. 90.... 

No. 82.... 



No. 130.. 
No. 132., 
No. 119.. 
No. 87... 
No. 90... 



' Description. 



No. 113... 



No. 82.. 
No, 130. 



Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck^ flint. 
Prescnption, round, wide 

moutD, flint. 
Prestription, ov^, narrow 

neck, flint. 

do 

Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck^ green. 
Prescnption, oral, narrow 

neck, flint. 
Prescrintian, round, wide 

mouth, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 

do 

Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, green. 
Prescription, oval, nanx»w 

neck, flint. 

....do 

— do 

-..-do 

...-do 

Prenaiption, <yv-aJ. narf/w 

neck, green. 
I Prescription, oral, aarrvw 

neck, fijnt. 
..-.do 



Contents. 



32 ounces 
do,.,. 



» m » * m^ 



i.,,.>lo. 



No. 132... 

No. 119... 
No. 87.... 
No. 90.... 



Prescription, ammonia, iojj^ 

neck, flint. 
Prescription, oi-al, narrow 

neck, flint. 

do 

I Presjnptioa. ova], Jiu*rrow 






neck, eree&L 



4 */ufvm 



do..... I 

— .do.... 
— .do..., 

16 ounces. 

* m m ^ «%M?'^ • 9 ^ m 

.dl>.,.. 



Weight 

in 
ounces. 



20 
20 
20 



: d<>, 

do , 



I 



....A'j,.... 
<l'>, ,,, 



' ^ X * ^0^ f ^ » p f * 



19 

20 

12 
12 

Hi 

12 

12 

12 

U 

7 
7 
7 
7 



7 

% 



Hand or 

machine 

made. 



No. 113... Prescripti'-m. oval. tmTov 4v 

I se^ flint, t 



Hand... 
, ..do,,,,. 

m » »Q0# • mm m 
• 9 #■**/ • • m » 

» • #^j'/« • m m 

,.,^}...., 

m m •V/ # # # # # 

» f j'j'** t » » 9 
r ^'m^i 9 9 9 M » 

4o .. 

'Jo 



I 



Net 
selling 
price. 



$6.50 

6.00 

4.92 

4.92 
4.61 

3.69 

a. 26 

3.21 

1.24 
%M\ 

2,70 

'I M 

•J 'M 
'I to 

2 W 

i fcO 

i n 

) Vf 

\ •)< 



10.91 






•0.30 


.77 




.1% 




,49 






.10 


,tt 





T^/ Profit. ; Urn. 



$4.59 

$.30 

4.1$ 

4.19 
4. OK 

3.1$ 

3.3$ 

3.<i2 

%.m 

'IHft 

'J nr, 

'/ <iy 

'/ w 

t v/ 

^44 

i «/ 
i tifi 
i m 



9 $^ \9»9»999P 



yy 

I 



1 1 1 1 1 1 



» • ' » 

' I ' I 
• ' • • 



.... 



176 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 61. — ^Cost and Profit per Gross in the Manufacture of Bottles.— Con. 



Estab- 
lish- 
ment. 



No. 82.. 

No. 132. 
No. 119. 
No. 87.. 
No. 90.. 



No. 113.. 

No. 82.... 
No. 99.... 

No. 134... 
No. 87.... 
No. 79.... 
No. 90.... 

No. 134... 
No. 134... 



No. 132. 
No. 128. 
No. 99.. 
No. 90.. 

No. 99.. 
No. 132. 
No. 79.. 
No. 90.. 
No. 87.. 
No. 132. 
No.90.- 
No.87.. 
No. 82.. 
No. 130. 
No. 79.. 
No. 113. 
No. 87.. 
No. 90.. 
No. 132. 
No. 132. 
No. 113- 
No.87.. 
No. 90.. 
No. 87.. 
No. 90.. 
No. 87.. 
No. 90.. 
No. 90.. 



Description. 



Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 

do 

do 

do 

Perscription, oval, narrow 

neck^ green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 

Beer,biilb neck, export, am- 
ber. 

Beer,bulb neck, export, green 

Bter, bulb neck, export ,'flint. 

do 

Beer, bulb neck, export, am- 
ber. 

Beer, taper neck, amber 

Beer, bulb neck, export, am- 
ber. 

do 

Beer , bulb neck, export , green 

do 

Beer, bulb neck, export, am 
ber. 

Soda.bulb neck, export, green 

do 



Brandy, green 

Brandy, amber 

Brandy, flint 

Brandy, amber 

do 

Brandy, flint 

do 

Whisky, amber 

Wine, flint 

Nursing, round, flint. 

■ • • • • \Av/ «••■•■•••_••*•« 

do 

do 



Nursing, flat, flint 

do 

do 

do 

Ink, square, flint 

Ink, square, green 

Ink, cylindrical, flint... 
Ink, cylindrical, green. 
Ink, cone, green 



(Contents. 



4 ounces. . 

2 ounces. 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do 

1 quart... 



do. 

1 pint. 

do. 

do. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

ipint 



1 pint 

ipint.... 

5's 

do..., 

do 

do.... 



4's. 



.do. 



do 

do 

do 

8 ounces..*. 

do 

do 



Weight 

in 
ounces. 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



do... 

2 ounces. 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 



2 
2 
2 
2 

2 

2h 



25 
16 
16 
16 

16 
16 

16 
16 
15 
12 

15 
14 
22 
20 
20 
20 
24 
24 
24 
22 
24 

6J 

6i 

6J 

4i 

ok 

6 

6 

6 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 



Hand or 

machine 

made. 



Hand . . . 

...do 

...do 

.. .do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Machine 

...do 

Hand... 
...do 

■ « • XA^' • • • » • 

Machine 
...do 

...do 

Hand . . . 
Machine 
Hand . . . 

Machine 

...do 

Hand... 

...do 

...do 

Machine 
Hand... 

...do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 



Net 
selling 
price. 



$1.35 

1.38 
1.24 
1.24 
1.16 

1.10 

1.00 
3.75 

3.60 
3.55 
3.50 
3.40 

2.50 
2.50 

2.38 
2.33 
2.25 
3.15 



2.25 

2.78 
6.00 
25 
25 
75 
50 
50 



4 

4 

3 

4 

4 

3.80 

5.00 

4.75 

2.00 

1.65 

1.65 

2.30 

2.25 

2.00 

1.65 



65 
52 
42 
48 
39 



1.39 



Total 
Cost. 



$1.21 

1.28 
1.18 
1.22 
1.15 

1.00 

.90 
2.99 

2.84 
3.24 
4.06 
2.83 

2.25 
2.25 

2.11 
2.35 
1.89 
2.40 

1.89 
2.22 
6.19 
3.88 
4.38 
2.92 
4.13 
4.75 
3.70 
4.79 
5.84 
1.77 
1.88 
2.07 
2.04 
1.90 
1.76 
1.72 
1.86 
1.32 
1.33 
1.33 
1.30 
1.30 



Profit. 

1 


Loss. 


$0.14 




.10 




.06 




.02 




.01 




.10 




.10 




.76 




.76 




.31 






10.56 


.57 





.25 




.25 




.27 






M 


.36 




.75 





.36 


_ 


.56 






.19 


.37 






.13 


.83 




.37 


_ .••«-■■ 




.25 


.10' 




.21 ' 







L09 


.23 






.23 




.42 


.26' 




.35 ; 




.24 ' 






.07 




.21 


.20 ' 




.09 




.15 




.09 




.09 1 





UNIT COST FOB WINDOW GLASS. 

Available data from which unit costs could be derived were ob- 
tained from a considerable number of window-glass establishments 
visited by the agents during this investigation. Such (^ata were 
reported by 18 establishments manufacturing window glas^ by hand 
and 3 manufacturing by machine. These establishments are fairly 
representative and are located in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Kansas, Indiana, and Texas. 

Information was secured as to the total number of 50-foot single- 
strength boxes of window glass produced during the business period. 
All boxes were reduced to a uniform basis of single-strength glass. 
Double-strength glass was reduced in the proportion of 8 to 5 

The method employed in deriving the cost of various brackets of 
window glass from the data obtained was briefly as follows: The 
amount of piece-paid labor was deducted from the total factory labor 
cost. Piece labor includes the following occupations: In the hand 
plants, blower, gatherer, flattener, and cutter; in the machine fac- 



COST AN0 PBOFIT BY SPEOIFIBD UNITS. 



177 



tones, blower, flattener, ring man, snapper, capper, cracker open, 
and cutter. These occupations are paid according to a piece-price 
scale for the different brackets and grades and are charged directly 
to the cost of the unit. 

The items of cost, except piece-paid labor, are practicaUy the same 
for all cylinders produced in a factory, as the graaes and sizes are not 
determined untu the glass reaches the cutting department. An 
average cost, therefore, for general expense, aamimstration, fixed 
charges, and time labor was properly appUed to the cost of the unit. 
This was derived by dividing the total oi these charges by the number 
of boxes produced. This method is employed practically by all 
window-glass factories and serves as a fairly accurate basis for deter- 
mining the cost of specific brackets and grades. 

HANDMADE PRODUCT. 

The following table is derived from the wage scale agreed upon by 
the National Window Glass Workers and the National Association 
of Window Glass Manufacturers. These piece prices were in effect 
from March 15, 1916, to May 27, 1916. 

Table 62. — Bates op Piecb-Pricb Labor for a 50-Foot Box of Handmade 
Window Gi<ass, bt Brackets, A and B Grades, Single and Double Strength. 

[Gatherers are paid 80 per cent and flatteners 27 per cent of blower's rates.] 



Brackets. 


Blower. 


I 
Gatherer. Flattener. 


Cutter. 


TotAl. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 

$0,188 
.216 
.244 
.256 
.268 
.280 
.304 
.324 

.256 
.368 
.400 
.448 
.532 
.916 
1.720 


A. 

$0,068 
.078 
.088 
.096 
.103 
.105 
.117 
.123 

.096 
.139 
.151 
.167 
.203 
.338 
.622 


B. 


A and 
B. 


A. 


B. 


SINGT.F. STRENGTH. 

8 by 10 to 10 by 16 inches 

11 by 15 to 14 by 20 inches . . . 
14 by 21 to 16 by 24 inches. . . 
16 by 25 to 20 by 30 inches . . . 
21 by 30 to 24 by 30 inches. . . 
24 by 31 to 24 by 36 inches . . . 
25by 36 to 30 by 41 inches. . . 
All above 30 by 41 inches 

DOUBLE STRENGTH. 

6 by 8 to 16 by 24 inches 

16 by 25 to 24 by 36 inches. . . 
24 by 37 to 30 by 40 inches. . . 
30 by 41 to 36 by 51 inches. . . 
36 by 52 to 39 by 60 inches . . . 
40 by 60 to 40 by 78 inches . . . 
All above 40 by 78 inches 


$0,250 
.290 
.325 

.aw 

.380 
.390 
.435 
.455 

.355 
.515 
.560 
.620 
.750 
1.250 
2.305 


SO. 235 ! SO. 200 
.270 i .232 
.305 .260 
. 320 . 284 
.335 .304 
.350 1 .312 
.380 1 .348 
.405 1 .364 

.320 .284 
.460 .412 
. 500 . 448 
. 360 . 496 
.665 .600 
1.145 1.000 
2.150 1.844 


$0,063 
.073 
.082 
.086 
.090 
.095 
.103 
.109 

.086 
.124 
.135 
.151 
.180 
.309 
.681 


$0,127 
.127 
.127 
.127 
.127 
.127 
.127 
.127 

.166 
.166 
.166 
.166 
-.166 
.166 
.166 


$0,646 

.727 
.800 
.862 
.914 
.934 
1.027 
1.069 

.901 
1.232 
1.325 
1.449 
1.719 
2.754 
4.937 


$0,613 
.686 
.758 
.789 
.820 
.862 
.914 
.965 

.828 
1.118 
1.201 
1.325 
1.543 
2.536 
4.617 



The following series of tables is presented to show.costs of various 
brackets and grades of single and double strength window glass. 

Table 63 shows the cost of production in 18 establishments of a 
50-foot box of handmade single-strength glass, bracket 6 by 8 to 10 
by 15 inches, and illustrates the method employed in computing the 
total cost of the various brackets as given by separate establishment 
in Tables 64 and 65 on following pages. 

102511'*— 17 ^12 



178 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 63. — Cost of Producing a 50-Foot Box of Handmade Sinolb-Strbngth 
Window Glass, Bracket 6 by 8 to 10 by 16' Inches, A and B Gradbs, with 
Additional Cost for Depreciation and Interest on Current Loans, bt 
Establishments. 



Establishment. 



No.2 

No.3 

No.6 

No.6 

No. 8 

No. 11 

No. 13 

No. 16 

No. 17 

No. 18 

No. 19 , 

No. 20 

No. 22 

No. 24 

No. 29 

No. 31 

No. 34 

No. 35 



Materials. 



Batch. 



10.174 
.097 
.129 
.285 
.238 
.170 

&.169 
.167 
.149 
.158 
.144 
.183 
.154 
.160 
.169 
.118 
.155 
.088 



Pack- 
ing. 



to. 158 
.096 
.183 
.088 
.183 
.129 

6.168 
.156 
.156 
.136 
.168 
.143 
.134 
.176 
.143 
.150 
.151 
.126 



Fuel. 



10.328 
.259 
.107 
.179 
.190 
.209 
.122 
.089 
.062 
.176 
2 



.114 
.215 
.063 
.073 
.083 
.177 



Piece-paid 
labor. 



A. 



10.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.646 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 



B. 



10.613 
.613 
.618 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 



Other 




fac- 


Salar 


tory 


ries. 


labor. 




10,428 


10.036 


.333 


.093 


.279 


.022 


.346 


.058 


.490 


.079 


.315 


.059 


.259 


.041 


.296 


.014 


.276 


.021 


.358 


.019 


.394 


.056 


.402 


.045 


.287 


.054 


. 309 


.075 


.326 


.018 


.300 


.017 


.317 


.052 


.332 


.059 



All , 

other 
cost. 



10.121 
.224 
.144 
.065 
.230 
.130 
.230 
.184 
.156 
.146 
.188 
.178 
.128 
.177 
.186 
.139 
.136 
.176 



Total C08t.a 


a. 


B. 


$1,880 


$1,857 


1.747 


1.715 


1.450 


1.427 


1.666 


1.634 


2.055 


2.023 


1.657 


1.625 


1.634 


1.602 


dl.544 


dl. 512 


1.465 


1.433 


1.638 


1.606 


1.837 


1.805 


1.799 


1.767 


1.516 


1.484 


1.756 


1.724 


1.550 


1.518 


1.442 


1.410 


1.539 


1.507 


1.603 


1.571 



Pe- 
pre- 
da- 
tion. 



$0,119 
.070 
.054 
.050 
.159 
.058 

C) 

.026 

.028 

.008 

.066 

.054 

.033 

.060 

.036 

.032 

.067 

.073 



Inter- 
est. 



$0.0(3 

.on: 

.036 

.13: 

.019 



.005 
.001 
.00* 
M 

.on 

.023 
M 

('1 
.0 
.©■ 
.01) 



a Exclusive of depreciation and interest. 

b Including 2.2 cents (total, 4.4 cents) for undistributed freight. 

e No depredation diarge; plant is rented. 

d Includes 0.003 cent for undistributed freight. 

« Less than 0.001 per cent. 

Table 64 shows costs for eight different brackets, A and B grad^, 
mad e in the 1 8 es tabhshmen ts . It will be observed tiiat the piece-paid 
labor is identical for all the estabUshments, but the other costs vary 
considerably, ranging from $0,797 to $1.41. These differences are 
due to a variety of causes, chief among which are more efficient man- 
agement, advantages of location as to raw materials, freight, and 
fuel cost, and also to the ability to operate at maximum capacity 
throughout the blast. 



COST AND PBOITT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



179 



Table 64. — Cost of Producing a 50-Foot Box of Handmjldb Sinolb-Strbnotk 
Window Glass, A and B Grades, by Brackets, Without Additional Cost 
FOR Depreciation and Interest on Current Loans. 





All 
brack- 
ets. 


8 by 10 to 10 
by 15 inches. 


11 by 15 to 14 
by 20 inohes. 


14 by a 
by 241 

A. 


ltol6 
nohes. 


16by9 
bySOi 

A. 


6 to 20 

QOhM. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


. B. 


B. 


Establishment. 


Cost, 
except 
pleoe- 

pold 
labor. 




Total cost, including piece-paid labor, at rate of- 






- \ 




10.645 


10.618 


10.727 


10.686 

11.930 
1.788 
1.500 
1.707 
2.096 
1.698 
1.675 
1.585 
1.506 
1.679 
1.878 
1.840 
1.557 
1.797 


$0.80 

$2,044 
1.902 
1.614 
1.821 
2.210 
1.812 
1.789 
1.699 
1.620 
1.798 
1.992 
1.954 
1.671 
1.911 
1.705 
, 1.597 
! 1.604 
' 1.758 


10.758 

12.002 
1.860 
1.672 
1.779 
2.168 
1.770 
1.747 
1.667 
1.578 
1.751 
1.960 
' 1.912 
1.629 
1.860 
1 1.663 
, 1.566 
1.652 
1.716 

1 


$0,862 

$2,106 
1.064 
1.676 
1.883 
2.272 
1.874 
1.851 
1.761 
1.682 
1.856 
, 2.054 
, 2.016 
1.733 
1.073 
1.767 
, 1.660 
1.756 
1.820 


$0,780 


No. 2 


$1,244 

1.102 

.814 

1.021 

1.410 

1.012 

.080 

.800 

.820 

.093 

1.192 

1.154 

.871 

1.111 

.005 

.707 

.804 

.058 

• 


11.889 
1.747 
1.450 
1.666 
2.055 
1.657 
1.634 
1.544 
1.465 
1.638 
1.837 
1.700 
1.516 
1.756 
L550 
1.442 
1.539 
1.603 


$1,867 
1.715 
1.427 
1.6S4 
2.023 
1.625 
1.002 
1.512 
1.433 
1.606 
1.805 
1.767 
1.484 
1.724 
1.518 
1.410 
1.507 
1.571 


11.071 
1.829 
1.641 
1.748 
2.137 
1.739 
1.716 
1.626 
1.647 
1.720 
1.919 
1.881 
1.508 
1.838 


$2,088 


No. 3 


1.891 


No.6 


1.603 


No. 6 


1.810 


No.8 


2.100 


No. 11 


1.801 


No. 13 


1.778 


No. 15 


1.688 


No. 17 


1.609 


No. 18 


1.782 


No. 19 


1.081 


No. 20 


1.048 


No. 22 


1.660 


No. 24 


1.000 


No. 29 


1.632! 1.591 
1.524 , 1.483 
1.621 1.580 

1.685 1 1.644 

1 


L604 


No. 31 


1.080 


No. 34 


1.688 


No. 35 


' 1.747 







All 
I brack- 
I ets. 



Establishment. 



Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 



21 by 30 to 24 
by 30 inchee. 



24by81to24 , 2SbT36to30 > AllaboveSO 
by 36 inches. . by 41 inches. t>y41iflchee« 



A. 



B. 



A. 



A. 



B. 



A. 



B. 



Total GOtt, including pieoe-paJd labor, at rate (4— 



$0,914 $0,820, $0,934; $0,852 $1,027 $0,014 $1,000 $0. 



No.2 $1,244 

No.3 1.1«2 [ 

No. 5 .M4 

No. 6 i.'m 

No.8 1.4!') 

No. 11 1.012 

No. 13 *>**> 

No. 15 ^^* 

No. 17 «0 

No. 18 rfi 

No. 19 l.m 

No. 20 1.I.V4 

No. 22 ^TI 

No. 24 lAll 

No. 29 Vj.'S 

No.31 7''/: 

No. 34 Vt4 

No. 36 a.vi 



$2.1.5^ 


%2fM 


$2. 17<» 


titfm 


%2.rj\ 


$2. VA 


n.zn 


nvn 


2.01^, 


l.'^22 


2.fm 


l.fH^ 


2,120 


2. 01^/ 


2.171 


2.W1 


1,728 


l.f^M 


l.liH 


htit/i 


i.Mi 


1.728 


t.ViZ 


vm 


1,»5.S 


l.«J4I 


1*1$ 


\/<j% 


2.048 


X.'JfVf 


2jm 


x.^m 


2.Z24 


2.230 


2 :M4 


2.V/2 


2.4^7 


%Z24 


2.47* 


2.3r7* 


\.'ry» 


l.%32 


l.JHii 


LV/4 


2(04 


\/jf»t 


2.0^1 


i,yn 


i.'^n 


LW# 


l.%3 


\.M\ 


2. h)H 


i.WZ 


2.^M 


l.dM 


1. ^\z 


1. 'V<t 


1.^3:5 


1. V,\ 


ijm 


i.OZ 


\/*f», 


\.yA 


1,7^4 


\.^A() 


1.7.y| 


1. V2 


l.«H7 


1 7»4 


\'<*f9 


I.7W 


1. '#>7 


1. -J.'? 


y/^ 


^ Mr, 


2Jf^f 


1 y/7 


2. *fa 


\.*^ 


2Lirj*i 


2L0I2 


%\v. 


2.'M 


2 21 > 


2 \f^. 


2.V,\ 


2. \m 


i'-jiw 


1 '¥li 


%(^ 


2 fff. 


2\*>\ 


2 ff^> 


2.22» 


2 110 


i.r-55 


l.W 


l.V/, 


1 7» 


I ^4^ 


l.7%v 


\/¥^ 


\r>m 


2. 0^, 


l.'^l 


2. ^^r. 


l.'^A 


2 IV^ 


2'/2> 


2.1V, 


2'm 


I. >;r# 


1 725 


!.%•> 


) 7.;7 


J -Wi 


1. ^l'# 


l.'-r74 


i.rj^ 


1 Til 


1 M7 


I. m 


1 M!> 


1.^24 


1.711 


I v/. 


1.1^ 


l.^t^ 


1.714 


1.^28 


1.74« 


1 <Wrl 


1 ^0« 


1. ^^A 


\VA 


vra 


1.77^ 


1.992 


\A\Ct 


\/if^ 


I.«72 


%Afjn 


i.m 




1 




_ 


. 


J 


_. 





Table 65 is sLmTUr m ionti f/> T^ble M Hud h}iow^ f/f^U hrt ^i^t^i 
brackets of double-^tr^jngth ^Ip^pa, ]u (\(^rWu}<f h\\ ht\u^ 4'4f^i, f^xf^^jfi 
piece-paid labor for & h<>x of 4<^/uhU-^tr^*Ti$(tf. j()a«5<?, ih^, f-^r^i ff{ H 
single-strength box wan \rirrf^.M'/\ \u ir<*p, pro^r/^rtK^/n of ti Uf ^ ut \h^ 
number of single-^ trenjftri \yffXi^ w^r^, f^*Am4^f\ f/t rlouM^. sf,f/vrrgfrb 
basis in the ratio of % U> 5, 



180 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 66. — Cost op Pboducino a 50-Foot Box of Handmade, Double-Strength 
Window Glass, A and B Grades, by Brackets, Without Additional Cost 
FOR Depreciation and Interest on Current Loans. 





All 
brack- 
ets. 


6 by 8 to 16 by 
24 Inches. 


16 by 25 to 24 by 
36 inches. 


24 by 37 to 30 by 
40 inches. 


Establishment. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 


Total cost, including piece-paid labor, at rate of- 




SO. 901 


SO. 828 


$1,232 


$1,118 


$1,325 


ii.aoi 


No. 2 


$1,980 
1.768 
1.302 
1.634 
2.256 
1.619 
1.582 
1.438 
1.312 
1.589 
1.907 
1.846 
1.394 
1.778 
1.448 
1.275 
1.430 
1.533 


12.881 
2.664 
2.203 
2.535 
3.157 
2.520 
2.483 
2.339 
2.213 
2.490 
2.808 
2.747 
2.295 
2.679 
2.349 
2.176 
2.331 
2.434 


12.806 
2.591 
2.130 
2.462 
3.084 
2.447 
2.410 
2.266 
2.140 
2.417 
2.735 
2.674 
2.222 
2.606 
2.276 
2.103 
2.258 
2.361 


$3,212 
2.995 
2.534 
2.866 
3.488 
2.851 
2.814 
2.670 
2.544 
2.821 
3.139 
3.078 
2.626 
3.010 
2.680 
2.507 
2.662 
2.765 


$3,098 
2.881 
2.420 
2.752 
3.374 
2.737 
2.700 
2.556 
2.430 
2.707 
3.025 
2.964 
2.512 
2.896 
2.566 
2.393 
2.548 
2.651 


$3,305 
3.088 
2.627 
2.999 
3.581 
2.944 
2.907 
2.763 
2.637 
2.914 
3.232 
3.171 
2.719 
3.103 
2.773 
2.600 
2.755 
2.858 


S3.U1 


No. 8 : 


2.W 


No. 6 


2.303 


No. 6 


2.S5 


No. 8 


3.45< 


No. 11 


2.90 


No. 13 


2,7B 


No. 15 


2.fl» 


No. 17 


2.SD 


No. 18 


2.:* 


No. 19 :.. 


3. IS 


No. 20 


3.0(T 


No. 22 


2.SB6 


No. 24 


2.9:9 


No. 29 


2.M9 


No. 31 


2.47B 


No. 34 


2.631 


No. 35 


2.134 







Establishment. 



No. 2.. 
No. 3.. 
No. 5.. 
No. 6.. 
No. 8,. 
No. 11 
No. 13 
No. 15 
No. 17 
No. 18 
No. 19 
No. 20 
No. 22 
No. 24 
No. 29 
No. 31 
No. 34 
No. 35 



AU 
brack- 
ets. 



Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 



$1,980 
1.763 
1.302 
1.634 
2.256 
1.619 
1.582 
1.438 
1.312 
1.589 
1.907 
1.846 
1.394 
1.778 
1.448 
1.27.5 
1.430 
1.533 



30 by 41 to 36 by 
51 inches. 


36 bv 52 to 39 by 
66 inches. 


40 by 60 to 40 bv 
78 inches. 


A. B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 



All above 40 by 
78 inches. 



A. 



B. 



Total cost, including piece-paid labor, at rate of— 



$1,449 


$1,325 


$3,429 


$3,305 


3.212 


3.088 


2.751 


2.627 


3.083 


2.959 


3.705 


3.581 


3.068 


2.944 


3.031 


2.907 


2.887 


2.763 


2.761 


2.637 


3.038 


2.914 


3.356 


3.232 


3.295 


3.171 


2.^3 


2.719 


3.227 


3.103 


2.897 


2.773 


2.724 


2.600 


2.879 


2. 755 


2.982 


2.858 



$1,719 $1,543 



$3,699 
3.482 
3.021 
3.353 
3.975 
3.338 
3.301 
3.157 
3.031 
3.308 
3.626 
3.565 
3.113 
3.497 
3.167 
2.994 
3.149 
3.252 



$3,523 
3.306 
2.845 
3.177 
3.799 
3.162 
3.125 
2.981 
2.855 
3.132 
3.450 
3.389 
2.937 
3.321 
2.991 
2.818 
2.973 
3.076 



$2,754 I $2,536 



$4,734 
4.517 
4.056 
4.388 
5.010 
4.373 
4.336 
4.192 
4.066 
4.343 
4.661 
4.600 
4.118 



532 
202 
029 
184 
287 



$4,516 
4.299 
3.838 
4.170 
4.792 
4.155 
4.118 
3.974 
3.848 
4.125 
4.443 
4.382 
3.930 
4.314 
3.9ai 
3.811 
3.966 
4.069 



$4,937 $4,617 



$6,917 
6.700 
6.239 
6.571 
7.193 
6.556 
6.519 
6.375 
6.249 
6.526 
6.814 
6.783 
6.331 
6.715 
6.385 
6.212 
6.367 
6.470 



16.59: 
6.38) 

5.919 
6.251 
6.S73 
6.236 
6.199 
6.035 
5.929 
6.206 
6.521 
6.4« 

6. nil 

6.395 
6.065 
0.892 
6.04: 
6.130 



MACHINE-MADE PRODUCT. 



i^The f ollowiag series of tables showing wage and unit cost data for 
machine-made glass are similar to the preceding tables for handmade 
glass. It will be observed that the piece-paid occupations in this 
group differ from those of the hand group, as do the rates of wages. 
In the hand group blowing is a highly skilled occupation, but in the 
machine group it is not classified as such. 

The rates oi wages as shown in this group are those agreed upon 
by manufacturers using the Consolidated or Healy machiues at the 
beginning of the blast, October 28, 1915. 



COST Ain) FBOPET BY SPEOIFIEO UNITS. 



181 



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CC CO CO 



s& 






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vH Oi>4 



OOtCtO 

^55 cs 






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3 



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hi 







c 
P4 



182 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



» 



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$1,971 
1.760 
1.869 




11.862 
1.651 
1.760 






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008T AND PBOTTT BY 8PB0IFIED XJNITB. 188 

MANUFAGTUBIKG COSTS BT ITEMS. 

The following tables show by establishments the average cost 
and profit or loss in manufacturing a 50-foot box of single-s&ength 
glass, by hand and by machine. (x>sts for 35 hand and 11 machme 
establishments are presented in these tables. The percentages of 
cost for the various items are fully discussed in connection with 
Tables 37 and 38. 



i 










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itimt 


1 « j i ii S i 






58 


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1 S : 1 !l ! 1 






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1 S i 1 3i = i 






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: ? 1 ||~ 1 8 








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S 8 1 1 SS 1 j 






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mmn 


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P 


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lip 

I 


I?J 111 

- -|N||l 



COST AKD PEOPIT BY SPECIPIED UNITS. 



186 



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♦"I O "O »^ • •> 

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N N eO Q OO M CO 

*H CO ^ $F^N o 



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186 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



Table 71. — ^Average Cost op Each Specifiep Item op Expense in Manupactueing 
A 50-FooT Box OP Single-Strength Wini>ow Glass, Machine Made, and Aver- 
age OPERiATING PrOPIT OR LoSS, WiTH AND WiTHOUT CONSIDERATION OP DEPRE- 
CIATION AND Interest on Current Loans, Based on the Selling Value, bt 
Establishments. 



Items. 


AUes- 
tablish- 
1 ments. 

1 


No. 
38. 

• 


No. 
39. 


No. 
40. 


No. 
41. 

to. 182 
.155 


No. 
42. 


No. 
43. 


No. 
44. 


No. 
45. 


No. 
46. 


No. 
48. 


No. 
49. 


Materials: 

Batch 


10.148 
.111 
.001 


to. 139 
.146 


to. 133 
.138 


to. 213 
.118 


to. 164 
.125 


to. 141 
.146 


to. 159 
.112 


to. 218 
.146 


to. 186 
.120 
.012 


to. 169 SO. 129 


"Pwiking.,. ... 


.128 .066 


Freight:....:.....;.; 
























Total materials 

Total factory labor 

Fuel, power, light, and 
water 


.260 
.673 

.132 
.025 
.023 
.029 

.046 

.088 


.285 
.793 

.343 
.040 
.046 


.271 
.636 

.270 
.035 
.019 


.331 
.901 

.106 
.046 
.072 
.018 
.099 

.124 


.337 
.777 

.087 
.025 
.047 
.026 
.090 

.065 


.289 
.712 

.121 
.042 
.040 
.028 
.102 

.081 


.287 
.543 

.216 
.024 
.020 
.089 
.093 

.162 


.271 
.868 

.231 
.020 
.053 
.008 

.092 


.364 
.621 

.203 
.037 
.022 
.039 
.097 

.025 


.318 
.910 

.070 
.064 
.030 
.050 
.026 

.078 


.297 
.095 

.196 
.014 
.025 
.058 
.079 

.190 


.215 
.750 

.049 


Taxes and Insurance 

Total salaries 


.017 
.013 


Total selling expense 


.027 


Royalty 


.033 
.079 


.100 
.186 




General expense and bad 
debts 


.048 






Total operating cost 
Operating profit com- 
puted without deprecia- 
tion and interest 


1.276 
.155 


1.619 


1.517 


1.697 


1.454 
.172 


1.415 
.208 


1.384 
.091 


1.543 
.107 


1.408 
.190 


1.546 
.221 


1.554 
.208 


1.128 
.184 


Operating loss computed 
without depreciation 
and iTiterwt . . 


.042 


.164 


.002 






........ 








1 






Selling value of one 
box produced 


1.431 


1.577 


1.353 


1.695 


1.626 


1.623 


1.475 


1.650 


1.598 


1.767 


1.762 


1.312 


Depreciation 


.064 
.(H4 

.047 


.091 
.051 


.044 


.055 
.028 


.049 
.040 

.083 


.035 
.017 

.156 


.050 
.041 


.OSl 
.013 

.063 


.044 

• 

.146 


.138 
.045 

.038 


.149! -053 


Interest 


.088 


.013 


Operating profit com- 
puted with deprecia- 
tion and interest 


.029 


m 


Operating loss computed 
with depreciation and 
interest . . .' 


.184 


.208 


.085 


* 




1 


















1 • 



PRODUCTION AT A PROFIT AND AT A LOSS. 

The foUowing table, derived from data shown in Tables 70 and 71, 

S resents in summary form the number of establishments reporting 
ata and the number of single-strength 50-fcot boxes produced at 
an operating profit or loss, with and without charges for deprecia- 
tion and interest. 

Table 72. — Number of Est.\blishments Producing Single-Strength Window 
Glass, Machine and Hand Made, and Number of Boxes Produced at a 
Profit or Loss, With and Without Consideration of Depreciation and 
Interest on Current Loans. 



Establishments showing — 



Operating profits computed without 
depreciation and interest 

Operating losses computed without 
depreciation and interest 

Operating profits computed with 
depreciation and interest 

Operating losses computed with 
depreciation and interest 

All establishments 



Number of establishments. Number of JSO-fbot boxes produced. 



41 
5 



38 

8 



46 



Total. Hand. 



Machine. Total. 



33 



31 
4 



35 



8 4,588,550 

I 

3 344,610 



7 

4 ! 



4,181,300 
751,860 



Hand. 



2,829,258 
65,821 



2,701,116 
193,964 



Machine. 

1,759,291 
278,789 



1,480,1M 

557,896 



4,983,160 2,805,060 | 2, 



CHAPTER VI. 
IJSTDirSTBIAL COJSTDITIONS. 

FTTEL AS A FACTOR IN LOCATION AND OPEBATION. 

The States in which different varieties of glass and glassware are 
most largely manufactured are shown below. 

Window ^ass: Pennsylvania, West .Virginia, Ohio, Kansas, Okla- 
homa, and Texas. 

Plate glass: Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois. 

Wire and opalescent glass: Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. 

Tableware: Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, and 
Indiana. 

Heavy cut glass: Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and 

Fruit and milk jars: New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Oklahoma. 

Bottles, packers, and preservers : New York, New Jersev, Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. 

Lighting goods : New i ork, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, In- 
diana, and Oklahoma. 

Chemical ware: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. 

The glass industry is located largely west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains and in districts where chean natural gaa.can be obtained.- The 
glass factories in the East have the advantage of being near the large 
eastern markets, but they use producer gas or oil for fuel, and the 
high cost of the fuel is an offset to the market advantage. 

In Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, and 
eastern Pennsylvania producer gas made by the glass factories is 
used. Even in the Pittsburgh district the price of natural gas is now 
80 high that producer gas is used to some extent in glass making. 
One glass company in that district that makes producer gas esti- 
mates that it costs 12 cents per thousand cubic feet and its officers 
say that in that vicinity where coal is cheap it is more economical 
to make producer gas than to pay more than 12 cents for natural gas. 

One factory in southern Indiana reported that by using 2 by 4 
nut coal at $1.55 per ton of 2,000 pounds, it made producer gas at a 
cost of 8 cents per thousand cubic feet. 

In Indiana natural gas was cheap years ago, but on accoimt of the 
failure of the gas supply, several factories have moved to Oklahoma, 
while some have gone out of business. Oklahoma glass factories 
paid 3 or 4 cents per thousand for natural gas in 1916 out have been 
notified that the price will be 5 cents or higher in 1917. 

187 



188 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

In the location of new glass factories cheag__fuel has been the con- 
trolling factor. A West Virginia manufacturer of window glass who 
was interviewed during this investigation said: 

No doubt freight rates are lower in some localities than here and in many places 
are higher. These things cut little figure and are entirely overbalanced by the main 
consideration — fuel. This section has cheaper gas than any other manufactuniig 
center. The price is going up but is still much lower than elsewhere. Pennsylvania 
used to have cneap gas, but their gas began to * * play out * * years ago and is now compaia- 
tively high. Many factories have moved from Pennsylvania to West Virginia stban- 
doning their plants, in order to get cheaper fuel. There are a number of this sort in 
this vicinity. This is one of them. 

Much of the present gas troubles in this vicinity is due to the fact that the natural- 
gas companies are pumping their gas right through this section to the Pittsburgh 
district, where it commands a higher price. It is even pumped to Cleveland (for 
domestic consumption chiefly), where it is sold for 30 cents to 85 cents and higher, 
while here the present price is 4 cents. It can readily be seen that the fuel question is 
very much more important than that of markets. 

Contracts for gas were formerly made for as long as five years in 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but the supply oi gas having been 
greatly reduced, contracts are now made lor only a year and at 
advanced prices, and some gas companies now refuse to make con- 
tracts at any price. 

In West Virginia and Pennsylvania some glass companies own gas 
weUs. Another manufacturer in West Virginia said: 

It is generally understood that there is no preventing a very heavy increase soon 
in the price of gas. Natural-gas companies say that the supply is diminishing at the 
same time that the demand is increasing. Glass manufacturers feel that if they should 
persist in holding gas companies to old prices, the gas would be pumped right past 
their factories to the Pittsburgh district and to ( leveland, where it is badly neeaed. 
and where manufacturers in different industries would willingly pay more to get 
gas than is paid in West Virginia. 

In normal times before the war in Europe, glass manufacturers 
made contracts for raw materials usually every year or every two 
years. Sometimes when prices were low manufacturers agreed to 
make contracts extending three years. On a rising market, however, 
manufacturers could not make contracts for longer than a jear 
without offering higher prices than current market quotations. 
Beginning with 1915, few contracts for longer than a year could be 
negotiated. The contracts provide that denveries shall be made as 
needed. Each factory tries to keep on hand enough raw materials to 
last 60 days. 

INCBEASE IN OUTPUT OF BUILDZNG GLASS. 

The manufacture of building glass in the United States more than 
doubled during the period from 1899 to 1914, as shown by the fol- 
lowing table: 



IKDUSTEOAL CONDITIOKB. 



189 



Tabus 73. — Production of Window Glass, Obscubed Glass, and Plate Glass 

IN Census Yeabs. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Product. 




Window glass: 

Sqoarefeet 

50-foot boxes 

Value .• 

Average value per box 

Obscured glass, including cathedral and sky- I 
light: 

8q uare feet ' 

Value 

Average value per square foot 
Plate glass,poIishea: 

Square feet 

Value 

Average value per square foot 
Plate glass, rou^, made for sale: 

Square feet 

Value 

Average value per square foot 
Wire glass, polisheo: 



Square feet 

Value 

Rough (made to besold as such), square feet. 

Value 

All other building glass, value. 



217,064,100 

4,341,282 

•10,870.355 

^.51 



12,526,055 

$732,338 

10.058 

16,883,578 

15,158,508 

10.306 

628,684 

175,887 

$0,121 

$250,066 



Total building glass, value | $17,006,234 



242,615,750 

4,852,315 

$11,610,851 

$2.39 



21,870,634 

$072,014 

$0,044 

27,298,138 

$7,978,253 

$0,292 

17,784 
$3,520 
$0,108 

$1,133,214 



$21,097,861 



346,080,550 

6,021,611' 

$11,742,050 

$1.70 



22,815,046 

$1,858,574 

$0,060 

47,370,254 
$12,204,875 
$0,258 I 

205,090 I 
$37,431 i 
$0,182 



1014 




vUU, Wo, cHw 

8010,078 

$17,405,066 

$2.18 



43,040,070 

$2,471,268 

$0,056 

60,383,516 

$14,773,787 

$0,245 

131,402 

$25,850 

$0,107 

1.707,84« 

$584,822 

13,080,006 

$1,056,612 

$520,280 



$26,308,438 $36,824,060 



a Not reported separately.' 

As shown by the foregomg table, there was an increase in the pro- 
duction of window glass, of obscured glass, including cathedral, and 
of polished plate glass in each census year from 1899 to 1914. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

During the 10 years from 1899 to 1909 the number of 50-foot boxes 
of window glass produced increased from 4,341,282 to 6,921,611, 
or 59.44 per cent, and the value increased from $10,879,355 to 
$11,742,959, or only 7.94 per cent. The average vabie per box de- 
creased from $2.51 to $1.70. 

The decline in the price of window glass wfis TK)t attributable to 
the tariff, as the Dingley tariff act was in force from July 24, 1897. 
to August 6, 1909, and the value of imports of cylirifler, crowTi, ana 
common window glass, unpolished, dfjcreased from 81 ,196,461 duritig 
the fiscal year 1899 to $602,803 dnnuir the fl-,rjtl y<nir lOrjO, 

As shown bv the last table, the prodijctir»7i of wjthIo'a ^hi-.-i in 1914 
amounted to 8,919,978 boxes of 50 f^-.et ejir},, vuliied at * 17,495,956, 
or an average of $2.18 per box. 

The dechne in the avrfni:re v^ihie pes box of window ^du.".-, from 
$2.51 in 1899 to $1.70 in 1909 was dij<? to \ft\t:\\ -jj ft/jinpi?tition between 
domestic manufacturer^, and thi-. cornpoi.ition p;^reaily increased after 
the manufacture of window j.'la-,s hy rroujiinery h<?^'an on a com- 
mercial basis in 1903, 



190 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

EFFECT OF SELLING AGENCIES ON PRICES. 

The price of window glass increased after the formation in 1909 of 
the Imperial Window Glass Co. The companjr was a selling agency 
or combination of manufacturers that largely influenced the produc- 
tion and price of window glass. This orgamzation, comprised about 
50 plants, besides several that were not in operation; only about 
6 plants remained independent. The American Window Grlass Co. 
was not in the combination. It manufactured a large proportion of 
the output, and together with the Imperial Window Glass Co., con- 
trolled the prices of window glass. When the combination was 
formed prices were largely increased; production and profits abo 
greiatly increased during the first half oi 1910. 

During these months the profits were so great that plants that 
had been shut down for years began manufacturing, so that by the 
fall of 1910 there were 14 independent factories in operation and 5 
new ones were imder construction. The competition of the inde- 
pendents and the overproduction finally broke the market late in 
the fall of 1910. In a suit brought by the Federal Government 
against the officers and directors of the Imperial Glass Co., the de- 
fendants, in November, 1910, pleaded nolo contendere and were 
fined. The dissolution of the company followed. 

From the late fall of 1910 until the simamer of 1912 there were 
competitive conditions in the window-glass trade. Another selling 
agency called the Johnson Brokerage Co. was then formed and prices 
went up. The president of this company, J. R. Johnston, haa been 
secretary of the imperial Glass Co. in 1916 the Johnston Brokerage 
Co. sold the product of about 25 hand plants, or about half the num- 
ber of hand plants in the country, and also sold the product of about 
5 machine plants. This company receives orders from jobbers and 
consumers, distributes them to its patronizing plants, and charges 
IJ per cent commission. Window glass being sold at net in 60 days, 
the Johnston Brokerage Co. advances money to those factories de- 
siring cash, for which a charge of 1 per cent is made, or a total of 
2i per cent, including the selling commission. 

NUMBER AND EQUIPMENT OF HAND AND MACHINE PLANTS. 

For several years after 1903 all of the window-glass machines used 
were those of the American Window Glass Co., but by 1908 two other 
machines, the Healy and the Douchamp, were introduced, and since 
then machines of different patents have been installed — the Frink, 
the Pittsburgh, the Okmulgee, and the Douchamp-Henshaw. The 
following table shows the number of the hand plants and of their 
pots in 1916, and the number of machine plants and of their machines 
in the same year. 



INDTTSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



191 



Table 74. — Location and Number of Window-Glass Plants, Hand and Machine, 
IN rHB United States, Number of Potb, ai^^d Number of Machinbs. 

[Data from Glass. Factory Directory, 1916.] 



States. 


Hand plants. 


Machine plants. 


Plants. 


Pots. / 


Plants. 


Ma^llfT^na. 






C|iiifnrn'ia> ,.,, r , - 


1 
1 
2 
5 
1 
6 
2 

12 
1 

20 


36 
30 
72 

150 
36 

202 
66 

486 
36 

614 






IlliTlOiS -.-» -r r-^ r r 






Tndianft ,.,,,.-, - 


1 


(«) 


Kansas. T..,,.,.,»-,-,.TTr---.-»-.^. -.-..-. 




Louisiana 






Ohio 


2 

1 

13 
1 
7 


30 


Oklahoma 


12 


PpnTisvlvania r....... ^,--^--, x-r--, ,-.-,.,-, 


6172 


Texas 


8 


West Virginia 


74 






Total 


51 


1,737 


25 


296 







a Machines of 1 plant in Indiana included with machines enumerated in Pennsylyania. 
b Includes machines used in 1 plant in Indiana. 

The number of plants using each type of machine and the number 
of each type used in 1916 are shown in the following table : 

Table 75. — Location and Number of Machine Plants and of Each Type of 
Window-Glass Machines Used in the United States. 

[Data from Olass Factory Directory, 1916.] 
NUMBER OF PLANTS USING EACH TYPE OF MACHINE. 



• 
states. 1 A^ri- 

1 


Dou- 
champ. 


Dou- 

champ- 

Henshaw. 


Frink. ' 


Heady. 


Ockmul- 
gee. 


Pitts- 
burgh. 


Total. 


Tn<^Tana 


1 














1 


Ohio 






1 






1 


2 


Oklahoma - 








1 


1 


PftTinsylva"ift . . .... 


5 


1 




2 


5 

1 
3 




13 


Tfixas!" 








1 


West Virginia 




1 


1 






2 


7 












Total 


6 


2 


1 


3 


9 


1 


3 


26 







NUMBER OF BACH TYPE OF MACHINES USED. 



Indiana 


(«) 
















Ohio 






6 






24 


30 


Oklahoma 


.......... 








12 


12 


Pemisylvania &ii6 


6 




12 


38 




172 


Texas i 




8 


.......... 




8 


WestViri^ 1 


6 


8 




24 


.......... 


36 

• 


74 


Total 










116 


12 


8 


18 


70 


12 


60 


396 







a Machines of 1 plant in Indiana included with machines enumerated in Pennsylvania. 
b Includes machmes used in 1 plant in Indicia. 

As appears by the last two preceding tables, there are 296 window- 
glass machines in the United States. The machines cost about 
$15,000 each. The following statement regarding window-glass 
machines in Europe was made in 1916 by li&. A. P. Whittemore, 
president of the Thatcher & Whittemore Glass Co., of Dunbar, W. Va., 



192 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

which previous to the war had a factory at Roux, Belgium, in which 
window glass purchased from other factories was flattened and cut: 

There were 23 window-glass factories in Belgium with 38 tanks. All were never 
operating at the same time, so far as I know. There were two window-glass machines 
in Belgium — the Rowart-Francq, which never got beyond the experimental stage and 
was never put on commercial basis, and the Fourcault machine, which made very 
heavy glass for skylight purposes, but, so far as I know, never made and sold ordinary 
single and dou|?le strength window glass conmiercially. I have since heard that 
before the war they were making glass conmiercially, but do not know this except 
from hearsay. 

A number of window-glass machines are operated by Pilkington Bros., St. Helena, 
England. About eight machines are operated by a factory in Aniche, France, and 
machines are used also by one factory in Bohemia, one in Kussia, and one in Japan. 
All of these plants operate the American Window Glass Co.'s machines. 

PRODITOTION AFFECTED BY MACHINERY. 

The introduction of machines largely increased the output in the 
United States. In 1904, when there was only one machine factory 
in the United States, the production was equal to the consumption, 
less imports. The general imports of cylinder, crown, and conmion 
window glass, unpolished, during the fiscal year 1904 amounted to 
$1,366,218, or 7.75 per cent of the production of A^dow glass during 
the calendar year 1914, as reported by the census, $17,495,956. 

The American Window Glass Co., whose first machime factory was 
started in 1903, during the following years established other factories 
and installed many machines. 

The result was that the window-glass trade was depressed by over- 
production. Some hand factories went out of business, some were 
operated as cooperative plants, and the wages or piece prices paid 
in all of the hand plants that continued were greatly reduced, in order 
that these plants might compete with the machine plants, which 
employed no skilled labor except for flattening and cutting. The 
National Window Glass Workers, the national organization that 
includes blowers, gatherers, flatteners, and cutters in hand factories, 
was a strong union, but for a number of years it could not prevent the 
reduction in wages or piece prices that was forced upon the hand facto- 
ries by the competition of the machine plants. 

FACTORIES OPERATED ON PART-TIME BASIS. 

The union began to shorten the time over which it made agree- 
ments with hand manufacturers, in some years to only seven months. 
By 1914, when many machines had been installed, the production 
would have been enormously greater than the domestic consumption if 
the hand factories had not been operated on short time. The wage 
agreements of the National Window Glass Workers with the manufac- 
turers of hand-blown window glass during recent years have been for 
the following periods: September 1, 1909, to May 1, 1910; October 15 
1910, to August 31, 1911; September 9, 1911, to May 31, 1912 
October 15, 1912. to May 29, 1913; October 27, 1913, to May 29, 1914 
October 31, 1914, to May 29, 1915; November 1, 1915, to May 27, 1916 
October 25, 1916, to May 29, 1917. 

Even the machine window-glass factories have run on short time 
in every year. They averaged about eight months a year. 



INDUSTRIAL OONDITIOITS. 193 

Figures from the American Window Glass Co. are not available, 
)ut the production in boxes by the independent machine factories 
tnd the number of weeks that they operated diu'ing 1914-15 and 
915-16 are shown in the following statement quoted from a paper 
ead by William G. Kischenbower, president of the Window Glass 
Gutters' and Flatteners* Association of America, before the annual 
aeeting of the National Association of Window Glass Manufacturers, 
leld at Atlantic City, N. J., in July, 1916: 

The amount of single and double strength glass produced by the independent 
laehine manufactureFS of window glass for the year of October 28, 1914^ to October 29, 
»I5, was: Single, 1,482,410; double, 323,516; total, 1,805,926 boxes. If the double- 
length glass IB reduced to a single^tren^ basis, the total is 2,000,035 boxes. 

Seventeen tanks were in operation during this period. Average of the 17 tanks: 
ingle, 87,201; double, 19,030; total, 106,231. If the average production of the 17 
uiks is reduced to a single-strength basis, the total is 117,649 boxes. Average number 
i weeks in operation during this period, 32. 

At this same ratio, reducing double to single, had the independent machine manu- 
icturers operated continuously for one year, production would have been 3,250,052 
oxes of glass. By operating only 32 weeks production was curtailed to the extent of 
,250,017 boxes, or about 38^ per cent during that neriod. 

The present wage scale that the independent macnine manufacturers of window glass 
re operating under does not expire until October 29, 1916, but I have prepared a 
tatement of production from the beginning of the scale, October 29, 1915, to Jidy 1, 
916: Single, 1,288,336; double, 328,453; total, 1,611,789. When the double-strength 
has is reduced to single-strength basis, the total is 1,805,860 boxes. 

During this period of eight months there were 19 tanks in operation. Average 
poduction of the tanks during this period: Single, 67,807; double, 17,024; total, 
1,831 boxes. * On a single-strength basis, the avera^ production of the 19 tanks was 
s045 boxes. Average number of weeks in operation during this period was 25. 
At this same ratio, had the 19 tanks operated continuously for the period of 8 months, 
ley w^ould have produced 2,528,196 boxes. By operating only 25 weeks, they have 
eated a curtailment of 722,330 boxes, or about 28^ per cent during that period. 
Referring to the general conditions of the window-glass business, all persons engaged 

the business must admit that the past two years have been a period of unusual 
oeperity in this business, which is greatly due to existing conditions in Europe, 
le exportation of T^indow glass is a new feature for the manufacturers of the United 
ates, which has played a very important part in our present prosperity, and steps 
ould be taken to fmrther this exportation so that the factories of the United States 
iy be kept in continuous operation in the future. 

EFFECT OF MACHINES ON GLASS BLOWERS* EARNINGS. 

A r6suin6 of the conditional, during recent years is given in the f ol- 
wing statement made in October, 1914, by Mr. Joseph M. Neenan, 
resident of the National Window Glass Workers of America, whose 
embers are employed in the hand factories: 

For the blast of 1915-16, 5,575,000 jfifty-foot boxes were produced by the machine 
3thod. This is the first tune we have been able to secure anything like accurate 
formation concerning the amount of machine glass produced. The hand produc- 
m for the same period w^js 3,725,462 fifty-foot boxes, of which 2,088,828 were of single 
ength, 1,719,666 of double strength, and 16,968 of triple strength. Our proportion 
the entire production was about 40 per cent. 

^a a result of the introduction of macnines Into the industrv, a vast amount of uncer- 
nty was felt by both the manufacturers and workmen employed in the production of 
admade glass. It was feared that, if the machines were a commercial success, it 
uld not be possible to produce handmade glass on a profitable basis. As a result 
this uncertainty, tiie demorsdization which followed affected the entire industry, 
ichine as well ashand. Hand manufactiurers feared to carry stocks and placed their 
:>duct on the market for almost any price they could obtain. The workers ac- 
pted a sliding scale arrangement, by wnich their wages were based upon the price 
jeived by the manufacturers, the result of which was tnat, before the period of uncer- 
nty and demoralization ended, the average of wages of blowers of single-strength 

102611'— 17 ^18 



194 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



g1a9s was reduced from about 90 cents per box during the year 1903 to 30 cents Tpei box 
during the year of 1912-13. 

At one time 2,400 pots were operated by the hand method. By the word "pots" 
I mean that there were that many places for blowers. I feel quite certain that all of 
the places were not manned; the probabilities are that the greatest number of blowers 
ever employed at one time was oetween 1.800 and 1,900. Last blast we had 1,800 

Sjts in operation, but our membership roll shows that but 1,610 blowers were employed, 
ur total membership is 4,241; 1,610 blowers, 1,735 gatherers, 359 flatteners, and 537 
cutters. 

The working season for window-glass workers has always depended upon market 
conditions, ftevious to the advent of machines, it was customary to place wage 
scales in effect for 10, 8, and even 7 month periods. Following the introduction of 
machines, wage scales were placed in effect for 12-month periods at different times, 
but this does not mean that factories were operated continuously. At one timej 
or another diu-ing the year it becomes necessanr to make repairs, and in addition 
to this, during the period mentioned, a number of companies were forced out of exist- 
ence, so that I feel quite certain that during the years the 12-month wage scales were 
effective glass was not produced in such quantities as it has been during the past four 
or five years. 

The annual statistical report of the National Window Glass Work- 
ers, published in The National for August, 1915, shows that during 
the blast of 1914-15 the union had 3,779 members and that ther 
worked an average of 231 weeks. The report pubUshed in The Na- 
tional for August, 1916, shows that during the blast of 1915-16 tk 
union had 4,301 members and that they worked an avere^e of 2& 
weeks. Of the 4,301 members, 60 were spare men and members 
beyond the age of 55 who were carried on the rolls as permanent 
members. 

PRICE LIST AND DISCOUNTS. 

Window glass is sold on the basis of a price list, which is fixed from 
time to time and is always subject to very lai^e trade discount& 
The price Ust adopted October 15, 1912, and stilfin force in 1916 i 
as follows: 

Table 76. — ^Window-Glass Pbice List, Oct. 15, 1912. 

[All sizes of 100 united inches and under are packed in 50-foot boxes; over 100 united inches in 1004ri 

boxes.] 



United 
inches. 



25 

34 

40 

50 

54 
60 

70 

80 

84 
90 
94 
100 
105 
110 
116 
120 



Bracket. 



6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inches. . . 

{l2byl3h"^y^^^^- 
10 by 26 to 16 by 24 inches. 

{20 by 20^20 by 30 inches. 

15 by 36 to 24 by 30 inches. 
26 by 23 to 24 by 36 inches. 
26 by 341 

23 by 32 to 30 by 40 inches. 
,30 by 30l 

{34 by 36/*** ^ ^y ^ inches. 
30 by 52 to 30 by 54 inches . 
30 by 56 to 34 by 56 Inches. 
34 by 58 to 34 by 60 inches. 
36 by 60 to 40 by 60 inches . 
40 by 62 to 40 by 64 inches. 
40 by 66 to 40 by 70 inches . 
40 by 72 to 40 by 74 inches. 
40 by 76 to 40 by 80 Inches. 



Single strength. 



A.V. 



124.00 

25.00 

27.00 

28.00 

29.00 
30.00 

32.00 

36.50 
39.00 



A. 



120.00 

21.00 

22.50 

23.75 

24.50 
26.00 

28.00 

33.25 
35.50 



B. 



$19.00 

20.00 

21.00 

22.00 

22.50 
23.25 

25.25 

28.75 
31.25 



Double strength. 



AA. 



132.00 

35.00 

39.00 

42.00 

43.00 
44.00 

47.00 

51.00 

52.00 

55.00 

56.00 

66.00 

142.00 

15S.00 

178.00 

210.00 



A. 



$28.00 

31.00 

34.00 

37.00 

38.00 
39.00 

42.00 

48.00 

47.00 
5a 00 
51.00 

6a 00 
13a 00 

146.00 
162.00 

19a 00 



B 

an 

3H 

35.: 
3^1 

Hi 

a\ 
4: 

12X( 

im 

loll 



1 



Note.— An additional 10 per cent will be charged for all glass more than 40 inches wide. All sizes oref 
52 inches in length and not making more than 81 united inches will be charged in the 84 united inches brack* 
All glass 54 inches wide or wider and not making more than 116 united inches will be charged in tlie U^ 
united inches bracket Si zes above 120 united inches, $20 per box extra for every 5 Inches. 



INDU8TBIAL 00NDIII0N8. 



195 



This price list is the same as the preceding price list, dated January 
1, 1901, except tJxat in the list of that date prices were given for the 
90, 94, and 100 inch brackets of single-strength glass and the prices of 
the 105, 110, 115, and 120 inch brackets were given on the oasis of 
50-foot instead of 100-foot boxes. 

The trade discounts that have been announced beginning with 
March, 1912, are as follows: 

March, 191t. — Single strength: Sizes up to and including third bracket, 90 and 
22^ per cent; larger brackets, 90 and 20 per cent. Double strength: 90 and 17) 
per cent. 

January, 19H> — Single strength: First three brackets, 90 and 30 per cent; larger 
brackets, 90 and 7) per cent. Double strength: 90 and 20 per cent. 

Kovemher, I915.--Single strength: First three brackets, A quality, 90 and 20 per 
cent; first three brackets, B quality. 90 and 30 per cent; larger brackets, 90 and 7) 
per cent. Double strength: A quality, 90 and 10 per cent; B quality, 90 and 20 
per cent. 

January y 1916. — Single strength: First three brackets, A quality, 90 and 10 per 
cent; first three brackets, B quality, 90 and 20 per cent; larger brackets, 89 and 5 
per cent. Double strength: A quality, 90 per cent; B quality, 90 and 10 per cent. 

March, 1916, — Single strength: First three brackets, A quality, 89 per cent; first 
three brackets, B quality, 90 and 10 per cent; larger brackets, 88 per cent. Double 
strength: A quality, 89 per cent; B quality, 90 per cent. 

The net price computed with these discounts on the basis of the 
price list of October 15, 1912, were as appear in the following table: 

Tablb 77.-r-WiNDOw Glass Pricb List: Net Psices per Box, 1912 to 1916. 



United 
inches. 



25 



34 



Bra<flc«t. 



ebyStolObyUinchas. 



{libyisl^ol^^y^Olnchee, 



40 



SO 



54 



00 



70 



10 by 26 to 16 by 24 inohea.. 



{aoby^^^'^y**''*^*^- 



15 by 36 to 24 by 30 inches. 



26 by 28 to 24 by 36 InchcA. . 



fa8by34| 

28 by 32} to 30 by 40 inches. 

|30by30j 



Date of discount. 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November. 1916. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



(March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
NovemDer, 1916. 
January, 1916... 
March. 1916 



Bfarch, 1912 

January, 1914. . . 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
Novemi>er, 1916. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1915. 
January, 1910... 
March, 1916 



I March, 1912 
January, 1914... 
November, 1916. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

..January, 1914... 
"November, 1915. 

January, 1916. . . 

March, 1916 



SinsJe 
strength. 



A. 



$L60 
1.40 
1.60 
1.80 
2.20 

1.68 
1.47 
1.68 
1.89 
2L31 

1,74 
1.58 
L80 
2.03 
2.48 

L84 
2.20 
2.20 
2.48 
2L85 

1.90 
2.27 
2.27 
2.66 
2.94 

2: 02 
2.41 
2.41 
2.72 
3.12 

2.23 
2.66 

2.66 
3.00 
3.45 



B. 



$L62 
1.33 
L33 
L52 
1.71 

1.60 
L40 
L40 
1.60 
1.80 

1.63 
1.47 
L47 
1.68 
1.89 

1.71 
2.04 
2.04 
2.30 
2.64 

1.74 
2.08 
2.08 
2.35 
2.70 

1.80 
2.15 
2.15 
2.43 
2.79 

1.96 
2.34 
2.84 
2.64 
3.03 



Double 
stren^h. 



A. 



S2L31 
2.24 
2.52 
2.80 
3.08 

2.56 
2.48 
2.79 
3.10 
3.41 

2.81 
2.72 
3.06 
3.40 
3.74 

3.05 
2.96 
3.33 
3.70 
4.07 

3.14 
3.04 
3.42 
3.80 
4.18 

3.22 
3.12 
3.51 
3.90 
4.20 

3.47 
3.36 
3.78 
4.20 
4.62 



B. 



$2.19 
2.13 
2.13 
2.39 
2.66 

2L39 
2.32 
2L32 
2.61 
2.90 

2.56 
2.48 
2.48 
2.79 
3.10 

2.85 
2.76 
2.76 
3.11 
3.45 

2.89 
2.80 
2L80 
3.15 
3.50 

Z93 
2.84 
2.84 
3. 2D 
3.56 

3.14 
3.04 
3.04 
3.42 
3.80 



196 



THE GLABS INDUSTRY. 



Tablb 77. — Window Glass Price List: Net Prices per Box, 1912 to 1916— 

Concluded. 



United 
inches. 



SO 



84 



.90 



94 



100 



105 



110 



115 



120 



Bracket. 



^4 by if} ^30 by 60 inches. 



30 by 52 to 30 by 54 inches. 



30 by 5<( to 34 by 56 Inches. 



34 by 68 to 34 by 60 inches. 



36 by 60 to 40 by 60 inches. 



40 by 62 to 40 by 64 inches. 



40 by 66 to 40 by 70 inches. 



40 by 72 to 40 by 74 Inches. 



40 by 76 to 40 by 80 inches. 



Date o( discount. 



f March, 1912 

January, 1914 

November, 1915., 
January, 1916..., 
March, 1910 , 



March, 1912 

January, 1914.... 
November, 1916.. 

January, 1916 

March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914. . , 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1916. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
[March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1916. 
January, 1916. .. 
iMarch, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1916. 
January. 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914... 

November, 1916. 

January, 1916... 

IMarch, 1916 



Single 
strength. 



A. 



$2..'>8 
3.08 
3.08 
3.47 
3. 99 

2.76 
3.28 
3.28 
3.71 
4.26 



B. 



S2.2? 
2.66 
2.66 
3.00 
3.45 

2.42 
2.89 
2:89 
3.27 
3.76 



Double 
strength. 



A. 



$3.80 
3.68 
4.14 

4.60 
5.06 

3.88 
3.76 
4.2) 
4.70 
5.17 

413 
4.00 
4.50 
5.00 
5.50 

4.21 
4.08 
4.59 
5.10 
&61 

4.95 
4.80 
5.40 
6.00 
6.60 

ia73 
ia40 
11.70 
13.00 
14.30 

12.05 
11.68 
13.14 
14.60 
16.06 

13.37 
12.96 
14.58 
16.20 
17.82 

15.68 
15.20 
17.10 
19.00 
2a 90 



B. 



$3.43 
3.32 

.^32 

3.74 
4.1.S 

3.51 
3.40 
3.40 
3.m 
4.25 

.^80 

xw 

3.68 
4.14 

ieo 

as 
a?i 
3.:» 

lid 

4.f2 
4.48 
448 
&04 
&60 

9. 90 
0.60 

afio 

laH) 
12.00 

11.23 , 

ias8 

12.24 
13.60 

1254 
12.16 
12. U 
13,« 
15.S 

HS3 
1440 
14.40 
16. » 
I&OO 



As appears by this table, the net prices of single and double strength 
of the first three brackets were in most instances lower during the 
period from January, 1914, to November, 1915, or to January, 1916, 
than they were either before or after. The net prices of the larger 
brackets in single strength were lowest during the period from March, 
1912, to January, 1914, out this was not the case with double-strength 
glass. 

Special discounts apply to window glass of AA quality, which is 
proauced in only limited quantities and by some factories not at all. 
There is no fixed price list for C quality, which is produced usually 
in only first bracket sizes. This grade is sold at net prices per box, 
the range during 1914, 1915, and 1916 being from $0.85 to $1.20 per 
50-foot box. 



INBXJBTBIAL OONDITIONS. 197 

By an agreement or tuiderstanding among the manufacturers, they 
charge 15 cents each for boxes for glass of the first three brackets 
and 25 cents for boxes for larger sizes. All of them state that they 
lose money on the boxes, and when asked why they do not charge 
more, say that formerly they did not charge anything for boxes, that 
it was hard to get manufacturers generally to agree to make this 
charge, and that when the agreement was reached a few years ago, 
competition among^ manufacturers caused some to continue to sell 
glass without mafing such a charge. It is, therefore, considered 
mipractical to make a higher charge for boxes at present. 

DEFIKITION OF OBADES. 

The following definitions of first, second, and third quality glass 
are quoted from Glass and Glazing, issued in 1916 by tne National 
Glass Distributors' Association: 

AA orjirst quality, — AA quality should be clear glan, free from any perceptible 
amount of air bubbles or blisters, burnt specks or bums, cords, and strings. It snould 
have a good gloss and an even surface and be well flattened. By air bubbles it ia 
understood that tiny blisters, or imperfections not perceptible on the cutters' table 
but detectable when placing the sheet directly^ towuxi the light, would not be objec- 
tionable. This should be a careful selection in both single and double and should 
represent the very best that can be produced in window glass by the present methods. 

A or second quality. — ^A (][uality glass is the normal selection of glass when no special 
selection is desired or specified and it admits of such defects as small strings or lines, 
small blisters when not too close to one another or located in the center of the sheet; 
well flattened, the surface even, and devoid of noticeable scratches, cropper marks, 
bums, and other prominent defects. 

B or third quality, — B giass covers a wider range than either A A (juality or A quality. 
It permits many of the defects inherent to the process of making, such as waves, 
strings, lines, blisters, scratches, bums, and otner similar or equivalent .defects. 
This quality embraces everything below A quality not stony or full of blisters or other 
large defects objectionable for any common purpose, such as heavy scratches, heavy 
blbtecs, cords, and sulphur stains. 

The following paragraphs are quoted from the same pubhcation : 

In examining samples of smaU sizes for inspection of quality, it should be remem- 
bered that the large light of c^ass will show the natural waves and defects, while the 
small piece may appear nearly perfect. It is not altogether a matter of expert judg- 
ment to determine the various grades, and certain rules may be accepted governing 
window-glass specifications. 

Sizes. — ^Window glass in double strength, or heavier, is made as large as 30 by 
90 inches, 38 by 86 inches, and 48 by 80 inches, such extreme sizes containing & 
square feet^ but it is inadvisable to use such glass in these measurements on account 
ot the liability of breakage and the distorted vision due to waves, etc. The same 
may be said of the extreme sizes of single strength, which can be made up to 24 by 
60 inches, 30 by 54 inches, and 36 by 50 inches, sizes containing 10 to 12} square feei. 

Thickness and weight. — Stimi^e-strength glass measures approximately 12 lights to 
the inch, but a small variation either way is permissible. Single-strength weighs 
approximately 16 ounces to the square foot. Double strength measures approxi- 
matdy nine lights to the inch. Tne thickness should be fairly uniform and the 
weight approximately 24 ounces to the square foot. 

Factory packages. — ^Window glass in regular sizes is packed approximately 50 
square feet to the box up to the 100 united inch bracket (adding width and length), 
and 100 square feet to tne box in sizes over 100 united inches. 

The thickness of glass heavier than double strength is as follows: 
26-oiince, one-eighth of an inch ;^ 29-ounce, 136 thousandths of an 
inch; 34-ounce, 159 thousandths of an inch; 39-ounce, thre^-six- 
teenths of an inch. 



198 



THB GLASS INDUSTRY. 



The net weight of a box containing approximately 50 square feet 
of glass is about 55 poimds in single thickness- and 80 pounds in 
doiiole thicbness. 



HAND PRODUCTION OLASSIFIED BY GRADES^ SIZE, AND STRENGTH. 

The proportion of A glass on the basis of total production is 
usually larger in the hand factories than in the machine factories. 
The National for August, 1916, published for the National Window 
Glass Workers of America, shows that in all of the hand window- 
glass factories in the United States, during the blasts of 1914-15 
and 1915-16, the percentage cut into different brackets, A and B 

trades, single and double strength, on the basis of the total pro- 
uction of A and B grades, was as follows: 

Tabls 78. — Percent AOB of Window Glass Produced btHand, Blasts op 1914-15 
AND 1915-16, Cut niTO Different Brackets, A and B Grades. 

(Data from The National, published, by the United Window Glass Workers, Augnst, 1915 and 1916.] 



Bracket. 


1914-15 




1915-16 




A. 


B. 


Total. 


A. 


B. 


Total 


SINOLX STBSNOTH. 

8 by 10 to 10 by 15 inches 


Per a. 
3.15 
5.16 
4.66 
7.34 
3.04 
2.68 
1.31 
.10 


Peret. 

9.&t 

10.86 

11.05 

18.72 

7.93 

7.61 

5.70 

.85 


Perd, 
12.99 
16.02 
15.71 
25.96 
ia97 
10.29 
7.01 
1.05 


Perct. 
2.55 
4.82 
4.67 
6.35 
2.89 
2.74 
1.18 
.11 


Per el. 

&73 

11.13 

10.09 

19.55 

9.02 

9.13 

6.39 

.75 


Perd. 
11. 2t 


11 by 13 to 14 by 20 inches 


1&95 


14 by 21 to 16 by 24 Inches 


14.66 


16 by 25 to 20 by 30 inches 


25.90 


21 by 30 to 24 by 30 inches 


a 91 


24 by 31 to 24 by 36 inshes 


1L87 


25 by 36 td 30 by 41 Inches 


7.57 


All above 30 by 41 inches 


.86 






Total 


27.34 


72.66 


100.00 


25.21 


74.79 

_ » 


100.00 






DOUBLE 8TBRNOTH. 

6 by 8 to 16 by 24 inches 


5.69 

17.37 

10.52 

7.63 

2.11 

1.27 

.21 


8.84 

19.85 

13.04 

9.57 

2.44 

L20 

.26 


14.53 

37.22 

23.56 

17.20 

4.55 

2.47 

.47 


6.47 

17.62 

ia43 

7.77 

2.26 

1.19 

.17 


7.80 

2(Il 50 

13.40 

8.96 

2.29 

.98 

.16 


14.27 


16 by 25 to 24 by36in3hes 


38.U 


24 bv 37 to 30 bv 40 inches 


23. S3 


80 by 41 to 36 by 51 inches 


16.73 


36 bv62 to 39 by 60 inches 


4.&S 


40 by 60 to 40 by 78 inches ; 


2.17 


Ail above 40 by 78 inches 


.33 






Total 


44.80 


55.20 


loaoo 


45.91 


54.09 


100.00 







The proportion of the different grades and^ the proportion of 
double ana single strength glass varies greatly in the dinerent fac- 
tories, as shown by the reports of 19 hand factories for the blast of 
1914-15, summarized in the following table: 



INDUSTBIAL OOZmiTIONS. 



199 



rABLE 79. — Proportion of A QuaiiItt of the Three Smaller Brackets, Single 
AND Double Strength, Produced b7 19 Factories, 1914-15. 

[Data (rom The Glassworker, Aug. 5, 1016.] 



Factory. 


A grade. 


Cut In first throe 
brackets. 


Single 
strength. 


Double 
strength. 


Single, 
strength. 


Double 
strength. 


1 


Percent. 
47.0 

lao 

14.0 
18.0 
17.0 
20.0 
22.0 
80.0 
11.0 
23.5 
43.0 
24.0 
26.0 
10.0 
14.0 
24.0 
4.0 
8.0 
0.5 


Per cent. 
51.0 
4a 
20.0 

4a 

42.0 
47.0 
45.0 
60.0 
12.0 
40.0 
62.5 
5a5 
45.0 

4a 

42.0 
30.0 
5.0 
26.0 
15.0 


Per cent. 
55.3 
40.6 
48.0 
32.9 
45^3 
35.5 
85.0 
47.8 
50.5 
47.3 
53.1 
61.7 
46.0 
4a 1 
47.4 
48.6 
63.0 
27.8 
57.3 


Per cent. 
61.8 


2.::.::::::::::::.;:;::::::::;::::;:::::;:;;:::;;;:;::;:;:;:;:: 


37.0 


3 


37.6 


i 


55.8 


6 


51.1 


6 


42.8 


7 


40.0 


8 


88.7 


9 


44.7 





42.6 


I 


6a5 


2 


47.0 


3 


47.8 


4 


61.0 


5 


51.0 


6 


40.9 


7 


61.8 


i8 


61.7 


19 


64.6 






Averaso 


2L0 


80.0 


47.0 


6ao 









Mr. Neenan's statement, previously quoted, indicates that the 
)roduction of window glass by hand nas decreased, as the number 
)f union blowers was 1,610 during the blast of 1915-16, while for- 
nerly it was probably from 1,800 to 1,900. 

FBOFOBTION OF FBODUCTION BT ECAKP AND MAOHINE. 

The statistics of the Census of Manufactures do not show the 
)roportion of window glass made by hand and by machine, and the 
statistics of the union do not show the proportion previous to the 
)last of 1915-16, when, as stated by Mr. Neenan, the production 
)f 50-foot boxes by hand was 3,708,000 and by machine 5,575,000, 
ie hand production being about 40 per cent. The largest producer 
s the American Window Glass Co., which in 1916 operated 116 of 
the 296 machines in the United States. The machines of this com- 
pany have been installed much longer than the machines of any 
)ther company and have long since passed the experimental sta^e. 

Mr. W. JL. Monro, general manager of this company, in declining 
to furnish data regaraing its business for this report, stated that it 
pould produce window ^ass cheaper than any other establishment 
in the United States ana would continue to do so until window glass 
uiould be made by machines in sheets (instead of cylindrical as at 
present), the patents for which are controlled by the Owens Bottle 
Machine Co. The American Window Glass Co., in October, 1916, 
declared a dividend of 12} per cent on its preferred stock, making a 
total of 54} per cent paid on the stock within a year, or $3,815,000 
on the issue of $7,000,000. 



200 TECE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

COOPERATION AMONG MANUFACTURERS. 

The announcement of discounts from the fixed price list is made 
almost invariably by the American Window Glass Co., and is imme- 
diately followed by the Johnston Brokerage Co., which sells the 
product of about half the hand glass factories and of some other 
machine manufacturers. 

A West Virania manufacturer, in an interview with a special 
agent of the Sureau, answered as follows the inquiry as to what 
cooperation there was among manufacturers of window glass: 

About the only step taken in this direction is that of selling through one man 
(Johnston). This tenos to make stable prices. Curtailment of production is forced 
on manufacturers bv an agreement with tne union which fixes the time limits between 
which dates the ptants mav operate. Manufacturers have now agreed that this is 
beneficial to business, for if they were to operate thfe whole year there would be an 
overproduction, which would send prices so low that many establishments would be 
ruined. 

Considering the hazard to all concerned, the present lack of intercourse and friendly 
consideration of the problems involved is worse than a menace to this business. If 
there was ever a business which demanded the closest cooperation In all matters con- 
nected with it, it is this one. There never has been such cooperation. The problem 
of overproduction is constantljr growing worse. It is further complicated by having 
new factories spring up every time a short period of pro6perit>[ comes to the industry. 
In this immediate locality seven new factories have been built and several old (hibb 
enlarged in the past four years. The number already operating is more than sufficient 
to supply the demand for glass; and they can do this by operating from 26 to 40 
weeks — ^usually about 30 weeks. These new factories are usually the nrst to go under, 
but they do damage to the whole industry and make liie business still more unstable. 

INCREASED DEMAND FOB FIBST GRADE AND FOB SMALL SIZES. 

In the window-glass industry two trade tendencies have been very 
noticeable during the last few years. One is the demand for A glass. 
Most of the glass that is sold is of B grade, but there has been a growing 
demand for A quality. Buyers are now much more strict as to 
grading than they were formerly, and A glass is at a premium, that 
IS, it has advanced in price more proportionately than have other 
grades. So strict is the grading now that some factories no longer 
sell A glass as of that grade. Though some of their product is of 
A grade, they prefer to sell it all as B grade, to aroid complaints 
and claims from their customers for allowances. It is generally, 
conceded that more A glass is made by the hand factories than by 
the machine factories, but hand maniifacturers usually admit that 
the quality of machine-made glass is constantly being maproved. 

The other very noticeable tendency in the window-glass industry 
is that for several vears, especially since 1914, there has been an 
increased demand for the tnree smaller brackets. Glass of these 
smaller sizes constitute half or more of the output in ordinary fac- 
tories, or from 50 to 65 per cent. Most manufacturers claim that 
they lose money on the first* three bracket sizes, because of both 
domestic and forei^ competition. They have not, therefore, wit- 
nessed with equanimity the growing popularity of small siaes. 
The building of so many bimgalow houses is given as the principal 
reason for the increasing demand for small glass. 

The fixed price list of window glass, subiect to very large discounts, 
shows marked diflferenoes in prices. The list prices for smgle B glass 
of the three smallest brackets is $19, $20, and $21, respectively; 
for the next three brackets, $22, $22.50, and $23.25; for the next 



INDUSTKIAI, CONDITIONS. 201 

three, $25.25, $28.75, and $31.25. This price list was last revised 
on October 15, 1912. It is the belief of many manufacturers that 
there is a much greater difference between the net selling prices of 
the larger and smaller brackets than the costs warrant and that the 
list price of the three smaller brackets should be advanced. About 
three-fourths of the imports of window glass before the war in Europe 
began were of the three smaller sizes, and many manufacturers give 
this as a reason why such brackets were sold at a loss. 

It is remarkable, however, that manufacturers have not increased 
the prices of the smaller sizes in proportion to the advance in the 
prices of the larger sizes from 1914 to 1916, especially as during that 
period there has been practically no foreign competition. 

MANUFACTURING TO PILL ORDERS AND FOR STOCK. 

In normal years, window-glass manufacturers make glass both to 
fill orders and for stock, usually about two-thirds for orders and 
one-third for stock. The goods made for stock are to fill immediate 
orders and to take care of the trade between fires. With hand 
factories the ''fire" or manufacturing season extends for seven 
months, from the first of November to the last of May, and during 
these months they must make enough for stock to supply customers 
during the five idle months. Some machine window-glass plants are 
shut down only three or four weeks, but do not operate with the full 
force during several months of the year. Some orders for window 
glass are for immediate delivery, but most of them are for delivery 
m from one to three months. During the latter part of 1916 and in 
1916, when the demand was extraordinarily active, stocks did not 
accumulate, and the factories were run at capacity to fill orders. 

CONDITIONS OUTLINED BY MANUFACTURERS. 

Following are excerpts from speeches made at the annual meeting 
of the National Association of Window Glass Manufacturers held 
in 1915. 

Mr. H. R. Hilton, president of the Allegheny Window Glass Co., 
Port Allegheny, Pa., said: 

Increased capacity of hand and machine factories has reduced the operating period 
to seven and possibly six months each year. The jobber now being able to buy glass 
at any time to meet all his requirements the year round, no longer finds it necessary 
to carry more than a small assortment of sizes to meet his current needs. This forces 
the manufeicturer to carry large stocks during the shut-down period, to meet the 
reguirementa of the market when glass is called for. 

Under present conditions in the hand process window-glass industry, the demand 
for glass is greater during the shut-down period, June to November, than during the 
customary operating period, November to June. No manufacturer is so wise that 
he can foresee what sizes will be in demand the following summer, hence he rarely 
accumulates a stock that meets the market requirements. 

This imposes large financisd burdens on the manufacturer in carrying over another 
year that part of his stock not in demand in addition to losing summer trade by not 
having the sizes called for. 

The wage scales of the past have permitted the setting out of a certain percentage 
of sheets to enable the manufacturer to fill out short sizes on summer orders, but this 
percentage is entirely too small for present-da^ conditions, and besides carries with 
it a tax of 15 cents per 60-foot box by comnelhng the manufacturer to pay full price 
for cutting when the sheets are set out ana full price again when the sheets are cut 
into marketable sizes. This double price for cutting sheets and the restrictions 
as to setting them out impose a hardship and expense on the manufacturer that is 
both, imjust and unfair. 



202 THE GLASS IKDUSTBY. 

As a partial solution of this problem, I would suggest that each cutter be given 
the proauction of four pots or places to cut; that he cut weekly the production of two 
and a half potsorless according to demand; that the balance be carried directly from 
the lehr to the sheet storage room to be held for summer cutting without payment 
for the sheets set out from any of his places, he to have the pri\dlege of cutting this 
sheet glass during the summer months, as called for, at the scale price. 

This would give each cutter from seven and one-half to nine months' work, would 
give each factory the labor required for this work, and would enable the manu- 
facturer to dispose of his production to the veij best advantage by placing him in a 
position to compete with his machine competitor. 

Sheets can be set out to occupy less floor space than the same glass would require 
packed in 50-foot boxes and piled 25 boxes nigh. 

Mr. O. C. Teague, secretary of the Utica Glass Co., Utica, Ohio 
(also president of the National Window Glass Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation) : 

The window-glass industry during the past year has operated 50 per cent capacity- 
meaning that if all available furnaces nad operated at maximum capacity for six 
months, all demands, both domestic and foreign, would have been fully supplied 
and some stock to spare. 

Most producers have recognized the fundamental law of supply and demand and 
demonstrated a willingness to exact his share and be satisned. Unfortunately, 
however, there are still a few manufacturers who propose to operate full capacity 
for a full year, furnace conditions permitting. This last-named factor is the dan- 
gerous element in our largely overbuilt industry. Unless we can convince these free 
lances of their mistaken policy our future business life is indeed short. ^ » « » 

Evidently the day has passed when the jobber engages in speculative buying of 
window glass and the result is that manufacturers must carry the bulk of the stock. 
This necessitates increased resources and good banking connections, or both. 

Mr. G. A. Schlosstein, president of the Dunkirk Window Glass Co., 
South Charleston, W. Va. : 

Some industries have overproduction in their individual lines of 10 per cent, others 
as high as 25 per cent, but tne sheet-glass business of this country has now reached 
the alarming figure of 50 per cent overproduction, or, in other words, there are exactly 
two boxes of glass made where only one is wanted. 

^ While the hand manufacturer during the blast of 1914 and 1915 has operated only 
six months, many machine-equipped factories have operated from 6 to 11 months, 
and are still in operation to-day or have just suspended operations. * * * 

Since we can no longer form holding companies, or distributing companies, that 
will absolutely maintain and establish prices, the time is here when everyone, 
with favoritism to none, should see the importance of intelligently contributing his 
influence to the maintenance of a profitable market. * * * 

During the years 1913 and 1914 tnere were manufactured by the combined machine 
plantsof the United States 3,969,519 fifty-foot boxesof window glass, and 3.064,304 were 
manufactured by the hand method. The production by machines during the year 
ending July, 1915, was largely increased, and it begins to look as though tlie machine 
interest will in the future aictate the policies, whether we will overproduce, or 
whether we shall intelligently make as much glass as the country req[uires and then 
close the plants. ' Strange as it may seem to one unfamiliar with the industry, there 
has been an uncontrollable desire on the part of many manufacturers to keep their 
plants in operation, thinking that it was more important to operate than to sell their 
goods at a profit and to pay dividends to their stockholders. * * * 

I can remember as far back as 1887 when the Chambers & McKee Co. built their 
first large tank at Jeannette. In a few years others followed, but for a long period of 
years the pot factories, meaning those who melted their glass in clay pots instead of 
clay tanks, occupied the same identical position that the hand operators have done 
in the past few years. Gradually the scene changed as it is changing to-day, and when 
the diwn of 1906 came, with its Dusiness depression, the pot furnace had been driven 
out, just as the hand operator is being driven out. Those days it was stated that the . 
antiquated pot-furnace factory had to go, that it had no right to exist any longer. 
When it disappeared, modem tanks took its place, with doubled and tripled capacity. 

What made it worse, that mudi new capital was decoyed into the business and 
it was more difficult to get along with the new competitors, who knew absolutely 
nothing about the business. The evolution of cleaning up the pot furnaces and 



nn>xj8TBiAL ooiimiiioNS. 203 

bringing tank'^fumacea into general use caused most of the present overproduction 
of the industry. * * * 

But when we look forward to the next five years, what can be done to make the 
business profitable? Hardly has the cylinder drawine machine been made a com* 
mercial success, but that we are confronted with a sheet drawing machine which 
threatens the cylinder process of to-day. 

Even when the sheet drawing machine becomes a success, no more money will 
be made in the business unless the glass is intelligently distributed after it is man- 
ufactured. Some of the livest economists have stated that *' it was not a question 
of production in this country, but a question of distribution." Glass must be sold 
by an experienced salesman; it should be shipped from the factory most favorably 
located from the point of manufacture to the point of consumption: it should travd 
the shortest route so as to minimize the freight equalization to the manufacturer. 
Manufacturers should produce their proportion of the glass that the country demands 
and have the glass marketed at a profit which is fair and commensurate with the risk; 
that the business can not escape. While we bad lean years, and while we have had 
profitable years, have we ever made as much money out of the business as we should 
nave done? Think for a moment that in our great country we are blessed with 
natural gas for fuel. Think of the foreign manufacturers, who even during; the times 
of peace were waging a constant battle to produce a superior Quality of window glass 
with the use of manufactured gas, and in addition some wood. The day may come 
when our gas is gone; then we shall think back to the good old days when it was 
in abundance, it has given out in Indiana, it has eiven out in Kansas, and it is 
rapidly diminishing in Ohio and Pennsylvania. The few years that are left for 
us to use the precious fuel should be counted and the supply carefully guarded and 
treasured. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Mr. J. W. Allison, president of the Alliance Window Glass C!o, 
Dubois, Pa.: 

Mr. Johnston has a right to sell our glass, and there is no law to interfere with him 
or with me as salesman, and Mr. Johnston has a right to say at what price he will 
Bell that product — he can do that without conflicting with the law, but we manu- 
facturers can not come here and agree on production or prices, but can only have it 
understood that each fellow is going to make his proportion and no more. Then, of 
course, it is up to, each man inaivioiially and, as one of the gentlemen here has said, 
the law of supply and demand will take care of the business. 

Mr. Frank Bastin, secretary of the Blackford Window Glass Co., 
Vinconnes, Ind.: 

If we persist in making more glass than the country can absorb it will be a drug 
on the market, and it means low prices and impossible conditions for everyone. I 
think common sense, which is the basis of all laws, should teach us that this should 
be remedied in some legitimate and legal way. It should not be contrary for us, 
acting as individuals, to say there is enough glass, when we have statistics before us 
showing that we have made as much glass as the country required. 

Mr. C. E. Hazelton, general manager of the Consolidated Window 
Glass Co., Bradford, Pa.: 

There is no doubt but what the condition of our trade is overbuilt, which makes 
it a hard proposition to maintain a strictlv standard market where we can all make 
a living, but by cooperation and sauare dealing 1 hope we can all continue to live 
And prosper for years to come. There is one thing that comes to my mind that 
Appeals to me as being worth while, and that is the question of changing our packages 
to universal 100-foot packages, such as are used by foreign countries. Just at the 
present time it is confusing when we manufacturers receive orders for 50 and 100 
toot packages, but that can be remedied by establishing the same package that Is 
used in France and Belgium, and I think it would be a good thing for this ousiness. 

Mr. C. W. Brown, first vice president of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.: 

We all know that the American Window Glass Co. for 10 or 11 years kept on investing 
niore and more money and ran more and more into debt, without making returns to 
its stockholders. This is a matter of common record. And now in the past two or 
three years the American Window Glass Co. has perfected its machines and is now 
J^ble to make the best machine glass in the world. * * * 



204 THE GLASS IKDXJSTEY. 

During the past year building permits were materially curtailed and the consump- 
tion of window glass was greatly limited. There has been a largely excessive pro- 
duction of certain sizes and certain qualities, which have been sold at various prices, 
unto it is impossible to know what the market price really is. I hope to live to see 
the day when all sales of window glass are reported the same as sales of coffee, sugar, 
and grain, which will give those in the window-glass business an opportunity to know 
what the market price really is. * * * 

The hand manufacturers have met this condition in a way that I think is very 
creditable ; they have provided for six or seven months' blast. The American Window 
Glass Co., as you all know, have also recognized the situation, and instead of indulging 
in a ruinous competition they have been broad enough and sensible enough to mate- 
rially curtail their production. 

Mr. Joseph Neenan, president of the National Association of Win- 
dow Glass Workers: 

Our wages have increased more than 100 per cent from the lowest point to the point 
where, during the last six weeks of the blast endino; May 29, single-strength blowers 
were averaging 66 cents per box. Contrast this condition wittx the one that prevailed 
three years ago last November, and we are forced to the conclusion that both manu- 
facturers and w(»rkers have profited through the efforts that have been made to obtaia 
a living wage rate and bring about a stable condition in the markets. At the time to 
which I am referring, single-strength blowers were averaging about 30 cents per box; 
tile average selling price of single-strength glass was about $1.27 per box; a condition 
which meant that both workers and manufacturers were devoting their interests and 
giving their time and energy to a business which gave them no returns. 

In an address deUvered before the convention of the National 
Association of Window Glass Manufacturers held in 1916, Mr. W. L 
Monro, general manager of the American Window Glass Co., the larg- 
est producer of window glass in the world, estimated the production 
in American vdndow-glass factories from September 1, 1915, to Sep- 
tember 1, 1916, as 10,600,000 boxes, and said: ^'Had the manufac- 
turers ever realized the enormous demand for glass, there is no ques- 
tion that they would have demanded more money for their goods 
and secured it with the greatest ease." He further said: 

The past year has been the most notable one in the history of the window-glass 
business in me United States, not only from a manufacturing but also from a jobbing 
standpoint. Its claim to note rests on many facts: (1) More glass was manufactured 
in this country during the past year since September 1, 1915, than in any previous 
year in &e historjr of the business; (2) more ^lass has been sold during the same period 
than ever before in a similar period; (3) window-glass prices steadily increased; (4) 
the demand absorbed not only all the glass produced during the past year, but also 
the greater part of the large accumulations on hand on September 1, 1915; (5) the 
export business was the largest we have ever done. 

If the year has not also been the most profitable year the manufacturers and jobbers 
have ever known, the fault must not be laid to the business, but to the manner in which 
those who did not realize their greatest profit have conducted their business. The 
money was there to be made. 

The following, also quoted from Mr. Monro's address, shows that 
there was comparatively httle advance in the price for the first three 
brackets of B glass, the grade commonly used for window glass as 
compared with A grade and with larger sizes, during the period from 
1914 to 1916, though there were scarcely any imports of wmdow glass 
during the latter part of this period, and exports were larger than ever: 

We hear a great deal of talk about the present prices of window glass being high. 
I know of but few things that we buy, whether it is what we use or what we eat or 
what we wear, that have not advanced in price since the beginning of the war far 
more than window glass. I will only cite two of them — steel from 100 to 130 per cent; 
soda ash, 100 per cent. The wages for common labor have increased from 16J cents 
per hour to 24 and 25 cents an hour; natural gas from 14 cents to 16 cents in tiie Pitts- 
Durgh district. Building costs have increased 40 per cent. 



INDUSTBIAL CONDITIONS. 205 

The following represents the increase in prices of window glass from May, 1914, to 
March 10, 1916. Schedule of prices: S. S. first three brackets, A q^uality, 32.5 per cent; 
S. S. first three brackets, B qujJity, 8.4 per cent; S. S. above sizes, 40 per cent; an 
average increase of about 27 per cent. A quality, double strength, has increased 36 
per cent, and B quality, double strength, 24 per cent, or an average increase of 30 per 
cent. If you will compare the percentages of these increases with the percentages 
of increase in other lines, you will see that window-glass manufacturers nave failed 
to secure their proportionate share of the prosperity that has prevailed, and have 
also failed to secure an increase in the pnce of window glass proportionate to the 
increase in the cost of producing it. ^t is a sad comn^entary when we realize that B 
quality glass in the first three brackets is only selling at 8.4 per cent more than in 
May, 1914, and it is our understanding that some manufacturers are even shading 
current discounts on that. 

THE SHEET-GLASS MACHINE. 

All window-glass manufacturers are dreading the time when glass 
shall be made in flat sheets by the Owens Bottle Machine Co. imder 
the Colbum patents, which it controls. They fear that by the new 
process window glass can be made much cheaper than by any other 
process that has been used in the United States ; that with the cheaper 
production there will be an intense competition in the window-glass 
market, and that the weaker estabUshments will be forced out of 
business. The Owens Bottle Machine Co. began in 1916 the erection 
of an extensive plant at Charleston, W. Va., for the manufacture of 
window glass in flat sheets instead of cylinders, American manu- 
facturers are apprehensive also about a machine for maldjig flat 
window glass wnich was patented in Belgium before the war began. 
Another machine was made in Saxony before the war began by 
which window glass is blown and not, as in the case of American 
machines, drawn from the pot or furnace. In the United States, 
however, very Uttle is known about these new European machines. 

PLATE GLASS. 
INCREASE IN PRODUCTION. 

Table 8, page 28, shows that the production of plate glass in the 
United States nas increased much more rapidly than the production 
of window glass. According to this table, based on data from the 
Census of Manufactures, 217,064,100 square feet of window glass 
was manufactured in the United States in 1899, and 400,998,893 
in 1914, an increase of 84.74 per cent; while 16,883,578 square feet 
of poUshed plate glass was manufactured in 1899, and 60,383,516 in 
1914, an increase of 357.65 per cent. According to the same data, 
the average value of polished plate glass decreased from $0,306 per 
square foot in 1899 to $0,245 in 1914. 

The number of square feet of plate glass, cast, polished, finished 
or unfinished, and unsilvered, imported for consumption during the 
fiscal year 1899 was 925,212 square feet, or 5.48 per cent of the do» 
mestic production in 1899, and the imports dunng the fiscal year 
1914 were 2,819,611 square feet, or 4.67 per cent of the domestic 
production in 1914. While the number of square feet manufactured 
in the United States increased 357.65 per cent during the 15 years, 
the number of square feet imported increased 204.75 per cent. 



206 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



A brief signed by 10 American manufacturers of plate glass, and 
submitted to the (Committee on Ways and Means in January, 1913, 
stated : ^ 

The production in the United States is about 60,000,000 square feet, about 47 per 
cent of which is produced by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., and the remainder by 11 
separate companies. None of the American product is exported, excepting a n^ll- 
gible quantity to contiguous territory to supply pressing requirements. 

The capital invested in the industry in this country is about $49,000,000, the smallest 
concern in the industry having^ capital investment of about $1,000,000. The average 
number of men directly employed in the industry in this country is about 11,000. 
Those indirectly employed will equal more than twice this number. 

NUMBER AND EQUIPMENT OP PLANTS. 

The number of plate-glass factories is small as compared with the 
number of window-glass factories. A plate-glass factory recjuires a 
very large investment for fmnaces, annealing ovens, grinding and 
pohshing machines, and other equipment. The number of factories 
m the United States manufacturing polished plate glass is 15, in- 
cluding 2 that were closed in 1916l)ut late in that year were pre- 
paring to reopen. Six of these plants, with 52 furnaces and 880 
pots, were operated hv the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. Of these six 
plants, four were in rennsylvania, one in Indiana, and one in Mis- 
souri. The number of furnaces and pots of the 15 plants is shown 
in the following table: 

Tablb 80. — Location and Number op Factories Making Polished Plate Glass 

AND THE Number of Their Furnaces and Pots. 





[Data furnished by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.] 






states. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Furnaces. 


Pots. 


Tllfnfth,. , 




X 

68 


4 
10 

4 
14 
17 
53 


80 


iBdiana 


lao 


M^nhign-n -..-.-. , , . . - . - r . . . . 


80 


Mf !^<?ni11*i -r T r T 


208 


Ohio 


304 


PAnnwlyftniR 


1,080 








Total 


cl3 


102 


1,872 







a In addition, 1 plant with 5 furnaces and 100 pots not operated in 1916 was preparing to reopen, 
fr In addition, 1 plant with 6 furnaces and 144 pots not operated in 1916 was preparing to reopen, 
e In addition, 2 plants with 11 furnaces and 244 pots not operated in 1916 were preparing to reopen. 

TREND OF PRICES AND SIZES. 



The statement of the manufacturers to the Committee on Ways 
and Means in 1913 says: 

The prices to consumers of plate glass in the United States have on the whole heen 
in distinct contrast to the upward tendency in the price of most commodities during 
the last 10 years, while tiie manufacturers have been compelled to pay more for the 
materials entering into its production and have been compelled to increase wages 
in keeping with the general upward tendency of wages, all of which for a time increased 
the cost of production. Nevertheless, by the introduction of labor-saving devices 
and new inventions, the tendency in the cost of production for the last four years 
has been downward, and the cost to the consmner has also had a downward tendency. 

1 Tariff Schedules: Hearings before the Ck>nunittee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, 10l3f 
schedule B, p. 838. 



Iin>I76XBIAL CONDITIONS. 



207 



The manufacturers assert that the cost of manufactiiring plate 
glass is the same per square foot, whether the glass is of a large or 
small size. Nevertheless, the selling prices are graded according to 
sizes, being lowest on the smallest size and highest on the largest 
size, as shown by the following table embodied in the manufacturers' 
statement: 



Tablb 81. — Retail Prices op Plate Glass per Square Foot, 1875 to 1912. 

[From statement of mannfactarers in Tariff Hearings, 1013.] 



Range. 



1 to 3 square feet.... 
8 to 5 square feet.... 
5 to 10 square feet... 
10 to 25 square feet.. 
25 to 50 square feet.. 
50 to 100 square feet 



1875 
10.71 


1880 
10.51 


1885 


1890 
$0.40 


1895 


1900 


1905 


1908 


10.46 


SO. 30 


10.31 


10.1875 


10.1875 


.84 


.61 


.55 


.48 


.36 


.38 


.225 


.225 


1.12 


.80 


.72 


.64 


.48 


.60 


.36 


.36 


1.49 


1.06 


.96 


.85 


.63 


.81 


.416 


.39 


, 1.66 


1.11 


1.01 


.89 


.66 


.85 


.436 


.408 


1.69 


1.21 


1.09 


.97 


.72 


.90 


.462 


.432 



1912 



SO. 22 
.241 
.342 
.365 
.38 
.392 



The following paragraphs are quoted from the manufacturers' 
statement: 

It should be borne in mind that a square foot of plate glass costs the same amount 
whether manufactured in large or small plates, because it must of necessity be cast 
first in large plates exclusively. Glass can not economically be melted in small 
quantities. It is necessary tx) manufacture in large sizes, in the course of which 
manufacturing process the unavoidable breaking and cutting down for imperfections 
produces some smaller sizes under 5 square feet. Normally this production of small 
sizes, to wit, under 5 square feet, is about 10 per cent. 

In answer to the statement made by the representative of the importers four years 
ago, that the cost of small glass was not the same as the cost of large glass, and to the 
effect that the small glass was a by-product, we wish to distinctly say that neither 
one of these statements is in accordance with the facts. Assuming now for the sake 
of argument that the 10 per cent of glass under 5 square feet above referred to is a 
by-product, it must be borne in mina that the consumption of the country for g;la88 
of tnis character has now grown to be nearly 50 per cent of the entire production, 
which compels the manufacturer to cut 35 to 40 per cent of additional glass which 
would normally be large sizes down to the market requirements under 5 sq^uare feet, 
and which can certainly not be considered a by-product from any standpoint. 

The query may naturally arise as to why the manufacturer should supply this 
additional glass if he does it at a loss. The answer is that by increasing his output 
by this large additional amount of business he is enabled to operate his plants nearly 
to their capacity, and thus reduce his general production cost. If the American 
manufacturer were to cease to supply this business, the cost of production would be 
advanced at least 3 cents per foot. 

We do not claim that all glass under 5 square feet is sold at a loss, because for the 
finer qualities we ^et what appears to be a fair price; but in order to secure the small 
pieces of fine quality, it is necessary to cut out of the large plates the ]>atche8 of fine 
quality, with the result that this cutting reduces the balance of the plate to odds and ends 
and strips. The average price secured for all the glass sold under 5 square feet has 
always netted a loss to the manufacturer. 

The increased demand for plate glass of the smaller sizes during 
recent years is due to the increased use of plate glass in place of 
window glass, and to the very much more extensive use of plate 
glass for shelving, showcases, furniture tops, automobile wind shields, 
etc. The following is quoted from Glass and Glassware, issued in 
1916 by the National Distributors' Association: 

Notwithstanding the tremendous investment required, the comprehensive machinery 
and materials used in manufacturing, the cost has been scientifically reduced so that 
plate glass is no longer considered a luxury and is every day increasing in popularity 
for general glazing of high-cla^s buildings, store fronts, show cases, for table and desk 



208 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



covering, dresser tops, chiffoniers, buffets, taborets, shelves, etc. The use of plate 
glass adds an elegance and finish whenever it is seen. 

The same publication states that poHshed plate glass is manu- 
factured in thickness ranging from one-eighth of an inch to 1^ inches 
and that the standard product runs from one-fourth to five-sixteenths 
inch thick. It further says : 

One-eighth inch to ^inch glass is used largely for residence windows and by car 
builders and for boat sash^ automobile wind shields, and for other special purposes 
where perfect surfaces, high polish, and absolutely clear vision is wanted, with 
minimum weight. 

Glass thicker than the standard product is used for counter tops, deal plates, port 
and deck lights on ships, aquariums, etc. 

The increase of the retail price in 1912 over the price in 1908 iQ 
the first two sizes shown in Table 81, that is, for sizes of 5 feet and 
under, reflected the increase in the rate of duty on the smaller 
brackets under the tariff act which went into eflfect on August 6, 1909. 
Under the tariflf acts of 1897 and 1909, the rates of duty per square 
foot on plate glass, cast, polished, finished or unfinished, and 
unsilvered, were as follows : 

Not exceeding 384 square inches (2.67 sc^uare feet): 1897, 8 cents; 1909, 10 cents. 

Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches (2.67 to 5 square feet) : 1897, 10 cents; 
1909, 12i cents. 

Above 720 and not exceeding 1,440 square inches (5 to 10 square feet): 1897, 22} 
cents; 1909, 22i cents. 

Above 1,440 square inches (10 square feet): 1897, 35 cents; 1909, 22J cents. 

The following table, showing the retail price of plate ^lass to con- 
sumers during each year 1906 to 1915, inclusive, was furnished by the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., which manufactures plate glass and sells 
it to consumers : 



Table 82. — ^Retail Prices op Plate Glass per Square Foot, 1906 to 1915. 

[Data from Pittsburgh Plate Qls^s Co., November, 1916.] 



Range. 



1 to 3 square feet.... 
3 to 5 square feet.... 
6 to 10 square feet . . . 
10 to 25 square feet . . 
25 to 50 square feet . . 
50 to 100 square feet . 



1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


$0. 1875 


$0. 1875 


$0. 1875 


$0. 1875 


$0.26 


10.22 


$0.22 


10.22 


SO. 19 


.225 


.225 


.225 


.225 


.29 


.26 


.247 


.26 


.23 


.36 


.36 


.36 


.36 


.43 


.39 


.342 


.36 


.31 


.41 


.40 


.39 


.39 


.46 


.42 


.365 


.38 


.34 


.42 


.41 


.408 


.40 


.47 


.43 


.38 


.40 


.35 


.45 


.44 


.432 


.43 


.50 


.46 


.392 


.41 


.36 



1915 



SO. 17 
.20 
.29 
.32 
.34 
.35 



As shown by this table, the retail prices in 1915 were between 4 
and 5 cents per square foot lower in each bracket than they were in 
1912. 

In furnishing the data for 1906 to 1915, inclusive, supplemental to 
the data shown in Table 81, Mr. W. L. Clause, chairman of the board 
of directors of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., wrote November 21, 
1916: 

The figures shown are intended to represent a fair average for the respective years. 
In some instances there was quite a wide range of prices .prevailing at dinerent portions 
of the year. In the years 1910 and 1911 the prices were somewhat higher th^ those 
prevailing in prior or subsequent years. These higher prices resulted from unusual 
conditions in the trade. For instance, in 1910 our own company lost by fire its laigest 
works, thus taking out of the market an appreciable percentage of domestic supply. 
This, together with a strong and firm market, brought about the advanced price con- 



INDUBTltlil. OOMDinOKB. 



209 



ditions as shown and which extended throu^^ a portion of 1911, thus affecting the 
retail jnices during that year. 

You will note, suso, that no fif^ures are shown for the year 1916, for the reason that 
we can not supply figures of this character before the end of the year. They will, 
however, be materially higher, due to the general and extraordinary business condi- 
tions prevailing. 

The percentage of the so-called smaU^bracket glass (that is, under 10 square feet) 
produced and sold has ranged during a period of many years from 20 to 25 per cent of 
the total production, varying from jrear to year on account of peculiar conditions 
experienced in the various factories in the United States. On tne other hand, the 
Bales of small-bracket glass range from 60 to 70 per cent of the total production. In 
the year 1915, which was a lair, average year, our company's sales of small fflasi 
amounted to 64.49 per cent imder 10 square feet; 1916 bids fair, from present indica- 
tions, to exceed the percentage shown in 1915. It is obvious from the foregoing figures 
that of the total production 40 to 45 per cent manufactured as large glass is, of necessity, 
cut down and sold In the small brackets. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, the value of the imports 
of plate glasS; cast, j>olished, finished, or unfinished, and unsilyered, 
or the same containing a wire netting within itself, was $266,909, 
and during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1915, tne amount was 
$38,757. 

In spite of the almost entire cessation of such imports on account 
of the war, the prices of plate glass were lower during the months 
from February to Jtdy,'191S, tina erer l^ore in the mstory of the 
trade. Af terwiurds prices increased, md tdier August 25, 1915, they 
increased greatly, as shown by the following table: 

Tabub 83.--Pncs8 m Sqoau Foot or Qlaomq Subss ov Ttuam QfLAm. 

(Anprieasare L o. b. iM!tac7,ftii||it sqaaiiMdfrQniinnrt iMtory topoliit 



Brackst. 


8t.Loaii 
PlatieOlMi 
C0.,yamj 


Bdwd 
FoidPtato 

OlMiCt., t 

RMfcnl, ' 


^ 


St.Lotiff 
PfaitcOlMi 
Co.,Vattor 
Pifk, Mo.' 


Edirsf4 
F«rdPI«C» 

OlMfCfl^, 


1 square foot...'. 


.14 
.IS 
.19 

.n 

.9 


toiaD ! 

.34 

.as . 


lOiqiiafiifwt. 


10. M , 9P.# 


Ssquarefoet 


12 niMfV fB0i,« .« ^ ........ . 


.9 1 «f0 


SsquarefBQt 




.9 1 #« 


4 square feet 


Uimnanfmi. 


.71 ' M 


Ssquarefeet. 


MSM1MI«fMi« 


.9 4K 


7 square feet 


13v VvmbW IB0v.#..« .#>«.#.>' 


.9 ^U 






J 



Plate glass and wire jdass are made both Uf fill ord«r» nnd tin 
stock. Orders are usudir placed three monthji in advance of da* 
livery. Opalescent g^ass'is made chiefly for strx^k heemuie ordMi 
usually call for immediate tihipment; formifriy iben^ were men 
advance orders. 



The production of bouk« an/l jar* b n/H only larsr^r hut ia taonp 
widely distriboted than Umi^ prtftUki^unt of ifi\mr varWtv^ *it y^^nm iff 

glassware. TaUe 8, pae*? 2*- ^rKf/w* thai, tu*/*/fY*\\h^ Up t)*^^ i^^mnn 
of Manufactures, the ral">^ <yf urn Wf^i^j^^Kum of l/'/iiJi^ ai*/J j*r^ wmm 
121,676,791 in Ih'.f^, t:;:^.^/;l //;;'> iw )y>i, iyA'^/nh/ZM m 1'^^/^, *^^/^i 
151,958,728 in 1914, |jH.n;j^ u^ )r, y^,ixr^ iuf^, ut'fi^hf^. yfnn^ t^/'fJ 
per cent. In ejuanb.'vj'^ *.;>rs^ i/v?*-^ k ^^'/'^^i t^, f*^fi^:ifAf^rP^A iUnX 
automatic nuuiiineK i^ir s:.^k;:// v/i^i^?* »t.4 ^nt^ »'<-/#? mU'^'Sn^^A w 

1025U*— 1 



210 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

1903. The nmnber of such machines used in 1904 was inconsider- 
able, and although quite a number of machines were installed during 
the next five years, the increase of production from 1904 to 1909 was 
much smaller than from 1899 to 1904. 

The imports of bottles have had but little effect on domestic 
production. The value of the imports of empty bottles and vials 
and demijohns and carboys entered for consumption was $211,729 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, and $217,995 during the 
following fiscal year, the new tariff having gone into effect on October 
4, 1913. The value of filled bottles, vials, jars, demijohns, and car- 
boys imported for consumption during the fiscal year 1914 amounted 
to $966,610. 

PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY MACHINERT. 

The disturbing factor in the manufacture of bottles during the 
years since 1903 has been the automatic bottle-blowing machine. 
The Owens machine is called automatic, because it requires no skilled 
labor to operate it. The only attendant is a mechanic, who oils the 
machine and sees that it runs properly^, and whose wages are not 
equal to those of blowers or hand machine operators. '. A boy takes 
off the ware when no automatic conveyor is used. The first auto- 
matic had six arms, each arm having a pair of molds, and six bottles 
were made with one complete revolution of the arms, at the rate of 
12 or 14 bottles a minute. Later, machines were equipped with 
10 arms, and more recently with 15 arms. The 15-ann machines 
can turn out 60 bottles a minute. In making the smaller sizes of 
bottles, the mold on each arm is cut for three small molds, so that 
180 small vials are produced a minute by a 15-arm machine. 

Shortly after the introduction of the Owens automatic machine 
other bottle machines were introduced, the first one being an English 
machine. These machines were small and cost considerably less 
than the Owens machines, but their output was much less, and 
manufacturers that used them could not compete with manufac- 
turers using automatic machines in filling large orders. The ma- 
chines other than the Owens are called hand machines; they are called, 
also, three-man machines, because three skilled men aye required to 
operate each. They have been largely superseded by two-man 
machines, and more recently one-man machines requiring only one 
skilled operator for each have been introduced. The one-man 
machines ace called semiautomatic. In some plants three skilled 
men are employed on two machines. Notwithstanding the improve- 
ments in the hand machines so that they can be operated by only 
one man, the manufacturers using them still find great difficulty in 
competing with manufacturers that use Owens machines, except 
on comparatively small orders. The keenness of this competition was 
assignea as a reason why a large number of establishments have 
quit busiQess. 

The Glass Bottle Blowers' Association is composed of the skilled 
workers that blow bottles in hand molds, or who operate hand ma- 
chines, including the semiautomatic. It is organized in only a few 
of the plants using Owens machines, in which no skilled labor is re- 
quired, or in plants using the flowing process, in which less skilled 
labor is required than in plants using the hand machines. 



INDUSTBIAL CONDITIONS. 211 

Dennis A. Hayes, national president, in his report to the annual 
convention of the association, held in 1915, said: 

Shortly after the introduction and installation of the automatic machine, there 
appeared on the market what is known as the United or English machine for making 
narrow-mouth ware. A list was adopted by our executive board during the season 
of 1908 and 1909 covering rounds and ovals, there being no other kinds ot ware made 
on it up to that time. 

In many establishments that use the hand machines bottles are 
also still blown entirely by hand to. fill small orders. President 
Hayes's report to the convention is 1915 said: 

In nearly every bottle factory on the American continent the^e are one or more 
machines, and those factories not having them will either have to install tiiem or be 
forced out of business. So it is but natural to assume that manufacturers in order to 
protect their investment will endeavor to equip their factories with bottle machines. 
Machines to make narrow-mouth ware are being perfected and simplified to such an 
extent that it is possible for the man operating tnem to make first-class wages. To 
date, however, I know of no machine except the automatic that is capable of produce 
me small ware successfully^ especially that of the prescription variety. By "success- 
fully" I mean in commercial quantities. * ♦ * 

The number of machines making wide-mouth bottles and jars is given as 193, 
employing approximately 700 men; 98 of these machines are operating semi- 
automatically^ employing three men to two machines, at an average wage of 15.65 
per day. This is an increase of 446 machines over the previous season. There are 
reported 116 of the United aild* O'Neill machines op^uting on beer, soda, grape 
jiuce, catsup, and ammonia bottles, employing 669 operated at an average daily 
wage of $4.75. There are 86 machines reported employing two men and 63 employing 
one man, making miscellaneous narrow-mouth ware at an a{>proximate wage of |6 
per day. 

Another invention, in addition to the Owens automatic machine, 
which had a great effect on the bottle industry was the flowing 
process. It dispenses with the skilled man that gathers the glass, 
and is operated with less labor cost than are the machines which 
require a hand gatherer. The flowing device was patented by Homer 
Brooke in 1903, and by 1910 it was used in several large establish- 
ments. The principal patents on the Owens machine and on the 
flowing device will not expire until about 1920. 

It is not known what proportion of the bottles pi*oduced is manu- 
factured by Owens macmnes or by the flowing process, but it is 
grobable that the production by both automatic machines and the 
owing device largely exceeds the production both by hand machines 
and entirely by hand. Nearly all of the successfiu estabhshments 
that manufacture with hand machines or entirely by hand are unusu- 
ally favorably located with reference to cheapness of fuel or acces- 
sibility to markets, and nearly all of them manufacture to. fill much 
smaller orders than are accepted by estabhshments using Owens 
machines or the flowing process. The manufactiirers employing 
automatic machines of no wing § processes, because of the comparar- 
tively low price of their product require large orders to insure con- 
tinuous uninterrupted production. 

NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND THEIR EQUIPMENT. 

The following table shows, as far as reported, the number of estab- 
lishments manufacturing bottles and jars in the United States that 
yere operated in 1916, and details about their equipment, not includ- 
mg establishments using Owens machines. 



212 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



Table 84. — Location and Number of Plants IfAnNo Bottles, Jabs, etc., ik 

1916, AND NUMBEB OF THEIB TANKS, RiNOS, AND POTS, NOT InCLUDINO PlAIITS 

UsiNo Automatic Machines. 

(Data from Olaas Factory Disectory, 1916.] 



Stata. 


Plants. 


Continnoos 


Day tanks. 


Fur- 
naces. 


Pots. 




Tanks. 


Rings. 


Tanks. 


Rings. 




Califflrnla x x 


2 

•63 

el4 

1' 

4 

1 

62 

14 

411 

411 

• «6 

<33 
1 
1 
3 

4<6 
1 


7 

4 

29 

1 

5 

1 

6 

32 

15 

24 

4 

56 

1 

I 

7 
3 


32 

35 

281 

8 

28 

6 

61 

311 

112 

210 

31 

441 

6 

16 

28 

61 

38 








nunols 












•***•*•* 








TouW^n* .....X... ..x.x xx X.. 


..... 








Maryland 


1 


14 


5 


9 


ififnlgftnx..xxxx. ' . X X XX ..'. X ' 




ICissoari/.l ] l,V,\\l,,,.]ll]lll\ 










New Jersey , 


8 


76 


11 
1 


m 


NewYoi*. 


( 


OUo 


















Penn^yiyanla... 






7 


71 


South 'Oirotana. 








Tennemee • 










Vl«|Plft...x.. 










Wfft Virginia ;... 










Wtocoinfilii 




















Total 


113 


201 


• 1,006 


9 


80 


31 


81 







• Tttifci and ilop of 1 |tet In Oktahona iaohided wlili nUBoi^ 

6 Tanks and rlnii of 1 Mli no h nlaat ii»ffhi4ftd with MissonrL 

« Tanks apd rings of 1 plant In Oklahoma Inohided with Indiana. 

4 Tanks and rlx^sn of Iplant In Now York and 1 in West Virginia, Intihided wlUi Ohio. 

e Tanks of 1 plant In west Virginia Induded with Pennsylvania. 

NUMBBB OP AUTOICATIO IIAOHINBB. 

The report of President Ha^es in 1915 shows that the number of 
automatic madiines in the Umted States and Canada was then 182, 
an increase over 1914 of 10 machines, and that of these 169 were 
operated in the United States and 13 in Canada. His report in 
1916 shows that the number was then 193, an increase over 1915 
of 11, and that of these 180. were operated in the United States 
and 13 in Canada. 

The number of Owens machines used in the United States in 
November, 1916, were as follows: 

Table 86. — Owbns Bottub Machxnbs InstaUiBD ik thb Umitbd States. 
(Reported by the Owens Bottle ICaddno Co., Novotther, 1916.] 



Company and product. 



Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 1, Toledo, Ohio; 

IClsoellanoous bottles 

Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 2, West Toledo, 'Ohio: 

Experimental , 

Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 3» Fairmont, W. Va.: 

Liquors, bottles, preseryes, and misoelkmeoos 

Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 4, Clarksburg, W. Va.: 

Prescription and miscellaneous bottles 

Whitney Glass Works, Olassboro. N. J.: 

Miscellaneous prescription bottles 

American Bottle Co., Newark, Ohio: 

Beer and water bottles 

American Bottle Co., Streator. 111. (2 plants): 

Beer, soda, and water botiles 

Illinois Qla.ss c o.. Alton, 111.: 

Prescription and liquor bottles 



6-arm 
machines. 



6 
19 
17 
17 



104rm 
machines. 



1 
1 

12 
6 
1 
2 
7 

10 



15«rm 
machines. 



Total 



t 

1 

IS 

I 

T 

» 

H 



INDUSTKIAL OONDITIOirB. 



213 



Table 86. — Owbns Bottlx Maohinxs Installbd in thb Unitbd Statbs.— Con. 



Company and iNrodact. 



! 6-ann I KKarm 
machines, .machines. 



I 



154rm 
machines. 



TotaL 



I 



Dlinois Glass Co., Qas City. lU.: 

Miscellaneous prescription bottles, fruit jars, packers, and 

preservers 

Ball Bros., Muncie, Ind.: 

Mason fruit jars, packers, and preservers $ 

Ball Bros., Wichita Falls, Tex.: 

Mason fruit Jars, packers, and preservers 

Hazel-Atlas Glass Co., Washington, Pa.: 

Preservers and misoellaneous bottles 

Hazel-Atlas Glass Co., Clarksburg, W. Va.: 

Proprietary medicine ware and Jars 

Hazel-Atlas Glass Co., Grafton, W. Va.: 

Bottles 

Chas. Boldt Co., Cincinnati, Ohio: 

Lig uor ware 

Chas. Boldt Co., Huntington, W. Va.: 

liquor ware 

Thatcher Manultoturing Co., Blmira, N. Y.: 

Milk Jars 

Thatcher Manuiiacturing Co., Kane, Pa.: 

Milk Jars 

Thatcher Manufiacturlng Co., Streator, 111.: 

Milk jars 

H. J. Hemz Co., Sharpsburg, Pa.: 

Preservers 

Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, Md.: 

Bromo>Seltzer ware 

Kacbeth-Evans Glass Co., Bethaven, Pa.: 

Experimental 

D. C. Jenkins Glass Co., Kokomo^ Ind.: 

Experimental , 



3 



TotaL. 



1 
1 



5 
3 

4 
4 
4 



1 
1 



87 



6 

14 

2 

10 
2 
3 
6 
8 
2 



2 



3 
1 



07 



6 



» 

16 

2 

11 

3 

3 

11 

11 

6 

4 

4 

8 

2 

1 

• 1 



191 



a Special machine . 

This table shows that the Owens Bottle Machine Co. itself operates 
four plants, one each in Clarksbure, W. Va., and Fairmont, W. Va., 
and two small plants in Toledo, Ohio. This company also owns the 
controlling interest in the plant of the Whitney Glass Works at 
Glassboro, N. J., and in 1916 it took over the three YGrj large plants 
of the American Bottle Co. at Streator, Dl., and Newaii, Ohio. . 
These eight plants now operated by the Owens Bottle Machine Co. 
^e 77 of the 191 automatics that are used in the United States. 
The other 114 automatics in the United States are operated by 9 
establishments with 16 plants. Late in 1916 the Owens Bottle 
Machine Co. took over the three plants of the Graham Glass Co., 
located at EvansviUe, Ind., Loogootee, Ind., and Okmulgee, Okla. 

The 13 automatics in Canada are operated by one company with 
four plants. In 1916 there were 40 Owens machmes in use m Europe, 
and at the close of the same year automatics were being installed in 
factories in Japan, the patent rights haying been purchased from 
the Owens Bottle Machme Co. rrior to 1916 the Owens Bottle 
Machine Co. had issued capital stock to the amount of $7,000,000. 
After taking oyer the two plants of the American Bottle Co. in 1916, 
the stock issue was increased to $50,000,000 and the stock was listed 
on the New York Stock Exchange. 

Undoubtedly more manufacturers would use Owens machines 
than now employ them but for the fact that they can not procure 
these machines either by buying them or renting them on a royalty 
oasis. The Owens Bottle Machme Co. charges royalty on macnines 
that it supplies to manufacturers, and it has issued licenses for their 



214 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

use to only a few establishments, and each establishment that uses 
its machines is restricted to using them for only the particular line 
of bottles covered by its license. 

Several flowing devices are used, but the one most largely used 
is covered by the Homer Brooke patents, which are controlled by 
the Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. President Denis A. Hayes, in his report 
to the annual convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association 
held in 1916, said: 

Since we first reported on this phase of the bottle-making industry rapid strides 
have been made in its development, and with the close or the past season there were 
10 or 12 firms making bottles and jars by the flowing method. In these days of keen 
competition, manufacturers are taking advantage of every opportunity to reduce the 
copt of production, so no one was surprised to learn that the flowing process was in use 
commercially with varying degrees of success. While fully realizing the importance 
of this invention to the manufactiu*er, we should use every honorable means toward 
securing for our members the right to operate it. 

Bottles are made in such infinite number of shapes and sizes that 
most of them are made onlv on orders. Some manufacturers never 
manufacture for stock, while others try to keep on hand a stock of 
the more standard styles to fill immediate orders and to fill orders 
received during the summer shutdown. In normal times large 
bujrers generally place contracts for their yearly requirements with 
options on increases. Single-car orders are generally placed a few 
weeks ahead of dehvery dates, while small orders are often for imme- 
diate deUvery. During 1916, when prices of raw materials and of 
the finished product were advancing rapidly, manufacturers discour- 
aged long contracts. Packers and preservers are made ahnost 
exclusively to fill orders. 

THE PROBLEM OF STANDARD CAPACrTY. 

The principal reason that bottles are made in such a ^eat variety 
of shapes and sizes is that many manufacturers of proprietary prepa- 
rations have sought to make their products better Known by putting 
the goods up in bottles of unique snapes that would be readity asso- 
ciated with the product. During recent years, however, there has 
been a tendency toward the standardization of shapes and sizes, 
and this tendency has been increased by the greater production of 
bottles by macmnery. The expense of makmg molds is a con- 
siderable proportion of the total expense of manufacture when the 
orders are smiaU, and when automatic machines are used from 6 to 
15 sets of molds must be made for bottles of each size and shape. 
The manufacturer, therefore, can quote lower prices for bottles of 
standard varieties than for bottles of special designs. 

Bottle manufacturers have had trouble in meeting the require- 
ments of diflFerent State bureaus of standards and of official sealers 
in some cities in regard to the capacity of bottles. It is practically 
impossible to n^anufacture bottles each of which wiU have exactly ^ 
the same capacity, and it is more difficult to make them uniform in 
this respect by hand than by any kind of machine. Some States 
and cities allow a smaller variation in capacity than others. 

The Bureau of Standards of the Umted States Department of 
Commerce, under authority of Federal laws, fixes the standards of 
weight and measure, but it does not specify what variations in the 
capacity of containers shall be allowed by the vfiixious States or 



IKDUBTBIAL OONBIHONS. 215 

cities. Harry Jenkins, executive officer of the Glass Bottle Blowers' 
Association, said in his report to the annual convention of the asso- 
ciation held in 1915: 

I am pleased to say that in dealing with the officials in Washington we are ini^ariably 
accorded the most patient and coiurteous treatment. The Bureau of Standards, the 
department having charge of all the weights and measures, is doing a wonderful \^ ork 
in this particular line. Foiu* times a year it holds a convention to \^hich are invited 
all the sealers in the United States and the insular possessions, and this invitation 
includes also anyone who may be interested in this line of work, and all i^ho attend 
may take part in the discussions and offer whatever suggestions they may deem to be 
of interest or benefit to the purchasing public. As many as 96 men have attended 
these conventions, and all seem to be actuated by the same motive — to give to the 
consumer full value for his money. 

The Glass Bottle Blowers' Association has gone on record in favor of 
a Federal law that will provide for uniform variations in the capacity 
of containers in all States. A bill with such provisions, H. R. 16876, 
was introduced in the Sixty-third Congress by Representative William 
A. Ashbrook, of Ohio. A report of the committee on political protest 
and injunction, adopted by the convention of the Glass Bottle Blow- 
ers* Association held in 1915 contains the following paragraph: 

That a glass container capacity law be enacted which will be uniform in all States, 
with such tolerances that a manufacturer employing hand operators can compete 
with a manufactiu'er using machines and thereby allow the workmen an opportunity 
to earn an honest livelihood. 

President Denis A. Hayes, in his report to the 1916 convention, 

said: 

Most of the States and large cities have laws that allow fair tolerances on containers; 
then, too, ofRcials are not expecting the impossible in the way of perfect and accurate 
measure, and our association has done mucn to make them fully realize the inability 
of the men of our cralt to make an absolutely correct bottle in contents. 

LOCALIZATION OF THE INDXTSTBY. 

The following article in re^rd to the development of the bottle 
industry was contributed by Mr. Herbert B. Garwood, president of 
the Williams town Glass Co., Williamstown, N. J. 

The glass-bottle manufacturing industry was naturally started on the Atlantic 
seaboard, because that was the first portion of the country to be settled. In the 
early days it was confined to the souliiem part of New Jersey, because sand was 
found there suitable for glass making, extensive tracts of timber furnished not only 
fuel and boxing material, but the wood ashes when bleached made the potash which 
was needed for flux. The Delaware River oyster beds furnished the oyster shells 
from which lime was made, the salt marshes adjoining the coast and river furnished 
the salt hay used in packing the bottles in the boxes, and the clay beds supplied 
the materials for the common brick and furnace stone used in building the furnaces. 
The higher grades of refractory stone were made from German clay which was shipped 
into Philadelphia and New York, and the proximity of those cities not only made it 
easy for the skilled glass blower from the Old World to find his way to a new place 
of employment in his old occupation, but supplied the markets which took care of 
the output of the little plant. 

As the iron business changed to steel and found its way to the Pittsburgh region, 
on account of cheaper fuel and raw material, so glass followed; and the introduction 
of soda ash or carbonate of soda in place of potash, and of coal instead of wood, of 
limestone instead of oyster-shell lime, made Pittsburgh equally well adapted for the 
industry, except for the higher freight rates to eastern markets, a disadvantage offset 
by the cheaper price of materials. Next the Indiana gas belt, with its cheap fuel, 
and the mountain region of northwestern Pennsylvania, with cheap oil and natural 
gas, attracted many manufacturers, and to-day the newer gas fields in West Virginia 
with their natural gas at 5 to 6 cents per thousand feet has drawn many manufactureiB 



216 THE GLASS UTDUSTBY. 

of bottles to that State. During this period the bottle manufacturing industry gained 
a foothold in many isolated sections and in some instances have hela them. To-day 
the principal centers of tlie industry are, in their order from east to west, southern 
New Jersey, Baltimore, Md.^ Pittsburgh district, northwestern Pennsylvania or 
mountain district, West Virginia district, middle Ohio district, Indiana gas-field 
district, and the St. Louis district 

The grade of gooda manufactured in each district is about the same, because, 
except in isolateacases, the glass-bottle business has not as yet been highly specialized, 
alarge percentage of the manufacturers continuing the practice of making all lines of 
bottles. In milk jars, beer bottles, and some high-grade toilet ware me industry 
hfljs been epecialized to a greater or less extent, and in fruit jars it has been entirely 
specializea and centralized at Washington, Pa., and Mimcie, Ind., and is now being 
introduced in Texas and Oklahoma. 

Manufacturing; at this time (January, 1916) appears to be Increasing in no particular 
locality. Within the last few years the greatest increase has been in me West Virginia 
district, due to the cheap fuel. 

The advantages regarding markets are naturally with the southem Jersey district, 
whose manufacturers are able to make overnight deliveries in New York, which is 
the largest glass-consuming city^ in the United States, in Philadelphia, another large 
purchs^r, and 48-hour deliveries in Boston, Baltimore, and Washington, althou^ 
to the two latter points the Baltimore city factories enjoy the advants^. 

The Pittsburgh and moimtain district factories naturally enjoy^ the trade of the cities 
in the Pennsylvania coal region and the manufacturing towns in central New York. 
as well as Buffalo and Rochester. The Ohio factories appear to ship to all parts of 
the country, and in a short time that State will be used only by the manufacturen 
of beer bottles and some few sundry lines. The Indiana and St. Louis factories seek 
the cities of the middle West and the South, they enloyine better freij^t rates to 
the interior of the South than any other factories. Tnese mctories also ship west, 
but two plants on the Pacific coast and several in Oklahoma in scattered locations 
are now oisputing for that trade. 

The New Jersey factories formerly controlled the southem coast line below Norfolk, 
but a revision of freight rates from West Virginia factories on a combination ndl and 
water route by Noriolk has placed them on an equaHt^r with the New Jersey factories 
and allowed tnem to compete for the trade of that section. 

No section at this time appears to enjoy any iid vantage regarding labor. The skilled 
workmen are practically all members of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association, which 
fixes a wage scale every summer for the ensuing year that is uniform throughout the 
country, and the supply of skilled labor exceleds the demand, owing to automatic 
machines displacing many glass blowers, therefore an adequate supply of handwork- 
men or semiautomatic macnlne operators can always be secured in any section of 
the country. In unsldlled labor one advantage in one section is balanced by anotiier 
advantage in another section. Thus in New Jersey boys work for lower wages than 
in the middle West, but in the spring they leave to work on the farms, and the manu- 
facturer is thereby crippled. In the West the higher wages continue throughout 
the year, but the ooys do not leave in the spring to such an extent as they do in 
New Jersey. The recent activity in powder worlim and munition plants have drawn 
many boys from the glass factories to those industries in the eastern section of the 
country. 

PBESSED AND BLOWN WABE. 

Pressed and blown ware includes tableware, cut glass, bar goods, 
lighting goods, and miscellaneous ware. Table 8, page 28, shows 
that according to the Census of Manufactures the value of the pro- 
duction of pressed and blown glass was $17,076,125 in 1899, 
$21,956,158 in 1904, $27,398,445 in 1909, and $30,279,290 in 1914. 
During the 15 years the increase was 77.32 per cent. 

NUMBER, LOCATION, AND EQUIPMENT OF PLANTS. 

The following table sliows, as far as reported, the number of estab- 
lishments manufacturing pressed and blown glassware in the United 
States that were opera tea in 1916, and gives details of their equip- 
ment: 



IKDUSTBUL COKDinOKS. 



217 



Table 86. — ^Locatiok and Nttmbbb or Aotiyb Plants Manufactubino Blown 
AND Pressed Tableware, Lighting Goods, and Lamp Ghdcnbys, and Dbtail 
OP Equipment. 

[Data from Glass Factory Directory, 1916.] 



State and product. 



Indiana: 

Tableware 

Tableware and lifting goods. 

Lighting goods 

Lamp cninmeys 

Maryland: 

Tableware 

Lighting goods 

Massachusetts: 

Tableware 

Tableware and lis^ting goods. 
New York: 

Tableware and lighting goods. 

Lighting goods 

Ohio: 

Tableware 

Tableware and li^tixig goods. 

Lighting goods 

Oklahoma: 

Tableware and lighting goods. 

Lighting goods 

Pennsylvama: 

Tableware 

Tableware and lij^tizig goods., 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys , 

Rhode Island: 

Lifting goods 

West Virgima: 

Tableware , 

Tableware and li^thig goods., 

Lighting goods , 

Lunp cninmeys , 



Plants. 



Aggregate: 

Tableware 

Tableware and lighting goods. 



Lighting goods. 
Lamp chunneys. 



Total. 



3 
a2 

»3 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

2 
3 

8 
a4 
b4 

1 
2 

9 

a 14 

»10 

1 



9 
5 
2 
4 



Continuous 
tanks. 



Tanks, i Rings. 



Day tanks. 



Tanks. 



Rings. 



6 



37 



8 



81 

29 

28 

6 



92 



7 
3 
2 

3 
2 



13 



Fur- 
naces. 



4 
2 
1 



8 
1 
8 
2 



21 

13 

11 

3 



48 



66 
35 
17 

18 
22 



44 



65 
6 



12 



2 

2 



8 



5 

2 

17 

1 



7 
2 
2 



168 

116 

47 

17 



848 



7 
11 
25 

4 



47 



8 

2 

12 



4 

3 
1 



15 

10 

22 

3 



60 



1 
1 

8 
2 

18 

7 

9 

8 

11 



Pots. 



94 

80 



28 
21 
26 



14 
14 

38 
20 

186 
7ft 

128 

194 

m 

12 



11 

10 

5 

2 



46 
67 
54 

2 



150 



273 
451 



16 

146 

196 

62 

11 



948 
668 

11 



3,900 



a Equipment of 1 plant in Indiana and 1 plant in Ohio included with Pennsylvania. 
b Equipment of 2 plants in Indiana and 1 plant in Ohio Included with Pennsylvania. 

The establishments entered in this table as making tableware made 
tableware, cut glass, bar goods, and chemical ware; the establish- 
ments entered as making tableware and lighting goods made both 
products; some of the establishments entered as making lighting 
goods made lamp chimneys also; the establishments entered as 
making lamp chimneys made them only. 

Tableware is made mostly to fill orders, but when orders are not 
received the factory makes staple articles for sicxjk. Orders may 
be for delivery in 30 days, but most of tlu^rn are for immediate de- 
livery. Lighting goods are made both for orders and stock. Some 
orders are placed two or three montlis in advance of shipment, but 
many are for immediate delivery. 

CUT TABLE WABX. 

There are two kinds of cut glass, light or (ti\^nivo<\, iind heavy or 
deep cut. Articles such as stem ware, viisf^H, f)r)wiH, iiup{)ir*H, plates, 
bonDons, colognes, etc., are thin cut or en^^rav<*d, in designs ranging 



218 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

from the common unpolished wheel engraving, which can be pur- 
chased in the 5 and 10 cent stores, to elaborate designs, known as 
*^rock crystal/' The cutting or engraving on these articles is gen- 
erally on blown blanks. Heavy or deep-cut glass consists of two 
trades, one cut on blown blanks, the other cut on pressed or molded 
lanks, which are made either plain or with a large part of the pattern 
pressed in them. 

Glassware cut on blown blanks usuaDy consist of such items as 
stem ware, decanters, vases, pitchers, oil cruets, colognes, and other 
articles in such shapes as to render them impractical for pressing or 
molding. Pressed or molded blanks can be used only for open pieces, 
such as bowls, nappies, plates, etc., which can be readily pressed by 
the use of a plunger, as in the ordinary common pressed glassware. 

SUPERIORITY OF AMERICAN CUT GLASS. 

While considerable thin cut or engraved glass was imported before 
the war in Europe began, very little heavy cut ^lass was imported. 
The discriminating American public seems to be satisfied that the heavy 
cut glass manufactured in the United States is superior to similar 
ware made in Europe. This opinion has generally prevailed for 
many years. The popularity of American cut glass was established 
by a splendid display made by a glass company at the World's 
Columbian Exposition held at Chicago in 1893. This company made 
an elaborate exhibit, which showed the actual process of cutting. 
Since that time the Quality of American goods, aided by attractive 
advertising, has firmly convinced the public that nothing finer is 
made in the line of heavy cut glass than is made in this country. 

American cut-glass manufacturers have prided themselves on the 
quality of their product. It has surpassed that of any other country 
for crystal brilliancy and sharpness of cutting. Potash and oxide 
of lead have been used extensively, the potiJsh to flux the other 
materials, and both potash and lead to give to the glass a prismatic 
effect with high refractory (}ualities. The product was so artistically 
beautiful that the reputation of American cut glass became world- 
wide. Before the war began in 1914 it was sold in all parts of 
Europe. Since the war began the quality has necessarily suffered, 
because it has been impossible to replenish depleted supplies of 
potash, but this defect will be remedied when potash can again be 
imported. 

SonxQ people accustomed to traveling abroad are inclined to believe 
that cut glass from Europe is superior in quility to the best American 
product. An American manufacturer of' cut glass who has a sales- 
room in New York City informed an agont of the Bureau that two 
J ears previously a wealthy woman called at the factory and showed 
im a glass article which had been broken. She stated that she had 
purchased the set at one of the fine shops in Vierma and inquired 
whether this company had not im'ported a similar set from which 
the broken article could be duplicated. The manufacturer examined 
it closely, and informed her that his salesroom in New York had a 
similar article in stock and that it would be shipped to her. The 
cut-glass products of this factory had been exported in considerable 
quantities to Austria-Hungary, and the broJken article that was 
duplicated had really been made in the American factory. 



INDUBTBIAL CONDITIONS. 219 

IMFOBTS AND EXPORTS. 

The duty on ornamented glass, which mcludes cut glass, was 60 
per cent aa valorem under the tariff acts of 1897 and 1909, and is 
45 per cent under the present tariff law. Deep-cut glass made in 
Europe has been almost entirely excluded from the United States 
^under these tariffs. The duty, together with the fact that the Amer- 
ican people have been educated to prefer the American deep-cut 
glass, may explain why the imports have been decreasing and are 
now very small. Many more original designs for cut glass are made 
in America than in Europe, and many of these designs are taken 
abroad and imitated. 

The sole American agent of one of the most famous tableware 
factories in the world kept, for several years, a separate account of 
his imports of heavy cut glass. This agent imported such cut glass 
to the amount of $99,273 m the year ending June 30, 1893, and tnese 
imports declined to $14,473 in the year ending June 30, 1901. -After 
the latter date he did not keep a separate account of such imports, 
but he stated to an agent of tnis Bureau that they had declined to 
not over $2,000 during the 12 months last preceding the beginning 
of the war in Europe, and that they consisted mostly of special 
articles. 

The fact that before the war b^an in Europe there were consid- 
erable exports of American cut glass to Eiu'opean countries is not 
easily explained, except on the ground that the American product 
is recognized in those countries as of superior quality or on the groimd 
of cheaper production in the United States. 

Wages of glass cutters are much higher in America than ia Europe, 
and it is remarkable that deep-cut glassware made in artistic designs 
by highly skilled hand labor should be produced for export at a cost 
which would make it possible for ware from the United States to 
compete with the product of factories in European countries. The 
countries to which American cut glass is exported include countries 
that produce deep-cut glass and that have high duties on their imports. 

METHODS OP MANUFACTURE. 

Cutting designs on glass forms is done by holding the forms against 
revolving wheels. In the first process, called roughing, the cuts are 
made with a steel wheel, on which sand and water are poured; in the 
second process a stone wheel is used for smoothing the cut, and in 
the third a felt wheel is used for poUshing. The wheel used for 
smoothing is made of a Scotch stone called Craighleith, which is 
either white or black, but the black stone is preferred because it is 
softer. 

Several reasons are assigned for the cheaper production of cut glass 
in the United States than in Europe: (1) American glass cutters, 
being paid piece prices in most cases, work faster than European 
cutters; (2) in Europe roughing, smoothing, and polishing are often 
done by the same workman, but in the United States the work is 
divided among three men, and each becomes an expert in one pro- 
cess; (3) in America labor-saving devices and methods are em- 
ployed that are not used in Europe. 



220 THB GLASS INDTTSTBY. 

Where figured or pressed blanks are used, roughing is eliminated 
entirely, as are also the time and expense of marking the pattern on 
the glass, which is required when plain blanks are cut. Blanks 
figured by pressing are made by two laree factories in the United 
States, under a patent which they control. Other factories making 
cut glass use plain blanks which are pressed by iron molds or are 
blown offhand. 

American manufacturers produce cut glass in designs that can be 
easily cut on large stones; that is, designs with only few curved lines. 
Where the designs are intricate and the lines curved, they are cut by 
small stones, called small-tool work, and the time required is much 
greater than where large stones are used. 
»For the process of smoothing, carborundum wheels and carborun- 
dum powder or grains are largely used in America, instead of stone 
wneels and sand, which are commonly used in Europe. 

In America the ware, after being smoothed, is dipped in acid for 
poUshing, mstead of being poUshed by a felt wheel andputty powder, 
as is customary in Europe. The use of acid in polishing has a great 
advantage, not alone in the saving of labor, but in adding much 
more brilliancy to the glass. The explanation of this is that in 
polishing by hand with the felt wheel and putty powder the sharp 
cuts are more or less dulled by friction, whereas m using the acid 
these cuts retain their sharpness, and, as a result, the glass has more 
refractory power, thus adding greatly to its brilliancy. 

Deep-cut ^lass is much more extensively used in America than in 
other coimtries. Each design that is produced in Europe is made 
lip in small quantities, and more exclusive designs are made there 
than in America. Much larger quantities of each design are made 
in America, and, although cutting is done by hand, the cutter that 
cuts the same design many times learns to do it rapidly. 

An importer gave to an agent of the Bureau some examples of 
the difference in the cost of producing deep-cut glass in America 
and Europe. This foreign factory makes both heavy and light cut 
glass and exports much of the light cut ware to the United States. 
The agent said in an interview: 

One reaion why deep-cut glass is made cheaply in America is that it is produced 
in large quantities. Tnere is no such demand for heavy cut glass as there is here, 
because tnin cut glass is more popular in Europe. Another reason is that, while 
American cutters are paid higher wages than cutters in Europe, they work much 
faister. 

About seven years ago I bought from a glass manufacturer in Brooklyn a 9-inch 
deep-cut glass bowl for f2.50, wholesale price, and took it to the factory in Alsace. 
A wood mold was made for the form and the form was pressed and cut in the same 
design as the bowl made in Brooklvn. The cost of this reproduction was 15 francs 
($2.90) without the cost of the mold. 

I import some blanks for deep cutting. I sold the Brooklyn manufacturer an 
imported blank for a 3-pint jug, which cost here $1.25, duty included. He cut it 
and sold it back to me for $5, and I took it to the factory in Alsace. A similar blank 
there was cut in the same design and the cost was 40 francs ($7.72). 

Five years ago I saw a window full of American deep-cut glass in Strassbuig, the 
capital of Alsace-Lorraine. After that I quit trying to compete in New York with 
American cut glass. 



IKDTJSTBIAL OONDHIOKS. 221 



IMITATION GUT GLASSWARB. 



Among the manufacturers of high-grade cut glass there is much 
complaint about imitations, with whicn many people are deceived. 
Following is an extract from an article by J. Howard Fry, published 
in the Glassworker for June 3, 1916: 

Many imitatdoas of real cut glass, on account of the substituting of inferior blanks, 
are being forced on the market at this time. At the best lime glass, even if properly 
cut, is inferior, and it is only an imitation of what real cut glass represents. Unfor- 
tunately, owing to the European war making it impossible for leaa-blank manufac- 
turers to maintain the former high standard or quality, a field is opened for imitations, 
which otherwise would not exist. The widespread popularity of rich cut glass leads 
to the production of a great deal of cheap ware and imitations of real cut glass. 

And unfortunate! }r, again, the idea seems to prevail among some glass manufac- 
turers that cut glass is not a work of art, that it is not a science, and is not worthy of 
their best elTorts. Thsy are offering to the unsuspecting public a cheap imitation of 
cut glass which is not only on a lime blank, but often deception is practioed in foolinff 
the public by not cutting all the design. Certain parts, such as (lowers in the frosted « 
or light skin cut, are placed in the blank, while the leaves or miter and heavy parts 
imitate cutting, but it is simply pressed glass, sometimes of a very eood finish, suffi- 
cient to deceive the imsuspecting public, who buy this as good cut glass only to learn 
later that fraud had been practiced. 

It is absurd to predict just where this practice will lead to, but it is not iiffficUlt to 
see that if it is continued the higher ideals for which cut elan stands will be lost and 
the industry as an art will be ruined. The public should be educated to detect the 
fraud, and imtil this takes place the, market will imdoubtedly be flooded with all 
varieties of cheap imitations. 

IN0AKDI80XNT LAXP BULBS. 

A ^eat impetus was given to the development of the manufacture 
of li^tin^ glassware by the wonderful and successful eKperimente 
conmicted by Thomas A. Edson^ in perfecting his first conunercial 
incandescent lamp, which appeared m 1879. In 1880 the regular 
manufacture of incandescent lamps was begun in Menlo Park, 5[. J., 
and during that year 25,000 lamps were made. Bv 1885 electric 
lighting became very general, and the manufacture of lijghting goods 
becamie an important oranch of the ^ass industry. The aggregate 
production of electric lamps for domestic use totaled about 125,* 
000,000 during the year 1915 and a considerably larger number in 
1916. 

The incandescent lamp is the one of all electrical appliances most 
universally used, and is available for the lighting of homes, industrial 
plants, stores, streets, parks, billboards, automobiles, trolley cars, 
and railway cars. 

TYPES OF LAMPS. 

Incandescent lamps are divided into four classes, according to the 
kind of filament — carbon, Gem, tantalum, and Mazda. 

The number of materials which can be used for filaments is very 
small, for these reasons: First, the filament must be capable of 
withstanding a very high temperature, and it must also have a high 
vapor tension point; in other words, it must not evaporate rapidly 
much below its boiling point; second, it must be a conductor of 
electricity, and should nave a relatively high resistance. 

Filaments- were made at first from parchmentized thread and 
thin slips of cardboard and paper, and later from bamboo; For 
many years the bamboo filament, cut into strips by small knives 



222 THE GLASS INDUSTKT. 

and planes, was exclusively used. The cutting required great care 
and expense before the filaments were reduced to the required 
sizes. The bamboo strips were then carbonized. 

After bamboo filaments were used squirted filaments were made 
from carbonized cellulose in one form or o^nother. 

Another advance was embodied in lamps still of the carbon type 
in which the filaments were strengthened by such substances as 
would justify calling them ^'metalSzed.'' The mere word was a 
revelation as to the direction in which invention was tending, and 
very quickly real metallic filaments were available. The metal 
tantalum was quite rare and useful in many ways, but did not com- 
pete successfully with the old carbon lamp. 

In 1907 the tungsten lamp appeared, fairly startling the world 
with its wonderful efficiency, and nearly revolutionizing the incan- 
descent lamp industry. The most recent development in high effi- 
ciency illummants are the Mazda lamps, a trade-mark used by some 
of the largest manufacturers of incandescent lamps in the United 
States. 

MANUFACTURE OF BULBS. 

Glass bulbs for incandescent lamps are made in only five plants 
in the United States — ^the General Electric Co., the LibbeyGlass 
Works, the Corning Glass Works, the Rochester Tumbler Works, 
and the Lippincott Glass Co. It is estimated that of the to.tal num- 
ber of glass bulbs for incandescent lamps produced in this country, 
two-thirds to three-foiuths are blown by hand and the remainder 
by machine. 

Incandescent lamps are made from bulbs by a number of estab- 
lishments, of which the General Electric, Westinghouse, and Franklin 
comnanies are the largest producers.^ 

While the cost of necessities for living increased from 1892 to 1915 
the cost of electric lighting shows a marked decrease, and this re- 
duction was caused by the higher efficiency of the lamps manufac- 
tured. The price per candlepower of a 6D-watt lamp of the most 
improved type manufactured by the General Ellectric Co., decreased 
from something over 3.6 cents per candlepower in 1907 to 0.6 cent 
in 1916. 

GHSMIGAL OLASSWABE. 

The development in the manufacture of chemical glassware in the 
United States since the war in Europe began is analogous to the devel- 
opment in the manufacture of dyestuffs during the same period. 

ChemicAl glassware includes flasks, beakers, tubing, reagent bot- 
tles, desiccators, cylinders, spirit lamps, retorts, jars of various kinds. 
graduates, percolators, etc., which are usually designated as '^hoUow 
glassware " and which are made in a glass factory operating a furnace; 
and stopcocks, burettes, pipettes, tost tubes, potash bmbs, AryM 
tubes, thermometers, hydrometers, and a great variety of additional 
items, which are made from tubing before the blast lamp and whicli 
are usually classified imder the heading 'lamp-blown ana volumetrio 
ware" as their mauufacturo doe4> not immediately involve the opera- 
tion of a furnace. 



1 Spo H©arines befor© th? Committee on Ways and Means, 1913, Schedule B, p. 763. 



INDUSTKIAL CONDITIONS. 223 

GERMAXY FORMER SOURCE OF SUPPLY. 

Before the war begau flasks and beakers were made in the United 
States, but by only one company and in very inconsiderable quanti- 
ties. This company has been maldng such articles of excellent quality 
since 1900 or before, but tlio quality of its product was not widely 
recognized. 

To meet the requirements of chemists in analytical work, glassware 
must be able to withstand severe tests, of wliich the most important 
are the cooling shock test, the test for solubility, and the mechanical 
shock test. Many chemists have received German training and have 
been educated to oelieve that no chemical glassware could equal that 
made in Germany and Bohemia and particularly that made in Jena. 
Comparatively few chemists in America acknowledged that any 
glassware made in the United States was equal to Jena ware hence 
the company in this country that has made such ware of excellent 
quality since 1900 found comparatively Uttle sale for it before the 
war began. 

Practically no importations of chemical glassware from Germany 
have enterea the United States since the sunmier of 1915. At that 
time a famine in chemical glassware appeared imminent. Colleges 
and universities that use large amounts did not know where they 
could obtain a supply for the scholastic year 1915-16. The annual 
supply of these institutions amounted in value from several hundred 
dollars each to over $10,000 in some instances. 

The numbers of collegiate institutions and schools that reported to 
the United States Bureau of Education in 1914 were as follows: Col- 
leges and universities, 567; public high schools, 11,515; private high 
schools and academies, 2,199; public normal schools, 235; private 
normal schools, 46; manual and industrial training schools, 229. Of 
the 11,515 public high schools, 10,183 reported that they owned scien- 
tific apparatus amounting in value to $16,447,825; and of the 2,199 
private schools and academies, 1,211 reported that they owned scien- 
tific apparatus amounting in value to $6,992,365. 

IMPORTS FREE OF DUTY FOR SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, ETC. 

Glassware used for educational or scientific purposes has been 
admitted free of duty under various tariffs, from 1816 to 1846, from 
1857 to 1864, and since 1870. The section of the tariff act of 1913 
which provides for free admission of glass is as follows : 

573. Philosophical and scientific apparatus, utensils, instruments, and prepara- 
tions, including bottles and boxes containing? the same, specially imported in good 
faith for the use and by order of any society or institution incorporated or established 
solely for religions, philosophical, educational, scientific, or literary mirpoaes, or for 
the encouragement of the fine arts, or for the use and by order of any college, academy, 
school, or seminary of learning in the United States, or any State or public library, 
and not for sale, and articles solely for experimental purposes, when imported by any 
society or institution of the character herein described, subject to such regulations as 
the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe. 

The importations admitted free under this act amounted to $704,496 

I during the fiscal year 1914 and $370,620 during the fiscal year 1915. 

All olthese importations, however, were not of chemical glassware, 

but of scientific apparatus, which included articles made of metal as 

Well as of glass. 



224 THE GJLASS INDUSTBY. 

The imported chemical glassware on which duty was paid is not 
separately shown by tariff statistics, but a large part of it was used 
by industrial plants, and the duty on such articles when blown was 
60 per cent ad valorem under the tariff law of 1909 and is 45 per cent 
under the tariff law of 1913. Very little if any such ware is pressed. 

Various estimates are made as to the amount of chemical glass- 
ware imported into the United States. One of the largest importers 
of such ware estimated that the imports before the war amounted to 
$500,000 a year, about half free and half dutiable. The examiner 
for chemical glass in the appraisers' warehouse. New York City, 
estimated that such imports ambimted to about $300,000, of which 
50 per cent went to educational institutions free. Most of the im- 
ports come from Thuringia in Germany, but some are from Austria. 
England and France, the warehouse examiner said, made chemical 
glassware for their own use, but also imported from Germany and 
Austria. 

'^ The quantity of chemical glassware used in the United States has 
greatly increased from year to year, because of the rapid expansion 
of educational institutions and because many industrial plants have 
est&bli^ed or enlaiged their chemical laboratories. 

DETELOPMENT OF AMEBIOAN INDTJSTBY. 

The great demand for chemical ware caused a number of enter- 
prising glass manufacturers to be^in its manufacture in the summer 
of 1915. The development in this line was remarkable, and a year 
later 8 or 10 American companies were producing such ware. Most 
of the shapes- of hollow glassware for laboratory use that were for- 
merly imported are now made in the United States, and the domestic 
production has fairly causht up with the demand. This can not be 
«aid, however, of lamp-blown and volumetric ware, of which there 
is still a great shortage, and the prices of many articles in this class 
have increased from 20 to 100 per cent. 

In commenting on a copy of this section of this report submitted to 
Mr. George B. HoUister, general manager of the Coming Glass Works, 
he wrote December 1, 1916: 

In connectloii with the statement that prices on glassware have increased from 20 
to 100 per cent, emphasis should be laid on the fact that the price of the hkhest-piiced 
American ware is that of the dutv-paid Jena before the war. The price ot this Ameri- 
can ware has not been raised, while Jena has announced two increases in price since 
the beginning of the war. 

Mr. Evan E. Eamble, president of the Kimble-Durand Glass Co., 
to whom a copy of the article was submitted, wrote October 30, 1916: 

Prices increased over the former German prices solely because it is impossible for 
American manufacturers to make glass apparatus for scientific purposes at a reasonable 
profit at an3rwhere near the old prices in a great many lines. The prices have gone 
up on account of labor only, ana not because of the desire of the American manufac- 
turer to tE^e advantage of the market. Many articles are being made at the present 
time that compare to the duty-paid prices existing before the war and these pricei 
have been maintained regardless of the demand, which would have allowed glass 
manufacturers to have increased it. 



nn)TJ8TBiAL QOKDinoira. 225 

HIGH QXTALirr OP AMEBIOAN raODtJCT. 

It is remarkable that the product in this new branch of the glass 
industry should be so soon recognized by scientific authorities as of 
the highest quality. A number of professors of chemistry in univer- 
sities who were interviewed during tnis investigation declared that the 
beakers and flasks made now in America are better than what had 
been imported, better even than Jena ware. Dr. Owen L. Shinn, 
professor of applied chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, said 
'that chemical glassware made for 15 years in a factory in New Jersey 
had been equal to ware imported before the war began, though this 
fact had not been generally recognized, and this factory had produced 
only a limited variety of apparatus. He further saia: 

The old chemists were German trained and they instilled in the students the thought 
that anything not German made was inferior. They were hard to convince that 
American chemical glassware was of good quality; their attitude was that only Jena 
ware was good. The nonsoluble ware made by several American glass manufacturers 
ia equal to if not better than Jena ware. 

It is not now posdible to obtain everything in chemical glassware that was formerly 
imported, but it is the heavier articles that can not be obtained. Beakers, flasks, and 
the like are now obtainable equal in quantity and quality to any imported ware, but 
most of the heavier things, such as desiccators, are not yet maae here. The reason 
for this is Uiat the small market for some of these articles has not made it advisable 
jor American manufacturers to make the molds. Manufacturers have been busy meet- 
ing the demands for articles more generally used, and therefore have not yet begun 
to make these, of which comparatively few are needed. 

Not only professors, but even some of the importers who were inter- 
viewed, asserted that the best quality of chemical glassware of Ameri- 
can make was better than Jena ware. They asserted that such vessels 
as beakers and flasks, when submitted to various tests, were distinctly 
superior to Jena ware in resistance to heat shock, stabihty toward dis- 
tilled water, and in resistance to mechanical test. 

Importers as well as chemists asserted also that microscopes and* 
lenses had long been made of as good quality in America as in Europe. 

PRESENT CONDiriONS IN THE INDUSTRY. 

An address on "The Manufacture of Chemical Apparatus in the 
United States'' was delivered before the American Chemical Society 
at its meeting held at Urbana, 111., April 18-21, 1916, by Mr. Arthur 
H. Thomas, an importer, exporter, and dealer in laboratory apparatus 
of both foreign and domestic manufacture. The address was pub- 
lished in full m the Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 
for May, 1916. Extracts from it follow: 

I propose to remind you briefly of the facts regarding our sources of supply of a few 
representative classifications of chemical apparatus as they existed before the Euro- 
pean war; to compare with these the conditions as they now exist, and then to consider 
the possibilities of retaining and extending the manufacture of this same merchandise 
in the United States. 

In this tabulation the term ** hollow glassware" is used to designate the product of 
the glass factory with a furnace — the °*Hohlglashutte" of Germany — and the term 
"lamp-blown and volumetric ware" to designate the product of the glass-blowing 
shop — the **Glassblaserei" of Germany — where the finished product is shaped before 
the lamp from glass tubing, which tubing is, of course, always made in the glass fac- 
tory or **hUtto." In the United States these two industries are mostly conducted 
separately, while in Europe they are frequently combined in the same establishment. 

102511**— 17 ^15 



226 THE GLASS IHDUSTBY. 

CLASSIFICATION A — ^HOLLOW GLASSWARE. 

AriicUs. — Flasks, beakers, and other factory-made ' shapes, including blanks for 
some volumetric ware. Tariff, 45 per cent ad valorem. 

Sources before the war. — ^\^'ith the exception of one large factory in the United States 
which made, in addition to extensive products in other lines, a few flasks and b^ers 
of excellent quality and reasonable price, this ware was purchased exclusively in 
Euro}>e. The American production was not, in any commercial sense, a factor in the 
situation. 

The present situation. — Five factories in the United States are now regularly making 
flasks and beakers in la^e quantities. The glass used by one of these is superior in 
several important physical characteristics to that used for similar vessels l^y the 
European factory whose flasks and beakers have been heretofore considered the best 
in the world. The four other makers are using a reaidtance glass much alike in physical 
characteristics which, while not (]^uite equal to either the American or Eiuropean pro- 
duct above referred to, is unquestionably superior to the glass generally used through- 
out Germany and Austria. There are two other American factories making flasks and 
beakers, about which I have no deflnite information from actual tests. The ware 
turned out in one of them is of excellent api)earance and that of the other I hive not 
seen. Neither factory is reported as producing large quantities as yet. 

With the present conditions of shortage in almost all of the raw material involved, 
in the labor situation, and in the exhausted condition of stock in many of the large 
college and university storerooms, a considerable shortage for some time seems inev- 
itable unless additional capacity is operated. Under normal conditions the total 
convenient production of these seven American factories would more than meet our 
usual consumption. 

CLASSIFICATION B — LAMP- BLOWN AND VOLUMETRIC WARE. 

Articles. — All shapes made of tubing before the blast lamp, including the graduation 
of blanks made in the factory in addition to those made before the lamp. Tariff, 45 
per cent ad valorem. 

Sources before the vmr. — With the exception of a few items not of significance to our 
discussion, such as hydrometers and thermometers for clinical and industrial use, 
homeopathic vials and test tubes, milk bottles, and syringes, all staple stock was 
purchased in Europe. Repair work and the manufacture of a great variety of special 
Items, not in sufficient demand to warrant arrangement for importation in large 
quantities, was conducted in a few glass-blo^ving shops operated by some of the lai^er 
dealers, in separate small shops in a few of the larsjer cities, and in the south Jersey 
district as an important side Ime in coimection with three large glass factories. 

The present sitimtion. — Two of the south Jersey factories referred to have prac- 
tically given up the making of any regular stock m this classification because of the 
shortage of labor and the great demand for their own specialties. The other south 
Jersey factory has greatly increased its capacity for the more staple and easily made 
shapes and is making a commendable but as yet totally inadequate attempt to meet 
present requirements. This factory, with the few ^ops just described, constitutes 
the entire capacity in the United States to make lamp-blown and volumetric chemical 
apparatus. There are a few additional shops competent to make certain chemical 
ware but not so engaged because of obligations in more profitable directions. 

The combined output of all these establishments in the great variety of items in 
this classification is far from sufficient to fill the daily orders for immediate shipment. 
Commitments at the present time for large educational quantities, as usually under- 
taken at this time of the year, seem not to be justifiable with definite obligatiou as 
to either price or time of delivery. 

CLASSIFICATION F — OPTICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS. 

Articles. — Spectroscopes and spectrometers, polarimeters, and saccharimeters, 
refractometers, colorimeters, and microscopes. Tariff, 35 per cent ad valorem, 
except on microscopes, 25 per cent. 

Sources before the war. — ^The instruments in this classification as used in chemical 
laboratories were all purchased in Europe vrith the exception of microscopes, the 
manufacture of which has, as you all know, been extensively and successfully con- 
ducted in America for many years. 

> While ordinary bottles are, of coarse, a factory-made product, my remarks are not intended to apply 
totbem. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 227 

The present nt^mtion, — ^There is no new manufacturing in America to be recorded 
in this line as a result of the war. The explanation is again the enormous pressure 
being put upon the several factories equipped for such work for deliveries of prism 
binoculars, range finders, telescopes as used in gunnery, periscope optics, etc. Two 
British factories have extended their lines to include certain refractometers and sao- 
charimeters not heretofore made in England, but their deliveries are much delayed 
because of the control of these works by the British Government for war requirements. 
The same situation explains both the inability of certain verv excellent French 
makers of optical instruments to extend their lines, or even, with one exception, to 
make any deliveries of their regular goods. 

The domeBtic manufacture of chemical glassware, which previous 
to the war in Europe was confined to only one American factory, 
has since the siunmer of 1915 increased very largely, though tne 
product is still insufficient to supply the demand. The increase in 
the output would have been greater if a larger number of skilled 
workers could have been obtained. Most of them are Grermans, 
but Americans are being trained for this special work. As the 
expense of manufacture was exceptionally high during the first 
year in which this kind of glassware was manufactured in more 
than very limited quantities, no attempt was made in this investi- 
gation to ascertain the cost of any chemical glassware units, but 
all the domestic manufacturers that make such ware make other 
kinds of glassware, and reports were secured from these manufac- 
turers covering their iast business year. 

PROPOSED RESTRICTION OF FREE IMPORTATION. 

Manufacturers who were interviewed during this investigation in 
regard to the tariff duty on chemical glassware considered it much 
more important that there should be some duty on the apparatus 
for educational or scientific use, now admitted free, than that the 
rate of duty on the remainder of such imports should be raised 
above 45 per cent ad valorem, the present rate. Some college pro- 
fessors who were interviewed approved the suggestion that the 
apparatus imported for educational or scientific use should pay a 
duty, in order firmly to establish the industry in this country, though 
they did not, however, advocate a duty on imports for such pur- 
poses as high as 45 per cent ad valorem. 

The American Chemical Society has started a campaign in favor 
of educational institutions paying duty on chemical glassware and 
has appointed a committee on the subject, consisting of Prof. Alex- 
ander Smith, of Columbia University, Prof. WiUiam McPherson, of 
Ohio State University, and Mr. Arthur H. Thomas, of Philadelphia. 
Following is a part of the address by Mr. Thomas, extracts from 
which have already been quoted : 

Let us now consider the possibilities of the future, mentioning first hollow glass- 
ware, particularly flasks and beakers. It seems probable that a fair share of our 
consumption of flasks and beakers will be made in the United States after the con- 
clusion of the war without any increase in duty or any curtailment of the dutv-free 
privilege. With some restriction of duty-free entry they would, I think, all be 
made here. This statement is based upon the following facts: 

1. The intrinsic excellence of our product. This is certainly the basic economic 
factor in determining where any merchandise is to be made under normal conditions 
of competition. 

2. The highest priced American flasks and beakers are now sold at exactly the 
duty-paid prices prevailing before the war for the best European brand. Further- 
Diore, all other American flasks and beakers are now not only sold at less than these 



228 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

prices, but at prices no higher, generally speaking, than those hitherto prevaUing 
on European goods of inferior quality. 

3. There is a sufficient industrial and other duty-paid demand to justify the con- 
tinuation of a part, at least, of our present war-tune production, even tnough the 
large educational business ia again placed abroad for duty-free importation This 
duty-paid demand ia increaeingly restricted to flasks and beakers of the highest 
quality. Those of you engaged m industrial work will agree that in the works laborar 
tory the first consideration is not what the flask or beaker costs but rather that it must 
not break in use. 

4. Flasks and beakers are made in large and well-organized glass factories, of which 
we have in the United States several quite competent to unaertake such work, and 
the American glass blower accustomed to the manufacture of incandescent lamp 
bulbs, thermos bottles, ordinary bottles, and the many shapes of household and 
other ware, can usually make them with a few weeks' practice. 

5. And thiB is important: There is some possibility as to the application of auto- 
matic glass-blowing machines (which have reached a truly remarkable development 
in the United States as applied to the blowing of bottles and incandescent lamp 
bulbs) to the manufacture of flasks and beakers, if a sufficiently large demand develops. 
If this should come to pass I think the term "duty-free'* would no longer be used in 
connection with flasks and beakers. 

Reasoning in a manner akin to the above seems to justify a similar conclusion, with 
some qualifications in each instance, for the classifications "Porcelain ware," "Filter 
paper, and "Optical measuring instruments." "Hardware and sheet-metal ware" 
and "Analytical and assay balances and weights" have already shown their ability 
to take care of themselves. 

This disposal of these groups leaves for further consideration the very important 
classification B, "Lamp-olown and volumetric ware." It is the shortage m tliif 
group which is now causing the greatest inconvenience, and it is about the making 
of such goods that we have much to learn if any significant fraction of our annual con- 
sumption is to be regularly manufactured in the United States. As compared with 
flasks and beakers we here face quite a different array of facts. 

1. Our product thus far is, as a general statement, distinctly inferior in workman- 
ship, appearance, and (too frequently but not always) in accuracy of graduation. 

2. These goods must be sold, on the basis of costs prevailing before the war, at much 
higher prices than the duty-paid prices on eauivalent items of foreign make. Since 
the war this difference in cost has been still lurther increased, in many instances to 
the extent of 100 per cent. 

3. The duty-paid demand does not constitute nearly as large a fraction of the total 
consumption as is the case with flasks and beakers. 

4. This ware is mostly made in comparatively small and often poorly organfzed 
establishments. This is frequently true, even though the shop is operated by a firm 
which may be fairly designated as "large and well organized " in other directions. 
The supply of skilled glass blowers compatent to handle the great variety of such 
chemical ware is exceeaingly limited. I doubt if there are 250 such workmen in the 
United States at the present time. These men have mostly come to us from Thuringian 
factories as skilled and accomplished artisans who were well paid at home. They 
naturally demihd and get stlii mDre here. A g3od all-round worker now gets from 
$45 to $60 par week. They do not always lend themselves to the proper subdivisions 
of labor for economical production. They are quite united in their common interests 
and naturally not greatly interested in the training and development of apprentices. 
They frequently are compelled to ^ive up work on general chemical ware because of 
the nigh wage they can earn on piecework specialties. 

One large concern in south Jersey is here deserving of special mention because of 
its output in this line, which, while as yet confined largely to the simpler and more 
staple items, is made almost exclusively by young men and women native, in the 
locality under the direction of a few more experienced workers. I recently visited 
this plant and was favorably impressed with the very encouraging progress these 
operatives had made in a comparatively few months. 

5. And this again is important: There seems to be little possibility as to the appli- 
cation of automatic machines to this line, with the exception of those already developed 
and in efficient use for homeopathic vials and syringes. 

Mr. J. Howard Fry, vice president of the H. C. Fry Glass Co., 
having reviewed a copy of this section, wrote November 7, 1916: 

To a certain extent, we agree with Mr. Arthur H. Thomas in his statement that 
tariff duty on all chenucal glassware is much more important than an increase of the 
present tariff; that there should be some duty on glass for educational or scientific um 



INDUSTBIAL CONDITIONS. 229 

now admitted free, rather than that the rate of duty should be raised above 45 per 
cent ad valorem. In other words, more than likely, tlie conditions in Europe after 
the war will be such that, provided the now duty free is abolished, the auty on 
imports, 45 per cent ad valorem on chemical glassware, will be sufficient protection 
to allow us to continue manufacturing a good quality of chemical glassware in com- 
petition with foreign countries. 

It is true that the very high grade chemical ware does find and will continue to find 
a limited sale in this country, at a price, but thegreat volume of chemical glassware, 
such as used by the colleges, industrial plants, and ordinary laboratories, does not 
need to be the highest grade of chemical glassware, and that business will eventually 
go to the cheapest market of suitable quality. As the duty-free provision permitted 
all the universities to get their beakers and flasks without anv duty, it cut out the 
volume business for the American manufacturer, and there was Tittle or no opportunity 
then for the American manufacturer to succeed. The demand for the very high- 
grade stuff is naturally limited, and would possibly only keep one busy, where the 
popular demand would keep several factories busy. Personally, I can not under- 
stand why chemical glassware should be imported free of duty for educational pur- 
poses, because those educational institutions should help support the American 
industry and labor, as undoubtedly the American has to support such institutions. 
Consequently, by taking that business away from the American manufacturer and 
giving it to Europe, it is false economy on the part of the educational institutions, and 
our Government should not encourage it. 

In 1914 the council of the British Institute of Chemistry appointed 
a glass-research committee to conduct investigations with the view of 
arriving at suitable formulas for laboratory glassware, miners' lamp 
glasses, combustion tubing, resistant glass for pharmaceutical 
products, glass for X-ray bulbs, etc. The main part of the report of 
the committee was published in Nature (London), April 15, 1915, 
and republished in the Scientific American Supplement, July 24, 1915. 

PHOTOQBAPHIC GLASS. 

A new small industrv in the United States is the manufacture of 
photographic glass, wnich is thinner than window glass. Photo- 
graphic glass averages 15 panes to the inch, while single-strength 
window glass averages llj or 12 to the inch and double-strength 8 
or 9 to the inch. Photographic ^lass is packed 100 square feet to 
the box, window glass 50 leet per box for domestic trade and usually 
100 feet for export. 

Dry photographic plates, made by coating photographic glass 
with a sensitive emulsion, have long been made in the United States, 
particularly in Rochester and St. Louis. Photographic glass, however, 
was not made commercially in the United States until 1911. 

Only the first two qualities of the thin glass, both of which are 
better than A quality window glass, are used for photographic 
plates. The third grade, which is called photographic reject, is 
used for picture frames, for clock faces, and such purposes. 

COMPARATIVELY HIGH COST OP PRODUCTION. 

For several reasons photographic glass is much more expensive to 
make than is common impolished window glass. The thm glass is 
Vjary fragile and the percentage of breakage is much larger than in 
the case of window glass. £i making thin glass there are more 
bums in flattening. Single and double strength glass does not 
got hot so quickly on the stone in the oven, and does not have to be 
taken out so quickly as thin glass, so that it is not so liable to bum. 



230 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Moreover, when wrinkles on thin glass are rubbed down the sheet 
often becomes so soft that pimples appear on the surface. 

With photographic glass much more cutting and much more 
careful sorting are necessary than with window glass. The window- 
glass cutter sorts the glass as he cuts it and piles it on edge according 
to size and quality. Photographic glass is sorted by the cutter who 
cuts it into strips. Another cutter cuts panes from the strips. The 
panes are then examined, sorted, and perhaps three-fourths of them 
are cut to smaller sizes to remove defects. 

The labor cost on photographic glass is much higher than on win- 
dow glass. The difference in total cost is indicated by the differ- 
ence in price. In 1916, when a box of 8 hj 10 single-strength A 
glass sold for about $2.25, a box of photographic glass of the same size, 
Too square feet to the box, sold for $11, or on the basis of $5.50 for 
50 feet. 

AMOUNT CONSUMED — ^TARIFF BATES. 

The consumption of photographic glass in the United States, first 
and second quahty only, is about 200,000 boxes of 100 feet, which, at 
1916 prices, amounted to $2,200,000. The imports of photographic 
^lass are considerable, but the amount can not be stated, as tnere 
IS no tariff distinction between such glass and window glass and no 
separate statistics of imports are kept. 

The duty on cylinder, crown, and common window glass, impol- 
ished, which includes photographic glass, is levied on a pound basis 
and not at an ad valorem rate. Consequently, the amoimt of duty 
on a 100-foot box of window glass is the san^e as the duty on a 100- 
foot box of photographic glass, although the value of the latter is 
about twice the value of the former, lai^ely because the labor cost 
of the latter is very much larger. 

Most plates for photographic purposes are in small sizes which do 
not exceed 150 souare incnes, or panes 10 by 15 inches, and prac- 
tically all is in tne first three brackets, not exceeding 384 square 
inches. The duty on cylinder glass, whether used for windows or 
for photographic dry plates, is seven-eighths of a cent a pound on 
sizes not exceeding 150 square inches, and 1 cent a pomid on sizes 
over 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches. 

The manufacturers of photographic glass believe that in the tarifif 
classifications some distinction should be made between photo- 

fraphic glass and window glass, and that the former should have a 
ighor duty. This distinction would be made if there were a classi- 
fication of glass weighing under 95 pounds per 100 feet, which would 
include photographic glass, and a classification of glass weighing 
95 pounds or more per 100 feet, which would include window glass 
of single as well as double strength. The manufacturers claim that 
the rate of duty on the thin or photographic glass should be higher 
than that on window glass, and that the rate on dry plates should be 
correspondingly increased. 

There are large dry-plate factories in the United States, and much 
of the photographic glass that they imported before the war began in 
Europe was made into drv plates and exported. These concerns, 
when they exported dry plates, received a drawback of 99 per cent 
of the duty paid when the glass was imported. With brokerage 
chaises, the drawback amounted to about 94 per cent net. 



CHAPTER VII. 
SELUVa EXPEVSE AHD COVDITIOITS. 

SBLUNQ XZFXN8B. 

Table 87, which follows, shows, by groups, the percentage of selling 
expense and of operating and final profit oased on net sales: 

Table 87. — Percentage of Selling Expense and of Phoftt, Based on Net 

Sales, bt Groups. 





Ormip. 


Selling expense. 


Operating profit 
compute i— 


Final 
profit, 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest 
consii- 
ered. 


Establiahmeiits maUiig^ 


Coitof 
salesmen. 


Other 
expense. 


Total. 


Without 
deprecia- 
tion ani 
interest. 


With 
deprecia- 
tion ani 
interest. 


Winlow glass by hand 


I 

n 
ni 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

xn 

XIII 


1.45 

1.97 
.13 
2.77 
1.11 
2.81 
3.46 
2.78 
6.72 
4.60 
4.74 
4.14 
2.89 


0.03 
.05 
.13 
.93 
.28 
.58 

1.52 
.68 
.27 

2.08 

1.89 
.39 
.52 


1.48 
2.02 
.26 
3.70 
1.39 
8.39 
4.98 
3.36 
6.99 
668 
6.63 
4.53 
3.41 


9.34 

9.22 
11.93 
10.29 

5.08 
. 16.07 

5.71 

9.16 
12.69 

496 
14.05 

5.27 
12.84 


6.33 

L99 

.16 

4.99 

2.28 

10.79 
1.98 
5.04 
9.29 

0.15 
9.59 
2.91 
8.90 


5.60 


Winlow glass by machine 

Plate glass 


2.76 
.82 


Wire ani opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 


5.68 
2.05 


Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hani ani machine.. 
Jars 


11.30 
2.68 
6.13 


Tableware, blown 


9.33 


Tableware, blown ani pressed. . 
Lighting g oo Is 


.11 
10.19 


Lamp nhirnn^ys , . . . . 


2.89 


Miscellaneous articles 


8.98 






Average 


3.07 


.94 


4.01 


10.32 


5.57 


6.10 









a Operating loss. 

The table shows that the cost of salesmen, which includes their 
salaries, commissions, and travehng and other expenses, is exception- 
ally low, the average for the 13 groups being but 3.07 per cent of the 
net sales. The lowest group percentage is that for plate glass, 0.13 
per cent; the highest is for blown tableware, 6.72 per cent. 

This exceptionally low cost may be explained by the fact that many 
establishments employ no salesmen whatever, and also because the 
greater part of the goods, in a majority of the groups, is sold in large 
quantities to jobbers, large consumers, and distributers. In many 
estabhshments the goods are sold by an official of the company or as 
the result of a successful bid. 

Groups IX to XII, inclusive, show the highest percentages for cost 
of salesmen. All these groups probably have smaller and more diver- 
sified sales than do the other groups, where only one product, as win- 
dow glass, plate glass, bottles, or jars, is sold. To sell small quantities 
of varied goods to numerous accounts requires a comparatively larger 
selling force. Many lamp chimneys and much pressed tableware are 
exported, and this also tends to increase the selling cost, not because 
cost of the salesmen is increased but because of brokers' fees, etc. 

231 



232 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

Other selling expense includes the maintenance of selling offices and 
showrooms in various glass centers and miscellaneous selling expense. 
The table shows the lowest cost, 0.03 per cent, for the hand-made 
window-glass group and the highest cost, 2.08 per cent, for the blown 
and pressed tableware group. 

Much pressed tableware is exported. This requires showrooms in 
various centers and other selling expenses not incurred in domestic 
selling, and to this fact may be attributed the reason for the blown 
and pressed tableware group showing the highest percentage for "other 
selling expense," 2.08 per cent. 

The average total seDing expense for the 13 groups is 4.01 per cent. 
The plate-glass group shows the lowest cost, 0.26 per cent, and the 
blown tableware group the highest, 6.99 per cent. The glass industry 
in general, as compared with other industries, has a small selling ex- 
pense, and the profit in the industry is not greatl;^ influenced bv the 
selUng expense, as is the case in many other industries. This is shown 
by a comparison of the total selling expense with the profit. As the 
final profit consists of the operating profit plus miscellaneous income 
outside the manufacturing Dusiness less miscellaneous expense out- 
side the business, it wiU be best to compare the total selling expense 
with the operating profit that is computed with depreciation and in- 
terest on current loans. 

The highest percentage of operating profit, 10.79 per cent, is shown 
by the machine-bottle group; the blown and pressed tableware group 
shows the smallest percentage, a loss of 0.15 per cent. That the sell- 
ing expense does not greatly influence the profit is illustrated by the 
foDowmg: Blown tableware, with the highest percentage for total sell- 
ing expense, 6.99 per cent, shows an operating profit of 9.29 per cent; 
lignting goods, with a total selling expense of 6.63 per cent, shows an 
operating profit of 9.59 per cent; blown and pressed tableware, with 
a total selling expense of 6.68 per cent (which is less than the per- 
centage for blown tableware, 6.99 per cent, and only 0.05 per cent 
more than that for lighting goods, 6.63 per cent), shows an operating 
loss of 0.15 per cent. 

The foregoing table shows that machine-made bottles earned the 
highest finS profit, 11.3 per cent, and blown and pressed tableware 
the lowest, 0.11 per cent. 

Table 88, whicn follows, shows, by groups, the percentage of pack- 
ing-material cost, bad debts, and of operating and final profit, based 
on net sales: 



SELLING KZPBN8E AKD CONOITIOKS. 



233 



Tablb 88. — Pebcbmtaob of Packino-Matbrial Cost, Bad Debts, and Pbout, 

Based on Net Sales, by Groups. 



Establishxnents making- 



Group. 



Window glass by band 

Window glass by macbiiie. . . . 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass 

Botlles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine. 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed. 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Hiscellaneous articles 



Average. 



I 

II 

111 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIll 







Operating profit 
computed— 


Final 

profit, 

depreiUa* 

tion, and 

interest 

con- 
sidered. 


Packing 
materials. 


Bad 






debts. 


Without 


With 






deprecia- 


deprecia- 






tion and 


tion and 




0.01 


interest. 


intereKt. 


7.17 


9.34 


5.33 


5. CO 


8.06 


.11 


9.22 


L99 


2.76 


2.07 


.01 


11.93 


.16 


.82 


4.44 


.68 


10.29 


4.99 


5.68 


6.2« 


.47 


5. OS 


2.28 


2.65 


7.8G 


.55 


15.07 


l(t.79 


11.30 


4.flO 


.73 


5.71 


1.98 


2.08 


13.02 


1.00 


9.16 


5.04 


6.13 


4.22 


.49 


12.(9 


9.29 


9.33 


7.42 


.26 


4.9o 


a. 15 


.11 


7.58 


.32 


14. Oo 


9.59 


10.19 


16.18 


.31 


6.27 


2.91 


2. 89 


3.31 


.40 


12.84 


8.90 


8.98 


7.13 


.44 


10.32 


5.57 


6.10 



3 Operating loss. 

The foregoing table shows that the cost for packing material is, 
comparatively, a very large expense of the business. This is due to 
the nature of the product, which, being fragile, requires not only 
careful packing, but numerous material to insure a minimum of 
breakage while in transit. Lamp chimneys show the highest per- 
centage, 16.18 per cent, and plate glass the lowest, 2.67 per cent. 
The high percentage for lamp chimneys is due to the numerous wrap- 
pings required, especially when they are for export trade. Excepting 
the hand and machine bottle, the blown-tableware, and the miscella- 
neous groups, the remaining 10 groups show much greater cost for 
packing material than for total selling expense — in the case of plate 
glass, more than ten times as much. 

Bad debts, as shown by the table, is a very Insignificant item' of 
expense. The plate-glass group shows the lowest expense, 0.01 per 
cent, and jars the highest, 1 per cent. 

SELLING METHODS. 
DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS. 

Most glass manufacturers prefer to sell their ware to jobbers, 
to consuming manufacturers in other industries who use glass prod- 
ucts, and to large wholesale distributers. 

A large amount of merchandise is sold to jobbers who usually have 
an exclusive territory. In the case of bottles and jars, a large quan- 
tity is sold direct to the manufacturers or bottlers of wines, beers, 
ketchups,, grape juice, etc., to large drug concerns, operating a chain 
of stores, and to small druggists. Only a small amount of glassward 
is sold to the retailer direct, the nature of the product limiting such 
sales to cut glass, tableware, some lighting goods, and a few specialties. 
Only a very limited quantity is sold to mail-order houses, as these 
houses, owing to their method of distribution, can handle only a few 
products, such as cut glass, lamp shades, and tableware. Some 



234 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

goods for export trade are sold direct to the consumer, usually 
through a resident agent or a commission broker. 

A number of window-glass manufacturers (about 25 hand and 5 
machine) sell their entire product through a sole selling agent or 
broker. This agent sends out his salesmen and on receivmg orders, 
distributes them among the various plants according to the quantities 
and grades produced, the nearness of a factory to the pomt whore 
the ^ass is to be delivered, etc. At least one other branch of the 
glass industry is contemplating a somewhat similar selling arrange- 
ment. Due to the method of distributing its goods, there are com- 
paratively few salesmen employed in the glass industry. The com- 
pensation of salesmen-, when they are employed, is in the form of a 
commission or a salary and traveling expenses. Where the salesman 
works on a commission basis, it is customary for the manufacturer 
to allow a drawing account, that is, to allow the salesman to draw a 
regular amount every week for his current expenses, which is period- 
ically deducted from the actual commission earned. 
r — ^The sale of a large quantity of goods to jobbers and wholesale 
/ distributers is due to necessity rather than to choice. The capital 
turnover in the glass industry is exceptionally small, which is due 
to the fact that most of the capital is invested in land, buildings, 
plant, and equipment. Labor, which has to be paid for at least 
every two wooks, constitutes the chief item of expense in every 
branch of the industry except — ^where the processes of manufacture 
are entirely mechanical. Practically aU the capital being tied up in 
plant and equipment, it is necessary for an establishment in order 
to have the cash to meet its heavy pay roll and other current expenses, 
to sell to jobbers and wholesale aistributers, who usually buy on very 
short terms, and who, if necessary, will pay cash. Another important 
reason for wishing to sell to them is that they purchase in large 
quantities, which not only insures a large perioaic cash income, but 
also tends to make production and prices more stable and reduces 
^the overhead expense. 

VIEWS OF A BOTTLE MANUFACTURER. 

In 1916 a bottle manufacturer in New Jersey sent a circular letter 
to other manufacturers in which he referred to the greatly increased 
cost of raw materials. He said that manufacturers who had bought 
materials before the advance in prices should realize the difference 
between the cost when the materials were purchased and the cost 
after the advance and should not give this difference to the custom- 
ers and thus demoraUze the market price for bottles. He asserted 
that manufacturers were too much inclined to give away profits to 
which they were entitled by reason of purchases made on lavorable 
terms. Tne circular letter was in part as follows: 

In th3 glas3-bDttle business almost all of us feel that every advantaj^e that we can 
secure must be imneiiately transferred to the customer; sd to-day la witnessed a 
■pectacle of a group of manufacturers in one of the oldest trades in the world falling 
over themselves to give their customers not only profits which belong to them by right 
of the business but part of their costs. 
If John Jones can sell at 85 and 10 per cent, we can go 85-10-5 per cent; he hasn't 
' anything on us; and for the last five years away we went believing every word our 
salesman told us about the other fellow's prices and going him one better, and costs 
went into the discard. We could not invent or perfect a labor-saving device without 
taking the fastest train to our customer so we could give away our saving, and if we 



SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 8S5 

worked the glass blowers for a 10 per cent reduction in labor eome of us wont fmU* 
enough to think that this meant our entire costs were reduced 10 per cont and w« 
imm^iately reduced our 83lling prices 10 psr cent. 

Here we are in one of the larsreet business booms this country has w>on for yt^^r*; 
here we are f icing the highest costs for raw materials we have seen for ovw )iO yuanit 
and we haven't the nei;ve to put up our i>ricQ8 to cover the advances. True, we havci 
made same raises, but they are a drop in the bucket. The export trade haM 11 Hod 
a hole which existed for s^me yeiiis back and the increased domestic buslnoiw l\ai 
stopped the last leak. Bvery bottle manufacturer in the United States ran m\\ hi* 
full output for the balance of this blast at any price in reason he asks, and bix^aUMO 
some few of them won't ask, the rest of U9 feel that we must meet their pricoM. It 
makes me wonder if we know prosp3rity when we see it. 

We are deaf, dumb, and blind. We have neglected publicity to educate the buy- 
era to higher prices; we have neglected politics to keep out foreign-made bottlon; 
we have neglected good fellowship to make our compatitor boo and fowl tliat our 
horns are no longer than his, and instead we have hunched oursplvos over a n)ll-top 
desk and schemed and planned how to steal 83me p3t order away from our neighbor, 
and he, in his office, has been playing the same game. We grudge the money to go 
to a meeting, and if we do get there we have to get awa>r early s-) that we ran gfit 
home that night, with the consequence that about the time we ''get down to tno 
brass tacks" half of us are on the train. It takes us about Ave hours to get wannml 
up and get our nerve steady and be ready to put on the screws, and tlien we are afraid 
to do it because some fellow left, and we are afraid he won't go along and will takfl 
some order away from us. 

IMPERIAL WINDOW OLA88 CO. OA»B. 

To eliminate very keen competition end the cutting of prir^iw, AO 
or more window-glass concerns formed th<» Imperial Window (iUitm 
Co. in April, 1909, and started businesH in January, 1910. The Im- 
perial company manufactured no glass, but was apparently a Mellinf( 
agency for the output of the 50 or more factories, Kncfi j/liirii fnanii- 
factured its own glass, but was not permitted to sell any of iin prod- 
uct except to the Imperial w^mpany and at what had heofi rurmiii 
prices prior t^ the organization of thin <^>nipany. 

From April, 1909, wlien the Imperial rj/>rnpany whh fontu*4^f Ut 
October, 1910, prices advanc^*d 70 per ce.rit, and it in undernU/od tiih 
profits of the company in 10 monthn of \niHUu^M wen* /'/;n>tiderahjy 
over a million dollars. Evid<*ric/? Htiow<*/l that the Imperial r4,fnfpti$fy 
leased 15 factories at vf*ry hi$rh rfttinU for tit**' ^4pU*> \f\iV\f4p^A*, of ki*A',fn$tf( 
them closed and removing? tUctr produHion from iUt*, innrhd. It tn 
underetood that wh^-n r,;.", company iUfUiUu*fU'4'A\ l;ii>jn<'.'*5 it hiul 
acquired 97 p^r c^-nt of tf,<- ^,tti^ nthUiht/ hand hl//wn wind//w ^K^. 

In April, 1910. ir'i^-tffKf.t* w< r<' pro/urMl Hi t^tUA\fttfyh, 1*h , 
against all the offi^-^r* a:,'J ^i^n-^^or*, of lot', lrnf/"n;»l Vitt^'iow ifht^vii O/, 
A demurrer to t ^ ;.'.';.'Tri'f *. if^j^y oy*rn,U^^, U ^, /M<n'J^/;U oft 
November 12. H^jO. i-^'.'/'^^t^A is> *'o*»r^, '\'i,}^i*\ •,♦;>«'*'. l^^Mi't OfUfi, 
Western Di*?trict of V^< :.-'./*>.'., ,y. ;»;.'J j/J';»';//j \.o*}ft */n,\A'itt\i fi' . 

The 15 i\\T*'*^/9r'- ^; *; '/''''-?'. of *'m \it,\,*:* .^A u,io\mi, ^ ^ iu^u of 
whom was afco & lyr^-,.- ' • o* '/♦'//%;/ "<,• ^/'.'i,*Af to oh'. oi l^^ ^^/to 
panics which r,itn ^/r ^. v, */ , .*^ o/^^* V/ «;,/ 1//;;/^ ^,.J f//0,f,hhy, 
Were fined ^-irri* it'/:^''^/t\' y % \ 'p'h 



236 THE GLASS INDTTSXBY. 

EUROPEAN PLATE-GLASS TRUST.* 

Prior to 1904 the European plate-glass industry was in a precarious 
condition. Very keen competition had lowered the price of plate 
glass, while at the same time there wa^ an increase in tne cost of raw 
materials. To improve their condition, the manufacturers organ- 
ized, on August 17, 1904, a trade association known as the Inter- 
national Convention of Plato Glass Manufacturers. The original 
agreement has been renewed twice and the present agreement expires 
August 17, 1924. 

The association in December, 1912, was composed of 17 companies 
whose factories were located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary, and Italy— jpractically all the European 
f)late-glass manufacturers, excepting Pilkington Bros., operating a 
arge Factory at St. Helens, England, and the Soci6t6 des Glaces de 
Courcelles, an independent company of Belgium. 

The object of the association is to curb overproduction and by 
equalizing production and consumption to regulate prices. The 
association limits the output of each factory by compelling it to close 
down a certain number of days during each quarterly period. This 
does not force the factory to shut down entirely. It can continue 
producing rough plate, but the grinding and polishing machinery 
must not be employed during the shut-Sown period. Efforts also 
have been made to get Pilkington Bros, to curtail their production. 

Each member of the convention has selling agents in every market, 
and, though there is some competition as to the quality of the product, 
nearness to market, etc., each is required to sell at the prices fixed 
by the convention. Any deviation from prices or from the selling 
rules is punished by a heavy fine. The convention also regulates 
selling conditions, such as sizes, breakage allowances, etc. The two 
large nonmember cpmpanies usually observe the prices fixed by the 
convention. 

After the organization of the convention in 1904, the plate-glass 
industry was prosperous and the manufacturers were financially 
successiul throughout Europe. The selling price fixed by the con- 
vention, soon after its organization, remained practically unchanged 
until December, 1912, when the Union Commerciale Continentale 
was incorporated at Brussels, with a capital said to be 2,000,000 
francs ($386,000), supplied by the members of the convention. 

This new corporation is the convention's sole universal selling 
agent, and it destroyed even the slight competition which prevailed 
under the convention's rule. Tliis one corporation regulates the pro- 
duction of every factory in the convention, purchases the complete 
output at a price per square meter, which it determines, and sells 
the entire product m every country in the world at prices and under 
conditions that it fixes. The profits of the corporation are distributed 
in the form of rebates to the various factories. 

The new corporation absolutely controls every market in the world 
except that of the United States, where approximately half the prod- 
uct of the world is consumed. Depending for its profits on its trade 

1 The data for this article were secured from brief s submitted to the Committee on Ways and Means in 
January, 1913, House Document No. 1447, Sixty-second Congress, third session. Schedule B, pars. 101 
and 102. ' 



SELLIKQ EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 23^7 

in other countries^ where it cau sell at its own prices, it can afford, 
in order to keep its factories in full operation, to sell in the American 
market at cost or even less. 

EUBOPEAN WATCH-ORYSTAL SELLING AGBEEMEXT. 

f 

The following report by Milo A. Jewett, consul at Kehl, Germany, 
was published m Daily Consular and Trade Keports, July 2, 1914: 

After some years of price-cutting war between the different European manufacturers 
of watch crystals, an agreement has been reached for a uniform scale of prices, and 
peace is declared. In 1905 the Watch-Glass Factories Association, with headquarters 
at Strassburg, was in control of all the important European manufacturers oi watch 
glasses and was able to fix the producers* selling prices for practically the whole world. 
However, through the lapse of some agreements and the establishment of new and 
independent manufacturers, competition in selling prices grew up until prices were so 
reduced that there was little or no profit in the industry. Until recently the combine 
consisted of three factories in Lorraine (one of which also has a factory in France), 
one in France, and a fifth unimportant factory in Lorraine that, while not an actual 
member of the combine, sold its watch glasses to or through the combine. The 
independents consisted of one factory in Lorraine, one in Alsace, two in Switzerland, 
and one in Bohemia. The annual output of the combine factories was said to be 
500,000 gross of watch glasses, and the independents could make about 300,000 gross 
yearly. 

The chief feature of the present agreement concerns the selling prices. It is said 
that all the manufacturers referred to have agreed to sell at fixed and uniform prices. 
There is also some understanding in regard to the dbtribution of territory to be covered 
by different concerns and also in regard to the distribution of business, output, and 
sdes. While all the different factories are now *' independent," the Vereinigte 
Uhrglasfabriken, Vcgesenstrasge, Strassburg, Alsace, will continue to act as selling 
agents for some of the more important manufacturers and will exercise general control 
in regard to the matters that form the subject of the present agreement. 

As a result of this new arrangement, prices of watcn crystals have been advanced 
from 60 to 90 per cent. While these higher prices will affect wholesale purchasers in 
America, it is not likely that the consumer will be much affected. Watch crystals 
were sold extremely low here, and prices will still be relatively low, although about 
double what they have been. Ordinary watch crystals were selling as low as 4 francs 
($0,772) a gross, which is about half a cent a piece. 

This is an industry where hand labor must be employed to a considerable extent, 
and the workmen employed in making the watch crystals and the girls that are em- 
ployed in putting the labels on each glass and in packing them receive very low 
wages. It IS for this reason that watch crystals can not be made in the United otates 
in competition with European manufacturers. 

SELLING FACTOBS. 

Effect of seasons. — ^The seasons have, to some extent, an effect on 
the glass industry. Bad weather that retards building operations 
affects window, plate, wire, and opalescent glass and, to a minor 
degree, lighting eoods ; a cool sxmimer affects manufacturers of beer, 
soda, and minerauf water bottles, etc. ; a poor crop affects manufacturers 
of ketchup and grape-juice bottles and jars. 

Long future deliveries. — ^The fact that goods are manufactured for 
long future delivery has little effect on the industry, because most of 
such goods is manufactured by contract. However, it often leads to 
overbuying, which results from a poor anticipation of future demand 
and judgment of the market. When this happens it usually curtails 
the manufacturer's production and lowers prices during the next 
blast. 

Size of orders. — ^Though the great bulk of glass products is sold to 
the jobbers and other large purchasers, and the orders are, therefore, 
necessarily large, there is a tendency in all ])rancho8, and especially 



238 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

in bottles, for the orders to become smaller and more frequents 
This is in accord with the general tendency in many other indus- 
tries, and results from the purchaser's desire to rid himself of the 
responsibility of judging the market and from putting too much 
cash into large stocks. The automatic bottle-machine manufac- 
turers insist on large 6rders, as do many of the manufacturers in 
the other branches who will not ship less than a carload. The 
comparatively small orders and the small rush orders go to the 
hand plants. In general, however, there is a tendency on the part 
of the jobber or other purchaser of glass products, even in standard 
goods, to shift whenever possible the burden of carrying the stock 
onto the manufacturer, and this necessarily results m smaller and 
more frequent orders. 

Discounts. — ^The following statement gives the discounts usually 
allowed in the glass industry as reported oy manufacturers: 

Window glass 2 per cent 10 days or net 60 days. 

Plate glass 1 psr cent 10 days or net 30 days. 

Bottles 1 par cent 10 days or net 30 days. 

Tableware 1 percent 30 days^ or net 60 days. 

Lighting goods 1 per cent 15 days or net 30 days. 

Though these terms are generally imiform throughout the respec- 
tive branches of the industry, the scale is not strictly adhered to by 
all manufacturers. It depends to a great extent upon the purchaser 
and the character, reputation, and business methods of the manufac- 
turer. There are occasions when extra discounts are demanded and 
secured. A very large purchaser may be allowed an extra cash dis- 
count or its equivalent m the form of a freight allowance. It is not 
unusual for purchasers to deduct the usual discoimt, although pay- 
ment is not made until long after the bill is due. 

Job lots, — Job lots are made up of imperfect ware, bad sizes, broken 
stock, standard goods of which too much stock has been produced, 
special goods left over by cancellations, discarded styles and designs, 
and odds and ends. There are comparatively few ioD lots sold in this 
industry; the ware that can not be sold is utilized to a great extent 
for cullet. Discoimts allowed on what job lots are sold vary, depend- 
ing upon the ware, its condition, how urgent the manufacturer's need 
for money is, and numerous other factors. 

Advertising, — Though many glass establishments advertise in trade 

{oumals, only a very limited number advertise nationally. The great 
mlk of glass products by their very nature have no particular indi- 
viduality whose advertising would be warranted or profitable; the 
principal selling argument is generally the price. Only two or three 
manulacturers place trade-marks on the ware they manufacture, and 
these appear on pressed goods. It is impossible to blow a trade-mark 
on ware made in paste molds or blown offhand. 

Trade uncertainties, — ^There are some trade uncertainties connected 
with certain branches of the industry. Building-trade strikes which 
can not be anticipated affect window, plate, wire, and opalescent glass. 
Prohibition to some extent influences the bottle and bar-goods trades; 
in addition, bottles are affected by varying laws in regard to size 
and capacity and by the varying degrees of their enforcement by 
States and cities. The making of goods lettered with the purchaser's 

1 Sincd Jan. 1, 1916. 



SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 239 

name or trade-mark is to some extent a hazard. Seasonal effects, 
which have been previously discussed, are trade uncertainties which 
can not be forecasted or guarded against. 

TRADE ABUSES. 

As a general rule the manufacturers interviewed complained but 
little of trade abuses. This absence, to a great extent, of the trade 
abuses found in many other industries may be explained by the fact 
that the glass industry sells mainly to the jobber, who usually is a 
reputable business man. There are, however, abuses in the industry 
and a description of some of them follows : 

AUovxinces. — On a declining market, although the manufacturer is 
usually protected by a contract, there is some demand for a reduction 
in price not as an actual reduction in price necessarily but as an allow- 
ance, which amounts to the same thing. There is also a tendency on 
the part of some purchasers to overclaim the amount for shortage and 
breakage. As is to be expected, there will be some breakage due to 
the nature of the commodity. When no maximum breakage allow- 
anc»5 is stipulated in the contract or is understood, purchasers occa- 
sionally make overclaims, thus reducing the price of the ware. Some 
allowance claims for imperfect ware are due to a careless examination 
of the ware by inspectors in the factory, which may or may not be due 
to the policy of the plant. It is to be noted, however, that allowance 
claims for imperfect ware are more numerous in bad seasons than in 
good. 

Cancellations, — There are comparatively few cancellations. They 
usually come when there is a falling off in demand or a sharp break in 
prices. Occasionally, if the ware has not yet been made or if it is 
unlettered and of standard size and shape, so that it can be used to 
fill other orders, manufacturers will accept cancellations. If special 
molds have been made or the goods lettered, cancellations will not 
ordinarily Be accepted. However, if the house that cancels the order 
is large and its business profitable, cancellations, even imder the above- 
mentioned conditions, are sometimes accepted. 

TRADE ACCEPTANCES. 

As has been pointed out, many glass factories lack ready cash. The 
adoption of the trade acceptance would help to supply such assets. 
However, no branch of the glass industry has as yet made use of it. 
Though it was urged at the 1916 annual meeting of the National Bot- 
tle Manufacturers' Association that the adoption of the trade accept- 
ance would eliminate some and minimize other trade abuses now prev- 
alent in the industry, and though such a well-informed glass man as 
Mr. George W. Yost, who is a banker as well as a glass manufacturer, 
urged its adoption, the association took no action. Conservatism or 
a desire to adhere to custom and the usual lack of cooperation among 
manufacturers are the reasons ascribed for action being postponed. 

The acceptance is similar to the sight draft, but is payable on a 
certain date, depending on whether the terms are 10, 15, 30, or more 
days, instead of^being payable on sight. In order to conform to the 
laws which make it possible for an acceptance to be rediscounted, a 
brief notation or memorandum of the transaction covered by the 



240 THE GLASS INDTJSTBY. 

acceptance should be written on its face. The manufacturer maik 
the invoice, bill of lading, and acceptance to the purchaser, who 
accepts by signing his name across the face of the acceptance and 
returns it to the manufacturer. The manufacturer's bank will then 
advance the manufacturer money on it or it can be held for collection. 
The acceptance when i^roporly drawn may be rediscounted by a 
Federal reserve bank. When the day for payment arrives the ac- 
ceptance is forwarded to the bank of the purchaser, which charges it 
to his account. 

It was pointed out at the meeting of the National Bottle Manufac- 
turers' Association that the use of the acceptance would result in the 
following advantages: It would make capital more elastic, in that a 
manufacturer could get a cash advance on his shipments, instaad of 
having his money in ledger accoimts, and would enable him to better 
meet his current cash expenditures; it would eUminate the possi- 
bilitv of the purchaser taking unearned cash or trade discounts; it 
would do away with the arbitrary return of goods and unjust deduc- 
tions for breakage; it would compel the purchaser to pay his bills 
when they were due, thus doing away with collection cnarges; it 
would tend to make the purchaser buy just what he could pay for, 
and would wipe out the oad feeling between seller and buyer that 
results from collection letters, actions at law, etc.; its use would 
necessitate no change in present accounting methods and would 
simplifv acrounting systems. 

Tne ToUowing is quoted from a letter received from Mr. Greorge W. 
Yost- 

My remarks before the National Glass Bottle Manufacturers' Association at Atlantic 
City were on account of a discussion with Mr. D. 0. Wills, president of the Federal 
rwserve bank of Cleveland, Ohio, and my experience as a banker, both of which con- 
vince me of the advantages which would accrue to all parties in interest if trade ac- 
ceptances were used instead of the present method of open ledger accounts. 

in the discussion with Mr. Wills, I argued that while it was important and proper 
that the Federal reserve banks should bring the matter to the attention of the public, 
it would be absolutely necessary to have the assistance of manufacturers, merchants, 
and vendors of any line or lines where sales are made in large enough quantities to 
justify the taking of an acceptance. 

This end can best be accomplished by agreements by associations of manufacturers 
and merchants that sales will only be made with the understanding that trade ac- 
ceptance must be signed imless the buyer expects to and does pay cash for his pur- 
chases. 

It goes without saying that, except in isolated cases, it will be impossible for a 
vendor in any particular line to insist upon this method of settlement, unless his 
competitors in the same line pursue the same course; and on this account I consider 
it very important that the Federal reserve banks and all other banking institutions 
take advantage of every opportunity to bring the matter to the attention of associa- 
tions of manufacturers and merchants, to the end that they may decide to use this 
method instead of the present plan. 

ECONOMIES POSSIBLE THBOTTGH COOFEBATION. 

Though selling expense, as shown by Table 87, is comparatively 
small, there are many economies that could be effected. There is 
among manufacturers no cooperation aside from getting together 
once a year and, in conjimction with the union, fixing the wage scale 
for the new blast. Cooperation, though urged time and time again, 
has never been reaUzed. 



SELLIKG EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS, 241 

The following is quoted from an interview with one of the best- 
infonned bottle manufacturers in the United States: 

No special antagonism exists as between varioas manufacturers; on the contrary a 
more or less friendly spirit prevails. No well-defined or intelligent effort has been 
made between the manufacturers to correct trade abuses. Discussion between manu- 
facturers relative to certain policies,. covering such matters as the form of contract, 
exchange of credit information, methods of handling breakage claims, the establish- 
ment of a uniform discount for cash, and uniform conditions covering Uie manufac- 
ture of new or spacial mold equipment, would doubtless be beneficial to both buyer 
and manufacturer. 

Various mimuf«>twera who were mterviewed offered the foUowine 
suggestions as desirable, if the cooperation necessary for their fulfill- 
ment could be obtained: 

1. The establishment of a uniform cost-finding system, which 
would enable all manufacturers in the respective branches of the 
mdustry to arrive at competitive prices computed on a comparable 
base. 

2. A centrally controlled selling agency for each branch of the in- 
dustry that would sell the entire production of all plants in somewhat 
the same manner as a large quantity of window glass is now dis- 
tributed through the Johnston Brokerage Co. 

3. A uniform, standardized contract for each branch of the in- 
dustry that would, among other things, provide for a method of 
packing and would include a specific percentage to be allowed ii\ 
everv case for freight and breakage and above which no allowance 
would be granted. 

4. Tne standardization, where possible, of shapes and stylos and 
the requirement that the purchaser pay for now molds the making of 
which 13 necessitated by tne purchaser's desire to get a product which 
differs from the standard. 

5. The establishment of a central selling or show room (one firm at 
present maintains offices in about 10 cities) which would reduce 
materially the selling cost for each individual manufacturer. 

6. Tne establishment of a credit bureau, which would not only 
give credit information and advice but which would take up and 
eliminate all abuses that may arise. 

7. The abolishment by manufacturers of the practice of dumping 
thoir surplus products m territories where they do not ordiTiarily 
sell, thus causing manufacturers who sell in that territory to cut 
prices and in turn to invade the usual market of the manufacturer 
who has dumped his goods in their territory. Tne HurpluH Htock, 
instead of being diunped in this ci>untry, should be exporteil. 

Tiiere has been but little attempt at cMiopi^ration betwemi matiu* 
facturers. There is much that c^iuld be done. SlvAfA, nhapen, and 
selling terms could be standardi;(ed« There in, in Home linen of 
products, a tendency on the part #rf the nnrchaner to itinini mi hi» 
personal lettering, trie elimination of wnicn would pwmit the manu- 
lacturer to carry larger stocks wiih^mt runriini^ a-* mnaU rink ti% ihiH 
now entails. A more sci^mtific re^^ulatiori of nUifuttmiiM arid deliv- 
eries, based on experience and judgment, wouUI reniili in a Maviii({ in 
freight chafes, woich is one of tiie i^hief it>enr4 of exf^enw^ and would 
insure more prompt and sati-fa/jiory d<4ivefii*s», 

1025n'— 17 ^16 



CHAPTER VIII. 
WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 

GENBBAL DATA BELATING TO THS INDtJSTBT. 

Among the lai^ge industries in this country glass manufacturing 
stands out conspicuously for the largo proportion of the labor cost 
as compared with the total cost or with the selling value of the 
product. The range and average proportion of labor cost to the 
total sales value of the product is as follows: 

Tablb 89. — Ranqb and Averaob Percentaob of Labor Cost on thb Basis c 

THB Sales Valub of the Product. 



Establishments making- 


Qroap. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Range. 


Ayerage 


Window class by hand • 


I 

n 
m 

IV 

V 

VI 

VU 

vin 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XTTT 


# 

37 
12 

6 


26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 


Percent, 
52. 36 to 05. 96 
3& 86 to 57.84 
27.69 to 43.30 

18. 19 to 37. 64 
38.64 to 67.30 
18. 2U to 56. 60 
30. 77 to 63. 32 
22. 32 to 54. 72 
43. 03 to 65. 93 
35. 51 to 68. 75 
24. 23 to 60. 09 
47.61 to 71.60 

32. 20 to 53. 39 


Perctia. 

56.80 


Window gl^Lss by machine 


47.74 


Plate glan ' 


33.76 


wire and opalescent 


24.03 


Bottles by nand 


53.00 


Bottles by machine 


32.57 


Bottles by b^iid and machine , 


4&27 


Jars : 


30. W 


Tableware, blown 


53.68 


Tableware , blown and prised 


4&01 


Lifrhtincr croods. .......?. 


4a 15 


«-^mp chimneys 


52.40 


Miscellaneous articles ^ . . . 


44.85 






Total 


213 


18. 19 to 71. 69 


4L96 









This table shows that in only one group, wire and opalescent glass, 
is the cost of labor less than 30 per cent of the sales value. In nine 
of the groups it is over 40 per cent. The percentage is as high as 
56.8 in one group^ window glass made by hand. In one lamp-chinuiey 
estabhshment it is 71.69 and in one machine bottle p]^t it is as low 
as 18.2, but the average for this group is 32.57. The average for 
allgroups is 41.98. 

'Die percentages for labor as set forth in the following table for 
various industries, while not exactly comparable with the perceata^os 
above because they are on a net sales basis or on a manuf actunn^ 
cost basis instead o( sales value basis, nevertheless are accurate enougfl 
for the purposes of rough comparison. 

Reports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce relating 
to the cost of production in five branches of the clothing industry 
during 1913 or 1914 show the percentages of direct and indirect 
labor cost, based on net sales, as follows: 

242 



. WAGES AND lABOB COKDmOKSb 



243 



Tablb 90. — ^Pkrcbmtaob or Dibbct and iNDntxcr Labob Cost in Clothino Im]>u»> 

TUBS, Basbd on Nbt Salbs. 



IiutastiiflB. 


Tmt. 


Lahog 
oost. 


Wmmm'ft ipiiffHi^ imdMnrMr 


• 


1913 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1914 


PefotKL 
2L54 


Hosiary 


a&77 


Bjiit anderwear 


23.14 


Shirts and collars 


aaeo 


Mfln^^ riiAtoiy.rnA/1^ <*iothfng 


3L23 







The Bureau report on the pottery industry (1912) shows (p. 234) 
that the percentage of labor cost, based on the total cost of manu- 
facture in a list of representative establishments, ranged from 51.98 
Oowest) to 66.40 (highest). 

The Tariff Board's report on cotton manufactures (1910) shows 
(p. 394) the percentage each item of cost is of the total cost of manu- 
facture in the various establishments reporting. From this report 
is obtained the fottowing information showing the percentage labor 
cost is of the total cost of manufacture: 

Table 91.^— Range and Average Percentage of Labor Cost, on the Basis or 
THE Total Cost, in the Manufacture of Cotton Textiles. 



Number of yam. 


Kind of doth. 


MUls re- 
porting. 


Productive 
labor range. 


General labor 
ranse. 


12 and under 


T'lain, diicv, fancy 


8 
10 
12 
18 

4 
10 


Percent. 
11.63 to 27.54 
10. 56 to 29. 11 
12. 55 to 30. 41 
14. 50 to 36. 37 
17. 18 to 36. 03 
17. 44 to 32. 37 


Per cent. 
0.28 to 1.39 


Over 12 and not over 20. 
Over 20 and not over 30. 


Plain, miscellaneous, duck, fancy 

ninptii^rn, plain, fancy .r ....... 


.53 to 1.72 
.37 to 1.53 


Over 30 and not over 40. 


Fancy, pfftlP, pnirtiani ... ,.,,,_, 


.32 to 2. 14 


Over 40 and not over 50. 


Plain, fancy r 


. 55 to L 13 


Over 50 


P|ain| Tni^IlanAoiiJi, rknny,^ . , ^ , . , , ^ . . 


.66 to 1.81 









These reports are comparatively recent and are among the most 
exhaustive and accurate ever issued by the Government on similar 
lines. The figures show that in none of these industries, except 
pottery, does labor constitute nearly so much of the sales value or 
total co3t as in ^lass. 

The Census of Manufactures presents a Ust of 334 industries and 
shows for each, for the year 1914^ the value of product, amount paid 
wage earners, and other data, m this list of 334 the average labor 
cost based on the value of product was 16.82 per cent; glass ranked 
thirteenth in labor cost with a percentage of 39.53. 

In the following table is presented the list of 13 industries hav- 
ing the highest percentage of labor cost, based on value of product, 
showing for eacn the value of product, expenditure for wages, ana 
percen^e of labor cost. 



244 



THE GLASS IKDUSTBY. 



Table 92. — ^Valub or Product, Expense for Wages, and Percentage ov Labor 

Cost in Industries Havu^g Highest Labor Cost. 



[Data from Census of Manufactures, 1914.] 



Industries. 



1. Watch cases 

2. Clothing, men's, buttonholes 

3. Cars and general shop construction and r^airs by electric rail- 

road companies 

4. Firesirms 

6. Pens, steel 

6. Grindstones 

7. Cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam rail- 

road companies 

8. Engraving, wood 

9. Sewing machines and attachments 

10. Brick, tile, pottery, and other clay products 

11. Turpentine and rosin 

12. Photo-engraving, not done in printing establishments 

13. Glass 



Value of 
product. 



17,831,000 
638,000 

38,577,000 

10,544,000 

513,000 

684,000 

514,041,000 

719,000 

21,392,000 

173,8r8,000 
20,990,000 
15,359,000 

123,085,000 



Expense for wages. 



Amount. 



$1,9^,000 
326,000 

18,64.'>,000 

5,067,000 

243,000 

323,000 

234,505,000 

310,000 

8,861,000 

71,896,000 

8,58S,000 

6,167,000 

4S,6C6,000 



Percent 
of value 

of 
product. 



52.71 
51.10 

48.33 
48.00 

47.37 
47.23 

45.62 
.43.12 
41.42 
41.35 
4a tt 
40.15 
39. S3 



From these figures it will be seen that of the 12 industries out- 
ranking glass in the percentage paid for labor^ only 2 exceed it in the 
value of product. 

Of the 334 industries, all those whose products in 1914 exceeded 
in value $150,000,000 are shown in the following table: 



Table 93. — Value op Product and Expense por Wages in Industries Having 
Largest Production in 1914, and Percentage op Labor Cost. 

[Data from Census of SCanufactures, 1914.] 



Industries. 



Value of 

product, 

1914. 



Slaughtering and meat packing 

Foundry and machine shop products 

ron and steel, steel works and rolling mills.'. 

Flour mill and grist mill products 

Lumber and timber prolucts 

Cotton gools, indudmg lace 

Cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam rail- 

roai coTipanios 

Automobiles 

Boots and sho?s 

Printing and publishing, newspaper and periodicals 

Bread and other bakery products 

Clothing, women's 

Clothing, men's 

Smelting and refining, copper 

Liquors, malt ~ 

Petroleum, refining 

Woolen and worsted §oods 

Leather, tanned, cnrried and finished 

Electrical machinerv , apparatus and supplies 

Paper and wood pulp 

Iron and steel, blast furnaces 

Lumber planing-mill products not including planing mills 

connected with sawmills 

Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes 

Printing and publishing, book and job 

Sugar, refining 

Furniture 



$1,651,965,000 
986,450,000 
9lS,e6n,000 
877,680,000 
715, 9-52, 000 
689,776,000 

514,041,000 
50*?, 230, 000 
501,760,000 
49 >, 906, 000 
491, 89*?, 000 
473.888,000 
458,211,000 
444,022,000 
442,149,000 
396,361,000 
379,484,000 
:«7,202,000 
335,170,000 
332,147,000 
317,654,000 

316,840,000 
314,884,000 
307,3.31,000 
289,399,000 
265,706,000 



Expense for wage. 



Amount. 



162,136,000 
280,345,000 
188,142,000 
24,59^000 
240,172,000 
149,598,000 



234,505. 
66,934, 

10', 69=^, 
88,r61, 
76, 867, 
92,f74, 
86,828, 
16, 1^9, 
53,244, 
19,397, 
75,953, 
31,014, 
73,806, 
53,246, 
22,781, 



000 
000 
000 
000 

000 

ooo 

000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 



Per eent 
of value 

of 
product. 



63,843,000 • 
68,306,000 
78,414,000 , 
7,823,000 ' 
71,816,000 



3.75 

28.42 

20. <8 

2,80 

3?^. 56 

2L69 

45.0) 

13.30 
21.06 
17. *« 
15,63 
19.53 
18.95 

3.64 
12.04 

4.M 
2a 02 

8.69 
22.02 
16.03 

7.17 

20.15 
31.69 
25.51 
Z70 
27.03 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 



245 



Table 93. — Value op Product and Exfeksb foe Waoeb in Industries Having 
Largest Production in 1914, and Percentage of Labor Cost — C*oncluded. 



Industries, 



Expense for wage. 



Value of 

Product, 

1914. 



Am3unt. 



Hosiery and knit goods 

Silk goods, including throwsters. 
Butt3r 



Rubber goods, not elsewhere specified 

Gas, illuminating and heatine 

Food preparations, not elsewhere speciiSed 

Oil, cottonseed , and cake 

Liquors, distilled 

Cars, steam railroad, not including operations of railroad com- 

paiies 

Tobacco, chewing and smoking, and snuff ' 

Brick, tile, pottery, and other clay products 

Smelting and refining lead 

Coifactionery 

A^ricUitural'implements 

Bra?s, bronze, and copper products 

Structural ironw^k, not made in steel works or roiling mills..' 

C.ie.nirals 

F3rtili£3rs 

Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding < 



$2o8,913, 
2.>4,011, 
243,379, 
22.?, 611, 
220,238, 

219, :m, 

212, 127, 
206,179, 

194,776, 
175,281, 
171,8-8, 
171,579, 
170,845, 
164,087, 
162. 199, 
l.'9,;i7S, 
i:8,0.'.4, 

i'>:i, iw;. 

l.V),749, 



000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 
000 

000 
000 
000 

rxK) 

0f« 
(XX) 
OOT) 

(Jdi 
mo 



$.'9,7.'8,000 
47,108.000 
10,119,000 
31,279,000 
26, 802, OCX) 
10',H(Mi,000 
8,49r),000 
3,994,000 



41,394, 

9,5/0, 
71,H'.*i, 

6, \M, 
21, 472, 
34, .'9}, 
2.',,0M, 
X',, VJ^J, 

22, (nj;, 

10, '.'.'/J, 
4, 'OH, 



000 
OfX) 

rxx) 

(XK) 
fXX) 

rxx) 
rxx) 

fXjrj 
MX) 
VX) 



Per cent 
of value 

of 
product. 



Total { 17,46^), 149, rXXJ 2,812, 7W,(XX> ; 



4.16 
13,99 
12.17 
4.95 
4.(XJ 
1.93 

21,25 

/J.4A 
41.*^ 

12. /J 
21. CM 

2f).97 
i:}.90 

6. 87 

16.11 



la the^e 45 industries, each with a value of product v.xoju'Alinfi 
$150,000,000, the total value of product was 517,400,140,000; the 
average value, $.388,003,311; and the avera^^e expense for wa^^e-i, 
$62,504,803, or 16.11 per cent of the value of prorluct. In the J-Mh .s 
industry the value of product was $123 0H5,000, and the expen-e for 
wages 848,656,000, or 39.53 pe r cent of the vaiuo of product. 

In the 45 industries listed in the table tlicre ari; 2-i in ^hich tho 



expense for wages was less than the S 48,050.000 fiaid for wti'^^t^K in the 
glass industrv. The total value of prorlur^t of th<^-.c 24 wm 
$5^931,940,000: the average value, «200,5I9,130; the total e/pcn e 
for wages, $470,077.0)0. and the averaj^e exficfi-.e for waj/^?^*., 
$20,438,130. In these 23 indu-tri/^ tli/; expenne for Wfi^ft^ whm 7//^2 
per cent of the value of product, 

WAGES IX GLA.4r4 AVO f/T$iKK lHUi>:ttUy,^ (OMi'AHyjt, 

The following taMe ^Kox^ the avera$.^e Wfxf/(f*, j^er Uhur tttril tivt^rnyti 
hours of labor per w(^'< in ir.e hl'^'h^!- t f/Vid ff4/,u\thUhu in eif/^h of ihit 
specified industries for Ua-, y<'H.r^ J V/; af»d l/i';'/, i%A r^^fOth^l (/y {,hiU'4 
Stat^ Commis-^iori^^rr of l^rx/r* 



246 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



TABLB 94. — ^AVBRAOE HOUBLT WaOBS AND AvERAOB HoURS OF LaBOB OF EmFLOT- 
BBS IN THE HiOHEST-PaID ImFOBTANT AND DlSTINCnVB OCCUPATION IN EaCH OV 

THB Specified Industries, 1890 and 1903. 

[Data from Axmual Report of the United States Comminioiur of Labor, 1904.] 



Industries. 



Agricoltural implements 

Bakeiy, bread 

BlacksmitUing and horseshoeing 

Boots and shoes 

Boots and shoes, rubber 

Boxes, paper 

Brick 

Building trades 

Butter and cheese 

Candy 

Carpets 

Carriages and wagons 

Cars, steam railroad 

Clothing, factory product 

Clothing, men's, custom work 

Cooperage 

Cotton goods 

Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles. . 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Flour 

Foundry and machine shop 

Fruits and vegetables, canning and pre- 
serving. 

Furniture 

Gas 

Glass 

Harness 

Hats, fur. 

Hosiery and knit goods 

Tron and steel, bar iron and steel 

Iron and steel, Bessemer converting 

Iron and steel, blast furnace. 

Iron and steel, blooming mills 

Iron and steel, muck bar 

Iron and steely open-hearth steel 

Iron and steel, rails 

Leather 

Liquor, distilled 

Liquor, malt 



Year. 



1890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 



Highest-paid ooeupation. 



Holders, iron 

do 

First hands 

do 

Horseshoers, fitters.. . . 
HorseshoMfi, forgemen. 

Edge trimmers 

Goodyear stitchers 

Bootmakers 

do 

Paper cutters 

Scorers 

Holders, hand 

Kiln burners 

Bricklayers 

do 

Cheese makers 

do. 



Candy makers 

do 

Loom fixers , 

do 

Woodworkers 

do 

Holders, brass 

do 

Buttonhole makers, machine. . 

do 

Cutters , 

do 

Raisers 

Trussers , 

Spinners, mule 

do 

Printers 

....do 

Patternmakers 

do 

HiUwrights 

Hillera 

Pattern nuUcers 

do 

Canners 

Cookers „ , 

Carvers, h^d , 

Upholsterers , 

Pipefitters , 

Chargers , 

Blowers, window glass , 

do , 

Cutters , 

do 

Curlers 

do , 

Knitters , 

do 

Rollers 

do , 

Helters , 

Blowers 

Keepers 



Rollers 

....do , 

....do 

....do 

Helters.. « 

do 

Rollers 

do 

Shavers , 

do 

Yeast makers. 

do 

Eettlemen... 
do 



Wages 
per hour. 



Sa2676 
.3149 

.yw 

.2808 
.2944 
.327« 
.2982 
.3849 
.3053 
.3580 
.2616 
.2599 
.2106 
.2^67 
. 4*^16 
.5472 
.lft'5 
.1750 
.2257 
.2^77 
.2533 
.2650 
.2402 
.2503 
.2877 
.3199 
.2797 
.3056 
.5280 
.5593 

.2422 
.3478 
.169^ 
.2139 
.4461 
.4614 
.3000 
.3710 
.2588 
.2774 
.2783 
.3224 
.1750 
.1787 
.2402 
.2955 
.2504 
.2529 
.8202 
Lir»8 
.2598 
.3053 
.4220 
.4082 
.1753 
.2017 
.6262 
-8331 
. o40v 
.6089 
.1844 
.IMO 
.4.155 
.6768 
.3775 
.5409 
.3811 
.4594 
.6067 
.7259 
.2607 
.2190 
.6182 
.5868 
.2574 
.3197 



Hours 

per 

week. 



WAGES AND LABOB C0KDITI0K8. 



247 



Tablb 94. — AvsHAQs Hourly Wages and Avsraob Hours or Labor ov Employ- 

BBS IK THB HiOHBST-PaID IMPORTANT AND DiBTINOTIVB OCCUPATION IN EaCH OP 

THB SPBdRBD Industribs, 1890 AND 1903— Concluded. 



IndustrloB. 



Lithognqihiiig 

Lumber. , 

Marble and stone work. . 
Mosicel i u et mm ents. 

Musical inBtrnmentB, piaiios. 

Oil, cottonseed 

Oil, Unseed 

Paints 

Paper and wood palp 

Petroleonif refining 

Planing mID....... 

Pottery 

Printing and pabUshing; book and Job. 
Printing and poblishiiv, 

Bope and twine. 

Shipballdlflc. 

Sflkgooda. 

Stamghtflring and meat packing. 
Soap 



Year. 



Gtovm.. 

Street and I 

Street and aenrers, mnnleipal work. 

Sagar reOnine- 

Tin plate 

Tobacco, 

Tobacco, dgva. 



Tobacco, plug; Una cot 

smoking. 

Woolen and 



lano 

1903 
IffiO 
1903 
1800 
1903 
IWO 
1903 
IWO 
1903 
IWO 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1909 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1909 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1909 
1890 
19Q3 
1890 
1991 
1890 
19n9 
1890 
1903 
IHBO 
1903 
1990 
190) 
IffOO 

vm 

1903 

WR » 
1«W 

1JKI» 



Highestpaid ooenpatlon. 



EngraTers..... 
Sawyersy'band. 



"^ 



Carvers , 

do , 

Voicers 

do 

Tone regulators. 
Key makers 



do 

Reflnera. 

do 

Orinden 

do 

Machine tenders 

do 

Coopers 

do 

Oarpenters 

do 

Dippers 

do 

Proofreader 

Linotype operators. . 

do 

do 

Bope makers. ....... . 

do 

^MT makers 

CUkers^wood 

Weavers, ribbon 

Loom fLcen 

Splitters, cattle 

Sideskinnan^eBttte.. 

Mixers 

Boiler* 

Moiders 

do 



.do. 
.do. 

.do. 



Boilers 

do 

Awortersw. .,,.,.........«.....•• , 

Tinmen 

CigarsUooadiina op«i^on •« . . . 

do.* , 

Packers 

do 

S^jfter* , 

Wra(:»peni *..,.. 

Loom fixers ,., 

do , , 



aU 



Wages 
per boor. 



f0.M58 
.4302 
.4013 
.48S1 
.4464 
.5607 
.4128 
.4146 
.33.W 
.3667 
,VM 
. 1375 
.2500 
.2278 
.1794 
.2067 
.2193 
.2634 
.2563 
.2818 
.2118 
.2802 
.44t5 

.S2sn 

.3254 
.4328 
.56W 
.52n 
.1770 
.1870 
.3892 
.31797 
.27fi6 

• 2970 
.4405 
.4899 
.18fi0 
.2444 
.2671 

,zfm 

.1481 
.1926 
.1809 

• 2ri27 
.2^84 
.25« 

.*m 

.«W2 
, 1572 

.rjtn 

.2452 



Hoon 
week. 



4g.00 
48.00 
61.88 
60.90 
61.64 
47.86 
6a 00 
64.00 
57.60 
64.00 
TB.71 
84.00 
6a 00 

6a 00 

50.21 
57.90 
6&64 

50.93 
59.20 
54.00 
68.26 
56.17 
4^«> 
46.76 
50.94 
5a 92 
4^00 
47.76 

6a 00 

6a 00 

67.60 
5a 77 
6^98 
65.78 
5a 33 
5a 40 
65u3S 

6a 00 

63.52 
63. U 
59.44 
65.81 
5fiu63 

5a .'io 

65.12 
07.99 
56.67 
56. in 
57 26 
67.24 
64.77 
64.57 
5«. 14 
5^/. 72 

m^ 

6H,5t 



This table shows that of the Of> indimtri'^ and (>vAM\}fii\(}un appi^ar* 
^ in the table the highest waj^en xntr Yumr w#?r^ pni/| in th« p:l«M 
industry, to window gliu^ hU^wf^rn, who r#?^;^jv#*^l, in TjO^'/, f IJ7''^H p«f 
bour. The next highest wage wa>, paid Up roWt'Tn in the Jmr iron arid 
steel indnstrv, $0.i'>31 p*?r hour a differerK'/**, 4ft PfMOl, or over 
40 per cent less than the rate paid wttniffwyjhArn (dowern. In only 
27 of the 66 occopatioaH were the wny/'n trsi't '.',U f^ttitM per >i/;ijr ktul 
in only 11 of the occupation* w^Te they over f/O fMftU. 



248 THE OI-US nWUSIKT. 

Tbe foOoiring table shows the hi^est and ]awest union wa^es per 
bour and the corresponding hours of l&bor per week in distinctive 
occupations in specified industries for cities in the north central divi- 
non 'if the United States: 



gtlifrr! Ftwnm, Dia«hi» balpEria 

mrtwmt *)>4 1> tllini: 

Bnmri, Dm nm in «iiar, fernmitlncniina, md at ke 



BdiMiiilindt 




t. Loula, . 



ED. 111., Cincinnati, Ohb, Cleveland, Ohio, DMrolt, Mich., Orand Rnnlds, Ulcb., Ind 
mat Cit^, U}., lUlwaukee, Wla., Ulimeapalls, Mlim., Omaha, Nebr., Ptfnla, 11 



Of tlic ;iG occupations shown in this table the highest union scale 
of Wftftfs for 20, or 55.6 per cent, was 60 cents or over per hour, and 
for 6 of thoso 20, or 16 j per cent of the total number, it was 75 cents 
per hour. The avera|i;e ooura per week in 15 of the 36 occupations 
was 44 hours and in 15 others 48 hours. 

Tlie following table, prepared from Table 100, shows for sdect«d 
oocupations of the glass industry the highest wages per hour, average 
wages per hour, and average hours per week: 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



249 



Table 95. — ^Highest Wages per Hour, Average Wages per Hour, and Ayer- 
AGE Hours per Week in Sei^ectbd Occupations in the Glass Industry, 



Group and occupation. 


Highest wages per hour. 


Average 

wagesper 

hour. 


Average 

hours per 

week. 


WindDw glass: 

Blowers 


$1.50 and over 


$0.9631 
.8060 
.8206 
.6851 

.5969 
.6020 
.6199 
.9270 

.6859 
.4970 
.4170 

.7000 
.5'?50 
.6780 
.6980 
.7178 
.6711 
.4949 
.6919 
.4230 

.5461 
.5399 
.3850 
.5090 
.5189 
.5768 


43.6 


Gatherers 


$1.60 and over 


43.6. 


Flatteners 


$1.50 and ovor 


65.8 


Cutters 


$1.25 and under $1.60 

$1.00 and under $1.25 

$1.25 and under $1 .50 

$0.85 and under $0.90 

$1.00 and under $1.25 

$1.00 and under $1.25 

$0.85 and under $0.90 

$0.95 and under $1.00 

$0.90 and under $0.95 

$1.00 and under $1.25 

$0.85 and under $0.90 

$0.75 and under $0.80 


69.0 


Bottles: 

Machine operators 


48.6 


Blowers 


46.3 


Gatherers 


45.2 


SU, ppcr grinder i 


63.0 


Jars: 

Ifachfne operators 


46.1 


Gatherers *. 


46.3 


M Id rnakers 


65.4 


Tableware: 

Blowers 


45.3 


Finishers 


44.9 


Pressors 


44.6 


Lippcrs , 


60.0 


Handlers 


$0.80 and under $0.85 

$0.75 and under $0.80 

$0.60 and under $0.(J5 

$0.60 and under $0.C5 

$0.60 and under $0.65 

$0.90 and under $0.95 

$0.75 and under $0.80 

$0.(55 and under $0.70 

$0.70 and under $0.75 

$0.60 and under $0.65 

$0.53 and under $0.55 


46.6 


Foot casters 


44.0 




46.3 


Foot gatherers 


44.6 




62.1 


Light. ng gjcds and lamp chimneys: 


49.9 


l*ressers 


50.6 




50.8 


Bl ;ckers 


45.8 


Finishers 


45 4 


Mold makers 


32.1 







This table shows that in 9 of the occupations, including the 4 
occupations in window glass and 3 of the 4 in bottles, the highest 
wage per hour was $1 and over. In none of the occupations was the 
highest wage less than 50 cents per hour. The highest average wage 
per hour was $0.9831 for blowers, window glass, and the lowest was 
$0.3850 for gatherers, Ughting goods and lamp chimneys. In 10 of 
the 26 occupations the average wage was over 60 cents per hour. 

The range of average hours per week, omitting mold makers, was 
from 43.5 to 59. 

This table also shows that in 19 of the 26 occupations appearing 
in it the wages were higher than 75 cents per hour, the highest union 
wages paid in any of the trades shown in Table 94 preceding. la 
three of them the wages were 100 per cent higher and in two others, 
they were 66 § per cent higher. 



250 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



EMPLOYEES BY SEX AND AGE. 



The number of employees^ male and female, over and under 16 
years of age, in 208 factories during the busy season of their last 
business year; not including the office force, appears in the following 
table: 

Tablb 96. — ^Number of Male and Female Employees in Factories (Not Oftzcb) 
Over 16 and Under 16 Years of Aob During the Busy Season. 



Establishments making— 



Window glass by hand 

Window glass by machine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent goods 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine. 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed. 

Lighting |;oods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



Total. 



Group. 



I 

II 

III 

TV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



37 
12 

6 

9 
25 
18 
26 
13 

8 

18 
17 

6 
13 



208 



Male. 



Over 
16. 



5,793 
2,398 
2,583 
1,256 
4,450 
6,521 
8,269 
3,069 
1,642 
6,197 
8,582 
1,398 
1,960 



54,118 



Under 
16. 



85 

64 

290 

54 

79 

407 

221 

76 

62 



1,338 



Female. 



Over 
16. 



29 



194 
328 
295 
242 
440 
961 
1,579 
152 
521 



4,781 



Under 
16. 



10 
4 
53 
61 
26 



158 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



5,793 
2,427 
2,583 
1,255 
4,733 
6,913 
8,864 
3,369 
2,214 
7,646 
10,408 
1,626 
2,543 



60,375 



Aver- 
age. 



156.6 
202.3 
43a5 
139.6 
189.3 
384.1 
34a9 
259.2 
276.8 
424.8 
612.2 
271.0 
195l6 



29a3 



This table shows that of the 60,375 employees reported by the 208 
establishments, 54,118, or 89.64 per cent, were males over 16 years 
of age and 4,761, or 7.89 per cent, were females over 16 years of age. 
The number of employees, male and female, under 16 years of age 
was 1,496, or 2.48 per cent, of the total number. The total number 
of females was 4,919, or 8.15 per cent of all the employees. (Census 
statistics for the entire industry are given in Table 5, p. 26.) 

The average number of employees per establishment in all the 
groups was 290.3. Plate glass and tableware had more than the 
other groups, the number being 430.5 and 424.8, respectively. Wire 
and opalescent goods and handmade bottles had fewer than any of 
the otners, the figures being 139.6 and 189.3, respectively. Women 
were employed much more extensively in tableware and lighting 
goods than in the other groups. In four of the groups, wmdow 
glass by hand, window glass by machine, plate glass, and wire and 
opalescent goods, no women were employed. 



DAYS WORKED DURING YEAR. 



The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average number 
of days that the factories in each group were operated during their 
last business year and the three previous years, so far as reported by 
the establishments. 



WAGES AND LABOR COKDITIOKS. 



251 



Table 97. — ^Number of Days Fagtobies Webe Opebated DrsiNo thbib Last 
Business Ybab and Averaob Dubino the Thbee Pbbvious Yeabs. 




I 

n 
in 

IV 

V 

VI 

vn 
vni 

IX 
X 

XI 
XII 

xni 



Window glass by hand: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Window guiss by machine: 

Last business year 

A wage, 3 previous years.. 
Plate glass: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Wire and opalescent goods: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Bottles bv hand: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years. . 
Bottles by macnine: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 nrevious years. . 
Bottles b V hand and machine: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Jars: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years. . 
Tableware, blown: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Tableware, blown and pressed: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years. . 
Lighting goods: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years. . 
Lamp chimneys: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years. . 
Miscellaneous articles: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 



Sitab- 
Ush- 


Nnmter of days d 


ments 
reported. 

■ 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


36 
31 


224 
240 


83 
109 


12 
9 


366 
365 


147 
140 


6 
5 


299 
299 


251 
270 


9 

7 


340 
340 


180 
255 


23 
22 


343 
343 


150 
170 


14 
11 


345 
345 


150 
242 


24 
19 


346 
351 


122 
210 


13 
12 


345 
345 


216 
250 


5 
5 


330 
336 


245 
294 


12 
10 


351 
351 


216 
280 


17 

16 


350 
350 


248 
200 


6 
6 


315 
315 


278 
220 


11 
8 


350 
350 


250 
265 



Average. 



172.1 
192.3 

245.8 
213.6 

275.5 
2H3.3 

2rV9.8 
302.1 

259.2 
263.0 

27L6 
29L5 

261.3 
287.4 

287.0 
307.3 

293.8 
314.0 

299.0 
317.0 

289.3 
287.3 

296.0 
282.9 

301.1 
311.9 



This table shows that in three of the groups, window glass by ma- 
chine, lighting goods, and lamp chimneys, the factories wore oper- 
ated slightly longer during the last business year than was the aver- 
age for the three years preceding. In all the other groups the num- 
ber of days operated during the last business year was considerably 
less than the average for tne three years preceding, except in mis- 
cellaneous articles, where the difference was slight. 

Factories making window glass by hand operated a less number of 
days than any of the other groups, the number for the last year 
being 172.1 and for the three preceding years 192.3 Factories 
making window glass bv machine were next with 245.8 and 243.6 
for the respective periods. In aU other groups the number of days 
m operation was much higher than these figures. The group mak- 
ing miscellaneous articles was highest in the number of days operated, 
the figures for the two periods being 304.1 and 311.9, respectively. 



NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE INDUSTRY. 

The data in the following table, from the Bureau of the Census, 
show the average number of wage earners in glass factories in the 
United States, the number being given by States and by hours of 
labor per week for the years 1909 and 1914. 



252 



THE GLASS INDUSTKY. 



Table 98. — ^Avbraoe Number of Wage Earners in Establishments, wrb 
Specified Number of Hours of Labor per Week, bt States. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.l 



States. 



Calilomia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Maryland 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . 
All other States 

Total 



Year. 



1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 

1914 
1909 



Total. 



Average number in establishments where the prevailing bbttrs of 

labor per week were— 



1,084 
&40 
3,764 
3,507 
9,390 
9,544 
1,184 
1,052 
2,248 
1,755 
6,784 
5,C51 
3.089 
3; 114 
10,997 
10, 159 
1,270 



48 and 
under. 



Be- 
tween 
48 and 

&4. 



203 



180 
94 

590 
1,850 

140 

181 
11 



864 

1,007 

344 

369 

784 

1,797 

806 



23,«o:> 

2J,710 
COj 
52 1 
8,889 
6,190 
2,591 
3,0j5 



4,494 

3,019 

163 



2,315 
1,866 
1,261 
1,145 



74,502 
68,911 



12,205 
11,358 



856 

100 

1,203 

957 

3,361 

2,109 

937 

482 

448 

102 

3,e02 

2,451 

882 

776 

4.515 

2,279 

156 



54. 



25 

540 

663 

80 

2,290 

1,978 

107 

389 

35 



Be- 
tween 
54 and 

CO. 



7,187 

4,40^. 

343 

465 

3,931 

2,252 

230 

221 



27,651 
16,C03 



918 
420 
700 
2s0 
2,916 
1,726 
258 



1,398 



1,241 
1,575 



221 



1,773 

1,107 

328 

198 

2,501 



60. 



Be- 
tween 
60 and 

72. 



320 

676 

1,90S 

1,584 



1,754 



151 



56 
1,361 
2,276 
1,139 



2,734 
1,645 

100 
59 

532 
1,424 

116 

166 



2,114 . 2,859 
6,235 ' 6,468 



983 
385 
417 
902 



11,394 ; 7,458 
8,707 I 13,923 



1,128 
2J3 
291 
273 



448 



1,036 



118 

652 



2,432 
1,257 



10, 7i3 
10,764 



2,550 
3,423 



72. 



240 



Over 
72. 



i,m 



363 
249 



190 
65 



439 

668 



1,1% 

i.eso 



2:6 
355 

2M 
3; 465 



This table shows that the number of persons employed in the 
industry increased from 68,911 in 1909 to 74,502 in 1914. The two 
States m which the greatest numbers were employed, Pennsylvania 
and Ohio, practically stood still during this period. Of tne two 
States rankmg next in point of numbers, Indiana and West Virginia, 
the former had a small loss, while the latter had a large gain — ^about 
44 per cent. CaUfomia and Missouri also had good gains. 

Of the 213 establishments for which cost data were obtained, 132 
furnished pay rolls of 19,092 wage earners employed in their plants, 
18,235 of whom were male and 857 female. The details are shown 
in the following table: 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



253 



Table 99. — ^Nukbeb or Employees, by Sex, in 132 Estabushmbntb Rsportino 

Waqb Data. 



Items. 


Window 
glass. 


Phite 
glass. 


Bottles. 

39 
4 


Jan. 


Table- 
ware. 


Lighting 
goods and 

lamp 
chimneys. 


Miscel- 

laneoos. 


Total. 


Nnmber of establish- 
ments reporting— 
Male employees 
only 


30 

• 


3 


7 


8 
, 15 


7 
10 


9 


103 


Male and female 
employees 


39 














Total 


30 


3 


43 


7 


23 


17 


9 1 132 






Nnmber of employ- 
ees- 
Male 

Female 


2,772 


1,040 


6,716 
135 


1,895 


2,566 
398 


1 
t 

3,063 174 ; 18,236 
324 8S7 












Total 


2,772 


1,049 


6,851 


1,895 


2,964 i 3.^87 1 t74 i 10.009 






' 







AYERAOE WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS. 

In other sections of this report establishments are grouped according 
to the predominence of the article manufactured and the method 
employed in manufacturing. In the treatment of wage data the 
same divisions could not be made without going into much useless 
detail; therefore, two, and in one case three, groups were consoli- 
dated: '^Window glass by hand'' and '^Window glass by machine," 
Groups I and II, wore consolidated under ^^ Window glass;" '* Bottles 
by hand,*" '^ Bottles by machine," and *^ Bottles by hand and 
machine," Groups V, Vl, and VII, imder ''Bottles;" ''Tableware, 
blown," and "Tableware, blown and pressed," Groups IX and X, 
under "Tableware;" "Lighting goods" and "Lamp chimneys," 
Groups XI and XII, under "Lighting goods and lamp chimneys." 
No labor data were obtained from plants making wire and opalescent 
glass. 

The above changes reduce the 13 groups shown in other sections of 
this report to 7 in the section dealing with wages. 

The following table, 100, shows the average full-time hours and 
earnings per week, and average classified rates of wages per hour, by 
occupations, States, and sex. The average rates of wages per hour 
wore computed by dividing the actual earnings of each employee 
by the number of hours worked, as taken from the pav roll. The 
average classified rate of earnings per hour was ascertained by dividing 
the a^regate earnings per hour of all employees by the total number 
of employees; the average full-time hours per week, by dividing the 
aggregate number of hours that all employees worked by the number 
01 employees; and the average full-time earnings per week, by mul- 
tiplying the average full-time hours per week by tne average rate of 
earnings per hour. 



254 



XHE GLASS INDXJSIBY. 



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n 



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256 



THE GLASS INDUSTBT. 



CO 
o 

I 

u 
O 









2 



•I 






■ ••••• 



9U 



> • • • • 



ii' 



sS^I^ 



—•eg 



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s 



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8li|s§ 




s|as§ 


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sgllsg '"• 1 js 



s 



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CI0i-40 

• • • • 



o 



00 

o 



>o 



•O JL •- 






"* CO 



pgilss 



s|i|e§ 






CO 



SlilSS 















0*2 c fe«oa 



1 Sc^l^i 



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iO<-«C«iO 



s 



00 



t 



« 






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CO 



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CO 



t^iO 'OO 

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CO 



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e« '^ 






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CO 



* • • ■ • 

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s 



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s 






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m 



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• • • • « • 

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r-l CO 






c 

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o 



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WAQBS AKD iABOB CONOIIIOKS. 



S67 



ro t^ v^ iQ 9 

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2i 



• • • • • 






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ft 



• • » • _• 



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SS3S2} 









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00 



sssass 



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3 



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3 



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s 






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too 



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g§§SS i 



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s 



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s 



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coe«e«e|^ 



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as^ 3 ^-^ 






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gsoopuj^ SflOOPH? ^flOOA.?^ 
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3 






H elaail H iiig _^ 



102811*— J7 ^17 



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I 






^ 

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258 



THE QLASS INDUBTBT. 



i 

? 

CQ 

o 

OQ 

< 

O 

O 
P 

IS 



§ 






^ CS tf 



^1 o 






^ 
























8ii|8| 



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88 3^ O 



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8|il 






s|i|s| 



s 






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si§l»« 



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o 

s 



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did 



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ss 



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eo 



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tfk ^ ^ 

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3 fl 



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go 

I 
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eSd 

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WAGES Ain> LABOB CONDITIONS. 



259 



00 



o 

s 



88 



8 

t 



o 

CO 






o 

8 



C4 



cs 



to 00 

CO r-t 



2 2 



C4 






C4 



N 



Ui 



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en 



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CO 



CO 



coco 1-4 



ssss 



3 



• • • • 



CO 



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CO 






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00*0 00 
f-ieot^<^ 



oooo 






O 






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S9 



w 



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rH .-leoco 



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49 



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l-H 

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ao>ooooi-)e 

to <0 w V wCO 3 


72.0 
60.0 
72.0 
























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260 



THE GLASS IITDUSTBY. 



I • 



I 

o 



I 

C 



a 



I 

p 



^ 
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« o b 
5*2 






O«DQ0e09U3U9OOOOO^«6OOO^9''^i0OOt»OOiHOOOOnC 






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8|ll«l 



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©IS B ®SOi9 



sl§IN 



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s|^|s§ 



*§ PT3**'© 



«li|s^ 



?li|S€ 



s|||«f 



S|i|8| 



99 



M 



N«oQO'«j>eNi 



ali|s| 



^t>.«-Ha»i>- 






a|i|8| 



C4 



2|il8f 



c: 



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SS8 I"- 



t>lO«H 



w»o w 






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NWcoe<iecc»»co^i-<c>iiMrHcce>«-^^^c<eoW'-Hi-HW^»-ie«^'^'^'"!''' 




WAGES AND LABOB COMOIHOAS. 



261 






N»0 






•>C 



no 






•N 



ao5 



coco 



NW 



■a o 
k. hi 

3 O 

eS « 

h3.J 



00 

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O 

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K 
< 

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PQ 



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f-4 <H <H t^ V4 V4 

-at 



to <o CO r» oo 53 



X 



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N 



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oeoe9r»r«ooe4C<«o 



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COsJ,^ 



CO 



N 



cq '^^M • • N 



^ CO 1^ © ■* eo N 



r- ^i^ Q « t-i CO 
>-< fH el w ^ CO 



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w 



CO 



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00 



p* 



s 






; 1-H 1-^ b» 
I to 04 CO 



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■fOO^ 

"^coeirf 



to 



CO 



oc 



CM 



C^ 



»-• OS W lO O 



>C»0 CO Oi lO OS 

^0»<-i 



a tti n c^ T-^ ^ 



CO 



I gc rH >* OS 2« ® o I 

I »-* ^ « C« N »H CS|( 



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CM«»OaOCM'^i«i-'5t 
CM 1-^ 



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w 



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ioos >ocd;o 

fH 1-H CM *-« »-< 



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CM vH 14 iC O 



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CO 



OS 



^•^•^ 



OS 



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CO 



h- 1-4 i-t 



OS 



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CM^ N( 



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boa 

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§"3 ^ ^"5 «2 



38 

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2 «o S 



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o 



WAGB8 AND LABOB OON0ITIONS. 



268 






CD CO to 

* * 4 



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s 









ooraoft 



c« 



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oeQO^oooe>o*oo 









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I CO CO ^ CO U3 



CO 

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C4 C« ^ CO 00 00 00 



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C4 CO CO iH i-H *-l CO 



s g; 



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to 



fH»H»^eo 



CO 



i-ito^oa^eo>0^>OM 



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f-i^o«N'^i-Heo»-i 



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THE GLASS 1K1)TTSTEY. 



CO 

o 

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H 

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00 9 »H r« O 00 00 

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u5 iQ u5 to lO i25 125 



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sl^lf 






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WAGES AHfD LABQK CONDITIONS. 



265 



12.00 
16.12 


• 


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58.0 


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266 



THR GLASS INDT7SIBY. 










> MP 

J2 08 p 



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WAGES ASU LABOB COKDITIONS. 



267 











3 

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17.23 






s 

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1 ■ 

1-1 


10.60 
12.02 
12.49 
16.01 


3 

• 

eo 


% 

9 

1-* 


At 


50 


o 


oo 


o 

• 


o 


00 




^ 




00 

• 



2§ 5 


OOOUd 


C4 

• 


• 






» • 


1 








1 1 










_ — 


^— 






f- 




■ 


- \ 


















; • 






1 • 








1 i 

1 • 































































































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i 


— r 










n_^ • 

M • 

■ 


4 

1 


- - 


— 


— r 


— 


— 


- 


- 


- 






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1 






















— 


— 


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1 : 
i ' 

1 ' 
























, 


\- 


I 

r " 

il . 
! 


- 1 


1 ' 


- 




- 1 


- \ 





\-~ 




- — 


— 














1 




- 
















1 ": 






















II : 










i 






















































1 






































1 




















1! 




























— r 




























1 

1 










^H 


1-< 




















































»H 


l-t 


!__ 












— '- 










cs 

■* 


1 


— 


-■ 


1- 


— 7- 


- - 


-- 


~ 




— 




'- 


- 




1-H 

(-4 
















r^ 




















—H -H 




1-1 




















M 


M 






— — 


-- 












-- 




^H 


v* 




rH 






















CM 


C9 


1-* 




1-« 


(-4 














f^ 


rH 


f-» 




<N 


N 




CHrH 








CO 









— 


--- 


1H 










»H 


^H 












fHN 


CO 


•^ciOeo-^-^ 


^ 






^1 


1-« 






: 












^H 




^H 


38*^82^ 


3 




C4 


Wr-lCUCSI 


t^ 





- — 


































WCSI 


•«*< 
















CO 

1 


I-H l-l 


cs 


1-H 

• 


^8 

• ■ 


• 


•-4 l-H ^ (-4 l-H C9 





CO t-- 

. . 

^ CM 


25«0(XN 

»^i-« fHC^ 
1 1 • . • 


• 
OS 


• 


MN 


w 


«•«*< 


CO 


^^Sg^SSS 


s 


f-l 


M — 


tf> 


1-H l-H 


M 


rH 


I-ItH 


N 


c<i(NCJeoeow 


•<l*< 

1-H 


1-1 t-t 


y-M^T-Kr^ 


"^ 


r-l 




• 
1 1 
* 1 

; * 
IB 

5| 


1 


.. c! 

il 


1 
1 




1 


■ 

• 
• 

oS 

1 

el 

1^ 


• • — 

i" 


1 

1 




1 


g . 

St* 

r 

h-5 


> 


« 


c 




1 

> 

V. 

a 


c: 

e 

'Si 
■> 


; 


i 


I 
% 
1 
1 

r 


• 
• 
• 
■ 

OS 

: 'Si 

.-4 
> 

il 

1 

1-9 


II 


IS 

J2: 


> 


i 
1 

c3 

■•-4 

.s 
> 


^ 


■ 
1 
1 
1 

i! 
1- 


3 



268 



THE GLASS INDTTSTBY. 



QQ 
A 

O 

04 

is 
O 



o 

OQ 

o 



o 

GO 



QQ 

g-^ 

aO 
•/; 1 

UJ g 

« P 

00 

o 

a 
:?: 
-< 

00 

O 

a 






o 
< 



ca 



QQ 

o 

Oh 

w 

1-3 

• • 

QQ 






P 
O 

u 
o 
a 

o 

"3 

■»< 



% 
o 

•a 

08 
0) 
«> 

o 

a 






iL 






00 






% 






»o 






•^ 3P-PS 



S 












Iff 



■C J. fc- 



C5 






Si 









p ^ 



5^S| 



■p A •r.'» 



si 



PT3 o 



P^ o 



s| 



P'P c 



'2e 



s^s;^ 



P-P 






s^l 



P ^ ••'5 -^^ 

P w O 



^\ 



P s3 c 



^ 55 P^ t) 
38 Pt3^ O 



• « • 



§^ 






o 



w88 



OCOO 
• « • 

•25 cc® 



" ^ p "p o 

•rj'2 C fcOiG 
c»* P P.i; cc ■^' 

^ip-c<^t 



N 



94 



ceo 



(O 



-^ip-p^t 



»--, ^ 1-1 ** 



d> 



<D «v-, P 



X> 



6tO P 



SSS»| = i| 



o .s 



t* 

s 
s 



s 



• ■ 

9^ 



OC PQ 00 

« • • 



(N M 



COCSI 



00 C4 



00 



^»H 04 



0(0 



eoo* 



lo 



0»-4 



0»H 



CSJ 



»o 



N 



00 



s 



ec 



04 



to 



s 



• • • 





oO 



N 



00 



>c 



CO 



CO 



C<4 



N 






&9 



SI' 



CO 






eo 



CO 



N 



N COCO 



00 






»n 



?;' 



£*« C3 "P C 

5< P -2 .2 S 

o S 



CO 



;o oco / iQ 



1-H CO "^ >o 



r>-eQ 

»O00 

• • 

CO •-• 



»c 



CO 



0)U3 



o> m 



C<4 



00 



04 






S3 



t-CO O 



04 



04 



OcOifi 

co-^o 



eocooa 

1-4«OfH 



.H04f-I 






U3 



00 



S 






«oe4 



s« 



>o 



00 



s 



00 11 



CD 
04 



?5^ \% 



00^ 






■^04 CO 



P-'/i 

P 
O 

o 






p 



"33 



be 

1—4 •'^ 



es 

I cq 



12 §1 S 



ill 

ill . 



&u» 









5 



b fe.2S« -<5 



-gs iocs:^ 



H ess* ? 



a ^ -J 



5^ 5 



WAGES AKD LABOB CONDITIO]!? S. 



269 






C9 

o 






^ 



C4 



■eo 



c<« 



C9 



e« 



CO 



c« 



m 



OQOtO 



•-tcoesi 






S 



s 



s 



fe9 

sis 



a 



oce 



M 



OtO 



ON 



r*e« 



aoM 



•cc<« 



•oee 



S 



s 



s 



CO 



94^ 



$1 



d 



•c 



eo 



MM 



•oS 



C4 



00 



eo 



SS 



CQC^l 



QC 



>C 



s 



s s s 

• • • 

<o t« a 






^ o' o 

• • _ • 

S MS S 



04 



CQ 



to 



CQ 

SI 



■O I 



«»-• 



a» 00 



$ SS 



c<9 a> 



S3 



X 
^5 



oo 



o 






eoo 



o»« 



CO 



CO 



s 



'^' 



n 



04 



c« 



SI s ^ 



04 



O C4 






»:^ 



o o 
to S 



e« 






a»t>. 






Si 



00 



t^^ 



W3 



OO 

CO 00 



s 



CO 



MO 



09 



s 



0« 



§ i 






a»oo I t» 
co»-< 1 ic 






!« 



>c 



04 



04 






CO 



oiiH CO co*-< -^ »H eo 04»-H CO 



He 



§ 



« 









03 iS 

Jl 



te 



00^ 






CO C3 



i-Q 



ass egti ^ 



•-.as g 



CO ^ 



piS 



270 



THE GLASS INDUSTBT. 




< 

> 






-2 

I 

O 

Hi 

to 

Pi 



52 



m 
9 

as 






a 

•a 



oo 

I 

O 

a 
•s 



3 9 B 



& 



CD 'i^ 



^ ds $ d 






^55 



CO 00 



iL 



^1 



o o 









s 






8|^|S| 









^ 



73 X fc. 






>T3 t) 



3 



s|l|ss 



Slilsi 



3|i|S| 



S|l|3| 



lO 



73 J. *< ,— . ,« 



gjiligl 



"1 

OS 



il«l 






ec 



^11 •S^' 



•O^o 



oe* 



00 fH 



Oi 



s 



s ;s Si 



Co m (O 

»-• iH «-l 



CO 
U9 



♦ 00 

CO ^^ 



sgil^i i 



M 












^N 



> rt « ® a c puo 



00 



^ 



jg-o OS'S.© 



et) >c 



*^S5 8 



w w V 






eo 



M 



W 



c« 



CO CO 



s § 



00 ^ CO 



9 ©a OS'S CI 



a 
as 

O 0} 

OJJl 

o 
o 

O 




fHC4 



eo 



CO N eo 



88 



S 



or« 






CO 



U3 



SS8 



N 



•oS 



00 



ss 



e«i 



CO 



CO 



00 



eo 






I §S-nS a2 






O 



o 



n Ph o 




WAGES AKD LABOR CONDITIONS. 



271 



■ • • 
»-l ^H 1-t 



O V CO 



8 



Ci» 



• • • 



OQOO 

• • • 

oStoS 



eof* 



c««-«»o 



eo 



CO 



?2 
9 



U3 



ji '» • • 



<0 <0 cO<0 



si 



w 

4 



COM 



i-H«0 



^o» 






CQi-tto 



• • • • 

cows 001^ 






w 



(O 



CO 



^ 



CO 



:?3S 






CO 



I 



90 



l§§ 



8 



CVCVCV ! tf 






^^ 



CO I 



3 



S3 



o 



1*1-1 



com 



91 go 00 



'8^ 



'«:: 



CO 



CD 00 A 00 



00 •x 



O) 



ss 



N 



h-^ 



U9^ 



to to 



(oa> 



8 

9 






e>i 



CI 






o 



cir^-^ 



'00 Ci 



9? 



H 



c«eo I lO I 



-" :S8 



I -o I 



^ . •Ctf'^S . -- 



l«i^ 



I ^ I 



•I 2»0 I 5C , 



r 
«l 

I 

I 

4 

I 

.1 



to 



I « 






^«-« -r 



'ft® 



9i 



16 



?2 



c« 



M 



00 



t-CI 



•-<o« 



!l- 



^•^00 



« 



w 



Cl 



S* 8 






It 



I «0 r- » 



'en 



JL 



9if* 



.-. ! 



§!: SiS'i 1551. i: 115^ ig !•: IIS? 



! : 



4 






> * ' ' 



uiUbt' 






<-'9<M» : 0"/ 






VS 



Yr 



y,if> 



t » 




'S^ 



■- , •-•«•• t« 









-5 

'?9 



•» — «»• V, ^mt^'J, JY -» «■» -"*'«» 






:4' 



I -gOC-^ 

; « 

I c 



- « 



.-■« 21i 



<5 



^ * — ^ ^ 



* --■ 1 s- 



« •• 












4 * • 
/ 






/ . 



-y 



^ -' -^ , 



-"■'O-fr V/ 






,* 









/. ^' 






272 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



o 

N4 

< 
t) 

o 
o 

O 
n 

o 

W 

OS 
H 

HI 

H 
O 
<J 

o 

OD 

H 

Q 
H 

eh 

Hi 
O 

2^ 

H.7 
-<§ 

»^ 

^* 

flO 

O 

« 

Q 

OD 

o 

« 

H 



c 
< 



I 



o 

W 

W 

< 
go 



n 
< 




WAGES AKD LABOB COKDITIONS. 



878 



•30c 

• • 


13. ZJ 
11.76 


s 

■ 


10.61 
11.01 


2 

* 


8.70 
6.04 


'2 

1 


ii 


9.8H 
14.11 


• 


>•• 


! :g s s s a 

1 » « • » « 

i s s 9 s s 

1 

{1 *H <« ^ 

|i S3 s s ai is 


1 99 




ii 




II 00 

^1 u^ 





0000 00 


Ii OvHCQ 

1 iS^ 




M 

^ 








1 




















1 

1 




[- - 


- - 


— 


1 








-■ — ^ 
















1 


- - 






' 


\ ~ ~ 
















"." — r 


r 






















— 


'■ - — 








' -.'- 






»* 


















































— 


'■ — 














1 










































































"' r 




























- - 




— . 






















































" ""! 


- ■ 


._ . 


1 


0m 


















— '- 


. . 


- 


--f 


















pK 


















1 • 






-'- 


91 




»-« 


M ' 


p* 














1 

j 


-~ 


^^ 


f 

r 

t 

i 

t 


A' 


«i4 
















9H ' 


t 




♦« 




■c , so 






•H 


^ 1 

t 




1 : 
! : 

» * 

1 : 






91 


i " 


^ 




:: s 




•H • 


-ii ■■ 

ii 






91 


-1; « 

1 


1 


f* 


rc»^. 


^ 5 


•H 






1 ' 


1 , 


1 " ! : 


1 1 

* 1 


f1 






1 !-• 1 -H« Iff?" -^ 


. 


■ 


9» ' ^ ' *t 


«i< 


•cc 


: 1 1' : 


1 


:;;.;; 


1 


t • t 1 t 

9 


' ' 1 


/ 


• ■ 




25 B 

00 


liBH'l 5 '4 ]?. a I!' n 

S 4 * / ' ' ' 


1 


'^S 


R g 


1 

1 


.; -^ 


.n 


»» 


1' 


1 






0*^fV, '* 



i» ,* ♦# ^* 4/ 



II 

•sis H 



2 5 1 ' = 



at8 

Mi 



**% 



Hl'9t 



V.' 



t 



'Hf<4 



■ III 

I 






"m 



•A 

X 



♦♦ 



'11 



4'f « t 



%U 1^ 



/**» 



,/ ,t*/,0 



Oft.:? 



: ^1 Ii 1^-' I ? I ? 1 3 

--3 2 = 5^ r ? ^ ^ 5 ' C' '' J f ' f f f / f. / f ..'' f . 
^ I i - I ^ 'i : - % 












I 



/• 



102511'— 17 — r^ 



274 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



% 
o 

O 

n 

Pi 

o 
W. 

H 

SO 

H 
O 
< 

O 

00 

H 

Q 



6 

SI 

M g 
W 5 

^& 

«6 
H ^ 

OB 

O 

M 

(4 
Q 



O 

W 

I 

H 
O 



H 

n 



•2 

>^ 

o 

Hi 

Ec] 
Hi 
< 

• • 

(4 
Eh 



I 






m 

I 

.4 



o 



I 



O 

o 
o 

I 



lilt 



^ 
S 



^ 0) M 
|j 8J O 



o 



o 



ili 



St? 53 






«lili 






8l§|S| 



sl§|s| 



sgils 



■M 



S|i|8^ 



H^iH 



^'0 2. t^ 



HUH 



8l§|S§ 



sgilsl 



«|g|8| 



'lil'sl 



s|i|9| 



s|ils| 



8|il8 



M 

o 



8li|a| 



S3 









tf> 






•^, 






CO 



8 

to 












(OO 



C4 



»o 



»o 



•c 



»o 



00 CO 



tic* 



00 gj 



iM 



IHCO 



CO"* 



ss 



eo 



r* 
^ 



CO 



CO 



c« 



c>i at 

2Si 



o 



00 

Si 



Sac 



Sis 



C4 



C<4 



s 



SCr-l 



■*co 



CO 



^CO 






C4 



CO? 

o»c4 



OCO 
gC5 



•o 



CO 



CO* 



00 eo 



CO 



*co 






3^ 



«* 



C4 



^ 



00 




3 



o 



^w 



C4<-l 



(O^ 






CO 



CO 



s 



8" 



«0C<« 



^ 



00 



i 

ftCQ 



2b 

o n 



08.2 

> ? 

1—1 •»< 

a 

CD 



o 



sag 

O 









o SS aI5 



Ill 



'•or 



eS 



• O 



a 

" > 

"S 



WAQES AND LABOB OOKDIHONS. 



275 



8S 

on 

8'ei 



<x 



IS. 
us 






oeoo 



"3 



S3 






oo 



C9C4 



esc^ 



•CO 



N 



N 



f^OOO 



<O00 



C4 US 



00 



ICO 



8 



col 



CO 



CO 



n 



00 






C4 



1-ICO 



C3(D 



>o 






» 






QO 



»o 



So 



*HCO 

• • I 

So 



00 

* 



o 



00 
00 






tH coco 



CO 



cs 



C4 



N 



c* 









r-eocs 



C<4 



w 



S5 



CO 



CO 



c* 



C»M 



8^ 



CO 






ot^co 
0*0 u5 



00 



£S 



■ 

CO 

rH 
00 



lO 



CO 



ia»o 

100 00 

I CO CO 



w 



CS .-H»H 



CM 



CM 



!?;! 



•CO 

I CO CO 



CO 



CMiH 



CO 



^^^ 



W5 



CO«3 



00 



00 CO 



CM 



»Ht>»iO 



CO 



t-tO 



•CCM 



CM 



o>^ to 



oo 



THrHCO 



»o 



»^ CO CO 



t^ CO CO 



. OS 

.. 03 S 

8 



88 iS 



il-l 



"3 

o 



05 c- 

I 

l>4 



1 

en 



ea 3 

ell 

QQ 



I 

Eh 



08 

ll 

o a 



09 S) 

o 



3 

o 



> 

d a 



03 

si 



«.2 



I 

Eh 



en 

t 



i.s 

03 p'Sc 

sis 



> 

ll 



276 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



o 

o 
o 

O 

PS 

P 

o 

« 
fa 

< 



o 



^ o 
Q 



(!> 

< 

Q 
55 

O 

w 

t. 

-< 
PS 

I 



< 



13 

« 

13 

3 

o 

• • 

< 

< 
en 



5 o d cfl 

j^ esaa 



• ■ • 










I 

a 



O 
ft 

s 

o 

u 
& 



o 



sl^ 



oooo 



^■§1 
U3^ 












«1-§|8 



CO 



s 






K|i|si 






»'d i fe, 









«'0 J. %< 



■sgilsi 



sli^sl 



M5 



tJ JL b 



li|si 






^lil^l 






rHC<8 



s|i|s§ 



1-1 cc 



id 






f-4 ra 

.-I M 

t • 



»o 



«3 



to US 



oo 



u> 



s 



C4 



8|§|S| 



I 
Ih 

> 
< 









^ N o 



8558 






ect>-«-i 






^ ^H 



4> 



X3 
03 

o *< 

§^ 

O 



C>4 



C4M 



5 Tl» 






c* 



s 



X 



-< '«»*o« « 



en rH 



CO' 



CO 



cO ^ 






o 



5 OS 

t 

eg 

x» 

03 
h-3 



«a 
©•^ 

S tr. 

q fl 



08.2 
> k 



3 «►•■ 



03 
O 



CO 

o 
a. 

» 

Hi? 

:^ 

• • 
OQ 

» 

:^ 

i-H 

< 

O 
O 

o 

5z; 



•-< 




14.04 
12.00 
13.50 


o 

ill 


60.0 
56.4 
60.0 
54.0 




















































1 






















- 


— 


r "r" 


;-[ 






f- |— 




















t 






















cc 


to j 






OM 


p4 




»-l»C^ 


• 




1 <N : 












s 


. • • • 


eo 




»>H 


1 
1 


»H 


Oas makers: 

Rhode Island 


Batch mixers: 

New York. 


il 

CO 


1 

T. 

c 
c 

9 

N 



WA,GE3 AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



277 



»o 



X 



to 






cico 



oo 



c« 



CQ 



• • _* • • • 

to CQ <0 1>- «^ >o 



s 



GC 

IS 



oooooo 

f« >S OD W to S 



CO 

3 



11 .^ss^s 



1^ 



Oocr>.QO ^ 









n ^ to ^ ci ^ 

tQ ^ 00 Ot 00 CO 

es »^ ^H "M »i-t w^ 






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3J 



288 THB GLASS IKDUSTBY. 

Practically all skilled labor is on the piece-rate basis; all other on 
the time basis. 

The average rate of earnings of male employees ranged from under 
10 cents per horn*, in bottle and tableware plants, to $1.50 and over 
per horn* m window-glass plants, and the average rate for female em- 
ployees from under 10 cents per hour to between 40 and 45 cents per 
npur. 

The foregoing table gives wage data for 2,772 male workers in 30 
establishments producing window glass, and shows that none of the 
workers received an houny wage of 75 cents and over except blowers, 
flatteners, gatherers, and cutters, who averaged, respectively, 96.3, 
82.2, 80.6, and 68.5 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly 
hours varied from 43.5 for gatherers to 84 for firemen and watchmen. 

Wage data for 1,049 male workers in three establishments making 
plate glass show that none of the workers received an hourly wage 
of 40 cents and over except pot makers, five of whom received be- 
tween 40 and 45 cents. The average for all was 34.6 cents. The aver- 
age full-time weekly hours varied from 60 to 72. 

In 43 establishments making bottles wa§e data for 6,716 male 
workers show that none of the workers received an hourly wage of 
75 cents and over except stopper grinders, machine operators, blowers, 
and gatherers., who averaged 92.7, 59.8, 60.2, and 52 cents, respec- 
tively. The average full-time weekly hours varied from 45.2 for gath- 
erers to 81.6 for teasers. 

Among the 1,895 male workers in seven estabhshments making jars 
none received an hourly wage of 45 cents and over except machine 
operators, gatherers, and mold makers, who averaged 58.6, 49.7, and 
41.7 cents, respectively. The average full-time weekly hours varied 
from 46.1 for machine operators to 81.1 for watchmen. 

Data for 2,566 male workers in 23 establishments making table- 
ware show that none of the workers received an hourly wage of 65 
cents and over except handlers, foot casters, blowers, pressers, fin- 
ishers, and gatherers, who averaged 71.8, 67.1, 61, 57.8, 53.5, and 
39.2 cents, respectively. The average full-time weekly hours varied 
from 44.6 for blockers, pressers, foot casters, and foot gatherers to 
84 for firemen. 

In 17 establishments making Ughting goods and lamp chimneys 
wage dajta for 3,063 male workers shov^ that none of the workers 
received an hourly wage of 70 cents and over except blowers, pressers, 
and blockers, who averaged 54.6, 54, and 50.9 cents, respectively. 
The average full-time weekly hours varied from 45.4 for finishers to 
75.1 for engineers. 

In nine establishments making miscellaneous articles of glass wage 
data for 1 74 male workers show that the hourly wage ranged from 
15 and under 20 cents to S5 and under 90 cents. The average full- 
time weekly hours varied from 48 to 84. 

Wage data are included for 857 female workers employed in four 
estabhshments makirg bottles, 15 making tableware, and 10 making 
lighting goods and lamp chimneys. The hourly wages ranged from 
under 10 cents in each of the groups to as hign as 40 and under 45 
cents for cutters in estabhshments making tableware. The average 
full-time weekly hours varied from 49.6 for leer women to 60 for 
selectors and packers, in bottle plants; 50 for washers to 59.3 for 



WAGES AND LABOE CONDITIONS. 289 

etcherS; plate, in tableware plants; and 51.4 for decorators to 59 for 
chain ffins in lighting goods and lamp chimney plants. 

Whue data regarding the employment of female labor were ob- 
tained from only estabfishments making bottles tableware, lighting 
goods, and lamp chimneys, Table 96, page 250, shows that females 
were employed also in establishments making window glass by ma- 
chine and tnose making jars. Female labor m the glass industry is 
employed chiefly in finishing and decorating occupations ana in 
packing the ware. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Boy labor, — ^In order to describe fully the occupations of '^boy 
labor," it would be necessary to enter into the details of the various 
OTocesses of glass making, but as these have already b^en treated in 
Chapter I, no attempt will be made in this chapter to relate, except 
in a general way, the connection of boy labor with the diflFerent occu- 
pations. It shoiild be understood that labor referred to as boy labor 
m the glass industrv is not always performed by boys, but is the 
work done by a helper irrespective of age, and in but few of the 
occupations requires any degree of skill in its performance; in the 
main, however, Doys are employed. Boy labor in the following pages 
may therefore be considered as unskilled labor, including a small 
amount of semiskilled labor. Most of the boys are employed in the 
''shops.'' From this it will be understood that the work done by 
boy labor is by no means uniform, but in many cases the difference 
is slight and unimportant in so far as it concerns the general character 
of the work. 

Not much boy labor is employed in window-glass factories, and 
that which is made use of is engaged in carrying cyhnders of glass 
out of the shop and in assisting the flattener. These are called roller 
boys and shove boys. 

Next to hghting-goods and lamp-chimney manufacture, more boy 
labor is employed in the manufacture of bottles than in any other 
branch of the glass industry, and the workers, variously termed mold 
boys, mold chargers, mold holders, machine boys, stickers-up, 
cleaning-off boys, takers-off, takers-out, turners-out, tending boys, 
transfer boys, and carrying-in boys, are engaged principally in at- 
tending molds, by opening and closing them as required, cleaning 
the blowpipes after using, carrying the ware from the blower to the 
finisher, and from the finisher to the leer and elsewhere in the shop, 
and in assisting the finisher. 

More boy labor was employed in factories making fighting goods 
and lamp chimneys than in any other branch of the glass industry. 
In the 12 plants reporting, boy labor was referred to under 18 differ- 
ent names, according to the nature of the operation performed. Al- 
though the work done extended to all parts of the plant, and differed 
considerably in some cases, the greater number oi the workers were 
engaged in handfing ware between blower and finisher and finisher 
and leer. These workers were variously termed punty boys, ball 
boys, machine boys, mold holders, turning-out boys, carry-in boys, 
carry-over boys, passing-along boys, cracking-off boys, stickers-up, 

102511'*— 17 ^19 



290 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

deaners-off, finishers, transfer boys, shade boys, warming-in boys, 
section boys, leer-room boys, and ^ssers. 

Common labor, — Wage earners shown in the tables as ''Labor, com- 
mon," are men doing a variety of work which reguires no particular 
skill, previous knowledge, or training. Under this head are grouped 
furnace cleaners, leer oilers, pot-wa^on men, rope pullers, rough- 
plate men, sand wheelers, blacksmith helpers, floor sweepers, taole 
cleaners, trampers, washers, tar men, carriers-away, clay trans- 
formers, coal men, and yard men. 

Other consolidations. — For the purpose of avoiding useless detail, 
occupations of practically the same kmd but bearing different names 
were grouped under geniral heads in the wage table. The occupa- 
tions so grouped are given in the following list, the first name in each 
instance indicating the name of the occupation for the group: 

Blowers, tube drawers. 

Box makers, crate makers, box shapers. 

Decorators, painters. 

Drillers, holers. 

Engineers, grinder engineers, polish engineers, sand hoist engineers. 

Finishers, polisher finishers. 

Gas makers, gas producers, producer men. 

Gatherers, baJl makers, bulb gatherers. 

Grinders, chippers. 

Hookmen, takers down. 

Leermen, leer firemen, leer tenders, takers off leer. 

Machine operators, blowers (machine). 

Packers, packers and sorters, tubers. 

Pot tenders, pot drainers. 

Pressors, side-lever pressmen, lid pressors, stopper pressor. 

Tablemen, first men, second men. 

Furnace chargers, shearers, fillers, fiUers-in, fillers and toppers. 

Teamsters, drivers. 

Warehousemen, transfer glass men. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

ADVANTAGES OF LOCATION. 

As regards the advantage or disadvantage of one locality over 
another with respect to labor, manufacturers were of the opinion 
that in normal times there was none. The union controls the number 
of skilled men available, which number is sufficient in normal times. 
This labor must be emploved and is always available. It makes 
little difference where the factory is located; labor will come where 
it is needed. Of course, surroundings and other conditions have an 
influence. Labor naturally prefers to live in good surroundings, and 
factories located where this feature is prominent have an advantage. 
On the other hand, if such advantages mean a burden in the living 
cost, labor very frequently prefers to forego them if it is thereby 
enabled to Hve more economically. Thus, a large town, though it 
may be attractive for many reasons, may not be chosen as a place 
in which to seek employment, on account of the living cost. 

Some manufacturers said they preferred to operate in a neighbor- 
hood in which there were other factories, because there was usually 
a larger supply of floating labor available. Other manufacturers 
said they preferred to be located at a distance from any other glass 
plant, because labor has a tendency to change working places in an 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 291 

attempt to better its condition; and if one plant has certain advan- 
tages which another plant has not, then the best class of labor will 
naturally gravitate to the better plant. 

WAGES AND WAGE SCALES. 

The skilled workers in hand window-glass factories earn more 
during the time they are employed than the skilled labor in other 
branches of glass manufacturing. In comparatively few occupations 
in other industries is the amount earned per day or week so large, 
but it should be borne in mind that in hand glass factories the period 
of work during the year rarely exceeds seven months, and is often 
less. During this period, however, the men in the four skilled occu- 
pations — ^blowing, cutting, flattening, and gathering, particularly in 
the first three occupations — ^make exceptionally high wages. 

Employees in these four occupations compose the membership of 
the National Window Glass Workers, an organization which has been 
very effective in advancing the interests oi its members, and whosS 
strength has been sufficient to maintain a high scale of wages for the 
hand operatives, in spite of the effect produced by the introduction 
and use of machines, which now make 60 per cent of the production. 
The hand blower and the gatherer are entirely eliminated in the 
machine window-glass plant, and when wage reductions have been 
made these two occupations have suffered more than the cutters and 
flatteners, which occupations are common to both hand and machine 
plants. 

The following, from a bidletin of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
entitled ''Union Scale of Wages and Hours of Labor" (1915), bears 
upon this matter: 

The National Window Glass Workers have had wage-scale agreements with their 
employers since 1879. Agreements exist with practically all the establishments 
except those blowing window glass by machine processes. Beginning with 1909, 
competition with the machine made serious inroads upon the scale. In the first col- 
umn of the table below (Sept. 1, 1908, to Feb. 27, 1909) is shown the rate for blowing 
single-strength glaas bv '^brackets," as that rate had existed for some years. By 
"brackets'' is meant glass cut to sizes within certain ran^s. The blower aims to so 
blow a cylinder that it will cut the largest possible sizes, since the larger the sizes the 
higher the rate per 100 feet of glass. The cutter s duty is to cut to the largest sizes 
the defects in the sheets will permit. In 1908 the old bracket classification existed ; 
that is, the first bracket (single-strength glass), any size from 8 by 10 to 10 by 15 inches, 
contained the smaller sheets and paid the lowest price, 36 cents per 100 feet. The 
second bracket, 10 b^ 16 inches to 16 by 24 inches, paid 46 cents; and so on to the high- 
est designated sizes in the last bracket, 24 bv 37 inches to 26 by 40 inches, which paid 
86 cents; all larger sizes left unspecified ana paid $1 per box of 100 feet. 

Up to this time, 1908, the conmiercial qualities A and B had not been written into 
the workmen's scale. Sheets of double-strength glass not considered salable by the 
cutter were set aside as "grinders," i. e., to be ground or "frosted" and sold when 
semiopaque glass could be utilized. 

The upheaval in the industry in 1909, caused principally, though perhaps not 
entirely, by the imcertainty as to the effect of machme-made glass upon the market, 
resulted in a complete recast of the scale. All the landmarks of the trade were lost. 
The commercial qualities of market glass known as A and B were passed on the work- 
men and read into his wage scale. The brackets were abolished for single-strength 
glass and a fiat rate paid per 100 feet of blown glass, regardless of sizes into which it 
could be cut. The rate for single-strength A was 42 cents and for B 40 cents. In the 
double-strength scale two brackets were permitted to remain, but these were made 
to cover a much wider range of sizes than formerly, as will be noted from the table 
presented. This scale was made effective February 27, 1909; that is to say, in the 
middle of a "fire " or working year. 



292 THE GLABS IKDtJSTBY. 

At the beginning of the next "fire" a new scale, effective September 1, 1909, par- 
tially restored the brackets, at least revived the principle of bracket payment. In 
this scale the two lowest brackets of the 1908 scale were combined to make the small 
bracket, i. e., 6 by 8 to 16 by 24; the old third bracket was made to read 16 by 25 to 
24 by 36, which was an entirely new classification; the old fourth and fifth brackets 
with "all above" were combined into a new third bracket. 

The next scale, effective October 16, 1910, revised the brackets, increased the rates 
on specified bracket sizes, and restored the "all above" principle. It secured $1 
per 100 feet for "all above" bracket sizes in the B quality, which was the price of 
"all above" in the 1908 and prior scales. This was practically as good a scale for the 
workmen as obtained in 1908. It did not, however, continue diuing the working 
year or "fire"; a new midyear agreement, being effective January 24, 1911, went 
back to the bracket conditions and piece rates established by the scale effective 
September 1, 1909, and that scale remained unchanged by subsequent agreements 
up to October 27, 1913. This last-mentioned agreement entirely revised the brackets, 
elaborated them beyond anything theretofore obtaining in the industry, and increased 
the piece rates somewhat, but not enough to equal the rates in 1908. The scale of 
October 27, 1913, was renewed in 1914 and is the present scale. 

The period covered by the tables here presented represents the most disturbed 
and turbulent era in the wage-scale history of the industry in the United States, 1908 
marking the last year of the old steady rates, 1909 the beginning of the disturbance 
of rates, and 1913 and since, the apparent settling down to a new basis. 

While this analysis has dealt more directly with the first table showing rates for 
blowing single-strength glass, it has, it is believed, given a sufficiently clear explana- 
tion to enable readers to follow the table of rates for double-strength blowing. 

Single-strength glass means glass that measures about 13 lights to the inch in thick- 
ness and weighs 100 pounds to the box of 100 square feet. 

Double-strength measiu*es 8 lights to the inch and weighs about 130 pounds per 100 
square feet. 

Single and double strengths were the only weights blown in the United States up 
to a few years ago, when the extended use of lightweight plate glass made it imperative 
for window-glass establishments to produce a thicker glass to hold the building trade. 
Quite recently, therefore, triple-strength, or glass weighing 32 ounces to the square 
foot, is being generally made; and occasionally much" heavier than triple is blown, 
the scale providing for glass weighing 39 ounces, 42 ounces, and even 52 ounces to 
the square foot. A 29-ounce glass, just between double and triple strength, has also 
been provided for in the scale. This glass runs seven lights to the inch. 

The table, referred to above, has been brought up to date and with 
additions is as follows : 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 



293 



Table 101. — ^Piece Rates for Blowebs per Box op 100 Square Feet fob 
Making Window Glass by Hand, Sept. 1, 1908, to May 29, 1917, by 
Grades. 



Brackets. 


Sept. 1, 

1908, to 

Feb.27, 

1909. 


Feb. 27, 

1909, to 

Aug. 31, 

1909. 


Sept. 1, 

1909, to 

Mayl, 

1910. 


Oct. 15 

1910, to 

Jan. 23, 

1911. 


Jan. 24, 

1911, to 

AuR. 31, 

1911. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


smOLE STRENGTB. 

6 by 8 to 10 by 15 


SO. 36 
.46 
.66 


10.42 
.42 
.42 


$0.40 
.40 
.40 


$0.44 
.44 


$0.36 
.36 






$0.44 
.44 


$0.36 


10 by 16 to 16 by 24 






.86 


16 by 25 to 24 by 30 








16 by 25 to 24 by 36 


.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 


.46 
.54 
.54 
.54 






.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 


.46 


24 by 31 to 24 by 36 


.78 

.86 

1.00 


.42 
.42 
.42 


.40 
.40 
.40 






.54 


24 by 37 to 26 by 40 






.54 


All above 






.54 


6by 8 to 14 by 20 


$0.45 

.77 

.96 

L20 


$6.*38' 
.69 
.85 
LOO 




14 by 21 to 24 by 30 
















24 by 31 to 30 by 40 
















All above 
















DOUBLE STRENGTH. 

6 by 8 to 16 by 24 


.60 
1.00 
1.20 
1.50 
1.70 
2.50 
3.00 
3.50 


. 66 

. 66 

.66 

. 66 

.66 

1.61 

1.61 

1.61 


.60 

.60 

.60 

.60 

.60 

1.50 

1.50 

L50 


.52 
.72 


.42 
.64 


.52 
.72 


.42 


16 by 25 to 24 by 36 


LOO 
L15 
L40 
L75 


.90 
LOO 
L25 
L50 


.64 


24 by 37 to 30 by 41 




30 by 42 to 36 by 51 


.84 


.78 


.84 

.84 

L75 

L75 

L75 


.78 


36 by 52 to 39 by 60 


.78 


40 by 60 to 40 by 65 : 


'i.*75* 
1.75 


L60 
LOO 
LOO 


L60 


40 by 66 to 40 by 70 


3.00 
3.50 

.56 
2.40 
4.25 

.58 


2.50 
3.00 

.46 
L85 
3.50 

.58 


LOO 


40 by 71 to 40 by 78 


LOO 


16 by 24 




39 by 61 to 40 by 65 : 




...... 












All above 


4.50 
.70 


*3.22i 
.42 


3.00 
.42 


3.22 
.46 


3.00 
.45 


3.22 
.46 


3.00 


Gnnders 


.46 







Brackets. 

• 


Sept. 29, 

1911, to 

Nov. 3, 

1911. 


Nov. 4, 

1911, to 

Mar. 15, 

1912. 


Mar. 15, 

1912, to 

May 31, 

1912. 


Oct. 15, 
1912, to 
May 29, 
1913, in- 
clusive. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


SINGLE STRENGTH. 
6 bv 8 to 10 by 15 


$0.44 
.44 
.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 

.52 
.72 


$0.36 
.36 
.46 
.54 
.54 
.54 

.42 
.64 


$0.27 
.27 
.38 
.43 
.43 
.43 


$0.25 
.25 
.32 
.38 
.38 
.38 


$0.41 
.41 
.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 

.52 

.72 

.79 

.84 

.84 

L75 

L75 

1.75 

3.22 

.46 


$0.38 
.38 
.46 
.54 
.54 
.54 

.42 

.64 

.70 

.78 

.78 

LOO 

LOO 

LOO 

3.00 

.46 


}$0.47 

.62 
.71 
.71 
.71 

.60 

.83 

.91 

.97 

.97 

2.01 

2.01 

2.01 

3.70 


$0.44 


10 bv 16 to 16 by 24 


16 by 25 to 24 by 36 


.68 


24 by 31 to 24 by 36 


.62 


24 bv 37 to 26 by 40 


.62 


All above 


.62 


DOX7BLE STRENGTH. 

6 bv 8 to 16 by 24 


.48 


16 bv 25 to 24 by 36 






.74 


24 by 37 to 30 by 41 






.81 


30 by 42 to 36 by 61 


.84 
.84 
L75 
L75 
L75 
3.22 
.46 


.78 
.78 
LOO 
LOO 
L60 
3.00 
.46 






.90 


36 bv 52 to 39 bv 60 






.90 


40 bv 60 to 40 by 65 






L84 


40 bv 66 to 40 by 70 






L84 


40 bv 71 to 40 by 78 






L84 


All above 


3.45 


GriiMlers ..« 






.53 











294 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table J 01. — Piece Rates per Box op 100 Square F'eet for Making Window 
Glass by Hand, Sept. 1, 1908, to May 29, 1917, by Grades — ^Concluded. 



Brackets. 


1 

Oct. 27, 

1913, to 

May 29, 

1914. 


Oct. 31, 

1914, to 

Apr. 16, 

1915. 


Apr. 17, 

1915, to 

May 29, 

1915. 


Nov. 1, 

1915, to 

Mar. 14, 

1916. 


Mar. 15, 

1916, to 

May 27, 

1916. 


Oct. 25, 

1916, to 

May 29, 

1917. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


SmOLE STBENGTH. 

8 by 10 to 10 by 15 


10.46 
.53 
.60 
.65 
.70 
.72 
.80 
.84 

.65 

.95 

1.03 

1.14 

1.3S 
2.30 
2.30 
2.30 
4.24 


10.43 
.50 
.56 
.59 
.62 
.64 
.70 
.74 

.59 

.85 

"i.'26* 
2.11 
2.11 
2.11 
3.96 
.61 


SO. 48 
.56 
.63 

.68 
.74 
.76 
.84 
.88 

.68 
1.00 
LOS 
1.20 
1.45 
2.42 
2.42 
".42 
4.45 


10.45 
.53 
.59 
.64 
.65 
.67 
.74 
.78 

.62 

.89 

.97 

L05 

L32 

2.22 

2.22 

2.22 

4.16 

.64 


«0.53 
.62 
.69 

.75 
.81 
.84 
.92 
.97 

.75 
L07 
L16 
L32 
1.60 
2.66 
2.66 
2.66 
4.90 


10.50 
.58 
.65 
.70 
.72 
.74 
.81 
.86 

.68 
.98 
1.07 
L16 
L45 
2.44 
2.44 
2.44 
4.58 
.71 


10.46 
.53 
.60 
.65 
.70 
.72 
.80 
.84 

.65 
.95 
1.03 
L14 
L38 
2.30 
2.30 
2.30 
4.24. 


• 

10.43 
.50 
. 56 
.59 
.62 
.64 
.70 
.74 

.59 

.85 

.92 

L03 

L26 

2.11 

2.11 

2.11 

3.96 

.61 


10.50 
.58 
.65 
.71 
.76 
.78 
.87 
.91 

.71 
LOS 
L12 
L24 
L50 
2.50 
2.50 
2.50 
4.61 


10.47 10.66 
.54 .77 
.61 .86 
.64 .94 
.67 LOO 
.70 LOS 
.76 L14 
.81 1 L20 

.64 .91 
.92 LS2 
1.00 L43 
L12 L58 
L37 L93 
2.29 3.20 
2. 29 3. 20 

2.29 3.20 

4.30 5.91 
.66 


SO. 62 


11 by 15 to 14 by 20 


.72 


14 by 21 to 16 by 24 


.80 


16 by 25 to 20 by 30 


.85 


21 by 30 to 24 by 30 


.88 


24 by 31 to 24 by 36 


.92 


25 by 36 to 30 by 41 


LOO 


All above 


LOT 


DOUBLE STHRX6TH. 

6 by 8 to 16 by 24 


.83 


16 by 25 to 24 by 36 


L18 


24 by 37 to 30 by 41 

30 by 42 to 36 by 51 


L29 
L43 


36 by 52 to 3P by 60 

40 bv 60 to 40 oy 65 


L76 
2.94 


40 by 66 to 40 ^>v 70 


2.94 


40 by 71 to 40 by 78 


2.94 


All above 


5.51 


Orinders 


.84 









This table shows that important increases have been granted 
regularly during the past few seasons. At the beginning of the season 
of 1914-15, there was a 5 per cent increase over the scale of the year 
before. The agreement relative to this increase is as follows: 

On the prices specified (previous year's scale) there shall be paid an advance of 5 
per cent. It is also understood and agreed that future advances on this scale shall be 
computed on the basis of the above brackets after the 5 per cent advance has been 
added. And be it further agreed that for every point of discount that glass sells 
above 90-17 single strength and 90-21 double strength, wages shall be advanced H 
per cent as above specified. 

An additional increase of 10 per cent, computed on the scale at the 
beginning of the year, with the 5 per cent noted above inducted, was 
granted toward the end of the season, and was effective from April 
17 to the end of the ''fire,'' May 29. 

At the beginning of the season of 1915-16 the scale was the same 
as that at the beginning of the preceding season without the 5 per cent 
added, or the same as at the beginning of the 1913-14 season. In 
March, 1916, a voluntary increase of 7i per cent was given, which was 
effective from March 15 to May 27, the end of the fire. 

Very large increases were granted for the season of 1916-17. An 
increase of 20 per cent over the prices prevailing at the end of the 
season was given to single-strength workmen and 16 J per cent to 
double-strength workmen, with an additional 10 per cent advance 
differential to single-strength blowers exclusively. 

The additional 10 per cent to single-strength blowers was urged in 
the wage conference by the three noncontending trades — gatherers, 
flatteners, and cutters — voting unanimously. According to the view 
of the representatives of these three trades the earnings of sinde- 
strength blowers had been out of proportion to those of the otner 
trades, and as a consequence many blowers had returned to gathering 
or had demanded that they be allowed to blow double-strength glass. 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 295 

That tile wages earned by skilled workers in hand window-glass 
factories were very hi^h 25 years am is clearly shown by the followinfi^ 
average daily wages m 15 establisnments, derived from the Annniu 
Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1891 (pp. 567 to 586) : Blowers, 
S6.526; cutters, $4,802; flatteners, $6,286; ^therers, $3,950 per day* 
Such wages were exceptional for the perioa and are, perhaps, mucSi 
hi^er tiian the average of wages paid for skilled labor to-day 

At the present time almost aU hand window-glass plants work three 
shifts of eight hours each for five days of the week in the shops. The 
shifts alternate. On one Saturday, one shift will have no turn, on 
the next Saturday a 4*hour turn; on the third Saturday an 8-hour 
turn, the day beginning at midnight. So in three weeKs all shifts 
have worked a 40. 44, and 48 hour week. Hence the average week 
is 44 hours, and tne average Saturday is 4 hoiirs, or one-hafi of the 
usual day. A week, therefore, is 5} days. 

These figures indicate the fact that wages in the skLQed occupations 
of hand wmdow-glass manufacturing have been very high for a long 
time and are increasing. 

It is not to be assumed that wages in the occupations mentioned 
have increased steadily from year to year. There have been periods 
when reductions were made, but the tendency over a long period of 
years has been toward higher wages. 

About 1903 the machine for making window glass was introduced, 
and there followed a number of critical years for both the manufac- 
turer of handmade wiadow glass and the labor employed. Mr. J. M. 
Neenan, president of the National Wiadow Glass Workers, states : 

Before the period of uncertainty and demoralization ended the average of wages 
was reduced from 90 cents per box in 1903 to 30 cents per box in 1912-13. 

According to the manufacturers interviewed during this investiga- 
tion, the wages paid in the skilled occupations — ^blowing, gathering, 
flattening, and cutting — ^have steadily increased in recent years, 
though JOT a period previous to this they had steadily declined, due 
to overproduction and a general depression in the business. During 
this period of declining wages labor also suffered from short seasons. 

As stated before, the season in this industry is short, rarely exceed- 
ing seven months for hand factories. In addition, during this period 
there are often shutdowns from various causes which further reduces 
the number of wage-earning days in the year for the glass worker. 
The machine factories have a season of 10 or 11 months, but do not 
operate with a full force during the whole season. So, although the 
daily eamrags in the occupations discussed may seem very high, 
the earnings for the year are not in proportion to the daily earnings, 

LABOR-UNION REGULATIONS. 

There are three labor organizations connected with window-glass 
manufacturing. These are the National Window Glass Workers, the 
Window Glass Cutters' and Flatteners' Association of America, and 
the Window Glass Cutters' and Flatteners' Protective Association of 
America. 

The last two named embrace the cutters and flatteners working in 
m.achine plants. The first of these two is identified with what is 
known as the independent machines and the last with the American 



206 THE GLASS nUDUSXBT. 

Window Glass Co. , These two organizations are comparatively young, 
as machines were not used for fflass making until about 1903, and take 
in only two of the four skilled trades. Ea the machine plant there 
are no gatherers and the machine operators (unskilled men) take the 
place of the blower. The "shops'' are not organized in machine 

Slants, though the matter has been considered by the National Win- 
ow Glass Workers, thus far without result. The three organizations 
are noncontending and work in harmony. The organizations con- 
nected with macmne plants are by no means so strong as the one 
connected with the hand factories. 

The National Window Glass Workers embraces the occupations of 
blowing, gathering, cutting, and flattening — ^the four sMUed occupa- 
tions. It is the only labor organization connected with the hand 
window-glass industry, and is one of the strongest of labor unions. 
It meets at least once yearly with the National A^ciation of Window 
Glass Manufacturers to adopt a wage scale and to dispose of all other 
matters that come up for settlement. It had a membership of 3,779 
during the year 1914-15, and 4,301 during 1916-16; at one time the 
membership was 6,500. 

Wages hosed on mowers' earnings, — ^The wages of the gatherer and 
flattener are based on the earnings of the blower. The rule relating 
to this is as follows: 

Gatherers shall receive 80 per cent as much as blowers' wages for both single and 
double sizes. 
Flatteners shall receive 27 per cent as much as blowers' wages. 

Hours of labor, — ^The following are the imion rules relating to hours 
of labor in the shops: 

Forty hours shall constitute a week 's work for blowers and gatherers. The following 
system may be adopted when locals so decide: In order to do away with the 4o 'clock 
snift on Saturday morning, the midnight shift shall produce a ruU day's work, the 
day shift starting at 8 o'clock and working until 12 noon. The 4-o 'clock shift finishes 
work for the week at midnight Friday night. All work ceases on Saturday at 12 
o'clock noon. No member shaU gather and blow before 1 o'clock a. m. Monday. 

The actual practice is somewhat different. Each shift works two 
turns of 4 hom^ each with only an interval of a few minutes between 
the turns. Practically aU factories work three shifts. The first shift 
begins work at 12 o'clock midnight Simday and works until 8 a. m. 
Monday; the second shift begins at 8 a. m. and works imtil 4 p. m.; 
the third shift begins at 4 p. m. and works imtil midnight Monday, 
when the first shift comes on again. Work ceases at noon Saturday, 
the second shift getting in one turn between 8 and 12 o'clock Satur- 
day. During the week, therefore, the three shifts have worked 12, 11, 
and 10 turns, respectively. In the following week the third shift 
begins first and on die next week the second shift begins first. So 
in three weeks each shift has worked a week of 12, 11, and 10 turns, 
mating an average of 11 turns of 4 hours or 44 hours per week. 

The following is tiie only rule in effect relating to the hours of 
labor of flatteners : 

All flatteners working 12-hoiir turns shall stop at least 30 minutes for lunch. 

The time at which a flattener must begin and ston work is not pre- 
scribed. His hours are somewhat irre^ar. He nas just so much 
to do — the work of so many blowers — and it can be done at his con- 
venience. Sometimes he can do it by working only a short day and 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. ^ 297 

at other times he must work long hours to do it. Table 9'5 of this 
report shows the average time worked by flatteners to be 55.8 hours 
per week. 

A cutter works more hours per week than any other employee in a 
skilled occupation in window glass. His hours are not prescribed, 
and they are often very irregular, depending on the amount of work 
to be done. He frequently works at night and sometimes on Simday. 
Table 95 shows the average hours of a cutter to be 59 per week. 

Limited production of shiUed workers. — ^The hand window-glass 
factories operate not exceeding seven months a year, from about 
November 1 to May 30, and during that time produce what may be 
required to fill orders during the other five months. As it is impos- 
sible for them to forecast the proportions of each size of glass that will 
be ordered during the summer, it is customary during the manufac- 
turing season to cut only part of their product in regular sizes and to 
set aside sheets uncut to be cut as orders may be received during the 
five months when the factory is not in blast. The rules of the union 
provide that a cutter shall be paid full price for sheets set aside, 
though they are uncut, also that when they are cut later they shall 
be paid for at full price. On stock sheets, therefore, double price is 
paid for cutting. The following is quoted from the union's wage 
scale for the 1916-17 blast: 

Section I. 

Abt. 9. Single strenptli ma^ be made in the following sizes only; aize specified is 
size work is to cut; 2 inches m length and 2 inches in width is allowed for cutting: 
36 by 56 may be made at the rate oi ten per hour as special orders; 48 by 56 may be 
made at the rate of eight per hour as special orders, witn the understanding that when 
orders on either of the above sizes are given glass is to be cut in sizes above the 16 by 24 
bracket, provided the quality of the glass is suitable. The following sizes in single 
strength may be made at the rate of nine per hour: 36 by 64, 38 by 60, 38 by 62, 40 by 
66, 40 by 58, 40 by 60, 42 by 54, 42 by 56, 42 by 58, 44 by 52, 44 by 54, 44 by 56. The 
company shall post in blowing room the size each shop single and double shall work 
on, and preceptors shall see that all workmen work on sizes specified. 

Sixty-five rollers shall constitute a day's work. In case of a roller breaking on the 
crane or on the horse from capping off or cracking open, blowers and gatherers shall 
be privileged to make up such breakage so that 65 rollers are produced for a day's 
work. 

Abt. 10. Number of D. S. rollers allowed per hour. — All sizes up to and including 
1,728 square inches, 9 per hour; All sizes up to and including 2,160 square inches, 8 
per hour; All sizes up to and including 2,584 square inches, 7 per hour; all sizes 
above 2,584 square inches, 6 per hour; up to ana including 28 by 60, 9 per hour; 28 
by 72, 8 per hour; 30 by 56, 9 per hour; 30 by 72, 8 per hour; 30 by 86, 7 per hour; 
32 by 54, 9 per hour; 32 by 66, 8 per hour; 32 by 80, 7 per hour; 32 by 60, 8 per hour; 
34 by 76, 36 by 70, and 38 by 68, 7 per hour; 40 by 54, 8 per hour; 40 by 64, 7 per hour; 
42 by 50, 8 per hour; 42 by 60, 7 per hour; 44 by 48, 8 per hour; 46 by 56 and 48 by 52, 
7 per hour. 

Art. 13. The number of lights per box in all strengths shall be uniform. 

Art. 14. The following list governs cutters when setting out singleHstrength sheets: 
6 1/2 lights p(er 100 feet; in setting out double strength sheets, 50 by 60, or tiae equiva- 
lent in square inches shall be set out at the rate of 5 lights per box. 

Art. 15. Manufacturers may set out stock sheets in amounts not to exceed 2,400 
feet per four weeks for any pot, place, or blower. Stock sheets to be set out at a ratio 
of one box per blowing. Tiiis to apply to both single and double. 

The single and double strength glass set out shall be booked to the blower at the price 
the single-strength glass and double-strength glass, respectively, cut and packed 
during tiie week it is set out, averages per box. 

The cutter is to receive full price for all glass set or* ' — ^ "'" "heets. Stock sheets 
shall not be cut up or shipped during the blast. 



298 , THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Section III. 

Art. 14. Any blower or gatherer making more grinders than provided for by law, 
or any cutter cutting or setting out more stock sheets or grinders than provided by 
law, shall be fined not less thtm $5 for the first ofifense and $10 for each succeeding 
offense. 

The production of fiatteners is limited by the following rules: 

* 

Section IV. 

Art. 1. Twelve pots shall be the limit for any one flattening oven. 

Art. 2. Where 12 pots are flattened in any oven three flatteners shall be employed 
on said oven. 

Art. 4. No flattener shall flatten for more than four pots, unless in case of actual 
emergency. 

The production of cutters is limited by the following rules: 

Section V. 

Art. 1. No cutter shall be allowed to cut more than two and a half (2 J) pots of 
cdngle strength and three (3) pots of double strength. 

Art. 3. No cutter shall work while the fire is out filling orders from- glass set out in 
the sheet for weekly wages, when such wages would be exceeded in amount if the glass 
cut was paid for according to the regidar price per box, as fixed in the articles of agree- 
ment between this association and tiie manufacturers. 

Art. 4. Cutters setting out single-strength stock sheets shall book six and one-half 
(6J) lights per hundred-foot box to the blower. 

Art. 12. Cutters shall not cut or book more than one blower's glass at any one time. 

The manufacturers object to these restrictions, but have not been 
able to get the union to change the rules. They object also to pay- 
ing guaranties to skilled workers, a practice which is not forced 
upon them by the imion but by the rivalry among themselves. 
During 1916, when the demand for glass was large, manufacturers 
found it difficult to engage enough skilled workers, and soma offered 
inducements in the way of guaranties that men they employed 
would be paid not less than a certain amount per day or per box, 
regardless of the quantity produced. The effect was that manu- 
facturers that offered guaranties secured skilled workers from those 
that did not make such offers. 

Strikes, — The last general strike in the window-glass manufactur- 
ing business occurred in 1907. This came following a period of over- 
production, reckless selling, and chronic depression in the business. 
A higher scale was demanded by the union men, but, after staying 
out 10 months, they returned to work at the old scale. The general 
condition of the business made it impossible for the union to force a 
higher scale at that time. In 1908 a strike was threatened when the 
union demanded a change from a sliding scale, based on the selling 
price of glass, to a flat price. The demand was granted. 

During the spring of 1916 the snappers in most of the hand window- 

f;lass factories demanded higher wages and recognition as a union, 
n most instances an increase was granted, and in a number of cases 
before the demands of the men were formulated, but the manu- 
facturers would not recognize them as a imion, principally because 
such action was thought to be contrary to what tne other union men 
of the shop desired. 

Holidays, — ^The following is the agreement with reference to 
holidays: 

There shall be no glass blown, gathered, flattened, or cut, on the following holidays: 
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Labor Day. 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 200 

Right to enter factory, — ^Members of the union have the privilege of 
entering the factory as explained by the following rule: 

No member of the National M^dow Glass Workers shall be denied the right to 
enter any factory, flattening house, or cuttinf^ room where the national scale is in 
f(»ce. This not to apply to men under the influence of strong drink, sleeping in 
factories, or using abusLve language. 

Union dues. — ^Union dues are collected according to the following 
provisions: 

Manufacturers shall deduct from the earnings of all members of the National Win- 
dow Glass Workers working for them 2 per cent of the amount earned, for dues to the 
National Window Glass Workers, and shall, within 10 da^s after each and every 
settlement, present a check, for the full amount to the chief precei>tor, payable to 
the Secretai^ of the National Window Glass Workers, togetner with uie names, 
amounts earned, and the amoimt paid by each member during said period, same to 
be forwarded by the chief preceptor to the national secretary. No debt of any kind 
that a member contracts shall prevent the deduction of this 2 per cent, and any manu- 
facturer who overpays or fails to deduct and forward said money for dues shall be 
liable to the National Window Glass Workers for the payment of same, whether the 
member has anything due him or not. This also applies to entire earnings for boss 
cutters. All bills to be presented weekly with the amount earned. Said bills to 
have the amount of glass cut in each bracket and the amount of A and B. 

BOTTLES. 
EFFECT OF SHOP SYSTEM ON LABOR. 

The "shop" system which is still in vogue was established in the 
glass factories of the United States and Canada in 1870.^ A "shop'' 
consists of three men who divide the operations of gathering, blow- 
ing, and finishing. 

Between 1870 and 1905 the production per blower increased 138 
per cent for the medium line of ware, viz, 8-oimce bottles. This 
merease was partly due to the substitution of the tank for the old- 
style furnace, as the average product of the blower increased 25 per 
cent after its introduction. As a result of this increase, and through 
the influence of a powerful labor union, wages for slalled labor in 
bottle manufacturing maintained a very high level through this 
period as compared with the wages received in the skilled occupations 
of other industries. 

About 1896 a machine was introduced that was commercially 
successful, and, though it was crude and was restricted to wide- 
mouth bottles and jars, it marked the beginning of a revolution in. 
bottle manufacturing which had the most serious effect on labor. 

In 1903 the Owens automatic machine was introduced, the first 
type of which made only narrow-mouth bottles; later this was per- 
fected to make any kind of bottle. The remarkable production 
obtained from this machine without the use of skilled labor soon 
demonstrated to aU bottle manufacturers that if they were to com- 
pete with it, it would be necessary to make a saving in that highest 
element of cost — ^labor. 

To this end manufacturers exerted their utmost ingenuity, and, 
as a result, there is now a great variety of machines in use, ana prac- 
tically 80 per cent of the bottles produced is from machines. 

1 Report of Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries of New Jersey, 1905, p. 200. 



800 



THE 0LA88 INDU8TBY, 



The effect on labor can readily be imaged* With the growth 
of the use of machines the niunber of skilled laborers* constantly 
dindnished. The condition of the hand manufacturers was such 
^at wage reductions had to be requested. It is to the credit of the 
employees that such reductions were submitted to, not entirely 
because they could not be resisted, but because of an honest desire 
to share mutually with the manufacturers the burden of a situation 
in which all were placed. 

PIECE PRICES, 1907 TO 1917. 

The following tables give in detail the piece prices prevailing for 
the seasons of 1907-8 to 1916-17, inclusive: 

Table 102. — Glass Bottles (Hand Blown): Piece Rates per Gross Paid to 

Blowers, 1907 to 1917. 





Capacity. 


Weight. 


1907-1912 


191^1914 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1916-17 


Kind of bottle. 


■ 

o 

a 

1 

Jz; 

10.54 

.58 
.61 
.67 


• 

1 

1 

$0.58 

.61 
.64 
.72 
.80 
.89 
1.20 
1.57 
.58 

.61 
.66 
.74 
.83 
.94 
1.24 
1.66 
.60 

.64 
.69 
.76 
.87 
.98 
1.32 
1.80 


• 

1 

i 

$0.54 

.58 
.49 
.54 
.61 
.69 
.91 
1.22 
.56 

.58 
.50 
.56 
.64 
.72 
.95 
1.30 
.58 

.62 
.54 
.59 
.68 
.77 
1.04 
1.42 


• 

O 

.a 

i 

$0.58 

.61 
.51 
.58 
.64 
.71 
.96 
1.26 
.58 

.61 
.53 
.59 
.66 
.75 
.99 
1.33 
.60 

.64 
.55 
.61 
.70 
.78 
1.06 
1.44 


• 

1 

i 

$0.43 

.46 
.49 
.54 
.61 
.69 
.91 
1.22 
.45 

.46 
.50 
.56 
.64 
.72 
.95 
1.30 
.46 

.50 
.54 
.59 
.68 
.77 
1.04 
1.42 


• 

§ 


• 

1 
1 

Jz; 


1 
■s 

$0.46 

.49 
.51 
.58 
.64 
.71 
.96 
1.26 
.46 

.49 
.53 
.59 
.66 
.75 
.99 
1.33 
.48 

.61 
.55 
.61 
.70 
.78 
1.06 
1.44 


3 

O 

a 
1 

$0.47 

.61 
.54 
.59 
.67 
.76 
1.00 
1.34 
.49 

.51 
.55 
.62 
.70 
.79 
1.05 
1.43 
.51 

.55 


5 

a 


Prescription, round and 
fluted, long and short. 
Do 


^ dram to 

1 ounce. 

2ounoes.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces.. 
6 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 

1 ounce... 

2 ounces.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces.. 
Bounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 
1 ounce... 

2ounce»s.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces., 
dounoes.. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 


li ounces. 

2 ounces.. 
2^ ounces. 
3i ounces. 


$0.46 

.49 
.51 
.58 
M 
.71 
.96 
1.26 
.46 

.49 
.53 
.69 
.66 
.75 
.99 
1.33 
.48 

.51 
.55 
.81 
.70 
.78 
1.06 
1.44 


$0.43 

.46 
.49 
.64 
.61 
.69 
.91 
1.22 
.45 

.46 
.50 
.56 
.64 
.72 
.95 
1.30 
.46 

.50 
.54 
.59 
.68 
.77 
1.04 
1.42 


10.51 
.54 


Do 


S() 


Do 


.64 


Do 


5 ounces. . . 76 


,70 


Do 


6| ounces. 

11 ounces. 
18 ounces, 
li ounces. 

2 ounces.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces.. 
5} ounces. 

7 ounces.. 

12 ounces. 
20 ounces. 
1^ ounces. 

2} ounces. 
3^ ounces. 
4| ounces. 
6 ounces.. 

8 ounces.. 
14 ounces. 
22 ounces. 


.86 
1.14 
1.52 

.56 

.58 
.63 
.70 
.80 
.90 
1.19 
1.62 
.58 

.62 
.67 
.74 
.85 
.96 
1.30 
1.78 


,78 


Do 


1.06 


Do 


1.39 


Prescription, oval, French 
square, tall Blake, and 
tallohlong. 
Do...... 


.61 

■ 

,64 


Do 


68 


Do 


.65 


Do 


.78 


Do 


.83 


Do 


1.09 


Do 


1.46 


Flat, short Blake, and 
short oblong. 
Do 


.53 

.Hi 


Do 


.59i .61 
.65 .67 


Do 


Do 


.75' .77 


Do 


.85 .86 


Do 


1.14 1.17 


Do 


1.56 1-SS 




- T ■ 


_ 



WAGS8 AKD LABOB OOKPITIOKS. 



SOI 



Table 103. — GiAss Bottus and Jabs (Machinb): Rates pee 100 Pieces Paw to 

Maohinb Opsratoks, 1907 to 1917. 



Kind of bottle. 



Capacity. 



Prescription, miscellaneous oval, 
and French square, half oval, 
one side flat. 

Round castor oil and lemon sirup. 
Do 



jounce. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Oval castor oil. 
Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Panel and cod-liver oil. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Bulb-neck panel 

Do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Nursing bottles (strai^t neck) . . 

Do 

Do 

Baking powder 

Do 

Oatsup 

'Sponge, -varnish, blacking, glue: 

Round polish , 

Square polish , 

Roun d clacking , 

Do. 



1 ounce 

2 ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

8 ounces 

16 ounces 

32 ounces.... 

1 ounce 

2 ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

Bounces 

16 ounces 

1 ounce 

2 ounces 

Bounces 

4 ounces 

Bounces 

16 ounces 

32 ounces 

1 ounce 

2ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

Bounces 

16 ounces 

6 ounces 

Bounces 

12 ounces 

^ pound 

1 pound 

4 ounces 



.do. 
.do. 



Horse-radish, pickle, and chow: 

Round horse-raaish 

Round pickle 

Fluted pickle 

Fluted diow 

Oblong pickle 

Flat pickle 

Oblong pickle 

Octagon pickle 

BquareiMckle 

Hexagon pickle 

Oblong iMCkle 

Mustard: 

Round-pot mnstazd 

Do 

Fluted-pot mustard 

Do 

Octagon-pot mnstard 



6 ounces- 
8 ounces. 



4 ounces... 
Bounces.., 
11 ounces.. 

do 

6 ounces... 
do 



Weight. 



1907- 
1912 



1912-13 



jounce I $0.54 



l\ 



ounces... 
2i ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

6^ ounces 

11 ounces.... 

20 ounces 

1} ounces 

2| ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

Trounces.... 

12 ounces.... 

2 ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

5 ounces 

10 ounces 

16 ounc«*s 

26 ounces 

2\ oini(<*.> 

3i oumcs 

5ounc<;s 

6oun(cs 

10 ounces 

22 ounces 

5 ounces 

7 ounces 

lOo'ina^s 

6 ounces 

Bounces 

4ounoe8 



I 



5 J ounces,. 
(ioun(ti'/i... 

ounces. . 



?i 



8 ounces 

do 

16 ounces 

feouxtcefc 

do 

16 ounces..., 



4 J ounces 

7ouncc> 

9oimtAi^ 

lOounw^ 

Houncji'^ 

7i ouncjtti 

9tfUti<Ai>: 

12 oun^^r •>.,,, 

Ifj OUIKtt^i 

16vun*;efe.,,. 



4 ounce* 4J oun'**. 

6 fJUli <*i>, h ifitWHiftt . . 

<io. -,,,,, ^ '/uii*>«5i., 

8 uunoe* V iyxii**y^ . , 

do dv,.,. 



.60 

.65 

.70 

.76 

.92 
1.14 
1.62 

.58 

.62 

.69 

.77 

.96 
1.19 

.59 

.65 

.73 

.80 
1.14 
1.44 
2.04 

.61 

.«0 

.SO 

.N6 
1,15 
1.80 

,76 

.90 
1. 08 

.72 

.85 

,70 

.15 I 
.16^ 
.J6J 
.18 . 

,Hi ' 
,1<H 

.21 i 
,20 I 

,2ii 
.22 

.'£i 
.24 
.'ifi , 

.15 

J.'y 

J5 
,18 
,18 



to. 54 



.60 

.65 

.70 

.76 

.92 

1.14 

1.62 

.68 

.62 

.69 

.77 

.96 

1.19 

.59 

.65 

.73 

.80 

.91 

1.15 

l.(Ki 

.61 

.69 

.80 

.86 

1.15 

1,80 

.61 

.72 

,86 

.58 

.68 

.70 

.15 

,m 

.16} 
,18 

,144 

.16! 

.18 

,21 

.20 

.'/it 

,22 

.22i 

,'/» 

.24 

,28 

.15 
J5 
.15 
.18 
,i8 



1913- 
1915 


1915-16 


1916-17 


10.54 


10.48 


10.47 


.60 


.48 


.58 


.65 


.52 


,57 


.70 


.56 


.62 


.76 


.61 


.67 


.92 


.74 


.81 


1.14 


.91 


1.00 


1.62 


1.30 


1.43 


.58 


.46 


.51 


.62 


.50 


.55 


.69 


.55 


.61 


.77 


.62 


.68 


.96 


.77 


.85 


1.19 


.95 


1.05 


.59 


.47 


.52 


.65 


.52 


.57 


.73 


.58 


.64 


.80 


.64 


.70 


.01 


.91 


1,W 


1.15 


1.15 


1.27 


i.iSW 


l.<i:t 


1.70 


.61 






.60 






.80 






.86 






1.15 






1.80 






.61 


.61 


.67 


,72 


.72 


,79 


.86 


,86 


.95 


.58 


,58 


,64 


,68 


.68 


,75 


.70 


.70 


,77 


.15 


.15 


,15 



,164 I 

. 165 I 
,18 I 

,144 i 
, 16} , 
,18 1 
.21 ' 
,20 

.22 

,m 

,23 
,24 

,28 

.\r> 

.15 
,15 
./8 
AH 



,14 

.m 

,18 

,144 

,16} 

J8 

,21 

.'JUi 

.20 

,2H 

,22 

/m 

//a 

.15 
,15 
,15 
J8 
,18 



I 



,164 
,16} 

,i8 

,141 
,16| 

.1? 

.21 

.20 

.20 

,21 

,22 

,m 

,24 
.28 

,15 

.15 

,18 



302 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 104. — Glass Bottles and Jabs (Machine): Bates peb 100 Pieces Paid to 

Machine Opebatobs, 1908 to 1917. 



Kind of bottle. 



Jars, fruit: 

Improved Ifason , 

Jamjar 

Improved top, Mason 

Do 

MiUc: 

Jpint 

ipint 

IpiDt 

1 quart 

Cherry and olive: 

Round 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Jelly and tumblers: |-pint jelly glasses. . 
Vaseline, pomade, mucilage, andf paste: 

Round, wlde-moul^ vaseline 

Do 

Do i 

Do 

Jams, preserves: 

Round, preserves 

Round,jam 

Round, preserves 

Round,jam x.. 

Round, preserves 

Prescription, bromo, and morphine: 

Square, morphine 

Hound, bromo 

Do 

Do 



Capacity. 



Ipint.. 

do., 

1 quart, 
^^lon. 



3} ounces. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 

12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 
18 ounces. 
27 ounces. 
8 ounces.. 



1 ounce.. 

2 ounces. 
4 ounces. 
8 ounces. 



I do... 

7 ounces.. 
12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 
do... 



1 ounce... 
f ounce... 
2} ounces. 
5 ounces.. 



Weight. 



7 ounces.. 
11 ounces. 
15 ounces. 
26 ounces. 

11 ounces. 
13 ounces. 
15 ounces. 
22 ounces. 
6 ounces.. 



2 ounces. 

do-. 

5 ounces. 
7 ounces. 



8 ounces... 
8j^ ounces.. 
10 ounces.. 
11} ounces. 
14 ounces.. 



2 ounces.. 
1| ounces. 
3^ ounces. 
6 ounces.. 



1908-1917 



SO. 15 
.15 
.18 
.2H 

.17 
.21 
.25 
.38 

.20 
.21 
.26 
.30 
.13 

.12 
.12 
.14 
.15 

.15 
.16 
.18 
.18 
.23} 

.m 
.i3i 

.14} 

.17 



Table 105. — Glass Bottles (Hand Blown): Piece Rates peb Gboss Paid to 

Blowebs, 1907 TO 1917. 



Kind of bottle. 


Capacity. 


Weight. 


1907-8 


190»-1912 


1913-1917 


Pickle jars: 

BaitiTHore stvle - 




6 ounces 

8 ounces 

12 ounces 

16 ounces 

4 ounces 

8 ounces 

12 ounces 

16 ounces 


$0.86 
.98 
L18 
1.42 
.72 
1.02 
1.24 
1.46 
a. 26 
a. 42 
0.78 

h.m 

b.l4i 

1.32 

1.S9 

1.38 

2.11 

.83 
1.18} 
1.41 

.99 
1.23 
L71 

.77 
1.09 
1.39 
1.24 
1.38 
1.72 


SO. 86 
.98 
1.18 
L42 
.72 
1.02 
1.24 
1.46 
a. 26 
a. 42 
a. 78 

h.m 

b.l4} 

1.06 

1.27 

1.10 

L69 

.83 

.95 

1.13 

.79 

.98 

1.37 

.77 

1.09 

1.39 

1.24 

1.38 

1.72 


so.ee 


Do 




.78 


Do 




.94 


Do 




1.14 


Olive list 




.58 


Do 




.82 


Do 




.99 


Do 




1.17 


Demilnhns &iid c&rbovs . 


1 zallon 


0.26 


Do 


2 gallons 




a. 42 


Do 


4 gallons 




0.78 


Do 


8saIlons 




6.08 
b.U 


Do 


16 eallons 




Bulb-neck or exnort beer 


1 pmt 


14 to 16 ounces. 
22 to 24 ounces. 


.85 


Do 


1 quart 

16 ounces 


1.02 


Lasrer beer chamDasme shane 


.88 


AnDollinaris and select beer 


32 oiiT»f«s- 




1.35 


Mineral water and erinEer ale 




6 oimces 

12 ounces 

16 oimces 

8 ounces 

13 ounces 

24 ounces 

8 ounces 

12 ounces 

15 ounces 

12 ounces 

16 ounces 

21 ounces 


.66 


Do 




.76 


Do 




.90. 


Whisky 


8 ounces 

16 ounces 

32 ounces 


.63 


Do 


.78 


Do 


1.10 


Flasks 


.75 


Do 




.91 


Do 




1.01 


Milk jars 


h Dint 


1.24 


Do 


1 ^^^^v ......... 

1 pint 


1.38 


Do 


2pints 


1.72 




, 



a Per dozen. 



ft Per bottle. 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 303 

For the season of 1907-8 a reduction was made in certain bimdoBte. 
In 1912 a very heavy reduction was made, affecting many <yf the 
most important brackets of the Ust. The scale of 1912-13 piermiled 
during tne following season. For the season of 1914-15 a redoctian 
of 20 per cent from the scale of the year before was made for pre- 
scription, miscellaneous oval and French square, round castor-oil and 
lemon sirup, oval castor-oil, and panel and cod-liver oil bottles. 
The scale of 1914-15 remained in effect, without change, during the 
next season. For the season of 1916-17 the first advance in many 
years was granted. The increase was for 10 per cent, and covers 
all lines of ware in the hand-blown department tnat had been reduced 
in 1912, except beer, soda, flasks, and a few miscellaneous bottles. 

According to D. A. Hayes, president, and William Launer, secre- 
tary, of the Glass Bottle ISlowers' Association, the average wage of 
11,000 skilled glass blowers in the United States was in 1913 about 
$4.60 per day.* 

GLASS BOTTLE BLOWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

According to President Denis A. Hayes, of the Glass Bottle Blowers, 
Association of the United States and Canada, this organization, 
which is the only union in this branch of the industry, had its start 
in 1847.^ Originally it included only labor in the skilled occupations, 
blowing and finishing, but at the present time may include all workers 
except mold makers, engineers, and firemen. 

A national wage scale was adopted in 1861. For 35 years, accord- 
ing to Mr. Hayes, the union struggled to get the employers to meet 
with them for the purpose of agreeing to a wage scale. Finally 
thejT consented, and at first annual meetings tool place, but later 
semiannual meetings were held, which is the custom at tiie present 
time. Hie first meeting is held in May, the second in August. 

History of the organisation. — The glass-bottle blowers were first 
organized in separate and independent Eastern and Western Leagues 
of Green Glass Bottle Blowers. In 1886 each became afiiliated with 
the Knights of Labor, as Assembly Nos. 149 and 143, respectively. 
As early as 1886 there is record of annual conferences between tne 
eastern and western leagues of blowers and of loosely organized 
associations of east^n and western bottle manufacturers. 

As a result of tliese independent meetingH, the two unions often 
found themselTes working at cross pnrpimm. Fre<|uently concessions 
granted by one of the umons would be vmtd to force conamwtm from 
the other. In addition, owing to tlwj fa^^t tlrnt loixnuiyimtn bbwftrs 
often went from one district to the otlii5r, it hmanw hmr&HHmf;\y 
difficult to discipline the member^liip. On iu*Aumni of thi^) thini<H, 
steps were taken looking to a cofmohdatUfn of iUc^ two uiiiorm, ThIh 
was accomplished in WM, when th<fV nmU^A in otut body umhr the 
title of the National Trad/r* A)^*4a\fly, At iImi mtum iUm ih« »<*/> 
tional conferences of pre^^^^ling ycHtu wan mitwAUHUtA by nnt'umtil con- 
ferences between Tepr^*i4*uUiitvii^ of i\ii*, u/jio/m and in th<^ rniiriufac- 
turers. In July, 1891- tUa abVf//il>ly wilfidnrw frorn th« Knij'ht^ of 
Labor to become tlie ixrh^m i'lht^^ l^Ufy/iti%* Abb^K^ittUon of th« L'niUid 



804 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

States and Canada. The present name is the Glass Bottle Blowers* 
Association of the United States and Canada. 

Relations with Tnanwfdcturera. — ^During the first few years following 
the amalgamation of the unions, the conflicting interests of the 
eastern and western manufacturers operated to make difficult the 
purpose of the conference. Gradually the manufacturers' associa- 
tion developed into a more compact and more homogenous organi- 
zation. At the present time it is unlikely that there coiJid be found 
a better example of successful collective bargaining than that which 
is carried on between the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association and their 
employers. On this point Mr. Leo Wolman writes as follows:^ 

The agreement between the Glass Bottle Blowers^ Association and the National 
Glass Vial and Bottle Manufacturers' Association furnished an impressive and an 
instructive exhibit of the feasibility of carrying on for a long term of ^ears a peaceful 
and mutually agreeable system of collective bargaining. While friction between 
ihe parties to the agreement has at times been great, and while the agreement has 
often been almost at the breaking point, yet so enlightened has been the policy of 
the representatives of both the union and the manufacturers' association, in granting 
concessions and yielding upon disputed points, that the agreement has operated in 
one form or another for almost a quarter oi a century. Nor have external conditions 
been particularly favorable to the continued life of the agreement. The technical 
revolution of the industry, beginning in the middle nineties with the installation 
of the so-called automatic machine, and intensified after 1900 by the invention and 
the later extensive use of the Owens automatic machine for the manufacture of glass 
bottles, has presented to the conferences of the manufacturers and their employees 
problems that every year become more perplexing and difficult of solution. The 
promulgation of working rules to govern those members of the union who were em- 
ployed on the semiautomatic machines, the regulation of the wage scale so as to re- 
tain a fair wage for the glass blower, and at the same time to permit the employer of 
hand blowers to compete against the machine, and finaUy a readjustment of wage 
scales designed to meet the competition of the automatic, are a few of the problems 
which have received at the hand of the annual conference, if not a perfect solution, 
at least a workable settlement. 

Conference agreements, — Unlike those national agreements which 

f)rovide only the machinery for the settlement of disputes and which 
eave to the local unions the formation of working rules, and in some 
cases wage rates, the agreement of the Bottle Blowers' Association 
(the union) with the manufacturers fixes in detail practically all the 
conditions of employment of the glass-bottle workers. The local 
unions can legislate only upon such matters as are concerned with 
the internal government of the union. When, however, some unfor- 
seen question arises during the year, an attempt is first made to settle 
the matter in conference between the factory committee and the 
employer, and, if they are unable to arrive at an agreement, the 
question is referred to the president of the union. 

All matters of whatever nature which are to come up for settlement 
with the manufacturers' organization must be presented at the May 
conference, unless they originate later than that date, in which case 
they are presented at the final conference in August. Matters upon 
which adjustment is desired are usually presented in the form of 
resolutions from local unions or from individual manufacturers. 

The members of the executive board, who are elected annually, act 
as representatives of the union at the conference. The representa- 
tives of the union are not bound by specific instructions and have 
full power to settle questions without referring them back to the 
organization. While their acts are necessarily subject to the review 

I American Economic Review, September, 1916. 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDiTIOKS« 3Qfi 

of their constituents, yet these acts have aocortUHl so wvW with tho 
views of the members of the imion that many nunnboi^s of tho oxor\w 
tive board have been reeleeted over many yarn's. The pi\>suUvut of 
the union, Denis A. Hayes^ who died in 1917, hold tho ptmitioii oC 
president and ex officio member of the boani for 20 yoai>*. 

The- agreement does not provide for any formal system of votiuKi 
but it is the custom of the representatives of the union and of tliu 
manufacturers to vote as a unit. A mei'e majority of the mtuubern 
present is not enough. The measure must be a^ivoable to a majority 
of the representatives of both the maimfactuixjrs mul the union. 

When the conferences have resulted in a deadlock, it has btjen iJio 
custom to adjourn and for the establishmonts to ixmunie opoi'iitiojm 
under the rules and prices of the preceding year. In lUOO, folJowioif 
persistent demands lor reductions in piece rates, whicJi wore mfiiHoo, 
the president of the manufacturers' association HXi^tfoHlod iluii " I-Imi 
matter be submitted for arbitration to the judge of tlui ciourtH," T\\t) 
suggestion was not acted upon, as both employerH ami oinployin^N 
preferred to thresh out the matters iji confei'clico, aJid if without 
result to work in a state of truce for pue (u* more yearn undiU' tho 
rates of previous years. 

In eases of such deadlocks, it is frequently the chho that a wif^iitfJoii 
amounting to a lockout occurs, for, in the iiiterval foUowiiiv; the ('.o/i- 
ference and the resumption of work, the agreement in in aiUwX mi*^' 
pended. In 1905 and again in 1909, the conference a«lj(Mjnie<l with- 
out having come to an agreement and witljout Wittin^^ a daUi for a 
future cosierence. In each instance the nianufacturi)!'^ did not ofn^n 
their plants for some time after ailjourning. lu>r thi:* |M'j'iod the 
union president authorized the masi to iuu'A'.\fi empJoyoM^/it if it w<m» 
offered at the scale in effect during the pr<'.''^^di/tg |H!/iod, and at tho 
same time authorized the branchi^ Ut ahHure th<^ir eirifdoy^i^ i^^hl, 
they would be given the advanta;<e of any H<;Mh'nM?nt rh^jf, roi^ht h<* 
made later, on and from the date tjf>on v^hirh ii,i*, i/,<^/< h<y;,n y/otk, 
While such a condition amounts, in 4iif**Mf Ut a tU^wWhi'Mf both 
sides have refused to regard it a^ ^ncJi; and, <r/<rn t/ionj/h th^ t/ft^^ 
ferences have adjourned without i'/funt// Ut an h^/ti*Atfit*j>if %nf\ ihn 
manufacturers, probably 'ai h^'^/futA ot in"/ tenp^'/;'/r >.t;"/p/th ^4 U*^, 
union, have been obJig#f^i u* t^ii\Aoy XhH lo^n nt *>frn^it «io^>/t,..,fi>/;l///y 
to themselves, vet ti^*fv i,av<' i,/>/i r'u.h *'/fitU'>h*A' r,* «•.<' -zy^U'^fa oi 
collective bargsdniiig: X:jiX v..h f'Ji^yv»j?^$< y<?^#' ^^ J'/<//,/^ t- *;//< h//,h^u 
in conference withi i:.^ u/.^^rr, 

and the man ufac* !/<:',•> z:--. *-/, ,v, /.%v<t >,/,'/ '.'\' ,*/ ,'> *"#//.-., ksA 
present in s'i^:. c^*^:. ;;;<"./<- y > . *'^ '/,''.,',%',-. *A "n v^vv'? "/.t^ 
that most of :.-- ---;..^ -' <:,-,■// \.*, '/ \: ' .•*'* '„>, '/ /'.//; v/ 
merely eonsui^i^;^' t v«.r*. ';.,/.• r ./ '^. '" ' ',,/*' a " ^ > * y^-f r •* ^ "a 
with respect t/> rry^t *', kr/;''/:iy\\ f^, /.v. '* >,\ i^ V/ ,' / >.. ',y 
rated at tLe r^-v *r vr > -t- -;,%.*/' V/ .* > - ^ f ,.^ t .**'//» *', V/ 
weight as t?-'j&r ^'^*^' \ *-'. ' "' * v*-',/"* » / ' '^ - ' / ^^ // - ,^ ,% *,//*, 
shape, vrti2?-t. * '.. ;',' ','':*-t *y'. ,-. f >' //^i/ ' w '',;^', v-*- 

little room f'js- v_*>r**^^ •• ' 

On the fj\Zjr^ :.x' ". ' ••'*. '•- y ^ ^^ » * /^ * »• ^ ' ^ '/ ' ■ ' ■ '/<. *.,. V/ 
the interprf^ur y,'\ -^^ .* ♦,^»c/ #^ •'/.*/ v • r ' *>«< -" " v -' * wx^ 
of the parties iiuh '••.''****/• • • /'^/" //'**' ^ •#'.//#*' -•/' " ^ » /*</ ** <^ *., 



306 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The first step in the adjustment of disputes is to refer the matter 
to a conference of the employer and a factory committee. When 
no settlement can be reached, the question is referred either to the 
president of the union or to one of the executive board whom the 
president designates as his representative. The president's decisions 
are final unless reversed at the next joint conference. Although the 

President of the xmion has been acting as arbitrator since 1902, his 
ecisions have been but rarely reversed. Most of the matters 
decided by him have been concerning prices. In those cases where 
the joint conference has found the prices fixed by him to have been 
too high the employer is reimbursed for the excess wages paid, 
and, conversely, when the prices have been fixed too low the 
employer is required to make up the difference to the workmen. 

The great centralization of power in the hands of the national 
dfganization and the apparent opinion of the members of the union 
that such centralization is wise have resulted in the universal support 
by the *' branches" of the mandates of their national oflicers and of 
the decisions of the joint conference. Similarly, among the manu- 
facturers, the attempts to violate the agreement by locking out 
employees, or by running shops under rules contrary to those adopted 
by the conferences, have been few and far between. In this- case, 
however, compulsion upon the manufacturers has not come from the 
manufacturers' association. This organization has little control over 
its members and can, therefore, do little toward forcing them to 
live up to the decisions of the joint conference. 

While the power to compel obedience resides neither in the hands 
of the union or its president nor in the manufacturers' association, 
two forces operate potently to keep manufacturers from violating 
the agreement — ^the desire of manufacturers to avoid any action tiiat 
might result in a discontinuance of the annual conferences and the 
strength of the union, which is able by threatening to withdraw their 
workmg force to bring recalcitrant employers into line. 

Strikes. — ^The bottle branch of the glass industry has been very 
free from strikes. According to the late president of the union^ 
Mr. Denis A. Hayes,* there has not been a national strike in the 
union since 1884. When it is considered what manifold hardships 
to both labor and hand manufacturers attended the introduction 
and use of the automatic machine, it is strange that conflicts did 
not occur during this period at least. In order to meet the competi- 
tion of machines working rules and wages had to be radically 
changed. For a long period following their first use wages remained 
stationary or were reduced, but even with such a condition no serious 
labor trouble resulted. 

HOURS OF LABOR. 

Most of the hand bottle factories work on the two-shift system, 
although about 20 factories now work three shifts. The three-shift 
system is comparatively new in hand bottle factories. It is only 
one of a number of changes which manufacturers, with the consent 
of the union, have been required to make in order to meet the com- 
petition of the automatic machines. It assists the manufacturer 
oecause of the increased production resulting, and it benefits labor 

1 Report to the 1916 oonyention, p. 14. 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS, 307 

because it provides employment for the men throvm out of work 
in increasingly large numbers as the use of the automatic machine 
grows. The three-shift system was made a part of the wage agree- 
ment in 1909. Later the manufacturers agreed to a division of 
work where there was not a sufficient number of men to make up a 
third shift but more than could be employed in two shifts. 

One of the early steps taken by the union with a view to shortening 
the hours of labor in bottle factories was to induce manufacturers to 
abolish the Sunday night shift. Some time after this had been 
acconiplished the 4 o'clock stop agreement was secured from the 
manufacturers. Later the Saturdav half holiday for five months of 
the year was granted. The union nas fought strenuously to obtain 
the Saturday naif holiday the year arouna, but has not succeeded 
in this as yet. Mr. Denis A. Haves, late president of the union, 
commenting on the subject of tne Saturday half holiday in his 
annual report for 1916, said: 

Most of the skilled trades cease work at noon Saturda^r during the entire year; 
some do not work at all on Saturday, and many of ihe unskilled trade-unionists have 
succeeded in enforcing the same thin^. However, there is this phase of the question 
that can not be overlooked, and that is that, while we may be successful in enforcing 
a request for a Saturday half holiday the year around, we must not lose sight of the 
fact that the automatic is in continuous operation from Monday morning until the 
following Sunday morning, and in some instances does not stop even on Sunday. 
Gould we, by persuasion, reason, or logic, induce the companies operating the auto- 
matic machine to close down their plants at noon on Saturdays, there would be little 
opposition on the part of the hand manufacturers to do likewise. 

The following are the rules relating to hours of labor as agreed 
upon between tne manufacturers and the union workers on the fiint 
prescription (covered pot) and the glass vial and bottle lists: 

Eight and one-half hours per day (actual working time) shall constitute a day's 
work, commencing at 7 o'clock in the momii^, 15 minutes tempo at 3 p. m., and 
stop work at 5 p. m., except on Saturday, when there shall be no afternoon tempo, 
and work shall 8top at 4 p. m.; the night shift to work eight and one-half hours also, 
and there shall be no Saturday night work. 

During the months of May, June, July, August, and September work shall cease 
12 o'clock noon on Saturday. 

There shaU be a stop of 15 minutes for each and every open pot to set, and 30 minutes 
for every monkey covered pot, and 1 hour for large covered pot. 

The rules relating to the hours of labor for the workers on the 
United, O'Neill, and the one and two man narrow-moutjh machines 
(machine and press department) are as follows: 

We shall work six days per week on daywork turn and five nights per week on 
night turn, making an average of five and one-half days per week, except during the 
months of May, June, July, August, and September. 

When worMng three shifts, work shall begin not earlier than 7 a. m Monday. 
Actual working time to be seven and one-half hours per day, with one-half hour for 
dinner. Work to cease not later than 4 p. m. Saturday. Second and third shifts 
shall work seven and one-half hours also. 

In the stopper-grinding department the rule is as follows : 

Fifty-three hours shall constitute a week's work in the stoppering department. 
Each day's work to start at 7 a. m. 

The following holidays are observed by all departments under 
the authority of the union: Labor Day and nignt, Thanksgiving 
Day and night, December 24, night; Christmas Day and night, 
Decoration or Memorial Day and night, July 3, night; and Fourth 
of July, day and night, or the day set apart when any of the above 



308 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

holidays falls upon Sunday. In Canada, Victoria Day is observed 
instead of Decoration Day and Dominion Day instead of Fourth of 
July. 

SUMMER STOP. 

Owing to the inroads made by machines, particularly the auto- 
matic and semiautomatic, on the business of the hand bottle manu- 
facturers, the xmion, after resisting for a long time, finally agreed' to 
a modification of the summer stop in order to increase the production 
in hand bottle factories, so that the manufacturers might better 
compete with the automatics. The summer stop was reduced to 
two weeks in hand and four weeks in machine bottle shops, the 
length of the summer stop as it now prevails. The argument used 
by the hand manufacturers to secure a longer season, and one that 
was effective with the union, was that the automatic and semiau- 
tomatic machine. plants were in constant operation the year round, 
working three shifts in 24 hours, Saturday afternoons, and iroqaently 
on Sunday. Working so continuously, they abtained a large prod- 
uct, and therefore a cost so low that the hand manufacturers could 
not compete unless they were allowed a longer season. In addition 
it was ])()ijitod out that work was lost to the hand* blower and busi- 
ness to the hand manufacturers, which was secured by the machine 
factories, in consequence of the summer stop. 

APPRENTICES. 

The apprentice question has been the cause of much contention 
between the manufacturers and the union. Manufacturers natu- 
rally have desired to have the ratio of apprentices to journeymen as 
large as possible, in order to have an excess of labor available. The 
union has resisted strongly any attempt to increase the number of 
apprentices allowed to each journeymen, because the union has the 
utmost difficulty in ordinary times to find places for its men. With 
new journeymen coming on, as their apprenticeship is served, the 
task oecomes even more difficult. At times conditions have been so 
acute that the manufacturers have agreed to the suspension of the 
apprentice system during a season. Following a bad season in 
1914-15, the union at its annual convention passed a resolution 
that "no apprentice shall be taken for the blast of 1915—16." A 
similar resolution was adopted at the convention of the foUowing 
year. A resolution was also introduced which recommended that 
the ratio of apprentices to joiu*neyTnen should be the same in all 
departments. At the annual wage conference of manufacturers 
and roprosont'^tives of the union held to fix rates and settle other 
matters for the year 1916-17 the apprentice question was settled 
on the basis of 1 apprentice to every 15 journeymen. 

Prior to September, 1913, apprentices received 50 per cent of a 
journeyman's wages. At that time the agreement was changed so 
that apprentices now receive 75 per cent of a journeyman's wages. 

The lollowing are the union regulations as they now exist with 
reference to apprentices: 

Firms who from any cause reduce the number of their joumexinen must also reduce 
the number of their apprentices in the proportion to the joumejTnen employed at 
the time of reducing their working force, so that they at all times shall be within 



• WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 309 

the requirements of this law. Example: If the proportion was 1 apprentice to 3 
journeymen before reducing their working force, the reduction would be 1 apprentice 
to 3 journeymen. 

When the condition of the trade warrants the issuing of permits to apprentices 
who are unemployed, all such permits are to be uniform, and no permit shall be 
insued to an apprentice unless it meets with the approval of the branch controlling 
the factory where the apprentice is to be employed. 

Firms having put in an apprentice and from any cause said apprentice leaves the 
trade he can not be duplicated, but should an apprentice die during the first year 
of his apprenticeship he must be duplicated drnring that season. 

An apprentice shall serve not more than four years, consisting of 40 working months, 
from the date of being put in to blow. No loss of time to be charged against the 
apprentice unless the time so lost can be reasonably attributed to said apprentice. 

An apprentice who may go to work or continue to work in any factory where asso- 
ciation blowers are on a strike shall be fined $100 in addition to his regular initiation 
fee, unless otherwise ordered by the president and executive board. 

No one shall be considered an apprentice unless he be put in a place to blow. 

EXTENSION OF LABOR-ORGANIZATION CONTROL. 

Nonuiiionism does not exist very extensively in the bottle business. 
The danger which threatened the union from this source as a result 
of the new conditions following the introduction of the automatic 
machine was quickly met by the organization taking steps to encour- 
age the nonumon men to form local unions, which were later merged 
into State organizations. The plan was proposed by the president 
of the union m 1904. At that time there were 15 nonunion plants 
in operation in Indiana and 6 out of blast. In the annual report of 
the vice president of the union for 1914-15 it is stated that there 
were then only three nonunion factories in operation and three out 
of blast. The late president of the union, Mr. Denis A. Hayes, com- 
menting on the situation in Indiana, which has been termed the 
^^ hotbed of nonunionism^' by the union officers, in his annual report 
for the year 1915-16, said: 

In spite of the low wages paid to men in nonunion factories, there has been a notice- 
able falling off in the number of plants operated and the men emi)loyed. This, in 
a kff^e measure, is due to the efforts of our association in dealing with this problem. 
Keabzing that with such a formidable competitor as the automatic we should have 
to make radical changes in our wages and working rules, and that a number of our 
men would be displaced, our first thought was to safeguard their interests as best 
we could and prevent any increase in the number of nonunion men and factories. 
This was done systematically and thoroughly, and it is gratifying to say that our 
plans have been successful. * * * We are forming them into an auxiliary organi- 
zation and are making them self-reliant. To-day their affairs are conducted through 
committees the same as ours, and they hold meetings to discuss matters pertaining 
to the trade. 

TABLEWABE AND LIGHTING GOODS. 

Manufacturers interviewed during this investigation were of the 
opinion that locaUt3^ had very little bearing on the class or quan- 
tity of labor available, although it was thought that large towns are 
attractive to labor in general. It was also thought advantageous 
for several factories to be located in the same vicinitv, as in that 
case more labor is available, and a manufacturer is less liable to 
find himseK short of help; or, if he becomes short handed, he has 
less difficulty in filling the places. 



310 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



NUMBER OF UNION WORKERS. 

The American Flint Glass Workers' Union is composed of workers 
that make blown and pressed ware, which includes tableware, bar 
goods, lighting goods, laboratory ware, vases, and miscellaneous arti- 
cles. It is the only union oi workers in tableware and lighting- 
goods factories. It was established in 1878 and is aflBliated with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

Not all establishnients are unionized. In establishments where the 
umon is fully organized, it includes the skilled and some of the semi- 
skilled employees. The membership of the union bv departments 
during the last 10 years is shown in the following table: 

Table 106. — ^Membebship of the Amebican Flint Glass Workebs' Union, bt 

Manufactxtbing Depabthents, 1907 to 1916. 



[Fram report of the national secretary-treasurer, 1016.] 








Departments. 


1907 


1906 


1900 


1910 

* 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


Press 


1,508 
451 

1,603 

340 

506 

463 

448 

331 

381 

218 

290 

76 

27 

8 

156 


1,629 
371 

1,520 
358 
666 

- 463 

504 

383 

309 

200 

278 

61 

22 

8 

154 


1,664 

1.519 

1,504 

371 

671 

488 

513 

380 

347 

218 

227 

56 

19 



89 

45 


1,911 

2,217 

1,411 

433 

636 

506 

530 

311 

365 

192 

247 

51 

37 

10 

SI 

13 


1,928 

2,258 

1,400 

540 

856 

544 

478 

423 

340 

165 

186 

48 

54 

17 

14 


1,929 

1,860 

1,150 

660 

804 

584 

514 

441 

354 

145 

178 

41 

62 

14 


2,414 

1,960 

1,292 

951 

784 

658 

514 

486 

344 

134 

98 

43 

32 

18 

10 


2,531 

1,711 

1,126 

1,079 

730 

672 

513 

526 

378 

138 

115 

87 

56 

19 

11 


2,403 

1,620 

1,271 

1,064 

648 

720 

452 

507 

345 

104 

137 

51 

49 

19 

10 


2,380 


Oitting 


1,381 


diimiiey 


1,150 


P^mch and stem 


1,073 


Bulb 


m 


MoMmftVinj?.... , , , .. 


739 


Paste m<4d «..»..... - 


445 


Oaster nlaoe 


692 


Trcrn mold 


366 


Shade and ffiobe 


101 


Machine press 


128 


Insulator'. 


68 


Fi'^gr^ving 


59 


StWpe'' Ri^Ti^inflr 


25 


Whlfe liners 




PresciiptionSa , 




T^wnp workers r , , 
















162 
























Total 


6,891 


6,994 


8,120 


8,901 


9,251 


8,743 


9,767 


9,692 


0,420 


9,430 







The table shows that the growth in membership since 1911 has 
been slight. The maximum membership was reached in 1913. The 
largest actual gains from 1907 to 1916 were in the press, cutting, 
and punch and stem departments; the largest actual losses were in 
the chimney, shade and globe, and machine press departments. Of 
the 17 departments, 7 were smaller in 1916 than 1907, namely, 
chimney, paste mold, iron mold, shade and globe, machine press, 
insulator, white liners. 

NUMBEB EMPLOYED AND UNEMPLOYED. 

The American Flint Glass Workers' Union has not been able to 
limit the number of apprentices so effectually as has the union of 
window-glass workers. ^Vs a result, there is usually an overabun- 
dance ot skilled men, except during exceptionally good seasons. A 
considerable proportion of the membership was unemployed for sev- 
eral Yjcars prior to 1915. During the blast of 1914-15, a period when 
the clepression in the industry was at its worst, the number unem- 
ployed was 1,075, or 11.41 per cent of the 9,420 members. During 
the blast of 1915-16 only a few were idle. The number of mem- 
bers in each department during the last two blasts, the number 
employed at the trade, the number employed outside the trade, and 
the number unemployed are shown in' the following table: 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



311 



Table 107. — ^Total Membebshif of the American Flint Glass Workers' 
Union, Number Employed in and Outside the Trade, and Number Em- 
ployed, Blast op 1914-16. 



[From report of the natlooal secretary-treasurer, 1916.] 




• 




Departments. 


Total member- 
ship. 


Employed at 
trade. 


Employed out- 
side trade. 


Unemployed. 




1914-15 


1915-16 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1914-15 


1915-16 


1914-15 


1915-16 


Press 


2,403 

1,620 

1,271 

1,084 

648 

720 

452 

507 

345 

104 

137 

51 

49 

19 

10 


2,269 

1,381 

1,150 

1,073 

772 

739 

445 

692 

366 

101 

128 

68 

50 

25 


1,929 

1,060 

1,049 

964 

532 

674 

394 

459 

295 

80 

106 

44 

43 

17 


1,981 

1,062 

994 

903 

653 

709 

412 

669 

323 

80 

119 

48 

55 

23 


212 

115 

84 

46 

109 

26 

30 

16 

28 

11 

3 

2 

4 

1 

4 


260 

243 

110 

60 

118 

24 

23 

16 

87 

6 

9 

8 

4 

2 

i* 


262 

436 

138 

74 

7 

20 

28 

32 

22 

13 

29 

5 

2 

1 

6 


28 


Catting 


76 


^himTiev. . 


46 


P^inryi ftfiH ntem , . r r 


11 


Bulb 


1 


Mold xnakine 





PMtP mold r r r ■, , 


10 


Caster olace 


7 


Iron mold 


6 


flhad<^ and R^Olt>e . r . . . . x . . . , . , , r . r , r 


15 


Machine nress 




TTi<nilHtnr , . , _ ^ - _ - , ^ 


12 


Engravlne 




StoDDcr snrindinK 




White liners 




T^mp workers 


162 




* * iei" 












Total 


9,420 


9,430 


7,654 


8,282 


601 


930 


1,075 


218 







STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. 

In 1878-79 there was a general strike in this branch of the industry. 
In 1883-84 there was one that lasted 10 months, and in 1887-88 one 
that lasted from six months in some plants to two years in others. 
In 1893 the union employees were locKed out by the United States 
Glass Co.; the largest producer in the country, and other lockouts 
occurred during 1893 and the following two years. There were seri- 
ous disturbances again in 1903-4. During the last few years there 
have been numerous strikes and lockouts. 

In his report to the annual convention of the American Flint Glass 
Workers' Union held in 1916, President T. W. Rowe said: 

If you estimate our condition by the ability of our opponents, and be guided ac- 
cordingly, we are far more liable to secure beneficial results and avoid injudicious 
trouble. " We should keep in mind the history of our association and remember our 
past mistakes. 

We must not forget the serious trouble in which we were involved and the causes 
leading to those conflicts, and we must not become intoxicated with the idea that we 
have sufficient ability to demand unreasonable things and secure them without re- 
sistance. * * * We should try to accomplish our desires without repeating the sad 
and sacrficing experiences of the awful past, and that can only be done by exercising 
the highest degree of intelligence and equity. 

On Jime 1, 1915, there were strikes in eight plants, and the number 
on strike was 625, or 15 per cent of the 9,420 members of the union in 
that year. During 1915-16 employment was foimd for all of the 
strikers. 

PIECE AND TIME WOBK. 

The strike of 1888 involved the question of piece and time work. 
The strikers bitterly resisted the piece-price system, but iSnally 
yielded, and it went into effect and nas continued until the present 
time. It is now almost universal for skilled occupations. 



312 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Manufacturers who were interviewed during the investigation said 
that the employees would now be as unwilling as they themselves to 
go back to the old system. They said that the piece-work plan is 
fairest tq all concerned; that it is the only system economically 
sound; for it permits a man to earn according to his ability; and that 
it is more satisfactory to the men, because the efficient man receives 
all he can earn. Tms is a great incentive to them, and makes for 
better conditions. 

It is of the highest importance to the manufacturer to get the maxi- 
mum production, and this can be obtained only when the men are 
paid piece rate and not time rate. The piece-rate system is of very 
great value to the manufacturer, because it is the only scheme of 

Eay which permits him to know what his product costs. By it he 
nows what the skilled labor, the highest element of cost of an article, 
will be before he manufactures it. Hence he is able to think intelli- 

tently about his selling m-ices. If the men were paid so much per 
ay, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to keep accurately 
the necessary records of production by which the labor cost in an 
article could be determined. 

HOURS OF LABOR. 

The custom in tableware and lighting-goods factories is to work 
two shifts daily in the shops, although some small factories some- 
times work only one, and the larger ones in times of slack demand 
also do this. Where there are two shifts, the day shift works 11 shifts 
a week, Monday to Saturday noon, inclusive, ajid the n^ht shift 
works 10 shifts a week, Monday night to Friday night, inclusive. 
The day shift alternates with the nignt shift every week. 

While there is no agreement between the manufacturers and the 
union with respect to the number of shifts, it is quite likely that any 
attempt to operate three shifts in a union factory would be resisted 
by the workers, although they desire an 8-hour day. When the ques- 
tion of an 8-hour day was discussed in the annual conference between 
the manufacturers and the representatives of the union, held in 1914, 
several manufacturers expressed themselves in favor of granting the 
8-hour day, provided they were allowed to have three shifts. The 
latter proposal was not favored by the union representatives, and the 
president of the union expressed the views of the union as follows: 

The members of the union are not securing steady work at the present time, and if 
we adopted the 8-houi* day basis and the employer insisted on three shifts, we would 
produce more glass workers, more glassware, and, instead of worHng steady, we would 
nave a large army of members irregularly employed, with all the dissatisfaction that 
accompanies a condition of this kind. 

Manufactiu'ers claim that shortening the working time to 8 hours 
a day without three shifts would result in decreased production, and 
consequently higher costs. 

In the 1914 conference the union representatives stated that in 
other Unes of manufacturing an 8-hour day was the rule. The manu- 
facturers replied that in glass factories the glass workers on day shift 
worked only 11 turns, five and a half days a week, and the glass 
workers on night shift only 10 turns, or five nights a week, and if the 
turns were reduced to 4 hours, the day shift would work only 44 hours 
a week and the night shift only 40 hours, an average of 42. The 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDIHONS. 313 

manufacturers also stated it was unfair to ur^e an 8-liour day when 
the men often did not do four hours' work in a turn. They cited 
cases where the men did their turn's work in as short a time as an 
hour and fifteen minutes, aiid from that on up to four hours. After 
much debate and discussion, the conference agreed on the following 
proposition : 

Four and one-quarter hours shall constitute a turn^s work in all glass-working de- 
partments now working the unlimited system of production, excepting the machine 
department, this to become effective January 1, 1915. Fifty hours shall constitute a 
week's work in the cutting department, this to become effective October 1, 1914, with 
the imderstanding that the 60 hours can be worked on 50 hours' pay. 

Union glass workers on a limited system, that is where the number 
of articles produced is Umited by union rules, work from four and a 
quarter to tour and a half hours per turn in the different departments. 

THE ^*M0VE'' system. 

The price list that is agreed upon yearly by the union and the 
manufacturers contains the wages per turn or the piece prices of the 
skilled workers, and also the number of articles which it is expected 
that each of the workers in certain departments shall make durii^ 
a turn. The number is called a **move,'' and for an article that can 
be made quickly is larger than that for an article which requires 
more time in production. 

Formerly there was a limited turn system on all ware, under which 
the worker was not allowed to make during a turn articles in excess 
of the number prescribed by the move. He was, however, paid the 
union scale rate per turn, whether or not he reached the move^ 
Urged by the manufacturers, the union has abolished the move in 
some branches or departments. 

At present some union men work on a limited piece-price basis, 
some on an unhmited piece-price basis, others on a hmitea turn basis, 
and others on an imhmited turn basis. Each department legislates 
as to its own conditions, and, independent of other departments, 
makes wage agreements with manufacturers. 

Under the unlimited turn system, the worker that falls below the 
move receives the scale rate for a turn, but if he exceeds the move, 
he is paid for the excess at the move rate. If, for instance, the move 
were 300 and the wages per turn $3, the worker would be paid 1 
cent for each good piece made over 300, or $4 for 400. 

Manufacturers generally object to the move system, and consider 
that it is economically wrong to both the manuiacturer and worker 
to limit the production of the latter. They say that the rule operates 
to prevent tnem from picking the desirable men and eUminating the 
poor workers. They urge the necessity of unlimited production in 
order that they may meetioreign competition. 

Many members of the union are opposed to the move rule, but 
they are the rapid workers and are in the minority. The effect of 
the rule is to increase the cost of production. Without the rule, each 
factory would seek to get as large a proportion of rapid workers as 
possible, and in a factory that increased its^ proportion of such workers 
the output per individual would be larger and the number of workers 
employed would be smaller. The rule results in a larger number 
being employed and in equal pay, though not equal output, for all 



314 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

workers. Most of the workers to whom the move applies favor its 
retention because it operates to provide places for more men, and 
because, without this restriction, tnere would be, on a full-time basis, 
overproduction and the manufacturing season would be shortened. 

SUMMER STOP AND HOLIDAYS. 

Wa^es in the skilled occupations in tableware and lighting goods 
factories are not so high as in window glass, but the ' 'season" is 
much longer. Most departments operate throughout the 12 months, 
with no shut-downs, except for two weeks in the summer and on 
cegtain hoUdays. 

New Year's Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Memorial Day, and 
Christmas are observed as hoUdays by union workers. In addition, 
most of the departments do not work New Year's eve or Christmas 
eve and night. 

One of the most important considerations relating to wages is that 
of overproduction. Li the manufacture of tableware ana lighting 
goods tnis condition is not usually so critical as in window-glass or 
bottle factories, but it exerts an important influence on wages. The 
union has sought to control this condition by limiting production 
through the operation of the *'move." 

Manufacturers have always favored operating their plants as con- 
tinuously as possible. This results in a maximum product and there- 
fore lower costs. The union has opposed this, on the ground that, 
if the plants operated continuously, there would be an overproduction 
which would result in bad business conditions. This would mean 
irregular employment for labor, with all its attending hardships. 
At present the summer stop is for a period of from two weeks in most 
departments to four weeks in a few. 

APPRENTICES AND CHILD LABOR. 

The number of apprentices that the union allows in some depart- 
ments is as follows: Hand press department, 2 apprentices to each 
10 pots, 1 to each 15 journeymen on continuous tanks; machine press 
ware department, 1 apprentice to each 10 journeymen or majority 
fraction thereof each year -punch tumbler and stem ware department, 
1 apprentice ^'shop^' on offhand pulled-out stem ware in eacn factory; 
cuttmg department, 1 apprentice to each 4 journeymen or majority 
fraction thereof; engraving department, 1 apprentice every two 
years to each shop employing 2 or more journeymen. A shop 
employing 9 or more journeymen is entitled to one apprentice every 
16 montlS but never more tnan three. 

Child labor may be said to exist no longer in the glass industry in 
the United States. Most of the States have laws which forbid the 
employment of children. Very hght work is required in many 
occupations in which boys were formerly employea but which are 
now fiUed by adults. Wnen the laws w«nt into effect manufacturers 
were compelled to substitute men in the places of boys and pay 
correspondingly higher wages. Manufacturers complain of the lack 
of uniiormity in the various State laws relating to cnild labor. Few 
of the States have exactly the same age Hmit for employment, and 
when two adjoining States have different laws, the manufacturer 
where the age limit is highest is at a disadvantage. One manufac- 



WAGES AND UIBOB CONDITIONSt 815 

turer who was interviewed said that the worst effect of the laws 
prohibitijig the emplovment of boys was not the resulting increase 
in the labor cost but tne fact that employers could not train boys in 
the trade. 

WOMEN EMPLOYEES. 

Of the women employed in the glass industry, nearly all are 
employed in establishments manufacturing tableware and l^hting 
goods. They are not employed in any of the blowing, pressing, or 
annealing occupations. 

In taWeware the occupations filled in part or entirely by women 
are sorting, selecting, cracking off, grinding, glazing, washing, wipilig, 
etching plate, etchmg needle, decorating, cutting, smoothing, mofa 
deanin^, wrapping, and packing. 

In lifting goods the occupations at which women work are inspect- 
ing, gauging, glazing, finishing, washing, marking for cutters, deco- 
rating, mold deaning, wrapping, cartoning, packing, and as chain 
girls. 

None of these occupations requires much skill, but in most of them 
dexterity is essential. None of them is exceptionally taxing to the 
strength. It is asserted that some of the occupations in which 
women are employed in the decorating department are harmful to 
health because of the fumes of acid used in decorating. 



CHAPTER IX. 
ITEEDS OP THE IITDirSTaY. 

LACK OF ETnCIENCT m MAKUFACTUBE AND SELLINa. 

CHEMISTRY. 

Glass being the result of chemical reactions, it would seem that a 
knowledge oi chemistry would be absolutely essential to the glass 
manufacturer in order that he might be enabled to produce the 
finest grade of desired glass at the smallest possible cost. 

The average manufacturer's chemical knowledge of the materials 
that enter into the manufacture of glass is very vague and indefinite. 
Exceptionally few men in the Umted States have carried on any 
scientific investigations or experiments, and it is to be regretted that 
there is such a woeful lack of chemical knowledge. It appears as if 
all the energy of the glass makers in recent years has gone into the 

Eerfecting of machinery as the one means of lowering cost. The 
atch could take care of itself. That the most perfect machine is 
absolutely useless with bad glass or glass of excessive cost does not 
appear to have been taken into consideration. The manufacturer's 
lack of chemical knowledge would, however, be harmless if chemists 
were employed. In the plants visited by the agents during this 
investigation, not more than one chemist was found to about every 
20 plants visited; they were usually employed by only the largest 
companies. Mr. R. L. Frink, one of the few men in this country who 
has carried on any research work, has the following to say: 

I found that glass making to-day is carried on with no regard to definite proportions 
or consistent methods of operation; that it is void of any true knowledge, and is 
essentially an industry based and operated upon and subservient to personal opinions 
and prejudice, poisoned by legendary ideas and jealousies, and made generall^r un- 
wholesome by lack of progressiveness or any initiative on the part of those who might, 
if they would, arise from this quagmire and put themselves on a basis of scientific 
fact.i * * * 

One frequently hears the remark that a chemist or scientist is of no use in a glass 
factory. This, no doubt, in a measure is true, for it is seldom, if ever, that a chemist 
or scientist will be able to find a manufacturer or owner .who wduld for a moment think 
of wasting time or money in the consideration or adoption of the su^estions of such 
individuals, at least not until they are confronted with a situation that legend, sorcery, 
prejudice, and guesswork can not account for or overcome. ^ * * * 

As a matter of fact, there are a great many so-called first-class glassmakers, and men 
who are responsible for large productions and the finest quality of ware, whose knowl- 
edge of the constitution of glass begins and ends the moment when the material enters 
the furnace, and as a matter of fact many of them still believe that glass is composed of 
sand which has been reduced to a molten state by being placed in a mixture with such 
ingredients as lime, soda, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, cryolite, antimony, zinc oxide, 
borax, or whatever else their batch formula may call for, and that after it has been 
subjected to fire all of the ingredients with the exception of sand go up the stack. It 
is only the more progressive individuals who have studied this matter, who have 
benefited by research, and who have any true conception of the actual composition of 



1 Transactions, American Ceramic Society, 1909, Vol. XI, p. 304. * Ibid., p. 313. 

316 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 317 

the glasses that they are making. However, even they, in many instances, have no 
true Imowledge as to the properties given to the glass by the materials they use, and 
in i&ct there is but little actual specific knowledge available. 

It is true that in Europe, and in recent years also in this country, there has been 
considerable progress in the making of certain glasses for special purposes, and we 
owe much to Guisnand, Bontemps, Schott, Hovestadt, Harcourt, and others, who 
having contributed greatly to our knowledge of the composition and making of optical 
glasses manu&ictured in closed pots, or under conditions whereby perfect control 
could be had of the atmospheric, melting, and temperature conditions. But there 
has been Uttle or nothing done, in a practical way at least, to give us specific informa- 
tion as to the effects of the chemical constituents of glass when the same is made in 
tank furnaces, in open pots, or under varying fire conditions, or how they affect our 
various processes of manufacture.^ 

The lack of research and experimental work has heen generally 
attrihuted to the expensiveness of carrying on such work, which 
being impossible of satisfactory performance in a laboratory, re- 
quires costly furnaces and equipment. Mr. Frink offers the follow- 
ing solution : 

What the glass industry needs and must have before it can become much more than 
a school of conjecture is a Wedgewood or a Schott, assisted by a society of research, 
which shall have a backing and be subsidized by the Government or by every manu- 
facturer in the business. ^ 

MACHINERY. 

Though much time, money, and energy have been expended in 
inventing, perfecting, and introducing machinerv and mechanical 
devices that do away with skilled hand labor and. lower the cost of 
production, glass manufacturers, as a rule, have been very lax in 
mvestigating the merits of such labor-saving machines and devices, 
with the result that every vear finds nfany of the hand plants driven 
from the business, while tnose who remain continue to suffer losses 
resulting from competition with the machine-made product. 

In addition to higher costs, hand plants continue to be confronted 
by the serious boy problem. Low wages, hmited opportunity for 
advancement, and especiaUy the high age-hmit laws in effect in many 
States, have curtailed the supply of young men and women who do 
the unskilled work around a glasshouse. 

The future success of the glass industry and of the individual who 
desires to remain a ^lass manufacturer depends to a very great 
extent upon the adoption and continued use of machinery and labor- 
saving devices. 

BUILDINGS. 

Glasshouses are generally antiquated. Thev are usually flimsy 
structures put up in the formative period of the industry and have 
outlived their usefulness. Very few plants are constructed on the 
plan of a modern scientifically laid-out factory. As the business 
expanded another building, and then another, was added without 
any idea as to how it would affect the entire plant as a unit. An 
agent of the Bureau has witnessed, in one of the largest bottle plants, 
coal and material unloaded from a freight car, loaded on trucks and 
carted a distance of about three-eighths of a mile to their respective 
storehouses. Inside many factories the same slipshod, haphazard 

1 R. L. Frink: The Relation of Chemistry and Mechanical Manipulation to the Evolution of the Glass 
Industry. Metallurgical and Chemical EngineeTing Nov. 1, 1916 
« Transactions, American Ceramic Society, 1909, Vol. XI, p, 316* 



318 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

ajrangement prevails, decreasing aad delaying production and in- 
creasing cost. 

It is to be noted, however, that many of the larger plants, espe- 
cially those erected in very recent years, are substantial buUdings and 
are arranged with the idea of facilitating and increasing production. 

SELLING. 

It seems that cost does not generally enter into the determination 
of the selling price of glass, but the price appears to be set at 'what 
the other f eliow is seUing or appears to be selling it for. Buyers have 
played off salesman against salesman and machine manufacturer 
agamst hand manufacturer with such great success that costs, even 
vmen va^ely known, have been thrown to the winds. This selling 
at the other fellow's price, or supposed price, is based on the erroneous 
assumption that the price-setting manufacturer has a correct cost and 
that the other manufacturer is equally efficient. The curbing of 
mutual distrust and the adoption of a uniform cost system will cor- 
rect the seUing conditions above described. 

OTHER DESIRABLE IMPROVEMENTS. 

There is a great need for improvement in the factory buildings so 
that the present excessive insurance rates may be materially reduced. 
There is need for manufacturers to get into their factories and really 
learn the glass business, instead of concentrating on the selling and 
administrative ends of the business. The chemistry of glass must be 
thoroughly learned, and research and experimental work entered into 
and continued. 

It is a matter of conjecture as to whether there are at the present 
time any glassmen who can consistently predict the homogeneity, 
chemical composition, physical properties, and color, of the finished 
glass. It is essential that knowledge be obtained of the chemical 
reactions, the constitution of the glass, its physical properties when 
in a finished state, the pause and effect existing within the melting 
mass, the furnace and fire conditions, and the requisite properties 
of the glass to obtain the maximum efficiency in subsequent proc- 
esses so as to produce a finished article of maximum quality at 
minimum cost. 

There is in addition very urgent need for much practical and 
scientific research in order to eliminate poor and variable fuel condi- 
tions, bad tank blocks, inferior bricks, improperly made pots and 
molds, expensive breakage resulting from imperfect annealing, ware 
with imperfect surfaces produced by the chemical effects of the 
packing materials, and breakage due to the character of the packing 
materials, all of which result in the unnecessary loss of thousands of 
dollars annually. 

Advantage should be taken of all labor-saving devices; antiquated 
machinery should be scrapped and hand methods, where possible, 
discarded in favor of machinery. Plants should be properly laid 
out and routing systems installed. Hand operations should be 
standardized; the workers should not be permitted to shift about for 
themselves but should be drilled m the proper method of perfonning 
their work. Old methods, retained because they resulted in a profit 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTBY. 319 

in by-gone days, must be discontinued. Accounting methods must 
be improved and modem systems installed. The installation of a 
uniform cost-finding system for the various branches, so that manu- 
facturers can, exclusive of their degree of efficiency, inteUigently 
compete on equal terms, is of the most vital importance. 

From conversation with nimaerous manufacturers, it is apparent 
that most gl&ss manufacturers are distrustful of every other manu- 
facturer. This spirit should be suppressed. Manufacturers should 
exchange ideas and cooperate in every possible way. A real spirit 
of friendliness and good will could not but work to the advantage of 
every manufacturer in the trade. 

METHODS OF COMPUTING COSTS. 

The object of conducting business is to secure profits. Nothing 
that relates to manufacturing is of more importance than "costing. 
Efficiency rules may be appued in an excellently equipped factory, 
but, xmless the proprietor has an adequate cost-finding system, ne 
is liable to suffer financial loss. If he does not know with a close 
degree of accuracy what the different articles he manufactures have 
cost and at what prices he can afford to sell them, he is not in a 
position to meet competition inteUigently, and he invites business 
disaster. Even if a manufacturer is satisfied with the yearly profit 
which his annual profit and loss statement shows, he should Know 
on which particular products he is making the most profit and on 
which he is making only a narrow margin of profit or losing money. 
Intelligent cost accountmg would enable him to distinguish between 
the profits on different products, to discontinue the manufacture of 
products sold at a loss, to limit the sales of products sold at a small 
margin of profit, and to give more attention to the manufacture 
and marketmg of products on which the largest profits are realized. 

BUINOtJS PRICE CUTTING CAUSED BY CRUDE COST FINDING. 

Trying to fix prices without knowledge of costs leads to ruinous 
competition. The manufacturer ftiat sells goods at a loss, or at no 
adequate profit, because he does not keep his books properly and does 
not Know whether he is making a profit, tends to force his competi- 
tors into a Uke situation. Pnce cutting is nearly always done in 
ignorance of costs, and comparatively Uttle of it would be practiced 
in any industry if adequate cost finding generally prevailed. This 
investigation has shown that many manufacturers of glass or glass- 
ware have eithep no method of cost finding or crude and inadequate 
methods. Only very recently have a few glass manufacturers em- 
ployed cost accoimtants to study their methods of production and 
to prepare suitable systems of cost findings. Probably not over 1 
in 20 has employed experts to establish cost-keeping systems. 

The accounting methods in vogue in many glass estabUshments 
are not modem. AH the expenses for the year often appear in a 
very few accounts, and all sorts of expenses that have no connection 
are thrown together and included in the same account. It is im- 
possible, without a lengthy analysis of such crude accounts, to secure 
much of the information with which a manufacturer ought to be 
familiar. The accoimting is frequently such that it would be of 



820 THE GLASS lyorsTRY. 

no aid in the kff^ping of a rrn,t system if :/.-- LL^r>t.]»u>- .i »i sol-i. a 
system were con tem plated. 

As to cost finding, "vrlth the exception of a f-^'sr y^xrriVnt sysieins 
found in some of tne larger estabhshmer.t-. it may '-^-r staicii :bM 
an accurate knowled$^e of r:r>st of prodnctioa i:?. jp^ufiafly speaidiig. 
unknown in the eiaAS in dust rv. llanv estaljii^hmaits. Wii^hnfircr 
some of the larger ones, admitted that they made ao anxmpt a: 
arriving at accurate c^/sts. Of the 213 estabiisr,nip?i ts riiAt fonnshed 
schedufes for U^iA investigation, only 20 reported znat mey ssot a 
record of recovered culiet which woiild indicate tiie cost ro be addeii 
for defective arid imperfect ware. 

A cost-finding sy-tem would not only sr.o"w actTLai :^ost but wDiil«i 
serve as a guide or indicator as to where the coet of Labcr. mat^i^ 
or overhead c^^uid }>e lowered. The absence -^f sucii a system. 
resultifig as it do^-s in not knowir>g the cost r.f tne ware pro<fai«-'^i. 
leads not only to ineffioi^n^y and waste but ils^:> t^ rj:e ^miajr. :• • 
keen, ruinous corrip^tl*i<^'-i of whir-h mar.Tifart^irers -^TiziDiaiii sn '-:> 
terly. The most crv'ir»g n^j^-d of the glass ir.'i:isiry ar rlie pre^i' 
time is a simple, a^^curate, i;iexpeTi>ive. uniform ?.-st-±i«iiii^ sy?: ^n 
to be cranio ved bv everv manufacturer. Or. It- Tv->h the inrrcMr:* - 
tion of sur-h a system can the industr*' r.*- rn:*i- -^i'-^-.- azd really 
competitive. 

Generally speaking, only the larger glass man^^i'^turiiis: companies 
have made any effort to improve th'^ir co^^'s::^ in«^tliods. <'«-'St 
accounting is, however, especially important f«„.r miiii ^Lfacrorers ^rith 
small or comparatively small capital, in order that they may meet 
the severe competition of those who manufacture on an extensive 
scale and whose manufacturing and accounting departments are well 
organized. It is not infrequently the case thar the market for several 
lines of glassware has been demoralized by price cuttinz. started bv 
small manufacturers, a c^^ntest in which they could less afford to 
indulge than could their big competitors. 

Many glass manufacturers express the opinion that it is impcBssible 
to devise an accurate method of finding the costs of units in tite 
industry. This, however, is erroneous. It is more difficult to ascer- 
tain correctly the Cf;sts in manufacturing glass than in some other 
industries, but some companies have adopted accurate methods. 
Some manufacturers, while admitting that accurate cost-finding 
systems can be devised, raLse the objection that the op^^tion of such 
systems would be very expensive. This also is a mistake, as has 
been proven in both large and small factories where scientific systems 
have oeen installed. 

ADVAXTAGE5 OF MODERN CO^T KEEPING. 

There is perhaps no industry in which a good cost-keeping system 
is more needed than in glass manufacturing. Not only have American 
glass manufacturers had to meet sharp foreign competition in several 
lines, but there is probably no industry ^hat has suffered more from 
*' cutthroat" competition among the domestic manufacturers. Fur- 
thermore, the introduction of and improvements in machinery have 
made radical changes in the methods of manufacturing glass and 
glasswjiro during recent years. Hand manufacturers have struggled 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTKY. 321 

desperately against the competition of those using machines, and 
often the market was demoralized in consequence. 

While papers showing the importance of correct cost keeping have 
been read before meetings of glass manufactm*ers' associations, none 
of these associations has approved any cost-finding system. If an 
association would appoint a committee to work out some standard 
scheme for computing unit costs for each branch of the industry and 
would recommend an approved scheme, most of the members would 
probably adopt it and much ruinous competition would be avoided. 

An article on the importance of computing costs of imits of pro- 
duction in the glass mdustry from systematically kept records, 
written by Mr. John T. Fuller, an efficiency engineer, is quoted in 
part as foUows: 

Only a few years ago the selling price of most articles in glassware showed a sufFcient 
mai^ of profit to enable the manu facturer to disregard costs. XJn der these con di tion s 
the management could concentrate his energies on the sales end of the business, and 
feel fairly well satisfied with his profit and loss statement at the end of the year. 
Several disturbing elements, however, have crept in during the past few years to 
change these conditions, and the manufacturer wno has not been able to analyze the 
situation and provide a remedv has had to face a great reduction in profit. A careful 
analysis has shown that the principal causes for this chiange are improved machinery 
and equipment, increased labor costs, keen competition, and increased cost of raw 
materials. 

Such improvements as the automatic presses, flowing devices, automatic leers, etc., 
have greatly increased the production per dollar invested, and likewise reduced the 
cost per article. In order to market this increased production, it was thought neces- 
sary to reduce the selling price. Competitors found it necessary to meet this condi- 
tion by a still greater cut in prices. These cuts, for the most part, were based on 
the competitor's selling price and not on the manufacturer's cost. The result has 
been a demoralized market. 

Working adversely to this condition, labor cost has been continually increasing. 
Labor unions, increased cost of living, general prosperitv, and shortage of labor are 
responsible for higher wages. This condition in itself, however, should not be 
objectionable. It is a well-known psychological principle that a manufacturer can 
obtain greater efiiciencv and larger production per man by making it possible for a 
man to increase his earnings as a result. 

Statistics show that the amount of glassware put on the market has been continually 
increasing. Despite the greater demand, this condition has. created a stronger fight 
for the business and likewise a closer selling price. 

As labor enters largely into the cost of raw materials, the increased labor cost has 
affected the price of the material. In addition to this, the demand has been greater, 
therebv resulting in a very noticeable increase in the price of the material. 

A careful analvsis of these conditions brings out the fact that the whole situation is 
based on the cost of the product. Improved equipment reduced the cost and enabled 
the manufacturer to reduce the selling price and still retain about the same margin 
of profit. A little later increased cost of labor, and still later increased cost of raw 
material, was brought to bear, with the result that the margin of profit was greatly 
reduced. 

All managers who are using svstematic methods in figuring their costs and profits 
are of the opinion that the glass industry as a whole would be greatly benefited if all 
6rms had an accurate knowledge of their costs. 

THE PER-POUND METHOD. 

One of the conunon methods of computing costs on different units 
of bottles and blown and pressed ware is to divide all expenses 
for the year, except for skilled labor, by the number of pounds of 
finished glass produced during the year, to multiply the quotient 
by the weight of a dozen or gross of each unit manufactured, and to 
add to this product the amount paid per dozen or gross for skilled 

102511'*— 17 ^21 



S22 THE GLASS IKDUSTEY. 

Idbor. which is paid on a piece-price basis. This method, called the 
per pound method, is very inaccurate, because more fuel and labor 
are required to make a certain weight of smaU uidcles than the same 
weight of larger articles. As a light-weight article when finished 
mar cost more and be of greater rahie thfm one which is heavier, a 
larger overhead should not be apportioned to the heavier one solely 
on account of its weight. If. for instance, the metal or molten ^ass 
is drawn frc^m pots, it is obvious that a longer time will be required 
to empty a pot from wiiich ^ass for smaU ware was drawn than to 
er.^pty a pot from which ^ass for large ware was taken. In some 
c^aes it would take twice as Icoig and the fuel and labor would be 
twice as much in cme case as in the othor. Moreover, the cost for 
hitl and labor to pncnluce an equal weigbt of ^assware would be 
twice as much in some cases as in otheis> whether the glass were 
drawn fn>m pots or from ring holes in continuous tanks. 

THE SHOF-BOm STSTEM. 

A nrorv accurate method of ci^iiiputing the cost of units in the 
ULanufactore of bottlds and of blv'wn and pressed ware is the shop- 
hc'^ir system* which prv^vides for app>.>rtioning expense to each 
iin't aouorviiiig to the time ivouired for prvniucing it in the blowine 
:r rrvsij^in^ r>?i!i. *? c>.^mT*arv\I with the time required for the totw 
prvvi'jL'aiva in each of tile^e iVH>:iis. Ctely the indirect labor, fuel, 
azLi rt-rivr&i e^tpense are thus ar^»r5i-?2.eVL Each unit is charged 
f^r i-T. sTVH :S; votsts. suib as the sh- r IsN^ •>r direct labor, which is 
rss-iilV T-iii for *: p:t>re rat<^ 

S; :i jlit >rr iv u~ i systera ani :hi- si>>-h:-:ir system are explained 
:iL azL Arn. Li by Mr, Kv tvrt G, Ar::i>«p:Ki^, nnftd before the Eastern 
Orlifcss Viii ani R^::Le Mar.ufiC4;2r«s^ AssachciatkMi at its annual 
n»'v:::.7_r i''. . >l:^- Motsi .^f *ii3< ikn::I<- is bftv q::v>ted: 

Ii -.:*'. j?,»*£. •»':. i»i-.^ ir":n;aL i»;aLiiJ*i wa* but* lauflL «v.:ii^ ic ibe supply, bottle 
iiUii'Liii'^ir*^*' •««: V :a'v»i TJ*fa* /ix T'i; J.: ^►fsr iwt. jtv^uk. Pr^^i? vcre laige and 
i*'Mr^-*»*«'*^ vfti m»-»-"f- — «»<ir*ft-"ij^ "^ •**^ 7mj'LT».""TP«^ SHKstsSr ■magement and 
!•'}<•--''<- '»ji ji:».-*rit,: -^Tic >'fr^ xt-vti.itj r^jva u^ '.i»fx ^xficvsaiy ^Riff not yet felt. 

~f-i: • :»^ ^»»i I'.- :i}«> tr^ ;ift«r \ ■« w la f ifcr^xCTiftf ^i fc >^X to produce live 
i» r ..t^ V 't^r^ u»ir ir** ij*^.;*^^ \ -?r*?C"W^ n z'l.aua^ i;xzL>fC^«Bt^ bcat-the-othff- 
».. I »▼ ^s^rn-'' ■'/snTH^-:!'!! rut- iv*" ..7 -sj»r tvst': uujl'* j »»w*i .rwKiraKy to fiiancial rain. 

"':•>¥ % r« !i> '* ^tr* ' '**' ^•^^ r vnc ru. '^in»''"r~ntt Ti.-c?r t*» ^ione, bave spent 
-»M»r 'rj»*.*~.^ ii »w :»»-><i.7i* ^f^^ir*^ ii. tt^t tiC^Taftv .sm whwi derj hmve been 
;»♦ - . riir-. A ins.4.. .ijc \r*na4.f*> >.hr •iv«r> :ivwiwTi.nfc- • .'ViittUai;9<Ai to produce the 
Ki M '«>•<-. »* 4^1*.. ♦t'>4 :»>«j.'i»f r^js?*' *. .J* ♦*!fcc :^,t«^Ikjlf ffcrujiy t«r focL Labcff- 
sa 'iiiT :*'♦ i^** i »i. i -n's lu^'/ :»'v»T 7^>?y» •*>/. 7* >«fir t !iiit«T ^ae bem scientific- 
li ■ 1.' '■*»-. It -^nt*" Tia.T :% .ur :$i"t r*»r^ ic** t.^' "^ -i'T^-Tr** f;s^«» * mjttiiifactur- 
iii: -v:. .' i.T "*\ I :.* ri n? '*c n.ui i .:«-Ti jf*i "«r ■▼-:ii>f«'5 ;l»e ODe t^i^i g 
i. r- /. ♦^^k : in • i^ ' n u^ -<5i • -rss- ju A,v*irs».u i»i."3 nsMbje cost system. 

^ '.'A > '»^ n*** !i -^ * •! *'• •>. i*: t i:» ».T^ $iT».v ^ivrsiTiiic 't'rtir "irti^y if TTcw do not 
H.1 .t X \i- • .ir :rv*n> ."*»>5t- ^- \i ' t ^^mj-njfi^-tT. ttW uuwjjj^i ^ iv peuntt vender 
Ml ..:•• -.r^-*** J- 1 »..MJiif^^ ^v.'VT" *^r«« ■ vn.'V ;.i>f^ ^'^^^ 4aii jiftH £; ik pKfit ornot at 



-" . - 'I 



*i ir.u: -^is-s*^ ^ ::.".:^ ^ u:.. nt ^^ *«^cr jivraot^ Vt aIe\^Mranaly- 



VBSD6 OF THS IHDUSnY* H^^i 

There is but little use, however, in iu>calliiur a i^^st j«\^<otu \u>\<vv< wwi \)«^hMUUMi» 
to make any and all changes <hown to bo uectjc^^ary, Vou nu\\ litul \\ \\\\%\^m\\\ \\% 
drop a foreman or some workmen whom you had ciHiutwl U^Mml>«H'tt\t^^ yu\\ iii»^ o\ni 
that they are not now efficient. You may dis<*ovor to >*\>nr dintnuN thjU K t)< \m«Ui\u 
you more to deliver ware to your ** best** customor than lu* is |>nvin>' Uw it . N o\» \\\\\y 
discover that certain classes of ware are coating you mon» \\\n\ otijor?* lt*»)« {\\\\\\ y\\\\ 
had estimated. It will require some backbone to corro< t i\\\ tluv^o ibin^tH. \n\\ tim rnr. 
rection of such faults, discovered through the application of a otwt »yj<toiu» lu\w f u« nt^d 
the tide of fortune for hundreds of manufacturers from failure to «\UMM*i«f«. 

Some have hesitated to install a cost system, boliovingihal if in not powublt^tinltivlpu 
a system accurately determining the cost*s of luich differoiit ntyh* \\\u\ hU.o of holtlo. 
That is a mistake. A system producing accurate rcsijlts can bo HjtplitMl to luiy Un0 
of manufacture. It has been done in the bottle biisinow. 

Some have hesitated because they lacked confidence in export iummhuH mitw. TIimI . 
too, is a mistake. There are scores of men. any one of wlioni In i\\\ oxpnit lit Hiiclt 
matters, who will give you a system built to your burtinoHH lluit will hliow tlio conliBi 
and profits of each department of a factory and of ouch indivichinl y,rt)nti of hotllop 
made. This service will be conscientiouHly perform od luul in inviiliiMlilo 

Some have hesitated because of the first (*0Ht. No oiio wotihl lionhnlo to At»otii| 
$500 if assured it would bring in $1,000. In the ordinary t>oltlo fitclory. wllhoiil h 
competent cost system, the chances are ton to one that ibo roHiilfw wmiUI ho inwU 
more favorable than this, and they would be porpotual. 

Some have hesitated on account of the expense of operating tbe nmi «y«lorfi !,««( ^n 
suppose that in a 24-ring factorv it will require all the titne of one fMhllHotiHl eh'rk jif 
$18 a week — ^$900 a year. If the work is thoroughly done utui the flndlnK« pfop»Hv 
taken advantage of the result should cause an avoraj<e {i/lrlifi/ifi»l pfoOf of »f l**««t 
1 cent a gross on the output. Such a fa^jt^iry nhould prodiu'e at hsLif MHliHUi t(ro«« //f 
bottles in 10 months, showin;; a re.niltin;; net profit of K2,WK). Hut i\t$uu> i'tifitttw uttt 
very conservative in comparis<jn with «w»me a/;tnal r^Miilt* ]tritfhitt*f\. 

ADVANTAGES OAINKO BY VI$K i}9 CifUr HYU^FKH, 

Briefly stated, some of the advajitagf:«> of an ju-^urat^ ktittwU-^V/f ol nf<i^, tttt- th* *•* 

(1) The exact cost to deliver any 1 '^fjm^ (n \9kr%*ix t\^\».u\\V'f of w»fif, utH^y \t*', H\ff*t 
lutely known. 

(2) Unprofitable bottles and arden ar#; *\*iUfnfitu*tA %ui\ ttmy \t** f\t*fif{fA 'ft *)**- 
prices advanced to the point of a fair profit, T>i^? pr^/h t;» M** li^/t t (<'* wti\ 1^ '}/ *' f ttti tt*A 
and sou^t more diligently. 

(3) The exact result of any inrrr^a^ in tli#; r/M *ii \ii\ffft w toff^^fMl »^U ^m ^'/^/f 
matically ahown. 

(4) The cost to maooiauiiare ai*/ \^AtUr in *r#/ t^uiku^H'/ itrk/ S^ pt^^V-^/ft^^tf^A 
with dependable aermacy, 

(5) f^es pricK^ may b<fe Imkv^ '* '^/^.•«, \ct<\ /'^i »>/) k/^/»^ , *** \t^^it/ r/^ /w "*'•» 
safely go. 

(6)' Unint*?lli2«5m*» crjBttjjK?^**^^. ttAf ^^ ^\'rtt;,r,'Otfj^\ 

(7) Each \ifAxXh k* UEk4i>r Vr ^^iM .*.< ''/vr» f,it''.*^* '^, Xf./i, ffM f*'r<^,\:.<j( *'/,^/, ^/tf ^^t 
duction^ day wfMx^ fx ^w^rr w^i ^ j^. "/. vxc^ j,*>/ •,..*<•,'/ '''*' ''-^ ""^'"^ '' ■* '>*'*' / 
unfair to iMapma^ par", -d %6^ ^i^^^^. m' u^k*:.^ h <.''*' ..'• .V/* a wy.**. '^c^^' m^."'* 
easily nuule. 

The wofnt^A h"^- «ni'.«»u V.r *rAw^,.ir'y '//rf'j ^ 'a*! y.-' pf,',*/i jt^^itaw ?> <» 
isadaiM^ieroxBacii .^^jafya* r^tt^ftn ' ,v^ ,. ^fx-^.-^^^ » ,\ ti^^ t^ Vr ;^^•"i ->»•«/ 

at 58 ceikSA. 4KJH . s>\ r--.*^ ^r.»f ^v, ' ; r/">w >/«i \. y,>f 

KasasutzhsBL^'.^ y \ 1 *<■ v'.»'*r.wr vi v*M^.u\i\\^ ^ij.''*\\i',\ \,i,'tf,^4\u r* y,'','\-^**A f\''/\^' 
ProdnctWiiijr'vw* iA-- ^»;.• V'nn«> ♦. 9 /.'/^^ ^^ < v/*-' •«/ " »'"''« *- *^' m-^*.* 
$21.45; i3i> 2r"iii» *r.tT *':» * / /•'•>« ^/,*-* it '/fr -,f' y^Av ,» ^^,'r^ /^m^ */< /--m.i.'-w 
round pecffrn'onion v.r u?* i>i/< 'Ut*" '.*-y.t'*<i^uu *-/v«^'./ .\** -« '',w',\ »r<A »^ i* o, ,^ .,r 
list. 

But wv^ aak»«* rjir V\»"* rarV*.!!/ ,»i '•» . ih/ »). ^» ♦»> ♦ ^'-I'A^ '' ' / V ' *'-"• t* 



ponbtTfMiftir. ' 



324 THE GLASS INDXJST&Y. 

In the case of the colognes, the 33 gross also cost $4.50 for boy labor, or $0.1363 a gross, 
a dii^erence of $0.0363 in the item of boy labor alone, not taken care of by the per 
pound method. 

There are several other items of expense in the cost of those bottles which are 
affected in the same manner, thus increasing the inaccuracy. Fiuiher, experience 
has shown that two shops working side by side on the same bottle will vary, consider- 
ably in their output. Also that a given shop working on the same bottle will vary 
for one reason or another — an old mold, a new boy, or other similar cause. All these 
variations directly affect the costs per gross, but the per pound system does not provide 
lor such variation. 

Go back to the boy wages, $4.50. It matters not what the weight per gross of the 
bottles they are making may be, whether 2-ounce, 4-ounce, 8-ounce, or more, or 
whether the production is 50 gross or 35 gross or 20 gross per day — ^their wages are the 
same, $4.50. So that this expense bears no fixed relation to the weight of the bottles 
or the quantity produced, but it has a fixed relation to the time consumed in making 
the ware. Therefore the expense, $4.50, should be applied to each gross produced 
during the day in the proportion of 1 gross to the total production. For example, if 
10 gross are produced each gross costs 45 cents for shop boys. If 45 gross were produced 
each gross costs 10 cents for shop boys. 

Take gas: Assume that gas for an 8-ring furnace costs $32 a day, $4 a day for each 
ring hole. It will cost practically $4 a day for eacK ring hole no matter what size ware 
is being produced or how many gross are being turned out. If it is large ware, much 
gas must be used to thoroughly melt and cook the glass. If small ware, much gas 
must be used to keep the glass hot. So the size of ware produced makes but little 
difference in the daily cost for each shop. 

Suppose the shop is working two turns on a 2-ounce weight bottle and producing 85 
gross a day, or $0,047 a gross for gas. Suppose again the shop is on a 2-ounce weight 
bottle more difficult to make and the prod\iction for two turns is 65 gross, then the cost 
for each gross for gas is $0.0615, an actual increase in cost of $0.0145 not discovered by 
the pound system, because the two bottles being of the same weight are charged 
with the same burden of expense. 

The same illustration can be given of bottles of any weight ai\d we are led to the 
concliLsion that the cost of gas bears no direct relation to the weight or the size of the 
bottles being produced, but that it has a direct bearing on the time consumed and 
should be applied pro rata on the nimiber of gross produced diuing any cost period. 

We might consume an hour illustrating the inaccuracies resulting from appljdng 
all the different sorts of expense items, according to the weight of the bottles, but it is 
imnecessary, as precisely the same principle applies to all such expense items as 
batch mixing, furnace tending, gas, shop boys, peanut roasting, leer expense, packing, 
shipping, interest, repairs, and depreciation. In short nothing should be figured by 
the pound except the single item of melted glass, the net cost per pound of which 
should be ascertained, and each gross of bottles charged according to its weight. 

It would appear from the foregoing that some other method of determining coflts 
than the per pound system must be adopted to arrive at correct figures. One such 
method is the shop-hour system. 

THE SHOr-HOHR SYSTEM. 

The object of this system is to include every item of exx)ense, manufacturing coets, 
interest, depreciation, and maintenance, and to apply to each gross of bottles produced 
the exact proportions of these costs that belong to it. If this is done, we must admit 
that the resulting figures will be accurate and may safely be used as a basis for estab- 
lishing selling prices. 

The shop-hour system recognizes two principal classes of bottle costs, viz, specific 
costs and nonspecific costs. 

Specific coats. — ^The method of handling these is very simple. They consist of the 
following items: Glass, blowing, mold depreciation, boxes, and packing paper. 

At the close of business each month the total production in gross of each kind of 
bottle made is ascertained. The production of each bottle is charged with the num- 
ber of gross times the blowing rate. 

An account is kept with each mold. Experience will soon determine what portion 
of the original cost of a mold is depreciated by each 100 gross of bottles produced. 
Based on this known rate of depreciation, the production of each bottle is charged 
with the proper amount of mold depreciation. 

The box-cost system determines the cost of each box produced. These per box 
costs are multiplied by the number of boxes required to pack each kind of boUle, and 
the resulting figures added to the total costs for each bottle produced. 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTBY. 325 

There is bq slight a difference in the amounts of paper required per case to pack the 
different sizes that we assume all to cost the same per case. On this basis the total 
costs of each bottle produced are charged with the proper amount for packing paper. 

By a method to be explained later, the exact raw materials cost of melted glass per 
pound is determined. The total cost of each bottle produced is charged with the cost 
of glass used. 

To ascertain the cost per f^ss of any bottle, add these five items to the total shop-hour 
cost for that bottle and divide by the number of gross produced. 

Shop-hour costs. — ^This is a little more complicated, but easily enough handled. 
Some period of time must be adopted as the unit. The hotir being short and answering 
all the requirements, is being used. 

Shop-hour costs are baaed on three principles, or theories, as follows: (a) A 1 manu- 
facturing costs except the specific costs should be calculated on the basis of time; 
(h) all costs, including manufacturing costs while operating, costs incurred by reason 
of a shop or shops being idle from time to time, ana costs accruing during shut-down 
periods must be applied to the total number of productive hours; (c) each ring hole 
or shop must be charged with exactly the same amount of costs in the ratio of its pro- 
ductive hours, without r^ard to the size or quantity of ware it is producing. 

The hour. — At the close of each month the total number of gross of each bottle pro- 
duced during the period, and the actual hours employed in making each, is ascer- 
tained. The total number of hours by the same process is subdivided into hours on 
handmade, or machine-made, or pressed stoppers, or in making amber, etc. 

The process is this: Shop No. 1, handmade ware, works 9 hours (shop hours they 
are called) on April 1. The record of their day's work is made to show this. A similar 
record is made for eveiy shop for each day of the month, and at the end of the month 
it is merely a matter of addition to ascertain the segregate number of shop hours em- 
ployed on each class of ware by all the shops. Suppose the records indicate 2,500 
shop hours on handmade ware for the month and a total shop-hour cost of $3,750; this 
equals $1.50 to be charged to the production of each shop for every hour they have 
worked during the period. The same process is followed for machine ware, or amber 
ware, or blue ware, or any other subdivision. desired. 

This will serve to illustrate the shop-hour cost in practice: Assume the rate to be 
$1.50 per hour. If a shop produces bottles at the rate of 3 gross per hour each gross 
will have cost 50 cents, wnich represents the bmrden for all manufacturing costs except 
the five items of specific costs mentioned in a previous chapter. If the production is 
4 gross per hour the shop-hour cost of each is 37i cents; or, if 5 gross per hour, the cost 
for eacn is 30 cents, etc. 

Cost per pound of melted glass. — By means of forms specially prepared for the work, 
the weight and cost of each material that goes into the glass is ascertained and tabu- 
lated. These give the total weights of raw materials and their cost. The production 
record which snows the number of gross of each bottle made also shows the total num- 
ber of pounds of glass used. The difference between these two total weights repre- 
sents the shrinkage in melting. The total pounds produced divided into the total 
cost indicates the actual cost per pound of melted glass for raw materials, and this is 
the only item of the costs that should be applied at so much per pound. 

In addition to manufactiuing costs there are merchandising costs, consisting of office 
expense, sales expense and commissions, cash discounts, and officers' salaries. These 
added together produce the total of general expense, which is added to the manufac- 
turing cost on a percentage basis. 

At the end of a month the records may show that 1,000 gross of 2-ounce round pre- 
scription bottles have been produced. The cost to make, sell, deliver, and collect for 
them is determined by adaing together the various sums'produced by multiplying 
1,000 by the following items: The blowing rate, the mold depreciation, the box cost 
per gross, packing paper, and glass, and the number of shop hours times the shop-homr 
rate at $1.50. The sum bein^ divided by 1,000, produces the manufacturing cost of 
each gross, which we will say is $1.10. To this we add the merchandising expenses at, 
say, 5 per cent, the freight at what it actually is — say 4 J cents a gross — and the sales- 
man 's commissions, all of which show a cost of $1.27 the gross, if 5 per cent profit is 
satisfactory, the sale price must be $1,334 the gross. 

Under the method explained by Mr. Armstrong, the cost of the raw 
materials only is charged to each unit on the pound basis. Specific 
costs — ^for blowing, mold depreciation, boxes, and packing paper — are 
charged according to the actual cost for each unit. AH other costs, 
including fuel, general labor, and general expense of all kinds, are 
apportioned on the shop-hour basis. Some accountants are in favor 



326 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

of including the fuel cost with the cost of raw materials to ascertain 
the cost per pound of material used. 

This system of apportioning costs that are not direct to the dififerent 
units may be applied to tableware and lighting goods as well as to 
bottles. 

The cost of leering depends on the size of the article^ the length of 
time necessary to anneal it properly, and the temperature required. 
The labor cost of grinding, ornamenting, inspecting, wrapping, and 
packing may be charged to each imit according to the time actually 
spent on it. The selling expense may be apportioned on the total cost 
01 the xmit, according to tne ratio between the total selling expense 
and the total cost of the factory product during a certain period. 

OVERHEAD EXPENSE IN MAKINO WINDOW GLASS. 

Where both single and double strength window glass is made, the 
cost of the metal, or molten glass, should be separately figured, as the 
relative weights are about as 5 to 8. Window class is made in several 
grades, called double A, A, B, and C, double A being the best grade, 
and is cut into panes of different sizes called brackets. The cutters 
cut the glass sheets to the best advantage, and get as much of the 
better grades and larger brackets as possible. 

In manufacturing window glass the skilled labor consists of gather- 
ing, blowing, flattening, and cutting in the case of hand-blown glass, 
and of flattening and cutting in the case of machine-made glass. The 
piece prices paid per 100 sauare feet cut vary under union rules ac- 
cording to thickness, being nigher for double strength than for single 
strength, and also according to grades and brackets, being higher for 
the better grades and for the larger brackets. This skilled labor can, 
therefore, be easily charged directly to the cost of 100 square feet of 
each bracket of each grade, single or double strength. 

The expense for metal being computed separately for single and 
double strength glass and the expense for skilled labor being computed 
separately for each bracket of each grade, single or double strength, 
the other expense of manufacture, including the burden or overhead, 
may be apportioned by dividing this expense by the total number of 
100 feet produced, irrespective of thickness, quality, or size of bracket. 

Other methods of distributing the burden might be adopted. For 
instance, the cost of the unskilled labor on a unit might be allocated in 
the proportion of the cost of the skilled labor, which is paid for at piece 
prices, according to the various brackets and grades; or the prime- 
cost method might be used, by which the burden is distributed on the 
basis of the total cost of skilled labor and materials of each unit. The 
effect of either of these methods, the latter to a greater extent than the 
former, would be to increase the burden on the larger brackets and 
better grade, and decrease it on the small brackets and lower grade. 
This is theoretically desirable, and the cost of the small brackets and 
lower grades, as apportioned by either of these methods, would be less. 
Consequently there would be less complaint from manufacturers that 
they had to sell the small brackets and lower grades at a loss; but by 
either of these methods of apportionment more burden would be dis- 
tributed to the larger brackets than is done imder the present practice. 
Manufacturers could not sell their larger brackets without reducing 
their margin of profit if they should apportion overhead by the prime- 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 327 

cost method; they would be unable to compete with manufacturers 
who apportion the burden according to the prevailing practice. It is, 
however, on the larger brackets that manufacturers at present make 
their largest percentage of profit. It would probably be found that it 
would be very difficult practicaDy for a maniuacturer to use the prime- 
cost method unless most of his competitors also should adopt it. 

PREDETEBMINED COSTS. 

An article by Mr. Herbert B. Garwood shows that whether a factory 
is operated efficiently or inefficiently can not be decided without a 
study of predetermined costs and comparing them with the actual 
costs, as shown by the factory's records. Such a comparison will show 
in what departments of the factory there is preventable waste. He 
suggests that manufacturers, acting together, should publish the re- 
sults of a study of their predetermmed costs for the benefit of them- 
selves as well as of their uninformed competitors. He sajTs that this 
accurate knowledge of the lowest costs that have been obtained would 
result in the elimination of preventable waste and in a decrease of 
price cutting. Such data, if^ accessible to all manufacturers, would, 
m his opinion, cause them to fix selling prices with much greater uni- 
formity than has been customary. His article, quoted below, was 
read before the members of the Glass Bottle Manufacturers' Club at a 
meeting held in New York City September 12, 1911: 

pREDETERMIinSD GOSTS OF BfANTTFAOTUItmO IN THB HAND-BlOWN GxJLSS-BoTTLB 

Business, 
the modebn theory of cost accountino. 

The greater number of those interested in the hand-blown glass-bottle business 
are agreed that the financial return on the capital invested is inadequate. As to 
the cause of this inadequacy tiiere is a wide diveigence of opinion. The manufac- 
turing department blames the selling department for low prices, the selling depart- 
ment claims that it has to meet the prices of other manufacturers, and that the manu- 
facturing department must be inefficient, otherwise they could produce at the prices 
of these competitors and show a profit; and the general management blames first one 
and then the other, as circumstances may be. 

The true cause of inadequate returns is probably unintelligent competition plus 
inefficiency in both manufacturing and selling departments, tqgetiier with an excess 
or deficienc]^ of capital, due to lack of system in the general management. Admit- 
ting this, is it not a matter of vital importance to manufacturers to know what their 
costs should be? Not what they have been, not what they are to-day, but what they 
theoretically should be, plus a certain i)ercenta|p;e allowed for inefficiency and waste, 
the data being obtained from a sdentinc analysis of the business. 

Without tMs information, how can they tell whether they are operating under 
efficient or inefficient conditions? Do they know wheUier they are asking a legiti- 
mate iirofit or a legitimate profit plus a profit upon inefficiency, the latter being 
manifestly wrong in principle and Dound to result in diiaiitor? liOst, but not least 
in importance, can they state for a certainty whether thoy are making or losin(2[ money, 
and if the amount made or lost is what it should have bnon under tne conditions pre- 
vailing during the period of operation? 

The old and generally accepted method of cost a(*(?otjntinff is to ascertain costs after 
the work has been completed. The objectioni to it am Uiat it delays information 
until the information is of but little value and that it in abNolutely incorrect, as it 
mixes up with costs items that do not have the nnnoU^ni connection with them. 

As an illustration, take this incident: A shop was making 8-ounce Baltimore ovals. 
About 2 o'clock in the afternoon the three blowers quit without notice and the three 
boys were ordered to sweep off the tops of the Icn^rs. The time sheets had the total 
wages of these boys charged to the 8-ounco Haiti more oval order, and it was so re- 
coiled in the office. Is such information worth the time expended upon it? 



328 THE GLASS. INDUSTBY. 

The modem method of cost accounting is to ascertain costs before work is under- 
taken. Then, when the job is completed and the actual figures are known, to charge 
to the job the predetermined cost and to put the excess (that is, the difference between 
the actual ana the predetermined cost) under an account called preventable waste, 
where the attention of all concerned is inmiediately called to it. 

It will be seen at once that this substitutes for tibe haphazard reckoning of the old 
method a scientific basis of determination. The predetermined costs are derived from 
a careful ascertainment of theoretical costs with allowance for waste and inefficiency. 
Predetermined costs are therefore never standardized. Any day something may 
be discovered which will change the theoretical cost or alter me percentage of waste 
and thus place the predetermined costs on a new level. This predetermination of 
results based on scientific certainties modified by experience is of more value than 
retrospective costs based on a servile record of the haphazard. 

In the first place, it has its value for superintendents, salesmen, and foremen. It 
has been customary to hire men for these positions and put them to work with a hand- 
ful of general instructions and then blame them for whatever went wrong. Perhaps 
they were told the owners of the business expected it to make a certain amount per 
year and that the greatest possible production was wanted at the lowest possible 
cost, and this production was to be sold at the highest price possible. Data as to 
the results, step by step or unit by unit, was seldom given them; they were hired 
and turned loose to work out their own salvation. In many cases their employers 
knew less than they did and could not have given charts had thev been asked for. 

The modem method gives the men in command a chart to steer by. The greatest 
possible volume of business a plant is capable of turning out in a given period of 
time is first determined; a eelhng force to dispose of this output is then organized; 
the material and labor necessary to its production is scientifically reckoned; an ap- 
portionment of the overhead burden to the different stages of manufacture is made; 
the required margin of profit is decided upon and standard selling prices established. 
All of this information is mapped out for the guidance of the men. 

As the work progresses actual costs are compared with predetermined costs. In- 
efficiencies are immediately located and removed. Predetermined costs then fall to 
new levels and again actual costs are compared, further elimination of waste is made; 
the cycle continues indefinitely. The men know whether they are doing their work 
in a satisfactory manner, not only to their employer but to themselves. The salesmen 
determine their worth not from gross sales, out from net profits forecasted from pre- 
determined costs. Every employer has accurate means of judging the worth of every 
man in his employ. He is not dependent upon personal feeling or prejudice; he knows 
what are the actual results accomplished by each man. 

In addition to the help the men derive from this knowledge of what their work 
should be, predetermined costs have a use and are even a necessity in forecasting the 
results of business policies. Some years ago rather a high scale of prices was put into 
effect by a combination consisting of the greater number of bottle manufacturers of 
this country. Almost all plants operated upon a fairly eflScient basis commenced to 
make what would to-day be regarded as an abnormal profit. 

Thereupon a number of new plants were started to take advantage of the situation. 
Had preoetermined costs shown that these prices were going to produce excessive 
profits and the certain attraction of excessive profits to new capital been predicted, 
a lower scale might possibly have been adopted, and the hand-blown glass industries 
might have been saved some of the excess production which is to-day responsible for 
much of the disorganizaion in the business. At the time no such thoug;hts occuned, 
prices were fixed on the basis of what the market would stand, and in a few years 
chaos reigned. 

The greatest value of predetermined costs, however, lies in their comparison with 
actual costs and in tiie Imowledge thus attained of where inefficiencies and prevent- 
able waste, accidents, unavoidaole expenses have been foimd and how much they 
have affected profits. 

Suppose under the old method cost records contained an item called ** Tending 
factory No. 1 " and during different periods of a year the following charges were made: 
(1) $309, (2) $315, (3) $322, (4) $385, (5) $260, (6) $340. At the end of the fourth period 
the superintendent would probably have been asked to explain the high cost of $385. 
He would have dissected his time Dook or cards and in three of four days reported that 
owing to a shortage of boys he had been compelled to use packers for tending boys 
and to hire a number of extra boys for the night shift at higher wages. There would 
have been more or less grumbling and the matter would have passed. At the end of 
the next period he would possibly have been complimented upon the good showing, 
and later it might have been discovered that a page of the time book had been mislaid. 

Now, assuming this occurred in a plant making nothing but beer bottles and the 



NEEDS OF THE IKDUSTBY. 329 

production was exactly 20 gross per shop per shift, the bottles made duriDg the fourth 
period would have cost more than those made during the fifth. Would the salesman 
have been expected to go out and get a higher price for those made at a higher cost 
and would customers have been notified of a reauction in price during the following 
period? 

This question is of course ridiculous, but as it is manifestly impossible to get a 
higher price for the beer bottles made during the period of high cost the owners of Ae 
business must lose the extra money paid out for tending. Knowing they must lose it, 
why wait for the end of the fiscal year to recognize it? Why not immediately charge 
it to preventable loss in iJie books, so that when the end of the year come^ not only the 
losses but their sources may be determined? 

Take the same situation under the new method. Superintendents, foremen, and 
accountants are called in and wages fixed for tending. Ihe number of boys to a shop 
is detemnined. Allowance is made for extra boys for emergencies. Wage increases 
during the year are forecasted, and the burden spread among the various units or shops. 
Let us assume that the predetermined cost of tending is $2.90 per shop per ^ft and 
that for a certain period 100 shops are operated. The predetermined cost of tending 
for this period is therefore $290. At the end of the period let us imagine that the 
actual pay roll shows for tending $325. Turning to tending account in the ledger, 
which is ruled and headed for three columns instead of one, we post as follows: Stand- 
ard cost, $290; preventable waste, $35; actual cost, $325. When the end of the year 
arrives and the books are closed the amount of money lost and the place it disappeared 
are both known, for by the use of this system you are always losing money regardless 
of what profits you may make. This seeming paradox is explained by the fact that 
standard costs are always changing to new levels, so that actual costs never catch them, 
preventable waste being always present. 

Let us continue to assume nothing but beer bottles are being made and the produc- 
tion is still 20 gross per shop per shift. The standard cost does not vary; therefore the 
standard selling price remains the same. High actual cost lost some money in a certi^n 
period, but instead of trving to saddle it on one order or group of orders, it is spread 
over the year and recognized as a penalty for inefficiency instead of a chaige which 
should have been made against a customer. . 

As Harrington Emerson expresses it: ^' A waiter bringing in an expensive dinner to 
a guest in a hotel stumbles and crashes dinner and dishes to ruin. Shall the guest, 
besides being put to the annoyance of waiting another half hour, be charged not only 
double price for his dinner but also for the broken dishes, or is the expense of the 
accident to be charged to inefficiency, a general charge or overhead burden on all 
dining-room operations, taken care of in the standardized cost of each dish, without 
reference to specific accident?" 

Standard prices must always be based on standard costs. Suppose in a plant making 
nothing but beer bottles the actual cost for one period was $3.32 per gross while 
during the next period it was $3.41 per gross. In wnich period would you determine 
your selhng price? But suppose predetermined cost was $3.24, then wnen the figures 
came in at $3.32 and $3.41 you would have data to talk about to the factory man- 
agement; and bear in mind these figures would come to you as the aggregate of hun- 
dreds of separate operations, so you could immediately put your finger on the item or 
items responsible for the excess and take steps to prevent its reoccurrence. 

If, as many manufacturers believe, present financial returns are inadequate, either 
costs are too high, selling prices too low, or both are at fault. Without a scientific pre- 
determination of costs, how can it be decided where the fault lies? Is it safe either 
to lower or raise selling prices? One, of course, opens the way to bankruptcy, the 
other to better-informed competitors taking away business. Information as to actual 
costs are for the private benefit of each manufacturer. It would be folly to ask or 
expect them to be divulged in a public meeting or published in any manner. Pre- 
-determined costs are a matter of general interest and information to all and can be 
discussed and worked over without jeopardizing the poHition of any manufacturer 
taking part. 

If this could be generally realized, there would seem to be nothing to prevent manu- 
facturers taking up the study of predetermined costs together and publishing the 
results, thus educating their uninformed competitors as well as themselves to the 
necessity of seUing prices ba.sed on cost secured tnrough elimination of inefficiency, plus 
a reasonable margin of profit. Wlien this is done, it will be found that a closer uni- 
formity in selling prices will follow than has ever l>een secured through any combina- 
tion heretofore in effect. 

Other industries have followed this system of educating their competitors and 
themselves to a true knowledge of costs to their great benefit. One example is the 
printing trade. Such a scheme is now being worked out through the Foundrymen's 



330 THE QLAS8 IKDUSTBY. 

Association. Another is in the field of electricity. The number of failures among 
unall electric light plants has been vitally reduced since the inception by the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association of a study of costs. The window glass manufac- 
turers are now engaged in forming an association based on educational lines to study 
the question of costs. There is no reason to doubt that such a study would be of tre- 
mendous advantage when applied to the glass-bottle manufacturing business. Is it 
not, in fact, almost a matter of vital necessity and should it not be made before any 
action is taken even for the suggestion of selling prices? 

DETERMINATION OP OUTPUT. 

Jf No study of predetermined costs should be undertaken without first making a care- 
ful examination of the business and analyzing every step in tJie operations of the plant. 
Manufacturing costs are the aggregate of me costs of hundreds of separate opera- 
tions, and until each one of these is carefully studied and assayed and the results 
tabulated it is manifestly impossible to attempt to forecast this aggregate. There- 
fore an analysis of the glass-bottle business is necessary before attempting to ta\-e up 
the question of costs. As each step in the process is shown, the cost of that step 
can be determined. 

This analysis discloses the fact that glass is needed to make bottles; that glass is a 
inutual solution of a number of chemical substances, usually silicates, their solu- 
tion being accomplished through the fusion of their mixture by heat applied in a 
furnace. A furnace is a receptacle not only for making glass but from which it is 
withdrawn in small units to be fabricated. 

The starting point of the business b, then, the furnace. It is next learned that 
no more glass can be melted in the furnace than is withdrawn by the workmen during 
the process of manufacture. But the cost of this glass does not bear a direct ratio 
to the tonna^ produced, for heat must be kept on the furnace continuously, re^rd- 
less of variation in amount of output. There are also certain indirect materials, indi- 
rect labor, and general expenses which continue at practically a fixed amount in 
spite of a wide range in tonnage output. 

There is, therefore, in every plant a certain tonnage which should be manufac- 
tured in order to secure the greatest possible economy in the cost of glass mal;ing. 
Knowledge of the amount of tonnage possible is the first step in the study of prede- 
termined costs, for without this the quantity of raw material needed can not be ascer- 
tained nor the number of workmen required to manufacture bottles estimated. 
Therefore we must forecast the output of a given furnace or furnaces before proceed- 
ing further. 

To ascertain the maximum output of a furnace, the inside dimensions of the melt- 
ing pot, the area of the ports, and the cubical contents of the generators should be 
known. The reason for including ports and regenerators is that if these are of insuffi- 
cient size the furnace with which they are connected will not have the same melt- 
ing power as a furnace with properly designed ports and generators. 

In 1868 Mr. C. W. Siemens, in an address before the Chemical Society of England, 
formulated his principles regarding the design of checkers, and, though many years 
with their improvements have passed, the furnaces with the greatest melting power 
in this country to day are those which closely follow the principles then laid down. 
As a matter of interest the pith of his article is here reproduced: 

"The amount of brickwork required to absorb the waste heat of a given furnace is 
a matter of simple calculation. The products of tke complete combustion of 1 pound 
of coal have a capacity for heat equal to that of nearly 17 pounds of fire brick, and in 
reversing every hour 17 pounds of regenerator brickwork at each end of the furnace 
per pound of coal burned in the gas producer would be theoretically sufficient to absorb 
the waste heat if the whole mass of the generator was uniformly heated at each 
reversal to the full temperature of the flame and then completely cooled by the gases 
coming in. 

** In practice, however, by far the larger part of regenerator checker work is required 
to effect the gradual cooling of the prnducts of combustion and only a small portion 
near the top, perhaps a fourth of the whole ina«». is heated unifonnly to the full tem- 
perature of the flame, the heat of the lower portion decreasing gradually downward 
nearly to the bottom. Three or four times as much brickwork is thus required in the 
regenerators as is equal in oapa^-ity for heat to the products of combustion. The best 
size and arrangement of the briclcs is determined by the consideration of the extent 
of opening required between them to give a free passage Ui the air and gas, and by 
the rule deduced firom my experiments on the action of regenerators in 1851 and 
1852 a surface of 6 square feet is necessary in the regenerator to take up the heat of 
the products of combustion of 1 pound of coal in an hour.** 



NEEDS OF THE INSUSTBY. 331 

A furnace built according to this principle is able to deliver 40 per cent of its capac- 
ity every 24 hours, or 20 per cent in 12 hours, and under the plan of 11 shifts per veek, 
220 per cent of its capacity per working week. This does not mean that 40 per cent 
of capacity is the maximum output of the furnace. Such a statement woula not be 
tnie, for a furnace so designed, if carefully handled, can deliver 50 per cent of capacity 
every 24 hours for a sustained period, but it does it at the sacrifice of the lasting power 
of the stone and by taldng big chances on the quality of glass. 

A basis of 40 i)er cent capacity allows a marejn for toinporaiy overloads through 
increasing the weight of bottles being made, and is a reserve in case of trouble with 
dirty iires in the gas producer. It is undoubtedljr as high a figure as may safely be 
given for a season's o])eration and is concurred in by two glass-furnace engineers 
connected with contracting concerns and by several managers. It is only fair to say, 
however, that almost every one has a different method of reaching this result, but if 
in the end all arrive at approximately the same conclusion it may safely be assumed 
that curreut practice is well represented. 

The method generally used m determining the capacity of a furnace is to figure 
the cubical contents of the melting pot and count 150 ]>ounds of glass to the cubic 
foot. The method of arriving at 150 pounds as the weight of a cubic foot of glass is 
as follows: 

A cubic foot of distilled water weighs 62.42 pounds. The specific gravity of a 
substance being the ratio of weight between a given volume of that substance and a 
like volume of distilled water, it is only ne<?es8ary to ascertain the specific gravity of 
glass and multiply it by 62.42 Tx>undg. In textbooks the siJecific gravitv of bottle 
glass is generally given at 2.60 to 2.90. Actual results with ordinarv fiint {)ottle glass 
show figures much lower. An average from a plant employing a cnemist who made 
tests every week gives about 2.415. Multiplying this hy 62.42 })ounds we have 150} 
pounds. For all practical purposes 150 pounds per cubic foot will sufiice. 

Having secured the capacity of a furnace in tons, and fi^rin^ on an output of 20 
per cent of capacity per shift, or 220 per cent per week, it is a simple calculation to 
determine the yearly output. It is next necessary to make an estimate of the waste 
between ring hole and packing box and to deduct this in order to determine the 
amount of packed product on which the basis of cost is established. In theory this 
is incorrect. The proper method would be to determine the cost of glass based on 
the output and compute the waste on each job, charge the jol) with the total amount 
of glass used, and credit it with the value of the waste returned to furnace. As this 
would introduce an endless amount ol* detail and complication the prior method is 
here used. 

The question of waste between ring hole and packing box is of great importance 
and is not recei^'ing the attention it deserv'es in tnese days of large continuous tanks. 
In the old pot-iurnar'e days it was watched more strictly, as upon the care bestoTved 
on it depended the daj 's output. A chapter could easily be filled in describing 
methods used to eliminate it. Filling in at noon all the cullet made in the moniing 
so as to stretch out the afternoon's work and throwing spoiled bottles in the bacrk <3 
the pot are two illustrations. 

With modern continuous furnaces, recorrls of waste as low as 9^ per cent and as 
hi^h as 32 per cent are reported. If glass is not used for heating molds 10 per cent 
would seem very inefficient; but for the purposes of this explanation 15 per cent will 
be used. Therefore the packed output fier week will be 220 per cent less 15 per cent 
of 220. or 187 per cent of the ca})acity of the furnace. 

To illustrate: A furnace 20 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 3 feet deep contains 600 
cubic feet; 150 pounds of glass to the cubic foot makes the contents 90,000 pounds, 
or 45 tons: 187 per cent output of packed glass per week is 84.15 tons, or slightly less 
than 8 tons per shift. The number of working shifts in a fire or blast are next com- 
puted and the annual output determined. 

At this point the probable production of bottles in gross is forecasted. As each 
manufacturer is familiar with the number of ring holes and the sizts ware it has been 
ciietomary to make therefrom, it naturally follows that by figuring the amount of 
glass packed daily by the different shops adju«rtments can be made in sizes to keep 
this aggregate quantity in agreement with the average daily output. 



332 



THE GLASS INDXTSTEY. 



To illustrate, let us take 8 tous as the predetennined output per shift: 

Founds. 

2 shops, 4-ouiice weight, packing 30 gross of bottles 2, 160 

2 sboj)s, 7-ounce weight, packing 25 gross of bottles 3, 150 

1 shop, 12-ounce weight, packing 20 gross of bottles 2, 160 

1 shop, 16-ouiice weight, packing 18 gross of bottles 2, 592 

1 shop, 24-ounce weight, packing 14 gi'oss of ])ottles 3, 024 

1 shop, 44-ounce weight, packing 8 gross of bottles 3, 168 

Total 16,254 

or slightly over 8 tons per shift. These daily quantities multiplied by the number of 
shifts in a blast give expected output and are a base for the establishment of a selling 
organization. By furmshing this organization with a chart of required quantities, 
the orders received daily mav be listed under their proper sizes so that the selliiig 
organization has a thorough knowledge of the amount of business required at any 
time during the year. If on account of the state of the market certain sizes run ahead 
of predetermined quantities or beMud them, manufacturing conditions can be adjusted 
to suit and revised data furnished the selling organisation, from which they can 
work in the future. 

The next step is to determine the quantities of raw materials needed to produce & 
given quantity of molten glass and cost of the same, with due allowance for the losaes 
taking place during the operation of melting. 

GENEBAL ACCOTINTINO CONDITIONS. 

The general accounting systems of establishments in the glass 
industry are, as a rule, much better than their cost keeping systems, 
though this investigation disclosed that in some glass lactories very 
imperfect methods of bookkeeping are employed. The following table 
inoicates the methods of cost finding, the other accounting con(ntions, 
and the frequency with which inventories were taken in the glass 
factories that were visited by agents of the Bureau. The classifica- 
tion regarding general accounting conditions were made by the agents 
and were based on their own observations. 

Table 108. — Accounting CoNDrnoNS in Establishments op Various Branches 

OP THE Glass Industry. 



ClassificAtion. 


All 

establish- 

ments. 

213 


I. 

Window 
glass, 
hand. 


II. 

window 1 

glass, 
machine. 

12! 


III. ;" IV. 

I 

1 Wire and 
Plate opales- 
glass. I cent 

1 goods. 

1 

1 


v. 

Bottles, 
hand. 


VI. 

Bottles, 
machine. 


Total establishments 


37 
— 


6' 9 

1 


26 


18 






Bstablishments having— 

Good accounting records 

Fair accounting records 


105 
24 
20 
21 

32 

90 
25 

7 

22 

5 

79 
30 

6 
19 

9 


24 
3 
6 


8 


1 
21 5 
1 1 


14 

4 


13 


Poor accounting records .... 






1 • .^ 1 




Detailed unit costs 


1 1 
10 








?! 




Estimated costs 


7 


3 2 




No unit costs 


3 i i 




3 7 




Establishments taking inven- 
tories of— 
Raw materials— 

Annually 


' 25 
3 

1 1 
4 


5 

1 
1 


2 


5 8 
1 3 


11 


Semiannuallv 




Quarterlv 






Monthly 


1 


i k" 




Perpetual inventories. . . 
Finished product- 

Annually 


1 




2 

A 




24 

' \ 

1 4 
1 ^ 


2 
1 


5 




Semiannually 




1 < 6 




Quarterly 






Monthly 






1 s 




Perpetual inventories. . . 








: 4 















NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 



Table 106. — AccoUnttno Cokditionb in Establishmbnts op Vabious Bbax 

OF THE Glass Industry — Concluded. 



Total estabUshments. 



vn. 



Bottles, 
hand and 
macbine.' 



27 



vni. 



Jars. 



IX. 



Table- 
ware, 
blown. 



XI. 



xm. 



13 



Table- 
ware, 
blown 
I and^ 
' pressed. 

-i 



LigbUiiK 

goods. ' 

■ 

I 



LAZSp 

cfaisfr- 



8 



ao 



IS 



6 



Establishments 

Cood accoantin^ records. 

Fair aoooantin? records 

Poor accoontini; records 

Detailed unit costs 

Estimated onit costs. 

No unit costs 

Establishments tatnng inven- 
tories o( — 
Raw materials — 

Annually 

SemJannuelly 

Qoarteriy...! 

Monthly 

Perpetoal htrentories. . . 
Finished product — 

Annually 

Semiannually 

Quarteriv...' 

Monthly. 

Perpetual inventories.. . 



9 
4 
3 
5 

8 
3 



5 
I 



9 

2 



5 
2 



5 
1 



3 

8 



•I" 



4 
2, 



.1 



S ' 
5 . 
1 
2 ! 



2 ■ 

3 

3 .. 

2 . 

* 

2 

3 . 
3 . 

1 . 

2 . 



6 
1 



3 

2 



si 
1 

1 . 
1 . 

3 
3 . 



7 
2 



ii 



t 
1 

a 



1 

3 . 



3 

1 



1 
9 



ft 
1 



...,. 



.1. 



6 
1 



l\ 



7 
2 



3 
1 



ft 
1 



I 



In the above table all establishments maintaining accounts showing 
a good separation of important items were classified under the head 
of "Good accounting records"; some of these employed improved 
modem methods. Tliose classified under "Fair accounting records" 
showed too great a consohdation of important items; those under 
" Poor accounting records " showed very bttle segregation in accounts 
and in some cases also verv crude metnods. 

Of .the 213 establishments visitffd, 149 furnished data rej^arding 
their general accounting records, 105 showed gf>od accounting rec- 
ords, 24 fair, and 20 poor accounting records. Many of tlie manu- 
facturers have inaugurated systems for as^rertaining unit costs, some 
of which are accurate while otri^rn are merely estimates. 

In the table above all establishments classified under "Detailed 
unit costs" have either an accurate unit co«t nyhUtm or tlieir unit 
records are of such detail that but little estimating in dr>ne. Under 
"Estimated unit costs" th^/se establishments are kUtrwn whfmn unit 
costs are either wholly or in great^^r part estimaU^d. (H the 213 
establishments visited, 21 rejx^rt/jd (U'XhiU'A unit a^iM', 66 (^iiuxniAul^ 
and 32 no unit costs. 

Inventories of raw maU-riak were taken annually by W) e«tablii*h* 
ments, semiannually by 25, ^juarte/ly by 7^ monthly bv 22, and per- 
petual inventories were k/-pt hy 5 <^,tahh-Jirru;riU, jnvenf//ri<^ of 
finished products were taken annually by 1*4 iifXfi\f\\tiUtni*M\M, uenii- 
aimually by 30.quarterly hy ^^. #nonth/y \ty lU, and per|#eUml jnv«n» 
tories were kept by 9 *?staf/j;tthnjer*U, 

A laige proportion of iMh)4i>^$iHi'hiA in i^^tt ^/jutMi indutelj-y neither 
had reserves for depre^;iat/on hof ^ harmed oit uhyl\nh^ o/i ar/:ount of 
depreciation, W/,eri ^Jef/r<y iaiion m Uhi fhihutitn-jl l.he htHhiifniXnrnr 
is often under tr-e fai-^r ui.yt*^-uoft lUni, hi« f/rohr« hia hirnar than tl*ey 
reaDy are. Thi» huoj^/X nt 4iS'^jtr..U'4 u$ ('\ihitU'4 III, l*^^^ ^ft. 



CHAPTER X. 

IMPORTS ATSD THE TABIFF. 

PRODUCTION, IMPOBTS, AND BXFOBTS COHPASBD. 

Table 109 shows the value of the production of ^lass and glassware 
in the United States during each year, beginning with 1879, for which 
data were collected by the Bureau of the Census. It aJso shows the 

feneral imports, imports for consumption, and domestic exports 
uring each fiscal year from 1879 to 1916, inclusive. 



Tablb 109.— Value of Pb 


ODUCTIO 


NINTH 


United States, General Imposts and 


lUPORTS FOE CONBDMFTION-, AND 


Domestic Expobtb of Glass 


ND GlASSWAHB, 


AND ExoBss OP Imports ovbb 


EXPOBTB. 








Geueral imp 






impon* 


Years." 


Froiluniido 










oiporla. 


sumtitim 






Free. 


""'""'' 


ToUM. Fi™. 


Dutiable 


Total. 






187B 


•31 L.4,1171 


-^ 


iaS32 4TU 


1,1 K" m M0I3 Ml 45| 


« JTsJi 


S788,844 


12 S12,S» 












133; Mi 


740,888 




3»,4» 










S7 J25 S 882 27 




758,022 




106, »1 








8 031371 




8 753;m 


884 23 




8S9,311 








7 7fi2 54: 


7toJ.M 370 WW 




908, S57 




m.ta 










7 S67 O* 1Xa\ 9S3 181 


Tseo,si( 


8.19, 7.W 


( 


720,760 










S 281 341 S,e9« S4a 721 


8 847,417 


783,915 




563,501 










fl "UH n99 20 142 S41 OR 




773,878 




ss7sa 






le sw 




7 iW 71 WBl? 301 S4I 7S18,MK| 


HS3,504 




«*'"! 


US8 






1 12 57a T2H5 7 734,02d 


881,828 




ff^ 


isra 






42 10 TBI 750 577 7 781,3381 


891,200 


1 


1890 








882,877 




!aa.m 


mi 






IS irtl 227 52 »« B827|l07| 


888,37 




758,733 


1802 




71 1 


13 71091 S81W |«M,M3^ 






010,6»1 


ISH 








^;o7; 


'. 


033,141 
1856U 


UU 








9461 38: 




Ki.m 






0"( 




,062,221 




2ffi,7T3 


^ 












46.1, lis 


Z 


W 630 712 


1^ 1 


' i^ reoi m m i^'.m 


;^i'';!!^' 




?13;^ 


leoo 








m «T 1 Wl 9M S 008,885 






102,74( 










14.71^ 4S1 ire^5008.1»3 2.ia^,'..i 




881,584 








12 S9 


203 5TS 8 II in 8 2»,£38 


,'.i-.'l. In 




2BS,73! 


1M3 








220 880 8 MB DM 7 1M.81B 


■IMMVi. 




048 mo 


l«t)4 


70 am ii 






224 B28 8 404 501 8 829, I3( 






6M,«« 


IMS 








18g 9, ST7b6ei K«e5.2Efi 


;■;''.";:«' 




712,457 










4U W 




iia,w 


i9oe 




23 


'l M9 ^ B 175 wl 8 Ms'b* 


:S;;::ll 


' 


9K> 
040, 2H 


im 


oaoo»2CQ 




402 240 4,837 7471 5 iw;^ 


, u.t. 1'j.i 




is6,;»4 


1110 




aossBj 1 






^ 


as 






401 il 02- iitl 




'^;;!'''';^ 


: 


714, 157 


1013 




20 4491 a 032 hse 


) 1 i4>* IS aetf 021 36.1 fl 4,-»,e6| 






243, MO 


1014 




830 «7J[ 7 574 110 
49S in^ 4 DB7 IW 






A 4M,4S9 


teu 






,-.Vti7 


«110!,M7 


1B10 




38 aS9 1 9W 812 


2 241 Hill 258 au 2 037 042 2 W|308 1 




Mo,oia,«n 


« Product 1 


m ls'^ror"^l«n7J^w7(I.t>.rt 


nmlUc Rureaiiotthe Cflnsui): [inport! 


andexpOTtsarefot 


flacal years e 


ding June 30. 






t Excess 























IMPORTS AKI> THE TABTFF. 



335 



The foregoing table shows that the imports were larger during the 
fiscal year 1914 than during any fiscal year from 1893 to 1913, 
inclusive. During the fiscal year 1913, the last full year under the 
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, the imports for consumption amoimted to 
$6,436,662; during the following fiscal year, the Underwood-Simmons 
Act becoming effective on October 4, 1913, they increased to 
$8,219,112. Since then there has been a great decline in imports on 
account of the war in Europe. 

IMPOSTS COMPARED WITH RATES OF DUTT. 

Table 110 shows for the same years that appear in Table 109 the 
percentage that the imports and the excess of imports for con- 
sumption over domestic exports, were of the production, and the 
average rate of duty on imports of all kinds of glass and glassware 
computed on the ad valorem basis. 

Table 110.— Pehcentagb op Imports pob Consumption and op Excxess op Imports 
OVER Exports op Domestic Glass and Glassware, on the Basis op Produc- 
tion, AND Computed Ad Valorem Rate op Duty. 





Imports, 
percent- 
age of 
produc- 
tion. 

Per cent. 
15.51 


Excess of 
imports 
over ex- 
ports, 
percent- 
age of 
produc- 
tion. 


Computed ad valo- 
rem rate of duty. 


Years.o 


Imports, 
percent- 
age of 
produc- 
tion. 


Excess of 
imports 
over ex- 
ports, 
percent- 
age of 
produc- 
tion. 


Computed ad valo- 
rem rate of duty. 


Years.o 


On duti- . 

able 
imports. 

1 


On free 
and duti- 
able 
imports. 


On duti- 
able 
imports. 


On free 
and duti- 
able 
imports. 


1879 


Per cent. 
11.88 


Per cent. \ 
57.63 
64.77 
56.23 
56.94 
55.05 1 
55.68 
58.67 
58.27 . 
61.77 
62. 16 1 
58.40 
57.44 
54.90 
62.53 
60.40 
69.51 
52.61 
46.07 
47.31 


Per cent. 
57.63 
54.77 
56.23 
56.94 
55.05 
55.63 
58.51 
58.09 
61.63 
62.05 
58.32 
56.87 
54.26 
59.55 
63.29 
68.53 
51.80 
45.32 
46.37 

r 


1898 


Per cent. 


Percent. 


Per cent. 
57.49 
60.07 
67.60 
56.38 
58.59 

' 61.74 
61.18 
57.33 
52.25 
53.22 
53.21 
54. a5 
53.83 
55.12 
52.20 
51.54 
36,70 
32.91 
30.96 


Per cent. 
55.77 


1880 


1899 

1900 


7.68 


4.92 


68.34 


1881 






66.07 


1882 






1901 






54.77 


1883 






1902 






66.68 


1884 




.......... 


1903 






69.77 


1885 






1904 

1906 


8.33 


5.84 


69.10 


1886 






65.62 


1887 






1906 






50.81 


1888 






1907 






61.59 


1889 


18.91 


16.73 


1908 






50.20 


1890 


1909 

1910 


5.75 


3.40 


49.33 


1S91 






50.45 


1892 






1911 ' 




52. 74 


1893 






1912 




48.82 


1894 






1913 




47.41 


1895... . 






1914 

1916 


6.68 


3.65 


d3.78 


1896. . . . 






29.22 


1897 






1916 




27.38 















a Production is for calendar year fdata from the Bureau of the Census); imports and exports are for 
fiscal years ending June 30 . 

The imports during the fiscal year 1889 amomited to 18.91 per cent 
of the production during the calendar year 1889. This was more 
than twice as large as the proportion in 1899 or 1904, more than three 
times as large as the proportion in 1909, and nearly three times as 
large as the proportion in 1914. 

In 1872 Congress enacted a measure that reduced the tariflF duties 
on principal commodities 10 per cent. The dates when the tariff 
acts since then took effect are as follows: MiUs Act, March 3, 1883; 
McKinley Act, October 6, 1890; Wilson Act, August 28, 1894; 
Dindey Act, July 24, 1897; Payne-Aldrich Act, August 6, 1909; 
Underwood-Simmons Act. October 4, 1913. 



336 



THE GLASS INDXJSTEY. 



As appears in Table 110, the rates of duty averaged highest on 
dutiable glass and glassware in the fiscal year 1894. In 8 of the 38 
years it was over 60 per cent. The average during the fiscal year 
1913, the last full year of the Payne-Aldricn Act, was lower than it 
had been since 1896 and 1897, the last two fiscal years under the 
Wilson Act. 

GENERAL IMPOSTS. 

Table 111 shows the value of general imports of all kinds of glass 
and glassware during each month from January, 1908, to December, 
1916. 

Tablb 111. — ^Valub of General Imports of Glass and Glassware, bt Months ) 

FROM January, 1909, to June, 1916, Inclusive. 

AMOUNT OF GENERAL IMPORTS. 



Months. 


1909 


1910 


1911 

$.502,576 
493,482 
583,398 
460,450 
536,904 
505,934 
490,919 
570,497 
568,543 
591,826 
553.805 
571,664 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1016 


January 


$427, L50 
375,297 
472,037 
491,541 
627.297 
550,656 
4S0,9fi3 
505,525 
565,461 
522,605 
484.645 
510,672 


S520, 155 
458,257 
662,963 
609,623 
606, 185 
626,710 
63.'),646 
736,538 
644,345 
606.582- 
6a8,991 
507,045 


$.500,297 
383, 158 
489,851 
504,666 
501^,549 
48?, 850 
546,643 
598,337 
590,705 
630,816 
560,264 
.512,488 


$517,405 

463,947 
498,674 
578,201 
520,081 
619,732 
598,584 
.594.160 
676,401 
715,70:i 
678, 704 
811,148 


$682,632 
561,420 
768,349 
685,185 
'.08,435 
711.112 
7.51,896 
508,157 
318,392 
3a8,083 
430,733 
429,626 


$469,452 
298,824 
413,791 
226.575 
225,717 
211,11? 
171,254 
143,920 
1.38,516 
242,06:i 
181,017 
182,774 


$180,323 


February 

March 


19:i,773 
li9.8.')4 


April 


17^439 


May 


198,163 


June 


25S,907 


July 


245, 2>6 


Aupu'^t 


198.998 


September 

October 


269, •SCo 
151,257 


November 

December 


257,909 
205.726 


Total 


5,913,849 


7,283,040 !6, 429, 996 

1 


6,302,621 


7,172,740 |6, 864, 020 

■ 


2.905,016 


2,518,169 



AMOUNT OF INCREASE (+) OR DECREASE (-). 



I ; 

January .- $37,268 + $93,005 

Februafy '-* 210 + 82,960 

March '+ 65,3.30 + 190,926 

April + 91,873,+ 118,082 

May + 1R.5,2S7 '+ 78,888 

June + 146,114 1+ 76,054 

July + 91,736 '+ 154,683 

August + 117,704 + 231,013 

September + 100, 639 + 7S, 884 

Ocloljer + 126,a8;i + 8:^,977 

November + ia3,783 >+ 124,346 

December ;+ 111,714 + 56,373 



I -$17, 579 
,+ 35,225 

- 79,565 
i- 149, 173 

- 69,281 
1-12(1,776 
-144,727 
-166,041 

- 75,8.12 

- 14,7.56 

- 55,186 
+ 4,619 



!+ 



- $2,279 

-110,324 

- 93,547 
44,216 
35,355 
22,0S4 
77.808 
27,840 
22.162 



+ 
.+ 

+ 



+$17,108 



+ 
+ 
+ 



■+ 38,990 
.+ 6,4.59 
- 59,176 



80,789 
8,823 

73,. 535 
+ 18,532 
+ 35,882 

51,941 

4,177 

!+ 8.5,696 

+ 84,887 

+ 118,440 

+298,660 



it 



Total i+l,0S2,787 +1,369,191 -853,044 -127,372 



'.; I 



+fl65,227 
+ 97,473 
+269,675 
+ 106,984 
+ 188,354 
+ 191,380 
+ 1.S3,?12 
- 86,003 
;-?58,009 



;-407,620 
-^7,971 
-381,522 



+870,116 



-308,720 



$213,180 
262,-596 
354,558 
458,610 
482,718 
499,999 
580.642 
364.237 
179,876 
66,020 
249, 716 
246,852 



-3,959,001 



PER CENT OF INCREASE (+) OR DECREASE (-). 



January 

Febniarv 

March.; 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October , 

November 

December 

Aveniise 



- 8.02 

- ,06 
+16.06 
+22.99 
+45.66 
+36. 12 
+ 23.57 
+30.35 
+ 21.65 
+31.80 
+27. i5 
+28,00 



+21,77 
+22.11 
+ 40 45 
+24.02 
+ 14.96 

+n.8i 

+32. 16 
+45.70 
+ 13-95 
+ 16 07 
+25.66 
+ 11.04 



- 3.38 
+ 7.69 
-12.00 
-24.47 
-11.43 
-19.27 
-22.77 
—22.54 
-11-76 

- 2.4C^ 

- 9.06 
+ .81 



- 0.45 
+22 36 
-16.0'* 
+ 9.60 

- 6. .58 

- 4.?6 
+ 14.85 
+ 4.88 
+ 3.90 
+ 6- .59 
+ 1.17 
-10.35 



+ 3.42 
+21.09 
+ 1-.80 
+14.5; 
+ 3.09 
+ 7.42 
+ 9.50 
- .70 
+ 14.51 
+ 13.46 
+21.14 
+58-28 



+31.93 
+21.01 
+54. W 
+ 18.50 
+36.22 
+36.82 
+25.61 
-14.47 
-52.93 
-56.95 
-36.54 
-47.03 



I "- 






31.23 
46.77 
46.14 
66,93 
68.14 
70.31 
77.22 
71.68 
56.50 
21.43 
57.97 
57.46 



-$289,130 
-ia5,0!3 
-22i,937 

- 48,136 

- 27,554 
+ 47, 7W 
+ 74,002 
+ 55,078 
+131,050 

- 90.806 
+ 76,893 
+ 22,952 



-386,847 



-61. S9 
-35.16 
-56.53 
-21.25 
-12.21 
+22.64 
+43.21 
+38.27 
+94.61 
-37.51 
+42.48 
+12.56 



+ 22,41 



+23.15 - 11.71 - 1,98 +13.81 -4.30 . -57.68 -13.32 



IMPOSTS AND THE TABIFF. 



337 



The foregoing table shows that, comparing each month in 1909 and 
later years with the corresponding month in the preceding year, there 
were m creases during 1909 after tne first two months and during every 
month in 1910. During 1911 there were decreases except in Feb- 
ruary and December. During 1912 there were increases in six 
months and decreases in six months. In 1913 there were increases 
except in August. The increases continued from September, 1913, to 
July, 1914, inclusive. In every month beginning with August, 1914, 
the month the war began in Europe, there was a decrease imtil June, 
1916. 

VALUE OF IMPOBTS BY GLASS OP FKODUCT8. 

Table 112 shows the value of the general imports of different kinds 
of glass and glassware during each month for four calendar years, 
1912 to 1916. 

Table 112. — ^Valub of Gbnbbal Iupobts of Glass and Glassware, by Classes 

AND Months, 1912 to 1916. 



Years and months. 



1912. 

January 

Febraary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aujnist 

September... 

October 

November. . . 
December 



Cylinder, 
crown, 

and 
common 
window 
glass, 
un- 
polished. 



$75,420 
58,009 
98,629 
87,625 
77,820 
80,667 
87,618 
72,608 
78,717 

105,054 
71,525 
73,752 



1013. 

January 64,176 

February 84,798 

March 86,041 

April 110,571 

May I 68,634 

June , 73,628 

July ; 92,731 

Aucust 88,249 

September 81,282 

October i 96,527 

November • 106,883 

December i 117,066 



1014. 

January 

February 

March 

Anril 

Muy 

June 

July 

August 

September... 

October 

November... 
December — 



Plate 
glass, 
cast, 

polished, 
un- 

silvered. 



102511°— 17- 



112,290 

96,164 

144,375 

115,620 

167,054 

138,077 

187,063 

147,560 

76,350 

52,846 

38,709 

40,794 

-22 



125,067 
15,462 
20,000 
15.696 
22,193 
21,813 
14,385 
24,536 
22,679 
20,966 
30,326 
27,445 



31,810 
19,603 
27,733 
33,865 
33,203 
85,052 
18,454 
27,130 
43,765 
68,481 
80,675 
91,285 



84,584 
57,668 

u2fVaO 

60,940 

49,704 

52,307 

28, 149 

27,263 

22,127 

7,856 

4,393 

1,472 



Bottles, 
etc., used 
as con- 
tainers. 



162,606 
51,905 
66,328 
81,173 
86,381 
83,047 
67,587 
72,741 
63,333 
75,185 
84, o99 
85,119 



60,233 
43,063 
49,939 
88,652 
73,726 
78,920 
86,593 
65,624 
70,364 
87,673 
107,803 
135,217 



85,654 

59,176 

82,639 

115,547 

« 0,244 
1,926 
86,344 
90,742 
68,022 
55,913 
79,439 
88,725 



Bottles, 
'decanters, 
and 
other 
glassware, 
cut or 
orna- 
mented. 



163,971 
66,217 
68,905 
60,578 
71,768 
69,265 
88,729 

103,779 
94,060 

106,008 
04,305 
69,017 



81,922 

63,466 

76,298 

82,916 

88,440 

84,008 

112,789 

107,735 

126,909 

139,721 

99,915 

113,909 



76,944 
71,450 
82,352 
76,808 
66,240 
77,103 
83,533 
55,029 
32,597 
30,675 
66,873 
49, 169 



Lenses 


Plates, 


and 


or disks, 1 


optical 


rough cut 


instru- 


or un- 1 


ments 


wrought, 


(includ- 


for 


mg spec- 


optical 1 


tacles). 


purposes. 


947,084 


136,091 


32,129 


24,186 


53,884 


38,845 


44,161 


33,522 


59,151 


39,828 


51,281 


33,227 


66,257 


34,487 


62,556 


35,602 


73,093 


35,197 


64,622 


42,802 


49,915 


48,651 


45,823 


42,557 



38,420 
51,483 
62,992 
57,833 
62,079 
60,062 
73,571 
90,085 
79,302 
97,609 
42,541 
54,834 



35,455 
35,964 
61,640 
47,582 
50,801 
52, 176 
64,804 
34,994 
22,432 
51,302 
21,184 
16,653 



50,254 
38,664 
52,240 
37,977 
51,601 
34,562 
45,132 
39,657 
47,808 
44,850 
44, 197 
58,480 



61,536 
40,734 
65,817 
68,161 
50,767 
50,564 
59,217 
24,650 
26,032 
24,380 
56,562 
47,327 



AU 
other. 



9190,058 
145,250 
143; 260 
181,887 
144,408 
144,550 
187,580 
226,425 
223,626 
216, 179 
180,643 
168,775 



190,091 
162,870 
143,429 
166,387 
142,398 
153,500 
169,314 
175,680 
226,971 
180,842 
197,690 
239,457 



226, 169 
200,364 
238,530 
200,527 
203,625 
208,959 
242,786 
127,919 
70,832 
85,111 
163,573 
185,486 



Total. 



1500,297 
3S3, 158 
489,851 
504,642 
501,549 
483.850 
546,643 
698,337 
690,705 
631,816 
560.264 
512,488 



517,405 
463,947 
498,674 
578,201 
520,081 
519,732 
598, 584 
594,160 
676,401 
716,703 
678,704 
811,148 



682,632 
561,420 
768,349 
685,185 
708,435 
711,112 
751,896 
508,157 
318,392 
318,083 
430,733 
429,626 



338 

Table 112.- 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

-Valttb of General Imports of Glass and Glassware, bt Classeb 
AND Months, 1912 to 1916 — Concluded. 



Years and months. 



1915. 

January 

February 

March 

Anril 

May 

June 

July 

AUGfllSt 

September , 

October 

November 

December 

1916. 

January 

February 

March 

AprU 

May 

June 

July 

AUTUSt 

September 

October 

November 

De cember 

Summvy of calendar 
years: 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1916 

1916 

Summary, fiscal 
years ending June 
80: 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 



Cylinder, 
crown, 

and 

common 

window 

glass, 

un- 

ix>lished. 



$40,558 
32,714 
26,971 
27,014 
32,570 
19,334 
17,798 
13,296 
16,238 
27,746 
13,490 
15,060 



17,316 
16,857 
11,670 
15,607 
12,504 
19,958 
61,310 
21,567 
13,449 
14,045 
102,003 
44,366 



Plate 

glass, 

cast, 
polished, 

un- 
silvered. 



967,534 

1,070,485 

1,316,902 

282,798 

350,742 



977,211 

1,356,218 

722,483 

197,549 



12,124 

2,115 

1,476 

538 

658 



288 
"2i' 



1,545 
160 
528 
4 
922 
104 

2,350 



590 
2,558 
1,399 



260,568 

511,058 

480,359 

7,335 

10,160 



321,605 

727,889 

98,171 

3,553 



Bottles, 
etc., used 
as con- 
tainers. 



«oO, 594 
43,3% 
69,709 
62,524 
45,833 
65,318 
50,587 
53,665 
49,604 
51,668 
41,998 
62,460 



60,104 
53,017 
62,927 
81,067 
76,275 
123,161 
86,625 
76,845 
62,173 
57,759 
59,645 
65,780 



880,304 
947,807 
1,064,371 
657,299 
865,437 



843,397 

1,148.460 

816,493 

766,592 



Bottles, 

decanteiSy 

and 

other 

glassware, 

cut or 

oma* 

mented. 



948,429 
40,294 
64,862 
26,740 
23,531 
23,490 
16,492 
18,203 
15,192 
31,556 
26,612 
23,145 



23,571 
22,351 
23,900 
25,134 
22,146 
31,481 
20,512 
28,798 
24,144 
18,684 
30,168 
24,355 



Lenses 

and 
optical 
instru- 
m'^nts 
(includ- 
ini; spec- 
tacles). 



922,216 
14,002 
15,504 
12,803 
12,333 
14,744 
14,922 
6,760 
15,083 
17,475 
16,860 
10,252 



9,185 
26,199 
10,959 

8,642 
14,242 
16,178 
12,316 
18,479 

9,075 
11,103 

7,509 
15,862 



946,602 
1,178,028 
768,773 
361,546 
295,244 



1,032,948 

1,151.875 

545,222 

282,783 



649,956 
770,811 
404,987 
172,963 
159,749 



695,135 
721,560 
302,971 
166,766 



Plates, 
or disks, 
rough cut 

orun- 

wrought, 

for 

optical 
purposes. 



162,962 
45,540 
74,913 
14»441 
84,285 
24,870 
28,648 
19,782 
17,093 
20,764 
24,229 
19,804 



15,725 
30,518 
21,395 
20,324 
22,001 
25,016 
19,115 
16,735 
121,152 
13,999 
28,121 
23,597 



All 
other. 



8232,509 
120,859 
160,356 
82,515 
76,507 
63,327 
42,519 
32,205 
25,285 
89,854 
57,743 
52,035 



54,421 
43,255 
48,843 
27,117 
50,901 
42,191 
45,274 
34,224 
89,573 
35,077 
27,815 
30,358 



444,995 
545,422 
575,747 
337,331 
357,788 



ulM, uV4 

617,703 
495,179 
265,389 



2,152,641 
2,149,129 
2,153,881 
1,035,774 
479,049 



2,162,403 

2,468,128 

1,611,840 

566,389 



Total. 



$469,452 
298.824 
413,791 
226,575 
225.717 
211.113 
171,254 
143,990 
13S,518 
242,063 
181,017 
182,774 



180,322 
193,772 
179,854 
178,439 
198,163 
258,907 
245,256 
198,906 
269,566 
151,257 
257.909 
205,725 



6,302,600 
7,172,740 
6,864,020 
2,905,016 
2,518,169 



06,537,293 

08,191,833 

4,592,350 

2,249,001 



o Thase flxures are the totals of praliminary monthly returns and for this reason differ slightly from 
the revised annual totals in Table 113. 

IMPORTS FROM PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES. 



Table 113 shows the general imports of the different classes of 
glass and glassware from the principal coimtries exporting them during 
the fiscal years ending Jime 30, 1911 to 1916, indusive. 



IMPOSTS AND THE TABIFF. 



339 



Tablb 113. — ^Valub of Gbkbral Ixpobts of Glass and Glass wabb into thb 
Unitbd Statbs Dubino Fiscal Ybabs Ending Junb 30, 1911 to 1916, by Classbs 
and countbies. 



Classes and countries. 



Cylinder, crown, and common 
window glass, unpolished: 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 

Total 

Plate glass, cast, polished, and 
UDsilvered: 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Netherluids 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 

Total 

Bottles, etc., used as con- 
tainers, empty or fiUed: 

Ausina-Uungary 

Belgium 

iranoe 

Germany 

Italy 

Neinerlands 

Spain 

Sweden 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

All other countries 

Total 

Bottles, decanters, and other 
glassware,cut or ornamented: 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italv...: 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Jiman 

AU other countries 

Total 

Lenses and all optical instru- 
ments (indudmg spectacles): 

Austria-Hungary , 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

AU other countries 

Total 

States or disks, rough-cut or 
unwrought, for optical pur- 
poses: 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

United Kingdom , 

All other countries , . . 

Total 



1911 



1,943 

95,037 

162,011 

1,119 



948,959 



730,568 

37,256 

106,104 

61,155 

5,720 

121 



126,115 

10,877 

272,205 

24e,358 

27,786 

33,548 

11,140 

■ 8 441 

108,371 

52,782 

13,883 



911,506 



423,616 

136,468 

190,027 

380,674 

28,119 

36,940 

15,333 

84,602 

6,633 

8,727 

2,319 



1,313,457 



(«) 
(«) 
(«) 
(«) 



(«) 



762 

62,154 

172,871 

41,535 

71 



277,393 



1912 



1686,455 

3,731 

102,51*3 

156,772 

572 



960,123 



274,831 
13,544 

46,816 

2,589 

6,189 

350 



1913 



1742,162 

5,391 

118,819 

110,342 

1,097 



977,211 



262,341 

32,9t4 

24,263 

450 

1,581 

3 



940,924 344,819 



136,497 

371 

293,333 

235, ItO 

28,644 

20,133 

16,238 

4,826 

97,319 

61,282 

20,785 



913,688 



231,721 

172,356 

143,287 

319,431 

13,573 

21,395 

12,087 

80,701 

1,844 

1,721 

3,426 



321,605 



143,086 

439 

277,439 

204,883 

33,6l5 

11,476 

10,820 

2,091 

87,486 

66,5 3 

5,550 



843,397 



299,978 

141,436 

115,232 

332,809 

17,068 

9,118 

942 

107,416 

1,712 

2,719 

4,468 



1,001,542 



1,032,948 



7,568 

4,804 

318,491 

182,144 

63,347 

3,296 



579,650 



16,592 

4,161 

392,513 

173,813 

103,992 

4,064 



605,135 



10,812 

68,815 

244,703 

58,005 

899 



383,234 



18,894 

92,977 

249,471 

141,898 

1,354 



504,594 



1914 



$1,050,432 

3,979 

108,290 

186,789 

6,728 



1,356,218 



664,489 
16,401 
22,953 

9,417 
12,444 

2,185 



727,880 



122,372 
3,389 

326,598 

210,010 

40,138 

22,745 

12,277 

3,401 

336,116 
78,839 
41,775 



1,148,460 



1915 



1346,636 
2,163 

64,4(>7 

311,360 

7,968 



722,483 



71,443 
2,187 
8,294 
3,472 
7,350 
5,416 



98,171 



52,580 

1,178 

226,887 

114,343 

40,714 

16,407 

9,401 

2,758 

246,368 

66,504 

39,363 



816,493 



^,028 

159,641 

118,848 

321,3(0 

19,283 

10,246 

336 

111,168 

2,396 

7,509 

4,060 



139,097 

30,886 

84,597 

170,370 

13,113 

7,540 

7 

86,364 

2,019 

8,318 

2,911 



1,151,875 



20,794 

14,807 

403,801 

237,596 

40,126 

4,436 



721,560 



68,354 

98,832 

290,154 

159,851 

512 



617,703 



545,222 



6,898 

4,099 

165,948 

104,473 

15,414 

6,139 



302,971 



12,164 

52,028 

244,632 

184,031 

2,324 



495,179 



1016 



ta6,987 
6,681 

10,655 
134,348 

19,878 



197,649 



873 

89 

1,114 



1,977 



8,663 



10,922 
101 

368,476 
44,548 
80,734 
23,147 
10,134 
2,296 

194,114 
22,357 
59,776 



766,592 



23,674 
2,498 
70,350 
35,185 
28,716 
2,397 



103,298 

848 

12,229 

3,188 



282,783 



123 



128,895 

10,478 

7,861 

19,409 



166,766 



60,934 

18,982 

174,926 

10,647 



265,389 



a Included in "All other glass and glassware" in 1911. 



340 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 113. — Value of General Imports of Glass and Glassware into thb 
United States During Fiscal Years Enkno June SO, 1911 to 1916, bt Glasses 
AND Countries— Concluded. 



Classes and countries. 



All other glass and glassware 

AustrlarHungary 

Belgium 

France 

G ermany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Japan 

All other countries 

Total 

Summary, by continents: 

Europe 

North America 

South America 

Asia 

Oceania. . .' 

Africa 

Total 



1911 



1912 



S445,320 

150,733 

530,928 

1,133,482 

4,443 

6,283 

7,776 

6,705 

208,758 

5,960 

6,540 

3,693 



2,510,621 



6,812,133 

69,223 

156 

21,028 

139 

181 



6,902,860 



$654,375 

35,150 

200,032 

903,762 

7,086 

9,924 

12,154 

5,905 

153,603 

5,612 

5,284 

2,e83 



2,055,570 



6,140,002 

73,399 

170 

14,456 

599 



1013 



1690,437 

31,679 

213,565 

1,051,950 

6 759 

11,139 

23,856 

4,600 

234,136 

2,659 

5,589 

1,889 



2,178,258 



6,465,542 

75,440 

70 

11,950 

122 

24 



6,228,626 6,553,148 



1914 



$531,461 

130,241 

258,267 

1,258,529 

8,244 

20,661 

26,007 

5,074 

227,075 

4,640 

6,637 

4,262 



2,481,098 



8,074,171 

100,335 

76 

29,908 

92 

221 



8,204,803 



1915 



$345,525 

11,057 

130,042 

839,213 

10,974 

21,003 

22,982 

5,253 

195,331 

7,142 

10,54& 

12,170 



1,611,840 



4,463,144 

93,780 

112 

34,707 

541 

75 

4,592,359 



1916 



151,191 

1,058 

96,188 

182,412 

17,771 

5,040 

30,360 

1,175 

146,360 

6,157 

22,019 

6,638 



566,360 



2,142,833 

44,014 
33 

61,514 
39S 
212 



2,249,001 



Table 114 shows the quantities of general imports of cylinder, 
crown, and common window glass, and of plate glass, cast, polished, 
and imsilvered, during the fiscal years ending June 30, 1911 to 1916. 

Table 114. — Quantity of General Impobts op Cyhndeb; Cbown, and Common 
Window Glass, Unpolished, and of Plate Glass, Cast, Polished, and Unsil- 

VERED, DUBING FiSCAL YeABS EnDINO JuNE 30, 1911 TO 1916, BY COUNTRIES. 



Classes and countries. 



1911 



Cylinder, crown, and common i 

window glass, unpolished: Pounds. 

Belgium ' 26,574,343 

France ! 18,404 

Germany 791,563 

United Kingdom ' 3, 831, 690 

All other countries ' 33, 928 



Total 31,249,928 



Plate glass, cast, polished, un- 
silvered: 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 



Square feet. 

3,270,356 

144,879 

420,523 

287,088 

32,285 

223 



Total I 4, 155, 354 



1912 



Pounds. 

20,547,158 

38,688 

777,586 

3,437,722 

7,632 



24,808,686 



Squarefeet. 

1,160,790 

28,275 

184, 140 

12,750 

36,089 

238 



1,422,282 



1913 



Pounds. 

19,786,225 

75,059 

882,864 

1,968,938 

21,797 



22,734,883 



Squarefeet. 

1,121,907 

76,271 

75,644 

2,000 

3,174 

6 



1,279,002 



1914 



Pounds. 

27,574,477 

35,372 

977,726 

3,586,408 

140,776 



32,314,759 



Squarefeet. 
2,943,974 
31,010 
86,846 
44,210 
81,566 
8,341 



3,195,947 



1915 



P(mnds. 

12,074,320 

13,794 

341,534 

4,378,232 

90,586 



16,898,466 



Squarefeet. 
309,542 
4,722 
22,823 
15,003 
27,317 
18,202 



397,600 



1916 



Pounds. 

404,005 

18,154 

66,768 

1,100,915 

196,281 



1,776,125 



Squarefeet. 

1,698 

154 

2,222 



4,550 



8,624 



INCREASES IN IMPORTS. 



Table 115, derived from Table 113, shows, for each different class 
of glass and glassware, the amount and percentage of increase of 
general imports during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, over 
the fiscal year 1913. The fiscal year 1913 was the last full year 
under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, and the Underwood-Simmons 
Act went into effect October 4, 1914, about 10 months before the 
war in Europe began. 



IMP0BT8 AND THE TABIFF. 



341 



Table 115.— Amount and Per Cent of Ingreabb in Value of General Imports 
OF Glass and Glassware in 1914 over Imports in 1913, Fiscal Years Endino 
June 30. 



Claaaes. 



Cylinder, crown, and conmum window glass, unpolished , 

Plate glass, cast, poUshed, and unsUvered , 

Bottles, vials, demijohns, carboySi and Jars (mtrided), empty or filled 

Bottles, decanters, and other glassware, cut or.omamented 

Lenses and all optical instrumeiit^ (including spectacles) , 

Plates or disk?, rough-cut or unwrought, for optical purposes 

All other glass and glassware 

Total... 



Amount of 
increase. 


Per cent 

of 
increase. 


$379,007 
406,284 
305,063 
118,927 
26,426 
113, 109 
302,840 


38.78 
126.33 
36.17 
11.51 
3.80 
22.48 
13.90 


1.651,655 


25.20 



As shown in the foregoing table, the imports of plate glass, cast, 
polished, and unsilvered more than doubled during the fiscal year 
1914; the increase in window glass and in bottles^ etc., was over 
one-third, and the total imports of glass and glassware of all kinds 
increased about one-fourth. 

Table 116, derived from Table 113, shows the percentage of the 
general imports of different kinds of glass and glassware from the 
principal coimtries exporting the same to the United States during 
the fisG^ years ending June 30, 1913 and 1914. 

Table 116. — Percentages op General Imports op Glass and Glassware Into 
THE United States froh Principal Exporting Countries During Fiscal 
Years Ending June 30, 1913 and 1914. 



Classes and countries. 



Cylinder, crown, and common 
window glass, unpolished: 

Belgium 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

AU other countries 



1913. 



1914. 



Percent. 


Percent. 


76.05 


11. ib 


11.29 


13.77 


12.10 


7.99 


.66 


.79 



Total 100.00 



100.00 



Plate glass, cast, polished, 
and unsilvered: 

Belgium 

Germany 

France 

All other countries 



Total, 



Bottles, etc., used as contain- 
ers, empty or filled: 

France 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

Austria-Hungary 

Canada 

Italy 

All other countries 



81.57 

7.55 

10.25 

.63 



100.00 



32.90 

24.29 

10.37 

16.97 

7.89 

3.98 

3.60 



Total. 



100.00 



Bottles, decanters, and other 
glassware, cut or orna- 
mented: 

Austria-Hungary 

Germany 

Belgium 

France 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 



91.29 
3.16 
2.25 
3.30 



100.00 



28.44 

22.64 

20.56 

10.66 

6.86 

3.56 

7.28 



Classes and countries. 



Lenses and all optical Instru- 
ments (including spec* 
tacles): 

France 

Germany 

Umted Kingdom 

All other countries 



1913. 



1914. 



Per cent. 

66.47 

25.00 

14.96 

3.57 



Total. 



Per cent. 

65.96 

32.93 

5.56 

5.55 



Plates or disks, rough-cut or 
unwrought, for.optical pur- 
poses: 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

France 

Belgium 

All other countries 



Total. 



100.00 



Total. 



29.04 
32.22 
13.69 
11.16 
10.40 
3.49 

100.00 



All other glass and glassware: 

Germany. 

Austria-Hungary 

France 

United Kingdom 

Belgium 

Sweden 

Netherlands 

All other countries 



Total. 



34.47 

27.90 

13.86 11 

10.32 , 
9.66 1, 
3.80 I 

100.00 li 



Summary, hy continents: 

Europe 

North America 

Asia 

All other continents . 



Total. 




342 



THE GLASS IN^DUSTBY. 



WINDOW GLASS IMPORTED. 

As shown by Table 113, the imports of window glass before the 
war began were mostly from Belgium. As shown by a previous 
table, Table 8, page 28, the production of window glass in 1914, as 
reported by the Bureau of the Census, amoimted to $17,495,956. 
Computed on this amount, the general imports of cylinder, crown, 
and common glass in the fisc^ year 1913 ($977,211) were 5.59 per 
cent, and in the fiscal year 1914 ($1,356,218) were 7.75 per cent. 

As shown by Table 123, page 356, the imports of window glass of 
the first three brackets were over 80 per cent of the total window 
glass imported during every fiscal year from 1906 to 1914, inclusive, 
except 1911. The &st tfairee brackets include sizes up to and not 
exceeding 384 square inches, or 16 by 24 inches. 

Under previous tariff acts for 20 years or more, the rates of duty on 
the smaller sizes of window glass have been lower than on the larger 
sizes. Table 117 shows the actual rates of du^ on different sizes 
under the Payne-Aldrich TarifiF Act and the Underwood-Simmons 
Act, and the rates computed on an ad valorem basis for the fiscal 
year 1913 and for the period from October 4, 1913, when the latter 
act went into effect, xmtil June 30, 1914, the end of the fiscal year: 

'-Table 117. — Rates of Duty on Imports op Cylinder, Crown, and Common 
Window Glass, Unpolished, Under Tariff Acts of 1909 and 1913, and Con- 
futed Ad Valorem Rate Under Each Act. 



Classification. 



Not exceeding 150 square inches: 

Valued at not more than 1} cents per pound... 

Valued at more than 1} cents per pound 

Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 

Valued at not more than If cents per pound... 

Valued at more than 1} cents per poimd 

Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 

Valued at not more than 2| cents per pound... 

Valued at more than 2^ cents per pound 

Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches 

Above 864 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches. . 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square inches. 
Above 2,400 square inches 



Total. 



Rate of duty 
per pound. 



Act of 
1900. 



CenU. 



Act of 
1013. 



CeiOt. 



1 
1 

11 
l] 

M 

l\ 
2 



Computed ad va- 
lorem rate. 



Fiscal 
year 

ending 

June 30, 

1013. 



PercaU. 
02.10 
34.00 

107.61 
54.23 

107.04 
58.66 
50.30 
52.06 
64.27 

110.36 



Oct. 4, 

1913, to 

June 30, 

1914. 



4L10 



Percent. 
[ 20.77 

I 31.51 



32.71 

42.83 

47.74 
28.33 



26.73 



No manufacturer that was interviewed during this investigation 
complained of the rates of duty on glass larger than the first three 
hracKets, and some admitted that without material injury to the 
industry in the United States the duties on the larger brackete 
might be somewhat reduced. Without exception, however, all the 
manufacturers interviewed claimed that the rates of duty on the 
first three brackets (384 square inches and xmder) were too low, and 
most of them said that foreign competition forced them to sell these 
brackets below cost. 



JMFOaaS AMD XHB TAUFF« 



M« 



The impcyrts of window elass are moo^Uy to ^dut^tv* \xx\ ur \\^^\' tht^ 
Atlantic seaboard, the Guli coast, aixd the Pmntio (H>«Ht. (Nnujmvw- 
tively little goes to interior points. Before the wnr in Kunn»ti W^^w 
window glass was iinportea to Pacitic coast ptuutM m\{\ u\\\\i\\m v^ 
far east as Salt Lake City, because it was cheaper to nhi]) fiHMu KuiHipti 
around Cape Horn tlian to pay freight rates fn)n\ Pitt**h\U'tjh m\\\ otht^r 
plate-glass manufacturing centers. The gmeral imports (if <v\ liH<bri 
crown, and common window glass by cUHtoiUH <lirtti'ictH dtitiutf iU^ 
fiscal year 1914 were as follows: 

Table 118. — Quantitt and Valub of Obnkral iMrottTM n¥ OviiNHiaff. i Httwtn. 
AND Common Window Glass During thv FiNCAb Ynah ICnminm ji'ftfi^ AH, IMH, 
BT Customs Districts. 



Customs districto. 



Rochester 

New York 

St. Louis 

Massachoaetts 

San Irandaoo 

Phi jideipfaia. 

Chicaeo 

OhiD 

Southern Calif jrnia. 

Washingtcm 

Oregon 

Miimes.ta 

Buffido 

Maryiand 

New 

Georgia... 



Pounds. 



ValiM. 



CuMtMM 41«irU>t«. 



■- 1'- 



7,9B5,fm 

2,721.424 ' 
2;«»,435 
1,949,4117 
1,009,710 
914, 40» 

4U m 

UH Tft. 



lift v>\ 



$408,244 
M4,lia 
72S,i}U 

m,Hin 

«4,2M 
44-^*4* 

12,7'A 
II IM 

i ni 

4 X^\ 






!< WlMSOtMln,,,..,. 

, OffMha... I, II • ■ • 

f£f./yiA Xi^ttf^ 



^MMf/|« 



W, V/« I 

/4, ^4^. ' 

'4). «t^f 
iN 've, 

UK 



V4U4n 



§4 //ft 

• ' * 



1 



^/^4»t >W |..<Vr A^ 



The imports u» B/jitru^9^ru*ir «yJ V/ ^^ (//v*^ itf^ci^ rAif^^yr // ->.,-'. 
glass used fcjv |.ii6i^j^3n»cc^, <rr y^jei^ ^x^^^ Vi' #r>^v^r/yAy ^^v «^ ^'^ 
New Yofk CtJtT sujri *uitv«- V/ -^! ^y^v.**; u<?i;,n7 -y^ ?> ^i> ^/:#>**a^ 

three snuJkr IWa^.asA^u.. '.r./v ^V v^ <«V ■j./ty /♦a*'..^ ^A '-Ka -^^^^m^vo^a ^a*v.- 
Co., wtiki ^*«Ii^ t m*:^^ vu^ \/ :t*» v^'-^^-w^'' V* 'aa iwvti^^ *''ai(4v/r -jj***.*- 






/ ♦ • 






Qia4e 111 ;tit' tmriii^ v*/#<iiiiu**«> 

^?naiL\v r:u' wj.*. i.^. •♦j*- v..', -» / . ^ ' / ' . . 



344 THE GLASS INDUSTaY. 

can sell this product at cost price, notwithstanding the fact that on these small sizes 
of third single the skilled workman receives not more than $2 to $2.25 per day. 

The Pacific coast consumes about 10 per cent of the glass used in the United States, 
and yet United States factories can not compete with Belgium in Pacific coast market 
in these small sizes at the present tariff. 

Owing to severe competition among domestic manufacturers^ the 
prices in some years have been considerably lower in the United 
States than the total of the Belgian price witn the freight and duty. 
F. J. Goertner, sales manager of Semon Bache & Co., importers, 
presented figures to the Committee on Ways and Means, in 1913, to 
show that at times the prices of domestic glass, especially of the larger 
sizes, were very much less than the cost of Belgian glass delivered at 
New York, and occasionally was less than the price in Belgium, and 
occasionally less even than the amoimt of the duty. 

Mr. Goertner pointed out that the wages of skilled workers in the 
window-glass industry had been reducea while the Dingley and the 
Payne-AJdrich Tariff Acts were in force, and concluded that ''the 
tariff had absolutely nothing to do with the prosperity of the Ameri- 
can window-glass worker." * The very severe competition among 
manufacturers was caused laigely by the introduction of rnachinery 
for making window glass and the efforts of hand manufactiurers to 
meet lower prices fixed by machine manufacturers. The competition 
between the hand manufacturers and the machine manufacturers led 
to reductions of wages in the hand factories. Some hand factories 
were driven out of business, and without reduction of wages others 
probably would have been forced to quit. 

As explained in the chapter on ''Industrial conditions," page 187, 
prices were stabilized by the formation, in 1909, of the Imperial Glass 
Co., a selling agency of hand manufacturers, which, when dissolved 
in 1910, after a Government prosecution for violation of the antitrust 
act, was succeeded, in 1912, by the Johnston Brokerage Co. This 
latter company sells a large proportion of the product of the hand 
factories at prices fixed by the American Window Glass Co., which 
manufactures by machinery and is the largest producer in the United 
States. 

PLATE GLASS IMPORTEIT. 

As shown by Table 8, page 28, the production of polished plate 
glass in 1914, as reported fey the Bureau of the Census, amounted to 
$14,773,787. Computed on this amount, the general imports of plate 
glass, cast, pohshed, and unsilvered, in the fiscal year 1913 ($321,605) 
were 2.18 per cent, and in the fiscal year 1914 ($727,889) were 4.93 
per cent. 

Table 119 shows the actual rates of duty on different sizes of plate 

§lass under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act and the Underwood- 
immons Act, and the rates computed on an ad valorem basis for the 
fiscal year 1913 and for the penod from October 4, 1913, when the 
latter act went into effect, until June 30, 1914, the end of the fiscal 
year. 

i Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means, 1913, Schedule B, p. 818. 



IMPOSTS AND THE TABIFF. 



345 



Table 119. — Rates of Duty ok Imports of Platb QlasB) CasT) Pousttfeb) 
Finished ob Unfinished, and Unsilyered, or the Same CoNTAtKtNO a 
Wire Netting Within Itself, Under Tariff Acts of 1909 and 1913, AND 
Computed Ad Valorem Rate Under Each Act. 



(Classification. 



Not exceeding 384 square inches 

Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches , 
Above 720 square indies 



Total. 



Rate of duty per i Computed ad va- 
sqiiare foot. i lorem rate. 



Actor 
1909. 



Onto. 
10 



Act of 
1913. 




Fiscal 
year 

ending 

June 30, 

1013. 



Ptr cent. 
32.73 

r,7. 43 
83. 73 



Oct. 4, 

1913, to 

June 30, 

1914. 



Per cent, 
23.89 
38.34 
47. d6 



61.14 



40. IS 



Manufacturers of plate glass claim that it costs them the same, 
whether in large or small sizes/ yet they sell the smaller sizes for mUch 
less than the lai^er sizes. They claim that the smaller sizes are inad« 
equately protected. Under all tariff acts the rate of duty has been 
less on the small sizes than on the larger sizes. 

The imports of thB different sizes of plate glass^ cast^ polished, fin- 
ished or unfinished; and unsilvered, are shown in TabM 124, paffe 357# 
The percentage of imports of each specified size during the fise^ yeaiv 
1913 and 1914, respectively, was as follows: Not exceeding 384 square 
inches, 3.7 per cent in 1913, 6.54 per cent in 1914; above 384 and not 
exceeding 720 square inches, 71.05 per cent in 1913, 63.64 per cent 
in 1914; above 720 square inches, 25.25 per cent in 1913, 29.82 per 
cent in 1914. 

TTie plate glass imported connisis mainly of the finer and more 
exi>ensive grades. In the imports during the fiscal year 1914 the 
average value per square foot of plate glass, cast, polished, finished 
or unfinished, and unsilvered, imported for consumption averaged 
$0,224. (See Table 124, p. 357.) 

Most imported plate glass is used for mirrors, and the greater part of 
it is of first quality, the second quality being cut to small sizes for hand 
mirrors. For a time a good deal of second-quality plate glass was 
imported for automobile wind shielfis, but American manufacturers 
now make most of the glass used for this purpose in the United States. 

As in the case of window or] ass, the imports of plate glass are mostly 
to places on or near the Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf coast.^ The general 
imports of plate glass, cast, polished, finished or unfinished, and un- 
silvered, by customs districts (\nr\ng the fiscal year 1914 are given 
in the following table. 

1 Hearings Ijefbre the Commirt«» on Wiy^ :^nd \f«»nns. froM«?<» of R*»pr<»sPTitativ^s, l'>i:r ^rhf»dnlp B. p. S40. 

* See tabte of ocean and r.wlroa/l ritps ;i'om li*^i'.'JMn fiiriorips I'o pr.noipril r'jtips ti h** i nited -^fatps, ind 
railroad rates froni plaftH?I»ss •nnniifar'tMrirtc r-p^Mfr-^ ti 'bp ( m^c/\ <i-\u^^ m thp >:amp r*iiip<? prp<?p-nt«1 to 
the CcMiunittee on Ways and .vfi*?!!!^, Ho»is«« <)« K.«prfH*»nt'iftv<»'?, i«n:i, Wv Semon. H»ohp A- ♦ «).. Xtnr Yark. 
Hearfngs. Schedulp R. p. S61. 



346 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 120. — Quantity and Valuk op General Imports op P14ATE Glass, Cast, 

POUSHED, AND UnSILVEEED, DuRING THE FiSCAL YeAR EnDING JuNE 30, 1914, 

BY Customs Districts. 



Customs districts. 



New York , 

Michigan 

Buffao , 

Philade.phia 

Ohio 

Kentucky , 

Chi.>ag3 

Massachusetts 

Southern California 

Maryland 

NewOr.eans 

San Fran .isco 

Indiana 

Hawaii 

Virginia 



Bquare feet. 


Value. 


1,187,873 


S285,902 


878, 198 


182,179 


277,174 


61,691 


169,736 


36,434 


130,749 


35,140 


129,178 


28,517 


84,774 


24,758 


88,110 


18,810 


48,904 


12,461 


49,496 


10,210 


34,282 


6,972 


24,016 


4,966 


21,395 


4,846 


22,169 


4,537 


20,042 


4,179 



Customs districts. 



Rochester 

St. Louis 

Connecticut 

Washington 

Florida 

Alaska 

Dakota 

Laredo 

Galveston 

Porto Rio 

Tennessee 

Duluth and Superior 

Total 



Square feet. 



20,231 

7,657 

255 

1,025 

403 

78 

136 

18 

16 

11 

15 

6 



3,195,947 



Value. 



t3,960 

1,647 

226 

200 

94 

43 

41 

35 

33 

4 

3 

1 



727,889 



OTHER BUILDING GLASS. 

The imports of plate glass other than that which is cast, polished, 
and unsilvered is comparatively small. The values of such imports 
during the fiscal years 1909, 1913, and 1914 appear in Table 128 
page 369. 

A statement relative to the imports of rough plate glass, made by 
F. J. Goertner, sales manager of Semon Bache & Co., importers, 
New York, to the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Repre- 
sentatives, in 1913,^ said: 

As a matter of fact, this glass is probably made cheaper in the United States than 
anywhere else in the wond. The manufacturers have been for years exporting 
considerable quantities to Canada, where they are able to compete successfully not 
only with European manufacturers in general, but even with the English manufac- 
turers, who enjoy a preferential tariff in Canada. 

Most of the wire glass used in the United States is of domestic 
manufacture. Most of the opalescent and cathedral glass used in 
the United States is of domestic manufacture, but the finer kinds are 
imported. Many more colors are used in producing glass of these 
kinds in Europe than in this country, but the domestic product is 
sold much cheaper. 

Practically all the antique glass used in the United States is im- 
ported from Germany and England. Little if any of this glass is 
made in this coimtry because of the lack of chemical knowledge and 
of expert workmen. 

BOTTLES AND JABS. 

As shown by Table 8, page 28, the production of glass bottles and 
jars in 1914, reported by the Bureau of the Census, amounted to 
$51,958,728. As shown by Table 113, page 339, the value of the gen- 
eral imports of bottles, etc., used as containers, during the fiscal year 
1914 was $1,148,460, or 2.21 per cent of the amoimt of production 
reported by the JBureau of the Census. These imports included all 
bottles ordinarily used as containers for purposes of transportation, 
except filled bottles that were imported from July 1, 1913, to October 
3, 1914. The bottles filled with wines, brandies, mineral waters, and 
other liquids are sold and used again for containing beverages. 



1 Hearings, Schedule B, p. 849. 



IMPOBTS AKD THE TARIFF. 347 

Bottles containing whiskies, brandies^ punches, beer, and mincnd 
craters are imported mainly from the United Eangdom^ France, 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. 

Some Dottles intended to be used as containers for beverages, dm^^ 
and col<^nes are imported empty and filled in America, so that 
consumeis will think that the contents as weU as the bottles have 
been imported. Thus, vodka bottles come frcnn Russia, punch 
bottles from Sweden, and pellet bottles from England. 

PRESSED ANV BLOWN WAKE. 

Table 121 shows the value of pressed and blown glassware im- 
ported for consumption during the fiscal years ending June 30, 
1913 and 1914, and the percentage of increase during the latter year. 

Tablb 121. — ^Valuk of Blown and Pbbssbd Glasswark Impoktkd pok CoNsrsp- 
TiON, AND Ad Valorkm Rates of Dctt, f^scAL Ykabs Endoto Jinra 30, ldl3 

AND 1914. 

n-^i WW 101* J<Jy 1 ^ ^^ct- ^f Oct. 4, 19Uto Tmai 

: ^'*»* ye«r 1^13. ' i.,i3 j^^e 30, m4. |S. 

Classificatioii. 




Bate. VaJje. Bate. Value. Bate, Valoe. I'rl4. 



IKC 



Prret. Ptr et. Per et. Ptfi 

Blown wtt« CO $l,*lf72,2t^ «0 fZ»,7» 4» Wai,Sg; S,2U,»» VLU 

Blown or pressed ware. 
deconMed. « l.«K& 730 -» 223, r« 45 T7>,«» t»».«8 «Xia 

msceUaneoas, iiich>lin^ 
pressed ware not deco- 
rated 45 414,7o4 4> n.54Z » ZSi,i!» OZ^Tta .M 

Electric lamps: 

Arc 45 2r,>n 4> 7,we » m *e 2#,fflft as^m 



( arbon filament ^. 7^ 'r^i iT, I. '10 Vf 7*. *% 7-.4» .1* 

Metal filanvnt 4S 3994,247 4; 7},4iX» ST/ fTr 2:^ .^2 ii» 

Another ^^ ijJj/j'r « <W7 .-.. 



Total , a.'/j*,^^! f,:0,'<» 2.7I7/4S J,«7,>i5« li. 



* f-f^-i-r^^^ft- 



glassware in 1914. a.% f^\f^fn>'A oy tr.^- IJ'ir^vj-u of tr>f- i.^TiHUH, arr;oij/it^^ 
to $30,279,290, ro;r.pj^>-^l or. tr..-. Arr;Ofjfit tr.^- ir/.f/^^rtH for f:onHUfrip 
tion in the fe<^-^l y-'<ir !':•::; *:; '^//V>i2l, v/^-r*- 0/f/J pr r^rit, ftofj u 
the fiscal vear Ifif^ I ;..^^.7>.'>, ^^n- I MO f/^r r^/it,. 



As shown by TaT»k S, pj^jT*- 2%. the pr^/^la^rf Ion of prf-^^-^d and W^mn 
glassware in 1914. a.% t^ytn^A Sy tr.^- hnr^-Tyii of thf- O rj>ji.s, amount^/] 

>- 

The increase in th^ i/;.;x^rt-. ^; .r.r.7 t/i^* /,-•/«] y^-^ir l',iH ov^r th/^s^j 
for the prerf^dinsf r.-'^%ii j/^-'Sf ;ifr,oiif»t/d Ut yJj'tH p^.r f^'Ui. \i \f^ 
remarkable that. Vr.o .;(;. *;.^' f\ Av hti htt thfutr-^ wfm /|^' n w-^/1 fio/fi 
45 to 20 per cftr.t. rr.> .::./,:"- ^\i^t'n-U'(\ \h a\ pM- ri-Mf. 'IImm^ wh«i 
a decrease also iri ^:.c .:;. y,r*'-' ^f '/iovri >f///) p//- H/*d v/«m», dw/;^ «♦//*/!, 
and increases in tr..> o*vr »*^r/.<. 

The imp'>rt^ of V.*;. o*"/* r» /'''^l P^' "f -^z/jm*, pl»ifr ^^ i\\n^u\\\-\\. 
includes not o;.>/ *^/%, •^^f*' ^ '* lr/f,httif ^f,nfh 'l\th ]mui,th^ hf 
blown ware. piAirf. .ry . >- - >/,o^r»^or / r/«// /lofl/ Mo^'M hm/I pM.:i^/l 
ware includes ^.-,*>r'^*/..''< ^<'^^ f./</M*i/- 

Under the f'-iy;..'-.\ <-.' -• T""'? A/* /fr/. /(•»// hu \A*uh \tu.i.n\ 
ware was 45 o*-r ''^-•'* ^•''''' '''" '''""" '""' '''' p'-' ^'^'1, umSu i.h^j 
Underwood-Si 5 ".^.'' A-'* - ' ^l '' / '"' '"^ >/.mm/ / ,.; \h ^,u t^ufl whd 
the latter ^-S ;>''** ''' ' * '^ * mmm-»J/«M/ |i,m|. ^mMi M»/: |/iwi;r 



on 



348 THE GLASS INDUSTBT. 

duties on pressed ware much less of it was imported than of blown 
ware. Of pressed tableware very little is imported and considerable 

?[uantities were exported before the war in Europe began. No manu- 
acturer that was interviewed during this investigation complained 
of the imports of pressed ware, but au who manufactured blown ware 
complained of foreign competition. Under these conditions it is 
very remarkable that the eight establishments that manufactured 
blown ware exclusively and that reported during this investigation 
had an average operatmg profit (charges for depreciation and interest 
considered) of 9.29 per cent, based on net sales, while the group of 20 
establishments that manufactured both blown and pressed ware had 
as a whole an operating loss (charges for depreciation and interest 
considered) of 0.15 per cent on net sales. It is difficult to account 
for this difference. It may be explained, however, that while the 
fine grade of pressed ware made in America is superior to any foreign 
product, large quantities of domestic pressed ware of very cheap 
grades are put on the market. Large quantities of this cheap ware 
are sold to the 10-cent stores, and manufacturers sell to them at cost 
or even below cost in order to keep their factories operating during 
seasons when trade from other sources is dull. Department stores 
compete with the 10-cent stores in this line of goods and they, too, 
buy in large quantities at or below manufacturing cost. So far, 
therefore, as pressed ware is concerned it appears that the manu- 
facturers in this country suffer from competition among themselves 
rather than from foreign competition. 

Imported pressed ware consists largely of door knobs. Most of 
the cheap blown tableware and bar goods used in the United States 
is of domestic manufacture, but there are considerable importations 
of fine grades of blown ware and decorated blown ware. Tjie forei^ 
competition in this line was perhaps greater before the war than in 
any other kind of glass or glassware except cylinder glass used for 
window lights and dry plates. Most imported blown ware is stem 
ware. Practically no tumblers are imported except from Austria- 
Himgarj. Most of the imported tumblers are ornamented, usually 
by etchmg, cutting, or coloring; few by sand-blast or enamel. Many 
plain goblets come from France. 

From Austria-Himgary comes cheaply decorated and blown ware, 
and some that is highly decorated and colored — oil and vinegar 
cruets, sugars and creams, salts and peppers, and similar articles. 
Cologne bottles and similar articles come mainly from Austria- 
Hungary and Germany. 

Glassware of different colors is not made extensively in the United 
States, because of the trouble manufacturers have in mixing batches 
in proportions that will properly assimilate. Very few American 
manufacturers employ glass chemists. 

It is remarkable that, although there is more hand labor on cut 
glass than on any other glass product, and although the wages of 
workers are much higher in the United States than in foreign coun- 
tries, the imports of cut glass are comparatively small, and before 
the war considerable quantities were exported. American cut glass 
is recognized at home and abroad as distinctly superior to the foreign 
product. This subject is discussed in another section of this report 
(p. 218). Imports of cut glass consist largely of novelties, with some 
tableware, usually exclusive designs. 



IMP0BT8 AND THE TABIFF. 349 

Most ^s lighting fixtures come from Austria-Hungary, oil lisfhting 
fixtures from Germany, and electric lighting apparatus, arc lights, 
etc., from hoth countries. 

The American manufacturer has au advantage in that he can fill 
orders and deUver goods much more quickly in the United States 
than can his foreign competitor. The tendency is toward smaller 
orders, and the American merchant who imports must buy in lai^ 

r entities to keep on hand at all times a complete line of goo<&. 
other advantage that the American manufacturer has is that he 
can quickly supply ware necessary to replace that which is broken 
in shipment or m store handling. The breakage in blown ware is, 
owing to its fragile nature, a considerable item. Importers have 
many broken sets which can not be sold at the full price imtil dupli- 
cates are brought from Europe, raid this takes weeli or months. 

The following is quoted from a statement made in 1916 to the 
Bureau by Mr. M. G. Bryce, president of the United States Glass Co., 
of Pittsburgh, the largest manufacturers of blown and pressed ware 
in this country: 

Prior to the war it was absolutely impossible for a glass manufacturer to compete 
with a foreign manufacturer on blown ware for table use, and the only eoods that could 
be sold by American manufacturers were those of original design and certain staples 
which it paid a dealer to get quicttly instead of waiting for importations. * * * 

There is very little, if any, pressed glass imported into this country, consequently 
the glass men are not very much int<?rested in a tarifif on that end of the business, and 
as far as I can learn no manufacturer is anxious for any tariff except one that would 
make the cost in America and Europe equal; that is to say, the Europ^ean goods laid 
down, plus the tariff, should not be any cheaper than what are made in America. 

In regard to our foreign business, prior to the war it was simply impossible to do 
any great volume of business in any foreign country. Anything that was made by 
the foreigner could be exported by him to the different sections at a very much less 
cost than an American manufacturer could export it. All of our foreign business 
consists of goods either of special design or a kind that is not made by foreigners. 

The following is quoted from a statement made by Mr. Ernest 
Nickel, secretary-treasurer of the same company: 

The total cost of the material here and abroad would average about the same, some 
costing more and some less, but the difference in labor costs is so great that protection 
to take care of the differential should be provided. Undoubtedlv our emplovees, as 
a whole, live better and have more comforts than their foreign brethren ana conse- 
quently require larger eamint^s, but this does not alter the fact that our costs are just 
BO much higher, and, therefore, must be considered. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

In the pressed ware we have not, up to the present time, had the serious competition 
that we have in the blown lines, as the foreign manufacturer has not taken up that 
line so energetically. However, as to blown ware, the dil'for(»ntial in tho wii)tvn (»arnpd 
is so great that the American manufacturer is unabln to ovorrnmo tho (llfforonrn, with 
the result that the foreign manufacturer is able to prodticc^ and lay down bin k»»oH« in 
New York at a less price than tho Am^^rican niaimfiirftiti'r vnn pm\\\v\> thotn, tttui thin 
is certainly a condition which whould not cxlfit. Tim frjwmil'mMutti of jjIaw t)f nuf 
character is an art and the man rnuHt ha a Hkillod worMtinti. 

It looks to us that the way to find out what prnt<n<tlnn pIimhIiI lm Um^w** Whmtul M^y 
industry is the creation of an imp'irtial tariff corninlnfllun fluH \\\\\ \\\\^\y^\\i'\\\\ hivrpll- 
gate every phase of a business, and then if they find rt»i lihlnoh \ \\\\\\ \\ \f» «»Ml|lh»<l to 
protection, so that it mav live and flojiri^li in llils «miimH» \ -muI \sv rt IumumU <o il» t'ltl- 
zens at large, tariff to the m*rci*:viry refjiilfi'inmH bhiMthl lu* hh^littv^t wiul phould \si 
least equalize the differonee in wii<'*o '1 hia ttii>l)t>«ti \\\^\\\\\ w^^i v\\\\\\\\t\U^ roM^iMW 
competition but would simply H<-rve (,o |j1«« u I ht. \«m..»I»«u\ Mt«uu«u»n\tU'» \«h ttiUMnml 
basis in the cost of wages witJi Om- Kun.)nmii Mi<nnii«h \\\\\\ \\ \\\^\\\\\ oMll t»n up to 
the American manufacturer toffrivi- In mimImi tn.n ».H\»u b» |uiMh»»»« il»*» lumt nuality 
of ware and not permit hini^'lf to fitll lutiliiil Inn Ii.m tMtUHtl<«« ttihto \\\ ttow UltutH or 
improved methoas. ♦♦'»•' 



350 THE GLASS INDUSTKY. 

The American manufacturer will undoubtedly appreciate anything tW is done 
which may help to place our blown- ware branch of tne business on such basis that at 
least a reasonable return on the capital invested can be earned. 

The following is quoted from a statement made later in 1916 by Mr. 
Nickel: 

Replying to your recent inquiry as to why there is so little competition from abroad 
in the pressed-ware branch of our business, which carries a duty of only 30 per cent, 
against the blown ware, which carries a duty of 45 per cent, would say that this is 
probably due largely to the fact that in producing pressed ware there is a very heavy 
investment in molds necessary, whereas in blown ware this is not required; and, 
inasmuch as labor is so much lower abroad than it is in this country, blown ware could 
be produced in Europe so much more cheaply that manufacturers there have had 
no incentive to go as heavily into the production of the cheaper pressed lines. 

From your going over our affairs you will probably recall that our investment in 
molds is one of our largest expense items. There is another reason, possibly, and that 
LB that sometimes a manufacturer makes a heavy investment in molds and gets out a 
line which he may think is a splendid one, and yet later on it may not find favor with 
the trade. You can see in this event that a manufacturer could easily make quite an 
outlay of money and not receive anjrthing like an adequate return. Of course, there is 
some pressed ware made in Europe, but it has never been developed as in this country. 
Labor conditions, undoubtedly, have a great bearing on this whole matter. 

With reference to the blown ware, for instance, the European manufactmer has been 
enabled to lay his product down in a port like New York City for a less price than the 
American maufacturer could produce a similar article. AJl this shows the neces- 
sity for a reasonable protection to such an extent thit the differential in wages between 
Europe and this country is taken care of. 

We have enjoyed a splendid business in all lines and, while a great deal of this is due 
to prosp2rity wnich is existing in the country to-day, there is no question that the 
artificial protection by which we are surrounded, owing to the European war, has 
enabled tne blown-ware manufacturer for the first time in many years to get a fair 
price for his product. 

It would certainly be a fine thing if the Government would go into this matter thor- 
oughly and appoint a compatent, nonpirtisan tariff commission, which would inquiie 
and investigate thoroughly the various industries, and then recommend a protective 
duty, simply to the extent that the American manufacturer would be placed on an 
egual basis with the Europ2an manufacturer — i. e., however, only to the extent of the 
differential in wages. Personally I do not think that any industry should be pro- 
tected to any such extent where it eliminates fair competition, whether it be at home 
or from abroad. 

Mr. George M. Stiegler, secretary of Oscar O. Freidlander, a New 
York importer, in a statement made to an agent of the Bureau in 
1916, said: 

The lighting goods imported are fine in quality. Lamp shades are produced cheaper 
abroad. The domestic factories can not meet the competition on 10-inch roimd-top 
domes or on green shades white on the inside. Electric shades of foreign make are 
better but dearer, and the American public buys the cheaper article. Inverted 
bowls of foreign make are finer, but they are made in America for a much cheaper price. 
Glass prisms for chandeliers or candelabra are not produced at all in the United States. 

Mr. Rudolph Kirschberger, secretary of Kirschberger & Cole, New 
York, importers, in a statement made to an agent of the Bureau in 
1916, said: 

Impbrted lamp chimneys, even with the reduction in dutv from 60 to 45 per cent, 
can not compete with the product of the Macbeth-Evans Glass Co. of Pittsburgh, in 
western temtory, on account of freight rates, but imported chimneys are sold in the 
East, and much is sold to the Standard Oil Go. We import cases of 24 dozen chimneys, 
to save ocean freights, which would be greater were the package smaller. People out 
West want batches of 6 to 12 dozen that can be handled easily, so do not buy imported 
chimne3rs. 



IMPOSTS AND THE TABIFF. 351 

Mr. William R. Noe, of William Noe Sons, New York, importi^ni, 
in a statement made to an agent of the Bureau in 1916, said: 

Before the Europ3aii war, American manufacturers complained about th^ imp^irta^ 
tion of Rochester chimneys, 10-inch cones, and air-hole chimneys for ga«. On tur-hrA^ 
chimney No. 198 the Macbeth-Evans Co. began cutting by reducing? thaprir,^ trfMn 
60 to 55 cents a dozen. Then the importers dropped to 50 cents a dozen . Thun about 
May or June, 1914, the Macbeth-Evans Co. took an order at 46 cent0. 

There are fluctuations of price in various lines. In December, 1915, all tatcUmMt 
sold lantern globes at 15 cents a dozen, in July, 1916, sold them at ^ centM and up p^ 
dozen. The Macbeth-Evans Glass Co., of Pittsburgh, and Gill db Co., of VhihAelpisz, 
fix the prices. These lantern prlobes have never been imported. 

Silvered-glass reflectors sold in December, 1915, at 80 and 1 off. Now, in July, IDI<I, 
the discount is only 60 and 10. None of these reflectors are imported, so the prii* M 
absolutely fixed here. American manufacturers of cheap crystal lamp iihad«« 1mv« 
put the importers out of business in this line. 

Another New York importer, Mr. H. D. McFadden, Haid in 1916: 

The imports of illuminating glassware are in high-price gor>d.H. Thft Cftmnum and 
medium grades are made as cheaply in the Uniterl States as in Europe, Th« tronht^ 
with many American manufacturers \s that they want to do btL<Hn«'fwi rm a bi^ ^fzlf^ 
and make all kinds of glassware, fine as well as cheap. Thin (rAimm hcAvy cffrnpf^titum 
but affects the quality. 

STATISTICS OF DCPOBT8 FOB COVBVUFTIOV. 

Tables which follow show the imports for rrori«umptiori rjf ItJam 
and glassware during the fiscal years ending June 30, IS06 to 1016, 
inclusive. These tables show tne quantity, total valu#?, vaJni* per 
unit of quantity, duty paid, rate of duty, and actual and (unnvnU^ 
ad valorem duty on the principal clas^as of glans imrxirtM, ad UAUmn: 
Table 122, cylinder, crown, and common w'ludffw {pa>^« UhfHtMtHl; 
Table 124, plate gla*-*^. rast, polirhofi, fini-h^d or iinfinr-n/'d, and 
unsilvered; Table 125. bort]*-^ and viai-,, fiot ttnmuu'MU'A, arid AMm^ 
Johns and carboys, all empty: TaM^ 120, botll/^H, d/rcant/^r^, aiul all 
articles of glass of every description, ornarrHrnt^rd or (U'futttLtt'A in any 
manner. Followirig tf.e fir-^t (A th^**-.^* tabj/^ i^ Tabk VlZ; which 
shows the proportion that .Tfi^p^^rt* of j(J/t>^. of tli/; f/r^t it^t-jf^ hrHr:kf:U 
was of the total irr.p-'irt- of ^'AifAt't. iiT<f%u. t%tA f-ouiUiou wjA^/w 
glass, unpolished. 

These tables are foll'.v*^ hy oiij-r taM/^- wh>h -how Uj: ,fr;;yyft* 
of all other gla?-« aM srU—'Aair*: for cof,M;rr,o*y/f;, /^hr.f// •r,*- fz-yi^l 
years ending Jur^ :,'! :v/f Ia,',/;/-;, *>*r ff ' /f//, 'i'9i%t,f. /\^\r,*u 
tariff), and 10I4 Ur.^^rjrvyyi^-r^r^rr.ofU ^ntA*. ^iu^ f>/'*o^ir.f '/, \Ki:/,j, 
The value of nr^iyr-t t.:A *:,<- ^-/^r^;//- f/^t,y,uA */i v;>Jof '////*♦/-. *A 
duty in each jtrnj x:^ *:.^rt :, f^f *;> fo#>//y,„',/ tW^ii^, of j/l//--^ mA 

other than that u-r *'/^ : v, ,;. 7^,,,^ ,:</ T^M^ l/H, \t\hSi'^\n'f»*> ffHtt-p 
than that sp^^.f .^: ,.-. 7^,,^^ ,/.j 7.-.',,^ ;i^'^ J^v^Mi- , yn^P, /(/ ttnihhh-' 
carboys, and ^-lt-. :. ^ -, '7^',^. , ;% // /y;;/.^iv'/' fhf'i'*t1f*^ *»*f*-' '/» 
glass not showr. ,r. •;> f'r y^ - / v, o / / 



352 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 122. — ^Imports of Cylindbr, Crown, and Common Window Glass, Unpol- 
ished, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1896 to 
1915. 



Fiscal year and classification. 



1896— Wilson Act. 

Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
All above 24 by 36 inches 



Total 



1897— Wilson Act. 

Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 1 6 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
All above 24 by 36 inches 



Total, 



1898— Wilson Act to July 24, 1897; Dingley 
Act Afterward. 

Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 

Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 

Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 

Above 24 by 36 inches 

Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 bv 60 inches 



Duty 

per 

pound. 



Cents. 
1 

II 

2 

2J 



Poimds. Value. 



Duties. 



Aver- Com- 
aee puted 

value adval- 
per I orem 
pound. I rate. 



Total. 



1899— Dingley Act. 

Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 bv 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1900— DiNOLEY Act. 

Not exceeding 10 by 16 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not e^cceeding 21 by 36 inches- • 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total, 



1901— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not ccceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



-- I 



13,154,689 I $332,453 

15,373,922 | 233,441 

12,318,075 1 213,926 

3,870,802 , 72,864 

9,463,366 i 210,205 



1131,547 

192, 174 

215, 566 

77.596 

201,097 



ia025 
.015 
.017 
.019 
.022 



1 

a 

2 
2i 



54,189,854 1,062,889 



14,337,508 

15,291,388 

12,895,821 

4,140,380 

9,774,275 



380,426 
237,670 
231.752 
81,848 
227,465 



56,439,464 ;1, 159, 161 



if 
II 

i» 

2 

3 
3 
4 



1,035,996 

11,248,185 

1,239,593 

9,634,752 

W9,724 
7,670,415 

301,788 
2,300,256 

688,859 

2,685,627 

1,284,246 

90,053 



39,130,094 



1| 
ll 
2| 
2] 

3| 
3i 

4f 



15,203,738 
13,5a5,227 
9, 569, 48 J 
2,583,378 
2,642,829 
1,835,799 
120,223 



45,520,677 



li 

ll 
2| 

2l 

3| 
H 



19,173,525 
15,611,691 
8,96i,8l8 
2, 446, -80 
2, 722, 855 
2,019,901 
135,797 



51,073,972 



13,256, 312 

9, 525, 835 

3,(i82,572 

756,811 

646, 427 

356, 810 

11,852 I 



25,092 

364,292 

19,020 

173,165 

18,666 

154,824 

6,588 

61,709 

17,850 

68,548 

34,315 

2,940 



927,009 



605,736 

273, 5a5 

217,600 

66,328 

69,687 

67,419 

6,186 



817,980 .020 



143,376 
191,142 
225,677 

82,808 
207,703 



850,706 



10,360 

164,663 

15,496 

180,652 

16,620 

182,172 

6,036 

66,132 

14,ai8 

90,640 

49.765 

3,966 



791, 13« 



1,196,461 



678,632 

376,916 

246,561 

75,445 

82,774 

65,558 

4,852 



1,530,638 



462, 869 

264,430 

124,668 

28,837 

24,218 

17,190 

484 



28,Z36,619 j 



922,696 



209,052 

2.54,348 

227.275 

74,272 

89,196 

71, 137 

5,260 



930,640 



263,636 

292,719 

212,891 

70,334 

91,896 

78,271 

6,941 



1,015,688 .030 



182,274 
178,610 
87,461 
21,758 
21,817 
13,826 
519 I 



Peret. 

39.57 

82. :» 

10a77 

106.49 

95.66 



,027 
,016 
018 
,020 
,023 



021 



.023 



.ai3 
.020 
.021 
.026 
.026 
.031 
.051 



.027 



.036 
.024 
.028 
.031 
.030 
.0''2 
.036 



.035 
.028 
.033 
.038 
.037 
.048 
.041 



606,265 I .032 



76.98 



37.69 
80.42 

101.17 
91.31 



73.39 



.024 


41.28 


.032 


42.45 


.015 


81.45 


.017 


10i32 


.019 


89.(0 


.020 


117.66 


.021 


91.60 


.022 


127.89 


.025 


82.01 


.021 


151.81 


.026 


14.101 


.032 


134.90 



85.34 



41.34 
93.00 
10i45 
111.98 
127.99 
123.89 
85.03 



77.77 



38.85 

77.66 

8&a6 

93.23 

111.12 

119l;« 

122,46 



66.36 



.39.38 
67.55 
7a 15 
75.45 
9a 09 
8a 43 
107.25 



54.87 



IMPONB AKD TBM TAUFF. 



86ft 



Tahi^b 122.^Ii90«tb op Cn^NDBv, Crown, Aiii> Gommow Window QtiiMi tTH»ofa» 

IRHSD, EnTISRBD FOB C0N3DMmQN, FISCAL YBA.B8 BnMNG JuKB 30, 1886 TO 

1915— -Contmiied . 



ytiol year md chHgiflmtton. 



19(0— DmoLKT Act. 



Notexce««n(10bjl6iwAMt 

Above 10 by 15 and noteKoeeilng If by U tiMbe? 
Ab Te26by24andDotexoeediJi€94by90incbes 
Above 34 by 30 and not exceeding 34 by M inebes 
Above 24 by 30 and not e xoeeding 30 by 40 incbe!< 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 00 inebes 
AbovelObyeoinfbes 



TotaL. 



1903— DoroLXT Act. 



KotexoeadiqglObytlincbie 

Above 10 by 15 and not exoeedlniE l# by M inebes 
Above 16 by 94 and not exceeding 24 by tOincfaes 
Above 34 by 30and notexeeeding94 by Miocbes 
Above 34 by 36 end not exceeding 30 by 40 Inebes 
Above 30 ^ 40 and notesiMdiog 40 by QOiociies 
Above4Oby00ina|i^ 



Total* 



1904— DnroLST Act. 



Duty 
pjund. 



11 

1 

3 
3 
3 
3 
. 4 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 indaes 

Above lOby }5 and not exceeding 10 by 31 inebes , 
Above 16 by 34 and not exeeeding 34 by 30 inches ! 
Above 24 by 30 and not f veediM ^ by 3« i netee 
Above 34 by 96 and not exondbg 30 by 40 i ncbes 
Above 30 by 40and not exeaediBC 40 by OOioshes 
Above 40 by OOindMS. 



Ddmlst Act. 



NotexeeedinglOby 15 inebfl!! 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding lA by M inebes 
Above 16 by 3t and notexoeeuingdt b7 iO inches 
Above 94 by 30 and not exceeiianff 14 hy M i aches 
Above 34 1^ 36 and not exceeding :)0 by 44) i nches 
Above 30 by 40<uid not esoeeding 10 by dO inches 
Above40by60facfaes. 



Acs. 



I 



Not ujcnedfng 10 by 15 inebea. 

Above 10 by 15 and m» exceeding M ^y 24 ;nrh<^ 
Above 16 by 34 and not excnding 2i »y ui , nohfa 
Above 34 by 30 and not exceeding 24 ly :\ts inches 
Above 34 by 38 and not exceeding :iO )y 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 r>y aoiiiehes 
Above 40 by 60 inches. 



AfiT. 



Koi ex ee eifing 10 by 16 inciMs 

Above 10 by 15 and notexoeeding ifiny Ui n#>h^ 
Above 16 by 34 and not exoeerjing J4 -^y ;0 1 w^hps 
Above 34 by 30 and notexoeeding 24 ' >y ^ i n/'hes 
Above 34 by 36 and ootexoMfiin^ .to • >y m) • ur'hp^ 
Above 30 by 40 and natesoeeding Ui by m i ncnfls 
Above 40 k^ao inebes t 

Total '. 



Pounds. 



1,49V, 443 

1,501,647 

061.048 

37^340 



,51,011,740 



11 

I 

3 
3 

4 



L 



,506,970 

13,3N0,730 

^,406,564 

3,773.013 

3,430,703 

1,153,360 

55,735 



01,306,060 



If 

l] 



VMoe* 



094,439 

407,504 

330,585 

57,903 

50,108 

30,398 

1,633 



1,797,589 



719,937 

553,301 

335,613 

79,M91 

73,437 

38,746 

3,908 



Outiee. 



0387,480 

810,454 

157 987 

43,534 

50,881 

85,615 

1,193 



Aver* 

agv 
valui 

per 
pjund. 



00.090 
.099 

• 'SI6 
.089 
.089 
.040 
.080 



931,888 



394,450 

439,014 

199,633 
79,734 
01,701 



080 



<081 
.094 
.988 
.099 

.034 
.070 



pitted 

ad val* 

orem 

rate. 




51.38 




99.70 
113.^ 
115. 'H 

63.30 



1,708,883 ;i,101,657 , .090 I 60.33 



5f=-rT 



30,388,746 
18,-W7;T73 
7,131,987 
3,017,100 
1,921,493 
1,335,830 
95,818 



015,740 

411,138 

1^,034 

55,006 

51,860 

40.006 

3,300 



1 



380.303 
366,371 

• WW 

04,X5O 

51.763 

4,198 



.000 

.ora 

.037 
.037 
.037 
.080 
.035 



45.S8 
85.41 

M9. 61 

135.07 
130.13 
136w80 



51,^^,183 1,366,318 



307,336 
l«»,il7 ( 

31,71.5 I 
19,.ii:J 



5,914,057 [ 

3, 163, tl3 i 

66K,435 

6f»,30) . 

174,264 

685 I 




8,238 
133 



114,960 

110,888 

5l,.J67 

1H/J30 

32,:iH3 

6,75.^ 

30 



.0«J7 


37.41 


.038 


67.96 


.034 


60.35 


.0$^ 


<«. 17 


.030 


1U.96 


.(H7 


>e.()7 


.MS 


33.70 



17,M.3,039 503, 7W 335,301 .038 54.7% 



}| 






30, 1<VI,W 

X, 107, \M 

3, "ff^, 'V'»2 

')!4, M2 

339, .63 



7^ <M2 


377 W^ 


35i, 010 ^ 


I,-»2,i¥» 


i;<M^ <i9 


QO .u.'i 


A.\.'%r/> 1 


aH^2X7 


33, \:if) * 


37, »91 


J3,.>i0 


9.2H.i 


13 


13 



.030 
.031 

.030 

.040 

.044 



^Vl7 

»«.06 

73.00 

'^. 77 

71.20 

100.00 



.34, 073,430 1,2«Q, 170 103. 076 .037 46.30 



If 16,143,735 

1? 9, /2«, .74 
3,4>;,a72 

1.2«8 



vIO, 2«2 

iM,^04 

ill, 100 

34, i73 

26, '>4 < 



331,963 

1X2, U>3 

k2,.i«9 

2«,'f'0 

23,''24 

f^ .OS 

.16 



.<W3 

.a>4 

.<)72 



41.06 



.0 
i3 

'•.0 
>0 

71. -^ 
•W.'iO 



71. 
74. 



31, iH«;, 7nn r^, vyr .si"), «:? 



'Kl 



53 -5 



1025U*— 17 » 



354 



THE GLASS IKDUSTBY. 



Tablb 122. — Imports of Ctunder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, XJNPOir 
isHED, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending Jxtne 30, 1896 to 
1915— -Continued . 



Ftacal year and olamfflmtlon. 



19QB— DuroLsr Act. 



KotezoBedlnfflObjISiiicfaes 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 Indies 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by SOlndws 
Above 34 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 Indus 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 80 by 40 indies 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 indies 
Above 40 by 60 indies 



Total. 



1900— DiNOLZT Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 indies 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 14 indies 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 indies 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 indies 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 indies 
Above 40 by 60 indies. 



Total. 



191&— DnroLET Act to Aug. 6, 1909; Patns- 
Aldkich Act Ajtebwabd. 



Not exceeding 10 by 16 indies 

Not exceeding 150 square indies: 

Valued at not more than 1} cents per pound 

Valued at more than 1^ cents per pound 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square indies: 

Valued at not more than If cents per pound. 

Valued at more than If cents per pound 

Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square indies: 

Valued at not more than 2| cents per pound. 

Valued at more than 2| cents per pound 

Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 indies 
Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square indies . 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 864 and not exceeding 1.200 square indies. 
Above 30 bv 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 

indies 

Above 40 by 60 inches 

Above 2,400 square indies 



Duty 

per 

pound. 



Oenit. 

I 
I 

3 
3 

4 



Total. 



1911— Patitb-Aldbich act. 

Not exceeding 150 square inches: 

Valued at not more than 1^ cents per pound. 

Valued at more than 1^ cents per pound.... 
Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 

Valued at not more than If cents per pound. 

Valued at more than If cents per pound 

Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square indies: 

Valued at not more than 2| cents per pound. 

Valued at more than 2| cents per pound 

Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square indies. . 
Above 864 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches. 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 

Inches 

Above 2,400 square Inches 



Total. 



I 

3 
3 

4 



all 



Pounds. 



14,890,395 

6,609,243 

2,891,768 

412,668 

883,508 

185,428 

240 



24,272,219 



14,400,477 

5,163,189 

2,230,728 

436,965 

404,105 

115,607 

3,574 



22,754,650 



87,030 

1,826,860 

13,373,898 

804,727 

1,021,550 

6,786,722 

62,156 

182,289 
2,114,764 

89,086 
886,564 

15,114 
841,824 

14,889 

170,600 

150 

4,200 



Value. 



6352,689 

178,168 

77,384 

14,622 

13,238 

7,154 

18 



543,273 



447,510 

141,411 

66,141 

14,300 

17,179 

6,036 

236 



692,803 



25,690,427 



1,941,648 
13,420,505 

1,716,655 
6,848,821 

903,103 

3,226,000 

759,530 

508,738 

280,690 
2,622 



29,698,312 



1,447 

24,814 

800,630 

6,248 

16,764 

156,705 

1,627 

3,441 
70,181 

996 
18,011 

708 
15,484 

785 

8,586 

20 

309 



Duties. 



$197,868 

123,928 

56,804 

11,864 

11)333 

5,348 

11 



406,940 



198,007 
96,810 
53,960 
13,563 
13,639 
4,479 
156 



378,684 



711,741 



36,533 
895,840 

37,350 
185,999 

17,436 

111,198 

24,900 

23,229 

13,795 
121 



825,381 



1,197 

22,836 

183,877 

6,714 

17,877 

106,501 

1,476 

4,101 

50,236 

1,134 

9,355 

510 

11,109 

577 

6,785 

7 

178 



435,300 



34,371 
184,533 

80,041 
138,416 

30,830 
76,618 
30,887 
19,459 

10,526 
111 



Aver- 
age 

▼aiae 

per 

pound. 



to. on 

•037 



515,180 



• CBl 
.040 
.063 
.075 



Com* 

puted 

adval^ 

oiem 

rate. 



.033 



.081 
.037 
.030 
.033 
.043 
.052 
.063 



.081 



.017 

.014 
.029 
.021 

.016 
.027 
.026 

.019 
.088 
.035 



.047 
.045 
.063 

.48 

.188 

.074 



.038 



.014 
.039 

.016 
.037 

.019 
.034 
.033 
.089 

.046 
.046 



.088 



Perd. 
43. 1» 
6e.M 
73.40 
8LU 
81.77 

n.» 



74.91 



44.25 
68.46 
80.10 
80.25 
79. 3» 
74.21 
69. 1» 



54.65 



82.70 

92. 0» 
47.07 
91.45 

106.64 
69.20 
90.73 

119. 1» 

n.6i 

112.8^ 

ai3 

73.56 
7L96 
73.50 

78.48 
83.80 

57.77 



69.75 



91.51 
46.63 

109.84 
69.04 

116.60 
68.90 
83.89 
8S.77 

82.95 
92.10 



68.42 



• July 1, to Aug. 6, 1909, under act of 1897. h Aug. 6, 1909, to June 80, 1910, under act of 1909. 



IMP0BT8 AKD THB TABIFF. 



355 



TaBUE 122. — ^IlfPORTS OF GTLDfDSR, CbOWN, AND GOMMON WiNDOW GlASS, UnPOIt 

I8HED, Entbbbd FOR OoNSUifRiON, FtscAL Ybars Endino Junb 30, 1896 TO 
191&— Goatmaed. 



Fiscal year and dasrifleatkni. 



1913— Patmb-Au>iicb Act. 

Not exoeediiig ISO square iDcbes: 

Valued at not more than 1} cents per poond. 

Vahied at mora than 1^ cents per poond. .. . 
Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square indies: 

Valued at not mora than 1} oencs per poond. 

Valued at more than 1} cents per pound. . . 
Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square Inches: 

Valued at not more thui 3| cents per pound. 

Valued at more than 3| cents per poond 

Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches . . 
Above 864 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches . 
Above 1,200 and not exoMding 2,400 square 

indies. 

Above 2,400 square inehes 



Total.., 



1013— Patms-Alducb Act. 

Not exceeding 150 square inches: 

Valued at not more than Ij^ cents per pound. 
Valued at more than 1| cents per pound..., 

Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 
Valued at not more than l| cents per pound, 
Valued at more than 1^ cents per pound 

Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 
Valued at not more than 2| cents per innind , 
Valued at more than 2| cents per pound... . 

Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches . . 

Above 864 and not exceeding 1.200 square inches , 

Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 
inches 

Above 2,400 square inches 



Duty 
pt'Hind. 



Total. 



1914— Fatne-Aldbich Act to Oct. 4, 1913; 
Undebwood-Sdcmons Act Aftebwasds. 

Not exceeding 150 square inches: 

Valuea at not more than 1} cents per pound. 
Valued at more than 1^ cents per pound.... 

Not exoeedine 150 square inches 

Above 150 and not exceedmg 384 square inches: 

Valued at more than 1| cents per pound 

Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches. . 
Above 384 and not exceeding « 20 square inches: 

Valued at more than 21 cents per pound 

Above 384 and not exceealng 720 square inches. . 
Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches. . 
Above 864 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches . 
Above 720 and not exceeding 1.200 square inches . 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 

inches 



Above 2,400 square indies. 



Total. 



1915— Undebwood-Simmoks Act. 

Not exceeding 150 square inches 

Above 160 and not exceeding 384 square inches . . 
Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches . . 
Above 720 and not exceeding 1.200 square inches . 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 

inches 

Above 2,400 square inches 



Total. 



Omit. 



Pounds. 



497,794 
15,033,003 

156, <81 
4,664,755 

29,062 

2,068,863 

375,865 

368,934 

830,791 
1,314 



23,496,153 



Vahw. 



96,746 
542,179 

3,861 
147,904 

555 

75,739 
17,959 
30,614 

13,214 
107 



837,868 



Ihities. 



S6,323 
206,600 

2,743 
87,464 

654 
49,136 
10,336 
11,990 

8,656 
56 



} 






386,838 
13,512.880 

19,474 
4,311,521 

3,314 

1,608,549 

280, 6H4 

285,141 

141,310 
Sfil 



20,458,971 



60.514 

3,2N3,i:iU 

13,274,870 

820,203 
7,518,975 

230,816 

3,530,572 

37,028 

40,932 

1,869,718 

12,103 

.506,335 

12 

20,226 



31,197,631 



6,862,306 
4,407,494 
3,384,073 
2,170,772 

710,011 
6,064 



16,632,210 



5,250 
546,458 

317 
145,626 

6/ 
65, l.Hl 
16,837 
17,794 

8,245 

la 



804. 7ai) 



816 
160,170 
55U.a58 

20,771 
238,473 

11,122 

121,411 

2,254 

2,776 

66, 133 

036 

19,886 

1,428 



1,212,636 



327,304 

164,032 

06,536 

63,342 

27,845 
377 



679,226 



888,947 



Aver- 

aeo 

value 

per 

pound. 



4,836 
185,808 

341 
78, 9M 

78 

38, sua 

9«;tt7 

A,aQ(t 

15 



aao.iW8 



75ti 

45. R^ 

Ufl.lw 

16.3S1 
75,140 

6,tta4 
30,710 

l.wa 
i.aao 

37,H0ti 

454 

9.403 



405 



338,541 



6i,3as 

44,076 
88,078 
33,662 

13,330 
121 



179,374 



10.014 
.03(> 

.018 
.032 

.019 
.037 
.048 
.056 

.057 
.081 



Ck)m- 
puted 
ad val- 
orem 
rate. 



Peret. 

r24 

• 12 

J. 23 
59.14 

117.82 
64.87 
57 55 
58.16 

65.50 
52.20 



.035 46.38 



.014 
.040 



98.10 
94.00 



.016 : 107.51 
,035 54.8» 



,081 

av4o 
.oa« 



107 94 

ftiiao 

64. »? 



,U»9 4iao 



.013 

.iH2 

.032 

.047 
.1\34 
.050 

,mh 

.077 
.030 
.417 
.071 



.030 



92.81 
28.45 
20.(7 

51.66 
81.51 

50.67 
32 71 
46.27 

47.04 
42.83 
48.49 
47.74 
10.20 
88.38 



.056 
.037 
.020 
.029 

.039 
.062 



27.03 



15.65 
26.87 
39.44 
51.49 

47.88 
82.12 



.040 I 26.41 



a July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, under act oT 1900. h Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914, under act of 1913. 



356 



THE QLASS IiaDUSTBT. 



Tablv 122.-<^MPonT8 op Otlindrh, Qbowh, ano Ooicm on Window GLAas, JJvfOir 

I SHED, EnTSRBO foe CONSUMPTION, FiSOAL YbAJU SnPINO JuNB SO, 1896 TO 

1915--Ooncluded. 



Fiscal year and dassiileation. 



1916— Undekwood^immoks Act. 



Not eToeedine IfiO square inches 

Above 150 ana not exceeding 384 square in'*lies. . 
Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square in ''lies. . 
Abo'e 720 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches. 
Abo^e 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 

inche«5 

Above 2,400 square inches 



Total. 



Duty 

per 

pound. 



CentM, 

I 

1 

U 

li 

11 

2 



Pounds. 



861,374 

427,007 

83,138 

22,491 

7,008 
500 



1.401,672 



ValOA. 



$94,«28 

9«.171 

e,106 

2,080 

9S6 
27 



140,262 



DutiM. 



$7,587 

4,271 

936 

837 

181 
10 



13,221 



Aver- 
age 

▼aiue 

per 

pound. 



10. lie 
.086 
.073 
.092 

.137 
.054 



,100 



Com- 
puted 
ad val- 
orem 
rate. 



Perd. 

7.91 

11.81 

15.32 

li6.S 

13.73 
37.00 



9.43 



Table 123. — ^Total Imposts of Cylinder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, 
Unpolished, Entered for Consumption, and Proportion Comprised in thi 
First Three Brackets (not Exceeding 16 by 24 Inches, or 384 Square Inchbs). 



I'lf, i i inii.Mfi-yv- gs 



Tear ending 
June 30— 



1890 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 



Total 
imports. 



11,062,889 
1,159,161 

927.009 
1,196,461 
1,530,638 

922,696 
1,797,689 
1,702,883 
1,366,218 

693,791 
1,259,497 



Imports of the first 
three brackets. 



Amount. 



1565,894 

618,095 

581,569 

779,241« 

1,055.448 

727,299 

1,412,023 

1,272,298 

1,026,866 

470,347 

1,042,652 



Per cent 
of total. 



53.24 
53.32 
62.74 
65.13 
68.96 
78.82 
78.55 
74.71 
75.16 
79.21 
82.78 



Year ending 
June 30— 



1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 



Total 
imports. 



Imaortsofthefiist 
tnreel 



1078,597 
543,273 
692,803 
711,741 
825,381 
827,868 
804,732 
1,212,536 
679,226 
140^262 



braclrets. 



Amount. 



$705,086 
630,062 
588,021 
506,698 
635,713 
600,680 
697,645 
987,587 
491,226 
131,093 



Percent 
of total 



8L2S 
84.90 
SSiM 
8184 
77.68 
MA 
86ifl9 
8L4I 
72.38 
98.M 



I I » n >^« I 



IMFOBXB JJTD THB TAUFF. 



367 



Tabim 124.— lMi*oim OF 

ANt> UKStLtlBftSD, 

1896 TO 1915. 



GuLM, Oast, Pousrbd, Piki8«bd o« UNNHrmBn^ 
9oa Oommnmoir, FftBCAL Ybars Bnmho Juki 30| 



Ybcal year tfi4 dftsaiflflittoii. 



1S9^~WXL80M Act. 



Not txiiuHltnftae by MtacbM.. . ..« 

JLbtfM 16 by 24 and not •xcMdtag 34 by aoinches. 
▲bav« 24 by 80and not «zceedtng 24 by aoincbtt. 
AllaboveMbyeOteohM. 



Total. 



1897— Wilson Act. 



Hot oxo€if»rttQg 16 by 24 Inchflt •-•■ 

Above 16 byM and not «xoeedlng 24 by aoinehes. 
Abovo 24 l^aoand not ttoeedlng 24by OOlnehcfl. 
AllnboveMby60lneh« '..■ 



Total. 



18Bg_WlL90N ACT TO JULT 24. 1897; DiKOLET 
Act AfTKRWAKDB. 



NotexoeedingldbydCfDchflt 

Above 16 by 2ft and not acoeedfaig 24 by aoindiei. 

Abovo24 by Wand net cMteding 24 by iOiaoliee. 
AbtfreMl^OOinalMi. 



Total. 



189l^l>iMGLKT Act. 



Not exceeding 16 by 24indMt 
Aborel6by24 
Above24by»Hld 
Ab«re24by60 



net cMtiding 24 ^ iOiaolMa. 



Duty 

gqiun 
foot. 



Total. 



19O6>-]>0fBLKr Act. 



Not eToeedtng 16 by 24 
AbtfFel6by94aad 
Abore 24 by afrand net 

Above24by«> 
Total.... 



by 
24 by 



1901— Ddrsuet Act. 

Not exceeding 16 by 24 kieiiea 

Above 16 by 24 andnot exceeding 24 by 9) bntitiPA 
Abo^e 24 by afrand net eweadinir 24 by 60 oMtbea 
Above 24 by to 

Total... 



ACT. 



Not ffxceedinir 16 by 24inehe« 

Above 16 by 24 andnot exceeding 34 hy 30 mr*hes 
Above 24 by aOand not e9cceedlttir24 hy 40 int^bm 
Above24by«0in(dtaa. 

Total 

1909 Dm rn i sgr act. 

Not exceeding 16 by 24 incbM 

Above 16 by 21 ananoe exenrfing 34 h v W f nrh^K* 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 oy HO inr h<*4 
Above 24 by 60 ineliea. 

Total 



Otmtt 

5* 
8 

22i 
36 



Souare 

Re«. 



690,901 

1,968,666 

698,492 

106,664 



3,298,603 



6 

8 

22i 
36 






6 

8 

8 
10 
22i 
36 



8 

10 

221 

36 



129,979 

866,121 

186,348 

21,807 



1,193,266 



22,049 

26,409 

138,066 

39i|704 

112,969 

6,666 



Value. 



8126,009 

448,976 

162,349 

41,668 



763,893 



83,686 

908,469 

68,490 

8,463 



308,037 






r,180 
,619 
39,033 
89,733 
30,408 
6,769 



696,836 ■ 179,801 



Dutiea. 



131,046 
167; 493 

134, UOO 
3H,944 



300,143 



6,499 
68,490 
41,703 

7,633 



134,334 



1,103 

3,038 

11,047 

39,370 

26,415 

1,979 



80,M6 



74,704 

386,096 

404,674 

60,738 



18,660 

88,657 

104,761 

19,679 



6,976 
38,610 
91,062 
31,35K 



935,213 331,747 I ]M,796 



8 
10 

35 



106,323 
4>,2I4 

*»,577 
145,611 



30,327 I 

86,453 

99,57ft 

45,043 



8,436 
43,x2l 

«3,177 

5^). 964 



Aver- 
square 

KMit. 



•^8 

.86 
.89 



.33 



.36 
.34 
.33 
.30 



.36 



.384 
.300 
.333 
«338 
.270 
1.090 



Ccltl- 
6l VA- 

l»rem 
rate. 



88. 
88.89 



).33 



47.14 



19.91 
33.4 
71.30 
90.80 



40.86 



.346 



^ 3 



31'26 
26t 09 
34.46 
43.77 
83. 33 
34.31 

47.34 



I 



.260 
.330 
.269 
.334 



33.09 
43.44 

^.92 
108.02 



,280- 67.66 



f 



.192 
.302 

.270 
.316 



41.66 
49.53 

X3.53 
110.69 



l,04x,i<2f> 2&2,999 tf9>,^f» \ .241^ 7348 



I 



8 
10 
33i 
35 



' ast3,782 
1,47.>,344 

705, m 

724,724 

.1 _^ 

.'^,2W,0fiO 



I 
I 

69,158 ' 

.'J14,M.SK . 
1QV,2S4 
210, a^ 

7^,.'?07 



I 

36,622' 
147, .>94 t 

2.>^,fl.54 I 



I 



.207 
.21:* 

.2«0 
.290 



38. .50 

46. »» 

><n. IS 

120.76 



.VW,405 - .246 74. 0» 



8 
22i 



I 



.VI, 718 
1,*46,X02 

94<V,')16 
],.19».455 



6^,«J4 

:no, 197 

241,254 



30,588 
1.S4, .5«0 
218, Oo<? 
4fV> V^ 



.1«0 

.447 
. 2fvS 
.2^9 



4^» ^9 
121.10 



-i_. 



4,2rtt,Wl 1,004, .547 s«3.4*« .23<> H5.'>4 



«5!,W) 
10 .'?,2f»4, 124 
22J 1,KH,J73 
AF> l,m2 J 12 



111,104 
«^^,425 
2*<x,231 
2^)1, H» 



.52, I2« 

Tf'-A i)!4 



171 
209 

,242 

2r>i 



46. ')2 

>^ <» 
I.'ift V4 



.!_ _ - _ 



6.200 000 !.;<.>♦ 220 1.0-6 20.'^ 



215 



X.16 



358 



THE QLA8S INDUSTRY. 



Table 124. — ^Impobts of Flats Glass, Cast, Poleshbd, Finishbd ob Ukunishsd, 

AND UnSILYBBBD, EnTBBBD FOB OONSUMFEION, FiSOAL YbARS EnDINO JuKB 30, 

1896 TO 1915— Continued. 



Fisoal year and dassiflcatlon. 



lOOf— DmoLET Act. 

Not exoMdJng 16 by 34 inches 

Above 16 by S4 and not exoeedtog 34 by SO Inches. 
Above 24 by 80 and not exceeding 34 by 60inches. 
Above 34 by 60 inches 



Total. 



Duty 

per 

square 

K>Ot. 



1905— DiNOUCT Act. 

Not exceeding 16 by 34 inches 

Above 16 by 34 and not exceeding 34 by 30 inchta 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 34 by 60 inches. 
Above 24 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1906— DiNGLET Act. 

Not exceeding 16 by 34 Inches 

Above 16 by 34 and not exceeding 34 by 30 inches. 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 60 inches. 
Above 34 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1907— DiNOuc