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Full text of "The glass industry. Report on the cost of production of glass in the United States"

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DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE 



E. E. PRATT, Chief 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES-No. 60 









THE GLASS INDUSTRY 



REPORT ON THE COST OF PRODUCTION OF 
GLASS IN THE UNITED STATES 




PRICE, 35 CENTS 

Sold by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office 
Washington, D. C. 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1917 



C ONTENTS. 



Page. 

Letter of submittal 9 

Introduction II 

Establishment of the American glass industry 11 

Early development 11 

Adoption of coal for fuel 11 

Introduction and development of tank furnaces 11 

Influence of the fuel supply 12 

Introduction of machinery 13 

Making of bottles 14 

Pressed tableware 16 

Lighting goods 17 

Plate glass 20 

Window glass 20 

Results of overproduction 22 

Specialization in manufacture 22 

Effects of the European war 23 

Future of the glass industry 24 

General statistics of the industry 24 

Scope and method of the investigation 31 

Group classification of establishments 33 

Distribution of industry by States 35 

Summary 37 

General results of the investigation 37 

Materials, machinery, and processes 41 

Capital, net sales, and turnover 42 

Depreciation 44 

Cost and profit by establishments 45 

Cost and profit by specified units 46 

Industrial conditions 46 

Selling expense and conditions 48 

Wages and labor conditions 49 

Needs of the industry 51 

Imports and duties 52 

Exports 54 

Chapter I. — Materials, machinery, and processes 55 

Raw materials used 55 

Sand 55 

Alkaline bases 56 

Metallic bases 57 

Cullet 57 

Decolorizers 57 

Colorants 58 

Mixtures for American glass 59 

Machinery, tools, and equipment 60 

Types of furnaces 60 

Blowpipe 62 

3 



-± CONTENTS. 

Chapter I. — Materials, machinery, and processes — Continued. 

Machinery, tools, and equipment — Continued. p age . 

Molds 62 

Blowing machine 62 

Paste-mold blowing machine 63 

Automatic bottle machine 63 

Flowing device 64 

Pressing machine 64 

Window-glass machine 65 

Air-pumping system 65 

Reheating furnace 65 

Annealing oven, or leer 65 

Conveyor devices 66 

Manufacturing processes 66 

Batches for various products 66 

Preparation of the batch 68 

Window glass ' 68 

Plate glass 70 

Rolled figured glass 71 

Wire glass 71 

Opalescent glass 71 

Bottles 71 

Tableware 72 

Lighting goods 74 

Chapter II. — Capital, net sales, and turnover 76 

Operating and final profit 76 

Percentages of profit on capital and net sales 78 

Profit or loss of each establishment 79 

Number of establishments showing profit or loss 83 

Variations in profits and losses 84 

Turnover of capital 85 

Chapter III. — Depreciation of plant and equipment 86 

Importance of the charges 86 

Various methods employed 86 

Neglect of charges by glass-making plants 88 

Relation to net sales, capital, and investment 90 

Effect on profits 90 

Chapter IV. — Cost and profit by establishments 94 

Cost and profit based on net sales 94 

Cost and profit based on sales value of goods produced 99 

Method of determining sales value of goods 99 

Average production costs by groups 100 

Materials 106 

Labor 107 

Fuel, power, etc 109 

Taxes and insurance 109 

Salaries 109 

Royalty 110 

General expense 110 

Selling 110 

Profit Ill 

Depreciation Ill 

Interest Ill 

Miscellaneous expense and miscellaneous income 112 



CONTEXTS. 5 

Chapter IV. — Cost and profit by establishments — Continued. Page. 

Cost and profit in individual establishments 112 

Handmade window glass 112 

Machine-made window glass 116 

Plate glass 120 

Wire and opalescent glass 122 

Handmade bottles 124 

Machine-made bottles 1 29 

Hand and machine made bottles 132 

Jars 137 

Blown tableware 141 

Blown and pressed tableware 143 

Lighting goods 146 

Lamp chimneys 149 

Miscellaneous articles 151 

Cost based on total expenses, excluding depreciation and interest 154 

Lowest and highest cost establishments 157 

Sales in previous years 161 

Profits in previous years 166 

Chapter V. — Cost and profit by specified units 171 

Tabulation of cost and profit by articles 171 

Unit cost for window glass 176 

Handmade product 177 

Machine-made product 180 

Manufacturing costs by items 183 

Production at a profit and at a loss 186 

Chapter VI. — Industrial conditions 187 

Fuel as-a factor in location and operation 187 

Increase in output of building glass 188 

Window glass 189 

Effect of selling agencies on prices 190 

Number and equipment of hand and machine plants 190 

Production affected by machinery 192 

Factories operated on part-time basis 192 

Effect of machines on glass blowers' earnings 193 

Price list and discounts 194 

Definition of grades ". 197 

Hand production classified by grade, size, and strength 198 

Proportion of production by hand and machine 199 

Cooperation among manufacturers 200 

Increased demand for first grade and for small sizes 200 

Manufacturing to fill orders and for stock 201 

Conditions outlined by manufacturers 201 

The sheet-glass machine 205 

Plate glass 205 

Increase in production 205 

Number and equipment of plants' 206 

Trend of prices and sizes 206 

BottLea 209 

Production affected by machinery 210 

Number of establishments and their equipment 211 

X umber of automatic machines 212 

The problem of standard capacity 214 

Localization in the indu.sl ry 215 

Pressed and blown ware 216 

Number, location, and equipment of plants 216 



6 CONTENTS. 

Chapter VI. — Industrial conditions — Continued. Page. 

Cut tableware 217 

Superiority of American cut glass ; 218 

Imports and exports 219 

Methods of manufacture 219 

Imitation cut glassware 221 

Incandescent lamps 221 

Types of lamps 221 

Manufacture of bulbs 222 

Chemical glassware 222 

Germany former source of supply .■ 223 

Imports free of duty for schools, colleges, etc 223 

Development of American industry 224 

High quality of American product 225 

Present conditions in the industry 225 

Proposed restriction of free importation 227 

Photographic glass. : 229 

Comparatively high cost of production 229 

Amount consumed — Tariff rates 230 

Chapter VII. — Selling expense and conditions 231 

Selling expense 231 

Selling methods 233 

Distribution of goods 233 

Views of a bottle manufacturer 234 

Imperial Window Glass Co. case 235 

European plate-glass trust 236 

European watch-crystal selling agreement 237 

Selling factors 237 

Trade abuses 239 

Trade acceptances 239 

Economies possible through cooperation 240 

Chapter VIII. — Wages and labor conditions 242 

General data relating to the industry 242 

Wages in glass and other industries compared 245 

Employees by sex and age 250 

Days worked during year 250 

Number of employees in the industry 251 

Average working hours and earnings 253 

Classification of occupations 289 

Window glass 290 

Advantages of location 290 

Wages and wage scales 291 

Labor-union regulations ". 295 

Bottles 299 

Effect of shop system on labor 299 

Piece prices, 1907 to 1917 300 

Glass Bottle Blowers' Association 303 

Hours of labor 306 

Summer stop 308 

Apprentices 308 

Extension of labor organization control 309 



CONTENTS. 7 

Chapter VIII.— Wages and labor conditions— Continued. Page. 

Tableware and lighting goods 309 

Number of union workers 310 

Number employed and unemployed 310 

Strikes and lockouts 311 

Piece and time work 311 

Hours of labor 312 

The "move " system ' 313 

Summer stop and holidays 314 

Apprentices and child labor 314 

Women employees 315 

Chapter IX. — Needs of the industry 316 

Lack of efficiency in manufacture and selling 316 

Chemistry 316 

Machinery 317 

Buildings 317 

Selling 318 

Other desirable improvements 318 

Methods of computing costs 319 

Ruinous price cutting caused by crude cost finding 319 

Advantages of modern cost keeping 320 

The per-pound method 321 

The shop-hour method 322 

Overhead expense in making window glass 326 

Predetermined costs 327 

General accounting conditions 332 

Chapter X. — Imports and the tariff 334 

Production, imports, and exports compared 334 

Imports compared with rates of duty 335 

General imports 336 

Value of imports by class of products 337 

Imports from principal countries 338 

Increases in imports 340 

Window glass imported 342 

Plate glass imported 344 

Other building glass 346 

Bottles and jars 346 

Pressed and blown ware 347 

Statistics of imports for consumption 351 

Cylinder, crown, and common window glass 352 

Fir.-f three brackets of window glass 356 

Plate glass, cast, polished, and unsilvered 357 

Bottles, vials, demijohns, and carboys, empty 360 

Ornamented articles 366 

Other cylinder, crown, and common window glass 368 

Other plate glass 369 

Bottles, vials, demijohns, and carboys, filled 369 

Miscellaneous glassware 370 

Tariff classifications 370 

Decisions regarding classification of imports 370 

Principal branches of the glass industry 373 

Classification under tariff act of 1913 374 

Suggested classification 375 



8 CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Chapter XI. — Products exported 378 

Growth of trade in recent years 378 

Total exports by months .' . . . 378 

Exports of principal products by months 380 

Decline in world trade in 1914 381 

Exports of principal products by continents 382 

Exports of principal products by countries 383 

Effects of European war 390 

Establishments in foreign trade 391 

Export methods 392 

Chapter XII. — Opportunities in the export trade 394 

Imports of foreign countries 395 

Suggestions for increasing foreign trade 403 

Appendixes 405 

A. List of references on the glass industry 405 

B. Schedules used in the investigation 424 



LETTER OF SUBMITTAL. 



Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 

Washington, May 31, 1917. 
Sir: I beg to submit herewith, a report on the conditions in the 
glass industry and the cost of production in its various branches. 
This report is the ninth of a series of reports issued by the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce regarding the cost of production 
in different industries. The investigation was begun in January, 
1916, and conducted in accordance with the act of Congress approved 
August 23, 1912. 

The report contains principally cost of production data. In addi- 
tion, information is given concerning labor and industrial conditions, 
factory equipment, selling methods, and suggestions regarding better 
general accounting and more accurate cost-finding methods. The 
suggestions are based on interviews with manufacturers and on the 
personal observations of the special agents. A comprehensive bibli- 
ography, prepared in the Library of Congress, is appended. 

The investigation was planned and directed by Walter B. Palmer, 
a special agent of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
In the field work and in the preparation of the report he was assisted 
by Special Agents David M. Barclay, Harry Gell, Marion C. Howard, 
Frank B. Meador, Thomas Mills, Thomas C. Stewart, Stanley D. 
Winderman, and Charles F. Yauch. 

E. E. Pratt, 

Chief of Bureau. 
To Hon. William C. Redfield,' 

Secretary of Commerce. 



COST OF PRODUCTION IN THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



INTRODUCTION. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE AMERICAN GLASS INDUSTRY. 
EARLY DEVELOPMENT. 

The manufacture of glass in the United States was begun by the 
first English colonists in 1608 or 1609, when they established a glass 
plant near Jamestown. Wood was plentiful and potash was made 
from wood ashes. The product was probably only bottles, although 
the claim is made that window glass also was made. The groat inter- 
est in tobacco soon caused glassmaking to be neglected. In 1621 
Italian workmen were induced to come to Virginia to make beads 
for trade with the Indians, funds having been raised to erect a new 
glasshouse. 

In 1639 a glass plant was erected at Salem, Mass.; glass was made 
in New York during the Dutch regime and in 1747 in Connecticut. 
The first factory in New Jersey was established by Wistar at Allo- 
waystown between 1760 and 1765, and upon the failure of this plant 
in 1775 the workmen went to Glassboro, N. J., and established a fac- 
tory which is still in operation. This is the oldest continuously oper- 
ated factory in the United States. In 1769 Baron Stiegel, of Ger- 
many, established a glass plant at Manheim, Pa., for the manufacture 
of richly colored bowls, and goblets. By 1800. other factories had 
been established in Philadelphia, New York City, Connecticut, Brook- 
lyn, Germantown (Quincy), Mass., Salem County, N. J., Temple, 
N. H., Boston, Albany, and Keen, N. H. The product of these fac- 
tories was mainly bottles or bottles and window glass. 

ADOPTION OF COAL FOR FUEL. 

Messrs. Craig & O'Hara established glass works near Pittsburgh hi 
1796. This plant was the first to use coal for fuel. Wood had been 
the fuel used up to this time. The introduction of coal as fuel was 
intentional and not due to any lack of wood. As late as 1810 it was 
only the glass plants around Pittsburgh that used coal for fuel. The 
plant of Craig & OTIara made window glass, but, like most of the 
plants in the early glassmaking days, one or more pots were used for 
making bottles, flasks, and other hollow ware. The nearness of coal 
and the abundance of excellent sand in adjoining rivers resulted in 
the phenomenal rise of the Pittsburgh district as the glass center. 

INTRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TANK FURNACES. 

The desire to increase production and to meet the very keen com- 
petition that had sprung up led soon after 1870 to improvements in 

furnaces. 

11 



12 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

In 1861 Siemens introduced, in Germany, the first regenerative 
glass furnace. Up to the time of the Siemens furnace direct firing 
was the universal rule, that is, the heat of artificially dried wood or 
coal was applied directly to the pots. With wood or coal direct firing 
only was possible. 

In the Siemens furnace the fuel was first converted into gas outside 
the furnace and then heated, generally with preheated air, on the 
principle of the Bunsen burner. The gas and the air were heated 
separately by means of regenerators placed beneath the furnace, which 
utilized the waste heat from the gases of combustion. By this method 
a great saving was made in the fuel, the melting time was reduced, 
the output was increased and the quality of the glass improved. In 
the seventies other gas-pot furnaces, such as those of Nicholson and 
Gill, were introduced in the vicinity of Pittsburgh. 

It was not Siemens' original furnace — a pot furnace — but the tank, 
which covers the whole area of the furnace and does away entirely 
with the use of pots, that reached its greatest development in this 
country. In 1872 the tank furnace was divided into three compart- 
ments by means of two transverse floating bridges; the batch was 
melted in the first compartment, the glass was refined in the second, 
and the third held the purified glass. A later improvement did away 
with these floating bridges by substituting refining vessels that were 
floated opposite each gathering hole. 

The introduction of the tank furnace was made possible only by 
the use of gas as fuel, and the commercial utilization of natural gas 
greatly stimulated its extension and development. Direct firing 
ceased to exist. Because of its size, a tank can not be properly 
heated by direct firing. In order to reach the contents effectively, it 
is necessary that the flames be forced across the top of the tank and 
this is possible only by the use of gas. 

In the last 25 or 30 j^ears a large number of the pot furnaces have 
been replaced by tank furnaces. The only efficient plants that use 
pots at present are plate-glass plants, those that manufacture very 
fine qualities of tableware and other goods, and establishments in 
which a great diversity of colored glass is made. 

The use of the continuous tank enables a plant to work 24 hours a 
day. Tanks are more economical, regular, and durable, and produce 
a more uniform molten glass. While the first cost of the tank is large, 
the tremendous expense for pots, which last but a short time, and 
the time lost in removing and setting them make tanks just as cheap 
for a permanent investment. The adoption of tanks increased the 
production of the blower, due to the possibility of using shorter gath- 
ering irons, which skim the glass from the surface of the tank more 
rapidly than the long irons formerly necessary to gather glass from 
the pot. 

Several furnaces have been patented for melting glass by electricity 
but none has as yet been perfected so as to make its commercial 
introduction possible. 

INFLUENCE OF THE FUEL SUPPLY. 

The cost of fuel is, exclusive of labor, generally the largest single 
expense that enters into the manufacture of glass. It is not surpris- 
ing therefore to find manufacturers influenced to a very great extent 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

in locating their plant- by the sourer of the fuel supply. Fuel is the 
prime reason for locating factories at a particular place. The glass 
industry in its early days was established along the Atlantic coast, 
ihat being i lie firsl settled section of the country. Wood, which was 
dried to expel all moisture, was to he had in almost every section of 
this territory. With the adoption of coal as fuel in Pittsburgh in 
1796, the glass industry moved west of the Alleghenies and centered 
in t !ir Pittsburgh district. Wood and coal were used for direct firing. 
Since the introduction of the Siemens furnace, however, improve- 
ments have been in the direction of substituting gaseous for solid 
fuel. , 

The discovery of natural gas and cheap oil in western Pennsylvania 
caused factories to locate in the gas and oil regions of that State, and 
the discovery of natural gas, first in Ohio and then in Indiana, caused 
the glass industry to move farther west. Hundreds of "mushroom" 
factories sprang up over night. On the failure of the natural-gas 
supply some plants moved to new fields, but the "mushroom " plants 
as well as many old-established factories were compelled to quit busi- 
ness. In recent years the natural gas of West Virginia has been the 
direct cause for the erection in that State of some of the largest fac- 
tories in this country. When natural gas failed, oil was substituted 
and proved to be an excellent fuel. 

Gas, either natural or artificial, is an ideal fuel; it is free from ashes 
and dirt, and gives a uniform heat which is essential in the manufac- 
ture of glass. It gives an almost perfect combustion, and the flame 
is easily applied and controlled. Natural gas is preferred because it 
is cheaper than artificial gas and gives a greater heat ; but it is unre- 
liable, as the supply is usually uncertain. Oil furnishes an intense 
and easily regulated heat, but is as yet too expensive for universal 
use. ' 

In the days when natural gas was the chief fuel because of its low 
cost, plants moved about from year to year following the gas supply. 
This moving was made possible because of the cheap cost of con- 
structing the frame buildings and the absence of any great amount 
of machinery. At the present time, however, factories are large, the 
buildings are more or less substantial, and, since the machinery and 
equipment are costly and not easily moved, the industry is com- 
paratively stable. Plants now, as formerly, prefer to use natural 
gas, and when this supply is exhausted, generally change to artificial 
(producer) gas or oil. Electricity may probably prove to be the ideal 
fuel, but as yet has not been used commercially as a glass fuel. 

INTRODUCTION OF MACHINERY. 

The invention, introduction, and development of machinery in the 

flass industry has resulted from the desire to displace the skilled and 
ighly paid blower and to increase production and cheapen cost. 
The making of glass from earliest history down to recent times was 
a handicraft, and much glass is still blown by the breath of a glass 
maker. Later molds were invented to assist the blower in shaping 
the articles. The machine for pressing the simpler articles in molds, 
without the aid of blowing, has been used since 1827. It has been 
chiefly in the manufacture of bottles, jars, and window glass that 
machinery has been invented and developed. 



14 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



MAKIXG OF BOTTLES. 



Early nineteenth-century product. — From about 1808 to 1870 an 
important branch of the glass industry was the manufacture of fancy 
pocket flasks and bottles. These were blown in engraved metal 
molds. The early bottles had mouths cut with shears when in a 
plastic or soft condition, which resulted in a rimless, irregular edge. 
The base has a circular scar made where the bottle was broken from 
the punty rod which held it while workmen finished the neck. Later 
this scar was removed from the finer products by grinding. In the 
fifties a "snap" was used to hold the_ bottle, which came from the 
mold with a smooth hollow base. A' rim or beading formed by a 
"tool" was also added to the mouth. All the early bottles were 
green in color and it was not until 1861 that flint glass was used for 
prescription bottles. 

Beginning of the shop system. — -In order to increase production there 
was introduced in bottle factories about 1870 what is known as the 
"shop system." Instead of the single blower, who previous to this 
time had produced the entire bottle, three men ("the shop") worked 
together, two of them gathering and blowing while the third made the 
neck smooth and otherwise finished the bottle. The average output 
of bottles for each gang of three men working together in this way is 
275 to 300 dozen per day; in the case of especially expert men the 
day's work is often much larger. Formerly, the single blower, 
working with only the mold-shutting and snapping-up boys' help, 
was regarded as having produced a very good day's work when he 
made 40 or 42 dozen per day. 1 The "shop system" is still in vogue 
in plants where bottles are made by hand. 

. Machinery. — Ashleigh, an Englishman, made the first automatic 
bottle machine, but it was unsuccessful for narrow-neck bottles, 
because only a small percentage of the ware had a good enough neck 
to be marketable. In 1882 the process of prepressing a blank, form- 
ing the neck in the pressing operation, then transferring the neck to a 
blow mold and blowing it into the finished form by compressed air was 
invented by Arbogast, of Pittsburgh. 

There are three methods of making wide-mouth bottles under the 
Arbogast patent. By the first the pressed blank is transferred from 
the blank mold to the blow mold and blown by means of a disk with 
a handle to which compressed air, controlled by a stopcock, is fed 
through a rubber hose. Later, to increase production, the blank and 
blow molds were mounted on separate revolving tables. By the 
second method the blank mold is telescoped into the blow mold against 
the shoulder forming the neck. This system was invented by 
Windmill, of England, and was used successfully for fruit jars, but 
legal entanglements and litigation caused manufacturers to discard 
it. The third method consists in pressing the blank in the blank 
mold. 

About 1896 a machine was perfected which, though commercially 
successful, was somewhat crude and restricted to the making of wide- 
mouth bottles and jars. This machine was not automatic. |p 

Since about 1900 any number of bottle-making machines that 
required one, two, or three skilled operators have appeared on the 

1 Twentv-eighth Annual Report, Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries of New Jersey, 1905, 
p. 201. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

market: those, machine- are u-ually designated as one, two. or throe 
man machines. In 1900 a two-man machine for making wide-mouth 
bottles was invented. vShortly after the automatic machine was 
introduced, there appeared on the market the "Johnny Bull,' - or 
United, an English throe-man machine for narrow-mouth bottles. 
In 1908 there appeared a three-man machine for narrow-neck bottles, 
in 1912 a one-man machine for wide-mouth bottles, and in 1914 a 
one-man machine for narrow-neck bottles. 

Owens automatic machine. — In 1903 the Owens automatic machine, 
invented by Michael J. Owens, of Toledo, was introduced com- 
mercially. The machine revolutionized the entire bottle-making 
industry, and since its introduction has greatly increased the standard 
of efficiency in the bottle-manufacturing plants of the United States 
and has made possible the gradual reduction in the price of bottles 
that has been noted during the years since its invention. 

The first Owens machine that appeared on the market had six 
arms; the latest type of machine has 15 arms. Improvements have 
been made so that to-day practically any kind or shape of bottle from 
one-tenth of an ounce to 13 gallons in capacity can be made upon 
some one of the four types of Owens machines. 

The operating speed of the 15-arm machine is indicated by the fact 
that more than 75,000 quart fruit jars are manufactured by a single 
machine in a 24-hour day. The machine is entirely automatic, 
gathering its own glass and blowing the bottle, and when an auto- 
matic conveyor is used, delivering it to the leer without the touch of a 
worker's hand. The machine can be run for 24 hours a day and every- 
day in the year. 

The machine is very costly, and the special equipment necessary 
to operate it makes the initial outlay exceedingly large. This fact, 
together with a serious doubt as to the machine's competitive ability, 
kept manufacturers from installing it generally. Prior to 1908 the 
Owens machine was restricted almost exclusively to licensing on a 
basis of royalty. In that year, however, the Owens people began the 
manufacture of bottles. In a report by President Libbey, of the 
Owens Bottle Machine Co., he states that, exclusive of the plants 
controlled by the Owens Bottle Machine Co., there are 15 factories 
operating 114 machines and having a normal annual production of 
over 850,000,000 bottles. 1 There are installed in the United States 
at present 6 fifteen-arm, 97 ten-arm, 87 six-arm, and 1 special machine, 
making a total of 191 machines. There are 13 machines in Canada. 

The Owens European patents were sold in 1907, to a European 
combination controlled by German shareholders, for 12,000,000 marks. 
The first three Owens machines were sold in Europe in 1908, and 
there are now 60 or 70 machines in use. It is significant that Japanese 
capitalists, despite the cheap hand labor to be had in that country, 
have purchased the Owens Japanese patents and are now installing 
the most modern Owens machines. 

Flowing device. — From the time of the ancient Egyptian glass blow- 
ers up to 1903, when a patent for a flowing device was issued to Homer 
Brooke, and the Owens machine, which gathered its own glass, was 
commercially introduced, hand gathering was the first step in the 
process of glassmaking. Brooke's device consists in permitting the 

'National Glass Budget, Apr. 1, 1910, p. 2. 



16 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

molten glass to flow continuously and freely from the furnace, and 
then severing this flowing stream below its point of exit from the 
furnace to obtain the desired unformed molten mass, allowing the 
severed mass to fall in the mold and supporting the upper portion of 
the stream, which continues flowing from the furnace until another 
mold comes into position to receive another mass to be severed. 

In hand gathering, which was the universal method up to this time, 
the glass gathered is usually more than the amount necessary for the 
required ware. The glass is dropped into the mold and the proper 
amount has to be cut off by shears or by other means. The Brooke 
patent accomplished the gathering and cutting automatically. 

Previous to Homer Brooke's invention many attempts had been 
made to do away with hand gathering. Haley devised a machine 
which manipulated the gathering rod in exactly the same manner as 
in the hand operation. In 1885 Rylands patented a device (British 
patent) to start and stop the flow of glass by means of a lever. In 
1890 came the Schulze-Berge patent, by which desired quantities of 
glass were forcibly ejected from the furnace by means of a plunger 
acting in the furnace or by means of air pressure in the furnace. 
Eunsen (British patent) started and stopped the flow of glass by 
means of a revolving cylinder with pockets in its periphery. The 
difficulty with all these intermittent start-and-stop devices was that 
the glass adhered to the cut-off device or stopper, or congealed and 
did not flow. The Brooke patent provided for a continuous flow, 
thus preventing the glass from congealing. 

The advantages claimed from the use of the Brooke patents are 
greatly increased production, uniform quantities, reduced cost of 
manufacture, and ability to work throughout the hot months, when 
it is difficult to get hand gatherers to work. 

It appears that other manufacturers have been working on flowing 
or pouring devices since Brooke received his patent, and some claim 
to have perfected and to be using such systems. There are 10 or 12 
firms making bottles and jars by the flowing method. 1 

PRESSED TABLEWARE. 

The discovery of a process for pressing glass in 1827 is credited to 
a carpenter of Sandwich, Mass. Deming Jarves in that year made 
the first pressed tumbler. Up to this time all glassware not cast had 
been blown. The shaping of glass to the desired form and size by 
means of a mold and pressing was at first used only for the commoner 
grades of goods. This discovery revolutionized the industry. It 
greatly reduced the cost of production, making it possible for immense 
quantities of the same article to be turned out at a low cost, and 
permitted the imitation of fine ware. Toward the close of the sixties 
goblets and wineglasses were made by the pressed method and were 
almost as fine and delicate as those made by blowing and cutting. 

Up to 1864 the finer pressed-glass articles were made of flint glass, 
composed of the best sand, pearl ash, refined saltpeter, and oxide of 
lead, while the cheap tumblers and other common ware were made of 
German flint glass composed of soda ash, lime, nitrate of soda, and 
sand. About 1864 William Leigh ton, of Wheeling, discovered a 

1 D. A. Hayes, president of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association, in The G lassworker, July 22, 1916, 
p. 3. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

method of making a clear brillianl glass which revolutionized the 
pressed-L:la« business. By his process the batch was made of bicar- 
■ of soda, pure -and. lime, and refined nitrate of -oda, and its 
cosl was aboul one-third that of the lead-Hint hatch. 

LIGHTING GOODS. 

Lamps and lamp chimneys. — There was a great depression in the 
glass industry from 1850 to 1S60, but this was followed hy a great 
ipment in the flint-glass business, due to the making of coal oil 
from coal and the later discovery of petroleum. Though lamp chim- 
ney- were manufactured about 1S55, it was not until about 1859, 
when refined petroleum for lighting purposes was commercially mar- 
keted, that their manufacture assumed large proportions. With the 
introduction of petroleum the demaud for lamps and lamp chimneys 
grew by leaps and bounds until the introduction of gas and electricity 
about 1SS5 led the manufacturers to commence the making of modern 
lighting goods. Lamp chimneys and oil lamps are manufactured in 
the United States in considerable quantities at the present time and 
are exported to countries where gas and electricity liave not yet been 
introduced. Lamp chimneys were at first blown off-hand and some 
with flat sides were made in molds. In recent years lamp chimneys 
have been manufactured in a paste-mold machine. 

Bulbs for incandescent lamps. — The first glass bulbs used for in- 
candescent lamps were made from tubing by manipulating the latter 
over a flame. This practice was followed until such time as the in- 
candescent lamp began to assume commercial importance, when 
the manufacturers began to cast about for a cheaper and more 
expeditious method of production. 

As far as is known, the first attempts to make bulbs on a blow 
iron (i. e., a glassworker's blowpipe) direct from the molten glass 
were made in Corning N. Y., in the late seventies. After laborious 
experiments with glasses of different composition and with different 
methods of manipulation, a process was evolved for making a so- 
called ''off-hand" bulb, which was a distinct improvement over the 
bulb previously used, in that it was more uniform in shape and 
size, was of a satisfactory and fairly uniform thickness, and possessed 
other physical properties — correct coefficient of expansion, fusibil- 
ity, freedom from visual defects, etc. — necessary to successful use. 
This type of bulb moreover was susceptible of manufacture in exist- 
ing glass plants by workmen then available. This no doubt was an 
important consideration, as it was desired to get bulbs promptly in 
what were then considered large quantities. 

It will be understood that while these off-hand bulbs were a great 
improvement over those made from tubing and temporarily met 
the requirements of the lamp manufacturer, the art of lamp making 
was then distinctly a hand art, and uniformity was not needed. 
As the art of lamp making progressed, attempts were made to ex- 

f>edite the process by substituting machinery for hand operators, 
n fact, it became obvious that machinery must be substituted if 
incandescent electric lighting were to assume the importance hoped 
for it. 

102511°— 17 2 



18 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

With the development of machines for holding and manipulating 
lamps in process, the need of greater accuracy in the manufacture 
of the bulb became imperative, and the glass manufacturer met the 
situation by substituting the "wooden-mold" process for that 
previously employed. 

In the off-hand process the glassworkor gathered a small ball of 
glass on the end of his iron by dipping the latter in the molten 
mass and quickly rotating and withdrawing it. He then rolled the 
" gather" on a polished iron plate, cooling it and causing it to assume 
any approximate cylindrical shape. Then, by a combination of 
blowing and swinging, he caused the glass to elongate and distend 
to the proper shape. It is needless to say that this was an opera- 
tion requiring a high degree of skill and great care. No measuring 
tools or gauges could be touched to the plastic glass, and the uni- 
formity of the product was strictly dependent on the ability and care 
of the operator. 

The wooden-mold process had long been in use in the glass trade 
for the production of globes, chimneys, and similar articles. Just 
why it was not originally adopted for the making of bulbs instead 
of the off-hand process is not known. The preliminary steps in 
both processes are identical. In the wooden-mold process, however, 
the "gather" or blank when only partially distended is introduced 
into a hardwood water-soaked mold, whereupon the operator blows 
into the iron and at the same time rolls it between the palms of his 
hands, thus imparting a rotary motion to the blank, while it assumes 
the contour of the mold. As soon as the glass becomes sufficiently 
stiff, but before it has entirely lost its plasticity, the mold is opened 
and the bulb still attached to the iron is removed. Finally the bulb 
is removed from the iron by cracking close to the latter with a wet, 
or at least a cold, file or "knife." 

This wooden-mold process was a distinct advance in the art. 
The product was much more uniform in size and shape, had a high 
polish due to the rotary motion of the glass while in contact with 
the mold, and could be made faster and more cheaply than previ- 
ously. The hand process of bulb making in vogue at the present 
time is a direct development of this wooden-mold process, and differs 
from it only in the refinement of tools employed. 

As the development of machinery for lamp making progressed, 
the requirements of the lamp maker became more and more exacting, 
and the glass manufacturer soon began to cast about for a more 
reliable material than wood from which to make his molds, for it 
was found that wooden molds soon warped and burned out of shape, 
with resultant inaccuracies in the product. This more reliable ma- 
terial was soon forthcoming in the form of cast iron, coated with a 
so-called "paste" of linseed oil and charcoal or hardwood sawdust. 

As nearly as can be ascertained this new or "paste" mold was de- 
veloped in France and introduced here by certain itinerant French 
chimney or tumbler blowers. These men traveled from place to 
place as suited their whims, carrying their molds with them, and 
accepting employment wherever offered or whenever necessity urged 
them. They guarded most jealously the secret of their paste and 
it was some little time before Americans acquired the secret. How- 
ever, in the late eighties American glassmakers did learn how to 
properly coat or paste their molds, and from that time until the pres- 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

cut day practically all incandescent lamp bulbs made in America 
have been blown in these iron molds coated with carbonao ous paste. 

It is a rather surprising fact that this process was not generally 
adopted in European countries and in Japan until very recent years. 
Iron molds of great accuracy arc now used by all bulb manufacturers, 
and with proper handling these continue accurate through years of 
constant use. 

Briefly the process of '"pasting" is as follows: The inner surface 
of the mold is spread with a thin layer of boiled linseed oil, applied 
with a brush like paint. Other substances, such as wax or rosin, 
are sometimes dissolved in the oil. The mold is then dipped in 
powdered charcoal, in fine sawdust (usually of apple wocd), or more 
recently in cork flour, which is powdered cork sifted or bolted to 
make it of uniform grain. The mold is then shaken or tapped to 
remove the surplus powder and immediately placed in a baking oven, 
where it is subjected to sufficient heat to partially carbonize the oil and 
coating without warping the mold. 

After carbonization has progressed sufficiently, the mold is re- 
moved from the oven and allowed to cool. A heavy "gather" or 
blank is prepared on a blow iron and introduced into the mold; 
the latter is closed and the blank is blown up tight against the coated 
surface. The extreme heat of the glass blank serves to complete 
the carbonization of the paste, and upon opening the mold its 
working surface is found to be coated with an exceedingly thin, 
smooth, and closely adhering coating of carbon, almost graphitic 
in character. 

The mold is then clipped in water and is ready for use. This dip- 
ping in water is a vital part of the process and must be repeated each 
time before a bulb is blown. Without the water it is impossible 
to rotate the blank in the mold, and the resultant article has a rough 
or pitted surface. The high polish of a paste-mold bulb is doubt- 
less due to the rotation of the glass over the "graphitic" surface 
lubricated by water and water vapor. 

As already stated, save for the introduction of the paste mold and 
the use of semiautomatic devices for opening, closing, and wetting 
molds (so-called "dummy mold holders") the process of making 
bulbs by hand is much the same as 20 years ago. Recently, however, 
a variety of machines have been introduced, both semiautomatic 
and automatic, which give promise of both cheapening and improv- 
ing the incandescent lamp bulb. Such machines are in use in sev- 
eral manufacturing plants and are turning out a satisfactory product. 
There is much development work still to be done on these machines, 
but it seems probable that within a few years they will largely 
supersede the hand process. 

These machines have not introduced any really new fundamental 
principles in the art of bulb making; the individual steps in the pro- 
cess are similar to those in the manual process and the sequence of 
steps is the same. The machine simply imitates wit h great precision 
the movements of the adept artisan and produces a very uniform 
product. 

From a small beginning 30 year- ago, the business of bulb making 
has grown to considerable importance. There are now in the United 
States alone about 4,000 persons, most ly men , employed in the making 
of glass bulbs and tubing for incandescent lamps. Throughout the 



20 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

world there are probably from 10,000 to 12,000 so employed, though 
definite statistics are not available. It is estimated on good authority 
that production of incandescent lamp bulbs in the United States is 
now going on at the rate of 20,000,000 per month or nearly 1,000,000 
for each working day. 

Decorated lighting glassware. — The principal items of lighting glass- 
ware are incandescent bulbs, lamp chimneys, lamp shades, lantern 
globes, arc-light globes, reflectors, and decorated globes and shades. 
Decorated globes and shades are made in a variety of shapes and 
designs, both for ornamental and practical purposes. They are 
pressed or blown, plain or decorated, machine-cut or hand-cut, 
needle-etched or acid-etched, and are made from flint, opal, and 
colored glass. It is claimed that American lighting goods are now 
superior to those made in Germany and, except in fine colors, are 
better than the products of Austria and Venice. 

PLATE GLASS. 

The making of plate glass in the United States was first attempted 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1852. In 1869 -John B. Ford, after visiting 
the Lenox works, where plate glass had previously been made, and 
securing all possible information from the imported workmen, estab- 
lished a plant at New Albany, Ind., which, though successful in 
manufacturing plate glass, was not piofitable financially. This plant 
was equipped with imported machines for grinding, smoothing, and 
polishing. In 1'872 the newly formed American Plate Glass Co., 
erected a plant at Crystal City, Mo. This plant, like Ford's, was not 
financially successful at the outset, though it manufactured a good 
quality of glass. Mr. Ford operated two other plants subsequent to 
operating the New Albany plant, but it was not imtil 1881, when he 
established a large plate-glass factory at Creighton, Pa., that plate 
glass was profitably manufactured. This plant is one of the original 
works of the present Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 

Previous to 1880 every investment in plate-glass manufacturing 
in the United States had resulted in financial failure. The wonderful 
progress and development of the plate-glass industry began in 1880 
and has continued until the present day, when American plate glass, 
it is claimed, is the equal of the European in clearness, finish, and 
freedom from flaws and defects. Kegular plate glass is one-quarter 
of an inch thick. There are, however, American companies at the 
present time that are specializing in the manufacture of a very thin 
or a very thick plate glass. 

The first process for making commercially successful wire glass was 
patented by Frank Shuman in 1892. Since 1890 there has been a 
wonderful development in the manufacture of cathedral, opalescent, 
and art sheet glass, and all kinds of figured, ribbed, and colored 
glass. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

Crown glass, a variety of blown glass, was the original form of 
modern window glass. A bulb of glass was blown, and after the lower 
part of the bulb had been opened by shears, the bulb was flared out' 
to a sheet by a rapid rotation of the blowpipe. The circular sheet or 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

disk was cut into two half circles and squared for glazing. From 
the crescent shape of the cut halves was derived the term crown glass. 
The cylinder process of forming window glass probably originated in 
Italy and about 1830 was introduced into England from France. 

The great development in window-glass manufacture dates from 
1880. Previous to that time American window gla-s was of pool- 
quality and was made in the old type of pot furnace, whereas the 
English and Belgium window-glass manufacturers had adopted the 
tank furnace. It is estimated that fully 25 per cent of the window 

flass used in the United States at that time was imported. 1 In 1888 
ames Chambers, after visiting the European glass factories and 
securing all possible, information, built at Jeannette, Pa., a plant 
equipped with tanks, and although opinion forcasted its failure, it 
was successful from the start in the continuous and regular production 
of clear, faultless glass which was superior to that in which the batch 
had been melted in pots. 

Cylinder machinery. — In 1854 Loup introduced a device (French 
patent) for the mechanical production of cylinders of glass. A "bait 
member " drew a cylinder from the molten glass into which it had been 
lowered, air pressure forming the cylinder. In 1886 Martin Andreas 
Oppermann, a Belgian glass manufacturer, designed and constructed 
another machine for the making of window glass in cylinder form. 
This machine was so arranged that cylinders of considerable length 
could be made, compressed air being used to blow out the cylinder 
and mechanical means applied for drawing the cylinder. Opper- 
mann stated in his patent that he anticipated using this machine as 
a means for drawing such cylinders from a tank or bath of molten 
glass, as also from a bath of glass contained within a refractory 
receptacle, whereby segregated portions of glass taken from the pot 
or tank could be operated upon, so that either cylinders or other 
forms of glass could be made. 

Numerous other attempts were made between 1890 and the time 
that Lubbers (in 1903) brought out his window-glass cylinder machine. 
However, the various ideas and designs which had been brought out 
by several different inventors were but little developed, owing to the 
skepticism of manufacturers and the antagonism of the dominant 
labor unions in that branch of the industry. 

The Lubbers machine was brought out in 1903 and was taken up 
by the American Window Glass Co. and installed at Alexandria, Ind. 
It did not, however, reach a stage of commercial utility until approxi- 
mately 1905. This machine is used in the plants of the American 
Window Glass Co. Several other machines for the making of window 
glass have been installed and are now producing large quantities of 
commercial glass of high quality, among which is the Healy machine, 
owned and controlled by the Consolidated Window Glass Co., and the 
Frink machine, invented and owned by Robert L. Frink. The Pitts- 
burgh Plate Glass Co. has also several factories operating under 
methods which it owns and controls for the production of window 
glass, in conjunction with its plate-glass business. Other types of 
machines used are the Douchamp, the Douchamp-Henshaw, and the 
Okmulgee. It will be seen therefore that machine making of win- 
dow glass has to a great extent supplanted the old hand process. 

' James Gillinder, in One Hundred Years of American Commerce, Vol. I, p. 281. 



22 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

It is claimed that hand-blown window glass is not so apt to break 
as machine-made glass because it is better tempered, due to the con- 
stant reheating in the blowing process. Machine-made glass is drawn 
which, it is claimed, makes it more brittle. 

Sheet-glass machinery. — In 1882 Clarke attempted the mechanical 
production of sheet glass. Since then numerous inventors have at- 
tempted to solve the same problem. About 1908 Irving W. Col- 
burn, of Franklin, Pa., perfected a machine that draws continuous 
sheets of glass of any desired width and thickness. The width is 
regulated by a perfected device that makes it uniform. The thick- 
ness of the glass is varied at the will of the worker. It is stated that 
single-strength glass can be drawn at a linear speed of 56 inches a 
minute and double-strength at 48 inches a minute. The only worker 
required is a cutter to cut the sheet into various sizes as it emerges 
from the leer. The people who successfully produced the Owens 
machine for bottles are now erecting a large plant for the manufacture 
of sheet glass by the process which Colburn invented and perfected. 

RESULTS OF OVERPRODUCTION. 

Until recently, the establishment of a glass factory required a com- 
paratively small investment; a cheap frame structure built near a 
sand supply or fuel field was the only building necessary. The cheap- 
ness of wood and sand was no doubt responsible for the building of 
numerous plants. With the discovery of natural gas many towns 
offered large bonuses and other inducements, such as free sites and 
free or cheap gas, and people entered the business who had neither 
the knowledge nor the ability successfully to conduct a glass plant. 
The overproduction which followed, together with the general busi- 
ness ignorance of many who had recently entered the field as a get- 
rich-quick speculation, resulted in a period of price cutting. 

In numerous instances manufacturers attempted by purchase or 
organization to remedy the evil results of this keen competition and 
overproduction. In 1885 almost all the large glassware plants in 
New Jersey formed a manufacturers' association for the purpose of 
fixing prices, and in 1891 a number of manufacturers formed a stock 
company, known as the United States Glass Co., which bought up 15 
of the largest and most complete press-manufacturing plants in the 
country, located in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia. The 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Conformed in 1895, purchased all the plate- 
glass factories in the United States with the exception of three. 
Many manufacturers, it is stated, have been deterred from combining 
for the purpose of fixing prices by fear of the Sherman Act. At the 
present time many window-glass manufacturers market their prod- 
uct through the same selling agent, and manufacturers in other 
branches of the glass industry are contemplating some such arrang- 
ment. 

SPECIALIZATION IN MANUFACTURE. 

There is a tendency in glass manufacturing, as in most other indus- 
tries, toward specialization, and its cheaper cost of production and 
improvement of quality. Specialization would, for one thing, 
greatly lessen the expense for molds, which is very large. Users of the 
Owens machine usually manufacture only a few products and other 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

manufacturers have also begun to concentrate on one product or one 
line of goods. This specialization, probably due to keen competition 
;uid the perfection of various machines, is likely to continue. 

Following is a brief description of the specialties manufactured by 
the leading glass-producing countries of Europe: 

England: Beautiful, pure, brilliant, lead flint ware: cut and en- 
graved ware and excellent quality of colored ware. 

France: Polished plate glass that is considered the standard; 
stained fdass windows: enameled and etched fancy ware; lenses; 
ware with elegance of shape, lightness of design, and beauty of glass. 

Belgium: Window glass of fine quality at a low price. 

Germany: Mirrors: cheap tableware; colored vases. 

Austria-Hungary (Bohemia): Beautifully cut. engraved, and deco- 
rated glassware of beautiful color and purity of glass; glass gems, 
beads, pearls, and buttons. 

EFFECTS OF THE EUROPEAN WAR. 

The war in Europe has had, indirectly, a beneficial effect on the 
American glass industry. Manufacturers and inventors hi this in- 
dustry, as m others, have been concerned chiefly with increased pro- 
duction and lower labor cost, and all their energies, consequently, 
have been spent in perfecting the mechanical end of the business and 
the invention and improvement of machinery. The batch and the 
application of chemical principles, however, have been neglected. 
This most important detail of successful manufacturing, a knowledge 
of the glass itself, its behavior, the ingredients that go to make up the 
batch, was lacking. A manufacturer made glass as his father made 
it before him (empirically) or as his competitor made it. At the time 
of this investigation the agents found comparatively few plants that 
smployed a chemist of any kind and only one that had a chemical 
physicist. 

With the advent of the war, glass manufacturers faced the same 
situation that confronted the users of dyestuffs. They had learned 
to depend upon foreign countries for many of the principal ingre- 
dients of glass. Shut off from their usual supply, manufacturers 
began to grope about for themselves and a great impetus was given 
to chemical research. Soda ash has been manufactured in this coun- 
try for many years. Since the war started another chemical has been 
substituted for pearl ash, heretofore considered indispensable. A 
substitution was also made for zinc oxide when its price went up, and 
one manufacturer stated that he had discovered a decolorizer to take 
the place of manganese. The war has of necessity compelled Ameri- 
can manufacturers to shift for themeslves in a field of their business 
which they had heretofore neglected. The start has been made, and 
it is hoped that American manufacturers will continue the work so 
well begun, so that before many years there will be a thorough knowl- 
edge of glass chemistry. 

Laboratory and chemical glassware was not manufactured to any 
extent in the United States prior to the European war, being imported 
principally from Germany. With its importation impossible, colleges, 
hospitals, laboratories, etc., looked about for American-made goods, 
and several manufacturers were quick to take advantage of the oppor- 
tunity of the times and began to manufacture the much sought-for 
chemical and laboratory ware. For the short time they have been 



24 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



engaged in manufacturing these products, remarkable progress has 
been made. It is claimed that a new branch of the glass industry 
has been established and that it will remain after the war is over. 

FUTURE OF THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

There is at present a tendency toward large factories with their 
greater production and correspondingly lower overhead cost, greater 
opportunity for efficiency, and increased purchasing power. The 
profitable factory of the future will probably be a large one. Manu- 
facturers are gradually installing modern machines, specializing in one 
product or line of goods has been begun, and the manufacture of 
chemical glassware has been developed to comparatively large pro- 
portions. With the perfection of machines and the elimination of a 
large amount of hand labor, it is probable that the annual production 
will greatly exceed the domestic demand. This will necessitate some 
plants withdrawing from the business or the entrance of the industry 
in general into the export trade on a large scale. 

American glass of almost every kind equals the foreign product; 
in some lines, such as lead cut glass, all forms of pressed ware, and 
machine-made fruit jars and bottles, the domestic glass is superior 
in purity of glass, pattern, design, utility, and is lower in price. The 
demand for glass products is increasing rapidly and should grow to 
immense proportions. With the present total absence of foreign 
competition of any kind and with the high prices now prevailing, 
glass manufacturers have the opportunity to remedy the evils of the 
trade, improve their factories, put themselves in sound financial con- 
dition, and so put their house in order as to insure future stability and 
prosperity regardless of the outcome of the war, its effects or in- 
fluences. 

GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE INDUSTRY. 



General statistics of the glass industry shown in Tables 1 to 10 
were furnished by the Bureau of the Census 



Table 1. 



-Value op Glass Production, by States. 
[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Indiana 

West Virginia. . . 

Illinois 

New Jersey 

New York 

Missouri 

Oklahoma 

Maryland 

Kansas 

Virginia 

Massachusetts 

California 

Kentucky 

Michigan 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire. 

Iowa 

All other States.. 



United Stales. 



$8, 720, 584 

1,549,320 

790, 781 

748, 500 

901,343 

2,810,170 

2,420,796 

919, 827 



•$17, 179, 137 
5, 649, 183 
2,995,409 
945, 224 
2,372,011 
5, 218, 152 
2,723.019 
1,215:329 



822,011,130 

4,547,083 
14, 757, 883 
1,871,795 
2,834,308 
5, 093, 822 
2, 756, 978 
765, 564 



587,000 



1,250, 



557, 



254,315 
.110,001) 
388, 105 

90,000 
160,0(10 

70,000 
3,500 



431,437 
(a) 
(a) 
(a) 



w 

418,458 
(a) 



§27,671,693 
9,026,208 
14,706,929 
4, 598, 563 
5,619,740 
6,450,195 
4, 279, 766 
1,781,026 
(o) 

589,589 
958, 720 
549,031 
1,011,373 
915, 446 



,817, 
,358, 

) 779' 

,017, 
,961, 
, 508, 
,992, 
(a) 



(a) 



539, 797. 822 

19,191,342 

14,881,372 

14,631,171 

7,680,343 

7, 597, 754 

5,156,714 

3, 8S2, 420 

2, 005, 736 

1,500,982 

728, 681 

690, 420 

(a) 

(?) 



41,051,004 56,539,712 



123,085,019 



Included in "All other States.' 



[NTBODUCTION. 



25 



Table 2. — Proportion* of Production and Rank ok States in Manufacture op 

Glass. 

■ if iho Census.] 



- 


Per cent of total production value. 




1S79 


1 v,0 


ISM 


L904 L909 




1S79 


1889 


1S99 


1901 


1909 


1914 




11.22 

7.32 


11.85 
13.76 

2.30 

:.. 78 
12.71 

■ 




1 r...-.!) 

12.09 

1 1. 89 

•:. 2 ! 
6. 17 
1.19 
3.16 
1.63 
1.22 
.59 
.56 


1 

4 
s 
9 
6 
2 
3 


1 
2 
1 

9 
6 

5 


1 
4 
2 

5 
3 
6 
8 


1 
3 
2 
6 
5 
4 
7 

21 
12 
10 

13 

£ 


1 
2 

4 
6 
5 

9 

"""io 

f. 
13 




Ohio.: 


S.04 

3.31 
5.01 
9.01 
4.88 
1.35 


11.34 15.60 
18.47 12. mo 
5.78 8.43 


■> 




1. 2''. 
V,2< 
11.44 

4.35 


4 


Illinois 










5.3S 
2.24 


2.16 














2.77 


3.06 


.99 


.74 
1.20 

L27 
1.15 


1. 13 

2.21 
.71 


10 


7 


9 




















13 
10 

12 






4.04 

.66 
1.84 
.43 
.76 
.33 
.02 


1.05 


.74 


13 

11 
14 
12 
15 
16 


10 
14 
11 
17 




































16 


15 






























































13 


11 


11 
16 
is 
19 
17 
20 

































































12 

15 
16 


15 
17 
14 


















































2. 60 


1.64 


1.82 


3.56 


4.34 

























Table 3. — General Statistics of the Glass Industry. 
[Data from the Bureau of the Census.l 



Items. 


1869 


1879 


1SS9 


1S99 


1904 


1909 


1914 


Number of estab- 
















lishments 


154 


169 


294 


355 


399 


363 


348 


Persons engaged . 


w 


(a) 


(a) 


55, 256 


67, 105 


72,573 


78, 804 


Pro prietors 
















and firm 
















members. . 


(<*) 


(«) 


(a) 


170 


96 


87 


93. 


Salaried em- 
















ployees 

Wage earners 


(a) 


(a) 


(a) 


2,26S 


3,040 


3,575 


4.209 
















(aver age 
















number)... 


15,367 


24, 177 


44, 892 


52, 81S 


63,969 


68,911 


74,502 


Primary horse- 


















1,857 

S13, 826, 142 


5,672 
SIS, 804, 599 


2S, 241 
S40,966,850 


52, 943 


91, 476 


123,132 


163, 139 




¥61,423,903 


S89, 3S9, 151 


S129, 2SS, 3S4 


8153,92 ,876 


Salaries and 












29,877,086 
2,792,376 


41, 228, 441 
3,940,293 


44, 293, 215 


55,204,723 
6,548,904 


.Salaries 


' («•)' 


fa) 


(a) 


4, 993, 591 


■Wages 


( a ) 


(a) 


(«) 


27,084,710 


37,288,148 


39, 299, 624 


18,655,819 


Paid for contract 


















(«) 


W 


(a) 


(a) 


56.848 


85,864 


150,185 


Rent and taxes 






(including in- 
















terna! revenue) 


(a) 


(a) 


(a) 


w 


b 357, 121 


506, 533 


882, 222 


Cost of materials. 


5,864,365 


8,028,621 


12,140,985 


16,731,009 


20,145,522 


32,119,499 


46,016,504 


Value of prod- 


















18, 467. 507 


21,154,571 


41,051,004 


56,539,712 


79,607,998 


92,095,203 


123,085,019 


Value added bv 
















manu fact ure 
















(value of prod- 
















ucts less cost of 
















materials) 


12,603,142 


13,125,950 


28, 910, 019 


39,808,703 


53, 462. 476 


59,975,704 


77,068,515 



« Figures not available. 

i> Exclusive of iniernal revenue. 



26 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Table 4. — Per Cent of Increase a in Each Census Period after 
[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Classification. 


1869-1879 


1879-1889 


« 


1899-1909 


1904-1914 


1909-1914 




9.7 


74.0 


20.7 


2.3 
31.3 
-48.8 
57.6 
30.5 
132.6 
110.5 
48.3 
78.8 
45.1 
45.6 

90.7 
92.0 
62.9 

50.7 


-12.8 
17.4 

- 3.1 
38.4 
16.5 
78.3 
72.2 
33.9 
66.2 
30.5 
164.2 

147.0 
76.0 
54.6 

44.2 






8.6 






















Wage earners (average number) 


205. 4 
36.0 
20.5 


397.9 
117.9 
141.9 


17.7 
87.5 
49.0 
35.1 


8.1 
































74.9 


Rent and taxes (including internal reve- 








74.2 




30.9 
14.6 

4.1 


51.2 
94.1 

120.2 


37.8 
37.7 

37.7 






33.6 


Value added by manufacture (value of 









a A minus sign ( — ) denotes decrease. 



Figures not strictly comparable. 



Table 5. — Detail of Persons Engaged in The Glass Industry, by States, in 

1914. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Number 

of estab- 

lish- 



Total 
employees. 



Propri- 
etors and 
firm 



Salaried 
officers, 
superin- 
tendents, 

and 
managers. 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees. 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas , 

Maryland 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania 

Virginia 

'West Virginia . . . 
All other states a 

United Sta 



4,03S 
9,804 
385 
1,259 
2,335 
6,224 
3,334 

11,541 
1,321 

25, 013 

624 

9,422 

3,504 



78,804 



1,385 



3,764 
9, 390 
364 
1,184 
2,248 
5,784 
3,089 
10.997 
1,270 



3,311 



74,502 



Wage earners. 



Number, 15th day of- 



Maximum. 
month. 



Illinois Jan. 4,337 

Indiana Feb. 11,278 

Kansas Dec. 651 

Maryland.... Feb. 1,361 

Missouri Apr. 2,690 

New Jersey Mar. 7, 040 

New York... Feb. 3,823 

Ohio Apr. 13,290 

Oklahoma I Apr. 1,793 

Pennsylvania Mar. 26,391 

Virginia Apr. 790 

West Virginia May 10,173 

All other States « Mar. 4,030 



Minimum, 
month. 



Sept. 2,( 



Aug. 
July 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 



6,116 
92 

581 

1,839 
1,883 
1,760 
7,192 
633 



July IS, 056 

Aug. 79 

July 6 

Aug. 1 



United States . 



Mar. 86,461 | Aug. 49,861 



Male. Female. 



3,859 



1,043 
2,441 
6,620 
3,060 

1*702 

23, 493 

618 

9,546 

3,366 



159 
802 
11 
88 
35 
222 
152 
951 
102 
1,448 
22 
921 



1,889 



a All other States embrace: California, 3 establishments; Louisiana, 2; Massachusetts, 2; Michigan, 2; 
Itnode Island, 1; South Carolina, 1; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 2; Washington, 1; Wisconsin, 1. 



INTRODUCTION. 



27 



Table 6. — Cost of Principal Materials, Wages, and Salaries, Other Expenses, 
and Value of Products in the Glass Industry, by States, in 1914. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Capital. 



Expenses for salaries and wages. 



Officials. Clerks, etc. 



Expenses 
for con- 
tract 
work. 



$ll,4s7, 

13,566, 
349, 



Kansas 

Mary Ian. 1... 
Missouri — 
New Jersey. 
New York. . 



Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania... 
Virginia 

All other 



United States. 



$194,402 $249, 



1,139 
23 
544 



243,0*0 
10,040 
49, 951 
62,273 

321,510 
151,147 
392, 704 

883^311 

5,976 

278,511 
190, S23 



$2,692,125 

5,735,204 

367,345 

7S2,860 

1,588,448 

3,770,258 

2,157,555 

7,052,666 

991,958 

15,214,434 

327, 752 

5,672.672 

2, 302; 542 



$36, 594 



8 
5,200 

10,083 
14,332 
10,000 



47,023 



26,460 

485 



,498 i 2,855,406 48, 655, i 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Maryland 



New Jersey 

irk 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania... 
i , 

All othi 



United States 138,237 



Expenses for rent 
and taxes. 



Rent of 
factory. 



$1,000 

48,000 
500 

15, 944 
3,000 
2,718 
2,850 

12,490 



35,972 

"9,'S23 



Taxes, in- 
cluding 
internal 
revenue. 



Expenses for materials. 



Value of 

Principal ! Fuel md V™ 6 ™^ 

rent of 

power. 



materials. 



>l,s.30, 
5, 573, 

128, 

272, 
1,069, 
1,749, 
1,299, 
5, 369, 

645, 
11,781. 

203, 
3,918, 
1,221, 



*;■•:■'. 
73.1 
1 45 
53'. • 
685 
159 
266 
552 
137 
613 
009 
023 
020 | 



$957, 157 

1,331,6S8 

73,445 

127,004 

505, 103 

385! 551 
1,676,125 
74,671 
3,760,092 
55,094 
720, 118 
486,847 



S7,6S0,343 

14,881,372 
728, 6S1 
1,500,982 
3,882,420 
7,597,754 
5,156,714 

19,191,342 
2,005,736 

39, 797, 822 
690, 420 

14,631,171 
5,340,262 



743, 9S5 35,0S1,576 10, 



123.085,019 



Value 
added by 
manufac- 
ture. 



$4,872,493 
7,975,949 
527,091 
1,101,439 
2,307,632 
5,066,562 
3,471,897 

12,145,665 
1,285,928 

24,256,117 

432,317 

9,993,030 

3,632,395 



Table 7. — Value of Production in Main Divisions of Glass Manufacture, by 

States. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Product and State. 



Building glass, total value $17, 096, 234 S21, 697, 861 

Illinois 24, 000 ' 281. 559 

Indiana ; 5,711,948 j 3,790,618 

Kans;i 38LI 184 

Mi OUll ' 505,564 1,036,433 

Ne w Jersey 271 ,011 201, 922 

York 3 16, 790 456, 310 

Ohio 671, 422 1, 625, 126 

klahoma (a) 

Pennsylvania 9,213,545 ! 12,169,013 

West Virginia I 101, 242 1, 323, 896 

All other States ' 247,712 431,900 



648,718 
1,616,092 
1,131, SOS 
1,778,364 

(a) 

173, 3S7 
2,744,513 

(«) 
14,958,649 
2,751,133 

505,774 



$36,824,069 



w 

2,356,946 

(a) 
3,122,793 

w 

3,805,669 
1,181,657 
L8. 968, 873 

4,410,710 
2,977,421 



a Included in "All other States" to avoid individual disclosures 



28 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 7. — Value op Production in Main Divisions of Glass Manufacture, by 
State s — Concluded . 



Product and State. . 


1S99 


1904 


1909 


1914 




$17,076,125 


$21,956,158 


327,398,445 










2,691,787 


2,859,087 

64,697 

46,191 

181,559 

1,932,524 

3,954,660 


2,774,128 
202, 696 
50S, 492 
1,019,836 
1,926,852 
6, 160, 707 

(a) 
9, S47, 228 
4, 306, 528 
651, 97S 


2, 926, 296 






100,000 

. 21,300 

1,173,784 

2, 73S, 289 


(a) 




(a) 






Ohio 


6, 490, 498 




220, 52a 




8,453,550 

1, 379, 706 

517, 709 


9,406,183 

2, 620, 665 

890,592 




6,263,554 










21,676,791 


33,631,063 


36,018,333 










(a) 
2, 678, 780 
6,327,468 


855,446 

4,949,156 

7,213,456 

407,868 

536, 478 

607,383 

6,066,714 

1,866,245 

2,961,727 

(a) 
5,951,144 
549,031 i 
602,002 ) 
1,064,413 


873, 434 

4,304,795 

6,982,378 

651,376 

528,767 

(a) 

5, 884, 605 

1,884,394 

4,717,658 

(a) 

7,778,787 

681,900 

646,521 

1,083,718 


(a) 








9, 155, 163 






346, 633 

260,000 

4,452,219 

1,058,955 






' 759, 627 




7, 176, 787 




2,343,683- 
7,422,402 


Ohio 








4,162,990 
(a) 

381,847 
812, 623 


8,930,255 

690, 420 

3,777,445. 

3, 173, 927 












690, 562 


2,322,916 


2, 369, 987 


4,022,932 








56,539,712 


79,607,998 \ 92,083,203 


123, 085, 019' 





a Included in "All other States" to avoid individual disclosures. 

Table S.— Quantity and Value of Production in the Glass Industry, by 

Articles. 



[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Product. 


1899 1904 


1909 


1914 


Building glass: 

Window glass- 


217,064,100 
.$10,879,355 

12,526,055 


242, 615, 750 
$11,610,851 

21 . 870. 634 


346,080,550 
$11,742,959 

22,815,946 
$1,358,574 

60,105,694 

47,370,254 
$12, 204, 875 

205, 690 
$37,431 

(a) 
(a) 

la) 

(a) 
$964,599 


400, 998, 893 




$17,495,956 
43,040,079 


Obscured glass, including cathedral and sky- 
light- 




$732,338 $972,014 

21,172,129 34,804,986 

16,883,578 | 27,293,138 
$5,158,598 S7. 978. 253 


$2,417,253 
75, 770, 261 


Plate glass- 


Polished— 


60,383,516 




$14, 773, 787 


Rough, made for sale- 


628,684 
$75,887 

(a) 
(a) 


17, 784 
$3, 529 

(«) 

(a) 

(a) 
(a) 


131, 492 




$25,859 


Wire glass— 
Polished- 


1, 707, S48 




$534,322 


Rough , made to be sold as such- 


13,980,996 




$1,056,612 
$520, 280 




$250,056 


S51.133.214 








Total value, building glass 


$17,096,234 $21,697,861 $26,308,438 


836,824,069 



Not reported separately. 



INTRODUCTION. 



29 



Table 8.— Quantity 



wi> Value of Production - in' 
Articles— Concluded. 



the Glass Industry, by 



Pressed and blown glass: 

Tableware 100 pieces. . 

Jellies, tumblers, and goblets do/en . . 

Lamps do.... 

oneys do — 

Lantern globes do — 

n lobes and other electrical goods do — 

Shades, globes, and other gas goods do 

Blown tumblers, stem ware, and bar goods 



.do.... 

.do.... 
.do.... 



<»pal ware 

Cut ware 

Decorated 



Total value, pressed and blown glass... 

Bottles and jars: 

Prescription bottles, vials, and druggists' 

wares gross. . 

Beer, soda, and mineral do 

Liquor bottles and flasks do 

Milk jars do 

Fruit jars do 

Battery jars and other electrical goods, .do 

Patent and proprietary medicine do 

Packers' ana preservers' do 

Demijohns and carboys dozen . . 



Total value, bottles and jars . 

All other products, value 

< frand total value 



8,544,050 
807,765 

1,044,816 

2,673,854 

6,127,367 

3,750,443 

134, 726 



§17,076,125 



2,423,932 

1,351,118 

9S5,374 

146, 142 

789, 29S 

(a) 

1,290,131 

7S4,5S8 

S3, 543 



§56,539,712 



7,346,214 
487,017 

1,765,247 
1,901,415 

83,736 



821,956,158 



3, 202, 5S6 
2,351,852 
2,157,801 
253, 651 
1,061,829 

19,974 
1,657,372 
1,237,065 

64,450 



,o;U,i.m3 



b 579,007, 



1,286,056 
11,687,036 

322,482 

1,541,449 



$27, J 



, 14.", 



3, 624, 022 
2, 345; 204 
1,887,344 

440,302 

1,124,485 

9,981 

1,637,798 

1, 237, 175 

122,570 



18,030,243 
580,196 
! 
1,363,562 
10,461,843 
'2,016,800 

11,377,310 
1,158,077 






4,893,410 
4,573,610 

2,689,022 
1,188,891 

1, 19S, 952 

79,211 

1,384,689 

3,271,174 
160,796 



,018,333 \ §51,95S,728 



,369,987 j 84,022, 



c §92, 095, 203 S123,OS5,019 



a No1 reported separately. 

b In addition , glassware to the value of 89,663 was made as subsidiary products by establishments engaged 
primarily in other lines of manufacture. 

c In a ! lit ion , 42,039 gross of bottles and jars, valued at §90,490, were made by establishments engaged 
primarily in other lines of manufacture. 

Table 9. — Proportion of Glass Production, by Value, in the Main Divisions 
of Manufacture. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Window glass 

Obscured glass, including cathedral and skylight. 
Plate glass: 

Polished 

Rough, made for sale 

Wire glass: 

Polished 

Rough, made to be sold as such 

All other building glass 

Total building glass 

Pressed and blown glass 

Bottles and jars 

All other products 



a Less than one one-thousandth of 1 per cent. 



Per cent. 
19. 25 
1.30 

9.12 
.13 



.44 



30. 24 
3(1.20 
38. 34 
1.22 



r ci ill. 
14. 59 
1.23 



10.02 



27.21, 
27.58 
42.24 



Per ant. Per cent. 
12.75 14.22 

1.4S 1.96 

13. 25 i 12. 02 
.04 .02 



(b) 
(b) 
1.05 



28. 57 

29. 75 
39.11 

2.57 



b Not reported separately. 



20.92 
24.60 
42. 21 
3. 27 



30 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 10. — Increase in Production of Glassware Compared with Increase 
in Population in the United States, 1904 to 1914. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Increase, 

1904 
to 1914. 



Estimated population, continental United States 

Window 1 glass: 

Square feet 

Value 

Obscured glass, including cathedral and skylight: 

Square feet 

Value 

Plate glass, polished: 

Square, feet 

Value 

Plate glass, rough, made for sale: 

Square feet 

Value 

All other building glass, value 

Pressed and blown ware, value 

Bottles and jars, value 

All other products, value 

Total value 



Per cent. 
19.62 



242,615,750 
$11, 610, 851 

21,870,634 

$972,014 

27,293,13S 
$7,978,253 

17,784 
$3,529 
$1,133,214 
$21, 956, 158 
$33, 631, 063 
$2,322,916 



$17' 495^ 956 

43,040,079 
$2,417,253 

60,383,516 

$14,773,787 

131,492 

$25,859 
$2,111,214 
$30,279,290 
$51,958,728 
$4,022,932 



$79, 607, { 



•$123,085,019 



121.24 

85. 18 



80.3d 
37.91 
54.50 
73.18 



54.6 



Referring to Table 6, it will be seen that the total value of glass 
products in 1914 was $123,085,019, and the amount paid wage earners 
was $48,655,819, or 39.53 per cent of the value. 

Table 1 shows that during the 35 years from 1879 to 1914, Pennsyl- 
vania was the leading State in value of production of glass and glass- 
ware. New Jersey changed from second to sixth rank among the 
glass-producing States, and New York from third to seventh rank. 

The production of glass of all kinds remained practically station- 
ary in Indiana during the 15 years from 1899 to 1914. In 1914 the 
production in West Virginia was slightly less than it was in Indiana, 
but during the 15 prior years it had increased nearly sevenfold in 
West Virginia, a greater rate of increase than in any other State. 
Cheap gas accounts for the great development of the glass industry 
in West Virginia and for the establishment of the industry in 
Oklahoma. 

Table 7 shows that during the years from 1899 to 1914 the produc- 
tion of bottles and jars considerably more than doubled in value; 
the production of building glass more than doubled, while the pro- 
duction of pressed and blown glass did not increase so rapidly. 
Nearly all of the production of glass in New Jersey consists of bottles 
and jars. New York, which was seventh among the States in the 

S reduction of glass in 1914, produced very little building glass, while 
ilinois, which was fifth in order of production, produced practically 
no building glass or pressed and blown glass, nearly all of its products 
being bottles and jars. 

Referring to Table 8, it will be seen that in window glass, obscured 
glass, polished plate glass, and polished and rough wire glass there 
were large increases in the production from 1899 to 1914. The table 
shows that 75,770,261 square feet of plate glass were cast in 1914, 
that 60,383,516 square feet were polished and 131,492 square feet 
were not polished. The waste, mostly from breakage, appears, 
therefore, to have been about one-fifth of the quantity cast. 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

In pressed and blown glass the largest number of articles pro- 
duced were jelly glasses, tumblers, and goblets, and the next largest 
number was of blown tumblers, stem ware, and bar goods. During 
the years 1899 to 1914 the number of glass lamps and of shades, 
globes, and othe] • decreased, the numbor of lamp chimneys 

and lantern globes increased slightly, and the number of globes and 
other electrical goods increased enormously. The increase in the 
number of milk jars was large, which may be accounted for by the 
enactment of laws requiring that covered jar- be used for the distri- 
bution of milk. The number of prescription bottles, vials, and 
druggists' wares doubled during the 15 years, while the number of 
bottles for patent and proprietary medicines increased compara- 
tively little. 

Examining the section of Table 8 referring to bottles and jars, it 
wall be noticed that from 1899 to 1914 there was a large increase in 
the number of liquor bottles and flasks produced. Though during 
that time prohibition was adopted by many States and the saloons 
in them were closed, liquor was dispensed in bottles and flasks. It 
is also noticeable that there was a large increase in the number of 
beer, soda, and mineral bottles and of demijohns and carboys. 

There was an increase in the number of fruit jars, but a much 
greater increase in the number of packers and preservers, which indi- 
cates that a less proportion of the preserved fruits and vegetables 
are canned in the homes of the consumers than formerly. 

Table 10 shows that the percentage of increase in all kinds of glass 
and glassware specified by the Census of Manufactures during the 
10 years from 1904 to 1914 was very much larger than the percentage 
of increase in population. 

SCOPE AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION. 

This investigation of the cost of manufacturing glass and glassware 
was undertaken in compliance with the act of Congress approved 
August 23, 1912, which created the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, and which contained the following section providing for 
investigations of the cost of production of articles dutiable in the 
United States: 

Those certain duties of the Department of Labor, or Bureau of Labor, contained 
in section seven of the act approved June thirteenth, eighteen hundred and eighty- 
eight, that established the same, which especially charged it "to ascertain, at as 
early a date as possible, and whenever industrial changes shall make it essential, 
the cost of producing articles at the time dutiable in the United States, in leading 
countries where such articles are produced, by fully specified units of production, 
and under a classification showing the different elements of cost, or approximate 
cost, of such articles of production, including the wages paid in such industries per 
day, week, month, or year, or by the piece; the hours employed per day; and the 

f)rofits of manufacturers and producers of such articles; and the comparative cost of 
iving, and the kind of living; what articles are controlled by trusts or other combi- 
nations of capital, business operations, or labor, and what effect said trusts, or other 
combinations of capital, business operations, or labor have on production and prices," 
are hereby transferred to and shall hereafter be discharged by the Bureau of Foreign 
and Domestic Commerce, and it shall also be the duty of said Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce to make such special investigation and report on particular sub- 
jects when required to do so by the President or either House of Congress. 

The investigation was greatly aided by the very hearty cooperation 
of most of the manufacturers visited. The number of. plants that 
refused to furnish agents of the Bureau with the desired information 

was 19. 



32 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The information secured during the investigation was obtained 
directly from the manufacturers and from their books. No data 
regarding the cost of production were accepted that the agents did 
not find recorded on the books of the establishment reporting. 
From the data obtained and entered on establishment schedules 
were derived the figures that show the various items in the cost of 
production and also the percentages of profit on net sales, on sales 
value of goods produced, and on the capital employed in the busi- 
ness. Other schedules, designated "unit schedules/' were used to 
ascertain the cost of manufacturing specified units of glass products. 
Copies of the forms used by the agents of the Bureau are reproduced 
in Appendix B (p. 424). 

In order to obtain permission to examine the books of manufac- 
turers, assurance was given that the information would be regarded 
as confidential and would not be used in such a way that the estab- 
lishment could be identified. The form of the assurance was as 
follows : 

Department of Commerce, 
Bureau op Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 

Washington. 
confidential. 

[One copy of this agreement to be retained by the manufacturer and one copy to be forwarded to the Chief 

of the " 



The information which has been given to Mr , special agent of the 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, is furnished with the understanding 
that neither the name nor the address of the establishment will be written on the 
schedule; that the information on the schedule will be considered by the Bureau 
and its special agents as absolutely confidential, and that the information will not be 
divulged nor published in such a way that the identity of the establishment will be 
shown. 

This information, which appears on establishment schedule No , has been 

obtained from the books and from the officers of the establishment, and, to the best of 
our knowledge, is correct. 

Special agent's signature : 

Manufacturer's signature : 

Date: , 191... 

Many manufacturers were interviewed by special agents of the 
Bureau in regard to subjects relating to the glass industry that were 
not included in either the establishment schedule or unit schedule, 
and much valuable information regarding general trade conditions 
was thus obtained. 

The statistics regarding wages and hours of labor which appear 
in this report were secured from only those establishments, which, 
in the opinion of the agent, maintained accurate labor records. 
The period taken was the last full-pay period at the time of the 
agent's visit. 

The investigation was begun in January, 1916, and the field work 
was completed within seven months. Special agents of the Bureau 
secured reports from 213 establishments, owned by 189 companies 
or firms, operating 245 plants. Of these 245 plants, for which data 
were obtained, 69 are located in Pennsylvania and 53 in West Vir- 
ginia, where the industry is largely centered. Reports were solicited 
from all plants engaged in the manufacture of glass products except 
those whose product was specialties or of such character as to make 
their classification in the various groups impossible. The establish- 
ments varied greatly in size, the amount of capital employed, and 



INTRODUCTION. 33 

in the amount of business. Of the 213 establishments, 211 reported 
capital employed in business amounting to SS9,103,387; two estab- 
lishments did not report the amount of capital. The total net sales 
of the 213 Bstablishments was $79,918,801. According to the 
Census of Manufactures, 1914, the value of the total production of 
all kinds of glass was S123, 085,019. Of this total the net sales of 
the 245 plants that reported data for this investigation is 64.93 per 
cent. 

GROUP CLASSIFICATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The 213 establishments for which data were obtained were classified 
into 13 groups according to their products and methods of manu- 
facture. These groups are as follows: 

Group I. — Thirty-seven establishments making hand-blown win- 
dow glass. 

Group II. — -Twelve establishments making window glass by 
machine. 

Group III. — Six establishments making plate glass. 

Group IV. — Nine establishments making wire and opalescent glass. 

Group V. — Twenty-six establishments making hand-blown bottles. 

Group VI. — Eighteen establishments making bottles by machine. 

Group VII. — Twenty-seven establishments making bottles by hand 
and machine. 

Group. VIII. — Thirteen establishments making jars. This group 
includes plants manufacturing milk jars, fruit jars, and packer's and 
preservers' jars. 

Group IX. — Eight establishments making blown tableware. 

Group X. — Twenty establishments making blown and pressed 
tableware. 

Group XL — Eighteen establishments making lighting goods. 
This group includes plants manufacturing bulbs for incandescent 
lamps, lamp shades, headlights, railroad lamps, semaphores, etc. 

Group. XII. — Six establishments making lamp chimneys. 

Group XIII. — Thirteen establishments making miscellaneous glass 
products. This group includes plants manufacturing marbles, nest 
eggs, demijohns, chemical ware, milk testers, specialties, novelties, etc. 
102511°— 17 3 



34 



THE GLASS IXDTJSTRV. 



The following table shows the number of establishments by groups 
and also the business period for which data were obtained. 

Table 11. — Establishments, by Groups, Showing Business Period for Which 
Data were Obtained. 





Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ment. 


Business year ending— 


Classification. 


Oct., 
1914. 


Dec, 
1914. 


Feb., 
1915. 


May, 
1915. 


June, 
1915. 


July, 
1915. 


Establishments making- 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 

6 

9 
26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 








2 


7 
1 


& 


Window glass by machine 


1 
















Wire and onalescent glass 












1 




2 




1 


3 
4 

7 


10 






2 


Bottles by hand and machine 






i 


5 
















4 

10 
3 

5 

1 




Tableware, blown and pressed. . . 










1 










2 








































213 


1 


2 


l 


3 


45 


27 











Group. 






Business year ending — 






Classification. 


Aug., 
1915. 


Sept., 
1915. 


Oct., 
1915. 


Nov., 
1915. 


Dec, 
1915. 


Feb., 
1916. 


June, 
1916. 


Establishments making- 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


7 
5 


• 


i' 


2 


4 
4 
6 
7 
6 
3 
6 
6 
4 
9 

12 
1 

11 




























1 






3 

4 
8 
2 


4" 


1 
1 












Bottles by hand and machine 






1 


3 


1 












Tableware, blown and pressed . . . 
























1 






















1 




















29 


14 


6 


4 


79 


1 


1 









INTRODUCTION. 



35 



Table 12 which follows gives the number of establishments from 
which schedules were secured, the number of plants operated, and the 
number of firms or companies owning such plants. 

Table 12. — Number of Cost Schedules Secured. Number of Companies or 
Firms Represented, and Number of Plants Operated, by Groups. 



Establishments making- 


Group. 


Sched- 
ules 
secured. 


Compa- 
nies or 
firms. 


Plants 
operated. 




I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 

6 

9 
26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 


35 

10 

6 1 

9 
26 
11 

1 

8 
15 
18 

6 


38 






Plate glass 
























Tableware, blown 


9 




27 














Total 


213 


189 


245 







DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY BY STATES. 

Table 13 that follows shows the location of the 245 plants by States 
and also classifies them according to products produced. 

Table 13. — Plants Classified by Products and States. 



States. 




1. 

if 

.5 = 


I 

o 

5 


ill 

.. o bi 


I 

o 

m 


a 

o 
o 

n 


A 


a 


It 
_ o 


Tableware, 
blown and 
_ pressed. 

Lighting goods. 


2 

°i 

as 

J 


o 

1 
1 
1 


"3 
1 








l 


2 
2 


2 
3 


3 

4 


...„. 


1 








1 
1 


10 




2 
5 

1 






2 


3 




20 




















1 






























2 




1 




1 






5 














2 


2 








l 




















1 








1 






1 
5 
3 
4 
....... 

1 














2 










6 
2 


2 
...... 

1 








1 
7 


...... 

1 


2 
6 


16 












1 
1 
1 
6 






17 


Ohio 


4 
2 
9 


1 
1 
5 


l 


1 




4 


2 32 




6 


Pennsylvania. 


3 


4 


9 


1 


14 


7 


1 


69 
1 




1 
























1 










1 
1 


...„. 

1 


1 
1 














2 


West Virginia. 14 


5 




2 


4 


7 6 


3 


4 


2 


53 
1 






6 




















Total... 


38 


12 


12 


26 


21 


30 


14 


9 | 26 


27 


7 


17 


245 



36 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 14 shows the total number and location by States of the 
glass plants listed in the Glass Factory Directory for 1916, and also 
the number for which cost of production schedules were obtained and 
the number omitted from the investigation, with the reason for such 
omission. 

Table 14. — Number op Plants Listed in the Glass Factory Directory, 1916, 
Number Furnishing Cost Schedules, and Number Omitted, with Reasons 
for Omission. 





Sched- 
ules ob- 
tained. 


Plants 
closed. 


Schedules not secured because— 


Sched- 
ules 
secured 
and can- 
celed, c 


Plants 
omit- 
ted.d 


Plants 

not 
visited. 


States. 


Infor- 
mation 
refused. 


Infor- 
mation 
delayed. 


Less 
than one 
year.a 


Records 
incom- 
plete.!' 




















3 




17 


3 




2 


3 
1 


3 


1 


1 


1 




9 


1 






4 








1 








1 
















2 
5 

2 
13 

14 
28 
5 
60 






























2 






















i 
l 

3 

l 










1 
















2 

1 
1 

1 






1 
2 






1 










4 








1 


1 

1 
7 








1 
4 




Pennsylvania 


6 


S 


4 


7 


4 


1 
1 




1 

1 

46 

1 






























1 














1 

1 






West Virginia 




2 


1 


6 


3 


5 
























Total 


213 


19 


19 


8 


22 


15 1 11 


18 


6 



a A full year's schedule could not be secured for the period desired. 

b A complete schedule could not be secured because of methods of keeping books of account. 

c Schedules were canceled because of abnormal conditions existing in the plant, or period was less than 
a year, or equipment of plant was being changed. 

d These plants were not visited because of the class of product manufactured, change of ownership, plant 
in an experimental stage, or because the product was manufactured as a side line for consumption by the 
same compan}' in a different business. 

A contemplated investigation by the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce of the cost of production of glass products in 
European countries was prevented by the war. 



SUMMARY. 

GENERAL RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATION. 

There are several distinct branches of the glass industry, each 
different and complete in itself. Of the 331 establishments Listed 
in the Glass Factory Directory of 1916, reports were secured from 
213 establishments operating 245 plants. The reports cover estab- 
lishments manufacturing hand and machine blown window glass, 
Elate glass, wire and opalescent glass, hand and machine blown 
ottles and jars, blown and pressed tableAVare, lamp chimneys and 
other lighting goods, and miscellaneous products. Some plants 
visited were found to have suspended operations, and some refused 
to furnish the information requested. A few schedules obtained 
(not included in the 213 reported) were not used because abnormal 
conditions existed in the plants. Schedules could not be secured in 
some establishments because the records in their books of account 
were incomplete. The investigation was greatly facilitated by the 
unreserved cooperation of most of the manufacturers visited. 

According to the Census of Manufactures, the value of the total 
production of all kinds of glass and glassware in 1914 was $123,- 
085,019. Of this total the net sales of the 213 establishments from 
which data were secured is 64.93 per cent. 

As shown by the census, the value of the production of all kinds 
of glass and glassware was $56,539,712 in 1899, $79,607,998 in 1904, 
and $123,085,019 in 1914. The increase in production (square feet) 
from 1899 to 1914 was 84.74 per cent for window glass and 357.65 
per cent for polished plate glass. The increase in value of produc- 
tion was 139.7 per cent for bottles and jars and 77.32 per cent for 
pressed and blown ware. This great increase in production during 
the 15 years is due, primarily, to the general introduction of machin- 
ery in some branches of the industry, which has replaced the highly 
skilled hand labor previously employed. 

The industry is to a great extent localized. Excepting labor, the 
cost for fuel is generally the chief item of expense. Manufacturers 
have therefore erected plants where cheap fuel (natural gas, coal, 
or oil) could be obtained. This localization is shown by the fact 
that, according to the census of 1914, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, 
and West Virginia, in each of which cheap fuel in some form is to 
be had, ranked highest, and in that order in value of production; 
and the value of the production in these four States was $88,501,707, 
or 71.90 per cent of the total value of the production in the United 
States during that year, $123,085,019. 

The introduction of automatic and other machinery has greatly 
increased production, lowered cost and selling prices, driven many 
highly skilled workers from the industry, and has been a disturbing 
factor in the respective branches of the industry where it has been 
installed. The automatic bottle machine, introduced about 1903, 
was followed shortly by the flowing device, which did aAvay with the 
skilled gatherer. 

Manufacturers using the automatic machines or flowing device 
probably produce more than all other battle manufacturers. Those 



38 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

who use other machines, which have been introduced in an effort to 
offset the lower cost of the automatic-machine product, or who make 
bottles by hand, unless their factories are very advantageously 
located, find it difficult .to compete with manufacturers using the 
automatics or flowing device, especially on large orders. 

The extended use of window-glass machinery, introduced in 1903, 
resulted in overproduction. This led about 50 window-glass manu- 
facturers in 1909 to form the Imperial Window Glass Co., which 
curtailed production and raised prices. The officers and directors 
of this company were, in 1910, indicted and fined. In recent years 
the prices announced by the company that is the largest producer 
of window glass in this country are followed by the other manufac- 
turers. At present the entire product of about half of the 51 hand 
factories and of a few machine factories is sold through one agent 
or broker. 

Many branches of the industry operate only a part of the year. 
Hand window-glass manufacturers work only about seven months; 
machine manufacturers usually average about eight months a year. 
Many other branches lose one or more months a year. The reasons 
are fear of overproduction, the inability of the men to work around 
the furnaces in the great heat of summer, the necessity for replacing 
pots, fixing tanks, regulating bad glass, repairs, etc. 

Despite the generally improved quality of the ware produced, the 
tendency, until the war changed normal business conditions, was 
for prices to decline. This decrease was due to the introduction of 
machinery, which has considerably lowered costs, and to the very 
keen competition that is general in the glass industry. 

The prices of all sizes of plate glass have been reduced — in the 
size 5 to 10 square feet, from SO. 60 per square foot in 1900 to $0.43 
in 1910 and $0.29 in 1915. In March, 1912, the price of the 16 by 
24 bracket, single strength, A quality window glass, was $1.74 per 
per box of 50 feet, and in January, 1914, $1.58; the same bracket 
and strength B quality, $1.63 in March, 1912, and $1.47 in January, 
1914. The price of incandescent lamps has decreased from some- 
thing over $0,036 per candlepower in 1907 to $0,006 in 1916. 

There is much inefficiency in the industry. Until very recently 
only a few manufacturers had an essential knowledge of the chem- 
istry of glass. In the plants visited not more than one in twenty 
employed a chemist. Most plants, except the few large ones erected 
in recent years, are poorly constructed and arranged. Accounting, 
generally, is not up to the standard expected in an important indus- 
try, and, with the exception of a few excellent systems found, there 
are no accurate cost-keeping methods or records. Many manufac- 
turers do not even attempt to compute costs. 

At least two new branches of the industry have been recently 
established. Photographic glass, first made commercially in the 
United States in 1911, has been developed. Prior to the war only 
one American factory manufactured chemical glassware, and its 
production was inconsiderable. A number of progressive manu- 
facturers have begun to make such ware, and the quality of most 
articles produced in the United States is as good or superior to what 
was formerly imported. Men in the trade feel that with proper 
encouragement these new and necessary products will continue to 
be manufactured in the United States after the war. 



SUMMARY. 39 

Of the 213 establishments from which data were obtained the 
business year of 45 ended in June, L915, SO from July to November, 
1915, and 79 in December, 1915. The agents endeavored to obtain 
data for business periods ending in 1915, because up to late in that 
year the prices of raw materials had advanced very little, due to the 
practice of purchasing materials under long-term contracts, and 
because at that time selling prices were still comparatively stable. 

The capital turnover in the glass industry is exceptionally small. 
The average ratio of net sales to capital employed for the 21 1 estab- 
lishments reporting capital employed is in the proportion of 88 to 
100, the ratio varying from 174 to 100 for the highest group to 37 to 
100 for the lowest group. This low turnover is due to the unusually 
larg ■ capital investment required by a glass plant for its land, build- 
ings, and equipment. The average capital for the 211 establishments 
122, 291. 

The average operating profit, computed after deducting deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans, for the 211 establishments that 
reported capital is 4.66 per cent on the capital employed. The 
highest percentage of operating profit, 15.48 per cent, is shown by 
the miscellaneous group which manufactures novelties, specialties, 
etc., and the lowest percentage, an operating loss of 0.15 per cent, 
by the blown and pressed tableware group. The average operating 
profit on net sales of the 213 establishments, computed after deducting 
depreciation and interest, is 5.57 per cent. The average final profit 
of the 213 establishments, on the basis of the sales value of goods 
produced, is 6.12 per cent. 

Four of the 13 groups had greater average sales in 1915 than in 
previous years. Eight groups had smaller average sales in 1915 
than in either 1914 or 1913. One group had greater average sales 
in 1913 and smaller average sales in 1914 than in 1915. 

Five of the 13 groups showed a higher average percentage of final 
profit (based on the sales of each year) for the year 1915 than for 
1914. 1913, or 1912. Five groups showed lower average percentages 
of final profit for the year 1915 than for 1914, 1913, or 1912. Three 
groups showed lower average percentages of final profit for the year 
1915 than for 1914 or 1913 but greater percentages than for 1912. 

Of the 211 establishments that owned land, buildings, and equip- 
ment only 102. or less than half, made a charge for depreciation. Of 
these 102 only 35 had separate depreciation charges for land, build- 
ings, and machinery and equipment. Depreciation for the 109 plants 
that made no charge for depreciation was computed for tables in this 
report at the average percentage of those plants in their respective 
groups that made such a charge, After this computed depreciation 
was added, 20 plants that had previously shown a final profit showed 
a final loss. 

Labor constitutes the chief single item of expense. The labor cost 
for the 213 establishments is 40.57 per cent of their net sales; three 
groups show averages over 50 per cent. The highest percentage is 
shown by the hand window glass group, 58.53 per cent, and the 
lowest by the wire and opalescent group, 20.95 per cent. 

Practically all the skilled labor is on a piece-rate basis; all other 
labor is on a time-rate basis. Females are employed only to an 
insignificant extent and in only a few occupations in the industry. 



40 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Owing to the desire to increase production and to the impractica- 
bility of extinguishing furnaces every day, the work in many branches 
of the industry, especially where continuous tanks are used, continues 
day and night. The skilled workers usually alternate at day and 
night work, as do some of those less skilled who assist them. Most 
of the unskilled workers do not alternate but are more frequently 
either day or night workers only. 

In the manufacture of hand window glass and also of blown and 
pressed ware, which includes tableware, bar goods, lighting goods, 
laboratory ware, vases, and miscellaneous articles, the labor unions 
restrict the output of the plants by limiting the maximum production 
of workers in each turn of a specified number of hours. This system 
decreases production and increases cost. 

Wages in the highly skilled occupations are relatively high. The 
hours of labor are comparatively short, averaging between 45 and 
50 hours a week, and in some cases 45 hours or less. A week's work 
in some few of the unskilled occupations is 84 hours in 7 days, but 
the usual average for unskilled occupations is a week of 60 hours in 
6 days. 

Selling expense is exceptionally low in this industry, being only 
4.01 per cent on net sales for all the establishments reporting. Due to 
the small turnover of capital, manufacturers generally prefer to sell 
their output to jobbers and large consumers who usually buy in con- 
siderable quantities and on comparatively short terms. 

Although the Bureau prepared special forms for obtaining the cost 
of specified units in the various branches, it was generally found 
impossible to use them. In the groups that made diversified products 
it was impossible, generally, to obtain comparable costs. Many 
manufacturers had no cost records v/hatever, and even among those 
that kept records there was a lack of uniformity in the considera- 
tion of the various items of expense. Unit cost data were obtained 
from only those plants which, in the opinion of the visiting agent, 
had reasonably accurate cost records. 

The average cost of each specified item of expense was computed 
for a 50-foot box of single-strength window glass, both machine and 
hand made. For establishments reporting wage data in detail costs 
were also computed for 50-foot boxes, A and B grades, by different 
brackets, the items consisting of the cost for materials, fuel, piece-paid 
labor, other factory labor, salaries, and all other cost. For all other 
units, which consist of bottles and jars, blown and pressed tableware 
and stem ware, lamp chimneys, and lighting goods, only the total 
cost, net selling price, and profit or loss were obtainable on a com- 
parable basis. 

Imports for consumption as compared with the domestic produc- 
tion have largely decreased. The percentage that imports for con- 
sumption (fiscal year) was of the domestic production (calendar 
year), as reported by the Bureau of the Census, was as follows: 15.51 
per cent in 1879, 18.91 per cent in 1889, 7.58 per cent in 1899, 8.33 
per cent in 1904, 5.75 per cent in 1909, and 6.68 per cent in 1914. 

The imports for consumption during the fiscal year 1913 (the last 
full year of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act) were $6,436,662. During 
the fiscal year 1914 (the Underwood-Simmons Act became effective 
Oct. 4, 1913) imports increased to $8,219,112. Since the war began 
imports have very materially decreased. 



SUMMARY. 41 

The general dutiable imports dining the fiscal year ending 
30, 1914, were as follows: Cylinder, crown, and common window 
56,218; plate glass, cast, polished, and unsilvered, S727 
889: bottles, jars, etc., used for containers in transportation, $1,1 18,- 
460: articles cut or ornamented, $1,151,876; spectacles, Lenses, and 
optical instruments, $721,560; all other, $2,468,128. The five gen- 
eral imports were: Plates or disks for optical purposes, $617,703; 
white enamel glass for watAh and clock dials. sp_>,970. 

Window-glass manufacturers did not complain of the rates of 
duty on glass larger than the first three brackets. However, all 
those interviewed claimed that the rates on the first three brackets 
(3S4 square inches and under) were too low. Manufacturers of plate 
glass claimed that in their case also the smaller sizes were inadequately 

protected. 

The present tariff classification on imports has not been changed 
for many years. Xo criticism was made as to the classification of 
any kind of building glass. Schedule classifications of other products, 
however, were criticised, and suggestions were made that some of 
them might be improved by making them more specific and descrip- 
tive. A proposed revision of these classifications is presented in 
the report. 

Glass exports from the United States increased from $2,252,799 
during the fiscal year 1905 to $3,729,623 during the fiscal year 1914. 
From the fiscal years 1905 to 1913 (the last full year under the Payne- 
Aldrich Tariff Act) the ratio of exports to imports increased from 
38 to 65 per cent. In 1914, due to the great business depression in 
all countries of the world, the ratio of increase fell to 45 per cent. 

Prior to the war most of the exports were "all other kinds, " which 
includes heavy cut ware of which the exports are considerable and 
the imports very little. This ware went largely to Europe. This 
classification also includes lamp chimneys, of which a large quantity 
is exported. Most of the small amount of window and plate glass 
and bottles and jars that were exported went principally to Canada 
and Mexico. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1916, the total 
exports of glass and glassware were $12,321,338, an increase of 30.27 
per cent over 1914. The largest exports during the fiscal year 1916 
went to England, Canada, and Australia. 

MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 

The raw materials employed in glass making are usually silica, 
various alkalies, alkali earths, and metals. Gullet (broken glass) 
•in varying amounts is generally added to the batch. Silica in the 
form of sand is usually 50 to 75 per cent of the batch. The alkaline 
bases usually employed arc soda ash, salt cake, and potassium; the 
alkaline earths are lime and (occasionally) barium carbonate; bhe 
metallic bases are lead and (occasionally) aluminum, arsenic, and 
zinc. Manganese principally, and to some extent selenium, cobalt, 
and nickel, is used to neutralize the colors imparted by other ele- 
ments. A number of other elements used to color glass are enumer- 
ated in the report. 

There are two types of furnaces employed, the pot furnace and 
the tank furnace (day or continuous). They are heated by natural 
or artificial gas or fuel oil. Furnaces employ either the regenerative 



42 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

or recuperative system of heating; the regenerative system is more 
commonly used. A temperature of about 2,600° F. is necessary to 
melt the batch. 

An iron blowpipe from 4^ to 5^ feet in length is used for all hand 
blowing. Molds are used to facilitate blowing and are employed in 
all blowing (hand and machine) except in offhand blowing. 

There are automatic, semiautomatic, and other machines for 
blowing bottles, and a flowing device which dispenses with the 
skilled hand gatherer is installed in a few factories. There are paste- 
mold machines for blowing seamless ware such as tumblers, lamp 
chimneys, etc. Presses are employed for certain lines of tableware 
and are either stationary or rotary. Several types of machines are 
in use for blowing cylinders of window glass. 

The leer in general use is a long brick structure heated at dimin- 
ishing temperatures; the ware is tempered by being passed slowly 
through the leer. Various devices are employed for carrying ware 
from the blowing room to the leer and conveying boxes of packed 
ware. 

The cylinders from which window glass is made are blown either 
by hand or by machine. After it has been blown the cylinder is 
split lengthwise, flattened, and cut to size. 

Plate glass is cast on a smooth, highly polished table. A heavy 
roller passes over it. The glass is then ground and polished. 

Bottles are blown by hand or by automatic, semiautomatic, or 
other machines. 

Tableware is blown, made in a paste-mold machine, or pressed. 

Lighting goods are blown (offhand, in a mold, or in a paste mold) 
or pressed. The ware is often decorated by sand-blasting, etching, 
cutting, painting, or a combination of these methods. Bulbs for 
incandescent lamps are blown in a paste mold or by a machine. 

CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TURNOVER. 

Of the 213 establishments for which data were obtained, 211 
reported capital employed in business amounting to $89,103,387, or 
an average of $422,291 per establishment. 

In tabulating the data, the establishments were divided into 13 
groups, according to the kinds of glass and glassware manufactured, 
as shown in the following table, which gives, for each group, the 
number of establishments, the number having operating profits and 
the number having losses on net sales, the average per cent of such 
profits or losses on the capital employed in business and on net sales 
(depreciation and interest on current loans considered in each case), 
and the ratio of net sales to capital: 



BUMMAKY. 



43 



Table 15. — Operating Profits and Losses. Depreciation and Interest Con- 
sidered, by Groups of Establishments. 



Establishments making — 


Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Establishments 
lm\ in? profits 
or losses on net 
sales. 


Ter cent of profit— 


Eatio of 
net sales 




Profits. 


Losses. 


■ 
ployed. 


On net 
sales. 


to capital. 




I 

n 

in 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 

6 

9 
26 
IS 
27 
13 

8 
20 
IS 

6 
13 


31 

7 
3 
6 
16 

16 
14 
10 
8 
12 
14 


6 
5 
3 
3 

10 
2 

13 
3 

8 
4 


7.22 
2.14 
.08 
1.85 

a 3. 26 
7.39 
2.27 
4.97 

10.30 
b.16 

c9.64 
4.91 

15.48 


5.33 
1.99 
.16 

4.99 
2.2s 
10.79 
1.98 
5.04 
9.29 
6.15 
9.59 
2.91 
S.90 


1.35 


Window glass by machine 


1.08 
.51 


W ire and opalescent glass 

Dottles by hand 


.37 

a 1.40 

.69 


Bottles by hand and machine . . 


1.15 

.98 


Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed.. 


1.11 
1.06 
c.91 




5 1 
13 1 


1.68 




1.74 






All establishments re- 


213 


155 


58 


d4.66 


5.57 


d.88 









a Competed on the basis of 25 establishments, 1 not reporting capital. 
b Operating loss. 

c Computed on the basis of 17 establishments, 1 not reporting capital. 
d Computed on the basis of 211 establishments, 2 not reporting capital. 

With the exception of Group X, all of the groups show an operating 
profit on both capital and net sales, depreciation and interest on 
current loans considered, this profit averaging only a fraction of 1 
per cent in Group III. The highest average percentages of profit on 
capital are shown by Groups XIII and IX. The average operating 
profit for all groups was 4.66 per cent on capital and 5.57 per cent on 
net sales. 

Capital is not turned over so rapidly in the glass industry as in 
many other industries. The net sales of the 211 establishments 
reporting capital amounted to 88 per cent of the capital they 
employed. The net sales of 8 of the 13 groups w r ere larger, and of 5 
groups smaller, than their capital. 

A comparison of Groups I and II shows that the percentages of 
profits of establishments making window* glass by hand averaged 
considerably more than the average percentages of establishments 
making window glass by machinery. Comparing Groups V and VI, 
it is seen that the converse is true, the percentages of profits of estab- 
lishments making bottles by machine averaging considerably more 
than the average percentages of establishments making them by 
hand. The turnover was greater in the cases of both window glass 
and bottles made by hand than of those made by machinery. 

Detailed tables in Chapter II show, by establishments, as well as by 
groups, the operating profit when depreciation and interest are not 
considered, and operating and final profits w r hen theso items are 
considered. The final profit was obtained by adding to the operating 
profit (depreciation and interest considered) items of income ana 
deducting items of outgo not strictly connected with manufacturing. 

As shown by Table 16, the number of establishments having 
final profits on net sales was 155 and the number having final losses 
was 58, depreciation and interest on current loans considered, but 



44 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



reference to the tables in Chapter II shows that when these items 
are not considered the number having operating profits was 189 and 
the number having operating losses was 24. 

Reference to these tables shows also that, when depreciation and 
interest oti current loans are considered, the greatest percentage of 
operating profit on capital was 251.71, earned by an establishment 
in Group XIII ; and the greatest percentage of operating loss on capital 
was 30.89, by an establishment in Group X; also that the greatest 
percentage of operating profit on net sales was 32.3, earned by an 
establishment in Group XIII ; and the greatest percentage of operating 
loss on net sales was 33.19 by an establishment in Group V. 

DEPRECIATION. 

Of the 213 establishments reporting data, 109 did not provide for 
depreciation charges, while 2 manufacturers rented plants. Of the 
102 plants charging depreciation, only 35 had separate amounts for 
buildings, machinery, and other equipment; the others charged lump 
sums on the total value of the property. 

In tabulating the schedules secured from these 109 establishments, 
depreciation was calculated on the average percentage of depreciation 
reported by the other establishments in their respective groups. The 
total depreciation both charged and thus estimated amounted to 
$2,970,021, or 6.38 per cent of the total value of land, buildings, and 
equipment, $46,576,584. The number of establishments having 
final profits or losses as reported, and the number after the estimated 
depreciation for the remainder is deducted, is shown in the following 
table: 



Table 16.- 



-establishments having flnal profits or losses, wlth and without 
Depreciation. 





Having 
final 
profit. 


Having 
final 

loss. 


Total. 




87 
a 88 


15 
23 


102 




elll 








a 175 
a 155 


38 

58 


«213 




a 213 







a Includes 2 rented plants; no depreciation charged. 



Excluding all depreciation, the total final profit of the 213 estab- 
lishments amounted to $7,844,111. The extent to which profits are 
affected by depreciation is shown by the fact that a deduction of 
$2,970,021, the depreciation charged by 102 establishments and aver- 
age estimated depreciation for the remaining 109, reduces the final 
profit to $4,874,090. 



SUMMARY. 



45 



COST AND PEOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The <lat;i secured from the 213 establishments showed that the 
average sales value of goods produced per establishment was 596; 

average operating profit without depreciation and interest, $38,035, 
and with depreciation and interest, $20,199; average final profit, de- 
preciation and interest considered, $22,200. Wh bis included 
it is interest on current loans. Ln Table 17, which follow 

iduced, cost of goods produced, 
excluding and including depreciation and interest, and the profits, by 
establishing 

Table 17. — Average Sales Value op Goods Produced, Average Cost of Goods 
Produced, and Average Operating and Final Profits, by Groups of Estab- 
lish M 



Establishments making— Group. 



Average 

sales 
lish- value of 
goods 
produced 



Average cost of 
goods produced— 



Exclud- 
ing depre- 
ciation 
and 

interest. 



Includ- 
ing depre- 
ciation 

and 
interest. 



Average operating 
profit- 



Without ' With 
depreeia- deprecia- 
tion and tion and 
interest, j interest. 



Average 

profit, 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest 

con- 
sidered. 



Window glass, by hand . . 

Window glass, by ma- 
chine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent goods 

Bottles, by hand 

Bottles, by machine 

Bottles, by hand and ma- 
chine 

Jars 

Tableware, l >lown 

Tableware, blown and 
i 

Lighting goods 

I. ami) chimneys 

I 



II 

III 
IV 
V 
VI 

VII 

VIII 

XI 

X 

XI 
XII 
XIII 



37 $164, S51 

12 285,325 

6 800,985 

9 250,587 

26 j 175,493, 



All establishments. 



2!S,225 
481,497 
235, 4S3 

408, 519 
648,711 
204,314 
22S, 876 



3149,620 

259, 518 

707, 325 
225, 463 
166, 3SS 
675, 157 

327,448 

437, 248 
205, 672 

387,637 

558,251 
193,607 
199,671 



3156,027 

279, S19 
804,069 
240. 694 
171,740 
711,629 

341,069 
457,699 
213, 406 

40S.368 

588,342 
198, 446 



815,231 

25, 807 
03,660 
25,124 
9,105 
129, 931 

20,777 
44,249 
29,811 



90, 4 CO 
10,707 
29. 205 



562, 596 



321,561 



13,084 



3, 753 
93,459 



2, 156 
23, 798 
22,077 22, 



89,256 

7,668 
2,308 

11,875 
4,475 
97,826 



9,709 



151 
60,369 
5,868 

19,647 



20, 199 



1,188 
64,451 

5, 813 
19, 857 



22, 200 



a Operating loss. 

The figures in the above table, when reduced to percentages based 
on the sales value of goods produced, show that the total cost of goods 
produced, excluding depreciation and interest, ranged from 83.86 per 
cent in bottles made by machine, Group VI, to 94.89 per cent in blown 
and pressed tableware, Group X; including depreciation and interest. 
the cost ranged from 88.37 per cent in bottles made by machine, 
Group VI, to 100.39 per cent in plate glass, Group IV. 

The average operating profit for all establishments, computed with- 
out depreciation and interest, was 10.49 per cent ; computed with 
depreciation and interest, 5.57 per cent; final profit, depreciation and 
interest considered, 6.12 per cent. The establishments in Group III, 
plate glass, showed an average operating loss of 0.39 per cont after 
depreciation and interest were deducted. The highest average profit, 
11.61 per cent, was found in Group VI, bottles made by machine. 

In Table 18, which follows, percentages, based on stiles value of 
goods produced, are showm for the total cost of goods produced, 
excluding and including depreciation and interest, and for the profits, 
by groups of establishments. 



46 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 18. — Percentages of Total Cost of Goods Produced, Operating Profit, 
and Final Profit,' Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, by 
Groups of Establishments. 



Est al ilishments making- 



Group. 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



produced 



Per cent cost of 
goods produced 
was of sales value. 



Exclud- 
ing de- 
preciation 



Includ- 
ing de- 
preciation 



Operating profit. 



Without 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest. 



tion and 
interest. 



Final 
profit, 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest 
consid- 
ered. 



Window glass by hand. . . 

Window glass by machine 

Plate glass I 

Wire and opalescent goodsj 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and ma- 
chine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 
pressed 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



All establishments 



I 

II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 
XII 
XIII 



loo. (H) 

100. 00 
100.00 
100.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 

100. 00 
100.00 
100.00 

100.00 
100.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 



00. 76 
90. 96 
8S.31 
S9.97 
94.81 
S3. 86 

94.03 
90. 81 
87.34 



94.64 
98.07 
100. 39 
96.05 
97.86 
88.37 



95.06 

90.63 



86. 06 90. 70 
94. 76 97. 13 
87.24 91.41 



9.24 
9.04 
11.69 
10.03 
5.19 
16.14 

5.97 
9.19 
12.66 

5.11 
13.94 

5.24 
12.76 



5.36 
1.93 
a. 39 
3.95 
2.14 
11.61 

2.06 

4.94 
9.37 

.04 
9.30 

2.87 
8.59 



5. 62 

"'.29 
4.74 
2.55 
12.15 

2.79 
6.06 
9.41 



2^85 



100.00 



(0. 



5.57 



a Operating loss. 
COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 

The average cost and profit or loss in making a 50-foot box of single- 
strength window glass are shown by data furnished by 35 hand facto- 
ries and 1 1 machine factories. The costs of window glass of different 
grades and various sized brackets, single and double strength, are 
shown by data furnished by 18 hand factories and 3 machine factories. 

Data obtained from 29 establishments show the total cost, net sell- 
ing price, and profit or loss in making 259 different units, including 
different kinds of bottles, jars, stem ware, tumblers, tableware, and 
lamp chimneys. Lack of uniformity in the records and cost systems 
employed by these establishments made it impossible to obtain in 
detail the cost of materials, labor, and overhead expense. 

INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 

The glass industry is located mainly west of the Alleghenies and in 
districts, such as West Virginia and Oklahoma, where cheap natural 
gas can be obtained. The glass factories in the East use producer gas 
or oil for fuel, and the high cost of the fuel is an offset to the market 
advantage. The manufacture of building glass, that is, of window 
glass, plate glass, etc., more than doubled in the United States 
during the period 1899 to 1914. In 1916 there were 51 hand window- 
glass plants in the United States, with 1,737 pots and 25 machine 
plants with 296 machines. The production by hand has decreased, 
being only about 40 per cent of the entire production in 1915-16. 
The American Window Glass Co. operated 116 of the 296 machines 
in the United States in 1916. 

The average value per box of window glass produced decreased hi 
the period 1899 to 1909 from 82.51 to $1.70. This decline is not 
attributable to the Dingley tariff act, which was in force during this 



SUMMARY. 47 

period, but to intense competition among domestic manufacturers, 
which greatly increased after the manufacture of window glass by 
machinery began on a commercial basis in 1903. Prices again 
increased after the formation of a combination of manufacturers to 
control production and price. Since 1904 the increase in the number 
of machines has depressed prices. The union has shortened the time 
covered by its agreements with manufacturers making window glass 
by hand, in some years to only seven months, while machine window- 
glass factories average about eight months a year. Sheet-glass 
machines are expected further to revolutionize the industry when 
thev are successfully operated on a commercial basis. 

The production of plate glass in the United States has increased 
much more rapidly than the production of window glass, although 
the number of factories manufacturing polished plate glass (15) is 
small compared with the number of window-glass factories. The 
trend of prices has been downward. There has been an increased 
demand for plate glass of the smaller sizes for use in place of window 
glass. 

The production of bottles and jars is not only larger but more 
widely distributed than the production of other varieties of glass and 
glassware. The automatic bottle-blowing machine and the flowing 
process which require no skilled labor to operate them, have caused 
great changes in the bottle industry since 1903. Their production is 
probably much in excess of the production by hand and by hand 
machines. Nearly all the establishments that succeed by the older 
methods are favorably located with reference to cheapness of fuel or 
accessibility to markets. Recently the tendency toward the standard- 
ization of shapes and sizes has been increased by the greater produc- 
tion of bottles by machinery and has resulted in lower prices. The 
Glass Bottle Blowers' Association has endeavored to secure more 
uniformity in State laws regarding the capacity of containers. 

The American public generally considers the heavy cut tableware 
manufactured in the United States superior to similar ware made in 
Europe. Before the war it was sold in all parts of Europe. 

The duty on ornamented glass, including cut glass, has been reduced 
from 60 to 45 per cent ad valorem under the present tariff act; still 
the imports have been decreasing and are now very small. 

Among the reasons for the cheaper production of heavy cut-glass 
tableware in the United States than in Europe are: Differences in the 
methods of cutting glass and in machinery and tools used; the use of 
blanks with pressed designs, which reduces the amount of cutting; 
and larger sales of each design in America than in Europe. Manu- 
facturers of high-grade cut glassware have made much complaint 
about imitation cut glassware, with which many people are deceived. 

In 1880 the regular manufacture of incandescent lamps was begun. 
By 1885 electric lighting became general and the manufacture of 
lighting good became an important branch of the glass industry. 
The number of electric lamps for domestic use produced in the United 
States in 1915 was about 125,000,000. In 1907 the tungsten lamp 
appeared and nearly revolutionized the industry. The Mazda lamp 
is the most recent development in high-efficiency illuminants. Glass 
bulbs for incandescent lamps are made in only five plants in the 
United States. About two-thirds of the total number produced are 
blown by hand. From 1892 to 1915 electric lighting was one of 



48 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

the few well-known commodities to show a marked decrease in cost, 
and this reduction was due to the higher efficiency of the lamps 
produced. 

The development in the manufacture of chemical glassware in the 
United States since the war in Europe began is analogous to the 
development in the manufacture of dyestuffs. Formerly few chem- 
ists in Amercia acknowledged that any chemical glassware made in 
the United States was equal to German or Bohemian ware. The 
war having caused a great reduction in imports, the serious shortage 
led in 1915 to a greatly increased domestic production. The product 
was soon recognized as of the highest quality. Beakers and flasks 
now made in America are better than even Jena ware. 

Glassware used for educational or scientific purposes has been 
admitted free of duty under various tariffs. Manufacturers inter- 
viewed regarding the duty on chemical glassware consider it much 
more important that there should be some duty on apparatus for 
educational or scientific use than that the rate of duty on the remain- 
der of such imports should be raised above 45 per cent ad valorem 
the present rate. Some college professors agree that apparatus 
imported for educational or scientific use should pay a duty. 

The manufacture of photographic glass, which is thinner than 
window glass, is a new industry in the United States. Manufac- 
turers claim that the rate of duty on photographic glass should be 
higher than on window glass, because of the very much greater 
labor cost, and the greater loss from breakage. There is at present 
no tariff distinction between photographic glass and window glass 
and no separate statistics of imports are kept. 

SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 

The glass industry in general, compared with other industries, has 
a small selling expense. The total selling expense for all the estab- 
lishments reporting, based on the net sales, was 4.01 per cent. 
Goods are usually sold in large quantities, generally to the jobber, 
large consumer, or distributor. About 30 window-glass manufac- 
turers sell their entire output through one sales agent. 

In 1909, 50 or more window-glass manufacturers organized the 
Imperial Window Glass Co. Following the formation of this com- 
pany, prices greatly advanced. In 1910 the officers and directors of 
the company were indicted and fined. 

The cost for packing material, owing to the fragile nature of the 
product, is a very large item of expense. The losses due to bad 
debts are very small. The seasons have some effect on the indus- 
try. Although goods are usually manufactured long in advance, the 
tendency is for the size of orders to decrease. There are but few 
job lots. Trade abuses are not very serious, although there are 
some unjust claims, unwarranted cancellations, etc. No branch of 
the glass industry has as yet adopted the trade acceptance, although 
its use has been emphatically urged. 

It has been suggested that if manufacturers would cooperate, 
selling costs could be reduced. Such cooperation would include a 
uniform cost-finding system, standard contract, standardization of 
shapes, styles, etc., a credit and information bureau, a central sell- 
ing or show room, and a cessation of "dumping" in one another's 
regular selling territory. 



SUMMARY. 49 

WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 

Labor cost is very high in the u r li-> industry. Table 36 of this 
report shows that the average labor cost based on sales value of 
product was 41. OS per cent; in one lamp-chinmoy establishment it 
was 71.69, and in one machine bottle plant it was 18.2 per cent. 
In none of the industries for which a cost of production report has 
been made by this Bureau, nor in the cotton and wool reports made 
by the Tariff Board was the proportion of labor to the sales value of 
product (Bureau reports) or to the cost of manufacture (Tariff 
Board reports) so large as in glass. Of 334 industries reported by 
the Census of Manufactures for 1914, glass ranked thirteenth in 
labor cost based on the value of product. Its proportion was 39.53 
per cent. In 33 of these industries, each having a value of product 
exceeding $150,000,000, the average percentage of labor cost, based 
on the value of product, was 7.92. 

Data from various Government reports show the rates of wages 
to be very much higher in the skilled occupations of the glass indus- 
try than in the higher-paid occupations of other trades and 
industries. 

The total number of employees in 208 factories during the busy 
season of their last business years was 60,375, the average being 
290.3. Of the total, 2.48 per cent were under 16 years of age. 
Females constituted 8.15 per cent of the total. More women were 
employed in the tableware and lighting goods groups than in any 
of the others; in four groups none were employed. 

Fewer days were worked in the last business year than the average 
for the three preceding years, in all but three groups. 

According to the Bureau of the Census, 36,668 out of a total of 
68,911 employees in the glass industry worked 54 hours or less per 
woek in 1909, and 51,250 out of a total of 74,502 in 1914. The 
largest increase in number of employees was in West Virginia. 

rolls for 19,092 employees, 18,235 male and 857 female, were 
furnished by 132 of the glass establishments visited. Of the total 
male workers 2,772 were emplo}^ed in plants making window glass, 
1,049 in plate-glass plants, 6,716 in bottle plants, 1,895 in plants 
making jars, 2,566 in tableware plants, 3,063 in plants making 
lighting goods and lamp chimneys, and 174 in plants making mis- 
cellaneous articles of glass. Of the total female workers, 135 were 
omployed in bottle plants, 398 in tableware plants, and 324 in plants 
making lighting goods and lamp chimneys. 

The following table shows the lowest and highest average earnings 
per hour and the average full-time weekly hours and earnings, for 
male workers in some of the more skilled occupations. 

102511°— 17 4 



50 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

Table 19. — Male Workers in Some op the More Skilled Occupations. 





Estab- 
lish- 
ments 
report- 
ing. 




Average earnings per hom\ 


Full-time week. 


Groups and occupations. 


ees. ' 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Average 
hours. 


Average 
earnings. 


Window glass: 


7 
24 
21 
22 
25 
27 

3 
3 
2 
3 

3 
3 

22 
29 
5 
6 
2 
12 

4 
4 
5 

15 
22 
17 
18 
2 
8 
10 

12 

7 
14 
7 
3 
2 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 


50 
601 
459 
422 
172 
276 

11 
75 
152 
87 
44 
14 
9 

756 
1,370 

12 
10 
95 

164 
95 
S2 

307 
532 
219 
266 

7 
83 

87 

419 
39 
714 
104 
14 
25 

12 
7 
12 

8 
11 


$0. 25-SO. 30 
.35- .40 
.45- .50 
.20- .25 
.45- . 50 
.25- .30 

.2.5- .30 
.20- .25 
.15- .20 
.15- .20 
.15- .20 
.20- .25 
.20- .25 

.20- .25 
.25- .30 
.25- .30 
.25- .30 
.60- .65 
.25- .30 

.15- .20 
.2.5- .30 
.15- .20 

.3.5- .40 
.20- .25 
.25- .30 
.35- .40 
.50- .55 
. 15- . 20 
.20- .25 

.30- .35 
.20- .25 
.15- .20 
.30- .35 
.30- .35 
.15- .20 

.25- .30 
.35- .40 
.40- .45 
.50- .55 
.40- .45 
.40- .45 


$0. 65-SO. 70 

1.50 and over. 

1.50 and over. 

.65- .70 

1.50 and over. 

1. 25- 1. 50 

.35- .40 
.30- .35 
.35- .40 
.30- .35 
.30- .35 
.30- .35 
.40- .45 

1. 00- 1. 25 
1. 25- 1. 50 
.85- .90 
.65- .70 
1. 00- 1. 25 
.55- .60 

1. 00- 1. 25 

.85- .90 
.95- 1.00 

.90- .95 
.70- .75 
1. 00- 1. 25 
.85- .90 
.75- .80 
.45- .50 
.60- .65 

.90- .95 
.75- .80 
.65- .70 
.70- .75. 
.60- .65 
.40- .45 

.40- .45 
1. 00- 1. 25 
.85- .90 
.65- .70 
.65- .70 
.60- .65 


48.1 
43.6 
43. 5 
43.8 
55.8 
59.0 

67.6 
68.8 
61.3 
61.9 
71.5 
63.4 
61.3 

48.6 
46.3 
45.2 
50.2 
53.0 
53.3 

46.1 
46.3 
55.4 

45.2 
45.0 
44.9 
44.6 
44.6 
50.9 
52.1 

49.9 
50.6 
50.8 
45. S 
45.4 
55.0 

49.5 
46.0 
49.5 
54.0 
54.0 
49.5 


$21.02 








35.06 




15.55 




45.79 






Plate glass: 


19.48- 




16.72 




14.34 




13.18 




16.02 




19.27 




21.21 


Bott'es: 


29.06. 




27.87 




23.50 




24. 85 




49.13 




21.05 


Jars: 


27.01 




23.01 




23. 10 


Tableware: 

B lowers 


27.57 
17.64 




24.02 




25.78 




29. 93 




19.65 




22.04 


Lighting goods and lamp chim- 
neys: 


27.25 




27.32 




19.56 




23.31 




23.5ft 




16.94 


Miscellaneous articles: 


17.97 




28.06 


Gaffers 


33.91 




32.40 




31.27 




24.95 







The average hourly earnings of workers other than those shown in 
the foregoing table ranged in the various plants as follows : Window 
glass, male, 15-20 to 65-70 cents; plate glass, male, 10-15 to 35-40 
cents; bottles, male, 10-15 to 65-70 cents, female, under 10 cents to 
35-40 cents; jars, male, 10-15 to 40-45 cents; tableware, male, 10-15 
to 80-85 cents, female, under 10 cents to 40-45 cents; lighting goods 
and lamp chimneys, male, 10-15 to 60-65 cents, female, under 10 
cents to 25-30 cents; miscellaneous product, male, 15-20 to 25-30 
cents. 

The skilled workers in hand window-glass factories earn more than 
those in the skilled trades of any other branch of glass manufacturing, 
but their season is very short— about seven months. 

In spite of the effect on labor produced by the hitroduction of 
machines for window-glass making, the skilled operatives in hand- 
made window glass, through the efforts of a strong labor union, have 
been able to maintain a high scale of wages. In some years from 



SUMMARY. 51 

1904 to 1913 they were forced to accept lower piece price rate-, bul 
in the seasons of 1914-15, 1915-16, and 1916-17 very substantia] 
increases were given. 

There are three labor organizations connected with window-glass 
manufacturing. The oldest and strongest is the National Window 
Glass Workers. It had a membership of 4,301 in 1915-16. It meets 
annually with the manufacturers' association to adopt a wage scale 
and to dispose of other matters coming up for settlement. 

Labor in bottle manufacturing was greatly benefited by the in- 
creased production that resulted from the establishment of the 
"shop" system in 1S70, and later from the substitution of the tank 
for the old-style furnace 

Bottle machines were first commercially successful in 1896, but it 
was not until 1903, when the Owens automatic machine was intro- 
duced, that the remarkable production by machines began to have a 
serious effect on labor. In factories using these machines skilled 
labor is not necessary, and in factories that competed with them 
piece rates for many years remained the same or were reduced. 
The first increase in many years was granted for the season 1916-17. 

The Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and 
Canada is the only labor organization connected with bottle manu- 
facturing. It originated in 1847 and adopted a wage scale in 1861. 
It is one of the oldest labor unions, and its record presents one of the 
best examples of successful collective bargaining between labor and 
its employers. There has not been a national strike in the glass- 
bottle industry since 1884. 

The American Flint Glass Workers' Union, the only labor organi- 
zation connected with tableware or lighting goods, takes in the skilled 
workers of the various departments. Its membership has increased 
but slightly in several years; in 1916 it was 9,430. The number of 
members unemployed during the season of 1914-15 was 1,075 and 
during 1915-16 it was 218. This branch of the business has been seri- 
ously affected by strikes; in very few years has it been entirely free 
from strikes and lockouts. 

NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 

There is need in the glass industry for extensive chemical re 
and experiment; the buildings should be improved and modernized, 
so as to facilitate production and lower manufacturing cost- machin- 
ery and labor-saving devices should be investigated and installed ; 
accounting conditions should be improved and accurate cost-keeping 
methods adopted. 

There is perhaps no industry in which a good cost-keeping system 
is more needed than it is in dass manufacturing. Not only have 
American glass manufacturers had to meet sharp foreign competion 
in several lines, but there is probably no industry thai has suffered 
more from intense competition among doniesl ic manufacturers. The 
increased use of and improvements in machinery have made radical 
changes in the methods of manufacturing glass and glassware during 
recent years. Hand manufacturers have s1 ruggled des perately againsl 
the competition of those using machines, ami often the market was 
demoralized in consequence. Ruinous competition is usually the re- 
sult of trying to fix [trices without a knowledge of the im.il costs of 
production. 



52 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

A large proportion of the establishments that were visited during 
this investigation had crude cost-finding methods and poor general 
accounting systems. It is more difficult to determine the costs of 
units in manufacturing glass than in some other industries, and some 
manufacturers express tlie opinion that it is impossible to devise an ac- 
curate method that is adapted to this industry. This, however, is erro- 
neous. No association of glass manufacturers has approved any cost- 
finding system, but the subject has been discussed in association meet- 
ings, and in the last few years some of the more enterprising, of the 
manufacturers have employed cost accountants to study their meth- 
ods of production and to install cost-finding systems. Articles ex- 
plaining improved methods of cost accounting, prepared by manufac- 
turers that have given special attention to the subject, are embodied 
in the report. 

IMPORTS AND DUTIES. 

During the fiscal year 1913, the last full fiscal year under the Payne- 
Aldrich Tariff Act, the imports for consumption of glass and glassware 
into the United States were valued at $6,436,662; during the fiscal 
year 1914 they increased to $8,219,112. Since then they have de- 
clined greatly on account of the war in Europe. In the fiscal year 
1889 the imports were 18.91 per cent of the production of the calendar 
year 1889. This was more than twice as large as the proportion in 
1899 or 1904 and about three times as large as the proportion in 1909 
or 1914. 

In 1872 the duties on the principal commodities were reduced 10 
per cent. Tariff acts, since that of 1872, were passed in 1883, 1890, 
1894, 1897, 1909, and 1913. The duty on glass and glassware aver- 
aged highest in 1894. In 8 of the 38 years it was over 60 per cent. 
Other statistics are given in tables in the chapter on general imports 
(p. 334), showing increases and decreases by months and imports by 
kinds of glassware and by exporting countries. 

While the imports of glass and glassware in general increased about 
one-fourth in the fiscal year 1914, as compared with the fiscal year 

1913, imports of plate glass more than doubled and imports of window 
glass and bottles increased more than one-third. 

The general imports of cylinder, crown, and common window glass 
were $977,211 during the fiscal year 1913 and $1,356,218 during the 
fiscal year 1914, or 5.59 and 7.75 per cent, respectively, of the pro- 
duction during the calendar year 1914 as reported by the census, 
$17,495,956. 

Of the imports of window glass, more than 80 per cent was of the 
smaller sizes (of the first three brackets) during the fiscal year 1906 to 

1914. From 50 to 60 per cent of the domestic consumption is of 
single-strength glass of these sizes. 

The rates of duties have been lower on the smaller than on the larger 
sizes for 20 years. No manufacturer interviewed complained of the 
duties on glass larger than the first three brackets, and some admitted 
that these duties might be somewhat reduced. All, however, claimed 
that the rates on the first three brackets were too low. 

Imports of window glass before the European war came mostly from 
Belgium . Few of the imports go to interior points. Before the Euro- 
pean war some imports went by ocean freight to Pacific coast points 
and as far east as Salt Lake City. 



SUMMARY. 53 

Prices in the United States have at times been lower than the total 
of the Belgian price with the freight and duty added. The - 
competition among American manufacturers was caused largely by the 
introduction of machinery for making window glass; this Jed to reduc- 
tions of wages in the hand factories,s »me of which were driven out of 
business. 

General imports of plate glass, cast, polished, and unsilvered, 
amounted to $321,605 m the fiscal year L913 and $727,889 in the 
fiscal year 1014, or 2.18 and 4.93 per cent, respectively, of the pro- 
duction of polished plate glass in the calender year 1914 as reported 
by the census, 814,773,787. The plate glass imported consists mainly 
of the finer and more expensive grades; its value averaged $0,224 per 
square foot in the fiscal year 1914. 

Most of the imported plate glass is used for mirrors and is of first 
quality. Most of the imports of plate glass, as of window glass, go to. 
Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf ports and near-by points. 

Imports of other building glass are small. Rough plate glass is 
probably made cheaper in the United States than anywhere else in 
the world. Our manufacturers compete successfully in Canada with 
English manufacturers who enjoy a preferential tariff. Most of the 
wire class and opalescent and cathedral glass used in the United States 
is of domestic manufacture; nearly all the antique glass, however, 
was imported before the war from Germany and England. 

The pressed and blown glass imported for consumption in the fiscal 
year 1913 amounted to $3,006,621, and in the fiscal year 1914 to 
$3,387,858, or 9.93 and 11.19 per cent, respectively, of the production 
during the calendar year 1914 as reported by the census, $30,279,290. 
With lower duties on pressed ware, less of it was imported than of 
blown ware. All manufacturers of blown ware interviewed com- 
plained of foreign competition. Yet the group of eight establish- 
ments, as a whole, that manufactured blown ware exclusively had an 
operating profit (charges for depreciation and interest considered) of 
9.29 per cent on net sales, while the group of 20 establishments, as a 
whole, that manufactured both blown and pressed ware had an oper- 
ating loss of 0.15 per cent on net sales. 

Glassware of different colors is not made extensively in the United 
States. Though the wages of workers are higher in the United States 
than abroad, the import of cut glass is small; it consists largely of 
novelties. 

The general imports of bottles, jars, etc., during the fiscal year 1914 
amounted to $1,148,460, or 2.21 per cent of the production of bottles 
and jars during the calendar year 1914 as reported by the census, 
$51,958,728. 

Extensive tables are also given in the chapter on imports to show 
the quantity, value, duty, etc., for the principal classes of glass en- 
tered for consumption. Other tables show for years during which 
the last three tariff acts were in force the imports of glass and glass- 
ware for consumption and the computed ad valorem rate of duty for 
specified classes. 

The duty on "glassware composed wholly or in chief value of glass, 
blown, either in a mold or otherwise, " is now higher (45 percent) than 
the duty on glassware made by pressing (30 per cent). A court de- 
cision made in 1916 permits much blown stem ware to bo imported at 
the lower rate. Manufacturers claim that this does not give them 
the protection Congress intended in the tariff act of 1913. 



54 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

EXPORTS. 

The exports of glass and glassware from the United States amounted 
to $2,252,799 during the fiscal year 1905 and to $3,729,623 during 
the fiscal year 1914. The exports increased more rapidly than the 
imports during this 10-year period, which closed a month before the 
war in Europe began. The ratio of exports to imports increased 
from 38 per cent during the fiscal year 1905 to 65 per cent during the 
fiscal year 1913, the last full year under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act. 
It fell to 45 per cent during the following fiscal year, the Underwood- 
Simmons Act having gone into effect October 4, 1913. The decline 
in exports may be attributed to a business depression in the leading 
countries of the world, indicated by figures in Table 134, showing 
the decrease in the foreign trade of these countries in July, 1913, as 
compared with July, 1914. 

Before the war most of the small amount of the window glass, plate 
glass, bottles, and jars exported went to North American countries, 
principally Canada, Mexico, and Cuba. On the other hand, the 
exports of "all 'other" kinds (pressed tableware, lighting goods, 
optical goods, etc.) went largely to Europe, where their superiority 
was recognized over European-made goods, and such exports increased 
annually. 

During the two fiscal years ending June 30, 1916, the total exports 
of glass and glassware increased 230 per cent. The largest increases 
in value were in exports to Europe, and second to North America. 
Of the 213 establishments for which data were obtained, 68 reported 
exports to 39 countries during 1915, and 41 reported $1,550,883 as 
the total of their exports. The largest exports went to England, 
followed by Canada and next by Australia. Nearly all the manufac- 
turers reported large increases in foreign shipments in 1916, notwith- 
standing lack of shipping space and freight rates that were often pro- 
hibitive ; some sold products even to countries that have preferential 
tariffs. 

An embargo on imports of window glass, plate glass, and tableware 
into the United Kingdom went into effect August 21, 1916. Ameri- 
can manufacturers, however, expect to do a still larger business with 
other parts of the world during the war and to do a larger foreign 
business after the war than they did before it began. The usual 
method employed has been to sell through American export com- 
mission houses. 



CHAPTER I. 

MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 

RAW MATERIALS USED. 

Commercial glass is a fused mixture of silica, usually in the form of 
sand, in combination with at least two bases, one of which is an alkali. 
t a high temperature is fluid and at lower temperatures is 
semifluid and solid. In its semifluid, plastic state it is ductile and 
capable of being cast, pressed, rolled, blown, or otherwise manipu- 
lated. ■ 

The raw materials that enter the batch for the making of glass are 
usually silica, various alkalies, alkali earths, and metals. The pro- 
portion of the ingredients varies with the kind of glass desired, the 
type of furnace, the custom of the plant, and the knowledge or lack 
of knowledge of the individual under whose supervision the mixing 
is performed. 

Silica in the form of sand comprises the chief ingredient of the 
batch, usually from 50 to 75 per cent of the mixture. The sources of 
the alkaline ingredients were originally the ashes of plants and sea- 
weed. At the present time the source is the natural deposits and 
other compounds of sodium, potassium, and lithium. The alkaline 
earths usually employed are calcium, barium, strontium, and mag- 
nesium. The metallic sources are lead, zinc, and aluminum. Of 
all these elements, sand, sodium in the form of sodium carbonate 
(soda ash), sodium sulphate (salt cake), potassium in the form of 
potash, calcium, and lead form the basic ingredients for nearly all 
the glass made. 

SAND. 

Sand that is usually acknowledged to be superior to the foreign is 
found in abundant quantities in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Illi- 
nois, Missouri, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Ohio, Indiana, hew York, 
Maryland, and many other States. In the States enumerated the 
sand is found practically pure in the form of rocks and stones, which 
are quarried and crushed. This sand is used for the finer grades of 
glassware. For cheaper products, like insulators and some fruit 
jars, the sand employed is often dredged from rivers. 

The sand is thoroughly washed to remove as much alumina, 
organic matter, and other foreign substances as possible, and is then 
dried. One glass chemist who has done much experimental work 
has suggested the use of unwashed sand , thus not only saving the 
cost of washing and drying but preserving the otherwise washed-out 
alumina, which he considers one of the most valuable constituents 
of the sand in making glass. When over 75 per cent of sand is intro- 
duced the batch increases in refractoriness to such an extent as to 
make working very difficult. 

55 



56 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

ALKALINE BASES. 

Soda ash (sodium carbonate, Na,C0 3 ) is now manufactured from 
common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) by the Solvay process, which 
decomposes the sodium chloride by means of ammonium bicarbonate. 
Soda ash is an active flux and reduces the melting point of the batch 
to a lower temperature than an equal amount of potash and when 
mixed with the proper proportion of lime makes an easily worked 
glass. 

Salt calce (sodium sulphate, Na 2 SOJ, d erived by decomposing sodium 
chloride by sulphuric acid, is not used so extensively as soda ash. It 
is used principally in window glass and green bottle glass. It is not 
so desirable as soda ash, because it is necessary to introduce with it 
carbon in some form, usually coal, to decompose it. Although salt 
cake is cheaper than soda ash, it requires extra time and excess heat 
in the furnace and its use tends to produce stony glass. 

Potassium is introduced into a glass batch generally in the form 
of the carbonate, which is known as pearlash or potash. Potash, 
like soda, acts as a flux in a glass batch. It is not used extensively, 
as it is always considerably more expensive than sodium salts. It 
is a desirable flux, however, in optical glass or other glasses where a 
high brilliancy of color is desired. Lithium is sometimes used for 
optical glass, but its cost is too high for general use. 

Other alkali salts introduced occasionally for their oxygen are the 
nitrates of soda and potash and soda as borax. These salts are also 
more easily decomposed than the carbonates. An excess of alkali in 
glass causes it to undergo what is known as "fading," which results 
from the chemical action of the atmosphere and moisture upon the 
free alkali, soda, or potash that has not been satisfied by the silica. 
Such a chemical process causes a deliquescence of the alkali salt and 
produces minute crystals that give to the glass an iridescent appear- 
ance. Sometimes this iridescence will cover but small areas and at 
other times it will appear throughout the entire .glass, depending 
upon the care with which the glass has been made or its homogeneity. 

ALKALINE EAETH BASES. 

Lime in the form of calcium carbonate (CaC0 3 ) or slaked lime 
(Ca(OH) 2 ), when used as the other basic constituent, hardens the glass, 
giving it stability and permanency, and facilitates melting and refin- 
ing. An excess of lime prevents chords but increases the tendency 
to devitrification. Where limestones containing very little iron are 
hard to obtain the better grades of burnt lime are sometimes used. 
The limestone rock is preferable, however, as the evolution of the 
carbon dioxide gas assists in the melting process. In many cases 
dolomitic limestones containing a considerable portion of magnesium 
carbonate are being used satisfactorily. The magnesium decreases 
the tendency to devitrify but makes the glass more refractory. 

Barium carbonate, when substituted in small amounts for lime, is 
said to increase the strength and brilliancy of the glass. Experience 
seems to show, however, that when more than 3 per cent of barium 
carbonate is used the glass is increasingly difficult to work. 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 57 

METALLIC BASES. 

Li ad in the form of litharge (PbO) or red lead (Pb 3 4 ) imparts to 
the glass a brilliant color and increases its weight. Although red 
lead would seem most desirable because of its greater content of 
oxygen, litharge is used to a greater extent because of its constancy 
of composition and very small content of metallic lead. Lead is a 
very active flux and is used in all glasses which must have a low soften- 
ing point, and where it is desired to weld a metal to the glass. 

Other metallic bases are aluminum, arsenic in the form of white 
arsenic (As 3 O s ), zinc oxide, and carbon (nonmetallic). 

Arsenic is used chiefly to act as an oxidizing agent in removing 
carbonaceous material and to assist in freeing the glass from gas 
bubbles. 

Carbon is employed with salt cake to provide a reducing agent to 
in the decomposition of the sulphate, thereby reducing the 
deleterious and erosive effect on the furnace walls and flues. Car- 
bon is also used in amber glass as a coloring agent. It may be 
used in the form of coal or charcoal. 

Of the principal aforementioned substances the following are 
obtained in the United States: Salt cake, lime, red lead, litharge, 
soda ash, arsenic, and manganese. The following are imported: 
Nitrate of soda from South America, arsenic from England and 
British Columbia, manganese from Saxony and Russia, and potash 
from Germany. 



In the making of glass there is usually added to the batch some 
cullet" (broken glass) of the same composition. The amount of 
cullet added varies from a small quantity up to about one-half the 
bulk of the batch as a maximum. Cullet is used for two reasons: 
First, because of the economy in remelting the broken glass about 
the plant, and, second, in tank furnaces because it provides a foun- 
dation in the molten bath whereby the batch or raw materials are 
maintained more compact and more positively in that portion of the 
furnace where the temperature gives the best melting conditions, 
for as soon as the cullet becomes plastic the batch constituents 
adhere to it and in that manner are to a degree cemented together 
until they have undergone sufficient temperature to carry out the 
complete melting process. The cullet also assists in removing the 
gas bubbles. Too much cullet is said to make the glass brittle and 
difficult to work. 

DECOLORIZERS. 

Practically all the raw materials used in glass contain some iron as 
an impurity. This iron, whon present in small amounts, imparts to 
the glass a pale green color, which increases in intensity as the con- 
tent of iron increases. When a colorless glass is desired this green 
color must be removed, which is done by usin» decolorizers. If 
the total percentage of iron in the ordinary soda limo glass exceeds 
0.05 per cent, a slight green color will be imparted to the glass. If 
the amount of iron exceeds 0.2 per cent the color is too intense to be 
destroyed. 



58 THE GLASS INDTJSTKY. 

Manganese, selenium, cobalt, and nickel are the chief decolorizing 
agents used. Manganese, selenium, and nickel act as decolorizers 
because of their chromatic action on the green color of iron by the 
complementary pink color they produce. Manganese is most com- 
monly used, because it permits easy control of the color. In using 
selenium and nickel the quantity used must be very carefully con- 
trolled. These latter substances are desirable in window or plate 
glass, as glass decolorized with manganese changes to a pink color 
when exposed to light a great length of time. 

Cobalt in the form of powder blue is used in conjunction with 
manganese or selenium to destroy any pink color produced by an 
excess of the decolorizer. 

COLORANTS. 

There is no definite knowledge as to the cause of color in glass. 
What is known is that certain chemicals, such as metallic compounds 
of manganese, nickel, selenium, etc., added to and melted with 
various batches will produce glass of a certain color. Glass made 
from sodium, potassium, lime, and lead, with silica and the other 
necessary ingredients, has no color unless a large amount of iron is 
present as an impurity. The coloring agents are generally metallic 
oxides. While a very few elements produce a definite color, as the 
blue of cobalt, the color produced is generally uncertain. The same 
oxide may produce different colors with different batches and differ- 
ent oxides of the same element may also produce different colors. 

Following is a brief description of the effects produced on glass by 
the various coloring agents employed. Tne coloring agents are 
arranged in the alphabetical order of the elements: 

Aluminum.. — Certain compounds of aluminum impart a white 
opacity to glass, such glass being known as opal glass. Aluminum 
sodium fluoride (cryolite) produces an opal glass, but is objectionable 
because it injures the pots. 

Antimony. — Antimony in large quantities produces white opacity. 
Antimony sulphide (SbS) exerts an uncertain color effect due to its 
volatility. In some cases it produces a fine yellow color. 

Arsenic- — Arsenic used in excess produces milkiness. 

Barium. — The sulphur compounds of barium produce deep green 
and yellow colors. 

Cadmium. — Cadmium sulphide (CdS) produces rich yellow colors. 

Carbon. — Carbon, when introduced for coloring purposes, produces 
a color ranging between straw yellow and a dark amber. Finely 
divided vegetable charcoal gives a yellow color. Carbon also affects 
the color of glass by reducing other substances that may be present. 

Chromium. — Chromium oxide produces a grass-green color and is 
used considerably. In the form of potassium bichromate it pro- 
duces a bright green color. Chromium with iron gives a cold blue 
color; with copper, a sea green. 

Cobalt. — Cobalt produces all shades of blue and is generally used 
in the form of oxide of cobalt. 

Copper. — Copper or copper oxide (Cu0 2 ) produces a peacock blue 
which becomes emerald green if the proportion of copper oxide is 
increased. When full oxidation of the copper is prevented by the 



MATEBIALS, MACHI2STEBY, AND PROCESSES. 59 

presence of a reducing agent and the glass is cooled slowly or rel i 

suiting color is an intense crimson-ruby. Qnpric silicates pro- 
duce intense green to greenish-blue colors. 

Gold. -Gold produces a brilliant ruby which, though less crimson 
than the copper-ruby color, is more regular and uniform. 

Iruu. Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or pale blue according 
composition of the batch. Ferric oxide gives a yellow color. 

Lead. — Lead gives a pale yellow color. Lead increases the color- 
ing effect of other chemicals present in the batch. 

Manganese- The compounds of manganese, when other coloring 
ingredients are absent, produce colors between pinkish purple and 
violet according to the chemical nature of the glass. Man- 
dioxide (Mn0 2 ) develops a pink tint which neutralizes the green 
color due to the presence of iron compounds in the sand. Used in 
excess manganese gives an amethyst tint. Manganese u~ed in 
svith the oxide of iron or cobalt produces black. The violet of 
manganese, if neutralized by the oxides of copper or iron, results in a 
gray color. 

Nickel. — Nickel with a potash-lead glass gives a violet color; with 
a soda-lime glass, a brown color. 

Phosphorus. — Calcium phosphate (Ca 2 P0 4 ) produces an opalescent 
glass. It is, however, rarely used. 

Selenium . — Selenites give glass a pale pink or pinkish yellow color, 
and a ruby red under conditions of reduction. 

Silver. — Silver oxide (Ag 2 0) mixed as a paint and spread on the 
surface of glass which is then heated results in a permanent yellow 
color. Silver is never applied to the batch but is used as a surface 
stain and gives a color from a delicate lemon to a deep orange in 
proportion to the quantity used. 

Sulphur. — Sulphur gases are very apt to produce a yellowish 
milkiness. 

Tellurium.— Tellurium appears to give glass a pale pink tint. 

Thallium. — Thallium is introduced to increase the coloring effect 
of other substances. 

Tin. — Tin in conjunction with copper produces a copper ruby. 
Tin oxide in a finely suspended state produces opalescence and in 
large quantities white opacity. 

Vanadium. — Vanadium produces vivid yellow and greenish tints, 
but is too rare to be introduced in the batch. 

Uranium. — Uranium, though costly, is sometimes introduced in 
small quantities in the form of a chemical compound and produces 
a beautiful fluorescent yellow. Uranium okide will produce a 
greenish yellow opalescent effect. 

MIXTURES FOR AMERICAN GLASS. 

The following typical mixtures for American glass have been taken 
from the New International Encyclopaedia. These recipes are not 
intended as standardized batches to be strictly followed by manu- 
facturers. It has been pointed out that the batch will vary with 
the kind of furnace, the temperature, and numerous other factors, 
and the following formulas are intended only to indicate, in a very 



60 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



broad and general way, the ingredients and the proportions of ma- 
terials that enter the batches for various kinds of American glass: 

Recipes for American Glass. 



Materials. 


Window glass. 


Plate glass. 


Green bottles. 


Lead flint. 




100.0 
44.0 


100.0 
40.0 
4.0 

&0 


100.0 
42.0 

' "40.'6" 

6.0 


100.0 


100. 00 


100.0 
40.0 

"38.'6" 
4.0 
2.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 

3a 


100.0 


100.00 








30.0 
24.0 
1.0 


36.00 

24.00 

.75 

1.00 


38.0 
24.0 


35.0 
22.0 








26.0 

4.0 


34.0 




















.5 


.15 
















5.0 




Potash 


















36.0 

40.0 

5.0 

.3 


34.00 






















48.00 


Niter 





















6.00 






















.06 






















.02 



























MACHINERY, TOOlS, AND EQUIPMENT. 



TYPES OF FURNACES. 

The oldest furnace for melting glass was a fire-brick box in which 
stood the pot with the fire of wood or coal on either side. Two 
general types of furnaces are now used for melting glass, pot furnaces, 
and tank furnaces. They are heated by natural or artificial (pro- 
ducer) gas or by fuel oil, and the usual temperature required to 
melt the batch is about 2,600° F. A temperature of about 2,000° F. 
is maintained at the gathering holes or working-out end of the furnace. 
These temperatures are not absolute; they vary with the size of the 
furnace, the use of the pot or tank, the composition of the batch, 
and numerous other factors. 

Pot jumace. — Pot furnaces are either conical, circular, elliptical, 
rectangular, or square, and usually have huge chimneys, the upper 
tapering half of which is usually above the roof of the building. 
The size of the furnace varies with the shape and the number of pots 
used, and the pots usually number from 6 to 12. Plate-glass furnaces 
employ the largest' pots, usually about 20 in number, and have an 
opening opposite each pot to permit its hurried removal for casting. 

The walls are about 18 inches thick, with a number of openings at 
intervals, which are arched over. At the base of the chimney is 
the central fire, about which, in all but square and oblong furnaces, 
the melting pots, varying in number and size with the establishment 
and the ware produced, are arranged in the arched-over openings. 
In oblong-shaped furnaces the pots are usually placed in two rows, 
one on either side of the fire, and the furnace is provided with a 
door at each end for removing and replacing broken pots. The 
heat from the central fire, forced outward by drafts, envelops the 
pots and heats the batch until it is in the proper state for gathering. 
In rectangular furnaces the flame travels from one end of the furnace 
and by a manipulation of the draft is made to completely fill it. 

A covered pot is used for melting flint glass. In the manufacture 
of window and plate glass, bottles, and other glassware, open pots 
are used. Covered pots are usually used in a circular furnace and 
open pots in a rectangular furnace. The closed pot is beehive-shaped 
and has a hooded opening on one side near the top. This opening 



.MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 61 

projects to the wall of the furnace; through it the batch is charged 
and the molten glass extracted. Open pots are open tru 
cones, the smallest diameter being at the bottom, and the batch is 
charged through openings in the side of the furnace. 

Pots are made oi fire day and tneir manufacture is a Long, careful, 
tedious process, requiring many months for completion. They are 
costly and their life is comparatively short, closed pots lasting 
several months, open pots about six weeks, and the pots for plate 
glass only about 25 days. The installation and removal of po 
laborious task. Pots have a limited capacity: continuous tanks have 
ei-t, Borne being built to hold up to 500 tons of glass. When pots 
axe used the work ceases when the pot has been emptied of the melted 
hatch, and it is resumed again only after many lours, during which 
time a new batch has been melted. When a continuous tank is 
used the work is never interrupted. 

Tank furnace. The tank furnace has generally displaced the pot 
furnace. The advantages claimed for it are increased production, 
continuous operation, regularity of work, more efficient utilization 
of the heat and flame of the furnace, greater durability, and better 
glass production, in that the molten glass in a tank can be main- 
tained at or near a constant level, which makes gathering easier. 
Tank furnaces are generally oblong in shape, the width being about 
one-fourth or one-fifth of the length, the depth from 3 to 6 feet; 
they contain about 6 to 20 ring holes. Tank furnaces hold the glass 
on the hearth of the furnace; the flame sweeps across the furnace 
and above the batch. Tank furnaces are of two types, the day 
tank and the continuous tank, and are usually constructed of the same 
material as are pots. 

The day tank, intermittent in its action, is practically a large pot, 
in which the batch is charged, melted, and then extracted, in some- 
what the same manner as in working the pot. It may be considered 
a pot furnace in which the one large open pot is square or rectangular. 

The continuous tank permits charging the batch at any time and 
continual extraction of the molten glass, irrespective of the time the 
batch is charged. The tank is always full or nearly full. The tank 
covers the whole area of the furnace and is divided, by means of two 
transverse floating bridges or partitions, into three compartments. 
The batch is charged into the first or melting compartment, and the 
flames, entering at one side or end of the furnace and escaping at the 
other, melt the batch. The released gases and acid vapors are carried 
off through the stack, thus preventing injury to the furnace. The 
molten glass flows into the second compartment, where, by means of 
a higher temperature, it is. freed of its impurities, and it then Hows 
into the last compartment, where a reduced temperature prepares 
it for gathering. Many tank furnaces have only two compartments, 
one for melting and one for gathering the glass. 

The more modern tanks dispense with the floating bridges. When 
the glass is melted it sinks and travels toward the gathering holes at 
the other end. A refining vessel, floated opposite each gathering 
hole, gathers the molten glass at the lowest deptli in the tank, raises 
it to the surface, where it is completely refined in a compartment 
prepared for that purpose; then, on sinking, the glass flows only into 
the working-out ond. The working-out end of the tank usually 
projects into the shop, is usually semicircular or crescent shaped, 



62 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

and contains a varying number of ring holes or openings through 
which the blowers or gatherers extract the glass. Furnaces employ- 
ing gaseous fuel use either the regenerative or the recuperative system 
of heating. Both systems employ the waste heat of the furnace 
gases to heat air for combustion. Tne regenerative system is the 
one generally used. 

Tne regenerative system employs two chambers, called regener- 
ators, one on each side of the furnace, which contain loosely stacked 
fire bricks. When the bricks in one regenerator have become hot 
from contact with the waste gases of combustion, the direction of the 
flames is reversed, and the air for combustion passes through the hot 
regenerator, while the waste gases now pass through the regenerator 
on the other side of the furnace. Reversing the direction of the flame, 
usuahy about every 20 minutes, results in heating the air before it 
enters the furnace proper while the waste gases are heating the other 
regenerator preparatory to the air passing through it. 

Tne recuperative system does not employ a reversal of current. 
The incoming air absorbs the heat, which has penetrated the thin 
walls as the waste gases pass through the flues. 

BLOWPIPE. 

The blowpipe which is used to blow all glassware that is neither 
blown nor pressed by machine, is an iron pipe or steel tubing from 4^ 
to 5^ feet in length, and from about three-fourths of an inch in the 
smallest part up to 1J inches in diameter. A hole about one-fourth 
of an inch or more runs lengthwise through the pipe. At one end is a 
mouthpiece for blowing; the other end, upon which the glass is 
gathered, is slightly enlarged and somewhat funnel-shaped. 

MOLDS. 

Molds are used to facilitate the work of blowing. Molds that are 
not used in machines rest upon or above the floor, depending upon 
the height of the foot bench, or in pits. 

Tne joint open-and-shut mold in common use consists of two hol- 
low cast-iron pieces fastened together by heavy hinges. The mold 
opens and closes horizontally by means of two short handles. The 
parts of the mold which are cast in separate pieces can be removed 
and others, for ware of a different size and shape inserted. Each 
half of the top of the mold is indented so that when the mold is 
closed the top fits around the blowpipe and, in bottles, forms the 
long, narrow neck. 

BLOWING MACHINE. 

A ' ' gob " of glass, the proper amount cut off by shears as the molten 
glass is dropped from the gathering iron, is deposited in the first or 
press mold, and a descending plunger presses the neck of the bottle. 
The partially formed bottle is then transferred to the second or blow 
mold, and the bottle is then blown by means of compressed air. 
The latest machines have a revolving framework containing a series 
of molds. This machine is used for wide-mouth ware. 

One type of machine in use for wide-mouth and semiwide-mouth 
jars turns out 16 jars a minute. A greater speed is not possible, it 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 63 

is claimed, because the glass would not then have time to settle and 
would cave in. The machine requires a gatherer and a turn-out hoy. 
hut if a flowing device is employed, only a turn-out hoy is necessary. 

Tiii- blowing machine is generally employed only for wide-mouth 
hoi i les and jar-. 

In some bottle-blowing machines, the plunger is raised t<> the proper 
point in the blank mold, after which the necessary amount of glass 
is dropped in the blank mold, sheared off, and forced down around 
the plunger by compressed air to form the neck of the bottle. The 
partially formed bottle is then inverted, and compressed air blows 
the bottle in a second mold. 

PASTE-MOLD BLOWING MACHINE. 

Seamless ware like lamp chimneys ov tumblers can not be made in 
an ordinary mold but requires a mold (paste mold) coated with a 
carbon or other paste. Since 1898 a machine has been successfully 
producing this class of ware. 

The machine consists of a series of revolving paste molds. The 
blowpipe with its gather of glass, which has been shaped on the marver 
and slightly blown, is clamped perpendicularly into a socket exactly 
above the mold and so arranged that the bulb of glass just fits into 
the mold. The upper end 01 the pipe is connected with the valve 
controlling the compressed air. The revolving mold opens and 
receives its gather of glass; after it closes the connected pipe supplies 
the compressed air for blowing. The constant mechanical rotation 
of the pipe and its bulb of glass while the compressed air is blowing 
prevents the formation of seams on the ware. After the machine 
has revolved halfway, during which time the ware has been com- 
pletely blown, the mold opens and, after the pipe and attached blown 
ware has been removed, dips into water. This bath is necessary to 
keep the paste lining wet. 

One such blowing machine, in use for making light tumblers in 
paste molds, has five molds to the machine, and, with one tumbler 
to each mold, produces 12 to 14 tumblers a minute. Some machines 
have two tumblers to the mold. Not only does this machine produce 
ware much cheaper than when hand blowing is emplo}^ed, but it is 
superior in that it blows articles of considerable length with the sides 
and walls absolutely uniform in thickness. 

AUTOMATIC BOTTLE MACHINE. 

The automatic bottle machine consists of a series of arms, radiating 
from a perpendicular axis, each terminating in a combination mold. 
The glass is melted in the furnace and flows to a refiner and then to a 
specially constructed revolving pot or tank, which supplies the hot 
glass that is Constantly used. Tlie arms, one after another, dip, and 
as the blank mold on the end of the arm projects into the molten 
metal in the revolving tank, it sucks up its capacity of glass. As the 
arm rises from the tank, the mold forms the neck of the bottle and 
gives the glass a general shape, cooling it so that it will not run. As 
the first mold withdraws, a second or finishing mold, rises and closes 
around the still red-hot glass form, and, when this mold is closed, 
compressed air which is turned on forces the glass to take the shape 
of the mold. 



64 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The process is continuous and uninterrupted, the forming of the 
bottle taking place while the molds are in motion. The arm having 
completed its circuit, the mold opens and the bottle drops out. 
When an automatic conveyor is used, the bottle drops onto the 
conveyor. 

This machine makes the bottle automatically from the gathering 
of the glass to the completed bottle that is to be put in the leer. It 
puts the same amount of glass into every bottle, and makes each 
exactly the same length, weight, finish, shape, and capacity, which 
is almost impossible by the hand method, even with the most skilled 
labor. The machine wastes no glass and can be operated con- 
tinuously. 

FLOWING DEVICE. 

There are a number of machines which, with the application of a 
flowing or pouring device that doe? away with the gatherer, are 
practically automatic. It will be sufficient to describe one such flow- 
ing device to illustrate the general principle and processes involved. 

As the revolving molds of a machine pass below a specially built 
projection of the tank, a stream of glass flows down vertically into 
it. A cup-shaped cutter from the left of the down-flowing stream, 
and a blade from the right, are mechanically made to come together 
like the blades of a pair of scissors. The stream of glass is cut off, 
but continues to flow into the cup-shaped cutter instead of flowing 
into the mold. The cup-shaped device is then turned part way over, 
but still receiving the stream of flowing glass from the tank. As the 
next mold is brought into position, the cup-shaped device spills its 
accumulated glass into the mold, and the stream of glass from the 
tank then flow? directly into this new mold. This operation is 
repeated as each mold comes into position. With the filling of the 
mold with the exact amount of glass required the work of the flowing 
device is completed. 

Flowing devices, it is claimed, have been successful only with wide- 
mouth bottles and jars. One manufacturer, however, claims to have 
a flowing device which he has successfully used for manufacturing 
narrow-neck bottles. 

PRESSING MACHINE. 

Presses for tableware are either stationary or rotary. In the 
stationary machine the mold is filled with molten glass and, as the 
side lever is pulled, the overhanging plunger descends into the mold, 
pressing the plastic glass into the desired shape. The stationary 
machine is equipped with either one or two molds, which rest upon a 
stand and are removed by hand. The rotary machine consists of a 
series of revolving molds, usually four or eight in number. The 
gatherer fills the passing molds and the glass is then pressed. 

The kind of ware that can be made on a pressing machine is limited 
to that class in which the opening tapers downward, thus permitting 
the plunger to be easily withdrawn. When a solid or block mold is 
used the outer surface of the articles, as smooth tumblers, smooth 
nappies, etc., must be of a downward tapering shape to permit 
removal after pressing. For ware with outer surfaces of other shapes, 
a joint mold is used, which is opened when the ware is to be removed 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 65 

One of the rotary tumbler presses in use employs 8 molds and 
produces about 18 tumblers a minute. This press is semiautomatic; 
with the aid of the flowing device, which one company uses in con- 
junction with this machine, it is practically automatic. 

W I N DOW-GLASS MAC II I N E . 

A ring is dropped for a moment into the surface of the molten glass, 
and the glass adheres to it by molecular attraction. The ring is 
pulled upward and draws a cylinder of glass as it ascends. The rate 
of draw is from 1 to 2 feet per minute depending on the thickness, size, 
and temperature of the glass and on the type of machine. The 
diameter of the cylinder is regulated by compressed air, introduced 
in some machines through the bait to which the ring which draws the 
glass is attached, and in another through an aperture in the center of 
the pot. The thickness of the glass is regulated by the speed with 
which the ring is elevated. Cylinders 25 feet or even 35 feet long 
may be drawn. The machine operator occupies a tower, 12 or 15 
feet above the floor, and is called a towerman or a blower. Each 
towerman operates the electrical mechanism which draws two, and 
in some cases three, cylinders simultaneously, and controls the air 
pressure and speed. 

AIR-PUMPING SYSTEM. 

Most factories have an air-pumping system, which forces a current 
of cool air upon molds and machines, preventing them from becoming 
so heated that the plastic molten glass would adhere to them. Where 
no such system is employed, the molds are cooled by playing a stream 
of cold water upon them. The air system also serves to cool the 
workers. 

REHEATING FURNACE. 

In addition to the furnace in which the batch is melted, bottle 
plants emptoy a reheating furnace, called a "glory hole," and table- 
ware factories use one usually called a warming-in furnace. These 
furnaces are used for partially reheating the ware, which facilitates 
the manipulation necessary to shape it to the desired pattern during 
the process of manufacture. 

ANNEALING OVEN, OR LEER. 

Practically all glassware must be annealed, or gradually cooled, 
immediately after it has been blown or pressed. Glass can not be 
annealed by exposure to the air, as this generally causes some of the 
pores, usually those in the exterior, to close more quickly than others, 
which results in an internal strain and a brittle glass, easily cracked 
or broken. One form of annealing is to place the ware in a heated 
furnace, box, or other receptacle, and gradually diminish the heat 
until it equals the temperature of the outside air. This method con- 
sumes much time and is rarely used at the present time, the kiln 
having been displaced by the leer. 

The leer is a long, narrow, tunnel-like, brick structure, closed on 
all sides but open at both ends. The heat is kept at about 1,200° F. 
at the end called the "mouth," in which the ware is first put. The 
102511°— 17 5 



66 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

ware is placed in iron pans resting on the bottom of the leer, which 
are pulled very slowly, by means of a moving-belt arrangement, 
through the leer's entire length. The heat, high at the mouth, is 
maintained at a gradually decreasing temperature throughout the 
length of the leer, and. the ware, traveling very slowly through these 
various zones, is thoroughly annealed when it reaches the end. The 
length of time, necessary for thorough annealing depends upon the 
kind of product, and grade of goods manufactured. The pans are 
brought back from the rear of the leer to the front by means of 
pulleys swung from an overhead track. 

CONVEYOR DEVICES. 

In order that the ware may not chill after it is made, it is necessary 
that it be transferred to the leer as quickly as possible. Where 
conveyors are not used, bottles or jars, immediately after being blown, 
are carried to the leer on handled trays. Other ware is placed on a 
sliding tray in a warming stove, and the tray when full is carried to 
the leer. 

In some factories mechanical conveyors are used to carry bottles 
or jars to the leer. An overhead track circles the shop and passes 
the leer door. Suspended cars are pushed around the shop and the 
ware is gathered therein as the car passes the various shops. When 
the sliding tray on which the ware is placed is full, the car is pushed 
to the leer and the ware transferred. 

Some factories have installed automatic conveyors which operate 
on the principle of the endless belt. The belt carries the bottles 
singly and runs from the shop to the leer, where the bottles are 
transferred by hand, or in some cases mechanically. 

In a few factories conveyors are in use which carry packed boxes, 
barrels, etc., from the packing room to the warehouse, where they are 
stored, and thence to the freight car on the siding. On a decline the 
package descends by gravity over a series of rollers, but on an incline 
power is applied, the package being lifted by an endless chain. These 
conveyors are comparatively cheap to construct and the packed ware 
is not injured or broken in transit. 

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. 

The manufacturing processes described on the following pages are 
not given as standardized processes in the glass industry or to inform 
manufacturers as to the best possible method of production. They 
are intended to indicate in a very general way how the various 
products are manufactured and the sequence of operations. All the 
descriptions omit annealing or tempering the ware, a description 
of which has been given. A description of packing and storing 
of the ware after it has come from the leer and been examined has 
also been omitted, as these operations are not strictly manufacturing 
processes. 

BATCHES FOR VARIOUS PRODUCTS. 

Glass may be divided into the five following classes: (1) Lime-flint 
glass, (2) lead-flint glass, (3) plate glass, (4) window glass, and (5) 
optical and special glasses. These are again subdivided according to 
tne ware made from the glass under each of these classifications. 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 67 

Lirra fiini is the glass which is used in manufacturing tableware, 
novelties, bottles, lamp chimneys, lighting goods, and globes. In 
the making of lime-flint glass, the compositions \ary greatly, and 
until a few years ago each manufacturer or glassmaker had his own 
particular formula From which be made bis glass. The composition 
often contained as many as 20 ingredients, of which sand was tin' 
principal one, and in addition to which there was used burned lime, 
soda ash, pearlash, magnesium carbonate, barium carbonate, anti- 
mony oxide, antimony sulphide, arsenic, feldspar, cryolite, fluorspar, 
borax, manganese, and cobalt, or "blue" (cohalt silicate). Of late 
years, however, the manufacturer lias to a great extent dropped the 
use of many of the expensive chemicals last enumerated, and in the 
making of a lime-flint glass confines himself to the use of sand, soda 
ash, and burned lime, with antimony, arsenic, or manganese as a 
decolorizer, or other chemicals like nickel, selenium, or cobalt, or 
combinations of these metals. 

For many years burned lime was supposed to be the only alkali 
earth which could be successfully used in making flint glass, and lime 
obtained from certain localities was assumed to be particularly 
adapted to its manufacture, for the reason that it contained a con- 
siderable quantity of magnesia. In recent years, however, particu- 
larly in tank-furnace operation, raw lime has come into successful 
use, from which a glass has been produced equal in brilliancy and 
stability to that produced from burned lime. In pot furnaces burned 
lime is still preferable, inasmuch as the increased boiling action pro- 
duced by the raw lime causes the melting material to boil excessively 
and does not permit of as great a charge being made at any one time, 
and therefore increases the attention and labor necessary to obtain 
a full pot of glass. 

Lead flint is used for making cut glass, goblets, the better grade 
of tableware, etched ware, and novelties. This batch consists prin- 
cipally of sand, red lead (minium), and litharge in combination with 
soda ash, pearlash, and other alkali salts, and, as in lime-flint 
glass, with antimony, arsenic, borax, and manganese as decolorizers. 
More recently nickel, cobalt, and selenium, either separately or in 
combination with manganese, have been used as the decolorizing 
agents. Lead has also been used in combination with or partially 
replaced by lime, magnesia, or barium. 

Plate glass is melted in pots, cast, ground, and polished. The batch 
is usually made up of sand, soda ash, and lime. Sometimes salt cake 
replaces a portion of the soda ash, and with it some of the above- 
mentioned decolorizers are also used as required. 

Window glass is made by the hand-blown or machine method in 
cylinder form, being subsequently flattened into sheets and cut, but 
not ground and polished. This batch is composed of sand, salt cake, 
and lime, with a small amount of powdered coal or charcoal, although 
in some instances soda ash replaces a portion of the salt cake. 

Optical and other special glasses vary in composition, according to 
the uses for which they are intended and the respective physical prop- 
erties which are desired. Chemical glassware and special glasses will, 
of course, have formulas for their batches to meet the physical 
properties required of the finished product. 

The preparation of the batch for each of the foregoing classes or 
subclasses is largely dependent upon its composition and upon the 



68 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

procedure necessary to melt and refine it to the degree that will 
insure the product desired. 

PREPARATION OF THE BATCH. 

Sand contains iron, lime, alumina, and other impurities, to remove 
which it is first washed by stirring it in large volumes of water and 
allowing it to settle. The sand is then burned by playing flames 
directly upon it, to expel the moisture and remove the organic and 
extraneous matter, and is then sifted. The sand and other ingredi- 
ents that make up the batch are then weighed out according to the 
formula of the plant. The amounts are actually weighed in many 
establishments, but in some are only an approximation on the part of 
the mixer. The batch is then mixed. This may be done by hand, by 
hand and machine, or entirely by machine. Hand mixing is usually 
employed for small quantities. The various substances are mixed on 
a clean floor by turning them over with a wooden shovel. The 
machine for mixing consists of a hollow drum with revolving paddles 
which beat and mix the batch. The mixing machine has generally 
displaced the hand-manipulated wooden shovel, because its use 
results in a better and more uniform mixture. 

Gullet (broken glass), which aids fusion, is then added to the batch, 
which is then carted to the pot or tank on wheelbarrows, or in modern 
plants is mechanically shot through tubes. When a pot or day tank 
is used, the batch is generally charged in the morning before work 
commences or at night when work is over. When a continuous tank, 
which is always at about the same temperature, is used, the charging 
goes on continuously so as to keep the glass at a constant level. 

During the melting of the batch there is a loss of material, due to 
evaporation and volatilization, which will generally average, it is 
claimed, about one-sixth the weight of the batch. 

The temperature necessary to melt the batch can not be stated 
positively. It depends on the use of furnace or pot and the com- 
position of the batch. The average actual temperature generally 
required is about 2,600° F. and in some few instances as much as 
2,850° F. (glass temperature). 

The molten glass is worked into commercial products by three 
methods — blowing, pressing, and casting. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

Window glass is made by the cylinder process, blown by hand or 
machine, and by the automatic sheet method. In the cylinder 
method the difference is only in the blowing of the cylinder, either 
by the blower or by a machine. The subsequent treatment of the 
cylinder is practically the same. 

In making hand-blown window glass the gatherer uses a blowpipe — 
an iron tube about 50 inches long, one end enlarged to approximately 
3 inches in diameter — which, being previously heated, he dips into 
the mass of glass contained in the pot or tank furnace. Rotating 
the pipe permits a film of glass to adhere to the enlarged head. The 
gatherer removes the head from the furnace and cools the pipe by 
immersing it in water or allowing water to flow upon it, cooling it 
and the glass gathered upon the head. By repeated gatherings 
and coolings in the cooling "buck" or tub, the gatherer obtains a 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 69 

sufficient quantity of glass of spherical form upon the pipe bead ;is 
will in his judgment make a cylinder of the desired size and thick- 
lie B, after which he places tits in what is known as the "block," 
a concave iron receptacle so fashioned as to give the glass a pear- 
shaped form when it is rotated therein. 

Tnc blower takes the blowpipe, and by blowing enlarges the glass 
bulb into the form of a huge cylinder. In doing this he swings his 
blowpipe through an opening or pit in the floor, and when the glass 
cools, reheats and softens i1 in the furnace so that the cylinder can 
be easily elongated. The material is evenly distributed by the 
blowing and the glass is made single or double strength, or heavier, 
by the amount of molten glass that is gathered, the size of the cylinder 
originally formed in the iron mold, or block, the speed or rapidity 
witli which the blower swings or elongates the cylinder, and the 
amount of air he puts into it. (A description of tin- machines that 
blow the cylinder of glass mechanically is given on page 65.) 

When by intermittent blowing and swinging a cylinder of proper 
length has been formed and the glass has sufficiently cooled, the blower 
biings it into a horizontal position upon a crane support. He then 
introduces the lower or closed end of the cylinder into an opening 
in the furnace known as the ''blow furnace," or into an opening of 
the tank known as the "blow ring," permitting the heat of the 
furnace to come in contact with the small area of this closed end, 
so manipulating the cylinder as to have the more intense heat in 
the exact center of the closed end of the cylinder. When the end 
has become sufficiently heated he blows into the cylinder with con- 
siderable force, places his thumb over the open end of the blowpipe, 
and then by introducing a considerable portion of the cylinder into 
the hot gases of the furnace causes the air within the cylinder to 
expand. The plastic glass is forced out over the intensely heated 
closed end of the cylinder and bursts an opening therein. A high 
temperature is again applied to this bursted opening until it becomes 
quite soft and plastic. The blower then removes the cylinder from 
the horizontal position, drops it into the pit or "swing hole" and by 
careful rotation and manipulation enlarges or opens up the hole to 
the full diameter of the cylinder proper. 

The snapper then lifts the cylinder from the swing hole or pit 
and places it in a horizontal position upon wooden supports known 
as the "horse" (usually made of wood filled with sawdust). He 
touches the neck, or that portion next to the head of the pipe, with 
a moist iron, which starts a check or crack in the glass, and by 
gently tapping the blowpipe he severs the cylinder from the blowpipe. 
He then, with a small iron rod, gathers a few ounces of molten glass 
and with a pair of pincers draws it out into a thin thread which he 
wraps around the cylinder, thereby heating a narrow zone to a tem- 
perature considerably in excess of the temperature of the main body 
of the cylinder. By applying a cold or moist iron to this heated 
zone, he separates from th<3 body of the cylinder that portion which 
is known as the "cap." When required, a portion of the lower or 
hole end of the cylinder is also severed from the main' body of the 
cylinder in like manner, thereby preparing the cylinder for flattening. 
When the cylinder has been blown by machinery it is usual to employ 
an electrically heated wire instead of a thread of glass. 



70 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The splitter, or opener, then splits the cylinder longitudinally or 
lengthwise by means of an iron rod heated at one end to a bright-red 
heat; he draws the rod back and forth through the cylinder and 
then touches this heated zone with a moist glove. 

The roller boy wheels the cylinder to the flattening oven, and the 
cracked cylinder is placed on a large, smooth, circular, stone table 
inside the oven. As the heat softens the glass and it begins to wilt, 
the flattener by means of a long-handled wooden block quickly 
flattens out the cylinder until it is a flat sheet. The stone on which 
the flattened glass rests is turned and the glass is then sent through, 
the leer where it is tempered. 

Due to the fact that window glass made by flattening cylinders 
can not be flattened perfectly, it usually has a slight bend or bow 
Such glass also has a possible variation in thickness due to the 
blowing, though how the blower blows a practically uniform cylinder 
of glass is one of the wonders of the glass industry. These defects, 
however, are accepted by the trade. 

It is claimed that window glass made from hand-blown cylinders 
is generally of better quality than that made from machine-blown 
cylinders, although some manufacturers assert that good glass blown 
by machine is of better quality than the hand-blown product. (As 
mentioned on page 205, a factory is being erected for the manufac- 
ture of window glass in sheet form, so that flattening will be 
unnecessary.) 

PLATE GLASS. 

As the door of the furnace is opened, the pot, usually containing 
about 1 ton of molten glass, is removed from the furnace by means 
of wrought-iron tongs attached to an electrically operated traveling 
crane, which, after the surface impurities have been skimmed off, 
carries it to the casting table. 

The casting table is made of iron with a smooth, highly polished, 
trued surface, and is from 12 to 16? feet in width and from 20 to 274 
feet in length. The pot is tipped, and, as the molten glass is poured 
or cast upon the table in front of it, a heavy roller attached to the 
table quickly passes over the glass, rolling it into a sheet of uniform 
thickness. The roller is of cast iron and hollow, about 18 inches in 
diameter, covers the entire width of the table, and rolls over its entire 
length. Both the table and the roller are water-cooled by means of 
water circulating through them during the casting operation. The 
roller travels on adjustable strips or iron tracks on each side of the 
table, and the thickness of the glass depends on the thickness of 
these strips. When the glass has been rolled out and the sheet 
which has sufficiently hardened by cooling is pushed into the leer 
and by means of mechanical appliances, it is made to successively 
travel from one position in the leer to another, thus passing through 
a gradually diminishing temperature. 

After the glass has been removed from the leer it has a rough, 
opaque appearance. This is rough plate glass. The sheet is care- 
fully inspected, the rough edges are cut off, and the glass cut to the 
desired size. 

The glass is then ground. It is secured to a revolving iron table, 
25 or more feet in diameter, by means of plaster of Paris, and in some 
cases is further secured by wooden blocks. As the table revolves 
water and sharp river sand are applied to the glass and revolving 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 71 

iron runners begin to grind. The table revolves slowly at first, but 
the speed is gradually increased as the grinding continues. The 
revolution of the table and the constant rotation of the runners 
insure the whole surface being evenly ground. After the sharp 
sand, emery is used in a similar manner. Formerly, after grinding 
one side, it was necessary to turn the glass and grind the other 
side before polishing. At the present time one side is ground and 
polished before work on the other side is begun. 

The glass, after being ground, is placed on a special polishing table. 
Rouge and water are applied and felt-covered oscillating blocks or 
disks polish the glass. After it has been -ground and polished, the 
glass is about one-half the thickness of the original rough plate, 
one-fourth being usually lost on each side of the plate during the 
processes of grinding and polishing. 

ROLLED FIGURED GLASS. 

The process of making rolled figured glass is similar to that of 
making plate glass, except that it is not ground and polished. The 
pattern which, it is desired to produce is engraved on the roller 
which passes over the glass, these designs being known in the trade 
as ribbed, pyramid, etc. Sometimes the patterns are cut in the sur- 
face of the casting table. 

WIRE GLASS. 

Wire glass is manufactured by three different methods: (1) A 
sheet of glass is rolled and, while the glass is still soft, the wire is 
pressed in and embedded in the glass, which is then smoothed; (2) 
the wire mesh is placed over a thin sheet of glass which has been 
rolled and another sheet is simultaneously poured and rolled over it; 
(3) a wire netting is mechanically crimped, placed on the casting 
table and a sheet of glass is then poured upon it and rolled. 

OPALESCENT GLASS. 

The colorless glass is ladled out of the pot, and poured upon that 
part of the machine called the table. One or two workers (according 
to the size of the sheet) stand at the machine and turn this colorless 
glass over once or twice with a two-pronged iron shaped like a tuning 
fork. The colored glass is then ladled out and put on the glass al- 
ready on the table. The two glasses are mixed together by turning 
the glasses over several times. A worker then turns the crank (in 
some plants this is now done by electric power) which moves the table 
under and against a stationary roller which is part of the machine. 
The table runs along tracks. As the crank is turned, a boy pushes 
the glass against the roller, distributing it evenly. The roller flattens 
out the glass, after which it is lifted, by means of a padle, to a swing- 
ing pan suspended from an overhead track and moved to the leer, 
where it is pushed in to be annealed. After annealing, the sheets are 
cut up for decorative glass, window work, lamp shades, etc. 

BOTTLES. 

The blower or gatherer inserts his blowpipe into the tank or pot 
and a small lump, or "gob," of the molten glass adheres to the end 
of it. Sometimes it is necessary to return to the furnace two or more 



72 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

times to gather sufficient glass for the size of the bottle desired. By- 
blowing gently, the bulb of glass is slightly enlarged and it is then 
rolled on a flat plate of iron or stone called a marver, until it assumes 
a symmetrical pear shape, and on being reheated to the proper tem- 
perature the glass is ready to be blown. The work up to this point 
may be performed by a gatherer who does no blowing, or by the 
blower himself. 

A mold boy opens the iron mold into which the slightly enlarged 
ball of glass is lowered. When the boy has closed the mold the blower 
blows into the blowpipe sufficiently to force the glass to take exactly 
the shape of the mold. In some cases the mold is opened and closed 
by a treadle operated by the blower's foot. The bottle shows seams 
where the two halves of the mold join. Circular, seamless bottles are 
blown in a paste mold by twirling the blowpipe during the blowing 
process. 

Some ware, such as carboys (large bottles of several gallons capac- 
ity for mineral waters, chemical liquids, etc.), are blown offhand 
without the use of a mold, but aided by an arm arrangement upon 
which the heavy weight of a carboy can be supported without hinder- 
ing the blower in his work. This, the earliest method of blowing 
bottles and other ware, is seldom used at the present time. 

Continued blowing after the glass has taken the shape of the mold 
causes the glass above the top of the mold to break. After the mold 
has been opened and the bottle removed, a snapper-up seizes it 
with a pair of pincers and places it neck upward in a "snap," a sheet- 
iron can with an iron handle about 3 feet long, which is of the same 
size and shape as the bottle. 

The snapper up rubs the jagged neck of the bottle on a piece of 
sheet iron and then inserts the bottle, still in the snap, into the u glory 
hole," or reheating furnace, the neck of the bottle just touching the 
flame. 

When the neck has been heated sufficiently to make it workable, 
the bottle is taken out of the glory hole. With his left hand the 
finisher rolls the handle of the snap on the horizontal arm of his 
bench, and with his right hand he finishes the neck of the bottle by 
means of a tool, one part of which, inserted in the neck, opens it out 
and the other part, a pair of hinged jaws, makes the lip as the bottle 
is turned. 

Three men, constituting "a shop," usually work together, two of 
them gathering the glass and blowing the bottle and the third finishing 
the neck. The three may interchangeably perform these operations. 

The carry-in boy then takes the bottles to the leer for annealing. 
In some factories the bottles are taken to the leer by a mechanically- 
operated, or automatic, conveyor. 

(For a description of the blowing machine and the automatic 
bottle machine see p. 63. For a description of the flowing device, 
which does away with hand gathering and which is employed in the 
manufacture of bottles and jars, see p. 64.) 

TABLEWARE. 

Though a large quantity of tableware is blown or made in paste- 
mold machines, a great portion of the production is made by a pressing 
process, in which the article takes its form from a mold under the 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, ANT>% PROCESSES. 73 

pressure of a plunger, the exterior surface modeled by the mold, the 
interior surface by the plunger. Sometimes ware is ground and 
polished in order to enhance its appearance. -«4 

Pressed tableware. In making pressed tumblers, dishes, nappies, 
jugs, tankards, goblets, vases, etc. (these article- may also be blown), 
the gatherer gathers his "moil" of glass jusl as in hand blowing and 
suspends the lump of glass immediately above the mold of the sta- 
tionary press or the revolving mold of the rotary press, which is of 
the pattern of the desired article. As the soft glass drops into the 
mold the presser cuts off the exact amount with shears. The presser 
then pulls down the lever, which causes the plunger to descend and 
pre— the plastic glass to the pattern of the mold. The descent of 
the plunger is sometimes automatic. 

The ware is then lire polished by being put into the glory hole (on 
an iron pontee) w where it is heated sufficiently to melt out the mold 
marks on the surface of the glass article, after which it is buffed into 
shape again by a finisher using wooden tools. The finisher either 
restores the article to its original shape as given by the mold, or he 
rubs the top out to form a bell shape or rubs it in to form a barrel 
shape. After this process the article is annealed. 

Plain jelly tumblers, commonly designated "unfinished/' are an- 
nealed at once after removal from molds. Such articles are used 
mostly for packing purposes. 

In many of the better grades of pressed ware the rough and uneven 
bottoms are ground down on a flat revolving stone to remove the 
marks of the pontee rod. This process follows annealing. (For a 
description of the pressing machine see p. 64.) 

Blanks for cut glass are pressed for the cheaper grades and hand 
blown for the better grades. Cheap pressed glass is made to imitate 
good cut glass by molding the facets instead of cutting them and 
sharpening the angles. 

Paste-mold blowing. — Practically all blown tableware is blown in a 
paste mold, an iron mold coated on the inside with a paste of carbon 
or other greasy coating, which is kept moist so that the glass when 
blown will not touch the mold itself. Such contact would result in 
roughening or crinkling of the glass. The blower gathers his "moil" 
of glass and proceeds as in ordinary blowing, except that as he blows 
he constantly rotates his pipe, so that the ridges formed where the 
two halves in the mold come together and other mold irregularities 
will not make an impression on the ware. The mold is opened and 
closed mechanically by the blower's foot. Only ware of a round 
shape, which can be rotated in the mold, can be made in a paste mold. 
Paste-mold ware, it is claimed, is much better than iron-mold ware 
and can be made finer and more delicate. 

The blown ware is then taken out of the mold and a helper knocks 
it off the pipe. It is then carried to the leer for annealing, after which 
it goes to the finishing department. In the case of a tumbler, 
finishing consists in cracking off the top of the tumbler, where it has 
been broken from the pipe, by means of a special flat blowpipe (lame 
or electrically heated wire, and grinding and glazing the top of the 
tumbler. Some ware is ground without glazing and other ware is 
only glazed. 

In the making of cheap wine glasses and goblets, the body is blown 
in a paste mold. After the body of the glass has been knocked off 



74 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

it goes to the finisher, who, receiving from a boy a thread of hot 
glass on a pipe, attaches one end of the thread to the body and cuts 
off the other end from the pipe with shears. With a tool he works 
this thread into the stem, to the free end of which is attached another 
"moil" of glass, which he works, with tools, into the foot or base. 
(For a description of machine paste-mold blowing see p. 63.) 

LIGHTING GOODS. 

Lighting glassware is divided, as to qualities, into translucent, 
semitranslucent, and opaque glass. Translucent glasses in general 
use include ordinary crystal glass and plain, decorated, and colored 
glasses of all colors, shades, and tints. Semitranslucent glass is glass 
in which the opacity is given by visible particles of opaque matter 
seemingly suspended in a crystal glass. This class .of glass is repre- 
sented by a series of trade-named glasses, of which the "Alba" glass 
was the first. Opaque glasses are either opal, plated opal, or opal 
with a dense colored covering. Lighting glassware is made either by 
blowing or by pressing. 

Blown glass. — -In blown goods the articles are either handmade 
(blown offhand) or are blown in a mold, the mold being either an 
iron mold or a paste mold. In all blown glassware the blowpipe is 
used as a gathering rod. 

The gatherer gathers the requisite amount of glass on the head of 
the blowpipe by dipping it into the molten metal through the mouth 
of the pot. The treatment after the first gathering depends upon 
the method of blowing that is to be employed. If the article is 
handmade (blown offhand), it is manipulated entirely by hand, 
without the use of a mold, by the gatherer, blocker, and finisher. 
If the article is blown in an iron mold, there is usually no additional 
glass gathered, but after the gather has been uniformly distributed 
it is placed just above an iron mold, which is of the design of the glass 
desired, and the glass is blown usually by the blower and not by com- 

Eressed air. If the article is to be blown in a paste mold, a small 
all of glass is gathered on which a sufficient additional quantity is 
gathered to make the article desired. Generally only plain articles 
that can be turned in the mold are blown in a paste mold. 

Pressed glass. — Pressed glass is stamped out by a machine operated 
either by power or by a hand lever. 

Decoration.— Lighting glassware is ornamented by sand blasting, 
etching, cutting, paintmg, or by a combination of these methods, 
some of which are very expensive. In the decalcomania process the 
desired design is printed on paper, and, after it has been put on the 
glass, the paper is rubbed off, leaving on the glass only the design 
traced in acid-resisting ink. The part of the glass not included in 
the design is then covered with paraffin to resist the acid when the 
ware is given an acid bath. The acid attacks the uncovered design. 

Lamp chimneys. — Lamp chimneys are blown offhand without the 
aid of molds, in a paste mold, or made by machine. 

Incandescent lamps. — Glass bulbs for incandescent lamps are blown 
either in a paste mold or by a machine. The principal parts of an 
incandescent lamp are the glass bulb, the base, the filament, the 
inside stem upon which the filament is mounted, and the leading-in 
wires passing through the stem and connecting the filament with the 



MATERIALS, MACHINERY, AND PROCESSES. 75 

Some 50 different and distinct operations, with an equal 
number of additional handlings for inspection, are necessary in the 
practical manufacture of lamps. 

The first step in the manufacture of an incandescent lamp is the 

E reparation of the bulb. As received from the glass works, the bulb 
as considerable superfluous glass at the neck, which has to be cut off. 
The process of making the lamp consists first of melting a hole in the 
rounded end of the bulb. The exhaust tube is then welded to the 
bulb at this point, care being taken to maintain a free air passage 
so that later the air may be pumped out through this tube. 
C3 The tubulated bulb is then placed over the completed mount, both 
being held in their proper relative positions. JBunsen flames are 
applied at the neck of the bulb, and both the bulb and mount are 
rotated slowly until the neck of the bulb is "welded to the flare of the 
stem tube. The seal thus formed at the neck of the bulb must be 
absolutely air-tight. 

[ The exhaust tube is then connected to a vacuum pump and all 
air exhausted from the lamp. At the same time this is done the lamp 
is inclosed in an oven heated to a high temperature. After the air 
is exhausted the tube is removed and the lamp is sealed, this operation 
forming the tip which everyone has noticed on incandescent lamps. 
The lamp is then based. One of the leading-in wires is brought 
down through and soldered to a cap at the end of the base. This 
cap is insulated from the shell by black glass. The other leading-in 
wire is soldered to the brass shell, and the lamp is completed. 

In a newer type of lamp the bulb, after being exhausted, is filled 
with an inert gas, such as nitrogen. The presence of this gas retards 
the evaporation of the filament and permits its operation at a much 
higher temperature and hence with much greater efficiency. 



CHAPTER II. 

CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TTJENOVEE. 

While data regarding the cost of pruduction in the glass industry 
were obtained from 213 establishments, capital employed in business 
is shown, in the following tables, for only 211 establishments, as 2 
did not report this item. 

OPERATING AND FINAL PROFIT. 

Table 20, which follows, shows the amount of capital employed in 
business by each group of the 211 establishments reporting, the net 
sales and their ratio to capital, the operating profit when deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans are considered and when not con- 
sidered, and the final profit when these items are considered. 

The operating profit was found by adding the cost of goods pro- 
duced, the selling expense, and the cost of finished goods purchased, 
and from this sum. deducting any increase in the stock of goods 
during the year or adding any decrease in the stock of goods; the 
deduction or addition of the difference in inventories, in each in- 
stance, gave the cost to the manufacturer of goods sold, which figure 
subtracted from the net sales gave the operating profit. The opera- 
ting profit with depreciation and interest not considered was, of 
course, larger than with these items taken into account. 

Of the 213 establishments, only 102 charged off depreciation, 109 
did not show depreciation on their books, and 2 plants were rented. 
Before final profit or operating profit with depreciation and interest 
on current loans charged was arrived at, the average rate of deprecia- 
tion of establishments that actually charged depreciation in each 
group was applied to establishments in that group which did not 
charge depreciation. 

What is called the final profit was found by adding to the operating 
profit (computed with depreciation and interest on current loans 
considered) the miscellaneous income from real estate, bank bal- 
ances, or investments outside the manufacturing business and 
deducting miscellaneous expenses. 

Salaries of active officers and the drawing accounts of individual 
owners or partners were included in the cost of production before 
profits or losses were figured. Also, before profits or losses were 
computed, all expenses for selling were included in the cost of pro- 
duction. 

Each of the 13 groups shows an operating profit when deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loans are not taken into consideration; 
when they are considered, Group X, embracing 20 establishments 
manufacturing blown and pressed tableware, shows an operating 
loss. 

76 



- - 



CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TURNOVER. 

1 



77 



Jss 



i S3 - -* - .■ 



gg 

o 



r='-fi:2fe = 55S£355 



2r 2 = 

g&ll 

I* -a — 






5-3.- ! 



3iS 



^^i^~ 



r r r r. - r — - .-. -m - - 

- - - : : s. — ■ - • - -z. m m '^ ? - < 

. re — ■ '-'. j- re r — x — ~ ei - 

: re -r e- i <*? » e cT -c" — ' x * c" — : 



^^^jr-^y >. — irr i — 
< »e -r x c. x r- re -r -.c 



iitoocow 



-:»-: = x/-: 



~ r: 2 - 

° >.;>■.>. 

s ~ — - - 

SsSB 



^h:> 



g p 

«?«r 1, 1 ° 

0/ O 6/ .5 o 

33u3S 
fe & C ° — 
o a ••(3 — ~ 

ooo£«s._-:- 



a 

I 

3 5 



c 5 



Sg 



osro 



78 XB3 5LASE ILITSrZT. 

pes - ::: : :aPITal a: 

2 - 
of dep: 

- I both on 
: a - sales . sh : _ ~ in tl 

groups ?tab]i= 

Tabis 2L — Average 7z: :: :: 7 i ? ' :-z ::. 45i 7::\-.i Phopfs : Zawtas, 

& :i.vy: .-.: rx : L~z: ; ^::^ by Shocks :j ^s:^:z;i: 






•- 



- -.- 


" 




- -- 






- " 


Z. 7t 




. 


*M 


g 




_ .: 




: - i 




1 -: 




Z. -.- 


- 


SB. 19 






■ - 




• 


- :.: 


- 


■ - 


- 


- " 




. 


_ - 


-- --■■ 




' 




D 


-- 






::.:; 




. 




i 








5. ! a 



; ok -r 

As the capital tnraovei varies - t. 

different groups :: V- - - 

based ! cmrltjrt in :=: =s :tt: :rt :"_ - 

varies j Urns _ ting de- 

tion and interest on cun 
>... — - : : 211 - - andonn: 

hshnxiiets. _"_ :ed be- 

tween the final profit - capital employee in " 15 per cent, 

- 5.1 per cent, 
op \ I i I establishments mannfacturing misceHaneons pre 

r c-ett: :: ~:: - - S 

ss. !■: ! : ent folio 1 IX I wn I 

" - 1 lighting g Is with 10.34 pel I - I - " 
VI, bottles made by maehir r - 
highest per cent jfit based on net sales. 11.3 t : 

by Grot XJ ghting goods 
. .19 per ceni a. :tt_: 

roups I and II shows that the average per- 
jes of profits n siderably higher for handmade window 



CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TURNOVER. 



79 



than for machine-made window glass. On the other hand, a 

comparison of Groups V and VI shows the converse to be true, the 
establishments making bottles by machinery showing considerably 
average percentages o( profits than those in which bottles are 
blown by hand. However, 3 s q by Table — . the hand plants. 
in both window gla<s and bottle, show a greater capital turnover 
than the machine establishments in these lines. 

PROFIT OR LOSS OF EACH ESTABLISHMENT. 

Table 22, which follows, shows for each individual establishment, 
as well as for each of the 13 groups, operating profit, when deprecia- 
tion and interest on current loan- are considered and when not consid- 
ered, on capital employed in business and on net sales: and final 
protit, when depreciation and interest on current loans are considered, 
on capital and on net sales. 

Table 22. — Percentage of Operating~and Final Profit on Capital Employed 
and on Net Sales, by Groups and by Establishments. 



Establishments. 



Operating profit. 



Computed without 
depreciation and 



On On 

capital, net sales. 



Computed with 

depreciation and 

interest. 



Final profit, 
depreciation and 
interest considered. 



On On On On 

capital, net sales, capital, net sales. 



Group I.— Window glass by 

No. 1 

No. 2 

No. 3 

No. 4 

No. 5 

N0.6 -^.... 

No. 7 

No. 8 

No. 9 

No. 10 

No. 11 

No. 12 

No. 13 

No. 14 

No. 15 

No. 16 

No. 17 

No. (8 

No. 19 

No. 20 

No. 21 

No. 22 

No. 23 

No. 24 

No. 25 

No. 26 

No. 27 

No. 28 

No. 29 

No. 30 

No. 31 

No. 32 

No. 33 

No. 34 

No. 35 

No. 36 

No. 37 



24.63 
4.13 
ao.33 
39.19 
11.27 

6.23 
13.44 

1.05 
14.24 
12.48 
10.42 
15. 07 
25. 56 
15. 52 
34.14 

5.74 
2S.09 



12.00 

a 2. 92 
13.33 

-.71 

6.69 
12.09 

1.64 

8.SS 
10.32 

8.06 
11.79 

5.62 
14.25 
14.34 

7.47 
14.73 

5.74 



10.50 
«9.74 
a 13. 15 
35.04 
7.44 
1.22 
7.91 



. 1.) 



25.56 
9.06 
29.70 
.76 
25.24 
26. 53 



5.11 

a 29. 11 
o7.22 
11.92 
5.75 
1.31 
7. 12 

olO.Ol 
5.96 
5.19 
3.68 
7.55 
5.62 



13.23 
4.92 



9. 84 

o9.74 

O13.02 

35.04 

7.44 

1.22 

7.91 

a 6. 39 

9.55 

6.01 

4.76 

9.65 

26.49 

9.06 

29.70 

.76 

26. 2S 

26. 53 



4.79 
o29.ll 
o7.15 
11.92 
5.75 
1.31 

a 10! 01 
5.96 
4.97 

7! 55 

5. S3 
S.32 
12. 48 



13.77 
4.92 



Average. 



30. 24 


4.97 


7.64 


1.25 


7.64 


1.25 


4.61 


2.91 


a. 96 


a. 60 


o.96 , 


a. 60 


10.69 


6.31 


2.12 


1.25 


2.12 


1.25 


37. 72 


12.65 


28.60 


9.59 


2S.60 


9.59 


19.27 


14. 55 


13.00 


9.82 


13. OS 


9.88 


13.27 


8.87 


4. 38 


2.93 


4.38 


2. 93 


11.50 


"- • 


6.13 


4.26 


7.69 


5.33 


1.63 


1.30 


.05 


.04 


1.42 


1.13 


7.41 


4.57 


o7.99 


4.91 


o7.21 


4.43 


11.39 


7.95 


5.97 


4.16 


11.68 


8.15 


21.07 


15.36 


18.66 


13.60 


19.21 


14.00 




12.32 




4.S9 


2.48 


4.89 


21.10 


14.82 
17. 85 


16.55 
16.13 


11.62 
16.05 


16.72 
16.30 


11.71 


17.93 


16.22 


10.39 


3.65 


8.12 


a 2. 85 


o8.12 




7.96 


9.93 


4.44 


5.54 


4.44 


5.54 


21.16 


11.98 


12.94 


7.33 


13.18 


7.46 


14.40 


7.13 


11.07 


5.48 


11.07 


5.48 


12. 3s 


10.37 


9.92 


S.30 


10.14 


8.49 


12.65 


9.34 


7.22 


5.33 


7.59 


5.60 



80 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 22. — Percentage of Operating and Final Profit on Capital Employed 
and on Net Sales, by Groups and by Establishments — Continued. 



hsliiblislm.cnl.v 



Operating profit. 



Computed without Computed with 
depreciation and depreciation i 
interest. interest. 



On On 

capital, net sales. 



Pinal profit, 
depreciation and 
interest considered. 



On On 

capital, net sales. 



On On 

capital, net s 



Group II.— "Window uhiss by nwcliin." 

No. 38 

No. 39 

No. 40 

No. 41 

No. 42 

No. 43 

No. 44 

No. 45 

No. 46 

No. 47 

No. 48 

No. 49 

Average 

Group III.— Plate glass: 

No. 50 

No. 51 

No. 52 

No. 53 

No. 54 

No. 55 

Average 

Group IV.— Wire and opalescent glass 

No. 56 , 

No. 57 

No. 58 

No. 59 , 

No. 60 

No. 61 

No.6? 

No. 63 

No. 64 

Average 

Group V.— Bottles by hand: 

No. 05 

No. 66 

No. 67 

No. 68 

No. 69 

No. 70 

No. 71 

No. 72 

No. 73 

No. 74 

No. 75 

No. 76 

No. 77 

No. 78 

No. 79 

No. 80 

No. SI 

No. 82 

No. 83 

No. 84 

No. 85 

No. 86 

No. 87 

No. 88 

No. 89 

No. 90 

Average 



a 15. 
a 20. 
a 3. 



oil. 
a 15. 



6.48 
3.32 
12.69 
2.64 
8.32 



6.15 

4.14 
24.97 
5.11 

12.09 

13.SU 



4.62 
a 6. 01 

6.00 
o2.36 

2.76 
a 1.34 



6.05 



11.93 



2.09 
a 7. 75 
21.73 
20. 95 
15.73 
37.95 
a 6. 44 



7.88 
a 18. 45 
28.88 
11.08 
23.47 
18.66 
o 12. 90 
16.71 
11.19 



a 10. 18 
20.45 
15.23 
13. 83 
30.73 
a 8. 17 
14.17 
1.12 



10.29 



1.85 



2.22 
9.72 
1.73 
a 19. 03 
1.7S 
4.08 
a 8. 38 
8.55 
7.71 
9.07 
7.35 
17.55 
15.28 
34.51 
a 1.76 
2.88 
12.94 
25.00 
22.47 
(*) 

7.55 
a 3. 73 
6.01 
14.29 
15.38 



7.47 
14. 08 
1.13 
a 27. 42 
1.03 
2.10 
a 6. 35 
6.17 
5.52 
13.99 
4.41 
8.21 
11.89 
10.84 
a 1. 39 
1.14 
4.60 
13.90 
6.65 
5.97 



5.25 
8.24 
8.47 
4.39 



a. 45 

a. 13 

a 3. 24 

123.03 

a. 20 

a 1. 94 

i 12. 96 

3.50 

4.32 

6.78 

.65 

16.35 

13.65 

34.51 

a 6. 54 

ol.41 

6.87 

21.83 

14.43 

( b ) 

1.30 

a 13. 51 

3.74 

11.33 

9.24 

2.77 



a4.40 
20.02 
a 3. 14 

6.55 
14.58 

4.91 
10.25 
16.53 

2.33 
2.37 
a 2. 15 

9.45 



2.97 



O7.50 

11.80 

o4.55 

4.00 



4.62 
i6.01 

6.00 
tl.90 

3.04 

o.83 



4.14 



a 14. 63 
24.22 
27.18 
8.05 
20.64 
15.11 
ol6.37 
13.31 
4.37 



o3.86 
o 10. 18 
20.45 
15.23 
14.42 
30.73 
a 7. 98 
14.17 
1.42 



2.11 



a 1. 53 
o.l8 

a 2. 11 

a 33. 19 

a. 11 

a 1.00 

o9.83 
2.53 
3.09 

10.46 

.39 

7.65 

10.62 

10.84 

a 5. 17 
a.56 
2.44 
12.13 
4.27 
o.95 
1.14 

o4.94 
3.26 
6.53 
5.09 
2.66 



o.45 

o.l3 

o 3. 24 

» 22. 79 

.61 

a 1.94 

U2.70 

3.85 

8.43 

6.78 

.65 

23.93 

14.11 

34.51 

o4.18 

a 1.41 

5.14 

21.83 

14.43 

CO 

1.30 

a 13. 51 

3.69 

12.81 

9.52 

3.26 



2.1 



<=3. 



a LOSS. 



Capital not reported. • e Exclusive of 1 establishment not reporting capital. 



CAPITAL. NET SALES, AND TURNOVER. 



81 



Table 22. — Percentage of Operating and Final Profit on Capital Employed 
and on Net Sales, by Groups and by Establishments — Continued. 





Operating profit. 






Establishments. 


Computed without 

depreciation and 

interest. 


Computed with 

depreciation and 

interest. 


depreciation and 
interest considered. 




On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


On 

capital. 


On 

net sales. 


Group VI.— Bottles by machine: 
No. 91 


a. 76 
15.01 
12.61 
15.93 
.59 
10.13 

4.20 
a 4. 31 
19.18 
14.76 
17.81 
20.94 
21.30 
12.33 
15.77 

4.59 

8.90 
10.07 


a. 54 

8.02 
17.45 
22.96 

3.83 
11.41 
29.03 
a 1.82 
24.51 
13.31 
17.90 
19.12 
24.39 
13.13 
24.76 
16.63 
21.88 

8.41 


all.73 o8.31 

1.81 2.5S 

6.52 9.02 

<■.. H 9. 27 

.36 2.35 

1.70 1.91 

33. 45 23. 13 

13.94 05.90 

11.71 14.97 

7.24 6.53 

14.89 14.97 

12.37 • 11.30 

18.18 20.82 

10.11 in 77 


011.73 
4.81 
6.52 
6.44 
o.l5 
1.70 
33. 45 
ol5. 87 
11.91 
8.78 
14.97 
14. 26 
18.93 
11.19 
9.91 
4.09 
8.46 
7.67 


8.31 
2.58 


No. 92 


No. 93 


No. 94 


9.27 
a.97 
1.91 
23.13 


No. 95 


No. 96 


No. 97 


No. 98 


No. 99 




No. 100 




No. 101.... 




No. 102 




No. 103 




No. 104 




No. 105 


9.91 
4.25 
8.52 
6.15 


15.55 
15.39 
20.96 
5.13 


15.55 


No.106.... 


No. 107.... 














10.32 


15.07 


7.39 


10.79 


7.74 








Group VII.— Bottles by hand and machine: 
No. 109 


19.88 

11.07 

7.13 

13.50 

10.37 

a 8. 76 

10.61 

2.16 

.55 

19.18 

.10 

3.18 

2.27 

.68 

a 7. 69 

16.84 

25.24 

a 17. 78 

8.83 

5.98 

!20 
o 18. 53 
14.86 
29.94 
14.72 
- 6.87 


10.73 
4.56 
9.68 
7.78 

12.74 
a 10. 41 
7.73 
2.94 
.61 
9.22 
«.19 
2.73 
.74 
1.05 

O7.01 
6.13 

13.36 

o7.58 
5.62 
8.55 

13. 35 

.19 

a 14. 14 

9.15 

15.58 

16.76 
7.21 


8.34 
a 4. 23 

o.47 
10.07 

5.68 

4. 36 

3.29 

O2.20 

12.50 

08. 62 

a 5. 36 

a.4S 

02. 65 

10. 17 

10.83 

15.18 

28. 96 

2. S3 

1.10 

19.58 

ol. 96 

O27.90 

1.94 

25.66 

12.57 


4.50 

a 1.74 

o.63 

5.80 

ols!61 

3.17 

o4.47 

o2.41 

6.01 

ol6.21 

04. 61 

a.16 

Q4.09 

o9.26 

3.94 

8.03 

a 12. 35 

1.58 

7.98 
al.S6 
a 21. 29 

7.36 
13.36 
14.31 

5.65 


8.31 

a 4. 23 

a.25 

10.07 

5.68 

15. 61 

4.36 

o2.33 

ol.7o 

12.50 

a 5. 00 

04. 98 

a. 48 

o2. 65 

0. 72 

10.83 

15. 42 

25.22 

2.83 

1.10 

21.91 

o.94 

O21.00 

12.11 

27.48 

12.57 

4.64 




No. 110 




No. 111. 




No. 112 




No. 113 


6.98 


No. 114 


o IS. 53 


No. 115 


3.18 




o3.17 


No. 117 


"1.93 






No. 119 


9.41 


No. 120. . 




No. 121 


a.16 


No. 122 


"4.09 


No. 123 


a. 65 


No. 124 


3.94 


No. 12."> 




No. 126.... 


al0.75 


No. 127 


1.S0 


No. 128 

No. 129 


1.58 
8.93 


No. 130.... 




No. 131 


16. 02 




7.46 


No. 133.... 


14.30 


No. 134 


14.31 




4.87 








6.55 


5.71 


2.27 


1.98 


3.07 


2.68 






Group VIII.— Jars: 

No. 136 


7.71 
34.60 
4.26 
8.27 
6.94 
31.20 
13.76 
6.15 
9.15 
13.95 
a2.51 
13.37 
10.01 


8.50 
22.20 
15.99 
10.46 

4.62 
14.74 

7.17 

3.83 
14.71 

9.85 
a 2. 03 
11.34 
12.87 


3.00 

29.85 

a4.90 

.97 

.66 

27.94 

9.67 

.15 

3.27 

6.07 

o5. 56 

10.71 

7.88 


3.31 

19.14 

ol. 84 

1.23 

o.44 

13.20 

5.03 

.33 

5.26 

4.29 

Q4.49 

9.08 

10.14 


3.00 
29.85 
a 4. 46 
2.98 
0.66 
27.94 
9.67 
2.55 
4.86 
6.07 
o4.65 
11.62 
8.79 


3.31 


No.137 


19.14 


. No. 138 


a 1.68 


No. 139 


3.76 


No.140 


a. 44 


No. 141 


13.20 




5.03 


No.143 


5.74 


No. 144 


7.81 


No. 145 


4.29 


No. 146 


o3.75 


No. 147 


9.85 




11.31 








9.02 


9.16 


4.97 


5.04 


6.04 


6.13 







102511°— 17- 



82 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 22. — Percentage op Operating and Final Profit on Capital Employed 
and on Net Sales, by Groups and by Establishments — Continued. 





Operating profit. 






Establishments. 


Computed without 

depreciation and 

interest. 


Computed with 

depreciation and 

interest. 


depreciation and 
interest considered. 




On 

capital. 


On 

net sales. 


On 

capital. 


On 

net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


Group IX.— Tableware, blown: 

No. 149 


3.87 
8.02 
37.12 
11.99 
11.00 
9.05 
9.88 
23.88 


5.28 
6.11 
16.86 
6.24 
8.82 
10.70 
11.49 
21.50 


.86 
3.86 

30.43 
1.05 
7.19 
5.62 
6.55 

21.60 


1.18 
2.94 

13.82 
.54 
5.77 
6.65 
7.61 

19.45 


.86 
3.87 

30.43 
1.05 
7.19 
5.78 
6.58 

21.60 


1.18 


No. 150 


2.95 


No. 151 


13.82 


No. 152 


.54 


No. 153 


5.77 


No. 154 


6.84 


No. 155 


7.65 


No. 156.... 


19.45 








14.06 


12.69 


10.30 


9.29 


10.34 


9.33 






Group X.— Tableware, blown and pressed: 
No.157 


11.85 
5.67 

a 3. 28 
7.66 

a 3. 18 
5.95 

14.' 45 
6.20 
9.78 

33.76 
a 2. 07 

25.36 

13.26 
3.80 
3.17 

11.50 
1.04 
5.31 
5.34 


10.33 
9.71 

a 6. 76 

7.21 

5.81 

6.17 

a 12. 99 

11.38 
3.60 
9.44 

11.35 
2.01 

20.81 
7.19 
4.34 
2.61 

10.89 
1.80 
2.58 
3.91 


7.70 

i.75 

a 9.91 

4.44 

a 10.95 

4.26 

a 30. 89 

10.38 

a 2. 93 

2.53 

29.26 

a 7. 56 

14.67 

8.75 

2.09 

a 2. 86 

7.31 

a 5. 65 

1.83 

1.34 


6.71 

a 1.29 

a 20. 43 

4.18 

a 20. 04 

4.41 

al7.54 

8.18 

a 1.70 

2.45 

9.83 

o7.34 

12.04 

4.74 

2.39 

i2.36 

6.92 

19.72 

!98 


7.70 
o.75 
o9. 91 

10! 95 

4.26 

o 30. 89 


6.71 


No. 158 


ol.29 


No. 159 


1 20. 43 


No. 160 


5.06 


No. 161 


a 20. 04 


No. 162 


4.41 


No. 163 


17. 54 


No. 164 


10.80 


8. 50 


No.165 


. 06 1 . 03 


No. 166 , 


2.53 | 2.45 


No. 167 


29. 26 : 9. 83 


No. 168 


1 7. 56 o 7. 34 


No. 169 , 


14.77 1 12.13 


No.170 


9.58 ! 5.19 


No.171 


2.33 2.67 






No. 173 


8.23 1 7.80 


No. 174 




No. 175 


1.83 j .89 


No. 176 


1.98 1.45 








5.23 


4.96 


a. 16 


o.l5 


.11 .11 






No. 177 


.34 

17.85 

7.38 

27.30 

3.87 

9.97 

18.92 

29.66 

20.24 

9.07 

8.35 

32.94 

3.46 

1.53 

(P) 

40.37 

21.34 

15.46 


.15 
9.80 
10.89 
11.02 
4.75 
14.45 
14.54 
18.76 
16.79 
10.72 
2.51 
10.70 
4.86 
6.29 
9.75 
21.42 
24.44 
13. 67 


a 10. 61 
3.26 
1.40 
14.11 

a 7. 39 

7.62 

15.68 

23.88 

17.20 

5.64 

3.71 

21.47 

1.42 

a.08 

(6) 

38.02 
18.07 
11.14 


a 4. 80 
1.79 
2.07 
5.70 
i9.06 
11.05 
12.06 
15.11 
14.27 
6.67 
1.11 
6.97 
2.00 
a.31 
i2.86 
20.18 
20.70 
9.85 


6. 67 
3.26 
2.04 
14.11 
17.39 
7.86 
16.21 


o3.02 


No. 178 


1.79 


No.179 


3.01 


No. 180 


5.70 


No. 181 


o9. 06 




11.40 


No. 183 


12 46 


No. 184 


24.67 j 15.61 


No. 185 




No. 186 


6.42 | 7.59 


No. 187 


3.71 1 1.11 


No. 188 


23.09 7.50 


No. 189 


1.42 2.00 


No. 190 


. 08 . 35 


No. 191 , 


(&) 12.86 


No. 192 


40. 10 21. 28 


No. 193 


18.47 
12.63 


21.15 


No. 194 


11.17 








c 13. 19 


14.05 


<=9.64 


. 9.59 


c 10. 25 


10.19 






Group XII.— Lamp chimneys: 
No. 195 


29.94 
a 13. 11 
31.44 
20.38 
24.43 
4.52 


7.20 
10.88 
15.54 

5.27 
11.07 

3.22 


27.51 
o 19. 27 
27.07 
18.82 
15.52 
1.20 


6.62 
15. 99 
13.38 
4.87 
7.03 
.85 


27.51 
19. 27 
27. 18 
18.82 
15.95 
1.07 








No. 197 


13.43 


No. 198 , 


4.87 


No. 199 


7.23 


No. 200 










8.88 


5.27 


4.91 


2.91 


4.86 


2.89 







b Capital not reported. 



Exclusive of 1 establishment not reporting capital. 



CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TURNOVER. 



83 



Table 22. — Percentage of Operating an t d Final Profit on Capital Employed 
and on Net Sales, by Groups and by Establishments —t'micluded. 





Operating profit. 






Establishments. 


Computed without 

depreciation and 

interest. 


Computed with 
depreciation and 

interest. 


depreciation and 
interest considered. 




On 
capital. 


On 
net sales. 


On 
capital. 


On 

net sales. 


On 

capital. 


On 
net sales. 


Group XUL— Miscellaneous articles: 

No. 201 


22.61 
13. 74 
10.01 
22.13 


40.45 
4.21 
10.58 
17.11 


18.05 
11.42 

6.73 
19.08 
23.38 
251. 71 
25.69 

2.86 
15.04 
18.76 
19.14 
16.12 
13.45 


32.30 
3.50 
7.11 

14.75 
9.80 

18.64 
5.87 
3.05 

15.37 

16.37 
6.12 
9.34 
5.88 


18.05 
11. 12 
7.22 
19.09 
23.38 
251. 71 

3^24 
15.06 
18.76 
19.64 
16.12 
13. OS 




No. 202 

No. 203 

No. 204 


3.50 
7.63 
14.76 


No. 205 


34.48 14.44 
263. 20 19. 49 

38.31 , 8.75 
10.23 10.92 
17.22 17.59 
20.81 18.15 
22.61 7.23 

23.49 13.61 
26.84 11.52 


9.80 


No. 206 


18.64 


No. 207 


5.87 


No. 208 


3.46 


No. 209 


15.38 


No. 210 

No. 211 

No. 212 


16.37 
6.28 
9.34 


No. 213 


5.98 


Average 


22.52 f 12.84 


15.48 


8.90 


15.64 


S.98 



NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS SHOWING PROFIT OR LOSS. 

The following table is a summary of the preceding table and shows 
for each group of establishments the number having operating profits 
and the number having operating losses (depreciation and interest 
on current loans considered and not considered) on capital employed 
in business and on net sales, and also the number having final profits 
or losses (depreciation and interest on current loans considered). 

Table 23. — Number of Establishments Having Operating and Final Profits 
or Losses. 



Establishments making- 


Groups. 


"BdSjSBK" After allowance lor clepreciation and 
and interest. interest. 


Operat- 
ing 

profit. 


Operat- 
ing 
loss. 


Operat- 
ing 
profit. 


Operat- 
ing 

loss. 


Final 
profit. 


Final 
loss. 




I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


35 
9 
6 
7 
22 
16 
22 
12 
8 
16 
18 
5 
13 


2 
3 

2 
4 
2 
5 
1 

4 

1 



31 

3 

6 

16 
16 
14 
10 

8 
12 
14 

5 
13 


6 
5 
3 
3 

10 
2 

13 
3 

8 
4 
1 



31 
7 
3 
6 
16 
15 
It 
10 
g 
12 
11 

13 


6 


Window glass by machine 


5 
3 


Wire and opalescent glass 


3 

10 




3 


Bottles by hand and machine. . 


13 
3 







Tableware, blown and pressed. . 


8 
4 




1 











Total. . 


189 


24 


155 


58 


154 


59 









The preceding table shows that of 213 establishments Reporting, 
depreciation and interest not considered, 1S9 had operating profits 



84 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



and 24 operating losses. When depreciation and interest are consid- 
ered, 155 establishments had operating profits and 58 operating losses 
and 154 establishments had final profits and 59 final losses. Over 27 
per -cent of the 213 establishments from which data were secured 
showed a final loss. 

Group IX, blown tableware, and Group XIII, miscellaneaous arti- 
cles, are the only groups which do not include establishments showing 
losses. 

Of the establishments making bottles by hand, Group V, over 38 
per cent had a final loss; of those making bottles by machine, Group 
VI, over 16 per cent; and of the establishments making bottles by 
hand and machine, Group VII, over 48 per cent. 

A much higher percentage of establishments in Group II, window 
glass made by machine, show a final loss than is shown by establish- 
ments in Group I, window glass made by hand. 



VARIATIONS IN PROFITS AND LOSSES. 

Of the establishments in the 13 groups, depreciation and interest 
on current loans considered, the highest percentage of operating profit 
on capital employed (251.71 per cent) is shown by an establishment 
in Group XIII, making miscellaneous articles of glass, and the great- 
est percentage of operating loss on capital employed (30.89 per cent) 
is shown by an establishment in Group X, making blown and pressed 
tableware. 

Depreciation and interest on current loans considered, the highest 
percentage of operating profit on net sales (32.34 per cent) was also 
made by an establishment in Group XIII, manufacturing miscella- 
neous articles of glass, and the greatest percentage of operating loss 
(33.19 per cent) was made by an establishment in Group V, manufac- 
turing bottles by hand. 

The following table shows, in percentages, the highest final profit 
and greatest final loss by any establishment in each group and the 
average profit for the group based on capital employed and on net 
sales, depreciation, and interest on current loans considered and mis- 
cellaneous income and outgo included: 

Table 24. — Highest and Average Percentage of Final Profit and Greatest 
Percentage op Loss on Capital Employed and on Net Sales, by Groups of 
Establishments. 



Establishments making- 



Window glass by hand 

Window udass bv machine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent goods 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine . . 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed.. 

Lighting goods 

Lam [i chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



Group. 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



On capital. 



Highest Average Greatest 
profit. profit. loss. 



35.04 
16.53 
6.00 
30.73 
34.51 
33.45 
27.48 
29.85 
30.43 
29.26 
40. 10 
27.51 
251.71 



2.97 
4.14 
2.11 
3.82 
7.74 
3.07 
6.04 

10.34 
.11 

10.25 
4.86 

15.64 



13.02 
20.02 

6.01 
10.18 
22.79 
15.87 
25.22 

4.65 

a. 86 
30.89 

7.39 
19.27 
a 3. 24 



Highest Average Greatest 
profit. profit. loss. 



16.22 
10.21 
11.80 
27.18 
12.13 
23.13 
14.31 
19.14 
19.45 
12.13 
21.28 
13.43 
32.30 



5.60 
2.76 
.82 
5.68 
2.65 

11.30 
2.68 
6.13 
9.33 
.11 

10.19 
2.89 



29.11 
15.36 

7.50 
24.22 
32.84 

8.31 
18.53 

3.75 

a. 54 
20.43 

9.06 
15.99 
a 3. 46 



a Lowest profit; no establishments in this group shows a : 






CAPITAL, NET SALES, AND TUENOVER. 85 

TURNOVER OF CAPITAL. 

Capital in the various branches of the glass industry is not turned 

over rapidly. In the 211 establishments for which capital employed 
in business was reported, 'Fable 20 shows that the average turnover, 
or the ratio of net sales to capital, was as S8 to 100. In other words, 
the capital was I nine. I over less than once during the course of a year's 
business. The table indicates that the amount of capital required to 
finance some glass factories is greater than the amount of net sales. 

Comparing Group I with Group II, it is seen that the average turn- 
over of ban I window-glass factories was greater than in the case of 
machine window-glass factories. A comparison of Groups V with VI 
shows, likewise, that the average turnover of hand bottle factories was 
greater than in the case of machine bottle factories. 

The greatest average turnover by groups in order was in the manu- 
facture of miscellaneous articles: lamp chimneys; bottles by hand; 
window glass by hand; bottles by hand and machine; tableware, 
blown; window glass by machine: and tableware, blown and pressed. 
In all of these groups the average sales exceeded the average capital 
employed. Groups in which the net sales were less than the capital, in 
the order of the largest turnover to the smallest, was in the manufac- 
ture of jars, lighting goods, bottles by machine, plate glass, and wire 
and opalescent glass. 

The 1914 Census of Manufactures of the United States gives the 
value of the product of 348 establishments in the glass industrv as 
$123,085,019 and the capital invested as $153,925,876, a ratio of prod- 
uct to capital as 80 to 100. 



CHAPTER III. 

DEPRECIATION OF PIANT AND EQUIPMENT. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE CHARGES. 

The importance of considering depreciation as an element of cost 
to be charged to operating expense or deducted from income is recog- 
nized by practically all accountants. Many establishments believing 
that they were conducting a profitable business have found themselves 
facing financial ruin because the importance of providing for a depre- 
ciation reserve was not recognized. 

The invention of new and more efficient machinery necessitates 
the scrapping of obsolete equipment. Very frequently glass plants 
are compelled to move to different locations on account of a shortage 
off natural gas. These elements of hazard are incidental to industry 
and must be guarded against by reserves or sinking funds. Unless 
they are taken into consideration, no cost or accounting system is 
scientifically accurate or safe. 

The amount or percentage and the method to be employed in 
charging depreciation is a mooted question. Little doubt exists, 
however, that systematic provision must be made for it in order to 
arrive at the accurate state of affairs of any manufacturing business. 

The value of buildings, machines, and other equipment deteriorate 
from many causes — from use, abuse, accident, obsolescence, etc. In 
an article on the subject of depreciation appearing in the new American 
Handbook for Electrical Engineers, written by Wm. A. Del Mar, 
some of the factors that affect depreciation are defined as follows: 

Deterioration. — Any change in a property due to wear and tear or the ravages of the 
elements which tends to impair either its usefulness or its life. 

Loss of useful association. — Any change in the associations of a property •which tends 
to impair its usefulness or its life. 

Obsolescence. — A loss of commercial ability in any property due to the advent of 
superior substitutes. 

Inadequacy. — Loss of commercial utility in a property due to its inability to meet 
increased business conditions. 

While it is possible to estimate quite accurately how much should 
be charged for wear and tear, it is impossible to do so for the elements 
of obsolescence and the like. It requires an "insurance" or reserve 
fund to overcome this industrial hazard. 

VARIOUS METHODS EMPLOYED. 

There is no uniform practice as to the percentage of original cost 
to be charged off for depreciation. The "straight-line depreciation" 
consists of estimating the expected life of a machine and charging 
depreciation each year according to the percentage found by dividing 
the original cost by the number of years estimated. Estimating a 
certain percentage of depreciation each year, figuring this amount 
every year after the first on the depreciated or net value of the 
machine, is also frequently employed. Another method is that of 
charging the amount of depreciation to a reserve account or sinking 
fund. 

The crude and inaccurate method of lumping all property and 
machinery and charging a uniform percentage of depreciation is 



DEPRECIATION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 87 

absolutely incorrect and can only lead to a false statement of values. 
Some machinery and equipment must necessarily be treated dif- 
ferently than others. The amount to be charged is largely a matter 
of experience and sound business judgment. The hazardous element 
of competition enters into the life of machinery and equipment as it 
does in all branches of business and industry, and the wise business 
man will insure himself against this factor. 

To arrive at the proper amount of depreciation it is essential to 
provide for a detailed inventory of the value of buildings, machinery, 
and equipment. It must also be recognized that no amount of 
maintenance, repairs, or renewals can prevent depreciation. To argue 
that such charges cover depreciation is inaccurate. The time will 
arrive when a machine or even a building, regardless of the repairs 
and renewals, will have to be scrapped, either because it is worn out 
or obsolete or because of any of the other causes mentioned above. 

Many manufacturers are in the habit of showing charges for depre- 
ciation when profits are exceptionally high, neglecting to do so wnen 
the business year shows a loss or only a small profit. This is fre- 
quently done in order to show the business in a better light, when 
applying for loans or commercial ratings. This method can not be 
too strongly condemned. An accumulated charge for depreciation 
covering several years should not be charged against the cost of 
manufacturing or against surplus account of a single business year. 
Depreciation differs in the different departments and therefore 
should not be charged at a common rate for the whole establishment, 
but the charge should be made at a proper rate for each department 
separately. 

Most manufacturers visited during this investigation paid little 
attention to this subject. The books of many did not provide for 
depreciation accounts. Out of 102 establishments reporting such 
charges, only 35 charged depreciation separately on buildings and 
machines and on different types of machines. The others charged 
off lump sums without regard to the classification of the property. 
In one instance an establishment charged off almost 50 per cent of 
the value of the plant and equipment for one business year, an amount 
which represented the accumulated depreciation for eight years. 

Some of the statements made by manufacturers in answer to the 
inquiry concerning depreciation are as follows : 

We usually charge for depreciation, but profits must warrant it. 
Five per cent annually if profits warrant; if not, no depreciation is charged for the 
business year but is doubled in the following year. 
Repair account is sufficient to cover depreciation. 

Several of the establishments from which data were obtained pro- 
vided accurate methods of charging depreciation. One of these classi- 
fied its annual depreciation charges as follows: 
Buildings: Percent. 

Brick 4 

Frame 4 

Concrete 2$ 

Machines and tools: 

Ordinary 10 

Clay mixing, etc 20 

Equipment (blowing rods, etc.) 10 

Gas producers 10 

Furniture and fixtures 10 

Molds 10 



88 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Of the 213 establishments reporting data, 109 did not provide for 
depreciation charges, but in tabulating the schedules secured from 
these 109 establishments depreciation was calculated on the average 
percentage of depreciation reported by establishments in their 
respective groups. This percentage was based on the total value of 
the plant, including the land, which in some cases was not reported 
separately from the buildings and equipment. 

NEGLECT OF CHARGES BY GLASS-MAKING PLANTS. 

The following table shows in detail the number of establishments 
that charged and that did not charge depreciation, and the amounts 
charged and estimated, by groups : 

Table 25. — Value op Plants, Number of Establishments Charging Deprecia- 
tion and Amount Charged, and Number Not Charging Depreciation, with 
Estimated Amount, by Groups. 



Establishments 
manufacturing- 



Group. 



Number of establish- 



Charg- 

ing 
riepre- 

rial ion 



Not 

charg- 
ing 
depre- 
ciation 



Total 
value of 

land, 
buildings, 
and equip 



Depreciation. 



Charged. 



Esti- 
mated. 



Per 

cent of 
value. 



by 



Window 

hand . 
Window glass by 

machine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent 



Bottles by hand — 

Bottles by machine. 

Bottles "by hand 
and machine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown. . 

Tableware, blown 
and pressed 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous arti- 
cles 



II 
III 

rv 
v 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

x 

XI 

XII 



1,815,956 
6,176,876 

2,707,412 

2,221,981 

! 10, 696, 556 

3,506,898 

2,971,069 

786,030 

4,314,405 

7,425,008 

431,794 

1,118,199 



Total. 



80,313 
392,430 

89,772 
32, 896 
535, 459 

130,959 

17C, 501 
28,538 

137,251 

336,593 

3,600 

64,351 



$129,816 

74,252 
116,933 

13,32S 
44,905 
19,093 

125,259 
7,357 
18,170 

233, 117 
77,138 
16,089 



$172,249 

154,565 
509,303 

103,100 
77,801 
554,552 

256,218 
183, S58 
46,708 

370,368 
413,731 



107,5 



46,576,584 



8.51 
8.25 



3.50 
5.18 

7.31 
6.19 
5.94 

8.58 
5.57 
4.56 

9.64 

6.38 



a One plant is rented; no depreciation charged. 
b Two plants are rented; no depreciation charged. 



DEPRECIATION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 



89 



One defect of the accounting systems used in many glass factories 
was shown by answers to Inquiries as to whether there were reserves 
for bad dedts and for depreciation or whether an amount for depre- 
ciation was charged agamsl the capital account. The answers to 
these inquiries are tabulated below: 

Table 26. — Establishments Which Charge Off Depreciation and Which Have 
Reserves for Depreciation and Bad Debts, by Groups. 



Establishments manufacturing- 



Window glass by hand 

Window glass by machine 

Hate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hand and machine. 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed. 

Ligbtine goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



Total. 



Croup. 



I 
II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 

vn 

VIII 
IX 

x 

XI 
XII 
XIII 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Deprecia- 
tion 
charged. 



Yes. No. 



6 213 102 6 109 



Reserve tor 

deprecia- 
tion. 



5 32 

5 7 



2 7 



Reserve for 
bad debts. 



1 30 

1 11 

6 

9 



a Includes one rented plant; no depreciation charged. 
6 Includes two rented plants; no depreciation charged. 

The preceding table shows that of 213 establishments, 158 had no 
reserve account for depreciation; 109 (not including 2 that rented 
factories) made no charge for depreciation against capital account, 
and 180 had no reserve for bad debts (though some stated that they 
had no bad debts). Probably all glass manufacturers realize that 
there is a shrinkage in the values of their buildings and equipments 
outside of repairs and additions from year to year, yet over half of 
those that reported in this investigation- did not charge off deprecia- 
tion in making up their profit and loss statements. Some charged 
off depreciation only after several years, and then in insufficient 
amounts; others only in years when they made an unusually large 
profit. Many establishments do not charge off depreciation every 
year for the reason that they wish to make favorable showings in 
regard to capital and profits to bankers and commercial agencies. 

If proper charges for depreciation are made, some establishments 
that show final profits by their annual profit and loss statements are 
found to have had final losses when depreciation is deducted. This 
is illustrated by Table 28. As reported, 175 of the 213 establish- 
ments earned final profits and 38 had final losses, but when allow- 
ances were made for depreciation in the reports of those that did 
not charge off depreciation on their own books (this allowance being 
at the average rate of those that did charge off depreciation), the 
number that earned a final profit was reduced from 175 to 155, and 
the number that had a final loss was increased from 38 to 58. 



90 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

RELATION TO NET SALES, CAPITAL, AND INVESTMENT. 

The following table clearly illustrates the relation between the net 
sales, capital employed in business, and the amount invested in land, 
buildings, and equipment. It will be noticed that the amount of 
plant value is over 50 per cent of the total capital invested. 

Table 27. — Amount of Net Sales, Capital Employed, Value or Plants, and 
Amounts of Depreciation Charged by Establishments and Estimated, by 
Groups. 



Establishments manufac- 
turing- 



Group. 



Estab- 
lish- 



Capital 

employed 

in 



Invest- 
ment, 
land, 
buildings, 

and 
equipment 



Depreciation. 



Charged 
bv estab- 



Esti- 
mated. 



Window glass, by hand 

Window glass, by machine . 

Hate glass 

Wire and opalescent glass... 

Bottles, by hand 

Bottles, by machine 

Bottles, by hand and ma- 
chine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 
pressed 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



VTI 

VIII 

IX 

X 
XI 

XII 
XIII 



$5,918,686 
3, 368, 242 
4,930.141 
2,586; 970 
4,969,281 

15,359,396 

9,856,970 
6,464,708 
1, 820, 229 

8,125,077 
12, 136, 579 
1,230,578 
3,151,944 



$4,370,347 
3,129,343 
9, 720, R29 
6,968,167 
o3,402,5l6 
22,416,423 

8,593,877 
6,563,943 
1,642,881 

7,691,784 

al2,062,347 

730,454 

1, 810, 676 



$2,404,400 
1,815,956 
6,176,876 
2,707,412 
2,221,981 

10,696,556 

3,506,898 

2,971,069 

786,030 

4.314,405 

7,425,008 

431,794 

1,118,199 



$42, 433 
80,313 

392, 4^0 
89, 772 
32, 896 

535,459 

130,959 

176,501 



137,251 

336,593 

3,600 

64,351 



$129,816 
74,252 
116,933 
13,328 
44,905 
19,093 

125, 259 
7,357 
18, 170 

233, 117 
77, 138 
16,089 
43,468 



Total. 



79,918,801 



46,576,584 



2,051,096 



3,925 



a One establishment in this group did not report capital. 
6 Two establishments did not report capital. 



EFFECT ON PROFITS. 



That depreciation materially affects the operating cost and the 
profit is clearly shown in the following series of tables. Table 28 
shows the number of establishments having final profits and losses 
with and without charged and estimated depreciation. It also shows 
that after including an estimated amount for depreciation on plants 
that did not charge any, the number of plants showing final losses 
increased from 38 to 58. 



DEPRECIATION" OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 



91 



Table 2S. — Number op Establishments Charging and Not Charging Depre- 
ciation, and Showing a Final Profit or Loss, by Groups. ^-, 





As reported. 


Total, 
with de- 


Establishments manufacturing- 


Charging 

depre da- 

tion. 


Xot charg- 
ing depre- 
ciation. 


Total. 


preciation 

charged 

or 

estimated. 


Window glass, by hand: 


9 
I 


a 25 
2 


a 34 
3 


a 31 




6 






Total 


10 


a 27 


a 37 


a37 






Window glass, by machine: 

Profit 


5 
2 


5 


10 
2 


7 




5 








Total 


7 


5 


12 


12 






Plate glass: 


3 

1 


1 
1 


4 
2 


3 




3 






Total 


4 


2 


6 


6 






Wire and opalescent glass: 


4 


2 
2 


3 8 


6 




3 






Total 


5 


4 


9 


9 






Bottles, by hand: 

Profit 


6 
2 


a 13 
5 


a 19 

7 


ol6 




10 






Total 


8 


a 18 


a 26 


a 26 






Bottles, by machine: 


15 

1 




15 
3 


15 




2 


3 






Total 


16 


2 


18 


18 






Bottles, bv hand and machine: 

Profit 


9 
3 


12 

3 


21 

6 


14 




13 






Total 


12 


15 


27 


27 






Jars: 

Profit 


10 
2 


1 


11 
2 


10 


Loss 


3 


Total 


12 


1 


13 


13 






Tableware, blown: 

Profit 


5 


3 


8 


8 


Loss 




Total 


5 


3 


8 


8 






Profit 


5 
1 


9 
5 


14 
6 


13 


Loss 


7 


Total 


6 


14 


20 


20 






Lighting goods: 

Profit 


10 

1 


5 
2 


15 
3 


14 


Loss 


4 


Total 


11 


7 


18 


18 






Lamp chimneys: 

Profit 


2 


3 
1 


5 
1 


5 


Loss 


1 


Total 


2 


4 


6 


6 






Profit 


4 


9 


13 


13 






Total 


4 


'.' 


13 


13 






All groups: 

Profit 


87 
15 


23 


b 175 
38 


6 155 




58 


Total 


102 


6 111 


6 213 


6 213 







o Includes one rented plant; no depreciation charged. 
6 Includes two rented plants; no depreciation charged. 



92 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



The following table shows the final profits, excluding charges for 
depreciation reported, including such charges and including reported 
and estimated charges. These profits are based on the net sales. 
The table shows to what extent profits are affected by depreciation. 
In two groups, viz, plate glass and blown and pressed tableware, 
profits of -1549,572 in the first case and $379,036 in the second are 
reduced to profits of $40,209 and $8,668, respectively. 

Table 29. — Amount op Net Sales, Final Profits With and Without Deprecia- 
tion Charged, and Amounts op Depreciation Charged and Estimated, by 
Groups. 



Establishments rr 
factoring— 



Ksliih- 
lish- 
ments. 



Final profit. 



Without 

any 
charges 
for de- 
precia- 
tion. 



Depreciation. 



With charges for 
depreciation. 

Charged 

As bv estab- 
lish- 
ed ments. 



As 
charged 
by estab- 
lish- 



es! i- 



Esti- 
mated. 



Window glass, by hand 

Window glass, by ma- 
chine 

Plate glass 

Wire and opalescent 
glass 

Bottles, by hand 

Bottles, by machine... 

Bottles, by hand and 
machine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 
pressed 

Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles... 

Total , 



S504,022 



308,2)2 
930, 141 

586, 970 

(Kin, :s i 
359, 390 



125, 077 
136,579 
230,578 
151,911 



520 
580; 
216, 

379, 

1,650, 
55, 



167, 
157, 

160, 

176, 

1, 755, 



241 

1,313, 

51 



92,936 
40, 209 

146,945 

131,912 

1, 736, 115 

263, 858 
396,368 
169,882 



1,230,786 
35,524 
283,114 



80,313 
392, 430 

89, 772 
32, 890 
535,459 

130, 959 
170,501 
28,538 



3,600 
64,351 



$129,5 



74, 252 
116, 933 



13,328 
44, 905 



125, 25!) 
7,357 
18,170 



233,117 
77, 138 
16, 089 
43, 468 



5,793,015 4,874,090 2,051,01)0 



731 
(,89 
819 

970, 021 



103, 
77, 
554, 

256, 
183, 
46, 

370, 
413, 
19, 

107, 



o One plant rented; no depreciation charged. 



Two plants rented; no depreciation charged. 



The amounts shown in the preceding table are given in the form 
of percentages in the table which follows: 

Table 30. — Per Cent op Final Profit, With and Without Depreciation 
Charged, Based on Net Sales, by Groups. 





Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Per cent of final profit 


on net sales. 


Establishments manufacturing- 


Without 
any charges 

for de- 
preciation. 


With charges for 
depreciation. 




As charged 
by estab- 
lishments. 


As charged 
and esti- 
mated. 




I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


a 37 
12 

6 

9 
a 26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 


8.52 
7.35 

11.15 
9.67 
4.22 

14.91 

1L90 
4.67 

13.60 
4.49 

12.40 


7.80 
4.96 
3.19 
6.20 
3.56 

11.43 
3.95 
6.25 

10.33 
2.98 

10.83 
4.19 

10.36 


5.60 




2.76 




.82 




5.68 




2.65 




11.30 




2.68 




6.13 




9.33 




.11 




10.19 








8.98 






Total 


6 213 


9.82 


7.25 


6.10 









a Includes one rented plant; no depreciation charged. 
b Includes two rented plants; no depreciation charged. 



DEPRECIATION OF PLANT AND EQUIPMENT. 



93 



Table 31, which follows, is similar in form to Table 29, except that 
operating profits arc shown in place of final profits, the latter in- 
cluding miscellaneous income and outgo items. The operating 
profits shown in this table differ from operating profits in other 
tables in that interesl charges have been included in the operating 
outgo. 

Table 31. — Amount of Net Sales, Operating Profits With and Without 
Depreciation Charged, and Amounts of Depreciation Charged and Esti- 
mated, by Groups. 



Establishments manu- 
facturing— 



Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Operating profit. 



Without 

any 
charges 

for de- 
precia- 
tion. 



With charges for 
depreciation. 



As 
charged 

byes- 
tal >lish- 

ments. 



As 
charged 

and 
esti- 
mated. 



Depreciation. 



Charged 
by es- 
tablish- 
ments. 



Esti- 
mated. 



Window glass by hand. 
Window glass by ma- 
chine 

Elate glass 

Wire and opalescent 



Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine . . . 
Bottles by hand and 

machine 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and 



Lighting goods 

Lamp chimneys 

Miscellaneous articles. 



s37 

12 



$5,918,686 

3,368,242 
4,930,141 

2,586,970 
4,969,281 
15,359,396 

9, 856, 970 
6, 464, 708 
1,820,229 

8,125,077 
12,136,579 
1,230,578 
3, 151, 944 



221, 557 
517,218 

232, 208 

190,933 

2, 212, 062 

451, 150 
509, 972 
215, 898 

358, 296 

1,577,037 

55, 540 

3ss,200 



S445, 567 

141,244 

124,788 

142,436 
158,037 

1, 676, 603 

320, 191 
333, 471 
187,360 

221,045 

1,240,444 

51,940 

323, 849 



8315,751 



l'.)4,932 
326,114 



b 12,072 

1,163,306 

35, 851 

280,381 



§42,433 
80,313 



89, 772 
32, 896 
535, 459 

130, 959 
176,501 
28,538 

137, 251 

336,593 

3,600 

64,351 



-5129,816 

74, 252 
116,933 

13,328 

44,905 
19,093 

125, 259 
7,357 
18, 175 

233,117 

77, 13S 



79, 



7,418,071 



5,366,975 



4,448,050 2,051,096 



$172,249 

154,565 
509,363 

103, 100 
77, 801 
554,552 

256,218 
183,858 
46, 708 

370,368 
413,731 
19,689 
107,819 



a One plant rented; no depreciation charged. 
t> Loss. 



Two plants rented; no depreciation charged. 



The amounts shown in the preceding table are given in the form 
of percentages in the table which follows: 

Table 32. — Per Cent of Operating Profit, With and Without Depreciation 
Charge, Based on Net Sales, by Groups. 





Group. 


Number 
of estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Eer cent of operating profit on net 
sales. 


Establishments manufacturing- 


Without 

any 
charges 
for depre- 
ciation. 


With charges for 
depreciation. 




As charged 
by estab- 
lishments. 


As charged 
and esti- 
mated. 




I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


a37 
12 

6 

9 
a 26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 


8.25 
6.58 

10.49 
8.98 
3.84 

11.10 
4.58 
7.89 

11.86 
4.41 

12.99 
4.51 

12.32 


7.53 
4.19 
2.53 
5.51 
3.18 

10.92 
3.25 
5.16 

10.29 
2.72 

10.22 
4.22 

10.27 


5.33 




1.99 




.16 




4.99 




2.28 




10.79 




1.98 




5.04 




9.29 




b. 15 












8.90 






Total 




«213 


9.28 


6.72 


5.57 









a One plant rented; no depreciation charged. 



: Two plants rented; no depreciation charged. 



CHAPTER IV. 
COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The 213 establishments for which data were obtained have been 
divided into 13 groups. The 64 establishments in Groups I to IV, 
inclusive, produced goods used in the building trades; the 84 estab- 
lishments in Groups V to VIII, inclusive, produced prescription bot- 
tles, beer, soda, and whisky bottles, packers, preservers, jars, etc.; the 
28 establishments in Group IX and X produced tableware, blown, 
pressed, and cut; the 24 establishments in Groups XI and XII pro- 
duced all varieties of lighting goods, including such articles as in- 
candescent bulbs, gas and electric globes, bowls, lantern globes, lamp 
chimneys, etc.: the 13 establishments in Group XIII produced a 
great variety of articles, such as marbles, nest eggs, advertising nov- 
elties, specialties, chemical goods, and other articles which could not 
be assigned to one of the other groups. 

It must not be assumed, because an establishment was assigned 
to a certain group, that it produced exclusively goods of the kind 
described in that group. As an illustration of the method used in 
determining the group to which an establishment manufacturing 
goods of a different character should be assigned, we may take an 
establishment producing both tableware and lighting goods, which 
was not uncommon, in such a case the establishment as a whole 
was assigned to the group which most fairly represented the product 
of the establishment. 

COST AND PROFIT BASED ON NET SALES. 

In presenting the data secured from the 213 establishments, actual 
amounts are not shown by individual establishments, because by 
such figures it might be possible to identify establishments. The 
items of expense, sales value of goods produced, and the profits or 
losses are shown by percentages for individual establishments and by 
amounts, averages, and percentages for groups. In Table 33, which 
follows, total amounts for the various items are shown for all estab- 
lishments and for each group. 

For the 213 establishments, the net sales amounted to $79,918,801; 
operating profit without charges for depreciation and interest, 
$8,247,016; total labor and royalty on bottle machines, $32,420,970; 
and total materials, $17,527,264. These figures, taken in conjunction 
with census figures for 1914, which gave the value of glass products 
as $123,085,019, show that about 65 per cent of the industry was 
covered in this investigation. 

In Table 34 the amounts in Table 33 have been reduced to per- 
centages. 

94 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



95 






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96 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY 





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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 99 

COST AND PROFIT BASED ON SALES VALUE OF GOODS PRODUCED. 

The percentages in the preceding table will not correspond to the 
percentages shown in Table 36, which also shows percentages of cost 
and profit for all establishments and by groups. In Table 34 the per- 
centages are based on net sales and in Table 36 they are based on the 
sales value of goods produced. While at first glance the base used in 
each table appears to be the same, it is different, as explained below. 
The same general conditions applying to both tables, no discussion is 
made of the former. 

METHOD OF DETERMINING SALES VALUE OF GOODS. 

Up to this point the items of cost have been shown as they appear 
on the books of the various establishments. Table 33 gives actual 
returns for all establishments and for establishments in the various 
groups. Table 34 shows in the form of percentages the relation of 
each item to the total net sales. 

It is necessary now to go a step further and segregate the items of 
cost pertaining to the goods produced. In order to accomplish this 
certain adjustments are necessary. The original returns show for 
example the selling expenses, the loss from bad debts, and the operat- 
ing profit. All of these items are strictly speaking dependent on the 
amount of goods sold rather than the amount of goods produced. 
To get the amount properly chargeable to goods produced, it is 
necessary to increase proportionately the selling expenses, bad debts, 
and profits, when the amount of goods produced exceeds the amount 
sold, and to decrease proportionately these items, when the amount 
of goods sold exceeds the amount of goods produced. 

From the books of the establishments are ascertained the cost of 
the goods produced within the business year, the cost of the goods 
purchased, and the increase or decrease in the stock of goods on hand 
(unsold) at the end of the period as compared with the beginning of 
the period. Goods produced and goods purchased, increased or 
decreased by the change in the inventory, gives the cost of the goods 
sold. If the stock has increased during the business year, more 
goods have been produced than have been sold and accordingly the 
difference must be subtracted. If, on the other hand, the inventory 
shows a decrease in stock, more goods have been sold than were pro- 
duced within the period under consideration, and accordingly the 
difference must be added. 

Since selling expense and bad debts are incurred on the total 
amount of goods sold and the profit is obtained on the entire amount 
of goods sold, it is fair to adjust these figures in the ratio of goods 
produced to goods sold. The process can be made much clearer by 
an illustration. The data are hypothetical, but correspond more or 
less closely to returns from a number of establishments. The figures 
printed in roman typo are obtainable directly from the books of the 
establishments, while derived figures are printed in italics. The 
problem is to ascertain from the original returns the amounts charge- 
able to goods produced during the business year. 



100 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Manufacturing and 
administrative cost. 



Sales 
value. 



Goods produced 

Goods purchased 

Increase in inventory 

Goods sold 



Dollars. 
1,056,000 
15, 000 
-50,000 



1,021,000 



Per cent. 

103.43 

1.47 

-4.90 



Dollars. Dollars. 

31,029 103,430 

441 1,470 

-1,470 -4,900 



100. 00 



30,000 100,000 



Dollars. 
1,190,479 
16,920 



151,000 



In this particular case the cost of the goods produced exceeded 
the cost of the goods sold by 3.43 per cent. The selling expenses, 
bad debts, and profit, as taken from the books, have therefore been 
increased in the same proportion. 

If the stock on hand had decreased $50,000 instead of increased 
by that amount — or, in other words, if $50,000 worth of goods more 
had been sold than were purchased or produced— the total value 
of goods sold during the business year would have been $1,121,000. 
In that case the cost of the goods produced would represent only 
94.2 per cent of the cost of the goods sold, and accordingly the sell- 
ing expenses, bad debts, and profits would have to be reduced 5.8 
per cent. 

The adjusted items for the establishments in each group were 
added to obtain the group averages shown in Table 35. 



AVERAGE PRODUCTION COSTS BY GROUPS. 

In Table 35, which follows, data are presented in the form of 
averages for all establishments and for groups of establishments. 
Examination of this table shows that the average sales value of goods 
produced per establishment was over $500,000 in only three groups, 
being $800,985, $805,088, and $648,711, respectively, in factories 
making plate glass, Group III, those making bottles by machine, 
Group VI, and in those making lighting goods, Group XI. Of the 
remaining groups, two had an average of $400,000 to $500,000, one 
between $300,000 and $400,000, five between $200,000 and $300,000, 
and two between $100,000 and $200,000. 

The average operating profit with charges for depreciation and 
interest was $20,199 for all establishments. Group III, plate glass, 
with next to the largest average sales value of goods produced, 
showed an average loss per establishment of $3,084. Group VI, 
bottles made by machine, with $93,459, showed the highest average 
profit per establishment. Elsewhere in this report are tables showing 
percentages based on sales value of goods produced and on invest- 
ment, which are better guides to the amount of profit earned in the 
various groups or in individual establishments. 

In the series of 14 tables, 36 to 49, inclusive, the sales value of goods 
produced is used as the basis. As has just been explained, this figure 
is derived by adding to the actual cost of goods produced the selling 
expenses and bad debts properly chargeable to such goods and also 
the profit attributable to such goods. This basis has a distinct 
advantage over that used in previous reports of the cost of pro- 
duction division — the cost of goods produced. According to the 
new basis, the value rather than the cost of the output is the criterion. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 101 

The sales value is obviously substantially the same, quality for qual- 
ity, in different establishments, while the cost may differ widely. 
The new basis, therefore, makes it possible to show riot merely the 
relative outlay for different items of expense but also differences in 
total cost for the various establishments. 

Table :;G shows percent ages based on the sales value of goods 
produced for the various items of cost, for the operating profit com- 
puted without and with depreciation and interest, and for the final 
profit by establishments grouped according to the character of the 
goods produced. 






102 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 





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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



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104 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 







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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



105 





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106 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



MATERIALS. 



An interesting feature brought out by the above table is the 
differences in the percentages for total cost of materials in the 
different groups. In four groups — factories making window glass 
by hand, Group I; window glass by machine, Group II; blown 
tableware, Group IX ; and blown and pressed tableware, Group X — 
the percentages show relatively low costs for materials, which reflects 
a natural condition, inasmuch as the establishments in these groups 
produced light-weight goods as compared with the establishments 
m the other groups, and for every pound of glass used they obtained 
proportionately a greater number of units than those establishments 
producing heavier goods. This was especially true of blown table- 
ware group, and would be true in Group XII, lamp chimneys, were 
it not for the exceptionally high cost of packing materials. 

Of the groups showing relatively high percentages of cost for 
materials, those making jars, Group VIII, with 40.07 per cent, and 
wire and opalescent goods, Group IV, with 29.97 per cent, showed 
the highest percentage of cost and were the only groups in which the 
percentage of cost for materials was greater than the percentage of 
cost for labor. An examination of the items of materials in Group 
VIII will show that this high cost was due principally to the large 
amount of metal trimmings, rubber rings, etc., and packing materials 
required by establishments producing this class of goods, and in 
Group IV it was due to the high cost of batch, which in some estab- 
lishments included wire. Other groups showing relatively high 
gercentages of cost for materials were those making plate glass, 
rroup III, and bottles by machine, Group VI. These groups showed 
relatively low percentages of cost for labor, and as materials assume 
greater importance in those establishments producing heavy-weight 
goods than in those producing light-weight goods, it follows that 
the percentages for materials must be higher and the percentages 
for other items must be lower. 

Of the different items under materials the percentages for batch 
were more than one-half the total cost of materials, except for 
establishments making jars, Group VIII, and lamp chimneys, 
Group XII. Attention has already been called to the high per- 
centages for packing materials in these two groups and for metal 
trimmings, rubber rings, etc., in Group VIII. In wire and opalescent 
goods, Group IV, the percentage for batch was considerably above 
the average for all groups, being slightly more than twice the average. 
This high percentage of cost is due largely to the heavy character of 
the goods produced and partly to the inclusion by some establishments 
of wire with batch materials. 

The next item after batch in importance was packing, with an 
average of 7.38 per cent of the total sales value of goods produced 
and a range of 2.73 per cent for plate glass, Group III, to 16.24 per 
cent for lamp chimneys, Group XII. When the difference in the 
manner of packing plate glass and lamp chimneys is taken into 
consideration, this wide variation presents no unusual feature. 

The remaining items under materials were relatively of little 
importance, but the item of freight requires some explanation. In 
some establishments the books did not show freight separately and 
it became part of the cost of the materials. In other establishments 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 107 

distinction was made only between incoming freight and outgoing 
freight, and no attempt was made by such establishments to charge 
the different materials with their proportion of freight. The per- 
centages for freight as reported in this table and the tables which 
follow therefore represenl only that portion of incoming freight which 
was not distributed to other items under materials. 



In tables showing percentages for the various items of cost, whether 
based on the total cost of manufacture, net sales, or value of product, 
perhaps no item receives more attention than that of labor. When 
it is taken into consideration that only about 2.7 per cent of the 
industries in the United States, producing slightly over 3 per cent 
of the total value of products, show a labor cost, based on the value 
of products, of over 40 per cent, and that the glass industry is 
included in the above group, one fully realizes the important part 
that labor takes in the costs of this industry. 

In previous reports on cost of production issued by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, the percentages of costs for labor, 
based on net sales, were: 23.14 per cent in the knit-underwear 
industry: 22.07 per cent in the women's muslin-underwear indus- 
try; 25.77 per cent in the hosiery industry; 30.69 per cent and 
27.05 per cent, respectively, for collars or shirts and collars, and for 
shirts, in the shirt and collar industries; and 31.23 per cent in the 
men's factory-made clothing industry. In the pottery industry, 
the labor cost was 58.81 per cent of the total manufacturing cost, 
including decorating but excluding packing and selling expense, 
50.49 per cent of the aggregate cost, and 46.03 per cent of the net 
value of the product. These percentages would be somewhat higher 
were packing labor- included as part of the manufacturing labor. 

It was not thought necessary to show labor by departments, and 
the only division made is between supervisory labor and other 
factory labor. Other factory labor includes direct and indirect, 

{xroductive and nonproductive, skilled and unskilled — in fact, all 
abor which could not be assigned to supervision. In addition, 
other factory labor in making bottles by machine, Group VI, bottles 
by hand and machine, Group VII, and jars, Group VIII, includes 
royalty on machines. The principal reason for including royalty 
with labor was to avoid the possibility of disclosing the identity of 
individual establishments usmg certain automatic machines. The 
item "Superintendent and foremen" includes in some instances only 
part of the salaries of officials who devoted only a part of their time 
to the factory end of the business, provided an equitable basis for 
the distribution of salaries of such officers was furnished. 

Excluding royalty from the total labor cost the percentages would 
read: 40.26 per cent for all establishments reporting; 25.04 per cent for 
bottles by machine, Group VI; 48.04 per cent for bottles by hand 
and machine, Group VII; and 28.91 per cent for jars, Group VIII. 
In other words, the percentages for royalty on machines were, respec- 
tively, 1.72, 7.53, 0.23, and 1.17 of the sales value of the goods pro- 
duced for all establishments and the groups specified above. 

Another method of presenting data relating to royalty on machines 
without violating any confidences or disclosing the identity of estab- 



108 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

lishments is to show the percentage that royalty on machines is of 
total labor, including ro3^alty. If based on actual figures, the per- 
centages would be for all establishments reporting, 3.66; for Group 
VI, bottles by machine, 23.12; for Group VII, bottles by hand and 
machine, 0.47; for Group VIII, jars, 3.9. 

The difference in the labor costs between handmade and machine- 
made goods is strikingly brought out by the percentages for window 
glass, Groups I and II. In Group I, handmade, the labor cost was 
56.8 per cent of the selling value of goods produced, and in Group II, 
machine made, 47.74 per cent. This difference is even more strikingly 
shown by the percentages for bottles, Groups V to VII, inclusive. 
The percentages showing labor costs decreased inversely in propor- 
tion to the extent that automatic machines were employed in the 
production of bottles, the percentages being 53, 48.27, and 32.57, 
respectively, for bottles by hand, bottles by hand and machine, and 
bottles by machine. Should the percentages for royalty be deducted 
from the two machine groups, the variation in the labor costs would 
be more marked. The low labor cost in Group VIII, jars, was also 
due partly to the use of automatic machines. 

Another interesting comparison is that between those branches of 
the industry employing a comparatively large amount of skilled 
labor and those branches employing a comparatively small amount 
of skilled labor. Included in the" former mention may be made of 
factories making window glass by hand, bottles by hand, blown 
tableware, and lamp chimneys, with percentages for total labor of 
56.8, 53, 53.68, and 52.4, respectively; and included in what may be 
termed the unskilled labor groups are factories making plate glass, 
wire and opalescent goods, bottles by machine, and jars, with per- 
centages for total labor of 33.76, 24.03, 32.57, and 30.08, respectively; 
leaving in between the pronounced skilled and unskilled labor groups 
the factories making window glass by machine, bottles by hand and ma- 
chine, blown and pressed tableware, lighting goods, and miscellaneous 
articles, with percentages for total labor of 47.74, 48.27, 48.01, 40.15, 
and 44.85, respectively. At first glance it would seem that the lower 
percentage for labor depended almost entirely upon the use of auto- 
matic machines. This, however, was not true, for certain types of 
machines used can not be classed as automatic, and the lower labor 
costs in plate glass, Group III, wire and opalescent goods, Group IV, 
and lighting goods, Group XI, must be ascribed to the unskilled 
character of the work and not to the use of automatic machines. 

The labor cost was found to be highest in window glass made by 
hand, Group I, 56.8 per cent; lowest in wire and opalescent goods, 
Group IV, 24.03 per cent; and the average for all establishments 
reporting was 41.98 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 
Eight groups showed a higher labor cost than the average for all 
establishments, four of them having a labor cost of more than 50 
per cent of the sales value of the goods produced, and five groups 
showed a lower labor cost than the average. 

In no group was the percentage for superintendent and foreman 
above 3.05, and it is interesting to note that this occurred in Group 
IV, wire and opalescent goods, which had the lowest total labor cost. 
The average for all establishments was 1.69 per cent; the lowest was 
0.58 per cent, in Group I, window glass by hand, which had the 
highest total labor cost. 






COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 109 

FUEL, ETC. 

The item fuel, power, light, and water, next to materials and labor. 
showed the greatest percentage of cost based on the sales value of 
goods produced, except in establishments making wire and opalescent 
goods, Group IV, in which the item general expense was about 2.5 
per cent higher. 

The variation in percentages for fuel, power, light, and water may 
be due to several reasons, chief among which may be mentioned: 
(1) Difference in cost of natural gas ; (2) character of glass produced — 
that is. the plate-glass branch of the industry may require more gas 
per unit for the fusion of materials than another branch; (3) use of 
tanks or pot-, the fusion of the materials being accomplished in the 
former by direct contact with the flame of the gas, while in the latter 
the combustion is outside the pot and the heat must radiate through 
the pot to accomplish the fusion of materials; and (4) whether pro- 
ducer or natural gas is used. 

The average for all establishments was 8.45 per cent; the highest, 
13.24 per cent, was in Group III, plate glass, and lowest, 5.26 per 
cent, in Group XII, lamp chimneys. Four groups were above the 
average for all establishments and nine below. 

TAXES AND INSURANCE. 

Taxes and insurance were relatively unimportant items. The 
average expenditure for taxes by all establishments was 0.58 per cent, 
with a range for the different groups from the lowest, 0.25, in jars, 
Group VIII, to the highest, 1.05, in wire and opalescent goods, 
Group IV. For insurance the average was 0.65 per cent, the per- 
centages in the groups ranging from the lowest, 0.34, in blown and 
pressed tableware, Group X, to the highest, 1.45, in window glass 
made by machine, Group II. 

SALARIES. 

It has been previously explained that salaries of officials have in 
some instances been partly assigned to superintendent and foremen, 
under labor. A further distribution was made of salaries of officials 
in establishments where some of the officers devoted their whole 
time or part of their time to selling, provided such salaries were 
charged to selling in the books of the establishments, or in case where 
not so charged an equitable basis for distribution was furnished by 
the officials themselves. Also, in some establishments no charge 
was made by officials for services rendered by them, in which case 
an estimated amount for their services, if furnished by the officials, 
was charged and then the amount distributed according to the char- 
acter of the work performed. The percentages for salaries of officials, 
therefore, do not represent the complete charge, but examination of 
the percentages for superintendent and foremen and for selling in 
the individual establishments in the different groups will to a cer- 
tain extent explain the variation in the percentages for salaries of 
officials. 

The average for total salaries for all establishments reporting was 
3.51 per cent, being about equally divided between salaries of officials 



110 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

and office force. A similar equal division was not found in the differ- 
ent groups or in individual establishments, as examination of the per- 
centages will clearly demonstrate. In no group was the percentage 
for total salaries in excess of 5.04 per cent of the sales value of the 
goods produced, being in one group as low as 1.77 per cent. 

ROYALTY. 

In only two groups was royalty, other than on bottles and jars, a 
part of the charge of the cost of production. In window glass made 
by machine, Group II, the cost was 3.68 per cent, and in lighting goods, 
Group XI, 0.78 per cent, the former representing royalties paid on 
machines and the latter royalties on batch. 

GENERAL EXPENSE. 

General expense includes a great variety of charges which could 
not be assigned to other items in the schedules, among which may be 
mentioned factory supplies, office expenses other than office salaries, 
repairs, legal expense, welfare work, etc. Notwithstanding the num- 
ber of items included with general expense, the percentages for the 
various groups are not remarkably high. In only wire and opalescent 
goods, Group IV, was this expense over 10 per cent of the sales value 
of goods produced. The average for all establishments was 7 per 
cent, and the lowest, 3.26 per cent, was in blown tableware, Group IX. 

SELLING. 

Chapter VII, page 231, is devoted to selling methods employed in 
the different branches of the glass industry and should be read in con- 
nection with the percentages for selling in this and the following tables 
for a better understanding of the variations in the selling expenses 
for the different groups. 

Establishments making tableware, Groups IX and X, and lighting 
goods, Group XI, showed comparatively high percentages of cost for 
selling, and those making window glass, Groups I and II, and bottles 
by hand, Group V, showed comparatively low percentages of cost for 
selling. Plate-glass factories, Group III, had the remarkably low 
selling cost of 0.25 per cent, nearly evenly divided between salesmen 
and other selling expense. 

For all establishments reporting, the average for total selling 
expense was 3.92 per cent, of which 3.01 per cent, or over three-fourths 
of the total selling expense, was for salesmen. 

Loss from bad debts was remarkably low in this industry. In no 
group was the loss equal to 1 per cent of the sales value of goods pro- 
duced, or, in other words, for every $100 selling value of goods pro- 
duced in Group VIII, jars, the amount recovered through sales was 
only 98 cents less. In establishments making window glass by hand, 
Group I, and plate glass, Group III, the loss from bad debts was less 
than 0.05 per cent, or, expressed in dollars and cents, the loss suffered 
through bad debts was less than 5 cents on every SI 00. For all estab- 
lishments the average loss from bad debts through converting goods 
produced into cash was 44 cents on every $100 sales value of goods 
produced. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. Ill 



The margin between the total cost and sales value of goods produced 
constitutes the profit, the aim and incentive of all business. The 
wider the margin between these items, the greater the profit, and as 
competition in the main iixes prices on the one end, it is the desire of 
the manufacturer to keep the other end, his costs, as low as possible 
and t bus secure for himself a margin between the total cost and selling 
value. The. question naturally arises, What items are properly 
chargeable to costs? Perhaps on no items more than depreciation 
and interest is there such a wide difference of opinion as to whether or 
not they are proper charges to cost; especially is this true of interest. 
For this reason it was thought advisable to show total cost of goods 
produced without charges for depreciation and interest and to show 
operating profit computed both without and with depreciation and 
interest. 

The tables are so constructed that one can easily determine the total 
cost including either depreciation or interest, or both, by simply 
adding the percentages for these items to the total cost. For one who 
believes that depreciation is a proper charge to costs and that interest 
is not, and who wishes to know what the operating profit would be if 
depreciation were charged and interest were not, all that is necessary 
for him to do is to add the amount shown opposite "Interest paid" 
to the profit shown immediately below, or in case there was a loss 
reduce the amount of the loss by the amount of interest paid. 

Operating profit on goods produced computed without deprecia- 
ciation and interest showed for all establishments an average of 10.49 
per cent on the sales value of goods produced, ranging from 5.11 per 
cent in blown and pressed tableware, Group X, to 16.14 per cent in 
machine-made bottles, Group VI. Six groups, or one less than half 
of all the groups, showed profits of more than 10 per cent. Of the 
remaining groups four showed profits between 5 and 6 per cent and 
three betweem 9 and 10 per cent. 

DEPRECIATION. 

Chapter III, page 86, is devoted to depreciation, and it is believed 
that a discussion of the subject in this part of the report would be a 
needless repetition. 

The average rate of depreciation based on sales value of goods 
produced was 3.85 per cent for all establishments. The highest 
average rate of depreciation was found in plate glass, Group III, 10.6 

Ser cent, and the lowest in lamp chimneys, Group XII, 1.61 per cent. 
»f the remaining groups, none showed an average rate in excess of 5 
per cent. 

INTEREST. 

Interest paid excludes interest on investment, bonds, mortgages, 
and other borrowed capital in all establishments reporting such 
charges. 

Examination of the percentages will show that the average interest 
paid in all establishments on the total sales value of goods produced 
was 1.07, the highest, 2.6, in window glass made by machine, Group 



112 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

II, and the lowest, 0.54, in tableware, blown and pressed, Group X. 
In five groups the average was less than 1 per cent; in seven groups 
considerably below 2 per cent, in only one group was the average 
over 2 per cent. 

MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSE AND MISCELLANEOUS INCOME. 

Miscellaneous expense and miscellaneous income are composed of 
such items as could not properly be charged or credited to the cost 
of operating. By taking these items into consideration,' the average 
profit or loss forborne groups is slightly modified. 

COST AND PROFIT IN INDIVIDUAL ESTABLISHMENTS. 

HANDMADE WINDOW GLASS. 

The following 13 tables show percentages of cost and profit based 
on the sales value of goods produced, by individual establishments in 
the different groups. In Table 37, which follows, these percentages 
are shown for establishments making window glass by hand, Group I. 

Data were secured for 37 establishments, the greatest number in 
any one group. These establishments were located in West Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kansas, Indiana, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and 
Texas, more than 60 per cent of the establishments being located in 
West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

The total cost of materials varied from 7.11 per cent to 22.72 per 
cent with an average of 15.39 per cent for all establishments in this 
group. Batch was the principal item of cost, although in 10 estab- 
lishments the cost of packing exceeded that of batch. 

Owing to the large amount of skilled labor required in the various 
operations, the establishments in this group showed high percentages 
for total labor, the average being higher than in any other group. 
In no establishment was this item less than 50 per cent of the sales 
value of goods produced, and it was as high as 65.98 per cent in estab- 
lishment No. 2. It will be seen by an enumeration of the percentages 
that there were 12 establishments with percentages for total labor 
ranging between 50 and 55 per cent, 17 between 55 and 60 per cent, 
7 between 60 and 65 per cent, and 1 over 65 per cent. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



113 



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114 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



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116 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Superintendent and foremen carried a small percentage of the sales 
value of goods produced, due to several causes, chief among which 
may be mentioned (a) cooperative establishments in which the own- 
ers received no salaries, but wages as workmen; (b) officials of the 
company acting as superintendents, but charging no part of their 
salaries to factory supervision; (c) officials acting as superintendents, 
but receiving no salaries and furnishing no estimates as to the value 
of their services. 

The percentages for fuel, power, light, and water were affected 
more by the location of the plant than were the percentages for other 
items. The establishments located in those States where gas is cheap 
had a decided advantage over those in other States where the natu- 
ral-gas supply is giving out or where producer gas is used. To 
localize any individual establishment, even by State, might disclose 
the identity of that establishment, but it can be generally stated that 
the establishments located in West Virginia, Oklahoma, and Louisi- 
ana had an advantage over those in other States, although some of 
the establishments in the States named had higher percentages than 
the lowest in other States. 

Of the remaining items of cost, general expense, with an average 
of 4.33 per cent, was next in importance, followed by total salaries, 
2.74 per cent; total selling expense, 1.46 per cent; insurance, 1.39 
per cent; taxes, 0.53 per cent; and bad debts, 0.04 per cent. Losses 
from bad debts were remarkably small for establishments in this 
group, only three establishments showing such losses. 

Of the 37 establishments in this group, only 2 showed operating 
loss, computed without depreciation and interest, one showing a loss 
of 12.35 per cent and the other 2.92 per cent. Of the 35 establish- 
ments showing profits, 16 had profits of over 10 per cent and 6 less 
than 5 per cent. The average operating profit for all establishments 
was 9.24 per cent; the highest was 17.85 per cent, in establishment 
No. 32, and the lowest 1.3 per cent, in establishment No. 26. 

Allowing charges for depreciation and interest, six establishments 
showed operating losses ranging from 0.21 per cent to 19.1 per cent, 
while all establishments showed an average operating profit of 5.36 
per cent. A number of the establishments showed expenses and 
income which could not be correctly charged or credited to the cost 
of production, and the final profit or loss in some establishments will 
vary from the operating profit to the extent that these items were 
found in the accounts of the various establishments. 

MACHINE-MADE WINDOW GLASS. 

Table 38, which follows, is like the preceding one in that it deals 
with the cost of producing window glass, but with the machine- 
made product instead of the handmade. The percentages are based 
on sales value of goods produced. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



117 





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THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 119 

Data were secured for 12 establishments, located in West Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Oklahoma. Nearly 84 per cent of the estab- 
lishments were in the first two States named. 

Generally speaking, the average percentages for this group were 
somewhat nigner than they were for the group making window glass 
by hand, with the exception of total labor. Since the percentages 
for all items of cost and profit or loss must add to 100 per cent, it fol- 
lows that if for some reason the percentages for one or more items 
were lower in one group than in another, the other items must neces- 
sarily be higher. For example, take Group I, which showed 56.8 per 
cent for total labor, and Group II, 47.74 per cent; the difference of 
9.06 per cent must be taken up by other items in Group II. 

Although in this group the average for batch was over 2 per cent 
greater than for packing, four establishments had a higher percentage 
for packing than for batch. The average cost of all materials was 
18.26 per cent, highest in establishment No. 45, 22.76 per cent, and 
lowest in establishment No. 49, 16.4 per cent. 

The total cost for labor in this group fell below 50 per cent in the 
average for all establishments and in seven of the individual estab- 
lishments, being as low as 36.86 per cent in establishment No. 43. 
The highest percentage for labor was 57.84, in establishment No. 49. 
In certain operations the machine-made window glass requires the 
same kind of skilled labor as in the handmade product, but the lower 
labor cost in the machine-made product must be ascribed to the use 
of automatic machines, which do away with the highly skilled labor 
in blowing. 

The discussion of the item fuel, power, light, and water in the pre- 
ceding table attempted to bring out the effect that location of estab- 
lishments had upon the cost of fuel. In that discussion it was pointed 
out that establishments in certain States in which natural gas was 
abundant had a decided advantage over those establishments located 
in other States where natural gas was not so abundant or where pro- 
ducer gas was used. This in general is true. However, because an 
establishment is located in a natural-gas State, it does not necessarily 
follow that it can secure cheap gas, for it may be located in a district 
in which the supply is giving out, or it may be entirely outside a nat- 
ural-gas district, in which case it would have to pay a higher rate 
than other establishments more favorably located or be compelled 
to produce its own gas. 

Two establishments, Nos. 3S and 39, with 21.78 and 19.95 per cent, 
respectively, had exceptionally high costs for fuel, power, etc., as com- 
pared with other establishments in this group. and with the average 
for all establishments, their costs being more than twice as much as the 
average and over five times as much the lowest cost, 3.72 per cent in 
establishment No. 49. It is interesting to note that these two estab- 
lishments were operated at a loss, and that if they were more nearly 
on a par with other establishments in regard to fuel they could greatly 
reduce their losses or operate at a profit. 

Taxes, insurance, and salaries were relatively of little importance, 
the percentages for all establishments being 0.38, 1.45, and 1.77 per 
cent, respectively. 

Royalty, being a payment for the use of certain automatic machines, 
was not found in the handmade window-glass group, and in compar- 



120 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

ing the labor costs in the two window-glass groups one must not lose 
sight of the fact that the lower labor cost in the machine group was 
somewhat offset by the payment of royalty. The average for roy- 
alty for the group was 3.68 per cent; three establishments showed 
no payments for royalty. 

General expense showed an average of 6.17 per cent for all estab- 
lishments, ranging from the highest in establishment No. 39, 13.72 
per cent, to the lowest in establishment No. 45, 1.56 per cent. 

Selling and bad debts accounted for 2.14 per cent of the 90.96 per 
cent comprising all costs in manufacturing, administration, and sell- 
ing. In no establishment was the total selling in excess of 3.31 per 
cent of the sales value of goods produced, nor bad debts in excess of 
thirty-eight one-hundredths of 1 per cent. Eight establishments 
showed no losses from bad debts. 

A greater percentage of the establishments in the machine-made 
window-glass group were operated at a loss than in the handmade 
window-glass group. Three establishments showed operating losses 
when computed without depreciation and interest and two other 
establishments showed losses after charging depreciation and inter- 
est, making in all five establishments, or over 40 per cent of the num- 
ber reported, operating at a loss. No establishment showed an oper- 
ating profit as great as 10 per cent after charging depreciation and 
interest, and in contrast one establishment suffered a loss slightly 
over 15 per cent of the sales value of the goods produced, or, in other 
words, there is a difference of 24.9 per cent in the cost of production 
between establishments No. 39 and No. 42, which showed the great- 
est loss and the greatest profit. 

PLATE GLASS. 

Table 39, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percent- 
ages for plate glass, a branch of the industry whose product, like that 
of the two preceding groups, is used in the building trades. The per- 
centages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Data were secured for six establishments, one-half being located 
in Pennsylvania and one each in Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois. 

This branch of the glass industry requires an exceptionally large 
amount of supplies, such as grinding sand, rock and lime, felt, emery, 
copperas, and muriatic acid for use in the grinding and pohshing 
department, and for this reason a separate fine was given to such 
supplies under materials, although they are not materials in the sense 
that they are constituent elements of the product. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



121 



Table 39. — Percentages of Costs, bt Specified Items, and Profits or Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
facturing Plate Glass. 



Aver- 
age. 



No. 52. No. 53. 



Materials: 

Batch 

Grinding and polishing materials. 
Packing 



Total materials. 



Labor: 

Superintendent and foremen. 
Other factory labor 



Fuel, power, light, and water 

Taxes, State, corporation, etc 

Insurance and workmen's compensation. 

Salaries: 

Officials 

Office force 



Total salaries 

General expense 

Total manufacturing and administration. 

Selling: 

Salesmen 

Other selling expense 

Total selling expense 

Bad debts 



Total cost of goods produced 

Operating profit on goods produced, com- 
puted without depreciation and interest . . 

Operating loss on goods produced, computed 
without depreciation and interest 



Total sales value of goods produced. 



Depreciation . 
Interest paid . 



Operating profit on goods produced, com- 
puted with depreciation and interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, computed 
with depreciation and interest 



Miscellaneous income. 



Final profit, depreciation and interest 
considered , 



Final loss, depreciation and interest 
considered 



11.3S 11.85 
12.67 10.02 

2.73 2.17 



12.54 
9.96 
2.28 



5. OS 14.05 
7. 12 16. 03 

2.47 2.01 



24. 78 14. 07 



2.39 
31.37 



5. 49 2. SO 
37. 81 32. 32 



12 02 
19.89 
2.60 



2.20 
30.70 



13.24 
1.03 
.73 



14.55 
1.07 
1.82 



19.28 

.72 
1.18 .36 



4.23 
1.09 



12.87 
.60 
.79 



10.19 
.45 
.46 



7.31 17.28 



93.85 
0.15 



95.86 
4.14 



75.03 
24.97 



100.00 100.00 



11.96 
10.12 
3.49 



1.00 
31.71 



32.71 

11.68 
2.10 
.48 



86.11 
13.89 



18.36 
1.65 



6.12 
1.70 



Grinding and polishing materials were 12.67 per cent of the sales 
value of goods produced by all establishments, which was greater 
than the percentage for batch, the principal item under materials 
in all other groups with the exception of Group XI, lighting goods. 
In three of the establishments the cost of batch was greater than 
grinding and polishing materials. 

Total materials, with an average of 26.78 per cent for all establish- 
ments, ranged from 14.67 per cent in establishment No. 52 to 34.51 
per cent in establishment No. 54, or in other words there was a 
difference of nearly 20 per cent between the lowest and highest cost 
of materials. 



122 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The cost of labor for all establishments in this group was 33.76 
per cent of the sales value of goods produced, of which 2.39 per cent 
was for supervision and 31.37 per cent for other factory labor. 
Three groups showed a lower total labor cost and eight a higher cost 
than the average for the group. The low labor cost in this branch 
of the glass industry as compared with other branches must be 
ascribed partly to the comparatively small amount of skilled labor 
required and partly to the higher percentage of cost for materials. 
In establishment No. 53 the percentage for total labor was 27.69 
per cent, the lowest, and in establishment No. 51, it was 43.3 per 
cent, the highest. 

Fuel, power, light, and water, with 13.24 per cent for all establish- 
ments and ranging from 10.19 to 19.28 per cent, was higher in this 
branch of the glass industry than in any other. 

Of the remaining items in the total cost of goods produced, exclud- 
ing depreciation and interest, general expense was the only one that 
showed a percentage of any great importance. When it is taken 
into consideration that this item is so general and is composed of 
all items that could not be assigned to other headings, it is not sur- 
prising that the percentages should be rather high and that they 
should vary considerably in the different establishments. The 
average for all establishments was 9.92 per cent, and ranged from 
3.36 per cent in establishment No. 51 to 19.28 per cent in establish- 
ment No. 53. 

Operating profit on goods produced, computed without deprecia- 
tion and interest, was 1 1 .69 per cent for all establishments and ranged 
from 4.14 per cent in establishment No. 51 to 24.97 per cent in 
establishment No. 52. The high percentage of profit in the latter 
establishment was due to its remarkably low cost of materials. 

Allowing depreciation and interest as part of the cost of produc- 
tion, the establishments as a whole were operated at a loss, due 
princiaplly to the heavy charge for depreciation, which in this group 
amounted to 10.6 per cent, being more than twice that shown for 
other groups. Three establishments were operated at a loss and 
three at a profit. 

WIRE AND OPALESCENT GLASS. 

Table 40, which follows, presents cost data in the form of per- 
centages for establishments manufacturing wire and opalescent 
goods, the last of those groups whose products are used in the build- 
ing trades. The percentages are based on the sales value of the 
goods produced. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



123 



tawj rtaoefl of (osts, by specified items and profits or losses, 

- Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
mng WiuE and Opalescent Glass. 



Items. 


Aver- No. 

age. 50. 


No. 

57. 


No. 

58. 


No. 


No. 
60. 


No. 

• 1. 


No. 
62. 


No. 


No. 
64. 


U 

Batch and wire 


24.74 U. 

;- 7. 19 


13.88 
5.97 


19.10 
5.91 


13.82 
G. 15 


27. ." 
3.20 


33.70 
5.55 


22. 53 
■1. 76 


25.77 
5.17 


included in 


3.95 




















20.97 17.74 20.57 19.85 


25.01 


23.92 30.77 39.25 27.29 


30.94 






Labor: 

•it and foremen 


3.05 3.09 

20.98 19.47 3-1.55 1S.SG 


3.28 
22.27 


2.9S 1.23 
15. 21 IS. 23 


2.69 1.61 
27. 91 23. 71 


4.35 
L8.78 




24.03 19.47 






Total labor 


37.64 


18.86 


25.55 


IS. 19 19. 40 


30.00 


2.3. 32 


23.13 



;ht, and water.. 
Taxes tion.etc. 
Insurance and workmen's com- 
pensation 



Salaries: 
Officials.... 
Office torce. 



Total salaries. 
General expense — 



Total manufacturing and 
administration 



Selling: 

Salesmen 

Other selling expense '. 



Total selling expense 

Bad debts 

goods pro- 



Total cost 

Operating profit on goods pro- 
duced, computed without 
i>n and interest ... 
Operating I<js.s on goods pro- 

( without 
ion and Interest ... 



3.52 
1.52 



14. 1-. 
.70 



5.07 



IS VI 

.78 



S.74 
.17 



Total sales value of goods 
produced 100.00 



Depreciation 4.57 

Interest paid 1.51 



Operating profit on goods pro- 

iJuced, computed with de- 

est 

Operating loss on goods pro 1 

dueed, computed with de- 

ind interest 



Misctllaneousexpenso. 
Miscellaneous income. 



profit, deprecia- 
tion and interest con- 
sidered , 

Final loss, depreciation 
and interest considered 



10.5S 
11.64 



6.72 
1.07 



2.',s 



SI. 34 
18.66 



3. OS 
1.15 



13.01 
.51 



2.79 
.43 



Data were secured for nine establishments located in Pennsylvania, 
Indiana, Illinois, West Virginia, and Ohio. Three were in Pennsyl- 
vania, two each in Indiana and Illinois, and one each in West Vir- 
ginia and Ohio. 



K 



124 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The total cost of materials was higher and the total cost of labor 
was lower in this group than in any other. It has been pointed out 
before that all items of cost and profit must add to 100 per cent, and 
if some items bear, comparatively, a high percentage of cost/ then 
other items must bear a correspondingly low percentage of cost. 
This, however, does not account entirely for the high and low per- 
centages of cost for these items, and other reasons must be assigned. 

In the case of materials, this high cost was partly due to the inclu- 
sion of materials not common to other branches of the glass industry; 
especially was this true of those establishments producing goods in 
which wire was part of the cost of materials. In the case of labor, 
the low cost was partly due to the relatively small amount of skilled 
labor required. 

The average cost of materials for all establishments was 29.97 per 
cent of the sales value of goods produced and ranged from 17.74 per 
cent in establishment No. 56 to 39.25 per cent in establishment 
No. 62. Batch and wire, on the average, constituted about 80 per 
cent and packing materials about 20 per cent of the total materials 
used. 

Total labor, with an average of 24.03 per cent, varied from IS. 19 
er cent in establishment No. 60 to 37.64 per cent in establishment 
"o. 57. Three establishments had a labor cost of less than 20 per 
cent and two over 30 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

This group, next to the plate-glass group, showed the highest per- 
centage of cost for fuel, power, light, and water, the average being 
10.13 per cent. Four of the establishments showed a higher per- 
centage of cost than the average, one establishment, No. 59, having 
18.8 per cent, the highest shown. 

Of the remaining items constituting total sales value of goods pro- 
duced, general expense, with an average of 14.28 per cent for all 
establishments, was by far the most important. Selling expense 
showed a wide variation, being as low as 0.58 per cent and as high as 
28.22 per cent, the average being 3.72 per cent. The other items, 
with the exception of salaries, 5.04 per cent, were relatively of little 
importance and need no comment. 

Examination of the percentages for operating profit on goods pro- 
duced, computed without depreciation and interest, will show that the 
establishments in this group were either very successful or very unsuc- 
cessful. In no establishment was the profit on the sales value of goods 
produced less than 10 per cent, and in establishment No. 58 the per- 
centage of profit was 28.88 per cent. After charging depreciation 
and interest, six establishments showed operating profits ranging from 
2.27 per cent to 27.13 per cent, and three establishments showed losses, 
the loss in each establishment being over 10 per cent and as high as 
25.03 per cent in establishment No. 57. 

HANDMADE BOTTLES. 

Table 41, which follows, is the first of four tables that treat of the 
bottle and jar branch of the glass industry. 



COST AND PBOFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



125 



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126 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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No. 75. 

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53 


too 
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No. 70. 

1.19 
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to 
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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



127 



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. 



128 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Data were secured for 26 establishments, located in Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, New York, Maryland, Virginia, West 
Virginia, and Louisiana. About one-third of the establishments 
were in Pennsylvania and about one-fourth in New Jersey, no other 
State having more than three of the establishments reporting. 

The total cost of materials for the establishments in this group, 
like the preceding groups, is composed almost entirely of the cost of 
two items, batch and packing, although a new factor, that of metal 
trimmings, etc., enters into the cost of materials in a few of the estab- 
lishments. 

Apparently it is not the custom for the manufacturers of hand- 
made bottles to furnish metal trimmings, etc., for in only six of the 
establishments were such materials reported. One, however, must 
take into consideration the different kinds of bottles produced; that 
is, whether prescription, beer, soda, whisky, or cologne bottles, and 
whether fancy or plain, some of which may be equipped with patented 
stoppers, to suit the demands of customers. Even in those estab- 
lishments reporting such data it does not follow that the whole 
product of that establishment was equipped with trimmings. 

Batch, with an average of 11.22 per cent for all establishments and 
with a range from 22.01 per cent in establishment No. 67 to 5.21 per 
cent in establishment No. 86, was with few exceptions, the most 
important item in the total cost of materials. 

Packing, with an average of 6.85 per cent, varied from 15.47 per 
cent in establishment No. 88 to 0.43 per cent in establishment No. 
85. This variation was due principally to the amount of packing 
required and the kind of bottles produced. An establishment which 
manufactures, say, soda bottles, may be located in the same city 
as a bottling concern and a great part of its product disposed of to 
that concern, in which case the cost of packing would be of little 
importance, whereas, if the greater part of the product were disposed 
of to outside concerns, the cost of packing would be mcreased on 
account of the extra and better materials required in packing the 
product for safe shipment. 

As indicated by the title given to this group, the product was hand- 
made and required a highly skilled class of labor, especially in blow- 
ing. It is only natural, then, that the percentages for total labor 
for this group are high, being on the average more than 50 per cent 
of the sales value of goods produced. In 15 establishments the 
total labor cost was more than 60 per cent, in 13 establishments it 
was between 50 and 60 per cent, in 7 establishments between 40 and 
50 per cent, and only in 1 establishment was the labor cost less than 
40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, etc., salaries, and general expense, with averages of 
8.13, 4.67, and 5.16 per cent, respectively, were items of expense 
which carried nearly 18 per cent of the sales value of goods produced, 
and together with materials and labor accounted for over 90 per 
cent of the cost, so that other items of expense, after taking into con- 
sideration operating profit of 5.19 per cent, constituted less than 5 
per cent of the sales value. In 5 establishments the percentage of 
cost for fuel, power, etc., was over 10 per cent, being 18.79 per cent 
in establishment No. 71. 

Of the 26 establishments in this group, 22 showed operating profit 
computed, without depreciation and interest, ranging from 1.03 per 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMEN Id. 129 

cent to 1 1.08 per cent, and 4 showed losses with a range from 1.36 to 

MM' •■«'llt. 

After charging depreciation and interest, the operating profit for 

iblishmenta was reduced from 5.19 per cent to 2.14 per cent, 

making a charge of 3.05 per cent for these items. This charge varios 

in the different establishments, according to the manner in 

which the owners look upon depreciation; tho amount so charged 

I determined in many instances until the company found its 

earnings would warrant a charge for depreciation. 

M U II INK-MADE BOTTLES. 

Table 12 presents cost data in the form of percentages for those 

establishments manufacturing machine-made bottles. The per- 

.M. ■ based on the sales value of goods produced. 

were secured for 18 establishments, located in Ohio, West 

- Indiana. Illinois, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, 

lahoma. About SO per cent of the establishments were located 

in the firsl four States named. 

Tli<' .1 v erage cost of materials for all establishments in the machine- 
made botl le group was somewhat higher than in the handmade bottle 
group, being 25.4 per cent in the former and 20.63 per cent in the 
latter. 

Of the different items under materials, two, metal trimmings, etc., 
and packing, showed a wide variation in the percentages and account 
principally for the variation in the total cost of materials. The 
variation in metal trimmings, etc., was due partly to the demands of 
the irade: that is, some customers prefer to secure such trimmings 
from concerns other than the manufacturers of bottles, while others 
depend entirely upon the bottle manufactures for such supplies. The 
variation in packing materials depended largely upon how the bottles 
were packed. If in carload lots, the cost of packing materials will be 
small hut if packed in crates, the cost of such materials will be 
greatly increased. 

102511°— 17 9 



130 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



131 



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g 
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cn : 






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Operating profit on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation 
and interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation 


4 : 

S. : 
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o . 

o • 

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® : 

3 . 

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— 9 
£ £ 





132 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

A comparison of the labor costs for the handmade product and the 
machine-made product will show a difference of about 20 per cent in 
favor of the machine-made product. The average for the former 
group was 53 per cent and for the latter 32.57 per cent. This, how- 
ever, was not true in individual establishments, for there were some 
establishments in the machine group which had high percentages for 
labor cost. An enumeration of the percentages for total labor will 
show that one establishment had a cost of 56.6 per cent, four between 
40 and 50 per cent, nine between 30 and 40 per cent, three between 
20 and 30 per cent, and one less than 20 per cent of the sales value of 
goods produced. 

Fuel, power, light, and water, with an average of 9.92 per cent for 
all establishments and ranging from 2.47 to 20.09 per cent; salaries, 
with an average of 3.01 per cent and ranging from 0.80 to 6.96 per 
cent; general expense, with an average of 8.12 per cent and ranging 
from 0.46 to 19.54 per cent; and selling expense, with an average of 
3.08 per cent and ranging from 0.24 to 5.07 per cent were the only 
other items constituting total cost of goods produced that showed an 
average cost of over 1 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

The items, taxes, insurance, and bad debts for all establishments were 
less than 1 per cent, although in some individual establishments the 
percentages were above 1 per cent, but in no establishment did they 
reach 2 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

Operating profit on goods produced, computed without depreciation 
and interest, for all establishments was 16.14 per cent, which was 
reduced to 11.61 per cent after charging depreciation and interest, 
and after taking into consideration miscellaneous expense and income 
the final profit was 12.15 per cent. 

Two establishments showed losses both before and after charging 
depreciation and interest, and three a final loss, the inclusion of the 
third establishment being due to miscellaneous expense in establish- 
ment No. 45. 

The greatest loss suffered by any establishment after charging 
depreciation and interest was 8.07 per cent in establishment No. 91, 
and the greatest profit was 23.13 per cent in establishment No. 97. 
Two other establishments had operating profits, after charging 
depreciation and interest, of over 20 per cent, seven had profits 
between 10 and 20 per cent, and five less than 10 per cent, only one 
of the latter in excess of 5 per cent. 

On the whole, the establishments manufacturing bottles by 
machine were more successful than those manufacturing bottles by 
hand. 

HAND AND MACHINE MADE BOTTLES. 

Table 43, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percentages 
for establishments manufacturing bottles by hand and machine. 
The percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 



COST AND PKOF1T 1!V F.STA IJI.ISIIMENTS. 



133 



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d 






t^ ■ 


H 


r~CM 


O 
3 
of 


CC / ia 


«r co 
oico 


I 







00 

d 
Z 


s 


DC — 1 

CSO • 


r 

EN 


S3 


O 


OS <* -r 


S?5 


00 


39 

06 


¥ 


ss 


CO 

- 


00 
CN 


S S : 

g ffl : 


No. 117. 
13.94 


S2S 

— -c 


cn 


52 


CO 

- 


O CN — 


oto 
10 


to 


- 

X 


03 
10 

- 


OS l~ 


CO 
CN 


• - 


S 3 : 
g ' : 


8 
| 





8 

g 

ci 



6 


CM 

1- 

OS 


c? — V 

' co oi 


o 

CO 
CO 


So 

'as 


"0 


■0 



CO 

$ 


op— 1 

CO ' ^H 


CN-i 


CO 


CM 


OS 

- 
a 


cm ! 
cs ; 


CN 

00 
CN 





S 



r 
r 


S i 

CM ; 


d 

Z 


3 

cm 




3 ! 


CM CM 


CO 


CO 00 

U0O5 


CO 


OS 




CN 

OS 












5 

' d 

z 


5 


00 CO • 




OSt~ 


•0 





ss 




C-) 

06 


CO 

3 


S3 
■d 


O 
OS 

•d 


" 







d 
Z 


5 

o 




K : 


CO 


no 


CO 
CO 


cot 
■■6 




no 


00 

•d 


e 

<N 




r-i 

00 


os : 


2 




CO T ' 

<^ <N ! 

00 —1 





g 



ci 










ci 


i 


co 




; - a 

:-. CO 


- 


33 

■-<3J 


s 


00 00 CM 


§s 


M 




00 

o§ 


OS '• 
CO • 


OS 


s 

1- 


C 
i 


8 i 


No. 111. 
13.19 




•2 7 


CO 


COT 
l-HOJ 


CO 




S3S 

06 ' cm 


CO 00 


CO 


US 


m 

CO 

00 


| 

CO j 


CO 


00 * 

CO 


No. 110. 


° 


iO Cl i 


CO 


OS OS 
00 OS 

CO 


00 

00 
c-i 

CO 


— CMuO 
WCMH 

CO 'i-t 







bo 

q 


o> 


OS 












-X CO ! 
Tr iO 


| 

d 
Z 


uo 
o> 

00 




- X 

— CO 
Ifl H 


CO 


12 O 
CM Tli 


CO 
CM 

CO 
U5 


d 


sr: 


US 


§ 


CM 












Si S3 : 

os cd j 









* Si 


t^ O CM O CO 

OlOOONCC 


o 

OS 


00 o> 

OS CM 


CN 


cocm as 


00 TT 

c4cn 


CC 


3S 


00 


oco 
coco 


CO 

CO 


00 


co t^ : 

O OS • 

OS "* '• 








1 


to* 


1 

c 
« 

p 


M 

5 
| 

+- 


i 


1 

o 

.Q 
C3 

q 

7 

-3 

s 

a 

o 
c 

2 




£ 

c 




P 

E 
j: 

s 

c 
t 
i 

1 
.. c 

I 5 

03 



1 

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5 

r 

- 
c 

£ 

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| 

C 




s 
s 

■e 
b 
E 
p 
c 
> 

c 

0! 

C 
X 

I 
« 

e 




s 

e 
C 


c 

c 

c 
c 

c 

"a 


5 

0! 

& 


C 

c 

C 

E 
c 

E 

& 
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-c 
: 

c 


1 
1 


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'it 


i 

c 




c 
"i 

1 

c 

e 




f 




c 

1 

0" 

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p 

q 

s 1 

1 

1 
E 
? 
E 




c 

a 
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- -•' 


p. 

M 

£ 

O 


c 

I 

<c 

61 

1 


4 

1 


2? 


c 

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c 
E 

c 

c 
E- 




"? 

3 
ft 

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1 



a 

-II 

O £ 

"•s 

*i c 

c- ^ 

£c 
-.= 

ne'e 

= '._ 

2 c 
i^ 
O 


'. 

a ; 
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: 

ja ; 
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: 
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11 

sj 

is 

■-?, 

c3 'n 
- .^ 
p."3 
O 


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1 
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> 
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En 



134 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



CN 

6 
S5 


lO 


™. 




CN 












d 
S5 


IO 
00 
CO 






- 




a 




10 


id 


eo 

CO 


Sg 






d 
S3 






IO 

to 




to 

eo 




8 


CO 

d 
S3 


s 








8 

o 


IOCN 
CNCN 


5 


00 

id 


is 




OS 

d 
S3 


ooeo 
jjid 




r^ 




« 




O 


CO 
CO 

d 
S3 


'^' 5 - : 




CNOS 
' CO 


CO 


COO CO 

00 COCN 

id 




00 

d 
S3 


eNo 








8 

CO 




CN 

CO 

d 
S3 


o 
o 


' oir^ 


OS 
CN 


-5 co 


§ 


JS8 




d 
S3 


COO 




IN 




iO 




1- 


CO 

d 
55 


CO 
00 




o j 

C3S | 


CO 

In 


-HCO 


IO 


SSg 




CO 

d 
S3 


ON 

■*eo 




US 




s 




o 


o 

d 

S3 


8 




CN ! 

os • 


oi 


IOO 




3S3 

OS ■ i-< 




■o 

d 

S3 




io • 

CO ' 






IO 
CO 




9> 

CM 

d 
S3 


CO 


gco | 
t^co ! 


id 

CO 


ScN 

'o 

CO 




CNtOb- 

OCOOO 




1 


00 Ol 

us pi 




IN 

os 




OS 

o 




os 


CN. 

6 
S3 


8 

IO 


SS : 


s 


t?CN 


8 


00 coo 
■9-COO 

co ' -A 




d 
S3 


35 

oioi 


CO '• 

co ; 


- 


-: 


CD 




CM 

d 
S3 


s 








CO 


•*U5 
OS CO 

' eo 
•o 


us 


hocin 

CNCO00 




d 
S3 


do 
eoio 


00 • 

id '• 


OS 

On 

Ifj 




B 

d 
S3 


OS 
CN 




>C 00 


IO 


t^ CO 


8 

CO 


t^oooo 

COrHCO 




d 
!Z5 


o™ 


00 




s 


C-i 




d 

S3 


B 


88 j 

'id | 


OS 

Ol 


gs 


eq 


OS 




o 

d 


S i 




o 








°. 


CM 

d 

S3 


00 
00 




o ! 

CO • 


CO 


00 00 
■ CD 


CO 


OCOlO 




1 

i 


ooo 
cot~ 

edc* 


lO ^ 
CO • 


OSCN 

00 CO 


CN 


- 


3 
d 

S3 


s 

1> 


s?ss 


CO 

00 


ON 

.-icN 

CO 


to 


00 CD 
CO 




<u eo 

.4* 


S2 


g ! 

CN 


9 

d 

S3 


o 




3 : 

CO • 


o 


HO 

rtO 

CD 


Of 

CO 


ei '»4 




I 


J 

s 

1 


2 

s 


£ 

g. 
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I 

3 
o 
a 

r$ 

CO 

1 

ft 

■3 

o 

o 
Ml 

23 

« S 

£ c 
p," 

Mt 
C 1 

3 i 
Si 
p<+ 



£ 

p. : 

CO . 
T} • 

■=. '■ 
."g : 

■d : 

. ^ ; 

1: 

S : 

• o • 
'. a ! 

:« • 

8 : 

;■§ ; 

: p. : 

1 

a '■- 

c r 
II 

;.5g 

!-■,.:-' 

3 ft*" 
O 


c 

I 

1 

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d 

= 

c 
c 


c 

■a 
n: 

( 

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c 
1 

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5 


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e 

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i 

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a 
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b 

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c 

c 


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c 
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£ 
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1 

i 

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c 

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+ 

k 
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c 

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j 

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S 
CD 

g 





COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



135 



23 

•oco 


3 — 


2 11 ?S 





a 


CN r-^ 

C3> 


S||S3 

§ r ' 


8 

o 


CO CO 

-r co 


2 




is 

• ci 




n 1 § i 
S ** i 


= 

E 


CM 


co to 
oo — 


- re - 


s • 






7 






£ m 

CO O 

s m 
co o> 


3 1 55 


■ - 


i- flea go 


8 lb : 
§ \\ : 


2 ! 




o 


$ 




CO 


5 OC5 

r 


1 


oo II ^s iq \ 

" s • j 


sllSff 

§ P ' 


us : 

CO • 




= i 


CO 




88 


-" CO 

co <o 


2 1 §5 




s|i j i 


gllss 

g coco 




: a> 

• CO 

: cs 


"id 


:S 


85 


8 8 I 

CO JO | 




''. 


© II 00 2 ! 

"8 ' ! 


O || 00 -< 

o oo to 

§ p ' 








00 1 






5c c5 
mc4 


g £ S 


8 S : 

i » : 


SO 


SJ8 S j 


O uo '■ 
O CO • 

IP: 


8 : 
06 : 




8 ||s 

00 




r-o» 

coco 


S S 1 

«' * r 


3 1 SS 
5 •* ' 


« 


CM || lO U5 • 
S °° • 


O U0-H 


c» : 

CO 




1 o> 




-HO 


» CN 


3 I B j 


g 


O II 00 (M '■ 
00 CO to • 

C5 • 


S|S : 
§ P : 


« : 

r- 




: II cm 

: ^ 




*}CM 

wio 
i-5 co 


S 2 g 


I 1 SS 

> 


s 


CO 00 j 00 

rt o ' 


O N00 
§ P ' 




00 




S jc 


3 


00 ir 
cor- 


3 5 g 

■0 -w - 


1 


Cj 


oo | ■* to '. 

1C II co CO J 

'to CO '• 

00 il ; 


S ||g 2 

g c4e4 


cn : 

CO • 

oo : 




CM | -J" 

00 






-< CO C" 

» o> r J 
>i o c 


j CO j 


o 

CO 

co 


•»• II £. co • 

CO CO '• 


9 T~ 
o «o to 

§ P ' 


03 ! 

co : 




: II <m 

• 35 




S3 


- • 8 


1" -«f>0> 
5 -HCO 

1 m 


N 


00 o • o 

|2 : ^ 


8|SS 
§ P ' 




CM 

co 


j 


S •; 


1 


88 


o oo c 
o to g 


r CO '• 

i to . 


BO 
CO 


OO -O IC '• 

1= 3 1 


S || S3 : 

IP: 




oo 




: • o 




..•ss ' 
see e 
foo 


i : J 

: : ! 

• • s 

: I T 
: ; «< 

' '■ i 
i i ^ 

i § 1 

3 & -3 

3 * C 

§ 
O 


a 

CO 
S 

Ufg 

oa 


CD 

1 

6 


| 

C 
P 
CD 
CJ 

1 

1 




: j 

; >i 

: 

: i 
: c 

. c 
■ e 

< 

■/, 1 

s & 

C3 


i? i» i 
:| :li 

1-S 11 ! 

;I ;'? i 
S s 

:« ;-g : 

:« :| : 

Cj-g : 
! bt'S oo a 

g a.c3t3 
3 « fe^ 
P/0 P<o 

o o 


■e 
S 
c 

£ 
1 

O 
CD 

- 

3 

o 


c 

3 

a 
Q 


ft 

1 


i : 

1 

§* : 
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2 : 

i : 
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s : 
p. • 

1 : 

: 
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1 : 
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at 

d ~: 

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o-g 

ft~ 

si 

2 B 

o.2 
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co ; 

ft : 
■§ : 

5 ■ 

■a '■ 

l! 

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t) ; 

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l ! 

a : 
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|| 

= C 

o a 
aid 

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1 
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s. 

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d 

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1 



136 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Data were secured for 27 establishments in this group, and next 
to Group I handmade window glass is the largest group in point of 
number of establishments included. These establishments were 
located in 10 States, mainly in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, In- 
diana, and Now York. 

The wide variation in the percentages for metal trimmings, etc., 
and in packing found in the establishments of the two preceding 
groups was also found in the establishments of this group, and the 
reasons previously given for this variation need not be repeated, as 
they also account for the variations in this group. 

Total cost of materials, with an average of 19.4 per cent, was lower 
than in either of the other bottle groups. The very high cost of mate- 
rials in establishment No. 110 was due to the large amount expended 
for metal trimmings and packing material, and this was one of the 
establishments in which the cost of materials was greater than the 
cost of labor. 

Labor was higher in this group than in the machine group but less 
than in the hand group, the average for all establishments being 
48.27 per cent as against 32.57 per cent in the machine group and 53 
per cent in the hand group. Three establishments had a labor cost 
of over 60 per cent of the sales value of goods produced, 10 had a 
cost between 50 and 60 per cent, 1 1 between 40 and 50 per cent, and 
3 loss than 40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, light, and water, with an average of 7.83 per cent for 
all establishments and a range from 3.51 per cent in establishment 
No. 110 to 14.01 per cent in establishment No. 120, was an item of 
considerable magnitude and one over which an establishment has 
little control. Some plants were favorably located in respect to 
fuel and had the benefit of cheap gas, while other plants were not so 
favorably located in this respect. 

Salaries, general expense, and selling, with averages of 4.62^, 7.19, 
and 4.63 per cent, respectively, and varying considerably in the differ- 
ent establishments, were items of expenses more or less under the 
control of the management. A study of the percentages for these 
items in the different establishments will to some extent indicate those 
which were operated economically. However, an unfavorable con- 
clusion should not be drawn against those establishments whose per- 
centages appear to be high, as conditions affecting these items can 
not be given without the possibility of identifying establishments. 

Of the 27 establishments in this group, 22 showed an operating 
profit, computed without depreciation and interest, ranging from 0.19 
to 16.76 per cent, and 5 snowed losses ranging from 0.19 to 14.14 
per cent. After charging depreciation and interest, the number oper- 
ating at a profit was reduced from 22 to 15 and the number operating 
at a loss was increased from 5 to 12. Establishment No. 134 had a 
profit of 14.84 per cent and establishment No. 131 had a loss of 21.39 
per cent. In the matter of profit the establishments in the hand 
group and the hand and machine group were, on the average, about 
on an equality, but both groups are at a considerable disadvantage 
when compared with the machine group. 

An examination of the percentages paid for interest discloses that 
two of the five establishments which showed no charges for interest 
paid were operated at a loss, and the loss in these two establishments 
must be ascribed to reasons other than the lack of sufficient working 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 137 

capital. Establishments Xos. 111,1 19, and 120 showed comparatively 
high percentages for interest and two were operated at a loss. 



Tabic 44, which follows, presents cost data in the form of percent- 
ages for establishments manufacturing jars, and is the last of the four 
tables relating to the bottle groups. The percentages are based on 
the sales value of goods produced. 

Data wnc obtained for 13 establishments, of which 6 were located 
in Pennsylvania, 3 in West Virginia, and 1 each in New York, Ohio, 
Illinois, and Oklahoma. 



138 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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140 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

This group and the one making wire and opalescent goods, Group 
IV, were the only groups which on the average showed a higher per- 
centage of cost for materials than for labor. The average for materials 
in all establishments in this group was 40.07 per cent, being exceeded 
by the percentages in establishments Nos. 138, 140, 146, and 148. The 
high average for materials in this group and the high percentages 
in the individual establishments were due to the exceptionally large 
expenditures for metal trimmings, etc., or packing, or both. A 
perusal of the percentages for these items will indicate the extent 
to which metal trimmings, etc., were furnished by the establishments 
and the amount of packing material required. 

Royalty paid for the use of automatic machines has been included 
with labor. This was found necessary to avoid disclosing the identity 
of establishments and to offset the objections of the owners of the 
machines, who thought that if such data were shown separately it 
would disclose confidential information. On page 210 of this report 
there is a discussion of the relation between labor proper and royalty 
for the different groups but not for individual establishments. 

The total labor cost for all establishments in this group was 30.08 
per cent of the sales vaLue of goods produced and in only one estab- 
lishment was the cost more than 50 per cent. Of the remaining estab- 
lishments one had a cost of 41.27 per cent, five a cost between 30 and 
40 per cent, and six between 20 and 30 per cent. 

Six establishments were above and seven below the average cost of 
7.81 per cent for fuel, power, light, and water. In establishment 
No. 144 the cost of this item was more than twice the average for all 
establishments and more than eight times the cost for establishment 
No. 38. 

Taxes and insurance combined did not in any establishment amount 
to as much as 1 per cent, the average for all being 0.61 per cent, of 
which 0.25 per cent was for taxes and 0.36 per cent for insurance. 

The remaining items composing the total cost of goods produced 
were salaries, with an average of 2.37 per cent and ranging from 1.68 
to 3.98 per cent; general expenses, with 5.59 per cent and varying 
from 1.23 to 8.69 per cent; and bad debts, with 0.98 per cent and 
ranging in establishments reporting bad debts from 0.38 to 1.70 per 
cent. 

Before charging depreciation and interest, one establishment was 
operated at a loss of 2.03 per cent, while the others were operated 
at a profit ranging from 1.60 to 22.20 per cent. After charging 
depreciation and interest, four establishments were operated at a 
loss ranging from 0.05 to 4.51 per cent and 9 at a profit ranging from 
1.21 to 20.12 per cent. 

The average for depreciation was 2.94 per cent and for interest paid 
1.31, the former ranging from 1.1 to 11.77 percent and the latter from 
0.16 to 2.67 per cent. Establishment No. 137 was the only one in 
which no interest charge was found, and it is interesting to note that 
it showed the highest percentage of profit. 



COST v>I» PBOFIT BY BSTABU9HMENTS. 
BLOWS TABLED kRE. 



141 



Table 15, which follows, presents eosl data in the form of der- 
or establishments manufacturing blown tableware. The 
percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

i ["AGES OS < !08T8, BY SPECIFIED ITEMS AND PROFITS AND LOSSES, 

S i E8 Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
v n Tableware. 



1 





it included in above 







Labor: 

atendent and foremen. 
« uner facton labor 



' 



. light, and water 

j. oration, etc 

I :iid workingmen'scompcn- 




Salaries: 
OfTi 
Offl 



I>ense 



and ad- 
ministration 



Selling: 

• e "cpcnse . 



lolling expense. 





oods produced 

profit on goods produced 
1 without depreciation and 




lis value of goods pro- 
i 



I 



ofll on goods produced 

''n d -'ill Ion and 





IflsceUanea 



roflt, depreciation, and 
interest considered 



4.08 

.20 
12.23 



1.99 
51.69 



6.04 
.55 



:;.:■ 



3.26 
79.76 
6.81 



7.09 



87.34 
12.66 
100.00 



8.13 

.60 



7.41 
.29 



1.06 

.44 



1.37 2.60 



Mo. 

151. 



No. 
152. 



4.29 
.89 



2.07 
1.01 



5.17 
.30 



5.47 



83.14 
16.86 



7.34 
.28 



2.55 
1.03 



No. 
153. 



No. 
154. 



No. 
155. 



No. 

156. 



7.16 
1.08 



14.03 11.99 J 9.52 12.2 



3.57 

50.90 



6.40 
.33 



7.12 
.16 



1.84 
42. C9 



5. 04 
.42 



8.13 9.67 
.95 



10.62 



88. 51 
11.49 



,19 | .03 



6.43 
.51 



.71 
3.59 
2.33 



69.64 
7.59 



7.59 
1.27 

78.50 

21.50 



100.00 
2.02 



Data were secured for eight establishments, of which six were 
located in West Virginia and one each in Maryland and Pennsylvania. 

This group showed the smallest percentage of cost for materials, 
the average being 12.23 per cent, the highest 18.22 per cent, and the 



142 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

lowest 9.52 per cent. Batch was more than one-half of the cost of 
materials, except in two establishments, in which the cost for packing 
materials was greater than for batch. 

The average for total labor for the establishments in this group was 
53.68 per cent and, except that for handmade window-glass factories, 
Group I, was the highest shown. In only one establishment was the 
percentage of cost under 50 per cent of the sales value of goods pro- 
duced, and in two establishments the cost was over 60 per cent. The 
establishments in this group employed relatively a large amount of 
skilled labor, especially in forming and cutting the ware, which in a 
large measure accounts for the high percentage of labor cost. 

The percentage of cost for fuel, power, light, and water for all estab- 
lishments was 6.04, and in this respect they have a comparatively 
low cost. As about 75 per cent of the establishments were located 
in West Virginia, where cheap gas prevails, the low cost for fuel must 
be ascribed to the advantage of location. 

Taxes and insurance together amount to 1.16 per cent of the sales 
value of goods produced, of which 0.55 per cent was for taxes and 
0.61 per cent for insurance. Taxes varied from 0.28 to 1.06 per cent 
and insurance 0.21 to 1.47 per cent. 

Salaries, with an average of 3.39 per cent and ranging from 1.94 
to 5.17 per cent, and general expense, with 3.26 per cent and ranging 
from 0.98 to 7.44 per cent, present no unusual features and require no 
comment. 

Total selling expense, with an average of 7.09 per cent, was highest 
in this group. Four establishments were above the average and four 
below. Elsewhere in this report (p. 233) is an article which shows the 
selling methods employed by the different groups of establishments 
and in a measure accounts for the differences in percentages for this ■ 
item. 

Each of the establishments in this group was operated at a profit, 
even after charging depreciation and interest, and of only one other 
group, miscellaneous goods, can the same be said. This group 
ranked fourth in the per cent of profit earned, computed without 
depreciation and interest, and third after depreciation and interest 
were deducted. The average operating profit on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation and interest, was 12.66 per cent, 
and when computed with depreciation and interest was 9.37 per cent. 

After charging depreciation and interest, only two establishments 
showed a profit in excess of 10 per cent, one having 13.78 and the 
other 19.48 per cent. 



COST AND PROFIT II \ KSTA I ; 1 .1 SI I M F.NTS. 



143 



BLOWN AND PRESSED T ABLE W ABE. 

Table 46, which follows. presents cost data in the form of percentages 
for establishments manufacturing both blown and pressed tableware. 
The percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Tabu 16 Percentages of Costs, by Specified Items and Profits or Losses, 
^ales Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
facti ring Tableware, Blown and Pressed. 



Aver 
ago. 



No. , No. 
158. ! 159. 











iluded in above 
Items 



.54 



I 12 

.77 



x. Hi 
1.20 



.55 
6.38 



2.46 
2.12 
3.85 



9.25 
U.77 



Total in itt'rials. 



Superintendent and foremen. 
tv labor 



45.73 



1.25 

42. 94 



.65 3.49 2.82 3. 
.35 15.08 49.39 41. 



1.57 

02 .32.SU 



Total labor. 



50.00 IS. 57 .52.21 45. 4S 



Fuel, power, liu'lit, and water 

i] poration, etc ... 
Insurance and workmen's com- 
ma 



Offld ds. . 
Office I'M 



2.07 
1.56 



1.28 
3.32 



1.27 1.43J 1.23 



2.11 3.91 2.01 



General • 



7.17J 5.031 8.77 



:mif:vUiring and 
administration 



. 65| 90. 54 97 



Belling: 



Total selling expense. 
Bad debts 



.45 1.29 1. 
.30 5.60 . 



6.66 

. 2i ; 



6.21 
.77 



,75| 6. 89 1 1.97 
. 25i . 22 



Total cost of goods pro- 

: 

profit on goods pro- 
duoe i. ■■ .| uted without dc- 

I interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation 
and interest 



89. (57 
10. 33 



. 29 106. 76 

.71 

... 6.76 



lea value of goods 
produced 



100. 00 100. 00 



D 

I 



4. 53 
.54 



1.55 
1.77 



.35 15.32 
.20 1.31 



Operating profit on goods pro- 
duced, computed with de- 
■ ind Interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed with depreciation 
and Interest 



Miscellaneous expense. 

Miscellaneous income.. 



w 

.25 



Final profit, depro-iation and 
Interest considered 

Final loss, depro iation and 
interest considered 



92.79 
7.21 



100.00100.00 



3. 

65. 16 



2.84 
43. S2 



SS. 62 
11.38 



12.99 
100. 00 



24.02 



1.78 
40.57 



.64 
1.36 



82.58 
1.45 



7.74 



.24 



90.56 
9.44 



10:1.00 UlO.OO 100. 00 



2.92 13. 
1. 



40 1. 70 
25 .07 



3.55 
1.15 



2. 62 5. 34 5. 96 
.10 1.24 



o Less than one one-hundredth of 1 per cent. 



144 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 46.— Percentages of Costs, by Specified Items and Profits or Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
facturing Tableware, Blown and Pressed — Concluded. 



No. 
176. 



Materials: 

Batch 

Decorating 

Metal trimmings, etc 

Packing 

Freight not included in above items. 



:.. 1 1 



1.72 
3.42 

10.47 



5. til 
1.25 
3. 78 

5. 02 



.97 

5.15 



Total materials. 



Labor: 

Superintendent and foremen . 
Other factory labor 



2. 74 

IS. 72 



1.78 
38. 67 



3.08 
15. 84 



1.43 

34.0s 



Fuel, power, light, and water 

Taxes, State, corporation, etc 

Insurance and workmen's compensation 



Salaries: 

Officials 

Office force. 



51.46| 64.11 

7. 



;■;. 77 
1.48 



Total salaries. 
General expense 



Total manufacturing and adminis- 
tration 



Selling: 

Salesmen 

Other selling expense . 



Total selling expense. 
Bad debts 



4.50 



Total cost of goods produced 

Operating profit on goods produced, 
computed without depreciation and 
and interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, com- 
puted without depreciation and in- 
terest 



88. 65 
11 



Total sales value of goods produced. 



Depreciation . 
Interest paid. 



Operating profit on goods produced, 
computed with depreciation and in- 
terest 

Operating loss on goods produced, 
computed with depreciation and in- 
terest 



Miscellaneous expense. 
Miscellaneous income.. 



Final profit, depreciation and in- 
terest considered 

Final loss, depreciation and in- 
terest considered 



0. 7'. I 
.05 
.25 



45. 55 

8.23 
.38 
.19 



48.92 

7.29 
.55 



35.51 
8.31 
!l8 



3. I 1 



4.94 
1.70 



3.52 

2.18 



10.76 
1.00 



5.70 



11.76 



.2- 



.2S 



79.19 

20.81 



92.81 
7.19 



Sir,. 

4.34 



1.32 
1.26 



.35 



97.39 
2.61 



4. 
.41 
.62 



8.25 



'.). 21 

1. 34 

1.52 
5.9' 



9.14 
"9."i7 
18.31 



3.52 

4,s. 53 



.36 
44.52 



2.93 
46.59 



7. Ml 
.36 
.24 



.31 

.25 



1. 15 
6.29 



4.46 
2.26 



7. 71 



.25 



6.72 
.17 



97.89 
2.11 



97.42 

2.58 



100. 00 100. 00 



11.00 
1.29 



10.18 
* '.'04 



2.21 
.11 



Data were secured for 20 establishments, of which 11 were located 
in Pennsylvania, 4 in Ohio, 3 in West Virginia, and 2 in Indiana. 

Batch and packing were the two principal items under materials. 
While percentages are shown for decorating and metal trimmings, 
etc., these items were not common to all establishments nor were 
they of great importance, as the percentages for each of the items in 
the establishments showing such data were less than for either batch 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 145 

or packing materials. However, batch in some establishments 
included decorating material- and metal trimmings, the accounts of 
these establishments being kept in such a manner as not to permit 
a segregation of materials. Total materials for the establishments 
in this group averaged IS. 81 per cent of the sales value of goods 
produced ami ranged from 28.88 per cent in establishment No. 161 
to 11 per cent in establishment No. 168. 

Total labor for all establishments in this group was 48.01 per 
cent of the sales value of goods produced. In 7 establishments 
total labor amounted to 50 per cent or over, and in 2 it was over 
60 per cent. In 12 of the remaining establishments labor cost was 
between 40 and 50 per cent, and in 1 it was less than 40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, light, and water averaged 8.12 per cent. Of the 20 
establishments in this group, 12 had a higher and eight a lower 
percentage of cost than the average. The highest cost was found in 
establishment No. 159, with 17.09 per cent, and the lowest in estab- 
lishment No. 173, with 4.68 per cent. 

Taxes and insurance amounted to 0.84 per cent, of which 0.5 per 
cent was for taxes and 0.34 per cent for insurance. In only 2 
establishments were taxes and in only 1 establishment was insurance 
over 1 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

Salaries amounted to 3.63 per cent, of which 2.07 per cent was for 
officials and 1.56 per cent for office force. In only three establish- 
ments did the total expenditures for salaries exceed 5 per cent, and 
in no establishment was it as high as 7 per cent. 

The percentage for total selling expense was comparatively high 
in this group, being exceeded by only two other groups. The aver- 
age for the group was 6.66 per cent. The highest percentage was 
found in establishment No. 171, with 11.76 per cent, and the lowest 
in establishment No. 165, with 1.1 per cent. 

Losses from bad debts were not found in four establishments. Of 
the establishments which had such losses, the highest was found in 
establishment No. 173, with 0.96 per cent, and the lowest in estab- 
lishment No. 165, with 0.07 per cent. 

On the average the establishments in this group had the lowest 
percentage of operating profit when computed without depreciation 
and interest. The average for the group was 5.11 per cent as 
against 10.49 per cent for the 213 establishments. Establishment 
No. 169, with 20.81 per cent, showed the highest profit, and, exclud- 
ing the establishments that showed losses, establishment No. 174, 
with 2.11 per cent, the lowest. Four establishments showed losses 
ranging from 12.99 per cent in establishment No. 163 to 2.01 per 
cent in establishment No. 168. 

After charging depreciation and interest, eight establishments 
showed losses, in two of which the loss was over 20 per cent. On 
the average the establishments in this group, after charging depre- 
ciation and interest, were barely operated at a profit, the average 
for the group being only 0.04 per cent. 

Depreciation and interest amounted to 5.07 per cent, of which 
4.53 per cent was for depreciation and 0.54 per cent for interest. 
Depreciation ranged from 15.32 per cent to 1.1 per cent and interest 
for those establishments reporting such data from 1.77 per cent to 
0.07 per cent. 

102511°— 17 10 



146 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



147 



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148 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Data were secured for 18 establishments, located in New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, and 
Indiana. There is no marked centralization of the establishments in 
any State. 

While in a few of the establishments decorating and metal trim- 
mings, etc., formed a considerable part of the total cost of materials, 
it can not be said that it was the general custom for manufacturers of 
lighting goods to decorate the ware or to furnish the metal trimmings. 
The average for materials was 20.05 per cent of the sales value of 
the goods produced. Six of the establishments were above the 
average and 12 below. The highest establishment, No. 188, had a 
cost for materials of 31.56 per cent, due largely to decorating and 
metal trimmings, and the lowest establishment, No. 182, had 14.85 
per cent, due to the comparatively low cost of packing materials. 

The labor employed by the establishments in this group may be 
said to be between the highly skilled labor employed in the handmade 
and blown ware groups and the unskilled labor in the machine-made 
ware groups. The average for all establishments in the group was 
40.15 per cent. Two establishments, Nos. 177 and 187, with 60.09 
and 55.21 per cent, respectively, were exceptions to the comparatively 
medium labor costs in the group. Of the remaining establishments, 
five had costs of between 40 and 50 per cent, ten between 30 and 40 
per cent, and only one less than 30 per cent. 

An examination of the percentages for fuel, power, light, and water 
will show that the highest cost, in establishment No. 185, was over 
three times as much as the lowest cost, in establishment No. 184. 
The percentages of cost for the other establishments were between 5 
and 14 per cent, centering around 7 per cent. 

The variation in the percentages for taxes and insurance was due 
partly to the laws of the various States in which the factories were 
located and partly, in the case of insurance, to the policy of the com- 
pany. The average for taxes was 0.52 per cent and in only one estab- 
lishment was it greater than 1 per cent. The average for insurance 
was 0.39 per cent, and in three establishments it was over 1 per cent 
but not greater than 1.65 per cent. 

Of the remaining items entering into the total cost of goods pro- 
duced, selling amounted to 6.72 per cent, general expense 5.91 per 
cent, salaries 4.29 per cent, royalty 0.78 per cent, and bad debts 
0.33 per cent. Owing to a peculiar condition existing in establish- 
ment No. 191 , no selling expense was reported. Royalty was reported 
in four establishments and, unlike royalty in other groups, was a 
payment for the use of a batch formula and not for machines. 

The establishments in this group had an average operating profit 
when computed without depreciation and interest of 13.94 per cent, 
an operating profit when computed with depreciation and interest of 
9.3 per cent, and a final profit of 9.93 per cent. Two establishments, 
before charging depreciation and interest, showed an operating loss 
and four establishments showed a loss after charging depreciation 
and interest. Of the establishments operating at a profit after 
charging depreciation and interest, two had a profit of over 20 per 
cent, four between 10 and 20 per cent, four between 5 and 10 per cent, 
and four less than 5 per cent; and of those operating at a loss one had 
a loss of 9.22 per cent and three under 5 per cent. 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



149 



Depreciation and interest together amounted to 4.64 per cent, of 
which 3.54 per cent was for depreciation and 1.1 per cent for interest 
paid. The two establishments having the greatest percentage of 
profit had no charges for interest. 

LAMP CHIMNEYS. 

Table 48, which follows, presents cost data in the form of per- 
centages for establishments manufacturing lamp chimneys. The 
percentages are based on the sales value of goods produced. 

Table 48.— Percentages of Costs, by Specified Items and Profits and Losses, 
Based on Total Sales Value of Goods Produced, by Establishments Manu- 
facturing Lamp Chimneys. . 



Items. 



Aver- 
age. 



Materials: 

Ratch 

Decorating 

Metal trimmings, etc. 
Packing 



7.40 

.46 

.06 

10.24 



Total materials . 



24.16 



Labor: 

Superintendent and foremen. 
Other factory labor 



2.30 

50.10 



Fuel, power, light, water 

Taxes, State, corporation, etc 

Insurance and workmen's compensation. 

Salaries: 

Officials 

Office force 



2.13 
1.06 






Total salaries 

General expense 

Total manufacturing and administration 

Selling: 

Salesmen 

Other selling expense 

Total selling expense 

Bad debts 



Total cost of goods produced 

( iperating profit on goods produced , computed 

without depreciation and interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, computed 

without depreciation and interest 



94. 70 
5.24 



Total sales value of goods produced. 



Depreciat ion 

Interest paid 

Operating profit on goods produced, computed 
with depreciation and interest 

Operating loss on goods produced, computed 
with depreciation and interest 



Miscellaneous expense. 
Miscellaneous income.. 



Final profit, depreciation and interest 
considered 

Final loss, depreciation and interest 
considered 



1.61 
.76" 



5.75 
.18 



4.12 
.12 



3.67 
.41 



3.00 
68.09 



3.60 
.11 
.55 



4.87 
.24 
.70 



2.42 
.18 
.53 



5.69 
2.55 



2.79 
.97 



1.05 
.41 



2.56 
.64 



2.39 
.64 



92.80 
7.20 



84.46 
15.54 



94.73 
5.27 



100.00 | 100.00 | 100.00 



9.17 

.64 

.10 

18.64 



28.55 



3.44 
44.17 



47.61 
6.87 



2.05 
1.26 



3.31 
4.75 
92.01 



.58 
4.67 

.10 
96.78 
3.22 




150 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Data were secured for six establishments, of which four were 
located in West Virginia and one each in Ohio and Oklahoma. 

Cost of materials for all establishments in this group averaged 
24.16 per cent of the sales value of goods produced. This compara- 
tively high percentage was due largely to the packing cost, which 
amounted to 16.24 per cent for all establishments and ranged from 
8.21 per cent in establishment No. 196 to 18.64 per cent in estab- 
lishment No. 200. 

Lamp chimneys, generally speaking, are packed for both the 
domestic and export trade with more care than any other of the 
glass products. The chimneys are generally wrapped in paper, 
placed in individual tubes or partitioned cardboard, and then placed 
in wooden cases, so that the comparatively high packing cost is dis- 
tinctive of this branch of the industry. 

This group ranked fourth in labor cost, the average being 52.40 
per cent. In establishment No. 196 the labor cost was 71.69 per 
cent and in establishment No. 198, 67.21 per cent. Of the remaining 
establishments three had a labor cost over and one under 50 per 
cent of the sales value of goods produced. 

Fuel, power, light, and water was lowest in this group, the average 
being 5.26 per cent. The highest cost was in establishment No. 200, 
6.87 per cent, and the lowest in establishment No. 198, 1.92 per cent. 
This low cost was due to the location of the factories in districts where 
natural gas is cheap. 

On the average, taxes and insurance showed about the same 
percentage of cost, being 0.46 per cent for the former and 0.43 per 
cent for the latter, although an examination of the percentages for 
the establishments, at first glance, would not indicate this relative 
position of these two items. Because of the effect of establishment 
No. 200, the averages do not reflect the actual relative position of 
taxes and insurance in the other five establishments. 

In establishment No. 195 no salaries were reported, nor was any 
estimate given as to the value of the services rendered by the owners. 
The average of 3.19 per cent would be somewhat higher if the per- 
centage had been computed for only the five establishments reporting 
salaries. 

General expense amounted to 4.03 per cent and was lowest in 
establishment No. 195, with 0.85 per cent, and highest in establish- 
ment No. 196, with 6.75 per cent. 

Selling expense showed no regularity and depended almost entirely 
upon the course pursued by the different establishments. The 
average was 4.52 per cent, the highest 8.97 per cent, and the lowest 
1.69 per cent. Bad debts were not found in two establishments 
and in those reporting such losses the range was from 0.1 per cent 
to 1.45 per cent. 

One establishment was operated at a loss of 10.88 per cent when 
computed without depreciation and interest, the charges for these 
items increasing the loss to 15.99 per cent. One establishment was 
barely operated at a profit after charging depreciation and interest, 
the profit being less than 1 per cent. Of the remaining establish- 
ments, after charging depreciation and interest, one had a profit of 
13.31 per cent, two between 5 and 10 per cent, and one less than 5 
per cent. 






COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 151 

! depreciation and interest paid amounted to l'.:!7 per cent, of which 
1.61 per cent was for depreciation and 0.76 per cent for interest 
paid. The former varied from 0.33 to 2.74 per cent, and the latter 
from 0.18 to 2.37 per cent. 

MISCELLAX EOUS ARTICLES. 

Table 49 presents costs data in the form of percentages for es- 
tablishments manufacturing a variety of articles that could not be 
1 to any one of the preceding groups. The percentages are 
based on the sales value of goods produced. 



152 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



153. 






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154 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Data were secured for 13 establishments located in Massachusetts* 
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana? 
and Illinois. As is indicated by the number of States, there is no 
centralization of this branch of the glass industry. 

The establishments in this group, producing a variety of articles 
from glass marbles to chemical goods and using different grades and 
varieties of materials, showed a wide variation in the total cost of 
materials. The highest percentage of cost was found in establish- 
ment No. 202, which was twice the average of 21.51 per cent and 
almost six times the lowest cost of 7.63 per cent in establishment 
No. 204. 

While undoubtedly some of the establishments, on account of their 
product, require a greater amount of skilled labor than others, yet 
the variation in the percentages are not so marked as in materials. 
In two establishments the percentage for labor was over 50 per cent, 
in five establishments between 40 and 50 per cent, and in six estab- 
lishments less than 40 per cent. 

Fuel, power, light, and water also shows a wide variation in the 
percentages, the average being 5.57 per cent, the highest 10.55 per 
cent, and the lowest 1.09 per cent. Owing to the diverse products 
of the establishments in this group, the variation in the percentages 
did not depend entirely upon the location of the factories, but to 
some extent upon the difference in the amount of fuel consumed for 
the proper fusion of the materials. 

Taxes and insurance amounted to 1.07 per cent, of which 0.58 per 
cent was for taxes and 0.51 per cent for insurance. The highest 
percentage for taxes was found in establishment No. 212, with 1.49 
per cent, and for insurance in establishment No. 208, with 1.24 
per cent. In othor establishments neither of these items amounted 
to as much as 1 per cent. 

Of the other items included in cost of goods produced, salaries 
ranged from 1.2 to 8.81 per cent, general expense from 0.95 to 13.1 
per cent, selling from 0.48 to 11.97 per cent, and bad debts from 
0.02 to 2.07 per cent in those establishments reporting such data. 

Although the average operating profit, computed without depre- 
ciation and interest, was exceeded by the average profit in machine- 
made bottles, Group VI, and lighting goods, Group XI, yet a greater 
percentage of the establishments were operated at a profit of over 
10 per cent than in either of the other two groups. One of the estab- 
lishments was operated at the remarkable profit of 40.45 per cent, 
but it so happens that this establishment has little effect on the 
average. Four establishments were operated at a profit between 
15 and 20 per cent, five between 10 and 15 per cent, and three at 
less than 10 per cent. After charging depreciation and interest, the 
average profit was 8.59 per cent, no establishment being operated at a 
loss. Depreciation ranged from 0.66 to 6.47 per cent and interest 
paid from 0.03 to 1.51 per cent in the establishments reporting such 
data. 

COST BASED ON TOTAL EXPENSES, EXCLUDING DEPRECIATION AND 
INTEREST. 

The preceding percentage tables in this section of the report were 
based on net sales or sales value of goods produced. The percentages 
for the items of cost based on the total cost of goods produced are 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 155 

different from those based on net sales or sales value of goods produced. 
If based on net sales or sales value of goods produced, profit is a 
part of the divisor, and in that case the percentage for each item of 
cost is smaller than when the computation is based on the total cost 
of goods produced; when there is a loss, the divisor is correspond- 
ingly smaller and the resulting quotients or percentages are larger. 

Perhaps the most striking way to call attention to the difference 
between other percentage tables in this section and Table 50, which 
follow-, is to state that the percentages in the former are based on 
receipts, or income, and those in Table 50 on expenditures, or outgo, 
whicn, however, excludes depreciation and interest. In the following 
table percentages are basea on the total cost of goods produced,, 
excluding depreciation and interest. 



156 



THE GLASS INDUSTKY. 



XIII. 

Miscel- 
laneous 
articles. 




l " 




CO 

o 


= 






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cmo6 


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1 
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I amp 

chim- 
neys. 


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s 

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■» CM 
CM—I 
CNi-i 


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CO-9< 


5 


« 


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Light- 
ing 
goods. 


00 MOO 
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cm * • 


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coco 


CO 

so 


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c/5 • • 


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00 
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o 

o 
d 
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Table- 
ware, 
blown 
and 

pressed. 


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d 


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1 


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Table- 
ware, 
blown. 


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cmcq 


CO 
CO 


— ™ 8 

CO 


CN rH 


oo 




K 


CM 

CO 


OCM 


00 


s 


8 

d 


VIII. 

Jars. 


l> 


g 


ss 


CO 


lOt- 
t-IO! 


CM 


ScsiS 


CM CO 
iOO 


CO 
CN 




CO 
CO 


CO 
CM 

id 

CD 


OCO 


s 


o 


8 
8 


VII. 

Bottles, 
hand 

and ma- 
chine. 


cm R§So 


S?3 


s! 


moo 

OCM 


CO 


£SS 


-5HO0 
CNCN 


CM 




s 


5 


SS2 


2 


§3 


8 

d 

o 


VI. 

Bottles, 
ma- 
chine. 


2 s 


m 


go 
cS 


d 

CO 


CM CM 

CO 


s 

oo 

CO 


CO CM JO 


COO 


s 




s 


p 

U5 


So 


t- 


s 


8 

I 


V. 

Bottles, 
hand. 


co -en 

CM 00 


CO 


COIO 
CM co 
t^CM 


CO 


CO CM 
lOco 


CO 
lO 


00 


ss 


!.' 




5 


3 

31 


§s 


30 


s 


o 

o 

8 


IV. 

Wire 
and 

opales- 
cent. 

goods. 


os r- 

3 


i- 


COiO 
COrt 
id 


CM 


OH 
"S3 


CO 


222 


CO A 


>o 




00 


s 
>d 

CO 


COrH 


3 


> 


8 
8 


III. 

Plate 
glass. 






iOO 




CO 

s 

CO 


CN>0 


oo 

CO 


OCOCO 
Ort 00 
WH • 


coco 


CM 
CM 




M 


CO 

S3 


ss 


CM 


o 


8 

d 

8 

I 


II. 

Win- 
dow 
glass, 
ma- 
chine. 


2 S 






£8 




00 CO 


s 


d "t-5 


3^ 


5 


O* 
^CO 


s 

ci 


2S 

CM 


CM 


N 


I. 

Win- 
dow 
glass, 
hand. 


55 S 






1~- CO 


CO 

id 


coco 

CO 


CM 


8SS 


OCO 


o 




r- 


lO 

/ 


"CO 


CO 


s 


8 


3 .2 "5 c 


2 SSsjSaaj 


CO 
CO 
lO 
CM 


So 

HO 


o 

CO 


-*"OCM 
CO 


0)0 
CN r-H 


CM 


C-ICM 


ot 


g§ 


00 


■CO 


8 

d 

o 


i 

3 


1 

a 

c 

E 
1 


03 


c. 

; 

c 
- 
P 


t 

t 

,£ 

I 


1 

E 

1 

~r 

I 

£ 

C 


1 

p- 


1 

c 
-; 

i 


i 


s 

o 


5 

I 

c 

I 1 


1 

1 
a 

o 

F4 
o 

"3 
r-> 

s 
■ 

C 
.Q 

o 


c; 

E 

a 

c 
E 

c 
f 
c 

1 

"r 
c 
E- 




7 
ci 

1 

\ 

p 
1 


1 

: 


c 

i 

c 

s 

c 

CJ 

1 

.£ 

-- 
; 

? 

f 




i- 

3 

DQ 


= 
o 




d 

c 
Eh 




■~ 

c 
- 

p 

: 

a 
> 

> 
c 
PS 


1 

= 

5 


( 


d 

_Q 

.a 
1 

3 
•d 
3 

bo 

5 
5 

3 

C3 

a 

o 
Eh 


1 

DQ 


- 
a 

! 


^ 

1 


1 

c 

a 

c 
Eh 


1 


1 


s 

- 

c 

p 

1 

OJ 

o 

C 

c 





COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



157 



Since the same general conditions apply to all tables showing 
percentages by groups, it does not seem necessary to discuss the 
above table, in view of the fact that these condition- have already 
been discussed on pages 106 to 112. 

As ihr lifferenl bases have been used in computing percentages 

for the tables in this section of the report, it may be of interest to 
compare the percentages for certain items when computed on the 
different bases. Table 51, which follows, shows percentages for five 
items of expense when based on net sales, sales value of goods pro- 
duced, and total cost of goods produced, excluding depreciation and 
interest. 

Tab£e 51. — Comparative Summary of Percentages for Five Items of Expense 
Computed on Different Bases. 









Cost of 








goods pro- 






Sales value 


duced , ex- 


rtems. 


Net sales. 


of goods 


cluding 






produced. 


deprecia- 
tion and 
interest. 




21.93 


22.70 


25.36 


Total labor 


40.57 


41.98 


46.90 


Fuel 


8.15 


8.43 


9.42 




3.39 


3.51 


3.92 




4.01 


3.92 









It will be seen in the above table that the percentages when com- 
puted on net sales are lower than when computed on either the sales 
value or cost of goods produced; that is, total net sales for all estab- 
lishments were greater in amount than either of the other bases. 

LOWEST AND HIGHEST COST ESTABLISHMENTS. 

Because of their location in natural-gas fields, some establishments 
had a decided advantage in fuel. Others had to produce their own 
gas from coal or pay a high rate for natural gas brought from distant 
fields. 

To bring the various establishments to a more comparable basis 
and confine the expenses to manufacturing and administration, the 
items of fuel, power, etc., selling expense, and bad debts were de- 
ducted from the total cost of goods produced. Percentages were 
then computed on this new base for the different groups and for 
establishments which' showed the lowest and highest percentage of 
cost in each group. In Table 52, which follows, are given the per- 
centages based on the total cost, excluding fuel, etc., selling expense, 
bad debts, depreciation, and interest for the various groups and for 
the lowest and highest cost establishment- in each group. 



158 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 52. — Average Percentages op Costs by Groups, and Establishments 
with Lowest and Highest Percentage op Cost in Each Group, by Specified 
Items, Except for Fuel, Power, Light and Water, Selling, and Bad Debts. 





Group L- 


-Window glass, hand. 


Group II.— 


Window glass, machine. 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 14. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 
No. 2. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 45. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 40. 


Total materials for product 


18.90 


9.98 


20.12 


22.99 


31.21 


21.05 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 


.71 
69.25 




1.34 

69.08 


2.07 
58.02 






Other factory labor 


75.08 


53.29 


57.35 


Total factory labor 


69.96 


75.08 


70.42 


60.09 


53.29 


57.35 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc. . 
Insurance and workmen's 


.05 
1.71 


1.15 

1.40 


1.35 
2.22 


.48 
1.82 


.40 
2.77 


.76 
2.14 






Salaries: 

Officials 


1.90 
1.4S 


5.04 
.94 




.58 
1.64 




1.80 




2.14 


1.84 


2.77 








3.38 


5.98 


2.14 


2.22 


1.84 


4.57 














4.64 
7.76 


8.35 
2.14 


6.32 




5.34 


6.41 


3.75 


7.81 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 




Grou] 


> III.-Plate 


glass. 


Group IV 


—Wire and 
glass. 


opalescent 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 52. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishrr 'nt, 

No. 63. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 58. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 62. 


Total materials for product . . . 


35.81 


24.49 


40.80 


39.70 


34.92 


37.48 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 


3.20 
41.94 


4.77 
53.94 


2.56 
31.37 


4.05 
27.82 




2.57 


Other factory labor 


33.18 


26.65 


Total factory labor 


45. 14 


58.71 


33.93 


31.87 


33.18 


29.22 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc. 
Insurance and workmen's 


1.37 


.98 
.60 


.74 
.96 


1.34 


3.54 
1.34 


.54 
1.09 






Salaries: 


1.99 
1.45 


2.03 
1.00 


1.27 
1.13 


4.67 
2.02 


11.82 
2.95 


5.47 




1.62 








3.44 


3.03 


2.40 


6.69 


14.77 


7.09 








13.20 


12.19 


21.17 


18.95 


12.25 


24.58 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHED 



159 



Table 52. —Average Percentages of Costs by Groups, and Establishments 
with Lowest a\d Highest Percentage ok Cost in Each Group, by Specified 
Items, Except for Fuel. Power. Light and Water. Selling, and Bad Debts — 
Continued. 



Group V.— Bottles, hand. 



Group VI.— Bottles, machine. 



[terns. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 74. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 


for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 
No. 97. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 98. 


Total materials for product... . 


24.33 


26.46 


24.09 


3r>. 12 


39. 52 


39.09 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 


1.78 
GO. 73 


3.07 
00.94 




1. 69 

44. 62 


2.40 

40.83 


1.32 


Other factory labor 


55.82 


48.00 


Total factory labor 


62. 51 


G4.01 


55.82 


46.31 


43.23 


49.32 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc. 
Insurance and workmen's 


.59 


.70 
.65 


.30 
1.92 


1.10 

.66 


.81 
.51 


.37 

.63 






Salaries: 


3.28 
2.22 






1.7S 
2.50 


.SI 

2.94 


1.70 




4.47 


.75 


1.62 








5.50 


4.47 


.75 


4.28 


3.75 


3.32 








6.09 


3.71 


17.06 


11.53 


12.18 


7.27 






Total manufacturing cost 


100. 00 


100.00 


lllll.O'l 


100.00 


100.00 


100. 00 



Total materials for product — 

Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 
men 

Other factcry labor 

Total factory labor 

Taxes, State, corporation , etc. . 

Insurance and workmen's 

compensation 

Salaries: 

Officials 

Office force 

Total salaries 

General expense 

Total manufacturing cost 



Group VII.— Bottles, hand and 
machine. 



I Lowest 
Average ; cost estab- 
for group, i lishment, 
No. 133. 



24.01 



1.22 
5S.53 



5.93 
4.04 



Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 131. 



1.21 

60. IS 



Group VIII.— Jars. 



Lowest : Highest 
Average cost estab- ; cost cstab- 
for group. | lishment, < lishment, 

Mn 1/13 I Vn i« 



2.09 
59.35 



7.10 | 



3.70 
100.00 



160 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 52. — Average Percentages of Costs by Groups, and Establishments 
with Lowest and Highest Percentage of Cost in Each Group, by Specified 
Items, Except for Fuel, Power, Light and Water, Selling, and Bad Debts — 
Continued. 





Group IX.— Tableware, blown. 


Group X.- 


-Tableware, 
pressed. 


blown and 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 156. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 150. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 169. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 163. 


Total materials for product 


16.59 


19.44 


12.83 


23.57 


17.69 


30.65 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 


2.70 
70.12 


2.97 
66.60 


5.32 
70.57 


2.86 
57.26 


3.61 
65.52 


2.61 


Other factory labor. „ 


50.74 


Total factory labor 


72.82 


69.51 


75.89 


60.12 


69.13 


59.35 


Taxes, State, corporation, etc. . 
Insurance and workmen's 


.75 
.82 


.80 


1.22 

.50 


.63 
.43 


.28 
.53 


.08 
.37 






Salaries: 


3.16 
1.44 


4.56 
1.12 


3.72 
2.20 


2.58 
1.96 


1.19 
3.87 






2.65 








4.60 


5.68 


5.92 


4.54 


5.06 


2.65 








4.42 


3.69 


3.64 


10.71 


7.31 


6.90 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 




Group : 


CI.— Lightin 


g goods. 


Group XII.— Lamp chimneys. 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 183. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 177. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 197. 


Highest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 196. 


Total materials for product 


27.81 


27.13 


17.35 


28.54 


21.52 


13.90 


Labor: 

Superintendent and fore- 


3. 63 

52.06 


1.92 
51.72 




2.72 
59.17 


2.02 
63.47 


2.95 


Other factory labor 


60.53 


67.49 


Total factory labor 


55.69 


53.04 


66.53 


61.89 


65.49 


70.44 


Taxes, State, coropration, etc. . 
Insurance and workmen's 


.72 
.55 


.77 
1.24 


1.16 

1.21 


.54 
.51 


.22 

.67 


.24 
.69 






Salaries: 

Officials 


2.40 
3.55 


6.64 
5.48 


3.41 
3.61 


2.51 
1.25 


3.52 
1.22 


5.59 




2.50 








5.95 


12.12 


7.02 


3.76 


4.74 


8.09 








1.08 
8.20 












5.10 


6.73 


4.76 


7.36 


6.64 






Total manufacturing cost 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 


100.00 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



161 



Table 52. — Average Percentages op Costs by Groups, and Establishments 
with Lowest and Highest Percentage of Cost in Each Group, by Specified 
Items. Except for Fuel. Power, Light and Water, Selling, and Bad Debts — 
Concluded. 





Group XIII.— Miscellaneous 
articles. 


Items. 


Average 
for group. 


Lowest 
cost estab- 
lishment, 

No. 201. 


Highest 

cost estab- 
lishment, 
No. 202. 




27.65 


23.04 


46.48 






Labor 


2.9S 
54.67 




2.42 




69.06 


43.27 








57.65 


69.06 


45.69 








.72 
.65 


.4-1 
1.3S 


.09 




.48 






Salaries: 


2.77 
1.99 


4."l4' 


* 












4.76 


4.14 










8.57 


1.93 










100.00 


100.00 









The above table shows wherein the lowest cost estabHshment was 
operated at a lower percentage of cost than the highest cost estab- 
lishments or the average for the group and also wherein it was 
operated at a higher percentage of cost. 

As an illustration, take the group making window glass by hand. 
Group I. The lowest cost establishment had a lower percentage of 
cost for materials, taxes, and insurance, but had a higher percentage 
for labor, salaries, and general expense than the highest cost estab- 
lishment. The greatest difference in cost was in materials, which in 
the main accounts for making establishment No. 14 the lowest cost 
establishment in this group. This difference in the cost of materials 
may be due to several reasons, among which may be mentioned 
(a) nearness to source of supply of materials, (b) quality of materials 
used, (c) greater efficiency in buying, (d) other items of expense 
relatively high. 



SALES IN PREVIOUS YEARS. 

Sales were obtained not only for the year covered by the report 
but for previous years in as many establishments as possible. The 
object was to compare the sales in previous years with those of the 
last business year, 1915. In Table 53, which follows, percentages 
that sales of previous years were of 1915 sales are shown by estab- 
lishments and groups. 
102511°— 17 11 



162 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 53. — Percentages that Sales in Previous Years Were op Sales in 1915, 
by Establishments and Groups. 

GROUP I.— WINDOW GLASS, HAND. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 4 




77.01 


60.55 
82.33 
80.84 


71.56 
96.72 
87.16 
92.17 


77.83 
159. 59 
111.49 
139. 95 

72.77 
135. 74 

54.51 

78.22 
123.63 
128. 11 


57.12 
101.92 
92.03 
94.31 
60. 90 
103. 57 
39.10 
89.20 
76.22 
58.09 
138. 32 
80.08 
94.06 


11.61 

89.87 
72.57 

100. 85 
76.45 
92.29 
70.49 
92.79 
91.60 
80.39 

109. 95 
85.50 
82.52 
86. 02 
65.38 


83.24 
126. 55 

82.30 
121.60 

74.09 
129.46 
102. 78 

95. 38 
106. 69 
122.21 
127.54 
116.99 

70.49 
127.44 

90.71 

71.24 
145.37 
103. 13 


94.63 

128. 55 
110. 89 
130. 88 
78.75 
118. 91 
100. 08 
98.19 
113.05 
125. 73 
127.45 
114.30 
96.86 
143. 79 
80.69 
69.14 
92.84 
91.17 
110.80 
151. 18 
102. 26 
82.13 


100. 00 


No. 16 




100. 00 


No. 17 






100. 00 


No. 15 






100. 00 


No. 5 








100. 00 


No. 28 










100. 00 


No. 25.... 










100.00 


No. 24 










100. 00 


No. 32 










100. 00 


No. 35 










100. 00 


No. 7 










100. 00 


No. 13 












100. 00 


No. 29 












100. 00 


No. 8 












100.00 


No. 36 















100. 00 


No. 9 














100. 00 


No. 12 














100.00 


No. 26 














100. 00 


No. 21 














100. 00 


No! J 27 

















100. 00 


No. 34 
















100. 00 


No. 30 
















100. 00 






















Average: 




77.01 


60.55 
76.30 


71.56 
86.39 
87.80 


77.83 
118.65 
123. 85 
108. 99 


57. 12 
86.57 
88.46 
76.88 
81.88 


11.61 

63.02 
72.25 
80. 73 
82.64 
80.74 


83.24 

96.81 
102. 86 
105. 93 
103. 92 
103.42 
103.81 


94.63 
112. 57 
117.04 
110. 86 
110. 39 
108.41 
105. 04 
105. 53 


100. 00 






100. 00 








100. 00 










100. 00 












100. 00 












100. 00 










1 




100. 00 
















100. 00 























GROUP II.— WINDOW GLASS, MACHINE. 



No. 46 








79.30 


102. 53 
23.59 


41.55 
27.90 


103.99 
20.80 
122. 17 
182.99 
65.12 


82.23 

53.02 
118. 26 
194. 78 

57.84 


84.74 
76.60 
94.21 
203. 81 
42.27 
52.95 


100. 00 


No. 45 








100. 00 


No. 38... 










100. 00 


No. 40 














100. 00 


No. 42 














100. 00 


No. 49 














100. 00 


No. 39 










































Average: 








79.30 


102. 53 
48.25 


41.55 
32.16 


103.99 
46.79 
71.13 
70.09 


82.23 

62.14 
84.11 
79.58 


84.74 
79.14 
95.99 
86.74 
78.94 


100. 00 










100. 00 












100. 00 
















100. 00 
















100. 00 























GROUP III.— PLATE GLASS. 



No. 51 






56.62 


82.04 


90.79 


82.07 
115.41 


74.05 
95.10 
131.78 


71.56 
103. 88 
124.25 


88.03 
115.81 
132. 86 

91.10 


100. 00 


No. 55.... 






100. 00 


No. 50.... 












100. 00 


No. 52 














100.00 






















Average: 






56.62 


82.04 


90.79 


82.07 
105.41 


74.05 
88.79 
96.64 


71.56 
94.18 
99.67 


88.03 
107.47 
112.11 
107.26 


100. 00 








100.00 














100.00 
















100. 00 








1 













COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



163 



Table 53. — Percentages thai Saj.es ix Phj coi a Yi \ i:s Were of Sales in 1915, 
bt Establishments and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP IV.— WIRE AND OPALESCENT GLASS. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


L912 


1913 


191) 


1915 










177.04 


243. 47 
186.15 
99.53 






195.34 
129.84 
106.42 
107.08 

87.76 
117.38 




No. 56 . . . 






177 18 




100 00 


No. 64.... 








114.68 1J4.61 


100.00 


No. 58 










125.12 


123.92 
102. 79 
111.04 


100. 00 


No. 60.... 










105. 2S 


100. 00 


No. 59 










100.00 


Average: 






















177.04 


243.47 
107.23 


207.07 
119.79 


220.00 
147. 51 


195.34 
110.42 
109. 10 
109.46 


100.00 








100. 00 












119.28 


144.14 

142.69 


100.00 










100. 00 













GROUP V.— BOTTLES, HAND. 



75 

79 

73 

B5 



81.05 
95.83 
100. 77 
83.56 



96.15 112.97 

91.04 100.49 

105.48 102.09 

83. 92 87. 09 

116.90 



106. 61 
64.22 



105. 70 
95. 00 
103. 15 
100. 67 
107.43 
83.03 
12.3. 38 
138. 36 
103. 65 
133. 07 



82.44 
91.62 
125. 61 
102. 51 
112.55 
89.64 
111.95 
108. 45 
110. 89 
138. 11 
120. 55 



132. 54 
82.43 
124. 71 
97.51 
10S. 67 
129. 3S 
125. 05 
114.53 
121. 25 
137. 20 
112.19 
173. 97 
165. 95 
60.92 



132.54 
110.21 
120. 26 
123. 95 
US. 08 
171.87 
120. 03 

96.19 
116.16 
122. IS 
120. 45 
200.31 
110.41 

96.87 
123.56 

97.67 



Average: 
2 establishments . . ] 90. 28 

4 establishments 

5 establishments 

6 establishments 

10 establishments 

11 establishments 
14 establishments 
16 establishments 




95. 53 
85.41 
87.44 
88.46 



.99 100.41 
35.55 101.55 
94.97 



SS. 17 
100. 54 
102.49 

97.92 
110.42 
111.34 



101.27 
104.07 
104. 82 
113.55 
118.74 
118. 15 
121.49 



US. 61 
120. 9S 
120.50 
138. 76 
122. 80 
122. 59 
122. 32 
121.48 



100. 00 
100. 00 
100.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 



100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100.01) 
100. 00 
100.00 



GROUP VI.— BOTTLES, MACHINE. 



No. 100 


i 




63.44 


72.82 


77.41 
139.92 
103. 19 

53.24 
120. 34 


63.90 

95.91 
122. 41 

60.69 
111.35 
106.35 
145. 12 

55.97 
153. 73 

90.88 


94.26 
130. 49 

184. 37 
79.25 

139. 18 
114.16 
189. 67 
86.51 

204. 82 

109. 83 

209. 38 
78.05 
91.82 


107. 70 
142. 53 
158.06 
96.56 
133. 21 
10S. 08 
212. 45 
133. 60 
220. 38 
127.91 
160. 66 
104. 59 
120. 07 


100. 00 


No. 103 


I 




100. 00 


No. 106.... 


1 






100. 00 


No. 104 


i 






100. 00 


No. 107 


j 








100. 00 


No. 92 










100. 00 


No. 93... 












100. 00. 


No. 94 


! 










100. 00 


No. 102.... 












100. 00 


No. 105 












100. 00 


No. 91 













100. 00 


No. 98 














100. 00 


No. 108.... 














100. 00 


















Average: 


, 




63.44 


72.82 


77.41 
97.40 


63.90 

94.28 


94.26 
128. 01 
132. 96 
116. 94 


107.70 
127.55 
138.44 
130.86 


100. 00 








100. 00 












100. 00 














100. 00 




















164 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 53. — Percentages that Sales in Previous Years Were op Sales in 1915, 
by Establishments and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP VII.— BOTTLES, HAND AND MACHINE. 



Establishments. 



No. 113. 
No. 124. 
No. 130. 
No. 122. 
No. 131. 
No. 109. 
No. 116. 
No. 119. 
No. 128. 
No. 120. 
No. 126. 
No. 123. 
No. 132. 



318. 10 
47.45 
75.47 



221.93 
39.92 
83.64 

130. 01 
80.47 



250. 17 
55.42 
104. 77 
137. 29 
87.09 
155. 66 
133.04 
237.23 
1S2. 89 



25(1. 15 
66.30 
112.52 
141.54 
83.65 
129. 50 
163.86 
151. 53 
157. 96 
50.10 
121.48 
12.".. OS 



210.52 
58.55 
110.72 
135. 49 
10s. 31 
162. 06 
133. 27 
152. OS 
1S3.60 
142. 43 
125.41 
13S.22 



2119.50 
43.65 
107. 16 
121.45 
84.37 
153. 92 
139. 76 
141.66 
97.07 
122. 87 
124. 59 
12S..52 
100. 07 



Average: 
1 establishment . . 
3 establishments . 
5 establishments . 
9 establishments . 

12 establishments 

13 establishments 



31S.10 

190. S3 



221. '13 
90.57 



256. 17 
112.00 
IDS. 03 
133. 7.s 



250. .).", 
118. 73 
111.70 
126. 26 
120. 91 



23.'. 47 
120. 55 
115. 14 

121.02 
124. 84 
117.88 



210.52 
114.21 
115.37 
132. 20 
132.60 
12.1.69 



200.5U 
100.29 
100. 61 
107. 56 
111.86 
110.27 



100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 



100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 



UROUP VIII.— JARS. 













75. 77 
102. 71 
69.94 
69. 44 


101.27 ' 39.48 
128.88 ! 108.24 
84.84 | 91.75 
70.77 ■ 77.12 
91.22 98.47 
81.69 89.65 


68. 62 
113.54 
103.51 
93.27 
119.57 
82.50 
60.26 
121. 30 
79. 41 
91.95 


100. 00 












100. 00 


No. 147 












100. 00 


No. 148 












100. 00 














100. 00 


No. 145 














100. 00 


No. 138 














100. 00 


















100. 00 


No. 143 .. . 
















100. 00 


No. 144 














100. 00 


















Average: 












77.97 91. 5S 85.89 


96! 62 


100. 00 
















90.41 i 86.96 


100. 00 
















100. 00 














| ! 





GROUP IX.— TABLEWARE, BLOWN. 



No. 150. 
No. 154. 
No. 149. 
No. 156. 



Average: 

1 establishment . . 

2 establishments. 

3 establishments . 

4 establishments . 



85.51 
105.47 



85.51 
99.64 



92. 19 
87. 03 



92.19 

88.96 



73.92 
114. 56 



79. 69 
116. 11 
43. 40 



7o. 69 
105. 4S 
96.31 



110.60 
89. 40 



61.09 
102. 52 

100. 50 



114.53 
1 12. 25 
108. 57 



89.56 
102. 65 
84.19 
91.40 



80. 56 
98. S3 
96.67 
94.28 



100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100.00 



100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 



COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



165 



Table 53. 



■Percentages that Sales in Previous Years Were of Sales i.v 1915, 
by Establishments and Groups — Concluded. 



P X.-TABLEWARE, BLOWN AND PRESSED. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 1 1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 167 

No. 171 

No. 158 






76.26 
92.98 


95.49 
106. 79 
120. S6 
111.20 
120.63 
146. 33 
112. 62 
110.11 
108.13 


112.62 
107.97 
L54.64 

124. 39 
169. 25 
161.09 
123.01 
108. 7-1 
129. 15 
Ho. 17 
68.50 
64.00 


100.01 
1)2.77 
152. 16 
126. M 
190. 57 
158.70 
128. 85 
110.93 
136. 74 
100.84 
93.92 
76.31 


97.38 
107. 72 
125. 19 
126. 91 

117.22 
117.10 
123. 62 
134. 36 
119. 30 
10S.32 
130. 94 
55.05 
71.23 


93.02 
119.82 
116.44 
118.42 
157. 1 1 
135. 45 
111.74 
93.71 
122. 50 
93.31 
112. 25 
100.09 
74.99 
76. 50 
84.79 


73. 15 
126. 05 
118. 75 
125. 57 
129. 51 
143.69 
142. 83 

97.86 
118.25 

84.69 

94.36 
113.54 

74.65 
107. 92 

97.67 


100.00 
100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


No. 161 



No. 168. ... 








100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


No. 170 

No. 1:1 

No. 163. ... 








100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


No. 172 

No. 173 

No. 169 








100.00 
100.00 
100.00 


No. 166 










:::::::: 


100.00 














100.00 












Average: 






S7.71 


103.23 
111.11 


109.43 
124. 73 
108. 4S 


108. 75 
128. 26 
114.49 


104. 47 
124. 42 
122.85 
115. 22 


111.38 
116.24 
112. 31 
107. 74 
106.84 


109.39 
114.87 
110.43 
107. 63 
107.24 


100. 00 














100. 00 










100.00 
























! 





GROUP XL-LIGHTING GOODS. 



No. 183 . . 






33.06 


39 7" 




58.06 
190. 69 
77.91 
99.00 


72.22 
119.51 
86.68 
100. 99 
90.63 
61.39 
95. 7S 
145. 50 
72.84 


90.00 
150. 39 

91.16 
106. 14 
10S.02 

90.47 
124. 51 
122. 44 

90.51 
157.08 


87.50 
116.25 

81.34 
107.65 
109. 74 
102. 54 
138. 35 
123. 12 

96. S8 
126.93 


100.00 


No. 181 .. . 






186,68 


196. 17 
75.95 
9S.62 


100. 00 


No. 193 








100. 00 


No. 186 










100. 00 


No. 179 










100. 00 


No. 184 












100. 00 


No. 187 .. 













100. 00 


No. 177 














100. 00 


No. 188 














100.00 


No. 192 














100. 00 




















Average: 






33.06 


39.72 
94.51 


54.44 
107.28 
85.19 


58.06 
107. 50 
86.60 


72.22 
89.85 
89.34 
86.48 


90.00 
112.51 
97.39 
99.15 
111.63 


87.50 
98.22 
S8.35 
96.37 
102.96 


100.00 








100. 00 










100.00 












100.00 
















100.00 












1 





GROUP XII.— LAMP CHIMNEYS. 



No. 197. 
No. 199. 
No. 200. 
No. 195. 



Average: 

3 establishments . 

4 establishments. 



49. 87 
72.24 
99.52 



(IS. 79 
90.66 



84.71 
84. 09 
93.57 



S6.02 
S6.30 



GROUP XIII.— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 



No. 20S. 
No. 206. 
No. 210. 
No. 211. 
No. 207 . 
No. 205. 
No. 201. 



Average: 

4 establishments. 

5 establishments . 

6 establishments . 

7 establishments . 



51.67 
54.61 

118.20 



100. 58 
50.56 
61.97 

117.21 
67.79 



97.96 
61.45 

77. G7 
132. 00 
88. 66 
76.00 



101.18 
68. SI 
82.19 

119.04 
S9.00 
79.45 
60.30 



96. .12 
95.46 
94.46 
94.47 



166 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



An examination of the above table shows that all groups are repre- 
sented in only the years 1912, 1913, and 1914. The average sales in 
Groups II, VIII, XII, and XIII were greater in 1915 than in the years 
1912, 1913, and 1914. The average sales in the other groups were 
less in 1915 than they were in the other years. 

PROFITS IN PREVIOUS YEARS. 

Profits in previous years were also obtained from as many estab- 
lishments as possible. In Table 54 percentages are shown for the 
Srofits of previous years based on the sales of that year, by estab- 
shments and groups. 

Table 54. — Percentages op Final Profit, Based on Sales op Each Year, 1906 
to 1915, by Establishments and Groups. 

GROUP I.— WINDOW GLASS, HAND. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 1908 1 1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 








0.40 
8.30 
11.61 
7.50 


3.18 
a 2. 34 
28.54 
20.70 
16.71 
22.98 
6.70 
6.54 
23.60 
a 1.35 


a 8. 11 

12.77 

6.98 

a 2. 67 

8.52 

a. 79 
a 18. 98 

4.90 
al.99 
ol.96 
17.79 
a 8. 25 

8.22 


a 16. 17 
5.06 
9.92 
5.26 

6.77 
a. 12 
5.24 
8.01 
2.42 
d.35 

o5.33 
2.54 
5.35 

a5.55 
5.07 


13.58 
13.76 
26.66 
21.15 
16.37 
26.30 
16.84 
9.20 
18.46 
13.52 
12.75 
12.95 

a %. 75 
17.43 
30.92 
4.75 
12.70 


19.04 
12.41 
11.23 
16.56 
16.08 
14.58 
11.80 

6.48 
16.04 
14.36 
10.13 
12.38 
21.09 
a 1.84 

8.43 
32.75 

5.37 

2.27 

12.67 

.55 

9.99 
10.81 


12.95 


No. 16 






5.02 

7.46 


7.47 


No. 17 






14.53 


No. 15 




:::::::: 


12.03 


No. 5... 




l .. 


8.08 


No. 28 




f 




10.97 


No. 25 








7.72 


No. 24 




::::::::i:::::::: 




6.36 


No. 32 








15.77 


No. 35 




i 




7.35 


No.7 




:::::::::::::::: 




10.59 


No. 13... 










5.62 


No. 29 








13.58 


No. 8 








»3. 67 


No. 36 










5.13 


No. 9 










8.17 


No. 12 












10.57 


No. 26 




i 








2.16 


No. 21 . . . 












4.35 


No. 27 














o.72 


No. 34 














8.57 


No. 30 . 














7.20 


















Average: _ 




3.05 


.38 .40 
5.22 7.97 


3.18 
11.03 
13.70 
13.31 


a8.ll 
6.71 
4.26 
1.07 
2.70 


o 16. 17 
6.49 
6.07 
4.05 
3.48 
3.19 


13. 5S 
18.44 
19.22 
16.15 
14.81 
14.02 
13.90 


19.04 
13.29 
14.19 
13.57 
14.04 
12.57 
12.36 
11.62 


12.95 






11.87 










7.86 


11.91 










10.30 










10.36 












9.09 














8.71 










1 




8.13 








1 









GROUP II.— WINDOW GLASS, MACHINE. 



No. 46 








4.54 


6.46 
13.55 


a 6. 95 
a 4. 99 


ol. 04 

a 43. 92 

18.71 

6.90 

1.29 


3.38 
24.56 

8.35 
18.29 

1.35 


12.75 
17.39 

o.42 
14.88 
1.41 
o.57 


1.94 


No. 45... 










No. 38 










ol. 46 


No. 40 
















No. 42 














9.57 


No. 49 














7.84 






















Average: 








4.54 


6.46 
8.84 


o6.95 
o5. 78 


a 1.04 
a 14. 15 
ol.31 


3.38 
15.81 
13.70 


12.75 
15.84 
12.93 
9.45 


1.94 










2.46 












2.46 














4.41 






















COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



167 



Table 54. 



Percentages op Final Profit, Based on Sales of Each Year, 1906 
to 1915, by Establishments and Groups — Continued. 



GROUP III.— PLATE GLASS. 



Establishments. 


1906 '; 1907 


190S 


L909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1911 


1915 


No.51 


5.18 


6.33 


21. 19 


8.58 
8.54 


"4.11 
10.36 
21.49 


a 12. 41 
11.25 
19.24 


3.39 
a 1.19 
15.12 
12.17 


1.57 




a 2. 46 










6.15 


No. 52 








11.80 


Average: 















a 5. IS 


6.33 


21.19 


8.58 
8.54 


a4.ll 
6.74 
10.25 


a 12. 41 
5.91 

8.95 


3.39 
". 07 
3.22 
4.98 


1.57 






a 1.25 












.10 














2.80 


















GROUP IV .-WIRE AND OPALESCENT GLASS. 



No. 57 








17.99 


25.69 
18.04 
5.92 


20.09 
18.42 
6.67 
29.33 
21.96 


8.06 
a9.09 

28! 79 
31.96 
4.17 


8.05 
oil. 88 
14.34 
24.23 
23.21 

5.63 


O21.06 


No. 56 










a 14. 56 


No. M 












5.52 














28.88 


No. 60 














21.51 


No. 59 














10-04 




















Average: 










17.99 


25.69 
8.17 


20.09 
7.99 
9.61 


8.06 
9.40 
10.97 
10.74 


8.05 
13.14 
14.06 
13.67 


a 21. 06 












3.99 














6.01 
















6.18 





















GROUP V.-BOTTLES, HAND. 



No.75 


3.71 
.66 
5.92 


4.48 
3.15 
9.97 


15.58 
2.17 
8.28 

14.67 


16.45 
o.06 

9.27 
15.38 

5.73 


o6.79 
.73 
4.44 
9.44 
3.74 


13.27 
1.10 
5.19 
6.35 
4.12 
9.54 
6.76 
4.67 


ol2.93 
o2. 80 
3.27 
8.15 
6.76 
10.72 
5.02 
1.31 
4.46 


11.42 
04. 76 
3.66 
8.32 
3.81 
10.31 
6.62 
1.09 
7.50 
11.50 
o3. 76 
15.28 


6.77 
0.68 
o.31 
8.65 
4.43 
3.24 
1.29 
2.03 
7.64 
10.91 
ol.l9 
11.56 
o3.82 
16.34 


3.84 


No. 79 


o2.07 


No. 73 


6.78 


No. 77 


10.91 


No. 89 






6.78 


No. 72 








2.62 


No.87 












3.20 


No. 90 












3.11 


No. 88 












7.25 


No. 67 














a. 18 


No. 86 
















o3.41 


No. 74 
















12.27 


No. 66 
















a. 18 


No. 78 


















10.83 






















Average: 
2 establishments . . 
3 establishments. . 


1.69 
3.05 


3.67 
5.71 


7.59 
7.79 
9.60 


6.04 
7.07 
9.06 

7.64 


1.79 
2.65 
4.30 
4.09 


5.98 
5.74 

5! 19 


06. 36 
2.74 
4.17 
5.25 
3.48 


3.19 
3.35 
4.55 
4.19 
3.29 
3.70 
3.18 


2.45 
1.62 
3.30 
3.91 
2.82 
3.31 
3.39 
3.70 


.15 
2.12 
4.24 








5.37 










4.08 














4.43 
















3.83 


















4.37 























168 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Table 54. — Percentages of Final Profit, Based on Sales of Each Year, 1906 
to 1915, by Establishments and Groups — Continued. 

GROUP VI.— BOTTLES, MACHINE. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 100 








a 1.93 


i8.34 


o 3. 68 
10.62 
29.80 
6.70 
33.30 


03.86 
21.05 
26.75 
17.34 
30.50 
4.90 
17.47 
30.35 
18.46 
29.93 


11.21 
10.49 
21.87 
13.84 
26.34 

23! 23 
17.84 
21.15 
42.85 
a 2. 23 
o4. 78 
9.45 


8.92 
10.67 
22.93 
18.30 
28.02 

7.85 
25.75 
30.88 
21.68 
40.89 

4.80 
a 4. 28 

5.69 




No. 103 








20.36 


No.106 












13.32 


No. 104 














No. 107 














No. 92 














No. 93 
















No. 94 
















No.102 
















No. 105 














24.66 


No. 91 
















No. 98 


















No. 108 
















4.31 




















Average: 










22! 26 


a 3. 86 
23.82 
23.53 


11.21 
20.13 
23.05 
18.35 


8.92 
21.05 
24.14 
17.23 


7.92 














14.58 



















































GROUP VII— BOTTLES, HAND AND MACHINE. 



No. 124 . 






10.40 
10.60 


17.07 
4.90 

10.26 
7.31 


11.29 
8.60 
4.92 
5.18 
7.08 
8.97 
4.11 

16.28 


9.45 
6.86 
7.06 
3.32 

5.37 
6.79 
o5.83 
10.74 
<*S. 89 
4.23 : 
2.66 


10.13 
9.47 
8.25 
2.43 
5.66 
8.90 
1.55 
7.86 

o4.24 
.51 
2.58 

13.91 
4.18 


7.45 
a. 84 

2! 03 
8.36 
1.12 
2.39 
9.49 
a. 60 
a. 19 
2.61 
9.29 
5.14 


2.30 
5.23 
1.45 
3.09 
11.45 
4.51 
a 1.00 

6! 88 
o3. 67 
2.61 
8.91 
10.06 




No. 130.. . 








No. 122 






.96 


No. 131 








oH.74 












No. 116 ... 










.87 


No. 119 










1.54 


No. 128 










4.84 


No. 120 . 












No. 126 ... 












a 10. 60 


No. 123 












.99 


No. 113 












9.38 


No. 132 . . 














7.30 


















Average: 






10.55 


7.08 
7.88 


9.13 
7.13 
9.06 


7.41 i 
6.27 
6.03 
5.12 


9.59 
7.33 
6.88 
5.21 

5.71 


.77 
1.57 
3.94 
3.07 
3.65 


4.77 
1.86 
2.83 
2.30 
3.68 


1.66 








o2.62 










o.51 












ol.50 














.05 



















GROUP VIII.-JARS. 



No. 142 












10.90 

10.62 

.99 

o3.47 


17.57 
2.99 

13.76 
3.66 

6'.42 


2.96 
.99 
15.13 
10.17 
5.25 
8.16 


0.06 
02. 65 
14.51 
10.57 
6.34 
1.15 
1.83 

8^58 
8.58 


5.03 


No. 146 












4.49 


No. 147 












9.85 


No. 14S . 












11.31 














2.05 


No. 145 














4.29 


No. 138 














0I.68 


No. 139 ... 


















3.-76 


No. 143 


















5.74 




















7.81 




















Average: 












5.94 


7.35 
7.23 


8.49 
8.24 


12.53 
11.32 
10.65 


15.83 














14.05 
















11.99 























COST AND PROFIT BY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



169 



Table 54. 



-Percentages op Final Profit, Based on Sat.es of Each Year, 1900 
to L915, by Establishments and Groups — Continued. 



GROUP IX.— TABLEWARE, BLOWN. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 150 

No. 154 


0.92 


6.28 


3.40 




15.06 
10.87 


3.91 
10.87 
8.09 


1 12. 49 
8.31 
5.70 


ol.68 
10.14 

17.17 


0.17 

12.54 

.05 

18.67 


5.26 
10.65 


No. 149 






1.16 








18.92 















Average: 

1 establishment... 

2 establishments. . 


.92 


6. 28 


3.40 


6.62 


a 5.06 
7.53 


3.91 
9.34 
15.37 


a 12. 49 
4.63 

4.77 


ol.68 
7.14 
6.89 

11.37 


.17 
9.27 

8.08 
12.74 


5.26 
9.07 












7.90 




12.90 











GROUP X.— TABLEWARE, BLOWN AND PRESSED. 



No. 171 2. 88 


10.02 
2.74 
9.22 

16.37 
3.32 

10.34 
3.08 

18.05 


5.26 
7.42 
8.86 
5.82 
3.95 

10.20 
4.49 

11.24 
3.93 
9.26 
9.41 

14.42 


5.92 
17.28 
10.98 
15.80 

1.08 
15.03 

2.89 
20.61 

2.38 
a 8. 19 

1.73 
14.24 


7.39 

14.87 

10.13 

16.28 

5.02 

18.28 

4.09 

18.33 

.44 

o4. 65 

8.78 

10. SI 

1.80 

.21 


4.73 
11.86 
11.56 
16.77 
ol.35 
18.53 
6.44 
19.24 
4.82 
15.07 
3.72 
4.91 
8.35 
6.26 
.58 


4.84 
19.99 
10.68 
16.94 
o.63 
20.65 
- 5.16 
21.74 

2.55 
10.39 

5.61 
30.85 

5.81 

5.87 


2.61 


No.158 


8.50 


No. 160 


7.89 


No. 161 


O7.03 


No. 159 


07. 84 


No. 16S 


o3.22 


No. 170 


5.05 






No.162 




6.10 








oil. 38 


No. 172 






2.03 










No. 166 






8.23 


No. 169 








20.90 


No. 165 








5.12 














Average: 


2. 88 


10.02 
10.47 


5.26 
7.59 

8.34 


5.92 
9! 85 


12! 14 
10.39 
9.75 


4.73 
11.66 
9.46 
9.25 
8.97 


4.84 
12.51 
10.50 
11.27 
11.08 


2.61 






.99 




1.82 






f 3.60 








3.67 






1 







GROUP XL-LIGHTING GOODS. 



No. 183 




o24.37 on. 88 

10. ss 


03. 83 
9.54 
23.23 


8.13 
5.73 
21.94 


6.15 
o7.57 
25.31 
04.88 
19.17 
.74 
o.48 
2.63 


4.63 
o2.92 
23.64 
0I.68 
13.36 

4.55 
o4.77 

6.32 
19.44 


9.52 

1.94 

24.31 

07. 08 

13.42 

.16 

2.23 

6.84 

13.75 


14.92 


No. 181 




04. 63 


No. 193 

No. 179.... 







20.38 


No. 184 








15.06 


No. 187 




:::::::::::::::: 






1.11 


No. 177 












No. 188.... 










7.50 


No. 192 










21.28 

















Average: _ 




o24.37 011.88 
4. 88 


03. 83 
5.29 
18.04 


8.13 
6.54 
17.57 


6.15 
o.65 
19.34 
13.84 


4.63 
.87 
17.68 
13.00 
15.10 


9.52 
6.18 
19.63 
12.86 
13.12 


14.92 




:::::::::::::::: 


7.63 








17.53 









13.67 












15.44 






■1 











GROUP XII.-LAMP CHTMNEYS. 



No. 197 










4.56 

.03 

a 1.14 


10.29 
-4.00 
6.63 
8.22 


14.34 
4.83 
4.26 
8.03 


14.31 


No. 199 










7.05 


No. 200 









. 


2.47 


No. 195 










6.73 
















Average: 










o.59 


C.73 
6.75 


5.78 

5.S7 


4.67 












4.75 

















170 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 54. — Percentages op Final Profit, Based on Sales op Each Year, 1906 
to 1915, by Establishments and Groups — Concluded. 

GROUP XIII.— MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES. 



Establishments. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


No. 208 












13.63 
8.14 

16.05 
6.12 


9.45 
1.17 

16.87 
6.01 
5.80 


2.53 
4.11 

11.05 

4.44 

a 1.70 

17.17 


2.48 
4.77 
18.73 
7.94 
5.38 
17.34 
29.68 


9.6 


No. 206 














No. 210 














No. 211 












6.28 


No. 207 














No. 205 
















No. 201 
















32.30 






















Average: 












10.34 


9.22 
8.83 


5.86 
4.88 
5.50 


9.71 
9.14 
9.58 
9.61 


12.68 














12.05 
















12.09 


















12.15 























A study of the above table shows the irregularity of profits, not only 
in individual establishments but of the average profit in each group as 
well. This irregularity, in some establishments at least, is due partly 
to whether or not depreciation was charged. Some establishments do 
not charge depreciation regularly, but only in those years which show 
a substantial profit. In some years, then, depreciation may or may 
not have been considered in computing the rate of profit. No attempt 
was made to go behind the figures, the percentages being based on the 
profits and sales as shown on the books of the various companies. 
Five of the thirteen groups showed a higher and eight a lower average 
profit in 1915 than in 1914. Groups III, IV, and X reached their high- 
est average profit in 1914, Groups I, II, VI, and XII in 1913, and Group 
VII in 1912. 



CHAPTER V. 
COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 

The manufacturers who furnished data respecting their total pro- 
duction and net sales were requested to supply also data as to the 
cost of production of the specific articles of glassware that formed the 
major portion of the ware produced. Great difficulty was found in 
obtaining accurate cost data, not only because of the great variety 
of articles produced but more particularly because most of the 
establishments used very crude cost-finding systems, which in many 
cases were obviously inaccurate. 

Data were secured only from plants that had a reasonably accurate 
cost-finding system, based on actual records of unit production. 
Wherever possible cost and prices were obtained as they were before 
they were affected by the war in Europe. 

Lack of uniformity in the systems and records of those plants that 
furnished cost data makes it impossible to present the detailed items 
of cost of materials, labor, and overhead charges. For this reason 
only total cost, net selling price, and the profit or loss are shown. In 
a number of instances where splendid records were kept the agents 
could not use the data without divulging the identity of the estab- 
lishments. Such was the case in several plants manufacturing glass 
bulbs for the incandescent lamp industry. 

TABULATION OF COST AND PROFIT BY ARTICLES. 

Data were obtained for 259 separate units from 29 establishments 
that manufactured bottles, jars, stem ware, tumblers, other table- 
ware, and lamp chimneys. The total cost of producing and selling 
these articles, the prices at which they were sold, and the profits 01 
losses are shown in the following series of tables. 

The number of establishments reporting, the number of units of 
each class reported, and the number of units manufactured at a profit 
or loss are shown in Table 55, which follows: 



Table 55. 



-Number of Establishments Reporting and Number or Units Show- 
ing Profits and Losses, by Class of Ware. 



Class of ware. 


Establish- 
ments 
reporting. 


Unit s 
reported. 


Units 
shoving 
profits. 


i nits 
showing 
losses. 


Units sold 
at cost. 




11 
7 
9 
6 

10 
4 


66 
28 
62 

16 
49 

3S 


54 
24 
52 

16 
45 
30 


12 






4 







8 1 2 








4 .. 




7 1 1 






Total 


29 


259 


221 


35 


3 







In the above table the figures in the column showing the number of 
establishments reporting do not add to the total for the reason that 
in some of the establishments more than one class of ware is made. 



172 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 56. — Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manufacture of Lime-Glass 

Tumblers. 



Establish- 
ment. 


Description. 


Blown or 
pressed. 


Net 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


No. 162 


Table tumbler. 10 ounces 


Bressed . . . 


$0.50 


SO. 40 


$0.10 




No. 164 


do 


...do 


.33 


.30 


.03 




No. 176 


Table tumbler, 10 ounces, straight ■ 


Blown 


.23 


.20 


.03 




No. 188 


Table tumbler, 10 ounces, colonial tapered.. . 


Pressed . . . 


.22 


.23 




SO. 01 


No. 171 


Table tumbler, 9 ounces, blown light 


Blown a... 


.33 


.31 


.02 




No. 165.... 




Pressed . . . 
...do 


.40 
.33 


.27 
.29 


.13 
.04 




No. 1.58 


Table tumbler, plain 




No. 188 


Table tumbler, plain, cut star bottom 


...do 


.28 


.32 




.04 


No. 171 


Table tumbler 


...do 


.13 


.12 


.01 




No. 182 


Ice tea tumbler, 12 ounces 


...do 


.67 


.60 




.07 


No. 176 


Ice tea tumbler, 9 ounGes 


...do 


.14 


• .12 


.02 




No. 182 


Soda tumbler, 12 ounces, optic 


...do 


.60 


.51 


.09 




No. 162 


Soda tumbler, 12 ounces, bell 


...do 


.52 


.36 


.16 




No. 164 


do 


...do 


.40 


.38 


.02 




No. 188 


do 


Blown 


.38 


.31 


.07 




No. 176 


do 


...do 


.34 


.23 


.11 




No. 176 


do 


Pressed . . . 


.28 


.18 


.10 




No. 162 


Soda tumbler, 10 ounces, bell 


...do 


.47 


.33 


.14 




No. 164 


do 


...do 


.37 


.34 


.03 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 


.30 


.22 


.08 




No. 166 


do 


...do 


.28 


.25 


.03 




No. 176 


do 




.25 


.16 


.09 




No. 162 


Soda tumbler, 8 ounces, bell 


...do 


.42 


.28 


.14 




No. 182 


do 


...do 


.37 


.59 




.22 


No. 164 


do .. 


...do 


.32 


.31 


.01 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 


.27 


.21 


.06 




No. 176 


do 




.23 


.15 


.08 




No. 162 


Soda tumbler, 7 ounces, bell 


...do 


.41 


.26 


.15 




No. 164 


do 


...do 


.32 


.28 


.04 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 


.27 
.48 


.20 

.37 


.07 
.11 




No. 158 






No. 164 


Whisky tumbler, 3 ounces, plain 


...do 


.25 


.17 


.08 




No. 176 


do 


...do 


.18 


.11 


.07 




No. 176 


do 


Blown 


.18 


.16 


.02 




No. 158 


Whisky tumbler, 2 ounces, heavy bottom. .. 


Pressed . . . 


.33 


.30 


.03 




No. 164 


Whisky tumbler, 2 ounces, plain 


...do 


.23 


.17 


.06 




No. 176 


Whisky tumbler, 2 ounces, fluted 


...do 


.18 


.09 


.09 










.18 


.15 


.03 




No. 164 


Whisky tumbler, 11- ounces, plain 




.22 


.14 


.08 




No. 176 


Whisky tumbler, U ounces, fluted 


...do 


.18 




.10 




No. 176 






.18 


.15 


.03 




No. 176 


Whisky tumbler, 1 ounce, plain 


...do -.. 


.18 


.14 


.04 




No. 174 




Pressed . . . 
...do 


.26 
.53 
.24 
.40 
.20 
.80 


.24 
.45 
.22 
.34 
.15 
.72 


.02 
.08 
.02 
.06 
.05 
.08 




No. 162 






No. 174.... 


.do 


Blown 

Pressed . . . 
Blown 




No. 162 






No. 166 


do 




No. 162 


Beer glass, 12 ounces, heavy 




No. 166 




Blown 


.31 


.27 


.04 











•■ Made of lead glass. 



Table 57. 



-Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manufacture , of Lime-Glass 
Stem Ware, Pressed. 



Establish- 
ment. 


Description. 


Net 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


Profit. 


No. 170 




SO. 30 
.86 
.70 
.69 
.40 
.26 
.18 
.43 
.35 
.53 
.19 
.16 
.13 
.59 
.37 
3.00 


SO. 28 
.72 
.52 
.65 
.36 
.24 
.16 
.32 
.29 
.41 
.17 
.15 
.12 
.42 
.30 
2.10 


SO. 02 


No. 171 




.14 


No. 176 .. . 




.18 


No. 182 




.04 


No. 164 




.04 


No. 170 .. . 




.02 


No. 170 




.02 


No. 182... 




.11 


No. 182 




.06 


No. 182 




.12 


No. 170 




.02 


No. 164 




.01 


No. 170 




.01 


No. 182 




.17 


No. 164 




.07 


No. 162 




.90 









COST AND PKOFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



173 



Table 5S. — Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manutactuiik op Lamp < 'himneys. 
Gas Globes, and Lantern Globes. Blown. 



Establish- 
ment. 


Description. 


Kind of glass. 


selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 197 


Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 3, paste 

mold. 
Lamp chimney, student, Rochester, No. 

3, 10 inches, paste mold. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2, flint, 

in cartons. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2, 10 

inches, paste mold. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester. No. 2. offhand 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 2, paste 

mold. 
Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 1, paste 

mold. 
do 


One-half lead. 
do 


$1.00 

.45 

.:.! 
.50 

.45 

.45 

.45 

.40 

.40 

.45 
.35 
.35 

.34 

.31 
.30 

.30 

.26 
.59 

.50 
.50 
.50 

.45 
.50 

.50 

1.53 

'.99 
1.24 
.94 
.84 
.65 

.33 

.33 

.38 

.22 

.3, 

.28 
.28 


$0.94 
.42 
.41 

.48 

.37 
.38 

.37 

.33 
.27 

.50 
.31 
.32 

.44 

.30 

.28 

.41 

.26 
.46 

.37 
.55 
.49 

.37 

.41 

.47 

1.04 
.81 
.81 
.85 
.71 
.63 
.45 

.40 

.47 

.40 

.15 

.28 

.22 
.24 


SO. 00 

.03 

.13 

.02 

.08 
.07 

.08 

.07 
.13 

""'.oi' 

.03 

.01 

.02 




No. 200 

No. 200 


One-half lead. 




No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 200 


do 

One-half lead. 




No. 200. . 


Lamp chimney, Rochester, No. 0, paste 

mold. 
Lamp chimney, Sim, No. 2, plain 


do 

One-half lead. 




No. 200 

No. 197 ... 


SO. 05 


No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 200 


Lamp chimney, Sun, No. 2, plain, off- 
hand. 

Lamp chimney, Sun, No. 2, crimp top, 
offhand, 
.do 


do 

One-half lead. 


.10 


No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 200.... 


Lamp chimnev, Sun, No. 1, plain top, 

offhand. 
Lamp chimney, Sun, No. 1, crimp top, 

offhand. 

. do 


do 

One-half lead.. 


.11 


No. 197 

No. 200 

No. 200 


Lamp chimney, Phoenix, No. 2, flint, 

. ed, in tubes. 
Lamp chimney, Phoenix, No. 2, offhand. 


do 

do 

One-half lead.. 
do 


.13 

.13 

"~~.~6i" 

.OS 
.09 

.03 

.49 
.48 
.18 
.39 
.23 
.21 
.20 

.07 

.03 

.06 
.04 


:::::::: 

.05 


No. 200 

No. 200 


Lamp chimney, B. & H., No. 2, paste 

mold. 
Lamp chimney, B. & H., No. 2, offhand. 
Lamp chimney, electric, No. 2, flint, in 

tubes. 
Lamp chimney, Belgian, No. 1, 10| 

inches, paste mold. 

es, C. R. I., ball, 7 inches 

: .es, C. R. I., ball; 6 inches 

lobes, C. R. I., ball, 5 inches 

Gas globes, tungsten, 8 inches, C. R. I... 

bes, tungsten, 7 inches, O. R. I... 

ies, tungsten, n inches, C. R. I... 

Gas globes, 6f-inch air hole, iron mold, 

opal. 
Gas globes, 5 inches, upright, paste mold. 
Gas globes, 4J inches, inverted, frosted, 

paste mold. 
Gas globes, 5J inches, inverted, mission, 

paste mold" 
Gas globes, 3} inches, inverted, half- 
frosted apple. 
Lantern globe, Junior, cold blast, No. 2, 

iron mold. 
. .do 




No. 197 

No. 200 

No. 184 


One-half lead.. 
do 




No. 184 

No. 184 

No. 184 

No. 184 

No. 1S4 

No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 200 

No. 188 


do 

.....do 

do.., 

do 

do 

One-half lead.. 
do 

do 


.07 
.14 

.02 


No. 200 

No. 200 


do 

.do 




No. 200 


Lantern globe, tubular, iron mold 


do 








174 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Table 59. — Cost and Profit per Dozen in the Manufacture of Lime-Glass 
Tableware, Pressed. 



Establish- 
ment. 



Description. 



Net 
selling 


Total 






$1.60 


SI. 31 


1.59 


1.65 


1.50 


.88 


1.50 


1.18 


.72 


.62 


.70 


.67 


.60 


.43 


.60 


.48 


.50 


.47 


.75 


.79 


.85 


.60 


.80 


.65 


.76 


.62 


.60 


.64 


.68 


.66 


.45 


.54 


.44 


.36 


.38 


.28 


.30 


.24 


.25 


.25 


.22 


.20 


.22 


.22 


.15 


.14 


.12 


.11 


.11 


.10 


.85 


.65 


.80 


.49 


.80 


. 93 


.68 


.54 


.65 


.48 


.60 


.36 


1.21 


1.39 


.75 


.85 


.72 


.58 


.65 


.50 


1.35 


1.05 


.90 


.79 


.80 


.62 


.80 


.53 


2.40 


1.75 


2.50 


2.00 


1.10 


.99 


.75 


.57 


.90 


.54 


2.97 


3.52 


2.20 


1.73 


2.20 


1.85 


2.19 


1.80 


6.64 


5.00 


2.54 


1.40 


.48 


.38 


.45 


.35 


.40 


.25 


.35 


.29 


.37 


.34 


.80 


.50 


.60 


.50 


.42 


.34 


.50 


.40 


.44 


.37 


.40 


.30 


.30 


.24 



Profit. I Loss. 



No. 174.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 165.... 

No. 162 

No. 170.... 
No. 188 
No. 170.... 
No. 170.... 
No. 176 ... . 

No. 164 

No. 162.... 
No. 165.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 164.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 162.... 
No. 165.... 
No. 164.... 
No. 170.... 
No. 188.... 
No. 170.... 
No. 170.... 
No. 176... . 
No. 162.... 
No. 165.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 164.... 
No. 188.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 164.... 
No. 170.... 
No. 188.... 
No. 162.... 
No. 165.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 174 ... . 
No. 162.... 
No. 188.... 
No. 176.... 
No. 176.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 162.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 182.... 
No. 188.... 
No. 162.... 
No. 165.... 
No. 188.... 
No. 166.... 
No. 162.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 170.... 
No. 164.... 
No. 174.... 
No. 162.... 
No. 165.... 



Nappy, 

do.. 

....do.. 
....do.. 



N'appy, 
Nappy, 
N'appy, 
Vappy, 
Nappy, 
Nappy, 
Nappy, 

'.'.'.'.do. 

do. 

Nanpy. 
N'appv. 

do. 

....do. 



8 inches, finished, joint mold 

8 inches, imitation cut 

8 inches, unfinished, block mold. 
8 inches, unfinished, joint mold . 

8 inches, joint mold 

7 inches 

6 inches 



5 inches. 
4 inches. 



....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 

Nappy, 

Nappy, 
Nappy. 



4 inches, unfinished, joint, mold . . 
4 inches, unfinished, block mold . 
4 inches 



Sugar bowl and cover, handled. 

Sugar bowl and cover 

'.do. 



Sugar bowl and cover, star bottom . 

Sugar bowl, no cover 

do 



.do. 



Sii-ut bowl and cream set 

Jug, ice, tea, 73 ounces 

Jug, ice tea, 65 ounces , 

Jul;, ice tea, 3 pints, imitation cut 

Jug, ice tea, 3 pints 

Jug, ice, 12 ounces, handled (blown) 

('a nl> ard, .', gallon. 

Tankard, 63J ounces 

Tan kard, 3 pints (blown) 

Water bottle, 1 quart 

Decanter, 26 ounces, pressed stopper 

Cruet, oil or vinegar, 6 ounces, pressed stopper 
Cruet, oil, 7 ounces, art neck, cut star bottom. 

Egg cup, 4 ounces 

do 



....do 

Egg cup, double cup . . . 
Fintier bowl, 11 ounces, 
.do. 



Finger bowl, 11 ounces, finished. 

Finger bowl, 10 ounces 

Plate, 6 ounces 

do 

do 



SO. 29 






$0.06 


.62 




.32 




.10 




.03 




.17 




.12 




.03 






.04 


.25 




.15 




.14 






.04 


.02 






.09 


.08 




.10 




.06 




.02 




.01 




.01 




.01 




.20 




.31 






.13 


.14 




.17 




.24 






.18 




.10 


.14 




.15 




.30 




.11 




.18 




.27 




.65 




.50 




.11 




.18 




.36 






.55 


.47 




.35 




.39 




1.64 




1.14 




.10 




.10 




.15 




.06 




.03 




.30 




.10 




.08 




.10 




.07 




.10 




.06 





COST AND PROFIT BY SPKCIF1I.D UNITS. 



175 



Table 60.- 



■Cost and Profit in ran Manufacture of Machine-Made Milk Jars, 
I im it Jars, and Packing and Preserving Tumblers. 



Establish- 
ment. 


Description. 


Unit. 


Nel 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


No. 112 


Milk- jar. 1 quart . flint 


Gross 


$4.20 


$4.00 


$0.20 




No. 141 


do 


do.... 


3. 45 


3.27 


.18 




No. 142 


Milk i:ir. 1 pint, flint 


do.... 


2.90 


2.75 


.15 




No. Ml 


do 


do.... 


2.25 


2.21 


.01 




No. 140 


Mason jar. 32 ounces 


do.... 


2.99 


3.12 




$6.13 


No. 140 


Mason jar, 26 ounces 


do.... 


2.95 


2.91 


.04 




No. 140 


Mason iar. 20 ounces 


do.... 


2.67 


2.55 


.12 




No. 140 


Mason jar. 10 ounces 


do.... 


2. 15 


2.10 


.05 




No. 188 


Packer, J gallon, glass ears, wooden handle. . 


Dozen 


.57 


.44 


.13 




No. 140 




Gross 

do 


3.12 
1.9S 


2.60 
1.70 


.52 


No. 140 


igon.jam 


• 28 | 


No. 140 


Preserver, dl ounces 


do 


1.67 


1.52 


.15 


No. 140 


Preserver, 8 ounces, octagon, pickle 

6 ounces, Bat, pickle 


do 


1.91 


1.66 




No. 140 


do 


1.81 


1.47 


.34 


No. 110 


Preserver, •" ounces, mustard jar 


do 


1.46 


1.22 


.24 


No. 140 


Preserver, 4 1 . ounces, cvlinder. olive 


do 


1.39 


1.34 


.05 1 


No. 140 


Tn miliar. Hi ounces, lonu 


do 


2. 95 


2.76 


.19 


No. 140 


Tumbler, 12 ounces, lone 


do 


2.43 


2.24 


.19 


No. 174 




Dozen 

do 


.25 
.19 


.22 
.17 


.03 

.02 




No. 174 


Tumbler. 12 ounces, iellv 




No. 174 


Tumbler. 10 ounces, iellv 


do 


.18 


.16 


.02 


No. 162 






.50 


.47 


.03 


No. 176 


Tumbler, 8 ounces, jellv.no cap 


do 


.09 


.10 


01 


No. 140 


Tumbler. 7J ounces, jellv 


do 


.11 


.12 




.01 


No. 174 


Tumbler. 7 ounces, jellv • 


do 


.12 


.11 


.01 




No. 174 


do... 


do 


.10 


.08 


.02 




No. 188 


Tumbler, 6 ounces, jellv, crvstal 


do 


.11 


.09 


.02 




No. 176 


Tumbler, 6 ounces, jelly, no cap 


do 


.08 


.09 




.01 



Table 61. — Cost and Profit per Gross in the Manufacture of Bottles. 



Estab- 
lish- 
ment. 


Description. 


Contents. 


Weight 

in 
ounces. 


Hand or 
machine 
made. 


Net. 
selling 
price. 


Total 
cost. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


No. 132... 
No. 79... 

No. 87.... 

No. 119... 
No. 90.... 

No. 132... 

No. 79.... 

No. 119... 

No. 87.... 
No. 90.... 

No. 82.... 

No. 130... 
No. 132... 
No. 119... 
No. 87.... 
No. 90.... 

No. 113... 

No. 82.... 
No. 130... 

No. 132... 

No. 119... 

No. 87.... 
No. 90.... 

No. 113... 


Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 
Prescription, round, wide 

mouth, flint. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 

do 

Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 
Prescription, round, wide 

mouth, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 

Prescription, oval", narrow 

neck, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 
neck, flint. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Prescription, oval, narrow 

nock, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 
neck, flint. 

do 

Prescription, ammonia, long 

neck, flint. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 
neck, flint. 

do 

do 

Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 
neck, flint. 


32 ounces . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

16 ounces.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

10 ounces. 

8 ounces... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

6 ounces... 

4 ounces... 

do 

do 

do 

do 


20 

20 

20 

19 
20 

12 

12 

11* 

12 
12 

12 

11 

7 
7 
7 
7 

7 

7 
8 

4 

< 
4 
4 

4 


Hand... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Machine 
Hand... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Machine 

Hand... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 


$5. 50 

5.00 

4.92 

4.92 
4.61 

3.65 

3.25 

3.24 

3.24 
3.04 

2.70 

2.35 
2.66 
2.24 

2.24 
2.10 

2.00 

1.85 
2.00 

1.S5 

1.72 
1.72 
1.61 

1.53 


S4.59 

4.15 

4.19 
4.08 

3.16 

3.35 

3.02 

3.06 

2.85 

2.28 

2.30 
2.05 
2.02 
2.06 
1.91 

1.44 

1.63 
1.87 

1.56 

1.43 
1.50 
1.42 

1.30 


SO. 91 

.77 

.73 
.53 

.49 

.18 
.19 

.42 

.05 
.61 
.22 
.18 
.19 

.56 

.22 
.13 

.31 

.29 
.22 
.19 

.23 


SO. 30 
.10 



176 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Table 61. — Cost and Profit per Gross in the Manufacture of Bottles. — Con. 



lish- 

ment. 



No. 82.. 

No. 132. 
No. 119. 
No. S7-. 
No. 90.. 

No. 113. 

No. 82.. 
No. 99.. 

No. 134. 
No. 87.. 
No. 79.. 
No. 90.. 

No. 134. 
No. 134. 

No. 132. 
No. 128. 
No. 99.. 
No. 90.. 

No. 99.. 
No. 132. 
No. 79... 
No. 90.. 
No. 87.. 
No. 132. 
No. 90... 
No. 87... 
No. 82... 
No. 130. 
No. 79... 
No. 113. 
No. 87... 
No. 90... 
No. 132. 
No. 132. 
No. 113. 
No. 87... 
No. 90... 
No. 87... 
No. 90... 
No. 87... 
No. 90... 
No. 90... 



Description. 



Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 
do! 



....do 

do 

Perscription, oval, narrow 

neck, green. 
Prescription, oval, narrow 

neck, flint. 
....do 



Beer, bulb neck, export, am 
ber. 

Beer, bulb neck, export, green 

Beer, bulb neck, export, flint 

do 

Boer, bulb neck, export, am- 
ber. 

Beer, taper neck, amber 

Beer, bulb neck, export, am- 
ber. 

do 

Beer , bulb neck, export, greer 

do 

Beer, bulb neck, export, am- 
ber. 

Soda,bulb neck, export, green 

do 

Brandy, green 

Brandy, amber 

Brandy; flint 

Brandv, amber 

....do'. / 

Brandv, flint 

....do 

Whisky, amber 

Wine, flint 

Nursing, round, flint 

....do 

....do 

do 

Nursing, flat, flint . . . 

....do: 

....do 

.do. 



Ink, square, flint 

Ink, square, green 

Ink, cylindrical, flint.. 
Ink, cylindrical, green. 
Ink, cone, green 



Contents. 



4 ounces. 

2 ounces. 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 

....do... 



1 quart. 

....do.. 
1 pint . . 

do.. 

....do.. 



...do. 

...do. 

...do. 
...do. 
...do. 
pint . . 



1 pint . 
J pint . 



..do.. 
..do.. 
..do.. 
..do.. 



8 ounces. 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 



2 ounces. 
....do.-.. 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 



Weight 



Hand or 

machine 



Hand . . . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Machine 

...do 

Hand... 

...do 

...do 

Machine 
...do 

...do 

Hand . . . 

Machine 
Hand... 

Machine 

...do 

Hand... 

...do 

...do 

Machine 
Hand... 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do...... 

..do ! 

..do 

..do 



price. | ^ osz - 



1.38 
1.21 
1.24 
1.16 



1.00 
3.75 



3.55 
3.50 
3.40 

2.50 
2.50 

2.38 
2.33 
2.25 
3.15 

2.25 
2.78 
6.00 
4.25 
4.25 
3.75 
4.50 
4.50 
3.80 
5.00 
4.75 
2.00 

l!<55 i 

2.30 

2.25 

2.00 

1.65 

1.65 

1.52 

1.42 

1.48 

1.39 

1.39 



1.28 
1.18 
1.22 
1.15 



2. 84 
3.24 
4.06 
2.83 

2.25 
2.25 

2.11 
2.35 
1.89 
2.40 



2.92 
4.13 
4.75 
3.70 
4.79 
5.84 
1.77 
1.88 
2.07 
2.04 
1.90 
1.76 
1.72 
1.86 
1.32 
1.33 
1.33 
1.30 
1.30 



Loss. 



UNIT COST FOB WINDOW GLASS. 



Available data from which unit costs could be derived were ob- 
tained from a considerable number of window-glass establishments 
visited by the agents during this investigation. Such data were 
reported by 1 8 establishments manufacturing window glass by hand 
and 3 manufacturing by machine. These establishments are fairly 
representative and are located in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Kansas, Indiana, and Texas. 

Information was secured as to the total number of 50-foot single- 
strength boxes of window glass produced during the business period. 
All boxes were reduced to a uniform basis of single-strength glass. 
Double-strength glass was reduced in the proportion of 8 to 5 

The method employed in deriving the cost of various brackets of 
window glass from the data obtained was briefly as follows: The 
amount of piece-paid labor was deducted from the total factory labor 
cost. Piece labor includes the following occupations: In the hand 
plants, blower, gatherer, nattener, and cutter; in the machine fac- 



COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



177 



tories, blower, flattener, ring man. snapper, capper, cracker open, 

and cutter. These occupations are paid according to a piece-price 
scale for the different brackets and grades and are charged directly 
to the cost of the unit. 

The items of cost, except piece-paid labor, are practically the same 
for all cylinders produced in a factory, as the grades and sizes are not 
determined until the glass reaches the cutting department. An 
average cost, therefore, for general expense, administration, fixed 
charges, and time labor was properly applied to the cost of the unit. 
This was derived by dividing the total of these charges by the number 
of boxes produced. This method is employed practically by all 
window-glass factories and serves as a fairly accurate basis for deter- 
mining the cost of specific brackets and grades. 

HANDMADE PRODUCT. 



The following table is derived from the wage scale agreed upon by 
the National Window Glass Workers and the National Association 
of Window Glass Manufacturers. These piece prices were in effect 
from March 15, 1916, to May 27, 1916. 

Table 62. — Rates of Piece-Price Labor for a 50-Foot Box of Handmade 
Window Glass, by Brackets, A and B Grades, Single and Double Strength. 

[Gatherers are paid 80 per cent and flatteners 27 per cent of blower's rates.] 





Blower. 


Gatherer. 


Flattener. 


Cutter. 


Total. 


Brackets. 






















A. 


B. 


A. 


3. 


A.. 


B. 


A and 
B. 


A. 


B. 


SINGLE STRENGTH. 




















8 by 10 to 10 by 15 inches 


$0,250 


$0,235 


SO. 200 


SO. 188 SO 


06S 


$0. 063 


SO. 127 


SO. 645 


SO. 613 


11 by 15 to 14 bv 20 inches . . . 


.290 


.270 


.232 


.216 


078 


.073 


.127 


.727 


.686 


14 by 21 to 16 by 24 inches . . . 


.325 


.305 


.260 


.244 


088 


.082 


.127 


.S00 


.758 


16 by 25 to 20 by 30 inches . . . 


. 355 


.320 


.284 


.256 


096 


.086 


.127 


.862 


.789 


21 by 30 to 24 bv 30 inches . . . 




.335 


.304 


.268 


103 


.090 


.127 


.914 


.S20 


24 by 31 to 24 bv 36 inches . . . 


.390 


.350 


.312 


.280 


105 


.095 


. 127 


.934 


.852 


25 by 36 to 30 by 41 inches . . . 


.435 


.380 


.348 


.304 


117 


.103 


.127 


1.027 


.914 


All above 30 by 41 inches 


.455 


.405 


.364 


.324 


123 


.109 


.127 


1.069 


.965 


DOUBLE STRENGTH. 




















6 by 8 to 16 by 24 inches 


.355 


.320 


.2S4 


.256 


096 


.086 


.166 


.901 


.828 


16 by 25 to 24 by 36 inches . . . 


. 515 


.460 


.412 


. 3<is 


139 


.124 


.166 


1.232 


1.118 


24 by 37 to :j ; i by 40 inches . . . 


. 560 


.500 


.448 


.400 


151 


.135 


.166 


1.325 


1.201 


30 by 41 to 36 by 51 inches . . . 


.620 


.560 


.496 


.448 


167 


.151 


.166 


1.449 


1.325 


36 by 52 to 33 bv 60 inches . . . 


. 750 


.665 


.600 




203 


.180 


.166 


1.719 


1. 543 


40 by 60 to 40 by 78 inches . . . 


1.250 


1. 145 


1.000 


.910 


:■;:; < 


.309 


.166 


2.751 


2.536 


All above 40 by 78 inches 


2.305 


2.150 


1.844 


1.72H 


622 


.5S1 


.166 


4.937 


4.617 



The following series of tables is presented to show costs of various 
brackets and grades of single and double strength window glass. 

Table 63 shows the cost of production in 18 establishments of a 
50-foot box of hand mad e'single-strength' glass, bracket 6 by 8 to 10 
by 15 inches, and illustrates the method employed in computing the 
total cost of the various brackets as given by separate establishments 
in Tables 64 and 65 on following pages. 
102511°— 17 12 



178 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 63. — Cost op Producing a 50-Foot Box op Handmade Single-Strength 
Window Glass, Bracket 6 by 8 to 10 by 15 Inches, A and B Grades, with 
Additional Cost for Depreciation and Interest on Current Loans, by 
Establishments. 



Establishment. 



Piece-paid 
labor. 



Other 
fac- 
tory 

]'ii. or. 



Sala- 
ries. 



All 
other 
cost. 



Inter- 
est. 



No. 2. 
No. 3. 
No. 5. 
No. 6. 
No. 8. 
No. 11 
No. 13 
No. 15 
No. 17 
No. 18 
No. 19 
No. 20 
No. 22 
No. 24 
No. 29 
No. 31 
No. 34 
No. 35 



$0. 174 
.097 
.129 
.285 
.238 
.170 

6.169 
.157 
.149 
.158 
.144 
.183 
.154 
.160 
.169 
.118 
.155 



$0. 328 
.259 
.107 
.179 
.190 
.209 
.122 
.089 
.062 
.176 
.242 
.203 
.114 
.215 
.063 
.073 
.0S3 
.177 



SO. 6 15 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 
.645 



.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 
.613 



.022 
.058 
.079 
.059 
.041 
.014 
.021 
.019 
.056 
.045 
.054 
.075 
.018 
.017 
.052 



1.747 
1.459 
1.666 
2.055 
1.657 
.230 I 1.634 
. 184 \dl. 544 
. 156 j 1. 465 



.224 
.144 
.065 
.23(1 
.130 



.146 
.188 
.178 

.128 

!l86 
.139 
.136 
.176 



1.63S 
1.837 

L516 
1.756 
1. 550 
1.442 



>l.:-;57 
1.715 
1.427 
1.634 
2.023 
1.625 
1.602 

<U. 512 
1.433 
1.606 
1.S05 
1.767 
1.484 
1. 724 
1.51S 
1.410 
1.507 
1. 571 



3.119 
.070 
.054 
.050 
.159 
.058 
(<0 



.032 
.067 
.073 



3.003 
.007 



.005 
.001 
.004 
.00S 
.009 
.025 
.053 
<«> 
.023 
.020 
.015 



a Exclusive of depreciation and interest. 

b Including 2.2 cents (total, 4.4 cents) for undistributed freight. 

c No depreciation charge; plant is rented. 

d Includes 0.003 cent for undistributed freight. 

« Less than 0.001 per cent. 



Table 64 shows costs for eight different brackets, A and B grades, 
made in the 18 establishments. It will be observed that the piece-paid 
labor is identical for all the establishments, but the other costs vary- 
considerably, ranging from $0,797 to $1.41. These differences are 
due to a variety of causes, chief among which are more efficient man- 
agement, advantages of location as to raw materials, freight, and 
fuel cost, and also to the ability to operate at maximum capacity 
throughout the blast. 



COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



179 



Table 64 • a 50-Foot Box of Handmade Single-Strength 

Window Glass. A and B Grades, b"y Brackets, Without Additional Cost 
for Depreciation and Interest <>n Current Loans. 



All 
brack- 
ets. 



Establishment. 



Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 



No.2 S1.244 

No.o 1.102 

No.5 814 

No.6 1.021 

No.8 1.410 

No. 11 1.012 

No.13 989 

No. 15 899 

No. 17 820 

No.18 993 

No. 19 1.192 

No.20 1.1.54 

No.22 871 

No.24 1.111 

No.29 905 

No.31 797 

No.34 1 .894 

No.35 958 



8 by 10 to 10 11 by 15 to 14 14 by 21 to 16 16 bv 25 to 20 
by 15 inches. by 20 inches. by 24 inches. by 30 inches. 



Total cost, including piece-paid labor, at rate of— 



80.645 SO. 613 SO. 727 S0.6S6 SO. 80 SO. 758 SO. 862 SO 



?l.s-:i 
1.747 
1.459 

2. 055 
1.657 
1.634 
1.544 
1.465 
1.638 
1.837 
1.799 
1.516 
1.756 
1.550 
1.442 
1.539 
1.603 



SI. 857 
1.715 
1.427 
1.6S4 
2.023 
1.625 
1.(502 
1.512 
1.433 
1.606 
1.805 
1.767 
1.484 
1.724 
1.518 
1.410 
1.507 
1.571 



SI. 971 
1.829 
1.541 
1.748 
2.137 
1.739 
1.716 I 
1.626 
1.547 
1. 720 
1.919 ! 
1.881 
1.598 
1.838 
1.632 
1.524 
1.621 
1.685 



1.500 
1.707 
2.096 
L.698 
1.675 
1.585 
1.506 
1.679 
1.S78 
1.840 
1.557 
1.797 
1.591 
1. 483 
1.580 
1.644 



•82.044 
1.902 
1.614 
1.821 
2.210 
1.812 
1.789 

L620 

L992 

1. 954 
1.671 
1.911 
1.705 ! 
1.597 
1.694 I 
1.758 I 



$2,002 

1.860 
1.572 
1.779 
2.168 
1.770 
1.747 
1.657 
1.578 
1.751 
1.950 
1.912 
1.629 
1.869 
1.663 
1.555 
1.652 
1.716 



SO. 862 


SO. 789 


S2. 106 


S2.033 


1.964 


1.891 


1.676 


1.603 


1.883 


1.810 


2.272 


2.199 


1.874 


1.801 


1.851 


1.778 


1.761 


1.688 


1.682 


1.609 


1.855 


1.782 


2.054 


1.981 


2.016 


1.943 


1.733 


1.660 


1.973 


1.900 


1.767 


1.694 


1.659 


1.586 


1.756 


1.683 


1.820 


1.747 





All 
brack- 


21 by 30 to 24 
by 30 inches. 


24 by 31 to 24 
by 36 inches. 


25 by 36 to 30 
by 4'l inches. 


All above 30 
by 41 inches. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


A. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


Establishment. 


Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 




Total co 


st, inclu 


ling piec 


e-paid la 


bor, at r 


ate of— 






SO. 914 


SO. 820 


SO. 934 


SO. 852 


SI. 027 


SO. 914 


SI. 069 


SO. 965 


No.2 


SI. 244 
1.102 
.814 
1.021 
1.410 
1.012 
.989 
.899 
.820 
.993 
1.192 
1.154 
.871 
1.111 
.905 
.797 

!958 


S2. 158 
2.016 
1.728 
1.935 
2.324 
1.926 
1.903 
1.813 
1.734 
1.907 
2.106 
2. 068 
1.785 
2.025 
1.819 
1.711 
1.808 
1.872 


S2.064 
1.922 
1.634 
1.841 
2.230 
1.832 
1.809 
1.719 
1.640 
1.813 
2.012 
1.974 
1.691 
1.931 
1.725 
1.617 
1.714 
1.778 


S2. 178 
2.036 
1.748 
1.955 
2.344 
1.946 
1.923 
1.833 
1. 754 
1.927 
2.126 
2.088 
1.805 
2.045 
1.839 
1.731 
1.828 


82.096 
1.954 
1.666 
1.873 
2.262 
1.864 
1.841 
1.751 
1.672 
1.845 
2.044 
2.006 
1.723 
1.963 
1.757 
1.649 
1.746 
1.810 


S2.271 
2.129 
1.841 
2.048 
2.437 
2.039 
2.016 
1.926 
1.847 
2.020 
2.219 
2.181 

2^138 
1.932 
1.824 
1.921 
1.985 


S2. 158 
2.016 
1.728 
1.935 
2.324 
1.926 
1.903 
1.813 
1.734 
1.907 
2.106 
2.068 
1.785 
2.025 
1.819 
1.711 
1.808 
1.872 


S2. 313 
2.171 
1.883 
2.090 
2.479 
2.081 
2.058 
1.968 

2! 062 
2.261 
2.223 
1.940 
2.180 
1.974 
1.866 
1.963 
2.027 


S2. 209 


No.3 


2.067 




1.779 


No.6 


1.986 


No.8 




No. 11 


1.977 


No.13 

No. 15 


1.954 
1.864 


No. 17 

No. 18 

No. 19 


1.785 
1.95S 
2.157 


No.20 


2.119 


No. 22 


1.836 


No.24 

No. 29 


2.076 
1.870 


No.31 


1.762 


No.34 


1.859 


No.35 


1.923 







Table 65 is similar in form to Table 64 and shows costs for seven 
brackets of double-strength glass. In derivino- all other cost except 
piece-paid labor for a box of double-strength glass, the cost of a 
single-strength box was increased in the proportion of 5 to 8 or the 
number of single-strength boxes were reduced to double-strength 
basis in the ratio of 8 to 5. 



180 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 65. — Cost of Producing a 50-Foot Box of Handmade, Double-Strength 
Window Glass, A and B Grades, by Brackets, Without Additional Cost 
for Depreciation and Interest on Current Loans. 





All 
brack- 
ets. 


6 by 8 to 16 by 
24 inches. 


16 by 25 to 24 by 
36 inches. 


24 by 37 to 30 by 
40 inches. 


Establishment. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 


Total cost, including piece-paid labor, at rate of— 




$0,901 


$0,828 


$1,232 


$1,118 


$1,325 


$1,201 


No.2 


$1,980 
1.763 
1.302 
1.634 
2.256 
1.619 
1.582 
1.438 
1.312 
1.589 
1.907 
1.846 
1.394 
1.778 
1.448 
1.275 
1.430 
1.533 


$2. 881 
2.664 
2.203 
2.535 
3.157 
2.520 
2.453 
2.339 
2.213 
2.490 
2.808 
2.747 
2.295 
2.679 
2.349 
2.176 
2.331 
2.434 


$2. 808 
2.591 
2.130 
2.462 
3.084 
2.447 
2.410 
2.266 
2.140 
2.417 
2.735 
2.674 
2.222 
2.606 
2.276 
2.103 
2.258 
2.361 


S3. 212 

2.995 
2.534 

3.' 488 
2.851 
2.814 
2.670 
2.544 
2.821 
3.139 
3.078 
2.626 
3.010 
2.680 
2.507 
2.662 
2.765 


$3,098 
2.881 
2.420 
2.752 
3.374 
2.737 
2.700 
2.556 
2.430 
2.707 
3.025 
2.964 
2.512 

2! 566 
2.393 
2. 548 
2.651 


$3,305 
3.088 
2.627 
2.959 
3.581 
2.944 
2.907 
2.763 
2.637 
2.914 
3.232 
3.171 
2.719 
3.103 
2.773 
2.600 
2.755 
2.858 




No. 3 




No. 5. 




No.6 




No. 8 




No. 11.. 




No. 13 




No. 15 




No. 17 




No. 18 




No. 19 




No. 20 


3.047 


No. 22 




No. 24 




No. 29 




No.31 




No. 34 . . 




No. 35 











All 

brack- 
ets. 


30 by 41 to 36 by 
51 inches. 


36 by 52 to 39 by 
60 inches. 


40bv60to40bv 
7S inches. 


All abo\'e40 by 
78 inches. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B - 


Establishment. 


Cost, 
except 
piece- 
paid 
labor. 




Total cc 


st, including piec 


e-paid labor, at r 


ate of— 






$1,449 


$1,325 


$1,719 


$1,543 


$2,754 


$2,536 


$4,937 


$4,617 


No.2 


$1,980 
1.763 
1.302 
1.634 
2.256 
1.619 
1.582 
1.438 
1.312 
1.589 
1.907 
1.846 
1.394 
1.778 
1.448 
1.275 
1.430 
1. 533 


$3,429 
3.212 
2.751 
3.0S3 
3.705 
3.068 
3.031 
2.887 
2.761 
3.03S 
3.356 
3.295 
2.843 
3.227 
2.897 
2.724 
2.879 
2.982 


$3,305 
3.088 
2.627 
2.959 
3.5S1 
2.944 
2.907 
2.763 
2.637 
2.914 
3.232 
3.171 
2.719 
3.103 
2.773 
2.600 
2.755 
2.858 


$3,699 
3.482 
3.021 
3.353 
3.975 
3.338 
3.301 
3.157 
3.031 
3.308 
3.626 
3.565 
3.113 
3.497 
3.167 
2.994 
3.149 
3.252 


$3,523 
3.306 
2.845 
3.177 
3.799 
3.162 
3.125 
2.981 
2.855 
3.132 
3.450 

2. 937 
3.321 
2.991 
2.818 
2.973 
3.076 


$4,734 
4.517 
4.056 
4.388 
5.010 
4.373 
4.336 
4.192 
4.066 
4.343 
4.661 
4.600 
4.118 
4.532 
4.202 
4.029 
4.184 
4.287 


S4.516 

3! 838 
4.170 
4.792 
4.155 
' 4.118 
3.974 
3.848 
4.125 
4.443 
4.382 
3.930 
4.314 
3.984 
3.811 
3.966 
4.069 


$6,917 
6.700 
6.239 
6.571 
7.193 
6.556 
6.519 
6.375 
6.219 
6.526 
6.844 
6.783 
6.331 
6.715 
6.385 
6.212 
6.367 
6.470 


$6,597 


No. 3 


6.380 


No. 5 


5.919 


No. 6... 


6.251 


No. 8 


6.873 


No. 11.... 


6.236 


No. 13 


6.199 


No. 15 


6.055 


No. 17 


5.929 


No. 18 


6.206 


No. 19 


6.524 


No. 20 


6.463 


No. 22 


6.011 


No. 24 

No. 29 


6.395 
6.065 


No. 31... 


5.892 


No. 34 


6.047 


No. 35... 


6.150 







MACHINE-MADE PRODUCT. 

The following series of tables showing wage and unit cost data for 
machine-made glass are similar to the preceding tables for handmade 
glass. It will be observed that the piece-paid occupations in this 
group differ from those of the hand group, as do the rates of wages. 
In the hand group blowing is a highly skilled occupation, but in the 
machine group it is not classified as such. 

The rates of wages as shown in this group are those agreed upon 
by manufacturers using the Consolidated or Healy machines at the 
beginning of the blast, October 28, 1915. 



COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



181 



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182 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 183 

.MANUFACTURING COSTS BY ITEMS. 

The following tables show by establishments the average cost 
and profit or loss in manufacturing a 50-foot box of single-strength 
glass, by hand and by machine. Costs for 35 hand and 11 machine 
establishments are presented in these tables. The .percentages of 
cost for the various items are fully discussed in connection with 
Tables 37 and 38. 



184 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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COST AND PROFIT BY SPECIFIED UNITS. 



185 



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186 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 71. — Average Cost of Each Specified Item of Expense in Manufacturing 
a 50-Foot Box of Single-Strength Window Glass, Machine Made, and Aver- 
age Operating Profit or Loss, With and Without Consideration of Depre- 
ciation and Interest on Current Loans, Based on the Selling Value, by 
Establishments. 



All es- 
tablish- 
ments. 



No. 
49. 



Materials: 
Batch... 
Packing. 
Freight . 



Total materials 

Total factory labor 

Fuel, power, light, and 



Taxes and insurance . 

Total salaries 

Total selling expense. 

Royalty 

General expense and 1 
debts 



Total operating cost 
Operating profit com- 
puted without deprecia- 
tion and interest 

Operating loss computed 
without depreciation 
and interest 



Selling value of one 
box produced . . . 



Depreciation 

Interest 

Operating profit com- 
puted with deprecia- 
tion and interest ...>.. 

Operating loss computed 
with depreciation and 
interest 



SUIs 
.111 
.001 



si I. !.",:> 
.146 



si 1. 1:::; 
.138 



si i. 21:; 
.118 



SO. 1S2 
.155 



sn. Id 
.125 



$0. 141 $0. 
. 146 . 112 



so. 21s 
.146 



SO. ISO 
.120 
.012 



$0. 169 SO. 129 
.128 .086 



.132 
.025 



.046 



.343 
.040 
.046 



. 270 
.035 



.901 

.106 
.046 
.072 

.01* 



.2871 .271 
.543 



.087 
.025 
.047 
.026 



.121 
.042 

. IMO 



1.276 
.155 



1.454 
.172 



.064 
.044 



. 055 . 049 
. 028! . 040 



.364 

.021 



.318 
.910 



.231 
.020 
.053 



.203 .070 
.064 
. 022 . 030 
. 039; . 050 



.196 
.014 

.025 



.031 
.013 



.138 
.045 



.215 
.759 

.049 
.017 
.013 
.027 



PRODUCTION AT A PROFIT AND AT A LOSS. 

The following table, derived from data shown in Tables 70 and 71, 
presents in summary form the number of establishments reporting 
data and the number of single-strength 50-fcot boxes produced at 
an operating profit or loss, with and without charges for deprecia- 
tion and interest. 

Table 72. — Number of Establishments Producing Single-Strength Window 
Glass, Machine and Hand Made, and Number of Boxes Produced at a 
Profit or Loss, With and Without Consideration of Depreciation and 
Interest on Current Loans. 



Establishments showing- 


Number of establishments. 


Number of 50-foot boxes produced. 


Total. 


Hand. 


Machine. 


Total. 


Hand. 


Machine. 


Operating profits computed without 


41 

5 | 


33 
2 


8 
3 


4, 588, 550 
344, 610 


2,829,259 
65,821 


1, 759, 291 


Operating losses computed without 


278, 789 






Operating profits computed with 

depreciation and interest 

Operating losses computed with 


38 | 

8 i 


31 

4 


7 
4 


4,181,300 
751, 800 


2, 701, 116 
193, 964 


1,480,184 
557,896 








46 


35 


11 


4,933,160 


2,895,080 


2,038,080 







CHAPTER VI. 
INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 

FUEL AS A FACTOR IN LOCATION AND OPERATION. 

The States in which different varieties of glass and glassware are 
most largely manufactured are shown below. 

Window glass: Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kansas, Okla- 
homa, and Texas. 

Plate glass: Pennsylvania. Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois. 

Wire and opalescent glass: Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. 

Tableware: Pennsylvania,- Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, and 
Indiana. 

Pleavv cut glass: Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Ohio. 

Fruit and milk jars: New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Oklahoma. 

Bottles, packers, and preservers: New York, New Jersey, Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. 

Lighting goods: New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, In- 
diana, and Oklahoma. 

Chemical ware: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. 

The glass industry is located largely west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains and in districts where cheap natural gas can be obtained. The 
glass factories in the East have the advantage of being near the large 
eastern markets, but they use producer gas or oil for fuel, and the 
high cost of the fuel is an offset to the market advantage. 

In Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New . York, New Jersey, and 
eastern Pennsylvania producer gas made by the glass factories is 
used. Even in the Pittsburgh district the price of natural gas is how 
so high that producer gas is used to some extent in glass making. 
One glass company in that district that makes producer gas esti- 
mates that it costs 12 cents per thousand cubic feet and its officers 
say that in that vicinity where coal is cheap it is more economical 
to make producer gas than to pay more than 12 cents for natural gas. 

One factory in southern Indiana reported that by using 2 by 4 
nut coal at $1.55 per ton of 2,000 pounds, it made producer gas at a 
cost of 8 cents per thousand cubic feet. 

In Indiana natural gas was cheap years ago, but on account of the 
failure of the gas supply, several factories have moved to Oklahoma, 
while some have gone out of business. Oklahoma glass factories 
paid 3 or 4 cents, per thousand for natural gas in 1916 but have been 
notified that the price will be 5 cents or higher in 1917. 

187 



188 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

In the location of new glass factories cheap fuel has been the con- 
trolling factor. A West Virginia manufacturer of window glass who 
was interviewed during this investigation said: 

No doubt freight rates are lower in some localities than here and in many places 
are higher. These things cut little figure and are entirely overbalanced by the main 
consideration — fuel. This section has cheaper gas than any other manufacturing 
center. The price is^oing up but is still much lower than elsewhere. Pennsylvania 
used to have cheap gas, but their gas began to ' ' play out ' ' years ago and is now compara- 
tively high. Many factories have moved from Pennsylvania to West Virginia aban- 
doning their plants, in order to get cheaper fuel. There are a number of this sort in 
this vicinity. This is one of them. 

Much of the present gas troubles in this vicinity is due to the fact that the natural- 
gas companies are pumping their gas right through this section to the Pittsburgh 
district, where it commands a higher price. It is even pumped to Cleveland (for 
domestic consumption chiefly), where it is sold for 30 cents to 85 cents and higher, 
while here the present price is 4 cents. It can readily be seen that the fuel question is 
very much more important than that of markets. 

Contracts for gas were formerly made for as long as five years in 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia, but the supply of gas having been 
greatly reduced, contracts are now made for only a year and at 
advanced prices, and some gas companies now refuse to make con- 
tracts at any price. 

In West Virginia and Pennsylvania some glass companies own gas 
wells. Another manufacturer in West Virginia said: 

It is generally understood that there is no preventing a very heavy increase soon 
in the price of gas. Natural -gas companies say that the supply is diminishing at the 
same time that the demand is increasing. Glass manufacturers feel that if they should 
persist in holding gas companies to old prices, the gas would be pumped right past 
then factories to the Pittsburgh district and to Cleveland, where it is badly needed, 
and where manufacturers in different industries would willingly pay more to get 
gas than is paid in West Virginia. 

In normal times before the war in Europe, glass manufacturers 
made contracts for raw materials usually every year or every two 
years. Sometimes when prices were low manufacturers agreed to 
make contracts extending three years. On a rising market, however, 
manufacturers could not make contracts for longer than a year 
without offering higher prices than current market quotations. 
Beginning with 1915, few contracts for longer than a year could be 
negotiated. The contracts provide that deliveries shall be made as 
needed. Each factory tries to keep on hand enough raw materials to 
last "60 days. 

INCREASE IN OUTPUT OF BUILDING GLASS. 

The manufacture of building glass in the United States more than 
doubled during the period from 1899 to 1914, as shown by the fol- 
lowing table: 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



189 



Table 73. — Production of Window Glass, Obscured Glass, and Plate Glass 
in Census Years. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.] 



Window glass: 

Square feet 217, 0&4, 100 

50-foot boxes 4, 341, 2S2 

Vallie S10, 879,355 

Average value per box S2.51 

Obscured glass, including' cathedral and sky- 
light: 

Square feet 12, 526, 055 

Value S732,338 

Average value per square foot SO. 058 

Plate glass, polished: 

Sq uaro fee t 16, 883, 578 

Value $5, 158, 598 

Average value per square foot SO. 306 

Plate glass, rough, made for sale: 

Square feet 628, 684 

Value S75, 887 

Average value per square foot SO. 121 

Wire glass, polished: 

Square feet (a) 

Value (a) 

Komhi made to be sold as such), square feet, (a) 

Value (a) 

All other building glass, value S250, 056 

Total building glass, value S17, 096, 234 



242,015,750 346,080,550 

4,852,315 6,921,611 

$11,610,851 511,742,959 

$2.39 SI. 70 



21,870,634 
$972,014 I 
SO. 044 

27,293,138 I 
17,978,253 



17,784 
S3, 529 



(o) 
(») 

(a) 

(a) 

51,133,214 



521,697,861 



22,815,946 

SI, 358, 574 

SO. 060 

47,370,254 

S12,204,875 

SO. 258 

205, 690 
$37; 431 
SO. 182 

(a) 
(a) 

ft 



400.998.893 

8,019,978 

$17,495,956 

S2.18 



43,040,079 
52,471,253 



60,383,516 

$14,773,787 

SO. 245 

131,492- 
$25,859 
SO. 197 

1,707,848 

5534, 322 

13,980,996 

$1,056,612 

$520,280 



S26,30S,43S S36,824, 



a Not reported separately. 



As shown by the foregoing table, there was an increase in the pro- 
duction of window glass, of obscured glass, including cathedral, and 
of polished plate glass in each census year from 1899 to 1914. 



WINDOW GLASS. 



During the 10 years from 1899 to 1909 the number of 50-foot boxes 
of window glass produced increased from 4,341,282 to 6,921,611, 
or 59.44 per cent, and the value increased from $10,879,355 to 
$11,742,959, or only 7.94 per cent. The average value per box de- 
creased from $2.51 to $1.70. 

The decline in the price of window glass was not attributable 'to 
the tariff, as the Dingley tariff act was in force from July 24, 1897, 
to August 6, 1909, and the value of imports of cylinder, crown, and 
common window glass, unpolished, decreased from $1,196,461 during 
the fiscal year 1899 to $692,803 during the fiscal year 1909. 

As shown by the last table, the production of window glass in 1914 
amounted to 8,019,978 boxes of 50 feet each, valued at $17,495,956, 
or an average of $2.18 per box. 

The decline in the average value per box of window glass from 
$2.51 in 1899 to $1.70 in 1909 was due to intense competition between 
domestic manufacturers, and this competition greatly increased after 
the manufacture of window glass by machinery began on a com- 
mercial basis in 1903. 



190 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

EFFECT OF SELLING AGENCIES ON PRICES. 

The price of window glass increased after the formation in 1909 of 
the Imperial Window Glass Co. The company was a selling agency 
or combination of manufacturers that largely influenced the produc- 
tion and price of window glass. This organization, comprised about 
50 plants, besides several that were not in operation; only about 
6 plants remained independent. The American Window Glass Co. 
was not in the combination. It manufactured a large proportion of 
the output, and together with the Imperial Window Glass Co., con- 
trolled the prices of window glass. When the combination was 
formed prices were largely increased; production and profits also 
greatly increased during the first half of 1910. 

During these months the profits were so great that plants that 
had been shut down for years began manufacturing, so that by the 
fall of 1910 there were 14 independent factories in operation and 5 
new ones were under construction. The competition of the inde- 
pendents and the overproduction finally broke the market late in 
the fall of 1910. In a suit brought by the Federal Government 
against the officers and directors of the Imperial Glass Co., the de- 
fendants, in November, 1910, pleaded nolo contendere and were 
fined. The dissolution of the company followed. 

From the late fall of 1910 until the summer of 1912 there were 
competitive conditions in the window-glass trade. Another selling 
agency called the Johnson Brokerage Co. was then formed and prices 
went up. The president of this company, J. R. Johnston, had been 
secretary of the Imperial Glass Co. In 1916 the Johnston Brokerage 
Co. sold the product of about 25 hand plants, or about half the num- 
ber of hand plants in the country, and also sold the product of about 
5 machine plants. This company receives orders from jobbers and 
consumers, distributes them to its patronizing plants, and charges 
lij per cent commission. Window glass being sold at net in 60 days, 
the Johnston Brokerage Co. advances money to those factories de- 
siring cash, for which a charge of 1 per cent is made, or a total of 
2\ per cent, including the selling commission. 

NUMBER AND EQUIPMENT OF HAND AND MACHINE PLANTS. 

For several years after 1903 all of the window-glass machines used 
were those of the American Window Glass Co., but by 1908 two other 
machines, the Healy and the Douchamp, were introduced, and since 
then machines of different patents have been installed — the Frink, 
the Pittsburgh, the Okmulgee, and the Douchamp-Henshaw. The 
following table shows the number of the hand plants and of their 
pots in 1916, and the number of machine plants and of their machines 
in the same year. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



191 



Table . r and Number of Window^ .i -.— Plants, Hand and M vhink, 

i\ rui: Unitj - Pots, and Number oi Machines. 

[Data from Glass Factory Directory. 



States. 


Sand plants. 


Machine plants. 


Plants. 


Pots. 


Plants. 


Machines. 




1 
1 
2 

1 
6 
2 

12 
1 

20 


3G 
30 
72 

159 
36 

202 
66 

486 
36 

614 















1 


( a ) 















2 
1 
13 
1 

7 


30 




12 




6 172 




8 




74 








51 


1,737 


25 


296 







Machines of 1 plant in Indiana included with machines enumerated in Pennsylvania. 
b Includes machines used in 1 plant in Indiana. 

The number of plants using each type of machine and the number 
of each type used m 1916 are shown in the following table: 

Table 75. — Location and Number of Machine Plants and of Each Type of 
Window-Glass Machines Used in the United States. 



[Data from Glass Factory Directory, 1916.] 
NUMBER OF PLANTS USING EACH TYPE OF MACHINE. 



1 A z T :- 


Dou- 
champ. 


Dou- 

champ- 

Henshaw. 


Frink. 


Healy. 


Ockmul- 
gee. 


Pitts- 
burgh. 


Total. 
















1 


Ohio 






1 






1 


2 










1 


1 




1 




2 


5 
1 
3 




13 










1 




1 


1 






2 


7 










Total 6 2 


1 


3 


9 


1 


3 


25 



XCMBER OF EACH TYPE OF MACHINES USED. 





w 
















Ohio 






6 






24 


30 












12 


12 


Pennsylvania 


6116 


6 




12 


38 
8 
24 




172 








8 






6 


8 






36 


74 






18 








110 


12 


8 


70 


12 


60 


296 







a Machines of 1 plant in Indiana included with machines enumerated in Pennsylvania. 
b Includes machines used in 1 plant in Indiana. 

As appears by the last two preceding tables, there are 296 window- 
glass machines in the United States. The machines cost about 
$15,000 each. The following, statement regarding window-glass 
machines in Europe was made in 1916 by Mr. A. P. Whittemore, 
president of the Thatcher & Whittemore Glass Co., of Dunbar, W. Va., 



192 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

which previous to the war had a factory at Roux, Belgium, in which 
window glass purchased from other factories was flattened and cut: 

There were 23 window-glass factories in Belgium with 38 tanks. All were never 
operating at the same time, so far as I know. There were two window-glass machines 
in Belgium — the Rowart-Francq, which never got beyond the experimental stage and 
was never put on commercial ba?is, and the Fourcault machine, which made very- 
heavy glass for skylight purposes, but, so far as I know, never made and sold ordinary 
single and double strength window glass commercially. I have since heard that 
before the war they were making glass commercially, but do not know this except 
from hearsay. 

A number of window-glass machines are operated by Pilkington Bros., St. Helens, 
England. About eight machines are operated by a factory in Aniche, France, and 
machines are used also by one factory in Bohemia, one in Russia, and one in Japan. 
All of these plants operate the American Window Glass Co.'s machines. 

PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY MACHINERY. 

The introduction of machines largely increased the output in the 
United States. In 1904, when there was only one machine factory 
in the United States, the production was equal to the consumption, 
less imports. The general imports of cylinder, crown, and common 
window glass, unpolished, during the fiscal year 1904 amounted to 
$1,356,218, or 7.75 per cent of the production of window glass during 
the calendar year 1914, as reported by the census, $17,495,956. 

The American Window Glass Co., whose first machime factory was 
started in 1903, during the following years established other factories 
and installed many machines. 

The result was that the window-glass trade was depressed by over- 
production. Some hand factories went out of business, some were 
operated as cooperative plants, and the wages or piece prices paid 
in all of the hand plants that continued were greatly reduced, in order 
that these plants might compete with the machine plants, which 
employed no skilled labor except for flattening and cutting. The 
National Window Glass Workers, the national organization that 
includes blowers, gatherers, flatteners, and cutters in hand factories, 
was a strong union, but for a number of years it could not prevent the 
reduction in wages or piece prices that was forced upon the hand facto- 
ries by the competition of the machine plants. 

FACTORIES OPERATED ON PART-TIME BASIS. 

The union began to shorten the time over which it made agree- 
ments with hand manufacturers, in some years to only seven months. 
By 1914, when many machines had been installed, the production 
would have been enormously greater than the domestic consumption if 
the hand factories had not been operated on short time. The wage 
agreements of the National Window Glass Workers with the manufac- 
turers of hand-blown window glass during recent years have been for 
the following periods: September 1, 1909, to May 1, 1910; October 15 
1910, to August 31, 1911; September 9, 1911, to May 31, 1912 
October 15, 1912. to May 29, 1913 ; October 27, 1913, to May 29, 1914 
October 31, 1914, to May 29, 1915; November 1, 1915, to May 27, 1916 
October 25, 1916, to May 29, 1917. 

Even the machine window-glass factories have run on short time 
in every year. They averaged about eight months a year. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 193 

Figures from the American Window Glass Co. arc not available, 

but the production in boxes by the independent machine factories 
and the number of weeks that they operated during 1914-15 and 
1915-16 are shown in the following statement quoted from a paper 
read by William G. Kischenbower, president of the Window Glass 
Cutters' and Flatteners' Association of America, before the annual 
meeting of the National Association of Window Glass Manufacturers, 
held at Atlantic City, N. J., in July, 1916: 

The amount of single and double strength glass produced by the independent 
machine manufacturers of window glass for the year of October 28, 1914, to October 29, 
1915, was: Single, 1,482,410; double, 323,516; total, 1,805,926 boxes. If the double- 
strength glass is reduced to a single-strength basis, the total is 2,000,035 boxes. 

Seventeen tanks were in operation during this period. Average of the 17 tanks: 
Single, 87,201; double, 19,030; total, 106,231. If the average production of the 17 
tanKs is reduced to a single-strength basis, the total is 117,649 boxes. Average number 
of weeks in operation during tins period, 32. 

At this same ratio, reducing double to single, had the independent machine manu- 
facturers operated continuously for one year, production would have been 3.250.052 
boxes of glass. By operating only 32 weeks production was curtailed to the extent of 
1,250,017 boxes, or about 38$ per cent during that period. 

The present wage scale that the independent machine manufacturers of window glass 
are operating under does not expire until October 29, 1916, but I have prepared a 
statement of production from the beginning of the scale, October 29, 1915, to July 1, 
1916: Single, 1,288,336; double, 323,453; total, 1,611,789. When the double-strength 
glass is reduced to single-strength basis, the total is 1,805,860 boxes. 

During this period of eight months there were 19 tanks in operation. Average 
production of the tanks during this period: Single, 67,807; double, 17,024; total, 
84,831 boxes. On a single-strength basis, the average production of the 19 tanks was 
95,045 boxes. Average number of weeks in operation during this period was 25. 

At this same ratio, had the 19 tanks operated continuously for the period of 8 months, 
they would have produced 2,528,190 boxes. By operating only 25 weeks, they have 
created a curtailment of 722,330 boxes, or about 28 J per cent during that period. 

Referring to the general conditions of the window-glass business, all persons engaged 
in the business must admit that the past two years have been a period of unusual 
prosperity in this business, which is greatly due to existing conditions in Europe. 
The exportation of v indow glass is a new feature for the manufacturers of the United 
States, which has played a very important part in our present prosperity, and steps 
should be taken to further this exportation so that the factories of the United States 
may be kept in continuous operation in the future. 

EFFECT OF MACHINES ON GLASS BLOWEKS' EARNINGS. 

A resume of the conditions during recent years is given in the fol- 
lowing statement made in October, 1914, by Mr. Joseph M. Neenan, 
president of the National Window Glass Workers of America, whose 
members are employed in the hand factories: 

For the blast of 1915-16, 5,575,000 fifty-foot boxes were produced by the machine 
method. This is the first time we have been able to secure anything like 1 accurate 
information concerning the amount of machine glass produced. The hand produc- 
tion for the same period was 3,725,462 fifty-foot boxes, of which 2,088,828 were of single 
strength, 1,719,666 of double strength, and 16,968 of triple strength. Our proportion 
of the entire production was about 40 per cent. 

As a resull of the introduction of machines into the industry, a vast amount of uncer- 
tainty was felt by both the manufacturers and workmen employed in the production of 
handmade glass." It was feared that, if the machines were a commercial success, it 
would not be possible to produce handmade glass on a profitable basis. As a result 
of this uncertainty, the demoralization which followed affected the entire industry, 
machine as well as hand. Hand manufacturers feared to carry stocks and placed their 
product on the market for almost any price they could obtain. The workers ac- 
cepted a sliding scale arrangement, by which their wages were based upon the price 
received by the manufacturers, the result of which was that, before the period of uncer- 
tainty and demoralization ended, the average of wages of blowers of single-strength 

102511°— 17 13 



194 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



glass was reduced from about 90 cents per box during the year'1903 to 30 cents per box 
during the year of 1912-13. 

At one time 2,400 pots were operated by the hand method. By the word "pots" 
I mean that there were that many places for blowers. I feel quite certain that all of 
the places were not manned; the probabilities are that the greatest number of blowers 
ever employed at one time was between 1.800 and 1,900. Last blast we had 1,800 
pots in operation, but our membership roll shows that but 1,610 blowers were employed. 
Our total membership is 4,241; 1,610 blowers, 1,735 gatherers, 359 flatteners, and 537 
cutters. 

The working season for window-glass workers has always depended upon market 
conditions. Previous to the advent of machines, it was customary to place wage 
scales in effect for 10, 8, and even 7 month periods. Following the introduction 'of 
machines, wage scales were placed in effect for 12-month periods at different times, 
but this does not mean that factories were operated continuously. At one time 
or another during the year it becomes necessary to make repairs, and in addition 
to this, during the period mentioned, a number of companies were forced out of exist- 
ence, so that I feel quite certain that during the years the 12-month wage scales were 
effective glass was not produced in such quantities as it has been during the past four 
or five years. 

The annual statistical report of the National Window Glass Work- 
ers, published in The National for August, 1915, shows that during 
the blast of 1914-15 the union had '3,779 members and that they 
worked an average of 23J weeks. The report published in The Na- 
tional for August, 1916, shows that during the blast of 1915-16 the 
union had 4,301 members and that they worked an average of 28 
weeks. Of the 4,301 members, 60 were spare men and members 
beyond the age of 55 who were carried on the rolls as permanent 
members. 

PRICE LIST AND DISCOUNTS. 

Window glass is sold on the basis of a price list, which is fixed from 
time to time and is always subject to very large trade discounts. 
The price list adopted October 15, 1912, and still in force in 1916 is 
as follows: 

Table 76. — Window-Glass Price List, Oct. 15, 1912. 

[All sizes of 100 united inches and under are packed in 50-foot boxes; over 100 united inches in 100-foot 

boxes.] 



United 
inches. 



Single strength. 



Double strength. 



6by£ 
'11 by 

,12 by 

10 by 
is by 
.20 by 
15 by 
26 by 
piby 
2Sby 
|:;i)by 
.":.-. b- 
L U by 
:;nby 
30 by 
34 by 
36 by 
40 by 
40 by 
40 by 
40 by 



to 10 by 15 inches... 
Jgjto 14 by 20 inches. 
26 to 16 by 24 inches . 
2^}to 20 by 30 inches. 
36 to 24 by 30 inches. 
28 to 24 by 36 inches. 
341 

32 Ho 30 by 40 inches. 
30) 

|||to 30 by 50 inches. 
52 to 30 by 54 inches. 
56 to 34 by 56 inches . 
58 to 34 by 60 inches. 
60 to 40 by 60 inches. 
62 to 40 bv 64 inches. 
66 to 40 by 70 inches . 
72 to 40 by 74 inches. 
76 to 40 by SO inches. 



$24. 00 
25.00 
27.00 
28.00 
29.00 
30.00 



36.50 
39.00 



$20.00 
21.00 
22.50 
23.75 
24.50 
26.00 



33.25 
35.50 



$19.00 
20.00 
21.00 
22.00 
22.50 
23.25 



28.75 
31.25 



$32. 00 
35.00 
39.00 
42.00 
43.00 
44.00 

47.00 

51.00 
52.00 
55.00 
56.00 
66.00 
142. 00 
158. 00 
17S. 00 
21D.U0 



$28. 00 
31.00 
34.00 
37.00 



42.00 

46.00 
47.00 
50.00 
51.00 
60.00 
130. 00 
146. 00 
162. 00 
190. 00 



$26. 50 
29.00 
31.00 
34.50 



41.50 

42.50 
46.00 
47.00 
56.00 
120. 00 
136. 00 
152. 00 
180. 00 



Note.— An additional 10 per cent will be charged for all glass more than 40 inches wide. All sizes over 
52 inches in length and not making more than SI united inches will 1 >e charged in the 84 united inches bracket. 
All glass 54 inches wide or wider and not making more than 116 united inches will be charged in the 120 
united inches bracket Sizes above 12U united inches, $20 per box extra for every 5 inches. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



195 



price list is the same as the preceding price list, dated January 
1, 1901, except that in the list of that date prices were given for the 
90, 94, and 100 inch brackets of single-strength glass and the prices of 
the 105, 110, 115, and 120 inch brackets were given on the basis of 
50-foot instead of 100-foot boxes. 

The trade discounts that have been announced beginning with 
March, 1912, are as follows: 

March, 1912. — Single strength: Sizes up to and including third bracket, 90 and 
22$ per cent; larger brackets, 90 and 20 per cent. Double strength: 90 and 17£ 
per cent. 

January, 1914. — Single strength: First three brackets, 90 and 30 per cent; larger 
brackets, 90 and 1\ per cent. Double strength: 90 and 20 per cent. 

November. 1915. — Single strength: First three brackets, A quality, 90 and 20 per 
cent; first three brackets, B quality, 90 and 30 per cent; larger brackets, 90 and 7$ 
per cent, Double strength: A quality, 90 and 10 per cent; B quality, 90 and 20 
per cent. 

January, 1916. — Single strength: First three brackets, A quality, 90 and 10 per 
cent; first three brackets, B quality, 90 and 20 per cent; larger brackets, 89 and 5 
per cent. Double strength: A quality, 90 per cent; B quality, 90 and 10 per cent. 

March, 1916. — Single strength: First three brackets, A quality, 89 per cent; first 
three brackets, B quality, 90 and 10 per cent; larger brackets, 88 per cent. Double 
strength: A quality, 89 per cent; B quality, 90 per cent. 

The net price computed with these discounts on the basis of the 
price list of October 15, 1912, were as appear in the following table: 

Table 77. — Window Glass Price List: Net Prices per Box, 1912 to 1916. 



United 
inches. 



Date of discount. 



Single 
strength. 



Double 
strength. 



6 by 8 to 10 by 15 inches. 



W} to 14 by 20 i 



10 by 26 to 16 by 24 inches. 



20by2o} to20b y 30inches - 



15 by 36 to 24 by 30 inches. 



March, 1912 

January, 1914 . . . 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March,' 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914. .. 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916 . . . 
March. 1916 



rMarch, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914. .. 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916. . . 
March, 1916 



March, 1912 

January, 1914 . . . 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



26 by 28 to 24 by 36 inches. 



[March, 1912 

January, 1914... 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March,' 1916 



28 by 341 

28 by 32^ to 30 bv 40 inches 
30 by 30j 



I March, 1912 
January, 1914. .. 
November, 1915. 
January, 1916... 
March, 1916 



$1.60 
1.40 
1.60 
1.80 
2.20 

1.68 
1.47 
1.68 

2. 31 

1.74 
1.58 
L80 
2.03 
2,48 

1.84 
2.20 
2.20 
2.48 
2.85 

1.90 
2.27 
2.27 
2.56 
2.94 

2.02 
2.41 
2.41 
2.72 
3.12 

2.23 

2.66 
2.66 
3.00 
3.45 



SI. 52 
1.33 
1.33 
1.52 
1.71 

1.60 
1.40 
1.40 



1.63 

I. 1.7 
1.47 

l.C.S 



1.71 
2.04 
2.04 
2.30 
2.64 

1.74 

2.08 
2.08 
2.35 
2.70 

1.80 
2.15 
2.15 
2.43 
2.79 

1.96 
2.34 
2.34 
2.64 
3.03 



?2.31 
2.24 
2.52 
2.80 
3.08 

2.56 

2.48 
2.79 
3.10 
3.41 

2.81 
2.72 
3.06 
3.40 
3.74 

3.05 
2.96 
3.33 
3.70 
4.07 

3.14 
3.04 
3.42 
3.80 
4.18 

3.22 
3.12 
3.51 
3.90 
4.29 

3.47 
3.36 
3.78 
4.20 
4.62 



S2.19 
2.12 
2.12 
2.39 
2.65 

2.39 
2.32 
2.32 
2.61 
2.90 

2.56 
2.48 
2.48 
2.79 
3.10 

2.85 
2.76 
2.76 
3.11 
3.45 

2.89 
2.80 
2.80 
3.15 
3.50 

2.93 
2.84 
2.84 
3. 20 
3.55 

3.14 
3.04 
3.04 
3.42 
3.80 



196 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 77. — Window Glass Price List: Net Prices per Box, 1912 to 1916- 

Concluded. 



United 
inches. 


Bracket. 


Date of discount. 


Single 
strength. 


Double 
strength.. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


SO 


•Tm u J Qfil to 30 by 50 inches. . . 


[March, 1912 

January, 1914 

| November, 1915... 

January, 1916 

[March, 1916 

[March, 1912 

January, 1914 

< November, 1915 . . . 

January, 1916 

[March, 1916 

[March, 1912 


$2. 58 
3.08 
3.08 
3.47 
3.99 

2.75 
3.28 
3.28 
3.71 
4.26 


S2.23 
2.66 
2.66 
3.00 

3.45 

2.42 
2.89 

3! 27 
3.75 


$3. 80 
3.68 
4.14 
4.60 
5.06 

3.88 
3.76 
4.23 
4.70 
5.17 

4.13 

4.00 
4.50 
5.00 
5.50 

4.21 
4.08 
4.59 
5.10 
5.61 

4.95 
4.80 
5.40 
6.00 
6.60 

10.73 
10.40 
11.70 
13.00 
14.30 

12.05 
11.68 
13.14 
14.60 
16.06 

13.37 
12. 96 
14.58 
16.20 
17.82 

15. 68 
15.20 
17.10 
19.00 
20.90 


$3. 42 

3. 32 


84 


30 by 52 to 30 by 54 inches. . . . 


3.74 
4.15 

3.51 
3.40 




30 by 56 to 34 by 56 inches 


3.83 
4.25 

3.80 










3.68 


90 








3.68 




34 by 58 to 34 bv 60 inches 








4.14 




lMarch/1916 






4.60 




[March, 1912 






3.88 










3.76 


94 


{November, 1915.. 






3.76 




36 by 60 to 40 by 60 inches 








4.23 




[March,' 1916 






4.70 




[March, 1912 






4.62 










4.48 


100 








4.48 












5.04 




[March,' 1916 






5.60 




[March, 1912 






9.90 










9.60 










9.60 












10.80 




[March,'l916 






12.00 




[March, 1912 






11.22 










10. 8S 


110 








10.88 












12.24 




[March, 1916 






13.60 




[March, 1912.. . 






12.54 










12.16 










12.16 












13.68 




[March,' 1916 






15.20 




[March, 1912 






14.85 










14.40 


120 








14.40 












16.20 




[March," 1916 






18.00 













As appears by this table, the net prices of single and double 'strength 
of the first three brackets were in most instances lower during the 
period from January, 1914, to November, 1915, or to January, 1916, 
than they were either before or after. The net prices of the larger 
brackets in single strength were lowest during the period from March, 
1912, to January, 1914, but this was not the case with double-strength 
glass. 

Special discounts apply to window glass of AA quality, which is 
produced in only limited quantities and by some factories not at all. 
There is no fixed price list for C quality, which is produced usually 
in only first bracket sizes. This grade is sold at net prices per box, 
the range during 1914-, 1915, and 1916 being from $0.85 to $1.20 per 
50-foot box. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 197 

By an agreemenl or understanding among the manufacturers, they 
charge 15 centa each for boxes for glass of the first three brackets 
and 25 cents for boxes for Larger sizes. All of them state that they 
lose money od the boxes, and when asked why they do not charge 
more, say that formerly they did not charge anything for boxes, thai 
it was hard to get manufacturers generally to agree to make this 
charge, and that when the agreement was reached a few years ago, 
competition among manufacturers caused some to continue to sell 
glass without making su ch a charge. It is, therefore, considered 
impractical to make a higher charge for boxes at present. 

DEFINITION OF GRADES. 

The following definitions of first, second, and third quality glass 
are quoted from Glass and Glazing, issued in 1916 by the National 
Glass Distributors' Association: 

AA or first quality. — A A quality should be clear glass, free from any perceptible 
amount of air bubbles or blisters, burnt specks or burns, cords, and strings. It should 
have a good gloss and an even surface and be well flattened. By air bubbles it is 
understood that tiny blisters, or imperfections not perceptible on the cutters' table 
but detectable when placing the sheet directly toward the light, would not be objec- 
tionable. This should be a careful selection in both single'and double and should 
represent the very best that can be produced in window glass by the present methods. 

A or second quality.- — A quality glass is the normal selection of glass when no special 
selection is desired or specified and it admits of such defects as small strings or lines, 
small blisters when not too close to one another or located in the center of the sheet; 
well flattened, the surface even, and devoid of noticeable scratches, cropper marks, 
burns, aud other prominent defects. 

B or third quality. — B glass covers a wider range than either AA quality or A quality. 
It permits many of the defects inherent to the process of making, such as waves, 
strings, lines, blisters, scratches, burns, and other similar or equivalent defects. 
This quality embraces everything below A quality not stony or full of blisters or other 
large defects objectionable for any common purpose, such as heavy scratches, heavy 
blisters, cords, and sulphur stains. 

The following paragraphs are quoted from the same publication: 

In examining samples of small sizes for inspection of quality, it should be remem- 
bered that the large light of glass will show the natural waves and defects, while the 
small piece may appear nearly perfect. It is not altogether a matter of expert judg- 
ment to determine the various grades, and certain rules may be accepted governing 
window-glass specifications. 

Sizes. — Window glass in double strength, or heavier, is made as large as 30 by 
90 inches, 38 by 86 inches, and 48 by 80 inches, such extreme sizes containing 25 
square feet, but it is inadvisable to use such glass in these measurements on account 
of the liability of breakage and the distorted vision due to waves, etc. The same 
may be said of the extreme sizes of single strength, which can be made up to 24 by 
60 inches, 30 by 54 inches, and 36 by 50 inches, sizes containing 10 to 12£ square feet. 

Thickness and weight. — Single-strength glass measures approximately 12 lights to 
the inch, but a small variation either way is permissible. Single-strength weighs 
approximately 16 ounces to the square foot. Double strength measures approxi- 
mately nine lights to the inch. The thickness should be fairly uniform and the 
weight approximately 24 ounces to the square foot. 

packages. Window glass in regular sizes is packed approximately 50 
square feet to the box up to the 100 united inch bracket (adding width and length), 
and 100 square feet to the box in sizes over 100 united inches. 

The thickness of glass heavier than double strength is as follows: 
26-ounce, one-eighth of an inch; 29-ounce, 135 thousandths of an 
inch; 34-ounce, 159 thousandths of an inch; 39-ounce, throe-six- 
teenths of an inch. 



198 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



The net weight of a box containing approximately 50 square feet 
of glass is about 55 pounds in single thickness and 80 pounds in 
double thickness. 



HAND PRODUCTION CLASSIFIED BY GRADES, SIZE, AND STRENGTH. 

The proportion of A glass on the basis of total production is 
usually larger in the hand factories than in the machine factories. 
The National for August, 1916, published for the National Window 
Glass Workers of America, shows that in all of the hand window- 
glass factories in the United States, during the blasts of 1914-15 
and 1915-16, the percentage cut into different brackets, A and B 
grades, single and double strength, on the basis of the total pro- 
duction of A and B grades, was as follows: 

Table 78. — Percentage of Window Glass Produced by Hand, Blasts of 1914-15 
and 1915-16, Cut into Different Brackets. A and B Grades. 

[Data from The National, published by the United Window Glass Workers, August, 1915 and 1916.] 



Bracket. 


1914-15 




1915-16 




A. 


B. 


Total. 


A. 


B. 


Total. 


SINGLE STRENGTH. 


Per ct. 
3.15 
5.16 
4.66 
7.24 
3.04 
2.68 
1.31 
.10 


Per ct. 
9.84 

10.86 
11.05 
18.72 

7. 61 
5.70 
.95 


Per ct. 
12.99 
16.02 
15.71 
25. 96 
10.97 
10.29 
7.01 
1.05 


Per ct. 
2.55 
4.82 
4.57 
6.35 

2! 74 
1.18 
.11 


Per ct. 
8.73 
11.13 
10.09 
19.55 
9.02 
9.13 
6.39 
.75 


Per ct. 
11.28 




15.95 


14 by 21 to 16 by 24 inches 


14.66 


16 bv25 to 20 by 30 inches 


25.90 




11.91 




11.87 


25 by 36 to 30 bv 41 inches 


7.57 




.86 






Total 


27.34 


72.66 


100. 00 


25.21 


74.79 


100. 00 






DOUBLE STRENGTH. 


5.69 
17.37 
10.52 
7.63 
2.11 
1.27 
.21 


8.84 
19.85 
13.04 
9.57 
2.44 
1.20 
.26 


14.53 
37.22 
23. 56 
17.20 
4.55 
2.47 
.47 


6.47 
17.62 
10.43 
7.77 
2.26 
1.19 
.17 


7.80 
20.50 
13.40 
8.96 
2.29 
.9S 
.16 


14.27 


16 by 25 to 24 by 36 inches 


38.12 




23.83 




16.73 


35 by 52 to 39 by 60 inches 


4.55 




2.17 




.33 






Total 


44.80 


55.20 


100. 00 


45.91 


54.09 


100. 00 







The proportion of the different grades and the proportion of 
double and single strength glass varies greatly in the different fac- 
tories, as shown by the reports of 19 hand factories for the blast of 
1914-15, summarized in the following table: 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



199 



Table 79. — Proportion of A Quality of the Thrke Smaller Brackets, Single 
and Double Strength, Produced by 19 Factories, 1914-15. 

(Data from The Glassworker, Aug. 5, 1916.] 



Factory. 


A grade. 


Cut in first throe 
brackets. 


Single 
strength. 


Double 
strength. 


Single, 
strength. 


Double 
strength. 


I 


Per cent. 
47.0 
10.0 


Percent. 
51.0 
40.0 
29.0 
40.0 
42.0 
47.0 
45.0 
60.0 
12.0 
49.0 
62.5 
50.5 
45.0 
40.0 
42.0 

s!o 

26.0 
15.0 


Per cent. 
55.3 
49.6 
48.9 
32.9 
45. 3 
35.5 
35.9 
47.8 
50.5 
47.3 
53.1 
51.7 
46.0 
40.1 
47.4 
48.6 
63.9 
27.8 
57.3 


Per cent. 


2 


37.9 








4 


1S.0 
17.0 
29.0 
22.0 
39.0 
11.0 
23.5 
43.0 


55.8 


5 




6 


42.3 


7 


49.0 


8 


38.7 


9 


44.7 


10 




11 


60.5 


12 


24.0 




13 


25.0 
19.0 
14.0 
24.0 
4.0 
8.0 
9.5 


47.3 


14 


51.9 


15 


51.9 


10 


49.9 


17 




18 


51.7 


19 










21.0 


39.0 


47.0 


50.0 







Mr. Neenan's statement, previously quoted, indicates that the 
production of window glass by hand has decreased, as the number 
of union blowers was 1,610 during the blast of 1915-16, while for- 
merly it was probably from 1,800 to 1,900. 



PROPORTION OF PRODUCTION BY HAND AND MACHINE. 

The statistics of the Census of Manufactures do not show the 
proportion of window glass made by hand and by machine, and the 
statistics of the union do not show the proportion previous to the 
blast of 1915-16, when, as stated by Mr. Neenan, the production 
of 50-foot boxes by hand was 3,708,000 and by machine 5,575,000, 
the hand production being about 40 per cent. The largest producer 
is the American Window Glass Co., which in 1916 operated 116 of 
the 296 machines in the United States. The machines of this com- 
pany have been installed much longer than the machines of any 
other companyand have long since passed the experimental stage. 

Mr. W. L. Monro, general manager of this company, in declining 
to furnish data regarding its business for this report, stated that it 
could produce window glass cheaper than any other establishment 
in the United States and would continue to do so until window glass 
should be made by machines in sheets (instead of cylindrical as at 
present), the patents for which are controlled by the Owens Bottle 
Machine Co. The American Window Glass Co., in October, 1916, 
declared a dividend of 12£ per cent on its preferred stock, making a 
total of 54£ por cent paid on the stock within a year; or $3,815,000 
on the issue of $7,000,000. 



200 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

COOPERATION AMONG MANUFACTURERS. 

The announcement of discounts from the fixed price list is made 
almost invariably by the American Window Glass Co., and is imme- 
diately followed by the Johnston Brokerage Co., which sells the 
product of about half the hand glass factories and of some other 
machine manufacturers. 

A West Virginia manufacturer, in an interview with a special 
agent of the Bureau, answered as follows the inquiry as to what 
cooperation there was among manufacturers of window glass : 

About the only steps taken in this direction is that of selling through one man 
(Johnston). This tends to make stable prices. Curtailment of production is forced 
on manufacturers by an agreement with the union which fixes the time limits between 
which dates the plants may operate. Manufacturers have now agreed that this is 
beneficial to business, for if they were to operate the whole year there would be an 
overproduction, which would send prices so low that many establishments would be 
ruined. 

Considering the hazard to all concerned, the present lack of intercourse and friendly 
consideration of the problems involved is worse than a menace to this business. If 
there was ever a business which demanded the closest cooperation in all matters con- 
nected with it, it is this one. There never has been such cooperation. The problem 
of overproduction is constantly growing worse. It is further complicated by having 
new factories spring up every time a short period of prosperity comes to the industry. 
In this immediate locality seven new factories have been built and several old ones 
enlarged in the past four years. The number already operating is more than sufficient 
to supply the demand for glass; and they can do this by operating from 26 to 40 
weeks — usually about 30 weeks. These new factories are usually the first to go under, 
but they do damage to the whole industry and make the business still more unstable. 

INCREASED DEMAND FOR FIRST GRADE AND FOR SMALL SIZES. 

In the window-glass industry two trade tendencies have been very 
noticeable during the last few years. One is the demand for A glass. 
Most of the glass that is sold is of B grade, but there has been a growing 
demand for A quality. Buyers are now much more strict as to 
grading than they were formerly, and A glass is at a premium, that 
is, it has advanced in price more proportionately than have other 
grades. So strict is the grading now that some factories no longer 
sell A glass as of that grade. Though some of their product is of 
A grade, they prefer to sell it all as B grade, to avoid complaints 
and claims from their customers for allowances. It is generally, 
conceded that more A glass is made by the hand factories than by 
the machine factories, but hand manufacturers usually admit that 
the quality of machine-made glass is constantly being unproved. 

The other very noticeable tendency in the window-glass industry 
is that for several years, especially since 1914, there has been an 
increased demand for the three smaller brackets. Glass of these 
smaller sizes constitute half or more of the output in ordinary fac- 
tories, or from 50 to 65 per cent. Most manufacturers claim that 
they lose money on the first three bracket sizes, because of both 
domestic and foreign competition. They have not, therefore, wit- 
nessed with equanimity the growing popularity of small sizes. 
The building of so many bungalow houses is given as the principal 
reason for the increasing demand for small glass. 

The fixed price list of window glass, subject to very large discounts, 
shows marked differences in prices. The list prices for single B glass 
of the three smallest brackets is $19, $20, and $21, respectively; 
for the next three brackets, $22, $22.50, and $23.25; for the next 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 201 

three, 125.25, $28.75, and $31.25. This price list was last revised 
on October 15, 1012. It is the belief of many manufacturers that 
there is a much greater difference between the net selling prices of 
the larger and -mailer brackets than the costs warrant and thai the 
list price of the three smaller brackets should be advanced. About 
three-fourths of the imports of window glass before the war in Europe 
began were of the three smaller sizes, and many manufacturers give 
this as a reason why such brackets were sold at a loss. 

It is remarkable, however, that manufacturers have not increased 
the prices of the smaller sizes in proportion to the advance in the 
prices of the larger sizes from 1914 to 1916, especially as during that 
period there has been practically no foreign competition. 

MANUFACTURING TO FILL ORDERS AND FOR STOCK. 

In normal years, window-glass manufacturers make glass both to 
fill orders and for stock, usually about two-thirds for orders and 
one-third for stock. The goods made for stock are to fill immediate 
orders and to take care of the trade between fires. With hand 
factories the "fire" or manufacturing season extends for seven 
months, from, the first of November to the last of May, and during 
these months they must make enough for stock to supply customers 
during the five idle months. Some machine window-glass plants are 
shut down only three or four weeks, but do not operate with the full 
force during several months of the year. Some orders for window 
glass are for immediate delivery, but most of them are for delivery 
in from one to three months. During the latter part of 1915 and in 
1916, when the demand was extraordinarily active, stocks did not 
accumulate, and the factories were run at capacity to fill orders. 

CONDITIONS OUTLINED BY MANUFACTURERS. 

Following are excerpts from speeches made at the annual meeting 
of the National Association of Window Glass Manufacturers held 
in 1915. 

Mr. H. R. Hilton, president of the Allegheny Window Glass Co., 
Port Allegheny, Pa., said: 

Increased capacity of hand and machine factories has reduced the operating period 
to seven and possibly six months each year. The jobber now being able to buy glass 
at any time to meet all his requirements the year round, no longer finds it necessary 
to carry more than a small assortment of sizes to meet his current needs. This forces 
the manufacturer to carry large stocks during the shut-down period, to meet the 
requirements of the market when glass is called for. 

Under present conditions in the hand process window-glass industry, the demand 
for glass is greater during the shut-down period, June to November, than during the 
customary operating period, November to June. No manufacturer is so wise that 
he can foresee what sizes will be in demand the following summer, hence he rarely 
accumulates a stock that meets the market requirements. 

This imposes large financial burdens on the manufacturer in carrying over another 
year that part of his stock not in demand in addition to losing summer trade by not 
having the sizes called for. 

The wage scales of the past have permitted the setting out of a certain percentage 
of sheets to enable the manufacturer to fill out short sizes on summer orders, but this 
percentage is entirely too small for present-day conditions, and besides carries with 
it a tax of 15 cents per 50-foot box by compelling the manufacturer to pay full price 
for cutting when the sheets are set out and full price again when the sheets are cut 
into marketable sizes. This double price for cutting sheets and the restrictions 
as to setting them out impose a hardship and expense on the manufacturer that is 
both unjust and unfair. 



202 THE GLASS INDTJSTBY. 

As a partial solution of this problem, I would suggest that each cutter be given 
the production of four pots or places to cut; that he cut weekly the production of two 
and a half pots or less according to demand; that the balance be carried directly from 
the lehr to the sheet storage room to be held for summer cutting without payment 
for the sheets set out from any of his places, he to have the privilege of cutting this 
sheet glass during the summer months, as called for, at the scale price. 

This would give each cutter from seven and one-half to nine months' work, would 
give each factory the labor required for this work, and would enable the manu- 
facturer to dispose of his production to the very best advantage by placing him in a 
position to compete with his machine competitor. 

Sheets can be set out to occupy less floor space than the same glass would require 
packed in 50-foot boxes and piled 25 boxes high. 

Mr. O. C. Teague, secretary of the Utica Glass Co., Utica, Ohio 
(also president of the National Window Glass Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation) : 

The window-glass industry during the past year has operated 50 per cent capacity — 
meaning that if all available furnaces had operated at maximum capacity for six 
months, all demands, both domestic and foreign, would have been fully supplied 
and some stock to spare. 

Most producers have recognized the fundamental law of supply and demand and 
demonstrated a willingness to exact his share and be satisfied. Unfortunately, 
however, there are still a few manufacturers who propose to operate full capacity 
for a full year, furnace conditions permitting. This last-named factor is the dan- 
gerous element in our largely overbuilt industry. Unless we can convince these free 
lances of their mistaken policy our future business life is indeed short. * * * 

Evidently the day has passed when the jobber engages in speculative buying of 
window glass and the result is that manufacturers must carry the bulk of the stock. 
This necessitates increased resources and good banking connections, or both. 

Mr. G. A. Schlosstein, president of the Dunkirk Window Glass Co., 
South Charleston, W. Va. : 

Some industries have overproduction in their individual lines of 10 per cent, others 
as high as 25 per cent, but the sheet-glass business of this country has now reached 
the alarming figure of 50 per cent overproduction, or, in other words, there are exactly 
two boxes of glass made where only one is wanted. 

While the hand manufacturer during the blast of 1914 and 1915 has operated only 
six months, many machine-equipped factories have operated from 6 to 11 months, 
and are still in operation to-day or have just suspended operations. * * * 

Since we can no longer form holding companies, or distributing companies, that 
will absolutely maintain and establish prices, the time is here when everyone, 
with favoritism to none, should see the importance of intelligently contributing his 
influence to the maintenance of a profitable market. * * * 

During the years 1913 and 1914 there were manufactured by the combined machine 
plantsof the Uni ted StatesS, 969, 519 fifty-foot boxesof window glass, and 3. 064, 304 were 
manufactured by the hand method. The production by machines during the year 
ending July, 1915, was largely increased, and it begins to look as though the machine 
interest will in the future dictate the policies, whether we will overproduce, or 
whether we shall intelligently make as much glass as the country requires and then 
close the plants. Strange as it may seem to one unfamiliar with the industry, there 
has been an uncontrollable desire on the part of many manufacturers to keep their 
plants in operation, thinking that it was more important to operate than to sell their 
goods at a profit and to pay dividends to their stockholders. * * * 

I can remember as far back as 1887 when the Chambers & McKee Co. builttheir 
first large tank at Jeannette. In a few years others followed, but for a long period of 
years the pot factories, meaning those who melted their glass in clay pots instead of 
clay tanks, occupied the same identical position that the hand operators have done 
in the past few years. Gradually the scene changed as it is changing to-day, and when 
the dawn of 1906 came, with its business depression, the pot furnace had been driven 
out, just as the hand operator is being driven out. Those days it was stated that the 
antiquated pot-furnace factory had to go, that it had no right to exist any longer. 
When it disappeared, modern tanks took its place, with doubled and tripled capacity. 

What made it worse, that much new capital was decoyed into the business and 
it was more difficult to get along with the new competitors, who knew absolutely 
nothing about the business. The evolution of cleaning up the pot furnaces and 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 203 

brinein? tank'furnaces into general use caused most of the present overproduction 
of the industry. * * * 

But when we look forward to the next five years, what can be done to make the 
business profitable? Hardly has the cylinder drawing machine been made a com- 
mercial success, but that we are confronted with a sheet drawing machine which 
threatens the cylinder process of to-day. 

Even when the sheet drawing machine becomes a success, no more money will 
be made in the business unless the glass is intelligently distributed after it is man- 
ufactured. Some of the livest economists have stated that "it was not a question 
of production in this country, but a question of distribution." Glass must be sold 
by an experienced salesman; it should be shipped from the factory most favorably 
located from the point of manufacture to the point of consumption; it should travel 
the shortest route so as to minimize the freight equalization to the manufacturer. 
Manufacturer? should produce their proportion of the glass that the country demands 
and have the glass marketed at a profit which is fair and commensurate with the risk; 
that the business can not escape. While we bad lean years, and while we have had 
profitable years, have we ever made as much money out of the business as we should 
have done? Think for a moment that in our great country we are blessed with 
natural gas for fuel. Think of the foreign manufacturers, who even during the times 
of peace were waging a constant battle to produce a superior quality of window glass 
with the use of manufactured gas. and in addition some wood. The day may come 
when our gas is gone; then we shall think back to the good old days when it was 
in abundance. It has given out in Indiana, it has given out in Kansas, and it is 
rapidly diminishing in Ohio and Pennsylvania. The few years that are left for 
us to use the precious fuel should be counted and the supply carefully guarded and 
treasured. * * * 

Mr. J. W. Allison, president of the Alliance Window Glass Co., 
Dubois, Pa.: 

Mr. Johnston has a right to sell our glass, and there is no law to interfere with him 
or with me as salesman, and Mr. Johnston has a right to say at what price he will 
sell that product — he can do that without conflicting with the law, but we manu- 
facturers can not come here and agree on production or prices, but can only have it 
understood that each fellow is going to make his proportion and no more. Then, of 
course, it is up to each man individually and, as one of the gentlemen here has said, 
the law of supply and demand will take care of the business. 

Mr. Frank Bastin, secretary of the Blackford Window Glass Co., 
Vinccnnes, Ind.: 

If we persist in making more glass than the country can absorb it will be a drug 
on the market, and it means low prices and impossible conditions for everyone. I 
think common sense, which is the basis of all laws, should teach us that this should 
be remedied in some legitimate and legal way. It should not be contrary for us, 
acting as individuals, to say there is enough glass, when we have statistics before us 
showing that we have made as much glass as the country required. 

Mr. C. E. Hazelton, general manager of the Consolidated Window 
Glass Co., Bradford, Pa.: 

There is no doubt but what the condition of our trade is overbuilt, which makes 
it a hard proposition to maintain a strictly standard market where we can all make 
a living, but by cooperation and square dealing 1 hope we can all continue to live 
and prosper for years to come. There is one thing that comes to my mind that 
appeals to me as being worth while, and that is the question of changing our packages 
to universal 100-foot packages, such as are used by foreign countries. Just at the 
present time it is confusing when we manufacturers receive orders for 50 and 100 
foot packages, but that can be remedied by establishing the same package that is 
used in France and Belgium, and I think it would be a good thing for this business. 

Mr. C. W. Brown, first vice president of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass 
Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.: . 

We all know that the American Window Glass Co. for 10 or 11 years kept on investing 
more and more money and ran more and more into debt, without making returns to 
its stockholders. This is a matter of common record. And now in the past two or 
three years the American Window Glass Co. has perfected its machines and is now 
able to make the best machine glass in the world. * * * 



204 THE GLASS INDUSTKY. 

During the past year building permits were materially curtailed and the consump- 
tion of window glass was greatly limited. There has been a largely excessive pro- 
duction of certain sizes and certain qualities, which have been sold at various prices, 
until it is impossible to know what the market price really is. I hope to live to see 
the day when all sales of window glass are reported the same as sales of coffee, sugar, 
and grain, which will give those in the window-glass business an opportunity to know 
what the market price really is. * * * 

The hand manufacturers have met this condition in a way that I think is very 
creditable; they have provided for six or seven months' blast. The American Window 
Glass Co., as you all know, have also recognized the situation, and instead of indulging 
in a ruinous competition they have been broad enough and sensible enough to mate- 
rially curtail their production. 

Mr. Joseph Neenan, president of the National Association of Win- 
dow Glass Workers : 

Our wages have increased more than 100 per cent from the lowest point to the point 
where, during the last six weeks of the blast ending May 29, single-strength blowers 
were averaging 66 cents per box. Contrast this condition with the one that prevailed 
three years ago last November, and we are forced to the conclusion that both manu- 
facturers and workers have profited through the efforts that have been made to obtain 
a living wage rate and bring about a stable condition in the markets. At the time to 
which I am referring, single-strength blowers were aAreraging about 30 cents per box; 
the average selling price of single-strength glass was about SI. 27 per box; a condition 
which meant that both workers and manufacturers were devoting their interests and 
giving their time and energy to a business which gave them no returns. 

In an address delivered before the convention of the National 
Association of Window Glass Manufacturers held in 1916, Mr. W. L. 
Monro, general manager of the American Window Glass Co., the larg- 
est producer of window glass in the world, estimated the production 
in American window-glass factories from September 1, 1915, to Sep- 
tember 1, 1916, as 10,600,000 boxes, and said: "Had the manufac- 
turers ever realized the enormous demand for glass, there is no ques- 
tion that they would have demanded more money for their goods 
and secured it with the greatest ease." He further said: 

The past year has been the most notable one in the history of the window-glass 
business in the United States, not only from a manufacturing but also from a jobbing 
standpoint. Its claim to note rests on many facts: (1) More glass was manufactured 
in this country during the past year since September 1, 1915, than in any previous 
year in the history of the business; (2) more glass has been sold during the same period 
than ever before in a similar period; (3) window-glass prices steadily increased; (4) 
the demand absorbed not only all the glass produced daring the past year, but also 
the greater part of the large accumulations on hand on September 1, 1915; (5) the 
export business was the largest we have ever done. 

If the year has not also been the most profitable year the manufacturers and jobbers 
have ever known, the fault must not be laid to the business, but to the manner in which 
those who did not realize their greatest profit have conducted their business. The 
money was there to be made. 

The following, also quoted from Mr. Monro's address, shows that 
there was comparatively little advance in the price for the first three 
brackets of B glass, the grade commonly used for window glass as 
compared with A grade and with larger sizes, during the period from 
1914 to 1916, though there were scarcely any imports of window glass 
during the latter part of this period, and exports were larger than ever: 

We hear a great deal of talk about the present prices of window glass being high. 
I know of but few things that we buy, whether it is what we use or what we eat or 
what we wear, that have not advanced in price since the beginning of the war far 
more than window glass. I will only cite two of them — steel from 100 to 130 per cent; 
soda ash, 100 per cent. The wages for common labor have increased from 16£ cents 
per hour to 24 and 25 cents an hour; natural gas from 14 cents to 16 cents in the Pitts- 
burgh district. Building costs have increased 40 per cent. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 205 

The following represents the increase in prices of window glass from May. 1914, to 
March 10. L916. Schedule of prices: S. S. first three brackets, A quality, 32.5 per cent; 
S. S. firsl three brackets, J', quality. 8.4 per cent; S. S. above sizes, 40 per cent: an 
average increase of aboul 27 per cent. A quality, double strength, has increased 36 
per cent, and J '> quality, double strength, 24 per cent, or an average increase of 30 per 
cent. If you will compare the percentages of these increases with the percentages 
of incroa.se in other lines, yon will see that window-glass manufacturers have failed 
cure their proportionate Bhare of the prosperity that has prevailed, and have 
also failed to secure an increase in the price of window p;lass proportionate to the 
increase in the cost of producing it. It is a sad commentary when we realize that B 
quality glass in the first three brackets is only selling at 8.4 per cent more than in 
May. L914, and it is our understanding that some manufacturers are even shading 
current discounts on that. 

THE SHEET-GLASS MACHINE. 

All window-glass manufacturers are dreading the time when glass 
shall be made in flat sheets by the Owens Bottle Machine Co. under 
the Colburn patents, which it controls. They fear that by the new 
process window glass can be made much cheaper than by any other 
process that has been used in the United States ; that with the cheaper 
production there will be an intense competition in the window-glass 
market, and that the weaker establishments will be forced out of 
business. The Owens Bottle Machine Co. began in 1916 the erection 
of an extensive plant at Charleston, W. Va., for the manufacture of 
window glass in flat sheets instead of cylinders. American manu- 
facturers are apprehensive also about a machine for making flat 
window glass which was patented in Belgium before the war began. 
Another machine was made in Saxony before the war began by 
which window glass is blown and not, as in the case of American 
machines, drawn from the pot or furnace. In the United States, 
however, very little is known about these new European machines. 

PLATE GLASS. 
INCREASE IN PRODUCTION. 

Table 8, page 28, shows that the production of plate glass in the 
United States has increased much more rapidly than the production 
of window glass. According to this table, based on data from the 
Census of Manufactures, 217,064,100 square feet of window glass 
was manufactured in the United States in 1899, and 400,99S,893 
in 1914, an increase of 84.74 per cent'; while 16,883,578 square feet 
of polished plate glass was manufactured in 1899, and 60,383,516 in 
1914, an increase of 357.65 per cent. According to the same data, 
the average value of polished plate glass decreased from SO. 306 per 
square foot in 1899 to $0,245 in 1914. 

The number of square feet of plate glass, cast, polished, finished 
or unfinished, and unsilvered, imported for consumption during the 
fiscal year 1899 was 925,212 square feet, or 5.48 per cent of the do- 
mestic production- in 1899, and the imports during the fiscal year 
1914 were 2,819,611 square feet, or 4.67 per cent of the domestic 
production in 1914. While the number of square feet manufactured 
in the United States increased 357.65 per cent during the 15 years, 
the number of square feet imported increased 204.75 per cent. 



206 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



A brief signed by 10 American manufacturers of plate glass, and 
submitted to the Committee on Ways and Means in January, 1913, 
stated : x 

The production in the United States is about 60,000,000 square feet, about 47 per 
cent of which is produced by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., and the remainder by 11 
separate companies. None of the American product is exported, excepting a negli- 
gible quantity to contiguous territory to supply pressing requirements. 

The capital invested in the industry in this country is about $49,000,000, the smallest 
concern in the industry having a capital investment of about $1,000,000. The average 
number of men directly employed in the industry in this country is about 11,000. 
Those indirectly employed will equal more than twice this number. 

NUMBER AND EQUIPMENT OF PLANTS. 

The number of plate-giass factories is small as compared with the 
number of window-glass factories. A plate-glass factory requires a 
very large investment for furnaces, annealing ovens, grinding and 
polishing machines, and other equipment. The number of factories 
in the United States manufacturing polished plate glass is 15, in- 
cluding 2 that were closed in 1916 but late in that year were pre- 
paring to reopen. Six of these plants, with 52 furnaces and 880 
.pots, were operated by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. Of these six 
plants, four were in Pennsylvania, one in Indiana, and one in Mis- 
souri. The number of furnaces and pots of the 15 plants is shown 
in the following table: 

Table 80. — Location and Number op Factories Making Polished Plate Glass 
and the Number op Their Furnaces and Pots. 

[Data furnished by the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.] 



States. 


Estab- i 

lish- Furnaces, 
ments. | 


Pots. 




1 

1 

1 

ol 

1 

68 


4 
10 

4 
14 
17 
53 


80 




120 




80 




208 




304 




1,080 




Total 


cl3 


102 


1,872 





a In addition, 1 plant with 5 furnaces and 100 pots not operated in 1916 was preparing to reopen. 
6 In addition, 1 plant with 6 furnaces and 144 pots not operated in 1916 was preparing to reopen. 
e In addition, 2 plants with 11 furnaces and 244 pots not operated in 1916 were preparing to reopen. 

TREND OF PRICES AND SIZES. 



The statement of the manufacturers to the Committee on Ways 
and Means in 1913 says: 

The prices to consumers of plate glass in the United States have on the whole been 
in distinct contrast to the upward tendency in the price of most commodities during 
the last 10 years, while the manufacturers have been compelled to pay more for the 
materials entering into its production and have been compelled to increase wages 
in keeping with the general upward tendency of wages, all of which for a time increased 
the cost of production. Nevertheless, by the introduction of labor-saving devices 
and new inventions, the tendency in the cost of production for the last four years 
has been downward, and the cost to the consumer has also had a downward tendencv. 



> Tariff Schedules: Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, 1913, 
schedule B, p. 838. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



207 



The manufacl i rt that the cosl of manufacturing plate 

per square foot, whether the glass is of a large or 
small size. Nevertheless, the selling prices are graded according to 
size-, being lowest on the smallest size and highest on the i 
3J shown by the following table embodied i mufacturers' 

statement: 

Table 81. — Retail Prices of Plate Glass per Square Foot, 1875 to 1912. 
[From statement of manufacturers in Tarifl" Hearings, 1913.] 



Range. 


1875 


18S0 


1885 


1890 


1895 


1900 


1905 


1908 


1912 




SO. 71 
.84 
1.12 
1.49 
1.56 
1.69 


SO. 51 
.61 
.80 
1.06 
1.11 
1.21 


$0.46 
.55 
.72 
.96 
1.01 
1.09 


SO. 40 
.48 
.64 
.85 
.89 
.97 


SO. 30 
.36 
.48 
.63 
.66 
.72 


SO. 31 
.38 
.60 
.81 
.85 
.90 


SO. 1875 
.225 
.36 
.416 


SO. 1875 
.225 
.36 


SO. 22 




.241 




.342 




.39 I .365 




.436 | .408 .38 




.462 .432 











The following paragraphs arc quoted from the manufacturers' 
statement: 

It should be borne in mind that a square foot of plate glass costs the same amount 
whether manufactured in large or small plates, because it must of necessity be cast 
first in large plates exclusively. Glass can not economically be melted in small 
quantities. It is necessary to manufacture in large sizes, in the course of -which 
manufacturing process the unavoidable breaking and cutting down for imperfections 
produces some smaller sizes under 5 square feet. Normally this production of small 
sizes, to wit, under 5 square feet, is about 10 per cent. 

In answer to the statement made by the representative of the importers four years 
ago, that the cost of small glass was not the same as the cost of large glass, and to the 
effect that the small glass was a by-product, we wish to distinctly say that neither 
one of these statements is in accordance with the facts. Assuming now for the sake 
of argument that the 10 per cent of glass under 5 square feet above referred to is a 
by-product, it must be borne in mind that the consumption of the country for glass 
of this character has now grown to be nearly 50 per cent of the entire production, 
which compels the manufacturer to cut 35 to 40 per cent of additional glass which 
would normally be large sizes down to the market requirements under 5 square feet, 
and which can certainly not be considered a by-product from any standpoint. 

The query may naturally arise as to why the manufacturer should supply this 
additional glass if he does it at a loss. The answer is that by increasing his output 
by this large additional amount of business he is enabled to operate his plants nearly 
to their capacity, and thus reduce his general production cost. If the American 
manufacturer were to cease to supply this business, the cost of production would be 
advanced at least 3 cents per foot. 

We do not claim that all glass under 5 square feet is sold at a loss, because for the 
finer qualities we get what appears to be a fair price; but in order to secure the small 
pieces of fine quality, it is necessary to cut out of the large plates the patches of fine 
quality, with the result that this cutting reduces the balau ce of the plate to odds and ends 
and strips. The average price secured for all the glass sold under 5 square feet has 
always netted a loss to the manufacturer. 

The increased demand for plate glass of the smaller sizes during 
recent years is due to the increased use of plate glass in place of 
window glass, and to the very much more extensive use of plate 
glass for shelving, showcases, furniture tops, automobile wind shields, 
etc. The following is quoted from Glass and Glassware, issued in 
1916 by the National Distributors' Association: 

Notwithstanding the tremendous investment required , the comprehensive machinery 
and materials used in manufacturing, the cost has been scientifically reduced so that 
plate glass is no longer considered a luxury and is every day increasing in popularity 
for general glazing of high-class buildings, store fronts, show cases, for table and desk 



208 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



covering, dresser tops, cliift'oniers, buffets, taborets, shelves, etc. The use of plate 
glass adds an elegance and finish whenever it is seen. 

The same publication states that polished plate glass is manu- 
factured in thickness ranging from one-eighth of an inch to 1| inches 
and that the standard product runs from one-fourth to five-sixteenths 
inch thick. It further says: 

One-eighth inch to -j^-inch glass is used largely for residence windows and by car 
builders and for boat sash, automobile wind shields, and for other special purposes 
where perfect surfaces, high polish, and absolutely clear vision is wanted, with 
minimum weight. 

Glass thicker than the standard product is used for counter tops, deal plates, port 
and deck lights on ships, aquariums, etc. 

The increase of the retail price in 1912 over the price in 1908 in 
the first two sizes shown in Table 81, that is, for sizes of 5 feet and 
under, reflected the increase in the rate of duty on the smaller 
brackets under the tariff act which went into effect on August 6, 1909. 
Under the tariff acts of 1897 and 1909, the rates of duty per square 
foot on plate glass, cast, polished, finished or unfinished, and 
unsilvered, were as follows: 

Not exceeding 384 square inches (2.67 square feet): 1897, 8 cents; 1909, 10 cents. 

Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches (2.67 to 5 square feet) : 1897, 10 cents; 
1909, 124 cents. 

Above 720 and not exceeding 1,440 square inches (5 to 10 square feet): 1897, 22$ 
cents; 1909, 22 J cents. 

Above 1,440 square inches (10 square feet): 1897, 35 cents; 1909, 22£ cents. 

The following table, showing the retail price of plate glass to con- 
sumers during each year 1908 to 1915, inclusive, was furnished by the 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., which manufactures plate glass and sells 
it to consumers: 



Table 82. — Retail Prices of Plate Glass per Square Foot, 1906 to 1915. 
[Data from Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., November, 1916.] 



Range. 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915. 


1 to 3 square feet 


SO. 1875 


.$0. 1875 


,10. 1875 


$0. 1875 


$0.26 


$0.22 


SO. 22 


SO. 22 


SO. 19 


SO. 17 


3 to 5 square feet 


.225 


.225 


.225 


.225 


.29 


.26 


.247 


.26 


.23 


.20 


5 to 10 square feet... 


.36 


.36 


.38 


.38 


.43 


.39 


.342 


.36 


.31 


.29 


10 to 25 square feet . . 


.41 


.40 


.39 


.39 


.46 


.42 


.355 


.38 


.34 


.32 


25 to 50 square feet . . 


.42 


.41 


.408 


.40 


.47 


.43 


.38 


.40 


.35 


.34 


50 to 100 square feet . 


.45 


.44 


.432 


.43 


.50 


.46 


.392 


.41 


.36 


.35 



As shown by this table, the retail prices in 1915 were between 4 
and 5 cents per square foot lower in each bracket than they were in 
1912. 

In furnisliing the data for 1906 to 1915, inclusive, supplemental to 
the data shown in Table 81, Mr. W. L. Clause, chairman of the board 
of directors of the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., wrote November 21, 
1916: 

The figures shown are intended to represent a fair average for the respective years. 
In some instances there was quite a wide range of prices prevailing at different portions 
of the year. In the years 1910 and 1911 the prices were somewhat higher than those 
prevailing in prior or subsequent years. These higher prices resulted from unusual 
conditions in the trade. For instance, in 1910 our own company lost by fire its largest 
works, thus taking out of the market an appreciable percentage of domestic supply. 
This, together with a strong and firm market, brought about the advanced price con- 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



209 



ditions as shown and which extended through a portion of 1911, thus affecting the 
retail prices during rhat year. 

You will note, also, thai no figures are shown for the year 1910, for the reason that 
we can not supply figures of this character before the end of the year. They will, 
however, be materially higher, due to the general and extraordinary business condi- 
tions prevailing. 

The percentage of the so-called small-bracket glass (that is, under 10 square feet) 
produced and sold has ranged during a period of many years from 20 to 25 per cent of 
the total production, varying from year to year on account of peculiar conditions 
experienced in the various factories in the United States. On the other hand, the 
sales of small-bracket glass range from 60 to 70 per cent of the total production. In 
the year 1915, which was a fair, average year, our company's sales of small glass 
amounted to 04.49 per cent under 10 square feet; 1916 bids fair, from present indica- 
tions, to exceed the percentage shown in 1915. It is obvious from the foregoing figures 
that of the total production 40 to 45 per cent manufactured as large glass is, of necessity, 
cut down and sold in the small brackets. 

During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, the value of the imports 
of plate glass, cast, polished, finished, or unfinished, and unsilvered, 
or the same containing a wire netting within itself, was $265,909, 
and during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1915, the amount was 
$38,757. 

In spite of the almost entire cessation of such imports on account 
of the war, the prices of plate glass were lower during the months 
from February to July, 1915, than ever before in the history of the 
trade. Afterwards prices increased, and after August 25, 1915, they 
increased greatly, as shown by the following table: 

Table 83. — Prices per Square Foot op Glazing Sizes op Plate Glass. 
|A11 prices are f. o. b. factory, freight equalized from nearest factory to point of destination on all quantities.] 



Bracket. 


St. Louis 
Plate Glass 
Co., Valley 
Park, Mo., 

Aug. 25, 
1915. 


Edward 
Ford Plate 
Glass Co., 
Rossford, 
Ohio, Mav 

23, 1916." 


Bracket. 


St. Louis 
PlateGlass 
Co., Valley 
Park, Mo., 

Aug. 25, 
1915. 


Edward 
Ford Plate 
Glass Co., 

Rossford, 
Ohio, May 

23, 1916. 




SO. 12 
.14 
.18 
.19 
.21 
.23 


SO. 30 
.31 
.33 
.34 
.38 
.44 




$0.24 
.25 

'.27 

.28 
.30 


$0.49 






.50 






.52 






.54 






.57 






.58 









Plate glass and wire glass are made both to fill orders and for 
stock. Orders are usually placed three months in advance, of de- 
livery. Opalescent glass is made chiefly for stock because orders 
usually call for immediate shipment; formerly there were more 
advance orders. 

BOTTLES. 

The production of bottles and jars is not only larger but is more 
widely distributed than the production of other varieties of glass or 
glassware. Table 8, page 28, shows that, according to the Census 
of Manufactures, the value of the production of bottles and jars was 
$21,676,791 in 1899, $33,631,063 in 1904, $36,018,333 in 1909, and 
$51,958,728 in 1914. During the 15 years the increase was 139.7 
per cent. In examining these figures it should be remembered that 
automatic machines for making bottles and jars were introduced in 
102511°— 17 14 



210 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

1903. The number of such machines used in 1904 was inconsider- 
able, and although quite a number of machines were installed during 
the next five years, the increase of production from 1904 to 1909 was 
much smaller than from 1899 to 1904. 

The imports of bottles have had but little effect on domestic 
production. The value of the imports of empty bottles and vials 
and demijohns and carboys entered for consumption was $211,729 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, and $217,995 during the 
following fiscal year, the new tariff having gone into effect on October 
4, 1913. The value of filled bottles, vials, jars, demijohns, and car- 
boys imported for consumption during the fiscal year 1914 amounted 
to $966,610. 

PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY MACHINERY. 

The disturbing factor in the manufacture of bottles during the 
years since 1903 has been the automatic bottle-blowing machine. 
The Owens machine is called automatic, because it requires no skilled 
labor to operate it. The only attendant is a mechanic, who oils the 
machine and sees that it runs properly, and whose wages are not 
equal to those of blowers or hand machine operators. A boy takes 
off the ware when no automatic conveyor is used. The first auto- 
matic had six arms, each arm having a pair of molds, and six bottles 
were made with one complete revolution of the arms, at the rate of 
12 or 14 bottles a minute. Later, machines were equipped with 
10 arms, and more recently with 15 arms. The 15-arm machines 
can turn out 60 bottles a minute. In making the smaller sizes of 
bottles, the mold on each arm is cut for three small molds, so that 
180 small vials are produced a minute by a 15-arm machine. 

Shortly after the introduction of the Owens automatic machine 
other bottle machines were introduced, the first one being an English 
machine. These machines were small and cost considerably less 
than the Owens machines, but their output was much less, and 
manufacturers that used them could not compete with manufac- 
turers usmg automatic machines in filling large orders. The ma- 
chines other than the Owens are called hand machines; they are called, 
also, three-man machines, because three skilled men are required to 
operate each. They have been largely superseded by two-man 
machines, and more recently one-man machines requiring only one 
skilled operator for each have been introduced. The one-man 
machines are called semiautomatic. In some plants three skilled 
men are employed on two machines. Notwithstanding the improve- 
ments in the hand machines so that they can be operated by only 
one man, the manufacturers usmg them still find great difficulty in 
competing with manufacturers that use Owens machines, except 
on comparatively small orders. The keenness of this competition was 
assigned as a reason why a large number of establishments have 
quit business. 

The Glass Bottle Blowers' Association is composed of the skilled 
workers that blow bottles in hand molds, or who operate hand ma- 
chines, including the semiautomatic. It is organized in only a few 
of the plants using Owens machines, in which no skilled labor is re- 
quired, or in plants using the flowing process, in which less skilled 
labor is required than in plants using the hand machines. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 211 

Dennis A. Hayes, national president, in his report to the annual 
convention of the association, held in 1915, said: 

Shortly after the introduction and installation of the automatic machine, there 
appeared on the market what is known as the United or English machine for making 
narrow-mouth ware. A list was adopted by our executive board during the season 
of 1908 and 1909 covering rounds and ovals, there being no other kinds of ware made 
on it up to that time. 

In many establishments that use the hand machines bottles are 
also still blown entirely by hand to fill small orders. President 
Hayes's report to the convention is 1915 said: 

In nearly every bottle factory on the American continent there are one or more 
machines, and those factories not having them will either have to install them or be 
forced out of business. So it is but natural to assume that manufacturers in order to 
protect their investment will endeavor to equip their factories with bottle machines. 
Machines to make narrow-mouth ware are being perfected and simplified to such an 
extent that it is possible for the man operating them to make first-class wages. To 
date, however, I know of no machine except the automatic that is capable of produc- 
ing small ware successfully, especially that of the prescription variety. By "success- 
fully" I mean in commercial quantities. * * * 

The number of machines making wide-mouth bottles and jars is given as 193, 
employing approximately 700 men; 98 of these machines are operating semi- 
automatically, employing three men to two machines, at an average wage of $5.65 
per day. This is an increase of 446 machines over the previous season. There are 
reported 116 of the United and O'Neill machines operating on beer, soda, grape 
jmce, catsup, and ammonia bottles, employing 669 operators at an average daily 
wage of $4.75. There are 86 machines reported employing two men and 63 employing 
one man, making miscellaneous narrow-mouth ware at an approximate wage of $6 
per day. 

Another invention, in addition to the Owens automatic machine, 
which had a great effect on the bottle industry was the flowing 
process. It dispenses with the skilled man that gathers the glass, 
and is operated with less labor cost than are the machines which 
require a hand gatherer. The flowing device was patented by Homer 
Brooke in 1903, and by 1910 it was used in several large establish- 
ments. The principal patents on the Owens machine and on the 
flowing device will not expire until about 1920. 

It is not known what proportion of the bottles produced is manu- 
factured by Owens machines or by the flowing process, but it is 
probable that the production by both automatic machines and the 
flowing device largely exceeds the production both by hand machines 
and entirely by hand. Nearly all of the successful establishments 
that manufacture with hand machines or entirely by hand are unusu- 
ally favorably located with reference to cheapness of fuel or acces- 
sibility to markets, and nearly all of them manufacture to fill much 
smaller orders than are accepted by establishments using Owens 
machines or the flowing process. The manufacturers employing 
automatic machines of flowing processes, because of the compara- 
tively low price of their product require large orders to insure con- 
tinuous uninterrupted production. 

NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND THEIR EQUIPMENT. 

The following table shows, as far as reported, the number of estab- 
lishments manufacturing bottles and jars in the United States that 
were operated in 1916, and details about their equipment, not includ- 
ing establishments using Owens machines. 



212 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 84. — Location and Number op Plants Making Bottles, Jars, etc., in 
1916, and Number op Their Tanks, Rings, and Pots, not Including Plants 
Using Automatic Machines. 

[Data from Glass Factory Directory, 1916.] 



State. 


Plants. 


Continuous 

tanks. 


Day tanks. 


Fur- 
naces. 


Pots. 




Tanks. 


Kings. 


Tanks. 


Rings. 






2 

a63 

el4 

1 

4 

1 

62 

14 

dll 

dll 

"5 

«33 

1 

1 

3 

de6 

1 


7 
4 
29 
1 
5 
1 
5 
32 
15 
24 
4 

56 
1 
3 
4 
7 
3 


32 
35 
281 
8 
26 
6 
64 
311 
112 
210 
31 
441 
6 
16 
28 
61 
28 










































1 


14 


5 


59 


















8 


75 


11 
1 






6 


Ohio 
























7 


71 




























































Total 


113 


201 


1,696 


9 


89 


24 


238 







a Tanks and rings of 1 plant in Oklahoma included with Illinois. 

b Tanks and rings of 1 Illinois plant included with Missouri. 

e Tanks and rings of 1 plant in Oklahoma included with Indiana. 

<* Tanks and rings of 1 plant in New York and 1 in West Virginia, included with Ohio. 

e Tanks of 1 plant in West Virginia included with Pennsylvania. 

NUMBER OF AUTOMATIC MACHINES. 



The report of President Hayes in 1915 shows that the number of 
automatic machines in the United States and Canada was then 182, 
an increase over 1914 of 10 machines, and. that of these 169 were 
operated in the United States and 13 in Canada. His report in 
1916 shows that the number was then 193, an increase over 1915 
of 11, and that of these 180 were operated in the United States 
and 13 in Canada. 

The number of Owens machines used in the United States in 
November, 1916, were as follows: 

Table 85. — Owens Bottle Machines Installed in the United States. 

[Reported by the Owens Bottle Machine Co., November, 1916.] 



Company and product. 


6-arm 
machines. 


10-arm 
machines. 


15-arm 
machines. 


Total. 


Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 1, Toledo, Ohio. 


1 


1 
1 

12 
6 
1 
2 
7 

10 




2 


Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 2, West Toledo, Ohio: 




1 


Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 3, Fairmont, W. Va.: 






12 


Owens Bottle Machine Co. No. 4, Clarksburg, W. Va.: 






6 


Whitney Glass Works, Glassboro. N. J.: 


6 
19 
17 
17 




7 


American Bottle ( o., Newark, Ohio: 


4 


25 


American Bottle Co., Streator, 111. (2 plants): 


24 


Illinois Glass to.. Alton, 111.: 

Prescription and liquor bottles 




27 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 213 

Table 85. — Owens Bottle Machines Installed in the United States. — Con. 



Company and product. 


6-arm 10-nrm 15-arm Total 
machines, machines, machines. 1011 "- 


Illinois Glass Co., Gas City. 111.: 

Miscellaneous proscription bottles, fruit jar 


3 


11 
2 

10 
2 

3 

6 
8 
2 


9 


Ball Bro^., Muncie, fad : 

t ers, and preservers 

Ball Bros.. Wichita Fall 


2 16 
2 


Hazel-Atlas Glass Co., Washington, Pa.: 


1 
1 


11 


Hazel-Atlas Glass Co., < Va.: 


3 


Hazel-Atlas Glass Co.. Grafton, W. Va.: 


3 


Chas. Boldt Co., Cincinnati, Ohio: 


5 
3 
4 
4 
4 


11 


Chas. Boldt i o., Huntington, W. Va.: 


: ii 


Thatcher Manufacturing Co., Elmira, N. Y.: 


6 


Thatcher Manufacturing Co., Kane, Pa.: 


4 


Thatcher Manufacturing Co., Streator, Hi.: 




4 


H. J. Heinz ( o., Sharpsburg, Pa.: 


3 

1 


3 


Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, Md.: 


1 

1 


2 


Macbeth-Evans Glass Co., Bethaven, Pa.: 


1 


D. ('. Jenkins Glass Co., Kokomo, Ind.: 




al 










Total 


87 


97 


6 ! 191 







a Special machine. 

This table shows that the Owens Bottle Machine Co. itself operates 
four plants, one each in Clarksburg, W. Va., and Fairmont, W. Va., 
and two small plants in Toledo, Ohio. This company also owns the 
controlling interest in the plant of the Whitney Glass Works at 
Glassboro, N. J., and in 1916 it took over the three very large plants 
of the American Bottle Co. at Streator, 111., and Newark, Ohio. 
These eight plants now operated by the Owens Bottle Machine Co. 
use 77 of the 191 automatics that are used in the United States. 
The other 114 automatics in the United States are operated by 9 
establishments with 16 plants. Late in 1916 the Owens Bottle 
Machine Co. took over the three plants of the Graham Glass Co., 
located at Evansville, Ind., Loogootee, Ind., and Okmulgee, Okla. 

The 13 automatics in Canada are operated by one company with 
four plants. In 1916 there were 40 Owens machines in use in Europe, 
and at the close of the same year automatics were being installed in 
factories in Japan, the patent rights having been purchased from 
the Owens Bottle Machine Co. Prior to 1916 the Owens Bottle 
Machine Co. had issued capital stock to the amount of $7,000,000. 
After taking over the two plants of the American Bottle Co. in 1916, 
the stock issue was increased to $50,000,000 and the stock was listed 
on the New York Stock Exchange. 

Undoubtedly more manufacturers would use Owens machines 
than now employ them but for the fact that they can not procure 
these machines either by buying them or renting them on a royalty 
basis. The Owens Bottle Machine Co. charges royalty on machines 
that it supplies to manufacturers, and it has issued licenses for their 



214 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

use to only a few establishments, and each establishment that uses 
its machines is restricted to using them for only the particular line 
of bottles covered by its license. 

Several flowing devices are used, but the one most largely used 
is covered by the Homer Brooke patents, which are controlled by 
the Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. President Denis A. Hayes, in his report 
to the annual convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association 
held in 1916, said: 

Since we first reported on thia phase of the bottle-making industry rapid strides 
have been made in its development, and with the close or the past season there were 
10 or 12 firms making bottles and jars by the flowing method. In these days of keen 
competition, manufacturers are taking advantage of every opportunity to reduce the 
cost of production, so no one was surprised to learn that the flowing process was in use 
commercially with varying degrees of success. While fully realizing the importance 
of this invention to the manufacturer, we should use every honorable means toward 
securing for our members the right to operate it. 

Bottles are made in such infinite number of shapes and sizes that 
most of them are made only on orders. Some manufacturers never 
manufacture for stock, while others try to keep on hand a stock of 
the more standard styles to fill immediate orders and to fill orders 
received during the summer shutdown. In normal times large 
buyers generally place contracts for their yearly requirements with 
options on increases. Single-car orders are generally placed a few 
weeks ahead of delivery dates, while small orders are often for imme- 
diate delivery. During 1916, when prices of raw materials and of 
the finished product were advancing rapidly, manufacturers discour- 
aged long contracts. Packers and preservers are made almost 
exclusively to fill orders. 

THE PROBLEM OF STANDARD CAPACITY. 

The principal reason that bottles are made in such a great variety 
of shapes and sizes is that many manufacturers of proprietary prepa- 
rations have sought to make their products better known by putting 
the goods up in bottles of unique snapes that would be readily asso- 
ciated with the product. During recent years, however, there has 
been a tendency toward the standardization of shapes and sizes, 
and this tendency has been increased by the greater production of 
bottles by machinery. The expense of making molds is a con- 
siderable proportion of the total expense of manufacture when the 
orders are small, and when automatic machines are used from 6 to 
15 sets of molds must be made for bottles of each size and shape. 
The manufacturer, therefore, can quote lower prices for bottles of 
standard varieties than for bottles of special designs. 

Bottle manufacturers have had trouble in meeting the require- 
ments of different State bureaus of standards and of official sealers 
in some cities in regard to the capacity of bottles. It is practically 
impossible to manufacture bottles each of which will have exactly 
the same capacity, and it is more difficult to make them uniform in 
this respect by hand than by any kind of machine. Some States 
and cities allow a smaller variation in capacity than others. 

The Bureau of Standards of the United States Department of 
Commerce, under authority of Federal laws, fixes the standards of 
weight and measure, but it does not specify what variations in the 
capacity of containers shall be allowed by the various States or 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 215 

cities. Barry Jenkins, executive officer of the Glass Bottle Blowers' 
Association, said in his report to the annual convention of the asso- 
ciation held in 1915: 

I am pleased to say that in dealing with the oOicials in Washington we are invariably 
accorded the most patient and courteous treatment. The Bureau of Standards, the 
department having charge of all the weights and measures, iB doing a wonderful work 
in this particular line, l-'our times a year it holds a convention to which are invited 
all the sealers in the United States and the insular possessions, and this invitation 
includes also anyone who may be interested in this line of work, and all who attend 
may take part in the discussions and offer whatever suggestions they may deem to be 
of interest or benefit to the purchasing public. As many as 96 men have attended 
these conventions, and all seem to be actuated by the same motive — to give to the 
consumer full value for his money. 

The Glass Bottle Blowers' Association has gone on record in favor of 
a'Federal law that will provide for uniform variations in the capacity 
of containers in all States. A bill with such provisions, H. R. 16876, 
was introduced in the Sixty-third Congress by Representative William 
A. Ashbrook, of Ohio. A report of the committee on political protest 
and injunction, adopted by the convention of the Glass Bottle Blow- 
ers' Association held in 1915 contains the following paragraph: 

That a glass container capacity law be enacted which will be uniform in all States, 
with such tolerances that a manufacturer employing hand operators can compete 
with a manufacturer using machines and thereby allow the workmen an opportunity 
to earn an honest livelihood. 

President Denis A. Hayes, in his report to the 1916 convention, 
said: 

Most of the States and large cities have laws that allow fair tolerances on containers; 
then, too, officials are not expecting the impossible in the way of perfect and accurate 
meastire, and our association has done much to make them fully realize the inability 
of the men of our craft to make an absolutely correct bottle in contents. 

LOCALIZATION OF THE INDUSTRY. 

The following article in regard to the development of the bottle 
industry was contributed by Mr. Herbert B. Garwood, president of 
the Wuliamstown Glass Co., Williamstown, N. J. 

The glass-bottle manufacturing industry was naturally started on the Atlantic 
seaboard, because that was the first portion of the country to be settled. In the 
early days it was confined to the southern part of New Jersey, because sand was 
found there suitable for glass making, extensive tracts of timber furnished not only 
fuel and boxing material, but the wood ashes when bleached made the potash which 
was needed for flux. The Delaware River oyster beds furnished the oyster shells 
from which lime was made, the salt marshes adjoining the coast and river furnished 
the salt hay used in packing the bottles in the boxes, and the clay beds supplied 
the materials for the common brick and furnace stone used in building the furnaces. 
The higher grades of refractory stone were made from German clay which was shipped 
into Philadelphia and New York, and the proximity of those cities not only made it 
easy for the skilled glass blower from the Old World to find his way to a new place 
of employment in his old occupation, but supplied the markets which took care of 
the output of the little plant. 

As the iron business changed to steel and found its way to the Pittsburgh region, 
on account of cheaper fuel and raw material, so glass followed; and the introduction 
-"of soda ash or carbonate of soda in place of potash, and of coal instead of wood, of 
limestone instead of oyster-shell lime, made Pittsburgh equally well adapted for the 
industry, except for the higher freight rates to eastern markets, a disadvantage offset 
by the cheaper price of materials. Next the Indiana gas belt, with its cheap fuel, 
and the mountain region of northwestern Pennsylvania, with cheap oil and natural 
gas, attracted many manufacturers, and to-day the newer gas fields in West Virginia 
with their natural gas at 5 to 6 cents per thousand feet has drawn many manufacturers 



216 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

of bottles to that State. During this period the bottle manufacturing industry gained 
a foothold in many isolated sections and in some instances have held them. To-day 
the principal centers of the industry are, in their order from east to west, southern 
New Jersey, Baltimore, Md., Pittsburgh district, northwestern Pennsylvania or 
mountain district, West Virginia district, middle Ohio district, Indiana gas-field 
district, and the St. Louis district. 

The grade of goods manufactured in each district is about the same, because, 
except in isolated cases, the glass-bottle business has not as yet been highly specialized, 
a large percentage of the manufacturers continuing the practice of making all lines of 
bottles. In milk jars, beer bottles, and some high-grade toilet ware the industry 
has been specialized to a greater or less extent, and in fruit jars it has been entirely 
specialized and centralized at Washington, Pa., and Muncie, Ind., and is now being 
introduced in Texas and Oklahoma. 

Manufacturing at this time (January, 1916) appears to be increasing in no particular 
locality. Within the last few years the greatest increase has been in the West Virginia 
district, due to the cheap fuel. 

The advantages regarding markets are naturally with the southern Jersey district, 
whose manufacturers are able to make overnight deliveries in New York, which is 
the largest glass-consuming city in the United States, in Philadelphia, another large 
purchaser, and 48-hour deliveries in Boston, Baltimore, and Washington, although 
to the two latter points the Baltimore city factories enjoy the advantage. 

The Pittsburgh and mountain district factories naturally enjoy the trade of the cities 
in the Pennsylvania coal region and the manufacturing towns in central New York, 
as well as Buffalo and Rochester. The Ohio factories appear to ship to all parts of 
the country, and in a short time that State will be used only by the manufacturers 
of beer bottles and some few sundry lines. The Indiana and St. Louis factories seek 
the cities of the middle West and the South, they enjoying better freight rates to 
the interior of the South than any other factories. These factories also ship west, 
but two plants on the Pacific coast and several in Oklahoma in scattered locations 
are now disputing for that trade. 

The New Jersey factories formerly controlled the southern coast line below Norfolk, 
but a revision of freight rates from West Virginia factories on a combination rail and 
water route by Norfolk has placed them on an equality with the New Jersey factories 
and allowed them to compete for the trade of that section. 

No section at this time appears to enjoy any advantage regarding labor. The skilled 
workmen are practically all members of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association, which 
fixes a wage scale every summer for the ensuing year that is uniform throughout the 
country, and the supply of skilled labor exceeds the demand, owing to automatic 
machines displacing many glass blowers, therefore an adequate supply of handwork- 
men or semiautomatic machine operators can always be secured in any section of 
the country. In unskilled labor one advantage in one section is balanced by another 
advantage in another section. Thus in New Jersey boys work for lower wages than 
in the middle West, but in the spring they leave to work on the farms, and the manu- 
facturer is thereby crippled. In the West the higher wages continue throughout 
the year, but the boys do not leave in the spring to such an extent as they do in 
New Jersey. The recent activity in powder works and munition plants have drawn 
many boys from the glass factories to those industries in the eastern section of the 
country. 

PRESSED AND BLOWN WARE. 

Pressed and blown ware includes tableware, cut glass, bar goods, 
lighting goods, and miscellaneous ware. Table 8, page 28, shows 
that according to the Census of Manufactures the value of the pro- 
duction of pressed and blown glass was $17,076,125 in 1899, 
$21,956,158 in 1904, $27,398,445 in 1909, and $30,279,290 in 1914. 
During the 15 years the increase was 77.32 per cent. 

NUMBER, LOCATION, AND EQUIPMENT OF PLANTS. 

The following table shows, as far as reported, the number of estab- 
lishments manufacturing pressed and blown glassware in the United 
States that were operated in 1916, and gives details of their equip- 
ment : 






INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 



217 



Table 86. — Location and Number op Active Plants Manufacturing Blown 
and Pressed Tableware, Lighting Goods, ani> Lamp Chimneys, and Detail 
of Equipment. 

[Data from Glass Factory Directory, 1916.] 







Continuous 
tanks. 


Day tanks. 


Fur- 


Pots. 




Tanks. Kings. 


Tanks. 


Rings. 






Indiana: 


3 


37 










1 i 


2 24 




1 


2 30 




1 




Maryland: 








1 




1 

1 

1 

2 
3 

8 
o4 
64 

1 
2 

9 
aU 
10 

1 

1 

9 
5 
2 

4 











1 

3 

2 

13 

7 

9 
8 
11 

1 


14 


Massachusetts: 


; 






33 






1 






New York: 

Tableware and lighting goods 


2 1 13 
I 




3 
2 


7 


75 


Ohio: 

Tableware 


7 J 66 
3 35 

2 ! 17 

3 18 
2 22 


128 
124 


Lighting goods 

Oklahoma: 


3 


7 


153 

12 










Pennsylvania: 


5 
2 

17 
1 


8 
2 
12 


22 
21 
26 


272 




4 44 
2 


451 




303 




1 


5 










2 

11 
10 
5 
2 


16 


West Virginia: 


8 

1 
3 
2 


65 

6 






146 




7 


4 
3 
1 


126 




2 

12 2 


62 




11 






Aggregate: 


31 
29 
26 
6 


21 j 168 1 7 
13 116 ! 11 

11 1 47 ! 25 
3 17 1 4 


15 
10 


46 
57 


593 




943 




22 ' 54 

3 j 2 


653 










Total 


92 


48 348 i 47 




2,200 

















o Equipment of 1 plant in Indiana and 1 plant in Ohio included with Pennsylvania. 
b Equipment of 2 plants in Indiana and 1 plant in Ohio included with Pennsylvania. 

The establishments entered in this table as making tableware made 
tableware, cut glass, bar goods, and chemical ware; the establish- 
ments entered as making tableware and lighting goods made both 
products; some of the establishments entered as making lighting 
goods made lamp chimneys also; the establishments entered as 
making lamp chimneys made them only. 

Tableware is made mostly to fill orders, but when orders are not 
received the factory makes staple articles for stock. Orders may 
be for delivery in 30 days, but most of them are for immediate de- 
livery. Lighting goods are made both for orders and stock. Some 
orders are placed two or three months in advance of shipment, but 
manj' are for immediate delivery. 

CUT TABLEWARE. 

There arc two kinds of cut glass, light or engraved, and heavy or 
deep cut. Articles such as stem ware, vases, bowls, nappies, plates, 
bonbons, colognes, etc., arc thin cut or engraved, in designs ranging 



218 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

from the common unpolished wheel engraving, which can be pur- 
chased in the 5 and 10 cent stores, to elaborate designs, known as 
"rock crystal." The cutting or engraving on these articles is gen- 
erally on blown blanks. Heavy or deep-cut glass consists of two 
frades, one cut on blown blanks, the other cut on pressed or molded 
lanks, which are made either plain or with a large part of the pattern 
pressed in them. 

Glassware cut on blown blanks usually consist of such items as 
stem ware, decanters, vases, pitchers, oil cruets, colognes, and other 
articles in such shapes as to render them impractical for pressing or 
molding. Pressed or molded blanks can be used only for open pieces, 
such as bowls, nappies, plates, etc., which can be readily pressed by 
the use of a plunger, as in the ordinary common pressed glassware. 

SUPERIORITY OF AMERICAN CUT GLASS. 

While considerable thin cut or engraved glass was imported before 
the war in Europe began, very little heavy cut glass was imported. 
The discriminating American public seems to be satisfied that the heavy 
cut glass manufactured in the United States is superior to similar 
ware made in Europe. This opinion has generally prevailed for 
many years. The popularity of American cut glass was established 
by a splendid display made by a glass company at the World's 
Columbian Exposition held at Chicago in 1893. This company made 
an elaborate exhibit, which showed the actual process of cutting. 
Since that time the quality of American goods, aided by attractive 
advertising, has firmly convinced the public that nothing finer is 
made in the line of heavy cut glass than is made in this country. 

American cut-glass manufacturers have prided themselves on the 
quality of their product. It has surpassed that of any other country 
for crystal brilliancy and sharpness of cutting. Potash and oxide 
of lead have been used extensively, the potash to flux the other 
materials, and both potash and lead to give to the glass a prismatic 
effect with high refractory qualities. The product was so artistically 
beautiful that the reputation of American cut glass became world- 
wide. Before the war began in 1914 it was sold in all parts of 
Europe. Since the war began the quality has necessarily suffered, 
because it has been impossible to replenish depleted supplies of 
potash, but this defect will be remedied when potash can again be 
imported. 

Some people accustomed to traveling abroad are inclined to believe 
that cut glass from Europe is superior in quality to the best American 
product. An American manufacturer of cut glass who has a sales- 
room in New York City informed an agent of the Bureau that two 
years previously a wealthy woman called at tho factory and showed 
him a glass article which had been broken. She stated that she had 
purchased the set at one of tho fine slums in Vienna and inquired 
whether this company had not imported a similar set from which 
the broken article could be duplicated. The manufacturer examined 
it closely, and informed her that his salesroom in New York had a 
similar article in stock and that it would be shipped to her. The 
cut-glass products of this factory had been exported in considerable 
quantities to Austria-Hungary, and the broken article that was 
duplicated had really been macle in tho American factory. 






INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 219 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

The duty on ornamented glass, which includes cut glas9, was 60 
per cent ad valorem under the tariff acts of 1897 and 1909, and is 
45 per cent under the present tariff Law. Deep-cut glass made in 
Europe has been almost entirely excluded from the United States 
under these tariffs. The duty, together with the fact that the Amer- 
ican people have been educated to prefer the American deep-cut 
glass, may explain why the imports have been decreasing and are 
now very small. Many more original designs for cut glass are made 
in America than in Europe, and many oi these designs are taken 
abroad and imitated. 

The sole American agent of one of the most famous tableware 
factories in the world kept, for several years, a separate account of 
his imports of heavy cut glass. This agent imported such cut glass 
to the amount of $99,273 in the year ending June 30, 1S93, and these 
imports declined to $ 14,473 in the year ending June 30, 1901. After 
the latter date he did not keep a separate account of such imports, 
but he stated to an agent of this Bureau that they had declined to 
not over $2,000 during the 12 months last preceding the beginning 
of the war in Europe, and that they consisted mostly of special 
articles. 

The fact that before the war began in Europe there were consid- 
erable exports of American cut glass to European countries is not 
easily explained, except on the ground that the American product 
is recognized in those countries as of superior quality or on the ground 
of cheaper production in the United States. 

Wages of glass cutters are much higher in America than in Europe, 
and it is remarkable that deep-cut glassware made in artistic designs 
by highly skilled hand labor should be produced for export at a cost 
which would make it possible for ware from the United States to 
compete with the product of factories in European countries. The 
countries to which American cut glass is exported include countries 
that produce deep-cut glass and that have high duties on their imports. 

METHODS OF MANUFACTURE. 

Cutting designs on glass forms is done by holding the forms against 
revolving wheels. In the first process, called roughing, the cuts are 
made with a steel wheel, on which sand and water are poured; in the 
second process a stone wheel is used for smoothing the cut, and in 
the third a felt wheel is used for polishing. The wheel used for 
smoothing is made of a Scotch stone called Craighleith, which is 
either white or black, but the black stone is preferred because it is 
softer. 

Several reasons are assigned for the cheaper production of cut glass 
in the United States than in Europe: (1) American glass cutters, 
being paid piece prices in most cases, work faster than European 
cutters; (2) in Europe roughing, smoothing, and polishing; are often 
done by the same workman, but in the United States the work is 
divided among three men, and each becomes an expert in one pro- 
cess; (3) in America labor-saving devices and methods are em- 
ployed that are not used in Europe. 



220 THE GLASS INDUSTKY. 

Where figured or pressed blanks are used, roughing is eliminated 
entirely, as are also the time and expense of marking the pattern on 
the glass, which is required when plain blanks are cut. Blanks 
figured by pressing are made by two large factories in the United 
States, under a patent which they control. Other factories making 
cut glass use plain blanks which are pressed by iron molds or are 
blown offhand. 

American manufacturers produce cut glass in designs that can be 
easily cut on large stones; that is, designs with only few curved lines. 
Where the designs are intricate and the lines curved, they are cut by 
small stones, called small-tool work, and the time required is much 
greater than where large stones are used. 

For the process of smoothing, carborundum wheels and carborun- 
drum powder or grains are largely used in America, instead of stone 
wheels and sand, which are commonly used in Europe. 

In America the ware, after being smoothed, is dipped in acid for 
polishing, instead of being polished by a felt wheel and putty powder, 
as is customary in Europe. The use of acid in polishing has a great 
advantage, not alone in the saving of labor, but in adding much 
more brilliancy to the glass. The explanation of this is that in 
polishing by hand with the felt wheel and putty powder the sharp 
cuts are more or less dulled by friction, whereas in using the acid 
these cuts retain their sharpness, and, as a result, the glass has more 
refractory power, thus adding greatly to its brilliancy. 

Deep-cut glass is much more extensively used in America than in 
other countries. Each design that is produced in Europe is made 
up in small quantities, and more exclusive designs are made there 
than in America. Much larger quantities of each design are made 
in America, and, although cutting is done by hand, the cutter that 
cuts the same design many times learns to do it rapidly. 

An importer gave to an agent of the Bureau some examples of 
the difference in the cost of producing deep-cut glass in America 
and Europe. This foreign factory makes both heavy and light cut 
glass and exports much of the light cut ware to the United States. 
The agent said in an interview: 

One reason why deep-cut glass is made cheaply in America is that it is produced 
in large quantities. There is no such demand for heavy cut glass as there is here, 
because thin cut glass is more popular in Europe. Another reason is that, while 
Amarican cutters are paid higher wages than cutters in Europe, they work much 
fa3ter. 

About seven years ago I bought from a glass manufacturer in Brooklyn a 9-inch 
deep-cut glass bowl for $2.50, wholesale price, and took it to the factory in Alsace. 
A wood mold was made for the form and the form was pressed and cut in the same 
design as the bowl made in Brooklyn. The cost of this reproduction was 15 francs 
($2.90) without the cost of the mold. 

I import some blanks for deep cutting. I sold the Brooklyn manufacturer an 
imported blank for a 3-pint jug, which cost here $1.25, duty included. He cut it 
and sold it back to me for $5, and I took it to the factory in Alsace. A similar blank 
there was cut in the same design and the cost was 40 francs ($7.72). 

Five years ago I saw a window full of American deep-cut glass in Strassburg, the 
capital of Alsace-Lorraine. After that I qiut trying to compete in New York with 
American cut glass. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 221 

IMITATION ( IT GLASSWARE. 

Among the manufacturers of high-grade cut glass there is much 
complaint about imitations, with which many people are deceived. 

Following is an extract from an article by J. Howard Fry, published 
in the Glassworker for June .3, 1916: 

Many imitations of real cut glass, on account of the substituting of inferior blanks, 
ar.' being forced on the market at this turn-. At the best lime glass, even if properly 
cut, is inferior, and it is only an imitation of what real cut glass represents. Unfor- 
tunately, owing to the European war making it impossible for lead-blank manufac- 
turer- to maintain the former high standard of quality, a field is opened for imitations, 
which otherwise would not exist. The widespread popularity of rich cut gla.ss leads 
to the production of a great deal of cheap ware and imitations of real cut glass. 

And unfortunately, again, the idea seems to prevail among some glass manufac- 
turers that cut glass is not a work of art, that it is not a science, and is not worthy of 
their besl efforts. Thsy are offering to the unsuspecting public a cheap imitation of 
cut glass which is not only on a lime blank, but often deception is practiced in fooling 
the public by not cutting all the design. Certain parts, such as flowers in the frosted 
or bght skin cut, are placed in the blank, while the leaves or miter and heavy parts 
imitate cutting, but it is simply pressed glass, sometimes of a very good finish, suffi- 
cient to deceive the unsuspecting public, who buy this as good cut glass only to learn 
later that fraud had been practiced. 

It is absurd to predict just where this practice will lead to, but it is not difficult to 
see that if it is continued the higher ideals for which cut glass stands will be lost and 
the industry as an art will be ruined. The public should be educated to detect the 
fraud, and imtil this takes place the market will undoubtedly be flooded with all 
varieties of cheap imitations. 

INCANDESCENT LAMP BULBS. 

A great impetus was given to the development of the manufacture 
of lighting glassware by the wonderful and successful experiments 
conducted by Thomas A. Edson, in perfecting his first commercial 
incandescent lamp, which appeared in 1879. In 1880 the regular 
manufacture. of incandescent lamps was begun in Menlo Park, >s. J., 
and during that year 25,000 lamps were made. By 1885 electric 
lighting became very general, and the manufacture of lighting goods 
became an important branch of the glass industry. The aggregate 
production of electric lamps for domestic use totaled about 125,- 
000,000 during the year 1915 and a considerably larger number in 
1916. 

The incandescent lamp is the one of all electrical appliances most 
universally used, and is available for the lighting of homes, industrial 
plants, stores, streets, parks, billboards, automobiles, trolley cars, 
and railway cars. 

TYPES OF LAMPS. 

Incandescent lamps are divided into four classes, according to the 
kind of filament — carbon, Gem, tantalum, and Mazda. 

The number of materials which can be used for filaments is very 
small, for these reasons: First, the filament must be capable of 
withstanding a very high temperature, and it must also have a high 
vapor tension point; in other words, it must not evaporate rapidly 
much below its boiling point; second, it must be a conductor of 
electricity, and should have a relatively high resistance. 

Filaments were made at first from parchmentized thread and 
thin slips of cardboard and paper, and later from bamboo. For 
many years the bamboo filament, cut into strips by small knives 



222 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

and planes, was exclusively used. The cutting required great care 
and expense before the filaments were reduced to the required 
sizes. The bamboo strips were then carbonized. 

After bamboo filaments were used squirted filaments were made 
from carbonized cellulose in one form or another. 

Another advance was embodied in lamps still of the carbon type 
in which the filaments were strengthened by such substances as 
would justify calling them "metallized." The mere word was a 
revelation as to the direction in which invention was tending, and 
very quickly real metallic filaments were available. The metal 
tantalum was quite rare and useful in many ways, but did not com- 
pete successfully with the old carbon lamp. 

In 1907 the tungsten lamp appeared, fairly startling the world 
with its wonderful efficiency, and nearly revolutionizing the incan- 
descent lamp industry. The most recent development in high effi- 
ciency illuminants are the Mazda lamps, a trade-mark used by some 
of the largest manufacturers of incandescent lamps in the United 
States. 

MANUFACTURE OF BULBS. 

Glass bulbs for incandescent lamps are made in only five plants 
in the United States — the General Electric Co., the Libbey Glass 
Works, the Corning Glass Works, the Rochester Tumbler Works, 
and the Lippincott Glass Co. It is estimated that of the total num- 
ber of glass bulbs for incandescent lamps produced in this country, 
two-thirds to three-fourths are blown by hand and the remainder 
by machine. 

Incandescent lamps are made from bulbs by a number of estab- 
lishments, of which the General Electric, Westinghouse, and Franklin 
companies are the largest producers. 1 

While the cost of necessities for living increased from 1892 to 1915 
the cost of electric lighting shows a marked decrease, and this re- 
duction was caused by the higher efficiency of the lamps manufac- 
tured. The price per candlepower of a 60-watt lamp of the most 
improved type manufactured by the General Electric Co., decreased 
from something over 3.6 cents per candlepower in 1907 to 0.6 cent 
in 1916. 

CHEMICAL GLASSWARE. 

The development in the manufacture of chemical glassware in the 
United States since the war in Europe began is analogous to the devel- 
opment in the manufacture of dyestuffs during the same period. 

Chemical glassware includes flasks, beakers, tubing, reagent bot- 
tles, desiccators, cylinders, spirit lamps, retorts, jars of various kinds, 
graduates, percolators, etc., which are usually designated as "hollow 
glassware " and which are made in a glass factory operating a furnace; 
and stopcocks, burettes, pipettes, test tubes, potash bulbs, drying 
tubes, thermometers, hydrometers, and a great variety of additional 
items, which are made from tubing before the blast lamp and which 
are usually classified under the heading " lamp-blown and volumetric 
ware" as their manufacture does not immediately involve the opera- 
tion of a furnace. 



' See Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means, 1913, Schedule B, p. 763. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 223 

GERMANY FORMEB SOURCE OF SUPPLY. 

Before the war began flasks and beakers were made in the United 
States, but by only one company and in very inconsiderable quanti- 
ties. This company has been making such articles of excellent quality 
since 1900 or before, but the quality of its product was not widely 
recognized. 

To meet the requirements of chemists in analytical work, glassware 
must be able to wit list and severe tests, of which the most important 
arc the cooling shock test, the test for solubility, and the mechanical 
shock test. Many chemists have received German training and havo 
been educated to believe that no chemical glassware could equal that 
made in Germany and Bohemia and particularly that made in Jena. 
Comparatively few chemists in America acknowledged that any 
glassware made in the United States was equal to Jena ware hence 
the company in this country that has made such ware of excellent 
quality since 1900 found comparatively little sale for it before the 
war began. 

Practically no importations of chemical glassware from Germany 
have entered the United States since the summer of 1915. At that 
time a famine in chemical glassware appeared imminent. Colleges 
and universities that use large amounts did not know where they 
could obtain a supply for the scholastic year 1915-16. The annual 
supply of these institutions amomited in value from several hundred 
dollars each to over $10,000 in some instances. 

The numbers of collegiate institutions and schools that reported to 
the United States Bureau of Education in 1914 were as follows: Col- 
leges and universities, 567; public high schools, 11,515; private high 
schools and academies, 2,199; public normal schools, 235; private 
normal schools. 46; manual and industrial training schools, 229. Of 
the 11,515 public high schools, 10,183 reported that they owned scien- 
tific apparatus amounting in value to $16,447,825; and of the 2,199 
private schools and academies, 1,211 reported that they owned scien- 
tific apparatus amounting in value to $6,992,365. 

IMPORTS FREE OF DUTY FOR SCHOOLS, COLLEGES, ETC. 

Glassware used for educational or scientific purposes has been 
admitted free of duty under various tariffs, from 1816 to 1846, from 
1857 to 1864, and since 1870. The section of the tariff act of 1913 
which provides for free admission of glass is as follows : 

573. Philosophical and scientific apparatus, utensils, instruments, and prepara- 
tions, including bottles and boxes containing the same, specially imported in good 
faith for the use and by order of any society or institution incorporated or established 
solely for religious, philosophical, educational, scientific;, or literary purposes, or for 
the encouragement of the fine arts, or for the use and by order of any college, academy, 
school, or seminary of learning in the United States, or any State or public library, 
and not. for sale, and articles solely for experimental purposes, when imported by any 
society or institution of the character herein described, subject to such regulations as 
the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe. 

The importations admitted free under this act amounted to $704,496 
during the fiscal year 1914 and $370,620 during the fiscal year 1915. 
All of these importations, however, were not of chemical glassware, 
but of scientific apparatus, which included articles made of metal as 
well as of glass. 



224 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The imported chemical glassware on which duty was paid is not 
separately shown by tariff statistics, but a large part of it was used 
by industrial plants, and the duty on such articles when blown was 
60 per cent ad valorem under the tariff law of 1909 and is 45 per cent 
under the tariff law of 1913. Very little if any such ware is pressed. 

Various estimates are made as to the amount of chemical glass- 
ware imported into the United States. One of the largest importers 
of such ware estimated that the imports before the war amounted to 
$500,000 a year, about half free and half dutiable. The examiner 
for chemical glass in the appraisers' warehouse, New York City, 
estimated that such imports amounted to about $300,000, of which 
50 per cent went to educational institutions free. Most of the im- 
ports come from Thuringia in Germany, but some are from Austria. 
England and France, the warehouse examiner said, made chemical 
glassware for their own use, but also imported from Germany and 
Austria. 

The quantity of chemical glassware used in the United States has 
greatly increased from year to year, because of the rapid expansion 
of educational institutions and because many industrial plants have 
established or enlarged their chemical laboratories. 

DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN INDUSTRY. 

The great demand for chemical ware caused a number of enter- 
prising glass manufacturers to begin its manufacture in the summer 
of 1915. The development in this line was remarkable, and a year 
later 8 or 10 American companies were producing such ware. Most 
of the shapes of hollow glassware for laboratory use that were for- 
merly imported are now made in the United States, and the domestic 
production has fairly caught up with the demand. This can not be 
said, however, of lamp-blown and volumetric ware, of which there 
is still a great shortage, and the prices of many articles in this class 
have increased from 20 to 100 per cent. 

In commenting on a copy of this section of this report submitted to 
Mr. George B. Hollister, general manager of the Corning Glass Works, 
he wrote December 1, 1916: 

In connection with the statement that prices on glassware have increased from 20 
to 100 per cent, emphasis should be laid on the fact that the price of the highest-priced 
American ware is that of the duty-paid Jena before the war. The price of this Ameri- 
can ware has not been raised, while Jena has announced two increases in price since 
the beginning of the war. 

Mr. Evan E. Kimble, president of the Kimble-Durand Glass Co., 
to whom a copy of the article was submitted, wrote October 30, 1916: 

Prices increased over the former German prices solely because it is impossible for 
American manufacturers to make glass apparatus for scientific purposes at a reasonable 
profit at anywhere near the old prices in a great many lines. The prices have gone 
up on account of labor only, and not because of the desire of the American manufac- 
turer to take advantage of the market. Many articles are being made at the present 
time that compare to the duty-paid prices existing before the war and these prices 
have been maintained regardless of the demand, which would have allowed glass 
manufacturers to have increased it. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 225 

HIGH QUALITY OF AMERICAN PRODUCT. 

It is remarkable that the product in this new branch of the glass 
industry should bo so soon recognized by scientific authorities as of 
the highest quality. A number of professors of chemistry in univer- 
sities who were interviewed during this investigation declared that the 
beakers and flasks made now in America are better than what had 
been imported, better even than Jena ware. Dr. Owen L. Shinn, 
professor of applied chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania, said 
that chemical glassware made for 15 years in a factory in New Jersey 
had been equal to ware imported before the war began, though this 
fact had not been generally recognized, and this factory had produced 
only a limited variety of apparatus. He further saia: 

The old chemists were German trained and they instilled in the students the thought 
that anything not Germau made was inferior. They were hard to convince that 
American chemical glassware was of good quality; their attitude was that only Jena 
ware was good. The nonsoluble ware made by several American glass manufacturers 
is equal to if not better than Jena ware. 

Jt La not qow possible to obtain everything in chemical glassware that was formerly 
imported, but it is the heavier articles that can not be obtained. Beakers, flasks, and 
the like are now obtainable equal in quantity and quality to any imported ware, but 
most of the heavier things, such as desiccators, are not yet made here. The reason 
for this is that the small market for some of these articles has not made it advisable 
for American manufacturers to make the molds. Manufacturers have been busy meet- 
ing the demands for articles more generally used, and therefore have not yet. begun 
to make these, of which comparatively few are needed. 

Not only professors, but even some of the importers who were inter- 
viewed, asserted that the best quality of chemical glassware of Ameri- 
can make was better than Jena ware. They asserted that such vessels 
as beakers and flasks, when submitted to various tests, were distinctly 
superior to Jena ware in resistance to heat shock, stability toward dis- 
tilled water, and in resistance to mechanical test. 

Importers as well as chemists asserted also that microscopes and 
lenses had long been made of as good quality in America as in Europe. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS IN *THE INDUSTRY. 

An address on "The Manufacture of Chemical Apparatus in the 
United States" was delivered before the American Chemical Society 
at its meeting held at Urbana, 111., April 18-21, 19f6, by Mr. Arthur 
H. Thomas, an importer, exporter, and dealer in laboratory apparatus 
of both foreign and domestic manufacture. The address was pub- 
lished in full in the Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 
for May, 1916. Extracts from it follow: 

I propose to remind you briefly of the facts regarding our sources of supply of a few 
representative classifications of chemical apparatus as they existed before the Euro- 
pean war; to compare with these the conditions as they now exist, and then to consider 
the possibilities of retaining and extending the manufacture of this same merchandise 
in the United States. 

In this tabulation the term "hollow glassware" is used to designate the product of 
the glass factory with a furnace — the "Hohlglashiitte" of Germany — and the term 
"lamp-blown and volumetric ware" to designate the product of the glass-blowing 
shop — the "Glassblaserei" of Germany — where the finished product is shaped before 
the lamp from glass tubing, which tubing is, of course, always made in the glass fac- 
tory or "hutte." In the United States these two industries are mostly conducted 
separately, while in Europe they are frequently combined in the same establishment. 

102511°— 17 15 



226 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

CLASSIFICATION A — HOLLOW GLASSWARE. 

Articles. — Flasks, beakers, and other factory-made : shapes, including blanks for 
some volumetric ware. Tariff, 45 per cent ad valorem. 

Sources be/ore the war. — With the exception of one large factory in the United States 
which made, in addition to extensive products in other lines, a few flasks and beakers 
of excellent quality and reasonable price, this ware was purchased exclusively in 
Europe. The American production was not, in any commercial sense, a factor in the 
situation. 

The present situation. — Five factories in the United States are now regularly making 
flasks and beakers in large quantities. The glass used by one of these is superior in 
several important physical characteristics to that used for similar vessels by the 
European factory whose flasks and beakers have been heretofore considered the best 
in the world. The four other makers are using a resistance glass much alike in physical 
characteristics which, while not quite equal to either the American or European pro- 
duct above referred to, is unquestionably superior to the glass generally used through- 
out Germany and Austria. There are two other American factories making flasks and 
beakers, about which I have no definite information from actual tests. The ware 
turned out in one of them is of excellent appearance and that of the other I have not 
seen. Neither factory is reported as producing large quantities as yet. 

With the present conditions of shortage in almost all of the raw material involved, 
in the labor situation, and in the exhausted condition of stock in many of the large- 
college and university storerooms, a considerable shortage for some time seems inev- 
itable unless additional capacity is operated. Under normal conditions the total 
convenient production of these seven American factories would more than meet our 
usual consumption. 

CLASSIFICATION B LAMP-BLOWN AND VOLUMETRIC WARE. 

Articles.- — All shapes made of tubing before the blast lamp, including the graduation 
of blanks made in the factory in addition to those made before the lamp. Tariff, 45 
per cent ad valorem. 

Sources before the war. — With the exception of a few items not of significance to our 
discussion, such as hydrometers and thermometers for clinical and industrial use, 
homeopathic vials and test tubes, milk bottles, and syringes, all staple stock was 
purchased hi Europe. Repair work and the manufacture of a great variety of special 
items, not in sufficient demand to warrant arrangement for importation in large 
quantities, was conducted in a few glass-blowing shops operated by some of the larger 
dealers, in separate small shops hi a few of the larger cities, and in the south Jersey 
district as an important side line in connection with three large glass factories. 

The present situation. — Two of the south Jersey factories referred to have prac- 
tically given up the making of any regular stock in this classification because of the 
shortage of labor and the great demand for their own specialties. The other south 
Jersey factory has greatly increased its capacity for the more staple and easily made 
shapes and is making a commendable but as yet totally inadequate attempt to meet 
present requirements. This factory, with the few shops just described, constitutes 
the entire capacity in the United States to make lamp-blown and volumetric chemical 
apparatus. There are a few additional shops competent to make certain chemical 
ware but not so engaged because of obligations in more profitable directions. 

The combined output of all these establishments in the great variety of items in 
this classification is far from sufficient to fill the daily orders for immediate shipment. 
Commitments at the present time for large educational quantities, as usually under- 
taken at this time of the year, seem not to be justifiable with definite obligation as 
to either price or time of delivery. 

CLASSIFICATION F — OPTICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS. 

Articles.— Spectroscopes and spectrometers, polarimeters, and saccharimeters, 
refractometers, colorimeters, and microscopes. Tariff, 35 per cent ad valorem, 
except on microscopes, 25 per cent. 

Sources before the war. — The instruments in this classification as used in chemical 
laboratories were all purchased in Europe with the exception of microscopes, the 
manufacture of which has, as you all know, been extensively and successfully con- 
ducted in America for many years. 

i While ordinary bottles are, of course, a factory-made product, my remarks are not intended to apply 
to them. 



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS. 227 

Thf 7 w.— There is no new manufacturing in America to be recorded 

in this line as a result of the war. The explanation i j again the enormous • 
being pul upon the several factories equipped tor such work for deliveries of prism 
binoculars, range Gn lers, telescopes as used in gunnery, periscope optics, etc. Two 
Br es have.extended their lines to include certain refractometers 

charimeters not heretofore made in England, but their deliveries arc much delayed 
I s of the control of these works bv the British Government for war requirements. 

The same situation explains both the inability of certain very excellent. French 
makers of optical instruments to extend their lines, or even, with one exception, to 
make any deliveries of their regular goods. 

The domestic manufacture of chemical glassware, which previous 
bo the war in Europe was confined to only one American factory, 
has since the summer of 1915 increased very largely, though the 
product is still insufficient to supply tho demand. The increase in 
the output would have been greater if a larger number of skilled 
workers could have been obtained. Most of them are Germans, 
but" Americans are being trained for this special work. As the 
expense of manufacture was exceptionally high during the first 
year in which this kind of glassware was manufactured in more 
than very limited quantities, no attempt was made in this investi- 
gation to ascertain the cost of any chemical glassware units, but 
all the domestic manufacturers that make such ware make other 
kinds of glassware, and reports were secured from these manufac- 
turers covering their last business year. 

PROPOSED RESTRICTION OF FREE IMPORTATION. 

Manufacturers who were interviewed during this investigation in 
regard to the tariff duty on chemical glassware considered it much 
more important that there should be some duty on the apparatus 
for educational or scientific use, now admitted free, than that the 
rate of duty on the remainder of such imports should be raised 
above 45 per cent ad valorem, the present rate. Some college pro- 
fessors who were interviewed approved the suggestion that the 
apparatus imported for educational or scientific use should pay a 
duty, in order firmly to establish the industry in this country, though 
they did not, however, advocate a duty on imports for such pur- 
poses as high as 45 per cent ad valorem. 

The American Chemical Society has started a campaign in favor 
of educational institutions paying duty on chemical glassware and 
has appointed a committee on the subject, consisting of Prof. Alex- 
ander Smith, of Columbia University, Prof. William McPherson, of 
Ohio State University, and Mr. Arthur H. Thomas, of Philadelphia. 
Following is a part of the address by Mr. Thomas, extracts from 
which have already been quoted: 



Let us now consider the possibilities of the future, mentioning first hollow 
ware, particularly flasks and beakers. It seems probable that a fair share of our 
consumption of flasks and beakers will be made in the United States after the con- 
clusion of the war without any increase in duty or any curtailment of the dutv-free 
privilege. With some restriction of duty-free entry they would, I think, all be 
made here. This statement is based upon the following facts: 

1. The intrinsic excellence of our product. This is certainly the basic economic 
factor in determining where any merchandise is to be made under normal conditions 
of competition. 

2. The highest priced American flasks and beakers are now sold at exactly the 
duty-paid prices prevailing before the war for the best European brand. Further- 
more, all other American flasks and beakers are now not only sold at less than these 



228 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

prices, but at prices no higher, generally speaking, than those hitherto prevailing 
on European goods of inferior quality. 

3. There is a sufficient industrial' and other duty-paid demand to justify the con- 
tinuation of a part, at least, of our present war-time production, even though the 
large educational business is again placed abroad for duty-free importation. This 
duty-paid demand is increasingly restricted to flasks and beakers of the highest 
quality. Those of you engaged in industrial work will agree that in the works labora- 
tory the first consideration is not what the flask or beaker costs but rather that it must 
not break in use. 

4. Flasks and beakers are made in large and well-organized glass factories, of which 
we have in the United States several quite competent to undertake such work, and 
the American glass blower accustomed to the manufacture of incandescent lamp 
bulbs, thermos bottles, ordinary bottles, and the many shapes of household and 
other ware, can usually make them with a few weeks' practice. 

5. And this is important: There is some possibility as to the application of auto- 
matic glass-blowing machines (which have reached a truly remarkable development 
in the United States as applied to the blowing of bottles and incandescent lamp 
bulbs) to the manufacture of flasks and beakers, if a sufficiently large demand develops. 
If this should come to pass I think the term "duty-free" would no longer be used in 
connection with flasks and beakers. 

Reasoning in a manner akin to the above seems to justify a similar conclusion, with 
some qualifications in each instance, for the classifications "Porcelain ware," "Filter 
paper," and "Optical measuring instruments." "Hardware and sheet-metal ware" 
and "Analytical and assay balances and weights" have already shown their ability 
to take care of themselves. 

This disposal of these groups leaves for further consideration the very important 
classification B, "Lamp-blown and volumetric ware." It is the shortage in this 
group which is now causing the greatest inconvenience, and it is about the making 
of such goods that we have much to learn if any significant fraction of our annual con- 
sumption is to be regularly manufactured in the United States. As compared with 
flasks and beakers we here face quite a different array of facts. 

1. Our product thus far is, as a general statement, distinctly inferior in workman- 
ship, appearance, and (too frequently but not always) in accuracy of graduation. 

2. These goods must be sold, on the basis of costs prevailing before the war, at much 
higher prices than the duty-paid prices on equivalent items of foreign make. Since 
the war this difference in cost has been still further increased, in many instances to 
the extent of 100 per cent. 

3. The duty-paid demand does not constitute nearly as large a fraction of the total 
consumption as is the case with flasks and beakers. 

4. This ware is mostly made in comparatively small and often poorly organized 
establishments. This is frequently true, even though the shop is operated by a firm 
which may be fairly designated as "large and well organized" in other directions. 
The supply of skilled glass blowers compatent to handle the great variety of such 
chemical ware is exceedingly limited. I doubt if there are 250 such workmen in the 
United States at the present time. These man have mostly come to us from Thuringian 
factories as skilled and accomplished artisans who were well paid at home. They 
naturally demand and get still more here. A good all-round worker now gets from 
$45 to $30 par week. They do not always lend themselves to the proper subdivisions 
of labor for economical production. They are quite united in their common interests 
and naturally not greatly interested in the training and development of apprentices. 
They frequently are compelled to give up work on general chemical ware because of 
the high wage they can earn on piecework specialties. 

One large concern in south Jersey is here deserving of special mention because of 
its output in this line, which, while as yet confined largely to the simpler and more 
staple items, is made almost exclusively by young men and women native in the 
locality under the direction of a few more experienced workers. I recently visited 
this plant and was favorably impressed with the very encouraging progress these 
operatives had made in a comparatively few months. 

5. And this again is important: There seems to be little possibility as to the appli- 
cation of automatic machines to this line, with the exception of those already developed 
and in efficient use for homeopathic vials and syringes. 

Mr. J. Howard Fry, vice president of the H. C. Fry Glass Co., 
having reviewed a copy of this section, wrote November 7, 1916: 

To a certain extent, we agree with Mr. Arthur II . Thomas in his statement that 
tariff duty on all chemical glassware is much more important than an increase of the 
present tariff; that there should be some duty on glass for educational or scientific use 



[NDU6TRIAL CONDITIONS. 229 

mm admitted free, rather than thai the rate of duty should In- raised above 15 per 
cent ad valorem. In other words, more than likely, the conditions in Europe after 
the war will be such that, provided the now duty free i- abolish «!, the duty on 
: cenl ad valorem on chemical glassware, will he sullicient protection 
in all >w us to continue manufacturing: a good quality of chemical ulassware in com- 
petition with foreign count 

It is true thai the very high tirade chemical ware does find and will continue to find 
a limited sale in this country, at a price, but the great volume of chemical glassware, 
such as used by the colleges, industrial plants, and ordinary laboratories, does not 
need to b ■ the highest grade of chemical glassware, and that business will eventually 
go to the cheapest market of suitable quality. As the duty-free provision permitted 
all the universities to get their beakers and flasks without any duty, it cut out the 
voluni • business for the American manufacturer, and there was little or no opportunity 
then for :an manufacturer to succeed. The demand for the very high- 

grade stuff is naturally limited, and would possibly only keep one busy, where the 
popular demand would keep several factories busy. Personally, I can not under- 
stand why chemical glassware should be imported free of duty for educational pur- 
poses, because those educational institutions should help support the American 
industry and labor, as undoubtedly the American has to support such institutions. 
I 'ntly, by taking that business away from the American manufacturer and 
giving it to Europe, it is false economy on the part of the educational institutions, and 
our Government should not encourage it. 

In 1914 the council of the British Institute of Chemistry appointed 
a glass-research committee to conduct investigations with the view of 
arriving at suitable formulas for laboratory glassware, miners' lamp 
glasses, combustion tubing, resistant glass for pharmaceutical 
products, glass for X-ray bulbs, etc. The main part of the report of 
the committee was published in Nature (London), April 15, 1915, 
and republished in the Scientific American Supplement, July 24, 1915. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC GLASS. 

A new small industry in the United States is the manufacture of 
photographic glass, which is thinner than window glass. Photo- 
graphic glass averages 15 panes to the inch, while single-strength 
window glass averages 11£ or 12 to the inch and double-strength 8 
or 9 to the inch. Photographic glass is packed 100 square feet to 
the box, window glass 50 feet per box for domestic trade and usually 
100 feet for export. 

Dry photographic plates, made by coating photographic glass 
with a sensitive emulsion, have long been made in the United States, 
particularly in Rochester and St. Louis. Photographic glass, however, 
was not made commercially in the United States until 1911. 

Only the first two qualities of the thin glass, both of which aro 
better than A quality window glass, are used for photographic 
platos. The third grade, which is called photographic reject, is 
used for picture frames, for clock faces, and such purposes. 

COMPARATIVELY HIGH COST OF PRODUCTION. 

For several reasons photographic glass is much more expensive to 
make than is common unpolished window glass. The thin glass is 
very fragile and the percentage of breakage is much larger than in 
the case of window glass. In making thin glass there are more 
burns in flattening. Single and double strength glass docs not 
get hot so quickly on the stone in the oven, and does not have to be 
taken out so quickly as thin glass, so that it is not so liable to burn. 



230 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Moreover, when wrinkles on thin glass are rubbed clown the sheet 
often becomes so soft that pimples appear on the surface. 

With photographic glass much more cutting and much more 
careful sorting are necessary than with window glass. The window- 
glass cutter sorts the glass as he cuts it and piles it on edge according 
to size and quality. Photographic glass is sorted by the cutter who 
cuts it into strips. Another cutter cuts panes from' the strips. The 
panes are then examined, sorted, and perhaps three-fourths of them 
are cut to smaller sizes to remove defects. 

The labor cost on photographic glass is much higher than on win- 
dow glass. The difference in total cost is indicated by the differ- 
ence in price. In 1916, when a box of 8 by 10 single-strength A 
glass sold for about $2.25, a box of photographic glass of the same size, 
100 square feet to the box, sold for $11, or on the basis of $5.50 for 
50 feet. 

AMOUNT CONSUMED TARIFF RATES. 

The consumption of photographic glass in the United States, first 
and second quality only, is about 200,000 boxes of 100 feet, which, at 
1916 prices, amounted to $2,200,000. The imports of photographic 
glass are considerable, but the amount can not be stated, as there 
is no tariff distinction between such glass and window glass and no 
separate statistics of imports are kept. 

The duty on cylinder, crown, and common window glass, unpol- 
ished, which includes photographic glass, is levied on a pound basis 
and not at an ad valorem rate. Consequently, the amount of duty 
on a 100-foot box of window glass is the same, as the duty on a 100- 
foot box of photographic glass, although the value of the latter is 
about twice the value of the former, largely because the labor cost 
of the latter is very much larger. 

Most plates for photographic purposes are in small sizes which do 
not exceed 150 square inches, or panes 10 by 15 inches, and prac- 
tically all is in the first three brackets, not exceeding 384 square 
inches. The duty on cylinder glass, whether used for windows or 
for photographic dry plates, is seven-eighths of a cent a pound on 
sizes not exceeding 150 square inches, and 1 cent a pound on sizes 
over 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches. 

The manufacturers of photographic glass believe that in the tariff 
classifications some distinction should be made between photo- 
graphic glass and window glass, and that the former should have a 
higher duty. This distinction would be made if there were a classi- 
fication of glass weighing under 95 pounds per 100 feet, which would 
include photographic glass, and a classification of glass weighing 
95 pounds or more per 100 feet, which would include window glass 
of single as well as double strength. The manufacturers claim that 
the rate of duty on the thin or photographic glass should be higher 
than that on window glass, and that the rate on dry plates should be 
correspondingly increased. 

There are large dry-plate factories in the United States, and much 
of the photographic glass that they imported before the war began in 
Europe was made into dry plates and exported. These concerns, 
when they exported dry plates, received a drawback of 99 per cent 
of the duty paid when the glass was imported. With brokerage 
charges, the drawback amounted to about 94 per cent net. 



CHAPTER VII. 
SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 

SELLING EXPENSE. 

Table 87, which follows, shows, by groups, the percentage of selling 
expense and of operating and final profit based on net sales : 

Table 87. — Percentage op Selling Expense and of Profit, Based on Net 
Sales, by Groups. 



Establishments making- 



Group. 



Selling expense. 



Operating profit 
computed— 



Without 
deprecia- 
tion an I 
interest. 



With 
deprecia- 
tion an i 
interest. 



Final 
profit, 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest 
consid- 
ered. 



Win low glass by hand 

Win low glass by machine 

Plate glass 

Wire ant opalescent glass 

Bottles by hand 

Bottles by machine 

Bottles by hani and machine. 

Jars *. 

Tableware, blown 

Ta' leware, blown and pressed. 

Lighting goo is 

Lamp chimneys 

M i --cellaneous articles 



I 

II 
III 

rv 
v 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



1.45 
1.97 
.13 
2.77 
1.11 
2.81 
3.46 
2.78 
6.72 
4.60 
4.71 
4.14 
2.89 



!05 
.13 



1.48 
2.02 
.26 
3.70 
1.39 



3.36 ! 
6.99 | 
6 68 
6.63 : 
4.53 i 
3.41 



9.34 

9.22 
11.93 
10.29 

5.08 
15.07 

5.71 

9.16 
12.69 

4 96 
14.05 

5.27 
12.84 



Average . 



.(17 



4.01 



5.60 
2.76 
.82 
5.68 
2.65 

11.30 
2.68 
6.13 
9.33 
.11 

10.19 
2.89 



a Operating loss. 

The table shows that the cost of salesmen, which includes their 
salaries, commissions, and traveling and other expenses, is exception- 
ally low, the average for the 13 groups being but 3.07 per cent of the 
net sales. The lowest group percentage is that for plate glass, 0.13 
per cent; the highest is for blown tableware, 6.72 per cent. 

This exceptionally low cost may be explained by the fact that many 
establishments employ no salesmen whatever, and also because the 
greater part of the goods, in a majority of the groups, is sold in large 
quantities to jobbers, large consumers, and distributers. In many 
establishments the goods are sold by an official of the company or as 
the result of a successful bid. 

Groups IX to XII, inclusive, show the highest percentages for cost 
of salesmen. All these groups probably have smaller and more diver- 
sified sales than do the other groups, where only one product, as win- 
dow glass, plate glass, bottles, or jars, is sold. To sell small quantities 
of varied goods to numerous accounts requires a comparatively larger 
selling force. Many lamp chimneys and much pressed tableware are 
exported, and this also tends to increase the selling cost, not because 
cost of the salesmen is increased but because of brokers' fees, etc. 

231 



232 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Other selling expense includes the maintenance of selling offices and 
showrooms in various glass centers and miscellaneous selling expense. 
The table shows the lowest cost, 0.03 per cent, for the hand-made 
window-glass group and the highest cost, 2.08 per cent, for the blown 
and pressed tableware group. 

Much pressed tableware is exported. This requires showrooms in 
various centers and other selling expenses not incurred in domestic 
selling, and to this fact may be attributed the reason for the blown 
and pressed tableware group showing the highest percentage for "other 
selling expense," 2.08 per cent. 

The average total selling expense for the 13 groups is 4.01 per cent. 
The plate-glass group shows, the lowest cost, 0.26 per cent, and the 
blown tableware group the highest, 6.99 percent. The glass industry 
in general, as compared with other industries, has a small selling ex- 
pense, and the profit in the industry is not greatly influenced by the 
selling expense, as is the case in many other industries. This is shown 
by a comparison of the total selling expense with the profit. As the 
final profit consists of the operating profit plus miscellaneous income 
outside the manufacturing business less miscellaneous expense out- 
side the business, it will be best to' compare the total selling expense 
with the operating profit that is computed with depreciation and in- 
terest on current loans. 

The highest percentage of operating profit, 10.79 per cent, is shown 
by the machine-bottle group; the blown and pressed tableware group 
shows the smallest percentage, a loss of 0.15 per cent. That the sell- 
ing expense .does not greatly influence the profit is illustrated by the 
following: Blown tableware, with the highest percentage for total sell- 
ing expense, 6.99 per cent, shows an operating profit of 9.29 per cent; 
lighting goods, with a total selling expense of 6.63 per cent, shows an 
operating profit of 9.59 per cent; blown and pressed tableware, with 
a total selling expense of 6.68 per cent (which is less than the per- 
centage for blown tableware, 6.99 per cent, and only 0.05 per cent 
more than that for lighting goods, 6.63 per cent), shows an operating 
loss of 0.15 per cent. 

The foregoing table shows that machine-made bottles earned the 
highest final profit, 11.3 per cent, and blown and pressed tableware 
the lowest, 0.11 per cent. 

Table 88, which follows, shows, by groups, the percentage of pack- 
ing-material cost, bad debts, and of operating and final profit, based 
on net sales: 



SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 



233 



Table 8<S. — Percentage O] Packi\<;-M ati.ihai. ( 'ust. Hah 1>i:i;in. and Profit. 
Based on Net S\ Gboups. 



i bments making- 



Window glass by hand 

Window glass by machine 

Hate glass 

Wire and opalescent gla 

Bottles by hand 

by machine 

Bottles b"v hand and machine.. 

Jars 

Tableware, blown 

Tableware, blown and pressed. 

Lighting goois 

Lamp ciumneys 

Miscellaneous articles 



A vera go. 



Group. 



I 

II 
111 
l\ 
V 

VI 
VI] 
VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



Packing Bad 

debts. 



0.01 
.11 
.01 
.68 
.47 
.55 
.73 

1.00 
.49 
.26 
.32 
.31 
.40 



ing profit 

:ted — 



Without 
deprecia- 
tion and 
interest. 



9.31 

9.22 
11.93 
10. 29 

5. OS 
15.07 

5.71 

9.10 
12.(9 

i. 93 
14.05 

5.27 
12. S4 . 



With 
deprecia- 
tion and 



Final 
profit, 
deprecia- 
tion, and 

interest 

con- 
sidered. 



10. 32 



5.33 
1.99 
.Hi 
4.99 
2.28 
10.79 
1.98 
5.01 
9.29 
a. 15 
9.59 
2.91 
8.90 



5.57 



5. CO 

2. 7ti 

2!05 
11.30 
2.68 
6.13 
9.33 
.11 
10.19 
2.S9 
8. 93 

6.10 



3 Operating loss. 

The foregoing table shows that the cost for packing material is, 
comparatively, a very large expense of the business. This is due to 
the nature of the product, which, being fragile, requires not only 
careful packing, but numerous materials to insure a minimum of 
breakage while in transit. Lamp chimneys show the highest per- 
centage, 16.18 per cent, and plato glass the lowest," 2.67 per cent. 
The high percentage for lamp chimneys is due to the numerous wrap- 
pings required, especially when they are for export trade. Excepting 
the hand and machine bottle, the blown-tableware, and the miscella- 
neous groups, the remaining 10 groups show much greater cost for 
packing material than for total selling expense — in the case of plate 
glass, more than ten times as much. 

Bad debts, as shown by the table, is a very insignificant item of 
expense. The plate-glass group shows the lowest expense, 0.01 per 
cent, and jars the highest, 1 per cent. 

SELLING METHODS. 



DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS. 

Most glass manufacturers prefer to sell their ware to jobbers, 
to consuming manufacturers in other industries who use glass prod- 
ucts, and to large wholesale distributers. 

A large amount of merchandise is sold to jobbers who usually have 
an exclusive territory. In the case of bottles and jars, a large quan- 
tity is sold direct to the manufacturers or bottlers of wines, beers, 
ketchups, grape juice, etc., to large drug concerns, operating a chain 
of stores, and to small druggists. Onty a small amount of glassware 
is sold to the retailer direct, the nature of the product limiting such 
sales to cut glass, tabloware, some lighting goods, and a few specialties. 
Only a very limited quantity is sold to mail-order houses, as these 
houses, owing to their method of distribution, can handle only a few 
products, such as cut glass, lamp shades, and tableware. Some 



234 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

goods for export trade are sold direct to the consumer, usually 
through a resident agent or a commission broker. 

A number of window-glass manufacturers (about 25 hand and 5 
machine) sell their entire product through a sole selling agent or 
broker. This agent sends out his salesmen and on receiving orders, 
distributes them among the various plants according to the quantities 
and grades produced, the nearness of a factory to the point where 
the glass is to be delivered, etc. At least one other branch of the 
glass industry is contemplating a somewhat similar selling arrange- 
ment. Due to the method of distributing its goods, there are com- 
paratively few salesmen employed in the glass industry. The com- 
pensation of salesmen, when they are employed, is in the form of a 
commission or a salary and traveling expenses. Where the salesman 
works on a commission basis, it is customary for the manufacturer 
to allow a drawing account, that is, to allow the salesman to draw a 
regular amount every week for his current expenses, which is period- 
ically deducted from the actual commission earned. 

The sale of a large quantity of goods to jobbers and wholesale 
distributers is due to necessity rather than to choice. The capital 
turnover in the glass industry is exceptionally small, which is due 
to the fact that most of the capital is invested in land, buildings, 
plant, and equipment. Labor, which has to be paid for at least 
every two weeks, constitutes the chief item of expense in every 
branch of the industry except — where the processes of manufacture 
are entirely mechanical. Practically all the capital being tied up in 
plant and equipment, it is necessary for an establishment in order 
to have the cash to meet its heavy pay roll and other current expenses, 
to sell to jobbers and wholesale distributers, who usually buy on very 
short terms, and who, if necessary, will pay cash. Another important 
reason for wishing to sell to them is that they purchase in large 
quantities, which not only insures a large periodic cash income, but 
also tends to make production and prices more stable and reduces 
the overhead expense. 

VIEWS OF A BOTTLE MANUFACTURER. 

In 1916 a bottle manufacturer in New Jersey sent a circular letter 
to other manufacturers in which he referred to the greatly increased 
cost of raw materials. He said that manufacturers who had bought 
materials before the advance in prices should realize the difference 
between the cost when the materials were purchased and the cost 
after the advance and should not give this difference to the custom- 
ers and thus demoralize the market price for bottles. He asserted 
that manufacturers were too much inclined to give away profits to 
which they were entitled by reason of purchases made on favorable 
terms. Tne circular letter was in part as follows : 

In the glass-battle business almost all of us feel that every advantage that we can 
secure mu3t be immediately transferred to the customer; so to-day is witnessed a 
spectacle of a group of manufacturers in one of the oldest trades in the world falling 
over themselves to give their customers not only profits which belong to them by right 
cf the business but part of their costs. 

If John Jones can sell at 85 and 10 per cent, we can go 85-10-5 per cent; he hasn't 
anything on us; and for the last five years away we went believing every word our 
salesman told us about the other fellow's prices and going him one better, and costs 
went into the discard. We could not invent or perfect a labor-saving device without 
taking the fastest train to our customer so we could give away our saving, and if we 



SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 235 

worked the glass bl iwera for a LO p sr c a in labor -ome of us were fools 

enough to think that this meanl our entire costs were reduced 10 per cent and we 
inline liately reduc -d our Belling prices 10 per cent. 

Here we are in one <>f the largest business booms this country has seen for years; 
here we are facing the highest c >sts for raw materials we have seen for over 20 years, 
and we haven't the nerve to put up our prices to cover the advances. True, we have 
■v are a drop in the bucket. The export trade has filled 
a hole which existed for - Back and the increased domestic business has 

Stopped the last leak. Every bottle manufacturer in the L'nited States can sell his 
full output for the balance of this blasl a' any price in reason he asks, and because 
some few of them won't ask, th" feel that we must meet their prices. It 

makes me wonder if we know prosperity when we see it. 

We are deaf, dumb, and blind. We have neglected publicity to educate the buy- 
ers to higher prices; we have neglected politics to keep out "foreign-made bottles; 
we have neglected good fellowship to make our compatitor sae and feel that our 
horns are no longer than his, and instead we have hunched ourselves over a roll-top 
desk and schemed and planned how to steal some pat order away from our neighbor, 
and he, in his office, has been p! ime game. We grudge the money to go 

to a meeting, and if we do get there we have to get away early so that we can get 
home that night, with the consequence that about the time we "get down to the 
brass tacks*' half of us are on the train. It takes us about five hours to get warmed 
up and get our nerve steady and be ready to put on the screws, and then we are afraid 
to do it because some fellow left, and we are afraid he won't go along and will take 
some order away from us. 

IMPERIAL WINDOW GLASS CO. CASE. 

To eliminate very keen competition and the cutting of prices, 50 
or more window-glass concerns formed the Imperial Window Glass 
Co. in April, 1909, and started business in January, 1910. The Im- 
perial company manufactured no glass, but was apparently a selling 
agency for the output of the 50 or more factories. Each plant manu- 
factured its own glass, but was not permitted to sell any of its prod- 
uct except to the Imperial company and at what had been current 
prices prior to the organization of this company. 

From April, 1909, when the Imperial company was formed, to 
October, 1910, prices advanced 70 per cent, and it is understood the 
profits of the company in 10 months of business were considerably 
over a million dollars. Evidence showed that the Imperial company 
leased 15 factories at very high rentals for the sole purpose of keeping 
them closed and removing their production from the market. It is 
understood that when the company commenced business it had 
acquired 97 per cent of the pots making hand-blown window glass. 

In April, 1910, indictments were procured at Pittsburgh, Pa., 
against all the officers and directors of the Imperial Window Glass Co. 
A demurrer to the indictment being overruled, the defendants on 
November 12, 1910, appeared in court (United States District Court, 
Western District of Pennsylvania) and pleaded nolo contendere. 

The 15 directors and officers of the Imperial company, each of 
whom was also a president or prominent officer in one of the com- 
panies which had agreed to sell its output to the Imperial company, 
were fined sums aggregating $10,000. 



236 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

EUROPEAN PLATE-GLASS TRUST. 1 

Prior to 1904 the European plate-glass industry was in a precarious 
condition. Very keen competition had lowered the price of plate 
glass, while at the same time there was an increase in the cost of raw 
materials. To improve their condition, the manufacturers organ- 
ized, on August 17, 1904, a trade association known as the Inter- 
national Convention of Plate Glass Manufacturers. The original 
agreement has been renewed twice and the present agreement expires 
August 17, 1924. 

The association in December, 1912, was composed of 17 companies 
whose factories were located in France, Belgium, Netherlands, Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary, and Italy — practically all the European 
plate-glass manufacturers, excepting Pilkington Bros., operating a 
large factory at St. Helens, England, and the Societe des Glaces de 
Courcelles, an independent company of Belgium. 

The object of the association is to curb overproduction and by 
equalizing production and consumption to regulate prices. The 
association limits the output of each factory .by compelling it to close 
down a certain number of days during each quarterly period. This 
does not force the factory to shut down entirely. It can continue 
producing rough plate, but the grinding and polishing machinery 
must not be employed during the shut-down period. Efforts also 
have been made to get Pilkington Bros, to curtail their production. 

Each member of the convention has selling agents in every market, 
and, though there is some competition as to the quality of the product, 
nearness to market, etc., each is required to sell at the prices fixed 
by the convention. Any deviation from prices or from the selling 
rules is punished by a heavy fine. The convention also regulates 
selling conditions, such as sizes, breakage allowances, etc. The two 
large nonmember companies usually observe the prices fixed by the 
convention. 

After the organization of the convention in 1904, the plate-glass 
industry was prosperous and the manufacturers were financially 
successful throughout Europe. The selling price fixed by the con- 
vention, soon after its organization, remained practically unchanged 
until December, 1912, when the Union Commerciale Continentale 
was incorporated at Brussels, with a capital said to be 2,000,000 
francs ($386,000), supplied by the members of the convention. 

This new corporation is the convention's sole universal selling 
agent, and it destroyed even the slight competition which prevailed 
under the convention's rule. This one corporation regulates the pro- 
duction of every factory in the convention, purchases the complete 
output at a price per square meter, which it determines, and sells 
the entire product in every country in the world at prices and under 
conditions that it fixes. The profits of the corporation are distributed 
in the form of rebates to the various factories. 

The new corporation absolutely controls every market in the world 
except that of the United States, where approximately half the prod- 
uct of the world is consumed. Depending for its profits on its trade 

1 The data for this article wer3 secured from briefs submitted to the Committee on Ways and Means in 
January, 1913, House Document No. 1447, Sixty-second Congress, third session, Schedule B, pars. 101 
and 102. 



/ 

SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 237 

in other countries, where it can sell at its own prices, it can afford, 
in order to keep its factories in full operation, to sell in the American 
markel al cost or even less. 

Kl'Kol'MAN \\ Alt ll-( IIVST Al. s Kl.l.l NG AGREEMENT. 

The following report by Milo A. Jewett, consul at Kehl, Germany, 
was published in Daily Consular and Trade Reports, July 2, 1914: 

price-cutting war between the different European manufacturers 
of watch crystals, an agreement has been reached for a uniform scale of prices, and 
peace is declared. In 1905 the Watch-Glass Factories Association, with headquarters 
3burg, was in control of all the important European manufacturers of watch 
glasses and was able to fix the producers' selling prices for practically the whole world. 
However, through the lapse of some agreements and the establishment of new and 
independent manufacturers, competition in selling prices grew up until prices were so 
reduced thai there was little or no profit in the industry. Until recently the combine 
consisted of three factories in Lorraine (one of which also has a factory in France"). 
one in France, and a fifth unimportant factory in Lorraine that, while not an actual 
member of the combine, sold its watch glasses to or through the combine. The 
independent.- consisted of one factory in Lorraine, one in Alsace, two in Switzerland. 
and one in Bohemia. The annual output of the combine factories was said to be 
500,000 gross of watch glasses, and the independents could make about 300,000 gross 
yearly. 

The chief feature of the present agreement concerns the selling prices. It is said 
that all the manufacturers referred to have agreed to sell at fixed and uniform prices. 
There is also some understanding in regard to the distribution of territory to be covered 
by different concerns and also in regard to the distribution of business, output, and 
sales. While all the different factories are now "independent," the Vereinigte 
Uhrglasfabriten, Vcgesenstrasse, Strassburg, Alsace, will continue to act as selling 
agents for some of the more important manufacturers and will exercise general control 
in regard to the matters that form the subject of the present agreement. 

As a result of this new arrangement, prices of watch crystals have been advanced 
from 60 to 90 per cent. While these higher prices will affect wholesale purchasers in 
America, it is not likely that the consumer will be much affected. Watch crystals 
were sold extremely low here, and prices will still be relatively low, although about 
double what they have been. Ordinary watch crystals were selling as low as 4 francs 
($0,772) a gross, which is about half a cent a piece. 

This is an industry where hand labor must be employed to a considerable extent, 
and the workmen employed in making the watch crystals and the girls that are em- 
ployed in putting the labels on each glass and in packing them receive very low 
wages. It is for this reason that watch crystals can not be made in the United States 
in competition with European manufacturers. 

SELLING FACTORS. 

Effect of seasons. — The seasons have, to some extent, an effect on 
the glass industry. Bad weather that retards building operations 
affects window, plate, wire, and opalescent glass and, to a minor 
degree, lighting goods; a cool summer affects manufacturers of beer, 
soaa, and mineral water bottles, etc. ; a poor crop affects manufacturers 
of ketchup and grape-juice bottles and jars. 

Long future deliveries. — The fact that goods are manufactured for 
long future delivery has little effect on the industry, because most of 
such goods is manufactured by contract. However, it often leads to 
overbuying, which results from a poor anticipation of future demand 
and judgment of the market. When this happens it usually curtails 
the manufacturer's production and lowers prices during the next 
blast. 

Size of orders. — -Though the great bulk of glass products is sold to 
the jobbers and other large purchasers, and the orders are, therefore, 
necessarily large, there is a tendency in all branches, and especially 



238 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

in bottles, for the orders to become smaller and more frequent. 
This is in accord with the general tendency in many other indus- 
tries, and results from the purchaser's desire to rid himself of the 
responsibility of judging the market and from putting too much 
cash into large stocks. The automatic bottle-machine manufac- 
turers insist on large orders, as do many of the manufacturers in 
the other branches who will not ship less than a carload. The 
comparatively small orders and the small rush orders go to the 
hand plants. In general, however, there is a tendency on the part 
of the jobber or other purchaser of glass products, even in standard 
goods, to shift whenever possible the burden of carrying the stock 
onto the manufacturer, and this necessarily results in smaller and 
more frequent orders. 

Discounts. — The following statement gives the discounts usually 
allowed in the glass industry as reported by manufacturers : 

Window glass 2 per cent 10 clays or net 60 days. 

Plate glass 1 par cent 10 days or net 30 days. 

Bottles 1 par cent 10 days or net 30 days. 

Tableware 1 per cent 30 days l or net 60 days. 

Lighting goods 1 per cent 15 days or net 30 day's. 

Though these terms are generally uniform throughout the respec- 
tive-branches of the industry, the scale is not strictly adhered to by 
all manufacturers. It depends to a great extent upon the purchaser 
and the character, reputation, and business methods of the manufac- 
turer. There are occasions when extra discounts are demanded and 
secured. A very large purchaser may be allowed an extra cash dis- 
count or its equivalent in the form of a freight allowance. It is not 
unusual for purchasers to deduct the usual discount, although pay- 
ment is not made until long after the bill is due. 

Joh lots. — Job lots are made up of imperfect ware, bad sizes, broken 
stock, standard goods of which too much stock has been produced, 
special goods left over by cancellations, discarded styles and designs, 
and odds and ends. There are comparatively few job lots sold in this 
industry; the ware that can not be sold is utilized to a great extent 
for cullet. Discounts allowed on what job lots are sold vary, depend- 
ing upon the ware, its condition, how urgent the manufacturer's need 
for money is, and numerous other factors. 

Advertising. — Though many glass establishments advertise in trade 
journals, only a very limited number advertise nationally. The great 
bulk of glass products by their very nature have no particular indi- 
viduality whose advertising would be warranted or profitable; the 
principal selling argument is generally the price. Only two or three 
manufacturers place trade-marks on the ware they manufacture, and 
these appear on pressed goods. It is impossible to blow a trade-mark 
on ware made in paste molds or blown offhand. 

Trade uncertainties. — There are some trade uncertainties connected 
with certain branches of the industry. Building-trade strikes which, 
can not be anticipated affect window, plate, wire, and opalescent glass. 
Prohibition to some extent influences the bottle and bar-goods trades; 
in addition, bottles are affected by varying laws in regard to size 
and capacity and by the varying degrees of their enforcement by 
States and cities. The making of goods lettered with the purchaser's 

i Since Jan. 1, 1916. 



SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 239 

name or trade-mark is to some extenl a hazard. Seasonal effects, 
which have been previously discussed, are trade uncertainties which 
can not be forecasted or guarded against. 

TRADE AB1 SES. 

As a general rule the manufacturers interviewed complained but 
little of trade abuses. This absence, to a great extent, of the trade 
found in many other industries may be explained by the fact 
that the glass industry sells mainly to the jobber, who usually is a 
reputable business man. There are, however, abuses in the industry 
and a description of some of them follows: 

Allowances. — On a declining market, although the manufacturer is 
usually protected by a contract, there is some demand for a reduction 
in price not as an actual reduction in price necessarily but as an allow- 
ance, which amounts to the same thing. There is also a tendency on 
the part of some purchasers to overclaim the amount for shortage and 
breakage. As is to be expected, there will be some breakage due to 
the nature of the commodity. When no maximum breakage allow- 
ance is stipulated in the contract or is understood, purchasers occa- 
sionally make overclaims, thus reducing the price of the ware. Some 
allowance claims for imperfect ware are due to a careless examination 
of the ware by inspectors in the factory, which may or may not be due 
to the policy of the plant. It is to be noted, however, that allowance 
claims for imperfect ware are more numerous in bad seasons than in 
good. 

Cancellations. — There are comparatively few cancellations. They 
usually come when there is a falling off in demand or a sharp break in 
prices. Occasionally, if the ware has not yet been made or if it is 
unlettered and of standard size and shape, so that it can be used to 
fill other orders, manufacturers will accept cancellations. If special 
molds have been made or the goods lettered, cancellations will not 
ordinarily be accepted. However, if the house that cancels the order 
is large and its business profitable, cancellations, even under the above- 
mentioned conditions, are sometimes accepted. 

TRADE ACCEPTANCES. 

As has been pointed out, many glass factories lack ready cash. The 
adoption of the trade acceptance would help to supply such assets. 
However, no branch of the glass industr}^ has as yet made use of it. 
Though it was urged at the 1916 annual meeting of the National Bot- 
tle Manufacturers' Association that the adoption of the trade accept- 
ance would eliminate some and minimize other trade abuses now prev- 
alent in the industry, and though such a well-informed glass man as 
Mr. George W. Yost, who is a banker as well as a glass manufacturer, 
urged its adoption, the association took no action. Conservatism or 
a desire to adhere to custom and the usual lack of cooperation among 
manufacturers are the reasons ascribed for action being postponed. 

Tno acceptance is similar to the sight draft, but is payable on a 
certain date, depending on whether the terms are 10, 15, .30, or more 
days, instead of being payable on sight. In order to conform to the 
laws which make it possible for an acceptance to be rediscounted, a 
brief notation or memorandum of the transaction covered by the 



240 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

acceptance should be written on its face. The manufacturer mails 
the invoice, bill of lading, and acceptance to the purchaser, who 
accepts by signing his name across the face of the acceptance and 
returns it to the manufacturer. The manufacturer's bank will then 
advance the manufacturer money on it or it can be held for collection. 
The acceptance when properly drawn may be rediscounted by a 
Federal reserve bank. When the day for payment arrives the ac- 
ceptance is forwarded to the bank of the purchaser, which charges it 
to his account. 

It was pointed out at the meeting of the National Bottle Manufac- 
turers' Association that the use of the acceptance would result in the 
following advantages: It would make capital more elastic, in that a 
manufacturer could get a cash advance on his shipments, instead of 
having his money in ledger accounts, and would enable him to better 
meet his current cash expenditures; it would eliminate the possi- 
bility of the purchaser taking unearned cash or trade discounts; it 
would do away with the arbitrary return of goods and unjust deduc- 
tions for breakage; it would compel the purchaser to pay his bills 
when they were due, thus doing away with collection charges; it 
would tend to make the purchaser buy just what he could pay for, 
and would wipe out the bad feeling between seller and buyer that 
results from collection letters, actions at law, etc.; its use would 
necessitate no chango in present accounting methods and would 
simplify accounting systems. 

Tiie following is quoted from a letter received from Mr. George W. 
Yost- 

My remarks before the National Glass Bottle Manufacturers' Association at Atlantic 
Oity were on account of a discussion with Mr. D. G. Wills, president of the Federal 
reserve bank of Cleveland, Ohio, and my experience as a banker, both of which con- 
vince me of the advantages which would accrue to all parties in interest if trade ac- 
ceptances were used instead of the present method of open ledger accounts. 

In the discussion with Mr. Wills, I argued that while it was important and proper 
that the Federal reserve banks should bring the matter to the attention of the public, 
it would be absolutely necessary to have the assistance of manufacturers, merchants, 
and vendors of any line or lines where sales are made in large enough quantities to 
justify the taking of an acceptance. 

This end can best be accomplished by agreements by associations of manufacturers 
and merchants that sales will only be made with the understanding that trade ac- 
ceptance must be signed unless the buyer expects to and does pay cash for his pur- 
chases. 

It goes without saying that, except in isolated cases, it will be impossible for a 
vendor in any particular line to insist upon this method of settlement, unless his 
competitors in the same line pursue the same course; and on this account I consider 
it very important that the Federal reserve banks and all other banking institutions 
take advantage of every opportunity to bring the matter to the attention of associa- 
tions of manufacturers and merchants, to the end that they may decide to use this 
method instead of the present plan. 

ECONOMIES POSSIBLE THROUGH COOPERATION. 

Though selling expense, as shown by Table 87, is comparatively 
small, there are many economies that could be effected. There is 
among manufacturers no cooperation aside from getting together 
once a year and, in conjunction with the union, fixing the wage scale 
for the new blast. Cooperation, though urged time and time again, 
has never been realized. 



SELLING EXPENSE AND CONDITIONS. 241 

Tiic following is quoted from an interview with one of the best- 
informed bottle manufacturers in the United States: 

No sp - ial antas raism exists as between various manufacturers; on the contrary a 
more or less friendly spirit prevails. No well-defined or intelligenl effort has been 
made between the manufacturers to correct trade abuses. Discussion between manu- 
facturers relative to certain palicies, covering such matters as the form of contract, 
exchange of credit information, methods of handling breakage claims, the establish- 
ment of a uniform discount for cash, and uniform conditions covering the manufac- 
ture of new or sp3cial mold equipment, would doubtless be beneficial to both buyer 
and manufacturer. 

Various manufacturers who were interviewed offered the following 

suggestion- as desirable, if the cooperation necessary for their fulfill- 
ment could be obtained: 

1. The establishment of a uniform cost-finding system, which 
would enable all manufacturers in the respective branches of the 
industry to arrive at competitive prices computed on a comparable 
base. 

2. A centrally controlled selling agency for each branch of the in- 
dustry that would sell the entire production of all plants in somewhat 
the same manner as a large quantity of window glass is now dis- 
tributed through the Johnston Brokerage Co. 

3. A uniform, standardized contract for each branch of the in- 
dustry that would, among other things, provide for a method of 
packing and would include a specific percentage to be allowed in 
every case for freight and breakage and above which no allowance 
would be granted. 

4. Tne standardization, where possible, of shapes and styles and 
the requirement that the purchaser pay for new molds the making of 
which is necessitated by the purchaser's desire to get a product which 
differs from the standard. 

5. Tne establishment of a central selling or show room (one firm at 
present maintains offices in about 10 cities) which would reduce 
materially the selling cost for each individual manufacturer. 

6. Tne establishment of a credit bureau, which would not only 
give credit information and advice but which would take up and 
eliminate all abuses that may arise. 

7. Tne abolishment by manufacturers of the practice of dumping 
their surplus products in territories where they do not ordinarily 
sell, thus causing manufacturers who sell in that territory to cut 
prices and in turn to invade the usual market of the manufacturer 
who has dumped his goods in their territory. The surplus stock, 
instead of being dumped in this country, should be exported. 

There has been but little attempt at cooperation between manu- 
facturers. There is much that could be done. Sizes, shapes, and 
selling terms could be standardized. There is, in some lines of 
products, a tendency on the part of the purchaser to insist on his 
personal lettering, the elimination of which would permit the manu- 
facturer to carry larger stocks without running as much risk as this 
now entails. A more scientific regulation of shipments and deliv- 
eries, based on experience and judgment, would result in a saving in 
freight charges, which is one of the chief items of expense, and would 
insure more prompt and satisfactory deliveries. 
102511°— 17 16 



CHAPTER VIII. 
WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 

GENERAL DATA RELATING TO THE INDUSTRY. 

Among the large industries in this country glass manufacturing 
stands out conspicuously for the largo proportion of the labor cost 
as compared with the total cost or with the selling value of the 
product. The range and average proportion of labor cost to the 
total sales value of the product is as follows: 

Table 89. — Range and Average Percentage op Labor Cost on the Basis e* 
the Sales Value op the Product. 



Establishments making- 


Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Range. 


Average. 




I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 
6 

26 
18 
27 
13 

8 
20 
18 

6 
13 


Per cent. 
52. 36 to 65. 98 
36. 86 to 57. 84 
27. 69 to 43. 30 

18. 19 to 37. 64 
38. 64 to 67. 39 
18. 20 to 56. 60 
30. 77 to 63. 32 
22. 32 to 54. 72 
43. 93 to 65. 93 
35. 51 to 68. 75 
24. 23 to 60. 09 
47. 61 to 71. 69 

32. 20 to 53. 39 


Per cent. 
56.80 




47.74 




33.76 




24.03 




53. 00 




32.57 




48.27 




30.08 




53.68 




48.01 




40.15 




52.40 




44.85 






Total 


213 


18. 19 to 71. 69 


41.98 









This table shows that in only one group, wire and opalescent glass, 
is the cost of labor less than 30 per cent of the sales value. In nine 
of the groups it is over 40 per cent. The percentage is as high as 
56.8 in one group, window glass made by hand. In one lamp-chimney 
establishment it is 71.69 and in one machine bottle plant it is as low 
as 18.2, but the average for this group is 32.57. The average for 
all groups is 41.98. 

The percentages for labor as set forth in the following table for 
various industries, while not exactly comparable with the percentages 
above because they are on a net sales basis or on a manufacturing 
cost basis instead of sales value basis, nevertheless are accurate enough 
for the purposes of rough comparison. 

Roports of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce relating 
to the cost of production in five branches of the clothing industry 
during 1913 or 1914 show the percentages of direct and indiroct 
labor cost, based on net sales, as follows: 

242 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



243 



Table 



-Percentage of Direct and Indirect Labor Cost in Clothing Indus- 
tries, Based on Net Sales. 



Industries. 


Year. 


Labor 
cost. 




1913 
1913 
1913 
1913 
1914 


Per cent. 
21.54 




25.77 




23.14 




30.69 




31.23 







Tho Bureau roport on tho pottery industry (1912) shows (p. 234) 
that tho percentage of labor cost, based on tho total cost of manu- 
facture in a list of representative establishments, ranged from 51.98. 
(lowest) to 66.40 (highost). 

The Tariff Board's report on cotton manufactures (1910) shows 
(p. 394) the percentage each item of cost is of tho total cost of manu- 
facture in tho various establishments reporting. From this report 
is obtained the following information showing the percentage labor 
cost is of the total cost of manufacture: 

Table 91. — Range and Average Percentage of Labor Cost, on the Basis of 
the Total Cost, in the Manufacture of Cotton Textiles. 



Number of yarn. 


Kind of cloth. 


Mills re- 
porting. 


Productive 
labor range. 


General labor 
range. 






8 
10 
12 
18 

4 
10 


Per cent. 
11.63 to 27.54 
10. 56 to 29. 11 
12. 55 to 30. 41 
14. 50 to 36. 37 
17. 18 to 36. 03 
17. 44 to 32. 37 


Per cent. 


Over 12 and not over 20. 


Plain, miscellaneous, duck, fancy 


.53 to 1.72 
. 37 to 1. 53 






. 32 to 2. 14 






. 55 to 1. 13 






.66 to 1.81 









These reports are comparatively recent and are among the most 
exhaustive and accurate ever issued by the Government on similar 
lines. The figures show that in none of these industries, except 
pottery, does labor constitute nearly so much of the sales value or 
total cost as in glass. 

The Census of Manufactures presents a list of 334 industries and 
shows for each, for the year 1914, the value of product, amount paid 
wage earners, and other data. In this list of 334 the average labor 
cost based on the value of product was 16.82 per cent; glass ranked 
thirteenth in labor cost with a percentage of 39.53. 

In tho following table is presented the list of 13 industries hav- 
ing the highest percentage ol labor cost, based on value of product, 
showing for each the value of product, expenditure for wages, and 
percentage of labor cost. 



244 THE GLASS INDUSTEY. 

Table 92. — Value of Product, Expense for Wages, and Percentage of Labor 
Cost in Industries Having Highest Labor Cost. 

[Data from Census of Manufactures, 1914.] 



1. Watch cases 

2. Clothing, men's, buttonholes 

3. Cars and general shop construction and repairs by electric rail 

road companies 

4. Firearms 

5. Pens, steel 

6. Grindstones 

7. Cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam rait 

road companies 

8. Engraving, wood 

9- Sewing machines and attachments 

10. Brick, tile, pottery, and other clay products 

11. Turpentine and rosin 

12. Photo-engraving, not done in printing establishments 

13. Glass 





Expense foi 


wages. 


Value of 
product. 


Amount. 


Per cent 
of value 

of 
product. 


$7,831,000 
638,000 


$1, 938, 000 
326,000 


52.71 
51. 10 


38,577,000 

10,544,000 

513, 000 

684,000 


18,645,000 

5,067,000 

243,000 

323,000 


48.33 
48.06 
47.37 
47.23 


514,041,000 

719,000 

21,392,000 

173,858,000 
20,990,000 
15,359,000 

123, 085, 000 


234,505,000 
310, 000 
8,861,000 
71, 806, 000 
8,583,000 
6,167,000 
48,656,000 


45.62 
43.12 
41.42 
41.35 
40.89 
40.15 
39.53 



From these figures it will be seen that of the 12 industries out- 
ranking glass in the percentage paid for labor, only 2 exceed it in the 
value of product. 

Of the 334 industries, all those whose products in 1914 exceeded 
in value .$150,000,000 are shown in the following table: 

Table 93. — Value of Product and Expense for Wages in Industries Having 
Largest Production in 1914, and Percentage of Labor Cost. 



[Data from Census of Manufactures, 1914.] 



Slaughtering and meat packing 

Foundry and machine shop products 

ron and steel, steel works and rolling mills 

Flour mill and grist mill products •. 

Lumber and timber products 

Cotton goods,, including lace 

Cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam rail- 
road companies 

Automobiles 

Boots and shoes 

Printing and publishing, newspaper and periodicals 

Brea: 1 and other bakery products : 

Clothing, women's 

Clothing, men's 

Smelting and refining, copper 

Liq uors, malt 

Petroleum , refining 

Woolen and worsted goods 

Leather, tanned, curried and finished 

E lectrical machinery , apparatus and supplies 

Paper and wood puip 

Iron and steel, blast furnaces 

Lumber planing-mill products not including planing mills 
connected with sawmills 

Tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes 

Printing and publishing, book and job 

Sugar, refining 

Furniture 



Value of 

product, 

1914. 



$1,651,965,000 
986,450,000 
918,665,000 
877,680,000 
715,9-2,000 
689,776,000 

514,041,000 
503,230,000 

501, 760, 000 
495,906,000 
491,893,000 
473,888,000 
458,211,000 
444, 022, 000 
442,149,000 
396,361,000 
379,484,000 
367,202,000 
335, 170, 000 
332,147,000 
317,654,000 

316,840,000 
314,884,000 
307,331,000 
289,399,000 
265,706,000 



Expense for wage. 



$62,136,000 
280,345,000 
188,142,000 
24,593,000 
240, 172, 000 
149,598,000 



.-.05,000 
9-14,000 
0115,000 

roi. ooo 
867,060 

5 7-1,000 
828, ,000 

1:9,000 

2-' 4,000 
3«I7, 000 
;-i5:i,0(io 

(111.000 
806,000 
246,000 

7S1.000 



63,843,000 
68,306,000 
78,414,000 
7, 823, 000 
71,816,000 



Per cent 
of value 

of 
product. 



3.76 
28. 42 
20.48 

2.80 
33. 55 
21.69 

45.62 
13. 30 
21.06 
17.86 
15.63 
19. 53 
18.95 
3.64 
12.04 

20i02 
8.69 
22.02 
16.03 
7.17 

20.15 
21.69 
25.51 
2.70 
27.03 



WAGES VXD LABOR CONDITIONS. 



245 



Table 93.- Value oi Prodi ct and Expense for Wages iv [ndustries Eavtng 
ion p.' mil, ami Percentage dp Labor Cost Concluded. 



Hosiery and knit goo is 

>ods, including tlirowsters. 



not elsewhere specified 

Gas, illuminating ami heating 

Fool prepar itions, not elsewhere specified 

ike 

Liquors, diitilled 

i no) including operations of railroad com- 
panies 

Tobacco, chewing and smoking, and snuflf 

Brick, ti.e, pottery, and other day products 

; g and refining lead 

Co if 'ct io.vry 

Agrieu turai implements 

i-onze, and copper products 

Structural ironwork, not made in steel works or rolling mills.. 

C i' ni^als 

- , 

Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding 






Product, 
1914. 



Total 17,-160,149,000 2,812,716,000 



$25S,913,000 

243,379,000 I 
223,611,000 

212,127,000 
206,779,000 

194,776,000 i 
175,281,000 i 

171,579,000 

: 

164,087,000 
162.199,000 
159,378,000 

158,054,000 
153,196,000 
150, 749, 000 



47,108,000 
10,119,000 

10,866,000 

3,994,000 
41,394,000 
71,896,000 

21.472,000 
25,084,000 

10, 532, 000 



Per cent 
of v due 

of 
product. 



18.55 
■;. us 
13.99 
12.17 
4. 95 
4.00 
1.93 

21.25 
5.45 
41.35 

12. 57 
21.08 
15. Hi 
20.97 
13. 96 
6.87 
2.99 



16.11 



In these 45 industries, each with a value of product exceeding 
$150,003 : 000, the total value of product was $17,460,149,000; the 
average value, $388,003,311; and the average expense for wages, 
$62,504,803, or 16.11 per cant of the value of product. In the glass 
industry the: value of product was $123,085,000, and the expense for 
wages $48,656,000, or 39.53 per cent of the value of product. 

In the 45 industries listed in the table there are 23 in which the 
expense for wages was less than the $48,656,000 paid for wages in the 
gla s industry. The total value of product of these 23 was 
$5,931,940,000; the average value, $260,519,130; the total expense 
for wages, $470,077,000, and the average expense for wages, 
120, 138,130. In these 23 industries the expense for wages was 7.92 
per cent of the value of product. 

WAGES IN GLASS AND OTHER INDUSTRIES COMPARED. 



The following table shows the average wages per hour and average 
hours of labor per week in the highest-paid occupation in each of the 
specified industries for the years 1890 and 1903, as reported by United. 
States Commissioner of Labor. 



246 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 94. — Average Hourly Wages and Average Hours of Labor op Employ- 
ees in the Highest-Paid Important and Distinctive Occupation in Each op 
the Specified Industries, 1890 and 1903. 

[Data from Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Labor, 1904.] 



Highest-paid occupation. 



Wages 
>er hour. 



Agricultural implements. 



Blacksmithing and horseshoeing 

Boots and shoes 

Boots and shoes, rubber 

Boxes, paper 

Brick 

Building trades 

Butter and cheese 

Candy 

Carpets 

Carriages and wagons 

Cars, steam railroad 

Clothing, factory product 

Clothing, men's, custom work 

Cooperage 

Cotton goods 

Dyeing, finishing, and printing textiles. . . 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Flour 



Foundry and machine shop 

Fruits and vegetables, canning and pre- 
serving. 

Furniture 



Harness 

Hats, fur 

Hosiery and knit goods 

Iron and steel, bar iron and steel 

Iron and steel, Bessemer converting. 

Iron and steel, blast furnace 

Iron and steel, blooming mills 

Iron and steel, muck bar 

Iron and steel ; open-hearth steel 

Iron and steel, rails 

Leather 

Liquor, distilled 

Liquor, malt 



1903 
1890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1.890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 



1903 
1890 
1903 



1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1.890 
1903 
1890 
1903 



1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 



1903 
1890 
1903 



1903 
1890 
1903 



Molders. iron 

....do 

First hands 

....do 

II orseshoers, fitters 

Horseshoers, forgemen. 

Edge trimmers 

Koodvear stitchers 

Bootmakers 

....do 

Taper cutters 

Scorers 

Mulders, hand 

Kiln burners 

Bricklayers 

do. 



Cheese makers 

....do 

Candy makers 

....do 

Loom fixers 

....do 

Woodworkers 

....do 

Molders, brass 

....do 

Buttonhole makers, machine, 
do. 



Cutters 

....do 

Raisers 

Trussers. 

Spinners, mule. 

do 

Printers 



Pattern makers. 

....do 

Millwrights 

Millers 

Pattern makers. 
do. 



Canners 

Cookers 

Carvers, hand 

Upholsterers 

Pipefitters 

Chargers 

Blowers, window 

.....do 

Cutters 




Curlers. . . 

do... 

Knitters . 

do... 

Rollers. . 

do... 

Melters. . 
Blowers. 
Keepers. 
do... 



Rollers. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 

Melters. 
do. 



Rollers 

do... 

Shavers 

do 

Yeast makers . 

do 

Kettlemen 

do 



. 2944 

.3276 



.3053 
. 3580 
.2616 
.2599 
.2106 
.2*57 
.4316 
.5472 
.16*5 
.1750 
.2257 
.2*77 
. 25*3 
. 2650 
.2402 
.2503 
.2877 
. 3199 
.2797 
. 3056 
.5280 
. 5593 
.2422 
.3478 
.1696 
.21*9 
.4461 
.4614 
.3000 
.3710 
. 2588 
.2774 
.27&3 
.3224 
.1750 
.1787 
.2402 
. 2955 
. 2504 
. 2529 
.8202 
1. 17*8 
. 2598 
.3053 
.4220 
.4082 
.1753 
.2017 



. 1844 
.1940 
. 4555 
.676S 
.3775 
.5409 
.3811 
.4594 
.6067 
.7259 
.2607 
.2190 
. 6182 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



247 



Table 94. — Average Hourly Wages and Average Hours of Labor of Employ- 
ees in the Highest-Paid Important and Distinctive Occupation in Each op 
the Specified Industries, 1890 and 1903 — Concluded. 



Highest-paid occupation. 



Wages 
per hour. 



Hours 

per 
week. 



Lithographing 

Lumber 

Marble and stone work 

Musical instruments, organs 

Musical instrum ents, pianos 

Oil, cottoDseed 

Oil, linseed 

Paints 

Paper and wood pulp 

Petroleum, refining 

Planing mill 

Pottery 

Printing and publishing, book and job. . 

Printing and publishing, newspapers 

Rope and twine 

Shipbuilding 

Silk goods •. 

Slaughtering and meat packing 

Soap 

Stoves 

Street and sewers, contract work 

Street and sewers, municipal work 

Sugar refining 

Tin plate 

Tobacco, cigarettes 

Tobacco, cigars 

Tobacco, plug, fine cut and granulated 

smoking. 
Woolen and worsted goods 



1890 

i9m 

1890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 



19<W 

1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 



1903 
1890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 



1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1S90 
1903 
1890 
1903 
1890 
1903 



Engravers 

do 

Sawvers, band. 

....do 

Carvers 

do. 



Voicers 

....do 

Tone regulators 

Key makers 

Pressers , 

do 

Refiners 

do 

Grinders 

do 

Mac nine tenders 

do 

Coopers 

do 

Carpenters 

do 

Dippers 

do 

Proofreader 

Linotype operators. 
do 



Rope makers 

do 

Spar makers 

Calkers, wood 

Weavers, ribbon 

Loom fixers 

Splitters, cattle 

Side skinners, cattle. 

Mixers 

Boilers 

Molders 

do 

Laborers 

do 

.....do 



do 

Boilers 

.....do 

Assorters 

Tinmen 

Cigarette-machine operators < 

do.« 

Packers 

....do 

Sorters 

Wrappers 

Loom fixers 

....do 



.4302 
.4013 
.4851 
.4454 

.5007 
.4128 
.4146 
. 3359 
. 3667 
.P84 
.1375 
. 2500 
. 2278 
.1794 
. 2067 
.2193 
.2634 
. 2563 
.2818 
. 2318 
.2802 
. 44'5 
.5297 
.3254 
. 4328 
. 5625 
.5277 
.1770 
. 1870 
.3892 
.3797 
. 2765 
.2970 
. 4405 
.4899 
. 1859 
.2444 
.2671 
.3843 
. 1483 
.1926 
. 1809 
.2027 
.2 '84 
. 2523 
. 3333 
.3992 
. 1223 
. 1572 
. 29*9 
.3718 
. 1641 
. 2403 
.2081 
.2452 



48.00 
48.00 
61.88 
GO. 90 
51.54 
47.85 
60.00 
54.00 
57.60 
54.00 
79.71 
84.00 
60.00 
60.00 
59. 21 
57.90 
68.54 
59. 93 
59.20 
54.00 
58.26 
55.17 
43.80 
45. 75 
59. 94 
50.92 
48.00 
47. 75 
60.00 
60.00 
57.60 
50.77 
58.98 

55. 78 
50. 33 
50.40 
55.38 
60.00 
53.52 
53.15 
59.44 
55.85 
55. 63 
50. 50 
65. 12 
67.93 

56. 67 
56. 83 
5725 
57.24 
54.27 
54.57 
59.14 
56.72 
59.45 
58.59 



a Female; all others male. 



This table shows that of the 66 industries and occupations appear- 
ing in the table the highest wages per hour were paid in the glass 
industry, to window glass blowers, who received, in 1903, $1.1738 per 
hour. The next highest wage was paid to rollers in the bar iron and 
steel industry, $0.8331 per hour — a difference of $0.3407, or over 
40 per cent less than the rate paid window-glass blowers. In only 
27 of the 66 occupations were the wages over 35 cents per hour and 
in only 11 of the occupations were they over 50 cents. 



248 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



The following table shows the highest and lowest union wages per 
hour and the corresponding hours of labor per week in distinctive 
occupations in specified industries for cities in the north central divi- 
sion of the United States: 

Table 94. — Range op Union Wages in Distinctive Occupations in Each Speci- 
fied Industry and Hours op Labor per Week in North Central Cities, a 
May, 1915. 

[Data from Bulletin 194 of Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1910.] 





Lowest 


wages. 


Highest wages. 


Industries and occupations. 


Wages 
per hour. 


Hours 
per week. 


Wages 
per hour. 


Hours 
per week. 




Cents. 
35.2 

37! 5 

. 35.3 

37.5 

65.0 
40.0 
50.0 
68.8 
33.3 
60.0 
50.0 
62.5 
59.4 

51.3 
50..0 

65.0 
31.5 
45.0 
28.5 
40.0 
33.3 
35.0 
» 
36.7 
41.7 
50.0 
33.3 
25.0 

50.0 
56.0 
50.0 
55.0 
37.5 
37.5 
37.5 
37.5 


54 

48 
48 
56 
48 

44 
48 
54 
48 
54 
44 
44 
44 
48 

44i 
44 

44 
50 
44 
55 
54 
54 
55 

49 
48 
48 
48 
48 

48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 


Cents. 
56.3 

52.1 

41.7 
51.0 
67.4 

75.0 
65. 
75.0 
71.9 
70.0 
75.0 
75.0 
70.0 
75.0 

62.5 
62.5 

75.0 
46. 5 
62.5 
44.4 
68.8 
40.0 
50.0 

47.9 
50.0 
53.8 
52.1 
35.4 

62.0 
67.0 
55.0 
62.5 
57.5 
61.3 
56.3 
60.0 


54 


Brewing and battling: 

Brewers, first men in cellar, fermenting room, and at kettles. 


48 
48 




48 




48 


Build ng trades: 






44 




44 




44 




44 




44 




44 




44 




44 


Granite and stone: 


44 




44 


Metal trades: 


44 




54 




43 




54 




44 




54 




54 


Printing and publishing, book and job: 


48 




48 




48 




48 




48 


Printing and publishing, newspaper: 


45 




45 




48 




48 




48 




45 




48 




48 







a Includes Chicago, 111., Cincinnati, Ohio, Cleveland, Ohio, Detroit, Mich., Grand Rapids, Mich., Indi- 
anapolis, Ind., Kansas City, Mo., Milwaukee, Wis., Minneapolis, Minn., Omaha, Nebr., Peoria, 111., 
St. Louis, Mo., St. Paul, Minn. 

Of the 36 occupations shown in this table the highest union scale 
of wages for "20, or 55.6 per cent, was 60 cents or over per hour, and 
for 6 of these 20, or 16§ per cent of the total number, it was 75 cents 
per hour. The average hours per week in 15 of the 36 occupations 
was 44 hours and in 15 others 48 hours. 

The following table, prepared from Table 100, shows for selected 
occupations of the glass industry the highest wages per hour, average 
wages per hour, and average hours per week: 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



249 



Table 95.— Highest Wages per Hour. Average Wages per Hour, and Aver- 
age Hours per Week in Selected Occupations in the Glass Industry, 



Group and occupation. 


Highest wages per hour. 


hour. 


Average 

hours per 

week. 


Wind w glass: 




$0. 9031 
.8000 
. 8200 
.0851 

. 5909 
.0020 
.5199 
.9270 

.5859 

.4970 
.4170 

.7000 
.5350 

.5780 
.0980 
.7178 
.'1711 
.4949 
.5919 
.4230 

.5401 
.5399 
.3850 

.5090 
.5189 
.5708 


43.6 






43.5 






55.8 




$1.25 and under SI. 50 

81.00 and under $1.25 

inder $1.5 I 

10.85 ind under *o.90 

$1.00 and under Sl.25 

SI .00 and under SI .25 

S0.S5 and under S0.90 

S0.95and under S1.00 

$0.90 and under $0.95 

SI. 00 and under SI. 25 

$0.85 and under $0.90 

SO. 75 and under S0.89 

$0.80 and under $0.85 

S0.75 and under $0.80 

$0.00 and under $0.65 

$0.00 and under $0.05 


59.0 


Bottles: 


48.0 




46. 3 




45.2 




53.0 


Jars: 


46.1 




46.3 




55.4 


Tabic wa re: 

Bl .wers 


45.2 




44.9 




44.6 




50.0 




40.5 




44.6 




45.3 




44.6 




52.1 


Light ng gjcds and lamp chimneys: 


$0.90 and under 80.95 

S0.75 and under S0.80 

$0.05 and under $0.70 

$0.70 and under $0.75 


49.9 




50.6 




50.8 




45.8 




45 4 




$0.50 and under $0.55 


32.1 







This table shows that in 9 of the occupations, including the 4 
occupations in window glass and 3 of the 4 in bottles, the highest 
Wage per hour was SI and over. In none of the occupations was the 
highest wage less than 50 cents per hour. The highest average wage 
per hour was SO. 9531 for blowers, window glass, and the lowest was 
$0.3850 for gatherers, lighting goods and lamp chimneys. In 10 of 
the 26 occupations the average wage was over 60 cents per hour. 

The range of average hours per week, omitting mold makers, was 
from 43.5 to 59. 

This table also shows that in 19 of the 26 occupations appearing 
in it the wages were higher than 75 cents per hour, the highest union 
wages paid in any of the trades shown in Table 94 preceding. In 
three of them the wages were 100 per cent higher and in two others 
they were 66§ per cent higher. 



250 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 
EMPLOYEES BY SEX AND AGE. 



The number of employees, male and female, over and under 16 
years of age, in 208 factories during the busy season of their last 
business year, not including the office force, appears in the following 
table: 

Table 96. — Number op Male and Female Employees in Factories (Not Office) 
Over 16 and Under 16 Years of Age During the Busy Season. 





Group. 


Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


Establishments making— 


Over 

16. 


Under 
16. 


Over 
16. 


Under 
16. 


Num- 
ber. 


Aver- 
age. 


. 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 


37 
12 
6 

25 
18 
26 
13 

S 
18 
17 

6 
13 


5,793 
2,398 
2,583 
1,256 
4,450 
6,521 

3,' 069 
1,642 
6,197 
S,582 
1,398 
1,960 








5,793 
2,427 
2,583 
1,256 
4,733 
6,913 
8,864 

2, 214 
7,646 
10,408 
1,626 
2,543 


156.6 






29 




202.3 




430.5 










139.6 




85 
64 
290 
54 
79 
407 
221 
76 
62 


194 
328 
295 
242 
440 
981 
1,579 
152 
521 


4 
----- 

4 

53 
61 
26 


189.3 




384.1 


Bottles by hand and machine 


340.9 
259.2 




276.8 


Tableware, blown and pressed 


424.8 
612.2 




271.0 




195.6 






Total 


208 


54,118 


1,338 


4,761 


158 


60,375 


290.3 









This table shows that of the 60,375 employees reported by the 208 
establishments, 54,118, or 89.64 per cent, were males over 16 years 
of age and 4,761, or 7.89 per cent, were females over 16 years of age. 
The number of employees, male and female, under 16 years of age 
was 1,498, or 2.48 per cent, of the total number. The total number 
of females was 4,919, or 8.15 per cent of all the employees. (Census 
statistics for the entire industry are given in Table 5, p. 26.) 

The average number of employees per establishment in all the 
groups was 290.3. Plate glass and tableware had more than the 
other groups, the number being 430.5 and 424.8, respectively. Wire 
and opalescent goods and handmade bottles had fewer than any of 
the others, the figures being 139.6 and 189.3, respectively. Women 
were employed much more extensively in tableware and lighting 
goods than in the other groups. In four of the groups, window 
glass by hand, window glass by machine, plate glass, and wire and 
opalescent goods, no women were employed. 



DAYS WORKED DURING YEAR. 



The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average number 
of days that the factories in each group were operated during their 
last business year and the three previous years, so far as reported by 
the establishments. 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



251 



Table 97. — Number of Days Factories Were Operated During their Last 
Business Year and Average During the Three Previous Years. 



Group 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 



Establishments making 



lish- 

ments 

reported. 



Window glass by hand: 

Last business year 

Average. 3 previous years.. 
Window glass by machine: 

Last business year 

Averace. 3 previous years.. 
Plate glass: 

Last business yeat 

Average. 3 previous years.. 
Wire and opalescent goods: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Bottles by hand: 

Last business year 

Vverage, 3 previous years.. 
by machine: 

Last business year 

Average. 3 previous years.. 
Bottles by hand and machine: 

Last business year 

Average. 3 previous years.. 
Jars: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Tableware, blown: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Tableware, blown and pressed: 

Last business year 

Average. 3 previous years. . 
Lighting goods: 

iness year 

Average. 3 previous years.. 
Lamp chimneys: 

Last business year 

Average, 3 previous years.. 
Miscellaneous articles: 

Last business year 

Average. 3 previous years.. 



Number of days operated. 



Highest. 



345 
345 



Average. 



245.8 
243.6 



275.5 
2S3.3 



269. 8 
302. 1 



259. 2 
263.0 



271.5 
291.5 



261.3 

287.4 



287.0 

307.3 



293.3 
314.0 



299.0 
317.0 



296.0 
282.9 



This table shows that in throo of tho groups, window glass by ma- 
chine, lighting goods, and lamp chimneys, the factories woro oper- 
ated slightly longer during the last business year than was tho aver- 
ago for the three years preceding. In all the other groups the num- 
ber of days operated during the last business year was considerably 
loss than the average for the three } r ears preceding, except in mis- 
cellaneous articles, where the difference was slight. 

Factories making window glass by hand operated a less number of 
days than any of the othor groups, the number for the last year 
being 172.1 and for the three preceding years 192.3 Factories 
making window glass by machine were next with 245.8 and 243.6 
for the respective periods. In all othor groups the number of days 
in operation was much higher than these figures. The group mak- 
ing miscellaneous articleswas highest in the number of days operated, 
the figures for the two periods being 304.1 and 311.9, respectively. 

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN THE INDUSTRY. 



The data in the following table, from the Bureau of the Census, 
show the average number of wage earners in glass factories in the 
United States, the number being given by States and by hours of 
labor per week for the years 1909 and 1914/ 



252 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Table 98. — Average Number op Wage Earners in Establishments, with 
Specified Number op Hours op Labor per Week, by States. 

[Data from the Bureau of the Census.! 



California 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Maryland 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Pennsylvania.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia. . 
All other States 

Total 



1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1903 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 



1914 
1909 
1914 
1909 
1914 
1903 
1914 
1909 



1,084 
640 
3,704 
3,507 
9,390 
9,544 
1,184 
1,052 
2,248 
1,755 
5,784 
5, 651 

3; 114 
10, 997 
10, 159 

1,270 



Average number in establishments where the prevailing hours of 
labor per week were— 



48 and 
under. 



2;,<o; 

25,710 
606 
524 



590 
1,850 
140 
181 
11 



864 
1,007 
344 
369 
784 
1,797 
856 



3,019 
163 



2,315 
1,866 
1,261 
1,145 



48 and 
54. 



856 

100 

1,203 

957 

3,361 

2,109 

937 

482 

448 

102 

3,t02 

2,451 

882 

776 

4,515 

2,279 

156 



7, 187 

4, -103 

343 

405 

3,931 

2, 252 

230 

224 



25 
540 
663 
80 
2,290 
1,978 
107 
389 
35 



918 
420 
700 
2i0 
2,916 
1,726 
258 



2,7,!-! 
1,645 

100 
59 

532 
1,424 

116 

166 



11,394 
8,707 



54 and 
60. 



1,241 
1,575 



1,773 

1,107 

328 



676 
1,903 
1,584 



1,754 

"~ihi 



56 
1,361 

2,276 
1,139 



2,859 

5, 10s 



f.O ■'•ml 
72. 



Over 

72. 



2.062 
3', 405 



This table shows that the number of persons employed in tho 
industry increased from 68,911 in 1909 to 74,502 in 1914. The two 
States in which the greatest numbers were employed, Pennsylvania 
and Ohio, practically stood still during this period. Of the two 
States ranking next in point of numbers, Indiana and West Virginia, 
the former had a small loss, while the latter had a large gain — about 
44 per cent. California and Missouri also had good gains. 

Of the 213 establishments for which cost data were obtained, 132 
furnished pay rolls of 19,092 wage earners employed in their plants, 
18,235 of whom were male and 857 female'. The details are shown 
in the following table: 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



253 



Table 99. Numbeb ov Employees, bi Sex, iv 132 Establishments Reporting 
Wage Data. 



Items. 


Window 
glass. 


Plate 
glass. 


Bottles. 


Jars. 


Table- 
ware. 


lamp 
cl imneys. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Total. 


Number of establish- 
ments report insr— 
Male employees 


30 


3 


4 


7 


8 


7 


9 


103 


Male and female 


15 10 




29 












Total 


30 


3 


43 


7 


23 | 17 | 9 132 






Number of employ- 
ees- 
Male 


,» 


1,049 


6,716 
135 


1,895 


3,063 
398 324 


174 


18,235 

857 


Total 










2,772 


1,049 


6,851 


1,895 


2,964 | 3,387 | 174 19,092 



AVERAGE WORKING HOURS AND EARNINGS. 

In other sections of this report establishments are grouped according 
to the predominence of the article manufactured and the method 
employed in manufacturing. In the treatment of wage data the 
same divisions could not be made without going into much useless 
detail; therefore, two, and in one case three, groups were consoli- 
dated: "Window glass by hand" and "Window glass by machine," 
Groups I and II, were consolidated under "Window glass;" "Bottles 
by hand," "Bottles by machine," and "Bottles by hand and 
machine," Groups V, VI, and VII, under "Bottles;" "Tableware, 
blown," and "Tableware, blown and pressed," Groups IX and X, 
under "Tableware;" "Lighting goods" and "Lamp chimneys," 
Groups XI and XII, under "Lighting goods and lamp chimneys." 
No labor data were obtained from plants making wire and opalescent 
glass. 

The above changes reduce the 13 groups shown in other sections of 
this report to 7 in the section dealing with wages. 

The following table, 100, shows the average full-time hours and 
earnings per week, and average classified rates of wages per hour, by 
occupations, States, and sex. The average rates of wages per hour 
were computed by dividing the actual earnings of each employee 
by the number of hours worked, as taken from the pay roll. The 
a verage classified rate of earnings per hour was ascertained by dividing 
the aggregate earnings per hour of all employees by the total number 
of employees; the average full-time hours per week, by dividing the 
aggregate number of hours that all employees worked by the number 
of employees; and the average full-time earnings per week, by mul- 
tiplying the average full-time hours per week by the average, rate of 
earnings per hour. 



254 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 







8 

69 


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14.03 
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16.04 


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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



255 



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256 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



MS 



Q 





1* 


Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


S35. 81 
42.27 
39.79 
45.53 
50.69 
41.45 

41.99 


34.90 
35.29 
39.35 


§ §1 

< Si | 


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15.42 
14.56 
20.15 
15.25 

15.55 


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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



257 



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258 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 





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260 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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262 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



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Aver- 
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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



263 



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264 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



11 


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WAGES ANH LABOB CONDITIONS. 



265 



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CO 


, 




9 


* 


CM j 


*CM ; 


















- 


- 






a 


"- 




u 


- : 


-11 
















■M '■ '■ 


86 


?. 


DO CC 


r - -.= cm re 


-' 


Ol CM C-l CM.CM — CI re 


?5 


sa 


oc 


x " — L 

— CM CM 2 


el 

II 
2 ■ 


CC! T- 1- re 

— ci CI c 


™ 


— K 


- 


CO CM 


cm ci re re 


o 


■ - = = •-: -T — - X 
'cm "---'" ~ 


B 


clS 


= 


j Wf-uit- 

10 cs 


CM-.0.0 


N. — 


— 


_ „ 


ei 


'O 


hioo-::-:i-. 


s 


~~' 


- 


- CI - cc 


t» 1 


__,„ 


T-. ro — i 


TC 

a,6 


I 


o 


P 


.5 

§1 

~ 7 


■L ~ 




'i 


!= 


_ : 






t 


-i. 


r. 


= 


1 


1 


o 


| 


_i 





1 - 


= 


1 


It 


~z 




i2 '3 


^ 


re 


r £ 





266 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



L 
if 


Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


S21. 15 
19.52 
23.97 
24.64 


s 


14.00 
14.01 
15.00 
17.05 
10.50 
15.13 


S3 


—1 COO 
lO r-'CNl 


m 


ooa 

f^?3c5 


2 m3 

**3 


00(00 


id 


OOOCOOO 

■*HOcid» 

00 00 CD t^ r- 1- 




ooo 

OOIO 




ooo 


sifled rate of wages per hour. 


l^fs 
















































































































































1 

1 
































<£ •§§§•§* 












































8 g§TJ 8 l 1 
























































































g'H^l^i 1 












































! r i|g|§| 
























































































; 1 














































! 


§ 1§I S 1 












































I 


-llls| | 












































1 


,3 3 3'd' ? [ 






^ 


- 1 


































a 


-l§|s| 




























1 

i 










1 






"3 


S c « £ l ° 3 
"* cs 3-s"* o | 




- 1 




rt 


] 


















* 




rt 






- 1 


a 






- 1 




« II 




















-• 


rt 


"" i 


o "3 A '£ 'O t/ ^ 


^H CO 


■ojl 


















CO 




*! 














- 






- 1 




^ 


04 


i 




C4 










o "2 i fe "= » ! rt 


- 1 




m 




CO 


as 






e» 


1 

i 
















! 


^gs-S^f 


^ 






a 


«» 


I-" 




2 


1 
i 


rt 




^ 










pl-| 










CN) 




(M 




- 1 


CO 


1 
i 
















|H»|fM P^ 


O 


t-noeo-* 
o l~ '- ^' > ' r 


/ 


N§m 


8 


CT>C4 .O 




™ 


M W rH C H IN 


3 


ii 


t ~ 


>H i-H rH 


Num- 
ber 
of 

ostal.i- 
lish- 

ments. 

2 
2 
1 


(N 


HWHCS1HH 


s 


HHH 


CO 


^H^H-I 




PUJQ 

o 


11 

i! 
j! 


e 


^ 

l 






O 
&H 




1 
• 


1 


c 

3 


- 
1 


e- 




3 

o 

EH 


11 




1 
1 




c5 

o 

EH 


Is 

'S-2 

3 


> 

1 

1 
1 


ej 
O 



WAGES AND LABOR COXDITInN S. 



267 



z- 


i 

■ 


S 


II 00 


i 

■ - 




7 


a 




\ 




3 


- 


f 




'j 


7 


-- 




= 


> 
1 


p 








■ 


- 




'-'■'-. 


o II oo 

S|| SS 


O 


o 

i 


CO 

s's 


■=- 


s's 


= e 

5:- 


~ 


—. 

5 


« 




- 


i! W" 

- "' 3 £ 


CM 


o 
3 




' 










\ 
























































































!• 
























































1! 






































; 






















II 




























































II 




























































1 




















































4 






II 




















































































\ 

: 






























II 






























: 






















! i 






II 






























: 






















i ': 






II 




















































■ 


! 

i 




1 






























: 










1 










- 


-1! 






















































rt 


~ 


























































- 


- 






















- : 


CN 




























- 


"1 




















-- 


•* 








rt 




















CN 


«j| 




1 
















- : 


^ 1 " 




- 1 






















CM 


CM 


1- 










-< 


- 














rt 


w 


~ 




CM 


CN 




CM w 








« 


























- 


~ II 










.-(CN 


'■-■ 


J ....... 


05 












~ 


-< 


^ 


















l " 




~ 


1 SS^SS^ 


all 


CM 


CM rH CM CM 


'" 






































CNCN 


■* 




















- 5 




CO top 


e ?| 


OS 


S8 


CN 


«is» 


g 


r 




CN 


''- ~f 'z' 


1 


8 


n 




«N 


CN 


CM -)< 

11 


to 


i - - s n « n 

IS CN V CI CN -.3 


rt 




-cn-* 


0= 


1-1 


"11 - 


CN 


rH 


"' 


ci 


I CN CN CM M re CN 

! 


3 




,-,-H -Crf 


■* 


"* 


j 






.. r 


1 

5 




o3 
o 
6h 


> 


1.1 

g i 


: 

2 




o 


S 

a 

8 ei 

" C 


a 

7 


i 
2 


- 


i 


i 


(. 


o 
6h 


I i 
X 


g - 




- c 


> 




! 




1 


1 

He 
g 


i 



268 



THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 



Number of employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour. week"' 


Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


5& 


t- to lO 


CO 
CO 


? 


S3 


o 


COCN 


CO 


S5 


c 


01 

c 




s 




*-~zz : 


OCOO 
"3 tC to 


g 


coo 

CD* 


CO 


oocooc 

MICH 


CO 
CO 


HOI 










































■ a g 


















































































-lsl| | : 














o, 


CN 






















~ o 5 3 ■§ S , '; 














- 1 


"- 1 
























=> g 3 •§ °> -g 


1 










CO^ 


00 
























sgiisg : i 












00 CN 


r 


CO 






CO 














S3" o 












^^ 


CN 


- 






"- 1 












R !§IN : 












OCO 


■- 


CO 






CO 






1 




© rj fl 0} g PS 1 

1 §3^' o | : 


1 

1 










COO, 


3 






















Sli| E | ; 












OH 


- 


« 






<* 






1 

1 


1! 


g|g|g| 










Oh 


3 


o. 


eo 


" 






1 

1 




slilsi . | 












■*h 


w 


- 








1! 


s!§|sf | ! 








! : 


* 




* 




a* 


3 










1 




-I§l-I ; 












^ 




t " 




O5U0 


S 












-li-l-r i 




c* 




CN 


2 




2 




8 rt 


S 
















-• 




rt 


00 




X 




t-co 


o 


00 


I 2 ' 


■slilai | " 


CO CO 




2 


OS 




c. 




CM 




CN 


'■& 


l.j 


^ 1 §*§™-g 




-< 




- 1 


»o 




3 




rt 




^ 


COCN 1 00 


^1§I-1 




§ m 


en 


I 

1 




1 : 
1 i 












S3 


«i 




^lU^z \ 












oo 




00 












|r 


a| 




■Z~'-z • 






































i 




Aver- 
age 
rate 
of 

earn- 
ings 
per 

hour. 


1 

si 


cot- 00 


? 


S8 


'■- 

00 


ill 


05 


1 mo 


"1 


Num- 
ber 
of 
em- 
ploy- 
ees. 


3 


CO CO CO 


5S 


-- 


2SS 


02 


00 H 

cS^ 


1 


Num- 
ber 
of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


CO 


HCOH 


>n 


COrH 


* 


rt«H 


* 


1 -ai cn 


CO 




5 
o 2 

o 


..1 


p 

Ph 


r 
> 




= 

> 





3 

o 


§1 

K 

1 5 

-CPh 
1 


hi 
> 


j 


o 

CH 


1% 


- 


> 




O 


i! 

— > 

if 

= — 

5 






1 

c 

Eh 





WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 



269 



5 /- 
22= - 3 38 


1 


- 
- - 


1 ° 


s 

1 - 


s 


SB Bfl 


s 


- -2 5. a 

- j - ri = 


fi 


- — 


S| 


! 




= e 




-", 


c e 


S = 

35 


= r- = | i- C o || OO 


il 










i 
















i 










ill M ' 


i 




[ - : 




1 ill 








1 




il M 










II 


III 


III 






II 




;|| i ; 


s 






1 


1 


Ml 






1 III 


III 




i! 


II N '• 


11 M 










Ml 








III 






I"! 


10 1 ! ! 








1 1 










1 M 


III 






"I 


1 i! 








1 


1 


Ml 






II II 


ill 






1 

I 




ill : ! 








I 1 




M 






M 


II 




i: 


- - 




i 




| i 








1 ii 


II 






II 




1: 


III 






1 M 


III 






1 


Ml M 


- - 






1 i 


III 






1 M 


III 






1! 




- 




1 1 


ill- 


III 






II II 


■1 




i! 


ill 




il 










1 i 










II II 


ill 






1 


- 


-i 












Ill 
111 


III 


■ l 




[ ii 


III 






II em 


= 1 !! 












II M 


;|| 




Ill 


ill - 


a l 11 


II 1 








1 = = 


in 




II 


II s " 


2 ll ; ; 


• e-i 






i i 


i j 






1 M 


= 11 






11 - 




- 




! ■* 


II* 


c* : 


CO | 




l"l 


ii 


s j j 


a| s| -» 


- 1 j ; 


CO 




« 


\ n 


o» ' 


CN 


eo 


1 " = 


"i 




5 ; 


SB 


co 




co 


1 2 


<3)r 


■ o> 


s = 


co 1 os 


1 *l 


ii 


|HK 


1 ^ 


-I 


I 




! t- 


OS 


to 




1 !" 


ii 




ill 11 




il ii 




o> oo 












1 M 


il 


-N *1 i 


;i 




a I cc © co 


-. - 


I 3 


is 


a> co co 
o o c 


us 

S3S 


CJ II 

3 | 


B«- B s 3S 


.. 




5 Cv 


O! U! 


1 


" s 


O100 

CO .1 


«5 * ? 


a- 


1 


— k -< a -j nn 


" 




1 


-i co 


- 


■» ^ co 


Nh 


CO 


nil 


i §.§ i| 
> |>| j g|| _ 

1 »g ^g« o lis " 


! J 


9 5 


I 

ji; 


a o 


"3 "3 




g's 

If 


il 
ill 


e- 



270 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



1* 


Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


o cc 

■fli lO 

as 


OlO 

cooo 


r5 


c 


3 o 

CO CO 


s 


§8 


00 

00 


» 




S 03 £ o o 

3*1 Kg 


or- 

oo>-4 


W 


o o o 

o o o 
co co co 


or- 

Tt<C» 


r-I 


j 


i 

A 
ft 

1 
o 

1 
1 

a 

3 

o 
1 

■s 

1 


1*4? 






























8gg 1 

as ^ O ] 






























































^llll 




















- 




4 






8 fg^lsi 




















































































sl^ai 
































-i a ;i^i | 




























































<°g3-§^t5 






























^gs^ts 1 






























'° 3 S-*" 5 o 
















































1 

1 
















1 
































^ 


-* 




















slii?« ! 


rt 


-s 


3 


N 
















slSIM [ 






CO 


co 


CM 


^ 
















«§33«t3 | 


CN 


rt <N 


CO 


- -. « 




rt 


^ 








°m^ : N " 


rtrH 


CN 


co co ; 


gs 


i 


I CO 


-lll°l 


- 
















CM 


cc 


1 M 




egos 


















<* 


TT 


1 ** 


Aver- 
age 
rate 
of 
earn- 
ings 
per 
hour. 


O 00 


«!0 


to 


1 9 R 


11 


so 

8 


00 


Num- 
ber 
of 

em- 
ploy- 
ees. 


CN lO 


"S3 


s 




gg 


o 




Num- 
ber 
of 
estab- 
lish- 
ments. 

1 


-UN 


CO 


CO CS CO 




"3 


CO 




-a 

§ 

.2-2 

ftffi 

1 

o 


5 






:- 

1 

- 




1 
13 


II 




1 


C3 

I 

II 

o 


I 

a 
1 
1 = 

oC 

.3 






3 

o 

6H 


1 

11 





WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



273 



B 

-• 

M 


i 


: 


- 




ri « 


■- 


— = 

-I :: 


E5S 




L0.41 

is. eo 


3 




71 


[5 £2 


a 




5>^s 


s 

■rl 




3 tO tc 
=' 00 -^ 

- 


•- 


r « s 

i 335 


:-: 


- - - - 


CO C t- i- :t 

3|| 333S 




o 


co ooa « 

= = = :: 


OS O ." ■- r- 


-- 
- 


































































































































































































































- 


- 1 




























































II 




















: 






rtrt 


(M 






















1 
































:- :'. 


o II 
















rt .H 


11 




T ' j 


r ' 
























rtuj 


o 
















CO j 


11 




CO • 


C-l 
























<«a> 


sll 
















t^ Tfl 


11 




f-CO 


C6 






















COr-O 


TO 1 




- 1 : 


rt 








•-- — 


11 


Hoce 


= 






















TO-< <~- 


TO I 




rt i 


- 








WW 


11 




a*- 


S 
























(M00 


g || 




1--^ 


00 


- 1 






too, 


all 


^^CO 


F, 




















TfHOOO 


TO 




OTO 


o> 






^^^ 


O HD IO OJ 


« 




















CO 


ss 


8 I 


CO 00 00 


00 
TO 








X 7 1 


to || rt, °u5S 


00 
























3g 


TO J 


^85 


— 


-< 


M «g.H 


11 


WO0N 


O 
























COTO 


"° l "" 




o 






■* cs o 


11 


-HC0 IO 


cc 
























^ i 


i-l «5 SO >-c g 


5 






r-f#lH 


11 






rt 


^ 








** 


rt 




^ : 


- 












to-*oio 


u 








TOi-1 


11 














M - 


■* 




OS ' 


o> 












I 


"=§2 


00 








-< : 


^ l 














CO-* IO 


>-. 




to ' 


to 












1! 


'-"*"-' 


- 






























,*_ 


•'. 


CO CO CO 


■o 












1 






























































1 




































3«3 


OS 


SgH 


8 
co 


3 T— ■£ 

•a o to o 


O TO TO 1" TO 


K 




C5OC0 O 


TO 


§|fe| 


00 || 


IN 00 00 


oo 


NO« 


o> 


*"" o§ 


r^ 1 oioiooo 

TO TOr-l 




CO 


rt TOO 


35 
CO 


N S§3 


I 


i-i roeo 


f~ 


i-IU5rt 


t~ 


l-H lH "J t- 


«5 i-li-Hi-IOS 


CO 


1-1 


^H i-l O! O 


" 


^H-HOO 


00 || 


'it 

S3 

- 


- 

- 


-•> 


o 
Eh 


C | 

si 


' 


' - 


£ 


- 


5 

: 

c 


; 




c 

E- 


e 

a 


c 


i 


'E 


o 
E-i 


S 

11 
1° 

o 

s 


if 

■=- 

r 

S 


j 


•- 

r 
- 


= 

-> 

| 


e 




- 


I 

~- 

C 




.5 


tH 





272 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 








Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


°. 


^S 


"• 


1 - 


S 
o 


1 a, 

\9 


to o a-. 


1 


9 




38S 

■o to 


to 




|i| 1 




3 


OS 1 o 


to to-* 

4t4 


3 


3 


3^3 


IN 




Number of employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour. 


I*!? 












| j 










• 












go-; : 

6© * O 






1 : 

1 : 






li 


























































































sllils | 












1! 






















%«J%%£ ! ! 






l! 






| : 

I ': 






















»lil§i ! 












I : 
























- 1 : 


- 




























^ S3 a-o 00 o 


- ; 


- 




"1" 
























co : 


co 




IN 


(M 






















*»« d feo tn • 




<M 


<M 


rt *[" 
























- : 


^ 




I 




co-h 


* 


■* 












%!£%%% \ 








1 




1 : 


^CO ; 


"* 


"* 












s lil s l 1 i 










1-1 


*■< 


-HIS*. 


o 


rt 


























^H t^ Ol 


o 














^lil-l 


















° 


- 














slilsi 


















NH 


CO 














■olios'"" 1 : 




































«1M«* 1 I 
















- 1 : 


- 

1 
















s1i3ȣ | I 






















Ol 




'' 






allSN | j 






















2co» 


1 






51-1 | j 






















■°ii 


S 




Aver- 
age 
rate 
of 

earn- 
ings 
per 

hour. 




coao 


s 


So 


to 


ill 


1 


<m 


Sl§ 


s 




aSo a j2 s- 


OIM 


' 


-H tO 


*~ 


"Srt 


00 


<35 




$ 




s ls 




Num- 
ber 
of 

estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


— 


CO -I 


■* 


rH w 


(N 


,--f co 


/: 


^ 


rHI>--tf 


- 






t3 

C3 

o o 

'■§ * 

c 


c 

.. c 
w d 

IS 
c 


1 

t i 




"3 

o 


..J 

i§ 

"(1 

o 

o 


•> 


o 


Jl 

O 

c 


• 

11 


i 
- 


o 


.. d 

if 
|| 

o 

o 


= 

| C 

S3 


_et 

_ 
f 


.- 







WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



273 





! 


III 




00 3 




; - 

— r 


— 1 £ 

- r 


S 1 s 

II - s - - 


•5 


II SS 
J 32 


- 


Ii 


1 '_- 


n ie i 


- -i 


I 


■-■- 




II aoao 

1 ** 


s 


S3 


■O O 

Eg 3 


J 


? 3 2 


5 co -r 




P» | oco 


3 8 








1 = = 




ii 




ii 




: 














II ii 


















II ii 


















II ii 








I 


1 M 








II ii 


















1 •• 










II 




II ii 




1 ii 


















II ii 


1 1 






1 


II !! 




ii 




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1 


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1 


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1 


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1 Ii 








1 • 


ii 


























1 Ii 








1 ' 


1 ii 


























II II 






! 

i : 


1 


1 ii 


























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1 ii 


























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1 ii 


























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ii 














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a ira 








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1 rt i 


: ,H 










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3 "* 




~' 




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9 N 


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I :„ 


11 ir 


* 1* 


:- = 


CM 




I-! 


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<i -* 


CO 


CM 




jco 


11 Ii" 


* ■* 


«5§'-= 


3 


11 


- 






! | ' - ■« 


5 * 








LO CO 


|ei 


11 n 


t> iO 


"3 


= 


-1- 


CO 


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rt 


II " 3C 


9 3 


eq 


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i- 


11 r 


1 CO 


:« 


CO 


-l-i 


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■'S 


§! 




















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ip 


3 


1 111 


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si 


B IS! 


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S 9 S P 3 99 


OS M C 1 


1 ll 


«°gg 


- 


coll «e« 


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1 *«r 
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s s 


30 <M CO lO -* || >-l CM 


co ei^r 


QC 


— -^ — 


— 




f 


^ 


M 


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1 -r — cs c^ co || hw 


CO -HCO- 


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1 


31 




11 




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a 


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gas! e »a s£.^ h %~? h fe^g.^ h bIIISI^ ^ «£.- f- ^si 
3 11 I 1 5 I S I I i t 

102511°— 3 7 18 



274 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Hi 

a 

w . 

51 



tf ft 



Full-time 
week. 


Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


lO 11 


co cr 


1 


cico 


- 
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tooc 

CNCN 


o 

S3 


II rt ° 

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CO 
1 * 


111 






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o da: 


OS 


too 


00 OCN 
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rH || ©CO 


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Number of employees earning each classified rate of wages per hour. 


!*& 1 1 M 












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1 '''■ 




51H 1 HI i 












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1 : 




^AsS ' ill i-i 












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111 


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sills* | JM 












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s'liisi | i|| ; 












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sliiM 1 III 1 












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II 






"1MM I i|| i 












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1 






8-|||S| II | 








CO 


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1 






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1 "" 


11 ! 




II 


1! 


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>« "2 a »<= » i II ; 








COtJh 


11 




II 


II 


o^S,» j ill i 






-H 00 cc 


11 ! 




II 






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11 11 


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coc 


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COr- 


-II 


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Ic- 


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3 


ill 




1 


Aver- 
age 
rate 
of 

earn- 
ings 
per 

hour. 


Id 

8 


tor- 


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on a 

25 


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1 ^. ^ 


Num- 
ber 
of 
em- 
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co 


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CI 


t~CC 


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1 gr 


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Num- 
ber 
of 
estab- 
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rt 


i-HC 


J 50 


■*e» 


5 t~ || COTt 


c 


COC 






J! 

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1 

11 

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MfL, 


IP 

1 


3 : 

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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



275 



1-- 


- 


" 


" 






-> 


/. 


uj e 


ts 










s 


o 
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oc 


EN 


1 °- 


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= 
3 


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f - :-. - < 


SS |{ S33 


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CM 












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CO 


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N 




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rtOOOJ 


f. 


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coco 


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■Hrt ; 




cm '• 




co oo 


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cm to 


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eo 


CM 


CO 
















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to 


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03 



-276 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



-< 

o 

« 5 

w.B 

-< SB 




$16. 50 

16.38 
14.04 

12. 00 

13. 50 


c 


CD '-1 


33 










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ll : : 






II ii 
























































































n 


CO • 






j CNCS 


i- 




1 hW, 






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SO. 300 

.273 
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.200 
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53 3 ■'£ 


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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



27T 






- - =: ■; = = 



s|| ssssslsj ssss|si{| sssssss 



g =j g 5 

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e = = * ====== « 

28 5:^ s ssaa 



oil ooc t~ oo •* I o II oeooc 
■5 II S •22 2 2 2 sj«2 - 

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3 - i - X = ■ 

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ill i 11 

a = -;= = ^ > ~ i: E r ~ = o o : ; 5 i = : " => : ./ =: 2 S ~ ° fe > c ~ = - *. - 



278 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 





Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 


$25. 32 
29.32 


24. SS 
20. 69 
24. 82 


« 




Id 


10.00 
7.11 
8. 05 

8.2S 
9.02 
7. 38 


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cq^3 £ t*g 




































































































































g|g|g| 








































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rH CO CO 




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Aver- 
age 
rate 
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lO -#iO 


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CD --H lO r-- --M CD 

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Num- 
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a rt 


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Num- 
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estab- 
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rH tH 


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WAGES AXI) LABOR CONDITIONS. 



279 






■ 



338 g|| Sll 8S S 



II Hi S 



S|| 8 5 £ 
3 a s 



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coo 



t§ ss 



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Sal 



?;S : 



> -3 



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h ga flail ^ Is sjag *< gj waa e °s ga| e laiaea 
p a B i a a as a s 






280 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



fa 


■< * ©.s 


3g 


? ® 


-* co oi 

IOCN CO 


20.04 
21.91 
25.02 

32.07 


13.20 
16.69 
10.34 
12.09 

12.27 


! 8 S? 




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5 © 1 O CO © © 


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Aver- 
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rate 
of 

earn- 
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per 

hour. 


£ ' 


ll lg 


Cl 






§§§82 


s 


i 1 




Num- 

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of 

em- 
ploy 


O w 


i-H COCO 


■■-■ 


-Si^rO 


3 © 
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CO«0 1<CO 


3 


© lO 


Num- 
ber 
of 

estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


r-ITH 




tN 


i-l <MC 




HOrHCl 


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T3 

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l'd 

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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



281 



is £3 J] a ss|d sag - ---- 



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err 

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r» <= © © w 

as s - - 



oo -r ©on — 

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sg rtN a 



r-r- 



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gliSlI S §1,3 ^ ts i££ e sss| s 









s §. 



282 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 





i ^ 

1 


^S'l.n 


S3S 


m 22 


20.35 

22.83 


r 

CO 


oo-*od 


LO 02 


o 


o^n 


5 








o o 


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1 «s 




-- 


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1 £88 


oo II o 

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CO(NOt~ 

OU5U5 10 


£§ 




1 

ft 

1 

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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



288 





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284 



THE GLASS INDUSTKV 



•< o 






I* 

a 

PC, 


Aver- 
age 
earn- 
ings. 






■ON U5 O O 
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its d oo us 




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3 

o 

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l*fe 










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$1. 25 
and 
un- 
der 

$1.50. 








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c3 3T3 cj | 








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s|||s| 










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::'-'■: 




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"* *~ §? 3 


Aver- 
age 
rate 
of 

earn- 
ings 
per 

hour. 


§ 1 2 ! 


Ij'ssi's 


-f t- CO •o 




Num- 
ber 
of 
estab- 
lish- 
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rt CN rt rH 




T3 
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o 




z -Z. 

> — 

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Pennsylvania 

Total 

Selectors: 

West Virginia 


1 





aid cc 


5. 65 

7.08 

6.54 




oc 


53.8 

53.3 
59.0 

56.9 








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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



285 



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286 



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WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



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IS II 



288 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

Practically all skilled labor is on the piece-rate basis; all other on 
the time basis. 

The average rate of earnings of male employees ranged from under 
10 cents per hour, in bottle and tableware plants, to SI. 50 and over 
per hour in window-glass plants, and the average rate for female em- 
ployees from under 10 cents per hour to between 40 and 45 cents per 
hour. 

The foregoing table gives wage data for 2,772 male workers in 30 
establishments producing window glass, and shows that none of the 
workers received an hourly wage of 75 cents and over except blowers, 
flatteners, gatherers, and cutters, who averaged, respectively, 96.3, 
82.2, 80.6, and 68.5 cents per hour. The average full-time weekly 
hours varied from 43.5 for gatherers to 84 for firemen and watchmen. 

Wage data for 1,049 male workers in three establishments making 
plate glass show that none of the workers received an hourly wage 
of 40 cents and over except pot makers, five of whom received be- 
tween 40 and 45 cents. The average for all was 34.6 cents. The aver- 
age full-time weekly hours varied from 60 to 72. 

In 43 establishments making bottles wage data for 6,716 male 
workers show that none of the workers received an hourly wage of 
75 cents and over except stopper grinders, machine operators, blowers, 
and gatherers, who averaged 92.7, 59.8, 60.2, and 52 cents, respec- 
tively. The average full-time weekly hours varied from 45.2 for gath- 
erers to 81.6 for teasers. 

Among the 1,895 male workers in seven establishments making jars 
none received an hourly wage of 45 cents and over except machine 
operators, gatherers, and mold makers, who averaged 58.6, 49.7, and 
41.7 cents, respectively. The average full-time weekly hours varied 
from 46.1 for machine operators to 81.1 for watchmen. 

Data for 2,566 male workers in 23 establishments making table- 
ware show that none of the workers received an hourly wage of 65 
cents and over except handlers, foot casters, blowers, pressers, fin- 
ishers, and gatherers, who averaged 71.8, 67.1, 61, 57.8, 53.5, and 
39.2 cents, respectively. The average full-time weekly hours varied 
from 44.6 for blockers, pressers, foot casters, and foot gatherers to 
84 for firemen. 

In 17 establishments making lighting goods and lamp chimneys 
wage data for 3,063 male workers show that none of the workers 
received an hourly wage of 70 cents and over except blowers, pressers, 
and blockers, who averaged 54.6, 54, and 50.9 cents, respectively. 
The average full-time weekly hours varied from 45.4 for finishers to 
75.1 for engineers. 

In nine establishments making miscellaneous articles of glass wage 
data for 1 74 male workers show that the hourly wage ranged from 
15 and under 20 cents to 85 and under 90 cents. The average full- 
time weekly hours varied from 48 to 84. 

Wage data are included for 857 female workers employed in four 
establishments making bottles, 15 making tableware, and 10 making 
lighting goods and lamp chimneys. The hourly wages ranged from 
under 10 cents in each of the groups to as high as 40 and under 45 
cents for cutters in establishments making tableware. The average 
full-time weekly hours varied from 49.6 for leer women to 60 for 
selectors and packers, in bottle plants; 50 for washers to 59.3 for 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 289 

etchers, plate, in tableware plants; and 51.4 for decorators to 59 for 
chain girls in lighting gooda and lamp chimney plants. 

While data regarding the employmenl of female labor were ob- 
tained from only establishments making* bottles tableware, lighting 
good<. and lamp chimneys, Table 96, page 250, shows thai females 
were employed also in establishments making window glass by ma- 
chine and those making jars. Female labor in the glass industry is 
employed chiefly in finishing and decorating occupations and' in 
packing the ware. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS. 

Boy labor.— In order to describe fully the occupations of "boy 
labor." it would be necessary to enter into the details of the various 
processes of glass making, but as these have already been treated in 
Chapter [, no attempl will be made in this chapter to relate, except 
in a general way, the connection of boy labor with the different occu- 
pation-. It should be understood that labor referred to as boy labor 
in the glass industry is not always performed by boys, but is the 
work done by a helper irrespective of age, and in but few of the 
occupations requires any degree of skill in its performance; in the 
main, however, boys are employed. Boy labor in the following pages 
may therefore be considered as unskilled labor, including a small 
amount of semiskilled labor. Most of the boys are employed in the 
"shops. - ' From this it will be understood that the work done by 
boy labor is by no means uniform, but in many cases the difference 
is slight and unimportant in so far as it concerns the general character 
of the work. 

Not much boy labor is employed in window-glass factories, and 
that which is made use of is engaged in carrying cylinders of glass 
out of the shop and in assisting the flattener. These are called roller 
boys x and shove boys. 

Next to lighting-goods and lamp-chimney manufacture, more boy 
labor is employed in the manufacture of bottles than in any other 
branch of the glass industry, and the workers, variously termed mold 
boys, mold chargers, mold holders, machine boys, stickers-up, 
cleaning-off boys, takers-off, takers-out, turners-out, tending boys, 
transfer boys, and carrying-in boys, are engaged principally in at- 
tending molds, by opening and closing them as required, cleaning 
the blowpipes after using, carrying the ware from the blower to the 
finisher, and from the finisher to the leer and elsewhere in the shop, 
and in assisting the finisher. 

More boy labor was employed in factories making lighting goods 
and lamp chimneys than in any other branch of the glass industry. 
In the 12 plants reporting, boy labor was referred to under 18 differ- 
ent names, according to the nature of the operation performed. Al- 
though the work doneextcndcd to all parts of the plant, and differed 
considerably in some cases, the greater number of the workers were 
engaged in handling ware between blower and finisher and finisher 
and leer. These workers were variously termed punty boys, ball 
boys, machine boys, mold holders, turning-out boys, carry-in boys, 
carry-over boys, passing-along boys, cracking-off boys, stickers-up, 
102511°— 17 19 



290 THE GLASS INDUSTBY. 

cleaners-off, finishers, transfer boys, shade boys, warming-in boys, 
section boys, leer-room boys, and gussers. 

Common labor. — Wage earners shown in the tables as "Labor, com- 
mon," are men doing a variety of work which requires no particular 
skill, previous knowledge, or training. Under this head are grouped 
furnace cleaners, leer oilers, pot-wagon men, rope pullers, rough- 
plate men, sand wheelers, blacksmith helpers, floor sweepers, table 
cleaners, trampers, washers, tar men, carriers-away, clay trans- 
formers, coal men, and yard men. 

Other consolidations. — For the purpose of avoiding useless detail, 
occupations of practically the same kind but bearing different names 
were grouped under general heads in the wage table. The occupa- 
tions so grouped are given in the following list, the first name in each 
instance indicating the name of the occupation for the group: 

Blowers, tube drawers. 

Box makers, crate makers, box shapers. 

Decorators, painters. 

Drillers, holers. 

Engineers, grinder engineers, polish engineers, sand hoist engineers. 

Finishers, polisher finishers. 

Gas makers, gas producers, producer men. 

Gatherers, ball makers, bulb gatherers. 

Grinders, chippers. 

Hookmen, takers down. 

Leermen, leer firemen, leer tenders, takers off leer. 

Machine operators, blowers (machine). 

Packers, packers and sorters, tubers. 

Pot tenders, pot drainers. 

Pressers, side-lever pressmen, lid pressers, stopper presser. 

Tablemen, first men, second men. 

Furnace chargers, shearers, fillers, fillers-in, fillers and toppers. 

Teamsters, drivers. 

Warehousemen, transfer glass men. 

WINDOW GLASS. 

ADVANTAGES OF LOCATION. 

As regards the advantage or disadvantage of one locality over 
another with respect to labor, manufacturers were of the opinion 
that in normal times there was none. The union controls the number 
of skilled men available, which number is sufficient in normal times. 
This labor must be emploj^ed and is always available. It makes 
little difference where the factory is located; labor will come where 
it is needed. Of course, surroundings and other conditions have an 
influence. Labor naturally prefers to live in good surroundings, and 
factories located where this feature is prominent have an advantage. 
On the other hand, if such advantages mean a burden in the living 
cost, labor very frequently prefers to forego them if it is thereby 
enabled to live more economically. Thus, a large town, though it 
may be attractive for many reasons, may not be chosen as a place 
in which to seek employment, on account of the living cost. 

Some manufacturers said they preferred to operate in a neighbor- 
hood in which there were other factories, because there was usually 
a larger supply of floating labor available. Other manufacturers 
said they preferred to be located at a distance from any other glass 
plant, because labor has a tendency to change working places in an 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 291 

attempt to better its condition; and if one plant has certain advan- 
tages which another plant has not, then the best class of Labor will 
naturally gravitate to the better plant. 

WAGES AM) WAGE SCALES. 

The skilled workers in hand window-glass factories earn more 
during the time they are employed than the skilled labor in other 
branches of glass manufacturing. In comparatively few occupations 

in other industries is the amount earned per day or week so large, 
but it should be borne in mind that in hand glass factories the period 
of work during the year rarely exceeds seven months, and is often 
less. During; this period, however, the men in the four skilled occu- 
pations — blowing, cutting, flattening, and gathering, particularly in 
the first three occupations — make exceptionally high wages. 

Employees in these four occupations compose the membership of 
the National Window Glass Workers, an organization which has been 
very effective in advancing the interests of its members, and whose 
!i has been sufficient to maintain a high scale of wages for the 
hand operatives, in spite of the effect produced by the introduction 
and use of machines, which now make 60 per cent of the production. 
The hand blower and the gatherer are entirely eliminated in the 
machine window-glass plant, and when wage reductions have been 
made these two occupations have suffered more than the cutters and 
flatteners, which occupations are common to both hand and machine 
plants. 

The following, from a bulletin of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
entitled "Union Scale of Wages and Hours of Labor" (1915), bears 
upon this matter: 

The National Window Glass Workers have had wage-scale agreements with their 
employers since 1879. Agreements exist with practically all the establishments 
except* those blowing window glass by machine processes. Beginning with 1909, 
competition with the machine made serious inroads upon the scale. In the first col- 
umn of the table below (Sept. 1, 1908, to Feb. 27, 1909) is shown the rate for blowing 
single-strength glass by "brackets," as that rate had existed for some years. By 
"brackets" is meant glass cut to sizes within certain ranges. The blower aims to so 
blow a cylinder that it will cut the largest possible sizes, since the larger the sizes the 
higher the rate per 100 feet of glass. The cutters duty is to cut to the largest sizes 
the defects in the sheets will permit. In 1908 the old bracket classification existed; 
that is, the first bracket (single-strength glass), any size from 8 by 10 to 10 by 15 inches, 
contained the smaller sheets and paid the lowest price, 36 cents per 100 feet. The 
second bracket, 10 by 16 inches to 16 by 24 inches, paid 46 cents; and so on to the high- 
est designated sizes in the last bracket, 24 by 37 inches to 26 by 40 inches, which paid 
86 cents; all larger sizes left unspecified and paid $1 per box of 100 feet. 

Up to this time, 1908, the commercial qualities A and B had not been written into 
the workmen's scale. Sheets of double-strength glass not considered salable by the 
cutter were set aside as "grinders," i. e., to be ground or "frosted" and sold when 
semiopaque glass could be utilized. 

The upheaval in the industry in 1909, caused principally, though perhaps not 
entirely, by the uncertainty as to the effect of machine-made glass upon the market, 
resulted in a complete recast of the scale. All the landmarks of the trade were lost. 
The commercial qualities of market glass known as A and B were passed on the work- 
men and read into his wage scale. The brackets were abolished for single-strength 
glass and a flat rate paid per 100 feet of blown glass, regardless of sizes into which it 
could be cut. The rate for single-strength A was 42 cents and for B 40 cents. In the 
double-strength scale two brackets were permitted to remain, but these were made 
to cover a much wider range of sizes than formerly, as will be noted from the table 
presented. This scale was made effective February 27, 1909; that is to say, in the 
middle of a " fire " or working year. 



292 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

At the beginning of the next "fire" a new scale, effective September 1, 1909, par- 
tially restored the brackets, at least revived the principle of bracket payment. In 
this scale the two lowest brackets of the 1908 scale were combined to make the small 
bracket, i. e., 6 by 8 to 16 by 24; the old third bracket was made to read 16 by 25 to 
24 by 36, which was an entirely new classification; the old fourth and fifth brackets 
with "all above " were combined into a new third bracket. 

The next scale, effective October 15, 1910, revised the brackets, increased the rates 
on specified bracket sizes, and restored the "all above" principle. It secured $1 
per 100 feet for "all above" bracket sizes in the B quality, which was the price of 
"all above" in the 190S and prior scales. This was practically as good a scale for the 
workmen as obtained in 1908. It did not, however, continue during the working 
year or "fire"; a new midyear agreement, being effective January 24, 1911, went 
back to the bracket conditions and piece rates established by the scale effective 
September 1, 1909, and that scale remained unchanged by subsequent agreements 
up to October 27, 1913. This last-mentioned agreement entirely revised the brackets, 
elaborated them beyond anything theretofore obtaining in the industry, and increased 
the piece rates somewhat, but not enough to equal the rates in 1908. The scale of 
October 27, 1913, was renewed in 1914 and is the present scale. 

The period covered by the tables here presented represents the most disturbed 
and turbulent era in the wage-scale history of the industry in the United States, 1908 
marking the last year of the old steady rates, 1909 the beginning of the disturbance 
of rates, and 1913 and since, the apparent settling down to a new basis. 

"While this analysis has dealt more directly with the first table showing rates for 
blowing single-strength glass, it has, it is believed, given a sufficiently clear explana- 
tion to enable readers to follow the table of rates for double-strength blowing. 

Single-strength glass means glass that measures about 13 lights to the inch in thick- 
ness and weighs 100 pounds to the box of 100 square feet. 

Double-strength measures 8 lights to the inch and weighs about 130 pounds per 100 
square feet. 

Single and double strengths were the only weights blown in the United States up 
to a few years ago, when the extended use of lightweight plate glass made it imperative 
for window-glass establishments to produce a thicker glass to hold the building trade. 
Quite recently, therefore, triple-strength, or glass weighing 32 ounces to the square 
foot, is being generally made; and occasionally much heavier than triple is blown, 
the scale providing for glass weighing 39 ounces, 42 ounces, and even 52 ounces to 
the square foot. A 29-ounce glass, just between doable and triple strength, has also 
been provided for in the scale. This glass runs seven lights to the inch. 

The table, referred to above, has been brought up to date and with 

additions is as follows : 



WAGES AXD LABOR CONDITIONS. 



293 



Table 101. — Piece Rates for Blowers per Box of 100 Square Feet for 
Making Window Glass by Hand, Sept. I, L908, to May 29, 1917, by 
Grades 



1 '.rackets. 


Sept. i 

Feb.27 

1909. 


1909, to 
1909. 


1909, to 
May l, 
1910. 


Oct. 15 

1910, to 

Jan. 23. 

1911. 


Jan. 24, 
1911, to 
Aup. 31, 

U'll. 




A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. B. 


A. 


B. 


SINGLE STRENGTH. 


50.36 
.46 
.66 


$0.42 
.42 
.42 


M'. in 
. in 
. pi 


10.44 

.44 


$0.36 
.36 






.44 


$0. 36 


10 by 16 in 16 by 21 






.36 










16 by 25 to 24 by 36 


.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 


.46 
.54 
.54 
.54 






.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 


.46 


24bv3l to -'! by 36 . 


.78 

.S6 
1.00 


.42 

.42 
.42 


.40 
.40 
.40 






.54 








.54 








.54 


6 by S to u by 20 


$0.45 

.77 
.96 
1.20 

Too' 

1.15 

1.40 
1.75 


SO. 38 

!85 
1.00 

".'96' 
1.00 
1.25 
1.50 




















24 by 31 to 30 by H).. . 
































DOUBLE STRF.XGTH. 

6 by 8 to 16 In- 24 


.60 
1.00 
1.20 
1.50 
1.70 
2. f.0 
3.00 
3.50 


.66 
.66 
.66 


.60 
.60 
.60 


.52 


.42 

.64 


.52 

.72 


- .42 




.64 


2i by 37 to 30 by 41 








.84 

"1.75* 

1.75 


.78 

"i.'6o" 

1.60 
1.60 


.84 
.84 
1.75 
1.75 
1.75 


.78 




.66 
1.61 
1.61 
1.61 


.60 
1.50 
1.50 
1.50 


.78 


40 by 60 to 40 by 65 


1.60 




3.00 
3.50 

.56 
2.40 
4.25 

.58 


2.50 
3.00 
.46 
1.85 

3.50 
.58 


1.60 




1.60 


16 by 24 




39 by 61 to 40 by 65.... 


















4. 50 
.70 


3. 22?, 
.42" 


3.00 

.42 


3.22 
.45 


3.00 
.45 


3.22 
.46 


3.00 




.46 







Sept. 29, 

1911, to 

Nov. 3, 

1911. 



Nov. 4, 

1911, to 

Mar. 15, 

1912. 



Mar. 15. 

1912, to 

Mav31, 

1912. 



Oct. 15, 
1912, to 
May 29, 
1913, in- 
clusive. 



SINGLE STRENGTH. 



6 by .8 to 10 by 15... 
10 by Hi to 16 by 24. 
16 by 25 to 24 by 36. 
24 by 31 to 24 by 36. 
24 by 37 to 26 by 40. 
All above 



DOUBLE STRENGTH. 



6 by 8 to 16 bv 24... 
16 by 25 to 24 'bv 30. 
24 by 37 to 30 bv 41. 
30 by 42 to 36 by 51. 
36 by 52 to 39 by 60. 
40 by 60 to 40 by 65. 
40by66to40by70. 
ioi,y 71 to 40 by 78. 

All above 

Grinders 



SO. 14 
.44 
.54 
.62 
.62 
.62 



SO. 27 
.27 
.38 



.52 
.72 
.79 
.84 
.84 
1.75 
1.75 
1.75 
3.22 
.46 



SO. 38 
.38 


}so. 47 


.46 


.62 


.54 


.71 


.54 


.71 


. 54 


.71 


.42 


.60 


.64 


.83 


.70 


.91 


.78 


.97 


. 78 


.97 


1.60 


2.01 


1.60 


2.01 


1.60 


2.01 


3.00 


3.70 


.46 





.53 
.62 
.62 
.62 



.48 
.71 
.81 
.90 
.90 
1.84 
1.84 
1.84 
3. 45 
.53 



294 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 101.— Piece Rates i>er Box of 100 Square Feet for Making Window 
Glass by Hand, Sept. 1, 1908, to May 29, 1917, by Grades — Concluded. 



SINGLE STUKN'GTH. 



8 by 10 to 10 by 15.. 
11 bv 15 to 14 bv 20. 
14 by 21 to 16 bv 24. 
16 by 25 to 20 by 30. 
21 bv 30 to 24 by 30. 

24 by 31 to 24 by 36. 

25 by 36 to 30 by 41. 
All above 



Oct. 27, 

1913, to 

May 29, 

1914. 



DOUBLE STRENGTH. 



6by8to 16bv24 

16 by 25 to 24 by 36.... 
24 by 37 to 30 by 41.... 
30 bv 42 to 36b Vol.... 
36 by 52 to 31 bv 60.... 
40 by 60 to 40 by 65.... 
40 by 66 tn 10 by 70.... 
40 by 71 to 40 by 78.... 

All above 

Grinders 



$0.46 
.53 
.60 
.65 
.70 
.72 



.65 
.95 

L14 

1.38 

2.30 
2.30 
2.30 

4.24 



SO. 43 
.50 
.56 
.59 
.62 
.64 
.70 
.74 



Oct. 31, 

1914, to 

Apr. 16, 

1915. 



Apr. 17, 

1915, to 

Mav 29, 

1915. 



SI )..-,o 
.58 
.65 
.70 
.72 
.74 
.81 



1.07 
1.16 
1.45 

2.44 
2.44 
2.44 
4.58 
.71 



Nov. 1, 

1915, to 

Mar. 14, 

1916. 



Mar. 15, 

1916, to 

Mav 27, 

1916. 



Oct. 25, 

1916, to 

May 29, 

1917. 



so. it; 
.53 
.60 
.65 
.70 
.72 
.80 
.84 



1.03 
1.14 

1.38 

2.30 
2.:;o 
2.30 
1. 21 



80.47 SO 
.54 
.61 
.64 
.67 
.70 
.76 
.•81 1. 



.64 
.92 
1.00 
1.12 
1.37 
2.29 
2.29 
2.29 
4.30 



.91 
1.32 
1.43 
1.58 

3^20 
3.20 
3.20 
5.91 



SO. 62 
.72 
.80 
.85 
.88 
.92 
1.00 
1.07 



1.18 
1.29 

L76 
2.94 
2.94 
2.94 

5.51 
.84 



This table shows that important increases have been granted 
regularly during the past few seasons. At the beginning of the season 
of 1914-15, there was a 5 per cent increase over the scale of the year 
before. The agreement relative to this increase is as follows: 

On the prices specified (previous year's scale) there shall be paid an advance of 5 
per cent. It is also understood and agreed that future advances on this scale shall be 
computed on the basis of the above brackets after the 5 per cent advance has been 
added. And be it further agreed that for every point of discount that glass sells 
above 90-17 single strength and 90-21 double strength, wages shall ba advanced 1^ 
per cent as above specified. 

An additional increase of 10 per cent, computed on the scale at the 
beginning of the year, with the 5 per cent noted above included,, was 
granted toward the end of the season, and was effective from April 
17 to the end of the "fire," May 29. 

At the .beginning of the season of 1915-16 the scale was the same 
as that at the beginning of the preceding season without the 5 per cent 
added, or the same as at the beginning of the 1913-14 season. In 
March, 1916, a voluntary increase of 7\ per cent was given, which was 
effective from March 15 to May 27, the end of the fire. 

Very large increases were granted for the season of 1916-17. An 
increase of 20 per cent over the prices prevailing at the end of the 
season was given to single-strength workmen and 16^ per cent to 
double-strength workmen, with an additional 10 per cent advance 
differential to single-strength blowers exclusively. 

The additional 10 per cent to single-strength blowers was urged in 
the wage conference by the three noncon ten ding trades — gatherers, 
flatteners, and cutters — voting unanimously. According to the view 
of the representatives of these three trades the earnings of single- 
strength blowers had been out of proportion to those of the other 
trades, and as a consequence many blowers had returned to gathering 
or had demanded that they be allowed to blow double-strength glass. 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 295 

That the wages earned by skilled workers in hand window-glass 
factories were very high 25 years ago is clearly shown by the following 
average daily wages m 15 establishments, derived from the Annual 
Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1891 (pp. 567 to 586) : Blowers, 
$6,526; cutters, S4.S02; flatteners, $6,286; gatherers, S3. 959 per day. 
Such wages were exceptional for the period and are, perhaps, much 
higher than the average of wages paid for skilled labor to-day 

At the present time almost all hand window-glass plants work three 
shifts of eight hours each for five days of the week in the shops. The 
shifts alternate. On one Saturday, one shift will have no turn, on 
the next Saturday a 4-hour turn; on the third Saturday an 8-hour 
turn, the day beginning at midnight. So in three weeks all shifts 
have worked a 40, 44, and 48 hour week. Hence the average week 
is 44 hours, and the average Saturday is 4 hours, or one-half of the 
usual day. A week, therefore, is 5h days. 

These figures indicate the fact that wages in the skilled occupations 
of hand window-glass manufacturing have been very high for a long 
time and are increasing. 

It is not to be assumed that wages in the occupations mentioned 
have increased steadily from year to year. There have been periods 
when reductions were made, but the tendency over a long period of 
years has been toward higher wages. 

About 1903 the machine for making window glass was introduced, 
and there followed a number of critical years for both the manufac- 
turer of handmade window glass and the labor employed. Mr. J. M. 
Neenan, president of the National Window Glass Workers, states: 

Before the period of uncertainty and demoralization ended the average of wages 
was reduced from 90 cents per box in 1903 to 30 cents per box in 1912-13. 

According to the manufacturers interviewed during this investiga- 
tion, the wages paid in the skilled occupations — blowing, gathering, 
flattening, and cutting— have steadily increased in recent years, 
though for a period previous to this they had steadily declined, due 
to overproduction and a general depression in the business. During 
this period of declining wages labor also suffered from short seasons. 

As stated before, the season in this industry is short, rarely exceed- 
ing seven months for hand factories. In addition, during this period 
there are often shutdowns from various causes which further reduces 
the number of wage-earning days in the year for the glass worker. 
The machine factories have a season of 10 or 11 months, but do not 
operate with a full force during the whole season. So, although the 
daily earnings in the occupations discussed may seem very high, 
the earnings "for the year are not in proportion to the daily earnings. 

LABOR-UNION REGULATIONS. 

There are three labor organizations connected with window-glass 
manufacturing. These are the National Window Glass Workers, the 
Window Glass Cutters' and Flatteners' Association of America, and 
the Window Glass Cutters' and Flatteners' Protective Association of 
America. 

The last two named embrace the cutters and flatteners working in 
machine plants. The first of these two is identified with what is 
known as the independent machines and the last with the American 



296 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Window Glass Co. These two organizations are comparatively young, 
as machines were not used for glass making until about 1903, and take 
in only two of the four skilled trades. In the machine plant there 
are no gatherers and the machine operators (unskilled men) take the 
place of the blower. The "shops" are not organized hi machine 
plants, though the matter has been considered by the National Win- 
dow Glass Workers, thus far without result. The three organizations 
are. noncon tending and work in harmony. The organizations con- 
nected with machine plants are by no means so strong as the one 
connected with the hand factories. 

The National Window Glass Workers embraces the occupations of 
blowing, gathering, cutting, and flattening — the four skilled occupa- 
tions. It is the only labor organization connected with the hand 
window-glass industry, and is one of the strongest of labor unions. 
It meets at least once yearly with the National Association of Window 
Glass Manufacturers to adopt a wage scale and to dispose of all other 
matters that come up for settlement. It had a membership of 3,779 
during the year 1914-15, and 4,301 during 1915-16; at one time the 
membership was 6,500. 

Wages based on Mowers' earnings. — The wages of the gatherer and 
flattener are based on the earnings of the blower. The rule relating 
to this is as follows: 

Gatherers shall receive 80 per cent as much as blowers' wages for both single and 
double sizes. 
Flatteners shall receive 27 per cent as much as blowers' wages. 

Hours of labor. — The following are the union- rules relating to hours 
of labor in the shops : 

Forty hours shall constitute a week's work for blowers and gatherers. The following 
system may be adopted when locals so decide: In order to do away with the 4-o'clock 
shift on Saturday morning, the midnight shift shall produce a full day's work, the 
day shift starting at 8 o'clock and working until 12 noon. The 4-o'clock shift finishes 
work for the week at midnight Friday night. All work ceases on Saturday at 12 
o'clock noon. No member shall gather and blow before 1 o'clock a. m. Monday. 

The actual practice is somewhat different. Each shift works two 
turns of 4 hours each with only an interval of a few minutes between 
the turns. Practically all factories work three shifts. The first shift 
begins work at 12 o'clock midnight Sunday and works until 8 a. m. 
Monday; the second shift begins at 8 a. m. and works until 4 p. m.; 
the third shift begins at 4 p. m. and works until midnight Monday, 
when the first shift comes on again. Work ceases at noon Saturday, 
the second shift getting in one turn between 8 and 12 o'clock Satur- 
day. During the week, therefore, the three shifts have worked 12, 11, 
and 10 turns, respectively. In the following week the third shift 
begins first and on the next week the second shift begins first. So 
in three weeks each shift has worked a week of 12, 11, and 10 turns, 
making an average of 11 turns of 4 hours or 44 hours per week. 

The following is the only rule in effect relating to the hours of 
labor of flatteners: 

All flatteners working 12-hour turns shall stop at least 30 minutes for lunch. 

The time at which a flattener must begin and stop work is not pre- 
scribed. His hours are somewhat irregular. He has just so much 
to do — the work of so many blowers — and it can be done at his con- 
venience. Sometimes he can do it by working only a short day and 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 297 

at other times he must work long hours to do it. Table 95 of this 
report shows the average time worked by flatteners to be 55.8 hours 
per week. 

A cutter works more hours per week than any other employee in a 
skilled occupation in window glass. His hours are not prescribed, 
and they are often very irregular, depending on the amount of work 
to be done. He frequently work- at night and sometimes on Sunday. 
Table 95 shows the average hours of a cutter to be 59 per week. 

Limit, (I production <>/ skilled workers. — The hand window-glass 
factories operate not exceeding seven months a year, from about 
November 1 to May 30, and during that time produce what may be 
required to fill orders during the other live months. As it is impos- 
sible for them to forecast the proportions of each size of glass that will 
be ordered during the summer, it is customary during the manufac- 
turing season to cut only part of their product in regular sizes and to 
set aside sheets uncut to be cut as orders may be received during the 
five months when the factory is not in blast. The rules of the union 
provide that a cutter shall be paid full price for sheets set aside, 
though they are uncut, also that when they are cut later they shall 
be paid for at full price. On stock sheets, therefore, double price is 
paid for cutting. The following is quoted from the union's wage 
scale for the 1916-17 blast: 

Section I. 

Art. 9. Single strength may be made in the following sizes only; size specified is 
size work is to cut; 2 inches in length and 2 inches in width is allowed for cutting: 
36 by 56 may be made at the rate of ten per hour as special orders; 48 by 56 may be 
made at the rate of eight per hour as special orders, with the understanding that when 
orders on either of the above sizes are given glass is to be cut in sizes above the 16 by 24 
bracket, provided the quality of the glass is suitable. The following sizes in single 
strength may be made at the rate of nine per hour: 36 by 64, 38 by 60, 38 by 62, 40 by 
56, 40 by 58, 40 by 60, 42 by 54, 42 by 56, 42 by 58, 44 by 52, 44 by 54, 44 by 5(5. The 
company shall post in blowing room the size each shop single and double shall work 
on, and preceptors shall see that all workmen work on sizes specified. 

Sixty-five rollers shall constitute a day's work. In case of a roller breaking on the 
crane or on the horse from capping off or cracking open, blowers and gatherers shall 
be privileged to make up such breakage so that 65 rollers are produced for a day's 
work. 

Art. 10. Number of D. S. rollers allowed per hour. — All sizes up to and including 
1,728 square inches, 9 per hour; All sizes up to and including 2,160 square inches, 8 
per hour; All sizes up to and including 2,584 square inches, 7 per hour; all sizes 
above 2,584 square inches, 6 per hour; up to and including 28 by 60, 9 per hour; 2& 
by 72, 8 per hour; 30 by 56, 9 per hour; 30 by 72, 8 per hour; 30 by 86, 7 per hour; 
32 by 54, 9 per hour; 32 by 66, 8 per hour; 32 by 80, 7 per hour; 32 by 60, 8 per hour; 
34 by 76, 36 by 70, and 38 by 68, 7 per hour; 40 bv 54, 8 per hour; 40 by 64, 7 per hour; 
42 by 50, 8 per hour; 42 by 60, 7 per hour; 44 by 48, 8 per hour; 46 by 56 and 48 by 52, 
7 per hour. 

Art. 13. The number of lights per box in all strengths shall be uniform. 

Art. 14. The following list governs cutters when setting out single-strength sheets: 
6 1/2 lights per 100 feet; in setting out double strength sheets, 50 by 60, or the equiva- 
lent in square inches shall be set out at the rate of 5 lights per box. 

Art. 15. Manufacturers may set out stock sheets in amounts not to exceed 2,400 
feet per four weeks for any pot, place, or blower. Stock sheets to be set out at a ratio 
of one box per blowing. This to apply to both single and double. 

The single and double strength glass set out shall be booked to the blower at the price 
the single-strength glass and double-strength glass, respectively, cut and packed 
during the week it is set out, averages per box. 

The cutter is to receive full price for all glass set out in stock sheets. Stock sheets 
shall not be cut up or shipped during the blast. 



298 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Section III. 

Art. 14. Any blower or gatherer making more grinders than provided for by law, 
or any cutter cutting or setting out more stock sheets or grinders than provided by 
law, shall be fined not less than $5 for the first offense and $10 for each succeeding 
-offense. 

The production of flatteners is limited by the following rules: 

Section IV. 

Art. 1. Twelve pots shall be the limit for any one flattening oven. 

Art. 2. Where 12 pots are flattened in any oven three flatteners shall be employed 
on said oven. 

Art. 4. No flattener shall flatten for more than four pots, unless in case of actual 
emergency. 

The production of cutters is limited by the following rules: 

Section V. 

Art. 1. No cutter shall be allowed to cut more than two and a half (2 J) pots of 
single strength and three (3) pots of double strength. 

Art. 3. No cutter shall work while the fire is out filling orders from glass set out in 
the sheet for weekly wages, when such wages would be exceeded in amount if the glass 
cut was paid for according to the regular price per box, as fixed in the articles of agree- 
ment between this association and the manufacturers. 

Art. 4. Cutters setting out single-strength stock sheets shall book six and one-half 
(6Jf) lights per hundred-foot box to the blower. 

Art. 12. Cutters shall not cut or book more than one blower's glass at any one time. 

The manufacturers object to these restrictions, but have not been 
able to get the union to change the rules. They object also to pay- 
ing guaranties to skilled workers, a practice which is not forced 
upon them by the union but by the rivalry among themselves. 
During 1916, when the demand for glass was large, manufacturers 
found it difficult to engage enough skilled workers, and some offered 
inducements in the way of guaranties that men they employed 
would be paid not less than a certain amount per day or per box, 
regardless of the quantity produced. The effect was that manu-* 
facturers that offered guaranties secured skilled workers from those 
that did not make such offers. 

Strikes. — The last general strike in the window-glass manufactur- 
ing business occurred in 1907. This came following a period of over- 
production, reckless selling, and chronic depression in the business. 
A higher scale was demanded by the union men, but, after staying 
out 10 months, they returned to work at the old scale. The general 
condition of the business made it impossible for the union to force a 
higher scale at that time. In 1908 a strike was threatened when the 
union demanded a change from a sliding scale, based on the selling 
price of glass, to a flat price. The demand was granted. 

During the spring of 1916 the snappers in most of the hand window- 
glass factories demanded higher wages and recognition as a union. 
In most instances an increase was granted, and in a number of cases 
before the demands of the men were formulated, but the manu- 
facturers would not recognize them as a union, principally because 
such action was thought to be contrary to what the other union men 
of the shop desired. 

Holidays. — The following is the agreement with reference to 
holidays: 

There shall be no glass blown, gathered, flattened, or cut, on the following holidays: 
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Labor Day. 



WAGES ANH LABOR CONDITIONS. 299 

Right to enter factory.- -Members of the union have the privilege of 
entering the factory aa explained by the following rule: 

Xo member of the National Window Glass Workers shall be denied the right to 
enter any factory, flattening house, or cutting room where the national scale is in 
force. This not to apply to men under the influence of strong drink, sleeping in 
factories, or using abusive language. 

Union dues. — Union dues are collected according to the following 
provisions : 

Manufacturers shall deduct from the earnings of all members of the National Win- 
dow Glass Workers working for them 2 per cent of the amount earned, for dues to the 
National Window Glass Workers, and shall, within 10 days after each and every 
settlement, present a check, for the full amount to the chief preceptor, payable to 
the Secretary of the National Window Glass Workers, together with the names, 
amounts earned, and the amount paid by each member during said period, same to 
be forwarded by the chief preceptor to the national secretary. No debt of any kind 
that a member contracts shall prevent the deduction of this 2 per cent, and any manu- 
facturer who overpays or fails to deduct and forward said monev for dues shall be 
Hable to the National Window Glass Workers for the payment of same, whether the 
member has anything due him or not. This also applies to entire earnings for boss 
cutters. All bills to be presented weekly with the amount earned. Said bills to 
have the amount of glass cut in each bracket and the amount of A and B . 

BOTTLES. 
EFFECT OF SHOP SYSTEM ON LABOR. 

The "shop" system which is still in vogue was established in the 
glass factories of the United States and Canada in 1870. l A "shop" 
consists of three men who divide the operations of gathering, blow- 
ing, and finishing. 

Between 1870 and 1905 the production per blower increased 138 
per cent for the medium line of ware, viz, 8-ounce bottles. This 
increase was partly due to the substitution of the tank for the old- 
style furnace, as the average product of the blower increased 25 per 
cent after its introduction. As a result of this increase, and through 
the influence of a powerful labor union, wages for skilled labor in 
bottle manufacturing maintained a very high level through this 
period as compared with the wages received in the skilled occupations 
of other industries. 

About 1896 a machine was introduced that was commercially 
successful, and, though it was crude and was restricted to wide- 
mouth bottles and jars, it marked the beginning of a revolution in 
bottle manufacturing which had the most serious effect on labor. 

In 1903 the Owens automatic machine was introduced, the first 
type of which made only narrow-mouth bottles; later this was per- 
fected to make any kind of bottle. The remarkable production 
obtained from this machine without the use of skilled labor soon 
demonstrated to all bottle manufacturers that if they were to com- 
pete with it, it would be necessary to make a saving in that highest 
element of cost — labor. 

To this end manufacturers exerted their utmost ingenuity, and, 
as a result, there is now a great variety of machines in use, and prac- 
tically 80 per cent of the bottles produced is from machines. 

1 Report of Bureau of Statistics of Labor and Industries of New Jersey, 1905, p. 200. 



300 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



The effect on labor can readily be imagined. With the growth 
of the use of machines the number of skilled laborers constantly 
diminished. The condition of the hand manufacturers was such 
that wage reductions had to be requested. It is to the credit of the 
employees that such reductions were submitted to, not entirely 
because they could not be resisted, but because of an honest desire 
to share mutually with the manufacturers the burden of a situation 
in which all were placed. 

PIECE PRICES, 1907 TO 1917. 

The following tables give in detail the piece prices prevailing for 
the seasons of 1907-8 to 1916-17, inclusive: 

Table 102. — Glass Bottles (Hand Blown): Piece Rates per Gross Paid to 
Blowers, 1907 to 1917. 



Kind of bottle. 



Prescription, round and 
fluted, long and short. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Prescription, oval, French 
square, tall Blake, and 
tall oblong. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Flat, short Blake, and 
short oblong. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Capacity. 



h dram to 
" 1 ounce. 

2 ounces., 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces. . 
6 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 
1 ounce... 



2 ounces.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces. . 
6 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 

1 ounce. . . 

2 ounces.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces.. 
6 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 



Weight. 



1907-1912 1912-1914 1914-15 1915-16 1916-17 



li ounces. SO. 54 



2 ounces. 
2-| ounces 
3J ounces 
Sounces. 
6J ounces 
11 ounces 



ISounees. 1.52 
li ounces. [ .56 



2 ounces.. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces.. 
5| ounces. 
7 ounces.. 
12 ounces. 
20 ounces, 
ljounces. 

2| ounces. 
3£ ounces. 



6 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
14 ounces. 
22ounces. 



.58 


.61 


.4S 


.51 


.54 


.58 


.61 


.64 


.69 


.71 


.91 


.96 


1.22 


1.26 


.56 


.58 


.58 


.61 


.50 


.53 


.56 


.59 


.64 


.66 


.72 


.75 


.95 


99 


1.30 


1.33 


.58 


.60 


.62 


.64 


.54 


.55 


59 


.61 


.68 


.70 


.77 


.78 


1.04 


1.06 


1.42 


1.44 



.51 
.55 
.61 
.70 .75 

.781 .85 
1.06 1.14 
1.44 1.56 



$0.51 



.54 
.56 
.64 
.70 
.78 
1.06 
1.39 
.51 



1.09 
1.46 
.53 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



301 



Table 103. -Glass Bottles and Jails Machine : Rates per 100 Pieces Paid to 
Machine OrEitATous, l'.to: m l'.H7. 



bottle. 



1 






1912 



1913- 
1915 



and French square, ball oval, 
one side Oat. 
Round castor oil and lemon sirup. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Oval castor oil 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Panel and cod-liver oil 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Bulb-neck panel 

Do 

Do 





Do 

Nursing bottles (straight neck)... 





powder 

Do 

Oatsup 

ing, glue: 

d polish 

e polish 

Round blacking 

Do 

Horse-radish, pickle, and chow: 

Round horse-radish 

Round pickle 

Fluted pickle 

■I chow 

Obion? pickle 

Flat pickle 

Do ' 

1 »blong pickle 

Octagon pickle 

Square pickle 

Hexagon pickle 

Obliillg pickle 

Mustard: 

Round-pot mustard 

Do 

Fluted-pot mustard 

Do 

Octagon-pot mustard 



J ounce. 



Jounce 10.54 



1 ounce 

-' ounces 

3 ounces 

•1 ounces 

v ounces 

16 ounces. .. . 
32 ounces 

1 ounce 

2 ounces 

3 ounces 

•i ounces 

8 ounces 

16 ounces 

1 ounce 

2 ounces 

3 ounces 

i ounces. . . . 

8 ounces 

16 ounces 

32 ounces 

1 ounce 

2 ounces 

3 ounces 

4 ounces 

8 ounces 

16 ounces 

6 ounces 

5 ounces 

12 ounces 

J pound 

1 pound 

4 ounces 



....do... 
....do... 
6 ounces. 
8 ounces. 



4 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
11 ounces. 
....do.... 
C ounces... 
....do.... 



8 ounces.. 
....do.... 

16 ounces. 
8 ounces.. 
....do.... 

Pi ..mice . 



4 ounces. 
6 ounces. 
....do... 

5 ounce::. 

....do... 



r. ounces. 

2[ ounces. 

:; ounces.. 

■ 

i'.;. ounces. 

li ounces. 

- 

21 ounces. 

3 ounces.. 

4 ounces.. 
7, ounces. 
12 ounces. 
2 ounces.. 

".. . 

4 ounces.. 

5 ounces.. 

16 ounce:. 
26 ounces. 
23 ounces. 
3'. ounces. 

5 ounces.. 

6 ounces.. 
10 ounces. 

22 ounces. 

5 ounces.. 

7 ounces.. 
10 ounces. 

6 ounces.. 

8 ounces.. 
4 ounces.. 



5} ounces.. 

6 ounces... 
51 ounces.. 
71 ounces. . 

41 ounces., 
/"ounces. . . 

9 ounces... 

10 ounces.. 

8 ounces... 
"Jounces.. 

9 ounces... 
12 ounces.. 

15 ounces.. 
121 ounces. 
12 ounces.. 

16 ounces.. 

41 ounces.. 
8 ounces... 
6 ounces... 



.70 
.7'. 
.92 
1.14 
1.62 
.58 
.62 
.69 
.77 
.96 
1.19 
.59 
.0.5 



1.14 
1.44 
2.04 
.61 



.86 
1.15 
1.80 

.76 



.72 
.85 

.70 

.15 
.16* 
.161 
.18 

.141 
.161 
.18" 
.21 
.20 
.20 
.211 
.22 
.221 
.23 
.24 
.28 



SO. 54 



.60 
. 65 
.70 
.76 
.92 
1.14 
1.62 
.58 
.62 



1.19 
.59 
.65 
.73 
.80 
.91 
1.15 
1 . 63 
.61 



1.15 

1.80 



.70 

.15 

.161 
. 16-1 
.18 

.141 
.161 
.18" 
.21 
.20 
.20 
.211 
.22 
.221 
.23" 
.24 
.28 

.15 
.15 
.15 



.70 
.76 
.92 
1.14 
1.62 
.58 
.62 



.91 
1.15 
1.63 

.61 



1.15 
1.80 
.61 
.72 
.86 
.58 
.68 
.70 

.15 
.16} 
.16} 
.18 

.141 
. 16} 



.20 

.211 
.22 
.22} 



$0.43 80.47 



.48 
.52 
.56 
.61 
.74 
.91 
1.30 
. 16 
.50 
.55 
.62 
.77 
.95 
.47 
.52 
.58 
.64 
.91 
1.15 
1.63 



.15 
.161 
.161 
.18 

.14} 
.161 
.18 
.21 



.221 
.23 
.24 

.28 

.15 
.15 
.15 
.18 
.18 



302 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 104. 



-Glass Bottles and Jars (Machine): Rates per 100 Pieces Paid to 
Machine Operators, 1908 to 1917. 



Kind ni bottle. 



Capacity. 



Jars, fruit: 

Improved Mason 

Jam jar 

Improved top, Mason 

Do 

Milk: 

} pint 

\ pint 

1 pint 

1 quart 

Cherry and olive: 

Round 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Jelly and tumblers: \- pint jelly glasses. 
A'aseline, pomade, mucilage, and paste: 

Round, wide-mout Y vaseline 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Jams, preserves: 

Round, preserves 

Round, jam 

Round, preserves 

Round, jam 

Round, preserves 

Prescription, bromo, and morphine: 

Square, morphine 

Round, bromo 

" Do 

Do 



1 quart. 



lull . 



3J ounces. 
8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 

12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 
IS ounces. 
27 ounces. 
8 ounces.. 



1 ounce.. 

2 ounces. 

4 ounces. 

5 ounces. 



....do.... 
7 ounces.. 
12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 
....do.... 



1 ounce... 
■? ounce. . . 
2k ounces. 
5 ounces.. 



/ ounces.. 
11 ounces. 
15 ounces. 
26 ounces. 

11 ounces. 
13 ounces. 
15 ounces. 
22 ounces. 
6 ounces... 



2 ounces. 
....do... 
5 ounces. 
7 ounces. 



» ounces... 
8| ounces.. 
10 ounces.. 
11 1 ounces. 
14 ounces.. 



2 ounces. . 
li ounces. 
3| ounces. 
6 ounces.. 



SO. 15 
.15 
.18 
.24| 

.17 
.21 
.25 



Table 105. — Glass Bottles (Hand Blown): Piece Rates per Gross Paid to 
Blowers, 1907 to 1917. 



Kind of bottle. 



Capacity. 



Weight. 



Pickle jars: 

Baltimore style 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Olive list 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Demijohns and carbovs 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Bulb-neck or export beer 

Do 

Lager beer, champagne shape. 
Appollinaris and se'ect beer... 
Mineral water and ginger ale. . 

Do 

Do 

Whisky 

Do 

Do 

Flasks 

Do 

Do 

Milk jars 

Do 

Do 



1 gallon.. 

2 gallons.. 
4 gallons.. 
8 gallons. . 
16 gallons. 

1 pint 

1 quart. . . 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 



8 ounces.. 
16 ounces. 
32 ounces. 



I pint . . 

1 pint . . 

2 pints . 



6 ounces.. 
8 ounces. . 
12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 
4 ounces.. 
8 ounces.. 
12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 



14 to 16 ounces 
22 to 24 ounces 



6 ounces.. 

12 ounces. 
16 ounces. 
8 ounces.. 

13 ounces. 
24 ounces. 
8 ounces.. 
12 ounces. 

15 ounces. 
12 ounces. 

16 ounces. 
21 ounces. 



Si i. 86 

LIS 
1.42 
.72 
1.02 
1.24 
1.46 
a. 26 
a. 42 
a. 78 
b.08i 
6.14| 
1.32" 
1.59 



1. 18?, 
1.41" 
.99 
1.23 

!77 
1.09 

L24 
1.38 
1.72 



1.18 
1.42 
• .72 
1.02 
1.24 
1.46 



1.27 
1.10 
1.69 



1.37 

.77 
1.09 



1.24 
1.38 



SO. 69 
.78 
.94 
1.14 
.58 
.82 
.99 
1.17 
a. 26 
a. 42 

a. 78 
b.08% 

b. 14i 
.85 

1.02 
.88 

1.35 
.66 
.76 
.90 



.91 
1.01 
1.24 
1.38 
1.72 



b Per bottle. 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIONS. 303 

For the season of 1907-S a reduction was made in certain brackets. 
In 1912 a very heavy reduction was made, affecting many of the 
most important brackets of the list. The scale of 1912-13 prevailed 
during the following season. For the season of 1914-15 a reduction 
of 20 |>>T cenl from the scale of the year before was made for pre- 
scription, miscellaneous oval and French square, round castor-oil and 
lemon sirup, oval castor-oil, and panel and cod-liver oil bottles. 
The scale of 1914-15 remained in effect, without change, during the 
next season. For the season of 1916-17 the first advance in many 
year-, was granted. The increase was for 10 per cent, and covers 
all lines of ware in the hand-blown department that had been reduced 
in 1912. except beer, soda, flasks, and a few miscellaneous bottles. 

According to D. A. Hayes, president, and William Launer, secre- 
tary, of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association, the average wage of 
11,000 skilled glass blowers in the United States was in 1913 about 
S4.60 per day. 1 

GLASS BOTTLE BLOWERS' ASSOCLITION. 

According to President Denis A. Hayes, of the Glass Bottle Blowers, 
Association of the United States and Canada, this organization, 
which is the only union in this branch of the industry, had its start 
in 1847. 2 Originally it included only labor in the skilled occupations, 
blowing and finishing, but at the present time may include all workers 
except mold makers, engineers, and firemen. 

A nation;) 1 wage scale was adopted hi 1861. For 35 years, accord- 
ing to Mr. Hayes, the union struggled to get the employers to meet 
with them for the purpose of agreeing to a wage scale. Finally 
they consented, and at first annual meetings took place, but later 
semiannual meetings were held, which is the custom at the present 
time. The first meeting is held in May, the second in August. 

History of the organization. — The glass-bottle blowers were first 
organized in separate and independent Eastern and Western Leagues 
of Green Glass Bottle Blowers. In 1886 each became affiliated with 
the Knights of Labor, as Assembly Nos. 149 and 143, respectively. 
As early as 1886 there is record of annual conferences between the 
eastern and western leagues of blowers and of loosely organized 
associations of eastern and western bottle manufacturers. 

As a result of these independent meetings, the two unions often 
found themselves working at cross purposes. Frequently concessions 
granted by one of the unions would be used to force concessions from 
the other. In addition, owing to the fact that journeymen blowers 
often went from one district to the other, it became increasingly 
difficult to discipline the membership. On account of these things, 
steps were taken looking to a consolidation of the two unions. This 
was accomplished in 1890, when they united in one body under the 
title of the National Trade Assembly. At the same time the sec- 
tional conferences of preceding years was succeeded by national con- 
ferences between representatives of the unions and of the manufac- 
turers. In July, 1891, the assembly withdrew from the Knights of 
Labor to become the Green Glass Blowers' Association of the United 

1 II curings before Ways and Moans Committee on Underwood-Simmons Tariff Bill, p. 709. 

2 Report to 191") convention, p. 13. 



304 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

States and Canada. The present name is the Glass Bottle Blowers' 
Association of the United States and Canada. 

Relations with manufacturers. — During the first few years following 
the amalgamation of the unions, the conflicting interests of the 
eastern and western manufacturers operated to make difficult the 
purpose of the conference. Gradually the manufacturers' associa- 
tion developed into a more compact and more homogenous organi- 
zation. At the present time it is unlikely that there could be found 
a better example of successful collective bargaining than that which 
is carried on between the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association and their 
employers. On this point Mr. Leo Wolman writes as follows: 1 

The agreement between the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association and the National 
Glass Vial and Bottle Manufacturers' Association furnished an impressive and an 
instructive exhibit of the feasibility of carrying on for a long term of years a peaceful 
and mutually agreeable system of collective bargaining. While friction between 
the parties to the agreement has at times been great, and while the agreement has 
often been almost at the breaking point, yet so enlightened has been the policy; of 
the representatives of both the union and the manufacturers' association, in granting 
concessions and yielding upon disputed points, that the agreement has operated in 
one form or another for almost a quarter of a century. Nor have external conditions 
been particularly favorable to the continued life of the agreement. The technical 
revolution of the industry, beginning in the middle nineties with the installation 
of the so-called automatic machine, and intensified after 1900 by the invention and 
the later extensive use of the Owens automatic machine for the manufacture of glass 
bottles, has presented to the conferences of the manufacturers and their employees 
problems that every year become more perplexing and difficult of solution. The 
promulgation of working rules to govern those members of the union who were em- 
ployed on the semiautomatic machines, the regulation of the wage scale so as to re- 
tain a fair wage for the glass blower, and at the same time to permit the employer of 
hand blowers to compete against the machine, and finally a readjustment of wage 
scales designed to meet the competition of the automatic, are a few of the problems 
which have received at the hand, of the annual conference, if not a perfect solution, 
at least a workable settlement. 

Conference agreements. — -Unlike those national agreements which 
provide only the machinery for the settlement of disputes and which 
leave to the local unions the formation of working rules, and in some 
cases wage rates, the agreement of the Bottle Blowers' Association 
(the union) with the manufacturers fixes in detail practically all the 
conditions of employment of the glass-bottle workers. The local 
unions can legislate only upon such matters as are concerned with 
the internal government of the union. When, however, some unfor- 
seen question arises during the year, an attempt is first made to settle 
the matter in conference between the factory committee and the 
employer, and, if they are unable to arrive at an agreement, the 
question is referred to the president of the union. 

All matters of whatever nature which are to come up for settlement 
with the manufacturers' organization must be presented at the May 
conference, unless they originate later than that date, in which case 
they are presented at the final conference in August. Matters upon 
which adjustment is desired are usually presented in the form of 
resolutions from local unions or from individual manufacturers. 

The members of the executive board, who are elected annually, act 
as representatives of the union at the conference. The representa- 
tives of the union are not bound by specific instructions and have 
full power to settle questions without referring them back to the 
organization. While their acts are necessarily subject to the review 

i American Economic Review, September, 1916. 



WAGES AND LAB OB CONDITIONS. 305 

of their constituents, yel these acts have accorded so well with the 
views of the members of the union thai many members of the execu- 
tive board have been reelected over many years. The president of 
the union, Denis A. Bayes, who died in 1917, held the position of 
president and ex officio member of the board for 20 years. 

The agreement does not provide for any formal system of voting, 
but it is the custom of the representatives of the union and of the 
manufacturers to vote as a unit. A mere majority of the members 
present Is not enough. The measure must be agreeable to a majority 
of the representatives of both the manufacturers and the union. 

When the conferences have resulted in a deadlock, it has been the 
custom to adjourn and for the establishments to resume operations 
under the rules and juices of the preceding j^ear. In 1906, following 
persistent demands for reductions in piece rates, which were refused, 
the president of the manufacturers' association suggested that "the 
matter be submitted for arbitration to the judge of the courts." The 
ion was not acted upon, as both employers and employees 
red to thresh out the matters in conference, and if without 
result to work in a state of truce for one or more years under the 
rates of previous j'ears. 

In cases of such deadlocks, it is frequently the case that a situation 
amounting to a lockout occurs, for, in the interval following the con- 
ference and the resumption of work, the agreement is in effect sus- 
pended. In 1905 and again in 1909, the conference adjourned with- 
out having come to an agreement and without setting a date for a 
future conference. In each instance the manufacturers did not open 
their plants for some tune after adjourning. For this period the 
union president authorized the men to accept employment if it was 
offered at the scale in effect during the preceding period, and at the 
same time authorized the branches to assure their employers that 
they would be given the advantage of any settlement that might be 
made later, oh and from the date upon which the men began work. 

While such a condition amounts, in effect, to a deadlock, both 
sides have refused to regard it as such; and, even though the con- 
ferences have adjourned without coming to an agreement, and the 
manufacturers, probably on account of the superior strength of the 
union, have been obliged to employ the men at terms unsatisfactory 
to themselves, yet they have had such confidence in the system of 
collective bargaining that the following year has found them again 
in conference with the union. 

Si litem cut of disputes. — The annual agreements between the union 
and the manufacturers are so inclusive and definite in terms, and 
present in such detail practically all the conditions of employment, 
that most of the disputes arising during the year can be settled by 
merely consulting a particular rule of the agreement. For instance, 
with respect to prices the agreement states that a bottle shall "be 
rated at the same price and subject to the same rules in regard to 
weight as those specified in the bracket which they resemble in size, 
shape, weight, and finish." Under such instructions there can be 
little room for disagreement. 

On the other hand, disputes may arise in which no question as to 
the interpretation of the rules is involved but where one or the other 
of the parties has deliberately violated or disregarded the agreement. 
102511°— 17 20 



306 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The first step in the adjustment of disputes is to refer the matter 
to a conference of the employer and a factory committee. When 
no settlement can be reached, the question is referred either to the 
president of the union or to one of the executive board whom the 
president designates as his representative. The president's decisions 
are final unless reversed at the next joint conference. Although the 
president of the union has been acting as arbitrator since 1902, his 
decisions have been but rarely reversed. Most of the matters 
decided by him have been concerning prices. In those cases where 
the joint conference has found the prices fixed by him to have been 
too high the employer is reimbursed for the excess' wages paid, 
and, conversely, when the prices have been fixed too low the 
employer is required to make up the difference to the workmen. 

The great centralization of power in the hands of the national 
organization and the apparent opinion of the members of the union 
that such centralization is wise have resulted in the universal support 
by the "branches" of the mandates of their national officers and of 
the decisions of the joint conference. Similarly, among the manu- 
facturers, the attempts to violate the agreement by locking out 
employees, or by running shops under rules contrary to those adopted 
by the conferences, have been few and far between. In this case, 
however, compulsion upon the manufacturers has not come from the 
manufacturers' association. This organization has little control over 
its members and can, therefore, do little toward forcing them to 
live up to the decisions of the joint conference. 

While the power to compel obedience resides neither in the hands 
of the union or its president nor in the manufacturers' association t 
two forces operate potently to keep manufacturers from violating 
the agreement — the desire of manufacturers to avoid any action that 
might result in a discontinuance of the annual conferences and the 
strength of the union, which is able by threatening to withdraw their 
working force to bring recalcitrant employers into line. 

Strikes. — The bottle branch of the glass industry has been very 
free from strikes. According to the late president of the union, 
Mr. Denis A. Hayes, 1 there has not been a national strike in the 
union since 1884. When it is considered what manifold hardships 
to both labor and hand manufacturers attended the introduction 
and use of the automatic machine, it is strange that conflicts did 
not occur during this period at least. In order to meet the competi- 
tion of machines working rules and wages had to be radically 
changed. For a long period following their first use wages remained 
stationary or were reduced, but even with such a condition no serious 
labor trouble resulted. 

HOURS OF LABOR. 

Most of the hand bottle factories work on the two-shift system, 
although about 20 factories now work three shifts. The three-shift 
system is comparatively new in hand bottle factories. It is only 
one of a number of changes which manufacturers, with the consent 
of the union, have been required to make in order to meet the com- 

Eetition of the automatic machines. It assists the manufacturer 
ecause of the increased production resulting, and it benefits labor 

1 Report to the 1915 convention, p. 14. 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 307 

because it provides employment for the men thrown out of work 
in increasingly large numbers as the use of the automatic machine 
grows. The fchree-shifl system was made a part of the wage agree- 
ment in 1909. Later the manufacturers agreed to a division of 
work where there was not a sufficient number of men to make up a 
third shift but more than could be employed in two shifts. 

One of the early steps taken by the union with a view to shortening 
the hours of labor in bottle factories was to induce manufacturers to 
abolish the Sunday night shift. Some time after this had been 
accomplished the 4 o'clock stop agreement was secured from the 
manufacturers. Later the Saturday half holiday for five months of 
the year was granted. The union has fought strenuously to obtain 
the Saturday half holiday the year around, but has not succeeded 
in this as yet. Mr, Denis A. Hayes, late president of the union, 
commenting on the subject of the Saturday half holiday in his 
annual report for 1916, said: 

Most of the skilled trades cease work at noon Saturday during the entire year; 
some do not work at all on Saturday, and many of the unskilled trade-unionists have 
succeeded in enforcing the same thing. However, there is this phase of the question 
that can not be overlooked, and that is that, while we may be successful in enforcing 
a request for a Saturday half holiday the year around, we must not lose sight of the 
fact that the automatic is in continuous operation from Monday morning "until the 
following Sunday morning, and in some instances does not stop even on Sunday. 
Could we, by persuasion, reason, or logic, induce the companies operating the auto- 
matic machine to closedown their plants at noon on Saturdays, there would be little 
opposition on the part of the hand manufacturers to do likewise. 

The following are the rules relating to hours of labor as agreed 
upon between the manufacturers and the union workers on the flint 
prescription (covered pot) and the glass vial and bottle lists: 

Eight and one-half hours per day (actual working time) shall constitute a day's 
work, commencing at 7 o'clock in the morning, 15 minutes tempo at 3 p. m., and 
stop work at 5 p. m., except on Saturday, when there shall be no afternoon tempo, 
and work shall stop at 4 p. m.; the night shift to work eight and one-half hours also, 
and there shall be no Saturday night work. 

During the months of May, June, July, August, and September work shall cease 
12 o'clock noon on Saturday. 

There shall be a stop of L5 minutes for each and every open pot to set, and 30 minutes 
for every monkey covered pot, and 1 hour for large covered pot. 

The rules relating to the hours of labor for the workers on the 
United, O'Neill, and the one and two man narrow-mouth machines 
(machine and press department) are as follows: 

We shall work six days per week on daywork turn and five nights per week on 
night turn, making an average of five and one-half days per week, except during the 
months of May, June, July, August, and September. 

When working I luce shifts, work shall begin not earlier than 7 a. m Monday. 
Actual working time to be seven and one-half hours per day, with one-half hour for 
dinner. Work to cease not later than 4 p. m. Saturday. Second and third shifts 
shall work seven and one-half hours also. 

In the stopper-grinding department the rule is as follows: 

Fifty-three hours shall constitute a week's work in the stoppering department. 
Each day's work to start al 7 a. m. 

The following holidays are observed by all departments under 
the authority of the union: Labor Day and night, Thanksgiving 
Day and night, December 24, night; Christmas Day and night, 
Decoration or Memorial Day and night, July 3, night; and Fourth 
of July, day and night, or the day set apart when any of the above 



308 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

holidays falls upon Sunday. In Canada, Victoria Day is observed 
instead of Decoration Day and Dominion Day instead of Fourth of 
July. 

SUMMER STOP. 

Owing to the inroads made by machines, particularly the auto- 
matic and semiautomatic, on the business of the hand bottle manu- 
facturers, the union, after resisting for a long time, finally agreed to 
a modification of the summer stop in order to increase the production 
in hand bottle factories, so that the manufacturers might better 
compete with the automatics. The summer stop was reduced to 
two weeks in hand and four weeks in machine bottle shops, the 
length of the summer stop as it now prevails. The argument used 
by the hand manufacturers to secure a longer season, and one that 
was effective with the union, was that the automatic and semiau- 
tomatic machine plants were in constant operation the year round, 
working three shifts in 24 hours, Saturday afternoons, and frequently 
on Sunday. Working so continuously, they abtained a large prod- 
uct, and therefore a cost so low that the hand manufacturers could 
not compete unless they were allowed a longer season. In addition 
it was pointed out that work was lost to the hand blower and busi- 
ness to the hand manufacturers, which was secured by the machine 
factories, in consequence of the summer stop. 

APPRENTICES. 

The apprentice question has been the cause of much contention 
between the manufacturers and the union. Manufacturers natu- 
rally have desired to have the ratio of apprentices to journeymen as 
large as possible, in order to have an excess of labor available. The 
union has resisted strongly any attempt to increase the number of 
apprentices allowed to each journeymen, because the union has the 
utmost difficulty in ordinary times to find places for its men. With 
new journeymen coming on, as their apprenticeship is served, the 
task becomes even more difficult. At times conditions have been so 
acute that the manufacturers have agreed to the suspension of the 
apprentice system during a season. Following a bad season in 
1914-15, the union at its annual convention passed a resolution 
that "no apprentice shall be taken for the blast of 1915-16." A 
similar resolution was adopted at the convention of the following 
year. A resolution was also introduced which recommended that 
the ratio of apprentices to journeymen should be the same in all 
departments. At the annual wage conference of manufacturers 
and representatives of the union held to fix rates and settle other 
matters for the year 1916-17 the apprentice question was settled 
on the basis of 1 apprentice to every 15 journeymen. 

Prior to September, 1913, apprentices received 50 per cent of a 
journeyman's wages. At that time the agreement was changed so 
that apprentices now receive 75 per cent of a journeyman's wages. 

The following are the union regulations as they now exist with 
reference to apprentices: 

Firms who from any cause reduce the number of their journeymen must also reduce 
the number of their apprentices in the proportion to the journeymen employed at 
the time of reducing their working force, so that they at all times shall be within 



WAGES AND LABOE CON NTS. 309 

Example: If the proportion was 1 apprentice to 3 
journeymen before reducing their working force, the reduction would be 1 apprentice 
to :; journeymen. 

When the condition of the trade warrants the issuing of permits to apprentices 
who are unemployed, all such permits arc to be uniform, and do permit shall be 
issued in an apprentice unless it meets with the approval of tin branch controlling 
the apprentice is to be employed. 
Firms having put in an apprentice and from am can." 
trade he can uot be duplicated, bul should an apprentice die during the firsl year 
of his apprenticeship he must be duplicated during that season. 
An apprentice shall serve not more than foui of 40 working months, 

the date of being pur in to blow. No loss of time to be charged against the 
apprentice unless the time so lost can be reasonably attributed to said apprentice. 

An apprentice who may .so to work or continue to work in any factory where asso- 
ciation blowers are on a strike shall be fined $100 in addition to his regular initiation 
Less otherwise ordered by the president and executive board. 
No one shall be considered an apprentice unless he be put in a place to blow. 

EXTENSION OF LABOR-ORGANIZATION CONTROL. 

Xonunionisin does not exist very extensively in the bottle business. 
The danger which threatened the union from this source as a result 
of the new conditions following the introduction of the automatic 
machine was quickly met by the organization taking steps to encour- 
age the nonunion men to form local unions, which were later merged 
into State organizations. The plan was proposed by the president 
of the union in 1904. At that time there were 15 nonunion plants 
in operation in Indiana and 6 out of blast. In the annual report of 
the vice president of the union for 1914-15 it is stated that there 
were then only three nonunion factories in operation and three out 
of blast. The late president of the union, Mr. Denis A. Hayes, com- 
menting on the situation in Indiana, which has been termed the 
"hotbed of nonunionisnv' by the union officers, in his annual report 
for the year 1915-16, said: 

In spite of the low wages paid to men in nonunion factories, there has been a notice- 
able falling off in the number of plants operated and the men employed. This, in 
a large measure, is due to the efforts of our association in dealing with this problem. 
Realizing that with such a formidable competitor as the automatic we should have 
to make radical changes in our wages and working rules, and that a number of our 
men would be displaced, our first thought was to safeguard their interests as best 
we could and prevent any increase in the number of nonunion men and factories. 
This was done systematically and thoroughly, and it is gratifying to say that our 
plans have been successful. * * * We are fonning them into an auxiliary organi- 
zation and are making them self-reliant. To-day their affairs are conducted through 
committees the same as ours, and they hold meetings to discuss matters pertaining 
to the trade. 

TABLEWARE AND LIGHTING GOODS. 

Manufacturers interviewed during this investigation were of the 
opinion that locality had very little bearing on the class or quan- 
tity of labor available, although it was thought that large towns arc 
attractive to labor in general. It was also thought advantageous 
for several factories to be located in the same vicinity, as in that 
case more labor is available, and a manufacturer is less liable to 
find himself short of help; or, if he becomes short handed, he has 
less difficulty in filling the places. 



310 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



NUMBER OF UNION WORKERS. 

The American Flint Glass Workers' Union is composed of workers 
that make blown and pressed ware, which includes tableware, bar 
goods, lighting goods, laboratory ware, vases, and miscellaneous arti- 
cles. It is the only union of workers in tableware and lighting- 
goods factories. It was established in 1878 and is affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

Not all establishments are unionizred. In establishments where the 
union is fully organized, it includes the skilled and some of the semi- 
skilled employees. The membership of the union by departments 
during the last 10 years is shown in the following table: 

Table 106. — Membership of the American Flint Glass Workers' Union, by 
Manufacturing Departments, 1907 to 1916. 

[From report of the national secretary-treasurer, 1916.] 



Departments. 



Press 

Cutting 

Chimney 

Punch and stem . 

Bulb 

Mold making 

Paste mold 

Caster place 

Iron mold 

Shade and globe . 

Machine press 

Insulator 

Engraving 

Stopper grinding. 

White liners 

Prescriptions 

Lamp workers . . . 



Total . 



1 , 629 
371 

1.520 
358 
666 
463 
504 
383 
369 
209 
278 
61 
22 
8 
154 



1,664 

1,519 

1,504 

371 

671 

488 

513 

, 380 

347 

218 

227 

56 

19 



1,911 
2,217 
1,411 
433 
636 
506 
530 
311 
365 



1,928 
2. 25S 
1.400 
540 
856 
544 
478 



120 S.901 9,251 



1.929 
1..XB0 
1,150 

804 
584 
514 
441 
354 
145 

41 
62 
14 



S, 743 



2, 111 

L292 
951 
784 
658 
514 
486 
344 
134 

43 
32 



2,531 

1,711 

1,126 

1,079 

730 

672 

513 

526 

378 

138 

115 

87 

56 

19 

11 



1,692 



2. 403 

1,620 

1.271 

1.084 

648 

720 

452 

507 

345 

104 

137 

51 

49 

19 

10 



),420 



1,381 
1,150 
1, 073 
772 
739 
445 
692 
366 
101 



162 
),430 



The table shows that the growth in membership since 1911 has 
been slight. The maximum membership was reached in 1913. The 
largest actual gains from 1907 to 1916 were in the press, cutting, 
and punch and stem departments; the largest actual losses were in 
the chimney, shade and globe, and machine press departments. Of 
the 17 departments, 7 were smaller in 1916 than 1907, namely, 
chimney, paste mold, iron mold, shade and globe, machine press, 
insulator, white liners. 



NUMBER EMPLOYED AND UNEMPLOYED. 

The American Flint Glass Workers' Union has not been able to 
limit the number of apprentices so effectually as has the union of 
window-glass workers. As a result, there is usually an overabun- 
dance of skilled men, except during exceptionally good seasons. A 
considerable proportion of the membership was unemployed for sev- 
eral years prior to 1915. During the blast of 1914-15, a period when 
the depression in the industry was at its worst, the number unem- 
ployed was 1,075, or 11.41 per cent of the 9,420 members. During 
the blast of 1915-16 only a few were idle. The number of mem- 
bers in each department during the last two blasts, the number 
employed at the trade, the number employed outside the trade, and 
the number unemployed are shown in the following table: 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 



311 



Table 107.— Total Membership of the American Flint Glass Workers' 
Union, Number Employed in and Outside the Trade, and Number Em- 
ploy! i>. Blast of 1914-15. 

(From report of the national secretary-treasurer, 1916.] 



Departments. 



Total member- 
ship. 



1014-ir. 1915-16 



Employed at 



roioyi 

trad i 



1911-ir. 1915-16 



Employed out- 



rnemployed. 



1914-15 1915-16 1911-15 1915-16 



Press 

Cuttinc 

Chimney 

Punch and stem. 

Bulb 

Mold making 

Paste mold 

Caster place 

Iron mold 

Shade and globe . 

Machine press 

Insulator 

Engraving 

Stopper grinding. 

White liners 

Lamp workers . . . 



Total . 



2. i in 

1,620 

1,271 

1 . 084 

648 

720 

452 

507 

345 

104 

137 

51 

49 

19 

10 



2. 269 

1.3*1 

1,150 

1,073 

772 

739 

445 

366 
101 
128 
68 
59 
25 



1 . 929 

l!(M9 
964 
532 
674 
394 
459 



1,981 
1,062 



STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. 

In 1878-79 there was a general strike in this branch of the industry. 
In 1883-84 there was one that lasted 10 months, and in 1887-88 one 
that lasted from six months in some plants to two years in others. 
In 1893 the union employees were locked out by the United States 
Glass Co., the largest producer in the country, and other lockouts 
occurred during 1893 and the following two years. There were seri- 
ous disturbances again in 1903-4. During the last few years there 
have been numerous strikes and lockouts. 

In his report to the annual convention of the American Flint Glass 
Workers' Union held in 1916, President T. W. Rowe said: 

If you estimate our condition by the ability of our opponents, and be guided ac- 
cordingly, we are far more liable to secure beneficial results and avoid injudicious 
trouble. We should keep in mind the history of our association and remember our 
past mistakes. 

We must not forget the serious trouble in which we were involved and the causes 
leading to those conflicts, and we must not become intoxicated with the idea that we 
have sufficient ability to demand unreasonable things and secure them without re- 
sistance. * * * We should try to accomplish our desires without repeating the sad 
and sacrficing experiences of the awful past, and that can only be done by exercising 
the highest degree of intelligence and equity. 

On June 1, 1915, there were strikes in eight plants, and the number 
on strike was 625, or 15 per cent of the 9,420 members of the union in 
that year. During 1915-16 employment was found for all of the 
strikers. 

PIECE AND TIME WORK. 



The strike of 1888 involved the question of piece and time work. 
The strikers bitterly resisted the piece-price system, but finally 
yielded, and it went into effect and has continued until the present 
time. It is now almost universal for skilled occupations. 



\ 

312 i THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Manufacturers who were interviewed during the investigation said 
that the employees would now be as unwilling as they themselves to 
go back to the old system. They said that the piece-work plan is 
fairest to all concerned; that it is the only system economically 
sound, for it permits a man to earn according to his ability; and that 
it is more satisfactory to the men, because the efficient man receives 
all he can earn. Tins is a great incentive to them, and makes for 
better conditions. 

It is of the highest importance to the manufacturer to get the maxi- 
mum production, and this can be obtained only when the men are 
paid piece rate and not time rate. The piece-rate system is of very 
great value to the manufacturer, because it is the only scheme of 
pay which permits him to know what his product costs. By it he 
knows what the skilled labor, the highest element of cost of an article, 
will be before he manufactures it. Hence he is able to think intelli- 

fently about his selling prices. If the men were paid so much per 
ay, it would be very difficult, if not impossible, to keep accurately 
the necessary records of production by which the labor cost in an 
article could be determined. 

HOURS OF LABOR. 

The custom in tableware and lighting-goods factories is to work 
two shifts daily in the shops, although some small factories some- 
times work only one, and the larger ones in times of slack demand 
also do this. "Where there are two shifts, the day shift works 11 shifts 
a week, Monday to Saturday noon, inclusive, and the night shift 
works 10 shifts a week, Monday night to Friday night, inclusive. 
The day shift alternates with the night shift every week. 

While there is no agreement between the manufacturers and the 
union with respect to the number of shifts, it is quite likely that any 
attempt to operate three shifts in a union factory would be resisted 
by the workers, although they desire an 8-hour day. When the ques- 
tion of an 8-hour day was discussed in the annual conference between 
the manufacturers and the representatives of the union, held in 1914, 
several manufacturers expressed themselves in favor of granting the 
8-hour day, provided they were allowed to have three shifts. The 
latter proposal was not favored by the union representatives, and the 
president of the union expressed the views of the union as follows: 

The members of the union are not securing steady work at the present time, and if 
we adopted the 8-hour day basis and the employer insisted on three shifts, we would 
produce more glass workers, more glassware, and, instead of working steady, we would 
have a large army of members irregularly employed, with all the dissatisfaction that 
accompanies a condition of this kind. 

Manufacturers claim that shortening the working time to 8 hours 
a day without three shifts would result in decreased production, and 
consequently higher costs. 

In the 1914 conference the union representatives stated that in 
other lines of manufacturing an 8-hour day was the rule. The manu- 
facturers replied that in glass factories the glass workers on day shift 
worked only 11 turns, five and a half days a week, and the glass 
workers on night shift only 10 turns, or five nights a week, and if the 
turns were reduced to 4 hours, the day shift would work only 44 hours 
a week and the night shift only 40 hours, an average of 42. The 



WAGES AND LABOB CONDITIO] 3. 313 

manufacturers als i stated it was unfair to urge an 8-hour day when 
the men often did no1 do four hours' work in a turn. They cited 
here the i ten did bheir turn's work in as short a time as an 
hour and fifteen minutes, and from that on up to four hours. After 
much debate and discussion, the conference agreed on the following 
proposition: 

Four and one-quarter hours shall constitute a turn's work in ;ill glass-working de- 
partments now world] imited system of production, excepting the m 
department, this to become effective January I. L915. Fifty hours shall coi 
week's work in the cutting department, this to becon ■ October 1, 1914, with 
the understanding thai the 50 hours can be worked on 50 hours' pay. 

Union glass workers on a limited system, that is where the number 
of articles produced is limited by union rules, work from four and a 
quarter to four and a half hours per turn in the different departments. 

THE ''MOVE" SYSTEM. 

The price list that is agreed upon yearly by the union and the 
manufacturers contains the wages per turn or the piece prices of the 
skilled workers, and also the number of articles which it is expected 
that each of the workers in certain departments shall make during 
a turn. The number is called a "move," and for an article that can 
be made quickly is larger than that for an article which requires 
more time in production. 

Formerly there was a limited turn system on all ware, under which 
the worker was nor allowed to make during a turn articles in excess 
of the number prescribed by the move. He was, however, paid the 
union scale rate per turn, whether or not he reached the move. 
Urged by the manufacturers, the union has abolished the move in 
some branches or departments. 

At present some union men work on a limited piece-price basis, 
some on an unlimited piece-price basis, others on a limited turn basis, 
and others on an unlimited turn basis. Each department legislates 
as to its own conditions, and, independent of other departments, 
makes wage agreements with manufacturers. 

Under the unlimited turn system, the worker that falls below the 
move receives the scale rate for a turn, but if he exceeds the move, 
he is paid for the excess at the move rate. If, for instance, the move 
were 300 and the wages per turn S3, the worker would be paid 1 
cent for each good piece made over 300, or $4 for 400. 

Manufacturers generally object to the move system, and consider 
that it is economically wrong to both the manufacturer and worker 
to limit the production of the latter. They say that the rule operates 
to prevent them from picking the desirable men and eliminating the 
poor workers. They urge the necessity of unlimited production in 
order that they may meet foreign competition. 

Many members of the union are opposed to the move rule, but 
they are the rapid workers and are in the minority. The effect of 
the rule is to increase the cost of production. Without the rule, each 
factory would seek to get as large a proportion of rapid workers as 
possible, and in a factory that increased its proportion of such workers 
the output per individual would be larger and the number of workers 
employed would be smaller. The rule results in a larger number 
being employed and in equal pay, though not equal output, for all 



314 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

workers. Most of the workers to whom the move applies favor its 
retention because it operates to provide places for more men, and 
because, without this restriction, there would be, on a full-time basis, 
overproduction and the manufacturing season would be shortened. 

SUMMER STOP AND HOLIDAYS. 

Wages in the skilled occupations in tableware and lighting goods 
factories are not so high as in window glass, but the "season" is 
much longer. Most departments operate throughout the 12 months, 
with no shut-downs, except for two weeks in the summer and on 
certain holidays. 

New Year's Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Memorial Day, and 
Christmas are observed as holidays by union workers. In addition, 
most of the departments do not work New Year's eve or Christmas 
eve and night. 

One of the most important considerations relating to wages is that 
of overproduction. In the manufacture of tableware and lighting 

foods this condition is not usually so critical as in window-glass or 
ottle factories, but it exerts an important influence on wages. The 
union has sought to control this condition by limiting production 
through the operation of the "move." 

Manufacturers have always favored operating their plants as con- 
tinuously as possible. This results in a maximum product and there- 
fore lower costs. The union has opposed this, on the ground that, 
if the plants operated continuously, there would be an overproduction 
which would result in bad business conditions. This would mean 
irregular employment for labor, with all its attending hardships. 
At present the summer stop is for a period of from two weeks in most 
departments to four weeks in a few. 

APPRENTICES AND CHILD LABOR. 

The number of apprentices that the union allows in some depart- 
ments is as follows: Hand press department, 2 apprentices to each 
10 pots, 1 to each 15 journeymen on continuous tanks; machine press 
ware department, 1 apprentice to each 10 journeymen or majority 
fraction thereof each year; punch tumbler and stem ware department, 
1 apprentice "shop" on offhand pulled-out stem ware in each factory; 
cutting department, 1 apprentice to each 4 journeymen or majority 
fraction thereof; engraving department, 1 apprentice every two 
years to each shop employing 2 or more journeymen. A shop 
employing 9 or more journeymen is entitled to one apprentice every 
16 months but never more than three. 

Child labor may be said to exist no longer in the glass industry in 
the United States. Most of the States have laws which forbid the 
employment of children. Very light work is required in many 
occupations in which boys were formerly employed but which are 
now filled by adults. When the laws went into effect manufacturers 
were compelled to substitute men in the places of boys and pay 
correspondingly higher wages. Manufacturers complain of the lack 
of uniformity in the various State laws relating to child labor. Few 
of the States have exactly the same age limit for employment, and 
when two adjoining States have different laws, the manufacturer 
where the age limit is highest is at a disadvantage. One manufac- 



WAGES AND LABOR CONDITIONS. 315 

hirer who was interviewed said that the worst effect of the laws 
prohibiting the employment of boys was not the resulting increase 
in the labor cost but tne fact that employers could not train boys in 
the trade. 

WOMEN EMPLOYEES. 

Of the women employed in the glass industry, nearly all are 
employed in establishments manufacturing tableware and lighting 
goods. They are not employed in any of the blowing, pressing, or 
annealing occupations. 

In tableware the occupations filled in part or entirely by women 
are sorting, selecting, cracking off, grinding, glazing, washing, wiping, 
etching plate, etching needle, decorating, cutting, smoothing, mold 
cleaning, wrapping, and packing. 

In lighting goods the occupations at which women work are inspect- 
ing, gauging, glazing, finishing, washing, marking for cutters, deco- 
rating, mold cleaning, wrapping, cartoning, packing, and as chain 
girls. 

None of these occupations requires much skill, but in most of them 
dexterity is essential. None of them is exceptionally taxing to the 
strength. It is asserted that some of the occupations in which 
women are employed in the decorating department are harmful to 
health because of the fumes of acid used in decorating. 



CHAPTER IX. 
FEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 

LACK OF EFFICIENCY IN MANUFACTURE AND SELLING. 
CHEMISTRY. 

Glass being the result of chemical reactions, it would seem that a 
knowledge of chemistry would be absolutely essential to the glass 
manufacturer in order that he might be enabled to produce the 
finest grade of desired glass at the smallest possible cost. 

The average manufacturer's chemical knowledge of the materials 
that enter into the manufacture of glass is very vague and indefinite. 
Exceptionally few men in the United States have carried on any 
scientific investigations or experiments, and it is to be regretted that 
there is such a woeful lack of chemical knowledge. It appears as if 
all the energy of the glass makers in recent years has gone into the 
perfecting of machinery as the one means of lowering cost. The 
batch could take care of itself. That the most perfect machine is 
absolutely useless with bad glass or glass of excessive cost does not 
appear to have been taken into consideration. The manufacturer's 
lack of chemical knowledge would, however, be harmless if chemists 
were employed. In the plants visited by the agents during this 
investigation, not more than one chemist was found to about every 
20 plants visited; they were usually employed by only the largest 
companies. Mr. R. L. Frink, one of the few men in this country who 
has carried on any research work, has the following to say: 

I found that glass making to-day is carried on with no regard to definite proportions 
or consistent methods of operation; that it is void of any true knowledge, and is 
essentially an industry based and operated upon and subservient to personal opinions 
and prejudice, poisoned by legendary ideas and jealousies, and made generally un- 
wholesome by lack of progressiveness or any initiative on the part of those who might, 
if they would, arise from this quagmire and put themselves on a basis of scientific 
fact. 1 * * * 

One frequently hears the remark that a chemist or scientist is of no use in a glass 
factory. This, no doubt, in a measure is true, for it is seldom, if ever, that a chemist 
or scientist will be able to find a manufacturer or owner who would for a moment think 
of wasting time or money in the consideration or adoption of the suggestions of such 
individuals, at least not until they are confronted with a situation that legend, sorcery, 
prejudice, and guesswork can not account for or overcome. 2 * * * 

As a matter of fact, there are a great many so-called first-class glassmakers, and men 
who are responsible for large productions and the finest quality of ware, whose knowl- 
edge of the constitution of glass begins and ends the moment when the material enters 
the furnace , and as a matter of fact many of them still believe that glass is composed of 
sand which has been reduced to a molten state by being placed in a mixture with such 
ingredients as lime, soda, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, cryolite, antimony, zinc oxide, 
borax, or whatever else their batch formula may call for, and that after it has been 
subjected to fire all of the ingredients with the exception of sand go up the stack. It 
is only the more progressive individuals who have studied this matter, who have 
benefited by research, and who have any true conception of the actual composition of 

1 Transactions, American Ceramic Society, 1909, Vol. XI, p. 304. - Ibid., p. 313. 

316 



- T THE INDUSTRY. 317 

es thai thej they, in many insfc i 

true knowledge as to the properti the glass by the materials they use, and 

in tad there is bul little a :tual specific knowledge available. 

It i- true thai in Europe, and in rec< ntry, there I 

considerable progress in the making of certain glasses for -j ial. purposes 

owe much to Guignand, Bontemps, Schott, Eovestadt, Harcouxt, and others, who 
having contributed greatly to our knowledge of the composition and making of optical 
lanufactured in closed pots, or under conditions whereby perfect control 
could be had of the atmospheric, melting, and temperature conditions. But there 
has been little or nothing done, in a practical way at least, to give us specific informa- 
tion as to the erfe fe of the chemical constitti when the same is made in 
tank furnaces, in open pots, or under varying tire conditions, or how they affect our 
various processes 01 manufacture. 1 

The lack of research and experimental work lias been generally 
attributed to the expensiveness of carrying on such work, which 
being impossible of satisfactory performance in a laboratory, re- 
quires costly furnaces and equipment. Mr. Frink offers the follow- 
ing solution: 

What the glass industry needs and mi ome much more than 

a school of conjecture is "a Wedgewood or a Schott, assisted by a society of research, 
which shall have a backing and be subsidized by the Government or by every manu- 
facturer in the business. 2 

MACHINERY. 

Though much time, money, and energy have been expended in 
inventing, perfecting, and introducing machinery and mechanical 
ss that do away with skilled hand labor and lower the cost of 
production, glass manufacturers, as a rule, have been very lax in 
investigating the merits of such labor-saving machines and devices, 
with the result that every year finds many of the hand plants driven 
from the business, while those who remain continue to suffer losses 
resulting from competition with the machine-made product. 

In addition to higher costs, hand plants continue to be confronted 
by the serious boy problem. Low wages, limited opportunity for 
advancement, and especially the high age-limit laws in effect in many 
States, have curtailed the supply of young men and women who do 
the unskilled work around a glasshouse. 

The future success of the glass industry and of the individual who 
desires to remain a glass manufacturer depends to a very great 
extent upon the adoption and continued use of machinery and labor- 
saving devices. 

BUILDINGS. 

Glasshouses are generally antiquated. They are usuallj* 
structures put up in the formative period of the industry and have 
outlived their usefulness. Very few plants are constructed on the 
plan of a modern scientifically laid-out factory. As the business 
expanded another building, and then another, was added without 
any idea as to how it would affect the entire plant as a unit. An 
agent of the Bureau has witnessed, in one of the largest bottle plants, 
coal and material unloaded from a freight car, loaded on trucks and 
carted a distance of about three-eighths of a mile to their respective 
storehouses. Inside many factories the same slipshod, haphazard 

i It. L. Frink: The Relation of Chemistry and Mechanical Manipulation to the Evolution of the Glass 
Industry. Metallurgical and Chemical Engineering. Nov. 1, 1915. 
2 Transactions, American Ceramic Society, 1909, Vol. XI, p. 316. 



318 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

arrangement prevails, decreasing and delaying production and in- 
creasing cost. 

It is to be noted, however, that many of the larger plants, espe- 
cially those erected in very recent years, are substantial buildings and 
are arranged with the idea of facilitating and increasing production. 



It seems that cost does not generally enter into the determination 
of the selling price of glass f but the price appears to be set at what 
the other fellow is selling or appears to be selling it for. Buyers have 
played off salesman against salesman and machine manufacturer 
against hand manufacturer with such great success that costs, even 
when vaguely known, have been thrown to the winds. This selling 
at the other fellow's price, or supposed price, is based on the erroneous 
assumption that the price-setting manufacturer has a correct cost and 
that the other manufacturer is equally efficient. The curbing of 
mutual distrust and the adoption of a uniform cost system will cor- 
rect the selling conditions above described. 

OTHER DESIRABLE IMPROVEMENTS. 

There is a great need for improvement in the factory buildings so 
that the present excessive insurance rates may be materially reduced. 
There is need for manufacturers to get into their factories and really 
learn the glass business, instead of concentrating on the selling and 
administrative ends of the business. The chemistry of glass must be 
thoroughly learned, and research and experimental work entered into 
and continued. 

It is a matter of conjecture as to whether there are at the present 
time any glassmen who can consistently predict the homogeneity, 
chemical composition, physical properties, and color, of the finished 
glass. It is essential that knowledge be obtained of the chemical 
reactions, the constitution of the glass, its physical properties when 
in a finished state, the cause and effect existing within the melting 
mass, the furnace and fire conditions, and the requisite properties 
of the glass to obtain the maximum efficiency in subsequent proc- 
esses so as to produce a finished article of maximum quality at 
minimum cost. 

There is in addition very urgent need for much practical and 
scientific research in order to eliminate poor and variable fuel condi- 
tions, bad tank blocks, inferior bricks, improperly made pots and 
molds, expensive breakage resulting from imperfect annealing, ware 
with imperfect surfaces produced by the chemical effects of the 
packing materials, and breakage due to the character of the packing 
materials, all of which result in the unnecessary loss of thousands of 
dollars annually. 

Advantage should be taken of all labor-saving devices ; antiquated 
machinery should be scrapped and hand methods, where possible, 
discarded in favor of machinery. Plants should be properly laid 
out and routing systems installed. Hand operations should be 
standardized ; the workers should not be permitted to shift about for 
themselves but should be drilled in the proper method of performing 
their work. Old methods, retained because they resulted in a profit 



NEEDS OF Tin: [NDUSTBY. 319 

in by-gone days, musl be discontinued. Accounting methods must 
be improved and modern system- installed. The installation of a 
uniform cost-finding system for the various branches, bo that manu- 
facturers can, exclusive of their degree of efficiency, intelligently 
compete on equal term-, is of the most vital importance. 

From conversation with numerous manufacturers, it is apparent 
that mosl glass manufacturers are distrustful of every other manu- 
facturer. This spirit should be suppressed. • Manufacturers -liould 
exchange ideas and cooperate in every possible way. A real spirit 
of friendliness and good will could not but work to the advantage of 
every manufacturer in the trade. 

METHODS OF COMPUTING COSTS. 

The object of conducting business is to secure profits. Nothing 
that relates to manufacturing is of more importance than ''costing. -7 
Efficiency rules may be applied in an excellently equipped factory, 
but, unless the proprietor has an adequate cost-finding system, lie 
is liable to suffer financial loss. If he does not know with a close 
degree of accuracy what the different articles he manufactures have 
cost and at what prices he can afford to sell them, he is not in a 
position to meet competition intelligently, and he invites business 
disaster. Even if a manufacturer is satisfied with the yearly profit 
which his annual profit and loss statement shows, he should know 
on which particular products he is making the most profit and on 
which he is making only a narrow margin of profit or losing money. 
Intelligent cost accounting would enable him to distinguish between 
the profits on different products, to discontinue the manufacture of 
products sold at a loss, to limit the sales of products sold at a small 
margin of profit, and to give more attention to the manufacture 
and marketing of products on which the largest profits are realized. 

RUINOUS PRICE CUTTING CAUSED BY CRUDE COST FINDING. 

Trying to fix prices without knowledge of costs leads- to ruinous 
competition. The manufacturer that sells goods at a loss, or at no 
adequate profit, because he does not keep his books properly and does 
not know whether he is making a profit, tends to force his competi- 
tors into a like situation. Price cutting is nearly always done in 
ignorance of costs, and comparatively little of it would be practiced 
in any industry if adequate cost finding generally prevailed. This 
investigation has shown that many manufacturers of glass or glass- 
ware have either no method of cost finding or crude and inadequate 
methods. Only very recently have a few glass manufacturers em- 
ployed cost accountants to study their methods of production and 
to prepare suitable systems of cost findings. Probably not over 1 
in 20 has employed experts to establish cost-keeping systems. 

The accounting methods in vogue in many glass establishments 
are not modern. All the expenses for the year often appear in a 
very few accounts, and all sorts of expenses that have no connection 
are thrown together and included in the same account. It is im- 
possible, without a lengthy analysis of such crude accounts, to secure 
much of the information with which a manufacturer ought to be 
familiar. The accounting is frequently such that it would be of 



320 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

no aid in the keeping of a cost system if the installation of such a 
system were contemplated. 

As to cost finding, with the exception of a few excellent systems 
fomid in some of the larger establishments, it may be stated that 
an accurate knowledge of cost of production is, generally speaking, 
unknown in the glass industry. Many establishments, including 
some of the larger ones, admitted that they made no attempt at 
arriving at accurate costs. Of the 213 establishments that furnished 
schedules for, this investigation, only 20 reported that they kept a 
record of recovered cullet which would indicate the cost to be added 
for defective and imperfect ware. 

A cost-fin dmg system would not only show actual cost but would 
serve as a guide or indicator as to where the cost of labor, material, 
or overhead could be lowered. The absence of such a system, 
resulting as it does in not knowing the cost of the ware produced, 
leads not only to inefficiency and waste but also to the unfair, too 
keen, ruinous competition of which manufacturers complain so bit- 
terly. The most crying need of the glass industry at the present 
time is a simple, accurate, inexpensive, uniform cost-finding system 
to be employed by every manufacturer. Only with the introduc- 
tion of such a system can the industry be made stable and really 
competitive. 

Generally speaking, only the larger glass manufacturing companies 
have made any effort to improve their costing methods. Cost 
accounting is, however, especially important for manufacturers with 
small or comparatively small capital, in order that they may meet 
the severe^ competition of those who manufacture on an extensive 
scale and whose manufacturing and accounting departments are well 
organized. It is not infrequently the case that the market for several 
lines of glassware has been demoralized by price cutting, started by 
small manufacturers, a contest in which they could less afford to 
indulge than could their big competitors. 

Many glass manufacturers express the opinion that it is impossible 
to devise an accurate method of rinding the costs of units in this 
industry. This, however, is erroneous. It is more difficult to ascer 7 
tain correctly the costs in manufacturing glass than in some other 
industries, but some companies have adopted accurate methods. 
Some manufacturers, while admitting that accurate cost-finding 
systems can be devised, raise the objection that the operation of such 
systems would be very expensive. This also is a mistake, as has 
been proven in both large and small factories where scientific systems 
have been installed. 

ADVANTAGES OF MODERN COST KEEPING. 

There is perhaps no industry in which a good cost-keeping system 
is more needed than in glass manufacturing. Not only have American 
glass manufacturers had to meet sharp foreign competition in several 
lines, but there is probably no industry that has suffered more from 
" cutthroat" competition among the domestic manufacturers. Fur- 
thermore, the introduction of and improvements in machinery have 
made radical changes in the methods of manufacturing glass and 
glassware during recent years. Hand manufacturers have struggled 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 321 

desperately against the competition of those using machine-, and 
often the market was demoralized in consequence. 

While papers showing the importance of correct cost keeping have 
been read before meetings of glass manufacturers' associations, none 
of these associations has approved any cost-finding system. If an 
association would appoint a committee to work out some standard 
scheme for computing unit costs for each branch of the industry and 
would recommend an approved scheme, most of the members would 
probably adopt it and much ruinous competition would be avoided. 

An article on the importance of computing costs of units of pro- 
duction in the glass industry from systematically kept records, 
written by Mr. John T. Fuller, an efficiency engineer, is quoted in 
part as follows : 

Only a few rears ago the selling price of most articles in glassware showed a sufficient 
margin of profit to enable the manufacturer to disregard costs. Under these conditions 
the management could concentrate his energies on the sales end of the business, and 
feel fairlv well satisfied with his profit and loss statement at the end of the year. 
Several disturbing elements, however, have crept in during the past few years to 
change these conditions, and the manufacturer who has not been able to analyze the 
situation and provide a remedv has had to face a great reduction in profit. A careful 
analysis has shown that the principal causes for this change are improved machinery 
and equipment, increased labor costs, keen competition, and increased cost of raw 
materials. 

Such improvements as the automatic presses, flowing devices, automatic leers, etc., 
have greatly increased the production per dollar invested, and likewise reduced the 
cost per article. In order to market this increased production, it was thought neces- 
sarv to reduce the selling price. Competitors found it necessary to meet this condi- 
tion by a still greater cut in prices. These cuts, for the most part, were based on 
the competitor's selling price and not on the manufacturer's cost. The result has 
been a demoralized market. 

Working adversely to this condition, labor cost has been continually increasing. 
Labor unions, increased cost of living, general prosperity, and shortage of labor are 
responsible for higher wages. This" condition in itself, however, should not be 
objectionable. It is a well-known psychological principle that a manufacturer can 
obtain greater efficiencv and larger production per man by making it possible for a 
man to increase his earnings as a result. 

Statistics show that the amount of glassware put on the market has been continually 
increasing. Despite the greater demand, this condition has created a stronger fight 
for the business and likewise a closer selling price. 

As labor enters largely into the cost of raw materials, the increased labor cost has 
affected the price of the material. In addition to this, the demand has been greater, 
therebv resulting in a very noticeable increase in the price of the material. 

A careful analysis of these conditions brings out the fact that the whole situation is 
based on the cost of the product. Improved equipment reduced the cost and enabled 
the manufacturer to reduce the selling price and still retain about the same margin 
of profit. A little later increased cost of labor, and still later increased cost of raw 
material, was brought to bear, with the result that the margin of profit was greatly 
reduced. 

All managers who are using systematic methods in figuring their costs and profits 
are of the opinion that the glass industry as a whole would be greatly benefited if all 
firms had an accurate knowledge of their costs. 

THE PER-POUND METHOD. 

One of the common, methods of computing costs on different units 
of bottles and blown and pressed ware is to divide all expenses 
for the year, except for skilled labor, by the number of pounds of 
finished glass produced during the year, to multiply the quotient 
by the weight of a dozen or gross of each unit manufactured, and to 
add to this product the amount paid per dozen or gross for skilled 
102511°— 17 21 



322 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

labor, which is paid on a piece-price basis. This method, called the 
per pound method, is very inaccurate, because more fuel and labor 
are required to make a certain weight of small articles than the same 
weight of larger articles. As a light-weight article when finished 
may cost more and be of greater value than one which is heavier, a 
larger overhead should not be apportioned to the heavier one solely 
on account of its weight. If, for instance, the metal or molten glass 
is drawn from pots, it is obvious that a longer time will be required 
to empty a pot from which glass for small ware was drawn than to 
empty a pot from which glass for large ware was taken. In some 
cases it would take twice as long and the fuel and labor would be 
twice as much in one case as in the other. Moreover, the cost for 
fuel and labor to produce an equal weight of glassware would be 
twice as much in some cases as in others, whether the glass were 
drawn from pots or from ring holes in continuous tanks. 

THE SHOP-HOUR SYSTEM. 

A more accurate method of computing the cost of units in the 
manufacture of bottles and of blown and pressed ware is the shop- 
hour system, which provides for apportioning expense to each 
unit according to the time required for producing it in the blowing 
or pressing room, as compared with the time required for the total 
production in each of these rooms. Only the indirect labor, fuel, 
and general expense are thus apportioned. Each unit is charged 
for all specific costs, such as the shop labor or direct labor, which is 
usually paid for at piece rates. 

Both the per pound system and the shop-hour system are explained 
in an article by Mr. Robert G. Armstrong, read before the Eastern 
Glass Vial and Bottle Manufacturers' Association at its annual 
meeting in 1913. Most of this article is here quoted: 

The Cost System in a Bottle Factory. 

general suggestions. 

In the good old days, when demand was more than equal to the supply, bottle 
manufacturers easily sold then output at their own prices. Profits were large and 
everybody was happy — especially the manufacturers. Scientific management and 
cost-system accounting were unknown because their necessity was not yet felt. 

But the good old days are past. Now we have factories enough to produce five 
bottles where four are needed. A species of ruinous, unintelligent, beat-the-other- 
fellow's-price competition has set in and sent many a good company to financial ruin. 

Those who have survived, realizing that something must be done, have spent 
their energies on the physical features of then- factories, and wonders have been 
performed in installing furnaces and leers scientifically constructed to produce the 
most possible and best possible glass at the least possible outlay for fuel. Labor- 
saving devices of all kinds have been installed. Division of labor has been scientific- 
ally applied. In short, many of our factories are highly effective from a manufactur- 
ing standpoint. But, unfortunately, many of them are yet without the one thing 
absolutely essential to continuous success — an accurate but usable cost system. 
What is the. use in scientifically equipping and operating your factory if you do not 
know what your product costs you? In comparison, the newsboy or peanut vender 
on the street is a business expert. They know then costs and sell at a profit or not at 
all. 

The history of too many bottle manufacturing companies has been written in two 
chapters: Chapter I. Without knowing costs, met or undersold competition. Chap- 
ter II. Failure. In manv cases the failure could have been avoided by a proper analy- 
sis of all the elements of costs, and by applying the remedy found to be necessary. 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTBY. 323 

is but little use, liowever, in installing a cost system unless you determine 
to make any and all changes shown to be necessary. Ynu may find il necessary to 
drop a foreman or some workmen whom you had counted upon because ynu discover 
thai they arc nol now efficient. Ymi may di lur'dismay thai i1 is costing 

ynu more to deliver wan' to your "best" customer than be is paying for it. You may 
discover thai certain classes of ware are costing you more and others less than you 
had estimated. It will require -nine backbone to correcl all these things, bul the cor- 
rection of such faults, discovered tlirough the application of a cosl system, has turned 
the tide oi f irtune for hundreds of manufacturers from failure to succ 

Some have hesitated in install a cost system, believing thai ii isnol possible to devise 
a system accuratelj determining the costs of each differenl style and size of bottle. 
Thai is a mistake. A system producing accurate results can be applied to any line 
of manufacture. It has Ween done in the bo1 tie business. 

Some have hesitated because they lacked confidence in expert accountants. That, 
too, is a mistake. Them are scores of men, any one of whom is an expert in such 
malic;-, wlm will give you a system built to your business that will show the costs 
and profits of cadi departmenl of a factory and of each individual gross of bottles 
made. This sen ice will be conscientiously performed and is invaluable. 

Some have hesitated because of the first cost. No one would hesitate to spend 
$500 if assured it would bring in $1,000. In the ordinary bottle factory, without a 
competent cosl system, ihe chances are ten to one that the results would be much 
more favorable than this, and they would be perpetual. 

Some have hesitated on account of the expense of operating the cost system. Let us 
supp >se thai in a 24-ring factory it will require all the time of one additional clerk at 
$18 a week -$900 a year. If the work is thoroughly done and the findings properly 
taken advantage of the result should cause an average additional profit of at least 
1 cenl a gross on the output, Such a factory should produce at least 300.000 gross of 
bottles in 10 months, showing a resulting net profit of $2,100. But these figures are 
very conservative in comparison with some actual results produced. 

ADVANTAGES GAINED BY USE OF COST SYSTEM. 

Briefly stated, some of the advantages of an accurate knowledge of costs, are these: 

(1) The exact cost to deliver any 1 gross, or larger quantity of ware, may be abso- 
lutely known. 

(2) Unprofitable bottles and orders are determined and may be dropped or the 
prices advanced to.the point of a fair profit, The profitable bottles will be determined 
and sought more diligently. 

(3) The exact result of any increase in the cost of labor or material will be auto- 
matically shown. 

(4) The cost to manufacture any bottle in any quantity may be predetermined 
with dependable accuracy. 

(5) Sales prices may be based on costs, and you will know just how low you can 
safely no. 

(i I . nintelligent competition may be eliminated. 

(7) Each bottle is made to bear its own burden of high cost resulting from slow pro- 
duction, day work, or heavy loss due to some peculiarity of the ware. It is clearly 
unfair to impose part of the expense of making a difficult bottle upon others more 
easily made. 

THE PER HOUND SYSTEM. 

The method best known for computing costs is the "per pound' - system. This 
is a dangerous and illogical system. One illustration will serve to prove this. 

Assume that shop No. 1 is working on 2-ounce round prescription bottles at 2-ounre 
weight. Production 15 gross a dav: S10 pounds at *0.03f;5S,« S2<U>3; blowing 15 trross 
at 58 cents, $26.10; 45 gross cost, $55.73; 1 gross cost, $1,238. 

Assume that shop No. 2 is working on three-fourths-ounce colognes at 2-ounce weight, 
Production 33 gross a day: 504 pounds at $0.03658, $21 .73: blowing 33 gross at 65 cents. 
$21.45; 33 gross cost, §43.18; 1 gross cost, $1,308, or 7 cents more than the 2-ounce 
round prescription bottles, and that represents exactly the difference in the blowing 
list. 

But we have four boys working in No. I shop at an average of SI. 12^ per day, or 
$4.50. Divide by 45 gross, and we find the cost per gross for boy labor to be $0.10. 

a In a letter to the bureau Mr. Armstrong explains that $0.03(558 was the figure used by a competitor in 
determining the cost of a gross of bottles of this size, and "was supposed to include all the costs going into 
the manufacture of bottles except certain specific costs, such as the blowing scale, sales commission, and 
possibly freight." 



324 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

In the case of the colognes, the 33 gross also cost $4.50 for boy labor, or $0.1363 a gross, 
a difference of $0.0363 in the item of boy labor alone, not taken care of by the per 
pound method. 

There are several other items of expense in the cost of those bottles which are 
affected in the same manner, thus increasing the inaccuracy. Further, experience 
has shown that two shops working side by side on the same bottle will vary, consider- 
ably in their output. Also that a given shop working on the same bottle will vary 
for one reason or another— an old mold, a new boy, or other similar cause. All these 
variations directly affect the costs per gross, but the per pound system does not provide 
for such variation. 

Go back to the boy wages, $4.50. It matters not what the weight per gross of the 
bottles they are making may be, whether 2-ounce, 4-ounce, 8-ounce, or more, or 
whether the production is 50 gross or 35 gross or 20 gross per day — their wages are the 
same, $4.50. _ So that this expense bears no fixed relation to the weight of the bottles 
or the quantity produced, but it has a fixed relation to the time consumed in making 
the ware. Therefore the expense, $4.50, should be applied to each gross produced 
during the day in the proportion of 1 gross to the total production. For example, if 
10 gross are produced each gross costs 45 cents for shop boys. If 45 gross were produced 
each gross costs 10 cents for shop boys. 

Take gas: Assume that gas for an 8-ring furnace costs $32 a day, $4 a day for each 
ring hole. It will cost practically $4 a day for each ring hole no matter what size ware 
is being produced or how many gross are being turned out. If it is large ware, much 
gas must be used to thoroughly melt and cook the glass. If small ware, much gas 
must be used to keep the glass hot. So the size of ware produced makes but little 
difference in the daily cost for each shop. 

Suppose the shop is working two turns on a 2-ounce weight bottle and producing 85 
gross a day, or $0,047 a gross for gas. Suppose again the shop is on a 2-ounce weight 
bottle more difficult to make and the production for two turns is 65 gross, then the cost 
for each gross for gas is $0.0615, an actual increase in cost of $0.0145 not discovered by 
the pound system, because the two bottles being of the same weight are charged 
with the same burden of expense. 

The same illustration can be given of bottles of any weight and we are led to the 
conclusion that the cost of gas bears no direct relation to the weight or the size of the 
bottles being produced, but that it has a direct bearing on the time consumed and 
should be applied pro rata on the number of gross produced dming any cost period. 

We might consume an hour illustrating the inaccuracies resulting from applying 
all the different sorts of expense items, according to the weight of the bottles, but it is 
unnecessary, as precisely the same principle applies to all such expense items as 
batch mixing, furnace tending, gas, shop boys, peanut roasting, leer expense, packing, 
shipping, interest, repairs, and depreciation. In short nothing should be figured by 
the pound except the single item of melted glass, the net cost per pound of which 
should be ascertained, and" each gross of bottles charged according to its weight. 

It would appear from the foregoing that some other method of determining costs 
than the per pound system must be adopted to arrive at correct figures. One such 
method is the shop-hour system. 

THE SHOl'-HOUR SYSTEM. 

The object of this system is to include every item of expense, manufacturing costs, 
interest, depreciation, and maintenance, and to apply to each gross of bottles produced 
the exact proportions of these costs that belong to it. If this is done, we must admit 
that the resulting figures will be accurate and may safely be used as a basis for estab- 
lishing selling prices. 

The shop-hour system recognizes two principal classes of bottle costs, viz, specific 
costs and nonspecific costs. 

Specific costs. — The method of handling these is very simple. They consist of the 
following items: Glass, blowing, mold depreciation, boxes, and packing paper. 

At the close of business each month the total production in gross of each kind of 
bottle made is ascertained. The production of each bottle is charged with the num- 
ber of gross times the blowing rate. 

An account is kept with each mold. Experience will soon determine what portion 
of the original cost of a mold is depreciated by each 100 gross of bottles produced. 
Based on this known rate of depreciation, the production of each bottle is charged 
with the proper amount of mold depreciation. 

The box-cost system determines the cost of each box produced. These per box 
costs are multiplied by the number of boxes required to pack each kind of bottle, and 
the resulting figures added to the total costs for each bottle produced. 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 325 

Light a difference in the amounts of paper required per case to pack the 
different sizes thai we assume all to cost the same p »t case. I (, i this basis the total 
costs of each bottle produced are charged with the proper amounl for packing paper. 

By a method to be explained later, the exact raw materials cosl of melted glass per 
pound is determined. The total cost of each bottle produced is charged with the cost 
pi glass used. 

To ascertain the cost per gross of any bottle, add these live items to the total shop-hour 
cost for that bottle and divide by the number of gross produced. 

Shop-hour costs. — This is a little more complicated, but easily enough handled. 
Some period of time must be adopted as the unit. The hour being short and answering 
all the requirements, is being used. 

Shop-hour costs are based on three principles, or theories, as follows: (o) A 1 manu- 
facturing costs except the specific costs should be calculated on the basis of time; 
(6) all costs, including manufacturing costs while operating, costs incurred by reason 
of a shop or shops being idle from time to time, and costs accruing during shut-down 
periods must be applied to the total number of productive hours; (c) each ring hole 
or shop must be charged with exactly the same amount of costs in the ratio of its pro- 
ductive hours, without regard to the size or quantity of ware it is producing. 

The hoar. — At the close of each month the total number of gross of each bottle pro- 
duced during the period, and the actual hours employed in making each, is ascer- 
tained. The total number of hours by the same process is subdivided into hours on 
handmade, or machine-made, or pressed stoppers, or in making amber, etc. 

The process is this: Shop No. 1, handmade ware, works 9 hours (shop hours they 
are called) on April 1. The record of their day's work is made to show this. A similar 
record is made for every shop for each day of the month, and at the end of the month 
it is merely a matter of addition to ascertain the aggregate number of shop hours em- 
ployed on each class of ware by all the shops. Suppose the records indicate 2,500 
shop hours on handmade ware for the month and a total shop-hour cost of $3,750; this 
equals $1.50 to be charged to the production of each shop for every hour they have 
worked during the period. The same process is followed for machine ware, or amber 
ware, or blue ware, or any other subdivision desired. 

This will serve to illustrate the shop-hour cost in practice: Assume the rate to be 
$1.50 per hour. If a shop produces bottles at the rate of 3 gross per hour each gross 
will have cost 50 cents, which represents the burden for all manufacturing costs except 
the five items of specific costs mentioned in a previous chapter. If the production is 
4 gross per hour the shop-hour cost of each is 37J cents; or, if 5 gross per hour, the cost 
for each is 30 cents, etc. 

Cost per pound of melted glass. — By means of forms specially prepared for the work, 
the weight and cost of each material that goes into the glass is ascertained and tabu- 
lated. These give the total weights of raw materials and their cost. The production 
record which shows the number of gross of each bottle made also shows the total num- 
ber of pounds of glass used. The difference between these two total weights repre- 
sents the shrinkage in melting. The total pounds produced divided into the total 
cost indicates the actual cost per pound of melted glass for raw materials, and this is 
the only item of the costs that should be applied at so much per pound. 

In addition to manufacturing costs there are merchandising costs, consisting of office 
expense, sales expense and commissions, cash discounts, and officers' salaries. These 
added together produce the total of general expense, which is added to the manufac- 
turing cost on a percentage basis. 

At the end of a month the records may show that 1,000 gross of 2-ounce round pre- 
scription bottles have been produced. The cost to make, sell, deliver, and collect for 
them is determined by adding together the various sums produced by multiplying 
1,000 by the following items: The blowing rate, the mold depreciation, the box cost 
per gross, packing paper, and glass, and the number of shop hours times the shop-hour 
rate at $1.50. The sum being divided by 1,000, produces the manufacturing cost of 
each gross, which we will say is $1.10. To this we add the merchandising expenses at, 
say, 5 per cent, the freight at what it actually is — say 4^ cents a gross — and the sales- 
man's commissions, all of which show a cost of $1 .27 the gross. If 5 per cent prot't is 
satisfactory, the sale price must be $1,334 the gross. 

Undor the met hod explained by Mr. Armstrong, the cost of the raw 
materials only is charged to each unit on the pound basis. Specific 
costs — for blowing, mold depreciation, boxes, and packing paper — are 
charged according to the actual cost for each unit. All other costs, 
including fuel, general labor, and general expense of till kinds, are 
apportioned on the shop-hour basis. Some accountants are in favor 



326 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

of including the fuel cost with the cost of raw materials to ascertain 
the cost per pound of material used. 

This system of apportioning costs that are not direct to the different 
units may be applied to tableware and lighting goods as well as to 
bottles. 

The cost of leering depends on the size of the article, the length of 
time necessary to anneal it properly, and the temperature required. 
The labor cost of grinding, ornamenting, inspecting, wrapping, and 
packing may be charged to each unit according to the time actually 
spent on it. The selling expense may be apportioned on the total cost 
of the unit, according to the ratio between the total selling expense 
and the total cost of the factory product during a certain period. 

OVERHEAD EXPENSE IN MAILING WINDOW GLASS. 

Where both single and double strength window glass is made, the 
cost of the metal, or molten glass, should be separately figured, as the 
relative weights are about as 5 to 8. Window class is made in several 
grades, called double A, A, B, and C, double A being the best grade, 
and is cut into panes of different sizes called brackets. The cutters 
cut the glass sheets to the best advantage, and get as much of the 
better grades and larger brackets as possible. 

In manufacturing window glass the skilled labor consists of gather- 
ing, blowing, flattening, and cutting in the case of hand-blown glass, 
and of flattening and cutting in the case of machine-made glass. The 
piece prices paid per 100 square feet cut vary under union rules ac- 
cording to thickness, being higher for double strength than for single 
strength, and also according to grades and brackets, being higher for 
the better grades and for the larger brackets. This skilled labor can, 
therefore, be easily charged directly to the cost of 100 square feet of 
each bracket of each grade, single or double strength. 

The expense for metal being computed separately for single and 
double strength glass and the expense for skilled labor being computed 
separately for each bracket of each grade, single or double strength, 
the other expense of manufacture, including the burden or overhead, 
may be apportioned by dividing this expense by the total number of 
100 feet produced, irrespective of thickness, quality, or size of bracket. 

Other methods of distributing the burden might be adopted. For 
instance, the cost of the unskilled labor on a unit might be allocated in 
the proportion of the cost of the skilled labor, which is paid for at piece 
prices, according to the various brackets and grades; or the prime- 
cost method might be used, by which the burden is distributed on the 
basis of the total cost of skilled labor and material of each unit. The 
effect of either of these methods, the latter to a greater extent than the 
former, would be to increase the burden on the larger brackets and 
better grade, and decrease it on the small brackets and lower grade. 
This is theoretically desirable, and the cost of the small brackets and 
lower grades, as apportioned by either of these methods, would be less. 
Consequently there would be less complaint from manufacturers that 
they had to sell the small brackets and lower grades at a loss; but by 
either of these methods of apportionment more burden would be dis- 
tributed to the larger brackets than is done under the present practice. 
Manufacturers could not sell their larger brackets without reducing 
their margin of profit if they should apportion overhead by the prime- 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 327 



<-(»t method; they would be unable lo compete with manufacturers 
>portion the burden according to the prevailing practice. It is, 
however, on the larger brackets that manufacturers at present make 
their largest percentage of profit. It would probably be tound that it 
would be very difficult practically for a manufacl urer to use the prime- 
lethod unless most of his competitors also should adopt it. 

PREDETERMINED COSTS. 

An article by Mr. Herbert B. Garwood shows that whether a factory 
is operated efficiently or inefficiently can not be decided without a 
study of predetermined costs and comparing them with the actual 
costs, as shown by the factory's records. Such a comparison will show 
in what departments of the factory there is preventable waste. He 
suggests that manufacturers, acting together, should publish the re- 
sults of a study of their predetermined costs for the benefit of them- 
selves as well as of their uninformed competitors. He says that this 
accurate knowledge of the lowest costs that have been obtained would 
result in the elimination of preventable waste and in a decrease of 
price cutting. Such data, if aeeessible to all manufacturers, would, 
m his opinion, cause them to fix selling prices with much greater uni- 
formity than has been customary. His article, quoted below, was 
read before the members of the Glass Bottle Manufacturers' Club at a 
meeting held in New York City September 12, 1911: 

Predetermined Costs of Manufacturing in the Hand-Blown Glass-Bottle 

Business. 

the modern theory of cost accounting. 

The greater number of those interested in the hand-blown glass-bottle business 
are agreed that the financial return on the capital invested is inadequate. As to 
the cause of this inadequacy there is a wide divergence of opinion. The manufac- 
turing department blames the selling department for low prices, the selling depart- 
ment claims that it has to meet the prices of other manufacturers, and that the manu- 
facturing department must be inefficient, otherwise they could produce at the prices 
of these competitors and show a profit; and the general management blames first one 
and then the other, as circumstances may be. 

The true cause of inadequate returns is probably unintelligent competition plus 
inefficiency in both manufacturing and selling departments, together with an excess 
or deficiency of capital, due to lack of system in the general management. Admit- 
ting this, is it not a matter of vital importance to manufacturers to know what their 
costs should be? Not what they have been, not what thev are to-dav, but what they 
theoretically should be, plus a certain percentage allowed for inefficiency and waste, 
the data being obtained from a scientific analysis of the business. 

Without this information, how can they tell whether they are operating under 
efficient or inefficient conditions? Do they know whether they are asking a legiti- 
mate profit or a legitimate profit plus a profit upon inefficiency, the latter being 
manifestly wrong in principle and bound to result in disaster? Last, but not least 
in importance, can they state for a certainty whether they are making or losing money, 
and i f the amount made or lost is what it should have been under the conditions pre- 
vailing during the period of operation? 

The old and generally accepted method of cost accounting is to ascertain costs after 
the work has been completed. The objections to it are that it delays information 
until the information is of but little value and that it is absolutely incorrect, as it 
mixes up with costs items that do not have the remotest connection with them. 

As an illustration, take this incident: A shop was making 8-ounce Baltimore ovals. 
About 2 o'clock in the afternoon the three blowers quit without notice and the three 
boys were ordered to sweep off the tops of the leers. The time sheets had the total 
wages of these boys charged to the 8-ounce Baltimore oval order, and it was so re- 
corded in the office. Is such information worth the time expended upon it? 



328 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The modem method of cost accounting is to ascertain costs before work is under- 
taken. Then, when the job is completed and the actual figures are known, to charge 
to the job the predetermined cost and to put the excess (that is, the difference between 
the actual and the predetermined cost) under an account called preventable waste, 
where the attention of all concerned is immediately called to it. 

It will be seen at once that this substitutes for the haphazard reckoning of the old 
method a scientific basis of determination. The predetermined costs are derived from 
a careful ascertainment of theoretical costs with allowance for waste and inefficiency. 
Predetermined costs are therefore never standardized. Any day something may 
be discovered which will change the theoretical cost or alter the percentage of waste 
and thus place the predetermined costs on a new level. This predetermination of 
results based on scientific certainties modified by experience is of more value than 
retrospective costs based on a servile record of the haphazard. 

In the first place, it has its value for superintendents, salesmen, and foremen. It 
has been customary to hire men for these positions and put them to work with a hand- 
ful of general instructions and then blame them for whatever went wrong. Perhaps 
they were told the owners of the business expected it to make a certain amount per 
year and that the greatest possible production was wanted at the lowest possible 
cost, and this production was to be sold at the highest price possible. Data as to 
the results, step by step or unit by unit, was seldom given them; they were hired 
and turned loose to work out their own salvation. In many cases their employers 
knew less than they did and could not have given charts had they been asked for. 

The modern method gives the men in command a chart to steer by. The greatest 
possible volume of business a plant is capable of turning out in a given period of 
time is first determined; a selling force to dispose of this output is then organized; 
the material and labor necessary to its production is scientifically reckoned; an ap- 
portionment of the overhead burden to the different stages of manufacture is made; 
the required margin of profit is decided upon and standard selling prices established. 
All of this information is mapped out for the guidance of the men. 

As the work progresses actual costs are compared with predetermined costs. In- 
efficiencies are immediately located and removed. Predetermined costs then fall to 
new levels and again actual costs are compared, further elimination of waste is made; 
the cycle continues indefinitely. The men know whether they are doing their work 
in a satisfactory manner, not only to their employer but to themselves. The salesmen 
determine their worth not from gross sales, but from net profits forecasted from pre- 
determined costs. Every employer has accurate means of judging the worth of every 
man in his employ. He is not dependent upon personal feeling or prejudice; he knows 
what are the actual results accomplished by each man. 

In addition to the help the men derive from this knowledge of what their work 
should be, predetermined costs have a use and are even a necessity in forecasting the 
results of business policies. Some years ago rather a high scale of prices was put into 
effect by a combination consisting of the greater number of bottle manufacturers of 
this country. Almost all plants operated upon a fairly efficient basis commenced to 
make what would to-day be regarded as an abnormal profit. 

Thereupon a number of new plants were started to take advantage of the situation. 
Had predetermined costs shown that these prices were going to produce excessive 
profits and the certain attraction of excessive profits to new capital been predicted, 
a lower scale might possibly have been adopted, and the hand-blown glass industries 
might have been saved some of the excess production which is to-day responsible for 
much of the disorganizaion in the business. At the time no such thoughts occurred, 
prices were fixed on the basis of what the market would stand, and in a few years 
chaos reigned. 

The greatest value of predetermined costs, however, lies in their comparison with 
actual costs and in the knowledge thus attained of where inefficiencies and prevent- 
able waste, accidents, unavoidable expenses have been found and how much they 
have affected profits. 

Suppose under the old method cost records contained an item called "Tending 
factory No. 1 " and during different periods of a year the following charges were made: 
(1) $309, (2) $315, (3) $322, (4) $385, (5) $260, (6) $340. At the end of the fourth period 
the superintendent would probably have been asked to explain the high cost of $385. 
He would have dissected his time book or cards and in three of four days reported that 
owing to a shortage of boys he had been compelled to use packers for tending boys 
and to hire a number of extra boys for the night shift at higher wages. There would 
have been more or less grumbling and the matter would have passed. At the end of 
the next period he would possibly have been complimented upon the good showing, 
and later it might have been discovered that a page of the time book had been mislaid. 

Now, assuming this occurred in a plant making nothing but beer bottles and the 



NEEDS 01 j hi: industry. 329 

production was exacl ade during 11 

period would have c made during the fifth. W< uld the salesman 

have been es pecti d to ..■• out and pel a higher price for those made at a hi) I 

and would customers have been notified of a reduction in price during the following 

period? 

Tins question is of course ridiculous, but as it is manifestly impossible to pet a 
higher price for the beer bottles made during the period of high "cost the owners of the 

must li se the extra mi ; paid out for tending. Knowing they must lose it, 

why wait I >r the end of the fiscal nize it'.' Why not immediately charge 

it to preventable loss in the books, so that when the end of the year comes not onJ) the 
• it their sources may be determined? 

Take tl tation under the oev method. Superintendents, foremen, and 

accountants are called in and wages lixed for tending. The number of boys to a shop 
lined. Allowance is made for extra boys for emergenen •.-. W a. >• increases 
during the year are forecasted, and the burden spread among the various units or shops. 
ume that the predetermined cost of tending is $2.90 per shop per shift and 
that for a certain period 100 shops are operated. The predetermined cost of tending 
for this period is therefore $290. At the end of the period let us imagine that the 
actual pay roll shows for tending $325. Turning to tending account in the ledger, 
which i- ruled and headed for three columns instead of one, we post as follows: Stand- 
ard cosl • citable waste, $35; actual cost, $325. When the end of the year 
ad the books are closed the amount of money lost and the place it disappeared 
are both known, for by the use of this system you are always losing money regardless 
of what profits you may make. This seeming paradox is explained by the fact that 
standard costs are always changing to new levels, so that actual costs never catch them, 
preventable waste .being always present. 

Let us continue to assume nothing but beer bottles are being made and the produc- 
tion is still 20 gross per shop per shift. The standard cost does not vary; therefore the 
standard selling price remains the same. High actual cost lost some money in a certain 
period, but instead of trying to saddle it on one order or group of orders* it is spread 
over the year and recognized as a penalty for inefficiency instead of a charge which 
should have been made against a customer. 

As Harrington Emerson expresses it: "A waiter bringing in an expensive dinner to 
a guest in a hotel stumbles and crashes dinner and dishes to ruin. Shall the guest, 
being put to the annoyance of waiting another half hour, be charged not only 
double price lor his dinner but also for the broken dishes, or is the expense of the 
accident to be charged to inefficiency, a general charge or overhead burden on all 
dining-room operations, taken care of in the standardized cost of each dish, without 
reference to specific accident?" 

Standard prices must always be based on standard costs. Suppose in a plant making 
nothing but beer bottles the actual cost for one period was $3.32 per gross while 
during the next period it was $3.41 per gross. In which period would you determine 
your selling price? But suppose predetermined cost was $3.24, then when the figures 
came in at $3.32 and $3.41 you would have data to talk about to the factory man- 
agement; and bear in mind these figures would come to you as the aggregate of hun- 
dreds of separate operations, so you could immediately put your finger on the item or 
items responsible for the excess and take steps to prevent its reoccurrence. 

If, as many manufacturers believe, present financial returns are inadequate, either 
costs are too high, selling prices too low, or both are at fault. Without a scientific pre- 
determination of costs, how can it be decided where the fault lies? Is it safe either 
to lower or raise selling prices? One, of course, opens the way to bankruptcy, the 
other to better-informed competitors taking away business. Information as to actual 
costs are for the private benefit of each manufacturer. It would be folly to ask or 
expect them to be divulged in a public meeting or published in any manner. Pre- 
determined costs are a matter of general interest and information to all and can be 
discussed and worked over without jeopardizing the position of any manufacturer 
taking part. 

If this could be generally realized, there would seem to be nothing to prevent manu- 
facturers taking up the study of predetermined costs together and publishing the 
results, thus educating their uninformed competitors as well as themselves to the 
necessity of Belling prices based on cost secured through elimination of inefficiency, plus 
a reasonable margin of profit. When this is done, it will be found that a closer uni- 
formity in selling prices will follow than has ever been secured through any combina- 
tion heretofore in effect. 

Other industries have followed this system pf educating their competitors and 
themselves to a true knowledge of costs to their great benefit. One example is the 
printing trade. Such a scheme is now being worked out through the Foundrymen's 



330 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

Association. Another is in the field of electricity. The number of failures among 
small electric light plants has been vitally reduced since the inception by the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association of a study of costs. The window glass manufac- 
turers are now engaged in forming an association based on educational lines to study 
the question of costs. There is no reason to doubt that such a study would be of tre- 
mendous advantage when applied to the glass-bottle manufacturing business. Is it 
not, in fact, almost a matter of vital necessity and should it not be made before any 
action is taken even for the suggestion of selling prices? 

DETERMINATION OF OUTPUT. 

No study of predetermined costs should be undertaken without first making a care- 
ful examination of the business and analyzing every step in the operations of the plant. 
Manufacturing^ costs are the aggregate of the costs of hundreds of separate opera- 
tions, and until each one of these is carefully studied and assayed and the results 
tabulated it is manifestly impossible to attempt to forecast this aggregate. There- 
fore an analysis of the glass-bottle business is necessary before attempting to take up 
the question of costs. As each step in the process is shown, the cost of that step 
can be determined. 

This analysis discloses the fact that glass is needed to make bottles; that glass is a 
mutual solution of a number of chemical substances, usually silicates, their solu- 
tion being accomplished through the fusion of their mixture by heat applied in a 
furnace. A furnace is a receptacle not only for making glass but from which it is 
withdrawn in small units to be fabricated. 

The starting point of the business is, then, the furnace. It is next learned that 
no more glass can be melted in the furnace than is withdrawn by the workmen during 
the process of manufacture. But the cost of this glass does not bear a direct ratio 
to the tonnage produced, for heat must be kept on the furnace continuously, regard- 
less of variation in amount of output. There are also certain indirect materials, indi- 
rect labor, and general expenses which continue at practically a fixed amount in 
spite of a wide range in tonnage output. 

There is, therefore, in every plant a certain tonnage which should be manufac- 
tured in order to secure the greatest possible economy in the cost of glass making. 
Knowledge of the amount of tonnage possible is the first step in the study of prede- 
termined costs, for without this the quantity of raw material needed can not be ascer- 
tained nor the number of workmen required to manufacture bottles estimated. 
Therefore we must forecast the output of a given furnace or furnaces before proceed- 
ing further. 

To ascertain the maximum output of a furnace, the inside dimensions of the melt- 
ing pot, the area of the ports, and the cubical contents of the generators should be 
known. The reason for including ports and regenerators is that if these are of insuffi- 
cient size the furnace with which they are connected will not have the same melt- 
ing power as a furnace with properly designed ports and generators. 

In 1868 Mr. G. W. Siemens, in an address before the Chemical Society of England, 
formulated his principles regarding the design of checkers, and, though many years 
with their improvements have passed, the furnaces with the greatest melting power 
in this country to day are those which closely follow the principles then laid down. 
As a matter of interest the pith of his article is here reproduced: 

"The amount of brickwork required to absorb the waste heat of a given furnace is 
a matter of simple calculation. The products of the complete combustion of 1 pound 
of coal have a capacity for heat equal to that of nearly 17 pounds of fire brick, and in 
reversing every hour 17 pounds of regenerator brickwork at each end of the furnace 
per pound of coal burned in the gas producer would be theoretically sufficient to absorb 
the waste heat if the whole mass of the generator was uniformly heated at each 
reversal to the full temperature of the flame and then completely cooled by the gases 
coming in. 

"In practice, however, by far the larger part of regenerator checker work is required 
to effect the gradual cooling of the products of combustion and only a small portion 
near the top, perhaps a fourth of the whole mass, is heated uniformly to the full tem- 
perature of the flame, the beat of the lower portion decreasing gradually downward 
nearly to the bottom. Three or four times as much brickwork is thus required in the 
regenerators as is equal in capacity for heat to the products of combustion. The best 
size and arrangement of the bricks is determined by the consideration of the extent 
of opening required between them to give a free passage to the air and gas, and by 
the rule deduced from my experiments on the action of regenerators in 1851 and 
1852 a surface of 6 square feet is necessary in the regenerator to take up the heat of 
the products of combustion of 1 pound of coal in an hour." 



NEEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 331 

A furnace built according to tin- a able to deliver 40 per cent of its capac- 

ity ever '_" hours or! and under the plan of 11 shifts ] 

220 per | acity per - aot mean that 10 | 

of capacity is the maximum output of the furnace. Such a statement would 
true, for a fui ■ arefully handled, can <!.'li\ er 50 per cen! of capacity 

d period, but it does il a1 the sacrifice of the lasting power 
of the si i big chances on the quality of glass. 

A basis of to p ( >r rem capacity allows a margin for temporary overloads through 

: the weight of bottles being made, and is a reserve in rase of trouble with 

dirty fires undoubtedly as high a figure as may safely he 

given for a season's operation and is concurred in by two glass-furnace engineers 

connected with coutt ems and by several managers. It is only fair to say, 

r, that almosl ias a diffen n1 method of reaching this result, but if 

in the end all arrive at approximately the same conclusion it may safely he assumed 

irrenl practice is well represented. 

The method generally used in determining the capacity of a furnace is to figure 
the cubical contents of the melting pol and count 150 pounds of glass to the cubic 
foot. The method of arriving at 150 pounds as the weight of a cubic foot of glass is 
as follows: 

A cubic fool led water weighs 62.42 pounds. The specific gravity of a 

Bubstance being tin- ratio of weight between a given volume of that substance and a 
like volume of distilled water, it is only necessary to ascertain the specific gravity of 
glass and multiply if by '52.42 pounds. In textbooks the specific -gravity of bottle 
glass is generally given at 2.60 to 2.90. Actual results with ordinary flint bottle glass 
show figures much lower. An average from a plant employing a chemist who made 
ea about 2.415. Multiplying this by 62.42 pounds we have 150| 
pounds. For all practical purposes 150 pounds per cubic foot will suffice. 

Having secured the capacity of a furnace in tons, and figuring on an output of 20 
per cent of capacity per shift, or 220 per cent per week, it is a simple calculation to 
tie ihe yearly output. It is next necessary to make an estimate of the waste 
between ring hole and packing box and to deduct this in order to determine the 
amount of packed product on which the basis of cost is established. In theory this 
is incorrect. The proper method would be to determine the cost of glass based on 
the output and compute the waste on each job. charge the job with the total amount 
sed, and credit it with the value of the waste returned to furnace. As this 
would introduce an endless amount of detail and complication the prior- method is 
here used. 

The question of waste between ring hole and packing box is of great importance 
and is not receiving the attention it deserves in these days of large continuous tanks. 
In the old pot-furnace days it was watched more strictly, as upon the care bestowed 
on it depended the daj s output. A chapter could easily be filled in describing 
methods used to eliminate it. Filling in at noon all the cu'llet made in the morning 
so as to stretch out the afternoon T s work and throwing spoiled bottles in the back of 
the riot are two illustrations. 

With modern continuous furnaces, records of waste as low as 9\ per cent and as 
high as 32 per cent are reported. If glass is not used for heating molds 10 per cent 
would seem very inefficient; 'mi, for the purposes of this explanation 15 per cent will 
be used. Therefore the packed output per week will be 220 per cent less 15 per cent 
of 220. or 187 per cent of the capacity of the furnace. 

To illustrate: A furnace 20 feet long, 10 feet wide, and 3 feet deep contains 600 
cubic feet; 150 puunds of glass to the cubic foot makes the contents 90,000 pounds, 
or 45 tons: 187 per cent output of packed glass per week is 84.15 tons, or slightly less 
than 8 tons per shift. The number of working shifts in a fire or blast are next com- 
puted and the annual output determined. 

At this point the probable production of bottles in gross is forecasted. As pach 
manufacturer is familiar with the number of ring holes and the size ware it. ha3 been 
customary to make therefrom, it naturally follows that by figuring the amount of 
glass packed daily by the different shops adjustments can be made in sizes to keep 
this aggregate quantity i:i agrei ment with the average daily output. 



332 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



To illustrate, let us take 8 tons as the predetermined output per shift: 

Pounds. 

2 shops, 4-ounce weight, pat-Icing 30 gross of bottles 2, 160 

2 shops, 7-ounce weight, packing 25 gross of bottles 3, ioO 

1 shop, 12-ounce weight, packing 20 gross of bottles 2, 160 

1 shop, 16-ounce weight, packing 18 gross of bottles 2, 592 

1 shop, 24-ounce weight, packing 14 gross of bottles 3, 024 

I shop, 44-ounce weight, packing 8 gross of bottles 3, 168 

Total 16. 254 

or slightly over 8 tons per shift. These daily quantities multiplied by the number of 
shifts in a blast give expected output and are a base for the establishment of a selling 
organization. By furnishing this organization with a chart of required quantities, 
the orders received daily may be lisied under their proper sizes so that the selling 
organization has a thorough knowledge of the amount of business required at any 
time during the year. If on account of the state of the market certain sizes run ahead 
of predetermined quantities or behind them, manufacturing conditions can be adjusted 
to suit and revised data furnished the selling organization, from which they can 
work in the future. 

The next step is to determine the quantities of raw materials needed to produce a 
given quantity of molten glass and cost of the same, with due allowance for the losses 
taking place during the operation of melting. 

GENERAL ACCOUNTING CONDITIONS. 

The general accounting systems of establishments in the glass 
industry are, as a rule, much better than their cost keeping systems, 
though this investigation disclosed that in some glass factories very 
imperfect methods of bookkeeping are employed. The following table 
indicates the methods of cost finding, the other accounting conditions, 
and the frequency with which inventories were taken in the glass 
factories^that were visited by agents of the Bureau. The classifica- 
tion regarding general accounting conditions were made by the agents 
and were based on their own observations. 

Table 108. — Accounting Conditions in Establishments op Various Branches 
op the Glass Industry. 



All 
I establish- 
ments. 



Total establishments . 



Establishments having— 

Good accounting records ! 

Fair accounting records 

Poor accounting records | 

Detailed unit costs I 

Estimated costs 

No unit costs 

Establishments taking inven- 
tories of— 
Raw materials— 

Annually 

Semiannually 

Quarterly 

Monthly". 

Perpetual inventories. . . 
Finished product— 

Annually 

Semiannually 

Quarterly 

Monthly 

Perpetual inventories. . . 



Window 
glass, 
hand. 



Window 

glass, 
machine. 



90 


25 


25 


3 


7 


1 


22 


4 






79 


24 


30 


4 



III. 



IV. 



Wire and 
Plate I opales- 
glass. cent 

! goods. 



Bottles, 
hand. 



Bottles, 
machine. 



NKEDS OF THE INDUSTRY. 



333 



Table 108.— Accounting Conditions in Establishments of Various Branches 
of the Glass Industry — Concluded. 



Class ification. 


VII. 

Bottles, 
hand and 
machine. 


VIII. 
Jars. 


IX. 

Table- 
ware, 
blown. 


X. 

Table- 
ware, 
blown 
and 
pressed. 


XI. 

Lighting 
goods. 


XII. 

Lamp 
chim- 
neys. 


XIII. 

Miscella- 
neous. 




27 


13 


8 


20 


18 


C 


13 






Establishments having— 

Oood accounting records 

Fair accounting records 


. 
A 
3 
5 
8 
3 

8 
5 

1 
2 


9 
2 


5 
2 


5 
1 


8 
1 

1 
1 
3 
3 

7 
2 


1 

1 
3 


3 

1 
3 




3 
8 


1 
2 






Estimated unit costs 


5 


1 
3 

3 

1 


3 


Establishments taking inven- 
tories of— 
Raw materials — 

Annually 

Semiannually 


2 
3 
3 
2 

1 

2 
3 

1 
2 


G 

1 


3 

2 


5 

1 






1 


1 


1 










Finished product— 

Annually 

Semiannually 


8 
5 

2 


6 

1 


3 
3 


7 
2 


3 

1 


5 

1 








1 


1 



























In the above table all establishments maintaining accounts showing 
a good separation of important items were classified under the head 
of "Good accounting records"; some of these employed improved 
modern methods. Those classified under "Fair accounting records" 
showed too great a consolidation of important items; those under 
"Poor accounting records" showed very little segregation in accounts 
and in some cases also very crude methods. 

Of the 213 establishments visited, 149 furnished data regarding 
their general accounting records, 105 showed good accounting rec- 
ords, 24 fair, and 20 poor accounting records. Many of the manu- 
facturers have inaugurated systems for ascertaining unit costs, some 
of which are accurate while others are merely estimates. 

In the table above all establishments classified under "Detailed 
unit costs" have either an accurate unit cost system or their unit 
records are of such detail that but little estimating is done. Under 
"Estimated unit costs" those establishments are shown whose unit 
costs are either wholly or in greater part estimated. Of the 213 
establishments visited, 21 reported detailed unit costs; 66 estimated, 
and 32 no unit costs. 

Inventories of raw materials were taken annually by 90 establish- 
ments, semiannually by 25, quarterly by 7, monthly by 22, and per- 
petual inventories were kept by 5 establishments. Inventories of 
finished products were taken annually by 79 establishments, semi- 
annually by 30, quarterly by 6, monthly by 19, and perpetual inven- 
tories were kept by 9 establishments. 

A large proportion of establishments in the glass industry neither 
had reserves for depreciation nor charged off anything on account of 
depreciation. When depreciation is not considered the manufacturer 
is often under the false impression that his profits are larger than they 
really are. This subject is discussed in Chapter III, page 86. 



CHAPTER X. 

IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 

PRODUCTION, IMPORTS, AND EXPORTS COMPARED. 

Table 109 shows the value of the production of glass and glassware 
in the United States during each year, beginning with 1879, for which 
data were collected by the Bureau of the Census. It also shows the 
general imports, imports for consumption, and domestic exports 
during each fiscal year from 1879 to 1916, inclusive. 

Table 109. — Value op Production in the United States, General Imports and 
Imports for Consumption, and Domestic Exports op Glass and Glassware, 
and Excess op Imports over Exports. 



1879. 
ISSO . 
1XS1 . 



$21,154,571 



1890. 
1891. 

1892. 



1*9". 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903 . 
1904. 
1905. 



1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915 . 
1910 . 



General imports. 



Free. Dutiable. Total. 



79,607,998 



>, 00;., 203 



$4,542 
5, 146 
19, 
16, 

12, 
10, 741 

58. 

99,623 

71,049 

61,844 
71,881 
85, 794 
92,628 
94, 242 
107,572 
123,731 
1.33,332 
166,594 
198,922 
21-9,660 
225.-160 
INN, 614 

207,9:.; 

232,202 
3(i'.l,866 
462,884 

407,976 
298.362 

mi ; 2::;, 

520.;. ,9 
630.673 
495, 179 
26 5.389 



$3,222,479 
5,221,511 
5,878,025 
6,634,371 
7, 762, 543 
7,552,498 
6, 256, 194 
6,338,097 
7,319,895 
7, 854, 725 
7,713,921 
7,352,513 
8,364,312 
8, 758, 964! 
8,021,741 
5,216,816 
6,541,679 
7,435, 
5,509,626 
3,675,045 
4,183,828 
4, 912, 482 
4, 849, 163 
6,013,963 
7, 038, 267 
6.367,585' 

5, 771, 382, 
7,308,323 
7, 378, 140. 
6,209,845 
4,806,383' 
6, 145, 788 
6,604,498 
5, S27, 391 

6, 032, (.99 

7, 574, 130 
4, 097, 18!) 
1,983,612 



$3, 222, 479 
5,221,511 
5,878,025 
6,634,371 
7,762,543 
7, 557, 040 
6,261,340 
6, 358, 085 
7,336,771 
7, 867, 263 
7,724,662 
7,411,343 
8, 463, 935 
8,830,013 
8,083,585 
5,288,697 
6,627,473 
7, 528, 420 
5,603,868 
3,782,617 
4,307,559 
5,045,814 
5,015,757 
6. 212,885 
7,267,927 
6,593,045 
5,960,026 
7,516,280 
7,610,342 
6,579,711 
5,269.267 



4, 592, 359 
2,249,001 



Imports for consumption. 



5,133.285 
5,862,270 
6,753,537 
7,597,897 
7, 553, 185 
6,340,721 
6,341,058 



7. 

6: 

20: 

16,915! 7,301,340 
12, — 

10. 



7,721,453 
7,750,577 
7,351,571 
8,525,"" 
8, 881, 902 
7,944,082 
5,035,673 
5,939,914 
6,241,477 
5,557,133 
3,711," 

4. 160. 259 
4. 
4,865,478 

6. 052. 260 
6, 969, 959 
6,404,201 
5.776,661 
7,344,643 
7,367,742 
6,175,786 
4,837,747 
6,210,134' 



206, 



870| 4, 134, 250, 
266' 2,037,042 



$3,281,543 
5, 133, 295 
5, 862, 273 
6, 753, 548 
7,598,276 
7,560,516 
6,347,417 
6,361,200 
7, 318, 255 
7,734,025 
7,761,338 
7,412,983 
8,627,107 
8, 952, 993 
8,006,969 
5,107,685 
6,032,064 
6, 344, 
5,671,332 
3,826,465 
4,284 — 
5,038,865 

5, 008, 193 
6,255,"' 
7, 199, 
6,629,130 
5,965,256 
7, 552, 771 
7, 600, 142 
6,545,636 
5,299,987 
6,626,977 
6.938,066 

6, 208, 310 
•'. '36.662 
8, 219, 112 
4,656,120 



Domestic 
exports. 



Excess of 
imports 
for con- 
sumption 

over 
exports. 



8768,644 
749, 866 

756. 022 

864. 23 
998, 857 
839, 756 
783,915 
773, 878 
883,504 
881, 62S 
894, 200 
882,677 
868, 374 
942,302 
973, 827 
922,072 
946,381 
062, 225 
208. 187 
211, 0S4 

,503,651 
936,119 
,126,309 
,960,106 
,150 

,978,481 
. 252. 799 
433,"- 
604,717 
,5(15,417 
, 173, 193 
,805,401 
2 56.391 
494. 153 
193.6 12 
729. 623 
558.717 
321,338 



$2,512,899 
4,383,429 
5, 106, 251 
5,889,313 
6,599,419 
6,720,760 
5,563,502 
5,587,322 
6,434,751 
6,852,397 
6, 867, 138 
6.530,306 
7,758,733 
8,010,691 
7,033,142 
4,185,613 
5,085,683 
5, 282, 773 
4,463,145 
2,61o,381 
2,780,388 
3, 102, 746 
2,881,884 
4, 295, 732 
5,048,920 
4,650,649 
3,712,457 
5, 118, 867 
4. 995, 425 
4, 040, 219 
3,126,794 
3,821,576 
3,691,675 
2, 714, 157 
2, 243, 020 
4, 489, 489 
b 902, 597 
610, 018, 030 



a Production is for calendar years (data from the Bureau of the Census): imports and exports are for 
fiscal years ending June 30. 
b Excess of exports over imports. 

334 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 



335 



The foregoing table shows that the imports were larger during the 
fiscal year 1914 than during any fiscal year from ISO:', to 1913, 
inclusive. During the fiscal year L913, the last full year under the 
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, the imports for consumption amounted to 
$6,436,662; during the following fiscal year, the Underwood-Simmons 
Act becoming effective on October 4. L913, they increased to 
$8,219,112. Since then there has been a great decline m imports on 
account of the war in Europe. 

IMPORTS COMPARED WITH RATES OF DUTY. 

Table 1 10 shows for the same years that appear in Table 109 the 
percentage that the imports and the excess of imports for con- 
sumption over domestic exports, were of the production, and the 
average rate of duty on imports of all kinds of glass and glassware 
computed on the ad valorem basis. 

Table I L0. — Percentage of Imports for Consumption and of Excess of Imports 
over Exports of Domestic Glass and Glassware, on the Basis of Produc- 
pion, \\i> Computed An Valorem Rate of Duty. 





age of 
produc- 
tion. 


Excess of 
imports 


Computed ad valo- 
rem rate of duty. 


Years." 


Imports, 


Excess of 
imports 
over ex- 


Computed ad valo- 
rem rate of duty. 




ports, 

age of 
produc- 
tion. 


Ondmi °n f ree 
able ""ddutt 

"■ft*- im^ts. 


P a?e e of" P° rts ' 

tl0n - produc- 
tion. 


On duti- 
able 
imports. 


On free 
and duti- 
able 
imports. 


■ 


15.51 




Per rem. Percent. 
57. 63 57. 63 


IS'. IS 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 
57.49 
60.07 
57. 60 


Per cent. 


1880 






54. 77 


54. 77 
56. 23 


1899 

1900 


7.58 


4.92 




1881 






56. 07 


1882 














1883 






55.05 55.05 
55. 63 


1902 






58. 59 
61. 74 
61.18 
57. 33 


56. G8 


188» 






1903 






59.77 


1885 






58. 57 
58.27 
61.77 
62. 10 
58. 40 
57. i 1 
54.90 
62.53 


58.51 

58. 09 
61.63 
62.05 
58. 32 
56. 87 
54.26 
59. 55 
63.29 
68. 53 
51. 80 
45.32 
46. 37 


1904 1 8. 33 

1905 


5. St 




1886 






55.52 


1887 










52.25 
53. 22 
53. 21 
54.05 
53. 83 
.-.:». 12 
52. 20 
51. 54 




1888 







1907 






1889 


18. 91 


Hi. 73 


1908. .. 






1890 


1909 5.75 

1910 


3.40 




1891 






50.45 


1892 







1911. . 




52. 74 


1893 






60. 10 
69.51 
52. 61 
46.07 
47.31 


1912 




48. 82 


1894 






1913. .. 




17.41 


1895 






1914 6. 68 


3. 65 


36. 70 
32. 91 
30.96 


33.78 


1896 . . . 








1897 






1916 




27.38 



















" Production is for calendar year fdata from the Bureau of the Census): imports and exports are for 
ending Juue30. 



The imports during the fiscal year 1889 amounted to 18.91 per cent 
of the production during the calendar year 1889. This was more 
than twice as large as the proportion in 1899 or 1904, more than three 
times as large as the proportion in 1909, and nearly three times as 
large as the proportion in 1914. 

In 1872 Congress enacted a measure that reduced the tariff duties 
on principal commodities 10 per cent. The dates when the tariff 
acts since then took effect are as follows: Mills Act, March 3, 1883; 
McKinley Act, October 6, 1890; Wilson Act, August 28, 1894; 
Dingley Act, July 24, 1897; Payne-Aldrich Act, August 6, 1909; 
Underwood-Simmons Act, October 4, 1913. 



336 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



As appears in Table 110, the rates of duty averaged highest on 
dutiable glass and glassware in the fiscal year 1894. In 8 of the 38 
years it was over 60 per cent. The average during the fiscal year 
1913, the last full year of the Payne-Aldrich Act, was lower than it 
had been since 1896 and 1897, the last two fiscal years under the 
Wilson Act. 

GENERAL IMPORTS. 

Table 111 shows the value of general imports of all kinds of glass 
and glassware during each month from January, 1908, to December, 
1916. 



Table 111. 



-Value op General Imports of Glass and Glassware, by Months » 
from January, 1909, to June, 1916, Inclusive. 



amount of general imports. 



Months. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 




$427, 150 
375,297 
472, 037 
491,541 
527. 297 
550, 656 
480, 963 
505, 525 
565,461 
522, 605 
484.645 
510,672 


$520, 155 
458.257 
662, 963 
609,623 
606, 1S5 
626,710 
635,646 
736,538 
644,345 
606. 582 
608,991 
507,045 


$502,576 
493, 4S2 
583,398 
460,450 
536,904 
505,934 
490,919 
570,497 
568,543 
591.826 
553.805 
571,664 


$500,297 
383. 158 
489,851 
504,666 
501,549 
483, S50 
546, 643 

590^ 705 
630.816 
560; 264 
512, 488 


§517,405 
463,947 
498, 674 
578,201 
520,081 
519, 732 
598,584 
594,160 
676,401 

715. 703 

678. 704 
811,148 


$682,632 
561,420 
768.349 
685', 185 
708,435 
711.112 
751,896 
508, 157 
318,392 
308,083 
4.30, 733 
429,626 


$469,452 
298. S?4 
413, 791 
226, 575 
225,717 
211. IP 
171,254 
143, 920 
138,516 
242.063 
18L017 
182,774 


$180,322 
193, 772 
-179,854 


February 








198, 163 




July 


245,256 
198.998 


September 


269, 566 
151,257 


November 

December 


257, 909 
205, 726 


Total 


5,913,849 


7,283,040 


6,429.996 


6,302,024 


7,172,740 


6,864,020 


2,905,016 


2,518,169 



AMOUNT OF INCREASE ( + ) OR DECREASE (-). 



January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November.. 
December. . . 

Total. 



$37,266 | + 
210 + 

65,330 1 + 

91,873 
165, 287 
146,114 

91,736 
117,704 
100,039 
126,083 
103,783 
111,714 



+ 1,082, 7S7 + 1,360. I-..! 



S'. 1.3, (105 

82, 960 
190, 926 
118,082 
78, SS8 
76,054 
154,683 
231,013 
78,884 
83,977 
124,346 
56,373 



-$17,579 

- 35,225 

- 79,565 
-149,173 

- 69,281 
-120,776 
-144,727 
-166,041 

- 75,802 

- 14,756 

- 55,186 



- $2,279 
-110,324 

- 93,547 
+ 44,216 

- 35,355 

- 22,084 
+ 77,808 
+ 27,840 
+ 22.162 
+ 38,990 
+ 6, 459 

- 59,176 



+ $17,108 
+ 80,789 
+ 8,823 
+ 73,535 
+ 18,532 
+ 35,882 
+ 51,941 
- 4,177 
+ 8'5,696 
+ 84,887 
+ 118,440 
+ 298,660 



127,372 +870,116 



+S165.227 
+ 97,473 
+269,675 
+ 106,984 
+ 188,354 
+ 191,380 
+ 153,312 
- 86,003 
-358, 009 
-407,620 
-247,971 
-3,81,522 



720 



$213, ISO 
262, 596 
354,558 
458,610 
482, 718 
499, 999 
580,642 
364.237 
179, S76 
66, 020 
249,716 
246, 852 



.004 



-$289,130 
-105,052 
-223,937 

- 4S,136 

- 27,554 
+ 47,794 
+ 74,002 
+ 55,078 
+ 131,050 

- 90.806 
+ 76,892 
+ 22,952 



PER CENT OF INCREASE (+) OR DECREASE (-). 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 



- 8.02 

- .06 
+ 16.06 
+ 22.99 
+45. 66 
+36. 12 
+ 23.57 
+30. 35 
+ 21.65 
+31.80 
+ 27.25 
+ 28.00 



+ 21.77 
+ 22.11 
+40. 45 
+24. 02 
+ 14.96 
+ 13.81 
+32.16 
+45, 70 
+ 13.95 
+ 16.07 
+ 25.66 
+ 11.04 



+ 22.41 I +23.15 



- 3.3S 

- 7.69 
-12.00 
-24.47 
-11.43 
-19.27 
-22.77 
-22.54 
-11.76 

- 2.43 



- 0. 
+22. 
-16. 
+ 9. 

- 6. 

- 4. 
+ 15. 



+ 3.42 
+ 21.09 
+ 1.80 
+ 14.57 
+ 3.69 
+ 7.42 
+ 9.50 
- .70 
+ 14.51 
+ 13.46 
+21.14 
+ 58.28 



1.3.81 



+31.93 
+ 21.01 
+ 54.08 
+ 18.50 
+36.22 
+36. 82 
+ 25.61 
-14.47 
-52.93 
-56.95 
-36. 54 
-47.03 



-31.23 
-46.77 
-46. 14 
-66. 93 
-68. 14 
-70.31 
-77.22 
-71.68 
-56. 50 
-21.43 
-57.97 
-57.46 



-61.59 
-35. 16 
-56.53 
-21.25 
-12 21 
+ 22.64 
+43. 21 
+38. 27 
+94.61 
-37. 51 
+42.48 
+ 12.56 



57. ( 



-13.32 



IMPORTS AND THF. TARIFF. 



337 



The foregoing table shows that, comparing each month in 1909 and 

later ycar> with the corresponding month in the preceding year, there 
creases during L909 after the firsl two months and during every 
month in 1910. During 1911 there were decreases except in Feb- 
ruary and December. During 1912 there were increases in six 
month- and decreases in six months. In 1913 there were increases 
except in August. The increases continued from September, 1913, to 
July. 1914, inclusive. In every month beginning with August, 1914, 
the month the war began in Europe, there was a decrease until June. 
1916. 

VA1XFE <>F IMPORTS BY CLASS OF PRODUCTS. 

Table 112 shows the value of the general imports of different kinds 
of glass and glassware during each month for four calendar years, 
1912 to 1916. 

Table 112. — Value of General Imports of Glass and Glassware, j.y ('lasses 
and Months, 1912 to 1916. 



■I months 



• 1912, 
January 
February 

March ' 
April 




1914 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May. 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October... 

November 

December 



61, 536- 


226, 169 


10, 73 1 


200,364 


65,S17 


23$, 530 


68, 161 


200,527 


50,767 


203, 625 


50,564 


'JUS, (If,!) 


50,217 


242, 786 


24,650 


127,919 


26,032 


70, 832 


21. 3S) 


85,111 


56,562 


163,573 


47,327 





08'>,032 

561,420 

768,349 

685, 185 

708,435 

711,112 

751.J 

~ M57 

318,392 

3)8,083 

43;), 733 

420,626 



338 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 112. — Value of General Imports of Glass and Glassware, by Classes 
and Months, 1912 to 1916— Concluded. 



Years and months. 



Cylinder 

crown, 

and 



un- 
polished. 



polished, 

un- 
silvered. 



Bottles, 
etc., used 
as con- 
tainers. 



Bottles, Lenses 
decanters, and 



and 
other 



optical 
instru- 
ments 
(includ- 
orna- ing spsc- 
mented. tacles). 



cut or 



Plates, 
or disks, 
rough cut 

or un- 

wrought, 

for 

optical 
purposes. 



All 

other. 



1915. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

M^y 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December. 

1916. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August , 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Summary of calendar 
years: 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

Summary, fiscal 
years ending June 
30: 

1913.-. 

1914 

1915 

1916 



32, 714 
26,971 
27,014 
32,570 
19,334 
17, 798 
13,296 
16,238 
27,746 
13, 490 
15,069 



17,316 
16,857 
11,670 
15,607 
12, 504 
19,958 
61,310 
21, 567 
13,449 
14,045 
102,093 
44,366 



1,070,485 
1, 316, 902 

282, 798 
350,742 



977, 211 

1,356,218 

722, 483 

197,549 



$2, 124 

2,115 

1,476 

538 



1,545 
160 
528 
4 
922 
104 

2,350 



51)11 



43,330 
69, 709 
62, 524 
45,833 
65,348 
50, 587 
53,665 
49,604 

41*998 
62,469 



60, 104 
53,047 
62,927 
81,087 
76,275 
123, 161 
86,625 
76,845 
62, 173 

59*645 
65, 789 



S48.429 
40,294 
64,862 
26, 740 
23,531 
23, 490 
16, 492 
18,203 
15, 192 
34,556 
26, 612 
23, 145 



23,571 
22,351 
23,900 
25, 134 
22, 146 
31,481 
20, 512 
28,798 
24, 144 
18,684 
30, 168 
24,355 



822,216 
14,002 
15,504 
12, 803 
12,333 
14, 744 
14,922 

15^083 
17,475 
16,860 
10, 252 



9,185 
26, 199 
10,959 

8, 642 
14,242 
16, 178 
12,316 
18,479 

9,075 
11,103 

7,509 
15, 862 



45,540 
74,913 
14,441 
34,285 
24,870 
28, 648 
19, 782 
17,093 
20, 764 
24,229 



15,725 
30, 518 
21,395 
20,324 
22,091 
25,016 
19,115 
16, 735 
121, 152 

28' 121 
23, 597 



5232,569 
120,859 
160,356 
82,515 
76,507 
63,327 
42,519 
32,205 
25,285 
89, 854 
57, 743 
52,035 



54,421 
43,255 
48, 843 
27.117 
50,901 
42, 191 
45, 274 
34,224 
39, 573 
35,077 
27,815 
30, 358 



8469,452 
298.824 
413, 791 
226,575 
225.717 
211,113 
171,254 
143,920 
138,516 
242,063 
181,017 
182,774 



180,322 
193, 772 
179,854 
178,439 
198, 163 
258,907 
245, 256 
198,998 
269,566 
151,257 
257,909 
205,726 



2611,568 
511,058 
489, 359 
7,305 
10, 160 



321,605 

727, 889 

98, 171 

3,553 



880,304 
947,807 
1,064,371 
657,299 
865,437 



S 13, 307 
,148,460 
sii5,403 
766,592 



946,602 
1,178,028 
768, 773 
361,546 
295,244 



1,032,948 
1,151.875 

545,222 
282, 783 



649,956 
770,811 
494,987 
172, 963 
159,749 



695, 135 
721,560 
312,971 
166, 766 



IM, 1)1)5 
545,422 
575, 747 
387,331 
357, 788 



504,594 
617,703 
495, 179 
265,389 



2,152,641 
2, 149, 129 
2, 153, 8S1 
1,035,774 
479,049 



2,162,403 

2,468,128 

1,611,840 

566,369 



6,302,600 
7, 172, 740 
6,864,020 
2,905,016 
2,518,169 



a6,537,293 
«8, 191, 833' 
4,592,359 
2,249,001 



a These figures are the totats of preliminary monthly returns and for this reason differ slightly from 
the revised annual totals in Table 113. 



IMPORTS FROM PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES. 



Table 113 shows the general imports of the different classes of 
glass and glassware from the principal countries exporting them during 
the fiscal years ending June 30, 1911 to 1916, inclusive. 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 



339 



Table 113. — Value ok General Imports op Glass a.m. Glassware into the 
United States During Fiscal Years Ending J one 3U, 1911 to 1916, by Classes 

AND COUNTBIE8. 



Classes and countries. 



Cylinder, crown, and common 
window glass, unpolished: 

Belgium 

knee j 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 



I..i il. 



cast, polished, and 

unsil'. i 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Netherlands 

United Kingdom 

All ot her countries 



ri.lal. 



Bottles, etc., used as con- 
tainers, empty or filled: 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Spain 

Sweden 

I in id Kingdom 

Canada 

All in her countries 



Total. 



Bottles, decanters, and other 
glass ware, cut or ornamented: 

Ausiria-Hungary 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Japan 

All other countries 



Total . 



Lenses and all optical instru- 
ments (including spectacles) : 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

United Kingdom 

All other countries 



Total. 



$688,848 

1,943 

95,037 

102,011 

1,119 



1686,455 

3,731 

102,593 

150,772 

572 



?742,102 $1,050,432 
5,391 3,979 
118,219 , l'- 
llO, 342 | 180,789 
1,097 ! 0,728 



$340,535 

2,153 

54,407 

311,300 



9.5(1, 



977,211 



730,518 
37,250 
100, 104 
61,155 
5,720 
121 



274,831 
13,5-14 
46,810 
2,589 
0,t89 
350 



202,341 

32,904 

24,203 

450 



940,924 



126,115 

10,877 
272,205 
240,358 
27,780 
33,54S 
11,140 
8,441 
108,371 
52,782 
13,883 



"11, 



130,497 
371 
293,333 
235, 100 
28,644 
20,133 
15,238 
4,820 
97,319 
61,282 
20,785 



143, Oso 

439 

277,439 

204,883 

33,5t5 

11,476 

10,820 

2,091 

87,485 

60, 5! 3 

5,550 



8)3. 



423,010 

130,408 

1"0,II27 

380,074 

28, 119 

30,940 

15,333 

84,002 

6,633 

8,727 

2,319 



1,313,457 



231,721 
172,356 
143,287 
319,431 
13,573 
21,395 1 
12,087 ; 
80,701 
1,844 ! 
1,721 
3,426 ; 



299,978 

141,436 

115,232 

332,809 

17,008 

9,108 

942 

107,416 

1,712 

2,719 

4,418 



1,001,542 ; 1,032,948 



7,508 

4,804 

318,491 I 

182,144 

63,347 



(•) 



Plates or disks, rough-cut or 
unwroughl, for optical pur- 
poses: 

Belgium 762 

France 02, 154 

Germany 172, 871 

United Kingdom | 41,535 

All other countries 71 

Total 277,393 



10,592 

I, 161 

392,513 

173,813 

103,""2 
4,004 



579,650 | 695,135 



10,812 
68,815 i 
244,703 ! 
58,005 
899 



18,894 

92,977 

249,471 

141,898 

1,354 



383,234 j 504,594 



1,350,218 722,483 



004,489 
10,401 
22,953 

9,417 
12,444 

2,185 



727, 



122,372 

32^598. 

200,010 
40,938 
22,745 
12,277 
3,401 

230,110 
78,839 
41,775 



397,028 

159,041 

118,848 

321,3(0 

19,2S3 

10,246 

330 

111,108 

2,390 

7,509 

4,000 



71,443 
2,187 
8,294 
3,472 
7,359 
5,416 



98, 171 



52,580 

1,178 

220,887 

114,343 

40,714 

10,407 

9,401 

2,758 

240,358 

60,504 

39,303 



810,493 



139,097 
30, 886 
84,597 

170,370 
13,113 
7,540 

86,364 
2,019 
8,318 
2,911 



1,151,875 



20,794 
14, 807 
103,801 
237,590 
40, 126 
4,436 



5-15,222 



721,500 



08.354 
9S;S32 
290, 151 
159,851 
512 



617,703 



4,099 
1(5,948 
104,473 
15,414 



302,971 



214,032 

184,031 

2,324 



$20,987 
5,081 

10,(55 
134,348 

19,878 



197,549 



373 

89 

1,114 



1,977 



10,922 
101 

208,475 
44,548 
30,734 
23,147 
10,124 
2,295 

194,114 
22,357 
59,775 



766, 



23,074 
2,498 
70,350 
35, 1S5 
28,710 
2,397 



103,298 

848 

12,229 



128,895 
10,478 
7,801 



166,766 



00,934 
18,982 
174,920 
10,547 



205,389 



Included in "All other glass and glassware" in 1911. 



340 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 113.— Value of General Imports op Glass and Glassware into the 
United States During Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1911 to 1916, by Classes 
and Countries — Concluded. 



i lasses and countries. 



All other glass and glassware 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium.. 

France 

Germany 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Japan 

All other countries 

Total 

Summary, by continents: 

Europe 

North America 

South America 

Asia 

Oceania 

Africa 

Total 



>445,320 

150,733 

530,928 

1,133,482 

4,443 

6,283 

7,776 

6,705 

208,758 

5,9C0 

,6,540 



$654,375 

35,150 

260,032 

903,762 

7,086 

9,924 

12, 154 

5,905 

153, C03 

5,612 

5,284 

2,683 



2,510,621 2,055,570 



$690,437 


$531,461 


£345,525 


31, 679 


130,241 


11,057 


213,565 


258, 267 


130,042 


1,051,950 


1,258,529 


S39, 213 


6,759 


8,244 


10,974 


11,139 


20,661 


21,003 


23,856 


26,007 


22,982 


4,600 


5,074 


5,253 


234, 136 


227,075 


195,331 


2.659 


4,640 


7,142 


5,589 


6,637 


10, 548 


1,889 


4,262 


12, 170 



2,178,258 2,481,098 



6, 812, 133 

69,223 

156 

21,028 



,140,002 

'170 
14,456 



181 j. 



6,41i5,542 

75,440 

70 

11,950 

122 

24 



8,074,171 

100,335 

76 

29,908 

92 

221 



6,228,626 6,553,148 8,204,803 



4,463,144 

93,780 

112 

34,707 

541 

75 



4,592, 



$51, 191 
1,058 
96, 188 
182,412 
17,771 
5,040 
30,360 
1,175 
146, 360 
6, 157 
22,019 
6,638 



566,369 



2,142,833 

44,014 

33 

61,514 

395 

212 

2,249,001 



Table 114 shows the quantities of general imports of cylinder, 
crown, and common window glass, and of plate glass, cast, polished, 
and unsilvered, during the fiscal years ending June 30, 1911 to 1916. 

Table 114.— Quantity of General Imports of Cylinder, Crown, and Common 
Window Glass, Unpolished, and of Plate Glass, Cast, Polished, and Unsil- 
vered, During Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1911 to 1916, by Countries. 



Classes and countries. 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


1916 


Cylinder, crown, and common 
window glass, unpolished: 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 

United kingdom 


Pounds. 

26,574.343 

18, 404 

791,563 

3, 831, 690 


Pounds. 

20,547,158 

38, 688 

777, 586 

3, 437, 722 

7,532 


Pounds. 

19, 786, 225 

75,059 

882, 864 

1,968,938 

21,797 


Pounds. 

27,574,477 

35,372 

977, 726 

3,586,408 

140, 776 


Pounds. 

12,074,320 

13, 794 

341,534 

4,378,232 

90,586. 


Pounds. 
404,005 
18, 154 
56, 768 
1,100,915 
196, 281 






Total 


31,249,928 


24,808,686 


22,734,883 


32,314,759 


L6, 898, 466 


1,776,123 


Plate glass, cast, polished, un- 
silvered: 

Belgium 

France 

Germany 


Square feet. 
3,270,356 
144, 879 
420, 523 
287,088 
32, 285 
223 


Squarefeet. 
1, 160, 790 
28, 275 
184,140 
12,750 
36, 089 
238 


Squarefeet. 
1,121,907 
76, 271 
75, 644 
2,000 
3,174 


Square feet. 
2,943,974 
31,010 
86,846 
44,210 
81, 566 
8,341 


Squarefeet. 
309, 542 
4,722 
22, 823 
15, 003 
27,317 
18, 202 


Squarefeet. 

'l54 
2,222 


United Kingdom 




4,550 






Total 


4, 155, 354 


1,422,282 


1,279,002 


3, 195, 947 


397,609 


8,624 



INCREASES IN IMPORTS. 



Table 115, derived from Table 113, shows, for each different class 
of glass and glassware, the amount and percentage of increase of 
general imports during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, over 
the fiscal year 1913. The fiscal year 1913 was the last full year 
under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, and the Underwood-Simmons 
Act went into effect October 4, 1914, about 10 months before the 
war in Europe began. 



IMPORTS AN! i THE TARIFF. 



341 



1a -t and Per Cent of Increase in \'.\ Imports 

ro Glassware in L914 over Imports in L913, Fiscal Yeare . 



Cylinder, crown, and common viudow glass, unpolished 

■ d, and unsilvcred 

ioys, and jars (molded;, empty or oiled 

Bottles, . e. cut or ornamented 

Lenses and all optica' instruments (including spectacles I 

ut or un wrought, (or optica] purposes 

All oth< • -ware 



Amount of 1>er n c f eDt 
increase. 



. 



1379,007 




106, 284 


126.33 


305,063 


t6 i; 


118,927 


11.51 


- 


3.80 


113, 109 


22. 42 




13.90 


1.651,655 1 


25.20 



Lown in the foregoing table, the imports of plate glass, cast, 
polished, and unsilvered more than doubled during the fiscal year 
1914; the increase in window* glass and in bottles, etc., was over 
one-third, and the total imports of glass and glassware of all kinds 
increased about one-fourth. 

Table 116, derived from Table 113, shows the percentage of the 
general imports of different kinds of glass and glassware from the 
principal countries exporting the same to the United States during 
the fiscal years ending June 30, 1913 and 1914. 

"Table I in — Percentages op General Imports of Glass and Glassware Into 
the Dotted States from Principal Exporting Countries During Fiscal 
Years Ft nb 30, 1913 and 1914. 



uid countries. 


1913. 


1914. 


Classes and countries. 


1913. 


1914. 


Cylinder, crown, and common 

window glass, unpolished: 

Belgium 


Per cent. 

75.95 

11.29 

12.10 

.66 


Per era. 

77. 4.3 

13.77 

7.99 

.79 


Lenses and all optical instru- 
ments (including spec- 
tacles): 


Per cent. 
56.47 
25.00 
14.96 
3.57 


Per cent. 
55. 96 


Germany 












All other countries .\ 


5.55 




100.00 


100.00 




100.00 


100.00 


Plate gl i -. cast, polished, 
anrt mi . 

Belgium 

D v 


81.57 

7. 55 

10.25 

.63 


91.29 
3.16 
2.25 
3.30 


Plates or disks, rough-cut or 
unwrought, for optical pur- 
poses: 


49. 13 
28.12 
18.43 
3.75 
.27 




All other countries 


tinted Kingdom 

F ranee 


25. ss 
16.00 




100.00 


100.00 




All oilier countries 


.08 


Bottles, etc., used as contain- 
mpty or filled: 


32.90 
24.29 
10.37 
L6.97 
7.89 
3. 98 
3. 60 


28.44 
22.64 
20. .50 
10. 66 
6.86 
3.56 
7.28 


100.00 




All other glass and glassware: 






48.29 
27.11 
9.80 
10.75 
1.45 
1.10 






















Ml other countries 


United Kingdom 

Belgium 

Sweden 


9.15 
5.25 
1.05 
.83 




100.00 


1110. 11.1 




Ml other countries 

Total 

Summary, by continents: 

K U rope 


1.16 


Bottles, decanters, and other 
■.are, cut or orna- 


29. 04 
32. 22 
13.69 
11.16 
10.40 
3. 19 


34.47 
27.90 
13.86 
10.32 
9.65 
3.80 


1110. 1X1 


100.00 


Hungary 

! 1 V 

Belgium 


98. 66 
1.15 

.IN 
.01 


98.40 


Asia 

All other continents 

Total 


.37 




.01 








1110.00 


100.00 


Total 


100.00 


100.00 



342 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



WINDOW GLASS IMPORTED. 

As shown by Table 113, the imports of window glass before the 
war began were mostly from Belgium. As shown by a previous 
table, Table 8, page 28, the production of window glass in 1914, as 
reported by the Bureau of the Census, amounted to $17,495,956. 
Computed on this amount, the general imports of cylinder, crown, 
and common glass in the fiscal year 1913 ($977,211) were 5.59 per 
cent, and in the fiscal year 1914 ($1,356,218) were 7.75 per cent. 

As shown by Table 123, page 356, the imports of window glass of 
the first three brackets were over 80 per cent of the total window 
glass imported during every fiscal year from 1906 to 1914, inclusive, 
except 1911. The first three brackets include sizes up to and not 
exceeding 384 square inches, or 16 by 24 inches. 

Under previous tariff acts for 20 years or more, the rates of duty on 
the smaller sizes of window glass have been lower than on the larger 
sizes. Table 117 shows the actual rates of duty on different sizes 
under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act and the Underwood-Simmons 
Act, and the rates computed on an ad valorem basis for the fiscal 
year 1913 and for the period from October 4, 1913, when the latter 
act went into effect, until June 30, 1914, the end of the fiscal year: 

Table 117. — Rates op Duty on Imports of Cylinder, Crown, and Common 
Window Glass, Unpolished, Under Tariff Acts of 1909 and 1913, and Con- 
futed Ad Valorem Rate Under Each Act. 



. 


Rate of duty 
per pound. 


Computed ad va- 
lorem rate. 


Classification. 


Act of 
1909. 


Act of 
1913. 


Fiscal 
year 
ending 
June 30, 
1913. 


Oct. 4, 

1913, to 

June 30, 

1914. 


Not exceeding 150 square inches: 


Cents. 

11 

;? 

i 

2J 

3i 

3i 

41 


Cents. 

1 
I 

1 


Per cent. 
92.10 
34.00 

107.51 
54.23 

107.94 
58.66 
50.30 
52.08 
64.27 

119.36 


Per cent. 
} 20. 77 




Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 


} 31.51 
| 32. 71 




Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 






■> 








47.74 




28.33 












41.10 


26.73 











No manufacturer that was interviewed during this investigation 
complained of the rates of duty on glass larger than the first three 
brackets, and some admitted that without material injury to the 
industry in the United States the duties on the larger brackets 
might be somewhat reduced. Without exception, however, all the 
manufacturers interviewed claimed that the rates of duty on the 
first three brackets (384 square inches and under) were too low, and 
most of them said that foreign competition forced them to sell these 
brackets below cost. 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 



343 



The imports of window glass are mostly to places on or near the 
Atlantic seaboard, the Gulf coast, and the Pacific coast. Compara- 
tively little goes fco interior points. Before the war in Europe began 
window glass was imported to Pacitic coast points and shipped as 
far east as Salt Lake City, because it was cheaper to ship from Europe 
an >und Cape Horn than to pay freight rates from Pittsburgh and other 
plate-glass manufacturing centers. The general imports of cylinder, 
crown, and common window glass by customs districts during the 
fiscal year 1914 were as follows: 

Table 118. — Quantity and Value of General Imports of Cylinder, Cbown, 
and Common- Window Glass During the Fiscal Year Ending Ji me 30, 1914. 
by Customs Districts. 



Customs districts. 



Customs districts. 



Pounds. Value, 



Rochester 

New York 

St. Louis 

Massachusetts 

San i rancisco 

Phi adelphia 

Chicago 

Ohio 

Southern California. 

Washington 

Oregon 

Minnesota 

Buffalo 

Maryland 

New Orleans 

Michigan 

Georgia 



7,665,821 
7,699,542 
4,737,250 



2,721,424 


2, 626, 435 


1,949,487 


1,029,790 


914,820 


881,319 


426,932 


418,472 


182,390 


69, 590 


180, 234 



125,748 
126,0.50 
85, 996 



$403, 244 
344,113 
228,014 
93,802 
64, 284 
56,483 
44,648 
27,765 
22,523 
12,708 
11,166 
7,876 
5,702 
4,731 
4,310 
3,807 



Wisconsin 

Omaha 

Indiana 

Pittsburgh 

Tennessee 

Colorado 

Hawaii 

Maine and New Hampshire 

Galveston 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

Florida 

Vermont 

Duluth and Superior 

Total 



4 
.218 



The imports to Rochester and to St. Louis were largely of thin 
glass used for photographic dry plates, those to Rochester being via 
New York City and those to St. Louis largely via New Orleans. 

While over 80 per cent of the imports of window glass are of the 
three smaller brackets, only 50 to 60 per cent of the domestic con- 
sumption is of single-strength glass of the first three brackets. The 
following is quoted from a brief by J. R. Johnston, president of the 
Johnston Glass Co., and in 1916 president of the Johnston Brokerage 
Co., which sells a large part of the product of the hand window-glass 
factories. This brief was submitted to the Committee on Ways and 
Means of the House of Representatives in 1913: 

In this country about two- thirds of the glass used is single strength, and from 50 to 
60 per cent of this single strength is in the first three brackets, which means sizes 16 
by 24 and smaller. These sizes especially need an increased tariff, for the reason that 
in Belgium the percentage of first three bracket sizes consumed is only about 20 per 
cent, which leaves that country with a surplus of small glass that they are only too 
anxious to distribute in the United States and other markets. 

The following is quoted from the statement of H. R. Hilton, on 
behalf of the National Window Glass Manufacturers' Association, 
made to the same committee. 

Of the 5,000,000 boxes of single-strength glass made annually in the United States, 
consumers call for 50 per cent in the small sizres up to 16 by 24. The poorest glass is 
usually cut into the first bracket (25 united inches), or all sizes up to 10 by 15, and 
represent one-fifth of the total production. These sizes always come in excess of the 
demand both in Belgium and the United States, and the country is always over- 
stocked with them. In consequence, it is only in rare instances that a manufacturer 



344 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

can sell this product at cost price, notwithstanding the fact that on these small sizes 
of third single the skilled workman receives not more than $2 to $2.25 per day. 

The Pacific coast consumes about 10 per cent of the glass used in the United States, 
and yet United States factories can not compete with Belgium in Pacific coast market 
in these small sizes at the present tariff. 

Owing to severe competition among domestic manufacturers, the 
prices in some years have- been considerably lower in the United 
States' than the total of the Belgian price with the freight and duty. 
F. J. Goertner, sales manager of Semon Bache & Co., importers, 
presented figures to the Committee on Ways and Means, in 1913, to 
show that at times the prices of domestic glass, especially of the larger 
sizes, were very much less than the cost of Belgian glass delivered at 
New York, and occasionally was less than the price in Belgium, and 
occasionally less even than the amount of the duty. 

Mr. Goertner pointed out that the wages of skilled workers in the 
window-glass industry had been reduced while the Dingley and the 
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Acts were in force, and concluded that "the 
tariff had absolutely nothing to do with the prosperity of the Ameri- 
can window-glass worker. ,; 1 The very severe competition among 
manufacturers was caused largely by the introduction of machinery 
for making window glass and the efforts of hand manufacturers to 
meet lower prices fixed by machine manufacturers. The competition 
between the hand manufacturers and the machine manufacturers led 
to reductions of wages in the hand factories. Some hand factories 
were driven out of business, and without reduction of wages others 
probably would have been forced to quit. 

As explained in the chapter on "Industrial conditions," page 187, 
prices were stabilized by the formation, in 1909, of the Imperial Glass 
Co., a selling agency of hand manufacturers, which, when dissolved 
in 1910, after a Government prosecution for violation of the antitrust 
act, was succeeded, in 1912, by the Johnston Brokerage Co. This 
latter company sells a large proportion of the product of the hand 
factories at prices fixed by the American Window Glass Co., which 
manufactures by machinery and is the largest producer in the United 
States. 

PLATE GLASS IMPORTED. 

As shown by Table 8, page 28, the production of polished plate 
glass in 1914, as reported by the Bureau of the Census, amounted to 
$14,773,787. Computed on this amount, the general imports of plate 
glass, cast, polished, and unsilvered, in the fiscal year 1913 ($321,605) 
were 2.18 per cent, and in the fiscal year 1914 ($727,889) were 4.93 
per cent. 

Table 1 19 shows the actual rates of duty on different sizes of plate 
glass under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act and the Underwood- 
Simmons Act, and the rates computed on an ad valorem basis for the 
fiscal year 1913 and for the period from October 4, 1913, when the 
latter act went into effect, until June 30, 1914, the end of the fiscal 
year. 

before the Committee on Ways and Means, 1913, Schedule B, p. 818. 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 



345 



Table 119. — Rates op Duty ox Imports of Plate Glass, Cast, Polished, 
Finished ou Unfinished, and Unsilvered, or the Same Containing a 
Wire Netting Within Itself, Under Tariff Acts of ]909 and 1913, and 
Computed Ad Valorem Rate Under Each Act 





Hate of duty per 
ire foot. 


Computed ad va- 
lorem rate. 


classification. 


Act of 
1909. 


Act of 
1913. 


L913. 1U ' 




Cents. 
10 
12* 

22'. 


6 

8 
12 


Pit can. Percent. 
23. 8S 




"7. -IS 38.34 




83.73 47.55 






Total 






61.14 40.18 











Manufacturers of plate glass claim that it costs them the same, 
whether in large or small sizes, 1 yet they sell the smaller sizes for much 
less than the larger sizes. They claim that the smaller sizes are inad- 
equately protected. Under all tariff acts the rate of duty has been 
'less on the small sizes than on the larger sizes. 

The imports of the different sizes of plate glass, cast, polished, fin- 
ished or unfinished, and unsilvered, are shown in Table 124, page 357. 
The percentage of imports of each specified size during the fiscal years 
1913 and 1914, respectively, was as follows: Not exceeding 384 square 
inches, 3.7 per cent in 1913, 6.54 per cent in 1914; above 384 and not 
exceeding 720 square inches, 71.05 per cent in 1913, 63.64 per cent 
in 1914; above 720 square inches, 25.25 per cent in 1913, 29.82 per 
cent in 1914. 

The plate glass imported consists mainly of the finer and more 
expensive grades. In the imports during the fiscal year 1914 the 
average value per square foot of plate glass, cast, polished, finished 
or unfinished, and unsilvered, imported for consumption averaged 
$0,224. (See Table 124, p. 357.) 

Most imported plate glass is used for mirrors, and the greater part of 
it is of first quality, the second quality being cut to small sizes for hand 
mirrors. For a time a good deal of second-quality plate glass was 
imported for automobile wind shields, but American manufacturers 
now make most of the glass used for this purpose in the United States. 

As in the case of window glass, the imports of plate glass are mostly 
to places on or near the Atlantic, Pacific, or Gulf coast. 2 The general 
imports of plate glass, cast, polished, finished or unfinished, and un- 
silvered, by customs districts during the fiscal year 1914 are given 
in the following table. 

1 Hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means. Ilouseol Representatives, ltd;!, Schedule B, p. 840. 

2 See table of ocean and railroad rates from Belgian factories to principal cities in (he United States, and 
railroad rates from plate-glass manufacturing centers In the I oited States to the same cities, presented to 
the Committee on YVavs ami \lran>. 1 louse of Representatives. 1913, by Simon, Bache .v. Co.. New York; 
Hearings. Schedule B. p. 861. 



346 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 120. — Quantity and Value or General Imports of Plate Glass, Cast, 
Polished, and Unsilvered, During the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1914, 
by Customs Districts. 



Customs districts. 


Square feet. 


Value. 


Customs districts. 


Square feet. 


Value. 




1,187,873 
878, 198 
277, 174 
169,736 
130,749 
129, 178 
84,774 
88, 110 
48, 904 
49,496 
34,282 
24,016 
21,395 
22,169 
20,042 


$285,902 
182, 179 
61,691 
36.434 
35, 140 
28,517 
24, 758 
18,810 
12,461 
10,210 
6,972 
4,966 
4,846 
4,537 
4,179 




20,231 

7,657 
255 
1,025 
403 
78 
136 
18 
16 
11 
15 
6 


$3,960 
1,647 










226 






200 


Ohio 




94 








Chicago , 




41 






35 






33 












3 




Duluth and Superior 


1 








3,195,947 


727 889 






' 







OTHER BUILDING GLASS. 

The imports of plate glass other than that which is cast, polished, 
and unsilvered is comparatively small. The values of such imports 
during the fiscal years 1909, 1913, and 1914 appear in Table 128 
page 369. 

A statement relative to the imports of rough plate glass, made by 
F. J. Goertner, sales manager of Semon Bache & Co., importers, 
New York, to the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Repre- 
sentatives, in 1913, * said: 

As a matter of fact, this glass is probably made cheaper in the United States than 
anywhere else in the world. The manufacturers have been for years exporting 
considerable quantities to Canada, where they are able to compete successfully not 
only with European manufacturers in general, but even with the English manufac- 
turers, who enjoy a preferential tariff in Canada. 

Most of the wire glass used in the United States is of domestic 
manufacture. Most of the opalescent and cathedral glass used in 
the United States is of domestic manufacture, but the finer kinds are 
imported. Many more colors are used in producing glass of these 
kinds in Europe than in this country, but the domestic product is 
sold much cheaper. 

Practically all the antique glass used in the United States is im- 
ported from Germany and England. Little if any of this glass is 
made in this country because of the lack of chemical knowledge and 
of expert workmen. 

BOTTLES AND JARS. 

As shown by Table 8, page 28, the production of glass bottles and 
jars in 1914, reported by the Bureau of the Census, amounted to 
$51,958,728. As shown by Table 113, page 339, the value of the gen- 
eral imports of bottles, etc., used as containers, during the fiscal year 
1914 was $1,148,460, or 2.21 per cent of the amount of production 
reported by the Bureau of the Census. These imports included all 
bottles ordinarily used as containers for purposes of transportation, 
except filled bottles that were imported from July 1, 1913, to October 
3, 1914. The bottles filled with wines, brandies, mineral waters, and 
other liquids are sold and used again for containing beverages. 



Hearings, Schedule B, p. 849. 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 



34 7 



Bottles containing whiskies, brandies, punches, beer, and mineral 
water- are imported mainly from the United Kingdom, Fiance. 
Germany, Austria-Hungaiy, and Italy. 

Some "bottles intended to be used as containers for beverages, drugs, 
and colognes are imported empty and rilled in America, so that 
consumers will think that the contents as well as the bottles have 
been imported. Thus, vodka bottles come from Russia, punch 
bottles from Sweden, and pellet bottles from England. 

PRESSED AND BLOWN WARE. 

Table 121 shows the value of pressed and blown glassware im- 
ported for consumption during the fiscal years ending June 30, 
1913 and 1914, and the percentage of increase during the latter year. 

Table 121. — Value of Blown and Pressed Glassware Imported for Consump- 
tion, and Ad Valorem Rates of Duty, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1913 

and 1914. 



Blown ware 

Blown or pressed ware, 
decorated 

Miscellaneous, including 
pressed ware not deco- 
rated 

Electric lamps: 

Arc 

Incandescent— 

( arbon filament 

Metal filament 

Allother 



Total. 



Fiscal year. 1913. 



60 11,072,249 

00 1,029,730 



414, 764 
27,561 



45 78,070 

45 384,247 



July 1 to Oct. 4, 
1913. 



Per ct. 
60 



Oct. 4, 1913 to 
June 30, 1914, 



I Per ct. 

§290,792! 45 



1.510 

73,409 



353, S50 
16,883 



479! 254 



Total 
value, 
fiscal 
year 
1914. 



1 Per cent. 
§1,216,329 I 13.44 



427,393 ; .30 

24, 685 a 10. 44 

78,409 .04 
552,663 30.47 
88.687 



As shown by Table 8, page 28, the production of pressed and blown 
glassware in 1914, as reported by the Bureau of the Census, amounted 
to $30,279,290. Computed on this amount the imports for consump- 
tion in the fiscal year 1913 ($3,006,621) were 9.93 per cent, and in 
the fiscal year 1914 ($3,387,858) were 11.19 per cent. 

The increase in the imports during the fiscal year 1914 over those 
for the preceding fiscal year amounted to 12.68 per cent. It is 
remarkable that, though the duty on arc lamps was decreased from 
45 to 20 per cent, the imports decreased 10.44 per cent. There was 
a decrease also in the imports of blown and pressed ware, decorated, 
and increases in the other items. 

The imports of both blown and pressed ware, plain or decorated, 
includes not only tablew r are but lighting goods. The imports of 
blown ware, plain, includes laboratory ware. Both blown and pressed 
ware includes specialties and novelties. 

Under the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act the duty on plain pressed 
ware was 45 per cent and on blown ware 60 per cent; under the 
Underwood-Simmons Act the duty on the former is 30 per cent and 
on the latter 45 per cent. It is remarkable that with the lower 



348 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

duties on pressed ware much less of it was imported than of blown 
ware. Of pressed tableware very little is imported and considerable 
quantities were exported before the war in Europe began. No manu- 
facturer that was interviewed during this investigation complained 
of the imports of pressed ware, but all who manufactured blown ware 
complained of foreign competition. Under these conditions it is 
very remarkable that the eight establishments that manufactured 
blown ware exclusively and that reported during this investigation 
had an average operating profit (charges for depreciation and interest 
considered) of 9.29 per cent, based on net sales, while the group of 20 
establishments that manufactured both blown and pressed ware had 
as a whole an operating loss (charges for depreciation and interest 
considered) of 0.15 per cent on net sales. It is difficult to account 
for this difference. It may be explained, however, that while the 
fine grade of pressed ware made in America is superior to any foreign 
product, large quantities of domestic pressed ware of very cheap 
grades are put on the market. Large quantities of this cheap ware 
are sold to the 10-cent stores, and manufacturers sell to them at cost 
or even below cost in order to keep their factories operating during 
seasons when trade from other sources is dull. Department stores 
compete with the 10-cent stores in this line of goods and they, too, 
buy in large quantities at or below manufacturing cost. So far, 
therefore, as pressed ware is concerned it appears that the manu- 
facturers in this country suffer from competition among themselves 
rather than from foreign competition. 

Imported pressed ware consists largely of door knobs. Most of 
the cheap blown tableware and bar goods used in the United States 
is of domestic manufacture, but there are considerable importations 
of fine grades of blown ware and decorated blown ware. The foreign 
competition in this line was perhaps greater before the war than in 
any other kind of glass or glassware except cylinder glass used for 
window lights and dry plates. Most imported blown ware is stem 
ware. Practically no tumblers are imported except from Austria- 
Hungary. Most of the imported tumblers are ornamented, usually 
by etching, cutting, or coloring; few by sand-blast or enamel. Many 
plain goblets come from France. 

From Austria-Hungary comes cheaply decorated and blown ware, 
and some that is highly decorated and colored — oil and vinegar 
cruets, sugars and creams, salts and peppers, and similar articles. 
Cologne bottles and similar articles come mainly from Austria- 
Hungary and Germany. 

Glassware of different colors is not made extensively in the United 
States, because of the trouble manufacturers have in mixing batches 
in proportions that will properly assimilate. Very few American 
manufacturers employ glass chemists. 

It is remarkable that, although there is more hand labor on cut 
glass than on any other glass product, and although the wages of 
workers are much higher in the United States than in foreign coun- 
tries, the imports of rut glass are comparatively small, and before 
the war considerable quantities were exported. American cut glass 
is recognized at home and abroad as distinctly superior to the foreign 
product. This subject is discussed in another section of this report 
(p. 218). Imports of cut glass consist largely of novelties, with some 
tableware, usually exclusive designs. 



IMPOSTS AND THE TARIFF. 349 

Most Qg fixtures come from Austria-Hungary, <>il lighting 

fixtures fro y, and electric lighting apparatus, arc lights, 

etc., from both countries. 

Tin' American manufacturer bias an advantage in thai lie can fill 
order- and deliver goods much more quickly in the United States 
than can his foreign competitor. The tendency is toward smaller 
order-, and fch< American merchant who imports must buy in large 
quantities to keep on hand at all times a complete line of goods. 
Another advantage that the American manufacturer has is that he 
can quickly supply ware necessary to replace that which is broken 
in shipment or in store handling. The breakage in blown ware is, 
owing to its fragile nature, a considerable item. Importers have 
many broken sets which cam not be sold at the full price until dupli- 
cates are brought from Europe, and this takes weeks or months. 

The following is quoted from a statement made in 1916 to the 
Bureau by Mr. M. G. Bryce, president of the United States Glass Co., 
of Pittsburgh, the largest manufacturers of blown and pressed ware 
in this country: 

Prior to the war it was absolutely impossible for a glass manufacturer to compete 
with a foreign manufacturer on blown ware for table use, and the only goods that could 
be sold by American manufacturers were those of original design and certain staples 
which it-paid a dealer to get quickly instead of waiting for importations. * * * 

There is very little, if any, pressed glass imported into this country, consequently 
the glass men are not very much interested in a tariff on that end of the business, and 
as far as I can learn no manufacturer is anxious for any tariff except one that would 
make the cost in America and Europe equal; that is to say, the European goods laid 
down, plus the tariff, should not be any cheaper than what are made in America. 

In regard to our foreign business, prior to the war it was simply impossible to do 
any great volume of business in any foreign country. Anything that was made by 
the foreigner could be exported by him to the different sections at a very much less 
cost than an American manufacturer could export it. All of our foreign business 
consists of goods either of special design or a kind that is not made by foreigners. 

The following is quoted from a statement made by Mr. Ernest 
Nickel, secretary-treasurer of the same company: 

The total cost of the material here and abroad would average about the same, some 
costing more and some less, but the difference in labor costs is so great that protection 
to take care of the differential should be provided. Undoubtedly our employees, as 
a whole, live better and have more comforts than their foreign brethren and conse- 
quently require larger earnings, but this does not alter the fact that our costs are just 
so much higher, and, therefore, must be considered. * * * 

In the pressed ware we have not, up to the present time, had the serious competition 
that we have in the blown lines, as the foreign manufacturer has not taken up that 
line so energetically. However, as to blown ware, the differential in the wages earned 
is so great that the American manufacturer is unable to overcome the difference, with 
the result that the foreign manufacturer is able to produce and lay down his goods in 
New York at a less price than the American manufacturer can produce them, and this 
is certainly a condition which should not exist. The manufacture of glass of our 
character is an art and the man must be a skilled workman. 

It looks to us that the way to find out what protection should be thrown around any 
industry is the creation of an impartial tariff commission that will thoroughly investi- 
gate every phase of a business, and then if they find an industry which is entitled to 
protection, so that it may live and flourish in this country and be a benefit to its citi- 
zens at large, tariff to the necessary requirement should be provided and should at 
least equalize the difference in wages. This method would not eliminate foreign 
competition but would simply serve to place the American manufacturer on an equal 
basis in the cost of wages with the European manufacturer. It would still be up to 
the American manufacturer to strive to make every effort to produce the best quality 
of ware and not permit himself to fall behind foreign manufacturers in new ideas or 
improved methods. * * * 



350 THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 

The American manufacturer will undoubtedly appreciate anything that is done 
which may help to place our blown-ware branch of the business on such basis that at 
least a reasonable return on the capital invested can be earned. 

The following is quoted from a statement made later in 1916 by Mr. 
Nickel: 

Replying to your recent inquiry as to why there is so little competition from abroad 
in the pressed-ware branch of our business, which carries a duty of only 30 per cent, 
against the blown ware, which carries a duty of 45 per cent, would say that this is 
probably due largely to the fact that in producing pressed ware there is a very heavy 
investment in molds necessary, whereas in blown ware this is not required; and, 
inasmuch as labor is so much lower abroad than it is in this country, blown ware could 
be produced in Europe so much more cheaply that manufacturers there have had 
no incentive to go as heavily into the production of the cheaper pressed lines. 

From your going over our affairs you will probably recall that our investment in 
molds is one of our largest expense items. There is another reason, possibly, and that 
is that sometimes a manufacturer makes a heavy investment in molds and gets out a 
line which he may think is a splendid one, and yet later on it may not find favor with 
the trade. You can see in this event that a manufacturer could easily make quite an 
outlay of money and not receive anything like an adequate return. Of course, there is 
some pressed ware made in Europe, but it has never been developed as in this country. 
Labor conditions, undoubtedly, have a great bearing on this whole matter. 

With reference to the blown ware, for instance, the European manufacturer has been 
enabled to lay his product down in a port like New York City for a less price than the 
American maufacturer could produce a similar article. All this shows the neces- 
sity for a reasonable protection to such an extent that the differential in wages between 
Europe and this country is taken care of. 

We have enjoyed a splendid business in all lines and, while a great deal of this is due 
to prosperity which is existing in the country to-day, there is no question that the 
artificial protection by which we are surrounded, owing to the European war, has 
enabled the blown-ware manufacturer for the first time in many years to get a fair 
price for his product. 

It would certainly be a fine thing if the Government would go into this matter thor- 
oughly and appoint a competent, nonpxrtisan tariff commission, which would inquire 
and investigate thoroughly the various industries, and then recommend a protective 
duty, simply to the extent that the American manufacturer would be placed on an 
equal basis with the European manufacturer — i. e., however, only to the extent of the 
differential in wages. Personally I do not think that any industry should be pro- 
tected to any such extent where it eliminates fair competition, whether it be at home 
or from abroad. 

Mr. George M. Stiegler, secretary of Oscar O. Freidlander, a New- 
York importer, in a statement made to an agent of the Bureau in 
1916, said: 

The lighting goods imported are fine in quality. Lamp shades are produced cheaper 
abroad. The domestic factories can not meet the competition on 10-inch round-top 
domes or on green shades white on the inside. Electric shades of foreign make are 
better but dearer, and the American public buys the cheaper article. Inverted 
bowls of foreign make are finer, but they are made in America for a much cheaper price. 
Glass prisms for chandeliers or candelabra are not produced at all in the United States. 

Mr. Rudolph Kirschberger, secretary of Kirschberger & Cole, New 
York, importers, in a statement made to an agent of the Bureau in 
1916, said: 

Imported lamp chimneys, even with the reduction in duty from 60 to 45 per cent, 
can not compete with the product of the Macbeth-Evans Glass Co. of Pittsburgh, in 
western territory, on account of freight rates, but imported chimneys are sold in the 
East, and much is sold to the Standard Oil Co. We import cases of 24 dozen chimneys, 
to save ocean freights, which would be greater were the package smaller. People out 
West want batches of 6 to 12 dozen that can be handled easily, so do not buy imported 
chimneys. 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 351 

Mr. William R. Noe, of William Noe Sons, New York, importers, 
in a statement made to an agent of the Bureau in 1916, said: 

Before the Europ 'an war, American manufacturers complained about the importa- 
tion of Rochester chimneys, LO-inch cones, and air-hole chimneys for gas. On air hole 
chimney X". L98 the Macbeth-Evans <'■>. began cutting by reducing the price from 
60 to v> cents a dozen. Then the importers dropped to 50 cents a dozen. Then about 
Mav or June. 1914, the Macbeth-Evans Co. took an order at 45 cents. 

There are that nation- of price in various lines. In December, 1915, all factories 
sold lantern globes at 1 I izen, in July, 1916, sold them at 30 cents and up per 

d »zen. The Macbeth-Evans < rlass Co., of Pittsburgh, and Gill & Co., of Philadelphia, 
fix the price.-. These lantern -lobes have never been imported. 

SiJvered-glass reflectors sold in December, 1915, atSOaud lOoff. Now, in July, 1916, 
the discount is only 69 and 10. None of these reflectors are imported, so the price is 
absolutely fixed here. American manufacturers of cheap crystal lamp shades have 
put the impsrters out of business in this line. 

Another New York importer, Mr. H. D. McFadden, said in 1916: 

The imp irts of illuminating glassware are in high-price goods. The common and 
medium grades are made as cheaply in the United States as in Europe. The trouble 
with many American manufacturers is that they want to do business on a big scale 
and make all kinds of glassware, fine as well as cheap. This causes heavy competition 
but affects the quality. 

STATISTICS OF IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION. 

Tables which follow show the imports for consumption of glass 
and glassware during the fiscal years ending June 30, 1896 to 1916, 
inclusive. These tables show the quantity, total value, value per 
unit of quantity, duty paid, rate of duty, and actual and computed 
ad valorem duty on the principal classes of glass imports, as follows : 
Table 122, cylinder, crown, and common window glass. Unpolished; 
Table 124, plate glass, cast, polished, finished or imfinished, and 
unsilvered; Table 125, bottles and vials, not ornamented, and demi- 
johns and carboys, all empty; Table 126, bottles, decanters, and all 
articles of glass of every description, ornamented or decorated in any 
manner. Following the first of these tables is Table 123, which 
shows the proportion that imports of glass of the first three brackets 
was of the total imports of cylinder, crown, and common window 
glass, unpolished. 

These tables are followed by other tables which show the imports 
of all other glass and glassware for consumption, during the fiscal 
years ending June 30, 1909 (Dingley tariff), 1913 (Payne-Aldrich 
tariff), and 1914 (Underwood-Simmons tariff after October 3, 1913). 
The value of imports and the average computed ad valorem rate of 
duty in each year are shown for the following classes of glass and 
glassware: Table 127, cylinder, crown, and common window glass 
other than that not specified in Table 122; Table 128, plate glass other 
than that specified in Table 124; Table 129, bottles, vials, demijohns, 
carboys, and jars, filled;. Table 130, miscellaneous manufactures of 
glass not shown in the foregoing tables. 



352 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 122. — Imports of Cylinder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, Unpol- 
ished, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1896 to 
1915. 



Fiscal year and classification. 



1896— Wilson Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and hot exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 bv 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
All above 24 by 36 inches 



Total . 



1897— Wilson Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding ] 6 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 bv 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
All above 24 bv 36 inches 



Total . 



1898— Wilson Act to July 24, 1897; Dingley 
Act After-ward. 



Not exceeding 
Above 10 by 15 
Above 16 by 24 
Above 24 by 30 
Above 24 bv 36 
Above 24 bv3C' 
Above30bv40 
Above 40 bv 6C 



Duty 
per 

pound. 



Cents. 
1 

1} 
If 
2 
2J 



Pounds. I Value. 



13,154,689 
15,373,922 
12,318,075 
3,870,802 
9,463,366 



3332,353 
233,441 
213,926 
72, 864 
210,205 



54,189,854 [ 1,062, 



14,337,50S 
15,291,3SS 
12.895,823 
4, 140, 380 
9,774,275 



3S0,426 
237,670 
23 1.752 
81,848 
227, 465 



56,439,464 jl, 159, 161 



10 by 15 inches 

and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 1 
and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches : j 

inches 

and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches j 

inches ( 



1.035,996 
11,248,185 
1,239,593 
9,634,752 

949, 724 
7, 670, 415 

301,788 
2, 300, 256 

688, S59 

2,035:927 

1,284,246 
90, 653 



Total 39, 130, 09 1 



-Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 bv 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 21 bv 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches '. 



Total. 



300— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 21 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1901— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and hot exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



15,203,738 
13,565,227 
9,569,483 
2,583,378 
2,642,829 
1,835,799 
120,223 



45,520,677 



19,173,525 
15,611,691 
8,963,818 
2,446,385 
2, 722, 855 
2,019,901 
135, 797 



51,073,972 



13,256,312 
9, 525, 835 
3, 682, 572 
756,811 
646, 427 
356, S10 
11,852 



28,230,019 



25, 092 
364.292 
19, 020 
173,105 
18,606 
154, S24 
6,588 
51,709 
17, 850 
58,548 
34,315 
2,940 



927,009 



505, 736 
273,505 
217,600 
66,328 
69, 687 
57,419 



078,532 
370,910 
246, 561 
75,445 
82, 774 
65, 558 
4,852 



462,869 

204,430 
124,00s 
28, 837 
24,218 
17, 190 
484 



922 . 90 



3131,547 
192, 174 
215,566 
77,596 
201,097 



value 

per 

pound 



311.025 
.015 
.017 
.019 
.022 



817, 



143,376 
191, 142 
225,677 
82, 808 
207,703 



.027 
.016 
.018 
.020 



850,706 



10,360 


.024 


154,663 


.032 


15.495 


.015 


180, 652 


.017 


16,620 


.019 


1.S2.172 


.020 


6,036 


.021 


66, 132 


.022 


14,638 


.025 


90, 640 


.021 


49. 765 


.026 


3, 966 


.032 



209,052 
254,348 
227. 275 
74, 272 
89, 196 
71, 137 
5,260 



930, 540 



263,636 
292,719 
212,891 
70, 334 
91,896 
78,271 
5,941 



,015, 



132,271 
178.610 
87,461 
21, 758 
21, 817 
13, 826 
519 j 



506,265 | .032 



IMPORTS AND THE TARIFF. 



353 



Table 122. — Imports of Cylinder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, Unpol- 
ished, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1896 to 
1915 — Continued. 



Fiscal vear and classification. 



Duty 

per 

pjund. 



Aver- 
age 

value 

per 

pjund. 



C m- 

puted 
ad val- 
orem 

rate. 



1902— Dingle y Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and notexcee ling 16 by 24 inches 
Ab ve 26 by 24 and not exceeding 2i by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and notexcee ling 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1903— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and aot exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not e acceding 24 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1904— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1905— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10' by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
Above24 by 30 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
A bove 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1906— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 
A bove 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total. 



1907— Dingley Act. 



Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 

Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 
Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 21 by 30 inches 
Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 21 by 36 inches 
Above 24 by 36 and notcxeceding 30 by 10 inches 
Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 
Above 40 by 60 inches 



Total 

102511°— 17- 



Cents. 
1? 

i 



!3, 812, 439 
.6.877,500 
6, 652, 079 
1,479,443 
1,501,647 
661,043 
27,246 



924,439 
4*7,5*4 
236, 535 
57,903 
59, 102 
30,393 
1,633 



?327, 425 
316,454 
157,987 
42, 534 
50,681 
25, 615 
1,192 



$0,039 
.029 



r,r ct. 
35.42 
64.91 
66.80 
73.46 
85.75 
84.28 
73.00 



51,011,746 



,797,5vj 



921, sss 



23,596,970 
22, 880, 738 
8, 405, 5S4 
2, 773, 012 
2,420,762 
1, 153, 259 
55, 725 



719,937 
552, 361 
235, 612 
79, 891 
72,427 
38, 746 
3,908 



61,286,050 



'"■•, 



20,3S2,746 
IS, 947, 772 
7,131,937 
2,047,593 
1,921,493 
1,335,829 
95, 818 



615,740 
411,126 
1*9,024 
55, 086 
51, 850 
40,086 
3,306 



51, 863, 182 



1,366,218 



8,359,985 

5,914,057 

2, 162, 412 

658,425 

663, 201 

174,264 

685 



307,230 
163,117 
74,056 
21,715 
19,313 
8,228 
132 



17,933,029 



,791 



20,194,866 

8, 107, 164 

3, 802, 652 

914,342 

814,545 

239, 563 

298 



7S9, 642 
253, 010 
136,319 
35, 555 
32,430 
12,510 
13 



J.34, 073,430 



16, 142, 735 

9, 728, 174 

3,476,572 

938, 078 

682, 17S 

216, 735 

1,288 



5IU,2N2 
251,. 804 
111,100 
34,273 
26,347 
11,098 



'31,185,760 



324,458 
429,014 
199,633 
79, 724 
81, 701 

2, 438 



.029 
.030 
.034 
.070 



2SII.203 
355. 271 
169', 3S4 
58, 86S 
64,850 
51.763 
4,192 



114,950 
110, ,8*8 
51,357 
18,930 
22, 383 
6,753 
30 



325,291 



277,6*0 
152,009 
90,313 
26,287 
37, 491 
9.283 
13 



221,963 
1*2. 103 
82, 569 
26, 970 
23,021 
8,398 
56 



.030 
.022 
.027 
.027 
.027 
.030 
.035 



45.08 
77.67 
84.73 
99.79 
112.80 
115.34 
62.36 



68.22 



45.52 
85.41 
89. 61 
106. 87 
125. 07 
129.13 
126. SO 



72.07 



37.41 
67.98 
69.35 
87.17 
115.90 
82.07 
22.70 



.033 | 54. 



35.17 
60.08 
66.25 
73.93 
84.77 
74.20 
100. 00 



46.30 



41.08 
71.59 
74.32 
78.69 
87.39 
71.79 
60.00 



55.73 



-2:5 



354 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 122. — Imports of Cylinder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, Unpol- 
ished, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1896 to* 
1915 — Continued. 













Aver- 


Com- 




Duty 








age 
value 


puted 


Fiscal year and classification. 


per 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duties. 


ad val- 




pound. 








per 

pound. 


orem 
rate. 


1908— Dinglet Act. 


Cents. 










Perct. 


Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 


If 


14,390,395 


$252,689 


$197,868 


$0,032 


43.70 1 


Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 


a 


6,609,243 


178,168 


123,923 


.027 


69.54 


Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 


2,391,752 


77,384 


56,804 


.032 


73. 40 


Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 


s 


412,663 


14, 622 


11, 864 


.031 


81.13 


A bove 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 


332,503 


13,238 


11,222 


.040 


84.77 


Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 


3| 


135, 423 


7,154 


5,248 


.053 


73.36- 


Above 40 by 60 inches 


4| 


240 


18 


11 


.075 


58. 33 






Total 




24,272,219 


543,273 


406,940 


.022 


74.91 








1909— Dinglet Act. 














Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 


11 


14,400,477 


447,510 


198,007 


.031 


44.2& 


Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 14 inches 


3 


5, 163, 189 


141,411 


96,810 


.027 


68.46 


Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 


2,230,723 


66, 141 


52,980 


.030 


80.10^ 


Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 


11 


436,985 


14,300 


12,563 


.033 


89.25 


Above 24 by 36 and not exceeding 30 by 40 inches 


404, 105 


17, 179 


13,639 


.043 


79.39 


Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 


31 


115,597 


6 036 


4,479 


.052 


74.21 


Above 40 by 60 inches. 


4| 


3,574 


226 


156 


.063 


69. 19' 






Total 




22,754,650 


692, 803 


378,634 


.031 


54.65 




==== 




1910— Dinglet Act to Aug. 6, 1909; Patne- 












Aldrich Act Afterward. 














Not exceeding 10 by 15 inches 


a If 


87,030 


1,447 


1,197 


.017 


82.70i 


Not exceeding 150 square inches: 














Valued at not more than H cents per pound 


6 11 


1,826,869 


24,814 


22,836 


.014 


92.05 


Valued at more than 14 cents per pound.... 


6 If 


13,372,893 


390,630 


183,877 


.029 


47.07 


Above 10 by 15 and not exceeding 16 by 24 inches 


al| 


304,727 


6,248 


5,714 


.021 


91.45 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 














Valued at not more than If cents per pound. 


b If 


1,021,550 


16, 764 


17,877 


.016 


106.64 


Valued at more than If cents per pound 


& If 


5, 786, 722 


156, 795 


108,501 


.027 


69.20 


Above 16 by 24 and not exceeding 24 by 30 inches 


a 2f 


62, 156 


1,627 


1,476 


.026 


90.73- 


Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 2£ cents per pound. 


»2J 


182, 289 


3,441 


4,101 


.019 


119. 19' 


Valued at more than 2 § cents per pound 


6 2J 


2,114,764 


70, 131 


50,226 


.033 


71.61 


Above 24 by 30 and not exceeding 24 by 36 inches 


o2| 


39,086 


996 


1,124 


.025' 


112.82- 


Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches . 


b 2f 


336, 564 


13,011 


9,255 


.039 


71. 15 


Above 24 by 36 and notexceeding 30 by 40 inches 


o3f 


15,114 


703 


510 


.047 


72.56 


Above 864 and notexceeding 1,200 square inches. 


6 3i 
o3| 


341,824 


15,434 


11, 109 


.045 


71.98 


Above 30 by 40 and not exceeding 40 by 60 inches 


14,889 


785 


577 


.053 


73.50 


Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 














inches 


b 3f 
a .4| 

b 4£ 


179, 600 


8,586 
20 
309 


6,735 

7 
178 


.48 


78.48 


Above 40 by 60 inches 


150 
4,200 


.133 

.074 


32. 80 


Above 2,400 square inches 


57.77 






Total 




25,690,427 


711,741 


425,300 


.028 


59.75 








1911— Payne-Aldrich act. 














Not exceeding 150 square inches: 














Valued at not more than U cents per pound. 


H 


1,941,648 


26,523 


24,271 


.014 


91.51 


Valued at more than \\ cents per pound 


If 


13,420,505 


395,840 


184,532 


.029 


46.62 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 














Valued at not more than If cents per pound. 


If 


1,716,655 


27,350 


30,041 


.016 


109.84 


Valued at more than If cents per pound 


11 


6,848,821 


185,999 


128,415 


.027 


69.04 


Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 2 \ cents per pound. 


21 


903, 103 


17,426 


20,320 


.019 


116.60- 


Valued at more than 2§ cents per pound 


2| 


3, 226, 000 


111,198 


76,618 


.034 


68.90 


Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches. . 


2J 


759,530 


24,900 


20,887 


.033 


83.89- 


Above 864 and not exceeding 1 ,200 square inches. 


31 


598, 738 


23,229 


19,459 


.039 


83.77 


Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 














inches 


31 


280,690 


12, 795 


10,526 


.046 


82.26 




4? 


2,622 


121 


111 


.046 


92. 10 






Total 




29,698,312 


825, 381 


515, 180 


.028 


62.42 









a July 1, to Aug. 5, 1909, under act of 1897. 



b Aug. 6, 



to June 30, 1910, under act of : 



IMPOETS AND THE TARIFF. 



355 



Table 122. — Imports of Cylinder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, Unpol- 
ished, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1896 to 
1915— Continued. 











Aver- 


Com- 




Duty 






age 

value 


puted 


Fiscal year and classification. 


per Pounds. 


Value. 


Duties. 


ad val- 




pound. 






per 


orem 












pound. 


rate. 


1912— Payne-Aldrich Act. 


Cents. 










Per ct. 


Not exceeding 150 square inches: 












Valued at not more than 11 cents per pound. 


1} 497,794 


$6,746 


$6,223 


$0,014 


92.24 


Valued at more than 1* cents per pound 


13 


15,032,003 


542,179 


206,690 


.036 


38.12 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 1J cents per pound. 


If 


156, /81 


2,851 


2,743 


.018 


96.23 


Valued at more than 1J cents per pound... 


i| 


4,664,755 


147,904 


87,464 


.032 


59.14 


Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 2i cents per pound. 


2} 


29,062 


555 


654 


.019 


117.82 


Valued at more than 2J cents per pound 


2§ 


2,068,S63 


75, 739 


49, 136 


.037 


64.87 


Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches. . 


2* 


375,865 


17,959 


10,336 


.048 


57 55 


Above 864 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches. 


3i 


368,924 


20,614 


11,990 


.056 


58.16 


Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 














inches 


33 


230,791 


13,214 


8,655 


.057 


65.50 


Above 2,400 square inches 


4i 


1,314 


107 


56 


.081 


52.20 






Total 




23,426,152 


827,868 


383,947 


.035 


46.38 








1913 — Payne-Aldrich Act. 














Not exceeding 150 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 11 cents per pound. 


U 


386, 83S 


5,250 


4,836 


.014 


92.10 


Valued at more than 1A cents per pound 


if 


13,512,880 


546,452 


185,802 


.040 


34.00 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 1J cents per pound. 


if 


19,474 


317 


341 


.016 


107.51 


Valued at more than l 1 , cents per pound 


ll 


4,211,521 


145,626 


78,966 


.035 


54.23 


Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches: 














Valued at not more than 2J cents per pound. 


2i 


3,214 


61 


72 


.021 


107.94 


Valued at more than 2* cents per pound 


21 


1,608,549 


65,131 


38,203 


.040 


58.66 


Above 720 and not exceeding S64 square inches. . 


2f 


289,684 


15,837 


7,966 


.055 


50.30 


Above 854 and not exceeding 1 200 square inches. 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 


3i 


285, 141 


17, 794 


9,267 


.062 


52.08 














inches 


3i 

4* 


141,319 
351 


8,245 
13 


5,300 
15 


.058 
.036 


64.27 


Above 2,400 square inches 


119.36 






Total 




20,458,971 


804,732 


330, 768 


.039 


41.10 








1914— Payne-Aldrich Act to Oct. 4, 1913; 














Underwood-Simmons Act Afterwards. 














Not exceeding 150 square inches: 














Valuea at not more than 1J cents per pound. 


a U 


60.514 


815 


756 


.013 


92.81 


Valued at more than 1J cents per pound 


ol| 


3,283,239 


159, 170 


45, 145 


.048 


28.45 


Not exceeding 150 square inches 


»i 


13,274,870 


559,358 


116, 155 


.042 


20.77 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches: 














Valued at more than If cents per pound 


all 


820,293 


29,771 


15,381 


.036 


51.66 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches. . 


61 


7,513,975 


238,473 


75,140 


.032 


31.51 


Above 384 and not exceeding <20 square inches: 














Valued at more than 2* cents per pound 


o2f 


236,815 


11,122 


5,624 


.047 


50.57 


6 If 


3,530,572 


121,411 


39, 719 


.034 


32.71 


Above 720 and not exceeding 864 square inches. . 


«2| 


37,928 


2,254 


1,043 


.059 


46.27 


Above 864 and not exceeding 1,200 square inches . 


o3i 


40,932 


2,775 


1,330 


.068 


47.94 


Above 720 and not exceeding 1.2U0 square inches. 


6 1* 


1,859,718 


65, 133 


27, 896 


.035 


42.83 


Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 


{HI 
{ If 


12, 103 


936 


454 


.077 


48.49 


inches 


506,335 

12 

20,225 


19, 885 
5 

1,428 


9,493 


.039 
.417 
.071 


47.74 




10.20 




""405" 






28.33 


Total 




31,197,531 


1,212,536 


338,541 


.039 


27.92 








1915— Underwood-Simmons Act. 














Not exceeding 150 square inches 


I 


5,852,306 


327,204 


51,208 


.056 


15.65 


Above 150 and not exceeding 384 square inches. . 


1 


4,407,494 


164,022 


44,075 


.037 


26.87 


Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches. . 


14 


3,384,673 


96,536 


38,078 


.029 


39.44 


Above 720 and not exceeding 1 2U0 square inches. 
Above 1,200 and not exceeding 2,400 square 


li 


2, 170, 772 


63, 242 


32,562 


.029 


51.49 














inches 


? 


710,911 
6,054 


27,845 
377 


13,330 
121 


.039 
.062 


47.88 


Abovo 2,400 square inches 


32.12 






Total 




16,532,210 


679, 226 


179,374 


.040 


26.41 









July 1 to Oct. 3, 1913, under act of 1909. t> Oct. 4, 1913, to June 30, 1914, under act of 1913. 



356 



THE GLASS INDUSTRY. 



Table 122. — Imports op Cylinder, Crown, and Common Window Glass, Unpol- 
ished, Entered for Consumption, Fiscal Years Ending June 30, 1896 to 
1915— Concluded. 



Fiscal year and classification. 


Duty 

per 

pound. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Duties. 


Aver- 
age 

value 

per 

pound. 


Com- 
puted 
ad val- 
orem 

rate. 


1916— Underwood-Simmons Act. 


Cents. 
I 
1 

11 
¥ 


861,374 
427,067 
&3, 138 
22,491 

7,002 
500 


$94,922 
36,171 
6,106 
2,080 

956 

27 


$7,537 

4,271 

935 

337 

131 
10 


$0,110 
.085 
.073 
.092 

.137 
.054 


Per ct. 
7.94 


Above 150 and not exceeding 3S4 square in-hes. . 
Above 384 and not exceeding 720 square inches. . 
Abo-e 720 and not exceeding 1,200 scmare inches. 
Above 1,200 and not