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Full text of "Gleanings in bee culture"

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UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 
LIBRARY 



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Published by The A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. II. Root. Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden. Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department j. t. Calvert. Business Manager 

Entered at the Postofflce, Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



JANUARY 1, 1912 



NO. 1 



THE DEATH OF JAMES HEDDON. 

We have just received notice that James 
Heddon, one of the best-known bee-keepers 
of 20 years ago, died at his home in Dowa- 
giac, Mich., on Dec. 7 last. A biographical 
sketch will appear in our next issue. 

GLEANINGS BEGINNING ON ITS 40tH YEAR. 

A GLANCE at the bottom of the first cover 
page of this issue will show that Glean- 
ings is now entering on its 40th year. The 
editor is also reminded that he is now en- 
tering on his 27th year at the editorial helm 
of this journal. Our managing editor, Mr. 
H. H. Root, has for 9 years selected most of 
the copy from our correspondents in the 
field. ' 

SPECIAL ISSUES FOR 1912. 

We call the attention of our readers to the 
fact that this issue, our "Beginners' Num- 
ber," is the first one of a series of six special 
numbers. We are endeavoring to collect ar- 
ticles written by specialists that will furnish 
exceptionally valuable reading along the 
lines suggested. With this in view we are 
soliciting these articles from well-known 
authorities; for, although we have on hand 
more material than we can use for some 
time to come, it is always our aim to place 
before our readers the best that can be ob- 
tained. 

The rest of the special numbers will occur 
as follows: February 15, "The Bee-keeper 
and the Poultry-man;" March 15, "Bee 
Cultureand Horticulture;" May 1, "Prepar- 
ing Colonies for the Harvest;" .July 1, "Hon- 
ey Harvesting and Marketing;" September 
1," "Wintering." 

In addition to these special numbers we 
are glad to announce a series of articles from 
no less an authority than J. E. Crane, of 
Middlebury, Vt., entitled "The Experiences 
of a Foul-brood Inspector." This series is 
illustrated, and we are sure it will prove 
\ aluable, not only to the foul-brood inspect- 
ors over the country but to all bee-keepers 
as well. Mr. Crane has had a long experi- 
ence, and his position as an extensi\ e pro- 
ducer of honey enables him to sift the wheat 
from the chafT as capably in these articles 
as he does in his regular dei)artment. There 
are eight articles in all, the first of which 
will probably appear in the February 1st 



DD°Da[ 



issue, the rest following in continuous order, 
with the exception, possibly, of the special 
numbers. 

OUR COVER PICTURE. 

The picture on the cover of this number 
is suggestive of a beginner making his first 
start with bees. Notice the box containing 
the three-frame nucleus that he has just 
bought. One of the frames he has already 
transferred to the hive in readiness; the sec- 
ond one is just being lowered into position, 
while the third is still in the shipping-box. 
Those of our readers who made their start 
from a nucleus (and, in fact, those who 
started with a full colony) can remember 
the eagerness with which they watched for 
the arrival of those first bees, and the thrill 
they had in seeing them begin at once to 
fly in and out of the new hive. Of all the 
different lines of outdoor work taken up by 
suburbanites, or even residents of cities, we 
believe there is none more entrancing than 
that of caring for a few colonies of bees. 

The extensive producers who may be 
styled professional bee-keej)ers, and who 
number their colonies by the thousands, 
can not afford to overlook the efforts of the 
amateur; for more than once such amateur, 
owing to his boundless enthusiasm and love 
of the revelation of nature which bee-keep- 
ing affords, has stumbled on to some new 
principle. Without beginners there can 
never be experts, for no man has yet been 
born with an inherited knowledge of bees 
and bee-keeping. 

COMMON MISTAKES BEGINNERS ARE APT TO 
MAKE THE FIRST YEAR. 

In any line of business there are some 
things that must be learned by experience; 
but in bee-keeping especially there are some 
difliculties that a beginner encounters that 
do not form much of an obstacle to one who 
has kept bees for a few years. While it is 
impossible to make a list of a/l the troubles 
that perplex beginners, and while explana- 
tions regarding them do not always take 
the place of the knowledge gained by real 
work in the yard, it is, nevertheless, profit- 
able now and then to consider some of the 
mistakes that are most commonly made. 

We will first take up the list of those that 



vi 



are encountered at this time of the year. 

First, a beginner, as he goes out among 
his outdoor-wintered colonies after the first 
warm fly day, on seeing the number of dead 
bees in front of the entrances naturally con- 
cludes that he is going to lose all his bees 
before spring. As a matter of fact, there is 
sure to be some mortality; and the stronger 
the colony the greater the number of dead 
bees that will be found. 

Or we will suppose that Mr. Beginner has 
his hives in the cellar. Even when condi- 
tions are ideal, and he has complied with all 
the rules for safe wintering, he wdll find 
what appears to be an abnormally large 
number of dead bees on the cellar bottom; 
and again he is sure he is going to lose all 
of his bees. The fact is, there is bound to 
be a good many even when conditions are 
normal— especially toward spring. If he be- 
gins to tinker w4th his bees to see what is 
the matter, he will make matters ten times 
worse than they were. 

Some over-ehthusiastic novice may be m- 
clined to open up his hives of outdoor bees 
every now and then to see how they are 
coming on. If they have been properly fed 
and properly housed, he will do well to leave 
them entirely alone. 

Perhaps he is afraid they have not enough 
stores, and then he will try to feed them 
liquid syrup, which they will not take if the 
weather is at all cold. If the syrup is left 
on top of the cluster they will take it down 
the first warm day, and then they will fly 
out at the entrances to find more, only to be- 
come chilled and die on the ground. Feed- 
ing should not be practiced during wmter 
except to give cakes of hard candy, queen- 
cage candy, or combs of sealed stores. 

Sometimes a beginner on a cold day, 
looks down into his hive and finds a ball of 
bees only a little larger than his double fist, 
even in some of the best colonies. "My, 
oh my!" he concludes, "this will never do;" 
and so, perhaps, he will attempt to unite. 
He does not know, perhaps, that the strong- 
est colonies— the very best that he or any 
one else may have— can compress themselves 
into a space almost as small as the double 
fist providing the weather is very cold. 

Many a beginner makes the mistake of 
placing his hives on an exposed knoll where 
the cold prevailing winds can strike them. 
Apiaries should always be protected by be- 
ing placed in an inclosure formed by a barn, 
out-buildings, fence, or shrubbery —any 
thing that will break the force of the wind. 

In the si)ring of the year, one starting in 
bees reads what is said about spreading 
brood in order to get more brood. He un- 
dertakes to do work of this kind with insuf- 
ficient knowledge of the requirements. The 
novice and most experienced bee-keepers 
should not undertake to disturb the posi- 
tions of the combs in the early season. As 
a general thing it will do more harm than 
good. 

Reading that bees should be stimulated 
in the spring by feeding, some beginners 
will feed when the weather is too cool or 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

when honey is coming in from fruit-bloom. 
No feeding should be practiced at either 
time. 

Many beginners make the mistake, after 
having read all the bee-books, and keeping 
bees for a couple of years, of supposing that 
they "know it all " when they don't. Such 
people usually wander into the stage of in- 
venting bee-hives or bee-feeders. They 
should understand that most veterans who 
know most about the business do not waste 
any time in trying to improve (?) on the 
basic principles put forth by father Lang- 
stroth. The fact is, nearly all the so-called 
improvements on the Langstroth frame and 
hive have been a step backward rather than 
forward. If our beginner friend clearly un- 
derstands this, perhaps he will not get it in- 
to his head that he is going to revolutionize 
hives and appliances. 

Another trouble with the beginner is that 
he is apt to be too impatient to get his crop 
of honey. He reads of some one's great suc- 
cess, or possibly hears his neighbor telling 
about putting on a super on such and such 
a day and taking off 82 full sections a little 
later, and he is perplexed because he can 
not get the same results. His bees seem to 
be working so steadily and so industriously 
that he can not understand why they don't 
go into the super on business intent; and at 
the very start he is apt to get discouraged, 
feeling that all the reading which he did 
has not prepared him for even this first 
emergency. He finds that the books recom- 
mend the use of "baits" in the supers to 
get the bees started, and he wonders wheth- 
er a bait consists of a bunch of flowers, the 
sweet perfume of which would be attractive, 
or what. On reading further he finds that 
"baits" are unfinished sections containing 
some honey left over from the year before, 
or, possibly, merely sections with the comb 
pretty well drawn out. As he has just sta'Vt- 
ed, and has nothing left over from the year 
before, he wonders where he is going to get 
his bait. Meanwhile, the bees keep on fly- 
ing merrily, but refuse to notice the tempt- 
ing white sections above them with their 
starters of comb foundation. 

WHY BEES DO NOT ENTER SUPERS. 

As explained in the questions and answers 
under Heads of Grain in this issue, there are 
several reasons why bees do not go above 
for storing honey; and it may be any one of 
them or a combination of several. In the 
first place, it must be remembered that the 
tendency of the bees is to place honey as 
close as possible to the brood. It is niuch 
handier there, and far more convenient for 
winter. Estimates vary as to the actual 
amount of honey which bees consume them- 
selves during a year: but assuming that it is 
;5001bs., it is plain that the suri)Ius honey — 
that is, that which is stored in the sections — 
forms only a relatively small percentage of 
the honey really brought into the hive. The 
super, then, is to the bees what the savings 
bank is to mankind— a storage-house for the 
surplus wealth accumulated during a period 
of prosperity. A colony that is not strong 



Jan. 1, 1912 



and prosperous, therefore, is not capable of 
storing any great amount of surplus; and 
what they do store they prefer to place as 
near as possible to the brood in combs that 
the queen does not occupy, owing to the 
small number of nurse bees in the colony. 

A colony with a failing queen rarely does 
much in the super; for if the queen lays less 
and less, the bees keep putting more honey 
in the cells left vacant by the hatching 
brood, and, finally, the queen has very lit- 
tle room to lay. Bees are creatures of habit; 
and when once they get started to storing 
honey in the brood-combs it is more difficult 
to get them to go to work above. 

It is often the fault of the season that bees 
do not work in the supers; for unless the 
honey comes in with a rush so that the bees 
are able to store much more than they can 
possibly use they can not be induced to go 
into the sections. A beginner is often de- 
ceived in thinking that his bees are work- 
ing hard, when, in reality, they are working 
only a little, or perhaps merely playing or 
loafing. During a good honey-liow, when 
a colony is working well, the heavily loaded 
bees have no time for play, and they drop 
down on to the alighting-board and imme- 
diately crawl into the hive in such numbers 
that it is impossible to count them. At 
such times the field bees forget every thing 
except work; and they are so busily engaged 
that they have no thought, except the one 
mad desire to bring in more and more. Un- 
der these conditions, unless they get side- 
tracked on to swarming there is generally 
very little difficulty in getting them into 
the super provided the brood-combs are 
pretty well filled with brood, so that there 
is not much room for the storage of surplus 
honey there. 

THE SWARMING PROBLEM. 

Some beginners are perplexed because 
their bees won't swarm, and others because 
they swarm too much. It is a qviestion 
whether the beginner, the first year at least, 
should attempt any form of artificial in- 
crease; for the natural-swarming method is 
the best for one who lacks experience; and 
one swarm in a season is all that should be 
allowed. The books describe fully a num- 
ber of good plans for preventing after-swarms 
— that is, all swarms after the first one, 
which is called the "prime" swarm. 

GETTING HONEY AT THE EXPENSE OF COL- 
ONY LIFE. 

After the honey-flow the most costly mis- 
take that the beginner can make is to leave 
his colony or colonies, as the case may be, 
in poor condition for winter. A rather weak 
colony, composed mainly of worn-out bees, 
is not likely to live through the wihter, no 
matter how securely the hive is protected, 
nor how well supplied with stores the combs 
are. If there is no fall honey-flow, of if the 
queen does not keep up brood-rearing long 
enough to insure a good force of young bees 
to go into winter quarters, some feeding is 
necessary; and here it is that the beginner 
often blunders. He is not well enough post- 



ed on methods of feeding as given in the 
books, and perhaps his first difficulty occurs 
soon after beginning to feed. He is aston- 
ished to find that the bees become very ir- 
ritable, and commence fighting, apparent- 
ly, among themselves. The real situation 
is that the feed, instead of being supplied in 
the evening, is given in the morning; and 
(luring the excitement other bees from .some 
other hive or from some bee-tree in the lo- 
cality are attracted, and robbing is the re- 
sult. Wholesale fighting begins, and many 
bees are killed. At this time they are so 
cross it is almost impossible to do any thing 
with them; and even dogs or horses that get 
in their way are apt to be stung. During a 
dearth of honey great care is necessary to 
prevent spilling any syrup or leaving any 
exposed sweets around to invite robbers. 

DO NOT WINTER IN A CLOSED ROOM ABOVE 
GROUND. 

If a colony is wintered in a place where 
the temperature changes very much, the 
bees must have an opening to the outside 
air. In other words, the inside of a barn or 
granary is not a fit place for a colony of 
bees in the winter unless the hive is placed 
closi to the outer wall and an opening made 
for the alighting-board so that the bees may 
fly when tlae weather is suitable. In a cel- 
lar where the temperature does not change 
very much, seldom going below 40 degrees 
nor above 50 F., it is not necessary to have 
the outside entrance; but for best results the 
room should be darkened. 

Colonies that are wintered on their sum- 
mer stands out of doors need some protec- 
tion where the temperature in winter goes 
down to zero; but the outer packing materi- 
al must be protected from the rain, so that 
it may not soak through and then freeze. 
Old carpets, sacks, etc., thrown over a hive 
are worse than useless unless covered with 
a water-proof box which will keep the pack- 
.ing dry. 

Summing up the whole question, we may 
say that all mistakes commonly made by 
beginners may be classed under two heads: 
First, failure to bring the colony into the 
right condition by the time the main honey- 
flow begins; second, failure to have the col- 
ony in the right condition for winter. Mis- 
takes under the first head mean a loss of 
the crop; and those under the second mean 
the loss of the bees themselves. Both are 
costly, and both are i)reventable; and it is 
profitable for any bee-keeper to "go slow" 
in order to learn how to i)revent such trou- 
ble before making a large increase in the 
attempt to produce larger and larger crops 
of honey. 

A very common mistake of some prospec- 
tive beginners is to imagine that the flowers 
in their back yard, consisting of a few roses, 
dahlias, sweet peas, etc., are going to yield 
enough honey to fill their hives. Such 
l)eople should know that a single colony of 
bees re(iuires acres of good bee forage in or- 
der to store any surplus. The ornamental 
flowers of Ihe'garden yield practically no 
necta'-. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Dr. C. C. Millek, Marengo. III. 



Louis Scholl's "Honey vs. Other 
Sweets," page 747, would be a fine thing to 
have copied in local papers. 

C. A. Neal, page 766, asks where he can 
buy rock candy. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 
Chicago, quote it at 65 cts. for 5 lbs. 

D. W. Millar, p. 718, talks about Euro- 
pean foul brood, and then says, "We do 
not consider this contagious." If it isn't 
contagious, it isn't European foul brood. 

Thanks, Mr. Editor, for your invitation 
to eat pie with you, p. 746. At a banquet 
the talking comes usually after the feast. 
Let's reverse the order, and talk before cut- 
ting the pie. 

A. W. Yates, those "little drops falling 
like rain," p. 717, were only water separated 
by the bees from the syrup. Don't you for 
a minute think bees will throw away good 
stuff they have once started with. [Right 
you are. — Ed.] 

Rev. Geo. W. Fuller, Bevietv, 339, re- 
ports that in York State, last year, he found 
lice on a number of bees, each bee having 
from one to eight lice. Heretofore the bee- 
louse has never flourished in this country 
when brought across the sea. 

Devauchelle, IyApiculieu7', 412. fully 
endorses the view expressed by you, Mr. Ed- 
itor, page 712, about Abbe Pincot's enlarged 
bees. Abbe Pincot says they are 13mm. in 
length, while his unimproved bees are 12mra. 
Devauchelle's bees, reared in ordinary cells, 
are 14mm. long! 

J. G. Creighton wants to know Ihe ori- 
gin of the first golden queen. I think i)oo- 
little obtained his from Italians by constant 
selection of the brightest-colored bees. I . 
believe others have been obtained from Cyp- 
rian or other stock — perhaps with some 
crossing. [If we are not mistaken, friend 
Doolittle was not the first to bring out the 
golden Italians. We hope the man who 
did it will speak up. — Ed.] 

Some have complained that foundation 
has dropped out when wedges were used. 
Stephen Anthony has overcome the difTicul- 
ty by cutting each wedge in 3 pieces, using 
two of these pieces to each frame, starting 
al)out ,V inch from each end. — lien'riv, 345. 
[One difficulty with many is that the pre- 
caution to dri\e the wedge bfilow the surface 
of the wood its ^ nfire length is not observ- 
ed. The wedge should always go the full 
depth of the groove. — Ed.] 

Dr. Phillips had barrels of slumgum at- 
tacked by moths. .Just what 1 should ex- 
pect ho re if the barrels were warm enough 
and exp'SL-d enough. But we were not 
talking about slumgum on p. 582. To be 
sure, you asked a question on that page in 
which I think you had reference to brood- 
combs; and as that has not been answered, 



I'll be liberal enough to answer it here. 
You asked, "Is it not true that, when these 
combs have been frozen, after a long severe 
winter, they will develop the mot!i-worm 
without ever going back into the hives 
again if left exposed in a building?" In 
this locality a brood-comb that has been ex- 
posed to a winter's freezing, if left standing 
in the apiary in a hive without any bees 
throughout the summer, will not be trou- 
bled with moths one time in a hundred. 
My assistant says she doesn't remember a 
single case. I can't say how it would be in 
a building. But neither slumgum nor 
brood-combs are involved. Let's see just 
what is the material for that pie. I said, 
in effect, p. 582, "I venture the guess that 
S. D. House never had an egg laid in sec- 
tions after they were taken from the hive— 
at least that, I think, is the case here." So 
please bear in mind that neither slumgum 
nor brood-combs are to go into that pie- 
only sections. Now I'll tell you on what I 
base that guess. For years I have had each 
year hundreds if not thousands of sections, 
with combs partly or fully drawn out, that 
were stored in the shop. The moths could 
easily get them if they so desired. They 
were put there in the fall and stayed there 
generally till .lune, sometimes through the 
entire summer, and Ida not remember ever 
to have seen a single one of those sections 
troubled with moth-worms, and I have good 
eyes too. If, now, my experience is entire- 
ly exceptional, and every one else, especial- 
ly S. D. House, says such sections are de- 
stroyed by worms, you needn't mind cut- 
ting the pie. I'll eat the whole of it and 
look pleasant while eating it. [Are you not 
making a distinction, doctor, without a dif- 
ference? P^or example, what is the differ- 
ence between a comb in a brood-frame and 
a comb in a section? Both may or may not 
have had brood in them. But let us assume 
that there ?•< a difference. If you will turn 
back to our original statement, page 547, 
Sept. 15, you will see that we Mere talking 
about the iwssibility of moth-millers laying 
eggs "in his combs or in his nice comb hon- 
ey after either has been taken from the 
hive." In your comment on this, page 5<S2. 
you said sections. The natural inference 
would be you included in your guess coml)s 
either in the sections or brood-frames. Now, 
then, doctor, if the moth-miller will attack 
or lay eggs in combs after thev have been 
frozen or fumigated, why should she not 
lay eggs in combs built in sections? 

i\s we look at it, your proposition or 
"guess" will be an unsafe one to let go un- 
challonired before tlie })ee-keeping public. 
Don't vou believe tiiere is plenty of proof now 
to show that it would lie wisse to err on the 
safe side— at least so far as our instructions 
to the public are concerned. The individual, 
of course, can do as he pleases.— Ed.] 



Jan. 1, Utl2 



racDir 



F[^(DSffl (@^ra/A\ffi)^ 



J. L. Byer, Mt. Joy, Ont. 



Arthur (". Miller's article on page 6G4, 
Nov. 1, is interesting: but in some things 
he mentions, many of us will assume tlie 
"Missouri" attitude before being convinc- 
ed. Certainly cotton for fuel does not act in 
the way friend Miller says when used with 
our bees. What a good thing that we have 
"locality" to fail back on! As to winter 
temperature within the hive, outside of the 
cluster, being within one or two degrees the 
same as outside the hive, is a question, but 
he may be right. If such is the case, one 
would wonder why bees winter ;So much 
better with abundance of packing than they 
do in single-walled hives, in our cold climate. 

If all goes well I intend to test the matter 
myself this coming winter, during zero 
weather, as some of my hives are so con- 
structed that a thermometer can be taken 
from the inside of the hive without unduly 
disturbing the cluster. 

The advisability of compensation for col- 
onies destroyed by inspectors is a question 
that comes up every once in a while when 
the foul-brood laws are under discussion. 
The following, from the British Bee Journal, 
written by that well-known author, D. M. 
Macdonald, hits the nail fairly on the head, 
according to my view of the question: "I 
have always been an opponent of compensa- 
tion in any form. Of what value, I ask, is 
a putrid m^iss of vile-smelling matter? The 
most rabid must admit that it is represented 
by a cipher. So also must be a collection 
of combs fast hastening to this unenviable 
condition. Why, the party who eradicates 
disease or the cause thereof is the one who 
should be compensated." 

The foregoing may be a bit too radical, so 
far as heading ofT European foul brood is 
concerned, because in some cases it might 
be economy to the state to compensate, 
where slightly infected colonies were destroy- 
ed, to prevent the spread of the disease; yet, 
in the main, Mr. Macdonald's views are rea- 
sonable, as colonies rotten with foul brood 
represent no money value outside of the 
wax that is in the combs. On the contrary, 
they are apt to be even worse than useless, 
and a menace to the welfare, not only of the 
owner, Vjut his neighbors as well. 
-*- 

The Ontario convention was well attend- 
ed, and in e\ ery way a success. From over 
the line we had the different ones mention- 
ed in a former issue, as well as Mr. Geo. B. 
Howe, of Black River, N. Y. The conven- 
tion was strictly a bii.s/nfss one, and it was 
a question in the mind of some if this fea- 
ture was not o\ erdone a bit. While we may 
argue (as the writer has often done) that 
details of management, etc., should be dis- 
cu.ssed in local conventions, yet the fact 
seemed apparent at our late convention that 
many come to get information who are not 
as yet interested in freight rates, coopera- 



tion, and a host of other questions that the 
more seasoned bee-keepers no doubt rightly 
think should be paramount. This fact was 
made clear by the lively discussion that fol- 
lowed any subject or question that would 
occasionally crop up concerning actual man- 
agement connected with the ajiiary. To my 
mind it seems clear that we must be careful 
in future conventions, and not jump too 
quickly from one extreme to another, else 
there be danger of cutting out the attendance 
and interest at our meetings. This should 
never be allowed, as there is no question 
but that the social side of such gatherings 
must be taken into consideration. 

It is an old saying, "All things come to 
those who wait;" but this fall, in our par- 
ticular vicinity, the man who waited for his 
bees to have a flight before putting them in 
the cellar "got left" unless he did the work 
early in November. 

At the east yard the bees had a good flight 
Nov. 6, and the 280 colonies were put inside 
on the 8th and 9th. Here in York Co. we 
had only 40 to go inside; and as the cellar is 
not of the best, we like to wait till late in 
November before putting the bees inside. 
On the 11th they had a partial flight; and 
on that day, wherever bees were outdoors, 
both east and west of us, they had a grand 
flight, as the day was warm and clear. Here 
with us it was quite warm but very cloudy 
all day. Little things like this show how it 
is possible for much different results in bee- 
keeping in localities only a few miles away 
from each other. 

However, we waited in vain for a warm 
day before putting these 40 colonies in the 
cellar; and about Dec. 1, when the thermome- 
ter showed nearly zero, the bees were put in- 
side without having had the flight we were 
hoping for. After being in the cellar for 
less than a week the weather turned warm, 
and has been warm for over a week now; 
and at this date, Dec. 11, all the frost is out 
of the ground and some plowing has been 
done. One day the bees outside flew nice- 
ly, and only the thought of the heavy hives 
in the cellar prevented us from carrying out 
those 40 for a flight. This carrying out col- 
onies in the winter for a flight sounds all 
right on paper, but is a different thing in 
practice when the hives weigh 70 lbs. or 
more each, unless you get the "other fel- 
low " to do the work. When my son and I 
started to carry them in we had planned 
carrying them out on the first warm day; 
but by the time we had them in the cellar 
we had changed our minds, for we felt that 
hvo operations of that kind are enough for 
a lot of bees in one season. All things con- 
sidered, I am of the opinion that, for our 
latitude, outdoor wintering is the best, and 
this opinion I note is being shared more 
fully by many men who are in the business 
extensively. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



te(B[pDDDg] /SDDQCDDDg] GDd© [S(D©fcB©i 



Wesley Foster, Boulder, Colo. 



BEE INSPECTION DURING 1911. 

Full reports have not been received from 
all counties; but more than twelve thousand 
colonies were inspected, of which something 
in excess of 10 per cent were found diseased. 
The expense to the counties and the State 
has been about $2000. 

THE HONEY SITUATION. 

Colorado at the present time has been 
about cleaned up on comb honey, but we 
are well supplied with extracted. The lat- 
ter is selling now for 7>^ to 9 cts. in 60-lb. 
square cans. Comb honey sells locally in 
small lots at about $3.00 per case of 24 sec- 
tions for No. 1 grades. The price tends to 
go above this figure, as the smaller bee- 
keepers with but a few cases of honey are 
getting pretty well cleaned up. 
-^ 

BANKING HIVES WITH DIRT. 

Some of the bee-men near Rocky Ford 
are banking dirt up around three sides of 
the hives, and they claim to have good suc- 
cess. The Arkansas Valley country is very 
dry in winter, and this method might suc- 
ceed there when it would fail almost any- 
where else. The objections to this method 
are that the hives would tend to be damp- 
ened by the dirt, and then the hives and 
bottoms would be more subject to decay. 
Otherwise this wintering method might 
work all right. 

■^ 

A STARTERING-MACHINE. 

Mr. D. S. .Jenkins, of Ijas Animas, is the 
inventor of a machine which will cut, and 
in one operation insert in a section honey- 
box, a starter of any desired size. The Las 
Animas bee-keepers in that vicinity who 
have used it have discarded every other 
make, whether a combined machine or not. 
His is simplicity itself, and does not cost 25 
cents for material. Mr. .Jenkins has made 
and sold several for S2.50 each. He uses an 
auto in his bee-w'ork, and this, too, is large- 
ly of his own manufacture. He says one 
has to become accustomed to the machine 
for startering sections before being able to 
use it successfully. 

4> 

TALKS ON BEES AT THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The Colorado Agricultural College is con- 
ducting a series of farmers' institutes in the 
Arkansas X'alley, Colorado. The writer is 
giving talks on bee management and foul 
brood at the institutes, and on the habits of 
the honey-bee, before some of the high 
schools and i:)ublic schools. Courses in ag- 
riculture and domestic science are being 
carried on in many of the schools, and 
these classes are especially interested in the 
honey-bee and its product. In some places 
the whole school is dismissed while our 
corps of speakers are in town, and in other 
places we go to the schools and speak there. 
Institutes are being held at Wiley, I>amar, 



Las Animas, Cheraw, Rocky Ford, Swiiik, 
I^a Junta, Fowler, JJoone, Fountain, Sug:ir 
City, and several other towns. 

WHAT OF THE NEW YEAR? 

Some time ago my wife was looking 
through the bee-journals, hunting for her 
husband's bee material and remarks thereon 
by the other correspondents, when she said, 
"You bee writers don't do much else than 
nod back and forth at each other in your 
departments." 

It struck me as being rather apt, even if 
my wife did say it. The reason, no doubt, 
is principally because of lack of better ma- 
terial. Each one of us who tries to keep his 
department going should have an experi- 
ment station in operation to furnish actual 
results as a basis for his results. It would 
do away with a lot of guesswork and mere 
ideas on certain subjects. But as we can 
not do this except as our own apiaries are 
experiment stations, we shall have to keep 
right on in the way we are going, with a 
constant endeavor to improve our methods 
and the material we furnish. 
-^ 

COLORADO BEE INSPECTION IN 1912. 

Plans are being made to do thorough in- 
spection in every county in Colorado where 
bees are kept if the county commissioners 
will set aside enough money to pay a coun- 
ty deputy inspector to work under the di- 
rection of the State Entomologist's office. 
Most of the counties are cooperating in this 
way; and if all will heljo, great good can be 
done. The bee-keepers in each county not 
having a local inspector should call a meet- 
ing of the bee-men at some time when the 
commissioners are in session, and appoint 
a committee to see the commissioners or else 
have the bee-keepers see them in a body. The 
writer, if notified, will gladly meet with the 
bee-men and take up the matter with the 
commissioners, explaining the way the new- 
law operates, and the means of getting the 
most benefit from it. It is important to get 
this started soon, as the commissioners 
w-ant to know some time in advance as to 
the expenses they will be called upon to 
vote for different kinds of county work, and 
the bee-keepers should not be at the tail end 
of the ap]^ropriations. The State funds are 
not sufficient to keep me in the field more 
than six or seven months; and when there 
are a dozen or more county inspectors at 
w'ork the office work takes a great deal of 
time. However, I shall be able to i)ut in 
one or two weeks in each county, working 
with the county deputy inspectors. 

Let us all make an extra elTort to get foul 
brood under control in Colorado. It can be 
done if we make an extra effort. In the fu- 
ture our work will consist in seeing that 
cleaning up is done. Inspection avails 
nothing if treatment is not given promptly. 



Jan. 1. Ull-2 



©(DDDWCBD^^SlliaCDDDg M D 11 Dd ffl3®®DDfillD(B 



.\t Borodino, New York 



THE apiarist's USE FOR AN AUTOMOBILE. 

" Did you see the editor's request, page 
709, December 1, that those having auto- 
mobiles tell something of their experience 
with them in bee-keei)ing for the benefit of 
the Gleanings family? If I ana correct, 
you were one of the i)ioneers in using the 
auto in connection with our industry; and 
as I am thinking of purchasing one I should 
be pleased to have you tell us about it." 

" 1 bought my first automobile in June, 
190;^ — a Tij^-horse-power Pierce motorette. 
Automobiles were then in their infancy; 
yet this little machine could climb any of 
our hills, carrying a load of 400 to 500 
jiounds. As it was not intended for any 
thing but carrying two persons, I made a 
rack to fit on behind the seat; and with 
this, and the seat Mrs. D. occupied when 
both of us went, I could load on 350 lbs. of 
honey, or as many hives or supers as would 
stay on when going and coming to or from 
the out-apiary, five miles away. As I then 
weighed from 260 to 270 lbs., it wull be seen 
what a power there was in that little 3>^- 
horse-i)ower motor. In September, 1905, I 
sold this motorette, considering it too small 
for my use with the bees; and as I was so 
well pleased with the material and work- 
manship I bought another Pierce car, this 
having a folding seat in front. This was 
styled an S-horse-power Stanhope; but to 
show its power and capacity I will say that 
I have carried four grown persons and six 
children in it, besides myself, at Sunday- 
school picnics, and, at other times, from 600 
to 800 lbs. of crated section honey, to our 
railroad four miles away, over a hilly coun- 
try, when shipping my honey to the New 
York market. By opening up the front 
seat I could pile on nearly as many hives 
and supers as could be drawn by wagon, 
and take them to and from the out-apiary 
in less than half the time required to trav- 
erse the distance with a horse. Those 
having O LEANINGS for August 1, 1906, can 
find a picture of me with my load of supers 
just arriving from the out-apiary. 

" But the great beauty of the automobile 
for the bee-keeper consists in the driver 
having jierfect control in all of the essentials 
of apiary work. With my auto I can drive 
right into the bee-yard; and with the dis- 
tance 1 have between the rows of hives, the 
auto can be brought right up to the back 
side of any hive; heavy supers, freed from 
bees by the use of the bee-escapes, set right 
from the hives to the auto, with a carrying 
swinging motion, with scarcely a bit of the 
lifting needed when loading on a wagon, as 
the auto is of about the same height as the 
supers on the hive. The motor may mean- 
while be left running slowly, so that mov- 
ing on to the next hive is only a matter of 
touching a lever; and in a very few minutes 
the load is on, the hives closed up in good 
shai)e, and we are ofT, without a sting or 
any worry from the bees whatever. 



"Then the driver of this load of precious 
sweets is always master of the situation, if 
he is a capable driver, no matter what he 
meets on the way home. Once a hog was 
the cause of frightening my horse, and again 
a traction engine, so that it was only by a 
hair's breadth that the load of honey was 
not demolished. The auto never shies nor 
gets scared, no matter how many ghosts 
jump out in unexpected places. 

"Another thing which really gives me 
lots of comfort is, the flies never bite and 
torment the auto, as they are sure to a horse 
during the season for moving honey. This 
season is always in fly time; and to control 
the horse when files are very troublesome is 
not always the easiest thing to do where the 
road is very rough and stony; and a horse 
often gets its tail over the lines in the fight 
to relieve itself from these tormentors. Jt 
is needless to say that the auto overcomes 
all of these many difficulties. 

"The auto can be made to go at snail's 
pace where the load requires the most care- 
ful driving, and, where good, a fifteen-miles- 
an-hour jog is just as safe and reasonable as 
the former. Thus a load can be moved with 
an auto, without tying or binding when 
moving, which is always a safe precaution 
with a horse and wagon. 

"Another thing about the auto which 
pleases me nearly as much as does driving 
it right into the middle of the apiary, with- 
out fear of stings or the unhitching of horses, 
is this: After finding what this auto would 
do I built an auto store-room, honey-room, 
and small workshop combined, with mov- 
able partitions, painting the same a dark 
color so as to ripen the honey when stored 
therein through the heat brought about by 
the absorption of the rays of the sun. Now. 
instead of having to carry the honey from 
the wagon to the honey-room, the auto load 
of honey is run right into the honey-rooai. 
This saves a whole lot of lugging which was 
necessary with each load when returning 
with the horse-drawn wagon. Again, when 
marketing with horse-power the crates of 
honey must be carried from the honey-room 
to the wagon standing outside, and the load, 
when completed, securely tied or bound on, 
owing to the smooth surface of the nicely 
polished cases. The auto is backed right 
into the honej'^-room, between the piles of 
nicely crated honey, when, with the swing- 
ing motion, the lioney is conveyed from 
these piles into the auto; and when the load 
is on, the driver pulls the lever, and he with 
the load moves right out from the honey- 
room to the railroad station or car convey- 
ing it to where it is consigned. 

"To save any tying when carrying polish- 
ed cases of honey to market, 1 have i)roper- 
ly shaped i)ieces of lumber put in the auto 
where needed, to give a very slight tip or 
pitch toward the center, so that all crates 
will gravitate toward the middle of the load, 
which is even better than tying." 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



gm®D°aiD (B®D°D°®g^®m(i]®m©(8 



WHAT A LIFETIME OF EXPERIENCE HAS 
TAUGHT ME. 

Some Advice for the Especial Benefit of the Be- 
ginner. 

BY ISAAC F. TILLINGHAST. 



Born on the even half-century mark, Jan- 
uary, 1850, it is now over sixty years since I 
first opened my eyes to the beauties of this 
diversified world, and began the study of 
nature. Among my earliest recollections is 
a row of Week's patent hives. My father 
kept them in his front yard suspended be- 
tween horizontal pieces of scantling attach- 
ed to posts, the lower end of each hive being 
cut on a slant, and its bottom-board sus- 
pended at each corner by a wire hook, the 
idea being to facilitate the removal of litter 
of all kinds, and to prevent the bee-moth 
from gaining entrance. At the top was a 
surplus-honey chamber, about one-fourth 
the size of the brood-chamber, opening at the 
side, and furnished with two square surplus 
boxes, each having glass ends in front, and 
four communicating-holes through which 
the bees entered from below. These boxes 
held about ten pounds each of comb honey; 
and whenever a colony filled them during 
the season, it was considered a record or 
maximum yield. 

As soon as old enough I began to take 
charge of the bees, and to study their habits. 
I bought and read the works of Quinby, 
Kidder, King, Langstroth, and others, and 
subscribed for the American Bee Joiumal, 
for which I became a frequent contributor 
in the early seventies. Quite recently I pur- 
chased a copy of Dr. Miller's "Forty Years 
Among the Bees," and was surprised to note 
that he gives me the credit of being one of 
his early teachers. In those days I thought 
I knew it about all; but a half-century has 
passed, and I am still learning. 

Being fully convinced of the superiority 
of the Italian race of bees, I bought my first 
queen of father Langstroth, successfully in- 
troduced her, and kept her for several years. 
I closely read the exploits and achievements 
of "Novice," in the Bee Journal, and well 
remember the first issues of Gleanings. 
Yet bee-keeping was never my main busi- 
ness. For twenty-five years I was editor 
and publisher of Seedtime and Harvest, in 
which I maintained an apiarian department, 
conducted by James Heddon, yet gave most 
of my time and attention to growing and 
selling seed. 

During the last ten years I have traveled 
quite extensively throughout the Union, 
and have visited many of the most noted 
bee-keepers. At the same time, at home I 
have kept more bees and produced much 
more honey than I ever did in my younger 
days. 

WHY KEEP BEES? 

First, because the honey-bee is one of the 



cogs in the wonderful mechanism of nature, 
and is as necessary to the successful produc- 
tion of fruits as are the birds and showers. 
Nectar was placed in the flower by the great 
Designer to attract the bee, for the purpose 
of carrying the pollen from the stamens of 
one blossom to the pistils of another, in or- 
der to cross-fertilize them and render them 
fruitful. It is a mutual arrangement. The 
bee is for the flower as much as the flower is 
for the bee; and the very life and existence 
of many kinds of fruits, vegetables, and 
other plants, depend as much upon the bee 
as does the life of the bee upon the flowers. 
The bee-keeper is, therefore, a public bene- 
factor. 

Secondly, there is pleasure and profit in 
bee-keeping if conducted by modern meth- 
ods; and as a hobby or diversion for business 
men I would place a few colonies of bees far 
in advance of chicken-raising or any other 
outdoor home industry. 

I believe that there are few localities where 
many more bees could not be jirofitably 
kept; and the amount of honey that is con- 
tinually going to waste all over this country, 
if known, would fairly astonish the world. 
Indeed, it could easily be proven that the 
honey-flows, as they come along from differ- 
ent sources, are far more abundant, yet i)er- 
haps shorter in duration, than most people 
suppose; and a knowledge of this fact, cou- 
pled with ability and proper facilities for 
caring for them at the proper time, consti- 
tutes the greatest factor of profit on the part 
of the up-to-date bee-keeper. 

It is my purpose to show how to manage 
bees so as to secure the proper share of this 
great waste. In proof of the assertion just 
made, that in few if any localities are there 
bees enough to secure all the honey that na- 
ture so lavishly supplies, let me cite the case 
of Mr. E. W. Alexander, of Schoharie Co., 
New York, who, for several years before his 
death, kept an average of 750 colonies of 
bees in one yard, all on about one acre of 
land. By knowing the nature of his field, 
and about when to expect the honey-flows 
from different sources (buckwheat being 
his most important one) , and by seeing 
that each colony was supplied with empty 
combs at the critical moment, when needed 
for storage, he succeeded in securing an 
average of over one hundred pounds of ex- 
tracted honey per colony, the aggregate of 
which would amount to over 37 tons. Now, 
if it was possible for this great amount to be 
gathered from within the area of a circle 
covered by the flight of one bee, whatever 
distance that may have been, how much do 
you suppose may go to waste, for the want 
of bees to gather it, in thousands of other 
localities where not even one hundred 
pounds is secured and saved within an equal 
area? Are not the possibilities great enough 
to warrant a study of this subject, with a 
view to determining what may or may not 
be accomplished along this line in your lo- 



Jan. 1. 1912 



cality, or in selecting some other locality 
where you may profit by the knowledge you 
may gain? 

Why you should not keep bees may now 
be considered in order to ascertain whether 
the objections can match or overbalance my 
affirmative reasons. First, no doubt you will 
admit that a fear of stings is your greatest 
objection; and, secondly, perhaps you imag- 
ine that some large trees surrounding your 
]iremises might be selected by the bees as 
alighting-places, thus causing you too much 
trouble in hiving swarms. Let me assure 
you that both of these objections can be al- 
most entirely overcome. 

By the use of a little smoke, the crossest 
and most irritable colony may be made gen- 
tle. A whiff of smoke blown into the hive 
frightens the inmates, and they at once pro- 
ceed to fill themselves with honey. If there 
is no unsealed honey readily attainable, 
sprinkle them liberally with sweetened wa- 
ter, which they will take instead, and, like 
a man after dinner, they are invariably bet- 
ter-natured when filled than when empty. 
And then when obliged to open a hive, a 
pair of gloves and a bee-veil over the face 
will prevent your being made a target by 
some mischievous scout. Another curious 
fact is that, after you have been stung a few 
times, your system becomes inoculated to 
the poison, and you rarely observe any un- 
pleasant effects, such as the closed eye that 
the tenderfoot may be likely to suffer. 

In many localities there are not bees 
enough to fructify properly the blossoms of 
fruits and vegetables. Most bee-keepers 
now prefer to get their increase by artificial 
divisions rather than by natural swarming, 
as thus it may be done at one's option and 
convenience, and most of the risk of ab- 
sconding swarms may be eliminated. It is 
only necessary to keep the wings of the 
queens clipped so they can not fly, and you 
will have the whole colony under perfect 
control. Should they attempt to swarm, 
you may make them literally hive them- 
sehes instead of alighting in some fall tree. 

To accomplish this, as soon as they are in 
the air remove to a short distance the hive 
from which they is'^ued. and phice an empty 
one in its stead. You will find the old queen 
on the ground in front, vainly endeavoring 
to accompany them. Secure her in a cage 
and wait till the swarming bees have missed 
her. They will probably begin alighting in 
a cluster; but finding that not all is well 
with them tliey will soon proceed to return 
whence they came, and will thus be made 
to enter the new hive. Now liberate the 
queen at the entrance; see that she goes in 
with them; and as soon as all are in, move 
them to any de>ired situation, and place the 
old hive on its original stand. 

When bees prepare to swarm they make 
provision for themselves for the journey by 
filling their bodies with honey; and when in 
ihat condition, as above stated, they may 
usually be handled with impunity. In 
early spring, when examining our colonies 
we clip the right wing of each queen if she 



is not already clipped. The next year we 
clip the left wing, and the third year both 
wings. This marks their age up to three 
years, which is as long as or' longer than it 
is usually profitable to keep them, and it 
prevents the possibility of swarms abscond- 
ing to the woods. 

WHERE BEES MAY BE PROFITABLY KEPT. 

There are few locations where bees may 
not be kept either in country, village, or 
city, as they will go three or four miles if 
necessary for food. In the writer's locality 
they start in early spring on the maples, the 
soft and hard varieties following in succes- 
sion, and lasting two or three weeks. Then 
follow dandelion, fruit-blossoms, red and 
black raspberries, locust, -white clover, bass- 
wood, sumach, milkweed, catnip, Canada 
thistle, goldenrod, buckwheat, wild aster, 
and a score of wild flowers whose names are 
not familiar, thus covering the season. Dur- 
ing the height of flow from each of these 
sources the secretion of nectar is very abun- 
dant but of short duration. To secure it, 
the flower must be visited many times in a 
day, and an immense number of bees are re- 
quired to keep it from evaporating and going 
to waste. 

Yet while it is true that in only a few lo- 
calities are there bees enough to secure and 
save more than a fraction of what nature so 
bountifully supplies while these flows are 
on, there are often long intervals between 
when there is little or none to be had, so I 
believe it would pay most bee-keepers to 
consider whether nature may not be aided 
by planting something which will fill up 
these interstices and keep the bees more 
constantly employed, and, at the same time, 
produce a crop w^hich will pay its cost be- 
sides the honej'. 

For this purpose I would recommend buck- 
wheat, raspberries, alsike clover, mustard, 
and rape, for this section. Melilotus, or 
sweet clover, where it has started, reseeds 
itself and spreads naturally, and is, without 
doubt, one of the very best honey-producing 
plants known. 

The chief valueKjf sweet clover as a honey- 
plant comes from its habit of long duration 
of bloom, so it is sure to bridge over the gaps 
left in the succession between many other 
plants named. It is a great soil-imjirover, 
and it has been found ttiat it prepares the 
way for alfalfa by inoculating the soil with 
the bacteria necessary for its growth. On 
this account the demjind for its seed is in- 
creasing, which will no doubt make it a pay- 
ing crop without considering its value as a 
honey-producer. 

HOW TO PROVIDE PLENTY OF ROOM AND 
PREVENT NATURAL SWARMING. 

The most important secret in bee-keeping 
is to see that strong colonies are well sup- 
plied with empty combs, so that the bees 
may store quickly while the abundant flow- 
lasts. This is accomjilished by the follow- 
ing ])rocess: 

As early in spring as we can get the queen 
to fill the'hive with brood we remove all the 
combs but one, on which the queen must be 



left, and put in their places either empty 
combs or frames of comb foundation. Then 
we put on a queen-excluding honey-board, 
and above it another bodv, uniform in size, 
in which all the removed combs, together 
with the brood and adhering bees, are plac- 
ed. A ^-inch entrance and exit hole should 
be made in the upper part; for as fast as 
these combs become emi)ty by hatching 
brood, the bees will proceed to fill them with 
honey, and they soon learn to use this up- 
])er entranceand save much time by its use. 
Besides, it gives ventilation and allows the 
expulsion of drones, which otherwise might 
clog the excluder, and smother the inmates 
of the upper story. 

The queen being confined to the lower 
story she has plenty of room to go on with 
her egg-laying, and she will soon have it 
filled with brood, thus makingfaster increase 
in numbers and strength than otherwise 
would have been possible, and the increased 
room given justat this time will usually dis- 
pel any intention or tendency to swarm. 

The main advantage given by this system 
lies in the fact that the bees will invariably 
proceed to store quicker and more abundant- 
ly in this upper story than they can be in- 
duced to do in supers of sections arranged 
for comb honey. But in this case, of course, 
this honey must be removed by extracting, 
and this explains why much more extracted 
honey may be produced than sections of 
comb honey. 

This also affords an excellent opportunity 
to produce some young queens. When the 
division is made, jilace over the excluder, 
for twenty-four hours, a complete cut-off, 
consisting of a sheet of wire netting, or even 
a cloth or heavy paper. This renders the 
bees above actually queenless for this short 
period, which causes them to start queen- 
cells freely, which they will continue to care 
for after the cut-off" is removed, and these 
may be cut out and caged, or given to other 
colonies or to nuclei on the tenth day, and 
without any loss of time on the part of the 
bees or breeding queen. 

Do this only with the best breeders, and 
put a nice sealed cell in a cell-protector, in 
place of the black, hybrid, or old and ques- 
tionable queens, and you will requeen with 
as little expense and waste of time as is pos- 
sible. These young queens are always ac- 
cepted whenever they hatch within a hive, 
and you are saved the trouble and risk of 
introducing queens. Then, even if some of 
these should mate with black drones, if 
bred from a pure-blooded mother their drone 
progeny will be pure next year, when the 
oi)eration may be rei^eated with chances of 
mismating greatly diminished. Young 
vigorous queens, raised from selected moth- 
ers, are a strong factor to success in bee- 
keeping. 

The process described above has also prov- 
ed with us a complete cure for European 
foul brood, the infected combs being cleaned 
out and tilled with honey, and the queen 
com])elled to use only new clean combs for 
brood purposes. 

Factoryville, Pa. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

THE SWARMING IMPULSE NOT CAUSED BY 
ANY ONE CONDITION. 



BY R. F. HOLTERMANN. 



In my estimation the swarming problem 
will not have much light thrown on it by 
efforts to confine the causes under one head. 
I have no doubt that the control of swarm- 
ing, or, rather, the prevention of the desire 
for swarming, in powerful colonies, without 
reducing the numerical strength, either at 
the moment of or during the future of the 
honey-flow, is the capstone of successful 
bee-keeping. 

The successful solution of this problem 
makes it possible to keep more colonies, to 
have them scattered, to take a honey crop 
with less labor and anxiety, and to get a 
larger surplus crop (if there is a surplus) 
than can be obtained through swarming. 
From this I except a tropical country with 
a honey-flow the year round; but I do not 
except in our own country an average year 
with a light and dark honey-flow no further 
apart than clover and buckwheat. In many 
localities keeping down swarming makes 
possible more successful and uniform win- 
tering as well as, in some seasons, the differ- 
ence between a honey crop and a failure. 

VARIETIES OF BEES. 

With the black or German bees, Italians, 
Carniolan, Cyprians, and Holy Land bees 
there is a marked difference as to disposi- 
tion to swarm (I will not include Caucasians, 
as I am acquainted with them only by hear- 
say and sight. I can not find that they 
have any superiority over Carniolans. Even 
a breeder of Caucasians privately advised 
me to stick to the Carniolans). Of all the 
varieties mentioned, the Holy Land and 
Cyprian bees are the most prone to swarm. 
I know of what I write, for I spent two years 
with D. A. .Jones, of Beeton, Ontario, when 
these bees were first imported into America. 
The Italians, as a variety, are, perhaps, on 
the whole the least inclined to swarm. But 
the bees the least apt to swarm are not nec- 
essarily the best for the bee-keeper who can 
control swarming. 

CONTRACTED ROOM. 

My first attempt to keep Carniolan bee^ 
was an overwhelming failure. It was in the 
days of eight-frame Langstroth hives, and 
with the contraction of the brood-chamber 
for comb honey, which is something Carni- 
olans will not stand, I found that it was use- 
less to attempt to keep these bees for profit 
under such conditions. 

SMALL ENTRANCES. 

I have had a, colony of Carniolan bees 
swarm when they had only about half filled 
a twelve-frame Langstroth brood chamber 
having eight combs, and two of these yet 
empty, and they were headed by a previous 
autumn's Carniolan queen. A careful study 
of the conditions did not reveal supersedure 
nor any thing else, except that we had hot 
weather while the bees were packed, and 
thev had a very small entrance on account 
of the fact that the colonv had been only a 



Jan. 1, 1912 



nucleus the preceding fall. Hy dear experi- 
ence I have learned that Carniolan stocks 
are excecviingly liable to get the swarming 
impulse during fruit bloom if I hey do not 
get plenty of ventilation; and in ihe ])ast 
some of my C'arniolans have had the swarm- 
ing im])ulse before I thought they were re- 
ally crowiled enough to need supers and 
large entrances, especially in view of the fu- 
ture break in the How. Italians, hybrids, 
and blacks, equally strong, did not get the 
swarming imimlse under like conditions. 
Kxcess of nurse bees could not be the cause 
of swarming at this time, for it would be un- 
reasonable to sui)pose that one colony has 
any more young bees in ])ropor(ion to brood 
than the other. In fact, during tlie build- 
ir.g-up process the jjroportion of brood to 
bees is on the increase: and with a good 
Carniolan queen there is all the brood the 
bees can look after. 

WHEX THE DANGER. 

My e^perience fully supports the follow- 
ing: The time for the greatest danger of 
swarming with strong colonies is during the 
light honey-Hows before the heavy surplus 
How sets iri, and during idle time between 
heavier flows. 

When the bees are about ready for super 
room is a most critical time. I put supers 
on the hives too early rather than too late; 
and as I generally keep the bees packed in 
their winter cases until the clover begins to 
yield nectar I run no danger of chilling 
brood. 

If during a good honey-flow^ the bees enter 
the supers with a rush, I find but little trou- 
ble, under right management, until the su- 
per room begins to be crowded for the pro- 
cess of ripenincj the stores they gather from 
day to day. I do not recollect ever having 
a twelve-frame Langstroth hive with three, 
four, or five supers on top of it wanting to 
swarm. We are told that in trojiical coun- 
tries during the heavv flow the bees aban- 
don swarming; and when the light How fol- 
lows they get the swarming impulse. I be- 
lieve it IS much the same under proper 
management in more northerly localities. 

The trouble does not lie solely in the lack 
of super room. Neither is it a lack of venti- 
lation alone, nor in hive conditions alone, 
as then all the varieties of bees and all 
colonies would swarm under certain condi- 
tions. This much is plain — that, within 
recent years, there are those who have learn- 
ed so to manage that the bees will bend 
their energies in the direction of gathering 
honey rather than in swarming. 

Brantford, Ont., Can. 



DISTURBING BEES DURING WINTER. 

Was it a Costly Mistake ? 

HY G. T. WILLIS. 



llobert J}. McCain, Nov. 15, page (iSo, says 
regarding the advisability of opening hives 
in the winter time in order to ascertain the 
condition of the food supply, "The proba- 



bilily is that the bees will be injured rather 
than helped by disturbing their household 
allairs." Now let me emphasize this to the 
mexperienced bee-keepers. Don't allow 
yourself to be so overcome with curiosity 
that you can't leave the bees alone. If you 
do, you will never forget it. .tosh Billings, 
the pithy writer of years ago, uttered this 
wise and truthful sentence: "Experience 
teaches a good school, but the tuition is 
rather high." Well, I have attended that 
school myself, and I i)aidthe tuition in full. 
For fear that some one may l)e temj^ed to 
commit a similar blunder I will give my ex- 
perience of twenty-seven years ago. 

In the fall of 1.S84 my .-Jis colonies, in ten- 
frame hives of my own make, were all in 
fine condition for winter, as there were 
plenty of Ijees and stores. The hives were 
so made that there was permanent packing 
at each end; and when preparing them for 
winter I took out two or three frames and 
put a follower on each ^ide and packed 
with straw, both at the sides and on top of 
the frames, w^hich I considered an ideal 
condition for wintering. Old residents re- 
member that, during the winter of 1SS4, an 
unusual amount of snow fell, and it was 
cold from the second week in September till 
the last of March, so that the bees were 
buried under the snow most of the time. 
As I was engaged in the work of the minis- 
try I was away from home much of the 
winter; but on returning the last of Febru- 
ary I remained a few days. The 28th of Feb- 
ruary being a bright and warm day I did 
the very foolish thing of opening hives con- 
taining those ;'>S coloniej to satisfy my anx- 
iety as to whether they had stores sufficient 
to last them until spring. Now for the sad 
experience that cost me so dearly. "When I 
returned and examined them early in April, 
I had only seven colonies left. I have 
never, in the twenty-seven years since, 
allowed myself to be tempted to inspect a 
colony in winter. 

I may have something to say at some fu- 
ture time as to how I succeeded the follow- 
ing season in retrieving my loss. 

Hoopeston, 111. 

[^^'e believe our correspondent is wrong 
in supposing that the opening-up of his 
hives on the 28th of February, a "bright 
and warm day," was the cause of the heavy 
mortality among his bees. While it is cer- 
tainly bad policy to open up outdoor colo- 
nies on cold days, causing the clusters to 
expand beyond the point where they can 
keep warm, it seldom does any harm when 
the air is warm enough so the bees can fly. 
If, however, the colonies have been well 
supplied with sti^ires during thei)revious fall, 
it is advisable for beginners, at least, to let 
the bees entirely alone. However, if there 
is any doubt about the amount of stores, we 
recommend opening u]) the hives when the 
weather is warm enough so the bees can fly, 
and then put rock candy or a comb of sealed 
stores on to]) of the frames after very gently 
lifting the cov er and the packing, and re- 
j)lacing the same. — Fd.] 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



EXAMINING A COLONY OF BEES. 



BY F. DUNDAS TODD. 



[However familiar the experienced bee-keeper 
may be with the details as told in this article, we 
feel sure that the points mentioned will prove of in- 
terest and value to the beginner, for who.se benefit 
they were especially intended.— Ed.] 

It is always good policy for the beginner 
in bee-keeping to see an experienced hand 
manipulate the frames of a hive before he 
tackles the job himself, because it will give 
him confidence, helping to overcome the 
instinctive dread of stings. He will learn 
by observation that, when handled skillful- 
ly (and this word in the present connection 
really means gently), most bees remain 
quietly on the frames, and are no more dan- 
gerous than so many flies. Worker bees are 
constituted of high nervous tension, and 
will not tolerate with eqvianimity a sudden 
jar or shock of any kind; therefore all move- 
ments must be easy and gentle if one de- 
sires them to be in good humor. In his 
dread of stings the novice is apt to rush 
things and be jerky in his movements, and 
so bring about the very condition he least 
desires — an irritated, pugnacious communi- 
ty. It is not wise to depend upon smoke to 
quell an insurrection. Tne true rulership 
consists in avoiding the beginning of strife. 

Here are a few simple rules that are worth 
following while working with bees: 

1. Never stand in front of the hive en- 
trance, for that is the bee ' roadway. You 
will soon get notice to move; and if you fail 
to comply, stinging will be attempted. 

2. Never put a frame nor any other part of 
a hive in front of the entrance. 

o. Leave all frames in the same order in 
the hive as you found them, and turned the 
same way. 

4. Make every movement slowly and de- 
liberately, never dropping a frame into \)0- 
sition, but placing it exactly where it be- 
longs. 

5. Avoid, if possible, killing a single bee: 
for among communists, whether human or 
not, an injury to one is an injury to all, and 
must be avenged. Kentucky feuds are a 
lingering remnant of the Scotch clan spirit 
among the descendants of the Highland ex- 
iles of the eighteenth century. 

It is possible you do not have a neighbor 
to give you the first lesson, so I will invite 
you to come to my yard and examine with 
jne a hive; and since you can not l)e with 
me in reality I will bring my camera into 
l)layand illustrate each feature that fnaybe 
worthy of not ice. 

First, we get the smoker agoing, then put 
on our bee-suits. All being ready we stand 
alongside the hive, which will appear as in 
Fig. 1 — that is. if it is an eight-frame Lang- 
stroth, which thi-: happens to be. Its cover 
is rather diderent in design from those in 
general use; but it is popular on this side of 
the Pacitic coast where we have long-con- 
tinued \\ inter rains, and only short s]iel!s of 
severely cold weather. Notice that the l)ee- 
keei)er is standing on the sunny side of the 



hive so that, when he comes to examine the 
frames closely, the sunlight will strike into 
the cells. 

We will begin by removing the cover, see 
Pig. 2; and when we do so we find a piece of 
cloth underneath. This is known as the 
quilt, and is usually made of table oil-cloth 
with the glossy side down, as the Ijees have 
a habit of carrying out any fabric they can 
tear to pieces. The purpose of this cloth is 
to retain the heat of the hive, for reasons 
that will be seen later. 

The cover of your hive is probably a flat 
one; and when you try to take it off you 
may find it fastened down tight. Very 
likely the bees have cemented it all round 
to the body with propolis — a kind of glue — 
and we must break the bond. So we force 
the hive-tool under one corner of ;he cover 
and give it a twist; or, press your left hand 
firmly upon the center of the cover, and at 
the same time pull up one corner with the 
right. 

The cover is set to one side; then we take 
the quilt by one corner and peel it off. We 
now see the tops of the frames, from between 
which, if it be late spring or summer, thou- 
sands of bees are appearing and covering 
the upper i)art. Fig. '.) shows how the hive 
will look at this stage. 

Bees are much like people. Some are 
good-tempered and some are not. Any one 
keepintr bees as a hobby is foolish to have 
any of the vicious kind, more especially if 
he is surrounded by near neighbors. The 
best working bees in my own yard are .so 
gentle that I rarely have to use smoke on 
them. But I have had colonies so vicious 
that they attackedany living thing coming 
within ten yards. The queens at the head 
of these colonies soon ceased to exist, being 
replaced by others from a less pugnacious; 
strain. So when we remove the quilt we 
have a chance to learn something about the 
temper of the insects in this particular hive; 
for if they are good they will stay quietly 
on the combs; but if bad they will run 
around and fly off — some at us, and some to 
the hive entrance. Now is the lime to use 
smoke to keep them in subjection. How 
much, will depend on circumstances; but 
never more than is necessary. With the 
average hive it is usually enough to give a 
few puffs across the frames, never down 
through them, as the quilt is being peeled 
off. In the case of a colony known to be ir- 
rital)le, it is usually necessary tT give a puff 
or two into the hive-entrance Viefore remov- 
ing the cover. In spring and autumn, when 
the colonies are weak in numbers, it is often 
unnecessary to use smoke. 

In the eight-framehivewe are examining, 
the inside width is 12)^ inches; but the 
frames occupy only 11 inches of that, so 
there is a free space of over one inch on one 
side of the frames. Part ff this is filled by 
a "follower' made ot a thin board. Occa- 
sionally this is called a division-board. In 
use it is pu.shed tight against the last frame. 

Our first work is to remove the follower 
that occupies the space between the frames 



Jan. 1. 1912 

and the side ol" the hive. \"ery prob- 
ably it will be ^hied to the fniiues 
with |)io|)oUs, so we insert tiie hive- 
tool lietween the frame and follow- 
er, pushiiifx aside the bees j^ently if 
in the way; then with easy i)ressure 
we i)ry the board apart from the 
frame, first at one end then at the 
other. The follower is now removed 
'roni the hi\e and set to one side. 
or at the end of the hive. We can 
iu»w reach the first frame, whicli is 
apt to be clear of bees, excei)tinfj; 
from May to September. As before, 
we break the glue adhesion with the 
hive-tool, then lift the frame witli 
both hands, one at each end-bar. 
Should bees be clustered where fin- 
gers will grasp the tojj-bar, gently 
pulT a little smoke on them and they 
will (piickly scurry away. Remem- 
ber, it is little tricks like these that 
make hive manipulation easy and 
l)revent the bees becoming ill-tem- 
pered. Lift the frame straight up, 
with your back to the sun, and pro- 
ceetl to examine it. Fig. 4 shows 
the operation. (The editor will, per- 
haps, permit me to explain here for 
the benefit of l^r. Miller, who may 
in this and following illustrations 
see a chance to catch hold of my 
short hair, that in making these 
photographs I had to choose be- 





Vig. 2.— Removing the cover. 



Fig. 1. — Ready to begin worlv at hive Xo. 1. 



tween good photography and 
good bee-keeping. The former 
called for lighting, as is shown 
in the preceding juctures; but 
I felt that, with the others, the 
lighting ought to be in harmo- 
ny with the instruction that 
was being given. J]ven after 
this explanation I feel the good 
doctor will trip me up.) 

The inside of the frame, we 
find, is filled with wax comb, 
which is made uj) of a great 
number of cells — at least HOOO 
on each side. In these cells is 
stored the food supply of the 
colony. In them are laid the 
eggs from which develop the 
young bees, the whole time 
from infancy to maturity be- 
ing spent in such narrow con- 
lines. Then in the cold days 
of winter, when all actisity in 
the hive ])ractically ceases, 
when the individual mem- 
bers huddle close together to 
keep eacli other warm, each 
empty cell may be fdled with 
an insect, so that no space 
shall be unoccupied. The in- 
terior of a hive is a wonderful 
utilization of a limited area, 
down to the minutest detail; 
and it is hard for most peo|)le 
to realize that, in a ca|)acityof 
about two cul)ic feet, as many 
as 50,000 bees will carry on all 



Gleanines in Bee Culture 



the activities of their Ufe, for] here Is^at 
once a pantry, kitchen, incubator, nursery, 
living-room, and bedroom for them all. 

But let us investigate our comb a little 
more. First we shall probably notice that 
there are at least two different sizes of cells 
— one series in ttie upper part of the frame, 
running about five to the inch; another 
kind, generally in the lower half of the 
comb, that are a little larger, running about 
four to the inch. In the smaller cells the 
worker bees are raised; in the larger ones the 
drones, which are the males, spend their 
days of infancy. Both kinds of cells are 
used when necessary as storage for food. In 
a well-managed hive the worker cells vastly 
predominate; in fact, all good bee-keepers 
strive to keep the drone-cells to the lowest 
possible number. Drones are essential to 
the welfare of the apiary; but an unlimited 
quantity of them means a waste of valuable 
space and food, for they are consumers only. 
Fig. 5 shows the two kinds of cells side by 
side. 

We will now proceed to examine the next 
frame; but first we will dispose of this one 
by setting it on the ground, leaning it 
against the side of the hive. As before, we 
will break the gluing between the frames. 
Since it is May it is probable the colony is 
strong enough to cover six frames, so that 
this one may have thousands of bees on 
both sides, while the weight suggests that 
the cells contain something. They do, for 
the center of the comb is filled with young 
bees in all stages — eggs, larvte, and sealed 
brood. These are surrounded by a band of 





Fig. 3.— The quilt removed. 



Fig. 4. — Lifting out the first comb. 

pollen, about an inch or two wide, while 
outside of that, especially at the top and 
ends, is honey — quite a neat arrangement, 
you see, so as to have every thing handy — 
nursery in the center, with the food all 
round about. But, stop a minute. All 
the other frames are arranged exactly 
the same way; so think a little, and 
you will realize that the brood-nest is a 
ball, with, of course, the most brood in 
the center frame, the least at the sides. 
Now you will understand why you 
should not disturb the order of the 
frames when you examine a hive, as 
changing the arrangement will upset 
the brood-nest. If you never set more 
than one frame outside of the hive you 
will avoid the chance of misplacing the 
frames. 

SHAKING BEES OFF THE COMBS. 

May be the comb is so thickly c v- 
ered with bees that careful inspection 
is impossible, in which case hold the 
frame above the hive; raise it slowly 
about a foot, then lower it quickly, fin- 
ishing up with a sudden jerk, when 
jiractically every insect will drop on the 
frames below. 

Fig. 6 shows the position of the 
frame at the end of the operation. It is 
not considered wise to shake the queen 
off the combs at the season when she 
is laying heavily. Another way, which 
I prefer, is to hold the frame perpen- 
dicularly by the end of the top-bar with 
the left hand, then with the right hand 
clenched hit the left a smart blow^ from 
above (Fig. 7). The comb being free 
from bees, turn your back to the sun 



Jan. 1, 1SI12 



15 




Fig. 5. — Worker and drone cells side by side, showing the difTerence in size. The former measure five 
to the inch, while tlie latter run four to the inch. 



SO that its rays may shine into the cells. 
Along the tipper part of the frame, and at 
the ends, the cells will probably be all seal- 
ed, the cappings (as the coverings of the 
cells are called) being flat, or often slightly 
sunken, and wrinkled, and generally semi- 
transparent. Stich sealing indicates the 
presence of honey. On the edge of this re- 
gion there will likely be a narrow belt of un- 
sealed cells showing the honey, indicating 
that the bees are using up their stores to 
feed the young. When we reach the bot- 
tom-board in our investigations we shall 
find lying there a brownish-looking deposit, 
like coarse dust, btit which is really the 
fragments of comb-capping torn from the 
cells. 



POLLEN STORES. 

Next to the open cells with honey often 
comes a narrow band of cells filled with a 
brownish-colored solid substance. This is 
pollen, or bee-bread, which is the male ele- 
ment of plants, and forms part of the food 
of the young of the bee while in the larval 
or maggot stage. 

THE BROOD-CELLS. 

In the center of the frame we find the 
brood in all stages — eggs, larvse, and co- 
coons. The last are sealed over, just as is 
the honey, with this difference, however, 
that the cappings are dark-colored, and 
slightly raised in the case of worker l^rood 
— decidedly so with drone-cells. The larvae 
are easily seen, coiled up in the bottom of 




;omb cleared of bees for Inspection 



Fig. 7.— The best way to jar the bees from the com 



Jan. 1, 1!)12 

the cell, especiailx after they are three <la\ s 
old; but the ejigs are harder to distinguish 
on account of their small size; in fact, they 
look like very short bits of white thread at- 
tached to the far end — that is, the bottom of 
the cell. It is just as well for the beginner 
to learn to detect the i)resenc-e of eggs in the 
comb, for an evenly arranged patch is pret- 
ty good proof that the queen has been busy. 

HOW TO REVKRSE A COMH. 

A frame has two sides, so you had better 
look at tile other one too. Your most natu- 
ral impulse will be to cant the frame over; 
but don't do so; for as you lilt it up to the 
level the weight of the comb is apt to break 
it away. Try it thus: Lower one hand, say 
the right, until the top Ijar is i)erpendicular 
(Fig. iS) ; turn the frame half way round, 
using the top-bar as a pivot (Fig. 9); then 
raise the hand that was lowered (Fig. 10). 
Your frame is now upside down, with the 
second side toward you. Here is another 
method that can Vie carried out without a 
pause; Let the lugs of the 
frame rest on the middle 
fingers of each hand, 
these being Vient toward 
the chest. Turn the comb 
end for end by swinging 
the left hand to the right 
of the right hand, then 
swing the comb up into 
the position shown in Fig. 
10. To get to the original 
jiosition, reverse the move- 
ments. 



17 

arrangements of the inmates, not only to a 
considerable extent, but possibly to the in- 
jury of the young; for in May it is a rather 
extensive incubator where many thousand 
eggs are being hatched while young bees 
are being brooded. An open hive means 
the loss of heat; therefore we resolve that in 
future we will do the necessary examina- 
tions as speedily as possible, and never lift 
the cover unless the shade temi)eralure is 
about (io or warmer. 
Victoria, H, C. 



THE BRAULA CCECA NOT A TRUE PARASITE. 



BY .JOHX A. WOLFFSOHN. 



I notice in your August 15th issue, page 
4<j8, an interestmg paper on " Braulacipca," 
by Dr. Bruennich. in which the author says 
that " to my knowledge no one has observed 
the act [of feeding of the bee-louse] till 
now."' It may interest the doctor and some 



REPLACING FRAME.-?. 

\^'hen through with this 
frame, replace it in the 
hive, pushing it tight 
against the vacant side. 
There is no excuse for 
j)lacing it on the ground. 
If you have changed it so 
that you have forgotten 
which is the front end, 
just look at the brood, for 
the bees prefer to have 
their young toward the en- 
trance of the hive, but 
the honey at the rear. 
When you have examined 
as many frames as you 
want, push them over to their original po- 
sition by putting the hive-tool between the 
side of the hive and the end -bar of the 
frame, and using it as a lever. Now insert 
the frame (irst taken out, pushing it into 
place, then the follower. 

Occasionally it is necessary to move a 
brood-chamber from the stand, and to the 
novice it is a ])roblem what to do with it. 
He feels he sliould not set it on the ground, 
as there is every chance of killing many 
bees. The smaller the bearing surface the 
better, so one can use a bottom-board, an 
empty hive, or a very shallow box. resting 
the bottom of the hive across the sides. 

Our first excursion through a bee-hive has 
been quite a long one, and has disturbed the 




Apiary of T. H. Hill. Maywood. 111., a suburb of Chicago. 111. A 
neighbor's house is just back of the fence, but there have never been 
any complaints. The hives are at the back of the lot in full view of 
the street, and attract a great deal of attention, especially when the 
owner is working with the bees. 

of your readers to learn that M. Lucien 
Iches, in his excellent work. "L'abeille 
domestique." Paris, 100-5. ([uotes the follow- 
ing from .1. Perez, Xof(;-'< cV apiculture: 

One day. bavins captured a bee with one of the.se 
lice I fixed its head with a pair of pincers sufficient- 
ly to keep it unmovable. and to capture the small 
parasite easily. Both it and the bee were left for a 
while on the table in ray studio, under a glass. 

When 1 returned to them I was not a little puz- 
zled to see the parasite in the most vivacious and 
strange agitation. Seated on the fore part of the 
bee's head it was moving about with incredible 
vivacity, as though possessed of veritable rage. 
Now it would go to the marsrin of the bees cap. 
with its fore feet raised, stamp and scratch as hard 
as its weakness would allow at the base of the bees 
lip: then it would suddenly run back to the inser- 
tion of the antenn;c to renew its inu>etuous attack 
immediately. I was quite taken uii by my first sur- 
prise, when I suddenly saw all this fury turn to per- 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




iiiui thtr Cleanings for half a year. 



feet calmness, and the little animal squatted on the 
edge of the cap and bent down its head to the bee's 
mouth, which was slightly trembling, and sucked 
up a drop of moisture. 

I instantly understood. The movements I had 
just witnessed were preparatory to the animal's 
meals. When the louse wislies to feed it?goes to the 
bee's mouth, where the motions of its feet, armed 
with bent claws, produce a tickling sensation. i)er- 
haps disagreeable to its host, but at least provoking 
some movement of the bucal organs, which slight- 
ly open and release a small drop of honey which 
the louse at once licks up. 

Thvis the Braula ccvca is not a real parasite of the 
bee in the true sense of the word. It is rather a 
guest— queer, if you like thus to consider it, like so 
many others existing among animals. 

Valparaiso, Chili. 



BINDING COPIES OF GLEANINGS CHEAPLY. 



BY C. A. KINSEY. 



Take the copies of Gleanings from .July 
1 to Jan. 1, 12 in all. That is enough to be 
convenient. Place them in order in a clamp 
or vise and fasten firmly. Drive three shin- 
gle nails along the back on each side. It is 
not necessary that the nails go clear through 
if they are driven in from both sides. Then 
take them to a printing-office if convenient, 
and have them trimmed. Cover can be 
added if desired. This way will keep them 
firmly together, and with the yearly index 
at the back it will take only a few moments 
to find any article desired. 

GASOLINE-CANS FOR HONEY. 

Can you inform me if it is safe to use gas- 
oline-cans to i)ut extracted honey in — that 
is, if there will be any substance from the 
gasoline that can't be washed out that 
would taste in the honey ? 



I can get a considerable number of such 
cans, all new and in good condition, for 
nothing, that could be used to store iny 
honey in, or for local trade. 

Belgrade, Mont. 

[We do not believe there would be any 
objection at all to gasoline-cans provided 
they are clean and free from rust. Kero- 
sene-cans can seldom be cleaned so that all 
the odor of kerosene is removed, and the 
honey is then tainted; but if you can be 
sure that the cans you refer to have never 
been used for kerosene, but only for gaso- 
line, w^e do not think there will be any dif- 
ficulty at all. They would have to be 
rinsed out, of course; for after a can is emp- 
tied of gasoline there is some dirt and sed- 
iment that remain, usually; but this could 
be easily washed out. — Ed.] 



AN OKLAHOMA EXHIBIT. 

Some Proof that Oklahoma is Advancing as a 
Honey State. 



BY N. FRED GARDINER. 



Photography has become a wonderful art. 
It can reproduce on a flat surface, in black 
and white, marvelous shades of beauty, and 
in many instances bring to our attention 
details that escai)e the eye in actual obser- 
vation of the original ol)ject. But photog- 
raphy falls far short of doing justice to a 
honey exhibit. It seems that the eye of 
the camera can not penetrate the glass jar 
and show uj) the rich tint and the delicate 
structure of the honey and the comb. 



Jan. 1, 1912 



19 



Therefore we can judge of the relative merit 
of an exhibit only by comi)arison. 

I (lid not realize how true this is till I 
saw the iihotograjih which is rei)roduced 
with this article. 'Phis is undoubtedly a 
good photograph, comparatively, but it cer- 
tainly fails to bring out the beauty of the 
exhibit. It is a picture of the exhibit of 
IJ. F. Bartholomew and wife, of Norman, 
Oklahoma, at the State Fair, Oklahoma 
City, 1911. This display covered a space of 
10x;50 feet, and was a fine example of the 
bee-keeper's art. There were two other ex- 
hibits that would compare favorably with 
those of other State fairs, but the one shown 
here took 14 out of 1<> blue ribbons, and was, 
therefore, clearly in the lead. 

Mr. Bartholomew made his i)lans as would 
an architect- -measured his sjiace, then built 
his special shelving at home and shipped it, 
together with the jars which he had ordered 
esjiecially for each space, to the fair. 

The tlesigns in honey and wax were esi^e- 
cially meritorious, the design in honey be- 
ing built from foundation in the letters 
sawed in the boards, and mounted under 
gUiss. The designs in beeswax, were the 
horse-shoe and shield, and were of solid wax, 
and not dipped. This is another place 
where the camera fails to give results. The 
lettering on the shield and the wreath on 
both are not brought out. These were all 
hand carved from different shades of wax, 
and made a most pleasing effect. To the 
right can be seen just the corner of a fire- 
place built of solid wax brick, and holding 
a wax kettle, etc. Mrs. Bartholomew shared 
etjually with her husband in arranging this 
display. The honey was mostly from alfal- 
fa and sweet clover. This exhibit shows 
that Oklahoma is already prepared to com- 
pete with many of the older States. 

Geary, Okla. 



SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE WITH A 
STEAM HONEY-KNIFE. 

How it Assists in Extracting and Uncapping when 
the Honey is Cold. 

BY B. M. CARAWAY. 

Some time ago the editor asked for re- 
l)orts, favorable or otherwise, concerning 
the steam honey-knife. There has already 
been a good deal said about this knife; but 
I don't feel that it has been given proper 
credit in sjnte of all that has been said. It 
is certainly a wonderful labor-saver. 

One of the best features about this knife, 
and one that has not been mentioned, is 
that, when the honey is a little cold, the 
hot blade heats it uj) so that the extractor 
will throw it out of the cells easily, (^uite 
often during the extracting season I take 
off honey one day and extract what I can; 
but there may be some left over until the 
next day. During the night it cools off 
until it is very thick. When I uncap it 
with the steam knife, however, it warms it 
up again until it extracts just as quickly as 
honey just removed from the hive that con- 
tains the original heat from the bees. 

With the steam knife I can uncap faster 
than any one can using a cold knife. I 
have tried nearly all the knives on the mar- 
ket, including a butcher-knife, but none of 
them can be compared with the steam 
knife. There have been several large pro- 
ducers here, among them Mr. W. H. Laws, 
of Beeville, Texas, and all of them have 
been quite carried away with it. Mr. Laws 
is the owner of more bees than any other 
man in Texas, probably, and he said it was 
the best thing he had seen for a long time. 
If one uncaps with the downward stroke, 
the weight of the knife will slice the cap- 






mrnMi 



iiDMiip nnopttl---, 
I i<>il I lilllii 




li;xhibll of B. F. Bartholomew at the Oklahoma State Fair. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Lewis" ornamental (jbservatoiy hive. 



pings ofT one side. Of course, the knife 
alone will not go down as fast as though it 
were pushed a little, but still it does good 
work. In fact, while it will not do all my 
uncapping entirely by itself, it makes the 
work mucla more pleasant. 

The worst trouble that I have had is that 
I have to wait a few minutes for the steam 
to be generated; but I find plenty to do in 
this time, as I have the cases to open and 
the tops of the pails to pry out. so that, be- 
fore I get ready, the water is Vioiling hot and 
the knife ready for use. On i^age 272, May 
1, Mr. O. B. Metcalfe says that he has trou- 
ble in generating steam enough, and he 
finds some kind of boiler having Hues nec- 
essary. I have never had this difficulty; 
but it may be that the honey has a great 
deal to do with it. On one occasion I had 



the stove turned up too high; anil the can, 
in which I was generating the steam, burn- 
ed. I use a one-burner gasoline-stove and 
a five-gallon can for the boiler, and I have 
never yet failed in having all the steam I 
wanted. I put in about a gallon and a half 
of water. 

On page 451, August 1, Mr. Crane says 
that, while the steam knife works finely, it 
leaves a thin scum of wax over the cells; 
and when the honey comes from the ex- 
tractor, this thin scum will go right through 
the strainer and then rise to the top of the 
honey in the can. I have never had any 
such trouble as this, although I have ex- 
tracted several thousand pounds this year, 
all of which was uncapped with a steam 
knife. 

The heat from the stove does not bother 




The insiile lias the same dimensions as an ordinar.v ten-frame hi\ c. and the sides are uf glass. 



Jan. 1. l!»r.> 

me, for I have a fan run by a belt froin a 
pulley on the engine. The fan was too 
much of a good thing at first, for it kept 
blowing out the blaze: but I remedied this 
by making a shield of a board in front of 
the stove, so that I have had no trouble 
since. 

The great advantage of the steam knife is 
that one does not have to stop to scrape the 
cappings olT the blade. The metal is so hot 
that they slide off as fast as they get on, 
and it is just liere that the hot knife saves 
a great deal of time. Some have objected 
to the steam hose or tube, but I have never 
found it awkward in the least. In a very 
few minutes one becomes accustomed to it. 

Mathis, Texas. 

[There can be no question but that on 
some honeys the steam-knife is greatly su- 
perior to the cold knife or one dipped inter- 
mittently in hot water. The steam-knife 
keeps hot every minute of the time, and, as 
Mr. Caraway says, it warms the honey and 
makes it unnecessary for one to keep scrap- 
ing it on something to remove the excess of 
cappings. — Ed.] 

■—•-^ 

BEE-KEEPING A RECREATIVE PURSUIT FOR A 
PROFESSIONAL MAN. 

BY REV. J. M. LEWIS. 



fruit-trees, of which almost every garden 
has at least a few, and will attract' more at- 
tention than a rare plant or exquisite flower. 
North Westport, Mass. 



I Monder every suburbanite who has a 
garden does not have at least one colony of 
bees. They seem to me to be safe to keep, 
and perfectly harmless if treated with kind- 
ness and due consideration. 

I have several colonies which are within 
ten feet of the house, and about thirty feet 
from the road where teams and automobiles 
are passing almost continually, and they 
have been there for more than five years, 
and have troubled no one. 

I am sending some photographs of an 
ornamental hive which stands in the center 
of my flower-garden, the home of a fine col- 
ony of golden Italians. Scores of i)eople — 
men, women, and children, have visited my 
garden this season, and not a person has re- 
ceived a sting. I have repeatedly opened 
the hive and removed the frames with the 
bees clustered on the combs to show my 
friends what can be done with bees. 

I never use any protection in working 
among my bees, and but very little smoke; 
and sometimes I do not use the smoker at all. 

The ornamental hive shown in the pic- 
tures is a fine advertisement, as it attracts 
the attention of people passing by. It is a 
douVjle-wall hive. The inside is a standard 
ten-frame hive, and takes two supers. The 
brood-chamber has glass sides and back, 
and gl iss in the top cover, which I use 
when no supers are on. The foundation on 
which it stands is made of stones of differ- 
ent formations gathered from near and far, 
laid in Portland cement. 

There are many ways in which an orna- 
mental hive can be made, and yet be prac- 
tical and an ornament, as well as a benefit 
to a flower or vegetable garden and to the 



THE DISCOVERY OF THE SECRET OF FLOWERS. 
A Brief Sketch of the Work of Sprengel and Mueller. 

BY JOHN H. LOVELL. 



The human race has long assumed (being 
the only organism at liberty to take itself 
at its own valuation) that it occupies a po- 
sition of fictitious importance in the uni- 
verse. It was a current maxim in the Mid- 
dle Ages that man was the measure of all 
things. The world and its inhabitants, so 
ran this pleasant myth, was created a few 
thousand years ago solely to provide him 
with a congenial place of abode; and, be- 
cause of his paramount importance, was 
placed in the center of the heavens. Not a 
little ingenious (and to-day amusing) spec- 
ulation, was expended in an effort to explain 
how natural cataclasms and noxious ani- 
mals and plants were disguised blessings; 
but that such was the fact, no doubt was 
permitted to exist. From these modest pre- 
tensions we have been receding for some 
centuries with much hesitation and reluc- 
tance. Perhaps the close of another hun- 
dred years will see them abandoned alto- 
gether, and humanity willing to admit that 
it is a part of nature, not outside and above 
her. 

So long as these teachings prevailed it 
was very naturally a popular notion that 
the bright colors of flowers were of no im- 
portance except as they gave human i)leas- 
ure. Much sui^erfluous pity was wasted on 
those blossoms which, to use the words of 
the poet Gray, blushed unseen and wasted 
their sweetness on the desert air. Only a 
few years ago a similar sentiment was ex- 
pressed by the editor of one of our ]50imlar 
magazines: "There was apparently no 
particular reason why the earth, at the time 
of x\dam, should have been literally strewn 
with blossoms. They were of no particular 
use; there was only one man to see them." 

This same idea is again repeated in Em- 
erson's beautiful lines — 

THE RHODORA. 

In Ma.v. when sea-wind.s pierced our .solitudes 
I found the fresh rhodora in the woods. 
Spreading Its leafless blooms in a damp nook 
To plea.se the desert and the sluggish biook; 
The purple petals, fallen in the pool. 
Made the black waiers with their beaut.v gay: 
Here might the red-bird come his plumes to cool. 
And court the flower that cheapens his array. 
Rhodora ! if the sages ask thee why 
This charm is wasted on the marsh and sky. 
Dear, tell them that, if eyes were made for seeing, 
Then beauty is its own excuse for being. 

It would seem never to have occurred to 
poet, editor, or philosopher that the beauti- 
ful hues of flowers might be useful to the 
plants producing them. 

It was a German jiastor, Christian Con- 
rad Sprengel, at the close of the 18th cen- 
tury, who first pointed out the true signifi- 



22 

cance of consjncuous llowt-rs. His took, 
now a botanical classic, attracleil but little 
attention; his jjublisher did not even send 
him a copy of it, and in discouragement he 
did not publish the second volume, but 
turned from the study of i)lants to that of 
languages. The title of the work, "The 
Secret of Nature in the Form and Fertiliza- 
tion of Flowers Discovered," affords us the 
pleasure of knowing that he rightly esti- 
mated the imjjortance of his observations. 
Sprengel clearly states, as is now well es- 
tablisheil, that the biight hues of flowers 
serve as signals to attract the attention of 
nectar-loving insects Hying near by. He 
was led to this conclusion very fitly by the 
study of MtjoHoiis, or the forget-me-not. 
He has not been forgotten. His name and 
theory were rescued from obscurity by Dar- 
win; his book a few years ago was repub- 
lished at Leipsic, and is now universally 
recognized, says Mueller, as having "struck 
out a new path in botanical science." 

Sprengel was convinced that the wise 
Framer of nature had not produced a single 
hair without a definite purpose, and he ex- 
amined a great many liowers for the pur- 
pose of learning the meaning of their forms 
and the arrangement of their parts. The 
salver-formed tlower of the forget-me-not is 
sky-blue with a yellow eye. "While study- 
ing the llower of myosotis I w'asstruck," he 
says, "by the yellow ring which surrounds 
the opening of the corolla tube, and which 
is beautifully conspicuous against the sky- 
blue color of the limb. Might not, I 
thought, this circumstance also have some 
reference to insects? Might not Nature 
have specially colored this ring, to the end 
that it might show insects the way to the 
n<'ctar-reservoir? "On further observation 
he found that the entrances to many other 
flowers were marked with spots, lines, and 
dots dilTerently colored from the rest of the 
corolla. These markings he called " nectar- 
guides." "If the particular color of one 
part of a flower," he rightly inferred, 
"serves to enable an insect which has set- 
tled on the tlower easily to find the right 
way to the nectar, then the general color of 
the corolla is serviceable in rendering the 
flowers provided with it conspicuous even 
from afar to the eyes of insects that hover 
anumd in the air in search of food." 

Sprengel decided that flowers secrete nec- 
tar for the sake of attracting insects, and 
that it is protected by hairs or nectaries in 
order that they may enjoy it pure and un- 
si. oiled. At first he thought that the 
flowers receive no service in return; but he 
soon observed that the guests pollinated the 
liowers. He even noticed the frequent 
orcurrence of cross-pollination, and remarks 
that "it seems that Nature is unwilling 
iliat any flower should be fertilized by its 
own pollen." He described the manner in 
\K Inch some 500 flowers were pollinated; but 
as he knew little about insects he did not 
pay much attention to the different kinds 
of visitors. 

liut while Sprengel had learned the secret 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

of flowers, and knew that their colors, odors, 
and forms were not useless characters, he 
failed to discover why cross-pollination is 
beneficial; and this omission, as Mueller 
has remarked, was for several generations 
fatal to his work. In 1841, Robert Brown, 
an eccentric English botanist of great learn- 
ing, advised Darwin to read Sprengel's 
book. " It may be doubted," says Francis 
Darwin, "whether Robert Brown ever 
planted a more beautiful seed than putting 
such a book into such hands." Thus is the 
torch of learning, shining with ever increas- 
ing effulgence, handed on from one investi- 
gator to another. Darwin was already en- 
gaged in studying British orchids, of which 
he wrote to Bentham, "They are wonder- 
ful creatures, these orchids." His interest 
in the structure and iwllination of these 
curious plants was greatly increased by 
reading what the old German pastor had 
done. Darwin soon discovered that frequent 
crosses increase both the vigor and produc- 
tiveness of the stock, and that an occasion- 
al cross is indispensable. The principal 
agents which nature employs for this pur- 
pose are insects, birds, wand, and water. So 
impressed was Darw^in with the importance 
of cross-fertilization that he closed his fa- 
mous book on orchids, which marks the next 
great epoch in flower ecology, with the 
words, "Nature abhors perpetual self-fer- 
tilization." "The charm," says Mueller, 
"was now broken, and the value of 
Sprengel's work was at once recognized." 
"The merits of poor old Sprengel," says 
Darwin in his biography, "so long over- 
looked, are now fully recognized many 
years after his death." 

In 18<jG, Darwin's Origin of Species and 
book on orchids was read by Hermann Muel- 
ler, a young teacher at Lippstadt, Germany, 
who thenceforth enthusiastically devoted 
the rest of his life to the study of the polli- 
nation of flowers. Many other investiga- 
tors were also stimulated by these epoch- 
making books to study the charming prob- 
lems of floral structure, as Delpino in Italy, 
Axel in Sweden, Hildebrand in Germany, 
Asa Gray in North America, and Fritz 
Mueller in South America. But they were 
all easily surpassed by Hermann Mueller, 
who is still regarded as the foremost of floro- 
ecologists. In Thuringia and in the Alps 
he examined many hundreds of blossoms 
and observed the visits of insects by thou- 
sands. He was the first to collect and pub- 
lish lists of flower-pollinators on an exten- 
sive scale, and the biology of flowers may 
thus be said in its broadest sense to have 
been established by him. Never since has 
this branch of botany been cultivated wiih 
equal success. His book, "The Fertiliza- 
tion of Flowers," ranks with the works of 
Sprengel and Darwin, and marks the third 
great epoch in the history of the ecology of 
flowers. It is illustrated by many excellent 
wood-cuts, the drawings for which were 
made by Mueller himself. It contains de- 
scriptions of the floral mechanisms of a great 
number of species of plants, with lists of 



Jan. 1, 1912 

their insect visitors. It will give some idea 
of the immense amount of labor involved 
in its preparation to state that 52*51 visits to 
flowers by S4'UlifTerent kinds of tlower-visit- 
ing insects are recorded. 

Mueller had never forgotten his earlier 
delightful journeys among the Alps, nor its 
rich and brilliantly colored flora. For six 
summers he continued with great diligence 
to investigate its liowers, and the result was 
his second great work entitled " Alpenblu- 
men," or the Flowers of the Alps. Here 
are enumerated 5711 visits by 841 species of 
anthophilous insects. It is impossible to 
read this account of the mysteries of the 
lloral world in high altitudes without long- 
ing to visit the scene of his investigations. 
The short summers, the rapid (not to say 
impetuous) advance of vegetation, the sim- 
ultaneous blooming of many species, the 
brilliant hues, the wealth of insects, and es- 
pecially the great abundance of butterflies, 
against a background of snowy summits, 
form a most enticing picture. Mueller pub- 
lished a third book on flowers, besides many 
shorter papers. 

To-day there are very few investigators 
engaged in studying the life histories of 
flowers. In North America they number 
less than half a dozen. Most observers are 
content to restrict their attention to the 
botanical side of the subject, and ignore the 
great company of pollinators. Even Charles 
Darwin and Anton Kerner, whose writings 
still remain an ever inspiring source of in- 
formation, gave little heed to the ways of 
the insect guests. The reason for this is 
not far to seek. To collect and prepare lists 
of the visitors and to observe their behavior 
requires so enormous an amount of lime, 
labor, and patience that the opportunity is 
pos-sible to very few people. Suppose that 
a flower is in bioom for two weeks, then, on 
every calu. bright day many hours must be 
devoted to this work, for the guests at the 
beginning of blooming-time may diff'er from 
those at its close There follows the almost 
insuperable task, at least in America, of 
determining the names < f the captured in- 
sects. With the exception of the butterflies 
we have no manuals of the different orders, 
and the literature is in a truly chaotic con- 
dition, many papers not being obtainable 
at any price. It is noteworthy that eafh of 
the three or four more prominent investiga- 
tors of floroecology in America has been 
compelled to work up the classification of 
the bees in his locality — a rather formidable 
undertaking in itself. So closely allied are 
the si)e(ies and genera that no one can dis- 
tinguish them \\'ithout a special knowledge 
of the grouj). which in its relations to 
flowers exceeds all others in importance. 

But the value of an acquaintance with 
the insect visitors can not be easily over-es- 
timated; for some species fly only in the 
spring, others only in the fall; some species 
visit only one kind of flower, others many 
kinds; some are most welcome guests, others 
are mere robbers. I should never have 
dreamed that the pretty nodding pink 



23 

blossoms of the twin-flower, with its sweet 
vanilla-like fragrance, are in our northern 
woodlands attractive to gnats alone. One 
afternoon a large bed of these delicate 
flowers was carefully observed, and eight 
visitors were collected. On examination 
they were found to belong to a single species 
of fly {Empis rufesoens). Further observa- 
tions show that in this locality this fly is 
probably the only guest. A burly bumble- 
bee flew over the flowers without paying 
any attention to them. 

Among aquatic plants living in fresh- 
water rivers is the bladderwort ( Utrieidaria 
vulgaris). The whole plant is submerged; 
but at blooming-lime a flower-stalk is 
thrust out of the water, which produces 
deeply two-lipped bright-yellow flowers. I 
surely expected to find it a favorite of bees. 
But after repeated o)>servations I have col- 
lected on the flowers in Maine only the 
long-tongued syrphid fly HelophiluH eonos- 
tonms. There is no way in which we can so 
easily learn the defects of flowers as to watch 
the behavior of insects upon them. No hu- 
man eye can discover them so quickly. In 
a word, if we would fully understand the 
bright-hued floral edifices which so freely 
adorn the outdoor world we must study the 
modus operandi of their architects and 
builders. 

Waldoboro, Me. 



A FEW RANDOM NOTES ON THE WAY BEES 
"MAKE" HONEY. 



BY ARTHUR C. MILLER. 



[Most of us think we know all about honey pro- 
duction: and that is true if we consider the process- 
es that take place /co*/; the hive to the consniner: but 
as yet no one has ever gone into details telling: 
what takes place from the blosnom to the eomb. and 
for the very good reason that most of us would not 
take the time to see wiiat is done, even if we knew 
where and how to look. With a specially con- 
structed observatory hive by whicli the bees are 
compelled to build the edge of the comb up against 
the glass, it is possible to see what has hitherto 
been denied the ordinary observer. If we are not 
mistaken, Mr. Miller is the pioneer in the use of 
this kind of glass hive. In the following article he 
tells a story that is exceedingly interesting to the 
student of nature— a story that we believe will be 
verified by any one else who will take the time to 
watch the bees work when in the hives.— Ed.] 

The bee returning from the field with a 
load of nectar does several things which are 
quite contrary to the rules we have laid 
down for her. She does not rush for a cell 
to put it in; on the contrary, she spends a 
seemingly needless amount of time wander- 
ing about and inspecting cells. When at 
last one is found that seems satisfactory she 
enters it, feet up and back down. If the 
cell is em]ity she puts her mouth into the 
upper and rearmost angle, opens her mouth 
and mandibles, and at once a drop of nectar 
is seen to well u]) until it touches the cell. 
Slowly the head is turned from side to side, 
spreading the nectar against the corner of 
the cell. All the time the mandibles are 
kept in motion as if biting, though the tips 
do not meet. The outflowing nectar fills 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



the mouth, flows up over the upper lip (la- 
brum), and fills the space between the man- 
dibles. When the bee has emptied her sac 
she backs out of the cell, wipes off her face, 
antennae, and tongue, stretches and plumes 
herself, and, likely as not, crawls*into some 
cell or hangs in some quiet corner for a nap. 
Thus she may stay for a few minutes or for 
half a day. Busy little bee! 

If the load is to be deposited in a cell al- 
ready containing more or less honey the 
procedure is the same, except that mandibles 
and mouth parts are submerged in the hon- 
ey in the cell. No matter how far the hon- 
ey may lie out on the floor of the cell, the 
bee never gets her face in it, but tips her 
head out until it looks as if it would part 
from the thorax. In all the depositing of 
honey or nectar the tongue is never used, 
but is kept folded behind the head. 

So far as it has been possible to determine, 
the nectar-laden bee never yields any of it 
to the other bees. This statement applies 
to times of plenty; for when the colony is 
on the verge of starvation the home bees do 
sometimes obtain food directly from the re- 
turning worker. If they do it at one time 
they may at another; but certainly such is 
not the common way when honey is being 
freely gathered. 

At night the ripening process, which dur- 
ing the day receives little attention, becomes 
the work of a very large part of the bees. 
Over all vertical surfaces the bees spread in 
single layers, and each bee appears to have 
plenty of elbow room. Every honey-treat- 
ing bee hangs vertically with head up. The 
mandibles are spread, the mouih opens, and 
a drop of nectar appears, increasing in size 
until it fills the mouth, flows up over the 
upper lip (labrum), and fills the space be- 
tween the mandibles. Then what, for con- 
venience, we will here call the lower jaw 
(labium) begins to move with a chewing- 
like motion, and this causes the exposed 
drop of honey to "pulsate." Slowly and 
steadily this is done, the bee sometimes 
continuing it with one drop for ten, twelve, 
or even more minutes; then there is a pause, 
the drop is swallowed, and the bee rests for 
a few seconds; then another drop appears, 
and the process is repeated. The volume of 
the exposed drop is somewhat less than the 
capacity of the honey-sac — estimated at a 
quarter to a third less. 

Each individual bee continues her work 
until seemingly the nectar is so changed 
that it ceases to excite the nerves. When 
this stiige is reached she generally deposits 
her load in a cell and goes to sleep, although 
sometimes she may take another sacful from 
some cell and resume her labors. Just what 
the age is of the bees doing this work has 
not yet been determined; but so many bees 
work at it that it seems as if bees of almost 
all ages take part. 

When the bees have not room to store 
their loads after treating them they must 
needs keep them, and it is then that they 
secrete wax freely. The very process of " ri- 
pening "seems to cause the production of 



much wax; but if the bee> have to hold their 
loads the amount produced seems much 
greater. Perhaps it is not so much more as 
it seems. 

That the ripening process is accompanied 
by wax production is easily proved by the 
following experiment: Feed a colony with 
thoroughly ripened honey diluted with 
about one-third its bulk of water. The bees 
will store and thicken this, but will not pro- 
duce much wax — very little, in fact, unless 
they are getting some nectar at the same 
time. Feed another colony a syrup made of 
equal parts of granulated sugar and water, 
or, for more pronounced results, use more 
sugar. This colony will produce a lot of 
wax — so much, in fact, that if the experi- 
ment is continued for four or five days the 
new wax will be found stuck all over combs, 
frames, hive-sides, etc. 

At the time the two colonies are being 
thus treated, two more should be allowed 
only what food they get from the fields, and 
these colonies used as "checks," i. e., colo- 
nies under normal conditions to compare 
the other two with. 

The colony continues its ripening labors 
until about 11 p.m., sometimes a little later, 
occasionally as late as 1 a.m. The cause of 
the variation is unknown. All during this 
work the colony keeps up the deep hum, so 
well known and so welcome to bee-keepers. 
The cause of the humming is not determin- 
ed. It does not seem as if the proportionate- 
ly few bees fanning could cause it all. 

An examination of the bees doing the 
ventilating is interesting, for the volume of 
air they drive from the entrance seems out 
of all proportion to the number of bees do- 
ing that work. 

Most of such fanning is done at or near 
the entrance, and not by masses of bees all 
through the hive, as commonly supposed. 
There are occasions when fanning is done 
all through the hive, as when the heat is 
very great or when the hive is deluged with 
smoke; but these are not normal condition^:. 

The attention of students of the grand 
functions of the bees is called to the oppor- 
tunity aflforded for the secretions of the 
glands opening on the mandibles to mix 
with the nectar. 

Providence, R. I. 

[The statement has been repeatedly made 
that the ordinary bees on returning from 
the field, laden with nectar, do not deposit 
their loads directly in the cells, but pass 
them along to young bees in the hive, not 
old enough to go to the field; that these lat- 
ter, in turn, deposit nectar in the cells, and 
then return to unload other worker bees that 
have come from the field. 

Busy as a bee! It is popularly supposed 
that the bee works incessantly if we except 
the hanging-out in front on a very warm 
day when the entrance is contracted too 
much. This is a very interesting field for 
study and observation. If any of our read- 
ers have a story to tell different from that 
presented by Mr. Miller, we hope they will 
tell us what they have really seen. — Ed.] 



Jan. 1, 1912 



25 



[B(Bg]D[jD[j1Q©[P©^ (J)Di]©©'SD®[ 



In presenting this list of questions it should be underatood that it is impossible, in many 
instances to do justice to the subjects in the short space here allowed, and for full particulars 
we refer the reader to our encyclopedia on bees — the ABC and X Y Z of Bee Culture — a book 
that is of inestimable value to the beginner and expert as well. 



Q. Where can bees be kept? 

A. There are few places in the country 
where one or more colonies of bees can not 
make honey. It is true that the natural sur- 
roundings may be unfavorable to the bees, but 
one who has had no experience is often aston- 
ished as to distance bees will go in search of 
nectar of the flowers. In almost every large 
city there are some bee-keepers who have 
bees right in the heart of the city, either in 
back lots or on the roof of buildings. Ordi- 
narily, bees will go from one to three miles in 
search of nectar, but if there is none nearer 
they will go much further. There are cases 
on record of bees going seven miles from 
h'lme. 

Q. Do bees ever make trouble in a city? 

A. It is very seldom that bees make trouble 
of any sort in a town or city, and if the bee- 
keeper is careful, there need be none at all. 
We advise placing the hives in the back yard 
as far away as possible from the general high- 
way. 

It is true that in some few cases city councils 
have attempted to pass ordinances declaring 
bees to be a nuisance; but no such ordinance 
is constitutional, as the supreme court of 
Missouri in what is known as the Arkadelphia 
case, has decided that bees are not a nuisance 
per se. A similar case was tried in Rochester 
with the result that a verdict was rendered 
in favor of the bees. Full particulars con- 
cerning these can be obtained by addressing 
General ■ Manager N. E. France, of the Na- 
ticnal Bee-keepers' Association, Platteville, 
Wis. 

Q. What must be planted for bees to work 
on? 

A. Strange as it may seem, it usually does 
not pay to plant anything that is valuable 
only for the honey unless waste places such 
as roadsides or fence corners can be utilized 
that would be of no value in any other way. 
Very often the natural sources of nectar in 
a locality can be augmented by the sowing 
of sweet clover seed, and since this is be- 
coming to be known as a valuable forage in- 
stead of a pest or weed, as it was formerly 
called, there is no question but that it pays 
to grow sweet clover for hay and thus secure 
some additional honey of fine quality, also. 
However, it must be remembered that each 
blossom yields only a small amount of nectar, 
hence there must be hundreds of acres of 
any such plant before any great difference 
will be noticed in the surplus honey produced, 
if there are very inany bees in the locality. 
However, as stated first, almost every locality 
has enough natural sources of nectar to sup- 
port one or more colonies without artificial 
pasturage. 

Since alfalfa clover and alsike clover are 
being grown more and more even by the 
farmers of the Bast, there is every reason to 
suppose that there will be more honey pro- 
duced from these sources in the future than 
ever before. Buckwheat is a good yielder and 
especiallv valuable for furnishing nectar in 
the late summer to keep up brood rearing. 

Q. Do bees do well in a fruit country? 

A. The fruit trees alone, unless there are 
acres and acres of them, do not usually fur- 
nish enough honey to be noticeable in the 
surplus supply secured, but of course there 
are many exceptions to this in localities 
where fruit is grown extensively. In this con- 
nection, however, it might be well to state 
that bees are a necessity in a fruit grow- 
ing localitv, for without their aid the blos- 
soms do riot set, that is the cross fertiliza- 
tion is not accomplished. It is true that the 



wind and other insects distribute the pollen 
to a certain extent and thus fertilize the blos- 
soms, but at the same time, if there are no 
bees at all a great many of the blossoms will 
not bear fruit. A simple experiment may be 
tried to prove this: Cover a branch of blos- 
soms with coarse mosquito netting which will 
just prevent the bees from getting through, 
and it will be found that the blossoms on 
this branch will not bear fruit, even though 
the netting is removed as soon as the petals 
fall. 

Q. Do bees work on ripe fruit and spoil it? 

A. If the skin of the fruit has been punc- 
tured by some other insect or by the birds, 
it is true that the bees will work on the pulp 
and juice of the fruit thus exposed, but such 
fruit would be unfit for market anyway, hence 
the bees after all do no real harm. Bees by 
themselves can not possibly puncture the skin 
of fruit. Sound fruit, if kept carefully guarded 
from birds and other insects, will be un- 
touched by the bees. This has been demon- 
strated over and over again. 

Q. How many kinds of bees are there in 
a colony? 

A. During the early part of the summer a 
normal colony consists of one queen, the only 
perfect female in the hive; several hundred 
drones (the male bees) — and any where fr.im 
twenty to fifty thousand worker bees, which 
are undeveloped females. The queen is not 
the ruler of the hive as was formerly sup- 
posed, but is simply the mother; she lays 
the eggs. A good prolific queen in the height 
of the season will lay from two to four thou- 
sand eggs per day, or nearly twice her own 
weight, in twenty-four hours. Continual feed- 
ing by the worker bees enables her to do this. 
The drone is the male bee and he has no 
sting nor any suitable tongue with which to 
work; hence the drone does no work, not so 
much because he is lazy but because he has 
no tools to work with nor weapons with which 
to defend the hive. The workers are stunted 
females, and as their name indicates, they do 
all the field work such as bringing in pollen, 
nectar, building the comb and feeding the 
young. 

Q. How many colonies can one man take 
care of? 

A. Thi.-s depends on the man and so this 
question can not be definitely answered any 
more than one could positively say how many 
acres of land one man could farm. However, 
one man with a little help in the busiest 
part of the season can usually care for as 
many as five hundred colonies if he is experi- 
enced. Colonies of bees in order to produce 
good results, must be properly taken care of. 
A hundred weak colonies not in good condition 
for producing honey by the time the main 
honev-f!ow opens, will not produce as much 
surplus as ten colonies that are very strong 
and in the very best condition at the time 
the main honey-flow begins. 

Q. What profit can reasonably be expected? 

A. As much as $10.00 per colony lias been 
secured where there are only a few colonies to 
the localitv. but this is above the average. 
$2.00 to $3.00 a colony would be about the 
figure where there are a large number of 
colonies. 

Q. How much increase can be expected in 
a year? 

A. If natural swarming is allowed a fifty 
percent increase is perhaps an average. No 
colony should be allowed to swarm more than 
once,' for the parent colony is too greatly re- 



26 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



duced in strength if more than one normal 
swarm issues. Professional bee-keepers usu- 
ally make their increase artificially, however, 
and it is not at all a difficult matter to double 
the number of colonies in a year. In fact, an 
expert, when all conditions are favorable, can 
increase a three-frame nucleus which is only 
about one-third the size of an ordinary colony 
into ten full size colonies by fall, but of course 
this is beyond the reach of the average 
amateur. The whole question of increase is 
fully explained in the ABC&XYZof Bee 
Culture. 

Q. Will beating tin pans, ringing bells, etc., 
stop swarms? 

A. Nri. Almost every swarm immediately 
after it issues will soon cluster anyway at 
some convenient point until the bees get their 
bearings. How the custom of beating tin 
pans, etc., started no one knows. If a swarm 
is inclined to make for the woods at once, 
the bees can be made to cluster very quicklv 
if a good spray pump is at hand for a good 
drenching so wets their wings that they are 
forced to cluster until they can dry off. 

Q. Is it possible to remove bees from hollow 
trees or the walls of a building? 

A. Yes, this may be done without trouble 
but the easiest way is to cut down the tree 
or remove some of the siding of the building, 
as the case may be, but if this is imprac- 
tical a device known as the bee-escape mav 
be placed over the opening or entrance wliich 
will allow the bees to pass out but will pre- 
vent them from going back in again. If a 
hive containing comb is arranged close to the 
opening on the outside, all the bees may be 
secured in this way, or practically all of them 
except the queen and brood. A new queen 
will have to be on hand and introduced to the 
bees. Most of the modern books on bees de- 
scribe the various processes of transferring 
bees from trees or buildings into hives, so 
that one who is desirous to start in this way 
need have no particular difficulty. 

Q. What strain of bees is the best? 

A. There are not as many different vari- 
eties of bees as of poultry, for instance, ow- 
ing to the fact that since the mating of the 
queens and drones takes place in the air, the 
male parentage can not be controlled, hence 
if a number of different varieties of bees were 
kept in the same yard they would soon be 
hopelessly mixed up and a mongrel bee be 
the result. The Italian bees are preferred by 
the majority of bee-keepers in this country, 
although the Carniolan and Caucasian bees 
are beginning to be used somewhat where 
early brood rearing is desired. 

Q. Can one who takes care of bees keep 
from being stung? 

A. Yes. if necessary, one can so protect 
himself with a good veil, gloves, etc., that 
there is practically no danger of receiving 
a sting; but practical bee-keepers after they 
have been stung a very few times are not 
bothered very much in this way, for the stings 
lose their effect, that is the system becomes 
immune to the poison so that no swelling 
takes place. 

Q. Is there any danger of bees stinging 
neighbors or their cattle? 

A. There is some danger, but at the same 
time very little. Occasionally, sweaty cattle 
or horses if allowed to get in the direct line 
of flight of the bees, will irritate them so that 
they may be stung, taut after all, such in- 
stances are not the usual thing. If proper 
precautions are taken, neighbors need not be 
annoyed in any way. If robbing is allowed 
bees are always more irritable. 

Q. How may I know when bees are rob- 
bing? 

A. When bees are working in the field 
there will be a quiet, contended hum that is 
very different from the excited high-key note 
that one hears when bees are robbing. At 
such times they are almost sure to be cross, 
and when it is allowed to continue they may 



sting not only human beings but domestic 
animals. A careful examination of the apiary 
and surroundings may show that the bees are 
either robbing some hive or hives, or have 
got into the honey-house or kitchen, and are 
helping themselves to sweets. In the case 
of the building, the doors should be closed 
immediately. Toward night, they can be 
opened allowing the robbers to go back home. 
But doors should be kept carefully closed the 
next day and thereafter because the robbers 
will come back. 

If the bees are robbing some colony or 
colonies there will be found more or less 
fighting at the entrances. Some bees will be 
stung to death; and after the colony is over- 
powered, robbers will rush in and out at a 
terrific rate. There will be a general uproar 
in the apiary; and if these conditions con- 
tinue, other colonies that perhaps are not as 
strong as they should be, will be robbed and 
possibly overpowered. The remedy is, to 
carry the robtaed colonj' or colonies down cel- 
lar immediately, where they should tae kept 
two or three days. When set back on stand, 
the entrance should be contracted down t) a 
space so that only one or two bees can pass 
at a time. For full particulars on this =ub- 
subject. see "Robbing," in the ABC & XYZ 
of Bee Culture. 

Q. How can I distinguish the play-spell of 
bees from robbing? 

A. On bright days, especially those days 
following inclement weather, after bees have 
been shut up for some time, one will often 
find an unusual commotion in front of some 
particular hive. Bees will be flying thickly 
before the entrance in such a way that a be- 
ginner might suppose it to be a case of 
robbing; but there will be no fighting, no bees 
struggling against each other, no dead bees, 
but, on the other hand, bees will be flying 
around aimlessly in front of the entrance, a 
few going in and some out. When there is 
robbing going on, there is a life-and-death 
struggle; and after the colony is overpowered 
the robbers will be rushing into and out of 
the hive at a furious pace. For further par- 
ticulars, see answer to preceding question. 

Q. What kind of hive is the best? 

A. This question can not be answered defi- 
nitely. Complicated patent hives are usually 
very little if any better than the cheap wooden 
boxes that they are sold at a high price to 
take the place of. The standard ten-frame 
hive is preferred by the majority of honey 
producers, but if comb honey is to be pro- 
duced the upper part of the hive should be 
of a different style than if the bees are to 
run for extracted honey. Beginners in the 
North will succeed best with the ten-frame 
double-walled packed hive that is warm in 
winter and cool in summer. 

Q. What are the different parts of a bee 
hive? 

A. A regular beehive consists of a floor 
or bottom board; a brood chamber which con- 
tains the ten frames that surround the combs; 
the super that holds the square sections for 
the surplus honey, and the cover. The brood 
chamber is a plain box usually with notched 
or dovetailed corners to give added strength, 
and with the end of the box rabbeted at the 
top to hold the projections of the top bars of 
the frames that surround the combs. The 
bees are induced to build the combs in these 
frames by means of a sheet of what is known 
as comb foundations that is suspended in the 
middle of each frame, which acts as a pattern 
to enable the bees to build their combs 
straight. If this were not used they might 
build the comb crosswise of the frame or in 
bunches or in clusters, so that it would be 
impossible to separate one comb from another 
for purposes of inspection. The super or 
upper part of the hive gets its name from 
the fact that it holds the superabundance of 
honey. The modern bee-keeper does not rob 
his bees; that is, he does not take from them 
honey that they require for their own food, 
but simply removes the surplus of which there 



Jan. 1, 1912 



27 



is often ten times as much as they could 
possibly use themselves. 

Q. How can I tell a queen cell from all the 
rest? 

A. It is much larger than the rest of the 
cells and stands alone by itself. It somewhat 
resembles a long-pointed peanut, and it is 
built on the surface of the comb with the 
small end downward. Usually, queens cells 
are found on the lower part of the comb. 

Sometimes old queen cells are left over from 
the year before and these should not be con- 
fused with fresh cells. The old ones do not 
have a finished look and are generally dark 
colored and very shallow, scarcely notice- 
able from the rest of the comb, except in size. 

Q. What Is the best way to Introduce a 
valuable queen? 

A. Select a couple of frames of hatching 
brood and place them in an upper story on 
top of a queenless colony with wire cloth be- 
tween the two stories. After a number of 
young bees have hatched, release the queen 
among them. In about a week's time or after 
most of the bees have hatched, set the two 
frames of bees and queen down into the lower 
story and all will go well providing that any 
queen cells in the lower story are destroyed. 

Usually there will be directions to go with 
these queens when sent out by mail. Of the 
cage plans for introducing, the push-in-comb- 
cage plan we consider the most reliable. For 
particulars regarding these, see "Queen- 
cages." on another page. 

Q. What is pollen? 

A. The ordinary diet of young bees is the 
food or pap made of a mixture of honey and 
pollen. Pollen is gathered from the flowers, 
and carried to the hive in large pellets packed 
on the bees' legs. Unless bees have sufficient 
pollen in the hives, brood-rearing can not be 
carried on, for pollen furnishes the nitrogen- 
ous element that is required. 

Q. Some of the cells in my combs are half 
filled with a semi-hard, granular substance. 
What is it? 

A. Bee-bread; that is, pollen packed hard 
in the cells for future use. Sometimes, this 
becomes old and stale so that the bees do not 
use it. 

Q. What is propolis? 

A. Propolis is a resinous red to brown sub- 
stance tliat is sticky in warm weather, and 
brittle in cold weather. The bees use it for 
closing up gaps or openings, especially those 
openings that would let in cold air. They 
gatlier propolis from gums found on trees, and 
from buds. It has no commercial value. 

Q. How can I remove propolis from my 
fingers? 

A. A few drops of kerosene or gasoline will 
soften it so it can be easily removed by the 
use of soap. 

Q. Do bees have diseases? 

A. There are a few diseases of the adult 
bees such as dysentery, bee paralysis (not 
like paralysis of the human body) ; but the 
most serious diseases are those of the brood 
such as American or European foul brood. 
These, however, may be easily cured unless 
the bee-keeper is so negligent as to allow his 
whole vard to become diseased before he does 
anything about it. See ABC&XTZof 
Bee Culture. 

Q. What causes the bees to carry their 
brood out of the entrances of the hives? 

A. There may be several causes. First, the 
moth-miller, or moth-worms, rather, that 
have built their galleries through the sealed 
brood, destroying the young brood. These the 
bees will carry out and deposit in front of the 
entrance. 

The most probable cause is chilled or over- 
heated brood. Sometimes the combs, when 
handled by inexperienced bee-keepers, are ex- 



posed for some little time to chilling winds. 
Such brood will die as the result of exposure, 
and will be carried out in front of the hive. 
Sometimes the entrances of the hives are too 
small in extremely warm weather. The bees 
are unable to ventilate properly, and the hives 
become overheated, thus killing the brood. The 
result is, it is carried out and left in front 
of the entrance. The third cause is poison 
gathered from fruit-trees by bees during 
spraying time. The brood dies, and is carried 
out as before. 

Q. I have noticed a fine powdery substance 
on the bottom board. Does this indicate that 
something is wrong? 

A. No, this is merely bits of cappings 
gnawed off by the bees or bits of comb, wax, 
or propolis. There is no occasion for alarm 
when this is found. 

Q. What is the best way to get rid of 
moths? 

A. Do not listen to any one who wants to 
sell you a patent moth trap or moth-proof 
hive. Strong colonies of vigorous Italian bees 
protect themselves against moths and moth 
larvK, so that this trouble is practically un- 
heard of in an Italian yard. Of course, if 
colonies are allowed to get weak and to de- 
generate moths may affect an entrance and 
make trouble, but not otherwise. 

Q. What is a bee smoker? 

A. A device for blowng smoke on the bees 
— not to stupefy them but to cause them to 
fill up with honey so that they are better 
natured and thus more easily handled. 

Q. What is the best fuel for smokers? 

A. Unquestionably greasy waste is best, 
such as can be obtained at any ordinary ma- 
chine-shop, for the asking. Rotten wood, 
planer shavings, old rags, etc., do very well. 

Q. What is the difference between "comb" 
and "extracted" honey? 

A. Comb honey is produced by the bees 
in small, square boxes and sold in this way 
just as the bees left it. The extracted honey 
is the liquid honey thrown out of large combs 
filled by the bees, in a centrifugal honey ex- 
tractor which works somewhat on the prin- 
ciple of a cream separator. That is, the liquid 
honey is thrown out of the cells leaving the 
comb as good as ever and it is put back in the 
hives and filled again by the bees. For this 
reason the extracted .honey is cheaper as the 
bees do not need to build .new comb each 
time. 

Q. Which is the more profitable to produce, 
comb or extracted honey? 

A. This depends largely upon circum- 
stances. One who has but a few colonies had 
better produce comb honey, for the equipment 
required for extracted honey production is 
quite expensive and the outfit would usually 
not be warranted for a very few colonies. 
Professional bee-keepers, the majority of them 
at least, produce extracted honey largely. 
Nearly twice as much of the latter can be pro- 
duced as of comb honey, but at the same time 
it brings only about half as much in the mar- 
ket as comb honey. 

Q. Can comb honey be manufactured by 
machinery so as not to be told from genuine? 

A. No, this is impossible. Comb honey has 
never been made by macliinery and never will 
be, in spite of many newspaper statements 
and magazine articles to the contrary. The A. 
I. ROOT COMPANY, in order to show clearly 
that there is no such thing as manufactured 
comb honev, has, for nearlv thirty years had 
a standing offer of $1,000.00 for a single sec- 
tion of comb honey made by machinery that 
so nearly resembled the natural product as to 
deceive the average person. The fact that no 
one has ever been able to claim this money, 
shows conclusively that there is no such ar- 
ticle on the market. There are plenty of rea- 
sons why such a feat would be impossible, 
but lack of space forbids the mention of them 
here. See A B C & X Y Z of Bee Culture. 



28 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Q. When extracted honey granulates is that 
an indication that It was adulterated with 
sugar? 

A. No, for almost every kind of pure 
honey will granulate or crystallize in time. 
Some kinds of honey produced in the South 
will crystallize In only two or three days' 
time, but usually from two to six months' is 
required. The honey may be returned to the 
liquid state by heating it gently in hot water. 
For the very best results the water sur- 
rounding the dish of honey should be no hot- 
ter than 140 degrees. A temperature much 
higher than this will give the honey a burnt 
flavor. 

Q. I have some combs that contain granu- 
lated honey that I cannot extract. What 
shall I do with them? 

A. Sciak them in v.-arm water and place in 
a super above a strong colony. The bees will 
usually clean out the cells although the combs 
may liave to be wet two or three times be- 
fore the work is finished. 

Q. What is the reason my bees will not go 
into the supers and store honey? 

A. Several causes might be assigned. 
First, no honey coming in, or at most a very 
light honey-tlow; second, a colony too weak. 
There must be a large force of bees to store 
enough honey to fill the brood-nest to keep 
up brood-rearing, and yet leave a surplus to 
be stored in the sections or extracting-combs 
above. Third, sometimes a strong colony in 
a good honey-ttow will not enter the super. 
In that case, if other bees are storing, an 
examination of tlie brood-nest may show that 
the brood-frames in the colony that sulks are 
"honey-bound" — that is, honey has been 
stored in brood frames until the queen has 
been compelled to stop laying. To remedy 
this, uncap all the combs and put on some 
sections from some other colony, which the 
bees have already partly drawn out and 
filled. This will usually have the desired ef- 
fect. 

Q. How can finished honey be removed 
from the hive? 

A. The old way was to set the hive over 
a hole in the ground in which there was some 
burning sulphur, and after the bees were all 
killed to take the honey out with a spade. 
The modern bee-keeper as mentioned above, 
does not remove the honey the bees need but 
simply takes the surplus. A board contain- 
ing what is called a bee escape, is placed be- 
tween the super and brood chamber and the 
bees go down through into the lower part 
where the brood is and cannot get up again. 
In a few hours they are all out of the super 
and the surplus honey can then be removed 
without the knowledge of the bees. There 
is then no uproar, no stings, no confusion and 
no trouble of any kind. 

Q. What is done with bees during winter? 

A. If the colonies are not already in double 
walled hives the space between being filled 
with shavings or leaves, a winter case may 
be put over the regular hive and packing ma- 
terial put in after which a water proof cover 
is put over the whole thing: or the colonies 
may be wintered in a cellar which is kept 
reasonably dark and even in temperature. 
Except in the northern part of the northern 
states, however, it is usually safer to winter 
on the summer stands in double-walled hives 
or other hives especially packed for the cold 
weather. For further particulars, see ABC 
& X Y Z of Bee Culture. 

Q. What is a winter nest? 

A. It is a space of empty cells in the cen- 
tral combs three or four inches below the top 
bars. Bees if left to themselves will form 
this clustering space in the empty cells so 
that they can get closer together for warmth. 
If this winter nest is disturbed in the re- 
arrangement of combs, it must be put back. 

Q. How do we determine when a colony Is 
strong enough to go through the winter? 

A. The answer to this question depends on 



the latitude or climate, the kind of hive and 
whether the bees are to be wintered outdoors. 
In a warm climate fewer bees will be re- 
quired than in a cold, but more stores will 
be needed. In a cold climate for outdoor 
wintering we figure on not less than 7 frames 
covered with bees. For cellar wintering 4 or 
5 frames will answer but more will be better. 
In the extreme south two or three frames of 
bees may be enough providing pollen and 
honey can be gathered in late winter. In all 
cases, it is better to have a hive full of bees; 
but in that case there should be 5 or 6 frames 
of stores or the equivalent in S or 10 frames. 

Q. How can I stimulate brood rearing In 
the fall when queens ordinarily stop laying? 

A. Queens two or three months old will 
lay when queens one or two years old will 
not. We usually advise having young queens 
in the fall, not only because they stand the 
winter better, but because they supply the 
hives with a force of young bees, so neces- 
sary for successful wintering. Byt old queens 
can be made to lay to some extent by feed- 
ing outdoors a sweetened water consisting of 
15 parts of water to one of granulated sugar. 
This mixture should be thoroughly stirred, 
and then put into Simplicity or Alexander 
feeders, about fifty yards from apiary. The 
feeders will need to be filled two or three 
times a day, depending on the number of bees 
in the yard: but do not give them more than 
they can take up in a day, for in warm 
weather it will sour. 

Q. What is the best way to unite bees in 
the fall? 

A. If there are two colonies neither of 
which have strength enough to go into win- 
ter quarters, the weaker should be united 
with the stronger. Ordinarily, the old bees 
of the moved cokmy will go back to the old 
stand. To provide against this, proceed as 
follows: In the cool of the inorning, or better, 
the last thing at night, smoke the bees thor- 
oughly that are to be removed. Pound on the 
hive considerably, so that they will be demor- 
alized. Carry the hive and set it down be- 
side the other and shake the moved bees in 
front of the entrance of the other hive. If 
they are pure Italians, no smoke will be re- 
quired. If they are dark hybrids or blacks, it 
may be necessary to examine the bees in fif- 
teen or twenty minutes to see if they are 
fighting. In this case, smoke the hive thor- 
oughlv and shut it up. After they are nicely . 
united rearrange the combs to form a winter 
nest. 

Q. In uniting, what should be done with 
the queen? 

A. Where there is no choice especially if 
neither queen is valuable, the two lots of bees 
can be vmited, and, as a rule, one of the 
queens will be left and the other destroyed. 
But where there is a choice, which is usually 
the case, the better one should be caged and 
introduced, and the other destroyed or put 
into some other colony. 

Q. What Is meant by balling a queen? 

A. When bees are hostile toward a queen, 
they will cluster about her very thickly, 
sometimes forming a ball of bees anywhere 
from one to three inches in diameter. Every 
bee in the ball seems to be struggling to get 
at her to sting her. Unless she Is released 
she will either be smothered to death or stung. 
To release her, use plenty of smoke, blowing 
it on the ball, until the mad bees disperse and 
then pick her up and cage her. Another way 
is to dip the ball in a pail of water, when 
the bees will immediately float away from her. 

Q. If colonies die through the winter may 
new swarms the next season be put in the 
same hives? 

A. If the bees did not die because of the 
result of disease, but simply starved or chilled, 
there is no harm in putting new swarms in 
these same hives. By careful attention, how- 
ever, the winter loss may be reduced to a 
very small percent. 



Jan. 1, 1912 



29 



®w[p \^®um 



A. I. Root. 



I was a stranger, and ye took me not in. — Matt. 
25:43. 

Be not forgetful to entertain strangers, for there- 
by some have entertained angels unawares. — Heb. 
13 : 2. 

And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye 
more than others? Do not even the publicans so? 
—Matt. 5 :47. 

Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the king- 
dom prepared lor you from the foundation of the 
world; for I was an hungered, and ye gave me meat: 
1 was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stran- 
ger, and ye took me in. — Matt. 25 : 42, 43. 

Mrs. Root has quite a fondness for reading 
old books — those, for instance, that she and 
I read together when we were first married, 
and she persists in reading them again, even 
when I tell her there are new books just as 
good, or even better; and therefore when we 
started on our two-days' trip to our Florida 
home she laid out to read on the way an old 
book entitled "Knight of the Nineteenth 
Cenlury," by E. P. Roe, as she has always 
had an especial fondness for all of Roe's 
books. Well, one day when I began to get 
a little tired of looking at the landscape I 
happened to glance at the open book I had 
read perhaps 50 years ago. At that date I 
was not a professing Christian; and although 
I found the book entertaining I fear I did 
not get hold at all of the great point the au- 
thor had in view when he tried to show forth 
what is real Christianity, or, if you choose, 
what the real Christlike spirit means. The 
leading character is a young man who, 
through faulty bringing up, "went to the 
bad." He tried to turn over a new leaf and 
atone for his errors, but everybody seemed 
to make sport of his efforts to retrieve, and 
he becauie discouraged and went down 
again, lower and lower, until even his own 
mother lost faith in him; and when he was 
truly converted, she seemed to be more skep- 
tical than any one else. When he tried to 
follow the teachings of his Savior, his re- 
buffs and discouragements from a cold and 
unfeeling outside world were almost unbe- 
lievable, did we not all see this same thing 
still going on almost everywhere. I was 
particularly impressed with his reception at 
one of the fashionable churches, where a 
kind friend had induced him 1o attend. I 
shall have to confess I have for some time 
been feeling troubled about the final out- 
come of so much money and fashion that is 
becoming so great a part of our town and 
city churches. In my previous Home paper 
I mentioned a pastor so eloquent and gifted 
that he was offered and accepted a much 
larger salary, while he was at the same time 
guilty of murder. What shall become of 
us if we continue to })ermit "grafters " and 
hypocrites to get in among the clergy? 

After finishing the book, I told Mrs. Root 
I wished every member of Gleanings could 
read this old book, by one of (iod's faithful 
and devoted servants (she got it by mail of 
Sears, Roebuck tS: Co., for 33 cts.). Well, 
while having this whole matter in mind 



you can imagine with what interest I read 
the following letter: 

Mr. A. I. Root: — I have just this hour received 
your journal; and since your department, Mr. Root, 
is the very first and often the only thing I am read- 
ing in Gleanings I notice the letter that Mr. Kla- 
buhn, of Conneaut, O., has written you, and your 
reply to it. (See page 707, Nov. 15.) I am a German 
myself, and this is only the sixth year I have been 
in this country. In other words, I am another 
"stranger " to you Americans. 

Now, before I proceed any further let me thank 
you for the generous spirit with which you answer 
my landsman's letter. I pay you my highest respect 
for your nobility of mind, since Mr. Klabuhn must 
inevitably, although without intention, have slight- 
ly offended you. The reason for Mr. Klabuhn"s 
opinion is, no doubt, his experience. 

I simply love to read all your talks; but I must 
confess that I have never been to church in this 
country— not because 1 don't believe in God and 
his church, but simply because I have not yet found 
a human being here in America who would prac- 
tice a true neighborly or Christian spirit. All with 
whom I come in contact have shown me, beyond the 
shadow of a doubt, that they can spare me some of 
their time only if there is some advuntaue in it lor 
them — even ministers, every one of the few with 
whom 1 come in touch. 

When 1 landed, six years ago, I could not speak 
English, and I began right away to study the lan- 
guage. After a while I became a member of the ^'. 
M. C. A. of Providence, K. I. There I was, sitting 
all alone, and none of your young men of that or- 
ganization spoke asocial word to me, and my heart 
was yearning for social intercourse. Mind, Mr. 
Root, they did not yet know my way of thinking. 
They simply left me alone, and literally discouraged 
me from getting acauainted with them. 1 think 
they felt too important to associate with a foreigner. 

A little later, again, I went to Boston to find work 
in that city: and there, being a member, I frequent- 
ed the Boston Y. M C. A.'s reading and other 
rooms, and there I met with tlie same fate. Only 
one lady clerk and one gentleman clerk of that in- 
stitution proved an exception, inasmuch as they 
were really friendly to me, and gave me informa- 
tion iiuite cheerfully. You know both the lady and 
the gentleman were studying ( lerman. and tried to 
get me talking ( ierman with them, which I, by the 
way, was glad to do. 

Tlie Boston Y. M. C. A. maintains a house orches- 
tra which practices on certain evenings, and plays 
Sunday afternoons for about an hour for the bene- 
fit of the other members. Now, since I am a violin 
player 1 offered to join tliis orchestra. Well, of 
course they let me play with them; but do you 
think, Mr. Root, they would let me get acquainted 
with them in a personal way? Not much! I felt 
exactly as if I were coming, playing, and going 
without being noticed at all. And they were, all of 
them, highl,y respectable members of that excellent 
organization. How I felt, you may or may not 
imagine. But all tliose and other experiences shat- 
tered my confidence in humanity au'l my belief in 
the sincerity of the men who pretend to be Cliris- 
tians. 1 do not wish to flatter you, Mr. Root; but 
1 think you are one of the very few exceptions 
which do exist, because your work proves it to some 
extent. I Hrmly believe in our Lord, but I do not 
visit the chui-ch, and 1 often feel that I am wrong 
in not going to church. 

Now, 1 wrote you all of this to show how one may 
be educated up to the point where Mr. Klabuhn 
seems to be. He says in his letter, ' I am an old 
* lerman." Now J am a young man— 31 years of age; 
let me live another 20 years, and if. during tliat 
time, I meet with the same conduct of men, 1 shall, 
perhaps, suffer morally for it. Or will those suffer 
who made the misanthropist of me? 

As it is, 1 am still wavering, and can not for the 
life of me decide regarding this vital question — i. e., 
whether I should visit the church and pretend to 
believe that my fellow-men are Christians, wlien, 
right down in my heart, 1 know they are not. 

Plymouth, Mass., Nov. 22. Bernhard Kunz. 

Dear friends, you especially who love the 



30 



Gl«aiiines in Be« Culture 



Lord Jesus Christ, I hope you will read the 
above plaintive letter again and again, and 
then I hope you will go out "into the by- 
ways and hedges" and see if there are not 
some near you that you have overlooked, as 
our good friend describes. You who belong 
to the Y. M. C. A., look around and see if 
these things are true in your locality. 
Remember who it was that said, "Inasmuch 
as ye have done it unto the least of one of 
these my brethren, ye have done it unto 
me." 

Now I want to suggest gently to our good 
brother who writes the letter that possibly 
there is at least just a little tendency to un- 
charitableness on his part. Are you not, 
my good friend, a little too modest and over- 
sensitive? Are you sure you are doing your 
part? and is it not possible you are a trifle 
hard to get acquainted with? I want to 
quote right here something from the Sun- 
day School Times that has done me a lot of 
good: 

THE DEFEAT OF INJUSTICE. 

No one can ever afford to think about any injus- 
tice he receives. It is disaster and destruction to 
do so. It is like deliberately lifting a glass of poison 
to our lips and swallowing it. Injustice inflicted 
upon us never harms us until we dwell on it. 
\\'hile we ignore it, and do right, it is powerless 
against us. When we begin to turn it over in our 
mind, it starts its murderous work upon us. It 
soon exaggerates itself, blinds us. rankles, inflames, 
embitters. It breeds self-pity, which quickly re- 
duces us tf) a condition of worse than helpless use- 
lessness. .lesus paid no attention to the awful in- 
justices of his lot. We can not afford to do other 
than he did, with our lesser injustices. If love is 
our master-passion, thinking nf) evil and bearing 
all things, we shall live emancipated from the mis- 
ery of dressing our own wounds. .Such wounds 
heal quickly when we are lovingly busied with the 
needs of others. 

The above sounds a little extreme, I ad- 
mit; but I am sure it is God's message, nev- 
ertheless. In troubles of this kind we need 
to exhort strongly the parties on both sides 
to wake u]) and be ready to go a little more 
than halfway. The editorial above* does 
not very clearly define the difference be- 
tween personal wrong and a wrong against 
community; but the distinction is implied. 
I know what it is to dwell on some indignity 
or abuse until I am kept awake nights; and 
I know it is true that, if dwelt on, such 
things grow and enlarge, and finally spoil 
one's peace of mind. My father for several 
years was unhappy because a line fence en- 
croached on his land. The surveyors told 
him the fence was over on his territory with- 
out question, but advised, as it had been 
there so many years, to let it rest to save 
quarrels and possibly a lawsuit with a 
neighbor; but because the surveyor who 
gave this advice belonged to our church, 
father had his own name taken from the 
church-roll, and could talk about and think 
about nothing else. Mother and the older 
children, the pastor of the church, and the 
deacons jjlead with him; but he persisted, 
and quoted, "right is right, and wrongs no 

* Have we any other periodical whose editorials 
occupy such a high moral stand as the Sunday 
School Times? And is not the above sentiment 
characteristic of this same clean home Christian 
sheet? 



man," until one Sunday I persuaded him 
to go with me to a mission Sunday-school I 
was conducting in one of the worst points 
in our neighborhood. A lot of nicely dress- 
ed little girls and boys recited texts from 
the platform, and the zeal and enthusiasm 
of the whole school were truly inspiring. 
On the way home I asked him if such a 
work was not far more important than the 
value of a little strip of land of less than an 
acre. He assented, and gave me his prom- 
ise to drop for ever the line-fence quarrel, 
and kept his word, went back to his church, 
and died at peace wuth God and with all his 
fellow-men. 



HOW TO SUCCEED IN JOURNALI.SM, ETC. 

I wonder how many of the editors of the 
fifty or sixty poultry-journals that come to 
our office by way of exchange read my writ- 
ings. Well, I hope they will read this, even 
if they do not read what I say about poultry. 
While there are many good things to be said 
about the poultry-journals, there is one great 
and grievous fault with most of them, and 
a matter that can be easily remedied. It 
wants a little push and gumption, getting 
up early in the morning, or something of 
that sort. It is this: These journals are al- 
lowed to go out to the reading public with- 
out being inspected and corrected. I refer 
particularly to the typography. For in- 
stance, the printer or compositor will pull 
out a line to make some needed change, and 
then he puts it back without getting it in 
the proper place. Sometimes it will be at 
the bottom of the column, and sometimes 
it will not be found anywhere. He evident- 
ly forgot to put it back. The result is that 
the reader, when deeply interested in some 
article, finds a line gone so as to make the 
whole thing nonsense. I often spend a good 
deal of time in going down the column to find 
the missing line somewhere, where it makes 
another jumble. Now, this is a stupid trick 
of the one who puts the lines into page form 
to be sure; but he is not altogether to blame. 
Every journal or periodical of any kind that 
hopes to succeed should have somebody who 
is conversant with the subject-matter to read 
over carefully every bit of matter before it 
goes to press. This person or expert, which 
he ought to be, should be trained to note 
every letter upside down, bad punctuation, 
bad spelling, or any thing of that sort, so 
that, when the periodical meets the eye of 
the one who pays his money for it, it will 
be clean, and clear tip to date. Our high- 
priced periodicals of wide circulation have 
two or more proof-readers in order to be sure 
that no blunders are allowed to pass. 

Now, some of you may think this is a 
small matter; but that is another " typo- 
graphical error." Leaving out a line as I 
have mentioned, bad spelling, and bad 
punctuation, stamp a periodical at once as 
second-class or not strictly reliable; and if 
the matter is not mended the journal soon 
fails for lack of patronage. When Glean- 
ings was first started, nearly forty years 



Jan. 1. 1912 



ago, I realized the imi)ortance of this very 
thing; and under no circumstances was a 
single number allowed to go to press before 
I myself had carefully scanned every page 
and every line. I sat uj) nights and got up 
early in the morning; and when I was oblig- 
ed to leave home, i)roofs were mailed me, 
and a boy often rushed over to the cars just 
as 1 was getting on, to give me a i)roof-sheet 
which I corrected on the train and mailed 
back. The reason why ( Ileanings was a 
success from the very start, and kei)t in- 
creasing and spreading every year for almost 
forty years, is just because we have taken 
such scrupulous pains to have it clean, cor- 
rect, and reliable; and I am glad to add that 
l^erhaps no other one has stood by me and 
helped me in this work as has my good 
friend W. P, Root, who is now taking down 
these words stenographically. He has been 
my right-hand man in this effort to have 
our journal fully up to the standard of our 
first-class magazines for over thirty years. 
Just a few days ago I laughingly told some 
of our friends in the printing-office that I 
had for the first time in my life found our 
old friend at fault in spelling; but a more 
careful investigation showed that he was 
not entirely at fault after all, as the mistake 
was in the choice of a wrong word. 

And now I wish to say again to the edi- 
tors of the poultry-journals, this one thing I 
have been talking about may turn the scale 
between success and failure. If you expect 
your respective journals to win a place among 
the journals of our land you must have them 
clean and readable. I know it takes good, 
earnest, faithful work, early and late; but 
that is the price of success, and the only 
price. 

By the way, with the present enthusiasm 
for poultry a new poultry-journal starts 
about every month;* but I am sorry to add 
that a poultry-journal dies about that often. 
So far as I know, there is not a single poul- 
try-journal published at the present time in 
the whole State of Florida, with all its pos- 
sibilities. «')ne was started a few years ago, 
but it failed. ])rincipally, I think, for the 
very reason I have mentioned. 

I am pleased to add, in closing, that our 
foreign journals are beautiful specimens of 
accurate and fine mechanical work; in fact, 
it is rather proverbial that the English, espe- 
cially, neverjiermitany thingtogoout to the 
reading world unless it is first-class in regard 
to typography; and they really have some 
reason for calling us, as they often do, "a 
lot of shiftless Yankees." 



CHUFA8, .'^OV BEAN.S, DANDELIONS, PARCELS 
PO.>=^T, ETC. 

Mr. Root: — I have read what you say on pages 
608. 609, on soy beans and chufas for chickens, etc. 
I have never succeeded In getting ray White Wy- 
andottes to eat either soy beans or chufas. and 

* Perhaps you will excOse me for saying right 
here, that during the past forty years a dozen or 
twenty bee-journals have been started: but sooner 
or later most of them have gone under, principally 
because of their carelessness along the line I have 
mentioned. 



have offered them on a few occasions. 1 have had 
chufas dug up and lying on the grass two or three 
weeks, with alternate rain and sunshine, where 
the chickens could help themselves (sixty, old and 
young), and have not mis.sed one nut. 

You quote an advertisement of soy-bean meal 
and seem to infer tliat it is merely soy beans ground 
up. I believe this meal is a by-product from the 
soy-bean oil-mills of China or Manchuria, just as 
our linseed meal is of our linseed-oll mills. This 
meal is imported very largely in Europe for feed- 
mg stock, as our linseed meal is. 

You say chufas, like other nuts, are rich in pro- 
tein and carbo-hydrates. You should have said 
rich in protein and fat. Chestnuts are, I believe 
the only nut rich in earbo-hydr.ates, while nearly 
all are rich in protein and fat— especially the latter 
I notice you are getting out a booklet on buck- 
wheat. I should like to suggest that you get some 
one well informed ou the subject to write on the 
use of buckwheat for green-manuring, killing per- 
sistent weeds, and as a nurse crop for sowing alfal- 
fa, crimson, and other clovers. I have seen It ad- 
vised very strongly for the latter purpose — in the 
Rural New -Yorker, 1 believe. Summer is deemed 
by many the best time to sow alfalfa, red and alsike 
clover, and crimson clover can be sown only then 
I note in Ohio Bulletin No. 207 that cotton-seed 
meal is rated on the favorable side as stock feed; 
and in my reading 1 notice a flour is being made 
from cotton-seed for bread-making. We have need 
of just such a product for mixing with our one- 
sided acid-producing white flour to make health- 
ful bread. 

Another thought on buckwheat. May it not be 
sown early, allowed to blossom for the bees to gath- 
er the honey, then turned under, and another crop 
of buckwheat sown for grain, honey, and as nurse 
crop for clovers? Too much can hardly be known 
by bee-keepers about buckwheat and clovers. 

Would it not be feasible to sow buckwheat in the 
buckwheat belt, sowing alsike at the same time, 
then let the bees gather the buckwheat nectar, you 
harvest the buckwheat, then let the bees gather the 
alsike nectar the following June, cut a crop of hay, 
possibly a crop of seed, then repeat the process, 
getting two crops each year, and two gatherings of 
nectar, while enriching the land with nitrogen at 
the same time? I believe it can be done, and bee- 
keepers are the ones to do it. Buckwheat is quite 
profitable where conditions are favorable, and al- 
sike for seed is very much so. 

As stated above, I have about sixty W'hite Wyan- 
dottes, and can not notice that apiece is missing 
from a single leaf of the dandelions growing all 
around my grounds. Possibly the reason is that 
my chickens have full lilierty, and thus may obtain 
what they like better — insects, grass, etc. They do 
eat great quantities of grass, I know, as I see them 
doing so, much of the time: and a hawk killed one 
and tore open its crop, which seemed to be stuffed 
with grass .solely. Is it not likely that your Leg- 
horns found what suited them? I am very fond of 
dandelion greens, and consider them healthful. 

I note you advise cooking ground wheat thor- 
oughly before eating. I believe this to be an error. 
It is apt to encourage too rapid eating, and cook- 
ing seems to necessitate the use of sugar to some 
extent, and tliis. 1 feel certain, is wrong. Our nu- 
trition .scientists have found that the average 
American dietary is about 17 per cent protein, 25 
per cent fat, and 58 i)er cent carbo-hydrates — more 
protein for growing children and those at hard la- 
bor, and less for the aged and inactive. By looking 
at a table in my letter published on p. HOii. 1910, you 
will see that wheat has protein. 11.1 per cent: fat, 
1.7 per cent: carbo.. 75."). (iranulated sugar is 100 
per cent carbo-hydrates. Thus wheat is 30 per cent 
above a balanced ration in carbo-hydrates, and 
every grain of sugar makes it more so. while It has 
only about one-tenth the fat it should have. There- 
fore butter or cream, not sugar, is tlie proper thing 
to add to help balance it. Xuts. cheese, or other 
foods rich in fat or protein, should go with wheat : 
sugar, never. Kolled oats are much better bal- 
anced, but need fat to balance. Americans con- 
sume an average of about >5.()fl worth of sugar per 
capita per year, and great iiuaiilitles of molasses 
and syrup In addition. If this were reduced to one 
dollar, and the remainder expended for milk or 
butter or cheese, or even for honey, we should be 
Infinitely better ofT. 

I note what you say about i)arcels iiost. Too 
much can not be said for this great boon to our 
producers and consumers. The middlemen are the 



32 

only ones that would be hurt. The Postofflce De- 
partment is run as a political machine, to give fat 
offices to henchmen at immense expense. About 
ten million dollars could be saved annually by 
abolishing the salaried postmasters, leaving the 
assistants to do the work as they now do. This 
would also greatly benefit the people by removing 
and duleting the many disturbing, oflensively par- 
tisan politi<-ians. 1 know a postmaster who has a 
business of his own where he may be found six or 
eight hours a day. lie drops in at the postofiice 
two or three times a day, usually, and spends the 
rest of his waking hours at the club. About the 
hardest work he does at the postofflce is drawing 
liis salary of §200 a month, ft costs me f6 cents to 
send a pound of laundry to the agent at the post- 
office nearest my own. two miles away. A 300-lb. 
man with a lo(i-lb. trunk and a 50-lb. suit-case may 
go on the same train for 5 cents. Is that good busi- 
ness management? I can send the pound package 
to New Zealand. lO.OliO miles, for 12 cents. Yet the 
government lorbids the railroads charging more 
for a short haul than for a long one. The Farm 
Journal, published in Philadelphia, price the paper 
just double for delivery in Philadelphia that they 
price it for delivery in San P'rancisco, Alaska, or 
Mexico. Is that business? A law of the United 
.States forbids any one carrying letters or packages 
(mailable) between po.stotfices : yet the express 
companies are allowed to carry nearly all daily 
papers, and millions of other packages under four 
pounds, greatly injuring the government. If a 
common citizen attempts to use a postage-stamp a 
second time it may cost him a heavy fine and im- 
prisonment: but the express companies may de- 
fraud the government out of millions of dollars 
with impunity. 

If you have not seen the document on parcels 
post by Hon. David J. Lewis, Cumberlend. Md., you 
should ask him tor a copy and read it. His is the 
best solution of the parcels-post question. 1 believe. 
He proposes to buy the express companies for some 
forty millions of dollars and run them at cost to 
the people. He shows that the express companies 
have contracts with the railroads to cairy express- 
age at about M cent a pound, while mail costs the 
government over 4 cents. Most of the parcel-post 
advocates talk 8 cents a pound, which Is prohibi- 
tive, and of no value to producers or consumers of 
one pound in a thousand. Personally I would not 
be in favor of paying the express companies for 
their charters or contracts, deeming them thieves, 
robbers, and lawbreakers: and thieves ha\e no 
right to stolen property. Hut it would lake years 
of litigation to ou.st them, and it would be cheaper 
for the people to buy them out an<f get the benehts 
of low rates of transportation. By all means write 
for a copy of Mr. Lewis" document and read it, and 
then tell your readers to do likewise. It is an eye- 
opener by a man who has studied the question 
thoroughly, and written ably on it. The document 
is free. .Mr. Lewis being a Congressman. 

A Rf.\der. 

My good friend, there are two reasons why 
your chickens decUne soy beans, chufas, 
and dandeUons. First, they are not hungry 
for green food, like the flock belonging to 
my daughter. Second , they have not been 
educated to eat these things. This whole 
matter comes right along with the statement 
from so many that cattle and horses will not 
eat sweet clover. They have not become 
acquainted with sweet clover. Domestic 
animals, like human beings, become accus- 
tomed to a certain diet, and very often 
think they can not live on any thing else. 
Changing the food of a lot of chickens to 
something they are not used to will often 
stop their laying. This has often been com- 
mented on. 1 feel .sure you can teach your 
chickens to eat chufas, soy beans, and dan- 
delions. Down in Florida, where green 
stulT is often scarce, the yxjultry seem to eat 
every thing green greedily. As an illustra- 
tion, it is of no use to try to grow potatoes if 
the chickens can get at them. They will eat 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

off the tops and then scratch out the tubers 
and eat them. A hen with chickens is espe- 
cially expert at that kind of work. 

The book we sell on green manuring men- 
tions particularly plowing buckwheat under, 
two crops, one right after the other. Crim- 
son clover and alsike both do splendidly 
when sown with buckwheat in July or Au- 
gust. 

Parcels post is coming; and if our great 
nation of people keep urging, it will come 
all the sooner. 

I agree with you in regard to the excessive 
use of sugar. My health is very much im- 
proved since I have given up sugar for so 
long a time that I have aliiiost lost my ap- 
petite for it. Sugar on fruit or any fruit 
sauce spoils it for my use. ^"ery likely you 
are right about using uncooked wheat. That 
is Terry's great forte, as you may recall. 



ABSCONDING SWARMS, AND SOMETHING 
ELSE. 

The following is from our good friend 
Calvin S. Hunter, of Seven Mile, O., the 
man I visited, and which visit I reported on 
these pages — the man whose hobby has 
been, during a good long life, more corn 
and better corn. He is also something C'f a 
poet as well as a most earnest Christian, as 
you will gather from the little poem at the 
end of his letter. 

Mr. Root: — I am sure you will be glad to hear how 
the four swarms of bees that came to me last sea- 
son In five days are coming on. They were surely 
welcome, for we are very fond of bees, and had 
none. We think that the " .streak of luck " was to 
include five swarms in five da.vs. But one was 
lured into the hollow of a great maple near by. 
They have done remarkably well, so that no neigh- 
bor who needed honey has been disappointed, and 
our bee inspector says they are the nicest black 
bees he ever saw. I have hopes that my luck has 
not entirely changed: for, although I have tried to 
prevent swarming, yet late in May, this year, one 
of the swarms showed signs, and so I got a hive 
ready; but before 1 got away, here came a swarm 
rolling like a balloon down the lane from the west 
gate, and it just covered the lid of the hive I was 
fixing, so I feared the queen was outside: but it 
was all right. 

I send you some of my verses, entitled — 

THAT NEW LIFE. 

We are nearing that home where our loved ones 
must sleep. 
And the friends are so weighted with sorrow: 
But though hearts are bowed down like the willows 
that weep, 
Vet we know we shall meet them to-morrow. 

Refrain. 
For they'll watch and they'll wait at that beautiful 
gate: 
They will cherish fond memories ever: 
Tho" life's sun disappears in the mists of the years. 
Vet that new life, it fades not — no, never. 

Oh! we're fast passing through this dark valley of 
tea's: 

Kach kind friend that we lose gives us warning 
That it may be to-day, and can be but few years 

fCre we all greet that heavenly morning. 

Then we'll keep a brave heart while forgetting our 
fears. 
Tho' earth's ties ruthless Time may soon sever: 
For life's sun it sinks fast when 'tis weighted with 
years. 
P.ut that new sun will shine on for ever. 



Seven Mile, O., .July 18. 



Calvin S. Hunter. 



Published by The A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. II. ROOT. Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boydkn. Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department j. t. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postt>fflce, Uedina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



JANUARY 15, 1912 



NO. 2 



(^□11®[]°Dai[ 



The Ohio State Bee-keepers' Convention 
will be held in Springfield, Feb. 21. Fur- 
ther announcements later. 



Mr. George S. Demuth, now of ^Yash- 
ington, D. C, in the Bureau of Entomolo- 
gy, calls our attention to the fact that the 
picture on the outside cover page of our 
Christmas issue was taken in the apiary of 
Mr. S. 1). House, at Camillus, N. Y. 

Bulletin No. 75, entitled "Miscellane- 
ous Papers on Apiculture," has just been 
issued by the Bureau of Entomology, Wash- 
ington, D. C. It probably can be obtained 
by any bee-keeper by applying to the Bu- 
reau of Entomology or to the Superinten- 
dent of Documents. This bulletin com- 
prises '"The Production and Care of Extract- 
ed Honey," by Dr. E. F. Phillips; "Meth- 
ods of Honey-testing for Bee-keepers," by 
C. A. Browne; " Wav-moths and American 
Foul Brood," by E. F. Phillips; "Bee-dis- 
eases in Massachusetts," by Burton N. 
Gates; "The Relation of the Etiology 
(Cause) of Bee-diseases to the Treatment," 
l)y G. F. White; "A Brief Survey of Ha- 
waiian Bee-keeping," by El. F. Phillips; 
"The Status of Apiculture in the T'nited 
States," by E. F. Phillips; "Bee-keeping in 
Massachusetts," by Burton X. Gates. It 
contains 125 pages the size of this. While 
these pai)ers have been published heretofore, 
the various editions have been exhausted, 
and this bulletin is a compilation of them 
all. 

A severe cold spell. 
The fore part of winter was mild all over 
the United States; but during the fore part 
of January the weather turned severely cold 
in most of the Northern States, with a driv- 
ing wind. Even in semi-tropical California, 
the temperature has gone down to freezing 
and below; and there has been a desperate 
fight on the part of some of the orange- 
growers to protect their groves. This they 
have been doing by building fires among 
the trees, thus generating a large amount of 
smoke. The same thing has been done in 
Florida. At this writing, .Ian. 11, there is 
no letup in the severe cold in any portion of 
the I'nited States. It has not and probably 
will not continue long enough to do any 



great damage to the bees. The clovers will 
not be injured, because there has been a 
heavy fall of snow over most of the North. 
Lots of snow is always favorable to clover. 



THE CIRCULATION OF GLEANINGS BOOMING 
THESE DAYS. 

Gleanings has been late for a couple of 
issues back: and for this issue, perhaps, we 
shall have to beg the indulgence of our read- 
ers till we can catch up in our printing de- 
partment. We have just purchased a new 
printing-press, which, together with the two 
big machines* already in, ought to enable 
us to catch up very soon. AYe have recent- 
ly installed a new linotype, or type-setting 
machine, and all together the i)rinting-house 
of Gleanings is "as busy as a bee," even 
if it is in the dead of wiiiter and the bees 
are all asleep. 

New subscriptions and the renewal of old 
ones have been coming in with a big rush. 
Considering the poorness of the past season, 
and the bitterly cold weather we are now 
having, we are truly thankful for the gen- 
erous support of our friends. 



WINTERING BEES IN CLAMPS. 

In certain parts of the northern States 
the custom of burying hives of bees in the 
ground during the cold weather is very prev- 
alent; but lest the uninitiated should get the 
idea from our picture on the cover of this 
issue that this plan solves the wintering 
problem universally, it may be well here to 
mention some of the restrictions which, 
while they have been given before, can nev- 
ertheless iaear repeating. 

The soil as shown at the left, in the pic- 
ture, is sandy. This is a vital requirement; 
for in a clay soil the combs in the hives 
would "sweat" and become moldy, and 
the bees would dwindle away rapidly be- 
cause of the impure air, there being no 
chance for escape of moisture nor for the 
influx of fresh air, as the clay is not porous. 

Even with a sandy soil, if the winters are 
open with considerable warm weather when 



* All of them are four-roller book -presses, and two 
of them have automatic Dexter feeders. In fact, 
we have one of the best-equipped printinp-shops 
in the I'nited States. 



34 

bees may fly, we question very seriously the 
advisability of wintering in clamps or 
trenches. "Under such conditions the dou- 
ble-walled hive is the Viest solution of the 
problem ; for the results secured are so uni- 
formly satisfactory when other conditions 
are favorable that ho better plan is needed. 
This picture on the cover is another one 
made from one of Mr. Hutchinson's old 
negatives. Our older readers will recognize 
it as having been used before: but we con- 
sidered it good enough to use again. 

BEST PRICES JUST BEFORE CHRISTMAS. 
MARKET BECOMING MORE STABLE. 

The statement has often been made that 
prices on honey are liable to slump after the 
holidays, and that it is advisable to sell as 
early as possible. While that is true to a 
great extent of Western comb honey, a 
change is beginning to take place. Western 
comb is liable to granulate, and dealers, 
therefore, feel that it is advisable to sell it 
before this takes place. But there are some 
evidences that go to show that the market 
is becoming more and more stable on ex- 
tracted. While prices reach their maxi- 
mum just before the holidays, honey in the 
liquid form will maintain its level to a great 
extent, not only during the early fall, but 
during all the winter. In early s'pring the 
prices begin to sag, in anticipation of the 
crop just ahead. 

To a certain extent also it is becoming 
more and more true that Eastern comb 
honey is becoming more stable, the reason 
for this being that it is not apt to granulate 
till toward spring. 

THE LEGISLATIVE CO^NOIITTEE OF TBTE NA- 
TIONAL bee-keepers' ASSOCIA- 
TION AT WORK. 

The Legislative Committee of the Na- 
tional Bee-keepers' Association, consisting 
of Mr. W. A. Selser, Mr. X. W. Saunders, 
and Mr. A. T. Cook, met in Washington on 
Dec. 12th to consider plans for the ensuing 
year. They spent considerable time in dis- 
cussing national legislation, but at the time 
of their meeting decided to concentrate their 
elTorts toward checking the rapid spread of 
bee diseases in the United States. While 
recognizing the fact that the Bureau of En- 
tomology, of the Department of .\griculture. 
has rendered splendid service by spreading 
information concerning disease and its elim- 
ination, they felt that the Department 
should go even further; and to that end the 
committee, by appointment, called on Sec- 
retary Wilson, head of the Department of 
Agriculture. First, it is asked that the Sec- 
retary give his approval to a ])lan for reach- 
ing every bee-keei)er in the United States, 
and ])lacine: before him information on the 
subject of bee diseases; second, that he au- 
thorize the publication of a bulletin show- 
ing the relation of bees to horticulture, and, 
third, another bulletin on honey as a food. 
The Secretary gave his ai)proval to the sec- 
ond and third, but demurred on the first, 



Gleanings in Be« Culture 

as he thought the government could not un- 
dertake to hunt up every bee-keeper in the 
country, because it was contrary to prece- 
dent, and because of the expense it would 
involve. The committee believes, however, 
that there is a precedent to warrant this 
procedure, and, if so, proposes to follow the 
matter up at a later time. 

Since writing the foregoing we have re- 
ceived a letter from the Chairman of the 
Committee inclosing one from Secretary 
"Wilson that will explain. 

Mr. W. A. Selser: — Referring to your letter of De- 
cember 13, with regard to the desirability of warn- 
ing farmers against foul brood in bees, I beg to 
state that I have ordered the preparation and dis- 
tribution of two press notices— one for distribution 
to newspapers in general, and the other for dis- 
tribution to county papers, advising bee-keepers of 
the danger of the disease, and referring them to 
Farmers' Bulletin 442 on this subject. The other 
suggestions you make will be considered. 

.James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 20. 

Apparently the special committee of the 
National has not labored in vain. 



the new CONSTITUTION OF THE NATION- 
AL bee-keepers' ASSOCIATION. 

At the last meeting of the National, at 
Minneapolis, a committee was appointed to 
draft a new constitution. This instrument 
was drawn up and duly submitted to the 
convention. While that body had no au- 
thority to accept or reject it, it could and 
did recommend its adoption by the voters at 
large. The latter have now formally ratified 
it, and the new constitution is in full ef- 
fect. 

The membership fee, instead of being 
$1.00, half of which went to the local organi- 
zation, will now be $1.50, one-third of which 
will go to the local society. It was found 
that $1.00 membership fee, only half of 
which went to the National, was entirely 
inadequate to carry on the work of the or- 
ganization. While it may be an inappro- 
priate time to raise the membership fee, the 
committee felt that the old organization 
could not longer continue on the old basis. 

The new constitution further provides for 
closer affiliation with local societies, and 
each local is to send its own delegate or del- 
egates to the National (convention, wher- 
ever it may be held. 

The new board of directors, instead of con- 
sisting of twelve members, is now reduced 
to five. The old number was too large and 
unwieldy, and the number five is small 
enough so that the board can meet togeth- 
er and thus properly plan the work of the 
organization. 

Under the new constitution, there prob- 
ably will not be another National conven- 
tion before a year from the coming Febru- 
ary. 

Two cities — Cincinnati, and Washington, 
D. C. — are vieing with each other for the 
next convention of the National. Cincin- 
nati has the prior call; but Washington, 
whose invitation was extended later, sets 
up the claim that, if the convention goes 
to the national caj^ital, it will have consid- 



Jan. 15, 1912 

erable influence with the officials of the 
government, to the end that bee culture may 
receive further recognition, and with Con- 
gress, if it is in session, and, moreover, it 
can have distinguished men from the De- 
partment of Agriculture to deliver addresses 
at the convention. We understand that 
the new board is carefully considering the 
claims of the two cities. 



ARE BEE-KEEPERS MAKING A COSTLY MIS- 
TAKE? A warning; market practical- 
ly BARE OF COMB HONEY, WITH A BIG 
SUPPLY OF EXTRACTED. 

Several times during the last three or 
four months we have called attention to the 
fact that the production of comb honey was 
being dropped by many producers in favor 
of extracted, .fust before he died, Mr. W. 
Z. Hutchinson, having observed the same 
fact, cautioned his readers in the Beview 
not to make the mistake of going to the 
other extreme, adding that he feared the 
time would come when comb honey would 
be a scarce article, and the market would be 
glutted with extracted. The prediction has 
been all but verified. Now that the season 
is over, we are in position to know pretty 
nearly where all the comb honey is that is 
left; and we can assure our readers that the 
supply is exceedingly limited. The big buy- 
ers of the country are making inquiries as 
to where they can get choice comb honey; 
but aside from little lots, of inferior quality, 
they are unable to find any. Some three 
or four buyers have cornered some choice 
lots, and are awaiting an advance in price. 
There will be small lots here and there among 
retailers, but that will be about all. On the 
other hand, the supply of Western extracted 
honey appears to be large for this time of the 
year. 

Our readers will remember that early in 
the season reports from the West were very 
slow in coming in. Many of them were mis- 
leading, and producers in some sections 
where, apparently, big crops had been pro- 
duced were evidently holding back the fact. 
The reports from the West showed almost 
as much a shortage as those from the East. 
The result is, there is a big supply of West- 
ern extracted — mainly alfalfa and mountain 
sage; but the supply of Eastern white hon- 
ey, both comb and extracted, is almost en- 
tirely exhausted. 

There are two reasons to account for the 
great disparity between the production of 
comb and extracted the past year. First, 
breakages from shipment have disgusted 
many producers with the comb-honey busi- 
ness; and, second, the honey season through- 
out all the East, where comb honey is large- 
ly produced, was almost a complete failure. 
Eastern bee-keepers do not produce honey 
on as large a scale as those west of the Miss- 
issippi; and what they do produce is largely 
comb. On the other hand, the conditions 
in the West are almost exactly the reverse. 
Extracted honey probably forms from 75 to 
80 per cent of all the honey produced. 



35 

One largo buyer in the East, in talking 
with a representative of this journal, lament- 
ed the f ict, and with good reason, that the 
honey rei)orts in the bee-papers during the 
last year were misleading— at least so far 
as they related to t he i)r()duction of Western 
honey. "This has a tendency,'" he said, 
"to boost the market on all grades of hon- 
ey, including extracted. The market on 
the liquid product began to soar, and buy- 
ers refused to purchase. Then there came 
the inevitable slump after prices had been 
boosted too high; and now the market is 
overstocked with extracted." 

He then cited the case of a large producer 
of buckwheat honey who had a fair crop to 
sell. The general talk about the poorness of 
the season caused him to put his prices clear 
out of sight. Of course, no one would buy. 
He began to offer his honey at lower figures 
without a taker. Soon carloads of Western 
alfalfa and mountain sage, of a better qual- 
ity, both in flavor and color, flooded the mar- 
ket; "and, "said Mr. Commission Man, "our 
friend with his big holding of buckwheat 
would be glad to unload at any price — a sad- 
der and a wiser man. This is not an isolat- 
ed case, because some of the Western pro- 
ducers are finding it hard to unload." 

One other buyer expressed himself most 
emphatically, saying, "You bee-journal fel- 
lows ought to be scored for letting some of 
these Western producers pull the wool over 
your eyes. Why don't you urge more the 
production of comb honey? If the facts as 
to the amount of Western honey had been 
given in the first place the general market 
would have been in much better condition." 
While the bee-papers come in for a fair 
share of blame, perhaps, yet how are the 
journals going to get information when the 
reports of actual conditions are held back? 

Referring to the first reason why bee- 
keepers are dropping the production of comb 
honey, it seems to us that almost every 
mail has brought some complaint about 
comb honey arriving in bad order, simply 
because it was carelessly packed. Producers 
who ought to know better continue to put 
up their goods in poorly made and badly 
designed shipping-cases; and, again, they 
often fail to ship in carriers, with the result 
that both producers and buyers are disgust- 
ed with the whole business. Extracted 
honey, however, can be shii)ped in barrels 
or cans, with com])aratively little leakage or 
breakage. It is not injured by candying, 
and usually there is a fair demand for it. 

But the scarcity of comb honey and its 
higher price should make producers wake 
up to the importance of producing more 
section honey. It will hardly be possible to 
get too much for the coming year. A\'e 
never saw a time when fancy or Xo. 1 comb 
honey would not sell readily at good prices. 
If the bee-keeper who reads these lines 
has reason to doubt our words, let him write 
in to the large markets and see how the de- 
mand now stands for comb and extracted. 
The fact is, brethren, we are confronted by 
a condition and not a theory. 



36 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Du. C. C. Mii-LKii, Marengo, 111. 



The color of honey is lighter on high 
lands than low; in the north than toward 
the equator; on calcareous than on ferrugin- 
ous soils; in a wet than in a hot dry season. 
A peculiar fact is that a mixture of two hon- 
eys is darker than either kind separate.— 
Deutsche Imker, 308. 

F. DuNDAS Todd once criticised my pic- 
tures, and I've had it in for him ever since. 
Now's my chance. Nine of his pictures in 
last Gleanings are bad— very bad. They're 
nice pictures in other respects, but he made 
that poor fellow stand all the while he was 
doing his stunts instead of giving him a 
comfortable seat. 

Christmas was a very bright day. At 1 
P.M. cellar-doors were wide open, as they 
had V)een for days, both day and night; tem- 
perature in cellar, 40; outdoors, 30 degrees. 
At the wall furthest from the door I read 
fine print — easily. Bees had been in cellar 
42 days. In four minutes two bees Hew out. 
If the room had been closed up dark I sus- 
pect more would have liown out — not because 
dark, but because close. The moral is that 
bees in a cellar that have not been confined 
long w^ll stand much light if the air is pure. 
Toward spring they will not stand light so 
well. 

The discovery that bees eject water from 
nectar while on the wing was a rediscovery 
by A. I. Root, says Claude Deshommes, 
L'Apiculteur, p. 456, the discovery having 
first been made by M. Babaz in 18()8. [The 
question has been raised whether bees ever 
discharge water on the wing when gathering 
nectar or sweetened w-ater from outdoor feed- 
ers. It takes a little careful watching before 
one can see this fine spray shot out from the 
bees; but when he once sees it, he is able to 
discover it in other bees as they start out on 
the final flight for the hive; and while we 
have not absolute proof that the spray is 
made up of water, the facts point very strong- 
ly that way. — Ed.] 

About that pie. Either the printer or I 
chopped the head off that last Straw, p. 4, 
and stuck it in as the fourth Straw\ No 
matter. You seem to think, Mr. Editor, I 
haven't stuck close to the text. You're 
right. Let's get back to it. You said moths 
were liable to lay eggs in S. D. House's 
combs or his nice comb honey after either 
has been taken from the hive. I supposed 
his nice comb honey was in sections, so I 
ventured the guess he never had an egg laid 
in them after they were taken off, since the 
moths don't lay eggs in comb honey here 
after it's taken from the hives. .1. E. Crane 
practically says they do with him. So you'd 
better cut me a piece of the pie. The ques- 
tion no^v is, whether my moths or Bro. 
Crane's are the exceptional ones. If it's the 
general rule, and especially if it's the rule 
with Bro. House, then bring on the rest of 



the pie. [It is probably true that the moth- 
miller is a more serious pest in some locali- 
ties than in others. You of course know it 
is unknown in Colorado, and, if we mistake 
not, in all other high altitudes. — Ed.] 

On first reading what Arthur C. Miller 
says, page 755, I said to myself, "I never 
thought of it before; biit it seems clear that 
those wing-stubs must hinder the queen 
about laying." But on further thought I 
recalled the thousands of queens I have had 
with both wings on one side cut off about 
half — fine layers, eggs placed regularly in 
cells, no vacant cells, no superseding till 
two or three years old, and it didn't seem 
possible that clipping could do so very much 
harm. Isn't is just possible that the queen 
raises her wings when about to lay, just as 
any other lady raises her dress when it is in 
the way? Wouldn't the wings of a queen 
show wear if they should "slide" over the 
surface every time an egg is laid? We know 
that the wings of a worker become ragged 
with age, and I suppose that is from friction 
with the air. If three or four weeks' friction 
of the air makes the wings ragged, would 
not three or four months of the greater fric- 
tion of the comb make the wings still more 
ragged? 

Louis Macey, p. 734, perhaps you don't 
fully understand my attitude. I think my 
queens average as good in their second year 
as in their first — perhaps better. When 
they begin to fail, I think the bees will su- 
persede them, whether it be in the first 
or the fourth year. So I don't need to su- 
persede a queen unless she is poor, no mat- 
ter what age. If others have bees that are 
not so good in their second year, and the 
bees themselves will not supersede them, 
that's another story. Then there's one 
thing you and I can't get away from: A 
queen in her second year is forty times as 
likely to swarm as in her first year. That 
alone may be sufficient reason for some to 
requeen annually. But annual requeening 
and improvement of stock don't go well to- 
gether. [There is one fact you have not 
mentioned in favor of a young queen; and 
that is, she will lay eggs in late summer or 
in the fall when an old queen can be coax- 
ed to do this only with difficulty by stimu- 
lative feeding. We would say that colonies 
having young queens in the fall of the year 
stand a much better chance of wintering 
through, because their hives will have a 
large force of young bees raised late in the 
season. Too many times queens stop lay- 
ing after the main honey-flow; and the old 
bees beginning to die off leave the colony 
too weak to be in good condition for winter. 
While it is true that some old queens are 
too valuable to kill, we are coming more 
and more to believe that the average bee- 
keeper should aim to have young queens in 
his apiary. — Ed.] 



Jan. 15. 1912 



37 



wirm 



J. K. CUANK, Middlebiuy, Vt. 



I do not think the editor's vakie of drawn 
comb an overestimate — page (>99, Nov. 15. 
<$> 

An unusual number of fall dandehons 
bloomed here in New JCngland, the same as 
at Marengo, 111., and in Canada; but they 
were of little value to bees. 
^^ 

Slowly the value of honey as a medicine 

is becoming known and ai)i)reciated. I am 

not sure but another leaflet along this line 

would prove of great value — p. 644, Nov. 1. 

■^ 

Dan White is all right about ripening 
honey — page ()84, Nov. 15. I find that hon- 
ey ripened as it should be is very difficult to 
strain unless warm; and even a gravity 
strainer will work very slowly. 

I think our friend A. C. Miller is a little 
oir when he thinks smoke from cotton will, 
as a rule, irritate bees, as he claims on page 
664, Nov. 1. Queer, some of the rest of us 
bee-keepers have not noticed it. 

All who wish to improve their bees can 
not study with too much care the article by 
H. D. Tennant. page 651, Nov. 1. The sci- 
ence of breeding (and it is a science) is be- 
coming better understood than formerly; 
and those who will may profit by such an 
article as Mr. Tennant has given us. 
■^ 

Our experience corresponds with that of 
the editor in footnote on feeding brown su- 
gar, page 646, Nov. 1. A few years ago we 
led two or three tons of raw sugar to bees as 
winter food, and they wintered fairly well; 
but we believe the best white granulated 
i|uite as cheap and much more satisfactory. 

Dr. Miller tells us that Dr. Bethune told 
him that a young queen could be reared 
and fertilized in a hive with a very old 
queen, i)age 646, Nov. 1. I believe this a 
very important question; for if we may rear 
a queen in a hive having an old one, much 
time will often be saved by so doing. 

That metal air-spaced cover, page 699, Nov. 
15, is certainly a nice thing, especially for 
hot sections of country, as it combines pro- 
tection from rain and sun at the same time; 
but I should think it would prove a play- 
thing for the wind. I have seen nothing I 
like better than the telescopic cover covered 
w ith metal. 

Our genial friend Doolittle tells on page 
650, Nov. 15, of an old man w'hom the bees 
would not sting. I have heard, during the 
past fifty years, of several such, but have 
thought such statements should be taken 
with some allowance; but after readingwhat 
Mr. Doolittle says, I will doubt no longer. 



I wonder if Mr. Doolittle can tell us why 
there is such a difference in the way bees 
treat different people. 

Arthur C. Miller tells us, page 664, Nov. 1, 
that when bees rii)en honey they spread out 
all they can; but if the night is cool they go 
to the brood-combs just to keep their feet 
warm, rather than to keej) their brood warm. 
Well! there is where we don't think alike. I 
still think bees care more for their brood 
than the warming of their feet or the ripen- 
ing of honey. 

4?- 
We are under obligation to Mr. Holter- 
mann for a full description of his present 
method of wintering out of doors, and his 
reasons for it, page 695, Nov. 15. Where 
bees can be wintered indoors perfectly, as is 
sometimes the case, and you have but one 
yard to look after, and can be always on 
hand to attend to it I believe there is no bet- 
ter way. But as cellars run, I prefer the 
outdoor plan; and of outdoor plans none are 
better than the one given by Mr. Holter- 
mann. 

4^ 
THE AVERAGE YIELD PER COLONY. 

On page 654 Mr. C. C. Chase tells in a let- 
ter to E. E, Colein how he secured from 20 
hives and 80 three-frame nuclei 4000 lbs. of 
honey in ''one of the worst seasons on rec- 
ord,'" while one nucleus with a poor queen 
gave him no surplus. Now, the inference 
one would draw, especially a beginner, is 
that if one only had choice queens, and gave 
his bees suitable care, he could do as well in 
the worst of seasons — which would be wide 
of the mark. Now, we who have been in 
the business longer know that, in very bad 
years, we get no such yields of honey, al- 
though we may have good stock and give 
them the best of care. On the other hand, 
in a good year even hives with quite ordi- 
nary queens, if given care, will give very 
good results. It often happens that, while 
one section is very poor, another may be 
good. The past season was, as a rule, very 
poor (perhaps one of the worst), yet there 
were isolated localities where the yield of 
honey was good. One such I am thinking 
of where a bee-keeper secured some 8000 
pounds of surplus, mostly comb honey, from 
75 hives, and increased to 115 colonies. It 
is also true that, with a very poor queen, we 
can not get much if any surplus, even in a 
good year. If there are few fiowers, or even 
if there are many that yield little or no nec- 
tar, we can not get much surplus with the 
best of queens and best of bees and best of 
care. The estimate of the editor of Glean- 
ings as to the yield to be expected from api- 
aries with good care, as given on page 678, is 
very much nearer the mark, or will give us a 
much better idea of what to expect, and I 
am afraid his estimate is a little too high 
for the exl leine North. 



38 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Bcg(i°[k(B(B[pD[]Dg] ODD GDdCS ©(D[I]'fiDD\^(B©ll 



Louis Scholl, New Braunfels, Texas 



With every thing prepared and ready 
whenever it may be needed for the coming 
s.ason, the bee-keeper who is so fortunate 
as to be so situated can stare the season 
bravely in the face and feel as though he 
would be sure to conquer, while the go-easy 
kind of fellow who w^aits to see if it will re- 
ally pay him to get any thing ready at all 
has apparently no feeling at all. The for- 
mer will meet with success if it is to be had, 
while the latter will meet with — well, to tell 
the truth, we can't tell. 



TEXAS HONEY. 

To show how great is the demand for our 
honey in our great Lone Star State we need 
only mention that the entire Texas crop 
was practically sold by the end of August. 
There were several small lots here and there 
after that, but they went in a hurry as soon 
as they were located. There was a demand 
for more, but no honey to supply it. The 
Southwest Texas crojis were sold out long 
before this time, and the Central Texas pro- 
ducers, whose crop comes a month or two 
later, were overrun with orders as a conse- 
quence, when their product was ready for 
market. The writer's experience this year 
was almost exasperating at times, the or- 
ders coming in some mails numbering from 
half a dozen to several dozen. It was im- 
possible to put up the honey as fast as it 
was demanded. It took from two to three 
weeks to fill many of the orders, and at the 
end of the season some M'hich were unfilled 
had to be canceled, amounting to more than 
our entire crop of 67,000 lbs. Since that 
time orders have come in for more honey 
every week, but there is none to supply. 

This is not only true of this year, but 1910 
and 1909 were very similar, except that the 
season closed later last year. However, 
the numbfer of canceled orders each year for 
several seasons has run up into many thou- 
sands of pounds. This is not only our own 
experience, but that of many other large 
producers. 

There have been a few Texas bee-keepers 
who have shipped in honey from other 
States in the West, but not many, for our 
bee-keepers are prone to stay by honey pro- 
duced in Texas by Texas bee-keepers, and, 
as a rule, do not care to supply any other. 
Then it is a fact that many consumers do 
not like to buy honeys that they are not 
used to. This is especially true of honey 
with a decided flavor, such as the western 
alfalfa. Of course, some customers do not 
mind a different flavor, but on the whole we 
know from personal experience that a pref- 
erence for the Texas honey does exist. 

It would be interesting to know just how 
much honey is annually produced and con- 
sumed in the Lone Star State. We know 
that the output is enormous, but we have 
no reliable statistics to show what it is at 



the i:)resent time. One fact exists, that the 
greatest bulk of this honey is consumed 
right here at home, and very little of it finds 
its way into the Northern markets. Okla- 
homa also is a great consumer of our prod- 
duct. This is due to the fact that, on the 
whole, that State and all of the northwestern 
portion of Texas are not adapted to bee- 
keeping except in a few favorable localities; 
and the consequence is, the honey must be 
procured from Central and Southwest Texas. 
The consumption of honey is great in both 
Texas and Oklahoma, the main product be- 
ing bulk comb honey, which has for many 
years been strictly a Texas product. 



■*- 



FIELD MEETINGS IN TEXAS. 

It seems that the Texas bee-keepers have 
been so busily engaged with their extension 
of apiaries and the business end of their 
following to such an extent that no time 
remains that could be profitably spent in 
gatherings or conventions and field meet- 
ings of bee-keepers at various times during 
the year. Why this is, we do not know. 
Texas had at one time as many as eight 
bee-keepers' associations: but there is only 
one to-day, and that is not as lively as it 
used to be. There is something wrong 
somewhere, whenever those who are engag- 
ed in the same line of work neglect the so- 
cial side of their vocation as found in the 
conventions and other gatherings. 

Texas is large enough to have half a doz- 
en bee-keei)ers' associations, even if some 
of them be small in number. Nothing can 
do more good in furthering the progress of 
the industry, and nothing larightens up and 
helps the bee-keeper more than getting 
away from home and his work occasionally 
and rubbing up against some of his fellow- 
men who are engaged in the same calling. 
This is one thing that should receive more 
attention on the part of the bee-keepers 
of the big Lone Star State; and to start the 
ball rolling, and to begin the new year prop- 
erly, the writer will be glad to hear from 
every bee-keeper in the State who is inter- 
ested in having, at some early time, field 
meetings or similar gatherings of bee-keep- 
ers, at which important topics pertaining lo 
the industry may be discussed. If too busy 
to write a letter, a postal card will do if the 
name and address are plainly written. 

It may be well to take this opportunity 
to state that the writer received some time 
ago the appointment as Consulting Apicul- 
tural Expert of the Texas Dei)artment of 
Agriculture, at Austin, and all correspond- 
ence may be sent there if desired. All yer- 
sons desiring information about bees or be. - 
keeping may obtain it by writing to the 
State Department of Agriculture. Hon. 
Ed. R. Kone is the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture of the Department. 



Jan. 15, 191-2 



39 



[KlEPDra® DM ®^D=D^(D^K]D/a 



p. C. Chadwick, Redlands, Cal. 



Before beginning outdoor feeding, take a 
look over the yard to see that there is no 
robbing in progress. 

Light rains followed by cold, heavy, dry- 
ing desert winds describe the weather con- 
ditions so far this season. 
■^ 

E. M. Gibson's scheme for avoiding lift- 
ing, page 721, Dec. 1, is good; but I think 
mine is better, for a full super never need 
be lifted. I will give details later. 
<^ 

In the sixth item of my notes in the Dec. 
15th issue I meant to say that the Tremont 
yard is 600 feet above the oranges, at an ac- 
tual elevation of 2600 feet, since the oranges 
are 2000 feet above sea-level. In flying the 
three miles, therefore, the bees have to as- 
cend 600 feet, or 20 feet to the mile. 

Mr. C. H. Miller's account of the swarm 
of bees flying 15 miles over the desert is 
probably correct; but it is not likely that 
this distance was covered in a single flight. 
It is more than probable, however that 
their present home was located by scofts at 
some distance from where they took up the 
last leg of their journey to it. 

( Quoting from p. 1021 of " Honey-plants (»f 
California," "The sage-worms in cloudy 
weather often become abundant enough to 
destroy much of the bloom." It has been 
my observation that they are most abun- 
dant in off seasons when the sage is less 
thrifty; but I have never observed that tile 
weather had any influence, and am of the 
opinion that it does not. 

I have never known an instance where a 
comb was mutilated by bees in order to af- 
ford room for drone comb, page 516, Sept. 1. 
They always manage to build enough drone 
cells between the top-bars and excluders; or, 
if no excluders are used, often utilize the 
space between the upper and lower frames. 
If they made a practice of cutting out comb 
to provide room for drone-comb building 
the value of foundation would be somewhat 
less. 

What wovild become of our great citrus- 
fruit industry if the growers used no more 
system in marketing than we bee-keepers 
do our honey? Do we not possess brains 
enough to form a marketing organization 
for our product? At least we need an in- 
formation bureau to issue bulletins inform- 
ing bee-keepers of conditions, prices, etc. 
As it is, we harvest our crop, sell it to the 
first buyer that comes along, at what he 
may offer. I have known buyers to pay 
three different prices in Redlands, on the 
same day, for the same grade of honey. 
That is business! We can not blame the 



buyer for his shrewdness; for so long as we 
continue to be dupes we may expect to be 
duped. 

-^ 
Every one with whom I have talked or 
corresponded on the subject of more strin- 
gent foul-brood laws agrees that such a law 
would be an excellent thing — for the other 
fellow; but few are willing that it should 
apply to them. If this should be the gene- 
ral sentiment, the fellow who thinks he 
does not need inspecting will, very likely, 
wake up to the fact, sooner or later, that he 
has some neighbors who need it, and he 
will have no recourse but to sit and wait 
until his neighbor is cleaned out. 

The Dec. 1st issue was the most interest- 
ing number of the year to me, inside and 
out. The cover picture, taken at Liberty, 
Mo., less than 40 miles from my old home, 
where I spent 18 years of my bee-keeping 
life, is a most beautiful one. I can imagine 
rabbit-tracks crossed and crisscrossed among 
the hives. Inside I find Doolittle's excellent 
article on excluders — one of my hobbies (if 
I have any) — a hobby, because it is only in 
recent years that I have learned its true 
value, and I will preach excluders as long 
as the present hive and system of manage- 
ment are used. I have neighbors who do 
not use them, and argue that, when the 
bees need room, they will crowd the queen 
down. That is true to a degree; but crowd- 
ing [should be avoided, for it causes loss of 
time. Besides, it takes 21 days from the 
egg for a bee to hatch; three full extractings 
are often gathered in that time by a colony, 
which goes to show that the brood does not 
get out of the way fast enough. I prefer to 
let the queen go where she may until two 
or three weeks before extracting time; then 
put all the brood dnvn that you can get 
down, and put on the excluder. 

JNIr. E. M. Gibson's comments, p. 721 on 
decapitating brood, are sensible and to the 
point. They pleased me very much. 

Elias Fox, speaking of bee-trees, page 711, 
touches a subject dear to my heart; for of all 
pleasures of my boyhood days (and I am not 
over it yet) I believe hunting bee-trees was 
the greatest. Did it pay? financially, no; 
in pleasure and recreation, it was one of my 
greatest assets. lean not agree with Mr. 
Fox about penalizing for robbing a bee-tree 
and killing the bees — that is just what 
should be done where foul brood is prevalent. 

California bee-keepers should apply to the 
Interior Department for permission to enter 
forest reserves and remove bees from trees, 
especially in infected areas. While driving 
through a forest reserve in San Diego Co. I 
counted nine bee-trees, from the road, while 
traveling a distance of two miles. They 
were all in hollow and decaying live oaks 
that were of no actual value — most of them 
in limbs that could easily be removed. 



40 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



®(D[]DWO[p©ailiB(D[]D© wj[\^\b [D(Q)®DDililD 



At Borodino, New York 



BEES IN THE MIDST OF BLOSSOMS. 

" I must move in the spring from where I 
am now located, and wish to do the best pos- 
sible with my bees. I should like to locate 
from one to two miles from where the great- 
est profusion of honey-producing flora 
abounds. It will be quite an inconvenience 
to me to be located in the midst of this 
bloom; but if the income from the bees 
would be enough greater to pay for that in- 
convenience, then I might persuade myself 
to locate there. Will you please tell us just 
what you would do under these circum- 
stances ? " 

"This is quite a reasonable question for 
any one to ask who intends to locate an api- 
ary, but who himself desires to be in a small 
town or other place not right in the midst 
of a good nectar-producing locality. A loca- 
tion in a valley full of honey-producing 
flora, together with rising hills on either 
side, covered with all manner of nectar- 
yielding flowers clear to their summit, two 
to five miles away, would be an ideal loca- 
tion for one who keeps bees for a living. 
But as it is impossible for all to enjoy such 
a location, and as other environments are 
likely to have a bearing on the decision, 
such as a convenient school for our children, 
or a business for some of the family, it is 
often best to accept the situation as it comes 
to us. And I do not think that a distance 
of one mile from any profusion of nectar- 
producing flora would make difference 
enough to be noticeable. I once heard the 
claim at a bee-convention, that a colony of 
bees which has to travel one or two miles 
from home for their stores will soon become 
so depopulated that the result in honey is 
not half that stored by colonies set right 
down in the midst of bloom. Another claim- 
ed that the loss of time from the young field 
bees in hunting for nectar one or two miles 
from home is almost sufficient to turn suc- 
cess into failure. Another, that it stands to 
reason that less time is lost in getting the 
whole force at work on the honey-producing 
flowers where the latter are plentiful all 
about the hives than if the pasture is one 
or two miles away. 

"Probably no one can tell definitely about 
these matters without testing a number of 
colonies right in the midst of the blossoms, 
and an equal number one or more miles 
away, and repeating the test for a term of 
years; and as I have never done this, I can 
not be considered as an authority in this 
matter. I can only give my experience, 
which can be taken for what it is worth. All 
of my experience goes to show that those 
who argue that bees must be set right down 
in the very center of the honey-producing 
flora do this more from theory than from 
actual knowledge. 1 am led to believe that 
there would not be dilTerence enough in the 
results, at the distance named, to pay for 
moving the apiary up to tlie bloom during 



the time of the blooming of the flowers and 
back again for the rest of the year. 

"The flight of bees must of necessity cov- 
er a vast area. No one, two, or three acres 
would give an apiary of 50 colonies even a 
living. I am often reminded of what a man 
once said to me about my bees in connec- 
tion with my mother's flower-garden of 
about one-eighth of an acre. We were look- 
ing at a crop of about six thousand pounds 
of section honey I had piled in the honey- 
room. ' Oh, what a pile!' he said. ' Xo won- 
der your bees do well when your mother has 
such a pretty flower garden as I always see 
in bloom when I pass.' Of course, these 
flowers were ' right under the noses ' of my 
bees; but not one out of ten varieties even 
attracted the bees; and when basswood was 
in bloom five miles away, not a bee was to 
be seen on any of these flowers; yet the sec- 
tions were being filled as if by magic. 

"If the llight of bees were as slow as the 
walk of a man, then the reasoning of our 
' right in the midst of flowers ' men would 
be more logical. I have watched our great 
' Empire State ' express train on the New 
York Central R. R., running at the rate of 
a mile a minute, and it passed my vision at 
no more rapid rate than the bees do over 
the hill on a still day when working on bass- 
wood from two to five miles away. 

"If my questioner could see how the 
combs grow in the sections, the whiteness 
of the honey, and the beautiful cappings, 
as I have done when there was no open 
bloom of the basswood within three miles of 
the apiary, I think he would incline, and 
all the readers of Gleanings as well, to the 
same opinion I do ; namely, that the so- 
called necei-sity of a short distance to the 
flowers, in order that success may be ob- 
tained, is little short of a myth. From 
many observations during apple and clover 
bloom I am convinced that bees go from 
one to three miles from home for nectar, 
from choice, during the summer months, 
during which months the larger part of the 
storing of honey is done, as I have seen 
thousands of Italian bees working on these 
different blooms three miles from where any 
Italian bees were kept, with a profusion of 
these blossoms all about the Italian apiary 
and the intervening space between. 

"I have seen good crops of buckwheat 
hone^ stored when there was not a field of 
buckwheat in sight of the apiary, and only 
one field of about 12 acres within less than 
two miles, while hundreds of acres were 
white from three to five miles away. These 
experiences, together with having tons of 
basswood honey stored from the tops of the 
high hills from four to seven miles from my 
apiary during the i)ast 40 years, lead me to 
feel safe in advising you to locate at the 
place you say will be the most desirable, 
rather than to inconvenience yourself by 
setting your apiary down in the midst of 
the bloom." 



Jan. 10. 1912 



DD®n°aD ©®n°D°@©^®m(S®ni]©® 



THE ISLE-OF-WIGHT BEE DISEASE. 

A Serious Disease of Mature Bees tliat is Doing 

Mucin Damage in Parts of Europe; an Entire 

Apiary of 160 Colonies Destroyed. 

BY D. M. MACDONAX,D. 

All other bee-diseases sink into insignifi- 
cance in their ravages when corajiared with 
this insidious and malignant trouble. They 
can be fought against and overcome. We 
know their true origin, the nature of their 
development, and, from patent signs, can 
diagnose their presence, while preventives 
can be applied to check their spread or ex- 
terminate them. Like the jiestilence, how- 
ever, this new disease walketh in darkness, 
its conception and incubation come like a 
thief in the night. Its origin is uncertain. 

In 1904 reports emanated from the Isle of 
Wight regarding a mysterious malady af- 
flicting bees, virulent to an extreme, and 
deadly in its destructiveness. In fact, bee- 
keeping was quite wiped out in this lovely 
island by the season of 1908. Worse still, 
that year reports reached our journal, show- 
ing that distinct symptoms were manifest- 
ing themselves in various parts of Hamp- 
shire. That and the following season saw 
whole apiaries affected — several so seriously 
that they were exterminated. Outside the 
infected area bee-keepers were inclined to 
minimize matters at first; but soon alarm 
spread when it was realized that, as a con- 
sequence of the dissemination of swarms 
from the infected area, the disease had spread 
in 1909, not only to the southern and mid- 
land counties but also to the north of Eng- 
land and even to Scotland. Even then the 
deadly nature of the malady was not fully 
realized, and combs from infected hives were 
freely inserted into colonies hitherto im- 
mune, while swarms and driven bees were 
hived on the works whereon bees had died. 
Consequently the disease spread. The in- 
fection, too, i)assed on from hive to hive. 
The fell destructiveness may be guessed 
when it is stated that in one season an api- 
ary of 100 colonies had every hive empty. 
Another, the other day, was reported to have 
84 out of 80 all dead. Thousands of such 
si)ecimens could be given. Some claim 
that treating the bees by shaking, as in a 
case of foul brood, and comiielling them to 
work out new comVjs, will cure. Others go 
to the other extreme and maintain that 
healthy bees may be run on the diseased 
combs and continue healthy. Practical ex- 
])erience during the last three years con- 
vinces the writer that both claims are falla- 
cious. Time and again both plans have 
been tried, only to end ultimately in failure. 
All recommendations have been tried, but 
none have proved fully elTective. 

The best advice that can be given in the 
light of our i)resent knowledge is to de- 
stroy every thing movable in the hive; singe 



theinteriorelTectively,andthoiougiily disin- 
fect every thing. Dig the ground all around 
and bury or burn every bee seen lying about. 
Even then a new start should not be made 
on the same ground if it is possible to secure 
a fresh site. 

As a sample of the rapidly destructive 
power of the disease, stocks as powerful as 
they could be in early .June, this year went 
down so rapidly that, instead of filling ten 
frames and three supers, they deserted all 
but the lower crate a month after infection, 
in spite of splendid breeding; and at first it 
appeared that every egg laid came to ma- 
turity, for it must be remembered that, un- 
like foul brood, this disease does not affect 
the larva pupa nor even the perfect imago. 
It seems evident, indeed, that it is only 
when bees go out as foragers that the work- 
ers are infected. Breeding all .July, during 
the delightful summer weather experienced, 
w^ent on apace, and for a time hopes ran high 
that the colonies might work out their own 
salvation; but these hopes were dashed to 
the ground when, in September, on return 
from holidays all were found dead or dying. 
The miserable plight of the remnant was 
deplorable. Worse still, neighboring hives 
all around showed the well-known symp- 
toms, and now most of those left are dwin- 
dling rapidly in spite of all attempts at cure. 
Earlier destruction would have been a kind- 
ness! 

The symptoms at first are indistinct, so 
that the scourge has a deadly hold before 
any very clear signs are patent. A marked 
decrease in the number of bees occupying 
surjolus chambers shows something is amiss; 
fewer bees go out foraging; even the bees 
which are apparently healthy show a dis- 
position to loiter about, and exhibit a disin- 
clination to go to the fields. Therefore large 
numbers are found lolling about on the 
flight-board — so much so that on a fine day 
it is black with them, as if they were in need 
of more room overhead. An examination 
of the top super, however, shows it quite de- 
serted, owing to lessening numbers. 

On close inspection an odd bee at first is 
seen flying aimlessly about. It or others 
may be seen crawling on the ground near 
the hive, making inelTcctual attempts to 
fly. Looking more closely the wings are 
seen to make futile efforts to buoy the in- 
sect up into the air. On examining these 
bees it will be found that, geufially, one of 
the small wings (almost invariably the left) 
may be seen sticking out at an angle above 
the front wing in an unnatural way, and 
looking as if it were dislocated. These bees 
then crawl about aimlessly, dragging their 
legs in a crippled way. They congregate in 
small clusters, numbering from half a dozen 
to a score, as if seeking mutual warmth. 
Many of them make feeble attempts to 
climb u]) any vegetation growing near, but 
after a time they fall down to die. AN'hile 
crawling about, the abdomen is heavily de- 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



l)ressed. It appears of abnormal size, and 
drags as if too heavy to be fully supported. 
In this advanced stage of the disease the in- 
terior of the hive, if examined, shows a sor- 
ry spectacle. The bees display none of the 
well-known energy so markedly symi)tomat- 
ic of a colony in full health during the ac- 
tive season. Ikeeding is, however, encour- 
aged to a late period; but with the decreas- 
ing numbers it wanes until at last queens 
are entirely neglected and cease to lay. Then 
the rapid dimunition of the numbers is most 
marked. 

Examining a diseased bee, even with the 
naked eye, the abdomen appears abnormal- 
ly distended. The bee seems unable to sup- 
port the heavy burden caused by the excess 
of fivcal matter. This, under the microscope, 
is found to consist largely of undigested pol- 
len-grains, particles of wax, and the usual 
excrementary matter; and here we have a 
very large number of bacteria. On remov- 
ing the digestive organs the colon is found 
abnormally distended, and the contents are 
very varied in color, smell, and substance, 
these features differing very considerably 
according to the season of the year. During 
summer time, tops are heavily spotted with 
a thin bright-yellow eviction. At other 
times it is drier and browner, while in win- 
ter and spring bees void a foul, brown, evil- 
smelling excretion over all the combs, 
frames, and the front inner walls. Here is, 
undoubtedly, the source of infection in many 
cases, when the trouble once finds a lodge- 
ment, for all this fouling contains a prodi- 
gious numberof infective bacteria ready to be 
carried by robbers to all surrounding healthy 
bees. The hive, interior and exterior, as 
well as all the surrounding area, is, in fact, 
a hotbed of infection. 

The trouble may break out in a hitherto 
healthy colony at almost any time of the 
year. During such a fine summer as we en- 
joyed this season, the bees battled long with 
the ailment, keeping it at bay by rapid 
breeding; but in winter and spring, with 
scant numbers present they dwindle rapidly 
and soon die oft. 

Innumerable causes havej3een guessed at 
in the i)ast, but full investigation exploded 
the numerous theoretical conclusions. Many 
cures, too, have been suggested, but none 
have proved thoroughly etfective; so that the 
originating cause and the true cure have 
\ et to be discovered. It is an undoubted 
fact that many of the symptoms appearing 
on the surface are very similar to those 
which manifest themsehes in May pest, 
malignant dysentery, paralysis, and No- 
nema apis. Indeed, the latest conclusion 
come to by Dr. Maiden would lead to the 
decision that all of these may resolve them- 
selves into kindred diseases. If so, the pains- 
taking investigations of Drs. Zander, Burri, 
Maasen, Phillips, Maiden, and others, may 
aid us in solving the problem. The remark- 
able series of about one hundred studies of 
NoKcma apiK. by Dr. Zander, should be a 
priceless guide to other students of this dis- 
ease. 



Whether the inciting cause or not, the 
latest anatomical investigations in this 
country reveal a prodigious number of these 
protozoons in various stages in the cell lin- 
ing of the alimentary canal, and particular- 
ly in the colon of many if not most bees suf- 
fering from this disease. Our lethargic gov- 
ernment Deiiartment of Agriculture has at 
last taken u]> the subject of bee diseases, 
and hopes may be entertained that the long 
and painstaking investigations now going 
on may soon bear some fruit, as a result of 
which the disease may be successfully bat- 
tled with and overcome. 

Banff, Scotland. 



MY EXPERIENCE WITH SUPPORTING FOUN- 
DATION TO PREVENT BUCKLING. 



A Combination of Wires and Splints Gives the Best 
Results. 



BY CHARLIE BROWN.. 

When I began bee-keeping in 1901 loose 
wiring was advocated; that is, using wires 
not tight enough to sing. They were ex- 
pected to go down with the foundation, but 
I found that combs so wired would be badly 
stretched along the top part, and also that, 
while new, they were much inclined to 
break along each wire w^hile being extract- 
ed. I concluded that such a way of wiring 
w'as useless, and some older bee-keepers told 
me that all wiring is useless; so for some 
time I did not wire frames at all. However, 
in 1909, during the honey season we had a 
few days of extremely hot weather. I had 
given the bees a great deal of foundation 
just previous to the hot spell, and a great 
many of the newly drawn combs went down 
altogether, and nearly all of the rest were 
badly stretched along under the top-bar, and 
buckled out of the frame at or near the bot- 
tom. (These combs were built out in the 
supers.) Scarcely any of the combs that I 
had built that season were fit to put into 
the brood-chamber. That convinced me 
that combs need support. 

Next I tried splints as per Dr. Miller's 
plan, putting them on the foundation out 
of hot wax; but I found that the bees would 
gnaw at them where they came to the bot- 
tom, following them up. and in many cases 
ruining the comb; also that the foundation 
(medium brood) would sag and buckle in 
between. I next tried shorter splints, let- 
ting them come within an inch or an inch 
and a half of the bottom of the foundation. 
Bees do not seem to be inclined to gnaw 
short splints, but the combs near the bot- 
tom would be badly buckled in and out. 

Last season I did considerable experiment- 
ing with wires and splints together; and 
with four tight wires and four splints I got 
combs good enough, I think, for all practical 
purposes. Three wires and four .splints did 
not give me good combs. Four t)ght wires 
alone let the combs stretch at the top and 
crush near the bottom; and right here let 
me say that I had the wires as tight as I 
could get them, having driven some ^-inch 



Jan. 15, 1912 

brads into the edge of the end-bars right 
by the piercings. When the wire cuts into 
that brad it can go no further, and one can 
get them so they will sing and stay tight. 
Of course it is some trouble to drive a brad 
into the end-bar by thesiile of each piercing; 
but it is much quicker and belter than driv- 
ing nails through and then bending them 
into a hook with i)liers, as 1 have seen some 
bee-keepers do. Of course you have to.be 
careful to get the brad on the jiroper side of 
the piercing; but that is no trouble after you 
get accustomed to the work, and you can 
put them in much faster than you would at 
first think. I do not mean to say that the 
wire brads are absolutely necessary; they 
merely help to keep the wires tight. 

To sum ui», I would say that, for a frame 
that is square or nearly so, suchasll:?s Xll^-'s, 
six tight horizontal wires will result in nice 
straight combs. Five will not. No splints 
are necessary. For a frame like the Lang- 
stroth, where the wire has such a long 
stretch, I shall continue to use four wires 
and four splints until something better is 
devised. 1 have not tried it, but 1 believe 
that five tight wires, equally dividing the 
space between the top and bottom bars 
would give good combs if they were built 
out in the brood-chamber. 1 do not think 
we can get perfect combs built on founda- 
tion; but we want them so nearly perfect 
that a queen can lay a worker egg in every 
cell if she so desires. I confess that I do 
not like the splints, and am wondering 
whether a little heavier wire, say 2S, would 
not render them unnecessary. Possibly 
some one has tried it, and can tell us about it. 

Right here I want to leave my subject 
long enough to say that I think that what 
we call the Madary top-bar out here is a 
thousand miles ahead of your wedge and 
groove. It has about a quarter of the under 
side of the to|)-bar sawed away, and the 
cleat is kei)t to put the foundation in with. 
You jmt your splints in flush with what is 
to be the top edge of the foundation, and 
then nail it in, splints and all. My experi- 
ence with wedge-and-groove top-bars leads 
me to agree with that man who some time 
back hit them such a hard smash. 

Piru, C'al. 

[You will find that H. F. Thayer has 
been using baling-wires in place of splints 
with very satisfactory results. See page 
554, Sept. 1st issue for last year. 

The form of top-bar put out by Madary 
was first advertised and sold by F. Kretch- 
mer, of lied Oak, Iowa, some years ago. 
There are many who prefer it. — Fix] 



OUTDOOR WINTERING IN WEST VIRGINIA. 
Fifty Pounds of Honey Required. 



BY W. C. MOLLKTT, 



I notice that most bee-keepers in the 
Northern States give the amount of honey 
necessary to winter a colony, either in the 
open air or in a cellar, as from 15 to 30 lbs. 



43 

Now, this locality is not very far south, and 
It would be necessary to double the above 
figures in order to be sure of enough stores 
for successful wintering. Of course, all the 
bees in this latitude are wintered' in the 
open air, as the cold is neither so lasting nor 
severe as in the Northern States. As a rule 
bees can lly every few days through the 
winter, and it is not common for them to be 
kept in by cold more than 10 or 12 days at 
a time. Very often they will begin to carry 
in jiollen in .January or February, and be- 
gin rearing brood. It is fouthis reason that 
they require a much greater amount of stores 
than in the North. I have sometimes found 
several combs containing brood the first of 
February; and by March 20 they are some- 
times strong enmigh to swarm if the season 
permitted it; and 1 have had swarms come 
out in April. As there is no nectar to gath- 
er until xMay, it is surprising how fast the 
honey in the hives is used u}). I have had 
colonies that had every comb in ten-frame 
hives as full as they could be in October, 
and yet they would be upon starvation in 
April. Fstimating each comb to hold 5 lbs. 
of honey, this would be a consumption of at 
least 50 lbs. If it requires as much more in 
proportion in the States to the southward, 
it must require at least 75 lbs. in such States 
as Alabama and Georgia; but as the honey- 
flow would naturally come earlier there, this 
would offset this to a considerable extent. 
As a rule I would estimate that twice as 
much honey is necessary in outdoor winter- 
ing as wheii they are wintered in the cellar. 

FRAMES HARDER TO HANDLE, AND SWARM- 
ING WORSE WHEN THE DANZEN- 
BAKER HIVES ARE USED. 

Three years ago I was induced by the fa- 
vorable reports to transfer my bees into Dan- 
zenbaker hives, as they were highly recom- 
mended for the production of comb honey. 
I thought that, as I produced only bulk 
comb honey, they would be just the thing 
for my use. Of course, on account of the 
difference in the size of the frames it was a 
somewhat difTicult task to transfer them. 
After 1 had them put into Danzenbaker 
hives the tirst trouble I struck was the dif- 
ficulty in handling the frames; and as the 
colonies became stronger the job became 
more and more dilTicult, until it was almost 
impossible to handle frames without killing 
bees. I had never realized until then the 
advantage of the Hoffman or Langstroth 
frame as to easy manif)ula(ion. I saw then 
that I coukl handle the frames of two Lang- 
stroth hives easier and quicker than I could 
one Danzenbaker. When the honey-llow 
commenced, the bees commenced swarming; 
and they kept it up right along all through 
the honey-harvest. In strict justice to the 
Danzenbaker hive it is ordy fair to say that 
I secured about as much honey as usu:d, 
and it was very niic honey- -possibly a lit- 
tle better apjiearance than usual. Hut I 
was glad to go back to the Langstroth or 
dovetailed hive, and did so just as soon a» J 
could. Since then I have secured about ihe 
same amount of honey with not half t!:e 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



trouble, and I would not use the Danzen- 
baker hive if I could get them free of charge; 
and I am firmly of the opinion that those 
who adojU them are making a serious mis- 
take. The bees also have to be fed in the 
fall or spring, as the hives do not hold as 
much honey as the standard hive, and this 
makes more trouble. 
Stonecoal, W. V., Nov. 25. 



JAMES HEDDON— BEE-KEEPER, INVENTOR, 
JOURNALIST, AND BUSINESS MAN. 

Some Unwritten History. 

BY E. R. BOOT. 



Little did I think, when I recorded the 
death of four prominent men whose names 
began with H, in our Christmas issue, page 
743 that there was still one more whose 
name also began with H. The last men- 
tioned was James Heddon, who died Dec, 7 
last First there was Hutchinson, then 
Hilton, Herlong, Hall, and now we add to 
the list Heddon. Besides the fact that all 
of their names began with H, it is also sig- 
nificant that three of them lived in Michi- 
"■an We hope the year 1912 will not take 
away so many of our leading lights. 

Twenty years ago Mr. James Heddon, of 
Dowagiac, Mich., was one of the most bril- 
liant lights in all beedom. Sometimes er- 
ratic, he often surprised us by his genius. 
He certainly was a man of many parts and 
varied ability. 

At one time he had between 700 and 800 
colonies of bees, and he made them pay, as 
he did every thing he undertook. He was a 
practical bee-keeper, and from the year 1875 
up to 1890 he was a more or less frequent 
contributor to the bee-journals. His style 
w^as clear and clean-cut, forceful, and, on oc- 
casions, caustic. Many of his sayings were 
epigrammatic. He was not a man to follow- 
in the beaten tracks of others, and we there- 
fore fintl hira striking out into new fields in 
practical apiculture. In short, he was 
original if he was any thing. This very in- 
dependence of action often led him to differ 
radically with his brother bee-keepers in re- 
gard to methods and appliances. 

As I look back over those old days of 25 
and ^0 years ago I see him as if it were yes- 
terday. I see him telling of a short way of 
transferring from box hives to modern hives 

a method that has come to be known as 

the " Heddon short way of transferring" in 
our text-books, for indeed it is now the meth- 
od most used by iiractical bee-keepers. I 
see him exploiting his pollen theory — a the- 
ory that has not been vindicated these later 
years. I see him explaining a method for 
controlling after-swarms — a method that 
has also been accei)ted in our text-books. 
Again, I see him recommending tiat covers, 
and hives without iwrticos, eight- frame 
rather than ten-frame. Closely identified 
with this hive was his slatted break-joint 
honey-board— a device that entirely elimin- 
ated the brace-comb nuisance. Westill (ii'd 



it in the form of the wood-zinc honey-board; 
but without the zinc it gave way to the 
thick top-bar in brood-frames. When rever- 
sible frames were the fad in 1884 Mr. Heddon 
brought out one of the best reversible frames 
invented, and paved the way for the alter- 
nating of shallow frames, and now we see 
him in 1885 bringing out his divisible-brood- 
chamber hive, around which centered so 
much (I might say bitter) controversy be- 
tween 1885 and 1890. If ever a hive was 
praised and smashed all into smithereens by 
friends and enemies it was the Heddon di- 
visible-brood-chamber hive. The discus- 
sions in those days regarding this hive 
would fill a good-sized volume. Part of it 
related to the practicability of the inven- 
tion, but more of it had to do with its pri- 
ority and the validity of the patent covering 
it. While it looked at one time as if the 
hive would sweep every thing before it, be- 
cause the idea of " handling hives " instead 
of frames, and alternating whole brood-sec- 
tions of frames instead of reversing frames 
individually looked particularly attractive, 
the divisible-brood-chamber principle, while 
still favored by a few who still use it, like- 
wise reversible frames, has all but disap- 
peared from the apicultural horizon. Re- 
quiescat in pace. I hope the apicultural 
world will never again see such an "irre- 
pressible conflict" as followed the introduc- 
tion of the divisible brood-chamber and re- 
versible frames. It is so fresh in my mind 
because it was at the very beginning of my 
editorial management of this journal. 

On p. 645 I referred to his early idea of ex- 
tracting honey from combs without opening 
hives. 

In later years I see Mr. Heddon advocat- 
ing the slip -gear for honey -extractors. 
Whether he was the first to see the advan- 
tage of an arrangement that would allow 
the propelling part of the extractor to be- 
come disengaged from the reel, I do not 
know; but I do know that the principle has 
been applied to all modern honey-extractors 
except the cheapest. 

During the latter part of the '80's Mr. Hed- 
don was editor of a bee-journal which was a 
supplement to his paper, the Dowagiac 
Times. In this Mr. Heddon thrashed his 
opponents to a finish. During the early 
part of the '80's he brought out his book, 
"Success in Bee-keeping." This attracted 
considerable attention at the time, ])rinci- 
jmlly because of its advocacy of new i)rinci- 
I)les in hive construction. The book is 
now out of print. 

Later on we find Mr. Heddon entering the 
field of civic affairs, during which he became 
mayor of Dowagiac, and editor and projirie- 
torof the chief organ of his party, the Dow- 
cu/iac Timts. During all this time his in- 
terest in bees continued to be unabated un- 
til the latter part of the '90's, when he seem- 
ed to drop out of apicultural matters entire- 
ly. A little later on he became the inventor 
of a new kind of minnow bait that seems to 
have been a great success. The Heddon 
Buit Co is still doing a big business. 



Jan.'15, 1912 



As a bee-keeper Mr. Heddon could and 
did look ahead of the most of us. Indeed, 
1 think I never ran across a man who could 
catch on to a new trick of the trade quicker 
than Mr. Heddon. While not all of his 
ideas i)anned out as he hoped for, he left his 
strong personal impress on the apicultural 
world, and bee-keeping literature for years 
will contain much of the name of .lames 
Heddon, because he was a great bee-keeper 
and a promoter of ideas that still hold sway. 
\'ery few men who have risen to prominence 
in the apicultural field could ever be called 
a genius; but I think we can say, without 
fear of successful contradiction, that, if 
there ever was a man who deserved that title, 
Mr. Heddon was the one. 




JAMES HEDDON. 

Mr. Heddon was, perhaps, misunderstood 
by some of his opponents in discussion. He 
ajipeared at times to be like the gladiator of 
old, who, when his opponent was down, 
seemed to have a ghoulish glee in sticking 
the knife in deeper and giving it a twist. 
This was a mistake, as the following inci- 
dent, i)erhai)s, will illustrate. At first I 
thought I would not tell it; but as it shows 
another side of Mr. Heddon's character I 
think it ought to be told. 

During the days of the " irrepressible con- 
flict" of which I have spoken, there was a 
war of words between myself and Mr. Hed- 
don over the priority of his invention which 
I think now was, in part, at least, unjusti- 
fied, because it might encourage some to 
trample Mr. Heddon's moral rights under 
foot. I contended, as an examination of his 
claims will show, that his patent, granted 
Sept. 29, 1885, was very narrow in its scope; 
that it did not cover the general principle 



of the'« shallow hives or divisible-brood- 
chamber|hives, and that, therefore, he had 
no more legal right to claim all divisible- 
brood-chamber hives or shallow hives than 
a squatter on a quarter-section of land had 
a right to claim the earth; that his i)atent 
was limited to the use of closed-end frames 
in a close-fitting brood-chamber in combina- 
tion with thumb-screws; that a divisible- 
brood-chamber hive without any one of 
these elements to complete the combination 
were free to the public. He naturally con- 
cluded that this argument, advanced by me, 
meant that we, as manufacturers of hives, 
had in mind putting a divisible -brood- 
chamber hive on the market that would 
evade his patent; and I confess that that 
would be a natural inference. But that 
thought was not in my mind; and the sub- 
sequent history of our business shows that 
we did not put any divisible-brood-chamber 
hive on the market until after his patent 
expired, as we felt that Mr. Heddon had cer- 
tain moral rights; and that if, in these later 
days, he had shown that the divisible-brood- 
chamber hives were labor-savers, it would 
be but fair that we respect those rights. 

Well, it was during this discussion that 
Mr. Heddon felt that A. I. Root was about 
to purloin his moral rights because he could 
do so on account of the legal limitations of 
his patent. Smarting under this sense of 
wrong, I remember particularly one bitter 
letter that he wrote and addressed to my 
father and me. Father then was very sick 
with fever, and w^e did not 'think he would 
live. I replied something like this: 

Mr. Heddon.— Your letter reaches us just as my 
father seems to be at the point of death. I have 
neither the heart nor inclination to reply, any 
further than to say you have surely misunderstood 
the attitude of both of us in the matter. 

Back came the quick response, or as soon 
as Uncle Sam could deliver the message, in 
the shape of a letter reading about like this: 

Dear Mr. Root:— I sincerely beg your pardon. I 
did not know your father was very sick. I desire 
to recall what 1 said— every word of it; and I assure 
you that, if you mean what you say, 1 will say no 
more. 

While these may not have been his precise 
words (for remember that was over 20 years 
ago) yet they convey the thought. Mr. 
Heddon, true to his word, never referred to 
the matter again, and the hive question, at 
least, was settled for all time. 

My only reason for repeating it here is to 
show that Mr. Heddon had a big heart when 
the heart-strings were touched. 

Moral. — We often fight over something 
that we fancy has extraordinary value when 
it has not. The divisible-brood-chamber 
hive or the shallow hive was thought to save 
half the labor in handling bees. It has been 
tried in the balance of Father Time, and, 
except in the hands of a few experts, has 
been found wanting. Think of the pages 
upon pages of printed matter, to say nothing 
of the volumes of correspondence and time 
that was wasted. Think of the ill-feelings 
and misunderstandings that might have 
been avoided. 



46 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Fig. 1.— Marchant's home yard of 400 colonies. Along the Appalachicola liiver as many as 500 colonies 
can sometimes be supported in one yard. He has had as high as 600. 



BEE-KEEPING 



ON THE APPALACHICOLA 
RIVER. 



Something More About that Wonderful Honey 
Country; the Extent of the Tupelos; the Suwanee 
River, Famed in Song; Orange-growing Success- 
ful in Northern Florida where it Often Freezes 
Hard. 

BY E. R. BOOT. 



In our Dec. 15th issue I told something 
about the wonderful Appalachicola River, a 
region where nearly 2000 barrels of honey 
has been produced in a single season from 
an area that is smaller, I venture to say, 
than almost any other area that has pro- 
duced only one-fourth of that amount of 
honey. Our friend A. B. Marchant, at Mar- 
chant's Landing, where I showed that big 
row of barrels on page 753, is almost in the 
heart of this wonderful bee country along 
that remarkable river, fringed as it is with 
the honey-bearing tupelo. 



In this connection permit me to say that, 
so far as I can ascertain, the tupelo grows 
along the banks of all those rivers of North- 
western Florida, including the Suwanee Riv- 
er, made famous by that song that for many 
years has charmed millions and millions of 
people. If it is true that the tupelo and 
the gallberry grow in these regions it is a 
wonder to me that bee-keepers of the coun- 
try have not known more about this territo- 
ry before; and it is a greater wonder to me 
that Northern people should be flocking to 
the north and east coasts of Florida, where 
most of the lands are poor, when the soil in 
Northwestern Florida, at least along these 
rivers, will grow practically any thing and 
every thing. For the last few days 1 have 
been eating oranges sent me by my friend 
Marchant, near Marchant's Landing. When 
I saw his beautiful orchard where he had 
taken off time and again from 1500 to 2000 
boxes of oranges, I said, "Why, I didn't 
suppose you could raise oranges as far north 













1 .o. ... Another view of the home yard, showing the extracting house. 



Jan. 15, 1912 

as this. I supposed that the heavy freezing 
that you get here from time to time would 
utterly destroy the trees." 

"Nonsense! It is a little more work and 
care, but we think our Northern Florida 
oranges are much sweeter," he said. " Hard 
freezes years ago did us damage, but we 
have profited by experience." 

Here was an orchard 12 years old that has 
stood all kinds of freezes. Indeed, I under- 
stand that the man who knows his job, the 
soil, and the locality, can select a variety 
that will stand hard freezing, and, what is 
more, he can work the scheme of outside 
furnaces that are employed successfully 
in the more southern portions of Florida to 
keep off light freezes. The oft-repeated 
statement, that oranges can't be grown suc- 
cessfully above the freezing-line, is a joke 
according to these northern growers. But 
I will have more to say about this at anoth- 
er time. 

Let us now look over Mr. Marchant's api- 
aries and his hive-stands. First, Fig. 1 
shows a general view of the home yard of 
400 colonies. Just think of it ! 400 colonies 
in one yard year after year ! That shows 
what the tupelo can do. t^ig. 2 shows the 
same yard from a different angle, taking in 
the shop and the honey-house where the 
extracting is carried on. This yard is locat- 
ed close to the boat-landing that I showed 
you oil page 753, Dec. 15. When the bar- 
rels are filled with honey at the extracting- 
bouse shown at the extreme right, Fig. 2, 
they are rolled down to the wharf and final- 
ly put on the boat. They are then carried 
by water clear to the city of New York at a 
freight rate of only 38 cts. per 100 lbs. 

"Why," said I, "Mr. Marchant, you fel- 
lows down here have a snap. You are clear 
off in the woods, in a country that is not 
overstocked, and yet you are almost next 
door to one of the biggest cities in the world 
— New York. 

The secret of it is, there is the Appalach- 
icola River deep enough for big^boatsj^open- 



47 





Fig. 4.— Marchant" .s scheme for weighing his honey with a large pair of steel- 
yards and grab-hooks. 



F^iG. 3.— Marchant's lii\ i -stiiiKi. 

ing up into Appalachicola harbor, then into 
the Gulf of Mexico, and finally into the At- 
lantic. By glancing at Figs. 1 and 2 you 
will see the tujielos in the background right 
along the edge of the river bank. These 
trees, together with other gum-trees, skirt 
the edges of this stream for over 100 miles. 
Emptying into the Appalachicola are doz- 
ens of other but smaller streams. Up one 
these (what is known as Owl Creek) Mr. 
ISIarchant has another yard of about 400 
colonies. In fact, I could imagine that 
dozens of yards could be located clear up 
along this river and its tributaries without 
any danger of overstocking, simply for the 
reason that the country is so new, and that 
the great mass of bee-keepers have never 
known of this wonderful territory where 
such beautiful white honey that does not 
candy is produced by the shipload. 

But the question is asked, "Why are 
there no more bee-keepers and bees along 
this river if all you say is true?" 
P Largely, I understand, because it is diffi- 
cult to find a good spot to put an apiary on 
ground above high 
water, and then ma- 
laria and mosqui- 
toes are prevalent in 
many places along 
the river. In our 
next issue I will 
give you some snap 
shots showing whole 
apiaries on the riv- 
er, located up on 
stilts. 

But let us go back 
to Mr. Marchant's 
home yard. We no- 
tice that his hives 
are put up on high 
benches. This is not 
on account of high 
water, but for con- 
venience in working 
and to avoid harbor- 
ing-places for ants. 
We observe, also, 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Fig. 5. — A closer view of the grab-hooks for catching the bar- 
rel while it is being weighed. 

that the grass has been cleaned off so that 
the ground is level like a brickyard. In 
front of every hive is a board running from 
the ground clear up to the entrance. No- 
tice Fig. 3, which shows the details of the 
hive-stand as they are made at the Owl 
Creek yard. This cleaning of all the grass 
is largely for the purpose of "^ning away 
ants that are so destructive in .ost locali- 
ties in Florida. Mr. Marchant thinks there 
will be no trouble from this pest provided 
the ground where the apiary is located is 
kept free from all boards, rubbish, vegeta- 
tion, and shrubbery, including trees where 
the ants are apt to form their nests. Later 
on I will show you something how these 
ants make nests in trees, and what fine 
chicken feed they make. 

marchant's unique scheme for weigh- 
ing HIS HONEY. 

Let us now step under the shed in front of 
Mr. Marchant's honey-house, shown in Fig. 
2. Here we see a mammoth pair of steel- 
yards; and connected with them is some- 
thing that looks like ice-tongs. See Figs. 4 
and 5. This scheme for weighing honey in 
barrels by means of big steelyards beats any 
thing else I ever saw. They cost only $3.50, 
and then all that is required is a long pole, 
a support overhead, and an iron ring having 
attached to it two iron rods with hooks on 
the end. 

We will say we are now ready to weigh 
up our honey. One man steps over to the 
end of the long pole; the steelyards are at- 
tached while Jhe second^man rolls the bar- 



rel under the pair of iron hooks. 
The steelyards are dropped 
down until the hooks catch over 
the ends of the barrel. The bar- 
rel is then raised just enough to 
clear the ground. The weight 
is taken, when the next barrel 
is weighed in the same way. 
The whole thing is shown in 
Figs. 4 and 5. It is a great 
scheme, and I am sure it can be 
employed to advantage by other 
bee-keepers. 

marchant's scheme for 

shading hives. 
In Fig. 6 we have Mr. Mar- 
chant's scheme for shading 
hives. The ridge piece is made 
of inch lumber a little longer 
than the hive, with cheap shin- 
gles nailed on to it at right an- 
gles to each other, as shown in 
the illustration. This kind of 
shade-board is very cheap, and 
its shape gives a little better cir- 
culation of air between the 
shade-board and the top of the 
hive than the ordinary arrange- 
ment lying flat on the hive. 

Fig. 7 shows a four-story ten- 
frame colony operated for ex- 
tracted honey. You will notice 
this stands up on scales for re- 
cording the honey-flow. The 
hive next to it has three stories. Every 
modern yard nowadays has a scale hive; 
and as the honey-flow begins to taper off, 
the bee-keeper will modify his plan accord- 
ingly. 

In our next issue I hope to show you api- 
aries up on stilts on that same Appalachi- 
cola River, and a few snap shots showing 
the river itself. I shall also have something 
to say about the advantage of a river for 
transporting bees_to new pastures. 




Fig. 6.— Marchant's shade-board. This provides 
better ventilation than the ordinary flat shade- 
board. 



Jan. 15, 1912 




Fig. 7. — Marchanf § scale hive. There ought to be a hive of this 
kind in every large yard to keep tab on the honey flow, 



49 

The heat generated by a 
melter is also very uncom- 
fortable for the operator. 

I intend to use next sea- 
son a Townsend uncapping- 
box to be carrietl from one 
yard to another. The cap- 
I)ings are to be taken from 
the box and left in a recep- 
tacle built for that i)urpose, 
one at each yard, in which 
the cai)pings can drain un- 
til the close of the season, 
after which time they can 
be collected and hauled to 
the home yard, to be melt- 
ed up when time is not 
worth so much. If you 
know of a better plan I shall 
be under obligations to you 
if you will outline it to me. 

ianesville, Minn. 

[For some time we have 
been of the opinion that the 
solution of the i)robem lies 
in draining the cappings in 
large tanks during the busi- 
est part of the season, and 
then melting them up later, 
when they contain a rela- 
tively small amount of 
honey, and, too, when time 
is less valuable. — Ed.] 



CAPPING-MELTERS NOT NEEDED UNTIL THE 
END OF THE SEASON. 



BY E. L. HOFFMAN. 



CHAINS TO KEEP TIERED-UP HIVES FROM 
BLOWING OVER. 



To use a capping-melter during the ex- 
tracting season adds work at a time when 
the bee-keeper has more than he can attend 
to, without any material advantage. Of 
course, not so many objections can be raised 
when extracting is done at the home yard 
altogether; but after arriving at an outyard 
it takes some time before the melter is hot 
and ready. 

The honey that flows from it near the 
close of a day's run is not very salable; and 
nearly all honey taken from a melter is in- 
jured in flavor and color. The first gallon 
or two coming from a melter is of almost 
perfect quality; but as soon as refuse begins 
to accumulate in the melter the honey is 
injured. In melting the cappings from new 
combs it will be near the close of a day's 
run before there is much difference in the 
color of the honey; but the flavor is slightly 
changed from the first. 

At the close of a day's run, there is a 
great deal of refuse, wax, and poor honey in 
the melter that must be emptied into some 
other receptacle to be worked up later for 
the wax it contains. ICmptying the melter 
and getting it ready again for another run 
must be done at the close of a hard day's 
work, when the same time should be used 
in getting home for as much rest as possi- 
ble. If this work is left until the next 
morning, too much time will be lost when 
the help is on hand to go to work, j , , .^ 



BY A. V. POLLOCK. 



I am sending you a photo of a part of my 
apiary, situated right in town. My wife 
and I have veils on, and my daughter is 
sitting on a stump. I have built a frame 
house having a stone foundation under it 
which makes possible a good cellar for win- 
tering bees. 

The log-chains shown, I put over the 
tiered-up hives, thinking they would keep 
them from being blown over in storms. 
We got 1500 lbs. of honey from 16 colonies 
last year. We have plenty of willow-herb, 
red raspberry, basswood, and red, white, 
and alsike clover. 

Mattoon, Wis. 




A. V. Pollock's apiary In the town of Hutchlns, Wis. 



Gleanings'in Bee Culture 




Fig. 1. — L. E. Kvans' apiary. Ousted, Michifran. 



BEES FURNISH MONEY TO BUY 160 ACRES 
OF LAND. 

BY L. E. EVANS. 

During the early '80's I purchased a colo- 
ny of black bees in a shoe-box for six dol- 
lars, and at once had the bee-fever, from 
which I have never recovered. At one time 
I had as many as 500 colonies in three yards. 
The three last seasons have been quite poor; 
but I have managed to get from $400 to $800 
each season. There certainly is money in 
bees, as well as pleasure. I have niade 
enough from them to buy 160 acres of land, 
as good as can be bought in my section. 

I have been much interested in the vari- 
ous articles and illustrations describing pa- 
per cases for wintering bees on their sum- 
mer stands. I have experimented consider- 
ably along this line myself the past four 
years, and have succeeded in working out a 



method whereby [I !"can winter my colonies 
one season with another as well as though 
they were in a cellar. I use insulating pa- 
per, and pack each colony by itself in planer 
■shavings. 

Fig. 1 shows my apiary with the workshop 
and honey-house in the background. I 
make all my hives, sections, shipping-cases, 
etc. Fig. 8 shows the interior of my shop 
with the various machines. I have a V- 
grooving machine for sections, a 24-inch 
planer, a rip-saw table, and sander. 

Onsted, Mich. 

♦ ♦♦ 

A HIVE-LIFTING DEVICE. 



BY JAMES M'LEAN. 




Fig. 2.— Honey-house and shop with the apiary In the background, 



I have nearly forty colonies of bees at 
present, packed in drygoods-boxes that I 
bought at the stores, altering them .so as to 
have a slanting roof. I could not get any 
one to help me put 
them in the boxes, so 
I had to invent some 
way to do the work 
alone. I made the 
frame that you see in 
the picture, and got a 
pair of small double- 
tackle blocks from a 
neighbor; and by mov- 
ing the machine my- 
self I managed the 
whole business without 
any help from anyone. 
You will notice that 
I have a hive raised; up 
ready to slip the box 
under, and then let 
them down 'carefully 
into the box. Of course 



Jan. 15, 1912 



I Stand on the ground 
to do the work, being 
perched up there only 
while the picture was 
taken. 1 send this to 
sln)\v how any one can 
keep bees in a city or 
village. I have never 
had any trouble about 
keeping my bees, as 
they simply let peoi)le 
alone as long as they 
keep away from dis- 
turbing the hives. 
The next neighbor 
east of me has a path 
through my bee-yard, 
as it is nearer for them 
to the postollice and 
stores. There are doz- 
ens of jieople traveling 
this path nearly every 
day, but we never have 
any trouble from the 
bees. 

I sell the most of 
my honey from the 
house at retail, in 4x5 

sections, and can keep Fit a year without 
candying in the attic of my house. I am 
in my TUth year, and have kept bees for 
about fifteen years. 

I failed to pack my bees one winter several 
years ago, and lost them all but three col- 
onies. I use the Hill device packed with 
leaves and planer-shavings, and have never 
lost any, to speak of, when they are packed 
as described. 

Hemlock, Mich. 




l''iG. 3. — Interior of shop, showing sraaU.'planer.'saws, etc. 



DAMPENING SECTIONS BY ;MEANSj;OFiASWET 
CLOTH. 



BY GEO. A. <>. BO YUM. 



To'dampen sections before folding them, 
take them out«of,the'crate'and lay themjon 
a table; then take a white7cloth, soak it in 
water, wring out^some of the water, leaving 
it very damp, and spread itiover the sections 
as shown in the view oniiiextfpage. Leave 




James McLean's apiary and hive-liltine device. Hemlock, Michigan 



52 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Apiary of D. W. Bryant. Ethelfelts, Virginia. 



the section s^cove red in this manner until 
they are sufficiently dampened for folding. 
When they are ready, they will fold togeth- 
er without making any noise whatever. If 
they are too dry they will make a crealdng 
noise when being folded. If the sections 
are very dry it may be necessary to soak the 
cloth twice or to apply it double. Ordinari- 
ly the time required by this method is less 
than one hour. The moisture as it leaves 
the cloth settles down into the V grooves, 
where it is then absorbed into the wood just 
where it is wanted. 
Rushford, Minn., .June 19. 



over them. I have kept bees in this place 
20 years, and have had Italians of the red- 
clover strain six years. I find them superi- 
or to any others which I have kept. 

This picture was taken looking west. My 
ajiiary is located on a west slope. I put 
windbreaks on the north side in winter. 

Ethelfelts, Va., Nov. 12. 



WHOLESALE REQUEENING. 
A Breezy Comment on Current Discussion. 



BY H. HARLEY SELWYX. 



BEES IN VIRGINIA. 



BY D. W. BRYANT. 



' I have never seen any thing in Gleax- 
INGS from Virginia. This engraving shows 
how I arrange my hives with shade-boards 




Dampening sections by laying a wet cloth over them for an hour, 



Isn't Mr. Byer's story, p. 619, Oct. 15, of 
his wholesale requeening, well told? I can 
almost see the picture of them in that tent, 
down on their knees peering into the corners 
of the hive, eagerly looking for "her," and 
can almost hear the ever irresistible "There 
she is!"' as one catches sight of the quiver- 
ing, elongated 
body of the moth- 
er of the hive, al- 
ways running, 
squirming, slip- 
ping through the 
denser clusters, or 
lying motionless 
in some shaded 
portion of the 
hive. 

Indeed, it is a 
fascinating work, 
and one that 
causes the dinner 
or perhaps the 
breakfast hour to 
slip by unnoticed 



Jan. 15. 1912 

until a frantic mother or wife gets up suffi- 
cient courage to approach near enough to 
make her voice heard; for, persuade as you 
will, she never will believe that the combi- 
nation of hum and veil can make other 
noises pass unnoticed. 

DOUBLE SUPER WITH EXCLUDEK BETWEEN 
FOR FINDING QUEENS. 

But, to touch on the point Mr. Byer has 
so ably handled, viz., the best process of lo- 
cating' the queen of a populous black colony 
in order to remove her and replace with one 
of the Italian strain, it has been the writer's 
privilege to undertake a like hunt through 
many hives of blacks; and he, too, has found 
the plan outlined by Mr. Byer of the great- 
est assistance. Possibly the following sug- 
gestion is even more simple, if any thing, 
and gives good results: Take two ordinary 
deep supers; and, after placing a queen-ex- 
cluder between, fasten well together with 
shipping-staples. Place this before the hive 
to be operated on, then remove one frame 
at a time, and, after a quick glance over each 
to sight the queen if possible before the bees 
become badly excited, shake into the empty 
super. Repeat this performance with each 
frame, placing them either in an additional 
super designed for that purpose, or leaning 
them against the hive. Now ply the smok- 
er on the mass of bees lyingon the excluder, 
and see them vanish through the perfora- 
tions until none but frantic drones remain; 
and, unless fortune is against you, there you 
will find the queen trying with all her might 
to reach the heart of the underhanging 
cluster. A moment's glance will decide the 
question; and if no queen shows up, trans- 
fer your attention to the interior of the emp- 
ty hive, and the chances are you will find 
her somewhere on the walls or in the corner 
of the hive. The easiest part of all then 
(that of pinching her) can be done, although 
it always seems hard to close down on such 
very willing servants — at least it has always 
caused me a feeling of remorse to end so 
quickly this wonderful organ of reproduc- 
tion, adored and treasured by her host of 
followers. Such, however, is the claim of 
modern bee keeping: and if we want to hold 
in check that terrible bcourge, foul brood, 
running rampant through this country, 
Italian queens, and Italians, too, of only 
the most vigorous strain, must take the 
place of the humbler black. 

MOVING BEES FIFTEEN MILE!? ON A FLAT 
CAR. 

This fall I took in charge a yard of about 
35 colonics of blacks and transferred them 
on a fiat car a distance of 15 miles from a 
territory where foul brood is not yet known. 
It was my first experience in moving bees 
by rail, and certainly it has shown me that 
with little difTiculty a hundred hives or so 
could be quickly and safely moved to new 
pastures for the honey-flow. The hives in 
question were closed over on top with wire 
cloth, across the front with a strip of lath. 
They traveled without a hitch — that is, so 
far as the bees themselves were concerned; 



53 

but the railway agent couldn't get up nerve 
to weigh each individual hive, so made an 
estimate, much to the benefit of his nerves, 
perhaps, but hard on the earnings of said 
railway; for his tense condition on approach- 
ing and handling one to get an idea of its 
approximate weight was so great that the 
hive must have felt extremely light, for he 
figured on only 25 pounds When in great 
stress of mind or body it is claimed man- 
kind possess abnormal strength. I rather 
think he was no exception to the rule. Nor 
was he the only backward man around that 
station; for when the freight pulled in, the 
train hands were quite willing to wait sev- 
eral hours if I would only do the loading; 
and, in fact, I had to. 

These colonies, as I have already men- 
tioned, are the real "black as your hat" 
quality, and next spring it behooves me to 
do some queen-hunting extraordinary. 

Kirks Ferry, Que., Can. 



THE COLORS OF NORTH- AMERICAN FLOWERS. 



BY JOHN H. LOVELL. 



Beautiful flowers are designed to attract 
the attention of insects, and they exist only 
where there are insects to behold them. "In 
New Zealand," according to Wallace, "where 
insects are so strikingly deficient in variety, 
the flora is almost as strikingly deficient in 
gayly colored blossoms. Of course, there 
are some exceptions; but. as a whole, green 
inconspicuous and imperfect flowers prevail 
to an extent not to be equaled in any other 
part of the globe, affording a marvelous con- 
trast to the general brilliancy of Australian 
flowers combined with the variety and abun- 
dance of insect life." Very few of the high- 
er insects feeding on nectar and pollen oc- 
cur in New Zealand. A few years ago only 
18 species of butterflies were known, and of 
bees only 10 species, while at the time of 
their discovery neither the honey-bee nor 
bumble-bees were found in these great 
islands. Flies are here the most important 
group of flower- visitors. 

All orders of insects are much more abun- 
dant in both Europe and North America: 
and in lands where there is an insect fauna, 
rich both in species and individuals, flowers 
display an infinite numl)er of brilliant hues 
and delicate shades which surpass the i)ower 
of the artist and naturalist to describe. 
There is a wonderful variety of bicolored, 
tricolored, and variegated blossoms, often 
veined and mottled in endless ways. Not 
only are the prismatic colors— red. orange, 
yellow, green, blue, and violet displayed by 
"many species with a iirofusion of inlermedi- 
ale shades, but rarer colors like black, brown, 
scarlet, crimson, and lurid jiurple are not 
unrepresented. Nature has irieil her skill 
as a colorist in the bright translucent hues 
of minerals; in the vivid, living tints of 
corals and sea anemones: in the lights and 
shades reflected by the scales of the butter- 
flies' wings; and in the brilliant irridescent 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



hues of the phmiage of Inrds; but nowhere 
are her inexhaustible resources in chromat- 
ics so bountifully exhibited as in the colors 
of flowers. 

See, and scorn all duller 
Taste, how heavn lover color. 
How great Nature clearly joys in red and green; 
What sweet thoughts she thinks 
Of violets and pinks. 
And a thousand flashing hues made solely to be 
seen: 

See her whitest lilies 

Chill the silver showers. 
And what red mouth has her rose, 
The woman of the flowers! 

A llora in which the flowers are all of one 
color would beat a great disadvantage. The 
value of color contrasts is evident, for they 
enable the visitors, more especially the bees, 
easily to remain constant to a single plant 
species in collecting pollen and nectar. If 
they were to visit flowers indiscriminately, 
much pollen would be wasted and much 
time and effort lost in locating the nectar. 
In the Alpine flora of the Tyrol, in the 
heights above the tree-line, there is no spring 
and no autumn — only a short summer fol- 
lowing a long winter. " All the flowers have, 
therefore, to blossom in this short time. 
"White and red, yellow and blue, brown 
and green," says Kerner, "stand in varied 
combination on a hand's-breadth of space. 
Hardly has the snow melted, than there ap- 
pear almost simultaneously the violet bells 
of the soldanellas and the golden flowers of 
the cinquefoil, the M'hite crowfoot and an- 
drosace, the red silenes and primulas, the 
blue gentians and the yellow auriculas, the 
heaven-blue forget me-not and the yellow 
violet as well as the saxifrages in every con- 
ceivable color." Such a meadow in Alaska, 
where the summers are equally short, is 
thus described by Burroughs: 

starred with flowers of every hue, 
.Gold and purple, white and blue; 
Painted cup, anemone, 
Jacob's-ladder, fleur-de-lis, 
Orchid, harebell, shooting-star. 
Crane's-bill, lupine, seen afar: 
Primrose, poppy, saxifrage. 
Pictured type on Nature's page. 

According to a well-known principle of 
physics, each color appears more brilliant in 
contrast with other hues than it would if 
viewed alone. This can be easily shown by 
a simple experiment, which any one can 
perform. Cut out two pieces of red paper, 
each two inches square. Place one of the 
red squares on a large sheet of green paper 
and the other red square on a large sheet of 
red paper. The red square on the green pa- 
per will appear so much more brilliant than 
the red square on the red paper that the ob- 
server will have difficulty in believing that 
they are identical in hue. 

Some years ago I began an inquiry as to 
how many flowers there are of each color in 
the flora of North America. In northeastern 
America north of Tennessee and east of the 
Rocky Mountains there have been describ- 
ed 4020 species of flowering plants, or angi- 
osperms. Partly by direct examination and 
I)artly by reference to various systematic 
works 1 have tabulated the entire number 



according to their predominant colors — a 
labor which, I need hardly say, extended 
over several years. I find that in this area 
there are 1244 green, 956 white, 801 yellow, 
260 red, 4;>4 purple, and 325 blue flowers. In 
every hundred species there are 30.9 green, 
23.8 white, 19.9 yellow, 6.4 red, 10.9 purple, 
and 8 blue. 

The green, white, and yellow flowers num- 
ber 3001, or three-fourths of the entire num- 
ber; while the red, purple, and blue amount 
to only 1019. Though there are many ex- 
ceptions, the flrst group usually have regu- 
lar or wheel-shaped or cup-shaped flowers 
with the nectar easily accessible, and are 
visited by all flower-loving insects — a mis- 
cellaneous company of beetles, flies, butter- 
flies, wasps, and bees. The flowers belong- 
ing to the second group are very frequently 
irregul. r or one-sided, with the nectar deep- 
ly concealed, and are attractive chiefly to 
long-tongued bees, butterflies, and hover- 
flies {Syrphidit:). The tendency of flowers 
to change from green, white, and yellow to 
red, purple, and blue, is much stronger than 
the reverse; but red, purple, and blue flowers 
usually have the petals white or yellowish 
at the base and in the bud, and not infre- 
quently the whole corolla reverts to one of 
these colors. 

Have these relations any significance? 
Undoubtedly they have. They are signals 
pointing out to us the course our flora has 
pursued in its evolution. The green, white, 
and yellow colors are older and more primi- 
tive than the red, purple, and blue, and 
were more common in the primordial 
flora. The red, purple, and blue flowers 
are, as a whole, of much more recent origin, 
and have been developed from green, white, 
and yellow blossoms. For example, the but- 
tercups are a much older genus than the 
columbines and larkspurs, and the cinque- 
foils are more ancient than the pea, bean, 
or vetch; while, again, the viburnums are 
older than the honeysuckles. The orchids 
have certainly developed more recently than 
the lilies Occasionally irregular flowers re- 
vert to their ancestral stages and produce 
perfectly regular forms. Individual white 
flowers may change to red, as in the Sweet 
William; or to yellow, as in the climbing 
honeysuckle; or yellow flowers may change 
to red as in the bush honeysuckle and the 
lantana. 

Let us next inquire how many of these 
4020 flowers found in northeastern America 
are pollinated by the wind and how many 
by insects. Among wind-pollinated plants 
are the grasses, sedges, and rushes; many 
homely weeds like the pigweeds, sorrels, 
nettles, and ragweeds, as well as many de- 
ciduous bushes and trees, as the alders, pop- 
lars, elms, oaks, beeches, and birches. After 
a careful examinationof every genus I place 
the number of wind-pollinated plants (in- 
cluding a few ])ollinated by water) at about 
1046. This number is probably a little too 
large, for in the case of some western species 
there are no recorded observations, and they 
may be self-pollinated. Still it can not be 



Jan. 1'). 191-2 



far from correct, since the grasses and sedges 
alone in this area include 705 species. 

Most wind-pollinated, or anemophilous 
(wind-loving) (lowers are green or dull-col- 
ored; but the sorrels are blood-red, and the 
aments of the birches are golden yellow. Of 
the 1046 anemophilous si)ecies, 1021 are 
chietly green, 1 white, 11 yellow, 3 red, 12 
purple. Thus there remain in eastern 
America 21)72 species which are pollinated 
chiefly by insects, or are self-pollinated. Of 
this number 22o are green, 9")5 white, 790 
yellow, 254 red, 425 purple, and ;>25 blue. It 
is evident that bright coloration is correlat- 
ed with insect-pollination, and dull colora- 
tion, or inconspicuousness, with pollination 
by the wind. 

Brilliant (lowers usually contrast with 
green foliage. But in early spring I have 
seen white and blue hei^aticas blooming 
amid sere and brown leaves fallen from the 
trees the preceding autumn; and contrast- 
ing with the dark soil in dense woods I have 
found the snow-white Indian pipe. In the 
eternal twilight which prevails in the prime- 
val forests of the equinoctial regions of both 
the old and the new world there occurs a 
group of parasitic plants called the Balan- 
ophoraeea'. There are only about forty 
species, and the whole plant is colored deep 
yellow, blood red, or purple. Flowers which 
rest upon the surface of the water are often 
white or yellow, as the yellow and white 
water-lilies. Nocturnal (lowers are also gen- 
erally white or yellow, since purple or blue 
would be invisible at night. 

In the absence of petals the calyx may be- 
come bright-colored, as in the clematis, 
aneome, marsh marigold, and buckwheat; 
or both calyx and corolla may be colored, as 
in the columbines, larkspur, and fuchsia. 
The aments of the willows are rendered very 
conspicuous in spring by the very numer- 
ous yellow and red anthers, while in the 
meadow-rue the white and blue filaments 
are broad and petaloid. The small leaves or 
bracts surrounding the flowers are also fre- 
quently highly colored. In the painted cup 
(Casfilleja) the bracts are bright scarlet; in 
Monarda media the bracts are purple, and 
in the bunchberry white, while in the Pro- 
teacece of Australia the upper foliage leaves 
are blue. 

Again, conspicuousness may be secured 
by mas>ing small (lowers in large clusters, 
or by their production in great profusion. 
A single bluet is visible at a distance of only 
a few feet; but when they whiten a whole 
hillside they form a part of the facies of the 
landscape. In the town of Wiscasset, Maine, 
the dandelions when in bloom carpet the 
whole fields; while in New .Jersey large dis- 
tricts are white with daisy blossoms, but, 
unfortunately, not for the harvest. On the 
prairies of Nebraska the ground-jilum pre- 
sents in spring a very striking api)earance, 
the plants forming dense masses of reddish- 
blue (lowers. In North Carolina, Rhodo- 
dendriim fnaxh^ium and Kahnia lafifolla, 
or mountain laurel, the two handsom.est 
North-American shrubs, "are seen to cover 



tracts of great extent at one season, present- 
ing an unbroken landscape of gorgeous 
(lowers." They adorn the valleys all around, 
says Asa Gray, in one of his letters, "in im- 
mense abundance and profuse blossoming 
of every hue from deep rose to white." Al- 
most equally conspicuous in various parts 
of the country are large areas brightlv col- 
ored with yellow buttercups, goldeiirods, 
sun (lowers, orange- ha wkweeds, purple 
thistles, and blue lupines. The blue lupine, 
or "blue bonnet," is the State (lower of 
Texas, where, says Scholl, "it grows in great 
profusion over the entire ground, making it 
look like a solid ()lue carpet for miles 
around." liut nothing in this world can 
surpass in beauty or lavish abundance the 
cloud-like masses of bloom displayed by the 
great northern apple-orchards. 

Compare these brilliant landscapes of col- 
or with Wallace's description of the tropics: 
"I have never seen in the tropics such bril- 
liant masses of color as even England can 
show in her furze-clad commons, her heath- 
ery mountain-sides, her glades of wild hya- 
cinths, her fields of popiiies, her meadows of 
buttercups and orchises — carpets of yellow, 
purple, azure-blue, and fiery crimson, which 
the tropics rarely can exhibit. We have 
smaller masses of color in our hawthorn and 
crab-trees, our holly and mountain ash, our 
broom, foxgloves, primroses, and purple 
vetches, which clothe with gay colors the 
whole length and breadthof our land. These 
beauties are all common. They are charac- 
teristic of the country and climate; they 
have not to be sought for, but they gladden 
the eye at every step. In the regions of the 
equator, on the other hand, whether it be 
forest or savanna, a somber green clothes 
universal nature. You may journey for 
hours and even for days, and meet with 
nothing to break the monotony. Flowers 
are everywhere rare, and any thing at all 
striking is to be met at only very rare inter- 
vals." 

Waldoboro, Maine. 



FOUL-BROOD LEGISLATION IN CALIFORNIA. 

The Necessity of Co-operation between the North- 
ern and Southern Portions of the State, 



BY HARRY K. HILL. 



On p. 552, Sept. 15, Mr. P. C. Chadwick 
makes some suggestions about a new foul- 
brood law for California with the intention 
of bringing out a discussion. I fully agree 
with him that the present law is of little 
force, and that a new law creating a State 
inspector is desirable. He makes some sug- 
gestions about the details of the proposed 
new law, which, in the main. I agree with ; 
but there are some points upon which I 
should like to make some remarks ; and 
chief among them is this: He says, "My 
idea would be to . . have a State inspec- 



56 

tor appointed by the Governor upon the 
recommendation of the State association." 
Now, upon this point hangs considerable. 
The reader may not know that there is a 
little friction between the bee-keepers of the 
northern and southern parts of the State, 
caused, undoubtedly, by more or less mis- 
understanding. The so-called State associ- 
ation represents the bee-keepers in the 
southern end of the State, with headquar- 
ters at Los Angeles. I am not well posted 
on their membership, but I think I am well 
within bounds when I say that they have 
not a member north of San Francisco, and 
very few that far north. On the other hand, 
the northern part of the State is represent- 
ed by the Northern California Bee-keepers' 
Association, with headquarters at Elkgrove, 
near Sacramento. The memberships of the 
two associations, I understand, are nearly 
equal ; but the northern association has 
much greater future possibilities. The posi- 
tion taken by the so-called State associa- 
tion in all matters of legislation (and other- 
wise for that matter) has been particularly 
galling to the bee-keepers in the northern 
end of the State. For instance, at the last 
session of the legislature a bill was present- 
ed which would have undoubtedly been 
passed had it not been for the opposition of 
our association. On three occasions, I be- 
lieve, our secretary requested a copy of this 
bill before it was presented, but never re- 
ceived one. Instead he received a letter ad- 
vising our association to push the bill, with- 
out seeing it, stating that it was to our ad- 
vantage to do so. Practically the only dif- 
ference between the bill and the present law 
was that which would have efTectually 
erased the Northern California association 
from any further importance in California 
beedom, making it necessary, if we would 
have any thing to do with contemporary 
bee-kee])ing life, to join them. 

I could go on, but have probably said 
enough to show that conditions are not as 
they should be. Jt would be greatly to our 
credit and mutual benefit to work together. 
^^'e of this part of the State are not opposed 
to joining a State association, but it must 
be a State aaaociation. Meetings must be 
held in various i)arts of the State, not at 
one particular point ; and several other 
things should be modified which 1 will not 
touch on here, although thev could doubt- 
less be settled favorably to Ixjth sides. 

The point I wish to bring out in writing 
this is that, in a camjjaign for another foul- 
brood law, the first jKiints to reckon with 
are the bee-keepers themselves. The North- 
ern California bee-keejiers will undoubtedly 
object to any law which places the full con- 
trol in the hands of the State association. It 
seems to me that the bee-keepers of Califor- 
nia can consider nothing more important 
at their next annual convention than steps 
to bring about a better understanding be- 
tween the dilTerent parts of the State, as 
that is certainly of the utmost importance 
in forcing any legislation. 
Willows, Cal., Nov. 30. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

BEE NOTES FROM EUROPE. 



Buckwheat and Bees. 



BY E. LINDE. 

On this continent, buckwheat-growing is 
fast decreasing in spite of its being an ex- 
cellent feed for pigs. Farmers in heather 
regions, where sandy soils predominate, say 
that buckwheat, where fed to pigs, imparts 
a peculiar sweetness to the bacon; and its 
hay, though small in quantity, is greatly 
appreciated. Buckwheat is considered an 
unreliable crop, although some years it pays 
well. Being very sensitive, late frosts very 
often ruin the harvest. This year I have 
met farmers who had sown buckwheat suc- 
cessively three times, and each time light 
night frosts killed the young plants. 

Generally, buckwheat is sown late in May. 
The first of July is the date when the white- 
flowered fields put in an appearance. 

As unreliable as buckwheat is to the farm- 
er, so it is to the bee-keeper as a honey- 
yielder. But when all conditions are favor- 
able, buckwheat yields honey profusely. 
However, a special market must be sought 
for buckwheat honey on account of its color 
and peculiar flavor, which the ordinary hon- 
ey-consumer does not like. 

The old-fashioned skeppist maintains 
that buckwheat yields nectar during the 
morning hours only, and that east winds 
favor the secretion of nectar considerably. 
Indeed, I have rarely seen bees working in 
the buckwheat-fields in the afternoon ex- 
cept when the weather in the morning had 
kept the bees indoors. ^Yhether in that 
case they gathered much nectar I do not 
know. 

DO BEES STORE MORE WHEN WORKING ON 
BUCKWHEAT ! 

In the opinion of the skeppist, bees sting 
more furiously when working in buckwheat 
fields than at other times. He further 
maintains that work in buckwheat fields 
exhausts stocks rapidly — so much so that 
they are almost worthless for any later flow. 
According to him it is, of course, the buck- 
wheat that in one way or other causes the 
bees to die in such immense numbers. The 
peasant is always inclined to look for ex- 
ternal causes, never suspecting his bees to 
be at fault. But the real cause of the dwin- 
dling of stocks working in buckwheat is 
very probably different. The skepjiist is 
working with a bee in which the swarming 
trait is systematically developed. Kow, 
buckwheaf comes in bloom just at a time 
when the old foraging bees that went with 
the swarms (three and more from one stock) 
have done their work, and there is not an 
adequate number of young bees ready to 
take their place, owing to the fact that brood- 
rearing stopi)ed for several weeks while 
swarming was going on. 

My own experience in buckwheat-fields 
does not warrant me to express any opinion 
as to the assertion that stocks having work- 



Jan. 15. iyi2 

ed on buckwheat are less valuable for any 
later How; but ibis assertion does not seem 
to be entirely without some foundation. 
Some bee-keepers think that it is the strong 
flavor of the buckwheat honey that makes 
the bees dull, and renders them more or less 
indifferent to later-blooming flowers with 
less pronounced odor. 

THE ONE-HOLE FEEDER. 

The one-hole-feeder idea, as expounded 
by the editor, is best taught in England, 
and for a long time already. In England I 
became acquainted with a feeder I am now 
using exclusively. I don't know who the 




A feeding-jar having an adjustable opening for 
the syrup. 

inventor is;' but it is a splendid feeder, by 
means of which feeding may be easily adapt- 
ed to all possible requirements. The illus- 
tration explains the construction. One 
could turn on from one to nine holes; and 
when the bottle is empty it may be refilled 
without the bees escaping. 

BEE-STIXGS AND DARK CLOTHES. 

Although I always wear dark clothes when 
working in the apiary, I experience no in- 
convenience from them as regards stings, 
because they are so strongly saturated with 
the hive odor and with bee products that 
the color becomes a secondary factor. My 
black felt hat, however, has many a time 
served the useful purpose of attracting pug- 
nacious liees away from my unprotected 
face when an unexpected onslaught happen- 
ed to render the situation unpleasant for me. 

DARK HONEY FOR A>\E:MIC' PEOPLE. 

Mr. Editor, you are quite right in your 
explanatory note to what Dr. Miller gleaned 
from Deutsche BieiK nzucht. Hasawood hon- 
ey is not dark, page <J14. The fact is, the 
tongue can not trace the basswood-honey 
admixture in the dark honey the bees gath- 
ered in considcraVjle (juantities during .July; 
still another fact is that, in the morning 
and evening, bees made a great roar in the 
basswood-trees. About the same time, great 
quantities of highly aromatic propolis were 
accumidating in the hives. This propolis 
remained rather fluid for a considerable 
time. 



57 

It .seems odd, but it is a fact, that I sold 
my dark honey sooner than the light, owing 
to what I stated in my advertisement in the 
local paper, viz., thai the dark honey, on 
account of its higher i)ercenlage of phos- 
phorus and iron, could be especially recom- 
mended for nervous and anannic persons, 
scrofulous children, and for all those who 
have to do much brain work. After this ad- 
vertisement appeared, the majority of t'-j 
orders coming in were for dark honey. 
However, there is one very important differ- 
ence between my dark-honey customers and 
my light-honey "customers. " Rather few re- 
peat orders are coming in from tlie former in 
comparison with those from the latter. 

HIGH PRICE OF SUGAR. 

The editorial, page fill, Oct. 15, regarding 
expensive sugar for fall feeding, reminds 
me that, at the time of writing, the price of 
sugar has not fallen much in spile of the 
fact that the beet har\est has been very 
much better than was expected some months 
ago. Indeed, the beets contain a much 
higher percentage of sugar than in former 
years. It is the yield in weight that is un- 
satisfactory. Bee-keeper.s in most European 
countries feel very keenly the indirect tax 
levied on sugar. In Oermany the sugar tax 
amounts to about SI. 70 per 100 lbs.; iti Hol- 
land, Austria- Hungary, Italy, etc., this tax 
is higher still. We are making etTorts to 
get tlie sugar we need for feeding our bees 
free of tax. But difllculties arise from the 
necessity of having such sugar characterized 
by some admixture that does not harm the 
bees, but at the same time prevents an U- 
legitimate use of the sugar. Sand, sawdust, 
peat fiber, etc., have been suggested and 
tried in some states; also pepper (from cap- 
sicum) in conjunction with a coloring mat- 
ter. These latter means for characterizing- 
sugar have been tried in Holland. The 
pepper is said not to have any deleterious 
effect on the bees. 

I think $8.00 for sugar, page 610, Oct. 15, 
is a rather stiff price. The highest price I 
have had to pay this autumn was $7.50, the 
tax included. 

Wendhausen, Wildesheim, Germany. 

[We believe it is true that bees sting more 
when working on buckwheat than when 
working on a source that is a slower and an 
all-day yielder like clover. When honey 
comes^ in with a rush, as it does from buck- 
wheat, then slacks up and stops, bees be- 
come cross. W'hen they are robbing in a 
wholesale way they become furious when 
the bee-keei)e"r cuts'ofT suddenly the su})ply. 
It has the same elTect when nature stops 
the flow of nectar. 

We knew that slow feeding had been ex- 
ploited more in l'Airoi)e than in this coun- 
try. The scheme you show in the feeder is 
a good one and worthy of adoi)tion in this 
country. We are convinced that slow feed- 
ing has come to stay here. For queen-rear- 
ing and brood stinitflation it is invaluaV)le. 
-Ed.] 



58 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



[jiloacfl^ (dU dirsi™ iJ[p®[0] [DBffiPcgcp^DDii [FB©D(o]i 



Increase — How to Make it. 

1. Which method is preferable in making rapid 
increase — the Biegle way of allowing the nuclei to 
liuiid their (lucen-cells after division, or theSomer- 
lord way of casing llie cjueen and dividing after the 
folony as a wlioie lias built and sealed sufficient 
cells? If the latter, what should be done with the 
ciiieen in the mean time? and would it not l>e prac- 
ticable to remove a couple of frames of capped brood 
and form one nucleus with her .at once, and let the 
cells be built on the remaining frames? This 
would not deprive one oi the services of the ciueen 
at all. l-"urther, assuming that in neither case 
would there be any surplus stores, would there be 
enough difference in the condition of the nuclei at 
the end of the season to warrant one purchasing 
(lueens for each one when dividing ? 

:;. i have three colonie.s— one Italian and two hy- 
brid — and wish to increase to six the coming sum- 
mer. T also want some honey. Now, if I divide my 
Italian colony 'now in an eight-frame hive), and 
prevent swarming in the two other ones, it will 
make it: or if 1 increase by the method outlined by 
(,;. C. Chase, p. 655. Nov. 1, which is practically the 
Alexander way, I shall then have six. Which way, 
under ordinary circumstances, will be more profit- 
able, taking into account the honey crop and out- 
look for the following year? Of course, in the for- 
mer case I would have four Italian queens; in the 
latter, four hybrids : but as there are far more hy- 
brids and blacks in this locality than Italians it is 
doubtful if all would be mated purely. 

3. Another question: Suppose the Somerford plan 
is employed, and more than one cell is built on a 
single frame, and it is desirable to save the surplus 
queens to requeen black or hybrid colonies. I un- 
derstand that West protectors can be used: but I 
have never seen the niodus overundi described from 
the placingof the protector to thequeen at work In 
the colony requeened, nor even the time limit in 
removing the virgin from the protector. 

i. I have read that combs of honey partly sealed 
would be taken down into the brood-chamber in 
the fall. I took the surplus from one colony about 
.^ept. 25: but as there were two or three combs that 
were not entirely sealed I placed these in a full- 
depth super along with frames that I had cut the 
honey from, all but a .starter, and put them on a 
colony to be cleaned up. One week later the hive 
was opened, and I found that most of the starters 
had been drawn out and were being filled, and the 
queen had left empty combs in the brood-chamber 
and laid about ten or twelve thousand eggs in the 
super, and went downstairs again. After the brood 
had all hatched I took the super off about Oct. 25, 
and there was not half a pound of honey in the 
brood-nest. 1 could not u.se the combs from the su- 
per, as they h.id been spread apart to get fat combs; 
and no more tiian six would go into it, so I fed 
them for winter. Why did the colony act that way? 
I took this sui)er, cut out all the capped honey, and 
put the suijer on my Italian colony, and they will 
not move a drop of it. They all seem to be loafing 
around on the combs, and eating when they get 
hungry. As I leit but five combs in it would they 
not be apt to choose it for a winter nest? What is 
the answer — Dr. Miller's " kick the hive and run'" 
idea? I have tried this, but the bees seem to chew 
the comb badly. 

.5. In .luly, 1910. 1 had a black queen mate with a 
yellow drone, her progeny being 90 per cent band- 
ed—from one to three light-yellow bands. This 
year there has been a constantly increasing rever- 
sion toward the blacks, until at present there are 
not -10 per cent showing any bands whatever. Why? 

6. Vou said editorially, about a month ago, that 
you had never seen any particular feeling shown 
against newly hatched bees. A few weeks ago I 
saw a very young bee yanked out of the hive and 
thrown out in the gra.ss. 1 picked it up at once but 
could not find any thing wrong with it. It .seemed 
sound in wind and limb, so 1 opened the hive and 
tossed the bee down on the frames, where it was in- 
stantly grabbed by as many as could reach it, and 
hustled down and out again. Why ? 

7. There was a (juectlon raised in Gleanings as 
to whether the bee-moth ever lays eggs outside of a 
hive. It doe.s. J melted up some old comb— stewed 
It. In fact, for half an hour; then made It into cakes 
about four Inches in diameter, and put a handful 
of them In a closet In my shop. About ten days af- 



ter that, 1 happened to shift them and found wax- 
worms, about ^i inch long, very busy making sub- 
ways in it. As all eggs that might have been in it 
when the wax was rendered must have been hard- 
boiled, the wax must have been visited by the 
moth afterward. 

Newfield, N. .!., Nov. 9. G. E. Nightingale. 

[1. We would recommend the Somerford plan. 
Thequeen that is caged is caged inside the hive, 
and you will find that the bees will build cells after 
she is confined, about the same as if she were out 
of the hive entirel.v. 

2. We would advise you to make the division en- 
tirely with the Italian, and run the two hybrid col- 
onies for honey — not because the hybrid colonies 
are any i-etter for the production of honey, but be- 
cause it is more desirable to liave your increase of 
the pure stock of Italians. If you use drone-traps 
on the entrances of the hybrid colonies, and allow 
the drones of your Italian colony to have free 
flight, the chances are that the queens will be pure- 
ly fertilized. 

3. The surplus of cells can be put in a West queen- 
cell protector with a West queen-cage over the 
protector, so that, when the young queen hatch* s 
out, she will be caged therein. As it is usually 
very difficult to introduce virgin queens that are 
three, four. five, and six days old, we advise you to 
introduce as soon as she hatches, or as soon there- 
after as possible. 

4. When there is a little honey In the upper sto- 
ry of a colony, the bees sometimes take it down 
and sometimes they will not. A good deal will de- 
pend uiion conditions. As a general thing, it will 
take a colony a good wlille to take the honey down 
from the upper story into the lower one, and, as a 
rule, they will not do it. A better way would be to 
extract these combs if you have an extractor: then 
put the combs in the hive and let the bees clean 
them up: then put them back in the honey-house 
for use next season. If you have no extractor, store 
the combs containing a little lioney, and use them 
next spring in the brood-nest tor spring feeding. 

5. Referring to the black queen that mated with 
a yellow drone, it is hardly probable that her origi- 
nal stock would change after she once met the 
drone. It would be our guess that the original 
black queen had been superseded, and that her 
daughter* had taken her place. This thing will 
happen very often, and a beginner would not no- 
tice the change had taken place, especially if the 
young queen lookfed very much like her mother, as 
she often does. 

6. There must have been something that the bees 
discovered that was wrong with that young bee, 
and yet you failed to see it. From your statement 
we should conclude that the bee hatched prema- 
turely. Sucli bees are never tolerated, for the rea- 
son they will never be of any use. 

7. There has been a great amount of proof intro- 
duced of late, showing the bee-moth and the wax- 
worm will work in old combs or even in cakes of 
wax outside of the hive. Our old friend Dr. C. C. 
Miller was certainly wrong on this propostion. 
The best of us make mistakes.— Ed.] 



Bees Wintering Without Protection of Any Kind. 

One of my neighbors has a colony of bees in a 
hive that stands on the top of a hill, and is not pro- 
tected in any way. The brood-chamber is single- 
walled, and the owner never looks into it, although 
he gets considerable honey from the super every 
year. 

My brother has a hive of bees that stands on a ta- 
ble, the top of which is not level by any means, for 
it looks as though it might almost fall over. The 
hive is single-walled, and the fiat cover is badly 
warped, so there is nothing to keep the cold wind 
from blowing right in on the bees; but, at the same 
time, they wintered well last year. 

1 am wintering some of my colonies by piling 
cornstalks over the hives on the back and both 
sides. I put deep supers on the brood-chamber, 
with a few thicknesses of muslin underneath, con- 
fining the bees to the lower story. The corn fodder 
piled around serves as a protection. 

Westfield. Ind. A. L. Beals. 

[The two ca.ses first mentioned are the exceptions 
that prove the rule. You are very wise in protect- 
ing your bees.— Ed.] 



Jan. K). im-Z 

In Hunting Queens, Look for the Bee with Short 
Wings. 

1 suppose every person has some contrast to look 
for In searching for a iiiieen; and the more striking 
the contrast the sooner she is found. I don't know 
that 1 have seen in print the contrast th;vt I always 
look for. and it strikes me the most forcibly in look- 
ing for a (lueen. It Is tliis: Her wings look rer// 
.short. We are looking at their backs., and the 
wings are the most prominent visible part. When 
I see the short-winged one 1 know it is the queen. 
Oi course her wings are not short, but they look so 
on account of her comparativeLv long body. 

< iaiena. Kan.. Nov. 25. J. P. Hkumfield. 

;Vou have mentioned one of the important dis- 
tinguishing characteristics that help mu<'h in find- 
ing a queen. .\nother characteristic that is often 
seen on an Italian yueen is the color of her abdo- 
men and hind legs. They are yellower than those 
of a worker. But the greatest help is the behavior 
of the bees toward her. This last is of great assist- 
ance In locating virgins, small and dark.— Ed.J 

The Success and Enthusiasm of a Lady who, from 
a Start ol a Nucleus, Increased to 53 Colonies. 

You wisl; to know if 1 have found your journal 
interestm ; and helpful. 1 have found it very help- 
ful, and ouch more interesting than I expected. 
When 1 bought my first bees I subscribed for your 
journal as an aid to the bee-work, but did not ex- 
pect to be very nuich Interested. I have found 
that bee literattire can be very interesting as well 
as instructive. 

You have touched on all the subjects that I de- 
sired most to know about, and I have never had to 
write for information. 1 started with a nucleus, 
and now have 53 colonies. I have lost only two in 
the cellar, and those were short of stores: neither 
have I lost more than two from spring dwindling. 
I knew nothing about bees when I began, except 
what I had learned in the ABC book. 

1 got all of my information from Gleanings, ex- 
cept what 1 have gained by experience. My bees 
nave always paid their own expenses and some- 
thing besides. I have all the honey 1 want to eat, 
and I count that considerable, for I am fond of it. I 
have enjoyed A. I. Root's articles on chicken-rais- 
ing very much. 

West Chazy, X. Y., Aug. 15. l.'.'A A. Brown. 



Brood-rearing in Mid-winter. 

I should like to know if bees will hai/h in the lat- 
ter part of December in Chicago. I j ixe 100 colo- 
nies. While the weather was warm m/ bees start- 
ed to carry in water. I opened the hive and found 
one comb partl.v filled with eggs. Do bees need 
water on account of the brood? 

Chicago, ill., Dec. 15. R. J. K. 

[It Is not unusual to find brood in the central 
combs of a hive in December, especially when 
there has been as much warm weather as there has 
been this winter. Whenever there is brood-rearing 
going on. the bees need water: and that is why, on 
warm days through the winter, they make such 
efTorts to find it. Very often brood .started in win- 
ter is lost: for when cold snaps come, the cluster 
draws together, with the result that the brood, es- 
pecially that on the outside, if the queen has start- 
ed quite a little. Is abandoned.— Ed.] 



Stings Relieve Rheumatism at 80 Years of Age. 

Although never very much afllicted with rheu- 
matism 1 have, for some years, been troubled at 
night with pain in one arm, and during the last 
year it affected both arms, but generally only at 
night. I have some bees which have stung me oc- 
casionally: and as my pain has varied 1 have often 
thought that the stings which I got might have ac- 
counted for it. 

Several months ago I had a strong dose of bee- 
stlng cure. Kor some reason the bees took the no- 
tion of giving me a chastening for intruding on 
their rights, and it seemed as if a regiment had 
been sent to give a sharp notice, which they did 
without stint. I think over a doz.en discharged 
their errand falthfmiy by giving me notice with 
their probangs: but for about two months 1 have 
had no rheumatic jiain. I have had no pain at 
night as before, it has entirely left me. 

Detroit, Kan., Nov. 29. A. M. Engle. 



59 

Peanut Candy for Bees. 

I bought two barels of peanut candy. The nuts 
are weevil-eaten a little. I Intend to boil and strain 
this and feed It to the bees this spring. Would It 
be safe to do It ? 

Salina, Ivan., Nov. 22. IMiako Mii.lek. 

[In regard to the peanut candy that you have, 
we should be afraid that it is scorclied and dark- 
ened in color to give the different llavor.s. If so, it 
would be a little risky to feed It to the bees, al- 
though if useddlrectly for brood-rearing you might 
have no bad results. We usually think that the 
best grade of granulated sugar is the cheapest in 
the end. If you fed any amount of it in the spring, 
there would be some danger that some of It would 
be left over and stored in the sections, which would 
give the honey a bad taste and practically spoil it 
for market.— Ed.] 



Too Much Pollen in the Hives. 

is there any thing to be done where the bees 
crowd every thine out of the lower story with pol- 
len? I have just gone through my apiary, and find 
the hives good, bad, and indifferent in this respect. 
Some few colonies had only a small amount, hav- 
ing also plenty of brood and honey. Other hives 
had the lower-story frames almost entirely filled 
with pollen. These two last classes I have taken 
account of to see how they come out. 

Ceiba Mocha, Cuba, Nov. 5. R. II. BiGELOW. 

[When a hive has an excess of pollen, the only 
thing to do is to remove the combs containing it 
and set them one side to be used the following 
spring. Such combs are often a valuable asset to 
the bee-keeper. During the winter we would not 
leave very much pollen in the hive. Give combs 
of sealed stores, the best you have, then let the 
bees work out a winter nest, which they will do if 
you give the stores to them early enough in the 
season.— Ed.] 

Importance of Upward Ventilation for Colonies 
Wintered on Summer Stands. 

The article on p. 664. Nov. 1. "Wintering Bees on 
.Summer Stands," is truly "good stuff." One win- 
ter in Kansas I wintered fifty colonies with the 
loss of only one. This was one of my very best col- 
onies: but it was in a new tight hive, with the oil- 
cloth very carelessly left on under the blanket of 
chaff packing, so that the bees had absolutely no 
upward ventilation. I learned the necessity of top 
ventilation away bsvck in the '40's in glorious New 
England, when we used the old-fashioned gum or 
box hive. 

THE FIRST SWARM NOT ALWAYS A PRIME SWARM. 

I have often known of a first swarm to be led by 
a virgin queen, and, therefore, to be what is known 
as an after-swarm. 

Carlton. Col. Jas. IT. Wing. 

Corrugated Paper in the Top and Bottom of the 
Shipping-case. 

That little di.scu.ssion on p. 712 has stirred me up 
somewhat. It is one of the rare occasions wherein 
I differ with Dr. Miller. I should be glad to have a 
sheet of corrugated paper on both top and bottom 
of my cases, for the reasons that the editor h:us 
named; also because grocers often open the cases 
on the bottom, making the no-drip arrangement 
usele.ss. ft looks as if the sign "This side up" 
ought to remedy the matter, but it doesn't. If you 
will visit the freight depot in your town and take a 
look at the boxes so marked, you will find that 
the freight-handlers pay little attention to it. 

Newman, 111., Dec. 4. C. K. Bender. 



A Good Record for a Beginner. 

Last .June I got some chufas and planted them 
about the 10th of .luly. 1 harvested them this eve- 
ning, Nov. 17. and from one hill I got 2M nuts. 
How is that? I like them well when roasted. Cali- 
fornia seems to be well suited to them. 

How is the following for increase? One colony to 
start with this year, six combs: increased to four 
colonics. .Ml combs were built from full sheets of 
foundation. I have nine extra combs on hand, and 
took 40 lbs. of extracted honey. 1 sold one colony 
forSf>.iK). 

Sacramento. Cal. A. D. Mungek. 



60 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



(o)qod° \i^®{m 



A. I. Root 



NOTES FROM OUR FLORIDA HOME. 



It is now Dec. 23; and although we have 
been here since Nov. 9 I have been so busy 
(and happy in my many busy tasks) that 
1 have not until this very moment felt like 
taking time to say a word to the many good 
friends who are following me — that is, I 
have not found time to speak especially of 
this Florida home. Speaking about homes, 
there are more homes being started just now 
right here in Bradentown (that is, new 
houses building) than in any other place I 
ever visited that I can remember. Most of 
these homes are started by elderly people; 
and it is really inspiring, to me at least, to 
see old men flying around with the alacrity 
and enthusiasm of boys, helping the sur- 
veyor, making the cement blocks that all 
structures nowadays stand on, and, a little 
later, helping the carpenter and doing a 
hundred things they perhaps never thought 
of before, because tliey are so anxious to get 
out of the little tent they have been living 
in thus far all winter until ihey could get 
up some kind of little house to live in. So 
great is the call for rooms that every house, 
idmost, is full to overflowing, one little cot- 
tage sometimes sheltering temporarily sev- 
eral families. But this is no great hardship 
here, for out on the porch is usually a better 
l)lace to sleep than anywhere indoors. 

For the past two mo'^'^hs there has hardly 
been a house-fiyvisible--atieHSt around our 
home — and, so tar as I am coi.cerned, there 
has scarcely been a mosquito in evidence, 
although Mrs. Root declares she has found 
a few. Just at dusk I have been sometimes 
annoyed by the almost invisible sand-flies; 
but a single drop of citronella rubbed on my 
wrists and neck stops the annoyance at once. 
Crowded together as we are, there is not 
only great need but there is an excellent op- 
portunity to show a Christian spirit; and I 
am glad to tell you we find it almost every- 
where. You see most of us are comparative 
strangers; and it is not only a Christian 
duty, but good sense prompts us to be cour- 
teous and obliging to the new comers in our 
midst. I wonder if it isn't true that neigh- 
borhood quarrels are more common where 
])eople have lived a long while in the same 
place. Jf so, this is one good reason for go- 
ing among strangers for a while. 

One good brother writes me to know 
whether, if he has a cottage here in winter, 
it will be safe to leave it while he goes back 
north in the summer time. My answer is 
that our home has been thus left for many 
summers; and we not only leave all our fur- 
niture but eatables that will keep, and we 
have never lost a nickel's worth that I can 
discover. Our barn has never been even 
locked up where our gardening-tools, nails, 
hammers, and wrenches are kept; but when 
ve get back every thing is just as we left it. 
Please consider we have colored people in 
great plenty all around us; but they are, as 



a rule, educated and intelligent; but mark 
this: There isn't a saloon in Manatee Co., 
and never has been. The residents of Flor- 
ida ^re, as a rule, all anxious to get people 
to come into their own neighborhood, even 
if they stay here only winter times, and on 
this account every one seems to unite in 
making it a safe place to leave while you 
are back home in the North during the sum- 
mer time. There is something very enticing 
about the business of starting a temporary 
little home down in this mild and genial 
climate where one can work out of doors 
every day in winter, especially to elderly 
people who have, perhaps, builded several 
elaborate homes in the far North. It really 
does one good to figure out that many of 
the things we have been accustomed to are 
not really needful, and oftentimes we can 
actually be happier ivithout them. Lots of 
people are found in barns or even sheds, 
and in "almost any old place;" and, judg- 
ing by appearances, they seem to be quite 
contented and happy. 

KEEPING CHICKENS IN FLORIDA; THE 
TRUTH ABOUT IT. 

So many keep asking if they can come 
here in the winter and make money " keep- 
ing chickens" I have thought best to reply 
at some length. The greatest trouble is in 
getting into the business in the fall and 
then getting out of it in the spring when 
you go back north. 

One spring, as I have told yovi, I turned 
over my flock to a neighbor at a rough 
guess of 50 cts. each in the spring, and was 
to take them back in the fall at what they 
were worth in the market. When I got 
round again he had been offered 75 cts. each; 
so, of course, I paid that price. He had what 
eggs he could get during the summer to pay 
for their grain; and with the 25 cts. advance 
in price he came out very well. As I took 
them back again after the moulting season 
was over, or mostly over, /did very well. 
Of course the question came up in regard to 
loss during the summer. I told him I would 
stand all the loss where it was no fault of 
management, and there was very little loss 
except a Leghorn rooster that cost me So. 00. 
He was gone just before I returned, and no 
one could ever tell what became of him. 
Well, during the past summer, roup or some- 
thing like it got among the chickens; and 
when I got around, there were only about 90 
left out of about 140, big and little, turned 
over to him. Aside from this, everybody 
(that is, almost everybody) had unusual 
trouble about getting eggs during the jaast 
summer. Neighbors Rood and Abbott say 
the same thing; and another thing, this 
time I put in his care almost a hundred 
chickens of different ages, some of them 
only two or three weeks old. These, of 
course, would not be ready to lay, or at least 
to lay very little down here in Florida, in 
the six months I was away, and I tell you 



Jan. 15, 1912 



it is rather expensive keeping chickens down 
here for six months witliout getting any 
eggs. Of course, there were some roosters 
to sell when big enough, and lie sold about 
20 and used some; but the i>0 that were re- 
turned full grown cost me something like 
50 cts. each for their "board and lodging" 
while I was north, aside from the eggs they 
laid. He said we would both be out of i)ock- 
et the way it turned out, and I think he 
was right. 

Right ill sight out of the window where I 
am running my typewriter, just across the 
road from my five acres is another five acres. 
It was purchased just about a year ago by a 
gentleman from the North to go into the 
poull ry business. He planned his buildings, 
including an incubator cellar, had the trees 
all cleared off, and bought and started his 
incubator just before I left in the spring. 
When we got back in November we found 
on the vacant lot, instead of the poultry- 
houses, etc., a big white board sign reading 
as follows: 



For sale on easy terms, these lots, 

52 by i:M feet. 
Apply to 



When I met him and inquired why the 
change in program, he replied something as 
follows: 

" Mr. Root, you know as well as I do that 
there is no money in chickens in this local- 
ity. The feed costs ever so much more, and 
the prices are not as good as in the North; 
and any extra amount would glut the mar- 
ket." 

I said, " How about eggs at 40 cts. a doz- 
en?" 

"Oh, yes! you can do very well with eggs; 
but I planned to raise broilers and roasters 
that sell in the North for 80 or 40 cts. a 
pound." 

You see he failed to take into account the 
cost of feeding grain for months before he 
would be getting any returns. No wonder 
he decided on going into the real-estate busi- 
ness and selling his five acres cut up into 
little lots. Various reasons were given by 
different ones as to why hens didn't lay as 
usual; and Mr. Abbott declares his hens this 
year (at least some of them) have moulted 
hvicr. After I got iny hens to laying I took 
seven dozen eggs into the store, and- the 
clerk asked me how many hens I had. I 
told him about eighty, fie replied: 

" Mr. Root, I have a hundred hens, and [ 
haven't had seven dozen eggs hi three 
months/' 

My seven dozen were laid in three days. 
When he asked if I could tell him what the 
trouble was I told him I feared one trouble 
was he was not around with them enough to 
get acquainted with them. When I first got 
ours home we got only three or four eggs a 
day, and one day only two. They just stay- 
ed in the house and acted listless, and it was 
a full month or more before I could get 
them to come right up to me and be friendly. 



GETTING ACQUAINTKD WITH THK CHICKENS. 

1 told the young clerk in the store thai 
the main reason why he had not seven doz- 
en eggs in three months from his hundred 
hens was i)robably because he did not get 
accjuainted with them. When I first got 
my ninety hens home I got very few eggs — 
one day barely two. They would run when 
I came near them as if tliey had no other 
idea in their heads than that T had just 
come out to chase one of them down for din- 
ner; and, by the way, this is something that 
should never be done in a well-kei)t poultry- 
yard. Even if company does come unex- 
pectedly, if "chicken dinners " is what you 
"keep hens" for, don't try for eggs at \he 
same time. Well, I commenced at once 
getting into the good graces of the "bid- 
dies." Where we keep grain all the time 
before them in the suspended metal tubs, as 
I have explained, it isn't so easy to get them 
tame; but I tried to bring them some tidbit 
they liked, every little while, and I careful- 
ly avoided coming on to them with a rush 
so as to frighten them, always talking to 
them when I came near; and now when I 
go out mornings to let them out I say, " Hel- 
lo, chucks!" before I am fairly in sight, and 
the Buttercup rooster always res]ionds with 
a peculiar note to reassure any of the timid 
flighty Leghorn matrons. It took me fully 
six weeks to get them to running toward me 
when they saw me coming, and to run about 
and scratch and sing as a laying hen always 
does. Eggs are now 40 cts. a dozen; and 9 
eggs, or 30 cts., pays for the grain for the 
whole flock, including the six Runner ducks, 
so you see all the eggs 1 get over 9 is profit; 
or, if it suits you better, my pay for the 
time taken in "getting acquainted." 

Yesterday I got 33 hens' eggs and 4 duck 
eggs; and, by the way, I want to tell you I 
am getting four eggs from four ducks right 
along, although my neighbors who have the 
same ducks they got of me are not getting 
any such results at all. The old duck that 
laid 100 eggs a year ago without a break 
commenced Nov. 23, and bids fair so far 
(Dec. 27) to do the same thing again. Oh! 
I must not forget to tell you that one of my 
young ducks lays an egg as white as any 
hen's egg; and if she is fed on grain I think 
few of you would be able to tell them by the 
taste from hens' eggs. At i)resent my six 
ducks spend most of their time in the drain- 
age brook or canal, and they come so near 
getting their feed out of thewatorand along 
the margin that I gi\ e them only a little 
corn at night to make them come home, 
and another corn feed in the morning before 
they start out on their all-day raid. They 
are in such a hurry to be let out (so fond 
are they of the water) that they hardly stop 
for the corn in the morning. They usually 
have their four eggs laid by daylight, and wel- 
come me uproariously when I come to raise 
the trap-door that lets them down into the 
creek. Once more let me .say, it is gettinfj 
acquainted with lS>e ducks that enables me 
to get eggs when nobody else h:is '^u\\ or 
only very few. 



62 



Cleaninn in B«e Culture 



Well, I have told you so many doleful 
stories about getting no eggs in summer and 
fall in Florida that I am glad to give you 
one on the other side. My old friend and 
neighbor, Mr. Raub, who did not commence 
with chickens until past SO, came back here 
in October; and (hiring November, when no- 
body else was getting any eggs, he got 700 
by actual count in that one month, from 
50 laying hens. He and his chickens are 
not only good friends, but they are well 
"acquainted." 

OIIB AUTOMOBILE WHEN WE GOT BACK IN 
NOVEMBER. 

I mentioned, as we were about going north 
last spring, the trouble with the coil to our 
machine. Well, after standing idle for six- 
months during the summer time, it started 
off at almost the first turn of the crank, but, 
of course, it had the same trouble when 
starting as when we left in the spring — that 
is, on account of the defective coil it " limp- 
ed " a little before it got warmed up. Sears, 
Roebuck & Co., however (according to agree- 
ment) , had a new coil here almost on our 
arrival; and when this was put in place of 
the old one it worked so perfectly that it is 
really not only "a thing of beauty" but a 
wonderful convenience in taking Mrs. Root 
and myself wherever we want to go. Dur- 
ing the spell of hot weather just at the close 
of the old year, some of our inner tubes in 
the tires began to play out, it is true; but 
they were just about a year old; and standing 
all summer in our hot auto house (which is 
but poorly ventilated) it was very likely not 
the best place for them. Neighbor Rood 
suggests that, when they are not in use, rub- 
ber tires should be kept protected from hot 
air and from light; and, down here in this 
hot climate, tliey should be placed in the 
coolest i^lace possible. The tubes have been 
repaired; and as w^e are now having cooler 
weather they will likely do us considerable 
service yet. Even if they do fail soon, the 
cost of a set of inner tubes will be but a 
trifle compared with the comfort and con- 
venience of having "a horse always ready 
to go, fast or slow," and no expense except 
when he is at work. 

FLORIDA FRUITS IN WINTER. 

When we arrived the neighbors told us 
our .Japanese persimmons had borne a beau- 
tiful crop of fine fruit; but they got so dead 
ripe they were able to save only one fine 
specimen for us by tying it on the tree so it 
would not drop off. We regretted this, and 
have since purchased a tree that ripens a lit- 
tle later in the winter. After we had been 
here about a week, Wesley informed us 
there was a bunch of bananas ready to cut, 
and this great bunch supplied Mrs. Root 
and myself with the finest bananas I ever 
tasted, for nearly two weeks. Thev made a 
most pleasing and welcome addition to my 
"apple supper," and so far I have found 
them fully as wholesome as the apples. The 
variety we grow is called Hart's Choice. 
'J^hcy are rather smaller than those usually 



found in the market, but they are of a pe- 
culiar and most delicious flavor. Right 
close to the door of our auto-house is a large- 
leaved guava-bush. It is not as tall as I 
am, and yet it has given us 30 or 40 great 
fruits as large and as handsome as big beau- 
tiful pears, and, to my notion, no pear can 
equal them. Of course, most people have 
to get used to them; but a guava shortcake, 
as Mrs. Root makes them (with a duck egg) , 
is ahead of any strawberry shortcake (for 
me) that can be made. The bush is really 
a sight with its branches bending almost to 
the ground, and one more turning yellow 
(and dropping off if they are not picked) 
every day. It is fun to see it putting out 
new blossoms, and green fruit of all sizes 
coming on all the while. To save inquiries 
I am glad to tell you that all the fruits and 
trees I mention here can be had of the Rea- 
soner Bro's, whose nurseries are at Oneca, 
Fla., only four or five miles from our home. 

THE EWING blackberry; DYNAMITE FOR 
SETTING TREES, ETC. 

Friend Ewing sent me four blackberry- 
plants to be tested here in Florida; and as I 
am greatly interested in the plan of making 
a hole for trees or plants with dynamite, I 
procured at our hardware store a stick with 
caps and fuse for 25 cts. ; and by cutting the 
stick in four pieces we made four holes, or 
cavities, one for each plant. The charge 
was put down about three feet, and it made 
an egg-shaped cavity as big as a bushel bas- 
ket, pulverizing the soil and subsoil for a 
much larger distance around, and making 
a most ideal condition for any plant or tree 
to grow. It is also claimed that the gases 
and chemicals liberated will for a long time 
keep away cutworms and other worms or in- 
sects that might prey on the tender new 
shoots. I don't as yet know just how true 
this may be; but my blackberries have all 
started to grow beautifully. We have since 
planted a dozen or more trees in the same 
way, and so far are much pleased with the 
plan. 



MORE ABOUT LAEGE FAMILIES. 

I was awfully " beat "' to see that letter published 
in the Oct. 15th issue. In regard to the boys help- 
ing me in the mines, the laws of Pennsylvania do 
not allow boys in the mines under 16 years of age, 
and the school laws require all under 16 to attend 
the common schools, and I have 7 going to school. 
Some of them, I am glad to say, have never missed 
a day. nor been tardy once in three and four terms, 
and have received certificates of merit from the 
county superintendent of schools. I have one boy, 
16 years old last June, who is quite a help in many 
ways. This is a poor farming locality. Some farm- 
ers oflfer a boy 30 cts. a day for 12 to 14 hours' work 
or longer. With the high cost of every thing, that 
would hardly pay for clothes and shoe leather. 

You say I suggest that a large family is a hin- 
drance. I assure you, Mr. Root, such a thought 
never entered my head. At home with your fami- 
ly, big or little, is the best place on earth. Such are 
my thoughts. Children are never taken care of by 
others as their parents do it. and it does make one 
do some thinking at times. The happiest men and 
women in existence (or should be) are they who 
have good health. I get up at 4 o'clock, and walk 
a mile to the railroad; travel by rail 15 miles to the 
mines; enter the mine at half-past 7: leave at 4:10 
p,M., travel 15 miles back, and get home at six, 
through all kinds of weather when able to work, as 



Jan. 15, 1912 

this Is all the work handy. There are 75 to^OO men 
who ride on this work train. 

You suggest tliat a I'aniily miglit live on "boiled 
wheat." which would keep them healthy. Now let 
us get to conclusions a.s to wliat i.s the best diet for 
all. We must obtain the facts for this from the ac- 
cumulated experience ofmen under various circum- 
stances. Take the Cliinesf and Hindoo rice-eaters. 
They are not supcrim races of pcoiilc. neither are the 
llesh-eating lOsiiuinios nor tlie fisli-eating people of 
Norwa.v and the I'echeras of South A inerica. Kither 
vegetable or animal food a man can live on; but 
the decision of those in authority is that a mixed 
diet is best for the average. Take the American — 
he is always blamed for eating to excess. Where 
can you find a superior race of people with their 
mixed diet? Nature's first food is animal food. 
Milk — what is better? Look at young birds. They 
are fed wholly on bugs and worms until grown up. 

Three Springs, I'a. W. S. Cohenour. 

Why, my good friend, yoii are a rich man 
already — richer by far than many milUon- 
aires, in my estimation. I quite agree with 
you that the liappiest people in the world 
are those who are obliged to get up at four 
o'clock, or something like it, and keep busy 
at something until bedtime. I am usually 
up at about four o'clock to let the chickens 
out before they begin to worry, and I keep 
btisy at something until nine or ten o'clock 
at night. In regard to dieting, if I am cor- 
rect. Dr. Wiley argues ju.^t about as you do; 
but I still think that I could get along very 
well and be satisfied and happy with boiled 
wheat, especially if I had a bowl of milk to 
go with it, and a little honey or some ma])le 
molasses. Notwithstanding, when I feel 
that I am rather running down, two or three 
meals with good beefsteak, or, better still, 
ground meat, nicely broiled, is about the 
best medicine in the world to get my diges- 
tion back into good trim. Perhaps, my 
good friend, you and I will not live long 
enough to see what those children you have 
been talking about will amount to; but with 
the bringing-up you are giving them, it 
would not besurprisingif one or more should 
turn out to be millionaires, or something a 
great deal better for the good of humanity. 



INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS, ETC., IN IDAHO. 

Dear Mr. Boot: — Yesterday, when I got Glean- 
ings from the postoffice. a neighbor said to me " I 
see you get some circulars too." I told him it was 
Gleanings, and added that it was one of the pub- 
lications that I really read, although I never owned 
a bee in my life. I am planning to make next 
spring a start, for it is an awful waste of good honey 
to let all these alfalfa-fields bloom without a bee- 
hive to the square mile. 

I read Gleanings backward. First I read the 
poultry department and then your home depart- 
ment: then editorials and Dr. Miller. I happen to 
know Dr. M., whose smile "never comes oflf," and 
I like to read after him. 

I read with approval what you had to say of ster- 
ilizing certain kinds of criminals. Last winter the 
legislature of the State of Washington passed a 
sterilization law. and the other day a man who 
attacked a girl was condemned to a term in the 
penitentiary and to sterilization — the first time 
such a peutalty has ever been given a man in this 
country. 

I note In Gleanings for November 15. that a cor- 
respondent gave up Indian Runners because they 
laid tinted eggs, and few of them. lie says his 
ducks were fawn and white. l''awn and white 
Itunners nearly always lay more or less tinted eggs; 
but the penciled variety invariably produces white 
eggs, and also lay better than the fawn and white; 
because to get fawn and white, very close and in- 
discriminate Inbreeding has been resorted to. As 



63 

to white Indian Runners I have lately learned 
something of them. I was at Stockton. Cal. a few 
days ago. judging the poultry show there, and met 
a lady who tohl me that she had penciled Indian 
Kunners, and concluded to get some white ones. 
She paid a high price for some white ducks from a 
well-advertised strain; but they proved to be such 
poor layers that she sold her stock and now keeps 
only the penciled variety. 

I am inteiested in linding proof that Runners 
need water to swim in in order that they may mate 
in-operly and produce fertile eggs. I am inclined 
to think you are right about it: if so, this compli- 
cates the matter for a good many. 
^^ I want to congratulate you on your courage in 

saying things" about advertisers who overstate 
matters. Sometimes 1 think I say too much, and 
at other times 1 am somewhat afraid my spine is a 
little defective. 

We are having delightful weather here — cold at 
night, but bright sunny days and snow-capped 
mountains in every direction. It is a beautiful 
country. Every time I go to California, Washing- 
ton, or Oregon (and I am called into these States 
often), I come back glad to see Idaho. 

Wendell, Idaho, Nov. 22. Miller Purvis 



SWEET CLOVER IN SOUTH DAKOTA. 

The following from the St. Paul Disj^atch, 
dated Pierre, S. I)., Sept. 13, is another il- 
lustration of the way in which humanity, 
even good farmers, have been neglecting 
one of the most valuable legumes God ever 
gave to mankind, and treating it as a nox- 
ious weed. 

T. J. Steele, of Sioux City, one of the owners of the 
Steele and Goudy ranch in western Sully County, 
feels confident that one of the coming forage-plants 
of the Northwest is sweet clover. This plant, which 
has been spreading over the Missouri Valley, mak- 
ing a heavy growth wherever it has secured a foot- 
hold, regardless of adverse weather conditioTis, and 
showing an ability to thrive on the prairie with 
but little rainfall, has been looked upon as a pest 
to be exterminated if possible. 13ut Mr. Steele 
says it has been proven to him by tests that, if it is 
handled as is alfalfa, cutting it while tender, and 
before it becomes woody, it makes one of the best 
of stock foods: and that it can be grown success- 
fully is made evident by its rank growth wherever 
it has secured a start on the prairie. It Is claimed 
to be just as good for hogs as for cattle. 

Mr. Steele is hunting for a supply of the seed to 
start a field of it on his Sully Comity ranch, and to 
give it tests. It is a fodder for which stock must 
acquire a taste; but when they once take to it they 
eat it readily, and the results have been shown to 
him by men who have tried it. 



BOOMING SWEET CLOVER. 

There seems to be a boom on in sweet clover. 
We were among the earliest of farm papers to call 
attention to the value of this long-despised cousin 
of alfalfa, and are glad to have our judgment veri- 
fied. But booms are unsafe things, and a word of 
caution may well be dropped. 

Sweet clover is a money-maker to the farmer who 
can grow it successfullv. Hut because it is away- 
side weed it must not be assumed that it will grow 
successfully of its own accord. There is a trick to 
sweet-clover growing which must be learned, or 
failure will be met with. It has about the same 
feeding value as alfalfa. It will grow in localities 
where alfalfa fails. It prepares tlie way for alfalfa 
on the same ground. It makes good hay and fur- 
nishes good pasture. It renovates the soil. But it 
is not as good a plant as alfalfa for the purpose for 
which alfalfa is grown— that is, we don't think it is. 
— Farm and Fireside. 



One farmer reports .succes in killing quack-grass 
with sweet clover. In view of the fact that the 
sweet-clover crop, for either pasture, hay. or seed, 
is almo.st as valuable as alfalfa, and that it is a great 
soil-renovator, quack-grass and Canada-thi.stle vic- 
tims may well look into the matter.— /<'"//n ond 
Fireside, Dec. 9. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



ir®[M]^@D°aiDD©i 



"hirrah for hobson!" 
Why can't we have him for President of 
the United States? I clip the following 
from The Union Signal of I>ec. T: 

HON. RICHMOND P. HOBSON INTRODUCES A PROHIBI- 
TION AMENDMENT. 

On Dec. 4. 1911. Congressman Ilobson Introduced 
in the House of Representatives the following joint 
resolution, which was referred to the Committee 
on Alcoholic-liquor Traffic, and ordered printed: 
Joint Resolution proposing an amendment to the 

Constitution, prohibiting the sale, manufacture 

for sale, and importation for sale of beverages 

containing alcohol. 

THiereos. exact scientific research has demon- 
strated that alcohol is a narcotic poison, destruc- 
tive and degenerating to the human organism, and 
that its distribution as a beverage lays a staggering 
economic bvirden upon the shoulders of the people," 
lowers to an appalling degree their average stand- 
ard of character, thereby underming the public 
morals and the foundation of free institutions, in- 
flicts disease and untimely death upon hundreds of 
thousands of citizens, and blights with degeneracy 
their children unborn, threatening the future in- 
tegrity and the very life of the nation: Therefore 
be it 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress 
assembled (two-thirds of each House concurring i, 
that the following be proposed as an amendment to 
the Constitution, which shall be valid to all intents 
and purposes as part of the Constitution when rati- 
fied by the legislatures of three-fourths of the. States: 
1. The sale, manufacture for sale, and importation 
for sale of beverages containing alcohol, are for 
ever prohibited in the United States and in all ter- 
ritory under its jurisdiction. 

2. Congress shall have power to enforce, by ap- 
propriate legislation, the provisions of this article. 



LIQUOR TRAFFIC IN PROHIBITION .'STATES. 

The following was clipped from the ( 'hi- 
cago Advance (Congregational), and you 
will notice they clipped it from the Herald 
and Prfsbyter (Presbyterian); and if the 
Baptist brotherhood and the Methodist 
Church will now indor.se it and publish it I 
think it may do a lot of good. It is just 
what I have had in mind; but it is told so 
much better than I could tell it I have cop- 
ied it entire. 

A great deal has been made out of the fact, if fact 
it is, as stated by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, that 20.(X)0.()00 gallons of liquor are shipped 
annually into the nine prohibition States. A great 
deal should be made of it. One is. that every gallon 
carried into this territory was disposed of contrary 
to law, by law-breakers and criminals and anarch- 
ists, and that the United States furnished tax certif- 
icates to many of these anarcliists. and gave them 
a form of protection and respectability in their 
criminal operations. This ought to be. and tnust 
be. stopped. No nation claiming a Christian civil- 
ization can afford to override or to discourage the 
moral aspirations and efforts of its people, espe- 
cially as expressed in the regular form of .State 
laws, as our nation is doing in encouraging anarch- 
ist liquor-dealers to break down the prohibition 
laws made in nine of our States for the protection 
of the homes and the people. 

But another thing being made out of the fact of 
this importation of liciuor into prohibition States 
is land a most abject and discreditable thing it is) 
that prohibition does not prohibit, and, conse- 
quently, should be done away with! Why does it 
not prohibit? Because there are some criminals 
who are breaking the law, and some criminal offi- 
cers who are not enforcing it, although they are 
under oath to do .so, and are paid for doing so. 



"sledge-hammer" blows for tempeka.vce: what 
a methodist preacher s.\ys. 

A few weeks ago in the home of Mr. Wallace 
Oridley, of Edgewood, Cal. 'a very enthusiastic bee- 
mani. I read in your magazine a splendid temiier- 
ance sermon for which I want to reach a fraternal 
hand across the country and say "shake! hurrah 
for you! do it again." Mr. ( iridley. who is also a 
most ardent anti-saloon man. has since given me 
several copies of the same article in leaflet form, 
which I shall distribute, hoping and praying they 
will help us jnake California dry. It is an awful 
fight we are in: but such articles as I have mention- 
ed will .strike a blow like a veriable sledae hammer, 
God bless you! do it again. 

SLsson, Cal., Aug. 1. .Iohn F. Kell< ui;. 



Their argument, however, is that, because some 1 
law-breakers break the law, they ought to be re- 
warded for their opposition to the law by having i 
the law repealed. 

But it is well to consider the proportions of this I 
feature of the importation of 20.000,000 gallons ol 
liquor into prohibition States. It means that the 
people of these nine States consume less than one } 
gallon and a quarter per capita, while the per- j 
capita consumption of the people of the other j 
States is 25 gallons a year. Thus even the horrible 
conditions brought about in the prohibition States 
by boot-leggers and blind tigers and all other dis- 
reputable means for the anarchistic disposal of 
liquor are only one-twentieth as bad as in the oth- 
er .States, where the saloon is regulated and well 
ordered, and moral and lovely, and 25 gallons of 
liquor is consumed on an average by the people 
every year. The cit.v of Chicago alone, with only 
2,000,000 people, consumes 12 times as much liquor 
as 15,000,000 in the prohibition States consume. 

If our good folks in Medina feel inclined, 
I should like to have extra copies printed 
for free distribution. They might open the 
eyes of the good people in Ohio who are 
making such haste to vote back the saloons 
because, as they are told, "prohibition does 
not prohibit." 



wet and dry " IN the RECLAIMED COLORADO 
DESERT. 

Mr. Root: — I have been very much interested in 
your temperance department, and think perhaps 
you will be interested in the fight which is now on 
in Imperial, between the good citizens and the 
saloon interests. Imperial County i which is the 
reclaimed Colorado Desert' has been dry since its 
birth: but a "local option" amendment to our State 
constitution, passed at the last election, takes the 
power of prohibition from tbe counties and gives it 
to towns: and the brewers of Los Angeles are 
taking advantage of this to try to force their abom- 
inable products upon Imperial Co. The full-page 
advertisement which I inclose will show you what 
pitiful arguments they put up in favor of their prop- 
osition. The " Progressive League" is composed of 
the "Pool Hall" and "Blind Pig" element of Im- 
perial. The business men are, I think, without 
exceiJtion. opposed to the saloon. It is too bad that 
woman suffrage, which has just been jjassed at a 
special election, is not yet in force: for if the women 
of Imperial had a vote, the town and county would 
certainly remain dry. 

El Centro, Cal.. Oct. 24, 1911. D. P. Bottroff. 

Then follows a full-page advertisement 
gotten up by the brewers to prove that a 
careful and well-regulated saloon is better 
than prohibition — that is, no saloon. Now 
if these liquor people would just point to a 
city that is prospering under the reign of the 
"well-regulated" saloon, it would be a 
curiosity. 



Published by The A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. H. Root, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root. Editor Home Department j. t. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postofflce, Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



FEBRUARY 1, 1912 



NO. 



Dft©[PDSl 



There will be a meeting of apiary in- 
spectors, and others interested, at Amherst, 
Mass. See special announceu ent on p. 25. 



We expect to have in our next issue some- 
thing naore to say on the subject of putting 
lime in the soil to make clover grow on land 
that has hitherto been considered "clover- 
sick." Clover in the years gone by has 
used up the lime in some soils, and it is 
now time to replace it. It can be done very 
cheaply. 

THE OHIO STATE BEE -KEEPERS' CO'VEX- 
TIOX. 

The attention of Ohio bee-keepers is di- 
rected to the program of the Ohio Slate Bee- 
keepers' convention, to be held at Spring- 
field, O., Feb. 21. on page 25 of this issue. 
Entomologist Shaw, chief foul-brood in- 
spector, will be present. An effort has been 
made to get Dr. E. F. Phillips, of the Bu- 
reau of Entomology, to come also. This 
will be an interesting and important meet- 
ing. We expect to be present ourselves, and 
hope that all bee-keepers who can will make 
an extra effort to attend. 



SPECIAL NUMBER ON AUTOMOBILES. 

We are now planning to have our April 
1st issue a special number devoted to the 
interest of the bee-keeper who owns an auto- 
mobile, or who intends to purchase one. 
There have been many requests for this; and 
for the past few months almost every mail 
has brought iis letters of inquiry from pro- 
spective purchasers. We are always glad to 
give information regarding different ma- 
chines when we can: and in order to call out 
the experience of others we have planned 
this special number. AVe already have sev- 
eral interesting articles on hand, together 
with some good illustrations; but we are 
anxious to get a good many more. Let all 
those who own machines tell why they 
bought them, whether they are profitable 
from a business standpoint, etc. 

What machine do you own, and why did 
you get it? Has it proven satisfactory? If 
you have owned it as long as a year, what 
has been your expense for repairs? 



We are especially anxious to get photo- 
graphs of various machines in use. We 
shall expect to pay for all contributions used, 
especially where photographs are sent that 
can be reproduced. 

SENDING HONEY OR OTHER COMMODITIES BY 

FREIGHT OR EXPRESS; A FEW 

FACTS TO REMEMBER. 

A SHORT time ago a subscriber wrote us 
that he had shipped some honey to a com- 
mission house, and could get no returns. 
The case was something like this: 

The commission house, it seems, made 
this bee-keeper an offer for his honey deliv- 
ered in their city. The bee-keeper did not 
accept the offer, as he said it was too low. 
He wrote back that he would have to have 
more money than they had offered. He re- 
ceived a letier from the commission house, 
accepting his figures. The honey was ship- 
ped: but on arrival it was found to be bad- 
ly broken down. The commission house 
would make no returns, and the bee-keeper 
finally appealed to us. We replied by say- 
ing that if he, the bee-keeper, had accepted 
the price offered by the commission house, 
f. o. b. city of the commission house, he 
would be compelled to accept whatever 
terms of payment the commission house 
could make, after making reasonable allow- 
ance for breakage: that his only recourse 
would be to put in a claiiu »gainst the rail- 
road company for the difference between 
what he received and what he would have 
gotten if the shipment had not been dam- 
aged: but as the commission house had ac- 
cepted the honey f. o. b. station of the bee- 
keeper, it was up to them to make full re- 
turns on the basis agreed ujwn, and then 
enter claim for loss against the railroad 
company. 

The moral of this whole thing is, that it 
is to the interest of the bee-keeper to have 
the honey delivered into the hands of the 
railroad company of /(/.s oirn fo>rn, and no 
fitrf/ier. It is equally obvious that it is to 
"the interest of the buyer to secure, if he can. 
delivery of honey to his city. 

There is one o'her point to be considered, 
hovN-ever. and that is this: If tlie bee-keeper 
puts up his honey in a careless and improp- 
er manner, neither the buyer nor the rail- 



66 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



road company could be compelled to i)ay 
the full loss, if they paid any thing. The 
loss would then fall on the producer. It is, 
therefore, important that the bee-keeper put 
up his honey in the most approved style, 
using modern well-made shipping-cases; 
and if he can prove that .the honey was de- 
livered at the railroad station in good order, 
any loss or breakage in transit can then be 
recovered from the railroad company by 
either the consignee or shipper. 

Another case arose some little time ago. 
A bee-keeper shipped his household goods 
from a southern city to a northern. He pre- 
paid the freight to the agent at the starting- 
point, which was $12.00. This charge was 
based on an estimated weight of the goods. 
When the goods reached the northern city 
the agent at destination demanded $3.85 
more, which was paid. A short time later 
the railroad company demanded $5.50 more. 
The bee-keeper demurred, and wrote to us, 
asking for his rights in the matter, saying 
that the railroad company threatened that, 
if he did not pay, he would be held liable to 
a fine of $3000 and a term in the penitenti- 
ary. He was willing to pay what was right, 
but he did not propose to be imposed on. 

We replied, saying he made a mistake in 
not knowing the exact weight of the goods 
when they were shipped; that the railroad 
agent at the starting-point had no business 
to "estimate" the weight. But this thing 
is done very often; but if any trouble arises 
it always falls on the shipper; and in this 
case it seems that, when the goods arrived 
at destination, the estimated weight was 
found to be too low, and the agent at that 
point figured up the difference and demand- 
ed $3.85. Later on, the railroad company 
discovered that the i-ate made in the first 
place was wrong, and this necessitated ad- 
ditional payment. 

We do not wonder that our correspondent 
thought he was being imposed on; but the 
facts are, the railroad company had the ad- 
vantage. If the poor shipper does not pay 
the full amount required by the rate and 
the weight of the goods, the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission when appealed to can 
compel him to do so or take the consequences, 
and the consequences are something seri- 
ous. We do not know whether the railroads 
of the country have secured a set of laws in 
their favor or not; but clearly they have the 
advantage in such cases over the shipper. 
On the other hand, there is no rule but 
what will work IxAli ways. If the shipper 
can prove that the weights made by the 
railroad company were too high, or that the 
rate charged was in excess of the pro|)er 
amount, and ai)peals to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, that body will require 
the carrier to refund the difTerence. 

Moral ;.'. — Carefully weigh your goods be- 
fore you ship them; then when the railroad 
agent weighs them again, make sure that 
his weight corresponds with yours. If there 
is a discrepancy, ascertain where the mis- 
take is before the goods are shipi)ed. Sec- 
ond, ascertain what the rate is on the class 



of goods shi])ped. Make the agent show 
you the schedule. Keep all of your records; 
and then if there is any trouble, and the 
shipment is a large one, present the facts to 
an attorney. 

DOUBLE-WALLED PACKED HIVES V. SINGLE- 
WALLED WITH A PAPER COVER. 

The readers will doubtless be interested 
in the symposium on this general question 
in this issue, on pages 73, 74, 75, 7G, and 77, 
It is our opinion that this question of pack- 
ing, absorbents, and size of entrances, is 
more dependent on locality than we had, 
perhaps, suj^posed. Mr. A. C. Miller, an ex- 
cellent authority, seems to prefer the single- 
walled hive with black paper for a winter 
wrapping, or, rather, perhaps we should say, 
he concludes that there is no advantage in 
having the walls made thicker. He prefers 
large entrances on the sides of the hive and 
sealed covers. While he says nothing about 
sealed covers, he makes no provision for the 
moisture to escape upward, but, rather, to 
pass out through an entrance of ample di- 
mensions. We do not question the accuracy 
of his judgment for his locality; but from 
exhaustive tests we made some years ago 
we are thoroughly convinced that bees in 
single-walled hives in this locality, even 
with paper covers, either died outright or 
were so weak in the spring as to be good for 
nothing for honey-production the following 
season. We did not at the time take any 
readings of the inside and outside of such 
hives; but we see no reason to question Mr. 
Miller's statement, that the difTerence in 
temperature between the outside and inside 
would be very slight with so large an en- 
trance, and with walls so thin. 

It is probably true that a contracted en- 
trance, whether in a single-walled or double- 
walled hive, would not be advisable in his 
locality — that is, providing no upward ven- 
tilation were allowed. But conditions in 
other localities are so different that we feel 
very certain that the plan he recommends 
would not work in most of the colder cli- 
mates; and Mr. Holtermann and Mr. Byer 
seem to be equally certain that they must 
have more packing for their localities. Mr. 
.1. E. Crane, who is visiting us today, .Tan. 
20, expresses himself as decidedly favoring 
the views taken by Mr. Byer and Mr. Hol- 
termann, and Mr. Crane is one of our most 
successful bee-keepers in \'ermont. 

Perhaps an illustration would help to 
make it plainer why we favor a double-wall- 
ed packed hive rather than a single-walled 
hive. During the past season we built a 
small garage for storing an automobile. The 
structure was made of % lumber planed on 
both sides, and painted on the outside. This 
made a single-walled building, for we did 
not think it necessary to go to the expense 
of making double walls, because the build- 
ing could be easily heated by exhaust steam 
from the factory. Now, it happened that a 
radiator in one of the living-rooms in our 
house was altogether too large for the size of 
the room. The temperature would go up to 



Feb. 1, 1912 \ 

80 and even 90, even when the weather was 
very cold outside. This room had two out- 
side exposures and two good-sized windows; 
but the house was sheeted with inch pine 
himber on the outside, and over this was 
nailed tar- felt pai)er. Over the whole was 
nailed ordinary siding. The inside walls 
were lathed and plastered in the usual way. 
It was very easy to warm this room in the 
house with that radiator. 

Now, it happened that the inside cubic 
contents of the garage were about the same 
as those of the room. We concluded that, 
if that radiator was too much of a good thing 
for a double-walled room, it would be just 
about right for a single-walled room of four 
sides and a roof of exposure. What was our 
amazement when we found that, even in 
moderate weather, this big radiator would 
not make the garage warm enough so that 
the motor woulil start readily. When the 
temperature was down to zero outside, the 
temperature inside of the building was far 
below freezing. When that radiator was in 
the house, in a double-walled room, it would 
run the temperature up to 80 while the mer- 
cury outside was at zero with a high wind. 
We were at a loss to understand why this 
garage should be so cold with a radiator go- 
ing all the time, night and day. On placing 
the hand on the siding we saw the reason at 
once. The boards were as cold as a block of 
ice. Indeed, it became very apparent to us 
that the outside cold penetrated those y% 
boards to a much greater degree than we 
ever supposed. So little did they keep out 
the cold that a pail of water would freeze 
solid within two feet of the radiator. 

Now, then, to the application. A colony 
of bees, even though it be contracted down 
to a comparatively small ball, is a miniature 
radiator, i. e., a source of heat. The closer a 
thermometer is placed to this ball of bees, 
the higher the temperature will go, provid- 
ing the entrance is not too large. Now, if 
this little ball of bees is a ladiator, and if 
those bees have to keep up their body heat 
by consuming honey, the colder the atmos- 
phere around the cluster, the more food will 
be required. Overfeeding is quite sure to 
cause dysentery before spring. If the hive 
is single-walled, an immense amount of cold 
will penetrate those walls, making the prob- 
lem of the bees to keep the cluster warm 
much greater. The thicker the walls, the 
larger the cluster, and the more it can ex- 
jiand over the food. It would seem that, for 
most localities, a moderate entrance with a 
double-walled packed hive will give better 
results in wintering than a single-walled 
hive or one protected by any kind of single 
thickness of paper. The question of the 
size of entrances and of upward ventilation 
or sealed covers will depend largely on lo- 
cality. We are beginning to favor a flat 
board laid on top of the hive, not sealed 
down. This permits a moderate entrance 
and a slight amount of upward ventilation, 
but not enough to make the packing above 
dam J). 

The thermometer readings inside and out- 



67 

side of the hive by Mr. Byer and ourselves 

on jniges 77 and 7S would seem to favor dou- 
ble-walled i)acke(l hives. The actual dilTer- 
ence is anywhere from 20 to 40 degrees where 
the outside temperature has not taken a sud- 
den change. A zero atmosphere or a few de- 
grees above must be bad for a cluster, espe- 
cially if it continues for days. 



THE CENSUS OF 1010; THE MARKED DE- 
CREASE IN THE NUMBER OF BEES ON 
FARMS, AND WHY. 

Bee-keepers have been waiting with in- 
terest for the returns on the bee-keeping 
industry from the Census of 1910. Part of 
the data is now available and is presented 
herewith, together with similar data from 
the Census of 1900. That there has been a 
decrease in the number of farmer bee-keep- 
ers, there can be no question. Whether 
the tables showing this decrease by States 
are accurate we can not say; but decrease 
there surely has been. This is probably 
due to two causes; viz., 1. To a reduction in 
the amount of clover grown, either because 
intensive agriculture has crowded it out, 
or because soil that once grew clover luxu- 
riantly has become "clover-sick" — that is, 
too acid. Clover is the main dependence 
for honey in most of the States east of the 
Mississippi and north of the Ohio. It is a 
notable fact that clover doesn't yield as it 
did in the olden days before the lime had 
been exhausted from the soil. When "bees 
don't pay" on the farm, they die off be- 
cause the farmers won't feed them. We 
shall have more to say about this at a later 
time. 2. The other cause for reduction in 
the number of farmer bee-keepers is clearly 
traceable to bee disease that has made such 
rapid spread. The obvious remedy is to 
work for more extensive bee-inspection work 
and, besides, preach the doctrine of putting 
lime in the soil. That can be done cheai)- 
ly, and make clover grow as before. While 
lime can have no effect on bee diseases it 
will make clover grow as it did in old days. 

Attention should be called to the fact 
that these data are for bees on farms only, 
and that bees in towns and cities are not 
included. The official designation of a 
"farm" actually includes many apiaries in 
towns; but, as is well recognized, most of 
the large town apiaries have not been in- 
cluded in the enumeration. At one State 
bee-keepers' convention last winter it was 
found that approximately three-fourths of 
the bees there represented had not been in- 
cluded in the count. It is obviously not at 
all fair to the bee-keeping industry to count 
only the bees on farms when many of our 
largest bee-keepers are not on farms, but 
are in small towns or even in our larger 
cities. It is understood that no enumera- 
tion was made in the Census of 1910 of bees 
in towns and cities, and it is hoped that, 
before another census is taken, the author- 
ities in the Census Tiureau will learn that 
bee-keejiing is not confined solely to farms. 

'i^he data presented shows a decrease of 



68 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



116,408 in the number of farms reporting 
bees, and of 795,710 in the number of colo- 
nies reported. The valuations put on col- 
onies of bees by many bee-keepers are of 
little significance; but it is interesting to 
note that these valuations show an increase 
of $198,139. The only States showing any 
increase in bee-keepers, worthy of serious 
consideration, are Minnesota, Oklahoma, 
South Dakota, Washington, Montana, Wy- 
oming, and North Dakota — all western 
States. . The greatest reported loss is in 
Utah, where a decrease of 49.5 per cent is 
shown in the number of farms reporting 
bees. It is worthy of consideration that the 
loss in number of farms reporting bees is 
usually greater than in the number of col- 
onies, indicating that those now in the 
business are keeping more bees. 

Bee-keepers should not take any of these 
figures too seriously, for they certainly are 
not an accurate representation of the indus- 
try. Apiculture was never in so good con- 
dition as it is now. As an indication of 
this, it may be stated that the demand for 



supplies during the last decade exceeds 
that of any previous period, and the mar- 
kets for honey are continually improving. 
Honey production is fast becoming the 
business of the specialist, and, as a result, 
hohey is being marketed in better shape 
and in larger quantities. 

While it is true that these figures are not 
to be taken as seriously as the Census Bu- 
reau might wish them to be, yet it is a 
good thing for us to realize that there has 
been a falling-olT in one part of the indus- 
try. If, as suggested, the brood diseases are 
a factor in this decrease, it emphasizes the 
nece-isity for spreading information on this 
su)).)ect so that those bee-keepers who have 
it in them to lie good bee-keepers may be 
informed on this subject. Nothing will 
save a careless bee-keeper when disease 
reaches him. 

In spite of these figures, there is no rea- 
son to doubt that there will be more colo- 
nies of bees in the United States in 1912 
than ever before, and that the industry is 
on the increase. 









°u 






o •_ 






Ot, 




Farms 


report- 


Q) Cl tC 


Colonies report- 


+^ o . 

fl ^ CO 

(U C y 






g.S§ 


State. 


lug bees in 1 


^h5 


ed 


in 


"rt2 


Value in dollars. 




1910 


1900 


S wi 


1910 
135,140 


1900 
205,369 


-34.2 


1910 


1900 


V M 


Alabama 


23.911 


32.100 


—25.5 


213,000 


288,000 


-26.0 


Arizona 


441 


489 


— 9 8 


23,770 


18.991 


+ 25 2 


104,000 


66,600 


+ 56.7 


Arkansas 


19,fi92 


22.1S2 


—11 2 


92,731 


111,138 


+ 16.6 


200.000 


204,000 


+ 2.1 


California 


6.8(i9 


6.915 


— 0.7 


200,718 


129.444 


+ 55.1 


728,000 


364,000 


+100 1 


Colorado 


3.5(« 


4.518 


—21 1 


71,434 


59,756 


+ 19.5 


309,000 


195,000 


+ •58.5 


Connecticut 


1,798 


2.252 


—20.2 


9,445 


11.438 


-17.4 


41,800 


40,500 


+ 3.2 


Delaware 


1,119 


1.684 


-33.6 


6,410 


10,187 


—37.1 


13,609 


20,244 


—32. 8 


Dist. of Col'a 


13 


7 


+ 85 7 


151 


59 


+155 9 


790 


199 


+297 


Florida 


4.345 


4,521 


— 3 9 


38.895 


39,753 


- 2.2 


98,500 


83,800 


+ 17.5 


(TBorgia 


23.1R7 


32.246 


—28.2 


130:549 


187.919 


-30.5 


187,000 


243,000 


—22 9 


Idaho 


2,3(i8 


2.387 


— 8 


21,903 


19.240 


+ 13.8 


100,000 


65,000 


+ .54.1 


Illinf)ls 


29.741 


34.932 


— 14 9 


155 846 


179.953 


-13.4 


487,700 


486.200 


+ 0.3 


Indiana 


19.487 


28.632 


—31 9 


80.938 


117.148 


-30.9 


230,500 


278,900 


—17.4 


low a 


28.9:',o 


28.977 


— 1 


160.025 


138.811 


+ 15.3 


517,300 


443,900 


+ 16.5 


Kansas 


lfi,8fi9 


18.295 


— 7.8 


73,737 


88.594 


-16 8 


218.600 


278,000 


—21.4 


lventuck.y 


3li.8.-i4 


44.974 


—18.1 


152,992 


203.820 


-24 9 


419,000 


527,000 


—20. 4 


Louisiana 


4.928 


6.148 


—19.8 


29,591 


35.231 


—16 


58.200 


54,300 


+ 7.1 


Maine 


1.371 


2,496 


—45.1 


7,592 


10,857 


—30.1 


40,400 


51,500 


—21.6 


Maryland 


4.186 


5,098 


—17.9 


23,156 


28,013 


—17 3 


61,600 


61,000 


+ 1.0 


Massachusetts 


1.597 


1.799 


—11.2 


7,464 


8,381 


—10 9 


39,700 


35,800 


+ 11.0 


Michigan 


16.892 


18,122 


— 6.8 


115.274 


100.397 


+ 14.8 


446,500 


352,500 


+ 26.7 


M innesota 


9.522 


6,078 


+ 56.7 


56,677 


45,877 


+ 23.5 


221,800 


167,300 


+ 32.6 


Mississippi 


lfi,U28 


17,990 


—10 9 


74.350 


95,257 


—21 9 


144,000 


159,000 


— 9.1 


Missouri 


40.110 


41,145 


— 2.5 


203,569 


205,110 


— 0.8 


585,000 


508.000 


+ 15.0 


Montana 


795 


234 


+239.7 


6.313 


1,801 


+250.5 


32,100 


8.100 


+294.5 


Nebraska 


12.538 


12,130 


+ 3.4 


45.625 


52,143 


—12 5 


153,000 


200.000 


—23.5 


Nevada 


176 


278 


—36.7 


8.401 


5,692 


+ 47.6 


48,500 


20.100 


+140.7 


New Itamps'e 


1,002 


1,288 


— 22 2 


4,644 


5.520 


-15.9 


23,600 


24.700 


— 4.3 


New Mexico 


418 


410 


+ 1.0 


10,052 


6,164 


+ 63.1 


46,300 


20,800 


+122.6 


New Jersey 


1.627 


2,327 


—30 1 


10.484 


14.118 


—25 7 


41,600 


39.200 


+ 6.0 


New York 


15.279 


22 738 


—32.9 


156.360 


187.208 


—16 5 


647.000 


594,000 


+ 8.9 


North Caro"a 


36,258 


41,051 


-11.7 


188,998 


244.539 


—22.7 


387,000 


430,000 


-10.1 


North Dakota 


79 


30 


+163 3 


495 


279 


+ 77.4 


3.086 


1.474 


+109.4 


Ohio 


23.203 


34.458 


—32.7 


98,241 


151,391 


—35.1 


276,000 


403,000 


—31.5 


Oklahoma 


4,816 


3.438 


+ 40.1 


19,411 


20,137 


— 3.7 


64,300 


45,400 


+ 41.5 


Oregon 


8,861 


8,895 


— 0.4 


47.285 


55,585 


—14.9 


150,000 


160,000 


— 6.4 


Pennsylvania 


22,297 


28,962 


—23.0 


124,830 


161,670 


—22.8 


478,000 


532,000 


—10.0 


Rhode Island 


285 


370 


—23.0 


1,267 


1,681 


—24.6 


6,100 


6,800 


— 9.7 


South Caro'a 


12.528 


16,272 


—23.0 


75.422 


93,958 


—19 7 


135.000 


143,000 


— 5.6 


South Dakota 


1,347 


387 


+248.1 


6,553 


2,063 


+217.6 


31,600 


10.100 


+213.1 


Tennessee 


30.712 


38,225 


—19.7 


144,479 


225,788 


—36.0 


341.000 


487.000 


—30.0 


Texas 


37.875 


60,043 


—36 9 


238.107 


392,644 


-39.4 


675,000 


749,000 


- 9.9 


Utah 


1,873 


3,037 


—49.5 


26.185 


33,818 


—22.6 


123,600 


111.500 


+ 10.9 


Vermont 


1,124 


1.878 


-40.2 


10,215 


12,836 


—20.4 


44,300 


47,000 


— 5.5 


Virginia 


22.437 


25,774 


—12.8 


104,005 


139,064 


—25.2 


303,000 


308,000 


— 1.9 


Washington 


5.886 


4.435 


+ 32 7 


33,884 


30,870 


+ 9.8 


127,000 


107,000 


+ 18 8 


West Virginia 


24.035 


25,240 


— 4.8 


110,673 


111,417 


— 0.7 


388,900 


375,600 


+ 3.5 


Wisconsin 


10,391 


10,535 


— 1.4 


95,638 


106,090 


— 9.9 


360,500 


377,000 


— 4.4 


Wyoming 


579 


153 


+278.4 


4,596 


1,020 


+350 6 


20,493 


5,322 


+285.1 


< I rand total 


590.907 


707.315 




3.462.520 


4.2.58.239 




SIO.372.978 


SI 0.1 79. 839 



A dash (— ) before a number indicates a loss: a plus-mark (+) shows a gain. 



Feb. 1, 1912 



6» 



Dr. C. C. Mii>i>er, Marengo, 111. . 



A FIGHT between queens is mentioned as 
an attraction at a bee convention in L'Api- 
Gulfeur, p. 466. 

Db. Weygandt says the Caucasian is the 
original race of bees from which all others 
are derived. — Bienen-Vater, 334. 

The warden of the Illinois penitentiary 
at Joliet, 111., says that 90 per cent of the 
men are there on account of liquor, and that 
out of 158 life men all but four or five com- 
mitted the crimes for which they are in pris- 
on for life while under the influence of liq- 
uor. 

PLiEASb ALLOVi^, Mr. Editor, an addendum 
to the good advice given p. 26. When the 
colony attacked by robbers is carried into 
the cellar, set in its j^lace an empty hive of 
similar appearance. If you don't, the rob- 
bers will pitch into the next hive. Besides, 
if you leave the place vacant, when you put 
the hive back again the robbers will notice 
the change, and will say, "There's our prey 
back again." [Good correction! Thanks. — 
Ed.] 

Der Deutsche Imkerbund (German 
Bee-keepers' Confederation) now numbers 
82,547 members. — Bienenzucht, p. 183. We 
have a few things yet to learn from the Ger- 
mans. [It would' be interesting to know 
what is the basis of their organization. Is 
it fostered by the state? or do the members 
pay annual dues and receive something in 
return which justifies them in renewing 
year after year? — Ed.] 

You ASK wnat's the difference between a 
comb in a brood-frame and a comb in a sec- 
tion. None if the comb is the same. But 
in a section it is not expected brood has been 
reared, and it is expected in the brood-frame; 
and my experience is that moths greatly 
prefer the old black comb. You ask why 
the moth should not lay eggs in sections if 
she lays in combs that have been fumigated 
or frozen. I don't know. May be the co- 
coons make a difference. 

Six colonies of bees, well packed, were 
successfully shipped in winter, in Hungary, 
335 miles by rail and 2>^ by wagon, during 
the last of their journey enduring a temper- 
ature of 20 degrees below zero, Fahrenheit. 
— Leipz. Bztg., 154. [We believe it to be 
entirely possible. Trouble, if any, probably 
would not manifest itself immediately but 
later on. If the bees were set down on 
stands outdoors we should expect the dis- 
turbance would cause a heavy mortality 
later on. If, on the other hand, they went 
into a cellar where the conditions were ideal, 
no bad results would probably follow. — Ed.] 

Dr. Hering, Bienenzucht, XI., quotes 
Gleanings as recommending the feeding 
of thin syrup in the open to prevent robbing 
at late extracting, and says, "W^e doubt 
whether this will have any result. The 



strong aroma of the extracted honey and 
the odor of the open colonies will, of course, 
attract the robbers more strongly than the 
thin syrup." But, doctor, you have to be- 
lieve what you see, don't you? [Gleanings 
never advocated feeding sweetened water 
during extracting seasons to prevent rob- 
bing. We have always recommended, or 
supposed we did, honey thinned down with 
water. While probably not very much su- 
gar-sweetened water would get into the ex- 
tracting-combs again, we think it advisable 
to avoid any appearance of evil by feeding 
honey thinned down to the consistency of 
nectar. — Ed.] 

.1. L. Bybr says, p. 5, that for his latitude 
outdoor wintering is best. I'm in lower lat- 
itude, and cellaring seems best here. But 
that doesn't say Bro. Byer is wrong. I sus- 
pect that he doesn't have the hard winds, 
long continued, that we have here. [Is it 
not possible, doctor, that, if you were to try 
outdoor wintering again, you might discov- 
er that it is more to your advantage to use 
it than the indoor plan? Mr. R. F. Holter- 
mann ays he would not go back to the old 
way under any circumstances. When we 
suggested to him that bees wintered out- 
doors consume more stores he said, "Yes, 
but they are correspondingly stronger in 
the spring. As a rule, indoor-wintered colo- 
nies do not raise very much brood; while 
those outdoors will often begin brood-rear- 
ing on a small scale in February and March 
— two months before they would do very 
much at it in the cellar. — Ed.] 



Sweet Clover as a Renovator of Poor Soil. 

Mr. Frank Coverdale, in his articles on seeding 
sweet clover, lays emphasis on the need of having 
the soil fertile. Now, the farmer who has these 
conditions is all but ready to sow alfalfa, and is 
much more likely to go on and seed to that plant 
rather than to something about which he has 
heard such conflicting reports as with sweet clover. 

The great opening for sweet clover, provided it 
can be made to do the work, is as a renovator of 
impoverished soils. That in the wild state it grows 
and flourishes upon the poorest soils is a matter of 
every-day notice. That there should be any exten- 
sive failure to grow it vn poor soils would seem to 
be due to but one cause. That sweet clover and 
alfalfa have the same nitrifying bacteria is fre- 
quently mentioned, and the need of soil inocula- 
tion for the latter often urged. That legumes are 
chiefly benefited by such bacteria on poor soils is 
also known. 

The means by which its seed is transported in 
the wild state, on wagon-wheels, by streams, and 
from railroad gravel-pits, are well calculated to se- 
cure this inoculation, and doubtless explain its 
cosmopolitan nature under such conditions. On 
the contrary, seed harvested from standing plants 
has little chance of carrying the bacteria; and un- 
less they are supplied they will be liable to failure 
on soils in which they are necessary to a good 
growth. Then why not inoculate for sweet clover ? 
If by working in about 200 lbs. per acre of earth 
from a sweet-clover patch, the soil-enriching pow- 
ers of this plant can be secured, it certainly ought 
to pay to take the trouble, and no harm done the 
bee business either. 

McConnelsville, O., Dec. 11. H. D. Tennent. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



ra(D¥ 



J. L. Byer, Mt. Joy, Ont. 



Thanks, friend Crane, for that word of 
good cheer, page 745, Dec. 15. May your 
prophecy concerning next year be correct. 
However, while 1 am not fretting about 
what we can not help, nevertheless my faith 
is not very strong for a good crop of honey 
in 1912. I hope I may be "disappointed." 

Much evidence seems to be accumulating 
as to the efficacy of carbolic acid used in 
different ways in the handling of bees un- 
der various circumstances. The use of this 
drug for this purpose has been quite com- 
mon in the British Isles for some time; but 
so far as I know it has been used but little 
in Canada. I am looking forward to trying 
it some time next summer, as I am con- 
vinced that it must be a good thing for cer- 
tain manipulations of the hive. 

A correspondent of the British Bee Jour- 
nal asks for the best method of extracting 
wax from brood-combs, and expresses the 
idea that the screw presses advocated by 
many are too expensive to justify him get- 
ting one. The editor of that journal advises 
him to get a "solar," and says that is the 
best and cheapest way of extracting wax, 
adding that they will soon repay their cost. 
Can the editor really mean that a solar is 
the best arrangement for getting wax out of 
brood-combs? Why, here in Canada we 
have much hotter days than they do in 
England, and the solar that will not leave 
anywhere from 25 to 50 per cent of the wax 
in old brood-combs is yet to come under my 
notice. Last August I hajipened to be in a 
large apiary conducted by an old gentle- 
man, and he asked me if we ever tried burn- 
ing the stuff from the solar wax-press after 
the wax was all out. He said that his wo- 
men folks liked it when they wanted a par- 
ticularly hot fire; and when I saw them put- 
ting some of this stuff in the stove I didn't 
wonder it made a good fire. Oh how I ached 
to get hold of a few tons of that kind of 
fuel! It would not have gone into a stove. 
A solar is all right for cappings or bits of 
comb, etc.; but in my opinion it is worse 
than useless tor brood-combs. More than 
that, since disease is getting so evenly dis- 
tributed over the country, I now regard that 
kind of wax-extractor as being a very dan- 
gerous arrangement in the hands of many 
bee-keepers, and for my part I would gladly 
see solar wax-extractors become a thing of 
the past. 

Bees wintered outdoors had a good flight 
in most localities in December. Up to date 
(.fan. 1) we have not had nearly as severe 
weather as at this season a year ago; in fact, 
the thermometer has not yet reached the 
zero-mark, although just now we are threat- 
ened with a cold wave. There was much 
rain and mud in December, and a farmer 



was telling me that, with the freezing and 
thawing, some of his red clover was heaving 
a bit -an unusual circumstance for this time 
of the year. However, with colder weather 
now, there will be no more danger along 
that line for a while. As for the alsike heav- 
ing, there is no need for worry, as there is 
very little here to heave. Although the 
weather has been mild, from all reports re- 
ceived so far the bees indoors appear to be 
wintering well. A few days ago a friend liv- 
ing near where our east apiary is wintering 
inside of three caves built right on top of 
limestone rock, wrote me that he had just 
been in the repositories, and that all were 
dry and nice, and the bees so quiet that one 
would not know they were there. 

The principle on which these "caves" 
are constructed appears to me to be sound, 
and they might be all right in localities 
where it is not advisable to go deep into the 
ground. They have given perfect satisfac- 
tion for a number of years. Some time I will 
illustrate them for the benefit of the readers 
of Gleanings. This winter 280 colonies 
are in them, and in past seasons as many 
as 400 have been win'^ered with good results. 

A. C. Miller is a close observer, but I can 
not agree with his conclusions as to how dif- 
ferent methods of clipping the wings of 
queens will affect their chances for being su- 
i:)erseded. For a number of years I have 
clipped the queens while they were on the 
combs, and I try to get more than half of 
all the wings off. I can not see a bit of dif- 
ference so far as their usefulness is concern- 
ed, compared with those that have only the 
tips of one side cut off, or any other particu- 
lar style of wing-dressing that maj' be in 
vogue. Two years ago I reported having a 
queen that lived to be seven years old — no 
doubt about the matter at all, as I had proof 
of my assertion. Well, the man this queen 
was purchased from had the habit of taking 
all of the wings off pretty close, and in this 
particular case he had outdone himself and 
clipped all her wings off close. 8he looked 
very strange, and was always easily seen, 
even though she was a dark Carniolan. As 
to her qualities, I need not say much about 
them, considering that she was alive till 
seven years of age. She was very strong 
every year till the fifth, but only moderate- 
ly so the last two years. Combs full of 
brood sealed all over — as if all eggs had been 
laid in a day in that comb — did not look as 
if she were hampered much by having no 
wings. But then, who knows but that she 
might have been better and lived till more 
than seven years if she had been jiroperly 
clipped instead of being marked as she was? 
However, I should like to have a hundred 
queens like her so far as her good points 
were concerned, and wouldn't object if they 
had their wings olY either, as I do not think 
it would hurt them a bit. 



Feb. 1, 1912 



71 



fecBcg^Brng] /am^DDg] UDd© [S(d®Dsd( 



Wesley Foster, Boulder, Colo. 



Just take this pointer, all you contribu- 
tors to Gleanings, including myself: Tell 
your little story as simply and naturally 
as does Miss Lucille Johnson, page 754, 
Dec. 15. 



ABUNDANT SNOWS. 

^^'e are having an abundance of snow and 
cold weather in Colorado at the present 
time. The snowfall on the ranges has been 
heavier than for several years, and an abun- 
dant supply of irrigation water is practically 
assured. 



AUTOS FOR BEE-KEEPERS. 

The automobile is about the livest sub- 
ject among the bee-keepers at the present 
time. It seemed that, before and after ev- 
ery session of our Colorado State conven- 
tion, the members would be discussing 
autos and their use for out-apiary work. 
Autos that will last for several years for 
bee-keepers' use are now so moderate in 
jirice that it is a question whether a pro- 
gressive bee-keeper can afTord to be without 
one. They have come to stay, and those 
most loud in their praise are those who are 
using them. Several machines will proba- 
bly be purchased as the result of the infor- 
mal experiences given at the convention. 
The machines most generally in use in Col- 
orado are light runabouts or auto wagons, 
the latter similar to the International auto 
wagon which will carry one thousand 
pounds. Motor cycles are quite popular 
with some bee-keepers for use in getting to 
their out-apiaries. [See editorial. — Ed.] 

Mr. F. Rauchfuss, manager of the Colo- 
rado Honey-producers' Association, recent- 
ly told me a few things about the honey 
situation in the West, which would do ev- 
ery Western bee-keeper good to know. Ex- 
tracted honey, over and above that which 
can be sold in the local markets, has to be 
sold in the East in competition with South- 
ern and far Western honey. Comb-honey 
markets have been developed which de- 
mand Western honey, and pay a good fig- 
ure. The Pacific coast has a more favorable 
freight rate on the shipment of extracted 
lioney than has Colorado and the inter- 
mountain region. Comb honey, the past 
season, brought $2.75 to $8.25, while the 
very best extracted water-white alfalfa hon- 
ey sells slowly at not over 7 cents in large 
quantities. Under present conditions there 
is no doubt whatever that comb-honey pro- 
duction pays far better than extracted hon- 
ey. In making these statements I am 
speaking of Colorado and the inter-moun- 
tain regions only. The average bee-keeper 
finds that he can sell a few cans of honey 
around home for 10 or 15 cts. per pound, 
and straightway figures that he can make 
more money with extracted at this price 



than with comb honey at 11)4 to 12>^ cts., 
when he has to buy sections, foundation, 
shipping-cases, etc., and so he goes and 
changes from comb to extracted honey, 
soon finding that he can not market liis in- 
creased i)roduct around home, and has to 
put his nice alfalfa stock on the market in 
competition with honeys of cracker-factory 
grade. Extracted-honey i)roducers in Colo- 
rado, within the last few years, have had to 
accept 6 cts. for white alfalfa honey to be 
used by cracker-factories because they could 
not find a market for this table honey. At 
the present time there are five or six car- 
loads of extracted honey in Colorado, and 
probably not one carload of comb could be 
found if the whole State were carefully 
gone over. 

BEE-KEEPING EXTENSION. 

There are several problems before Western 
bee-keei)ers that may not affect those in the 
East. Here there are many specialists who 
do not look with favor on bee-inspection. 
They hope that foul brood will soon clean 
out the little fellow and leave the field to 
himself. Is he right? He figures that he 
can keep foul brood from gaining a foothold 
in his own apiaries while it is destroying 
the bees of his less watchful neighbors, and 
he does not want the inspector to come 
around and show them how to get rid of 
the disease. What is the course to pursue 
for the best interests of the bee-keeping in- 
dustry as a whole ? 

A few have spoken to me that were doubt- 
ful of the good of having bee-keeping repre- 
sented on the farmers'-institute courses. 
They take the stand that it encourages 
many to take up bee-keeping only to be- 
come discouraged later on and lose money 
by the operation. Then it tends to over- 
stock the field, they claim. 

What is the best course to pursue? Stop 
all bee-inspection and bee keeping exten- 
sion, and let the industry go as it has, or 
try to educate the beginners in the best 
methods ? Th is subject arouses bitter argu- 
ment in some places in Colorado and the 
West. 

The whole tendency of the times is toward 
specialization, and the specialist feels that 
the ignorant amateur or careless box-hive 
bee-keeper is a thorn in the fiesh. He does 
not believe such men can be taught; he 
thinks the only way is for him to become 
discouraged and sell out to the specialist. 
There are fewer bee-keepers in Colorado 
than ten years ago, but more good ones, 
and there are a goodly number of first-class 
small bee-keepers. I know some farmers 
who are really good bee-keepers, and who 
welcome suggestions and help through 
farmers' institutes and farm papers, bee- 
inspection, etc. Let's hear from others on 
this question. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



®(D[]DW(B[P©gl1ia(D[JD^ MDGDd [D]®®DdG{iD 



At Borodino, New York 



ADVERTISING AS PRODUCERS. 
I have been reading the Rural New - Yorker for the 
past year, and T notice that many of the producers 
of apples, potatoes, beans, etc.. put inside the pack- 
ages a slip of paper, or something of the kind, tell- 
ing what they received as producers, and request- 
ing the consumer to let them know what he paid 
for the same. From data received in this way the 
liural figures that the producer gets only about 35 
cents of the consumer's dollar. This seems quite 
unfair to the producer, and gives a clue to the rea- 
son why we bee-keepers receive so small a price for 
our honey when compared with most of the things 
we have to buy. Now, while I would not advocate 
the same plan. I have been wondering why it 
would not be a good plan to put our names, as pro- 
ducers, on every crate of comb honey we send out, 
if not on every section, using a pretty stamp there- 
for. Then by sending out only a gilt-edged article 
the consumer would soon know of whom he could 
buy the best honey, and in this way the progress- 
ive bee-keeper might build vip a most profitable 
trade, while those who work only in a slipshod way 
could be shut out from hurting us by selling their 
product for less than good honey is worth, as is so 
often done by the careless and indifferent. 

This question carries me back more than 
a quarter of a century, when I was produc- 
ing much more comb honey than our home 
market woukl consume, which obliged me 
to send quite a share of my crop abroad. I 
sent some to different counties in this State, 
and in States adjoining, and reasoned that 
no buyer should object to the producer's 
name and address on the packages of honey 
which he produced, and even went so far as 
to procure a rubber stamp, and put my name 
on every section. This was very little trou- 
ble if done just before the cover to the crate 
was nailed on, as the sections were all in 
rows, so the stamp could be pressed on each 
almost as soon as it takes to tell it. As I 
"wielded '" this stamp I said to myself, '" If 
the producer or mai^ufacturer of an article 
has not the right to have his name on it, I 
don't know who has. How is a honey-pro- 
ducer going to advertise his business and 
work up a trade for his product unless he 
places his name on every section of honey 
he considers as A No. 1? It has taken me 
over fifteen years to learn how to produce a 
real fancy article of comb honev, and I 
should be foolish to give this away to some 
one who happened to buy my honey expect- 
ing to sell it again. Those ptirchasing to 
sell again have a right to place their name 
on the package as the seller of it, but in no 
way should they be allowed to mark it or 
the sections so as to advertise themselves as 
the producer." 

About this time I took a sample of my 
section honey to a buyer in Syracuse, N. 
Y., taking a section from each of the differ- 
ent grades which was produced that season, 
exi)ecting to put my stamp on only that 
which I considered a" fancy article, as I did 
not consider it good policv to stamp the in- 
ferior grades. The buyer looked the samples 
over, got my prices for each grade, then 
about the quantitv I had, made a few fig- 
ures, and offered me about $25.00 more than 
I expected to get for the whole crop. Of 
course I sold it to him. I then asked him 



how he wanted it put up. He said, "Put as 
near as you can the proper proportion of all 
grades in each crate." I objected, and then 
told him how I had been in the habit of 
putting my stamp on each section of fancy 
and Xo. 1 honey, putting that in crates by 
itself, while the ofT grades went without the 
stamp. He said that he had bought the 
honey, paid me a good figure for it, and it 
should be his right to dispose of it as he saw 
fit, to which I had to agree or be guilty of 
not living up to my part of the contract. 
We then talked the matter over, and he 
agreed that, where I did my own selling to 
the consumer, I was right in wishing my 
name on every package, as that would hold 
me and the consumers together. But with 
him as a buyer the case was different. He 
was building up a trade there in Syracuse 
and in other cities, reaching out into other 
States, therefore he wished to have his name 
on every package, and not that of the pro- 
ducer. He then went on and told how he 
was spending time and money and energy 
and thought in building up a market for 
honey in all these cities, and considered 
that it was only reasonable that he shotxld 
reap a reward for so doing. He did not ad- 
vertise that he was the producer of the hon- 
ey he sold, but tried to impress upon his 
customers the idea that he was an expert 
judge of honey, and took great pains to se- 
cure that which was of excellent quality. 
He took great pains to live up to his profes- 
sions, and always furnished an excellent ar- 
ticle, and thus led his customers to believe 
that, when they bought one, live, ten, or 
twenty-five crates of honey of him, they 
could rest assured that it had his guarantee 
that it was all right. He said that, if he 
should send out honey having upon the sec- 
tions the names of the different producers 
of whom he purchased, he would never suc- 
ceed in building up a demand for the honey 
he bought, for one day he might be selling 
honey stamped Doolittle, and the next day 
that stamped .Jones, and so on to the end of 
the list of producers from whom he bought. 
When we were through with this talk I saw 
that there were two sides to this as well as 
to many other questions, and that, if I pro- 
duced more honey than I could sell at re- 
tail, or direct to the consumer, the buyer of 
this overplus was entitled to pay for the 
time he s^ient in getting it from the produc- 
er to the consumer. 

He instructed me to put this honey up in 
crates holding from 100 to 112 pounds, ac- 
cording as the sections were completed by 
the bees. When delivering the second load, 
a day or two after the first delivery, I found 
him sorting the honey I first brought, and 
putting the different grades into different- 
sized crates or cases, and sending each to 
his different customers in the different cities, 
in accordance with what any particular 
market called for. 



Feb. 1. 1912 



§m]®[PS]D ©®D°[P®©^(o)Dl]C^@DQ© 



HIVE PROTECTION. 



The Temperature of the Hive Outside the Cluster 
Nearly the Same as that Outdoors; Thin Hives 
Covered with Black Paper Better than Expensive 
Chaff Hives. 

BY ARTHUR C MILLER. 

Some years ago I brought to the attention 
of bee-keepers the value of black water-proof- 
ed paper as a winter and spring covering for 
hives, and explained some of the reasons for 
its usefulness, and some of the things to be 
guarded against. Several, evidently think- 
ing that I erred in some of my methods, or 
overlooking some of the directions, proceed- 
ed to use it contrary to some specific and 
emphatic instructions. They came to grief, 
and promptly laid it to the black paper. 
Others thought any water-proof paper would 
do, and failed to secure expected results in 
its use. Still others, thinking to improve 
on all the rest, covered their hives with sev- 
eral layers of papers, and then put a telescope 
cover snugly over it. All failed to grasp 
the fundamentals. 

Many bee-keepers now have hives either 
paper-protected or are planning so to protect 
them in the spring on removing the bees 
from the cellar, and it may be helpful to re- 
peat at this time some of the essentials, and 
emphasize some of the important details. 

First, a description of conditions within 
the hive in winter and spring is necessary. 
In a normal colony of average size, and 
which has not been unseasonably meddled 
with, the cluster will be found in early win- 
ter down close to the entrance. If such a 
cluster is opened and examined, it will be 
found to be nearly spherical in shape, and 
usually the cells within the s])here contain 
each a live bee; and between these bee-filled 
combs other live bees are solidly packed; so, 
except for the thin waxen cell walls, there is 
actually a solid living ball of bees. About 
the outer part of this cluster unsealed honey 
is found, and beyond that the sealed. 

If into that ball, and in the spaces be- 
tween the combs beside, behind, above, and 
below the bees thermometers are thrust, 
some surprising things will be revealed. For 
this purpose long slender thermometers with 
long straight bulbs are used. These are 
passed through holes bored in a super cov- 
er, and the cracks about the glass stems are 
stulTed with cotton. The scales of the ther- 
mometers are on white glass backgrounds 
made a part of them. These scales are se- 
lected so that the range of degrees probable 
will be above the level of the super cover. 
Over these protruding glass tubes is placed 
an inverted box or similar cover. This may 
have glass windows to read the scales 
through, or the box may be lifted off for the 
purpose. 

As soon as the bees quiet down from the 
disturbance caused by thrusting the ther- 



mometer bulb into their midst, a tempera- 
ture of GS to 72° F. will be found. Outside 
of the cluster, before, behind, or beside, the 
temperature will be about the same as out 
of doors. If external temperature has been 
nearly level for a day or two, the internal 
temperature will be not over one or two de- 
grees higher. .lust above the clusttr the 
temperature will be but a few degrees below 
that of the cluster center. 

These facts are the same whether the hive 
has walls stuffed with three inches of saw- 
dust or chaff, or are only half an inch thick. 

Now, if the thermometer within the clus- 
ter is wiggled, the mercury begins to rise; 
and within five to eight minutes it has risen 
ten to twelve degrees. Remember this, for 
it shows the cost of disturbance of the bees 
in winter. That increased heat is expended 
energy — bee life plus honey. 

If the bees are in thin-walled hives the 
temjierature within the hive (and outside 
the cluster) will closely follow that outside 
the hive. In chaff hives, particularly with 
small entrances, the fluctuation is slower, 
and this is to the disadvantage of the bee- 
keeper. If a blizzard has been raging, or 
strong winds w^ith low temperature have 
prevailed for several days, and then there 
follows a still sunny day with a considerably 
milder temperature, the inside of that "nice 
warmchaflf hive" isnot pleasant tocontem- 
plate. It is just as cold in there as it was 
out of doors when the storm was raging, and 
it stays so for a long time. On the other 
hand, after an extended period of milder 
weather the temperature inside reaches the 
same level; and if a cold spell follows, the 
inner temperature falls slowly. But winter 
"mildness" is a long way below cluster 
temperature. 

Bees in the thin hive get more rapid 
change of temperature, but no greater ex- 
tremes. If the entrance to their hive is suf- 
ficiently large, little or no moisture will col- 
lect on walls or combs. If the entrance is 
small, moisture may collect; but the first 
mild and sunny spell will dissipate much of 
it. But not so in the thick hive. If mois- 
ture collects in it, it stays. 

Just as soon as brood-rearing begins, in- 
ternal conditions undergo a change. Clus- 
ter temperature rises; and when the brood 
occupies part of two or three combs, much 
more moisture is given off. 

The exact temperature change within the 
cluster after brood-rearing is well under way 
is as yet a matter on which the several in- 
vestigators are not agreed. Some note a 
regular rising and falling of about ten de- 
grees each day, the rise beginning about 10 
A.M., reaching its maximum in about an 
hour or a little more, remaining level until 
nearly 1 p.m., and th^'n dropping until it 
reaches minimum at about 2 p.si. This is 
designated as a feeding fluctuation. Other 
observers noted the ri.se of only about IS" F. 
from the minimum of no brood, so that, in 



the presence of brood, the temperature of 
the cluster stands steadily at about S8° F. 
And thus matters remain until the cluster 
"breaks." 

When the bees cease to pack into the cells 
and spread out over the combs (break clus- 
ter), conditions within the hive are materi- 
ally changed. El very thermometer will give 
nearly the same reading (if the colony is 
normal) ; those next to the brood, reading a 
little above the others. In other words, the 
bees are keeping the whole chamber warm, 
and the chaff-packed walls become a very 
decided help to the bees. 

The bees in the unprotected thin-walled 
hives can not keep the whole brood-chamber 
warm, so that, from the "breaking of the 
cluster" until settled warm weather, they 
are kept much behind colonies in protected 
hives. But if a single-walled hive is proper- 
ly covered with a black water-proof paper, 
the results are even better than in the more 
expensive and more cumbersome chaff hive. 
Paper to be "properly put on " should be so 
adjusted that no drafts can enter or leave 
the hive except at the entrance, which should 
be left open to a size not less than one by 
fourteen inches. 

Before brood-rearing commences, the tem- 
perature within a hive thus protected fluctu- 
ates more widely than out of doors, and 
w'ith this difference: When the sun shines, 
the black paper absorbs much heat; the hive 
is warmed through, and the condensed 
moisture is dispelled. As the season ad- 
vances and the sun gets higher, the increase 
of temperature within becomes greater, even 
up to a point where the bees are incited to 
considerable activity. If now the entrances 
are small, the whole chamber becomes so 
warm that the bees will come down and 
start out as in summer, only to plunge into 
a chilling atmosphere without, and perish. 
But if the entrance is as large as indicated, 
when the bees reach the bottom of the 
frames they encounter a stratum of cold air, 
and, hesitating, start out slowly, if at all. 

When the sun passes, the radiation from 
the paper-protected hive is slow — very much 
slower than the absorption of heat from the 
sun. When the cluster finally breaks, the 
bees can keep Ihis hive as warm as the 
chaff-protected one. And they have the ad- 
ditional help of the sun's heat which is ab- 
sorbed by the black paper. 

There is a vast difference between a hive 
painted black and one covered with paper 
that is black. But w here a l hin telescope 
cover is used, and that is covered with black 
pai)er, all the advantages of the paper-cover- 
ed hive are secured w-ith the additional ad- 
vantage of convenience and permanency. 
Only two additional items have to be con- 
sidered with it — namely, having it deep 
enough to cover the whole hive-body, and 
having some sort of weather-strip around 
the bottom edge so air can not blow up un- 
der it. 

In the spring, after the cluster breaks, it 
is safe to contract the entrance to suit the 
owner's fancy; but experience has shown 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

that no real gain was made by such proced- 
ure, if the colonies were of normal size. 
Providence, R. I. 

[When we received the above article we 
felt that the importance of the question at 
stake was such that the other side should 
be presented at the same time; accordingly 
we sent a copy of it to Mr. Holtermann and 
Mr. Byer. Their replies follow. — Ed.] 



HIVE PROTECTION. 



Though the Temperature Outside the Cluster of 
the Interior of a Thin Hive with a Large Entrance 
May Vary Little from that Outdoors, does this 
Prove that Ample Packing is Useless? 



BY R. F. HOLTERMANN. 



STORES. 



Mr. Miller says, "If such [a natural colo- 
ny of average size] is opened and examined, 
it will be found to be nearly spherical in 
shape, and usually the cells within the 
sphere contain each a live bee, and between 
these bee-filled combs other live bees are sol- 
idly packed; so, except for the thin waxen 
cell walls, there is actually a solid living 
ball of bees. About the outer part of this 
cluster unsealed honey is found, and beyond 
that the sealed." It is a mighty difficult 
matter to say what "a normal colony of 
average size" is; but the description which 
follows would, in my estimation, picture a 
colony not well equipped for winter. (It 
may be insisted that, as I use a large hive 
(twelve-frame Langstroth), and do not al- 
low my bees to swarm, a description of my 
bees would not give an average colony. Let 
me say that there are many bee-keepers who 
liave adopted this system, or are aiming at 
it with a large measure of success, and 
many ruore are convinced of the economy 
and desirability of such a system, but do 
not yet know how to make a success of it.) 
I will guarantee now in early .January (for 
I have had such for years) to take a com- 
mittee to some of my apiaries in the early 
spring and show them many colonies that 
have bees on all of the twelve combs — colo- 
nies which ran in weight, without cover, 
100 lbs. or even more in the fall of the year. 
Such colonies we all know- must cover a very 
considerable portion of the capped honey in 
the fall and early winter. Colonies and 
their stores should be so arranged that they 
cover as nearly as possible all of the winter 
stores in the hive, as stores not covered by 
the bees during cold and damp weather de- 
teriorate, and so much the more if there is 
much entrance or other opening to allow of 
the free circulation of air. It does not take 
a very good judge of honey to distinguish 
between honey w^hich has been covered by 
the bees and that outside of the cluster in 
the hive during the winter months. The 
uncovered stores simply absorb moisture 
and atmospheric impurities, and granulate 
or deteriorate. 



Feb. 1, 1912 



If I have to feed, and have only a Umited 
number of t-olonies to prepare, 1 would not 
feed until dose to the time when we m<(y 
have permanent cold weather. I would give 
a syrup made of '1% lbs. of granulated sugar 
to 1 lb. of water brought to a boil; and if I 
wanted to do what I felt sure would be the 
best, I would add a teaspoonful of tartaric 
acid to each gallon of syrup. There is then 
little need of evaporation by the bees, and 
they would store the syrup in the mi(lst of 
the cluster. No better stores can be provid- 
ed for bees during winter confinement. In 
my estimation, if a bee-keeper has only an 
early surplus-honey How such as clover, his 
bees are really never in a proper condition 
for best wintering without feeding: because 
if they have enough stores in the hive (which, 
as a rule, is not the case) , it is not in the 
place where the bees can keep it in the best 
condition. 

TEINIPERATTTRE AND ENTRANCE. 

Mr. Miller says, further: "Outside of the 
cluster — before, behind, or beside, the tem- 
perature will be about the same as out of 
doors. If external temperature has been 
nearly level for a day or two, the internal 
temperature will be not over one or two de- 
grees higher. Just above the cluster the 
temperature will be but a few degrees below 
that of the cluster center " (italics are mine) . 
This, he states, is 6S° to 72°. This, no doubt, 
will he correct if the bee-keeper follows out 
his direction as to size of entrance, "which 
should be left open to a size not less than 
one by fourteen inches." The object in 
leaving the large entrance as stated by Mr. 
Miller is, " If the entrance is small, moisture 
may collect." Just so; and that is one rea- 
son why I do not want the water-proof pa- 
per over the hive, for it means that the 
moisture and foul air must all come out at 
the entrance, or in part condense on the 
stores. The fresh air and foul air, by this 
method come out at a common low-down 
entrance. In other words, the oxygen to 
assist the fire to burn, and the smoke and 
exhaust air, all go in and come out at the 
damper of the stove. Such a system is not 
based on scientific principles. 

The entrance of the hive can be very small 
in winter. The entrance to my hive is lj4^ 
inches deep by the full width of the hive, 19 
inches. I used to keep, during hot weather, 
a pair of wedges, Ys in. deep, at the front of 
the hive, running to nothing an inch from 
the back, these placed between thesidesofthe 
bottom-board and the side of the hive. They 
were removed when the robbing season set 
in. I now have them as a permanent fix- 
ture the year round, and contract the en- 
trance to suit my needs by a reversible en- 
trance-board to fit lightly between the sides 
of the portico, 2>^ in. deep, and % in. wide. 
Dividing this board by an imaginary line 
parallel to the bottom-board into two equal 
jiarts we have two parts, each \% in. wide. 
The one has on the outer edge an entrance 
<) in. long by % in. high. The other, nut- 
side, an entrance 4 in. long by % in. wide, 
and three holes next to the imaginary line 



—one in the center lengthwise, and the 
other two one at each side about 1}4, in. from 
the center hole. These holes are y% in. in 
diameter. During the fall I turn next to 
the bottom-board the (Much entrance. 
When I pack for winter I turn the 4-inch 
entrance down. The three H-inch holes 
now come just below the front board of the 
hive. Before, with the 6-inch entrance, they 
were closed|by the front board of the hive, 
as they are not in the center of the board. 
Dead bees can not close these round holes 
until they accumulate to the depth of one 
inch on the bottom-board, which does not 
happen as long as the colony is worth sav- 
ing. 

By putting a piece of lath in the bridge in 
front of the entrance I can, by reaching 
with a wire through the three ?^-inch holes in 
the outer case, close the lower 4-inch entrance 
quite or almost entirely. 

The fresh air in moderate quantities en- 
ters the well-protected entrance (the holes 
in the outer cases are not on a level with the 
^-inch holes in the entrance board or block 
to check drafts) . It ascends about the bees; 
and as it is being warmed it keeps rising, 
taking with it moisture and impurities, final- 
ly passing out of the hive above. The ex- 
it is expedited by a queen-excluder resting 
on each hive, with a cloth on the queen-ex- 
cluder. In this matter I have followed the 
advice of Jas. Armstrong, one of Ontario's 
efficient inspectors. The air with the con- 
tained moisture and impurities passes, 
through the leaves, 8 to 10 inches deep 
above, and condenses on the cold j^-inch 
cover, with roofing-paper outside above, or 
passes out of the case through ventilators 
for the purpose. 

With such a method no one need tell me 
that the temperature inside the hive, about 
the cluster, is, in a more or less short time, 
the same as that outside. I am quite free 
to admit that much (almost all) the advan- 
tage of packing is lost when a heavy cold 
wind strikes the entrance of the case. But 
I have an <S-ft. fence about a small piece of 
ground, and I feel very stronglj^ that any 
other method of caring for bees outside is a 
mistake — sometimes a calamity. 

LOSS OF HEAT, THEREFORE VITALITY OF 
THE BEES, PLUS HONEY. 

Mr. Miller himself furnishes an excellent 
foundation for opposing his conclusions in 
the statement, "If a blizzard has been rag- 
ing, or strong winds with a low temperature 
have prevailed for several days, and then 
there follows a still sunny day with a con- 
siderably milder temperature, the inside of 
that nice warm chalT hive is not pleasant to 
contemplate;" and he tells us, "Just above 
the cluster the temperature will be but a few 
degrees below that of the cluster center." 
There is th( point. This is clear proof that 
there is a certain amount of heat given ofT 
by the cluster of bees. From Mr. Miller's 
experiments I find it is even more than I 
expected it to be. This heat given off by 
the cluster has an elTect upon the hive, and 
a much greater elTect if the entrance to the 



Gleaning:s in Bee Culture 



hive is small and the bees are wdl protected 
kty packing, but is rapidly lost with an en- 
trance in the winter and spring, 1 in. by 14 
inches. The heat passing away more rapid- 
ly compels more heat to be generated, which, 
as Mr. Miller rightly states, "Remember 
this— that increased heat is expended ener- 
gy—bee life plus honey." If we have a stove 
(the cluster) in a room (the hive) it makes 
a vast difference if we open tlie window half 
;an inch or take the window out altogether 
(my winter entrance in contrast to Mr. Mil- 
ker's) . 

ft seems to me that, however sound the 
Argument may seem to some, an overcoat to 
keep out the cold is a good thing to keep 
out the heal, or that no overcoat is a good 
thing in the morning because the sun can 
strike us better later in the day to warm us 
up As with us, so with the bees— the nat- 
ural heat of man and bees has to be consid- 
ered. 

SPRING. 

In spring, hives protected as mine are, the 
bees are active in the hive feeding brood, 
and the queen laying, when in unpacked 
hives about all they appear to have the en- 
ergy to do is to turn up their tails slowly, 
let their stings protrude, and give the well- 
known accompanying buzz. Perhaps in 
Mr. Miller's locality the temperature does 
not range very low nor last for any length 
of time. The protected entrance also al- 
most entirely prevents robbing, and also 
keeps the bees from coming out on the 
least provocation. 

Brantford, Ont., Canada. 



THE RESULTS OF SOME EXTENDED EXPERI- 
ENCE IN CANADA. 

Colonies in Thin Hives Wrapped with Paper Died, 
while Others, Wintered in the Same Yard in 
Packed Hives, came Through in Good Condition. 

BY J. L. BYER. 

I have had some considerable experience 
in the matter of wintering bees outdoors in 
our severe Ontario climate; and whatever I 
shall say will, of course, be based on that 
phase of the subject. And right here let 
me say that I know nothing of what the 
climatic conditions of Rhode Island may 
be, and, for aught I know, Mr. Miller's pa- 
pered bee-hive may be all right for that 
State, and countries in a similar latitude. 
At the same time, I can not understand 
how it is that what is good for us in a cold- 
er climate would not to a lesser degree be 
good for a milder one, where, even if the 
thermometer does not go as low as it does 
here in Ontario, there are nevertheless very 
sudden changes from cold to warm, and 
vice versa. 

As Mr. Miller says, some few years ago he 
boomed the papered-hive idea in the Amer- 
ican Bee-keeper. Well, I myself was one 
•who tried to save a few dollars at a time 
•when a silver quarter looked as big as a 



"cart-wheel," and asa result I got "stung " 
in good shape. In glancing at the sub- 
heads of Mr. Miller's article I notice the 
phrase, "Thin hives covered with black pa- 
per better than expensive chaff hives," and 
the thought came to me that, if such is the 
case, a number of bee-keepers who have no 
money to throw away are making fools of 
themselves in going to the trouble of giving 
lots of protection to their bees when a com- 
mon hive wrapped with a few farthings' 
worth of paper would answer the bill better 
than all the protection (?) we are giving 
them. Among the number, the names of 
McEvoy, Holtermann, Sibbald, and Miller 
come to my mind, and these four men win- 
ter colonies by the hundreds outdoors. 
Counting in my bees, the five of us winter 
probably 2000 colonies, so the expenditure 
in tlie way of protection, as we now under- 
stand the term, amounts to no small sum 
in the aggregate. Many others might be 
named, but these names happen to come to 
my mind as being associated with outdoor 
wintering quite prominently. 

Now, as I have already intimated, I pro- 
pose to speak on this matter from the stand- 
point of experience; and in order to get di- 
rectly at the svibject I will at once tell how 
the plan as advocated by Mr. Miller worked 
here in Ontario during a winter such as our 
grandparents designated an "old-fashion- 
ed " one. Having a number of colonies in 
single-walled hives that had to be looked 
after in some way in order to carry the bees 
over tlie winter, friend Miller's plan that 
appeared in print just at that time was 
eagerly taken advantage of as a method 
that would help me out and at the same 
time solve the question of winter protection 
when I had no money to buy winter cases. 
The hives were prepared (about 20) as near- 
ly as possible according to Mr. Miller's di- 
rection, with the exception that not quite 
as large an entrance was given as he speci- 
fies in his present article. As a matter of 
fact, he says an entrance should be not less 
than one by fourteen inches, and of course 
this would be impossible in an eight-frame 
hive. However, I want to be perfectly fair 
in the matter, and I will admit that the en- 
trances I gave were not as large as they 
coulcl have been in an eight-frame hive. 
Indeed, an entrance one inch deep, full 
depth of hive, would allow the hives to be 
pretty well filled witli snow during some of 
the storms we have sometimes. The hives 
used were eight-frame; but the frames were 
somewhat deeper than even the .lumbo size 
— a circumstance that favors outdoor win- 
tering more or less, as the deeper frames are 
generally conceded to be somewhat better 
for wintering than the standard L. frame. 

As nearly as I can recall from memory, 
the entrances were one inch deeji, and va- 
ried from five to eight inches in width; but 
I can not for a moment think that a few 
inches more in size of hive entrance would 
have made any radical differences in the 
wintering results. 

As already stated, the winter was a very 



Feb. 1, iyi2 

cold one, so 1 had abuiulunt facilities for 
testing the two styles of winter i)rotection as 
mentioned by Mr. Miller, as in the yard were 
also about SO colonies wintered in packed 
hives. After quite a long spell of cold 
weather it was found on examination that 
the sides and ends of the paper-packed hives 
were coated with frost very heavily, while 
in the iiacked hives very little was found 
on any hives, while naany showed none at 
all. Sow, I am well aware that a cluster of 
bees, to a wonderful degree, can prevent ra- 
diation of heat from the cluster, yet aonv 
heat must leave the cluster, else how could 
the condensed moisture on the sides and 
ends of the hives be explained ? Then if 
the packed hives were no warmer than the 
papered ones, why the absence of frost on 
the sides and ends, when on the walls of the 
papered hives the frost was so much in evi- 
dence? Mr. Miller says that, if moisture 
does collect in the hive, the first mild and 
sunny day will dissipate much of it. On 
the hives I have under discussion, when a 
mild day came the moisture would run in 
streams out of the entrance and would often 
freeze there toward evening or at a time 
when the sun would not strike the front of 
the hive. All wanter they gave me trouble, 
and before the winter was half over I knew 
that it was all up with the most of them, 
and the following May only five or six w^ere 
alive, and they were only weaklings at that. 
How' about the other 80 colonies wintered in 
packed hives? Writing from memory, the 
bees wintered in perfect shape with only 
the loss of three or four colonies from queen- 
lessness, etc. Why the difference in re- 
sults, if the manner of packing was not the 
main essential in the transaction? At the 
time, I said something about my experi- 
ence, in one of the journals, and ^Ir. ^Miller 
said that he did not recommend the plan 
for our Ontario climate. In his present ar- 
ticle he makes no exception to climatic con- 
ditions: and as thousands of colonies are 
wintered outdoors in our latitude, he proba- 
bly thinks the plan he recommends will be 
all right wherever bees are wintered success- 
fully outdoors. 

Regarding the temperature of the hives 
away from the cluster, it seems quite rea- 
ronable to believe that the air would be as 
cold inside as outside in a hive with no pro- 
tection except paper, and with an entrance 
14 inches long and 1 inch deep. That is on 
a par with opening the door of our living- 
room during zero weather. 

When it comes to protected hives, then I 
will assume the "show me" attitude till I 
am convinced. Go to one of the winter 
cases with four colonies jiacked close togeth- 
er inside, as described by Mr. Holtermann 
in a recent article in Gleaxings. Lift ofT 
the packing from the tops of the hives and 
note all four clusters in a circle around 
where the four hives meet one another. See 
the entire absence of frosty walls (provided 
there is amjile protection of dry material 
between hives and case) and dry condition 
of the combs; and if you are not convinced 



77 

that the air in such hi\es is warmer than 
that outside of hives, it will only be when a 
theriuometer under proper conditions has 
pro\ed otherwise. As to the absence of 
frost on the walls of the hives. |)0ssiblv the 
absorbent material around them accounts 
for the difiference. The main thing I look 
at is that it /.s absent, while on the papered 
hives it is always present in \erv cold 
weather. 

I have tried the black paper for spring 
protection; and when I say that, besides 
the bees wintering outdoors, I have ;'.00 col- 
onies inside, and would not thank anybody 
to paper the whole outfit gratis when they 
are taken out in the spring, anybody can 
understand my position on the question 
without going into detail. My main objec- 
tion IS that the black paper around the 
hives warms up the hives too much during 
sunshine and causes undue disturbance 
the bees flying out only to perish outside! 
Mr. Miller covers this point by insisting on 
large entrances; but as I do not like an en- 
trance in the spring as large as specified by 
him, the difficulty I mention could not be 
overcome. Some packing over the brood- 
nest in the spring is, in my estimation, 
worth more than many sheets of jfaper 
around the sides and ends. I have winter- 
ed bees in hives prepared as he says, even 
in our climate, and they sometimes came 
through fairly strong. But when such was 
the case, the winters were not as severe as 
the one during which we lost so heavily. 

Another important matter is that every 
colony wintered with the minimum of pro- 
tection consumed a maximum of stores, so 
in the end any apparent saving in the cost 
of winter cases was more than made up in 
increased consumption of stores and weak- 
ened vitality of the bees. For seven years 
in succession I wintered a strong colony in 
a very large hive, with no protection except 
packing over the top inside of a super. A 
hole near the top of the hive w^ould allow 
me to see the cluster in zero weather, and 
they wintered well every winter in spite of 
no protection; but they always consumed 
about twice as much stores as the protected 
colonies. While seasoned bee-keepers in 
climates like ours are not likely to try doing 
away with protection for their bees, there is 
danger of some fellow doing as I did some 
years ago; and all such I would urge to go 
slow, and test the matter well before risking 
too much. 

Very strong colonies with a very large 
amount of good stores will winter any old 
way; but, generally speaking, the apiaries 
given the best protection during the winter 
and spring will give the best results in the 
honey-flow; and I feel pretty sure that, if Mr. 
Miller were in our locality, and wintering 
outdoors, he would soon modify his state- 
ments as to the relative values of papered 
hives, and hives in cases with abundance of 
dry material to i)rotect from the cold winds 
and take up any moisture that may collect 
in the hives. If experience proved other- 
wise, I would be one of the first to quit 



78 

spending money for something worse than 
useless. 

Mr. Miller says that "bees in the thin 
hive get more rapid change of temperature, 
but no greater extremes.'" I agree to the 
first clause of the statement unreservedly, 
but dispute the second just as strongly. 
During very cold days in the latter end of 
.January and early in February, whenever 
the sun would shine brightly for a few hours 
the bees in the paper-covered hives would be 
warmed up to such an extent that the clus- 
ters would be broken more or less, and the 
bees become quite uneasy. This condition 
repeated at various times was a factor that 
worked havoc to the bees in these thin hives, 
while such short periods of sunshine did not 
affect the bees in the packed hives, for they 
wintered in splendid condition. 

THERMOMETER READINGS SHOW AVERAGE 

DIFFERENCE OF 35° BETWEEN OUTSIDE 

AND INSIDE. 

.Jan. 5 gave signs of a real cold wave visit- 
ing us, so a hive was selected for an experi- 
ment. The hive is a very large one — 12 
frames, L. length, and somewhat deeper 
than the .Jumbo style — what some would 
call a veritable barn. It is a regular packed 
hive with a double bottom, two inches of 
sawdust being between the case and hive 
proper. The outside case is of half-inch 
stuff. The entrance is >^xrlO inches, lined 
inside with paper, and then there is a filling 
of four inches of dry sawdust between the 
case and inner hive of inch material. Over 
the frames is a porous quilt, and on top of 
that two sacks; without, ten inches deep of 
sawdust and chaff mixed. Over that is a 
roof of galvanized iron, and between roof 
and packing is an air-space of ten or twelve 
inches. The hive has ten frames and a di- 
vision-board, which leaves a space of one 
frame at the side of the hive unoccupied. 
The division-board was shifted to the out- 
side, and the thermometer suspended be- 
tween it and the outside comb. The colony 
is strong, and occupied seven spaces when 
the weather was at zero, no bees being next 
to the comb beside the thermometer; but 
the fringe of the cluster reached to the next 
space. All that was necessary to do to see 
the thermometer was to lift off the gable 
cover quietly, turn back the corner of the 
sack with the packing, and lift the corner 
of the quilt. Friday afternoon the tempera- 
ture had reached zero, and was on the down 
grade. The thermometer was put in the 
hive at 4 p.m. The following are the read- 
ings for three days in succession. 

Saturday, 8 a.m.— Very clear and quiet; 
15 below zero outdoors; inside the hive, 34 
above. Saturday, 5 p.m.— Zero outside; 40 
mside hive; sun had shone brightly all day 
Sunday, 8 a.m.— Zero, cloudy all day; in- 
side hive, 35. Sunday, 5 p.m.— 1 below zero 
outside; 30 above, inside. Monday, 8 a.m.— 
Stormy; cold wind blowing right in the en- 
trance all day; 4 above zero; inside hive, 34 
above. Monday, 5 p.m.— 16 above, outside, 
and 36 above in the hive. 

Mt. Joy, Ont., Can. 



Gleaningrs in Bee Culture 

[With a large entrance'on one side of the 
cluster, a single-walled hive, and only one 
thickness of tarred paper around the hive, 
we should hardly expect the temperature 
inside to be very much diflerent from that 
on the outside. In order to determine the 
conditions in and outside of a double-waited 
packed hive, with 7 inches of packing on 
top and 2]/% between the walls, we took a 
number of temperature readings at our 
home yard. A series of colonies in such 
hives were selected at random. A ther- 
mometer was placed in different parts of 
the brood-nest, and in one case in particu- 
lar it was let through a hole in the super- 
cover, the upper portion sticking up into 
the packing, so that a reading could be tak- 
en without opening the brood-nest Here 
are some of the readings we took off where 
the cover and packing was removed and the 
thermometer examined before the mercury 
could possibly change: 

Jan. 3, outside, 22 F.; inside temperature 
of first hive, 60; second hive, same day, 58; 
third hive, same day, 50; fourth hive, 50; 
fifth hive, 63. In explanation of these va- 
riations we would say that the temperature 
would have been the same in all the hives 
within one or two degrees if the thermome- 
ter had been placed the same distance from 
the cluster. In hives 1 and 2 the bulb of 
the thermometer was placed within two 
inches of the cluster, and hence the higher 
reading. On Jan. 5, with a temperature of 
7 above, we bored a hole through a super 
cover, placing the bulb of a tested dairy ther- 
mometer clear to the back end of the hive 
as far away from the cluster as possible. 
Here are the readings: In the afternoon," 
about five hours after the thermometer was 
inserted in the hole, a reading was taken 
that showed 7 above outside, and 26 inside. 
Jan. 6, 7 A. M., the outside temperature was 
5 below; inside temperature, 20 above. On 
the same day, at 2:20, the outside tempera- 
ture was 10 above; inside temperature, 28. 
Jan. 8, outside temperature 29 above;' in- 
side, 28, But on that day the temperature 
outside rose rapidly from zero in the morn- 
ing to 29 above. It is, therefore, plain why 
the inside should have been 28. But right 
here our experience teaches us that rapid 
changes of temperature inside of the hive 
for this locality are detrimental, because 
they break up the cluster, causing excite- 
ment when the bees should be kept quiet. 
Again, Jan. 8, the outside temperature was 
4 above; inside, 28 above. As we are locat- 
ed in a warmer climate than Mr. Byer we 
do not use as heavy a packing. Perhaps it 
would be better if we did, for we notice that 
his inside temperatures are relatively high- 
er. Rhode Island has a milder climate, 
and much more moisture than most north- 
ern localities near the great lakes, and it is 
no doubt true that it is an advantage to 
have large entrances; but we can not get 
away from the conclusion that more pack- 
ing would save a considerable amount of 
stores. See further comments on this ques- 
tion in the Editorial department.— Ed.] 



Feb. 1. 1912 




By request we are reproducing herewith the pictures of our department editors, believing that one 
likes to see what "manner of men" the regular contributors are. Mr. P. C .Chadwick Is our new corre- 
spondent from Caiifomia. 



80 



Cleanings in Bee Culture 



BEE-KEEPING ON THE APPALACHICOLA RIV- 
ER, FLORIDA. 



Locating Whole Apiaries up on Stilts or Benches, 
above the High-water Mark. 

BY E. R. ROOT. 



In our previous issue I told you some- 
thing about the wonderful possibilities in 
the way of honey production along the 
banks of the Appalachicola River, and I 
promised to take you to some of the apiaries 
where the hives are located clear up in the 
air on benches above the high-water mark 
of the river. Before doing this I wish to in- 
troduce to you our host, Mr. A. B. Mar- 
chant, whose apiaries we have been visiting, 
and whose methods for taking honey we 
have been considering. He is only slightly 
older than myself, and that means he is 
still a young man, of course, even if I am 
within five months of being half a century 
old. I do not need to say any thing more 
about Mr. Marchant as a bee-keeper, more 
than to mention that he has taken as high 
as 250 barrels of honey in 26 days. A man 
may know how to spin fine theories. He 
may be, indeed, a fine bee-keeper; but un- 
less he can make those theories and that ex- 
pert knowledge pan out into residis, he is 
not a successful bee-keeper. Mr. Marchant 
is not only a bee-keeper, but a honey-pro- 
ducer. 'Nough said. 

He invited me to take a trip with him 
down the river in his gasoline-launch, and, 
of course, I accepted the invitation. In this 
Appalachicola region an automobile would 
be out of the question, mainly because of 
deep sand and lack of roads; but a gasoline- 
launch is almost a thing of necessity, for 
with it a bee-keeper can visit his yards as 
often as he pleases, and haul his supplies 
and honey back and forth with the greatest 
convenience. 

We walked down the wharf where we saw 
those big loads of honey, and stepped aboard 





A. B. MARCHANT. 

his launch called the Dixie, and glided out 
into the river, the engine going " tuppy, 
tuppy," as we went. The water is clear and 
deep, and the fishing superb. 

As the little craft goes down the stream 
toward Appalachicola, beautiful scenery 
opens up at every turn of the river. Here 
and there a little stream empties into the 
big one, and up almost any of them one can 
find a good place to locate a bee-yard, pro- 
viding, of course, he has the money and 
time to put his apiary up on platforms, six, 
eight, or ten feet above the ground. As we 
sat in the bow of the boat Mr. Marchant 

pointed out 
the t u p e 1 o s 
along the riv- 
er. I said: 

"Mr. Mar- 
chant, why 
don't we see 
more b e e - 
yards in this 
country?" 

" Largely," 
said he, "be- 
cause there 
are few places 
in which to 
put bees." 

The banks 
of the stream 
are heavily 
covered with 
timber. Oc- 
cas i ona 1 1 y 
here and there 



Mai(liaiU"s Ka.soliue l:iuiR'li lur yuiny to and Iruiu'bee-yards and to town. y ' 



Feb. 1. 1912 



81 




K. L. Tucker's apiary on the Appalachicola Hiver, elevated upon platform to avoid high water. 



tice a clearing, but the ground is swampy 
and low, and therefore it becomes necessary 
for some who do locate here to go to consid- 
erable expense in making the elevated plat- 
forms, with a runway between the hives. 
Let us stop at one of these yards. 

The subjoined illustrations show the api- 
ary of Mr. K. L. Tucker, who has his post- 
office at Appalachicola. Here we see 860 
hives of bees located clear up in the air. 
The different views will show the details of 
construction of the platforms and the con- 
venient runways for a wheelbarrow down 
between the rows of hives. Notice how the 
platforms are braced, and that the hives are 
set up on side racks, I should say two feet 
above the general runway. When the plat- 



forms are finally constructed Mr. Tucker 
has a location for a bee-yard as good as he 
can ask — no grass, no weeds, no shrubbery 
— just nice board sidewalks to every hive. 

At one end of the "apiary," and also on 
stilts, is a small building where the owner 
himself can eat and sleep, put together his 
supplies, put in foundation, extract his hon- 
ey, etc. At the time of my visit Mr. Tucker 
had been sick a few days — whether from 
malaria or what, I do not know: but, unfor- 
tunately, this low marshy land, while it 
may be ideal for an ajiiary up on stilts, is, 
apparently, not an ideal phxce for the owner 
to spend several months during the height 
of the season; and this may explain why 
there are not more bee-keepers in this coun- 




Tuckefs>piary, showing the detail of the high benches. 



Gleaningi in Bee Culture 




1 lie handy board sifh w alks between the hives. 



try that furnishes, I might say, shiploads of 
honey, much of which is now going to waste. 

Again we board the launch. As we go 
" tuppy, tuppy " down the stream we find 
other bee-keepers located a good deal like 
those already shown. For example, Mr. B. 
F. Tucker, at Bluffston, has between 250 
and 300 colonies. 

As we hasten down toward Appalachicola 
we make no more stops. But I said to my- 
self, "If it were not for malaria and mos- 
quitoes, this would be the greatest bee- 
keeper's paradise I ever struck in all the 
United States, and I have now traveled 
nearly every foot of territory where bees are 
known to thrive." I doubt if this country 
will ever be overstocked. 

Our friend Mr. A. B. Marchant, at Mar- 
chant's Landing, must be better located 
than most of the bee-keepers on the river. 
He is on comparatively high ground, on 
good land where he can do any thing else 
he pleases. Unfortunately our friend has 
suffered severely from two fires, losing his 
home in both cases, and, unfortunately, his 
business has increased to such an extent 
that he finds himself with too many irons 
in the fire. Besides a sawmill, bee-ranch, 
and orange-grove, he is also extensively en- 
gaged in queen-rearing. As we went down 
the river out into the Appalachicola Jiay he 
showed me islands off in the distance where 
queens could be mated to choice drones. 
He has not worked out the scheme yet, but 
hopes, before another season rolls by, to fur- 
nish ishind-bred queens mated to choice 
hand-picked drones. The islands are just 
far enough from the main land to furnish 
ideal conditions. If he can possibly get the 
time he will give us the benefit of his ex- 
periments along this line. 

I can not droj) this Appalachicola district 
without referring to one or more prominent 
bee-keepers in that section, whom T was un- 
able to visit at this time. For instance, 
there is Mr. S. S. Alderman, at Wewahitch- 



ka, further up the river. At one time he 
had as many as 1500 colonies, but now he 
has only 1000. He does not employ a num- 
ber of men to work for him, but farms his 
bees out on shares. 



THE BEE-STING CURE FOR RHEUMATISM. 



[The following letter was sent to Mr. Fred W. 
Muth. who, because of the widespread interest 
shown in the bee-sting cure, sent it on to Glean- 
ings together with his reply.— Ed.] 

I am a sufferer from arthritis (chronic 
rheumatism) of the joints — some call it 
rheumatic gout. I have just read the arti- 
cle in Country Life in America for Decem- 
ber on your application of the bee-sting on 
Mr. licnner's arm for his rheumatism. I 
decided, at any rate, to trespass upon your 
courtesy and ask for your opinion, as you 
have had ex]ierience. We have few bees 
near by. Is the sting of all species of bees 
equally efficacious ? about how long a time 
is required to inoculate the system with the 
formic acid from the bee? I have a long 
vacation in the summer, and I am wonder- 
ing if I could have you get your bees to 
work on me next summer? I would gladly 
meet any reasonable ex])ense. Please ad- 
vise. I have little or no rheumatism in the 
muscles — all in stiffened, swollen] joints. 
Could the sting be applied there?* I have 
tried all known remedies, but nothing is of 
the least service. I am ready for something 
heroic, and sincerely trust you will do a 
suiferer from a terrible disease the courtesy 
of telling him whether you would be willing 
later to try your l^ee cure on him, 

Ct. Prentice Carson. 

De Land, Fla., Dec. 8. 

[The writer is not a specialist onjthis sub- 
ject, and can not advise whether all kinds 
of rheumatism can be cured by bee-stings. 
On the other hand, were I a sufferer from 
rheumatism as you are I would surely try 



Feb. 1, 1912 



83 




Forsythe"s queen-finding: sieve that slides in the entrance of the hive. 



Stings, for it costs nothiner, and the writer 
believes it will do more good than harm, 
and harm it can not do, for we have never 
known a practical bee-man to be afflicted 
with rheumatism. Some fifty years ago 
my father was a terrible sufferer from this 
dread disease, and purchased some bees for 
the express purpose of curing his rheuma- 
tism, and was never troubled afterward. It 
is the occasional sting while working with 
the bees that does the work. 

Mr. Renner, in question, came to our api- 
ary last spring of his own accord, as the last 
resort. For fifteen years he had been un- 
able to work. Since the cold weather has 
set in he has not made his appearance, but 
has called up our office and tells me he has 
not felt better for many years, and that he 
is coming back next spring, for he firmly 
believes he will be entirely relieved. 

If you will be the possessor of a few col- 
onies of bees, and do the work among the 
bees yourself, we feel you will be most hand- 
somely rewarded in your health. 

Fred. W. Muth. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 11. 



have entered, pull out the sieve and you are 
sure to have the queen. 
Claremont, X. H., Oct. .^0. 



BEE-KEEPING IN ENGLAND. 



BY A. H. BOWEN. 



QUEEN - FINDING SIEVE TO FIT IN HIVE -EN- 
TRANCE. 



BY ROBERT FORSYTH. 

I am sending you a photograph of my 
queen-finding sieve as described on page 
66fi, Xov. 1. I have given it a thorough 
trial, and do not see how any thing could 
be more simple or effective' When the 
sieve is slipped under the frames and the 
latter are shaken in front of the hive, no op- 
portunity is given the bees to reenter the 
hive except through the sieve. When all 



Thanks to the influence of "Old Sol," 
who shone out in cloudless skies from early 
morn till dewy eve, the year 1911 ranks high 
in England among the seasons of recent 
years, for both the quality and the quantity 
of the crop are excellent. Indeed, had it 
not been for the stormy period in .Tune and 
the fierce heat of .luly, the season would 
have been a record one; still, the result is 
satisfactory and most encouraging after two 
poor years. 

With a fairly mild winter, bees came out 
in good condition, but the early spring prov- 
ed unfavorable, and was bitterly cold, with 
the result that many colonies died out 
through lack of bees and stores. 

This condition existed until the end of 
April, when the weather changed; and from 
then right on we enjoyed perfect bee days. 
Fruit-trees rapidly came into blossom, and 
colonies quickly built up until, at the be- 
ginning of .June, many were on fourteen 
combs of brood, and occu])ying two supers. 

All colonies located on the hills where the 
first How is from sainfoin, were fed with syr- 
up from about March, right on until the 
honey-How. The syrup was given in slow- 
tin feeders, and it was surprising how power- 
ful the colonies became, just in time for the 
flow, which commenced early in .June. A 
large quantity of unusually light honey was 
stored and quickly extracted, the wet combs 
being returned ready for the main clover 
harvest. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 








Two-foot log split open, exposing large colony of 
bees. 

Unfortunately, the weather broke up and 
continued showery and cool until July, 
when we again enjoyed a glorious period of 
sunshine, which lasted more or less until 
the end of August. The fierce heat some- 
what scorched up the clover; but a fair 
quantity was collected from that source, 
and also from the lime-trees, which yielded 
well this year. From my own bees I secur- 
ed an average of 85 lbs. per hive of comb 
and extracted honey, and also obtained a 
"io-per-cent increase. The strongest colony 
yielded 100 lbs. of extracted honey; the 
next, 85 lbs.; and from the remainder, quan- 
tities varying down to 10 sections. 

When getting wet combs cleaned up after 
the last extracting I have found it advan- 
tageous to place them under the colonies 
instead of above, as is usually practiced. My 
method is to remove the colony from its 
floor-board, and put on two or three supers 
containing wet combs, then replace the col- 
ony on the top. The entrance is contracted 
to avoid robbing; and when honey has all 
been carried above, the supers are removed. 

In this country bees are usually covered 
■with quilts made of a coarse material such 
as felt carpet, or even cast-off garments; but 
I use a wooden quilt of my own manufac- 
ture, which answers the purpose admirably; 
for not only does it afford protection against 
both cold and damp, but it also provides a 
perfect winter passage. The excellent way 



in which bees winter when covered with this 
quilt has proved to me its very great value. 
I should like to convey to your readers some 
idea of the quiet beauty of the Cotswold, 
especially in September. Nature is then at 
her best; the cold bleak hills are clothed 
with the warmth of golden stubble, and the 
autumnal haze softens the landscape with 
those lights and shades which add so much 
of loveliness to a hill country; and suddenly, 
as we ramble along, a lovely valley is seen 
below; old-world farmhouses and ivy-cover- 
ed cottages come into view, nestling among 
stately elms and beech-trees. On descend- 
ing we come into a typical Cotswold village, 
with its manor house and Norman church, 
which stands out against the russet-tinted 
woods in the background. Passing through 
the village you will come across here and 
there in the cottage garden half a dozen 
skeps raised from the ground on logs of 
wood, and covered with a miscellaneous as- 
sortment of crocks, old sacks, tins, or any 
thing else which can be pressed into service. 
With the " gintlemen that pays the rint," 
and the proceeds from the sale of honey, cot- 
tagers are able to supplement their some- 
what scanty wage. 

But the great changes which are sweeping 
over our land have already invaded even 
such secluded Cotswold villages as these, 
and very soon the skep and thatched cottage 
will be a thing of the past. 

Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, Eng. 



A LARGE COLONY TAKEN FROM A TWO- 
FOOT LOG. 

BY A. W. AAMODT. 



Inclosed you will find a picture. This 
view of the split bee-log shown herewith 
was taken during the fore part of October. 
After some hard work we managed to get 
this log cut from a bee-tree which was two 
feet in diameter. We saved the bees and 
got a good strong colony. We gave them 
combs containing about 20 lbs. of honey, 
and, besides that, we got 19 lbs. for home 
use. The bees were hybrids, but we intro- 
duced a pure Italian queen, and by next 
summer we shall probably have a pure Ital- 
ian colony. 

St. Paul, Minn. 



MEETING OF THE NORTHERN CALIFORNIA 
BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

A Plea for a State-wide Association. 



BY W. A. H. GILSTRAP. 

The sixth annual convention of the North- 
ern California Bee-keepers' Association was 
held in Sacramento, Dec. 27 and 28, 1911. 
It was one of the most important meetings 
of honey-producers ever held on the coast. 
A veteran in the pursuit, who was unable to 
attend, thinks there have been few if any 
conventions of honey-producers in the Unit- 
ed States which has had so beneficial results 



Feb. 1, li)12 

as this one will have. To understand the 
situation, some historical evidence should 
be introduced. 

Over twenty years ago the Southern Cali- 
fornia liee-keepers' .Association was formed, 
the projectors trying to interest those fur- 
ther north in the work. The name was soon 
changed to California State Bee-keepers' As- 
sociation, and the effort continued to get all 
honey-producers in the State to combine. 
The writer knows this is fact. 

Xot much later the Central California 
Bee-keepers' Association was formed at Han- 
ford, and possibly still exists. The Tulare 
County Bee-keepers' Association is about 17 
years old; is well organized, and had two 
delegates present — Mr. Walker, of Tulare, 
its president, and Mr. Epperson, of Fresno. 
The Imperial country, in the southeastern 
part of the State, has an association, which, 
like the State association, is incorporated. 

The writer was honored with the chair- 
manship of a committee dealing with or- 
ganization and inspection. The former was 
reported substantially as follows: 

All honey-producers in the State are re- 
quested to join the State association, which 
shall consist of northern, central, Imperial, 
southern, and any other divisions that may 
be formed. County clubs are to be formed 
in each division. For administrative pur- 
poses delegates are to be elected to each di- 
vision from the county clubs, and to the 
State association from each division. 

Xo law can be passed on inspection till 
next winter, and the committee's plan con- 
templated the above organization by that 
time. The main features of the plan are 
somewhat similar to the above in formation. 
The Governor of the State shall appoint a 
State board of apiarian examiners whose 
members shall not exceed the division of 
the State association in number, from a list 
of names to be submitted by the State asso- 
ciation, and the (lovernor shall remove the 
same for cause. The board shall appoint a 
State inspector and county inspectors, and 
shall be paid actual expenses and per-diem 
salary by the State. The State inspector 
shall have laboratory facilities with the Uni- 
versity of California or elsewhere; shall give 
necessary assistance to county inspectors, 
and shall cause necessary inspection to be 
done by competent persons in counties 
where there are no inspectors, at exj^ense of 
counties where ins])ection is done. County 
inspectors shall appoint deputies when nec- 
essary: may remove them, and shall be re- 
sponsible for their acts. All the above shall 
be under bonds, excepting the deputies. 
County inspectors and deputies are to be 
paid by the county. 

While the above is from memory, it is 
close to the rei)ort submitted, which was 
turned over to the executive committee. 
After due amendment we hope it will be en- 
dorsed by all the associations in California. 
The delegates from the State association, 
Sec. A. B. Shafner, Los Angeles, and In- 
spector .1. W. Ferree, of Surrey, as well as 
the Tulare association delegates, were of 



85 

much assistance, and worked untiringly for 
the general good. 

The first day, State Entomologist Prof. C. 
W. Woodworth was up from lierkeley, and 
was fre(^uenlly called on for advice. He 
said we should confer with the various socie- 
ties of our industry for a law, take plenty of 
time to get it right, and then he would work 
for its i^assage. He has conducted a class 
in apiculture at the University for 17 years. 

The last day, Dr. A. .1. Cook, State Horti- 
cultural Commissioner, was with us for a 
while. To bee-keepers he will ever be " Prof. 
A. J. Cook." He spoke with much feeling 
of the older bee-keepers who have largely 
passed away, and assured us of the friend- 
ship of the bee-keepers at the south end of 
the State. He told us how Governor .lohn- 
son had lately called a special session of the 
legislature to manage an insect not as large 
as a house-fly. Twenty minutes after the 
legislature convened the desired measure 
became a law, and the legislature adjourn- 
ed! He told us to prepare a go .,d law and 
he would help us get it through. We enjoy- 
ed his talk immensely, even if he did 
"jnsh " us freely. 

Our friends from the south told us that 
the State association reports its meetings to 
the papers, as it wants it done by a censor, 
and not as a reporter who knows nothing of 
our pursuit would do it. During the meet- 
ing the need of such a plan was glaringly ap- 
parent, and all bee-keepers' associations 
could well consider this point. 

Mr. W. Gear, of Vorden, was elected sec- 
retary for the following year. 

Ceres, Cal. 



MOVING OVER 1000 MILES, AND SECURING 
160 POUNDS PER COLONY. 



BY B. F. SMITH, JR. 



April 26 I received notice I was to be 
transferred from the Omaha to the Sheridan 
division of the C. B. & Q. R. R. The year 
1910 was nearly a failure in our locality in 
Nebraska; but having fed my 23 colonies un- 
til each had 25 or more pounds of stores for 
outdoor wintering, I expected to find them 
in good shape for the trip. I found two dead 
and one with just a little bunch of bees with 
a drone-layer. This left just 20 with two 
doubtful ones, which I did not have time to 
examine. 

About 2 P.M., with thermometer at 55, the 
covers were removed and wire cloth nailed 
on instead, thus leaving just a ^-inch space 
over frames. About 5 p.m. it was a little 
colder, and screens were tacked over the en- 
trances, and the work of loading commenc- 
ed. All household goods were loaded in 
one end of a 40-foot box car, and a rack or 
gallery built in the opposite end, upon 
which the covers, supers, and chaff-trays 
were loaded. 

I had just enough one-inch boards to cov- 
er the bottom of the car in the end I intend- 
ed for the bees, and on top of these I put 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



about a foot of straw, carefully smoothing 
out the bumps. The hives were loaded in 
four rows of five each, and held in place by 
1X4 strips nailed to the sides of each hive 
with a straw bumi)er between end hives and 
car. The hive entrances were all toward the 
car door with about 3 feet between the top 
of the hives and the rack above. The rows 
extended nearly to the door; and between 
the doors I had five crates of chickens, a 
cot, chair, gasoline-stove, and water-barrel. 
As the last piece was loaded, the engine 
backed on to the car, and the start was 
made. 

We had not reached the first station before 
I discovered that one pair of wheels on that 
car were not true, and at a certain speed 
every thing in the car danced in a fashion 
that made me sick. As it was on the oppo- 
site end from the bees I tried to hope it 
would be all right with them. About half 
the first night was spent in bracing the 
chicken-coops and putting packing in where 
I could to prevent chafing. 

The trainmen on my old division handled 
my car in fine shape; but as soon as I was 
among strangers the way that car was hit, 
bumped, and jammed made me wish that 
some of those switchmen and engineers 
would have to ride over one division in a 
car like that. 

There were eight divisions, and that 
meant eight switchings; and although the 
car was loaded by an expert loader, it had to 
be rebraced several times. The hives, how- 
ever, did not move on their bed of straw. 

Saturday morning we arrived at our desti- 
nation in the IJig Horn Basin, Wyoming, 
in the midst of a snow storm, and the bees 
remained in the car until Monday, making 
the total time just one week. I found the 
two doubtful colonies and the one weak one 
dead. The two had been queenless before 
loading, so that there were none but old 
bees. The smaller colony suffered because 
the frames slipped over. Some were Hoff- 
man frames and some loose hanging; but 
only one of these moved. All the bees had 
been sprinkled four times daily except the 
two last days. Temperature ranged 50 to 
75°. 

The late storm destroyed all the fruit- 
bloom, and 1 commenced feeding May 15. 
On .June 14 sweet clover started to yield; 
then alfalfa and wild licorice. The flow did 
not let up until frost, Sept. 20. All colonies 
were tiered uj) as high as I could lift the su- 
pers before any were removed. Three colo- 
nies were divided, but I had no swarms. In 
all, there was a crop of o050 pounds of water- 
white extracted honey and 150 pounds of 
comb; and I had 20 colonies ready for winter. 

During July I found a swarm in a rabbit- 
hole. It had evidently swarmed, as there 
was just a little sealed brood with several 
vacant cjueen-cells and a virgin queen. This 
colony I transferred to a hive, and u built 
up to six frames without assistance. 

Cawley, Wyo. 

[The usual plan is to locate the hives in 
the car so that the frames are parallel with 



the rails, so that, when switching is going 
on, and the car is constantly being bumped, 
there is not so much danger of breakage. 
Your record, however, was very good. — Ed.] 



FENCES VERSUS SOLID SEPARATORS. 



Narrow Versus Wide Cleats. 



BY F. GKEINER. 



It is still vivid in my mind what trouble 
I experienced with the comb-honey supers 
which I used during the first few years of 
my bee-keeping in 1875 and thereafter; but 
I found something after a while that work- 
ed so well that even now I do not see the 
need of seeking for any thing better; and 
had I not been led to using no-beeway sec- 
tions, which made it necessary to use either 
fences or cleated separators, I would have 
nothing more to say on that subject. When 
the no-beeway section was first brought out 
by Mr. Morton, a discussion arose as to how 
wide the vertical cleats should be, and it 
seems that one-fourth inch has been settled 
on, although at one time it appeared that 
three-fourths inch, or at least something 
much Wider than the present regular width 
of one-fourth, would gain in favor; but of 
late, and for some years, our comb-honey 
producers have said nothing on the subject, 
which seems to be accepted as evidence that 
these narrow-cleated fences give the best of 
results and are satisfactory. 

Now, it happened that, at the time I 
wanted to make my plain-section supers, 
fences could not be bought; none were ofTer- 
ed for sale; and as the evidence seemed to be 
in favor of a wider cleat I made up my cleat- 
ed separators with cleats three-fourths inch 
wide. Wishing to test fences also, I made 
up 25 sets of fences with narrow cleats one- 
fourth inch wide, as are commonly used now, 
except that the separator material was one- 
eighth inch thick instead of one-sixteenth, 
as the larger part of the fences in use are 
made. It also happened that, soon after 
this, I bought some 20 or 25 supers with 
fences of the narrow-cleat type. These su- 
pers of different styles have been in use 
ever since, which is quite a term of years, 
and now I desire to give my experience 
along this line. 

I want to add that, a year ago, I wanted 
to increase my stock of supers; and, not 
wishing to spend much time in making up 
fences, which is a very laborious task when 
one has not machinery to do it with, i 
bought 500 Danzenbaker fences. All of 
these were used last season with the others. 
Now as to the result: 

The smoothest honey has always been pro- 
duced with the solid wood separator, wheth- 
er cleated or not; i. e., whether it came out 
beeway or no beeway section-supers. There 
was always the least of what friend G. M. 
Doolittle called "mangled" honey with 
these solid separators. 

The separators (or, rather, the fences of 
the 25 supers which were bought during the 
earlier time) were very flimsy; they were 



Feb. 1. 1!)12 

only tV, inch thick, and of very soft timber. 
My bees showed very little respect for them, 
and gnawed them in a frightful manner. 
They have long been out of commission, 
and the supers have been entirely remodel- 
ed to correspond with my regular stock. The 
resulting honey had always the washboard 
apiiearance, arid many legs were attached 
to the faces and fences. There was another 
peculiarity of these supers; the combs in 
them ran crosswise of the frames in the 
brood-chambers, making it necessary to 
keej) hives perfectly level both ways. This 
is, as every one knows, a very undesirable 
feature, and can not be tolerjited except in 
house-apiaries or tenement hives. 

The honey produced with the Danzenba- 
ker fences also lacked in smoothness when 
compared with that j^roduced with solid 
separators. But the feature I wanted to 
draw es]iecial attention to as being the re- 
sult of the narrowness of the cleats is this: 
The sealing of the cells next to the wood is 
quite often so drawn out as to be slightly 
attached to the cleats; and when the filled 
sections are removed from the supers this 
sealing is somewhat broken, and a leak is 
the result. This may not be very serious, 
for bee-keepers seem to be jjassing it by 
without making objections, although few 
have mentioned the matter. A wider cleat 
entirely prevents this trouble, as is clearly 
shown by the honey produced in my 100 or 
more supers provided with such wide cleats. 
The fences with the narrow X-i^ch cleats, 
which I made some fifteen or more years ago, 
have always given us the saiBC trouble, more 
or less, just as the Danzenbaker fences did, 
but have stood the wear exceptionally well — 
probably because the material was good 
sound timber, and of good thickness. I 
doubt whether the thin Danzenbaker fences 
will endure like that. My suggestion would 
be to uiake thin separators or fences of hard 
wood — maple, elm, or something of that na- 
ture. 

Before I forget it I want to say that we can 
get along with the "legs," or little attach- 
ments the bees are apt to build between the 
fences and the combs, much better than we 
can with the other nuisance mentioned, of 
having the sealings attached to the cleats. 
The legs are easily detached by running an 
eight-inch hack-saw blade through the bee- 
spaces where the attachments appear. Be- 
fore unloading filled supers we stand them 
up on the bench so that the light will shine 
into the spaces; thus we readily see where 
there are any attachments. This past sea- 
son we had some supers which looked very 
discouraging to us on account of the many 
legs. At first I thought I would not find a 
single suitable section in a whole case for 
shipment; but after sawing olT the legs there 
was not a spoiled section to be found; while, 
had we omitted this, not a section in some 
of the worst cases would have been fit to ship. 
But we have no remedy to prevent mutila- 
tion when the sealings are attached to the 
cleats. 

Naples, N. Y. 



87 
FOUNDATION SPLINTS. 
How Made and How Used. 

BY DR. C. C. MILLKR. 

M. C. Thompson, Milwaukee, Oregon, in- 
quires about foundation splints. They are 
made by sawing and also by slicing. Kirst 
the wood is cut into sheets yV, of an inch 
in thickness. Then a number of sheets are 
laid together and cut into splints, making 
the splints y^ of an inch square. A saw for 
the purpose must, of course, be very fine, 
and the slicing-machine is a large and pow- 
erful affair that I suppose is quite expensive. 
I have never made any splints, as I can buy 
them for 60 cents per thousand with an ad- 
ditional 10 cents for postage if sent by mail. 
I couldn't make them nor have them made 
locally for any such price. They would 
work all right if made long enough to reach 
from top to bottom-bar, but would be trou- 
blesome to put in, so they are made % inch 
shorter than that. For a frame of Lang- 
stroth size, with top-bar V& thick and bot- 
tom-bar X thick, that makes the splint 7^ 
inches long. 

Broomcorn might work for splints, only 
it w^ould take a good deal of care in selecting, 
and at that would not be of such uniform 
thickness as the spliced splints. I hardly 
think you would make satisfactory work 
splitting wood into splints, even if your ce- 
dar and fir are very straight-grained. But 
you can easily try it. 

Now the manner of putting in the splints. 
The foundation is fastened to top and bot- 
tom bars', then the frame is laid over a board 
such as is commonly in use, being made to 
fit rather loosely inside the frame with stops 
on the edges to allow the foundation to rest 
on the board. The splints are thrown into 
a square shallow tin pan that contains hot 
beeswax. They will froth up because of the 
moisture frying out of them. When the 
frothing ceases, and the splints are saturat- 
ed with wax, then they are ready for use. 
With a pair of plyers a splint is lifted out of 
the wax (kept just hot enough over a stove), 
and placed upon the foundation so that the 
splint shall be perpendicular when the frame 
is hung in the hive. As fast as a splint is 
laid in place an assistant immediately press- 
es it down into the foundation with the wet- 
ted edge of a thin board. 

I have useddiflerent makes of brood-foun- 
dation with .splints, and of different weights 
— heavy, medium, and light. About lyi. 
inches from each end-bar is i)laced a splint, 
and between these three other si)lints at 
equal distances, making five splints in the 
frame. This for heavy or medium founda- 
tion. For light foundation I have used sev- 
en splints to the frame. 

I see no reason why the plan given by Mr. 
Atwater, in April Beview, should not work 
all right. 

If splints are given when the bees are not 
busy gathering nectar and building comb, 
they will be gnawed out. The thinner the 
foundation the more likely the gnawing. 



Cleanings in Bee Culture 



DdcsgKi]© (dH (Bipmm i!\p®m Mi!if(B\P(Bmil{FmMi 



How Often is it Necessary to Inspect Colonies for 
Foul Brood ? 

Dr. C. C. jl/iV/ec— How often would you recom- 
mend examinine hives for foul brood, and at what 
season of the year? In April or May I examined a 
colony that acted strangely, and found about one- 
fifth of the unsealed brood dead and black. In three 
weeks all cells were cleaned out, and being filled 
with eggs and larva- : but about a third of the 
worker-cells hatched out all drones. No more dis- 
ea.se appeared. I pronounced it pickled brood. 
These bees were dark hybrids. 

In August I killed the queen, which was a fine- 
looking one. and introduced a golden Italian one 
in her place. Soon beautiful bees began to hatch : 
but within ten days from the time they began to fly 
out. there would be from four to seven dead ones 
on the alighting-board. But there were no old nor 
hybrid bees among the dead ones. The unhatched 
brood was healthy. Why did the young bees that 
had never done field work die off? At present all 
seems to be well. 

(jcwda Springs. Kan.. Dec. 9. D. W. Holland. 

[Dr. Miller replies:] 

Of course there's no use looking any time before 
brood Is present in .'spring, nor. Indeed, for some 
time after. Wait till colonies have built up into 
prosperous condition and are bringing in honey. 
From that time until brood-rearing ceases in the 
fall it will be well to make an inspection every two 
or three weeks if foul brood is in the apiary, either 
for treatment or to make sure that no treatment is 
needed. 

You are likely right in attributing that 20 per 
cent of dead brood to the pickled-brood business, if 
we may call starved or chilled brood pickled brood. 
But the drones from worker-cells should be charged 
to a defective queen. I'he dead young Italians may 
likely be charged to the larva- of the moth. These 
run their galleries along the surface of the sealed 
brood, mutilating the young bees, which are then 
thrown out. C. C. Miller. 

When is the Best Time to Remove Old Crooked 
Combs ? 

Are Jumbo frames self-spacing ? 

What is the best way to remove old useless 
brood-comb from the hive so that there shall be as 
little waste as possible of honey, brood, and pollen? 

I have no honey-extractor. Some of my colonies 
have contracted foul brood, and I find that it is 
those colonies that have old brood-combs. 

Bainham. X. Z. K. B. Langford. 

[The Jumbo frames are usually self-spacing of the 
Hoffman type. 

If colonies require feeding in the fall, old crooked 
combs can be gotten rid of very easily at such a 
time by removing them before the feeding is done, 
and then contracting the size of the brood-chamber 
to accommodate the combs left which contain the 
winter stores. 

Karly in the spring a great many poor combs can 
be taken away; and a little later, when the bees be- 
gin to need more room, frames of foundation can 
be substituted. 

During swarming time the old combs may be re- 
moved entirely, and the bees shaken on to full 
sheets of comb fovmdatlon. The old brood-combs 
are then stacked up. the young bees allowed to 
hatch, and then, after three weeks, these young 
bees shaken in front of various colonies in the yard 
that may need strengthening. The old combs are 
then empty and may be rendered up.— Ed.] 



Capping-melters Darken Amber Honeys. 

1 am one of the oldest bee-keepers in Australia, 
and for a long time the largest, although I do not 
think 1 am at pre.sent. 1 have had a bottling es- 
tablishment in Sydney for a number of years : and 
as it was always necessary to use heat I had consid- 
erable experience of the eflect of heat on different 
honeys. There are some honeys gathered in Aus- 
tralia of good consistency and flavor, and very 
light color, which a capping-melter would not In- 
jure much: but the majority of darker honeys it 
would damage to a great extent. There are some 
honeys here that will not stand heat at all: and it 
they candy it Is better to let them go in that state 
than to attempt to liquefy them, as they get so 



dark and rank. For that reason a capping-heater 
would be of no use to me, nor, I think, to the ma- 
jority of Australian bee-keepers. If I used one I 
would certainly keep the honey apart and sell it on 
its merits. I would not allow It to run into the 
tank. 

Mr. Beuhne is, I think, peculiarly situated, inas- 
much as he has a location which gives him a very 
large yield of light honey — the sort which receives 
the minimum amount of damage by the applica- 
tion of heat. Both here and on my other farms. 400 
miles south, I get some honey which I could safely 
put through a capping-heater, but I get a lot which 
I could not. 

Capplngs are undoubtedly a nuisance— that is to 
say, the accumulations during extracting are: and 
the only merit a heater has, in my opinion, is to 
get them out of the way quickly: but if this is done 
at the expense of the quality of the honey the ad- 
vantage is a doubtful one. I will tell you later on, 
if you care to know, how we manage with our cap- 
pings. Major Shallard. 

South Woodburn, N S. W., Australia. 

[We are very glad to use what you have to say re- 
garding capping-melters: and we should be i^leased 
to have you continue the subject, and tell how you 
dispose of cappings.— Ed.] 

A Swarm that Issued when the Queens were 
Ready to Hatch. 

One Sunday morning in July we noticed that a 
swarm had just gone out of one of our hives previ- 
ous to our visit; and in order to make sure from 
which hive the swarm came we opened the one 
which, the previous day, seemed about to swarm. 
This happened to be the right hive; and on exam- 
ining the frames we saw two or three queen-cells 
on which the caps were so loose from the young 
queens trying to free themselves that we had no 
trouble in removing the caps with our fingers and 
releasing the young queens, which immediately 
ran out on the frames. That was the first time in 
our experience that we had so good an opportuni- 
ty to test this much-mooted question. We think 
this bears out your experience also, that the young 
queens hatch at or about the time the old queen 
goes out with the swarm. 

Clamart, France, Nov. 21. Geo. Stephens. 

[There has been plenty of proof to show that the 
swarm occa-sionallij issues about the time the cells 
hatch: but it seems likely that, in the majority of 
cases, it comes out about a week in advance. Un- 
favorable weather conditions probably account for 
the occasional delays. — Ed.] 

Will Honey Transmit European Foul Brood? 

I wish to know if l<;uropean foul brood might be 
transferred from place to place in the honey. I un- 
derstand that it is fully admitted that the Ameri- 
can type is. Will honey extracted from an apiary 
containing European foul brood, and shipped to 
another State, and fed to bees, bring on disease ? 

Kerman, Cal., Dec. 13. C'has. A. Lee. 

[This letter was referred to Dr. E. F. Phillips, who 
replies:] 

The question raised is, of course, important ; but 
I know of no way to answer it definitely. The 
cause of European foul brood is not known, and 
therefore we would not know what to look for in 
the honey. Furthermore, even for American foul 
brood (which we know Is carried in honey) it is dif- 
ficult to find the organisms. Some practical expe- 
riences would certainly indicate that European 
foul brood is carried in honey: but. on the other 
hand, the success which is sometimes experienced 
with the dequeening method of treatment makes 
this somewhat questionable. lOvery phase of this 
disease is a puzzle, and one who can speak definite- 
ly of it usually does not know. E. F. Phillips, 
In Charge of Apiculture. 



Bees Returned to Old Location when Set out for a 
IVlidwinter Flight. 

The mercury rose to 66 degrees, so I ventured to 
set my bees out for a flight, and they flew freely all 
day. I set them on the opposite side of the house, 
and some of the bees hung around the old stands, 
but returned all right. That shows their memory. 

Derby, Vt., Dec. 12. W. H. Wilson. 



Feb. 1, 1912 



Italians are Gentler and Produce More Honey, but 
they Also Swarm Worse. 

For some years I have had a yard of black bees 
about three miles from home, while at home I have 
only Italians: and 1 have endeavored in every way 
to arrive at the truth in the matter as to which is 
really the better under all ordinary conditions. At 
first I thought the Italians were the better; then 
one season caused me to chanee my opinion, and I 
have now come to the conclusion that 1 prefer 
Italians; but 1 think there is really but a very lit- 
tle difTerence as to the amount of honey gathered 
by each race. While the Italians have proven to 
be a little ahead in the amount of honey gathered, 
they have overbalanced this by being worse to 
swarm, especially early in the spring, before there 
is any honey of notice to gather. 

Another difference that 1 have never seen men- 
tioned is that the blacks are not nearly as apt to 
use up their stores by rearing brood early and late 
in the season. I have rarely found a black colony 
starving in the winter or spring, while this is al- 
most the rule with Italians here, as they nearly al- 
ways require more or less feeding, either in the fall 
or spring. 

On the score of gentleness the Italians are far 
ahead of the blacks, as the latter will sting much 
worse, and are so nervous that they will fall from 
the combs to the ground, where they will scramble 
about and crawl under one's clothes if possible. I 
am pretty sure that the Italians slightly excel as 
honey-gatherers, and very much so as to gentle- 
ness and ease with which they may be handled. 
Taking every thing into consideration I now prefer 
Italians; but it is a great deal more trouble to keep 
them pure, as there are always some blacks in the 
neighborhood, either in trees in the woods or in 
hives. I find that this is to some extent the case 
in most of the country, as a great many queen- 
breeders send out queens that produce hybrids 
which are as cross as cross can be. I have had 
hives of hybrids that were so cross that an inexpe- 
rienced person would have been in danger if he 
had tried to handle them. 

Stonecoal, W. Va., Dec. 1. W. C. Moll,ett. 



Mouse-proof Entrance. 

During cold weather there is often great damage 
done by field mice where the hives are left on the 
summer stands and the entrances left unprotected; 
but if a wire mouse-screen, like the sample I am 
sending you, is used, there will be no trouble at all 



are uneasy. Dr. C. C. Miller, in one of his articles 
some time ago, described how he quieted his bees 
by raising the temperature. 

This roaring may be caused by bad air, even 
though the temperature be right; or it may be 
caused by too low a temperature, even in good air. 
It may be advisable for you to put artificial heat in 
your cellar. The best way, of course, is to put a 
small drum stove, burning hard coal, or something 
that will give a steady heat, down in the cellar, 
connecting the same to a chimney reaching down 
through the floor. Of course, if you can not apply 
this kind of stove you might use a large coal-oil 
lamp; but this makes the air of the cellar very 
foul. When the temperature of the cellar Is as low 
as ;{2", and you have no means of raising it, your 
bees will be almost sure to die before spring.— 1";d.] 



Association of Apiary Inspectors of the United 
States and Canada. 

On Dec. 80, 1911, in Washington, D. C, there was 
formed a temporary organization of the above 
name with a view to increasing the efficiency of 
apiary inspection and to bring about a greater 
uniformity in the laws, and more active coopera- 
tion between the various inspectors. 

A committee on permanent organization was 
formed, to report at a meeting to be held in Cleve- 
land, O., in December, 1912, in connection with the 
meeting of the Association of Economic Entoniol- 
ogists. Prof. Wilmon Newell. College Station, Tex- 
as, is chairman of this committee. 

A standing committee was also appointed on leg- 
islation for the purpose of drawing up a law Incor- 
porating the necessary and desirable features. The 
undersigned was appointed chairman of this com- 
mittee. 

All apiary inspectors and official entomologists 
of the United States and Canada who are interested 
in the advancement of apiculture are invited and 
urged to join in this movement for an increased ef- 
ficiency in the fight against brood diseases. For 
the present it was decided to levy an assessment of 
$1.00 per year on each member to defray necessary 
expenses. It is hoped that arrangements may later 
be perfected for affiliation with the Association of 
Economic Entomologists. Requests for member- 
ship and the assessment may be sent to the under- 
signed. E. F. Phillips, 
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C, 

Secretary. 

Dr. Burton N. Gates, Amherst, Mass., 

Chairman. 




from mice, and the bees can pass out and in freely 
when the weather is warm enough for them to fly. 
I first bevel the entrance as shown, and I find that 
the bees pass in and out with much greater facility 
than with the ordinary entrance. 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. W. D. Kkye.s. 



Bees Uneasy Because of Low Temperature in the 
Cellar. 

Why are my bees restless in the cellar with the 
temperature down to 32", and the air good? They 
keep up a constant buzzing, and a few come out 
and die. 

(ilenwood City. Wis., Jan. 12. .1. E. Cook. 

[The trouble with your bees is undoubtedly be- 
cause the temperature of the cellar is too low. It 
should seldom go below 45" F.; and when it goes 
below -10 the bees are apt to roar or show that they 



Cellar Wintering Best when Bees can Not Fly for 
Over Five Months. 

On page 741, Dec. 15, I note your statement, " It 
takes much less skill and time to winter bees out- 
doors," and "The average beginner will succeed 
better by it." I would take exception to both of 
those statements, especially for a man who lives as 
far north as I do, and in as cold a climate. Last 
winter my bees were without a flight for 5 months 
and 17 days; nor was there one day when they 
could have had a flight even if they had been out- 
doors. I lost 6 colonies out of 86. 

Last year my bees had their last flight October 
18, and there has not been a day since when they 
could have flown. I put them in the cellar Nov. 3. 

We had one night in November when the mercu- 
ry was 28 below zero. There have been several 
nights when the temperature has been to zero. 
The night of Jan. 1 the temperature was '^b" below 
zero; Jan. 2, 26 below; to-night, Jan. 3, it is 24 be- 
low; and at no time in the last three days has it 
been warmer than 14 below zero. I think I had 
better stick to cellar wintering. 

Robbins, Wis. ( i. C. Chase. 



Clipping does Not Impair the Usefulness of a Queen. 

Clipping queens, in my experience of over twen- 
ty-five years, does not us-ially in any way impair 
their usefulness or shorten their lives — at least 
they often live three or four years after being 
clipped — p. r)2:5. Sept. l. I usually ciit square across 
all the wings, taking off about half of each. 

li you want to kill bumble-bees or yellow-jackets, 
put some gasoline in a spring-bottom oil-can and 
.squirt it into the nests. Do it before you stir them 
up. Humble-bees can be handled by using smoke. 

Payson, III.. Dec. 29. Danikl K. Robkix.s. 



90 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Watering Bees in a Cellar. 

I noticed In March, last year, my bees began to 
raise brood, in consequence of which they became 
very restless, after which I gave each colony a lit- 
tle saucer of water, which seemed to satisfy them. 
Is this the right thing to do? 

Omaha, Neb., .Jan. •'). H. C CooK. 

[Water has been given the bees while In the cel- 
lar by some bee-keepers, and in a few cases it has 
seemed to quiet them. Whether it is because they 
needed the water for brood-rearing or what, we 
can not say. A good deal will depend upon local 
conditions. If water does encourage bees to rear 
brood, we would say that we would question the 
advisability of giving it to them in the cellar, be- 
cause brood-rearing too early in the spring would 
be a disadvantage. The bees would be uneasy, 
rouse up. and make the colony too warm, and ren- 
der it difficult to control the conditions properly.— 
Ed.] 

A Diagonal Line of Drone-cells. 

A colony of bees superseded its queen in July. 
Several of the virgins being of good stock they were 
secured. They started laying Aug. 17. Two, that 
proved to be purely mated, were saved. These 
queens are somewhat slender in body, but appar- 
ently prolific. The brood is compact and regular, 
with the exception that drone brood is placed in 
worker-cells running in almost perfect lines of sin- 
gle cells diagonally across the comb, .Some drone 
comb in the supers, to which these queens had ac- 
cess, was neglected. About the time the drones rear- 
ed in the worker-cells matured they were cast out. 
During August and September two successive lots 
of drones were reared that way. E:ach lot consist- 
ed of about 100 such drones. J am a beginner; and, 
with the exception of some little drone brood ap- 
pearing in worker-cells in the early spring, f have 
not experienced this condition. What do you 
think of these queens ? 

Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. V.i. E. Rohner. 

[Perhaps these particular combs that contained 
drone brood had sagged so that a line of cells was 
stretched large enough so the queen laid drone 
eggs in them. It is hard to conceive of only one 
line of cells being stretched in this way; but this is 
the only explanation we can think of. If the.se 
combs are wired diagonally this might have some- 
thing to do with the matter. You had better watch 
those queens next season. — Ed.] 



Greasy Waste Dangerous. 

I note what you have to say concerning the foot- 
note to my comments on cotton as smoker fuel, p. 
664. Nov. 1. Greasy waste is nasty to handle. Re- 
load the smoker and then handle some snowy sec- 
tions of honey. It is dangerous to leave about. Its 
tendency to spontaneous combustion is great, par- 
ticularly when it contains certain oils and greases, 
and the smoke from it stinks. There are plenty of 
better things. Plain cotton, in waste rags, or yarn, 
always makes trouble for me when used as smoker 
fuel. Mr. Latham is very emphatic in its condem- 
nation. Repeated use of tobacco, say on several 
consecutive days, often causes trouble. 

Providence, R. I. Arthur C. Miller. 

(If a little care is used as to the place where the 
waste is kei)t, there Is no danger of a fire. The 
great advantage of this fuel over any other that we 
have tried is that it lights at the touch of a match, 
does not make a hot fire, and never goes out until 
it is all used up,— Kd.) 



Meeting of the Ventura County Club. 

At a meeting of the Ventura County Bee-keepers" 
Club, held at KlUmore, Cal.. January 6, liil2, it was 
unanimously voted to join in a body the California 
.State Bee-keepers" As.sociation. Inspector Allen 
was upheld in the matter of quarantining all bees 
and queens from outside the county, on account of 
brood diseases. All queens and bees shipped into 
Ventura Co. must bear an insoector"s certificate 
or they will be destroyed when they arrive, 

Santa Paula. Cal. E. F. McDonald, Sec. 

" Grandma " Wilson a Honey Salesman. 

I wonder whether Dr. Miller realized what a fine 
salesman he had when he started that fine old lady 
on the road, page 659. Nov, 1, 1 have no means o( 
knowing just how much she has benefited other 
bee-keepers, but I know she has sold (luite a few 



pounds of honey for me. If bee-keepers did but 
know it, right here is the secret of successful adver- 
tising. Let those with large healthy families or 
healthy old folks who consume honey regularly 
have photos taken, and have them published in 
their local pai^ers, and they will often be copied 
widely. These articles are always interesting. I 
clipped the inclosed from the Philadelphia Record. 

East Stroudsburg, Pa. George H. Bedford. 

[The clipping sent was a copy of the article as it 
appeared in Gleanings, picture and all. Yes, such 
items do good. — Ed.] 



Camphor in the Carbolic-cloth Solution. 

Carbolic cloths can not be surpassed by any kind 
of smoker. I have handled blacks and hybrids, of 
very vicious temper, with the greatest of ease, and 
under many adverse conditions, as well as Italians. 
I procure a 4-oz. medicine-bottle and get 1 oz. of 
pure carbolic acid, also 2 oz. of camjjhor. (;4et a 
pestle and mortar and break the camphor up fine, 
then pour on the carbolic; and after it has dis- 
solved the camphor, bottle for use. The reason I 
mention a 4-oz. bottle is that I have always found 
it handy in my pocket when out. 

Toronto, Ont. R. V. Keyhoe. 

How Many Kinds of Italian Bees are there? 

What kind of Italian bee is the best? How far 
would it do to ship colonies of bees ? I should like 
to buy some this spring. A. T. Danielson. 

[There are but two main divisions or kinds of 
Italian bees — the leather-colored (often called the 
three-banded) and the five-banded. The latter 
bees have been tared especially for the color, and 
sometimes are more irritable and less hardy than 
the former. The red-clover Italians are simply one 
strain of the ordinary leather-colored. 

Bees may be shipped almost any distance. By 
express it is possible to ship across the country; 
and if the bees are prepared in good shape they 
should go through all right. — Ed.] 



No More Bees Shipped into Imperial Co., California. 

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors of this 
county an ordinance was passed for the protection 
of the bee industry of this county. This goes into 
effect Feb. 1, 1912. On and after that date no more 
bees will be permitted to be brought into this 
county. This act became necessary because so 
many bees were being brought in from infected 
counties. This county contains about 11,000 colo- 
nies of bees: and with prospects of a poor season in 
coast counties there was danger of importing brood 
diseases. Any violation of this ordinance is pun- 
ishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, 

A. F. Wagner, 
Inspector of Apiaries of Imperial Co,, Cal. 

El Centro. Cal., Jan. 15. 



Clusters Hanging Clear to the Bottom-board in a 
Temperature of 19*-' below Zero. 

I am afraid that a good many bees have " gone 
the route,'" One man I know, who w'ill not spend a 
dollar for a bee-journal, lost eight stands of bees 
early in the fall. They all starved to death, 

I winter my colonies on their summer stands. 
They are still all right. The clusters are hanging 
clear to the bottom-board. Yesterday morning it 
was 19 degrees below zero. 

Plattsmouth, Neb., Jan. 8. J. Nielson. 

Why did the Bees Destroy their Own Queen-cell 
Cups ? 

I had a colony last spring. While I was looking 
through it 1 found live queen-cell cups partially 
built, and just laid in by the queen. About a week 
later I went with a new hive, with the intention of 
dividing, but there was not a cell to be found. 
I wonder what had become of those cups or partly 
built cells. 

Filer, Idaho. I>ofis A. B.\kbezat. 

[Is it not probable that a swarm had Issued mean- 
while?— Kd.] 

Something Needed to Kill the Grass. 

What the bee-men want in this part of the coun- 
try is some way to kill out the grass and weeds 
among the hives so that the mountain or brush 
fires will not destroy whole apiaries as they have 
done this year. 

San Marcos, Cal., Jan. 9. G. F. Merriam. 



Feb. 1. 1!)12 



91 



©000° Dil®m 



A. I. KOOT 



Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's 
business?— Luke 2 : 49. 

Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom.— Lam- 
entations 4 :2I. 

Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy.— Lukk 6 :23. 

I have several times remarked that my 
chickens at times talk by actions ahnost as 
plainly as words, or sometimes even plainer; 
but it was a lesson and a revelation when, a 
few days ago, a dog not only talked to me 
but he preached to me a most wonderful 
sermon — the sermon I am going to try to 
give you this beautiful morning on the sec- 
ond day of the new year. 1 have read many 
wonderful stories of canine sagacity, but 
many of them I did not believe; and I am 
frank to say that, had I not seen it with my 
own eyes, I fear I should be loath to credit 
what I am going to tell you. 

I was sitting at my typewriter, as I am 
now, when a strange dog came trotting up 
the cement walk. Supposing him to be a 
tramp dog that was probably hungry, and 
that would likely hang around if we fed 
him, I was about to drive him away as gen- 
tly as I could, for he seemed after all to be a 
nice-looking dog. I went toward the screen 
door just as he came up opposite on the out- 
side. Before I opened my mouth to speak, 
however, I i)aused, because of his bright 
look of intelligence. He was a beautiful 
shepherd dog, and his appealing look at 
once attracted my sympathy as well as curi- 
osity. As soon as he saw he had my atten- 
tion, he turned partly around and looked 
toward the gate and then again at me. Fol- 
lowing his look I was startled to find one 
cow partly through the open gate, and 
another inside greedily grabbing the luxuri- 
ant bright-green Bermuda grass. When he 
saw I had taken in the condition of things 
lie made a quick jump toward the cows and 
gate, then turned back as if waiting permis- 
sion from me to drive the cows back. Of 
course I said at once, " You are a real good 
doggie, and I shall be very glad to have 
you drive them out; and I am everlastingly 
obliged to you for having so kindly taken 
an interest in my property and my prem- 
ises." 

Now listen while I tell you how he man- 
aged it. He could not do any thing with 
the cow that was rapidly getting further 
and further into the yard until he first got 
the other cow out of the gateway, where she 
seemed bound to "hold the fort." Accord- 
ingly he first tackled her, and with much 
skill and good judgment crowded her back, 
clear out of the way. Then he went for the 
other cow, kept her out of the shrubbery, 
and, after he had driven her safely outside, 
came up to n:e for a word of praise for doing 
so skillfully what very much needed to be 
done. After I had given him a good i)atting 
on the head, and called him repeatedly 
"good doggie," he hurried olT through the 



gate and was off, as if he felt he had, per- 
haps, delayed some important errand. 

A few davs later, while a drove of town 
cows were passing he came in again to give 
us warning. The gate was again unhooked, 
and was open a little way. This time Mrs. 
Root was present, and she said the dog 
should be rewarded for repeatedly rebuking 
us for our own carelessness. But he was 
bounding off again just as she succeeded in 
throwing a piece a biscuit toward him. At 
first he acted as if he had not time to come 
back and get it; but finally deciding it would 
hardly be courtesy to a lady he came back, 
picked it up, and started on again. He did 
not stop to eat it, but kept it in his mouth; 
and when she threw him a second piece he 
looked at it a minute, and then seemed to 
decide he must not waste any more time, 
and was off with big bounds. At present 
writing I have not been able to decide who 
is the owner of this remarkable dog that 
seems to be looking after the affairs of man- 
kind in general. 

At the risk of having some of you think 
me irreverent, I am going to confess that 
this dog made me think of the first of our 
texts to-day; but I would put it this way: 
When he decided he could not stop to come 
back for the second piece of bread, he had 
in his sagacious mind " Wist ye not I must 
be about my ynaster's business?" 

Well, the above is, at least to me, surpris- 
ing; but it is not all of " my dog story." 
Some time afterward I stopped to leave a 
package at the express office up town. As 
I had to go to the grocery, the bank, the 
drugstore, postoffice, and other errands, my 
mind was busy for fear I should forget some- 
thing. By the way, let me tell you I am 
getting bravely over my forgetfulness. I 
can now attend to half a dozen errands or 
more, and not forget any of them. Won- 
derful, isn't it? Now listen: Ever since I 
commenced going without a regular supper, 
and eating only apples, my memory has 
been constantly improving. In other words, 
I was losing my memory and getting old 
prematurely just because of eating three 
meals a day when tivo were a great plenty. 

\N^ell, on that morning, when I was rush- 
ing out of the express office because I had 
left my auto-engine running, a strange dog 
kept getting in my way. He danced up 
and down, ran before arid behind me, and 
nearly jumped over my head while he gave 
voice to sharp quick barks of joy and anima- 
tion—bow, ivow, wow! Just as I began to 
say to myself, " Why, what makes that dog 
act so strange?" I took a good look at him, 
and, behold, it was my shepherd-dog friend. 
He was appealing and pleading for just one 
word of recognition and a pat on the head, 
and to be called "good doggie" once more 
from some one he had in past time served. 

Do you see the point of this dog sermon? 
Now, when I hatl stopped to talk with him 



92 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



and assure him I had not forgotten my faith- 
ful and devoted friend, his joy and gladness 
seemed to know no bounds. His joyous at- 
titude over just a little kind recognition has 
been a rebuke to me ever since. And, by 
the way, is there anywhere else in the round 
of the whole animated creation such an ex- 
emplification of the text as a happy dog? 
" Rejoice and be glad." Had not a lot of us 
(we who are professing Christians, for in- 
stance) better take a pattern after a well-fed 
and well-trained dog? Are there not others 
than dogs who are literally hungry for a 
word of recognition, sympathy, or encourage- 
ment? perhaps some have done you impor- 
tant service in times past, and you have 
been so busy you have forgotten all about it. 

This dog might have said truthfully to 
the bystanders who wondered to see the dog 
single me out from all the rest, "Why, Mr. 
Root and I both belong to the same church, 
and our delight is to serve all humanity 
wherever our services may most be needed." 

Once more, are we rejoicing and being glad 
as we might be and ought to be? Have we 
not just as good a right to be glad as our ca- 
nine friends? and have we not as much rea- 
son to be glad every day of our lives? 

Belonging to the same church reminds 
me of an incident of years ago. A profane 
and drinking man was in the habit of swear- 
ing and blaspheming on the streets when a 
little under the influence of drink, and in 
this way he would often collect quite a crowd 
just to hear him swear. As nobody seemed 
to want to interfere (for he was a tough char- 
acter), he seemed to be getting worse; and 
one day I decided I would try to stop him; 
and if I failed I intended to appeal to the 
authorities. I came up behind his back, 
and the crowd began to snicker as they look- 
ed toward where I stood, expecting, doubt- 
less, to see more fun. He finally turned and 
faced me, and stopped entirely in his har- 
angue. Some one said, "Why, Dave, what 
made you stop all at once when you saw Mr. 
Root was in the crowd ? " 

"Why, boys, I stopped because brother 
Rootand /both belong to the same church." 

The idea that the speaker ever belonged 
to any church, or could belong to any 
church, caused an uproar of merriment; and, 
if I recall correctly, I pushed forward and 
took his hand and called on all present to 
witness that David had confessed before the 
crowd that he belonged to the church of 
Jesus Christ. He was sober enough so he 
remembered what he had said, and it paved 
the way for several talks with him, the out- 
come of which was that he promised to stop 
drinking and swearing, for a time at least, 
and promised me he would come to me and 
give me notice before he drank another 
drop. For a year or more he was a sober 
man, saved his money, and cared for his 
family; and peoiile began to hope he was a 
changed man for good. Finally he came to 
me, reminding me he had kept his promise 
so far, but, for certain reasons, he had decid- 
ed to go back, partly, to his old habits. I 
reasoned, begged, arid implored, but to no 



avail. I finally urged the needs of his family. 
Said I, "Mr. H., you have more money now 
than you used to have? " 

"Yes," admitted he, as he took out of his 
pocket a great handful of silver, "I have a 
little more money; but on the whole I think 
I will try a little drink for a while." 

I did not know then, but I found out later, 
that during his hard drinking he had incur- 
red a disease that is not easily managed, 
and Satan had put it into the head of this 
poor lost soul, ruined both in mind and 
body, that his forced abstinence was what 
made him feel so badly, and that a little 
drink occasionally would bring back his old 
former self. Poor deluded man! the drink 
only aggravated the trouble; and not long 
after, when I met him on the street his 
former jovial manner was all gone, and he 
told me he was near to death's door. He 
had scraped up a little money from friends, 
and was going alone to the city to see if any 
of the great doctors could give him any 
help. My conscience troubles me now to 
think that, if I had given a little more en- 
couragement when he had done so well (like 
the shepherd dog), he might have tided 
over Satan's temptation, lived for years, 
and died a Christian after all. "Be ye not 
weary in well doing, for in due time ye shall 
reap if ye faint not." 



PUMPKIN PIE AS AN ARTICLE OF DIET, 

FROM AS HIGH AN AUTHORITY AS 

DR. H. W. WILEY. 

Our readers may recall that I questioned 
whether pumpkin pie is, as a rule, to be 
recommended as an article of diet. Well, 
our good friend Neal submitted the matter 
to Dr. Wiley, our United States Chemist. 
Below is what friend Neal says, and under 
it is the letter from Dr. Wiley. 

In Gleanings for Aug. l, 1910, A. I. Root throws 
mud at my eating pumpkin pies. Now, he can 
throw mud at my eating pumpkin pies, all he wants 
to, and it will be all right. However, the doctors 
claim that fat meat or lard is easy to digest, some- 
thing like apples. Fat meat is an injury when 
burnt; however, as the lard content of pumpkin 
pies is doubtless what Mr. A. I. Root objects to, I 
think pumpkin pies should be all right. I have Dr. 
Wiley's opinion on the matter. I hope you may 
publish his letter, as I know of no better aid to eat- 
ing lots of honey than squash or pumpkin pies. 

Jonesboro, Ind. C. A. Neal. 

Mr. C. A. Neal:—l have your letter of the 3d in- 
stant in relation to the wholesoraeness of pumpkin 
pie, and yovir reference to the opinion of Mr. Root 
that it is unwholesome. I am not competent to 
decide opinions of this kind respecting the whole- 
someness and unwholesomeness, as a great deal 
depends on the individual. Foods that are often 
well relished and well digested by some persons will 
be rejected and regarded as injurious lay others. 
Personally I am very fond of pumpkin pie, and 
have eaten a great many in my time, and hope I 
shall live to eat a great many more. 

Washington, D. C. H. W. Wiley. 



SOY BEANS IN OHIO. 



I notice you mention soy beans in Gleanings. 
I have been growing them for three years. This 
year I thrashed about 100 bushels from 3^ acres. I 
think I have a very fine strain of medium green. 
If they are as valuable as you claim, I can raise 
many pounds of " beef scraps "' to the acre. I like 
the coffee made from the early varieties. 

Baltic, O., Oct. 21. Jacob McQueen. 



Feb. 1, 1912 



93 



(il'IUM, MDKl'HINE, COCAINE, ETC.; A WARNING. 

I have been a reader of Gleanings for about 
twenty years, and T do not remember seeing in A. 
I. Root's department any warning in regard to the 
use of powerful drues such as opium and its prod- 
ucts (morphine being the most common>, chloral, 
and cocaine. As the use of such comforting drugs 
has grown to great proportions, both by evil per- 
sons and also by well-to-do and well-meaning per- 
sons who do not exercise enough care, 1 thought a 
little warning and perhaps help to some who have 
come under their binding power would be good. 

The subject has been brought to my niind again 
strongly, because a very good woman of a little 
over fifty has just been taken to an asylum becavise 
of insanity caused by the use of morphine given by 
her husband who is a doctor; another is much used 
up by the excessive use of a nerve medicine which 
Included chloral given by her doctor. She was tak- 
ing six different kinds in two doses. T happened to 
see the jjrescriptions. Another whom 1 know has 
spent a irliole farm for help since the doctor caused 
her to get the morphine habit. The doctor has the 
farm and she has the habit. 

£ am fifty years old, and took opium (in the form 
of laudanum) fifteen years. I took it for chronic 
looseness of the bowels. I was careful not to use 
much, and thought I would not acquire the habit; 
but after years of use I found I was almost a com- 
plete wreck. I could not digest any thing but two 
tablespoonfuls of the very mildest food, and could 
not sit xip. My doctor was not to blame for my 
commenrinn, but said I could not stop. P^inally, 
when T was so weak, we consulted another -doctor. 
He said, "Take five drops less: then in five days 
take five less again, and so on till you are down to 
none." 1 took about sixty drops at two o'clock at 
night, aud there was about two drops in a teaspoon- 
ful of nerve tonic that the doctor made for me. It 
was hard work cutting it down, but it could be 
done, and ?(■«.« done, and it is ten years now since 
I did it. I am not over the eflfects yet. but can 
now eat any thing in moderation; bowels are In 
perfect condition. 

Opium is a terrible master. Don't take it. Use 
other means. I could have done without It and 
saved myself a lot of terrible suffering. And don't 
permit any doctor to give you cocaine. It is far 
worse than opium, and it Is, as I said, a terrible 
master. One of the brightest and most skillful den- 
tists we had in Pottstown became addicted to its 
use. and died in the very prime of life, unable to 
free himself of it. 

I think coffee and the medicines having caffeine 
in them prepare the nerves for neuralgia. That is 
my plague now, and I think it is a result of migrain 
tablets for the relief of headache. Water has been 
a great help, drinking it night and day. 

Pottstown, Pa. W. W. Kulp. 

I heartily endorse all friend Kulp says in 
the above. In fact, I mentioned some time 
ago an experience with morphine, taken in 
a "cholera cure" medicine for chronic dys- 
entery. Since usinp; nothing but apples 
for my supper I have been entirely free from 
all troubles with digestion. — A. I. R. 



ries" from a bush owned by William Merritt, of 
that village, who recently died under mysterious 
circumstances. 

The old couple, both nearly 70, ate the berries fur- 
nished by a neighbor, and this morning both were 
found unconscious on their bedroom floor, where 
they had lain all night. They are still in a state of 
coma, and not likely to recover. 

It is now believed that Merritt, who died while on 
his way to a Marshall doctor to have his case diag- 
nosed, died from the same cause. 

Battle Creek, Mich., August 16. 



THE " WONDERFUL DISCOVERY." 

Mr. A. I. i?oo<.- —" Another wonderful discovery 
in the chicken business," in Oct. 15th Gleanings, 
interests me. I like to read your poultry depart- 
ment, and value it more than any poultry paper I 
take, although I do not take much stock in some of 
your wonderful discoveries. " There is more in the 
feed than in the breed of the hog." 1 find that, 
when I forget to feed my hens at night, the egg- 
basket is not so full the next night; also when 1 
change from soft mash to dry feed there will be a 
falling-off in eggs. My hens are moulting now: 
and the same hens that laid nearly every day a 
few weeks ago are now laying one or two eggs a 
week. I have learned a few things. One is, you 
can not make a hen lay if she does not want to; an- 
other is, there is no use in trying to make a chick- 
en live when it wants to die. 

Factoryville, Pa., Oct. 25. Earl Seaman.s. 



"forecasting" the layers; two eggs in one 

DAY, ETC. 

Mr. A. I. Root: — The following is an egg-laying 
report; 

Last winter our one pen of 24 Silver Comb 
White Leghorn pullets started laying during No- 
vember. I trap-nested them during the months of 
December, January, February, March, and April, 
so as to be able to hatch eggs from our best layers 
during the spring. I found no regularity as to their 
laying; in tact, one pullet laid two eggs in one day 
on two different days (that is, four eggs in two 
days), and another pullet laid two eggs in one day. 
Our hens were well fed. well housed, and well taken 
care of. They averaged, for the months mentioned, 
19.5 eggs per bird per month. 

Red Wing, Minn., Nov. 13. E. A. Lindell. 



HENS THAT LAY TWO EGGS IN ONE DAY. 

I have known hens that lay two eggs in one day 
— that is, one very early in the morning and an- 
other late in the afternoon, then another the next 
day about noon. 

I have had Indian Runner ducks several years. 
They are great frog-eaters, and great layers in the 
spring and summer: but they do not lay in the fall 
or winter. Mine make nests in the brush about 
my pond, or near it. At onetime one made a nest 
and hatched some ducks under a hive of bees. I 
find that these ducks very rarely drop egss pro- 
miscuously, lor they practically always lay eggs in 
a nest. 

Carlton, Colo. . Jas. H. Wing. 



THE WONDBRBERRY UP TO DATE. 

When the Rural Netv -Yorker made such 
a stir about offering the wonderberry as a 
"new creation," some scientific man, either 
in Washington or over in England, decided 
quite positively that it would be likely to 
send out sports that would produce poison- 
ous berries. In replv to this, some of the 
defenders of the berries made fun of this 
assertion. The following clipping from the 
Detroit Free Press, sent us by one of our 
subscribers, would seem to show that it was 
not such a joking matter after all: 

" WONDERBERRIES " MAY CAUSE DEATH; THREE 

MYSTERIOUS CASES OF I'OISONING AT 

LEONIDAS ATTRIBUTED TO FRUIT. 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael Stealman, of Leonidas. are 
in a critical condition from eating " wonderber- 



Kind Words From Our Customers. 



our OF DARKNESS AND INTO THE LIGHT. 

Mr. Root: — I wish I could meet you once, for you 
have saved me from a drunkard's life and from 
many other bad things. You have also taught me 
a lot about poultry, gardening, and health ; and I 
have thanked the Lord, too, that 1 have learned to 
do right. I also thank you very much for writing 
so many good things in Gleanings. I will let you 
know of my experience, and how you helped me to 
be a different man in life. 

This spring I was married to a nice bright farmer 
girl, 19 years old, I am 23. 1 took your advice to 
get married and start young. Of course it cost me 
something, for I am doing big farming: but with 
the help of the Lord I shall get out of debt. Then I 
am going to work to find a little place of my own, 
so I can raise fruit and poultry. 1 have a few colo- 
nies of bees for health and pleasure, besides run- 
ning a IfiO-acre farm. I read many farm and poul- 



94 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



try journals, also the Bible, and they all do me 
good. I also read T. B. Terry's health book. 

The farmers here are mostly Germans. They 
drink, smoke, and chew tobacco. I soon fell into 
the same habits. I was getting to be a real drunk- 
ard. I also got drunk sometimes, and received 
some hard knocks. I did not care what I did. I 
also smoked and chewed, but still supported my 
good mother, for that is one thing I did not neg- 
lect. I never was a very strong boy. so my health 
was beginning to fail. But it was just then that I 
commenced reading Gleanings and your health 
notes. I soon found that fresh air is the best thing 
for me to sleep in at night, as I had a kind of lung 
fever. I also read your temperance talks, and 
found out that hard drink was the cause of my 
poor health. I was also having some sad experi- 
ence in the way of drinking, so I thought I would 
put a stop to it, and I did so. I soon found, after 
leaving whisky alone, that my health was improv- 
ing, and now I am as well as any young man, and I 
am living happy with my young wife, whom 1 soon 
fell in love wilh after I let drink and other bad prac- 
tices alone. The experience I had with drink was 
this: Whenever 1 went to help my neighbors shell 
corn, thrash, or do Other things, they would give 
me all the drink I wanted, and thus many of us got 
drunk. When night came I would go home weak 
and sick. I always thought the u-ork tired me out : 
but it was the drink. I can now go home as fresh 
as I started, after a hard day's work at my neigh- 
bor's; and there are many others who are learning 
from me now. You don't know how much I thank 
you for your good talks in Gleanings. 

Elk Creek, Neb., Nov. 2. E. C. Ulrich. 

[May the Lord be praised, friend U., for the good 
news you tell us 'in your kind letter. What you 
say about your good wife reminds me of a beauti- 
ful book that is almost worth its weight in gold. 
The title is, "Fell in Love with his Wife." It was 
written by E. P. Roe. Mrs. Root and I read it years 
ago. and we have both very much enjoyed reading 
it again. You can get it of Sears, Roebuck & Co., 
Chicago, for 33 cents. God grant that you may con- 
tinue to " fall in love " with the dear woman more 
and more every year that God permits you to live 
together.— A. I. RJ 

HOW A MAN WITH ELEVEN CHILDREN " MADE GOOD." 

I like Gleanings very much, and I thank God 
for your fearless denunciation of evil, and your 
kindly advice to the erring. 

I am much interested in W. S. Cohenour's letter, 
p. 639. Oct. 15, as it sets forth the condition I was in 
myself, twelve years ago. With a large family to 
support, and keen competition in my trade, it was 
like making two bites of a cherry. This was in old 
Ontario, so we gathered our little all and moved to 
this land of promise. New Ontario, Thunder Bay 
District, 15 miles from Fort William. On arriving 
here 12 years ago. the 20th of Oct., 1899, I had only 
S18.00 left to face a winter and buy food and clothing 
for a family of eight, besides buying all feed lor four 
horses and nine head of cattle for two winters. The 
only milk cow among these died in the spring, and 
my finest horse died the following fall. 1 gave 
another horse away for lack of feed, so was left with 
a very unevenly matched team (a heavy mare and 
a two-year-old bronco). We settled on an abso- 
lutely wild farm. Now for results: There have been 
rive added to our family. The eldest is now a Qual- 
ified grain inspector, holding a steady position, 
with a home of his own, paid for, in the city. The 
next three are schoolteachers with salaries ranging 
from §4.50 to 8525; the rest are smaller, but all aim- 
ing in the same direction. We have 80 acres under 
cultivation, farms well fenced, good buildings, 
barn 40 x 100 feet, house 20 x 28, with kitchen 12 x 34; 
cement cellar and cement walks; rural telephone 
in the house, communication with neighbors and 
the twin cities 'Fort William and Port Arthur). I 
have laid out over si400 in vehicles and implements. 
My farm stock has not diminished, and yesterday 
I put in the cellar 84 colonies of bees. I was 39 years 
of age when we came up here. We all rolled up our 
sleeves and went at it — I at my trade (plastering), 
and my good wife, boys, and girls doing their best 
on the farm at home. 

Now. if I were an American, as is Mr. Cohenour, 
instead of soliciting charity from the millionaires 
I would strike Mr. Roosevelt for a bonus for the 
fine large family. 

1 hope to see this man succeed, as I see that he 
says as I do, "Owe no man any thing." 



As poultry seems to be what he aims at, I might 
quote prices here. From 25 cts. in spring and early 
svimmer to 60 cts. in winter. The demand for fresh 
eggs far exceeds the supply. 

State River, New Ont., Can, Jas. M. ]Munko. 



IS 75, BUT NO beer nor TOBACCO. 

In reply to yours of Sept. 11, 1911, I would say that 
I have been a subscriber to your paper for many 
years— nearly twenty, I think. I have owned bees 
for sixty years with the exception of two years 
while in Nebraska. I value Gleanings highly, and 
don't know that I have any suggestions to make, 
realizing that it is managed by men who know a 
great deal more about the bee business than I do; 
and when I tell you that I am in my seventy-fifth 
year, and never drank a glass of beer nor a glass of 
alcoholic liquor except once (and that during a 
terrible pain in sickness), and never drew a whiflf 
on a pipe or cigar, and never put any tobacco in 
my mouth, you can imagine how highly I value A. 
I. Root's Home talks and the stand he takes on 
temperance. 

I am pretty much discouraged in the bee busi- 
ness. For three years in succession I have had 
hundreds of pounds of honey-dew, and have lost 
most of my bees from it during the winter. I don't 
like to sell the black stuff; and whether it is a se- 
cretion or an excretion I don't want to eat it. 

Athol, Mass., Oct. 23. A. M. V. Hager. 



" forecasting " LENGTH OF LIFE BY ONE 89 
YEARS OLD. 

I have been reading Gleanings for a long time. 
Some years ago, when you were teaching how to 
live to be one hundred years old, you said all who 
wanted to go along should "fall into the proces- 
sion." I said, "All right, I will go with you, not for 
a hundred, but for ninety." I shall be 89 the 17th of 
November. I am well and hearty for my age. I 
ride over my farm on horseback. I go to town, 
three miles, in my buggy, every few days. I super- 
intend all my affairs. I keep busy — so busy that 
disease can hardly get in. 

Now, you may ask, how I do live. I aim to live 
moderately — not excessive in any thing. Modera- 
tion is the word I keep before me. I eat a little of 
almost every thing placed before me; but I eat 
moderately. I eat a little meat when I get hungry 
for it, but I often do without it for a week or more 
at a time. A boiled egg, a glass of milk, stewed 
friiit, apples mainly, and a biscuit make up my 
daily meals. 

Tell me the manner of a man's life and I can 
reckon pretty close to the length of it. The manner 
of life and the length of it keep pretty close together. 
The young, many of them, go down from 18 to 30; 
others from 30 to 60, when, by a proper manner of 
living, they could reach the alloted threescore and 
ten. I think I shall reach 90, although a little 
feeble, and I hope you may go there and beyond. 

Your Home papers are doing good. Keej) them 
going, for the viplift of our people. This is a long 
letter for an old man; but I wanted to say what I 
have, and more. 

Nicholasville, Ky., Oct. 30. H. C. Hersperger. 



A "high-pressure" a kind word. 

I received your letter telling me you would drop 
my name if I didn't renew my subscription at once: 
so I am aiming not to be dropped out of the finest 
class of people on earth, beceause 1 fully believe 
that they are the Gleanings family. Gleanings is 
one of the purest ahd cleanest of all the reading 
matter I have ever subscribed for. It is so straight 
against the evil, and so strong against it in every 
torm, that it makes me love its pages. May god 
bless you all in your good work, and especially the 
dear old A. I. whose talks have done us so much 
good. You will find enclosed $1.00 for the book I 
want, and Gleanings one year. 

Jellico, Tenn. C. Walker. 



the old-fashioned religion. 

We always plan to read what A. I. Root says in 
the Home papers. Sunday evenings, as we are on a 
farm, and find it difficult to get to evening service. 
We endorse every word he says, and it does us 
good to know there are a few yet who hold to the 
old-fash iond religion. 

Neenah, Wis., Oct. 16. Mrs. J. B. Blakely. 



Published by The A: I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. ir. Root, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department j. t. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postofflce, Medina, Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



FEBRUARY 15, 1912 



NO. 4 



2)D°DaiU 



In our issue for Feb. 1, Stray Straws had 
a corner cut out. The fact is, we did not 
get our usual batch of Straws (or supposed 
we didn't) and thereupon accused Dr. Mil- 
ler of carrying them in his pocket instead of 
mailing them. The "goak" is on the edi- 
tor this time, for he found the missing 
Straws under a pile of papers on his desk. 



ONE MORE OP THE PIONEERS GONE. 

We are sorry to announce the death of .J. 
J. Ochsner, of Prairie du Sac, Wis. For a 
great many years Mr. Ochsner was one of 
the most extensive bee-keepers in his State, 
at one time owning six apiaries. His death, 
at the age of 88 years, which occurred .Janu- 
ary 15, was quite sudden, as his health was 
very good, owing to his firm belief in the 
value of fresh air and exercise. On the 
evening of .January 10 he was reading to his 
wife, and had just finished reading our edi- 
torial notice of the death of James Heddon 
in the .January 1st issue, when he was taken 
with a stroke of apoplexy, from which he 
did not recover. 

Mr. Ochsner for a great miany years was 
a reader of Gleanings, and we shall miss 
him as one of our most loyal friends. 



honey STATISTICS, AGAIN; THE UNITED 
STATES CENSUS RELATING TO THE BEE- 
KEEPING INDUSTRY MISLEADING. 

We failed to observe in our comments on 
the census returns, last issue, page 67, that 
certain States had made a great increase in 
the number of colonies over the previous dec- 
ade. In this list we find Arizona, California, 
Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Michigan, Montana, 
and New Mexico. It will be observed that 
this list comprises some of the V/estern 
States where irrigation is being opened up 
and alfalfa is being grown largely. In fact, 
in nearly all other Statesof the Union there 
has been a fallingoff in the number of col- 
onies. Yet in spite of all these figures more 
honey and beeswax have been produced in 
the last decade than during the previous 
period. This shows conclusively that the 
business is going into the hands of the spe- 
cialists, and that those specialists are secur- 
ing larger returns per colony. While it is 
true that producers in some of the irrigated 



regions are not making as large an average 
as they did in the previous decade, owing to 
overstocking, yet the box-hive bee-keeper 
and the movable - frame bee-keepers who 
don't read the bee- papers, and secured any- 
where from five to ten pounds of box honey 
have been eliminated, or almost entirely so. 
The elimination of nearly a million of col- 
onies with a very low average production in 
the hands of such a class of bee-keepers nec- 
essarily brings up the average of colonies in 
the hands of the better class of producers. 
It is a case of the survival of the fittest. 



PARCELS post. 



The following editorial from the Rural 
New-Yorker for Feb. 3 is so much to the 
point that we can not do better than to use 
it, with the suggestion that every one of our 
readers sit down at once and write to his 
Senators and Representatives in Congress, 
and do it soon. Here is the editorial in 
question, from our esteemed contemporary: 

Next week we bepin the publication of the most 
striking article yet printed on parcels post. Prof. 
Price, of Ohio, is in Germany, and he will tell us in 
a plain, practical way just how the German parcels 
post is conducted and what it does for the German 
people. The time is just ripe for this, for now is the 
time to move upon Congress. There is a Presiden- 
tial election this year. As they stand, both of the 
old parties are discredited in the eyes of the public. 
The leaders know this, no matter how they may 
bluff and bluster, and one side will outbid the other 
for popular favor if the demand can only be made 
clear. Here then is the opportunity for parcels 
post. If Congre.=s can let it die there Vv'ill be two or 
four years more of inaction. Right now, at the 
opening of this Presidential year, is the combina- 
tion of time and the hour. Let every reader of the 
Riu-ftl Xew- Yorker realize this. It is the time to 
strike. Do not pass " resolutions " or sign petitions, 
but spend 20 cents or more in postage stamps and 
go right at the two Senators from your State and 
the Congressman from your district and tell them 
what you want. Do not threaten nor make any 
promises. Treat them as men— a little more prom- 
inent than you are, but still men with a good judg- 
ment of human nature. They will know when you 
mean business, or when you are chicken-hearted, 
and they will eive you business or " tafTy "' as they 
size you up. No one can win parcels post for you 
without your aid. It will do little good to curse 
these men at home or at the .store. Use the talking 
tongue to stick a .stamp on a parcels-post letter. 



HOW THE BEES ARE WINTERING; WHY WE 
ARE OPTIMISTIC. 

Some fears have been expressed by some 
of our correspondents that the severe winter 
we have been having may cause a heavy 



96 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



loss. In answer to this we may siy that so 
far conditions liave not been unfavorable 
where the bees have been properly protect- 
ed, indoors or out. The winter, up to the 
first of January, was very mild all over the 
United States. This put the bees in fine 
condition. Then it turned cold and stayed 
cold, with one or two rises of temperature — 
enough so that the bees could turn over in 
their sleep. The very severe cold that has 
been prevalent throughout the United 
States will mean an early spring if history 
repeats itself; and whatever the bees may 
have lost by reason of the cold will be more 
than made up by later conditions. 

A condition that causes severe loss among 
bees are cold and warm spells in .January or 
February, or both, during which bees get 
started in brood-rearing. A cold snap of two 
or three weeks after that is almost sure to 
have a disastrous effect; that is to say, an 
ordinary winter in .January or February, fol- 
lowed by bad w^eather in March, is usually 
severe on bees. So far the weather this win- 
ter has been favorable rather than otherwise; 
for a steady cold does far less harm than 
warm and cold. 

Examination of our own colonies, for ex- 
ample, about two weeks ago, showed all of 
them in splendid condition. At the present 
writing, Feb. 14, the United States Weather 
Bureau shows a letting-up in the cold. 

It is fair to state that this winter will be 
disastrous on bees unprotected or in single- 
walled hives outdoors. On the other hand, 
it has been favorable for cellared bees. 



CITY COUNCILS LEGISLATING AGAINST BEES; 

MAKING BEES STAY ON THEIR 

OWN PREMISES. 

Our attention has been called to a paper 
that is being circulated in the town of Gib- 
sonburg, Ohio, for the purpose of getting the 
town council to pass an ordinance prohibit- 
ing the keeping of bees within the corporate 
limitsof the village. We obtained the names 
of the mayor and president of the council, 
and wrote letters to them, explaining the 
important position that bees occupy in the 
fruit-growing industry by pollinating the 
blossoms. We showed that the few bees 
kept in town are probably only a very small 
part of those kept within a distance of a 
mile or more; that, even if those in town 
were removed, the chances are that there 
would be almost as many bees flying about 
as before. We concluded by stating that any 
such ordinance is unconstitutional, and cited 
the celebrated Arkadelphia case. The his- 
tory of this famous case was written up by 
Thos. G. Newman, then General Manager of 
the National Bee-keepers' Association, and 
we sent them a copy of the pamphlet. 

Last September we wrote to the mayor 
and councilmen of Huron, Ohio, where an 
ordinance had already been passed compel- 
ling all bee-keepers (and we believe there 
was only one) living within the corporate 
limits to screen the bees in the hives during 
July and August! 

There are often local ordinances prevent- 



ing any one living in a village from allow- 
iag his chickens to have a free range over 
his neighbors' lawns and gardens. No one 
objects to this; but suppose there were a 
hundred poultry-raisers situated just be- 
yond the limits of the corporation, and the 
chickens in all of these yards were allowed 
free range over the town — how much good 
would it do to build fences around the few 
chickens kept in town? The absurdity is 
all the greater in the case of the bees, as 
they would die if fenced in so long, and they 
do no real harm any way. 

Just the other day a gentleman gravely 
told us that he used to raise a great many 
grapes, but that it was no longer profitable, 
because bees from somewhere stung all his 
fruit. These stories, believed and repeated 
by intelligent people, are enough to make 
one think the whole world has gone daft. 

In several instances where drastic mea- 
sures were being taken by grudge-holders in 
towns or cities, w^e have been able to offer 
some help by way of writing letters, as 
mentioned before, to the mayor or council- 
men. We shall be glad to do this at any 
time, for we have some strong literature 
bearing on the subject, that shows that 
bees, instead of being opposed by the intel- 
ligent fruit-growers, are actually welcomed 
by them. They are asking to have the 
bees put in their orchards. 

THR BEE-KEEPER AND POULTRY-RAISER. 

While we are in hearty sympathy with 
the advice of the late W. Z. Hutchinson, 
" Keep more bees," for some specialists, the 
far greater number of bee-keepers, for one 
reason or another, can not go into the busi- 
ness extensively enough to make it worth 
their while to devote their whole time to it. 
For example, in many localities bee-keeping 
on a large scale would not be profitable, be- 
cause the bee-pasturage is limited, or be- 
cause the seasons are too uncertain. 

Then there are others, like Mr. Louis H. 
Scholl, for instance, who like to have some 
hobby aside from their main business, to 
provide a change of thought and work and 
a certain amount of pleasure. There are 
still others who have the ability to become 
specialists in some other business at the 
same time that they are specializing in bee- 
keeping. To all such we would recommend 
poultry-raising; for, in our opinion, there is 
no other line of w'ork that dovetails so nice- 
ly with bees. As has been pointed out by 
several of our correspondents in this issue, 
one who is capable of making a success with 
the bee business is also capable of succeed- 
ing with poultry, and vice versa. 

An objection that is frequently made 
against combining two kinds of business is 
that one interferes with the other, so that 
the best results can not be secured from 
either. This may be true to a certain ex- 
tent with bee-keei)ing and farming, bee- 
keeping and fruit-growing, etc.; for when 
the bees require the most attention and 
thought, there is need of "all hands "on 
the farm or in the orchard. J3ut with the 



Feb. 15, 1912 

poultry business this objection does not ap- 
ply, for chickens require perhaps the least 
attention when bees require the ino'st. 

He is an extensive bee-keeper indeed, in 
the Northern States at least, who can keep 
his time profitably spent during the winter. 
It is true that some bottle and sell their 
crop through the winter months, but so 
few producers have the time to make a spe- 
cialty of selling that we do not find more 
than perhaps one bee-keeper in a hundred 
who utilize their winters in this way. A 
certain amount of work is required, it is 
true, in preparing supers, repairing, and, in 
short, getting ready for the next season; 
but this should not take all of the time by 
any means. 

A poultry-man, along in January, is usu- 
ally very busy starting incubators, getting 
brooders ready, etc. Later in the season, as 
the chickens become older, it is possible to 
have more and more of the work done by 
an assistant, so that the bees may receive 
their share of attention. Thus the two lines 
do not interfere with each other — a fact 
which is i)roven by the constantly increas- 
ing number of producers of "honey and 
eggs." 

WHY THE CLOVERS DO NOT YIELD HONEY AS 
THEY I 'ID IN YE OLDEN TIMES", CLOVER- 
SICK SOIL ; LIME THE SOLUTION. 

In our last issue, under the general head- 
ing of statistics relating to bee-keeping in 
the United States, we said we would have 
something further to say on the subject of 
cl ivers, and why they do not yield honey as 
formerly. We have heard a great deal con- 
cerning clover-sick soils ; of land that will 
not grow red clover, but will grow alsike. 

Many farmers who do not read the up-to- 
date farm papers have allowed their farms 
(as well as themselves) to become poorer and 
l)oorer until they have had to sell at a fear- 
ful sacrifice. For some reason, they do not 
know why, their farms have all "rundown." 
Farms that used to yield their fathers and 
grandfathers big crops of clover, now yield 
sparingly. Something is wrong. "The 
land is clover-sick— no good; might as well 
sell out and get a job in town." 

Later on, some up-to-date young farmer 
who has been to an agricultural school, or 
who thinks it pays to read progressive farm 
papers, comes along and buys one of these 
old farms that, through lack of knowledge, 
lias all run down. Mark the change. In 
two or three years this "book farmer" 
(whom his neighbors ridiculed, perhaps) 
makes it as productive as when the country 
was new, or perhajjs, in some cases, even 
more productive. How does this all come 
about? First of all, he begins to study 
the soil. He discover.^ ii has been robbed, 
year in and yiar out, of some of the essen- 
tial elements ihat make i)lant life grow. 
While stable manure has been ajiplied, it 
does not supply every thing needed. In 
many cases these young farmers have found 
that the continued cropping of clover, year 
in and year out, has robbed the land of" the 



lime naturally in the soil until it has be- 
come too acid to grow clover as it should. 
In other cases, some other elements had 
been taken out. 

It is getting to be the practice now among 
up-to-date farmers to send a sample of soil 
to the nearest experiment station in order 
to have it analyzed. In many cases the re- 
port shows a deficiency of lime; and when 
a farmer can not grow clover on his land in 
rotation with other crops he is in a bad 
way. Land that will grow alsike better 
than red clover shows a deficiency of lime ; 
for alsike will grow on a more acid soil than 
red clover. The deflciency of lime in many 
soils has enormously increased the growing 
of alsike ; and this has been of no small 
benefit to the bee-keepers. In some ways 
it may be better to let the farmer be in ig- 
norance of the cause; but at this rate the 
soil will become too acid for even alsike. 

Nearly all of Northeastern Ohio and the 
major part of Pennsylvania show a deficien- 
cy in lime. The same deficiency has been 
found in other States; Massachusetts, for ex- 
ample, doesn't yield any clover honey to 
speak of. The progressive farmers find they 
are able to remedy this condition by put- 
ting in lime; and when we can grow clover 
as we did in the days of our granddads, we 
shall have clover honey as they did. Un- 
intelligent farming on the part of the don't- 
read-impers tillers of the soil has ruined 
many farms in the country. Their owners 
are badly in debt, and complaining of hard 
times. If there ever was a time when a 
farmer ought to be prosperous, it is right 
now; and any farmer who does not read a 
good farm paper is losing the great oppor- 
tunity of his life to pay off those old debts 
and put aside a comfortable sum to take 
care of old age. 

This sounds a good deal like an editorial 
for farmer^; but the facts are, it is written 
for the farmer bee-keepers — not because 
they need the information, but because 
they need to get after their neighbors who 
are not reading papers. By so doing they 
can very greatly increase their clover pas- 
turage, and clover pasturage means honey. 
In the mean time, we invite every bee-keep- 
er, or any one else who reads these pages, to 
send to his nearest experiment station for 
bulletins on clover-growing and liming the 
soil. While it is not contended that lime is 
the only thing lacking (because clover will 
generally continue to grow some in spite of 
acid soil), it is contended that lime, where 
the soil is acid, will make it vastly more 
friendly to the clovers. 

The editor had the pleasure of listening 
to Alva Agee at College Station, Pa., at a 
farmers' institute recently; and if there is a 
man in the United States who seems to un- 
derstand this problem of making clover 
grow, through the use of lime, Mr. Agee is 
the man. .Joseph AVing is another great 
authority. In later issues we hope to pre- 
sent something more from these men, par- 
ticularly on how to lime the soil and what 
kind of lime to use. 



98 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Dk. C. C. Miller, Marengo. 111. 



Mr. Editor, please look at the sticker on 
the envelop that contains these Straws, It 
reads, "We want the United States Gov- 
ernment to establish a parcels x)ost.'" These 
stickers can be had for $1.00 a 1000 from 
" Parcels Post League," New York. [Good 
suggestion. See editorial elsewhere on the 
subject. — Ed.] 

Bees will build queen-cells when the 
queen is caged in the hive "about the same 
as if she were out of the hive entirely," p. 
58, 1 suppose that "about" means that 
cells will be started sooner, and more of 
them, if the queen be out of the hive en- 
tirely. [We accept your modification or 
correction. — Ed.] 

Louis Scholl gives alfalfa as an example 
of honey with decided flavor, page 38. I've 
been buying alfalfa to use in hot drink, as 
being nearest a pure sweet without flavor, 
but I've lately had some with too much fla- 
vor. Wonder what is the rule about flavor 
in alfalfa. [Alfalfa varies somewhat in fla- 
vor, depending on the locality where it is 
produced. In the southern irrigated regions 
it is apt to be a little darker, and perhaps a 
little stronger in flavor. In the more north- 
ern regions the color and flavor are improv- 
ed. In some localities there is enough sweet 
clover and mountain sage in alfalfa to mel- 
low its taste. The same conditions that af- 
fect alfalfa apply to clover — that is to say, 
there is white clover and white clover — some 
extra fancy, most of it good, and some of it 
poor or "off." — Ed.] 

"Every modern yard nowadays has a 
scale-hive," p. 48. S-s-say, Mr. Editor, do 
you mean to insinuate that my bee-yard 
isn't modern? Well, if you will insist, I 
suppose that part of the yard isn't as modern 
as it might be. [Yes, sir, 'e. Put up a scale 
hive, ^'ou may have a modern yard, but it 
can not be clear up to date unless you have 
a honey-barometer, so to speak. We have 
been in many yards where the owners would 
about as soon get along without a veil as 
without a scale hive. If the colony on the 
scales is a fair average one, neither the best 
nor the poorest, it enables the owner to keep 
pretty close tab on the flow of nectar. For 
example, if a drouth is on, and the nectar 
supply begins to show a rapid falling-ofT, 
the bee-keeper will not put on any more 
supers. Hut if the weather conditions are 
ideal, and the scale hive shows a big gain 
every day, the bee-keeper will take the op- 
posite course. — Ed.] 

You ASK, Mr. Editor, page 69, if I might 
not find outdoor wintering to my advantage 
if I should try it again. Entirely possible. 
Not very probable. I've always had an 
idea that bees wintered out in the open air 
would be more rugged than when in the 
close air of a cellar. Then there's the gain 



of earlier breeding. But with a furnace in 
the cellar my bees have perhaps as pure air 
as outdoors. The earlier breeding makes 
some colonies stronger, but it also kills some 
colonies- At any rate, it is morally certain 
that I would have a loss every winter from 
wintering outdoors — some winters a heavy 
loss — while in my well-ventilated cellar J 
don't expect to lose a single colony from 
wintering in any winter. What's best else- 
where might not be best for me. [It would 
hardly pay you, evidently, to make any 
change; but a large number (mostly begin- 
ners) are not having success with indoor 
wintering. To all such, if located in a se- 
vere climate, we would recommend winter- 
ing four hives in one large case, as practiced 
by R. F. Holtermann, .1. L. Byer, and H. 
G. Sibbald, of Canada, with such marked 
success. See pages 693 and 694, Nov. 15th 
issue. Where climates are extremely cold, 
these big winter cases, we believe, for four 
hives are the equal of any cellar. — Ed.] 

That editorial, p. 35, sets one to think- 
ing. But if comb honey is so scarce, why 
don't quotations show it? In Gleanings 
the highest for comb is 18 and extracted 12. 
Hardly any thing in that to induce extract- 
ors to take up comb. It may be said that 
comb is a luxury, and above a certain price 
will not be bought. But it didn't work 
that way years ago when it was higher than 
now, and kept with the price of butter. It's 
too much of a muddle for me to understan<l. 
[Market quotations at the present time do 
not give the true index of the situation. 
Early last season there was a big demanti 
for comb honey that could not be filled. 
Buyers, fearing that a large crop might be 
held in reserve, did not olTer high prices, as 
they feared being overloaded. Shortly 
W^estern comb honey began to come in, and 
prices on comb honey that would have ad- 
vanced were held stationary. Several buy- 
ers have told us that they could have sold 
ten times the amount of comb honey if they 
could have gotten it when there was a call 
for it. The best demand for coixib honev is 
in the fall and before the holidays. If there 
is no comb honey to speak of, consumers 
will go without. If, on the other hand, we 
bee-keepers will raise more comb honey, and 
have it ready in time, we shall have no trou- 
ble in selling it — that is, if it is of good qual- 
ity. At the present time there is just enough 
comb honey held by one or two large buyers 
to hold the market fairly even. But the 
point is this: There is always a good demand 
for more comb honey early in the season. 
In seasons of plenty the early shippers will 
dispose of their crops at good prices, while 
late shippers, if they wait till the holidays 
or after, may be hunting a market. Comb 
honey, however, is getting to be more and 
more of a staple. — EId.] 



Feb. 15. 1912 



DFTTDK] 

J. E. Crane, Mlddlebury, Vt. 



99 



A capital idea that, in a footnote, page 
712, Dec. 1, regarding the value of a mat of 
corrugated paper on top of sections. When 
the case is handled bottom side up the 
combs will rest on a soft mat. 

That picture on the cover of the Dec. 15th 
number is very pretty; but it almost made 
my back ache to look at it, to think of the 
work required to inspect such a lot. A lot 
of fifteen or twenty, four inches apart, is 
bad enough without a roof over them. 

Mr. liyer's appreciation of the value of 
dry sawdust for a cushion on top of the hive, 
p. 713, Dec. 1, is creditable to his good sense; 
but after having used sawdust for many 
years we have come to the conclusion that 
fine planer shavings are better. 

Passing through the markets of Washing- 
ton one day this week I saw a two-story 
shipping-case of the style Mr. Foster, of Col- 
orado, has so ably defended, and I must 
confess it was a very attractive package; but 
I noticed that three of the six combs visible 
through the glass were broken loose from 
the wood. 

Stopping near Howard University, a col- 
lege forcolored people, I was awakened early 
Christmas morning by the colored students 
singing Christmas carols, and it seemed al- 
most as though the sky had again opened, 
and the angelic hosts were singing "Peace 
on earth, good will toward men " — a beauti- 
ful custom, surely. 

Let me add my testimony to the value of 
windbreaks for wintering bees out of doors. 
In our climate I would go some distance to 
locate a yard of bees where there would be 
protection, after seeing a part of two yards 
wiped out where exposed to the wind while 
the rest of the yard wintered very much bet- 
ter. See page 675, Xov. 15. 
■^ 

I have noticed a good deal of discussion of 
lae as to whether a two or three inch glass 
is best for shipping-cases. It has been 
many years since cases with glass have been 
used here in \'ermont, and I am wondering 
how large a proportion of shipping-cases 
manufactured in supply-factories are made 
with a two or three inch glass side. 

\\'esley Foster tells us, page 647, Nov. 1, 
how to introducequeens by baptizing. Very 
good. I believe it was A. E. Manum who 
told in one of our State conventions many 
years ago how to introduce a virgin queen 
by giving her a second birth by caging her 
in a queen-cell and letting her gnaw out like 
a young queen, and they accepted her the 
same as a young queen. 



On page 71;^ Mr. Byer expresses the idea 
that alsike clover is not a drouth-resister. 
Well, perhaps not as good as red clover, 
but, mercy me! how it can stand water! 
Red clover is nowhere in comparison, and I 
have noticed that, during a wet season, we 
usually have alsike clover, whether it could 
be seen on the ground the fall before or not. 
■^ 

Our friend Wesley Foster never seems to 
lack for good common sense, and his ideas 
on the value of reinspecting and the quali- 
fications of an inspector are well worth read 
ing, page 714, Dec. 1. It is certainly a great 
deal easier to burn hives of bees, and to be 
spectacular, than to teach bee-keepers pa- 
tiently how to cure and care for their bees. 

Mr. Gates' article, page 717, Dec. 1, is of 
great interest. 1 noted especially what he 
has said on the wastefulness of feeding bees 
in the open air. I believe we have a good 
deal to learn yet as to how much waste such 
feeding brings, and what is the character of 
the little drops that the bees let fall on their 
way to their hives. I am yet to be convinc- 
ed that it is water they have separated from 
the sweet syrup. 

Looking over the government green or 
propagating houses in Washington, I found 
that tests were being made of a large num- 
ber of seedling melilotus clovers, or perhaps 
varieties, in order to find one with a very 
small amount of the characteristic bitter- 
ness. If successful in the experiment it 
may be used more extensively than at pres- 
ent as a forage-plant. If it should come in- 
to general use it will add much to our hon- 
ey resources. 

Mr. Chadwick, on page 748, Dec. 15, tells 
how the ranges of sage in Southern Califor- 
nia are being plowed up and the bee-forage 
destroyed, and predicts the time when the 
waste places will be covered by plants of 
greater economic value. Let me say that I 
saw in Washington, alfalfa from Northern 
Africa that will grow where there are only 
three inches of rainfall, and another variety 
that required an alkali soil for thrifty 
growth. Still another from Northern Asia 
thrives where it is so cold that the ground 
never entirely thaws out. 

The editorial on page 710, Dec. 1, on the 
value of shade, is full of good sense. I have 
contended in the past, I believe, that bees 
do as well in the shade as in the sun; but 
by watching I have discovered that there is 
a decided difference in favor of those shad- 
ed but little and those in a dense shade. 
"Confession is good for the soul." But I 
should think Mr. Robertson, page 725, used 
more shade than is necessary for his climate. 
For those having outyards, I fear his meth- 
ods would not be piactical. 



100 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



[B(B(Bc.[h(B(g[pDmg] odd "SDdcb ©co)qd1i[jd\^o^{1 



Louis Scholl, New Braunfels, Texas 



BEES AND chickens; HOW THEY WORK TO- 
GETHER. 

I have decided to have something to say 
on ihis subject because it is he special theme 
of this issue, and because I have found that 
the combination of bees and jjoultry can be 
successfully followed, even by the extensive 
bee-keeper. In my. case, I was much inter- 
ested in pure-bred poultry even when a mere 
boy, and this interest has been the first in- 
centive for keeping some | oultry for a num- 
ber of years. \\ hen my bee business w'as 
enlarged to greater proportions, so that it 
became a teal b isiness that w'as quite stren- 
.lous at times, especially during the rush of 
the season, the old slogan so often repeated, 
I hat "a business man should have a hobby 
to ride to take his mind away from his bus- 
iness cares," became one that received no 
little attention. Possessing that natural 
love and interest for pure-bred poultry, and 
seeing profitable possibilities in it besides 
the mere recreative value as a "hobby" to 
ride, besides already possessing a beginning 
in the dozen or more fowls in the back yard, 
[joultry-breeding was adopted immediately. 

I have ridden this hobby so successfully 
that my yards of Barred and White Ply- 
mouth Rocks, Rhode Island Reds, and 
White Wyand ittes, are the best in the com- 
munity, and are admired by many visitors 
\vho come to see them. The appreciation of 
this success has culminated in being chosen 
among the many poultry-raisers here as 
president of our poultry and j^et-stock asso- 
ciation. 

The profits so far have not been large, on 
account of the initial investment necessary 
in the venture, which was really begun as a 
hobby rather than a paying dollars-and- 
cents business, but it has been a remunera- 
tive one from the very start. 

It may be well to state that my beginning 
with poultry was just the same as that of 
my bee-keeping career. I had only a few 
fowls at drst, just as I began with only a 
few colonies of bees. From this small start 
I began the upward climb on the ladder of 
success, as experience and better knowledge 
of what to do were acquired. 1 mention this 
to show the importance of beginning small 
and then growing into the business. 

As a combination rightly managed, bee- 
keeping and poultry-raising may be profit- 
ably followed, even though neither line be 
restricted to the plane of a hobby. My own 
experience has left me without a doubt on 
this question. Rut it will be well to bear in 
mind that not all persons can manage too 
many irons in the (ire, and such should not 
attempt the combination. Some reach 
their limit very easily with only a few hun- 
dred colonies of bees and no more, while 
some who could manage more bees can not 
look after two lines of business entirely dif- 
ferent. 
For those who want a " hobby," the keep- 



ing of pure-bred poultry will fill a good place, 
and by those who want to combine bee-keep- 
ing with some other side line this combina- 
tion will be found profitable if they are able 
to look after both properly. Those who find 
it better not to combine wny thing else with 
bee-keeping should follow the late Mr. 
Hutchinson's motto, "Keep more bees," or 
my own, " Keep more better bees better." 

MAKING A BEGINNING WITH BEES. 

The cover design of the .January 1st num- 
ber of Gleanings was most appropriate for 
a beginner's number. It answers in picture, 
better than words can explain, the question 
so often asked, " How can I best make a be- 
ginning with bees?" The picture shows it. 
Order a two or three frame nucleus with a 
good queen of Italian bees from a reliable 
bee-keeper or queen-breeder. This will be 
shipi^ed in a light crate by express so the 
shipping charges need not be very high. 

In the mean time prepare a ten-frame 
hive. Have it nicely painted, and all the 
frames filled with full sheets of comb foun- 
dation except the two or three that will be 
replaced by the combs of the nucleus order- 
ed. This hive should be nicely located in 
the shade of a tree where the morning sun 
brightens and warms up the hive in the fore 
part of the day, but where it is protected 
fro n the heat later. 

With the hive material, have ready a 
good smoker and a bee- veil, so necessary in 
handling the bees. The smoker should be 
well started, ready to be used at the proper 
time, even with the gentlest bees; but the 
veil may be kept about the crown of the hat 
so that it can be pulled down over the face 
in a moment, in case of an emergency. 

All in readiness, when the nucleus arrives 
take it to its new" place of abode. After the 
veil has been adjusted, bring the smoker in- 
to play, blowing just a little smoke over the 
bees as the shipping-crate is pried open and 
the nucleus placed in the hive. Of course, 
you must admire the beautiful bees as the 
combs one by one are carefully handled. 
The next thought is, How does the queen 
look? To some it will be a little difficult to 
find her at once; but a little practice will 
soon enable the beginner to spy her very 
quickly. When the combs are all in place, 
the hive closed up, and the rest of the bees 
shaken out of the crate in front of the hive, 
it is a pretty sight indeed to watch them en- 
ter the new home with a loud hum of glad- 
ness as they fan the air with their raised 
wings. 

If llowers are in bloom and nectar is plen- 
tiful, the bees will soon make progress and 
will build out the foundation into beautiful 
straight combs in the rest of the frames. 

All this, and more too, is brought vividly 
to our minds by gazing at that cover design. 
A better one could not have been chosen. 



Feb. 15. 1912 



101 



DSE[E[PDra(a DM (B^LDF(D[^raD^ 



p. C. Chadwick, Redlands, Cal, 



January is rapidly passing, with little 
rain of any consequence, and barely enough 
moisture to keep the surface growth alive. 
We have only about eight more weeks in 
which we may reasonably expect rain, mak- 
ing the outlook at best rather dark. 



A book that I value as highly as any in 
my library is " Langstroth on the Honey- 
bee," i)ublished in 1870, two years previous 
to my birth. Jt was presented to me in 
18S6 by Mr. E. A. Rhea, of I^oring, Kansas, 
and was the foundation of my knowledge of 
bees. 

A capinng-melter is not a great necessity 
here. If there is sun enough to warm the 
air sufliciently to extract, you can usually 
get your clippings melted in a solar extract- 
or; and what little honey goes out with the 
drained cappings will very likely come in 
handy to feed weak colonies later on. 

Those in reach of the orange may get the 
usual orange How, for the month has been 
exceptionally warm, and breeding has start- 
ed in earnest; many queens have spread 
three or more combs of eggs. I consider 
this of no advantage to those on sage ranges; 
for if the dry weather should continue it 
w ill cause heavy breeding, which will mean 
large consumption of stores that may be 
greatly needed before another season. 

I was offered 25 cts. for the best wax de- 
livered at Ix)S Angeles, but an eastern buy- 
er offered '1S}< cts., F. O. B. 1 wrote to Los 
Angeles, regarding the other offer, and re- 
ceived this answer: "Your party who is of- 
fering •iS'i cts. is, in our judgment, over- 
shooting the mark." I shipped the lot, 202 
lbs., east and received check for $57.57 — $7.50 
more than I could get in Los Angeles. 
Most of our Southern California wax finds 
its way into IjOS Angeles, where at times 
the receii)ts are quite heavy, and prices 
slump beyond rea.son. 

-^ 

During the winter many sojourners from 
various parts of the country, who are inter- 
ested in bees, have called on me, and I have 
enjoyed these visits very much. To those 
who may yet come, I would ask that you 
call at my home, 725 East High Ave , after 
7 P.M., where you may have an hour or two 
and welcome; but do not expect me to begyou 
to come to our State, or you will be disap- 
pointed. If you are succeeding where you 
are, why change? I f not, find out the reason, 
for it may be your own fault, and a fault not 
easily cured out here. There are more pay- 
ing locations, not taken, in many States east 



than there are in this State. You of the 
East have cold winters, to be sure; but loss 
from actual cold is much less than the aver- 
age bee-keeper thinks; for every colony that 
dies is said to have "winter-killed," regard- 
less of other conditions Our normal mor- 
tality rate here is over 10 per cent. 

My first bee-hive was a "George"— the 
only one, to my knowledge, ever manufac- 
tured on a rush order by this process. 
George, whose last name is Kutchenthal 
had been married to my sister but a short 
time, and had not acquired a very large 
stock of tools. I was helping him plant 
corn on my fourteenth birthday, when I 
found a swarm of bees on a bush— the first 
swarm I had ever seen. I wanted them bad- 
ly, but had no hive. George came to my 
rescue with a sharp hatchet and a 1 X P 
rough pine board. He soon had a hive chop- 
ped out and nailed. The hiving was suc- 
cessfully accomplished, and the foundation 
laid for my first apiary. Thanks to George 



The advisability of compensating for col- 
onies destroyed by inspectors, mentioned 
by J. L. Byer, p. 5, Jan. 1, like all questions 
has two sides. There have been cases iri 
this State where inspectors have been guilty 
of no less than wanton destruction of prop- 
erty in their over-zealousness to enforce the 
law. On the other hand, some have been 
so grossly negligent that conditions in places 
have become deplorable. An inspector 
should be a man of good judgment, and 
should try, as far as po.ssible, not to destroy 
any thing of value. Several cases have 
been called to my attention where quanti- 
ties of hives and combs have been burned. 
There is no excuse whatever for such drastic 
action. The wax and hives are not diseased 
and, if thoroughly boiled, could be saved. 

Our so-called State association has been 
called for Feb. G, 7, 8, at Los Angeles, which 
will be long before this reaches the readers 
of (Jleanings. It is my earnest hope that 
the various organizations over the State may 
be amalgamated into what may be properly 
called a State association, our so-called State 
association being in reality no more than a 
Southern California organization, and 
should be so termed until all our smaller 
ones are included with us in one grand and 
truly State organization. 

Since writing the above. Gleanings has 
come to hand, and I have read the words of 
Mr. Harry K. Hill, page 55, Jan. 15, and for 
the most part I agree with him. The north- 
ern brothers feel that it is a case of the tail 
trying to wag the dog, which belief, I be- 
lieve, is not entirely unfounded. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



®(o)[iDW(S[p©aii]Dca)[iQ^ wuHlb \S}m(BWuilM(B 



At Borodino, New York 



KEEPING LOTS OF BEES. 

" How many colonies of bees should one 
keep to be a well-to-do apiarist? I became 
interested in bees two years ago, and bought 
five colonies. I have fifteen now; and my 
sales, since I began, have been about $156. 
I have been figuring a little on keeping 50 
colonies, and from my experience so far I 
thought I might average $500 a year from 
that number; but I have just read that no 
apiarist becomes well-to-do unless he keeps 
a lot of bees. The writer of the article ad- 
vocated keeping several out-apiaries, num- 
bering from 50 to 100 colonies each, be- 
sides having as many colonies in the home 
apiary as his field would support. If I must 
engage in bee-keeping on such a large scale 
in order to become well-to-do I shall feel 
somewhatlike abandoning the whole thing." 

"Much will depend upon the way you in- 
terpret that expression, 'well-to-do;' as well 
as the meaning of those four words, 'a lot 
of bees.' We will consider the last four 
words first. Some would construe these to 
mean a lot of bees in each colony. How 
often has it been reiterated that a colony of 
bees numbering from 50,000 to 75,000, and 
even 100,000, produces the best results, 
while one from 10,000 to 15,000 gives its 
keeper little if any surplus! In spite of the 
prevalent idea that bees w^ork for nothing 
and board themselves, the colonies num- 
bering between 10,000 and 20,000 are the 
rule rather than the exception, and, conse- 
quently yield only a small surplus, even 
though a bee-keeper may count his colonies 
by the hundreds or thousands. 

"With such small colonies a much greater 
proportion of the whole colony must stay at 
home to care for the inside needs of the 
hive, thus leaving few fielders, than in case 
of the colony having 100,000 bees where 
10,000 can care for the inside work, and 
90,000 can go to the field, thereby rolling in 
an amount of honey that is sure to insure 
success. 

"Then, too, these 90,000 fielders should 
come on the stage of action at the right 
time for the best nectar-yield, whether from 
clover, basswood, buckwheat, or what; 
otherwise they may not be as satisfactory 
as the smaller ones; for 90,000 bees on the 
stage of action at the end of any flow of nec- 
tar become consumers instead of producers; 
and unless another flow comes before they * 
live out their 45 daysof useful life the stores 
of the hive will constantly decrease, and the 
keeper of such colonies be compelled to feed 
lor winter. From a financial standpoint 
the man who can keep 500 or 5000 colonies 
of bees so that each colony will have from 
74,000 to 100,000 active fielders when the 
main flow of nectar is on, will far outshine 
fche man who is contented with only 50 col- 
onies. 

"As to the expression, 'well-to-do,' sup- 
])(is there is a bee-keeper who is capable of 



bringing up to the necessary standard 500 
or 1000 colonies of bees in several out- 
apiaries, and that he is able on the average, 
year after year, to do as well with them as 
our questioner hojies to do with 50 colonies, 
his income each year would be from $5000 
to 10,000, and, doubtless, in the eyes of the 
world he would be considered well-to-do. 
Yes, and I must confess that, by the great 
majority of the masses, this would be the 
feeling; for in the up-to-date newspaper 
lengthy articles are devoted to one who has 
been separated by death from his millions, 
but merely a scanty inch in some obscure 
corner is given to the one who has secured 
eternal life by believing on our Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ, with a fortune in this 
world of only $100 left for his burial. 

"But let us come back to our questioner: 
He can keep his 50 colonies w ithout the ex- 
treme exertion, racking of brains, and the 
muscle required by a larger number. He 
can have time to examine into the minutite 
of affairs inside the colony; to go into scien- 
tific research, to study nature, and, from 
this, nature's God. In short, his powers can 
be spent in the uplifting of himself and 
those about him above the sordid things 
which come to the one whose only god is 
money. But can a man be considered 
' well-to-do ' with an income of only $500 a 
year? The majority of the families in the 
United States do not have that income, and 
many of the preachers of the gospel, who 
are successful in winning many souls for 
Christ, do not have a larger salary. A good 
definition of 'well-to-do,' from my stand- 
point, would be, contentment, with godli- 
ness, is great gain." 

[Mr. D^olittle is absolutely right when he 
emphasizes the importance of a large force 
of bees of the right age m time to go to the 
fields. We alto wish to indorse his senti- 
ments regarding the "well-to-do man." — 
Ed.] 



Cotton Smoker Fuel. 

It is unfair to jump on a fellow just because he 
has said something you think isn't so: but wlicn 
you walk all over him afterward it is stamping it 
In. You fellows can keep right on using cotton 
rags and waste for smoker fuel. It's wholly your 
party: and if you prefer the sort of fun which it 
brings I wish you happy days, (rrmsu cotton 
waste is an entirely different proposition, and I 
didn't say any thing about it, but merely talked of 
cotton. The grease gives a very different result, 
also a stink : and, furthermore, greasy waste is 
prone to spontaneous combustion— particularly so 
with some oils. A handful of it in a workman's 
pocket called his attention to its presence by con- 
suming a sizable portion of the front of his overalls 
and trousers, and anointed him with a large and 
rosy blister. Happy days! 

Well, boys, if you will fill two smokers, one with 
cotton rags or dry waste and another with burlap 
or wood in some form, then work ten colonies with 
one, then ten with the other, and so on, you may 
be inclined to leave me alone and let me catch my 
breath. If you can not wait to try the trick, ask 
Latham. 

Providence, R. I.. Jan. 29. Arthur C. Miller. 



Feb. 15. 1912 



mocpaD ©©DQcpQ^^ODDdlonii© 



103 



BEES, POULTRY, AND TRUCK-GARDENING IN 
FLORIDA. 

BY FRANK M. BALDWIN. 



My experience last October may help 
the readers of Gleanings to form a better 
judgment of this part of our great country. 
I came into this section in .June to do some 
])reaching; found surveying also, and have 
been here most of the summer. After 
l)reaching Sunday at Palmetto I took an 
early train Monday to inspect se\enty-f]ve 
colonies of bees on the edge of the A])opka 
Marsh, in Orange County, that Mr. W. S. 
Blaisdell had ollered for sale. Mr. B. is old 
and infirm, and wants to convert his apiary 
into cash. 

He was awaiting my coming at Gainsboro 
Station, and soon we were journeying be- 
hind his mule, toward his home, three miles 
away on the banks of the canal that was 
made for the purpose of draining the 50,000 
acres composing the big marsh. This tract 
is rich sawgrass land, similar to the Ever- 
glades. The elTort to reclaim it was not suc- 
cessful. The canal must be dug deeper and 
wider. Darkness overtook us just as we ar- 
rived at the house, and on this account the 
examination of the bees had to be postjwned 
until Tuesday. 

INSPECTION OF THE BEES. 

The morning's inspection revealed a fine 
healthy lot of bees in old and worn-out 
hives. The style and sizes are original with 
their owner, and have given him the best 
results. He makes them from native lum- 
ber, much of it undressed. They have serv- 
ed him well for seventeen years, but are no 
longer strong enough to withstand three 
miles of jolting in wagons over rough roads 
to be followed by 150 miles in a freight car. 
The thought of buying and taking them to 
Parish was reluctantly abandoned. They 
were strong in bees and brood, in just the 
right condition to gather the honey-llow 
from goldenrod and myrtles. Mr. B. ex- 
l)ected to extract three tons of superior hon- 
ey from them within the next sixty days. 
He usually gets two croi)s — one from saw- 
palmetto in the early summer, the other in 
the fall. Last fall the marsh was too wet, 
and he got no surplus. This year conditions 
are more favorable than usual, and he hopes 
to make up in some measure for the failure 
of the palmetto in May and .Tune. He is 
not near enough to any groves to get the 
benefit of the orange-bloom in February. It 
is only once in seventeen years that the two 
Hows have failed him, and I believe he has 
ne\ er had to feed his bees. 

Mr. Blaisdell took me down to see the old 
drainage canal. On the banks I met and 
talked with >rr. Belamy and his son, who 
are making a living from four acres of extra 
good truck land, and are salting something 
down in the bank. They use no fertilizer 



and grow no celery. All other Florida ^ ege- 
tables are planted by them and sold at a lo- 
cal market. They rarely ship north, 'i'hree 
small towns within twelve miles of their 
patch take all they produce. 

Mr. Blaisdell has 27 acres of rich land that 
his bees have paid for; and his neighbors 
say his industrious insects have paid for the 
fertilizer and labor he has wasted in his at- 
tempts to grow and market vegetables. 
Here was a convincing illustration of the 
truth that one must find out what he can 
do best, and devote himself to that. Truck- 
ers and bee-keepers are born rather than 
made. 

truck-farming. 

At noon the train was again boarded. 
This time the destination was Sanford and 
the fall meeting of the Presbytery of St. 
.John. While there Mr. and Mrs. Rosetter 
entertained me with true Southern hospi- 
tality. Mr. R. has a truck-farm of 40 acres, 
three miles in the country, which he and 
his son operate. lie lives in town and the 
son on the farm, though both of them spend 
all the daylight hours in the field with their 
hands. Six helpers are employed all the 
year, and in the busy season as many as 
forty are at work. I^ettuce and celery are 
the principal crops, and the seed which was 
sown in the beds several weeks ago is now 
up. The former will soon be transplanted 
into land which is now being carefully pre- 
pared for it. 

Early Thursday I went with Mr. R. to the 
farm and enjoyed a two-hours' inspection of 
the seed-beds and the well-tilled ground. 
The seed-beds are more than half a mile in 
aggregate length, and are tended with great 
care. Lettuce requires ninety days from 
the time of planting until ready for the mar- 
ket; and celery about six months' time and 
labor. Beans, potatoes, etc., follow. Then 
corn is planted. This year this — the third 
crop on the land — yielded more than fifty 
bushels to the acre. This intensive farm- 
ing calls for a ton of fertilizer to the acre. 

There are ten artesian wells on the land, 
and rows of small tile have been laid 20 feet 
apart and 18 inches deep to use their water 
in sub-irrigation. Four thousand dollars' 
worth of boards for blanching celery are 
stacked up in great piles near the ihany 
buildings. These last, together with the 
.many wells, tile, and other improvements, 
have called for an outlay of $28,000, over 
and above the cost of the land (a rather 
large investment on forty acres) . When, as 
in 1909, the crop brings less than it costs to 
raise it, the feeling must be rather bitter. 
I3ut they do well most years. Once they 
netted $12,400 from 16 acres. 

The Sanford Board of Trade, to show what 
is being done in this favored region, took the 
l*resbytery for a launch ride across Lake 
Worth Wednesday afternoon, and for an 
auto ride among the celery-farms Thursday. 



104 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



A POULTRY FARM. 

Mr, Throop, a man nearly seventy years 
old, has three thousand White Leghorns on 
his poultry-farm at Knterprise. He was 
feeding them corn. He is hale and vigor- 
ous, looking less than fifty. He keeps 2000 
laying hens. One-third of the present flock 
are not old enough for the laying-pens. His 
birds are in fine condition. The old ones 
have about finished moulting, and will soon 
be "shelling out" lotsofeggs. The average 
is 130 a hen per annum. The eggs sell at 35 
cents a dozen to regular customers. Feed 
and corn cost from $1.30 to $1.40, according 
to the price of grain. Mr. Throop prefers to 
buy rather than grow feed. As the care of 
his flocks calls for all his time, he lives 
among his birds. They need constant at- 
tention 365 days in the year in order to net 
$2.40 per hen. Two thousand times $2.40 is 
an attractive income. But don't drop every 
thing and rush into poultry, for you may 
not have the genius for many details, some 
of them very unattractive, that make suc- 
cess in that business. Poultry-keepers are 
like truck-growers — born with a gift for it. 
, Go very carefully until you find out what 
you can do, then go your length at that. 
Many have tried to imitate Mr. Throop. 
They are now sadder men, and, let us hope, 
wiser ones. 

My judgment after two years' experience 
in Florida is that it is the land of opportu- 
nity for a great man v. Yet it will bring loss 
to more than it will bring benefit. Its cli- 
mate is its greatest asset. Do you need 
winter warmth and comfort? Have you the 
money or the energy to grow truck or de- 
velop an orange-grove? Come down. You 
will find the climate everywhere. The prop- 
l)er location for the others must be carefully 
sought. Much time and investigation must 
be given to it. 

Parish, Fla., Oct. 16. 



SYSTEM IN BEE-INSPECTION. 



BY WESLEY FOSTER.. 



I am enclosing an inspection-report card 
which I have gotten up from suggestions 
received from the State Entomologist of In- 
diana, and from Dr. Phillips. The object 
of the cards is to save making a second in- 
spection in every case. As Dr. Phillips 
says, the more we can accomplish in mak- 
ing each bee-keeper realize the importance 
of doing what he can to stamp out the dis- 
ease, the more valuable will the inspection 
be as an educative force. 

The cards, when torn along the perforated 
line, are card-file size, ancl can easily be 
kept for reference. The top-card is filled 
out by the inspector and signed on the back 
by the bee-keeper whose bees have been ex- 
amined. This top card is then torn off and 
retained by the inspector, as it contains a 
record of the work done as well as a signed 
statement that the bee-keeper will treat the 
colonies that are diseased. 



The lower card is filled out and given to 
the bee-keeper as a notice to treat all dis- 
eased colonies. The bee-keeper, when he 
has treated the bees, signs the statement of 
treatment and mails the card to me. The 
inspector in the meantime has sent the top 
card to me so that, if I do not receive its 
mate within the time allowed, T can write 
him to learn whether the bee-keeper has 
treated the colonies, or I can write directly 
to the bee-man, asking for an explanation 
for not receiving the statement of treatment 
as agreed. 

I have used this plan in some of my in- 
spection work this jjast fall, and it works 
well. The only difficulty is in getting a 
prompt report from the bee-keeper. Some 
have to be written to once or twice before 
sending in the statement of treatment. 

The limit of time in treating colonies has 
been placed at ten days, though there will 
be cases where less time will be given, and 
some cases may arise where more may be 
given. This.matter rests with the inspector. 

Boulder, Col. 

Upper card (front). 

Owner 

Location 

Number of colonies inspected 

Number diseased 

Number in box hives 

Remarks 

Date 191 Inspector 

Upper card (back). 

State of Colorado 

ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 

Siris: — I agree to follow the instructions for cur- 
ing the colonies of bees affected with foul 

brood, and to mail statement of treatment before 
191.... 



Signature of bee-keeper. 



Lower ca rd ( f ron t ) . 
Colo., 19. . . 

OFFICE OF STATE ENTOMOLOGIST 



Wesley P'oster, State Bee Inspector, Boulder, 

Colorado. 
The Bee Inspector has this day ex- 
amined the bees belonging to 

and found colonies affected with foul brood. 

AH bees having an.v form of foul brood are to be 
treated as indicated on the back of this notice. 



Statement of Treatment. 
[ have treated all the bees mentioned as diseased 
above, and have carefully followed the directions. 



Signature of bee-keeper. 

Mail this card, as agreed, before 191 , 

to Wesley Foster, Boulder, Colorado. 

Lower card (back). 
Treatment for Foul Brood. 

In the evening, after the bees have quit flying, 
brush or shake the bees from the old combs into a 
clean hive containing no drawn comb. 

Burn all the old combs at once, not the next day. 
Do not allow even the smallest drop of honey from 
the diseased colony to be exposed to robbers, or the 
disease may be carried back to the healthy colonies. 

The hive bodies, covers, and bottoms may be 
saved by scraping all wax and propolis from the 
interior surface and charring with a blaze from 
kerosene poured over the inside of the hive. 

If no honey is being gathered from the flowers, 
the treated colonies should be fed or given combs 
of honey from healthy colonies to fill their hive, 
after the bees have been on the starters for at least 
48 hours. 



Fel>. 1'). IIU'J 



DUCKS AND DUCKLINGS DOWN 
IN FLORIDA. 

More about the Duck that Laid 100 
Eggs without a Miss. 

BY A. I. KOOT. 



[To the question, " What occupation 
poes the best with bees ? " we have oft- 
en replied, "' roultry-raisinK:" but W. 
/,. Hutchinson's invariable reply was, 
"More bees." If our senior editor, the 
writer i)t the following article, were 
asked what occupation goes the best 
with iioultry- raising, we fancy he 
would say, ".More ducks."— Kd.] 

On page 61, Jan. 15, I said the 
(luck that gave the 100 eggs with- 
out a miss was still laying. 
Well, to-day, Jan. 22, she is still 
at it, making nearly two months 
without a miss this winter. Of 
course, there is a possibility of a 
mistake; but as her eggs are of 
a slightly bluish-green tint, and 
also larger, than any of those laid 
by her daughters, a mistake is 
not likely. None of her numer- 
ous daughters have so far come 
up to her. Like the good woman 
described in the last chapter of 
Proverbs we can say of her, 
"Many daughters have done vir- 
tuously, but thou excellest them 
all." 

While speaking of' the size._of duck eggs 1 
believe it is usually the case that most of 
them vary more or less in size. Well, I am 
led to believe this is largely a matter of nu- 
trition. For some time 1 had been leaving 
a pan of corn with them all night long; but 
finding the birds and rabbits were also help- 
ing themselves I covered their grain the 




A. T. Root admiring his favorite Buttercup rooster 



last thing at night, and uncovered it at day- 
light. By so doing there was a saving in 
feed; but I soon felt sure the eggs were not 
uniformly as large. To get up a good-sized 
egg every 24 hours requires good nourishing 
food, and that without stint. 

Up to Jan. 1 I was boasting among the 
neighbors that I was getting four eggs a day 




The duck that laid 100 eggs without a " skip." together with her comrades, as they go out every ii 
Ingonthe drainage canal. The two with the dark bills are ducks, and the two with yellow bills 
drakes. The drakes are also lighter In color. 



morn- 
bills are 



CIraniiiKK in Kee Culdii 



from four ducks right along; but on Dec. 31 
one of my laying ducks did not get home at 
night with the rest, and Mrs. Hoot then re- 
minded me that one of our largest drakes 
failed to return the day before Thanksgiv- 
huj. At the time, f explained it by saying 
the alligators must have taken him, as they 
were gomg up the canal nearly half a mile 
every day. By the way, Mrs. Root thought 
I had got it a little too strong when I said 
nothing was ever stolen in our neighbor- 
hood, and remarked, "Do you think it rea- 
sonable that an alligator would take a par- 
ticular fancy for a fat drake just before 
Thanksgiving, and again for a duck just be- 
fore New Year's day?" 

Well, I still feel sure no one around here 
has harmed my ducks; but if they really 
were stolen I think it was done by strangers 
from afar, who are usually prowling about 
with guns at this season of the year. 

Since Jan. 1 I have been getting only two 
duck eggs a day much of the time, the two 
younger ducks not doing as well as their 
mother a year older. One of them, after 
finishing her laying, wanted to sit, for about 
a week; but, notwithstanding, I am putting 
every egg under hens or in the incubator. 
Out of 51 eggs in the incubator, 45 were fer- 
tile; but I hatched out only 19 ducklings, 
most of the rest having "died in the shell." 
I wrote to Cyphers people about it, and they 
seemed to think I did not give the eggs suf- 
ficient cooling. 

The incubator is running again with 47 
fertile eggs, and so far (11 days) they seem 
to be strongly fertile. As I hatched only 19 



1 said to myself 1 would take great care and 
not lose a duckling; but just this morning 
(when they are 11 days old) I found one 
squeezed in between the tireless brooder and 
the fence. How could I have been so care- 
less as to leave such a place instead of push- 
ing the brooder clear up to the fence, leav- 
ing no vacancy? Perhaps "locking the 
stable door after the horse is stolen " is bet- 
ter than doing nothing; but I would give a 
silver dollar to have that bright lively little 
friend back to life again, and to cure the 
sting of a guilty conscience that follows me 
all the day long. The tireless brooder ans- 
wers here beautifully with ducklings. At 
first for a few nights while it was quite cool 
I gave them a heated brick; but I am led to 
believe it was not necessary; for one night 
when it seemed warm I omitted it, and it 
turned suddenly cold with a trace of frost. 
They were only about four days old, and I 
went out just at daylight with fear (and 
trembling) that they might all be stiff with 
cold. Not so. As soon as the entrance was 
open, out they shot and took a run clear to 
the other end of their yard in the frosty 
morning air; and after a big feed they can- 
tered about until the sun was up. 

Now in regard to the pictures accompany- 
ing this article. If you will turn back to 
my "duck story," April 1, last year, you 
will get a much better idea of them. While 
on the train coming here one man remark- 
ed to another, pointing to me, "Is not that 
the chap that goes down to Florida every 
winter to raise ducks to feed to alligators?" 

Eggs are now only 30 cts. a dozen, so that 




The waterf.ill that comes down over the mouth of the "alligator cave." It is made to spread out like a 
great soap bubble by the stream falling on the smooth surface of an inverted five-cent flre-shovel. 



Feb. 16, 1912 



107 




The mother Leghorn hen that did not hesitate about tackling an open-mouthed alligator in defense of 
her ducklings. The waterfall and alligator cave are just behind her. The drainage canal is right on the 
other side of the poultry-netting. 



it takes rather more than nine eggs a day to 
feed the whole lot; and the way the 18 duck- 
lings are beginning to tease for their meal, 
bran, and middlings, wet up with sour milk, 
the feed-bill promises 
to get >tti/l larger; but 
as T am getting from 
30 to 40 eggs a day they 
are paying very well 
after all. The duck- 
lings are crazy for let- 
tuce; and here in Flor- 
ida, at least, it would 
seem that lettuce is 
almost as necessary for 
all kinds of poultry as 
wheat, corn, and oats. 

GIVING THE WEAK- 
LINGS A FAIR 
CHANCE. 

About a year ago I 
told you of a single 
duck egg that was un- 
der two dilTerent sit- 
ting hens, and was 
finally hatched in my 
home-made incubate-. 
Before the egg was 
even pipjied, the in- 
mate would peep ev- 
ery time I tapped with 
my finger-nail on the 
egg. Well, after he 



was hatched T put him with some incuba- 
tor chicks that were several days older 
than the duck, and of course they "made 
life miserable" for him, especially at feed- 




Another view of the Leghorn hen and her ducklings, giving also a 
glimpse of box with netting front, where they are secure nights irom 
all sorts of "night prowlers." 



108 




"The house of refuge." Netting "protector," for 
the weaklings or younger ones a fair chance. 

ing time. As he was younger; and as ducks 
must^have soft food when first hatched, I 
tried to give him bread and milk; but, dear 
me! he was "snowed under" before he got 
a single bite of the dainty prepared for him 
alone. Finally I " got busy;" and with the 
aid of a barrel-hoop and some inch-mesh 
netting I made the very handy implement 
pictured above. 

In the picture it is shown placed over the 
ducks hatched out by a Leghorn hen, for 
we make use of it for many different emerg- 
encies, such as catching a chick or chickens 
that have " sticktights " or "sorehead," 
shutting up a sitting hen so other hens can 
not intrude, penning up a sitting hen (so 
she can't "bite") while you arrange her 
eggs or nest, and for various other purposes;* 
but it answered the purpose most admirably 
with my "lone duck." When I gave him 
his bread and milk and some water where 
he could satisfy his vigorous appetite in 
peace, while a "howling rabble" surround- 
ed and climbed over his stout barricade, it 
reminded me vividly of the words of that 
beautiful and comforting passage in the 2od 
Psalm: "Thou preparest a table before me 
in the presence of mine enemies," etc.; and 
also of the promise, "Thou wilt keep him 
in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on 
thee. ' ' Dear reader, it just now occurs to me 
that this is not altogether a chicken story 
nor even a duck story, and I am going to 
switch off just a little to ask you if this Bi- 
ble promise is indeed true, as I have held it 
up before you? Does the great Father ever 
place a shield or screen around us so we can 
actually "sit down " in quietness and peace 

* When a hen steals a nest out In the open, and 
wants to sit. 1 just set this over her as I go around 
the last thing at night, and leave her thus shut up 
and protected until I gather the eggs next da.v, 
when it Is removed to let her out lor necessary re- 
freshment. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

while the ungodly are leaving no 
stone unturned to misrepresent and 
defeat us ? I am sure he does. If 
we fail to find that haven of peace 
and security when we need it so 
much, the fault is ours and not that 
of the great Father who loves us, 
and loves to have us come to him 
when weary and overburdened. 
Read once more the inspiring and 
comforting words I copied from the 
Sunday School Times on page 30, 
.Jan. 1. 

Much is said about hens' nests 
that are vermin-proof, or nests made 
of metal so that not only can ver- 
min find no hiding-place, but the 
whole nest-box may be most effec- 
tually "fumigated" by simply 
lighting a match and setting the 
nesting material on fire. Such a 
nest I have figured below, and ev- 
ery bee-keeper, at least, can usual- 
ly find such a nest-box on his own 
premises without costing him a 
iving cent. 

Cut out half of one end, as shown 
in the picture; turn down the flap 
for a slanting doorstep, and you have a nest 
that will hold a hen and chickens at night 
safe from all prowlers, if you just fasten a 
bit of inch-mesh netting over the open 
front. As the five-gallon can is air-tight, 
you will have to close it with netting, es- 
pecially in warm weather, to give the hen 
and her brood plenty of air. And this re- 
minds me that, up to this date, .Ian. 20, we 
have not seen an insect nor disease of any 
sort on any fowl on our premises, and I 
can almost say we have not seen a house- 
fly. Very likely the latter is because Mrs. 
Root is so extremely careful not to leave 
any thing outside or inside that can bait the 
flies and cause them to "hang around " our 
premises. Truly, prevention is better than 
cure. The last of the two pictures shows the 
tin-can nest occupied with a hen and her 
ducklings. She has gone in for the night; 
but a couple of the youngsters seem, to be 




llen"s ne.sl and 
chicks. 



all-metal" coop for hen and 



Feb- 15, 1912 




•J. F. Kight. Southport. Ind., who has successfully combined bee-keeping: and squab-raising. 



tardy about "getting to bed." They prob- 
ably want to make just "one more" visit 
to the feed-dish and little drinking-fountain. 



BEE-KEEPING AND SQUAB-RAISING COMBIN- 
ED. 

BY J. F. KIGHT. 



As the good old farmer used to say, "I 
have just laid ray crap bv. ' Well, I have 
just now (Nov. 24) laid ray Vjees by until 
next April. I have the hives side by side 



standing on planks 6 inches off the ground, 
with leaves under and all over thera, a foot 
deep. They are well covered, and shielded 
from the west and north winds; yet I am a 
little afraid I shall lose a few. l>ast season 
was the hardest known for bees in this part 
of the State for many years. They got no 
honey during July, August, and September, 
and only a little in October from the white 
aster. During .Tuly and August I fed ray 13 
colonies a barrel of the best granulated sugar, 
and yet they did not seem extra heavy when 
I put them away. Only a few around Indi- 



110 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Bees and chickens in the same back lot, Detroit, Mich. 



anapolis fed their bees, and I predict there 
will be more dead bees in this county next 
spring than have ever been known to die in 
any one winter. In fact, I now know of sev- 
eral colonies already dead, whose owners 
would not feed. If mine don't all die I ex- 
pect to jiick up a lot of empty combs in the 
spring. 

I am combining the pigeon business with 
my little apiary. I keep both as a diversion 
from my regular business, and have a com- 
petent man to assist me. 

While my bees are sleeping, my pigeons 
are making me nice money in the way of 
squabs and breeders. I have just sent a 
$175 order to California, so I can not see why 
the bee and pigeon business will not go to- 
gether nicely. 

South port, Ind., Nov. 24. 



BEE-KEEPING AND POULTRY-RAISING IN A 
CITY. 



BY L. LIST. 



The regular readers of Gleanings need 
not be told that bees may be successfully 
kept in the city. They have often read 
about it, and some have tried it themselves. 
There are two points of interest, however, 
in the accompanying picture. In the first 
place, it shows that bees and poultry may 
well go together. One of the regular con- 
tributors of Gleanings recently stated that 
his Rhode Island Reds proved to be a nui- 



sance in the bee-yard. Our White I^eg- 
horns never molested the bees in any way, 
but, on the contrary, treated them with 
marked respect. 

Another fact worth mentioning in regard 
to the photograph is this: Our bees stand 
within six inches of our church school, 
which is attended by over 200 children. 
There has never been the slightest com- 
plaint. There are no windows on the south 
side of the building, and the bees have their 
flight in that direction. Even if there were 
windows, I would not be afraid of trouble, 
because bees are not nearly as vindictive as 
commonly supposed. 

For four years this apiary has been run 
for extracted honey, and there has not been 
a single swarm during this time. Plenty 
of super-room and bottom ventilation kept 
back the swarming fever. I may add that 
this photo was taken in the prosperous sea- 
son of 1910, and not in the poor one of 1911. 
You will notice that most of the supers are 
of the shallow kind; and I would advise the 
novice who is keeping just a few bees and 
runs for extracted honey to give them a fair 
trial. I have followed the advice of the gen- 
tleman from Texas, Mr. L. H. Scholl, and 
have never regretted it. The deep supers 
may be better for the owner of many col- 
onies, because a given amount of honey 
may be more quickly extracted; but for the 
man with few colonies the shallow ones are 
ideal, because they are more easily han- 
dled, and do away with the heavy strain on 
the back. 

Detroit, Mich. 



Feb. 15. 1912 




liert^ll. Masters in liis bee-yard at Kdison, Ohio. 
which.he leaves onfall summer. 



Mr. Masters now has winter cases on all his hives, 



BEES, CHICKENS, AND DUCKS GO WELL TO- 
GETHER. 



BY BEKT H. MASTERS. 



In my experiment with chickens, ducks, 
and bees, I find that success depends large- 
ly upon the amount of care taken. I have 
always been successful; and, since I can not 
supply our regular trade with honey, eggs, 
and poultry, I am arranging this year to in- 
crease my apiary to 75 or 100 colonies, and 
to double my poultry business. My inten- 
tion is to keep only the best stock. 

My two boys are wonderfully interested 
in G LEANINGS, and are storing away in their 
minds every thing pertaining to bees and 
poultry that they can get hold of. I intend 
to give them full charge of the yards this 
year to try them out. 



The boys insist that I mention a little 
egg-basket which has been in daily use for 
a period of 38 years. It belonged to their 
great-great-grandparents, and it holds six 
dozen eggs. We have just laid it aside to be 
kept as a relic. It has averaged three trips to 
market per week for 38 years. If you take 
your pencil and figure this out, you will be 
surprised at the number of eggs that this 
basket has carried. I do not know the ave- 
rage price during all this time, but I believe 
it has been about 15 cts. 

I have discovered a great remedy for mil- 
lers and moths, and I have been much in- 
terested in watching the practical demon- 
strations of my discovery. I put my eighty 
Indian Runner ducks in my bee-yard one 
evening when the millers were quite bad, 
and the ducks were victors in a very short 
time. I am confident that they prevented 




Some of I'.ert II. Master's chickens at Kdison, Ohio, 
and bees go well together. 



He linds that chickens, ducks. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




R. O. Dickson's poultry-yard, La Ilarpe. 111., showing brooder-coops used as winter cases, for 55 single- 
walled hives of bees. Chicks occupy the coops in the summer in connection with Cypher hovers. 



the millers from getting the upper hand of 
several weak colonies. 

I winter my colonies on the summer 
stands, but I use winter cases packed with 
shavings. I do not remove these cases now, 
but leave them on all summer, as I have 



found this advisable on account of the sud- 
den changes of weather which we have. 
When preparing for winter, I cut and fit 
several thicknesses of building-paper and 
place them over the top of the hive-cover. 
Edison, Ohio. 



SKUNK CAUGHT AFTER HE HAD KILLED 16 man returned to his room to get his shot- 
CHICKENS. gun. On his return, a minute or so later, 

the skunk was gone. The rascal had al- 

BY w. A. PRYAL. ready killed a good sized young chicken, 

and would have carried it off, but he could 
not get it through the fence. 

Every night after this, ladders were re- 
mov ed so that skunks could not climb to 
the roosts, and the younger chickens in 



A couple of years ago some skunks began 
nocturnal visits to my chicken-yard. It 
was in the fall of 1910 (in September, I 
think) that I noticed that the young roost- 
ing chickens in one of 
the poultry-houses 
seemed disinclined to 
lake to their roosts 
V hen night came on. 
They seemed to prefer 
to go into the house 
with the older stock or 
else take to the tall 
trees. Then, a few days 
later, my man George 
heard a commotion in 
the chicken-yard one 
night, and on investi- 
gating the cause of the 
ilislurbance he found 
a --kunk trying to make 
his exit from the yard 
through the meshes 
of the wire netting. 
Not wishing to attack 
the animal, without a 
suitable weapon, the 




A skunk caught in a steel trap, and some ul his victims of the night before. 



Feb. 15, 1912 

coops near the house were carefully Inclosed. 
However, one night one of the coops was 
not as diligently looked after as it should 
have been, for the door was left a little apart, 
and through the opening a skunk made its 
way. What a slaughter of innocents there 
was that night! There were sixteen well- 
grown young chickens and their mother in 
the enclosure that night; and of the lot, 
fourteen young ones were found dead in the 
morning. One had been caught by the 
maurauder, but escaped with a small cut on 
the back of its head. All those killed had 
been bitten on the back of the head at the 
base of the brain. 

Such slaughter roused my dander. The 
Irish in me was up, and I was bent on get- 
ting that skunk or "bust." And I got him! 
And it is with much pride and delight that 
I herewith joresent a picture of the dead 
skunk and some of the fine chickens he so 
ruthlessly murdered, together with several 
of the traps that were set that night to cap- 
ture him. The trap that "did the work " 
was a small steel-jaw trap that was set in 
the center of the large coop in which the 
chickens had been killed the night previous. 
About a foot above the trap one of the dead 
chickens was suspended by a wire. I be- 
lieved that the skunk would return again 
to kill more chickens or else claim his prey, 
and I gave him this opportunity to claiin 
the one that was hung up in so tantalizing 
a way, and he was bent on getting it. He 
danced into the trap; the trigger was sprung, 
and the skunk firmly held by one leg until 
he was duly killed in the morning by 
George. 

Since then I have lost no more young 
chickens, that I am aware of, by skunks, 
though we have set traps for them now and 
then. Only one has since been caught, and 
that was a few weeks ago when one was se- 
cured in the large box trap that was set to 
catch rats. And here I might remark that 
this trap is the best rat-catcher I ever knew; 
it gets the rats when all the wire and other 
traps fail. I suppose it is such an innocent- 
looking old thing that the most wary old 
rat is thrown off his guard, and walks into 
the box to nibble at the bait, which is usu- 
ally a piece of old raw or decayed meat. 

Oakland, Cal. 



CAUGHT IN THE ACT. 



A "Tame" Skunk Eats Bees. 



BY J. D. YANCEY. 



One day last summer, late in the after- 
noon, my sister being out in the apiary, 
called to me to come to the aid of my bees 
before they were all devoured. Of course I 
came on the double-quick, and you may 
imagine my surprise as I passed around the 



113 

corner of the kitchen to behold a skunk, al- 
most as big as a badger, near the entrance 
of the second hive, calmly eating bees. I 
was so angered at his cool impudence that 
if I had had a club in my hands, I would 
have— on the spur of the moment— "lam- 
med him one" good and proper. But on 
second thought I knew this would not be 
the best policy so near the dwelling. 

While I stood watching him he finished 
devouring the first bee; and, running up on 
the alighting board, seized another from the 
crowded entrance, rolled it under his front 
paws on the alighting-board, then backed 
off to a safe distance and proceeded to eat 
it, beginning at the head and finishing it to 
the tip, sting and all. The skunk seems 
capable of running backward with as much 
celerity as forward; and his movements as 
he runs up and grabs a bee, smashes it with 
his fore feet and then backs off, are made so 
rapidly as to seem almost automatic in ac- 
tion. 

The bees seemed to be angered very much 
by his murderous assaults, but for some rea- 
son they would not attack him; in fact, in 
a few minutes they became so intimidated 
that they every one disappeared into the 
hiv^e. Mr. Skunk, however, had evidently 
robbed bee-hives before, for he knew exactly 
how to proceed. Running up again to the 
entrance, he drummed on the floor of the 
hive making a noise much as you would by 
drumming lightly on a hive with your 
knuckles. This caused two or three bees to 
dart out of the hive, and one of them was 
promptly seized. In his eagerness, how- 
ever, he lowered his head too near the busi- 
ness end of the bee and received the sting 
full in the end of the nose. Well, Mr. 
Skunk was certainly .surprised, and he drop- 
ped that bee just as if it had been red-hot. 
He seemed to think the scraping motion 
was the proper scheme for removing stings, 
for he backed off about ten feet as fast as he 
could go, scraping his nose on the ground 
and sneezingasif he had taken a w^hiff from 
a pepper-box. 

^lay be you think that gave him enough; 
but he seemed to be following the advice of 
those bee-keepers who tell you to scrape out 
the sting and forget about it at once and it 
will cease hurting promptly. 

Being a little leary about tackling the 
same hive again, he next came to the hive 
near which I was standing and caught a 
couple of bees, stopping to eat them so near 
me that I could have kicked him — had I 
been so minded, of course. Once he ceased 
operations, and, sitting up on his hind feet, 
gave me an impudent stare, as much as to 
say, "If you don't like it, help yourself." 

I suppose he did not like the flavor of the 
bees from this last hive, for he soon went 
back to scratching in the entrance of the 
first; but the bees appeared to be thorough- 
ly cowed, for none of them would venture 
forth, and after a few more futile efforts his 
Skunkship took himself off into the fast- 
gathering darkness, and I saw him no more. 

Bridgeport, Wash. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



BEES AND POULTRY ON A BACK LOT IN A 
CITY. 



BY L. J. GRIFFEN. 



My experience in bee-keeping and chick- 
ens is more of a "has been '' than a "pres- 
ent" experience; but for a number of years 
I took off about 400 pounds of "fancy " hon- 
ey and raised about 300 fancy chickens 
(White Wyandottes) on a city lot one hun- 
dred feet square. 

My occupation is that of customs exam- 
iner' (deputy collector and inspector), and 
the last four years my work has increased 
so much that I have had to give up most of 
my bees and chickens, and I miss the mon- 
er that they used to bring in. 

I have always been very fond of honey, 
and was seldom able to get any that was 
especially good; so about ten years ago I be- 
gan to study bees. After six months I 
dreamed of bees every time I went to sleep; 
then I bought two colonies in Danzenbaker 
hives from a friend who was planning to 
leave town. They were hybrids. I sent to 
two different queen-breeders for a queen 
from each, and divided the two hybrid colo- 
nies, making four. One queen was excel- 
lent, and soon had her hive full of brood. 
The other was no good — could barely fill five 
frames, and later I killed her. The first year 
I secured about 140 pounds of honey, of 
which two-thirds was fancy. 

The same year I commenced to study 
chickens; and before spring arrived I was 
dreaming of chickens. I bought an incu- 
bator and two brooders, and 220 White Wy- 
andotte eggs (I was the pioneer ^\'hite Wy- 
andotte chicken-man in Bridgeport or vicin- 
ity). 

I had excellent luck (?) , and hatched 153 
chickens. When they were about three 
weeks old they suddenly commenced to die 
off. I finally found that the trouble was 
moldy chick-feed, tiny particles of green 
mold being mixed with the fine grains. I 
threw the rest away and got some that was 
fresh. I seldom buy chick-feed now, for sev- 
eral reasons— first, it is almost impossible.to 
buy fresh chick-feed early in the season; 
and old chick-feed of the previous year is 
very likely to cause bowel trouble: second, 
if scattered on the ground, all particles that 
become covered will turn moldy, and then 
when uncovered will be eaten, resulting in 
a dead chicken a week or two later; third, 
little chickens three days old will eat wheat 
and thrive on it. 

I figured out that a mash composed of 
corn meal three parts, bran one part, mid- 
dlings one part, and beef scrap one part, 
woukl be about right. I think so yet, after 
nearly ten years' trial, although when I find 
it hard to get good middlings I use corn 
nical two parts, bran two parts, and beef 
sera]) one part, substituting one of bran for 
the middlings, and dropping one of corn 
meal. 

Out of my hatch of 153 I raised IIG. I sav- 
ed the best for breeders, and killed the cull 
l)u11ets for broilers, and the cull cockerels 



were made into capons, which I learned to 
do by following directions in the book that 
came with the caponizing set. 

In performing the operation at first one 
bled to death, which we ate as a broiler, and 
I cut the lung of one a trifle, and he had 
wind puff. On tapping him with a pen- 
knife he recovered. I made one change. 
The directions said, use carbolic acid in the 
water; but I used bichloride of mercury, one 
to one thousand — 7 grains to 1 pt. of water. 
Those capons made my reputation for deli- 
cious chickens. 

About three or four weeks before killing 
I would shut four in a coop with slatted 
front and bottom two feet high, two feet 
long, and eighteen inches deep. I had four 
of the coops in a row about the nests. There 
was a dropping-board below the coops so 
that it could be taken out and cleaned, and 
a shelf in front to hold the feed and water. 
They were fed mash entirely. When there 
are four in a pen, one seeing another eating, 
he thinks he must eat also. The second day 
before killing I gave some charcoal, and the 
last day nothing at all. My pullets that 
were hatched about April 20, commenced to 
lay about Oct. 7. 

The same year I had four colonies of bees. 
The previous fall I had killed the poor queen, 
and had given them a frame of bees from 
my best queen from which they had raised 
a good queen. I fed in March and April 
about two dollars' worth of sugar and got 
about fifteen to twenty sections from each 
colony of apple-blossom honey with a little 
dandelion mixed with it. We have very 
few dandelions in this section. 

During the summer flow my two hybrid 
colonies put up a solid super of chestnut 
honey, and my two Italian colo^^ies a solid 
super of sumac honey, both flows occurring 
at the same time. Chestnut honey is green- 
ish yellow, rather dark, and of poor flavor. 
Since then the chestnut-trees have all been 
cut down, for which I am thankful. 

Before leaving on my vacation in Septem- 
ber I looked at the bees and found very lit- 
tle honey. On my return there was a sour 
smell, and I immediately concluded the 
bees were dead, and the nectar and brood 
soured; so I opened the hives and was sur- 
prised to find each super crammed with hon- 
ey — mixed goldenrod and wild aster. 1 put 
another super on each colony, and they al- 
so were filled with honey. One season the 
bees stored wild-aster honey in the super as 
late as November 7. 

The following spring I started early with 
my incubator, hatching on Washington's 
birthday. I placed one of the brooders in 
the cellar, put a glass top on the two com- 
partments, and kept the chickens in the 
cellar for three weeks. By that time they 
needed damp ground (the cellar has a ce- 
ment floor). I made jjens 6x12 feet across 
the front of the lot next door, 50X100 ft. (it 
was poor sandy soil on which I could make 
nothing grow) . The top of the pens was 
made so that it could be rolled back for the 
purpose of digging the soil. First rye, then 



Feb. 15, 1912 

oats, and finally wheat, were planted, as 
there is nothing better for young chickens 
than sprouted grains. 

I kept the incubator going, hatching about 
once a month. The pullets which had 
hatched on Washington's birthday gave me 
the first egg on .luly 2 — four months and 
ten days. These had been i)ut in a sort of 
colony house, so that I had at one end lay- 
ing jiullets; and at the other, chickens only 
two weeks old. 

After three years the ground became so 
rich and full of poison for chickens that I 
had to move the pens. I plantetl corn on 
that ground for three years in succession 
without any further fertilizing, and by that 
time I could use it for chickens again. I 
find that corn is the best renovator of the 
soil. 

On clear Sundays at least 500 people used 
to come to see the chickens, the pens being 
next to the street. The fame of those white 
chickens spread far and wide. 

I feed only whole grains, and have, at 
present, movable coops so that they can be 
rolled or carried to fresh locations, about six 
weeks at first, and then about every two 
weeks after that. I always expect my pul- 
lets to lay at the end of five and a half 
months. I attribute the early laying to the 
large amount of beef scrap that I feed. 

In 190r. I hatched a pullet that I leg-band- 
ed as number 8 (I started leg-banding that 
year) . She proved to be a wonder, laying 
2()4 eggs in one year. In 1907 I had her in 
a pen with four of her daughters, and the 
five laid 88 eggs in 20 days. 

My third year with the bees was even bet- 
ter than before. They had increased to 
six colonies, and gave me about four hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of honey, most of 
which was fancy. All No. 2 honey is cut 
out and given to the neighbors. I have had 
complaints but once, and that was because 
a neighbor was sore about another matter. 

In the fall of 1904 I discovered that my 
best hive was rotten with foul brood. I 
found that bee-keeping in the suburbs of 
Bridgeport and for a distance of ten miles 
each way was steadily decreasing because of 
foul brood. I then started the agitation 
which finally resulted in our present foul- 
brood law, which, while better than nothing, 
is far from ideal. 

Bridgeport, Ct. 



POULTRY AND BEES. 



They Go well Together if the Man " Stays by the 
Job." 



BY H. E. ZECH. 



As a breeder of Silver Comb White Leg- 
horn hens and Indian Runner ducks, and 
as a bee-keeper and farmer, I wish to give 
my exjjerience, with some statistics, regard- 
ing poultry and bees, for the benefit of the 
(iLEANiNGS family. 

I started bee-keeping in the spring of 
1900 by buying four colonies in movable- 
frame hives of no standard make, and the 



115 

same season 1 got about 150 lbs. of fine 
white honey, some in sections, some chunk. 
This looked good, so I increased by buying 
ten-frame Langstroth hives and Italian 
queens, and now have 17 colonies and about 
1125 worth of hives and fixtures, and $21.44 to 
the credit of the bees, not taking into ac- 
count the honey used and given away. 

During 1911 we kept from 150 to 225 hens, 
which returned to us $685.6H. No eggs were 
sold for more than 40 cts. a dozen, no ac- 
count was taken of eggs and poultry used, 
and I have no exact account of all the feed 
consumed; but the mash, beef scrap, shell, 
grit, and charcoal, fed to both young and 
old stock, amounted to $99.79. I use sim- 
ple home-made self-feed hoppers arranged 
with a 2>^-inch-wide second or trough to 
catch that which crumbs from the hens' 
mouths, and which would otherwise be lost. 
By arranging the troughs right as to height, 
a nice slanting cover can be hinged to the 
front of the feeder to keep rats out at night, 
or to shut the hens away from the mash a 
part of the day at certain seasons. By 
keeping the mash accessible to the stock, 
practically no damage is done to the grow- 
ing crops "close by the buildings. I should 
judge that the "mash, etc., cover at least 
two-fifths of the feeding expense. For rais- 
ing chickens, I use Prairie State and Cy- 
pher's adaptable hovers attached to 7 x 10 
portable houses, which are used in winter 
for laying hens. Records of three flocks 
show that I raised 94 per cent, cockerels 
crowing when 29 days old, and pullets lay- 
ing when 4 months and 18 days old. 

I breed the English (or penciled) variety 
of the Indian Runner duck, of which I 
raised 97 per cent. They hatched .Tune 6 ; 
and up to dale, Jan. 18, they have given me 
234 white-shelled eggs. Notice I said shell- 
ed, as some duck eggs sometimes have a 
dull dirty gloss which, when immersed in 
water, may be slippery or mucus-like, and 
which must be washed off in order to have 
the really beautiful white egg. See what 
A. I. Root says on p. 447, .July 15. I do not 
expect that they will continue to lay, as we 
have been having very cold weather for 
three weeks. Before that, the weather was 
good for fall laying. 

As to poultry-raising and bee-keeping go- 
ing together, I will say that, so far as the 
most important factor, the man, is con- 
cerned, they agree well, for both pursuits 
require patience, persistence, and some en- 
thusiasm. On nothing does success de- 
pend more than on the man who is among 
the bees and hens, and who cares for them. 
It is important that a beginner start in a 
small way with good stock, and increase as 
he can profitably handle more, all the time 
realizing that it is the man which is on tri- 
al, and not the bee nor poultry business, as 
both have been tried. And do not take up 
another branch if you have enough already. 
Do not go into any business deeper than it 
will allow you time enough to do some good 
sound common-sense thinking; for a lack 
of this is the cause of most failure, and will 



116 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



lead one into the habit of laying it to poor 
luck when things go wrong, while in reality 
there is no such thing — only your failure to 
attend to some essential. 
Seven Valleys, Pa. 

«^-*--» 

A BEE-KEEPERS REMINISCENCE. 

BY WM. BKUCUS. 



Years ago, when I first began my apicul- 
tural career and knew all about bees, I said 
one morning to my wife, "My dear, we're 
going to stay home this forenoon. The bees 
won't swarm to-day." 

I began to busy myself by turning my at- 
tention to the lawn, humming at times lit- 
tle ditties, and breaking out vigorously at 
times in a deep bass voice which one of our 
friends heartlessly said sounded like a saw- 
mill in distress. In the midst of one of 
these outbreaks of feeling I was brought 
back to the reality of every-day life by the 
exclamation, "The bees are swarming ! " 

Upon reaching the bee-yard I found a 
swarm circling around without the slightest 
regard for any one's feelings. The bees final- 
ly met in convention on a huge limb high 
up in an immense oak. My heart sank 
within me; but hope returned, and I got the 
ladder. I made up my mind to sweep the 
senate, secure a majority in the house, shear 
the committee on rules of its power, and to 
make some innovations that would teach 
those bees where they were going to get off. 
I tied one end of a rope to my ankle and 
the other end to a basket, and mounted the 
ladder, scaling the trunk above the ladder 
like a monkey. 

The campaign was nicely planned, and ev- 
ery thing should have terminated well, but 
" the best-laid plans of mice and men gang 
aft agley," as has been said by the poet. 

1 reached the bees safely, and found that 
they were full-blooded hybrids. Two or 
three bees faced about and stared in an un- 
mannerly way that is always disconcerting 
to a sensitive nature: but I proceeded to pull 
up the basket in a calm and nonchalant 
way, as if the danger were a pastime, while 
my wife looked on proudly from below. I 
then proceeiled to scrape off the bees with 
unerring hand. It was then that those hy- 
brids made an exhibition of themselves 
thiit was entirely out of place. One, with 
foul intent, harpooned me on the hand; 
another went up my sleeve; but when they 
advanced in solid phalanx and made a 
flank movement, pouring in a volley of poi- 
soned arrows through my thin denim trou- 
sers, I became disgusted and made up my 
mind that I wouldn't hive bees that acted 
in that disgraceful way. I began to retire 
then. 

"Don't come too fast," said my wife. I 
assured her that I couldn't. I was taking 
full advantage of gravity, although it was 
not intentional. Fortunately the rope, 
which was attached to my ankle, was fas- 
tened to a limb of the tree, and thus was 
prevented the disfiguring of the lawn. After 
a long interval (at least so it seem^ed to me) , 



my wife, who had gone after a knife, reliev- 
ed me of the monotony of swinging, sus- 
pended by one leg, like a pendulum, fight- 
ing valiantly, and with perfect presence of 
mind, the bees which had taken advantage 
of the absence of a bee-veil, and were, with- 
out feeling, burrowing in my hair and cling- 
ing tenaciously to my face and neck. Even 
after I had gone into the house, had cared 
for the stings, and had fallen asleep, my 
slumber was disturbed by the eternal buzz, 
buzz, buzz of swarming baes. 
Cadott, Wis. 



FLIES AND MAGGOTS FOR POULTRY. 



BY THOMAS DEWEES. 



As an interested reader of Gleanings I 
can not refrain from having a part in the 
discussion concerning the use of stale meat, 
maggots, and the like as a food for poultry. 
That chickens may be used as scavengers is 
altogether correct; as, when supplied with 
such or allowed access thereto, they will eat 
all sorts of filth and corruption. But if we 
are going to use them for this purpose let 
us, for the time being at least, discard them 
as a food for our own bodies. That the 
quality and quantity of the blood is depen- 
dent on the amount and character of the 
food, is a fact well understood; also that it 
is from this life-giving current that every 
fiber and tissue of the animal body derives 
its strength and is built up. 

Understanding this, I have about the 
same use for eggs and flesh of fowls laden 
with such loathsome germs as those must 
be that have been subsisting on jiutrid flesh 
and worms that are a product of the same, 
or, in fact, any decomjiosing or fermenting 
substance. 

Now for an intelligent solution of this 
problem, I want to invite readers of Glean- 
ings to make the following test: Take from 
your flocks a thrifty fowl and place it in 
clean comfortable quarters, and supply it 
with clean and suitable food, with fresh pure 
water, for a period of from eight to ten days; 
then kill and prepare it for the table; then 
in like manner prepare one that has been 
allowed to run at large, or perhaps fed as in- 
dicated. Note the diflference in flavor, and 
decide for yourselves. Also the same differ- 
ence may be observed in the eggs from hens 
receiving nothing but clean pure feed. 

Now as to the destruction of flies, if I am 
not mistaken the fly that deposits its eggs 
on the flesh and decaying animal matter is 
a particular kind of green fly, often called 
the blow-fly; and while it is sometimes an 
annoyance it is one of the provisions of an 
allwise Creator for the quick disjiosal of 
these decomposing and offensive bodies that 
poison and pollute the air we breathe. If I 
am right, the more common fly that fre- 
quents our houses deposits its eggs else- 
where, very largely in manure-heaps, and 
kindred places where there may be a little 
extra warmth. 

Barnesville, O. 



Feb. 15, 1912 



117 



[n](gg]d]^ ®{f (SipsiBqq i!\F®m Mifi!(B\P(Bmii \FmMi 



A Form for Holding a Shallow Frame when Putting 
in Foundation. 

I have made and used for the last few years a 
contrivance to assist me in putting the Joundation 
in shallow extractlng-frames. 

To make one, take a piece o( board 1 x 4 x 19 In. 
for a base. Nail flrraly to it. In the center, a board 







'■'i'"V/''i;v,"in,. 



i|'i',','!Ml,. 



1 X o5-4 inches, and 1654 long. This should not be as 
wide as the frame by about /s inch. Half an inch 
from the base nail a ->^-in. piece 2 in. wide. 16/4 long, 
for a guide. The frame will then just slide under 
it. Next make a button an inch wide and 2 long, 
just as you would to fasten a door, and screw it on 
top of the upright In the center, as shown in the il- 
lustration. 

To use the device, slide the frame under the 
guide against the upright, and turn the button so 
that it will be held firmly. The foundation will 
drop naturally into the groove, straight and true. 
It will not warp, nor lean to one side. Fasten it 
with hot wax in the ordinary way. 

Morgan, Texas. T. J. Ford. 

[For full sheets we can see that this form would 
be quite a convenience. The illustration shows 
only a starter.— Ed.] 



tins a spare top-bar should be used to fill up the tin 
to get the tin nailed just right. The tins may be 
bent at a greater or less angle to accommodate the 
frame-tops scant or full thickness. 

T use these frame.s hung in the hives with Ji x % 
rabbets, just as brood-frames are used. The top- 
bars can be put on or taken off very quickly when 
once the knack is learned. 

Three tins nailed on one 
side of the top-bar of an 
ordinary brood-frame hold 
the nucleus-frames very 
nicely; but as these top- 
bars are thicker, different- 
sized tins are required. 
They must project A inch 
below. 

It seems to me the above 
arrangement is the best 
also for reversible frames. 
They could be used in or- 
dinary hives, reversed 
with little trouble, and 
used anywhere. Four to 
each frame, % or 1 inch 
wide, would, perhaps, be about right— Fig. 6. 
Port Orange, Fla., Jan. 9. J. B. Case. 



Cold Weather for California. 

Owing to the early frosts which killed all the late 
bloom, my bees did not go into the winter in very 
good order. I had to double up some and to feed 
others to pull them through. We of the northern 
part of the State have had very little rain, but a 
great deal of cold weather for this country. It was 
down to 14 above zero — the coldest for a great many 
years. .Ian. 1 we had a five- 
inch snow followed by warm 
rains with the thermometer 
from :54 to 70. The 



Why Not Breed Bees with Longer Tongues? 

I note In the short time I have been interested in 
bees that a long-tongued bee would be of Incalcula- 
ble benefit to the bee-keeper. Now, we know that 
Burbank has done wonders In creating new kinds 
of fruits, flowers, etc. These fruits and flowers, as 
I understand it. are something the world has never 
known before, and yet they are produced by under- 
standing the laws of nature with regard to inter- 
breeding and ci'ossing. 

Perhaps by selection for a number of years one 
might be able to get something bordering on a 
long-tongued bee, and then, again, he might not: 
and at the same time the new species might at any 
time revert and have shorter tongues than the 
original stock. 

Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 24. Arthur Cramer. 

[.Something like ten years ago we experimented 
along this line considerably. We found the dlffi- 
cultN, however, lay right here: We could not con- 
trol the male parentage of the queen. If that were 
possible we might practice inbreeding. 

There were several queen-breeders in the couri- 



ran? 



I-")) 



bees are now i.lan. 
bringing in pollen from al- 
der, which will start brood- 
rearing that will be of great 
value in building up for the 
main harvest, which will 
come here in April and May. 
E. S. Bartell. 
Cottonwood, Cal. 



Case's 



and 



Nucleus-frame 
Top-bar. 

Fig. 1 shows m.v nucleus- 
frame, -o'v x8 inches, made 
of ft. X H stuff. Fig. 2 shows 
a top-bar 7 inches long, of i';: 
X % stuff, and manner of 
adjusting the same. After 
the to|)-bar is in position 1 
turn it to the right. Fig. 3, 
until it is parallel with the 
top of the frame, and the 
tins hold it firmly. Fig. 4. 
The holder Is made of very heavy tin, Vs wide. The 
ends are bent Tf. Inch from the ends, and are fs inch 
apart— just right to hold two i^r. pieces tia>it togeth- 
er. The tins are nailed on the edge of the top-bar, 
l]4 in. from each end. The end of the tin on top of 
the top-bar is bent at right angles— the bottom end 
not ciulte so much, but so it slips under the top of 
the frame easily. The end that rests on top of the 
top-bar holds the tin firmly. When nailing on the 




try who tried to lengthen out the tongue-reach of 
the bees: but we found that we had to depend al- 
most entirely on "sports." We had one queen 
whose bees gave a tongue-reach of .2:? of an Inch, 
while the average of black bees runs only .16 to .17 
of an inch. 

Later, efforts were made to construct a cage 30 ft. 
high and 30 ft. square In which the drones and the 
queens might meet in the air; but this did not 



118 

prove to be any great success. So we are practical- 
ly right back where we were years ago. U you can 
work out any scheme we shall be glad to hear from 
you further. — Ed.] 

Profit from Forty Chickens. 

My bees will have to hustle to beat my hens. 
Last January I had 56 hens : last June 35, with an 
average for the first six months of about 45. I now 
have 32. making an average for the year of about 40 
birds. The last of November I was S71. 76 ahead of 
expenses, and had raised 23 pullets, which have 
laid 149 eggs this month. This is not taking into 
c(nisideratlon the value of these pullets, although 
the cost of raising them has been charged to the 
hens. 

Eggs from hens from Jan. 1 to date. Dec. 25. S62.18; 
eggs from hens and pullets, S63.80. Considering the 
value of pullets and what eggs I get this month, 
the profit from forty birds will be about SlOO. The 
only care required is at night and in the morning, 
before and after 6, with the exception of watering 
them during the day, which my wife does, and 
only lately have I fed them more than once each 
day. 

Brewer. Me., Dec. 25. E. H. Bissell. 



Winter Treatment of Foul Brood. 

I sent a sample of brood from one of my neigh- 
bors to Dr. E. F. Phillips, and found it to be affect- 
ed with American foul brood. I do not know 
whether it would be best merely to clean our hives 
up and let them go, or to send for an inspector and 
get rid of the box hives entirely. In the first place, 
we do not know where the trouble came from, as 
there have been no bees sent in nor queens bought 
or sold. I have about 15 colonies, and my neighbor 
has one. They are all together in my cellar. Will 
the disease spread in the cellar? 

Vassar, Mich., Jan. 8. J. \V. Rowland. 

[There is not much you can do in the way of han- 
dling foul brood during midwinter except to scald 
out or burn out hives that are empty, and melt up 
all combs of which you have any doubt. If the 
disease during the past summer got any kind of 
hold upon your bees or those of your neighbor, we 
would advise you to melt up all the empty combs 
you have, as a matter of precaution, boil the 
frames, put in foundation, and start over again 
next season. While some authorities think it is 
not necessary to scald out or burn out the inside of 
the hives, we believe it is very much safer to do so. 
This is a recommendation of Dr. E. F. Phillips, of 
the Bureau of Entomology, Washington, and many 
of the inspectors of the country. 

Foul brood will not spread in the cellar nor dur- 
ing cold weather, as it is only when brood-rearing 
is going on that it can do so. You probably will 
not have any trouble again until next spring when 
the weather warms up and the queen begins to lay. 

We are not certain: but it is our opinion that the 
foul-brood law of Michigan requires the transfer- 
ring of all colonies in box hives. It would be well 
for you to call for the Inspector, and we therefore 
advise you to write to R. L. Taylor, Lapeer, Mich. 
—Ed.] 

Chickens Eating Bees. 

Regarding Mr. Scholl's article, " When Chickens 
are a Nuisance," p. 186. Aug. 15. when a chicken be- 
gins to eat bees, nothing will ever break it off. It 
does not care for any other food, and rapidly loses 
flesh. Old fowls rapidly follow the example after 
seeing the chickens eating bees: but they rarely 
siart of their own accord. I have seen a chicken 
completely covered with bees trying to sting it as 
it was catching its meal right on the alighting- 
board. It just stood back, picked them all off, and 
started on some more. Tiny chickens never start 
on bees: but big chickens, fit to eat, do. Such 
chickens can never be caught by the usual means. 
Oram is no temptation to them. We either shoot 
them or catch them somehow, and give them to 
some of our neighbors who do not keep bees. To 
remedy this nuisance we have raised our hives 
about 18 inches from the ground. Since then we 
have had very few cases. I should not like to be 
w thout fowls in the bee-yard. They seem to keep 
ants and other insects down. Turkeys and ducks 
never eat bees: and if a small turkey swallows a bee 
by mistake it invariably dies in great ag 'ny, turn- 
ing and twisting its neck as if all the pain were 
there. Stephen Anthony. 

W aitete, Amodeo Bay, Auckland, N. '/., Sept. 25. 



G'eanings in Bee Culture 

Don't Put All Your Eggs in One Basket. 

I believe there is nothing that fits in better with 
bee-keeping than poultry. Poultry can be attend- 
ed to early in the morning and again in the eve- 
ning, while bees should not be disturbed before 9 
A.M., and not much later than 4 p.m. 

Another argument in favor of the combination is 
that both bee-keeping and poultry-raising can be 
carried on in a small area. Besides, a man who 
makes a success of bee-keeping should do well at 
poultry-keeping, for both occupations require close 
attention to details. Then, too, where there is a 
city market near, the product of both the bee and 
the hen can be sold at the same time. 

I don't like to disagree with such eminent men 
as G. M. Doolittle, the late E. W. Alexander, and 
W. Z. Hutchinson: but regarding the slogan, " Keep 
more bees." I must plead locality, and (all back on 
the old adage, " Don't put all your eggs in one bas- 
ket." In fact, I have known them to fit in so well 
together that a deserted hen egg hatched Into a 
fine healthy chicken over a strong colony of bees. 
However, I didn't give it to the bees to mother. 

BLACK CHICKS STUNG WHILE WHITE ONES ARE UN- 
HURT. 

Just here let me give warning not to allow the 
poultry to run among the hives, as I lost a fine 
flock of chickens last spring, which were stung to 
death by the bees. One sting is fatal to a young 
chicken. 1 lost 30 out of one hatch, and, strange to 
say, the black ones were attacked while the white 
chicks were unmolested. Bees certainly draw the 
color line, so bee-keepers will find it to their ad- 
vantage to keep white hens. 

Slate River, Ont., Jan. 14. James M. Munro. 

[There has been quite a stir in the newspapers, 
several times, over the possibility of hatching 
chickens on a large scale in supers over colonies of 
bees; but except in hot suminer weather we believe 
the plan is not successful. And even then, incuba- 
tors are cheaper and better.— Ed.] 



The Trickey Method of Treating Foul Brood. 

In treatment of foul brood, p. 710, 1911, 1. what is 
done with combs first removed? 

2. At what time of day should this be done ? 

3. Would the result be the same if the old hive 
were moved in the middle of the day. then brushed 
at night, the new hive -being first supplied with a 
small piece of unsealed or sealed brood ? 

Bradshaw, Neb.. Jan. 8. C. B. Palmer. 

[1. They should be extracted If they contain hon- 
ey, and melted up. Frames should be boiled be- 
fore being put back in the hive with foundation. 

2. Usually In the middle of the day when bees ai e 
flying tlie thickest. This will avoid any disturb- 
ance, for the bees in the field will return to tlie 
new hive. 

3. Not quite: because in so short a time the bees 
would hardly have gotten over their first disturb- 
ance. — Ed] 

One-fourth of the Potatoes in Northern IVlichigan 
Frozen. 

It is pretty cold here now. I believe that one- 
fourth, if not more, of the potatoes through North- 
ern Michigan have been frozen during the past two 
weeks. 

Our bees are wintering finely, however, fcr I can 
keep the temperature right during a cold winter 
better than I can during a warm one or one where 
the weather is changing all the time. The bees are 
so quiet that I can hold a candle almost close 
enough to burn them, and not even a buzz comes 
from them. 

Pioneer, Mich., Jan. 20. Elmer Hutchinson. 

[That certainly indicates that all conditions are 
normal, and that the bees should come out strong. 
—ED.] 

Brood in Caucasian Colony in January. 

Last September I introduced a Caucasian queen 
to a small colony. I gave them three frames of 
honey, and left them for the winter. We had very 
little rain here last year, and it has been warm and 
cold in succession. Yesterday, Jan. 14. the temper- 
ature was 72. "^ On looking into the Caucasian hive 
I found a patch of brood and eggs the size of my 
hand on both sides of a frame. I was unable to 
find a sign of an egg nor of any brood in my Italian 
colonies. 

Highland. Cal. J. R. L.\Follette. 



Feb. ;0 1912 



I 



®W[P Gi]®OIID 



119 



A. I. Root. 



Therefore the ungodly shall not stand In the judg- 
ment, nor sinners in the congregation of the Tight- 
ecus. For the Lord knoweth the way of the right- 
eous: but the way of the ungodly shall perish. — 
Psalm l : 5, 6. 

With all my busy cares (at least they 
seem to me of enough importance to call 
them "cares") I try to read the dailies 
enough to keep i)ace with at least something 
of what is going on in the world; and I con- 
fess that many things are coming to pass 
that make me feel the need of some such 
comforting promise as the one at the head 
of this talk to-day. What troubles me most 
is that (Jod evidently expects his chosen 
followers to help bring about the time when 
the sinner shall not stand in the congrega- 
tion of the righteous. Letting criminals go 
scot free, or letting them oiT with a punish- 
ment not one-tenth of what they deserve, is 
what worries me most; and as an illustra- 
tion of the tendency of the times let me 
quote from the Chicago Advance of Dec. 28: 

A WIDOW'S CRY. 

■■ My God! Why is there law, any way? There is 
uo use of expecting any thing from the law. The 
guilty ones are allowed to escape." 

This was the heart-broken cry of the young widow 
of a man murdered by an infamous gang of Chica- 
go toughs when she heard that their execution had 
been postponed and might not occur at all. 

The police are quoted as saying that the crime 
was one of the most brutal and atrocious ever com- 
mitted in tlie city or county. The young man was 
a gardener, and it was necessary for liim to come 
to the city in the early hours of the morning. It 
was a time when half a dozen young robbers were 
looking for a victim. They met him in the road 
with clubs and guns. He begged them to take his 
goods but to spare his life for the sake of his young 
wife and that of his baby, two months old, who 
needed his support and protection. The only ans- 
wer was a more fiendish assault. They struck him 
on the head with a fence-rail, and it is reported 
that they even knocked out bis teeth and drove a 
stick down his throat. Then they left him dying in 
a ditch and scampered away to make war on other 
Industrious people who happened to have some- 
thing which they wanted. 

Fortunately their identity was discovered and 
they were captured. <;>ne or two of them confessed, 
and four of the gang were sentenced to be hanged 
December 22. But in spite of the fact that they so 
richly deserved it, and that the prevalence of high- 
handed and bloody crime called for a prompt and 
effective enforcement of law which would produce 
more respect for it among the lawless, and more 
confidence in it among the law-abiding, a move- 
ment was made upon the governor of the State to 
prevent the execution, and it succeeded! 

If this movement had been made only by the 
paid attorneys in the case and the relatives of the 
murderers it could be passed over; but it had the 
backing of such influential people as Dr. Ilirsch, 
Miss Jane Addanis, .lenkin Lloyd Jones, Professor 
<"harles R. Henderson, and others. Some of these 
interferers with the mandate of the court seemed 
to have a rather hazy reason for their meddling, 
except that they did not want a hanging. As Roo- 
sevelt once said in a C^hicago address, some people 
do not feel the pain of the murderer's victim, but 
do feel intensely the pain which the murderer 
ought to suffer for his crime. Perhaps this ex- 
plains in part the aotion of some of these individu- 
als for blocking the enforcement of law. 

But others of the Interferers were more explicit. 
Professor Henderson's reasons, as given by the dai- 
ly press, include the declaration that " capital pun- 
ishment is not necessary for any rational, social 
end." But the great commonwealth of Illinois de- 
clares on its statute-books that It ix necessary; and 
It is the part of wisdom to pay more attention to 
the law than to a professor's theories. 



The profes.sor also says that capital punishment 
tends to increase rather than diminish crime. But 
the statistics for the crime of murder show that 
there has been a frightful increase of murder in 
this country since the decrease in hangings set in. 
From the year 1887 to 1908, as shown by the statis- 
tics of the Chicago Tribune, which have command- 
ed wide attention, tlie murders in this country in- 
creased from 126(5 to 9000. One year there were more 
than 10,000. In fifteen years the total number was 
13;3,192. while during the whole four years of our 
Civil War the number on the Union side who were 
killed in battle was only 101,000. That is to say, fif- 
teen years of murder in this country cost more 
lives than the battles to save the Union cost. We 
are fighting tul^erculosis and a lot of other germs : 
but the worst germ in this country is the murder 
germ, once we cured it with the rope: now we are 
treating it with sugar-coated sentimentality, to 
university theories, and social-settlement softness. 
During the last two years there have been 653 hom- 
icides in Cook County — Chicago's county — and not 
a single hanging : and of these homicides more 
than 300 were " cold-blooded murders." (This in- 
formation was received direct from the sheriff's of- 
fice.) In five years there have been no executions 
in Chicago, the last having occurred December 13, 
1906. In Louisville, Ky., a State where the public 
had the Impression that murderers are hanged, 
there were 47 murders during the year which end- 
ed August 1 last, and not a single legal excecution. 

Last year tlie total number of homicides in the 
country was 8975 — an increase of nearly 800 as com- 
pared with the previous year, and yet there was a 
decrease of executions. Only 104 persons were put 
to death by law. In a word, while murder has 
been increasing so frightfully as to be but little 
less destructive than war, hanging is nearly played 
out. In Chicago, where the execution of these bru- 
tal murderers was prevented by alleged philan- 
thropists, murder is a continual occurrence, and 
executions need uo longer be feared by the infa- 
mous scoundrels who knock early risers on the 
head or shoot down women in cold blood because 
the women get excited when a revolver is thrust in 
their faces and they are ordered to hold up their 
hands. "The most significant feature of last year's 
figures for murder," says the Chicago Tribune's re- 
port, " is the Increase of murders committed by 
thugs, thieves, burglars, and hold-up men." It is 
this kind of murder which the interferers with law 
have now made more safe in Chicago. The man 
who wrote the magazine article entitled " Encour- 
aging Murder" could find great encouragement for 
another article in this recent performance. 

Dr. Andrew White, in his notable discussion of 
the subject, said, "The murder rate is from ten to 
twenty times greater in the United States than in 
Great Britain and other northwestern European 
countries. In London, with its great population, 
during the year 1909 there were only 19 cases of 
murder. Of the murderers, five committed sui- 
cide (executed themselves), four were executed, 
and four were found insane. Compare these fig- 
ures with Chicago's 300 "cold-blooded murders." 
and not an execution! And yet Professor Hender- 
son is quoted as arguing that England has reduced 
crimes of violence by a reduction of capital punish- 
ment. The real fact is that England hangs mur- 
derers, and as a result she does not have many to 
hang. 

Many of the readers of Gleanings are in- 
terested more or less in market-gardening, 
and know what it is to get up early and sit 
up late to raise stuff, fighting frost and flood 
and drouth. Now just think or having the 
crop grown, and on the way to market, and 
then being beset by a crowd of toughs from 
saloons, and being murdered in cold blood, 
as mentioned above. Although the Ad- 
vance did not touch on the matter I think 
they will agree with me that this crowd was 
the direct outcome and outpat of the saloon 
business. What does Christianity mean, 
and what does the expression "the land of 



120 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



the free and the home of the brave" mean 
if this thing is allowed to go on? 

Once more, the McNamara brothers have 
finally been obliged to confess, and may 
God be praised for so much; but what would 
have happened if they had not confessed? 
When first arrested the elder one said open- 
ly he would get free, and gave as a reason 
that a predecessor in the same line got off 
because his friends raised $50,000 to get him 
off, but that he (McNamara) was so much 
higher up (higher up in what?) his friends 
would readily raise $200,000, and they did 
raise almost that amount. 

Now, dear friends, please do not rush to 
the conclusion that I am opposed to organiz- 
ed labor, for in truth 1 am glad to see peo- 
ple stand together to resist injustice and op- 
pression; but what I vehemently object to is 
defiance of law, or taking the law into their 
own hands when it seems slow and ineffec- 
tive. 1 1 is the disregard of law that threatens 
the ruin of our country. 

Just recently the Baptist brotherhood of 
Cleveland, O., have been trying to have the 
mayor and chief of the police enforce the 
law against open saloons on Sunday. These 
officials, while admitting the law was plain 
and clear, refused to enforce it, for no other 
reason, so far as I could gather, than that 
" the people do not want the law enforced." 



At Newark, O., about a year ago, the saloon- 
keepers did not want the law enforced, and 
put to death an officer of the law who was 
trying to enforce it. J ust recently the county 
has voted wet, giving as an excuse that the 
law could not, or, rather, perhaps would not. 
be enforced if they continued to vote it dry.* 
How could they expect any temperance law 
to be enforced when they continued to put 
into office men who are not in sympathy 
with either temperance or Christianity? May 
the Lord be praised for the good and brave 
men who are here and there getting into of- 
fice and exposing the graft and bribery and 
fraud that seem to be turning up almnst ev- 
erywhere. Well, after much pains and time 
and trouble we do succeed in getting the 
guilty ones "red handed," for God's sake 
and for the sake of the honest, faithful, hard 
workers, let us put aside our foolish scruples 
and weaknesses, and enforce the law to its 
very letter, until the law really is a "terror 
to evil doers." 



*I clip the following from the Cleveland Plain 
Dealer: "Newark business men are dissatisfied 
with conditions in this city under the Kose law, 
and are predicting almost a solid front to change 
the speakeasy, blind tiger, and kitchen-bar Into 
the regulated saloon." Will some one point out to 
us where there is, ever was, or ever will be a " reg- 
ulated saloon"? 



P(D)QDD=T^^ [DEP^^T 



K0¥ 



A. I. Root 



ANOTHER "GREAT DISCOVERY" FOR THE 
BENEFIT OF POURTRYDOM. 

I am sure our good friend of the Reliable 
will be pleased and entertained by what I 
have to tell you, even if no one else will, 
.i ust listen to what 1 have run on to. 

It is no new thing to have a hen that lays 
eggs wbile she cares for a brood of chickens 
(say three or four weeks old), for, in fact, 
Miy strain of White Leghorns was built up 
from such a mother, as you may remember; 
but I propose to have a strain of fowls that 
will go away ahead of this. You will bear 
in mind that I am trving to get a duck from 
every one of the three eggs 1 get daily from 
ray three ducks. Well, my Cyphers incu- 
bator holds only about 50 eggs; and as the 
incubator is needed about oO days for each 
hatch, the duck eggs, to use them all, needs 
a silting hen (to help out) about every week; 
therefore I have been waiting anxiously for 
a sitting hen among my Leghorns, Butter- 
cups, and crosses of the above two breeds. 
About three weeks ago I found a half-blood 
hen on the nest while gathering the eggs, 
and she was still on at dusk. When I gen- 
tly touched her she showed such determined 
tight I was almobt scared out. She acted as 
if she were really going to eat me up, in lit- 
tle bits at a vinie. Now don't forget this, 
lor it is a most important "link" in my 
"great discovery." I carried her to an emp- 
ty brooder-house and gave her the orthodox 
thirteen duck eggs. She stuck to her job 



very well, and when the usual seven days 
were "accomplished" 1 had another fight 
with her to permit me to test the eggs. 1 1 
seems I had never been able to catch her 
taking refreshment, because she m as so ex- 
ceedingly wary. Now listen, for we are 
coming to the climax. Instead of thirteen 
eggs I found sixteen. Bear in mind, no 
other fowl was in the closed building, and, 
besides, the three extra eggs were of a brown- 
ish tint, entirely unlike the duck eggs. (By 
the way, isn't it funny that, while both 
breeds lay a white egg, a cross between the 
two should lay a brown one?) Well, on 
testing the eggs one of the brown ones show- 
ed it was laid at least five days before the 
testing (a chicken is now breaking its way 
out of that egg while I write*) ; the other two 
had made so little progress we used them 
for the table. Do you see the point? This 
hen had really laid three good eggs after 
she had commenced to sit, and after she 
had commenced, also, in real good earnest, 
as I happen to know, and there is hardly a 
question but that a strain of fowls may be 
developed that will lay eggs, more or less, 
while they are spending their time sitting 



*After finishing the above I went down and took 
a look at the incubator, and found a big strong 
chicken clear out of the shell, and down in the 
nursery. I first found the egg pipped at daylight 
this morning; and before noon the chick was out 
In good shape. This is the way it works when the 
hen gives the egg its start and the incubator does 
the finishing up. 



Feb. 15, 1912 



— say lay enough eggs to pay for the feed 
they require. Let me digress a little. 

Some time ago I thought I had discover- 
ed a way of getting more pullets and fewer 
males by crossing the Leghorns and Butter- 
cups. If the mothers were all white, the 
most of the chicks would take after their 
white mothers, because the Leghorns are a 
much older and better-fixed type than the 
new Buttercups. Well, I still think there 
is sofnething in it, and now I have about 40 
pullets of this cross, and these forty are just 
now giving me twice as many eggs as the 
remaining forty. Now, in this flock of forty 
there are almost all colors imaginable. 
There are at least a full dozen hens as black 
as any Minorca, and there are {in looks) 
blue Andalusians, Brown Leghorns, and, in 
fact, fair types of a dozen different breeds. 
It is one of these crosses that lays eggs while 
she is sitting; and if some of you experts 
would take the pains to develop this trait 
that you do in "breeding to a feather," for 
instance, you would be doing more real good 
for coming generations. My theory is that 
crossing an old and established breed in this 
way not only tends to throw out a multitude 
of sports in color, but fowls that have queer 
and eccentric ways and habits, as I have 
outlined above. 



"new discoveries," etc. 
We are pleased to note that at least one 
poultry journal is taking note of our poultry 
department. See the following, which we 
clip from the (great big) Reliable Poultry 
Journal for January. It really is a beauti- 
ful large monthly, and contains a vast deal 
of information. 

We are kept busy these days reading: about the 
wonderful new "discoveries" in poultrydom. A 
writer in (iLEANiNGS has "discovered'" that all 
hens lay " two eggs and slvlp a day. two more and 
skip another day, laying the eggs 30 minutes later 
each day." Another writer has " discovered " the 
best and cheapest food for laying hens. He secures 
from his local butcher the " lungs and lights of fat 
animals, which are placed in an out-building and 
there left undisturbed for a few days. Flies of many 
kinds are attracted, and deposit their eggs. When 
hatched the worms proceed to devour the meat, 
and to get fat. When thoroughl.y ripe I mix the 
mass with bran, which removes much of its offen- 
sive nature, and allows it to be handled easiLv." 
These "discoveries" are given and favorably com- 
mented upon by earnest men! And it was found 
in a publication which takes pride in its claim as a 
truthful and highly decent journal. 

Our readers will notice the above are not 
strict quotations, neither did the editor say 
my " discoveries " are usually given in a 
vein of jjleasantry; but we can forgive it, 
even with his implied sarcasm, for he prob- 
ably felt a little sore over my criticism in 
regard to advertising in the reading-pages — 
see p. 678, Nov. 1. 

In regard to the larvae of house-flies and 
other insects as food for poultry, there has 
been some discussion. As this is the prin- 
cipal incentive to chickens scratching over 
manure-piles and around stables, I can 
hardly think rearing larvae to supply the 
meat ration objectionable. Miner's domes- 
tic poultry-book, published 60 years ago, de- 
scribed and urged it very strongly. And 



now I am sure I shall please the " Reliable " 
man still more by giving the world another 
" great discovery. " 

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN RUNNER DUCKS LAY 
LARGE EGGS EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. 

It is very simple and easy. Give them a 
big panful of corn at night, and let them 
help themselves to it all night long and un- 
til they have all laid an egg in the morning. 
Ours u.sually have their eggs all laid by day- 
light, and then they are let out into the 
canal, where they forage until they come 
home at night for their pan of corn once 
more. This is a remedy, too, for small and 
medium-sized eggs. "He that soweth spar- 
ingly shall reap sparingly " applies to get- 
ting ducks' eggs as well as to almost every 
thing else. If your ducks are laying small 
eggs a part of the time it is just because you 
are not giving them the needed good strong 
food to get up a nice "corn- fed" egg every 
day. The new ducks are really capable of 
doing wonderful work in the line of egg-lay- 
ing, but to perform these great feats they 
must have good material in great plenty. 
The reason why I lay so much stress on corn 
is that ours seem to prefer it to any thing 
else. Of course, they get an abundant sup- 
ply of green stuff and animal food along the 
canal, where they spend the greater part of 
the time during daylight. The following, 
m regard to these ducks, I clip from the 
Jacksonville Times Union: 

Keep a large low dish of shell, grit, and charcoal 
(one of each) before them all the time. You will be 
surprised at the amount they will eat. Grain is 
not a good feed for ducks as a steady diet, but we 
giv_e ours some whole corn or wheat once in a while, 
and they seem to enjoy it for a change. Whether 
It IS necessary or not, we are undecided. If any 
thing, we would consider it unnecessary: but it 
makes a quick way to feed, and we generally give 
It to them on Sunday nights, as that is our lazy day. 

There is a certain prejudice among some people 
against duck eggs, probably because some ducks 
are fed on foul food; but I can assure you that, if 
the ducks are fed as I advise, the eggs will be as 
sweet and wholesome as hen eggs. This is especial- 
ly true of Indian Runner eggs. Their eggs should 
be perfectly white, and ducks laying green-tinted 
eggs should not be used as breeders. We do not 
have any trouble on this score now. as ours all lay 
white eggs. One of our local breeders finding that 
the grocer who was buying his eggs did not want 
duck eggs started selling to another grocer, and 
put all of his small duck- eggs right in the crate with 
his chicken eges, and no one was the wiser. He 
only took the pains not to put in any eggs that were 
large enough to arouse su.spicion, which only 
proves that, if people only knew, they would de- 
mand duck eggs in preference to hen fruit. It is a 
perfectly harmless fraud, and one that benefits the 
buyer. 

As the muddy season is coming on, and we all 
know that ducks are apt to lay their eggs around 
anywhere, we are trying with fair success to teach 
ours to lay in nests. Try it for yourself: and even if 
only half of them lay in the nests it makes just that 
many less eggs to wash. 

UNEEDA BISCUIT AND THE CHICKEN BUSI- 
NESS. 

Now, you need not jump to the conclusion 
that I am going to advise these crackers as 
a cheap chicken feed— nothing of the kind, 
although I think they mi-^ht be just the 
thing, and perhaps just the best thing crum- 
bled in milk, say, for "day-old chicks," and 
perhajis for ihe flrst week; but what I have 



in mind is this: We have always carried 
our eggs to market in egg-boxes holding a 
dozen each, and costing about half a cent 
each box (in 1000 lots^, and, finally, our 
grocer sent for a lot and furnished them free 
to his regular customers. Well, he got out 
a few days ago, and 1 tried for a while carry- 
ing my eggs in a basket in the good old- 
fashioned way; but I don't like it. I object 
to having my "eggs all in one basket" 
(may be you have heard wise advice along 
this line before). Well, I object to the 
repeated counting it necessitates, to say 
nothing of a possibility of broken eggs, etc. 
Well, just at this crisis Mrs. Root brought 
me a pasteboard box she had just emptied, 
and said, "Here! why won't this hold a 
dozen eggs?" It held them exactly. As 
they come apart pretty easily you will need 
to drive the smallest size of tinned tacks 
through the pasteboard at each end, and 
clinch the tack down by holding the box on 
the back of an ax or hatchet. By the way, 
I have always been pleased to see the full- 
page advertisement in our journal. These 
crackers have been a real boon to humanity 
— always the same thing, for sale every- 
where; and any hungry mortal who can 
scrape up a nickel can always have a most 
wholesome and appetizing lunch on a min- 
ute's notice. Mrs. Root and I always prefer 
them to any thing else to go with the nice 
fresh Florida oysters that are in the market 
here every day in the year. 



By A. I. Root 



SEEDS, PLANTS, ETC., FOE FLORIDA. 

Conditions, climate, etc., are so different down 
here Irom the North, that it is often advisable to 
submit your wants to seedsmen who live here and 
know what is wanted and what is best. Crenshaw 
Bros. Seed Co.. of Tampa, Fla., issue a very neat 
and pretty catalog of seeds, poultry supplies, etc., 
gotten up specially for this region, which contains 
suggestions and advice to any one thinking of com- 
ing here. 

THAT "addressed POSTAL CARD." 

If you want a prompt answer from me, you must 
enclose an addressed postal card. One good brother 
sends just a plain postal, and his name at the end 
of his letter was such a scrawl I just had to give it 
up. I might paste it on the card, but I have no 
time for such fussing. It isn't the one-cent card I 
want — bless you, no; it is that I want uox to do the 
work of addressing. I don't want addressed envel- 
opes either. I lose them or get the wrong letter in- 
to them, and a postal holds all I have time to say 
to each one of you. There is all the time before 
me a lot of unanswered letters, many of which, I 
think, I ought to answer, but I simply can not, and 
there is about a " wheelbarrowful " of papers, mag- 
azines, books, etc., that I am trying to get time to 
glance over. I appreciate your many kind words, 
and may God bless you all; but I really can not 
stand being kept indoors so much. 

Your old friend, 
A. I. Root. 

THE CORNING EGG-FARM BOOK, BY CORNING HIM- 
SELF. 

The above is the title of a large beautiful book; and 
that is not all, for it must, in my opinion, prove a 
most valuable addition to the poultry literature of 
the world. As I have recently visited and written 
up briefly the Corning establishment, and frequent- 
Jy referred to it, it will not be necessary to go over 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

it again here only to say it is, perhaps, almost the 
first really successful attempt to keep as many as 
1500 laying hens all in one building, and, we might 
almost say, in one room. The book contains over 
200 pages of beautiful print on the very best of pa- 
per, and the engravings of every thing described 
are masterpieces of art. I wonder if the authors 
of some of the dollar poultry -books sent out with 
paper covers and poor print, on poor paper, will 
not feel ashamed when they come to see this dollar 
book. Every thing is pictured that they use in the 
way of implements and building, and there are 
even long folded maps of their colony houses, and 
in the back part are diagrams of all the buildings 
on their premises. I am glad to note that they 
have tested, extensively, mustard for laying hens, 
and it not only seems to benefit the health of the 
fowls, but the eggs have even better fertility where 
a reasonable amount of ground mustard is incor- 
porated with their food. They use what is called 
mustard bran, a by-product from the mustard fac- 
tories, costing only about one-fourth of the regular 
product. Red pepper tried side by side with the 
mustard gave no such result. It did not increase 
the laying, but seemed detrimental to the health of 
the fowls. Another important point made in the 
book is that hard-coal ashes are an excellent sub- 
stitute for charcoal, lime, and grit. Where the 
fowls have access to the ashes they seem to care 
very little for their regular grit and shells. If you 
have a touch of the poultry fever you can not af- 
ford to be without this new and up-to-date book. 
If our company have not already done so, I hope 
they will soon make arrangements to offer it at a 
low figure clubbed with Gleanings. 

After so many kind words I want to mention one 
or two possible objections. First, the Corning book 
pronounces the " baby-chick business " cruel, and 
advises against it. Surely they are not posted in 
regard to the magnitude of the basiness in certain 
parts of Ohio, and also of the number of satisfied 
customers who continue, year after year, to buy 
chicks instead of eggs. I would not mention my 
other criticism, were it not that I feel I must do so 
to be absolutely fair. It is this: The book all togeth- 
er is a SDlendid advertisement of their (compara- 
tively recent) business of selling eggs for hatching, 
as well as fowls for breeding. Do you suggest to me 
right here that the same might be said of the A B 
C of Bee Culture? You are right— at least to a cer- 
tain extent, and the same might be said of a great 
part of our most valuable rural and other books. 
An important item comes in here, however, and 1 
think I can make it i)lain if you will listen. The 
Corning people first started to produce sterile eggs 
for food consumption only, and the first book put 
out by our good friends of the Farm Journal so 
stated it. So long as this was true, there could be 
no cause for exaggera,tion or for dwelling on the 
brightest side of the story. Well, on one page, in 
the middle of this beautiful book, we are told that, 
during the year 1910, they returned money for more 
than 50.000 eggs for hatching. I do not know what 
they pet for eggs for hatching. If but little more 
than for those for table use. the point I am making 
amounts to little or nothing. If they get (like Kel- 
lerstrass), a dollar apiece (or more) for choice eggs. 
I feel troubled about recommending this beautiful 
book. Yes, I might as well own up that I feel trou- 
bled when I see some boy or girl send off for eggs 
that cost anywhere between a dollar a dozen or a 
dollar apiece. When these high-priced chickens 
don't lay any more eggs than those they had al- 
ready, I feel more troubled. The poultry journals 
keep telling their readers to be sure to " buy the 
best "to start with. A woman went into a seed- 
store and found they had seeds of two qualities — 
one grade much higher in price. Looking sharply 
into the seedsman's eyes she said, " If I pay for the 
best, am T sure to get it?" In conclusion, I believe 
the Comings will give you full value for every thing 
they receive, just as they have in sending out this 
beautiful and valuable book. 



The Northern Michigan Bee-keepers' Association 
will hold its next annual meeting at Traverse City, 
March 13 and 14. 1912. Headquarters will be at the 
Whiting Hotel, where special rates h.ave been se- 
cured; and in its parlor on the second floor the 
meetings will be held. A good program will be 
provided, and we hope to see many new faces as 
well as the old. 

East Jordan, Mich. Ika 1). Baktlett, Sec. 



Published by The A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. H. Root, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department j. T. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postofllce, Medina, Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



MARCH 1, 1912 



NO. 5 



c^D"S(i)[pnaiD 



Now is the time to write your senators 
and representative, urging their support to 
parcels post. Do it noiv. Parcels post will 
mean much to the farmer, and to all, in 
fact, except, perhaps, the proprietors of 
ores and the biar express comnanies. 



sm 



:i/, exrepi, periia^js, me iHoprieiurs ui 
all stores and the big express companies. 

Send postal-card reports on how the bees 
are wintering. As this has a direct bearing 
on the price of honey, we hope our friends 
will respond at once. Confine your reports 
to two or three sentences on a postal card. 
Give probable winter losses, and state 
whether the bees are in the cellar or out. If 
outdoors, state whether packed or not. 

W^HEN TO SET BEES OUT OP THE CELLAR. 

Dr. E. F. Phillips, of the Bureau of En- 
tomology, offers the excellent suggestion 
that beekeepers consult the Weather Bureau 
before setting their bees out of the cellar. It 
is desirable to select a day in advance that 
will warm up along about nine or ten o'clock, 
so the bees can fly. It is never advisable 
to wait until the air is warm and balmy, 
and then set the bees out, because they will 
fly out immediately in confusion. The 
weaker colonies will combine with the flight 
of the stronger, thus weakening their own 
forces, and giving the stronger stock bees 
that they do not need. 

The best time to set bees out is the night 
before the selected day, or in the morning 
of that day when the atmosphere is cool or 
chilly. Usually we prefer to set them out 
the night before, then they will quiet down 
before morning. As it warms up gradually 
they come out slowly — not in a great rush. 

As a general thing it is not best to set the 
bees out in two lots on successive days, be- 
cause the earlier lot is quite liable to rob the 
ones just set out. 

THE OHIO AND INDIANA STATE BEEKEEP- 
ERS' CONVENTION. 

The Ohio meeting was held on the 21st, 
at Springfield, and Indiana on the 22d, at 
Indianapolis. We managed to take both 
in. The attendance at both meetings v.^as 
somewhat small, doubtless owing to the 
blizzard of bad weather at the time. Dr. E. 
F. Phillips, of the Bureau of p]ntomology, 
gave an illustrated address on bee diseases 
at both conventions. He showed by colored 
slides the difference between the larviae af- 



fected with American foul brood and those 
affected with the European disease. He 
then illustrated the successive steps in the 
treatment by shaking or brushing on start- 
ers of foundation. 

He made the statement that the inspec- 
tion work, both in Ohio and Indiana, was ac- 
complishing good results. Indeed, Indiana 
especially, lie said, had reduced the amount 
of disease through its scheme of inspection 
to a third of what it had been before the law 
went into effect. He said that there was a 
similar reduction in the amount of disease 
in other States where systematic inspection 
work had been carried on. For example, in 
New York, when the inspection law went 
into effect 23 per cent of the colonies examin- 
ed were affected. This percentage, when in- 
spection was well under way, was reduced 
to about two or three per cent. While there 
has been a slight increase of late, the in- 
spectors are holding the disease well in 
check. Dr. Phillips made it very clear that 
inspection would never totally eradicate dis- 
ease, and the most we can do is to hold it 
under control. 

State Entomologist Prof. Shaw, chief 
foul-brood inspector for Ohio, gave a report 
showing that foul brood was found in prac- 
tically all the territory visited by the inspect- 
ors. While he had not been able to cover 
the entire State as yet, it is evident that the 
inspectors were improving the conditions 
very materially. Mr. Baldwin, State En- 
tomologist, and chief foul-brood inspector of 
Indiana, showed that good progress was be- 
ing made. 

The general discussions at both conven- 
tions revolved around wintering, and it w as 
natural that it should, for fears were express- 
ed on the part of beekeepers present at each 
of the conventions that there w^ould be heavy 
losses during the very severe winter we have 
just had and are still having; but from gen- 
eral reports that have been brought in, it is 
apparent that losses will be mostly along 
about the latitude of Springfield, Columbus, 
and Indianapolis. In the northern parts of 
both States the losses would not be as heavy, 
because the bees were better protected. In 
the southern parts the winter mortality 
would be less severe for an entirely different 
reason — because the climates are milder, 
and the ordinarv single walls of the hives 
would be sufficient protection. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



HOW THE BEES HAVE WINTERED. 

It is a little early to get reports; but those 
we have received" indicate that our most 
northern States and Canada probably will 
not have severe losses — particularly among 
those who i)ractice cellar wintering or pack 
in double-walled liives outdoors; but the bee- 
keeper so called, who has been in the habit 
of letting his bees "work for nothing and 
board themselves"' will i>robably lose very 
heavily, even if he does not lose every bee; 
for the severe winter we have had has had, 
in the more northern localities, a disastrous 
elTect on colonies not housed in winter re- 
positories or ])roperly protected in double- 
walled hives or winter cases. The greatest 
loss will occur, i^robably, about the dividing 
line between territory where it is necessary 
to use protection and territory where no pro- 
tection is ordinarily needed. That means 
that losses will be most severe in latitude 40. 
South of that line, say Southern Kentucky 
and Tennessee, the mortality will be less 
severe because of the shorter winter season 
and the milder winter. 

In most c>ises it is clearly shown than it 
Ls an advantage in the Xorlhern States, at 
least, to put all colonies in good cellars or 
double-walled hives; yet, notwithstanding, 
a couple of men at the Springtield con- 
vention reiiorted that they put their colonies 
in single- walled hives, and they were win- 
tering splendidly, while one of their more 
careful neighbors was losing his bees in 
double-walled packed hives, liut it is the 
exception that proves the rule. 

SOME OBSEin'ATIONS ON WINTERING AT 
IMEDINA. 

On the 13th and 14th of the past month 
the severe weather began to moderate, and 
on the loth and lOth we took a look through 
the bees at our several outyards and at the 
home yard. In the Harrington yard there 
was not a single colony lost, notwithstand- 
ing we had more reason to fear that yard than 
any of the others. The bees were nicely put 
up and well housed; but the individual col- 
onies, with some few exceptions, were weak. 

At the Clark yard there was a loss of only 
two colonies out of soine eighty odd. In 
one case the super cover had got tij)ped back 
so that cold air blew in right over the bees, 
and actually chilled them to death. In the 
other case the cluster got into an open feed- 
er with syrup, and half of the bees were 
drowned. The reduced force was not able 
to stand the cold. 

W the home yard, which had been used 
for fillini: orders for queens and bees in tlie 
fall, we found a little dilTerent story. We 
first commenced on two rows at the north 
end of the apiary, comprising some colonies 
that had been made up late. Indeed, they 
were aggregations of little clusters from sev- 
eral hives that had been united. The bees, 
however, were well housed; but their en- 
trances were facing north. Something like 
seven or eight of these colonies were dead 
outright, and the others were weak. Where 
they were dead it wns noticed that snow had 
blown over the entrances, and that moisture 



from the clusters had caused the snow to 
melt and freeze, thus herme'ically sealing 
the entrances. In some other cases dead 
bees had clogged the entrance, their car- 
casses being jammed in tight so there was 
no chance for escape. In most cases, where 
the entrances were clogged or sealed tight, 
the bees were either dead or in bad shape. 
In either case it was ai)parent that the clus- 
ters had scattered in order to get air, had 
died, and dropped down on the bottom board. 
Late-made-up colonies do not, as a rule, 
winter well because they lack the stability 
of an old colony that has the real colony 
spirit. 

When we went through these two rows we 
were somewhat alarmed; but on going 
through some of the other colonies, "the 
old stagers," that had gone through the sea- 
son, and whose life had not been sapped by 
pound orders, we found conditions much 
better; but still the bees at the home yard 
were not in nearly as good shape as those at 
the two outyards already mentioned. The 
reason for this is, doubtless, owing to the 
late disturbance in filling orders and feed- 
ing and doubling up to make ujr. The bass- 
wood apiary was in about the same condi- 
tion as the home yard, and that, too, had 
been used to some extent for filling orders. 

The Brunswick ai)iary was in the worst 
condition of all. This yard consisted of late- 
made-up colonies, and all were supplied with 
the so-called golden Italian queens. The 
hives protected by winter cases were placed 
on a side hill facing southeast; but the loca- 
tion was evidently bad because of the fact 
that the wind blew over the hill in the rear, 
and then apparently meeting some counter- 
current was deflected into the entrances of 
the hives. How do we knoiv this? In many 
of the colonies we found snow that had 
blown in at the entrances reaching clear up 
under the frames. The entrances were clos- 
ed, and the mass of snow below the cluster 
seemed to be too much for the bees, for a 
third of them were actually dead, and anoth- 
er third will jirobably " throw uj) thesponge" 
within two or three weeks. The goklen 
Italians hatched out in the fall; and as they 
were young bees we naturall^^ supposed they 
would be able to stand more cold than the 
older leather-colored Italians; but as a mat- 
ter of fact the exact reverse was true. Our 
Mr. SpalTord rejiorted that the extra yellow 
bees seemed to be the first to die. The leath- 
er-colored bees, though much older, were 
standing the cold much better. This only 
confirms the experience and reports of for- 
mer years, that these extra goldens are not 
good for outdoor wintering. It is very sel- 
dom that we have been able to winter them; 
and why they should die before the darker 
Italians is not easily explained, unless it is 
because their hardiness has had to give 
place to color. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF WINDBREAKS; THE 

RIGHT AND WRONG KIND; SOME 

I'REAKS OF THE WIND. 

The question of wind exposure to an api- 
ary is a matter of no little importance. 



Mar. 1. 1912 

Sometimes the windbreak will check the 
force of a winter's blast on one, two, or three 
rows, but (lellect it on some other rows where 
it does a lot of damage. For example, our 
Harrington yard this year was moved about 
a thousand feet to the south an<l east of its 
previous location where the winter losses in 
previous years were too high. The old spot 
hati a bad wind exposure from cleared land 
on all sides. This year the bees of this yard 
were i)laccd in the center of an old orchard 
with numerous brush heajis around the out- 
side of the apiary. They looked unsightly, 
but "handsome is that handsome does." We 
are beginning to believe that a solid wind- 
break, as a high board fence, is not as good 
as one through which the air may nift and 
spend its force. Notice how the railroad 
comi)anies are now using open fences rather 
tlian solid ones to keep snow off their tracks. 
When a winter blast strikes a solid wind- 
break like a tight board fence the force is 
liable io glance and strike some other colo- 
ny or colonies, doing considerable damage. 
At our north yard, for example, there is one 
row that seemed this year to sutler more 
than the others. This has been observed 
for several seasons. At our home apiary we 
have discovered certain locations where col- 
onies, no matter what the strain or strength, 
seemed to suffer more than others. At the 
Brunswick yard, owing to the conflicting 
air currents, it was evident that the location 
as a whole was very bad; for how else could 
snow be driven into the entrances of many 
of the hives so that it would be two or three 
inches deep on the bottom of some of them? 
These hives had contracted entrances, y%XS. 

CAN CLUSTERS MOVE DURING INIIDWINTBR? 

Another interesting thing we observed 
was that, even during the very severe pro- 
tracted zero weather, clusters of bees would 
move from one part of the hive to the other. 
Uy lifting the chaff tray we could easily tell 
the location of a cluster by i)lacing the hand 
on the super cover. In one particular case 
one cluster of bees during the early part of 
the zero si)ell moved from the front of the 
hive to tlie rear, then over to one corner. An 
examination on the IGth of February show- 
ed that these bees, after all their shifting 
about, were in fine shape. This would 
seem to indicate that the old notion, that a 
cluster can not move during zero weather, 
is a mistake. Apjiarently the bees have 
the power of increasing their temperature so 
that they can move to "pastures new." On 
the other hand, we have found clusters stone 
dead with all their stores eaten away from 
around them, yet with plenty of stores in 
the hive. Why these clusters did not move 
over to pastures new we can not say. Per- 
haps you may ask howwe knew the clusters 
moved. This we determined by the chang- 
ing of the temi)erature as indicated by the 
thermometer. For example, a thermometer 
was put in the back end of one of the hives 
while the cluster was in the extreme front. 
The internal tem])erature of this hive varied 
anywliere from 20 above zero to 75, while 
the outside temjjerature was down to zero 



125 

and below. When the mercury went up to 
75 we thought there must be some mistake, 
because it was 7 below zero outside. We 
came back late in the afternoon, and the 
mercury outside had dropi)ed down to 10 be- 
low; but the thermometer showed 75 as in 
the morning. We were curious to know 
why this was so, and finally lifted the cover 
ofT the super. The bulb of the thermometer 
had been right down in the center of the 
cluster. Mind you, this temperature of 76 
was taken without ilisturbing the cluster in 
the least. This goes to show why that ball 
of bees could move from one part of the hive 
to the other. It had vHcdily. Now, then, 
the cluster that remained stationary, and 
starved, yet had stores within one or two 
inches, must have lacked vitality or some- 
thing. 

Some years ago Mr. G. M. Doolittle, if we 
are correct, reported that the internal tem- 
perature of a cluster of bees one winter was 
up to 98. We have never found it to be 
above 75. The apparent discrepancy may 
be explained by the fact that Mr. Doolittle's 
bees had probably started brood-rearing. 

SIZE OF ENTRANCES. 

There has been considerable discussion on 
this point. It is our opinion that the mat- 
ter of locality and wind exposure will have 
to decide this very largely; but in most lo- 
calities the consensus of opinion favors a 
contracted entrance )^X8. A 1X2 inch is 
liable to let in field mice, and these pests 
play havoc with wintering colonies. In two 
or three cases this winter we observed that, 
where the entrances were wide open, yk by 
the width of the hive, the bees were much 
worse for the experience. We have observ- 
ed the same thing year in and year out, and 
yet we have no quarrel with one who says 
he can get better results with a very large 
entrance. Ills locality probably makes this 
right for him. 

SEALED COVERS VERSUS ABSORBENTS. 

We are inclined to the opinion that a cov- 
er board of thin wood laid on the top of the 
brood nest, without sealing, is better than 
where it is sealed down tight. While this 
may be a concession to the upward-absorb- 
ing-packing fellows, yet we are always open 
to conviction, and we find that covers not 
sealed down allow a certain amount of mois- 
ture to escape through the cracks, and yet 
not enough to make the packing above wet 
or damp. This matter of absorbents versus 
sealed covers is largely one of locality. In 
very cold climates, if the ojunion of good 
beekeepers is of any value, we would say, 
use the absorbent plan; but the i)acking 
material should be light and loose, so the 
moisture can escape, but not enough of it so 
that the heat may get away too. 

ENTRANCES FACING NORTH. 

We noticed in most cases where the colo- 
nies faced the north that they were not in 
quite as good condition as those facing east 
or south. A few were dead outright. While 
we do not think the north exi)osure was en- 
tirely responsible for this, it contributed to 
some extent to the result. 



126 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Dk. C. C. Millbk, Marengo, 111. 



B. MiCKWiTZ, Borga, Finland, has sent 
me samples of furniture nails with porcelain 
heads which he has used with satisfaction 
as spacers for brood-frames. I have also 
used them, and they do good work, but not 
so good as the heavy shingle nails. 

Dr. Wiley comes out on top — given a 
clean bill of health and a free hand. Hoop- 
de-dooden-doo. Good for Dr. Wiley! [Hold 
on a little. Dr. Wiley's enemies are more 
active than ever. Unless the i)ress of the 
country continues to stand back of him they 
may get him yet. — Ed.] 

Chicago papers report an Orpington 
cockerel at the poultry show, Dec. 15, val- 
ued at rflore than $2000. A rooster hardly 
averages the value of a queen-bee. Yet 
some will maintain their equilibrium at 
mention of $2000 for a rooster and throw a 
fit at mention of $200 for a queen. 

Two MAIN divisions of Italian bees, leath- 
er-colored and five-banded, page 90. That 
may be all right now. Before there were 
any five-banded we had leather-colored and 
light Italians. [As we have before pointed 
out, the name "five banders" isa misnomer 
in most cases. We do not believe there are 
a dozen colonies showing all five banders in 
all the United States. — Ed.] 

The editor of Gleanings gives me a lot 
of trouble, and now^ D. M. Macdonald is 
helping him to make life a burden for me. 
That Scotchman quotes me as saying "Pure 
Italians don't need even the paper to keep 
them from fighting" (when one colony is 
placed over another to be united) , and says, 
British B. J., 514, ''Here there would be a 
battle royal." I don't know of my own 
knowledge whether Italians would fight or 
not; but I took your word for it, Mr. Editor, 
and now you fight it out with Mac and let 
me out. [Most Italian stock does not re- 
quire any paper nor any special jirecaution 
in uniting — at least that is our experience 
here at Medina. But there are Italians and 
Italians. Some of the so-called five-banded 
bees, and bees from Southern Italy, are very 
cross. Italians from Northern Italy and 
Southern Switzerland are usually very gen- 
tle.— Ed.] 

An automobile is a thing I don't own, 
and have no notion of getting; yet I'm look- 
ing with eager interest for the automobile 
number of Gleanings. So long as I had 
an out-apiary the thought of the danger 
from having a horse or horses at the out- 
apiary or with a load of bees on the road 
wa.3 a constant nightmare, and I could well 
have paid a good price for a horseless con- 
veyance to be rid of that nightmare. Espe- 
cially do we want to know the cost for up- 
keep as compared with horses. By the way, 
I wonder how many bee-keepers pronounce 
"automobile" correctly. In this locality 



it's generally pronouced au-to-mu-bile. The 
dictionary says au-to-mo-bile is the adjec- 
tive and au-to-mo-bile the noun. An au- 
to-mo-bile vehicle should be called an au-to- 
ino-bil^. Or, perhaps, better still, some 
shorter name. [The dictionary, so far as it 
relates to automobiles, is behind the times, 
or, rather, this is a case where an industry 
has made such rapid advances in nomencla- 
ture that a dictionary four or five years old 
is necessarily out of date. Take the word 
"garage." It is pronounced in a dozen dif- 
ferent w^ays; but the strong tendency is to 
Anglicize all such French words. For in- 
stance, "automobile," the noun or the ad- 
jective, is pronounced automob'l, not auto- 
mo6ee^. "Garage" is pronounced exactly 
like " carriage " except the first letter, for 
the simple reason that we English-speaking 
people could not, even if we tried, give the 
French pronunciation. After all, the gen- 
eral present-day usage should be the guide 
rather than a dictionary that attempts to 
reflect such usage. — Ed.] 

Mr. Editor, I recant, I retract, I back' 
down, I take it all back. From your private 
letter I learn there is much honey put upon 
the market whose imperfections at top and 
bottom of sections are not concealed when 
three-inch glass is used. For such honey 
two-inch glass is better. (Please pass the 
humble-pie.) Still, you might allow me to 
continue three-inch glass for the sort of sec- 
tions that grow "in this locality." [We 
see no reason w^hy you should recant and 
take it all back. Personally you like the 
looks of your honey behind three-inch glass 
because it is of high enough standard so 
that it looks well; but a great deal of the 
honey throw^n on the market is enough be- 
low grade so that it looks better behind a 
two-inch glass. Does this suggest decep- 
tion? Not if w^e understand conditions 
properly. A section out of the case below 
No. 1 grade looks far better than the same 
section put behind a three-inch glass in a 
shipping-case with other sections of the 
same filling. AVhen the below-grade sec- 
tion is out of the case its defects do not 
seem to be quite so apparent, because it is 
easy to see that it is all filled; but when it is 
put behind a three-inch glass it looks just 
lean enough to make it appear under weight. 
When placed behind a two-inch glass it 
looks much better — that is to say, the buyer 
will size it up at its real \ alue. 

But your honey is above No. 1 grade and 
better— at least what we saw in the New- 
York market was some of the prettiest comb 
honey we had ever seen. It would look 
well, even behind four-inch glass. So we 
see no reason why you should recant unless 
your original statement applied to all hon- 
ey put up indiscriminately by producers 
generally. — Ed.] 



Mar. 1, 11112 



127 



racDTT 



F^(Q)Ra ®^rafi\ffi)^ 



J. L. Bykk, Mt. Joy, Ont. 



The old question as to whether we should 
shovel snow away from the entrances of 
hives or not will be puzzling many at pres- 
ent. We eleareil snow from in front of some 
of the hives, and since this terrific cold spell 
has come we have been wishing we had not 
done so. A few days ago I went to the 
Cashel yard intending to clear the entrances; 
but on lifting up the })acking from a num- 
ber of colonies, and seeing them so quiet, I 
decided to leave them alone. Needless to 
say, the decision has not been regretted. 
As long as the entrances are clear of ice, I 
believe that good rather than harm will re- 
sult by leaving the snow around the hives 
during extremely cold weather. 

Mr. Davison, of Unionville, a very suc- 
cessful beekeeper in this locality, has a con- 
trivance that fits over the entrance some- 
thing like a vestibule, which prevents clog- 
ging of the entrance, and at the same time 
insures an air space around the hive, and 
will allow the bees to carry out their dead if 
they wish. Then if the snow does not drift 
over the fronts he pilcN it there doing cold 
weather. Last week I visited the yard, and 
the hives look like snow mounds more than 
any thing else. He is one of our best win- 
terers, and for a year like this the plan is 
all right. Even without the snow, the con- 
trivance is an excellent feature in that it 
prevents the wind going directly into the 
hive, and also keeps the sun from enticing 
out the bees during cold spring days when 
they are better inside. 
■^^ 

On page 90, Feb. 1, I notice that the Board 
of Supervisors of Imperial Co., Cal.. has 

Eassed an ordinance forbidding bringing any 
ees into the county. This is certainly dras- 
tic enough. I wonder whether the law 
would stand the test of a higher court. If a 
law of that kind were passed for the purpose 
of keei)ingout diseased bees, well and good; 
but from this distance, as the law is worded 
in <iLEAMNOS, it looks like a very arbitrary 
measure. Suppose a man were moving into 
the county for good reasons, and with no in- 
tentions of going into beekeeping on a large 
scale. He has a few colonies of bees in good 
healthy condition; but because of the law 
sujiposed to be in force he is forbidden to 
bring them in, even if they are just over the 
"townline" of the said county. It would 
be human nature to try to test the validity 
of such a law, and I really should like to see 
some with enough ginger in them to see 
what would hajjpen if they dared to take in 
a few perfectly healthy colonies. 
4^ 
Regarding that article of mine on finding 
qut-cns, p. (519, Oct. 15, some have wondered 
why I did not use a taller tent, so that I 
could have stood erect while at work instead 
of being forced to be on my knees all of the 



time. In explanation I will say that the 
apiary is in a yard that is full of cherry and 
other low trees, and it was very didicult to 
use the tent I had in some cases, to say 
nothing of one much taller. Some other 
friends have suggested the idea of getting 
rid of the field bees before starting to hunt 
for the queens; and while I had thought of 
this before starting the work, the robbing 
tendency of the bees at the time I was there 
made me fear to demoralize unduly the col- 
onies for fear there would be trouble after 
the work was done. As intimated in the 
article referred to, many plans that will 
work when no robbing is to be feared, are 
not practicable at a time when no nectar is 
coming in, and the bees will go wild if hives 
are opened when not under cover. 

When sending in notes for Feb. 1st Glean- 
ings 1 stated that the weather up to time of 
writing (Jan. 5th) had been very moderate. 
Since then we have had the most severe 
winter on record, and the official figures 
from the Toronto observatory state that Jan- 
uary of 1912 had the lowest average temper- 
ature they have recorded. Since Jan. 5 we 
have had nothing like a thaw; and this 
morning, Feb. 10, the thermometer is 25 be- 
low zero — the lowest I have on record for our 
locality. With six weeks of steady cold 
weather, certainly things are not looking 
any too well for bees which have been win- 
tered out of doors; but an examination shows 
that the bees in packed hives are wintering 
well so far as external conditions indicate. 
By the way, I have 20 colonies wintering 
outside in hives made of double boards 
with cardboard between — no packing on 
sides or ends of hives, but an abundance 
over the frames. There will be a different 
story to tell about them; and for the present, 
suffice it to say that they are veritable ice- 
boxes, and I am having a big time to keep 
the entrances free from ice. At a later date 
I hope to say more about these, for just at 
present I would have to do too much guess- 
ing to give any thing like a reliable report. 
Yesterday the thermometer stood at 14 be- 
low, and, as already stated, this morning it 
is 25 below. As I had not looked at the 
thermometer inside the hive for over a week 
I thought it would be well to see how things 
were going after two days of such very cold 
weather. The reading was 31 above, which 
makes a difference of 56 degrees between 
the outside and the inside of the hive. The 
thermometer was at the outside of the hive 
about ;; inches from the side of the cluster, 
and was suspended in the hive with the 
toi) slightly below the io\m of the frames. 
Possibly the difference between Medina 
readings and mine may be accounted for by 
the dei)th the thermometers hang in the 
hive; for, the lower they hang, the colder 
they will register. 



128 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



BcBCBofeci^lpDDDg] /^DODCDmg] {^Dd© [BcD©feD©i 



Wesley Fostkb, Boulder, Colo. 



Twenty-five days' work for each one hun- 
dred colonies should be all that is required 
during the year. A careful system is neces- 
sary to accomplish this, but there are men 
who are doing it. With the aid of autos the 
number of working days may be reduced, 
no doubt. One of the chief causes of lost 
time is unfavorable weather just when out- 
apiary work is to be done; for if a rain starts 
in while at the outyard all one can do is to 
rest and wait, or go home, unless there is a 
shop where beework can be done. 



CLIPPING QUEENS — DOES IT PAY? 

Here is a point worthy of thought: The 
largest and most successful honey-producers 
do not clip their queens. These are the 
men who sell from one to two carloads of 
honey a year, and have the largest bank 
accounts. You will notice that I have said 
producers. The men would probably not 
claim to be the best beekeepers, but they 
carry on their operations on such a large 
scale that they do not have time to hunt 
up queens and clip them. They claim that 
it does not pay them with conditions as 
they are in Colorado. 

BEEKEEPING IN COLLEGE COURSES. 

Agriculture is fast being introduced into 
our schools, and nearly every high school 
now has domestic-science and manual- 
training courses with a fine equipment. 
There is a dearth of scientific beekeepers; 
and if we could get courses introduced into 
our schools of agriculture it would advance 
the industry very much. What would it 
be worth to the State if in every agricultu- 
ral short course the principles of beekeep- 
ing could be taught ? It would raise the 
status of the average beekeeper very much. 

It is simply up to the beekeepers in every 
State to take up this matter. We are going 
to have something very soon now in Col- 
orado, and we shall be able to train our 
young people — some of them at least — to 
keep bees right. Colorado is a ripe field for 
better beemen, and we must have them to 
do our industry justice. 

THE CENSUS AND COLORADO BEEKEEPING. 

Colorado lost 20 per cent of her beekeepers 
(about a thousand) in the ten years from 
1900 to 1910. During that time, however, 
she gained 20 per cent in bees, or about 
11,000 colonies. The value of bees increased 
from $195,000 to over $300,000. Foul brood 
has to take most of the blame for the loss of 
beekeepers, although the specialists have 
been buying the small beekeeper out in 
many instances. I doubtvery much wheth- 
er the figures given are very accurate, as 



there are many bees kept in towns, and 
then some beemen would be slow about giv- 
ing in the full number of their colonies for 
fear the assessor would get hold of the list; 
for many a farmer would be suspicious as to 
whether it was merely for the federal census 
or not. The census, nevertheless, has given 
the general trend of Colorado beekeeping 
in a satisfactory way. 



"THE CHANGING ORDER." 

The expensive methods of distribution 
are not going to last much longer. There is 
a determination on the part of the consum- 
ers to deal as directly as possible with the 
producers. Witness the work of Mayor 
Shank, of Indianapolis, and hundreds of 
others scattered over the country\ Many 
cities are establishing or have established 
municipal markets where the producers can 
take their produce and sell directly to the 
people. Whatever plans the National As- 
sociation undertakes, it will be well to adapt 
the jirocedure to the marketing movements 
of the times. An economical method must 
be devised to supply each market with the 
honey it demands, and to keep all supplied 
and none overstocked. The method of con- 
sumers in going to the markets with their 
baskets is too wasteful of effort. Buying 
clubs or associations will work better. There 
are buying associations already in operation, 
and it would joay some of the beekeepers to 
get in touch with them to reach these con- 
sumers. 

GARDEN, ORCHARD, POULTRY, AND BEES. 

When is a beekeeper not a beekeeper? 
AVhen he allows the bees to work for nothing 
and board themselves, while he farms, gar- 
dens, and raises stock. This need not be, 
for some of our very^ best beekeepers raise 
poultry and have a profitable garden, and 
some of the largest producers of honey^ raise, 
in addition, apples, potatoes, or onions by 
the carload. Colorado has lumbermen, 
stockmen, farmers, fruit men, and business 
men all successfully interested in bees. Sev- 
eral bank presidents got their start with 
bees, and there are several bank directors 
who are keeping bees for the money there is 
in them. I like to see a man, though a bee- 
keeper, who is alive to the possibilities about 
him. I would just as soon work in my acre 
orchard as with the bees, and sometimes I 
like it a little better. The principal part of 
one's living will come from the garden vege- 
tables, apples, plums, and strawberries. 
The cow and chickens help out, so that, 
with the cull honey^ that is not fit to ship, 
we find that the grocery bill is easily cared 
for. The main honey crop and the ship- 
ments of apples will be used to build the 
new house or to extend the business. 



Mar. 1. 1912 



129 



DSEEPDM® m ®^LD^(I)^raD^ 



p. C. CHA0WICK. Redlands. CaL 



CALIFORNIA STATE BKEKKEPERS' ASSOCIA- 
TION KEPOKT. 

On February 8 the 22d annual convention 
of the ("alifornia State Beekeepers' Associa- 
tion ended its three-day session. Every 
thinp considered, this was the most busi- 
ness-like and harmonious session of its his- 
tory. 

The way for many needed reforms was 
blazed, and plans which were made were 
left in the hands of competent committees 
for further advancement. Needed laws were 
drafted, helpful resolutions were passed, 
and. best of all, between the North and the 
South the hatchet is said to have been 
buried. 

To enter into the details of proceedings 
would be a great task, and much of it dry 
reading, so I will merely state briefly some 
of the work ilone. 

Every one who was on the program, and 
could be present, did his part well; but some 
special recognition is due to certain mem- 
bers whom 1 shall name. I wish to mention 
one man esiieeially, who, though not alone 
in the work, certainly had most of the bur- 
den upon his shoulders — Mr. A. B. Shaff- 
ner. 

The treasurer's report showed a neat bal- 
ance, which in itself indicates the prosperity 
of the association. 

Mr. (i. L. Emerson's paper, "One Thou- 
sand Members in 1912," was one that com- 
mended itself to every member present. His 
ideas of individual work for the increase of 
membership, crop-report recommendation, 
and a perfect organization collectively were 
timely, and to this end a subscription was 
started to raise funds that we may be able 
to cooperate with other organizations of the 
State. Mr. Emerson explained that there 
is no feeling against the northern associa- 
tion. 

Here I might add that, as every member 
can vote by proxy, it seems that there should 
be no longer any trouble about representa- 
tion; for one man from the north can take 
every member's proxy he may secure, and 
vote it as he sees fit. 

At the evening session on the 6th the lec- 
ture, "Some Wonders of Our Little Co- 
workers," by Prof. Ralph iJenton, was the 
best of its kind I have ever heard. He de- 
scribed and illustrated the anatomy of the 
V)ee. Mr. lienton is, without doubt, the 
scientific man of our association. His lec- 
ture was not as fully appreciated, however, 
as it should have been, for some take but 
little interest in the scientific part of the in- 
dustry. On the other hand, those who were 
interested were intensely occupied in 
thought during the lecture, and had only 
praise for Mr. Benton. 

Perhaps the special feature of the morn- 
ing session on Feb. 7 was "<iueen Rearing," 
by Henry Perkins. This subject seemed to 



appeal to the members at this time esijecial- 
ly from the fact that Euroi)ean foul brood is 
spreading in our Southland and queen rear- 
ing and introduction have a special part in 
the eradication of this disease. 

One topic of the afternoon session was 
" The Black-brood Epidemic," by. 1. 1). Bux- 
by, who is now a recognized authority on 
this disease. His remarks were eagerly lis- 
tened to; and in closing, when he exhibited 
two frames of diseased brood nearly the en- 
tire assembly made a rush to examine them 
indicating to what extent beekeepers are 
exercised over black brood or European foul 
brood. 

The report of the county inspectors was 
made at this session. The remarks of Wm. 
H. Allen, of Ventura Co., and .T. E. Pleas- 
ants, of Orange Co., were exceptionally val- 
uable, as they dealt primarily with facts re- 
garding the number of colonies inspected, 
and the diseased colonies found in this and 
previous years, showing the progress of the 
inspectors in their work. 

The election of officers resulted in the 
choice of Mr. J. W. Farree as president, and 
the unanimous re-election of the secretary- 
treasurer. Of our president I can no better 
express my thought than to say he is a live 
wire— efficient, energetic, and enthusiastic- 
meeting work half way. 

The session closed with reports of various 
committees and delegates. Many topics of 
interest, on which I have no notes, may ap- 
pear later in this department. 

The practice of California honey dealers 
in quoting honey at ruinously low prices, 
simply to lower a local market for their bene- 
fit, was unanimously condemned. In the 
futi're, beekeepers will be on the lookout 
for such dealers. 

The committee on forest reserves made a 
recommendation that, if secured, will put 
beekeeping on a par with some other indus- 
tries on forest reserves. 

The loss by death of so many prominent 
beemen of State and nation was noted in 
suitable resolutions. Some changes in the 
constitution were recommended and adopt- 
ed. 

A resolution introducted by G. L. Emer- 
son, asking the county board of San Ber- 
nardino County to remove the bee inspector 
of that county for suflicient cause, was 
adopted. 

Mr. Delos Wood was voted life member- 
ship in the association. This veteran of the 
rebellion and of the bee business, now in 
his seventies, has suliered the loss of prac- 
tically all of this world's goods by fire, in- 
cluding apiaries whose value reached the 
thousands. 

[It has been stated that there are 50.0(H) 
colonies in i^os Angeles Co. alone. This 
gives an idea of the extent of the industry 
in California. — Ed.] 



130 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



(B(Q)[jQW©[p©siii§CQ)ro© wu^\h \S}®®M'&M(b 



At Borodino, New York 



SUCCESSFUL BEEKEEPING 

"I am a man with limited means, and 
must do something to make a Uving for 
myself and family. I have fallen violently 
in love with bees, and have ten colonies. 
I have been wondering whether 1 could not 
build up in the bee business till 1 could 
make enough of a success of it so that I 
could spend my whole time caring for the 
bees, and thus be doing something that I 
like. Therefore I take the liberty of ask- 
ing you to say someting along this line in 
Gleanings." 

"The one thing in your favor is your love 
for the bees. Occasionally one may be suc- 
cessful when going into a business which 
he is not in love with, simply because he 
enters into it for the money he hopes to 
make out of it: but this is the exception 
rather than the rule. Except to the man 
who has missed his calling, there is real fun 
and play in all of the energy put into that 
pursuit which one has chosen. I have 
known people to be so engaged in their pur- 
suit, and to love it so well, that the most 
exciting ball game was more tame to them 
than the same time spent wielding the hoe 
in some favorite field of potatoes. Scores 
of others exert themselves in playing 
ball throughout some sultry afternoon, call- 
ing it the height of fun, thereby wholly un- 
fitting themselves for the next day's work 
in the field, doing scarcely half of an aver- 
age day's work, and considering what they 
did do as only drudgery. It would be 
easy to prophesy that "successful potato 
culture" will not be written opposite the 
name on the score of such at the end of 
life's journey. Therefore, this axiom can 
be laid down: ' To be successful in any call- 
ing in life, the one entering it must have a 
love for that calling.' 

"Notwithstanding this axiom, it must be 
further said that, from the calling chosen, 
at least enough must be derived to support 
the one working at it and his family. Oth- 
erwise, there must sooner or later come a 
turning from that calling unless financial 
aid comes from some other source. I re- 
member a well-to-do man who went into 
beekeeping for the love or pleasure there 
was in it, using this same beekeeping as a 
side issue as he called it. A year or two 
later he was telling of the added profit that 
came to him from the bees. I remarked 
that I understood he was in the business 
for the pleasure there was in it. ' Right you 
are,' he said: 'but the greater the profit, the 
greater the pleasure.' 

"I must confess, as I look over' my forty- 
two years of life as a beekeeper, that, while 
there has been a rare pleasure in the work 
(Mrs. Doolittle has often said, after calling 
me again and again, that I think more of 
the bees than I do of my dinner), that my 
main object has been to gain a livelihood 
and to secure money for the comforts and 



pleasures of life. And while I have taken 
great pleasure in my bees all of these years, 
and from this life in the open has resulted 
the robust health that can not be gotten in 
any business requiring indoor employment, 
yet neither pleasure nor good health would 
have kept me faithful to beekeeping had 
there not come from it a good living, and 
something besides for ' a rainy day. ' And I 
am as free to say that I consider it doubtful 
whether any beekeeper will ever reach the 
financial stature of a Morgan, Vanderbilt, 
or Gould; yet if rightly followed, and with 
a love that will keep one at it through sea- 
sons of failure in nectar secretion as well as 
in prosperous seasons, apiculture will prove 
as remunerative as almost any other branch 
of agriculture. But without the necessary 
love for the bees the \)00t seasons, as we call 
them, when the 'heavens seem as brass' 
throughout the time of all nectar-yielding 
flora, discouragement is sure to come, the 
business to be neglected, and blasted hopes 
and failure are the outcome. Thus it is 
that this love part in any business is the 
anchor w^hich holds through storms, and 
makes success certain when the 'clouds 
roll away.' 

"And the chances of success everi/ year 
are much better in these days of compara- 
tive swarm control, trolley lines, and auto- 
mobiles, than when we older ones started. 
It is a rare thing that an entire failure of 
nectar happens over a large area of country; 
and very many times when there has been 
a partial or nearly entire failure in the se- 
cretion of nectar at the home apiary, I have 
secured at least a fair yield from the out- 
apiary five miles away, or vice versa. 

"Now, if it happens that your environ- 
ment keeps you in a location not blessed 
with the desired nectar-producing flora, if 
you are near a trolley line you can locate 
out-apiaries along this line as fast as your 
bees increase sufficiently to warrant it. Or 
if you can afford an automobile, these out- 
apiaries may be located in any place of 
abundant nectar-secreting flora, and thus 
the chances of success be far better than 
in the slow days of forty or fifty years ago. 
I can hardly realize the possibilities that 
are before the young, energetic man of to- 
day, who, with a love for the pursuit, goes 
into beekeeping." 



The Double-walled Hive Better Even for the South 

I have kept bees in three of the Northern States, 
namely, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana, and 
have found the double-walled hive the best for cold 
weather. 1 have proved it to my own satisfaction 
again and again. I am now In Southern Alabama, 
and I find again that the double-walled hive, when 
well ventilated, is also the best for hot weather. 
The air-space gives an even temperature so that no 
combs are lost by the heat, and the bees do not re- 
main on the outside of the hive on hot days. 

Magnolia Springs, Ala. E. Deusenberrv. 



Mar. 1, U112 



P 



131 

gDD@[PSlD (B®D°[P@^^(o)DDd]®DD©® 



IN WHOSE LOCALITY ? 

Paper-covered Hives with Large Entrances versus 
Double-walled Packed Hives with Moderate En- 
trances; do Bees Prosper in a Zero Temperature? 

BY ARTHUR C. MILLER. 



So the time has come when one must 
lieiid every article " In this locaUty." For- 
suoth, I thought the veterans at least could 
remember that, but it seems not. Mold! 
Ah, ha! Ernest is to blame. It seems that 
he picked out the boys to make the reply. 
I wonder why he did not pick some one in 
Texas. 

Little did I think that I was going to step 
on the i)et corns of those Canuckers when I 
wrote that article: and, in fact, I was no 
more thinking of them than I was of the 
boys in the tropics. Well, boys, see here. 
Vou needn't give up your chali hives. I'll 
let you use them as long as you wish. You 
don't intend to give them up? Well, then, 
what in thunder are you making all this 
jKither about? You fellows have forgotten 
— well, never mind what. I'll just ask the 
other boys to turn to Holtermann's eulogies 
of cellar wintering scattered through the 
bee papers. No, Holtermann, I'll not shut 
up. If cellar wintering is as fine as you so 
long and so forcefully maintained, why are 
you now using the formerly contemned 
chaff hive? I like to hear a man try to ex- 
plain away facts — if he doesn't stutter. 

And there is Byer. Hm! Say! just be- 
cause you got the better of me once, don't 
let it make you over-confident. Let me see; 
you once tried my black-paper plan of win- 
tering and fell down on it. And if memory 
serves me rightly you modified my instruc- 
tions j».s^ a lift le because you thought I had 
erred in some points. And now vou want 
to put the blame on me. If I am going to 
try a man's j)lan I'll try it just as he gives 
it; and then if it does not work with me I'll 
try it with my notions tacked on. 

Now, you two boys hug yourselves — and 
each other if necessary to give vent to your 
ecstasy — and get all the fun you can. The 
editor has up his sleeve something else along 
the line of "cokl storage " of bees which, 
mayhaii, will cause you to let up on poor 
Miller and take serious thought unto your- 
selves. 

After the foregoing was written. Glean- 
ings for Feb. 1 arrived, and I have careful- 
ly read what is written there. One impor- 
tant point stands out strongly; that is, that 
a temperature of freezing within the hive 
when it is zero outside is considered ''keep- 
ing the bees warm." In my own experi- 
ence, bees stand and prosper in a zero tem- 
perature as well as in one thirty degrees 
higher. 

It is exceedingly hard not to restrict the 
entrances in the s])ring, so strong is old be- 
lief; and restricted entrance with black pa- 



per, when it is unsafe for bees to fly, is sure 
to bring disaster. 

A careful comparison of two apiaries, one 
of which had the entrances reduced as 8oo7i 
a.s i( M'(7.s safe to do so, and the other out of 
convenient reach at that time, and hence 
left with the full entrance, showed no api)re- 
ciable difference in results; and as labor 
which is not profitable is eliminated I now- 
let the entrances alone. 

As to the application of black ])aper: As 
usually put on, it only partly fulfills its in- 
tended purpose. Tied down with string, or 
secured with a few short pieces of lath, it is 
of little help. It should be put on so no air 
can pass under it— that is vital. One can 
not blow far into a bottle; and if the neck is 
crooked and the inside filled with obstruc- 
tions, no draft will reach the bottom; and 
on such order is the interior of a properly pa- 
pered hive. 

Again, the editor makes a most grievous 
mistake in likening a cluster of bees in win- 
ter to a radiator. They are the reverse of 
that, and every effort of their life and be- 
havior is to minimize radiation. Study 
such a cluster, and analyze it and see. Also 
wax is a very y oor conductor of heat, and 
the combs help materially in maintaining 
steadiness of cluster temperature. 

I note one factor as I see it, or I may be 
mistaken. It is difficult to be sure from 
mere description; and that is, that colonies 
in the regions of prolonged cold seem to go 
into winter quarters with more bees than 
they do here. If this is so, it will explain 
some of the difTerences between Mr. Holter- 
mann's 00 ,e. vations and mine. Also these 
big (normally there) colonies may tend 
(have?) to breed earlier than they do here; 
and that, if so, will explain higher internal 
temperature. 

Another factor is to be noted. The sun 
is higher at parallel 41-42 than it is at 44-45, 
and this may be of considerable importance, 
Xow you boys just stick to every old plan 
you want to, and jump on any new thing 
you please, whether it is in " your locality " 
or not; and the more unnecessary parapher- 
nalia you cling to, and the more needless 
operations you go through, the easier it will 
be for me to compete with you. 

But you may even yet be right for this 
locality. We are having the hardest winter 
for bees in thirty-two years; and if the bees 
come through it safely under my system, it 
will be fully vindicated. 
Providence, H. I. 

[Bees can stand a great deal more cold 
than we think. There are some conditions 
under which they may freeze stiff, and yet 
not be much the worse for the experience. 
The same is true of fish. Admitting all 
this to be true, we believe that the bee is 
essentially an animal that thrives best in a 
moderate temperature. The inside temper- 
ature of our double-walled packed hives. 



132 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



away from the cluster, varies from 20 above 
to 75 during winter. Yesterday, with a 
temperature outside of 2 above zero, we took 
the reading from a thermometer shoved 
through the packing into the cluster of bees 
in one of our double-walled packed hives. 
The cluster was not disturbed, nor was the 
hive opened up when the reading was taken. 
The inside of the cluster was 75. Later in 
the day we took another reading. The 
■cluster temperature was the same. 

While bees under some conditions can 
stand severe freezes for a short time, our ex- 
perience at Medina indicates that it is hard 
•on them. If plenty of packing and a dou- 
l)le-walled packed hive will make the air 
^surrounding a cluster of bees from 20 to 40 
degrees higher than the outside tempera- 
ture, it imposes a much less strain on the 
vitality of the bees. We therefore believe 
that any system of protection that provides 
a difference of only two or three degrees be- 
tween the outside and inside of the hive 
would not work in this locality nor any lo- 
cality in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. 
Here we are liable to have long continuous 
cold — not short zero snaps of a day or two. 

It is the long-continued low temperatures, 
often accompanied with high winds, that 
make packing, and lots of it, essential for 
outdoor wintering. Our correspondent has 
a different set of conditions, and we do not 
say that his scheme of winter protection is 
not the thing for his locality. — Ed.] 



WHAT THE NATIONAL BEEKEEPERS' ASSO- 
CIATION WILL DO THIS YEAR 

BY E. B. TYKBBLL 



As every beekeeper knows, the meeting 
of the Board of Directors held in Detroit, 
January 23, was probably the most impor- 
tant of any board meeting held in the his- 
tory of the Association. Plans of reorgani- 
zation had to be considered as well as just 
what the Association would and should do 
for its members. 

One of the most important needs of the 
beekeepers, as it appeared to the directors, 
was an accurate knowledge of crop condi- 
tions. To get this, it was decided to send 
out croj) reports early in the season to every 
member, and, from the information so ob- 
tained, advise the members, either directly 
or through the bee journals, as to conditions. 

The Board also found that the question of 
honey packages was an important one. At 
the present time there is not nearly the uni- 
formity there should be. No special weight . 
of tin or size of can has been adopted in the 
past, and many shippers were using a tin 
entirely too light. Samples of honey-cans 
were ins])ected by the Board, with the deci- 
sion that the Secretary be instructed to make 
the best possible arrangements for furnish- 
ing the members with the tin honey ])ack- 
ages the coming season. The orders will be 
handled directly through the Association 
office, and will not be sent by the member 
to the can manufacturers as in the past. 



In discussing the question of jiackages for 
comb honey, and realizing that there are a 
number of different kinds and shapes in 
the market, it was thought best that, in or- 
der to promote uniformity of a comb-honey 
package, the Association should take steps 
to secure for its members, at the lowest pos- 
sible prices, the double-tier 24-lb. shipping- 
case which was adopted by the Association 
at its last convention. 

These cases could be furnished according 
to specifications, so that every member buy- 
ing through the National would be using 
exactly the same case as every other mem- 
ber. In order to induce a more general 
adoption, it was thought advisible to fur- 
nish them at a low price. The secretary 
was also instructed to investigate paper 
shipping-cases, as well as glass packages. 
This action was not taken with an idea of 
getting into the supply business, but to pro- 
mote the using of uniform packages by the 
members, which then will simplify the 
question of marketing, and eventually raise 
the price the beekeepers can obtain. 

The question of marketing honey was 
thoroughly considered, and many plans 
were presented. The one finally decided up- 
on was that, for the coming season, the Na- 
tional Association should act in the capacity 
of broker for its members where desired. It 
is not expected nor desired that all members 
ship their honey through the Association; 
but realizing that many are not in touch 
with the best markets, it was thought that 
no better move could be made than to assist 
these members in obtaining the proper re- 
turn for their honey crop. To do this, sell- 
ing agencies will be established in several 
of the larger cities, and the sales will be di- 
rected through the Association. A member 
having honey to sell could first get instruc- 
tions from the secretary, who is expected to 
keep in close touch with market conditions, 
take into consideration the freight rates, 
and then give the member full instructions 
as to shipment. The association does not 
intend to buy and sell honey, but simply to 
assist the producers in finding the best pos- 
sible market. 

The promotion of local branches will be 
encouraged; and wherever a local branch de- 
sires to get out a booklet, such as has been 
used by the Michigan Association, assistance 
will be given by the National Association. 
This feature will be encouraged. The ad- 
vertising of this booklet will be cared for by 
the National, but will probably be conflnetl 
on the start to the four bee journals. 

Detroit, Mich. 



Failure in Cuba Honey Crop 

Both the summer and winter crop of honey have 
been almost a complete failure here. From 1500 
colonies I jrot only 110 barrels of 50 gallons each. 
No rain until May was the cause of the failure of 
the summer crop, and no rain all summer: then 
three weeks of it in the heart of the honey season— 
the cause of the failure of the winter crop. A crop, 
according to former years, would have been :!00 
barrels. Moreover, the price was good — from 40 to 
46 cts. a gallon in Manzanillo. 

Frank Reiman. 



Mar. 1. UUJ 



i:w 




A summer view of one of Allen Latham's apiaiie: 



A CONTRARY BEEKEEPER 

A Nutmeg Stater who Defies All the Rules of 
Bee Culture, and Wins 

BY ARTHUR C. MILLER 

Bee culture is a tradition-fettered indus- 
try. As Methuselah said, so must it be; 
and he who dares preach contrary to the 
teachings of the fathers is 2)er xe a heretic, 
an outcast. Lift your voice in questioning 
of the established order, and at once you 
are considered an iconoclast. Blessed be all 
such, for they are the hoi)eof generations of 



beekeepers yet to come. Askers of awkward 
questions, up-setters of pet theories, dis- 
turbers of the peace, shatterers of reputa- 
tions! May their shadows never grow less. 
An adopted son of the community famed 
for its wooden nutmegs stands preeminent 
as an iconoclast in apicultural matters, and 
they call his name Latham. Solid of build, 
sandy of complexion, he looks out of a pair 
of twinkling eyes in a manner both cordial 
and disconcerting. Is it to laugh at you or 
with you, you know not. State your case 
most cautiously, lay down the law point by 
point, establish your position beyond seem- 




A part of the same apiary in winter. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Some store combs from I^atham's " Let Alone '" hive. The four show how 
the bees " work back," the full combs being next to the brood chamljer. 

ingly possible dispute, and with one word 
or one careless question he will turn your 
carefully builded structure into a tumbling 
house of cards. Oh! a canny boy is Allen. 

As an observer of bees and their work, he 
stands second to no one. As a beekeeper 
he is never content with what he has done, 
but must do better. And to him, "better " 
means not only more product and higher 
quality, but lesser cost, a matter in honey 
production so rarely spoken of that one may 
well doubt if it is often thought of. But it 
is the " motif" in Latham's symphony, and 
the marvels it has led 
him to do would fill a 
book. Tell him that 
a saving plan which 
he would adopt is not 
feasible, and you wave 
a red rag at a bull. He 
will do it, even if it is 
impossible. Keep away 
from Allen Latham if 
you want to plod along 
in the tortuous and 
shady path of your 
granddaddy; for if you 
once get under the 
magic power of his 
methods, your days of 
self-complacency are 
numbered. 

.1 ust think of a man 
examining his colonies 
and gathering his 
crops — bumper ones 
too — at Christmas 
time, in bleak old New 
J*^ n g 1 a n d . For in- 
stance, he this year 
took the crop from the 
hives of one apiary on 



the (jth day of Jan- 
uary, with the tem- 
perature at ten de- 
grees Fahrenheit, 
and the wind at fifty 
miles an hour. No, 
nothing crazy or sui- 
cidal about it. He 
has done it for years 
and is steadily in- 
creasing his bees and 
his crops. 

The hive and the 
system with which 
he accomplishes this 
and other seemingly 
impossible things are 
well worth a descrij)- 
tion, and the princi- 
ples involved are 
worthy the study of 
every serious bee- 
keeper. The "Let 
Alone" hive and 
system is the title 
he has applied, and 
most fittingly too; 
for some of his col- 
onies he sees but 
once in a twelve month, and then in mid- 
winter. A big black box three feet long, a 
foot and a half wide and high, is this hive. 
At first glance it looks much like the old 
"I-iong Idea" hive of General D. L. Adair, 
and it is and it isn't. The Adair had the 
entrance in the middle of one side; the 
"Let Alone " has it at one end. The cover 
telescopes about three inches down on the 
body, and the whole is covered with a good 
grade of one of the asphalt roofing-papers 
black in color. Nice and cool in a blister- 
ing August day, eh? Don't you worry. It 




Latham's nucleus-wintering and honey-handling house. The nuclei are 
shown on shelves between the studding where they are convenient to han- 
dle in the summer, away from weeds, and out of the reach of toads and 
other vermin. 



Mur. 1. litl'J 



135 




This photograph shows a part of my apiary of 40 colonies under a good shed 75 feet long. I have very 
little time to work with my bees, but I improve every spare moment I have. This spring I am going to 
give each colony two supers of sections, and if it is a good honey year I will have plenty, 

T. C. IlAMBLY, Santa Clara, Cal, 



works. Most of the lumber used is half- 
inch box stock. The floor is nailed on, and 
has three rugged cleats across the under 
surface. 

In the Adair hive the queen had the run 
of all the combs; in the "Let Alone" she is 
restricted to the seven next to the entrance. 
And the frames outclass the .lumbo, being; 
M H inches long and 15 inches deep, with 
ends and to]is "closed," Along the upper 
l)art of the hive sides are nailed strips on 
which the frames hang, and in the lower 
corners arc beveled strips against which the 
bottom corners of the frames touch, so that, 
when the frames are in place, the hive is 
virtually double-walled and air-spaced. 

The first seven frames are wired, and fit- 
ted with full sheets of foundation; the other 
fourteen have a vertical bar in the center, 
are without wires, and are fitted only with 
starters. Back of the seven wired frames is 
hung a sheet of excluder zinc, an<l this 
serves to separate the brood from the surplus 
comfjartment. The entrance extends away 
across the front of the hive, eighteen inches, 
and is one inch high. It is permanently 
guarded against the ingress of mice by a 
row of wire nails. And it is left wide open 
for three hundred and sixty-five and one 
quarter days in the year, Mark that, you 
skeptics. 

The surplus chamber is apjiroximately 
IT X 14 y 22 inches, and will hold about 150 
jxiunds. If it so happens that the crop is 
removed in the fall, then it remains empty 
all winter. A most beautiful way to kill 
the bees, isn't it? ,Iust think of a colony of 
l>ees in the front part of such a box with 
that great emptyTchamber behind it, and 



eighteen square inches of open doorway! A 
man who would seriously consider keeping 
bees in any such fool way as that must sure- 
ly have something the matter with his brain. 
Well, he has, but not on the line of foolish- 
ness — oh, no! only of progressive thinking 
and of daring. 

It is not enough that he should make bee- 
keeping in such hives a success in sheltered 
spots; but he must needs attemjit the im- 
possible, so he planted colonies here and 
there on the upper end of Cape Cod, about 
the last place on earth to expect success in 
honey production. And there again he fools 
you. His reputation for veracity is good; 
but when he talked of an average of 150 
pounds to the colony down on that bleak 
sand spit, one man at least had to go and 
see how bees extracted nectar from sea-water. 
And the honey was there— great sheets of 
pearly combs full of their golden store, and 
the bees tumbling in with more. 

The gales from the wide Atlantic appear 
to be impotent against the bees' work in 
summer or their comfort in winter, for there 
those wide-entranced hives stand all through 
the storms and gales, heat and cold. For 
most of us the bees would promptly become 
quite dead; but not for Latham, They dare 
not. That wizard has filled them with such 
a sense of fear or something, that, whatever 
he says, they do. He has even persuaded 
them to adandon the classic "bee-line," 
and one finds his bees ducking and dodging 
around the sand dunes and following along 
the railroad cuts, zigzagging here and there 
and anywhere out of the wind till they are 
close tohome, when with a dash they plunge 
over the bank and down into their hives. 



13(i 



Gleaninus in Bi'e Culture 



l,aughlin I-'alconer, 1)4 years oh 
and one of his assistants. 



The hives are usu- 
ally stocked by run- 
ning a natural or ar- 
tificial swarm into 
them. The bees are 
then instructed to set 
up house - keeping, 
jtrovide themselves 
with a i)roper amount 
of sup[)lies, and put 
aside a suitable sur- 
plus in return for the 
care (?) and oversight 
he has given them. 
Talk about the high 
cost of living, and 
then think of taxing 
those poor little bees 
one huntlred pounds 
of honey for the rent 
of an old barn of a 
box without any 
stormdoor on it! 

But the insatiate 
man is not content 
with that, but, for- 
sooth, insists upon 
the bees sorting out 

the various kinds of honey for him, each 
kind in a comb or combs by itself, and 
the meek little creatures do so, as far as 
the Hows jiermit. It happens in thiswise: 
The bees till the brood-chamber and then 
crowd through the zinc, build comb in 
half of a frame and fill it, then in the other 
half, tlien into the next frame, and so on. 
He has merely applied his hive and frame 
arrangement to fit the habit of the insects. 

Yes, they swarm sometimes, but not very 
often; and as most of the queens are clipped 
they seldom depart, but return and settle 
down with the young queen, which, of 
course, is against the rules of the game, but 
those don't count with I^atham. 

He keeps bees in the conventional hives, 
too; has some eighty odd colonies thus; and 
that he does it well, witness the summer 
and winter views of one of his yards. His 
home yard is an interesting place to visit, 
and there will be found all manner of hives, 
appliances, and experiments. One of the 
striking features is a honey-house built "in- 
side out "—that is to say, the studding is 
on the outside; on the inner face of that, 
heavy water-proof pa[)er; and within that, 
matched sheathing. It is placed on a foun- 
dation of stone laid dry, and the shallow- 
cellar is open on one side, so that literally 
the hou«e is hung in the air. (Cleanings 
for .Ian. 1, page 8, says, " Do not winter in a 
closed room above ground." But Latham 
winters thirty or forty baby nuclei in this 
closed room above ground, and has done it 
ever since 'twas built, three or four years 
ago. So exceedingly careless of him to do 
such a thing without consulting anybody! 

And those baby iniclci! utterly dilTerent 
from any used by other folks. One nice lit- 
tle entrance-hole, easily defended against 
robbers, isn't at all to his liking, so he has 
two such holes— perhaps reasoning that, if 




a pioneer t'liicago beekeeper: his son. 



one is easy to defend, two will be twice as 
easy. The blooming combination works 
just because it shouldn't. 

To feed them he floods the lower part of 
the little box (])reviously water-proofed) 
with syrup— a jolly nice way to start a rob- 
bing scrape, but it doesn't. His nucleus 
construction and operation is a fine story in 
itself, and perhaps the editor can persuade 
him to tell; and if so, let the reader be warn- 
ed that, no matter how improbable things 
may seem, or how weirtl his tale, it is so if 
he says it, even though every other bee- 
keeper has tried it and failed. 

'Tis jolly lucky for Allen Latham that he 
lives in the twentieth century rather than 
in the days when belief in witchcraft ran 
riot. 

Providence, R. T. 



BEEKEEPING IN A CITY 

A Great Record by a Man who is Now Almost a 
Centenarian 

BY J. L. GRAFF 

The accompanying picture show a i)art of 
an apiary that has lielped to furnish a city 
now numbering twenty-two hundred thou- 
sand people with honey for sixty-seven 
years, and is still i)roducing 9000 lbs. a year. 
It not only in a large measure has furnished 
a living for its owner, but has supported a 
whole family. 

In the last thirty years it has produced 
l;')5 tons, and the output for the previous 
thirty-seven years would run the total pro- 
duction to considerably over 175 tons. 

This apiary was started on the banks of 
the Des Plaines lliver, Illinois, in 1844. It 
was started from thf" capture of a single col- 
ony from a bee-tree, and hived in a barrel. 



Mar. 1, 1!H2 

Four years later, all the accuinulation of 
bees and honey was moved to a farm of lOo 
acres which is now located inside the city 
limits of Chicago. The man who started 
this apiary is still ojierating it at the age of 
ninety-five years. His name is Ivaughlin 
Falconer, and he is assisted by his son, 
William W. Falconer, who says that there 
has never been a failure in more than three- 
score years. There were years in which the 
Eroduction of lioney was less than in others, 
ut there has always been a i)aying quanti- 
ty after allowing sullicient to winter the 
bees. 

The little workers, during most of the 
time, have foraged on sweet and alsike clo- 
ver, and much on a prairie bloom that close- 
ly resembles a sunflower. 

The bees ha\ e always been sheltered in 
winter in the crude manner shown in the 
photograph. They are now confined in 
modern hives, each of which in the cold 
months is first wrapped in burlap, then in 
old newspapers, and then a whole bench is 
buried in leaves, and the leaves confined by 
weather-boarding — toi)s, sides, and ends. 
In late years the whole of the product to be 
sold has been extracted and disposed of in 
gallon cans. 

This near-centenarian apiarist, however, 
is Viut one of a number of city beekeepers 
in Chicago. Xot long ago, at a meeting of 
an association in Chicago, rej)resenting sev- 
eral States, fully 25 out of 15o beekeepers 
were Chicago apiarists. When the big 



137 

drainage channel was built, and huge banks 
of clay and other material were piled up 
along the canal, this deposit in a short time 
was covered with a rank growth of sweet 
clover; and on this, bees from a wide area 
of country worked with great results. 

One of the mail-carriers of the Chicago 
postoflice is one of the most successful bee- 
keepers in the Middle West, operating his 
bees in an exjiansive backyard. This man 
gave considerable attention to the breeding 
of bees of mild disposition, and he claims 
to have had noticeable success so that his 
family are able to use the yard; and pedes- 
trians can pass the place without being at- 
tacked by the bees. This apiarist sets up 
the claim that a good disposition may be 
bred in bees, just as other breeders secure 
this trait in live stock. 

Chicago, 111. 



PREVENTING BEES FROM GETTING 
SWARMING IMPULSE 



THE 



A Vestibule Attachment Communicating with an 
"Annex" Providing Extra Room 



BY DR. L. A. SIMMON 



In presenting this device to the bee-keep- 
ing public I am conscious that there is a 
good deal of skepticism in reference to me- 
chanical devices that purport to facilitate 
the control of bees. But I am also confident 
that the invention will produce the same 





An apiary in ( liicauo Uiat has pn)fiiicccl, durlnt.' tiie last HT yeMS. over 175 tons ol lioncy. 



138 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



results for others that it has for me, and 
therefore meet with general favor. The de- 
tails of its construction are based on a thor- 
ough working knowledge of the instincts 
and natural activities of the bees, and every 
step in the system to be described in the ap- 
plication of the swarm-controller in its vari- 
ous uses and functions is made to conform 
to these natural laws. There is, therefore, 
no i)ossibility of failure or disappointment 
except through gross carelessness or neglect 
of duty on the part of the operator. I have 
tested it for a number of years, and what I 
shall say is the result of experience and not 
theory. It very greatly reduces the labor, 
and simplifies the processes of bee-keeping. 
The control of the swarming impulse dur- 
ing the honey harvest is one of the most 
important subjects to the beekeeper. In 
my hands the device has been uniformly 
successful. I also make increase with it, al- 
most automatically, at will. Transferring 
is no longer the disagreeable, wasteful, and 
gummy job it used to be. By the use of the 
controller, bees are transferred from box 
hives almost as readily as artificial swarms 
are produced. As a feeder it has no equal. 
The apiarist can feed his bees at any time, 
night or day, as easily as he can feed his 
chickens or his horse. The feeder is always 
in place, does not have to be stored away 
and hunted up again when needed. It re- 
quires no attention, and is not in the way. 
It affords the most natural and efficient 
means of storing and caring for empty 




ed between two hives, into a closed cham- 
ber. On top of this is seen a square piece 
of board, which is the cover to the feeder 
hole. This block is turned aside, and an in- 
verted Mason jar is set in its place, thus 
completing the feeder. 

The openings in the sides are closed as de- 
sired by metal or wooden slides that are 
pushed in at the main entrance, against the 
inner sides of the openings. On the right 
side is seen a perforated zinc slide closing 
this entrance. Fig. 2 shows the opposite 
side of the controller, with its entrances. 

HOW TO ADJUST THE SWARM -CONTROLLER 
TO THE HIVE. 

Kemove the ^-inch cleat at the rear of a 
Danzenbaker bottom-board, thus making a 
new entrance. Place the hive-body on the 
bottom-board and fasten it. Apply the left 
side of the controller, as seen in Fig. 2, to 
this new entrance so that it will register 
with the openings in the side of the control- 
ler, and make it fast to the hive with two 
screws through the holding- cleat. It is fast- 
ened to only one hive, preferably to an emp- 
ty one, which we call the "annex." The 
hive containing the bees to which this com- 
bination is to be joined is i)repared in the 
same way by removing the ^-inch cleat at 
the rear of the bottom-board, making a new 
entrance at the rear of the hive. The annex 
is now set up against this hive so that the 
entrances coapt as before on the ojijiosite 
side. The device, ])roperly positioned be- 
tween two hives, is seen in Fig. 3. 
Here also may be seen on top 
of the controller two metal 
slides ready for use, and one 
provided with a I'orter bee-es- 
cape used in transferring. Fur- 
ther back on top of controller is 
seen the cover to the feeder 
hole. The rear end of the con- 
troller is here closed with a mov- 
able shutter. 



I'ie. 1.— Siiaiuoii s device lor controlling swarming, 

combs and surplus honey ever devised, and 
is worth to any l)eekeeper, for this purpose 
alone, more than double its cost. 

Its principal uses will be described in a 
series of articles, of which this is the first. 

Fig. 1 shows the general form of construc- 
tion. In plain words, it is a box with open 
ends, having a central transverse 
partition which divides it into 
two equal compartments. In each 
side there are twoojienings, 5X5^ 
in., which are the entrances into 
the hives on either side. The 
central pari it ion lies transversely 
across the chamber between these 
two entrances on either side. The 
top is K) in. long, and the bottom 
is 19 in., giving 1>^ in. at each end 
of the bottom as an alighting- 
board. The depth of the entrance 
is I'/s inch. The left-hand en- 
trance is closed with a shutter, 
converting this end, when adjust- Kig 



HOW TO PREVENT SWARMING. 

The practical beekeeper en- 
deavors to keep his colonies from swarming 
during the honey-liow. It is then, as a 
rule, that the swarming impulse develoi)s. 
Congestion of the hive with bees and hon- 
ey is probably the principal determining 
cause, as well as want of room and a crowd- 
ed house. Before this state of affairs comes 




The other side of the device shown in Fig. 1. 



Mar. 1. 1912 



i:w 




l-ig. 



■I he swarni-CdiitroUini; de\ ice in position between the " annex "" and a liive ol bees. 



about I attach the swarm-controller and 
annex, and make the bees work through 
the controller. 

Referring to Fig. .">, the left hive is the an- 
nex, the right containing the bees. The an- 
nex is filled with empty combs or full sheets 
of foundation. 

There is now a free passage from one hive 
to the other through the controller. At the 
rear it is through a closed chamber; in front, 
across the front entrance, or vestibule, from 
side to side. The bees immediately investi- 
gate this annex, and occupy it with a strong 
guard. They seem at once to regard it, from 
the arrangement of contiguity and ease of 
access as a part of their domicil. In very 
warm weather, instead of lying out they go 
over into the annex, where they find room 
and a natural resting-place. When desired, 
the original front entrances (now the auxil- 
iary entrances at the extreme right and left 
of the combination) may be opened to give 
increased ventilation. Supers are provided 
early; and as the outside comics in the 
brood-nest become filled with honey and 
l)ollen I remove those and set them in the 
annex, placing a frame of foundation in the 
center of the brood-nest, after separating the 
combs, one for every such comb of honey 
removed. Building up these combs furnishes 
emijloynient for a class of workers that prob- 
ably have something to do with developing 
the swarming impulse when not gratified. 
These new combs give the (jueen added 
room for breeding. When the second super 
is well started, and the first is completed, I 
set it over on the annex. These combs in 
the annex and the superim])Osed boxes of 
honey increase the interest of the bees in 
this divison of their house. There are, dur- 
ing the active season, a great number of 
workers whose wings become badly worn. 



and they are no longer useful in the field, 
but make excellent guards. These old bees 
naturally retire to a place of least resistance, 
out of the way. This annex provides for 
them a place of refuge, where their presence 
is of value as guards, and their lives and use- 
fulness are greatly prolonged. There may 
be conditions under which this method will 
not prevent swarming; but in my experience 
they are extremely rare, and not to be reck- 
oned against the system when employed be- 
fore the swarming impulse is developed. 

Auburndale, Fla. 

[fn the May 1st issue Dr. Simmon will 
exjilain how he uses his controller to check 
the swarming impulse, when once it has 
been established, by using it to switch the 
bees into the "annex." — Ed.] 

TENNESSEE BEEKEEPERS MEET WITH THE 
FRUITGROWERS AND NURSERYMEN 

BY GEO. M. BENTLEY, STATE ENTOMOLOGIST 

The Tennessee State Beekeepers' conven- 
tion was held in Nashville on .January 27, 
and the program carried out completely. 
There was a good attendance — larger than 
ever before. This was chiefly due to the 
convention being held in conjunction with 
the annual conventions of the fruitgrowers 
and nurserymen, and through the efforts of 
this office in advertising the meetings, not 
only throughout Tennessee but all over the 
South. The stereopticon lectures by Pro- 
fessor George DeMuth, of Washington, D. 
C, and Dr. J. S. Ward, of Nashville, were 
especially entertaining and instructive. 
Each of these lectures was illustrated by 
100 or more jierfect sHdes; and as the lectur- 
ers proceeded, every detail was plainly 
shown on the screen. It was decided that 



Gleanings in Bee Cullun 



•^-*:^ij' 





**^iiSr'*^' 






I loss iiastured in a field of white sweet clover near Delmar, Iowa. 



the association meet next year in conjunc- 
tion with the fruitgrowers and nurserymen, 
and use every effort to increase the member- 
ship. 

The legislature of 1911 appropriated $1000 
for apiary- inspection work in Tennessee. 
The past summer this work has been con- 
ducted in Middle and West Tennessee. The 
coming summer attention will be directed 
to East Tennessee. The survey of the bee 
interests in the State as gathered by the 
State Entomologist is being revised and 
greatly augmented. 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

[The Tennessee Association is doing some 
advanced work along the line of beekeep- 
ing, and other associations in the country 
may well afford h> take notice. It is a splen- 
did plan, in more ways than one, to hold 
the annual convention with the fruitgrow- 
ers. From the Secretary, .J. M. Buchanan, 
we received a report of the election of offi- 
cers which is as follows: 

President, W. N. .loseph, Nashville; Vice- 
president, David Wauford, Alexandria; Sec- 
retary, .1. M. liuchanan, Franklin. 

In a newspaper clii)ping giving a report 
of the convention we note that Mr. Bu- 
chanan stated, in his address before the con- 
vention, that luiroi)ean foul brood exists in 
Shelby and Robertson counties, and that 
American foul brood, which is more preva- 
lent, is found in Davidson, Williamson, 
Roane, antl Hamilton counties. Other 
counties under investigation are (iiles, Law- 
rence, and Montgomery. 

The association has now something over 
eighty members, between fifty and sixty of 
which were present. Ttiere are said to be 
36,000 beekee])ers in Tennessee. The an- 
nual value of the honey crop in the State is 
nearly $250,000.— En.] 



HOW TO GET A STAND OF SWEET CLOVER 



BY FRANK COVEBDAIiE 



After reading what Dr. Miller has to say, 
page 48 of the booklet " The Truth About 
Sweet Clover," I feared that he had not 
been reading my articles in the farm pa- 
pers, for he says he is not able to get a good 
stand. Now, a great deal depends upon 
methods used and the conditions of the soil 
in which the seed is sown. I have made a 
specialty of investigations along this line, 
and making exp3riments under every con- 
ceivable condition; and I have found that 
it is so easy to get a perfect ^tand that no 
one need make a failure. It is quite plain 
to me that neither Dr. Miller's soil nor his 
neighbor's has any sweet-clover bacteria in 
it; and, for that reason, many of the sweet- 
clover i)lants will fail to grow nodules on 
the roots, but will turn yellow and die. If 
this same soil had been rich in plant food, 
everyone of the sweet-clo\er plants would 
have formed nodules and made a perfect 
stand of luxuriant clover. 

Nine years ago I sowed a sixty-acre field 
to white sweet clover, and also a forty-acre 
field. Although the plants started, not a 
single one lived until winter, and the whole 
undertaking was a failure because of the 
poor and impoverislied condition of the 
soil. Many others around here lost their 
seed in the same way. The tables have 
turned, however, for we are now securing 
joerfect stands of this legume, as shown by 
the picture of one of my neiglibor's fields. 
His hogs enjoy a continued feast, and they 
keep it down to about six inches high by 
continual browsing. My neighbor has a 
field of alfalfa adjoining this, and he has 
been changing the hogs from one to the 
oth' r, but he is much better pleased with 



Mar. 1. 1912 

the results from the sweet clover, as it is so 
much more hardy. He has now bought 
seed to change his alfalfa-iield into sweet 
clover, as the alfalfa won't stand being pas- 
tured. A few more farmers in this neigh- 
borhood have secured seed, and will have 
hog-pastures just like this one. 

The field shown is identical with our own, 
especially our hog-pasture. I have come to 
the conclusion that every farmer can and 
should have a hog-pasture like it. Every 
one around here who has come to my 
knowledge is very enthusiastic over the suc- 
cess, and is securing new supplies of seed 
to be sown next spring. This fact speaks 
louder than any other. My seed is all sold. 

Delmar. Iowa. 



141 



THE EASTERN NEW YORK BEEKEEPERS' 
MEETING 

BY S. DAVENPORT, SECRETARY. 



The Eastern New York Beekeepers' As- 
sociation held its fourth annual convention 
Dec. -1, in the City Hall, Albany. Owing 
to unfavorable circumstances only a short 
notice could be given, and consequently 
there was a more limited attendance than 
usual, only about thirty beekeepers being 
present. 

President W. D. Wright, of Altamont, 
presided. 

The jiroceedings consisted mostly of rou- 
tine business and the consideration of tech- 
nical questions pertaining to beekeeping. 

The members reported the past season 
as the poorest in many years. The produc- 
tion of honey was less than half of an average 
crop; but with the optimism characteristic 
of beekeepers, all hold bright hopes for the 
future. 

The secretary's report showed a list of 103 
members since the organization of the asso- 
ciation four years ago. The treasurer re- 
ported a neat balance on hand. 

The president, in his address, reviewed 
the condition of the industry, referring to 
the very un favor vble season and the shortage 
of the honey crop, and noting that a materi- 
al advance in prices had resulted, which, it 
was hoped, might be maintained in the fu- 
ture. He called attention to the action of 
the National Heekeepers' Association in re- 
organizing that body and adopting a new 
constitution for the working of the associa- 
tion on a new and entirely different plan. 

Much consideration was given to this sub- 
ject, and many expressions of disapproval 
were offered. It was decided unanimously 
to take a vote by mail of all the members 
on the question: Shall we renew our mem- 
bership in the National Association under 
the provisions of the new constitution? 

The annual election was held, and result- 
ed in the rei-lection of the entire board of 
officers as follows: President, W. 1). Wright, 
of Altamont; First Vice-president, A. .lohn- 
son, Schoharie; Second Vice-i)resident, C. 
W. Hays, Brook view; Secretary, 8. Daven- 



port, Indian Fields; Treasurer, M. A. King- 
man, East Oreenbush. 

This will make Mr. Wright's fifth term as 
president. 

A communication from the Hon. R. A. 
Pearson, State Commissioner of Agriculture^ 
was read, requesting the appointment of a 
delegate to represent the association at the 
annual meeting of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society. S. Davenport was elected 
as such delegate. 

A communication to the State College of 
Agriculture had been directed to be made, 
requesting that experiments be made along 
the line of reducing the length of the corolla 
of the red-clover blossom, to enable the hon- 
eybee to gather the nectar from it. C. B. 
Loomis, of East Greenbush, presented a 
communication on the subject from Prof. 
H. W. Webber, of the State Agricultural 
College. 

C. B. Loomis presented for examination 
and consideration a sample copy of a writ- 
ing-pad for the use of schoolchildren, having 
appropriate illustrations of the honeybee, 
queen, and drone, and a descriptive article 
on the honeybee and the desirability of 
honey as a food. This pad is issued by the 
New York State Association of Beekeepers' 
Societies with the object of advertising hon- 
ey and increasing the sale of it. 

A proposition to establish a honey ex- 
change at Albany, for the purpose of dis- 
posing of the honey crop of members of the 
association, was discussed, and a committee 
of six appointed to investigate, consider, 
and report. 

This gathering of beekeepers proved to be 
one of the most satisfactory conventions 
ever held by the association. 

Indian Fields, N. Y. 



HATCHING OF EGGS DEPENDS UPON CONDI- 
TIONS WHICH SUIT THE BEES 

BY M. Y. CAIiCUTT. 



I notice that Mr. Wm. L. Couper, p. 660, 
Nov. 1, takes issue with the editor, and in- 
clines toward Dr. Miller, that a queen very 
seldom lays eggs that will not hatch. I al- 
so am inclined to think that the doctor is 
right in this respect. I think Mr. Couper 
must have overlooked the real reason why 
the eggs mentioned in his article were not 
hatched by the bees. My experience is from 
long study with one of the best observation 
hives which I have seen. The hive is con- 
structed so as to take four single frames, 
one above the other, having glass on both 
sides of the frames, with a single bee space 
between comb and glass, the hive doors 
opening on the north and south sides so as 
to let the sun hine through the comb when 
desired. By throwing a dark cover over my- 
self I am enabled to get a fine view from 
the north side, with the sun shining through 
from the .south, especially when I have a 
new white wax comb. 

I have found that eggs do not hatch un- 
til the bees want them hatched; and when 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



things are not just to their liking they will 
leave them for days or until conditions are 
just right to suit their fancy; and if condi- 
tions remain unfavorable, they will, within 
a reasonable time, remove the eggs and eat 
them. The mere fact that Mr. Couper re- 
moved these frames to another hive does 
not in any way prove to me that there was 
any thing wrong with the eggs, but that 
the conditions in the second hive were sim- 
ilar to those in the first, and therefore the 
bees would not hatch them. I have tried 
some interesting experiments along this 
line. I will give the result of one. 

As there was no honey coming in from 
the natural flow I placed a division-board 
feeder in the fourth section of the hive, giv- 
ing a pint of syrup at a feed. After the 
queen had filled the first comb full of 
eggs she moved to the second frame. The 
bees, meanwhile, had been at work draw- 
ing this comb down and storing syrup. 
After the queen had deposited a large num- 
ber of eggs in this comb I stopped feeding, 
and watched results. The bees ceased to 
draw down comb, and commenced to remove 
the eggs laid by the queen. They would de- 
stroy them as fast as the queen laid them. 
After they had destroyed all the eggs but 
about as many as would go in a 2>^-inch 
circle I again commenced feeding. These 
eggs had Iain in the cells between four and 
seven days. The bees now began to take 
care of them and hatched them. Now, Mr. 
Editor, if I had not tried feeding again, 
these eggs would not have hatched, but 
would have been destroyed; but when the 
conditions were right 1o suit them they 
hatched them, and not before. A queen 
will lay sometimes whether coiiditions are 
right or wrong. The bees seem to deter- 
mine these conditions to a great extent. 
This hive was not short of supplies in the 
comb, having plenty of sealed honey. 

BEES TRANSFERRING THE EGGS OP THE 
QUEEN. 

Can or do the bees sometimes carry eggs 
and place them in the cells? Yes. I caged 
a queen for four days in a hive that I had 
prepared with starters before shaking again 
on full sheets of foundation — a case of Amer- 
ican foul brood. The bees drew down the 
starters and carried theeggsfrom the queen- 
cage, taking them from the wire where the 
queen had deposited them in bunches, and 
distributed them as nicely as the queen 
would have done. This can not be disputed. 

WHY BEES SLEEP IN CELLS CONTAINING 
EGGS. 

Mr. Arthur C. Miller, page 663, Nov. 1, 
says, "Bees sleep, and do a lot of it." Let 
us grant it. Does it follow tluit they crawl 
into a cell simply to sleep? I doubt this 
statement. And, again, "Their presence 
has nothing to do with the hatching of the 
egg." Is this true? I wonder, Mr. Editor, 
that they persist in sleeping in the cells that 
contain eggs. AVhy not sleep in cells that 
have no eggs? Has locality any thing to 
do with this? I have watched this very 



closely, and I have failed to note an egg 
hatching in a cell that a bee had not spent 
considerable time in, and I also note that 
they do not spend any time sleeping in a 
cell of new comb unless there are eggs in it. 
As to whether a bee's head ever touches an 
egg in the cell I can not say. I have made 
my observations with a powerful magnify- 
ing-glass, and the sun shining through the 
comb; but I have invariably found that 
there was a bee in the cell on the opposite 
side. I have never been able to look through 
a comb and tell how close a bee's head was 
to an egg. If I could look between the head 
and the egg I might be able to determine 
this point; but I know of no way that one 
can look through a bee in a cell to determine 
how close its head is to an egg, nor to re- 
verse it and look through the bottom of an 
empty cell so as to see how close the egg on 
the other side is to the head of the bee. 

PACKING POLLEN IN THE CELLS. 

Let me add to what Mr. Miller has to say 
about bees packing pollen in the cells, that 
never, so far as my observation has gone, 
do the bees that bring the jiollen into the 
hive, pack it into the cells, although they 
put the little pellets in the cells direct from 
their pollen-baskets. Other bees do the 
packing of the pellets. 

I should like to have Mr. Miller explain to 
me why the pollen-bearers go through the 
crazy antics that they perform before and 
after depositing their load of pollen in the 
cell. 

ECONOMY IN USE OF FOUNDATION WHEN 
THE SUPPLY IS LIMITED. 

I have a scheme for nice straight all-work- 
er comb when I am short of foundation, and 
can not give a whole sheet. I wire all my 
frames, then cut four strips as wide as I can 
afford to give, fastening to the top bar and 
sealing two of them to the end bars, divid- 
ing the distance between these with the 
other two. I then fill in with short pieces 
of starters on the top bar. The bees will 
draw down from the top starters and con- 
nect with the upright strips, bringing the 
whole together in a beautiful straight work- 
er comb, and they will not build drone-stor- 
age comb between these strips. 

Seattle, Wash. 



The Bee. 



BY N. W. SAUNDERS. 



God, our precious loving savior, 

Sendeth down the rain and shower. 
Then the flower; then the honey-bee 

That flies from flower to flower. 

And hangs around the leaf and bower. 
Seems like God's precious promises 

He ofl'ers without price 

If we will but accept. 
Yet we selfish creatures sell the honey 
For the sake of sordid money. 

But, thanks to God for all we see. 

Especially the honey-bee. 



Mar. 1, 1912 



143 



I [j{](Bgi(il© (d(F ©[pgiDDD Ulpcddoq IBUfFcBD^cBmfl \FmM^< 



f " Notice to Iowa Beekeepers 

The beekeepers of Kort Dodge and vicinity are 
trying to organize a beeiceepers" association for 
the State of Iowa, under the auspices of the Nation- 
al I3eel<eepers" Association. We find, in looliing 
over lUireau of Entomology Circular No. 138 of bee 
diseases, tliat there have been reported In Iowa up 
to May 10, 1!)11, seventeen counties that have Amer- 
ican foul brood, and sixteen counties more In 
which it is suspected; European foul brood In four 
counties, and one suspected: and it is scattered 
from one side of tlie State to tlie other, as you will 
see If you checVc the counties as I have: and you 
will see we have enough foul brood to Infect the 
entire State, even if this is all there is in it. For 
the benefit of those who have not received Circular 
No. i:?8 1 will give a list of the counties that have 
the malady. 

AMERICAN FOUT- BROOD. 



EUROPEAN. 

Present. 
Guthrie. 
Johnson, 
JLlnn, 
Muscatine. 



Present. Siisi)ecle<l. 

AUamalcee, Appanoose, 

Butler. Buena Vista, 

Carroll. Cherolcee, 

Clayton, Davis, 

Clinton, Ida, 

DesMoines, Marshall, Suspected. 

Dicl<inson, Monona, Scott. 

Fayette. Monroe, 

Fremont, Montgomery. 

Hardin. Page, 

Linn. Plymouth, 

Lyon, Polk, 

Mills, Scott, 

Pottawattamie, Sioux, 
Sac, Taylor, 

Story, Vanburen. 

Woodbury. 

It seems to me that It is high time for the Iowa 
beekeeper to wake up and get busy. We must 
have inspectors in the field. In looking over the 
4'2d Annual Report of the National Beekeepers' 
Association I find that they have 92 members in 
Iowa. What are you doing? Are you waiting for 
Messiah to rise up among you to carry the cross ? 
The writer has been interested in the bee business 
only about twenty months: but he can see what 
the outcome will be if we do not get busy. We 
must get an appropriation, and that means dele- 
gates to the legislature. We have the law: but of 
what use is it with no funds to do the work ? Are 
we going to fold our arms and let this malady run 
rampage through our State? We have a big job on 
our hands now, and it will be larger next year. 
Iowa beekeepers, don't stop and think, but think 
on the go, and don't think too long, and don't 
think the other fellow will do the work and you get 
the benefit. It may take a few sections of honey to 
defray the expenses now: but let it go and it means 
sections, supers, hives, bees, and all. 

Mr. Frank C. Pellett, of Atlantic, made a request, 
through the columns of Gleaning.s, to the Iowa 
beekeepers to meet at DesMoines. A few respond- 
ed, but not enough to organize. If we do not wake 
up now. our slumbers will be broken by that awful 
smell that comes from American foul lirood. When 
I was at the National convention at Minneapolis 
last August I examined some American foul brood, 
and I Imagined 1 could smell it on my hands all 
the afternoon, although I did not touch It at ail. 

I heard there was or has been a beekeepers' asso- 
ciation in the west part of this State. If there is. 
we shall be glad to join it. I have not been able to 
locate It as yet. If any one can I will thank him if 
he will send me the address of the secretary: and if 
It Is alive and in working order, 1 tor one will join 
it and do what I can, and I believe I can get at 
least a dozen more to join. If we haven't an a.sso- 
ciation in Iowa I should be glad to have all the 
beekeepers in this State who read this to write me 
and state their views, and also state what they are 
willing to do. If a few of us have to put our gloves 
and veils on and fight this appropriation through 
we shall have a hard time. Let all of us light up 
our smokers and get a rousing association in Iowa, 
If you have a representative or senator near you. 
or one you are acquainted with, go after him and 
the work will be easy. 

Fort Dodge, la. E. E. Townsend. 

[The following will show that a work has been 
started, at least.— Ed.] 



Iowa Has a Beekeepers' Association 

On December 2i) the Tri-state Beekeepers' Associ- 
ation met in Sioux City, and at that meeting the 
Iowa delegation organized the Iowa State Beekeep- 
ers' Association, with W. P. Southworth, of Sallx, 
as president, C. L. Penny, of Lemars, .secretary and 
treasurer. Three vice-presidents were chosen to 
boost the organization in their districts— Frank C. 
Pellett, Atlantic: Frank Coverdale, Delmar: and 
J. L. Strong, t^larinda. 

As a committee on program for the next meet- 
ing, the following were named: C. 1>. Penny, .1. B. 
Espy, 11. A. Morgan. 

Iowa needs the -A.ssociation, and the Official 
Board win expect the enthusiastic co-operation of 
every beekeeper in the State, and each one Is urged 
to send in his name and membership dues at once 
to the secretary, C L. Penny, Tjemars. 

To be in harmony with the new constitution of 
the National Beekeepers' A.ssociatlon, when It Is 
adopted, the membership dues are fixed at ?1.50 
per year. Some may say that their dues are paid 
up in the National, and, therefore, they will delay 
sending their dues in to the State A.s.sociation. 
Please do not do this, but send In your dues at 
once, and your membership in the National will be 
extended, 

The new Association needs funds with which to 
begin work at once. The first business In hand 
will be to arrange for a big convention to be held 
at a time that will be most convenient for the larg- 
est number of beekeepers, when the organization 
will be perfected, and immediate steps will be tak- 
en to secure legislation to assist in checking the 
spread of bee diseases in the .State. 

No State in the Union can produce better honey 
than Iowa; and by mutual assistance the beekeep- 
ers can greatly Increase their yields and improve 
market conditions. 

IjSt every one interested in bee culture join the 
big cluster at once, by sending In his name and 
any suggestion that he has to offer. 

Salix, Iowa. W. P. Southworth, Pres. 



Clipped Queens a Nuisance 

Mr. Arthur C. Miller's article, page 755, Dec. 15. on 
clipped versus undipped queens, also the footnote 
asking for reports on this subject, prompts me to 
make reply. For the past forty years I have kept 
bees more or less. My home was in Northern Ver- 
mont until 1904, when I sold out and came to this 
coast. For about a year I was without bees; but 
being a wild-bee hunter I soon had some. This 
was in the suburbs of Portland, Oregon. At one 
time I bought 7 stands. One being queenless, I 
broke it up. I sold 11 colonies the following spring, 
so that my present yard of 78 colonies is practically 
all from the woods. When near Portland, being 
confined to a city lot, with tall fir-trees on one side 
and choice fruit-trees on the other, I resorted to 
clipping. I had tried it twice in Vermont, and both 
times had condemned it; but as location makes a 
difference In some respects, I tried clipping here 
for the third time. I saw no difference in the work 
of the queens, and never did in \'ermont; but trou- 
ble came when swarming came. The swarms 
would generally settle. The limbs had to be bro- 
ken off ray neighbors' fruit-trees, or the tall firs had 
to be climbed just the same. The swarms were 
hived in various ways, as deemed best, .sometimes 
on the returning plan. In case of others, the queen 
was placed among the bees, where they had .set- 
tled. Hut the great majority of tlie swarms, after 
being hived a short time, would begin to return to 
the parent hive. On examination a ball of bees 
would be found on the bottom-board, surrounding 
the poor clipped queen. The bees seemed to know 
that the queen was maimed and could not fulfill 
her natural office, viz., to depart with the swarm 
to a new locality, and so they would not tolerate 
her. If a swarm returned to the parent hive before 
I could find the clipped ciueen. or in my absence, it 
me.ant sure death to return her. If 1 could find the 
queen quickly, and replace her in the cluster about 
as soon as it began to form, she would be received 
all right. But l)ees are hard to deceive, so I clip no 
more. 

I lost all of my fine yellow ciueens which I had 
reared with great care the year before, and was en- 



144 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



tirely out of the stock solely because of clipping. A 
clipped queen in a hive is a nuisance, because she 
can not help herself. If in manipulating the hive 
she falls to the ground, she can not rise and return. 
I have seen them under the bottom-board with a 
cluster of bees that had to be returned several 
times before she could be captured, because she 
would crawl off in the ■ rass. When a swarm is- 
sues I always look for the queen in front of the 
hive. As a great many, although their wings are 
perfect, can not fly, they keep trying to do so, and 
crawl up on the grass until their weight bends it 
down. Thus they keep well up on the grass, and 
are easily found. The clipped queen simply crawls, 
and thus goes lower and lower in the grass, and is 
hard to find. An undipped queen can be caged for 
a long time if the swarm does not return; and when 
it does she can be placed among the bees, and no 
harm follows. If the swarm returns she can be re- 
turned also, and will come out again next day with 
the swarm. Very few undipped queens are lost in 
swarming except by mixing. I have had scarcely 
any bees leave me at swarming time. If I am ab- 
sent they generally hang until I return. 

I do not say that there was this wholesale slaugh- 
ter of clipped queens in Vermont, although I lost 
some. It was a general supersedure after clipping, 
not always immediately, but pretty sure to come. 
Treading on clipped queens while looking for them 
in the grass is another serious objection. I want 
my queens to be able to fly. Clipping is unnatural: 
and it has been my experience that it does more 
harm than good. 1 am a follower of nature, and 
am growing more confirmed in it. 

Yacott, Wash., Jan. 1. H. E. Harrington. 



Shipping Bees to South America 

Will you kindly furnish me Information as to 
how to pack bees? When is the best time to leave 
with them from New York? Please give all the in- 
formation necessary for the trip from here to South 

Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 6. F. L. Glisson. 

[We have never shipped any bees during cold 
weather, and therefore can not give you any infor- 
mation based on experience. Bees, however, have 
been shipped while it was quite cold. They have 
been hauled bysledloads from one apiary to anoth- 
er: but in that case it is usually advisable to put 
them in some cellar rather than out on their sum- 
mer stands, as the excitement caused by moving 
causes the duster to expand too much, and the 
bees become chilled, causing many of them to die. 
It would be our judgment that it would not be 
practicable to ship bees to New York until along 
in the spring, when the weather begins to warm 
up. If you could once get them aboard the ship, 
we do not think there would be any trouble about 
sending them at any time of year. 

If you feel that you must ship the bees during 
midwinter in order to get them to South Amer- 
ica in time for a flow of honey, we would advise 
you to have the frames securely fastened in the 
hive, using wired combs in any case, and screen 
the hive, top and bottom. But while the bees are 
being shipped by rail to New York in cold weath- 
er, it is advisable to secure the cover close to the 
screen. In other words, shut oflf the top and bot- 
tom ventilation, leaving only that which would be 
provided by the entrance, which should also be 
screened. The hives should be put in a car and 
loaded on to straw in such a way that the frames 
will be parallel with the track. It will be very 
necessary to see that the hives are securely fastened 
down, because, if the cars are bvimped back and 
forth, the hives will be broken open and bees liber- 
ated. If you have more hives than can be accom- 
modated on the bottOTU of the car, you can arrange 
to put series of planking or boarding above the 
hives that are already on the bottom, and put an- 
other tier above. In that case, leave about a foot 
or more of space between the two tiers of hives. 

Taking it all in all, we would hardly dare risk the 
experiment of shipping a carload of bees during 
the dead of winter to New York. They might go 
through in good order, and they might not.— Ed.] 



gent foul-brood law would be an excellent thing. I 
wonder whether Mr. Chadwick is familiar with the 
law of California, or whether it is a case of inspect- 
ors not doing their duty. The county board of su- 
pervisors of this State now appoints the inspectors, 
and every county has the right of an inspector 
upon a presentation of a petition. Generally the 
one they recommend is appointed. This same offi- 
cial can be removed by the same proceedings. Fur- 
ther aore, most of the counties in Southern Califor- 
nia have county ordinances for the further protec- 
tion of the bee industry. Under the present law 
the beemen have the situation in their own hands. 

If a State inspector can do better, let us have one 
by all means; but we must consider that California 
is a large State, and his doing all the inspection 
would be impossible. So it is a question as to 
whether we would not have the same inspectors 
after all, they holding the office as deputies. There 
is but one question in my mind: Do we want the 
governor to appoint our inspector, or shall we 
name our own as the law now reads? The State 
inspector, too, would be harder to reach than the 
board of supervisors. 

El Centro, Cal., Jan. 26. A. F. Wagner, 



Regarding the Change of the California Foul-brood 
Law 

p. C. Chadwick, of Redlands, Cal., page 39, Jan. 15, 
says that every one with whom he has talked or 
corresponded agrees with him that a more strin- 



Paper for Wrapping Hives in the Spring 

Mr. E. D. Toivnsend: — Having read your books, I 
notice you use white felt paper for protecting hives 
in the spring. Can you tell me the trade name of 
this paper, and where I can obtain it? The only 
samples I have obtained are asbestos and deaden- 
ing felt, and neither one seems right. 

East Syracuse, N. Y. F. W. Lesser. 

[Mr. Townsend replies:] 

We too have had trouble of late to get the same 
sheathing we bought five or six years ago, as the 
manufacturers seem to have adopted something 
besides the spruce that was formerly used in the 
manufacture of this white paper Hereafter we 
shall use a tarred felt paper for wrapping our hives 
for spring protection. If the cover of a ten-frame 
hive is removed, and paper, although only 32 inch- 
es wide, is put next to the bees it will come within 

2 inches of the bottom of the hive. On an eight- 
frame hive it will be about the desired width. If 
four lath are used in fastening the paper at the 
bottom, as we advise, two of them being 20 inches 
long, and the other two the length of the width of 
the hive, and a nice job of wrapping is done, so 
that the paper is not torn, and if there are no wrin- 
kles at the bottom, no heat to speak of can escape 
from a colony except at the entrance. On account 
of the molding of the handle extending at each end 
of the hive, we fold the paper at those corners of 
the hive. In this way an allowance can be made 
for this projection when folding. 

We cut our papers 38 in. long, on account of the 
hand grips taking some extra paper. Otherwise 36 
in. would be the right length to make the epd and 
sides come even at the bottoms. 

Now about the paper to use. If you will turn to 
Sears, Roebuck & Company's fall and winter cata- 
log, page 600. bottom of first column, you will find 
three weights of tarred felt. No. 1 has 250, No. 2 has 
400, and No. 3 has 500 square feet to the roll. The 
price a roll, 90 cents, is the same for any one of the 
three kinds. We have so far used the No. 2 heft, 
but will try some of the No. 3 this year. If the No. 

3 is tough enough to stand putting on without tear- 
ing, it will be warm enough, without a doubt. 

After this severe winter, many unprotected bees 
will be dead. Others will be between medium and 
good. It will be desirable next spring to foster 
these " weaklings," and papering will be found the 
most simple method, and the equal of any packing 
for spring protection. 

Remus, Mich. E. D. Townsend. 

Annual Meeting of the Oklahoma Beekeepers' As- 
sociation, Stillwater, Jan. 18, 1912 

There were present the smallest number of bee- 
keepers that have ever attended a meeting of the 
Association: but nearly every number on the pro- 
gram was filled, either by the party being present 
or sending in his paper. 

It was voted not to become a branch of the Na- 
tional Association at present, and the membership 
fee was reduced to 50 cents. The following resolu- 
tions were adopted: 

Be it resolved by the Oklahoma Beekeepers' As- 
sociation, that the A. and M. College and Expert- 



Mar. 1, 1912 



14S 



ment Station be requested to carry on more exper- 
iments along apicultural lines, to determine the 
best race of bees, the most useful hive for the farm- 
er beekeeper, the best manner of feeding bees, and 
also to experiment with different honey-plants. 

We also request that an apiary be established at 
the College, and some help by lectures and exhib- 
its on some of the future demonstration trains be 
given. 

N. Fred Gardiner. Pres., Geary. 

Geo. H. Coulson, Vice-pres., Cherokee. 

G. C. BoARDMAN, Sec, Shawnee. 

G. E. Lemon, Treas., Nash. 



Ten Questions and Answers 

1. In a bee-cellar, where should the thermometer 
be placed — at the bottom, top, or middle, to mark 
the required temperature of 42°? 

2. In making nuclei, what is the best way to build 
them up to become strong colonies ? 

3. Do you approve of metal sheets for covers to 
hives? 1 have found that they retain moisture in 
great drops on the under side; or is there a way to 
overcome the moisture ? 

4. Is it all right to breed virgin queens to drones 
of the same hive ? 

5. What is the great objection to natural swarm- 
ing? 

6. Do the Italian bees excel all other species in 
working on red clover? 

7. Do bees work continually, or take a rest after 
each load ? 

8. Just before uniting two colonies by alternating 
their combs, should they be smoked, and the se- 
lected queen caged and destroyed ? 

9. Is ripe alsike clover injurious as a feed for cat- 
tle because of danger of poison from the seed ? 

10. Which is the better to use for coating the in- 
side of wooden feeders — paraffin or linseed oil ? 

Slate River, Ont., Jan. 20. J. M. Munro. 

[1. We usually hang the thermometer in the mid- 
dle of the cellar about half way between the lowest 
and highest hive of bees. In a good bee-cellar you 
are not likely to find as much difference in temper- 
ature between the floor and the ceiling as in a room 
where there is artificial heat, for instance, and 
where there is outside exposure. 

2. We regard the Alexander plan for making in- 
increase as rather the best, all things considered : 
for the weak nuclei, being kept over the strong 
colony, have a better chance to keep warm and to 
breed up properly. 

3. We do not approve of sheets of metal for covers 
of hives unless there is wood underneath. If we 
understand the type of covers you refer to, there is 
no wood lining. In that case you should use a thin 
cover underneath, known as a super cover. 

4. If inbreeding were kept up very long, it is like- 
ly that the stock would degenerate. But there Is 
not much danger of this; for unless you are in an 
Isolated locality several miles from bees in bee- 
trees, etc., you can not be sure that your virgins 
are mating with drones from the same colony they 
were reared in. Even under the conditions named 
you have to keep drone-guards over all other colo- 
nies if you wish to prevent the virgins from mating 
with other drones. 

5. A certain amount of natural swarming is not 
objectionable in the least if some increase is want- 
ed any way, and if the swarming is not kept up to 
such an extent that the strength of the colony is 
reduced so that less surplus honey is produced. 
Some strains of bees will swarm excessively. Some 
of the largest producers that we have ever known 
have said that they do not object to natural swarm- 
ing; but they do object, of course, to after-swarm- 
ing. Where the bees want to swarm, however, as 
soon as the colony becomes strong enough to work 
well in the supers, so that super work is retarded, 
then the trouble begins. 

6. Some Italians excel all other bees in working 
on red clover; but it would not be true to say that 
all Italians do. 

7. It is impossible to give a definite answer to 
this question, as it is likely that bees rest more or 
less, although we are not quite ready to believe 
that they rest after every trip. At a time when one 
can hear above all else the roar of bees working fe- 
verishly on the flowers during a good flow of hon- 
ey, it seems impossible that there could be very 
much resting going on during the height of the 
work of the day. 

8. We do not advise the plan of uniting that you 



refer to here. It is better to have the bees unite 
very slowly, so that they hardly know a change has 
taken place. Placing one colony over another with 
a newspaper between is a good way. In either case 
it is well to kill the inferior queen first and then 
cage the other. 

9. We have never heard that ripe alsike clover is 
injurious to cattle. We can not say positively; 
but we doubt whether there is much foundation 
for such a theory. If any of our readers have rea- 
son to think otherwise we should be glad to have 
them report. 

10. Paraffin is rather better for coating the inside 
of feeders, as it has more body, and is more likely 
to prevent leaks. — ED.j 



No Difference in Laying, Whether Queens are 
Clipped or Not 

For the last five years I have clipped every laying 
queen I owned, and will continue to do so as long 
as the results are as satisfactory as they have been. 
I do not see the slightest difference between the 
laying of clipped and undipped queens, as Arthur 
C. Miller outlines, nor do I see that they are handi- 
capped in any way. for I have had clipped queens 
reach the age of four years. There is only one sea- 
son of the year when I hesitate to perform the op- 
eration, and that is from the middle of February to 
the first week in March (that is, here in the South), 
for at that time there are so many old nursing bees 
WJth a very cranky disposition: and with the least 
indication that the queen is not acting normally 
they will attempt to ball her. 

Elmendorf, Texas, Jan. 19. Alfred L. Hartl. 



Buckwheat Yielding Differently on Clay and Sandy 
Soil 

Regarding the article on p. 713, Dec. 1," Why Buck- 
wheat Yields only in the Morning," if I am not 
mistaken it usuallv yields honey nearly or quite 
all day on sandy soil; but on clay or even clay 
loam, it seldom yields in the afternoon. The qual- 
ity, too, is better on sandy soil. 

From fifteen to twenty years ago there was a 
good deal of buckwheat raised near my yard in the 
northern part of Sauk County, Wisconsin, and I 
often took as much as 100 pounds of nearly pure 
buckwheat honey (extracted) from a single colony. 
I think some years the yard averaged that much. 
We get but little there now. 

Veedum, Wis. E. M. Hayes. 



Information Wanted on Producing Honey in Dis- 
eased Apiaries 

There are many articles on curing foul brood, 
but only occasionally one on raising honey where 
the disease exists. We need good articles on sys- 
tems of keeping bees healthy and raising extract- 
ed honey where the disease does exist. It is done. 
There are beekeepers in Utah who raise it by the 
carload in locations one-fourth to a half diseased. 

North Yakima, Wash. V. V. Dexter. 

[This is an important question; for with P^uropean 
foul brood especially, it is almost impossible to get 
entirely rid of the disease at once; and if it gets 
into the locality, it is bound to keep cropping out 
to some extent for several years, although it can be 
kept well under control. We shall be glad to have 
our readers give us the benefit of their experience 
along this line.— Ed.] 



How Could Bees Separate Water from Syrup so 
Quickly ? 

In my article for Dec. 1, p. 717, I wrote about " lit- 
tle drops falling like rain." Dr. Miller and the edi- 
tor, p. 4, Jan. 1, joined in saying that it was "water 
separated by the bees from the syrup." I do not 
care to question authority as good as this, but at 
the same time it gives rise to several questions in 
my mind that I should like to see answered for the 
good of the readers. 

1. How long a time is required after a bee has ta- 
ken up the syrup before it will be able to throw off 
the water? Those drops were falling all the way 
between the tub where the bees were feeding and 
the hives, six or eight rods away, but to a great ex- 
tent near the tub, or before the bees could rise 
over the brim. 



146 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



2. Was this water separated from the syrup while 
being taken, or after It had entered the honey sac ? 

3. We often notice after a rain during a flow of 
honey that nectar Is very much thinner than at 
other times. Why does this filter not work at 
such times rather than force the bees to carry to 
the hives a large surplus of water that must be 
evaporated later? 

4. In giving bees a rough handling until they 
have gorged themseves with honey, how often do 
we land them regurgitating it over themselves, 
forming a sticky mass ? 

This process, I understand, represents an abnor- 
mal condition; but so is feeding from a tub unusu- 
al. Furthermore, on the grass all around the tub 
were scores of bees that I supposed were reclaim- 
ing the sweets that had been lost. I may be mista- 
ken in this, but will try an experiment in the 
spring to make sure. I am satisfied for the present 
with what became of my 500 pounds of sugar. 
Moistened sugar for stimulative purposes and 
heavy syrup fed qviickly for winter stores (both fed 
In the hive) suit me: and if I should try feeding in 
the open air again it would be with moistened su- 
gar spread over a large surface. 

Hartford, Ct. A. W. Yates. 

[1. The bees we have observed, eject the water 
ten or twenty feet from the ground after they arise 
from the outdoor feeder. Sometimes the spray is 
shot out when the bees are forty to fifty feet from 
the point of starting. 

2. We do not know how the water is separated. 
The sweetened water they take up from the feeders 
may go into the honey sac or stomach, and the ex- 
cess of water pass through tlie alimentary canal, 
and finally out at the anal opening : or the excess 
of water may be regurgitated and discharged from 
the mouth. It will be very difficult to determine 
just how the bees do it ; but it is remarkable tliat 
such a fine spray should be shot out immediately 
after taking flight. 

3. We do not know. 

4. We have never noticed the bees regurgitating 
the honey over themselves when roughly handled: 
or, rather, we should say, we have never handled 
them so roughly that they have ever done this. We 
were not aware that rough handling of any sort 
would cause them to regurgitate the contents of 
their honey sacs or stomachs on themselves. 

Referring to your last paragraph, we have no ab- 
solute means of knowing whether the spray dis- 
charged by the bees while in the air is water free 
from saccharine matter or sweetened water that is 
an excess of what they can carry. As the bees 
shoot out this spray when gathering nectar from 
the flowers as well as from feeders it would hardly 
seem to us that nature would be so wasteful that 
she would throw away sweetened water or nectar. 
In other words. It Is our opinion that a bee is an 
economical machine. The principle of the survi- 
val of the fittest has made It so. apparently. 

A. I. Hoot, some years ago, collected the spray 
that the bees shot out when they took wing while 
they were working on the spider plant. This spray 
was caught on dinner plates: and, so far as he 
could determine at the time, it was nothing but 
water, while the nectar from the spider plant, 
which he gathered with a tiny spoon, was distinct- 
ly sweet. Last fall we gathered on our hands some 
of the spray the bees shot out. On tasting it, it 
seemed to be nothing but water. However, it map 
have contained some saccharine matter. This is a 
matter that will have to be worked out by other 
observers. At all events, the spray such as we saw 
was thrown over the leaves and shrubbery near 
the outdoor feeder. The fact that our bees did not 
go after this after the feeders were emptied, and 
the further fact that it was evaporated without 
leaving a deposit, would seem to indicate that It 
was only water. 

The bees that you found on the grass around the 
tub, we should be Inclined to think, were those 
that had overgorged themselves and were unable 
then to take wing. Years ago, when our bees 
worked on the spider plant that gave such copious 
quantities of nectar, some bees would take such 
big drinks that they would drop down on the 
ground, apparently because they were overloaded. 
Presently they would take wing and away they 
would go.— Ed.] 

Bees Eject Water when Fed Maple Sap 

I have supposed or taken it for granted that 
every one knew that bees eject water when carry- 



ing very thin nectar. Chip a maple, blackwalnut, 
or any tree that has a sweet sap, or give bees water 
slightly sweetened, and stand between them and 
the sun while they are carrying it home, and you 
can very distinctly see them eject water. 

MOTHER AND DAUGHTER TAKING TURNS. 

I raise my best queens from an old queen when I 
put her off by herself with a few bees and a single 
frame of brood, and let the bees supersede her. For 
some time the mother and daughter will occupy 
the same comb — the former laying once in a while 
an egg, while the latter will work very industrious- 
ly laying eggs. I usually find them about two 
inches apart, and they appear to keep about that 
distance habitually. 

THREE-WHEELED CART. 

I do not like a wheelbarrow for handling honey 
nor for any other purpose about a beeyard. I use a 
three-wheeled cart with springs. I had it made at 
South Bend, Ind., and shipped to me as freight. 

MOTH.S IN COLORADO. 

Don't you let them make you believe that bee- 
moths are unknown in Colorado — both kinds too. 
Just lease a ranch to some Easterner who thinks 
there are none, and by the end of the season you 
will be able to find plenty. 

Carlton, Col., Feb. 5. James H. Wing. 



Production of Extracted Honey Much More Profita- 
ble than Comb 

Referring to the editorial, page 35, January 15, 1 
will sai that it does not pay us to ship any comb 
honey to market, except the fancy and Xo. 1 white. 
At the same time, there are so many unfinished 
sections that have cost us about as much to pro- 
duce as the good grade that the profit in comb 
honey is almost wiped ovit, since we are obliged to 
accept practically extracted-honey prices for these 
culls. When it comes to dollars and cents, extract- 
ed honey has comb honey beat a mile. We can 
produce almost 2^<i pounds of extracted honey to 
one of comb. In this country we are just finding 
that extracted honey is much more profitable. 

Wyoming. Winfield Martin. 



Dampening 500 Seetions Without Swelling the 
Wood 

Remove the boards on the top side of the crate 
holding the sections and gently shake the loose 
sections end down until all of the V grooves are 
opposite and even. Drive two long sticks as wedges 
down to the bottom of the crate on one side so that 
the faces of the sections are tightly wedged togeth- 
er, and no water can reach them. Pick up the 
crate endwise and immerse it in a tub of water. 
The water will run through the open grooves, wet- 
ting them thoroughly, leaving the surfaces dry. 
Only one immersion is necessary, and the crate 
should be placed so as to drain at once. If kept 
covered the sections will stay damp all day, even 
in a dry climate. 

Bakersfield, Cal. L. C. Clark. 



Honey Cures Sick-headache 

1 have been Informed by Captain Geo. H. White- 
side, a very iirominent citizen of Appalachicola, 
also manufacturer of ice there, that he has been 
cured of sick-headache by eating honey twice a 
day. His headache was so severe that he had to go 
to bed, sometimes for several days. You may rest 
assured that this comes from a man who stands 
high among the people of this State, and from one 
who is a ( 'hristlan gentleman, 

Sumatra, Fla. A. B. Marchant. 



Clipping Queens of Prime Swarms. 

1 follow the practice of clipping queens, and am 
not troubled much by supersedure: but I always 
avoid clipping the wings of a queen in a colony 
that is working well and is in normal condition. 

Webster Springs, W. Va. L. S. Weese. 



Pyrox fills the barrel with the apples that used to 
be on top. M'rlte Bowker Insecticide Co., Boston, 
for book. 



Mar. I. 1912 



147 



ff^cDQDLT'^^r m)E[p^[STrsfflirair 



A. I, Root 



STILL ANOTHER ''BIG DISCOVERY;" HOW TO 

"GROW " YOUR OWN BUTTER ("AS WELL 

AS EGGS ") IN YOUR OWN BACK YARD. 

Our friend Philo certainly made a big 
stroke in introducing a short cut between 
"producer and consumer" when he made 
"a little |)oultry " in the back yard so much 
the fashion; and in spite of his fearful ex- 
aggeration at times, I think we can give 
him a vote of thanks; but I presume it 
never entered his mind that his " system " 
would give buttn- as well as eggs. Well, 
just listen, ^frs. Hoot wanted a hen for din- 
ner; and as the Leghorn yard contains the 
oldest hens 1 went to this yard after dark 
and sampled a dozen hens by feeling of their 
pelvic bones to see which were the layers, 
until I found one very fat and plump, with 
the said bones very near together; and as a 
further precaution I shut her up alone for a 
week; but, as I expected, she never laid an 
egg. When she was killed there were no 
eggs anywhere near maturity; but she was 
literally a great lump of fat. When "tried 
out " there was over a pound of nice yellow 
"chicken oil." I suggested using it for 
butter; and by salting to taste I find it 
suits me even better than the butter that 
now costs us 50 cts. at our grocers. In con- 
sequence of the recent high jDrices for butter, 
many are using cotton-seed oil, others oleo, 
and Terry uses olive oil, even if it does cost 
away up. because he thinks it even more 
wholesome than cows' butter. Xow, why 
in the world can we not utilize this chicken 
fat, especially when all we can get in the 
market is about 15 cts. i)er lb. for our fat 
chickens — sometimes a good deal less than 
that? Once more, we talk about the high 
price of grain. Isn't there money in feed- 
ing grain to chickens when, by using this 
fat in jilace of butter, it nets you 50 cts. per 
lb. or more? Once more, where we keep 
feed right before our chickens, as I do (in 
galvanized tubs hung from the roof), there 
will be now and then a hen, even with the 
Leghorns, that gets too fat. When this oc- 
curs, just sort out the suspected drones, as I 
have outlined, and make them take the 
place of butter. By the way, every little 
while somebody wants my opinion of the 
" Potter system." This system isa/if/p, as 
I have outlined; l)ut I very strongly object 
to the way in which I'otter does business. 
The price for his little book is an outrage. 
His .secret has been published over and over, 
and his requiring a signed pledge "not to 
divulge," etc., is ridiculous. I have two or 
more copies of the book; and when I sent 
the money for the book, but rffumd to sign 
my name to the jiledge of secrecy, he or they 
signed my name t(^ the pledge without any 
authority at all from me. What do you 
think of such a way of doing business? 
Finally, the discovery is not Potter's at all. 
It is simply the Hogan flO.Oo secret of years 
ago. Never mind the secret or secrets; let 



us all get to work and grow our own butter 
in the Dack yard — at least until butter gets 
down a little from off its present "high 
stilts." 

INFERTILE EGGS, AND HOW MUCH HAS THE 
INCUBATOR TO DO WITH IT? 

Feb. 9, at ten o'clock a.m., I put 63 duck 
eggs into the incubator; and finding a sit- 
ting hen when gathering the eggs, at dusk, 
I took 13 eggs out of the incubator and plac- 
ed them under the hen. I did this to satis- 
fy myself in regard to several matters per- 
taining to incubation. Well, after six days 
I tested all the eggs, and, to my great sur- 
prise, I found ten infertile ones out of the 
fifty in the incubator, and not a single one 
under the sitting hen. Every egg of her 13 
showed plain and clear marks of fertility. 
What have incubator manufacturers to say 
to this? So far as I can remember, no ven- 
der has ever advertised his machine would 
give as many fertile eggs at the time of test 
as a sitting hen. If 20 per cent of all the 
eggs incubated are (with incubators) thrown 
out as infertile, is there not a big argument 
right here in favor of hens that has not been 
properly considered? 

Last winter I had two or more hens that 
hatched every duck egg given them, and 
this winter I have had two hens bring off 
eleven ducks each, from eleven fertile eggs. 
There is at present (at least down here in 
Florida) a big complaint of eggs for the in- 
cubator being infertile; and this recalls to 
mind the down-east "secret" of starting all 
eggs under hens before placing them in the 
incubator. No doubt it would give excel- 
lent results if we could get enough hens to 
sit all at one time. This calls to mind the 
remark made several times recently, that 
the first week of incubation decides at least 
largely the outcome of the hatch. To test 
this I took thirteen eggs that a hen sat on, 
"off and on," for two or three days, and 
then " threw^ up the job." < )n testing them 
out I could not discover that they were in 
any way hastened along, or looked dilTerent 
from eggs that did not have this irregular 
heat for that length of time. In the first 
paragraph above I should have stated the 
incubator eggs showed larger and stronger 
germs than the eggs under the hen, indicat- 
ing, probably, that I gave the eggs more 
heat than did "biddy." Could this explain 
the lack of fertility? 

FIRELESS COOKERS, FIRELESS BROODERS, 
ETC., AND, FINALLY, THE "FIRE- 
LESS AEROPLANE." 

liy the way, when I spoke some time ago 
about a fireless incubator, several friends 
took the trouble to explain to me about a 
hot-water incubator, and called it firelrss. 
Xow, this is not only very old, but it is in 
no sense fireless. as you have to have a fire 
to heat the water, and a lamp is ever so 



148 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



much simpler and less trouble. Now about 
the tireless aeroplane: My attention has 
just been called to it by the following, which 
I clip from the Cleveland Plain Dealer: 

The Wright brothers annouuce the completion of 
a tireless aeroplane. Anybody can fly now — there's 
no danger of being drowned if one wears a cork 
belt, and why be hanged if you have a good lawyer? 
And now that one can't get burned up while flying, 
immortality is assured. 

We don't know how much of the above 
is newspaper pleasantry and how much is 
truth; but the clipping calls to mind that I 
have neglected, until just now, to thank the 
kind friends who sent Christmas greetings 
to Mrs. Root and myself about the first of 
the New Year; and, while thanking you all, 
I want to tell you that I feel a lot of pride 
in pointing to a neat booklet on our center 
table that contains inside the following: 

1911—1912 
A Mekry Christmas and a Happy New Year 
WiLBER Wright, 
Orville Wright, 
Katherine Wright. 

When I go back to Ohio in May I am plan- 
ning to go and see that "flreless " and then 
I can tell you more about it. 



GRAPE FRUIT FOR RHEUMATISM. 

I have before mentioned that grape fruit 
alone gave me almost immediate relief from 
a kidney trouble that had been afflicting me 
more or less for years. See the following: 

A WONDERFUL FRUIT; MOST VALUABLE OF ALL. 

Last month we mentioned that the grape fruit 
would cure rheumatism. We thought that this 
fact was universally known in Florida, but it seems 
that many of our people right where the grape 
fruit grows did not know that a most complete and 
sure cure grew right at their hands. The editor 
was a great sufferer from muscular rheumatism 
and sciatica, and it departed years ago. We do not 
hesitate to say that, if properly taken, and only If 
properly taken, the use of grape fruit will cure any 
case of rheumatism that can be found. It is na- 
ture's cure. The fruit mvist be eaten without su- 
gar, or juice can be taken by a reamer, such as is 
used for extracting lemon juice, now made and 
sold generally for grape fruit, being larger. Take 
freely of the fruit or juice, from the fruit with a 
spoon, preferably every morning before taking 
other food. In severe cases it may be well to take 
before each meal. Take fresh fruit. Do not think 
that a half of a stale fruit is of any benefit. Many 
who come to spend a winter in Florida with rheu- 
matism can go back north free from the disease. 
But they rarely ever want to go permanently. This 
recipe Is not copyrighted.— jWoc/eiZo Tropical Topics. 



Kind Words From Our Customers. 



Dear Mr. i2oo<.— We read the Home papers first. 
The notes on temperance indicate an individual 
who is not afraid to fight for the right. Our home 
city, Knoxville, is a dry town. Our Tennessee cities 
and towns would all be " dry " if the law were not 
flagrantly and openly violated. 

Louisville, Tenn., Nov. 20. Sarah A. Rule. 



BEES AND RIGHTEOUSNESS. 

A little over one year ago I knew nothing con- 
cerning bees. I became interested, and purchased 
one stand. They increased to three stands last 
summer. They wintered outdoors well, and now 
number five stands. They are a great pleasure to 
Mrs. Porter and myself, even if we received no prof- 
it other than the study of their lives and to work 
with them; but they will much more than supply 
us with honey. 

We look forward to the coming of Gleanings to 
our home anxiously, and read it with great pleas- 
ure and profit. The Home department is especial- 
ly Interesting to us. and alone is well worth the 
cost of Gleanings. The stand you have taken on 
the liquor question, the instructions and advice, 
the application of God's word, must come from one 
led by the spirit of true patriotism and of Christ. 

Byesville, O., July 12. H. C. Porter. 



"get thee behind me, SATAN." 

Mr. A.I. Root: — After reading your talks for Aug. 
1, wherein you give your experience with the rail- 
road agent, I feel I must tell you of a similar expe- 
rience I had. When I was a boy, money was very 
scarce with me, so the temptation was that much 
stronger. I was walking along the road one day, 
and a little negro boy was just in front of me when 
I saw him drop a ten-cent piece. I picked it up 
and asked him if he had dropped any thing. He 
said no, so I put it in my pocket. As nearly as I 
can remember 1 kept it about a year. I could not 
stand it any longer, so I gave it back to him. A 
few years after that I went into a store in my home 
town and bought a dime's worth of something, and 
gave the clerk a fifty-cent piece. He gave me back 
90 cents. There was the old tempter again. I took 
the money and walked out of the store. But the 
next day I carried it back to him. A few years aft- 
er that I was in Richmond, Va., and wanted to go 
to a place on the James River. The fare was 81.40. 
I gave the agent a S2.00 note. He handed me back 
83.60. The tempter had left me then. I did not 
touch the notes, but took up the 60 cents and said, 
" That was a two-dollar bill I gave you." He ap- 
peared very much embarrassed, but said, "I am 
very much obliged to you." I know what it is to 
be a Christian, and I would not give it for all of the 
riches in the world. I know you are a busy man, 
and I don't know that you will read this; but I felt 
as if I must tell you about it. 

R. Z. SCLATER. 



" MARCHING ON." 



LOOKING FOR A CHANCE TO GET "A CRACK AT THE 

SALOONS." 

I have been a subscriber to Gleanings for two or 
three years, and I am a friend of the bee, but look- 
ing all of the time for a chance to get a " crack " at 
the saloon. That God may bless you in your fight 
against intemperance and all other evils is my 
wish. 

Cranbury, N. J., Oct. 9. Oliver Croshaw. 



I want to confess to taking, without your permis- 
sion, from your excellent magazine a part of an ar- 
ticle which appeared some time ago in regard to 
the amount of spirits consumed in the United 
States, and including it in an article I wrote for the 
Baptist Record, of Pella, Iowa. However, I gave 
you credit for what I took. Now tell me what's to 
pay. 

One thing more. 1 notice in Gleanings, Oct. 15, 
you refer to John Brown as a martyr. Now, I want 
to say that I had two brothers with John Brown at 
Harper's Ferry. One was sacrificed to the Moloch 
slavery in Virginia, and the other afterward in 
Missouri. It does me good for this reason, and be- 
cause he has been so misrepresented by historians, 
to hear John Brown spoken of as a martyr. 

Again, I have read with much pleasure and profit 
your lay sermons, and hope to read more of them. 
I have been preaching the glorious old gospel my- 
self for almost half a century; and the older I get, 
the more precious it seems. I am especially pleas- 
ed with your warfare against the saloon. It seems 
to me the time has come when every lover of right- 
eousness should speak out against this evil of all 
evils. 

Shall tongues be mute when deeds are wrought 
Which well might shame extremest hell? 

Shall freemen lock the indignant thought? 
Shall pity's bosom cease to swell? 

Shall honor bleed? shall truth succumb? 
Shall pen and press and soil be dumb? 

No! by each spot of haunted ground 
Where freedom weeps, her children faU, 

By Plymouth Rock, by Bunker's mound. 
By all above, around, below. 
Be ours the indignant answer — no! 

Chambers. Neb., Sept. 29. J. C. Coppoc. 



Published by The A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. H. Root, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyben, Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department J. T. Calvekt, Business Manager 

Entered at the Postofflce, Medina, Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



MARCH 15, 1912 



NO. 6 



dloi^cDfPDaiD 



Mb. Wesley Foster, in this issue, has a 
very fair article on honey-crop reports that 
is well worth reading. 



E. R. Root left for Bradentown, Fla., 
March 4, and expects to return to his office 
on the 29th of the same month. This will 
explain why the answer to some of his let- 
ters may be delayed until his return. 

THAT TOBACCO ARTICLE 

In publishing the tobacco article as given 
on page 162 of this issue, it is not our pur- 
pose to boom or sanction an industry which 
we do not approve, but to show how bees 
pollinate the plant. In doing this we mere- 
ly wish to show that if bees can pollinate 
what we consider to be of no real economic 
benefit to man they can also pollinate a 
plant that gives real life and health to both 
men and women. 



EXTRA-LARGE EDITION OF OUR HORTICUL- 
TURAL NUMBER 

We are printing an extra-large edition 
of this special number on "Bees and Fruit;" 
and if beekeepers will send us a list of the 
names of fruit men in their vicinity who 
might be helped by the educational ar- 
ticles on fruitgrowing published in this 
number, we shall be very glad to send them 
a copy without charge. In this way we 
hope to help the beekeepers themselves as 
well as the fruit men. 



THE INCREASING DEMAND FOR BEES IN OR- 
CHARDS 

Elsewhere in this issue Prof. H . A. Sur- 
face, Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, calls 
attention to the fact that there is an increas- 
ing number of orchardists who are asking 
to have bees located among their trees. Mr. 
N. E. France, General ISIanager of the Na- 
tional Beekeepers' Association, who has 
traveled extensively, finds that the fruit- 
growers over the country are either buying 
bees and putting them in their orchards, or 
are offering the free use of their orchards to 
beekeepers if they will only put their bees 
there. In most cases beekeepers will do 
well to hunt up the fruitgrowers and inform 
them of the important work performed by 
bees in pollinating their trees. This should 



be done at once. By so doing good locations 
may be secured free of cost. 



SEASON PROSPECTS 



It is still too early to give any thing like 
a definite summary of the few reports on 
wintering that have come in. However, at 
this time it seems safe to say that the colo- 
nies in the northern States that were in 
good condition in the fall, and that were 
packed well out of doors, or wintered in good 
cellars, will come through without much 
loss. In those j^arts of the country where 
the winters are not usually sev^ere, there 
seems to be quite a heavy loss, owing to the 
beekeepers having been taken unawares by 
the extreme cold. We may be mistaken; 
but at this date, March 11, it looks as though 
there might be a somewhat greater mortali- 
ty, the country over, than usual. 

The rain, so long delayed in California, 
came at last; but the general feeling is that 
the prospect of a honey crop is very doubt- 
ful outside of the irrigated districts, on ac- 
count of the fact that sage and other honey- 
producing plants have made no growth ow- 
ing to the very severe drouth. 

In the South, the conditions in general 
seem to be normal, although in the south- 
western part of Florida one-half to two- 
thirds of the colonies are dead. In the east- 
ern and central part of the State, conditions 
are much better. Those in Georgia and 
tho.se throughout the cotton belt, in fact, 
are in fine order; but those in other parts of 
the South, not near the cotton belt, are in 
rather poor condition, owing to the drouth 
during the latter part of the summer. In 
the clover regions of Mississippi and Ala- 
bama the bees are in good condition. Re- 
ports from the Carolinas indicate that there 
has been no more loss than usual. 

Most of the few reports that we have from 
Illinois indicate rather heavy losses, al- 
though when the full returns are in, a sum- 
mary of the whole state may not reveal se- 
rious losses. Scattering reports from other 
parts of the country do not show any thing 
very definite as yet. This winter has em- 
phasized most plainly the importance of 
having the colonies headed by young, vig- 
orous queens that will make certain a good 
proportion of young bees in the fall. 



124 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



ORANGES AND BEES 

The cover design of this issue shows a 
beautiful orange tree in what is known as 
the Sespe apiary, belonging to Mr. J. F. Mc- 
Intyre, of Ventura, Cal. The hives of bees 
are shown under the trees in the background, 
while the orange tree in the foreground is 
loaded with fruit. We regret that we are 
not able to show the beautiful color values 
of the oranges and the dark glossy leaves in 
contrast. 

It might be interesting to recall that this 
apiary has, or did have, at least, something 
like 500 colonies in it. There seem to be 
only two yards in the United States that 
have as large a number of bees in one spot 
as this. The other apiary to which we refer 
is the Alexander yard, located at Delanson, 
N. Y. 

The bees at the 8espe apiary work on the 
orange bloom in the immediate vicinity, 
and on the mountain sage when it yields. 
In this particular case, bees and fruit, or, if 
you please, bees and oranges, go well to- 
gether. 

hard candy for winter and spring 
feeding; how to make it 

Into a dish of hot water on the stove 
slowly pour an equal amount of sugar, stir- 
ring constantly. Make sure that the sugar 
is all dissolved before boiling commences. 
If this precaution is not observed, some of 
the undissolved sugar is likely to burn, in- 
juring the flavor of the candy and almost 
surely causing trouble with the bees later. 
If you have a candy thermometer, watch 
the temperature, and do not let it go above 
275 to 280 degrees. Test frequently by drop- 
ping a very little of the syrup into cold wa- 
ter (about"50 to 55 degrees F.). When the 
boiling has continued long enough the 
drop of candy, when cooled in the water, 
should be hard and brittle when taken out; 
but when placed in the mouth it should 
soften slightly, so that it is tough. When 
this time has arrived, pour the syrup im- 
mediately on to paraffined or waxed paper 
on a table. Have the table perfectly level, 
and around the outside of the paper put 
wooden sticks X-i^ch high to confine the 
syrup and prevent it from running off. 
When the candy is nearly hard, crease it or 
cut it with a heavy knife so that it may be 
broken up into right-sized squares when 
hard. 

The color of the candy when cold should 
be about that of light basswood honey. If 
it is darkened very much it is scorched and 
unfit for the bees. To prevent the scorch- 
ing, reduce the fire toward the last so that 
the syrup will boil but slowly. 

When the candy is first made, it is hard 
and glassy, and perfectly transparent; but 
after it stands for a little time it becomes 
somewhat watery and crystalline; but this 
is all the better so far as the bees are con- 
cerned, for they are enabled to take it more 
easily. 

The thin cakes of candy being only % 
inch thick may be placed over the frames 



and under the regular cover, and in this 
way a colony saved that would otherwise be 
lost. The feeding of syrup, especially in 
the spring, is apt to caiise great excitement 
and ]:)ossibly robbing, and for this reason 
the candy is safer because it takes it slowly. 



BEES WORTH A HUNDRED MILLION DOLLARS 
AS POLLINATORS 

Having occasion recently to deliver a talk 
on the relation of bees to horticulture, at 
the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, 
Canada, we made the statement that bees 
produce annually $20,000,000 worth of hon- 
ey; but that their economic importance to 
the fruitgrower and the consumers of fruit 
in this country could be measured by five 
times that in the production of more and 
better fruit and better crops. After we had 
concluded our talk we asked the botanist 
who heard this talk if this statement, in his 
opinion, was too strong. He very promptly 
replied that it was not. 

Neither the beekeeper nor the fruitgrower 
fully realizes the important work the bees 
perform in jiollinating fruit -blossoms 
throughout the country, especially the finer 
fruits such as plums, cherries, peaches, pears, 
and most apples. There are very few fruit 
trees that are self-pollinating. Charles Dar- 
win made the statement that nature abhors 
self-pollination. As bees, in most cases, are 
about the only insects that are in the air at 
the time most of our trees are in bloom, it 
follows that they are the main sources of 
cross -pollination. Fortunately, our best 
horticulturists and fruitgrowers are to-day 
the bees' best friends. It is only the nar- 
row-minded and the uninformed who com- 
plain of the bees being a nuisance in orchards 
and vineyards. The overripe and otherwise 
imperfect fruit from damage or otherwise 
should be picked off early and marketed lo- 
cally rather than to hang on the trees, or, 
worse yet, lie on the ground in a half-rotted 
condition, attracting the bees. 

The only time that bees are said to be a 
real nuisance is when cut fruit is placed out 
to dry in California and elsewhere. It may 
be questioned whether it is best to put out 
fruit to dry in some places subject to dis- 
ease-laden germs of all sorts. It would 
seem that legislation should properly safe- 
guard tjie outdoor drying; for why should 
we eat dried apricots and prunes that are 
coated v/ith dust? We have been in some 
(not all) fruit-drying ranches in California 
where the dust was flying in all directions. 
If some of our Eastern consumers could see 
the way this fruit is exposed they would 
say better by far that the bees should eat 
it all, rather than have it placed on our 
tables laden with disease-bearing germs. 



BEES and grapes 

Complaints seem to be increasing of how 
bees "eat grapes." In every case that has 
come under our observation we do not know 
of one where the bees were the real and pri- 



Mar. 15. 1912 

mary cause of the damage to the fruit. We 
would call attention to the excellent reply 
to a correspondent by Prof. II. A. Surface, 
Economic Zoologist, Harrisburg, Pa., on 
this subject, in this issue. See page 158. 
Prof. Surface is one of the best authorities 
in the country on the relation of bees to hor- 
ticulture, lie has conducted some thorough 
exi)eriments, and furthermore is an entomol- 
ogist, zoologist, fruitgrower, and beekeeper. 
What he has to say in this issue should be 
given some weight. 

We find that the Cape May warbler {Den- 
droica tigrlna) is the real culprit, and not 
the bees, in this locality at least; and we 
have reason to believe that in many others 
the small holes made in the grapes attribut- 
ed to the bees are made by these birds that 
come on early in the morning. They run 
their beaUs into every berry in a bunch. In- 
stead of using up one berry they make a 
single hole in every berry, thus ruining the 
whole bunch. Indeed, they will go over a 
whole vineyard in that way. As one is not 
usually uj) at that time of day, the birds are 
not discovered. The bees come along about 
eight o'clock, and, of course, run their 
tongues down into the holes made by the 
birds. The bees are caught in the act; and 
after they leave, these small holes are dis- 
covered. The natural conclusion is that the 
bees are responsible for the whole trouble. 
Beekeepers should take pains to inform 
their grape-growing neighbors about these 
birds. 

PUBLIC SENTIMENT GROWING AGAINST THE 
SPRAYING OF FRUIT BLOSSOMS. 

In any locality where there are fruit- 
growlers so behind the times, and so igno- 
rant as to insist on spraying their trees while 
in bloom, it is a good plan to create a public 
sentiment against the practice. The lead- 
ing experiment stations and horticulturists 
in the country are now very explicit in their 
Condemnation of blossom-spraying, so there 
is no lack of evidence, even from a fruit- 
grower's standpoint, showing that it is a 
bad plan. One way of creating such a sen- 
timent is to get the editor of the local paper 
to accept an article that is at once interest- 
ing and readable, and yet full of proof that 
fruit blossoms should not Vje sprayed. 

One of our subscribers, El. L. Dresser, of 
Ithaca, X. Y., who has had considerable 
trouble along this line, was at last stung in- 
to action, and he sent to the Ithaca Daily 
Journal a statement in which he spoke his 
mind on the subject. We have not room 
for the whole article, but we give herewith 
parts of it to show what can be done: 

To (he Kililor of The .To>irnfil:—\ short time ago 
our sen.sibilltles were shocked by the accounts of a 
mother who poisoned her child b.v conipelline it to 
drink carbolic acid. So outraged was the public, 
that, when the woman was taken to Albany for 
trial, mob violence was feared, and a special force 
was called out to guard the prisoner from the sta- 
tion to the jail. 

Vet within our own "Biggest Little City" last 
summer thousands of little lives were destroyed by 
poison, no account of which reached the papers, 
nor was it of any seeming consequence save to a 
few interested parties. 



15t 

The honey-bee is the friend of humanity. NoC 
only do these little gatherers produce annually 
thousands of tons of the most delicious and health- 
f\il sweet known to man, but in their ciuest they 
pollinate the llowers, and thus multiply by many 
bushels and barrels the fruits and vegetables to the 
enrichment of tlu- producer and the benefit of the 
consumer. Thus the honey-bee is a friend not only 
to the orchardist and fruitgrower, and every one 
who has a fruit tree in his yard or a vine in his' 
garden, but to the whole human race. 

Alter many careful experiments at both the State 
Kxperiment Station and the Cornell Agricultural 
College, the conclusion was reached that, to spray 
the fruit trees when in bloom, is a positive damage 
(see Experiment Station Record, Vol. 13, p. 36-1). 

As a result, the Legislature passed the following 
law: 

"Any person who shall spray with or apply In 
any way poison or any i)oisonous substance to fruit 
trees while the same are in blossom is guilty of a 
misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars, etc." (see Chap. 
171 of laws of 1900). 

C. E. Layman, of Troutville, Va., in an article In 
Gleaning.s in Bee Citltuke, March 1, 1911, says: 
" I have had a great deal of experience in the spray- 
ing of fruit, and have watched some of my neigh- 
bors frequently who persisted In spraying while 
trees were in bloom, and in nearly every Instance 
their fruit was damaged more or less, while my 
trees, which had not been sprayed until after the 
bloom dropped, were full of perfect fruit. There 
can not be any doubt about this point in my mind, 
as has been so thoroughly demonstrated In this 
section." 

An extensive orchardist of Washington writes in 
the Pacific Homestead of last October, " I am satis- 
fied that most orchard men do not realize the im- 
portance of proper cross-poUinatlon of their fruit. 
Inasmuch as the bee is practically the only Insect 
flying at the time apple trees are In blossom, their 
chief reliance must be placed upon it. While wind 
does carry pollen to a certain extent, many experi- 
ments have shown that it is only to a slight degree, 
ft will pay the fruitgrower to keep bees to pollinlze 
his fruit, or at least he should be willing to en- 
courage some of his loving neighbors to keep 
them." 

Mr. Terry, president of the Vermont Horticul- 
tural Society, in a recent public address said that 
In Grand Isle Co., where are located some of the best 
orchards In the State, he and another party ex- 
amined every orchard with great care to discover 
if possible the cause of failure in some to produce 
as heavily as the others. 

The results of examination showed in every In- 
stance that, where there were failures to produce 
abundantly, there were no bees, or too few to be of 
much use: and further, that, where a good supply 
of bees was kept, there was in every instance a 
large apple crop. 

Ithaca, May 1, 1911. E. L. Dresser. 

Another way to create public sentiment 
is to have some good speakers at farmers' 
institutes, horticultural-society meetings, 
etc., to present the matter and show the 
good work that the bees do, as well as to 
make it clear that, even from a fruitgrower's 
standpoint, blossom-spraying is not advis- 
able. The following clipping from Success- 
ful Farming illustrates just what we mean: 

THE AID OF BEES IN ORCHAED WOjtK. 

At a recent meeting of the Vermont Horticultu- 
ral Society much emphasis was placed upon the 
keeping of bees. Last season was wet and cold in 
spring, and not conducive to a good fruit crop: and 
those who have set and cared for large orchards of 
their own have observed that the orchards or parts 
of orchards near stands of bees bore well while 
those at a distance did not. The apple blos.som Is 
so constructed as to render the work of bees neces- 
sary to pollination. 

This is the reason why trees bear so much better 
and more evenly in warm dry seasons. 

One speaker said that he had about 30 hives In 
and about his orchard, and it bore heavily last 
year, which was not a good fruit year In Vermont. 
—Successful Farming. 



152 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Dr. C. C. Miixeb, Marengo, 111. 



Rev. L. p. Holmes writes that he also 
had a live drone from a queen-cell. It was 
in 1908, the cell was extra large and fine, he 
caged it, and after the usual 24 days a drone 
of ordinary size emerged. Last year he had 
a queen-cell caged, and several days after it 
should have hatched he opened the cell, 
finding a fully developed queen, dead, with 
its head toward the bottom of the cell. 

The bumble-bee seems in danger of be- 
ing thrown out of its job as a pollinator of 
red clover. The Country Ofntleman reports 
an invention said to do the work better 
than the bumble-bee. It consists of a huge 
brush with about 200 vulcanized-rubber tips 
to the square inch, which is driven over the 
clover-field, carrying the pollen from one 
blossom and depositing it upon another. 

To GET HONEY out of cappings, put them 
to drain in a container with holes in the 
bottom; when they will no longer drain, 
put them in a damp cellar, where they will 
attract moisture, and the thin honey will 
drain out to be used for vinegar or bee-feed. 
Or, instead of taking them into the cellar, 
put them outdoors in a long box with one 
end raised, and turn the box end for end as 
often as the bees dig the cappings down 
level. 

Larv.e. Nearly had a fit the other day 
on learning that this word should be pro- 
nounced lar-vee when all my life I've been 
saying lar-t;a^. I refrain from adding that 
it may be also called lar-way, lest it throw 
most of the readers of Gleanings into fits, 
[The pronunciation here will depend on 
whether one uses the Roman (or continen- 
tal) pronunciation for Latin words, or Eng- 
lish. When we were taking Latin at school 
we had the English pronunciation, and the 
final syllable of larvce would have the long 
sound of e. Later on in college, we had the 
Roman pronunciation; then the same final 
syllable would have the long sound of a. 
Either way is right. — Ed.] 

Samuel Simmins thinks beekeeping in 
this country has retrograded on account of 
the use of so shallow a frame as the Lang- 
stroth. He says, Canadian Bee Journal, 
10, " Editor E. R. Root states that the aver- 
age yields, taking the United States all 
over, would probably be 35 lbs. of comb hon- 
ey, or 75 lbs. of extracted. Has bee culture 
so degenerated that even to-day the results 
from the old let-'em-alone style of beekeep- 
ing can not be exceeded?" But where is 
the degeneration shown, friend Simmins? 
You don't for a minute think that the old 
let-'em-alone style yielded 35 lbs. of comb 
per colony, do you? Although there are 
still enough let-'ein-alones mixed with the 
up-to-dates to bring the average down to 35, 
that average is probably better than it ever 
was before. [If our friend Samuel Simmins 



were more familiar with conditions as they 
are in the United States he would not make 
such statements. For instance, he says our 
Langstroth frame is responsible for two- 
thirds of our winter losses. When expert 
beekeepers all over the United States and 
Canada using Langstroth frames do not 
lose during winter to exceed five per cent of 
their bees, and usually not over two per 
cent, the Langstroth frame, we may con- 
clude, is doing pretty well. It could hardly 
do better. Some of the former advocates of 
deep frames for winter are now using Lang- 
stroth frames. See reply to F. P. Clare, p. 
179.— Ed.] 

D. M. MacDonald, British B. ./., p. 514, 
concludes that I give hybrids a bad reputa- 
tion because I practically say that nine- 
tenths of the weaklings are hybrids. My 
good friend, however bad hybrids may be, 
that statement doesn't charge them with 
badness. Nine-tenths of the weaklings are 
hybrids, and so are nine-tenths of the 
stronglings, because nine-tenths of all the 
bees are hybrids. See? Allee samee, the 
average hybrid is inferior to the Italian — in 
my opinion. You ask why, for 50 years, I 
clung to such bad bees. I didn't — not to 
average hybrids. I bred up a strain of hy- 
brids that were better than Italians. More 
fool I. If I had stuck to pure Italians I 
might have had still better bees. 

G. M. DooLiTTLE thinks no need to have 
bees closer than two or three miles from pas- 
ture. Out west, if I remember, the authori- 
ties advise that in orchard regions bees 
should be not more than a mile apart, so 
they need travel only half a mile or so. 
Likely both are right. In hot weather bees 
can go two miles just as well as half a mile 
to gather honey; while in the cool and catchy 
weather during fruit bloom half a mile may 
be enough. Yes, I once thought two miles 
apart was well enough for orchards. But 
I'm older now. [This is a question of local- 
ity. Where bees can fly from a hill over a 
wide valley, so as not to encounter woods, 
they go much further than over perfectly 
level country. We have traveled over a very 
large portion of the United States where 
bees are kept, and wherever we have gone 
we have asked the question, "How far do 
bees fly?" For level country the general 
response is, "Not more than a mile and a 
half; usually not over a mile." While their 
bees will, of course, fly further, the claim is 
made that they do not work to advantage. 
In hilly country, such as we find in New 
York, bees will sometimes fly five miles to 
gather buckwheat honey. This has been 
demonstrated very conclusively at the Alex- 
ander apiary, at Delanson, N. Y., and in 
other places in that State where we have 
traveled; but we think that in most places 
in New York bees will not go much over a 
mile and a half to advantage. — Ed.] 



Mar. 15, lyl'J 



158 



.1. E. Crank, Middlebury, Vt. 



It is interesting to read Doolittle's views 
of the long and short haul of honey by the 
bees. It is certainly comforting to think 
that our bees can reach tlowers five miles 
away; but 1 have a suspicion that not a lit- 
tle depends on the liees. Now and then we 
find a colony gathering \\ hen others are not 
showing they can go further or search closer. 

I was interested in Mr. Mollett's descrip- 
tion of wintering bees in the South. Fifty 
to seventy-five pounds per hive! Why, it 
almost takes away one's breath to think of 
a colony consuming that much. But then 
I congratulate myself that, if our bees of the 
North are not at work during our long win- 
ters, they are not consuming honey beyond 
all reason. 

We are under obligations to the editor of 
Gleanings for the careful experiments 
which were made for the purpose of cieter- 
raining the amount of wax used by bees in 
drawing out a sheet of foundation into a 
full comb, page 711, Dec. 1, 1911. Accord- 
ing to these figures, furnishing an eight- 
frame hive with full sheets of foundation 
would save the bees the necessity of making 
one pound of wax thai would doubtless take 
twelve pounds of honey to produce. This, 
at ten cents, would be worih $1.20, or twice 
what the foundation costs; and yet some 
beekeepers think they can not afford it. 

As to the que>tion whether buckwheat 
yields honey only during the niglit or at 
certain times uf the day, or all the time, I 
believe that it does about as it has a mind 
to, acting quite dilTerently sometimes from 
other times. Where I lived in 1867 there 
was an unusual amount of buckwheat sown 
that spring, and not a large number of bees 
kept; and I noticed that, at the beginning 
of the season, the buckwheat yielded nearly 
all of its honey in the forenoon; but later in 
the season the flow of nectar was later in the 
day, until at its close the flow was almost 
entirelj' confined to the afternoon. Now, I 
doubt not that there are some places where 
it yields all day, and I am quite sure there 
are some places and seasons where it doesn't 
yield enough to be worth mentioning. 

Dr. Miller refers to me, page 36, as Saying 
that moths do lay eggs in sections after 
taking them from hives. Let me say here, 
to prevent misunderstanding, that our ex- 
perience has been that moths do not lay 
eggs in our sections after they are taken from 
the hives, because the sections are stored 
where the moths can not get to them; but 
I always find more or less larvm of the wax 
moth developing on combs of section honey 
after they are taken from the hive. If the 
combs are white and clean, little harm is 
done; but if any cells of pollen are found. 



or the combs badly soiled or "travel-stain- 
ed," these "varmints" will develop and do 
lots of harm unless treated to the fumes of 
sulphur. 

The same seems to be true of extracting- 
combs until they have been frozen so as to 
kill all eggs or larvip of the waxmoth. Where 
do the eggs of the wax moth come from if no 
eggs are laid by the moths after the combs 
are taken from the hives? Moses (^uinby 
gave it as his opinion, after very careful ex- 
periments, that the moths lay the eggs at 
the entrances of the hives, and the bees car- 
ry them in on their legs or bodies, and scat- 
ter them over the combs. Those hatching 
inside the hives are, as a rule, in every strong 
colony, quickly taken care of by the bees; 
but when the combs are removed they de- 
velop. If I remember rightly, Mr. Quinby 
took off boxes of honey, and watched to see 
that no moth entered; and when every bee 
had gone out of the box it was sealed so no 
moth could enter; but if kept in a warm 
place the larva of the wax moth would de- 
velop just the same as when exposed to 
moths. 

The recent articles by .John N. Lovell, on 
flowers, are of more than usual value. 
Somewhere I have seen the statement that 
Christ, whose life and teachings have at- 
tracted so much of the world's thought dur- 
ing the past eighteen centuries, was the first 
to call the attention of mankind to the 
beauty of flowers. I can not vouch for the 
truthfulness of the statement; but one thing 
is certain— he was a great lover of flowers. 
Indeed, I think we may say that he was a 
child of nature, with the hills and valleys, 
the fields and flowers his teachers. "Con- 
sider the lilies, how they grow," is as much 
a command of .Tesus as any other, and if it 
is our duty to consider the lilies, we may 
infer that it is also our duty to consider the 
sweet peas and morning-glories, the apple 
blossoms and wild asters, and a thousand 
other objects of beauty on every side of us, 
too numerous to mention. I have read in 
an old book of the servant of a propliet who, 
one morning, was frightened almost out of 
his wits because he saw a few soldiers en- 
camped on the outskirts of the town, and 
his master prayed that his eyes might be 
opened, and they were opened, and he saw- 
more wonderful sights than he had ever 
dreamed of; and so when our eyes are open- 
ed to the beauties and wonders of all about 
us we shall find more to enjoy and entertain 
us in our leisure hours than we could ever 
have believed in our wildest dreams. It is 
thought a good sign that people are going 
back from the city to the land, and I am 
sure it is a good thing when those with lit- 
erary ability write of nature anil all its won- 
ders rather than myths and impossible 
creatures. There is enough of the real and 
true to satisfy any sound mind. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



B(B(Bte(i©[pB[IDg] DDD "GDDCg ©(BDI]{1I]d\^©©{I 



Louis Scholl, New Braunlels, Texas 



BEE CULTURE AND AGRICULTURE; SHOW- 
ING THE MUTUAL INTERESTS OF BEE- 
KEEPER, FRUITGROWER, 
AND FARMER 

Outside of the beekeeping world it is not 
generally known nor even understood that 
honeybees were created, not so much for the 
purpose of furnishing the delicious honey 
for mankind, as for carrying pollen grains 
from one flower to another, so that these 
may bear fruit and seeds. The pollen is 
gathered by the bees from the flowers, and 
carried to the hives in little bright-colored 
pellets on their hind legs, which many per- 
sons suppose is the wax from which the 
combs are built. The bees, however, must 
gather this yellow dust or pollen from the 
flowers, to prepare the partly digested food 
for their young larvae. This is absolutely 
necessary; and if they are unable to secure 
a sufficient amount of pollen the progress of 
the colony is delayed considerably. In 
gathering either pollen or honey the bees 
come in contact with the pollen grains of 
the blossoms, which adhere to their hairy 
bodies, and are thus carried from one flower 
to another. These pollen grains thus come 
in touch with the stigma, or the female 
part, so to speak, of the next blossoms visit- 
ed. Cross-pollmation is thereby assured, 
and the thorough setting of fruits and seeds 
the result. 

Bees are most important distributors of 
pollen, because they appear in larger num- 
bers than other insects, and especially in 
the early part of the season. It is this 
reason, as well as their greater activity, that 
makes them more useful in this great work 
they help to perform, the value of which, as 
estimated by good authorities, is far greater 
to our country than the value of the honey 
crops. It is certain that the bees, on ac- 
count of their greater numbers, visit a far 
greater number of blossoms, and do this 
work more thoroughly than other insects. 



THE SEX IN PLANT LIFE 

Sex in plants or flowers exists very much 
as in animals, and it is just as necessary 
that fertilization take place before fruit or 
seeds develop. In many plants the male 
and female exist in the same flower. In 
others the male is found in one and the fe- 
male in another flower of the same plant, 
while in still others each sex is found in the 
flowers on separate plants entirely. No 
matter what the arrangement, however, it 
is necessary that the pollen grains from the 
anthers of the male part of one blossom 
reach the stigma of the female part of anoth- 
er. The pollen grains of one blossom ripen 
earlier or later than the stigmas, so that self- 
fertilization is prevented, and the bees car- 
rying the pollen to the other blossoms in 
the right stage to receive it efifect and com- 
plete the fertilization, after which the de- 



velopment of fruit and seed follows. With- 
out this pollination the blossoms would 
wither and die in^stead of bearing fruit. 

SOME STRIKING EXAMPLES 

During the most favorable weather condi- 
tions the pollen grains may be blown about 
by the wind, and pollination of the blos- 
soms take place so that fruit may be borne. 
But even under such conditions the bees 
play a great part in making the work more 
thorough, as they visit many flowers and 
blossoms that may not be reached by pollen 
driven by the wind. It is well known that 
such ideal weather conditions do not always 
exist; and during such conditions, when the 
weather is damp and the pollen sticky, the 
wind does not blow it about so easily, and 
it is then that the insects, and especially 
the bees in their large numbers, play the 
most important part in the crop of fruit and 
seeds that will be harvested. Where certain 
varieties of plants or fruit trees are isolated 
from others of their kind, and when there is 
a great distance between them, the chances 
of pollination are not certain, and the bees 
must be depended upon to carry the pollen 
from one to another. Where bees are not 
present, and the wind only depended upon, 
there are instances on record of trees that 
bore no fruit on the windward side, but 
an abundance on the other side. The pres- 
ence of bees would have insured the polli- 
nation of the blossoms on the windward 
side, and a better setting of fruit on all 
parts of the tree. 

DO BEES PUNCTURE FRUIT? 

It has often been stated that our bees 
puncture fruit; but numerous experiments 
show that this conclusion is ungrounded, 
their mouth parts being so constructed that 
they can not break the skin of any kind of 
fruit. They appear only after birds or in- 
sects have caused the skin to break, and 
then only to gather the sweet juices from 
the bruised fruit. Many experiments in 
which sound fruits were hung in hives of 
bees have proved absolutely that the bees 
can not puncture the skin of sound fruit, even 
if they are starving for want of food. 
■*. 

POISON-SPRAYS AND BEES 

As the insect depredations are becoming- 
more and more harmful to various crops, 
man must protect himself against these in- 
sect pests or bear considerable loss. For 
this reason spraying is being practiced more 
generally. The thinking person will not 
kill his best friends, the bees, by spraying 
during bloom, for the greatest authorities 
have shown that it is not only unnecessary 
but dangerous. In many States there are 
stringent laws against spraying during fruit 
bloom. 



Mar. 15, li)li 



153 



DSEEP^DM® DM (S^LDF® ^03 D5\ 



p. C. Chadwick, Kedlands. Cal. 



The problem confronting us in Southern 
California is not how to keep more bees, but 
how to keep what we have until a season of 
more bountiful rainfall. 
4?- 

The report of the Northern California Bee- 
keepers' Association, by W. A. H. Gilstrap, 
has the true ring and the "get together" 
spirit, which I hoi)e will do much toward 
the building of a great harmonious State as- 
sociation that will enable us to do something 
besides "resolve." 

In behalf of our retiring President, Mr. B. 
G. Burdick, I am going to extend a vote of 
thanks for the State association, this mat- 
ter having been overlooked in the rush at 
the close of the session. Mr. Burdick wield- 
ed the gavel, so far as I know, to the satis- 
faction of all. 

-^ 

The gentleman who accompanied the 
State demonstration train (I did not learn 
his name) said before the State association 
that European foul brood (black brood) 
could be cured with any kind of bees pro- 
vided the colonies were strong enough. In 
this I believe he is badly mistaken. No 
doubt strength is a great factor, but in itself 
it is not sufficient. 

Northern and Central California will prob- 
ably produce much more honey this year 
than the southern part of the State. In- 
deed, it is quite possible that, before many 
years, there will be a thinning of ranks in 
our Southland for more desirable locations 
over the ridge. The seasons here are much 
like the little girl who had a little curl in the 
middle of her forehead — "when they are 
good they are very, very good; and when 
they are bad they are horrid/'' 
4^ 

February has passed without a drop of 
rain; the usual pollen-bearing spring flowers 
did not germinate nor dry up when small, 
for the earth is as dry now as it was last 
midsummer. Spring breeding in many 
places is almost at a standstill, and the out- 
look even for orange honey is the most 
gloomy of any time for nearly ten years. 
Optimists say we shall have rain yet: but 
we have had this false hope so long that ray 
mind is very much akin to that of the man 
from Missouri, who had to be shown. 

HOW EDUCATION AFFECTS THE DEMAND 
FOR HONEY. 

The people of Texas have been fed on 
bulk comb honey until they now demand 
it. Colorado seems to have fed on section 
honey, while out liere we have taught them 
to eat extracted, and the quantity con.sum- 
ed is wonderful. One grocery in this city 
sells an amount running into tons each year. 
Beekeepers sell many five-gallon cans to 



families, nearly all of whom return their 
cans to be refilled the following season. One 
enterprising young man put some bulk 
comb on the local market two years ago, 
giving his entire supply to one grocer to dis- 
pose of, and a demand was created that was 
hard to fill. The young man has since left 
the city; but the demand for his ware re- 
mains at that store. A majority of people 
call extracted honey "strained honey," and 
believe it is squeezed out through a cloth. 
If this one false idea could be overcome it 
would add much to the demand for this 
product. People follow their education pret- 
ty closely, whether it be social, religious, or 
on other lines. Many, no doubt, remember 
the time when grandma or grandpa "rob- 
bed" the old "gum," carried in a quantity 
of honey, "bee bread" (and likely some 
brood), and really strained it. Is it any 
wonder the idea is hard to overcome? 

4?- 

DRASTIC COUNTY ORDINANCES. 

Ventura County has passed an ordinance 
that "all bees not bearing an inspector's 
certificate will be destroyed on arrival," 
while Imperial County Board says no more 
bees shall be brought into that county. It 
is rather laughable to read how some of our 
county boards are going to block the avenues 
of trade or kill it when it arrives. Personal- 
ly, I think these county boards are well- 
meaning gentlemen, but poorly advised. 
Not a great while ago some one persuaded 
the city trustees (of Redlands) to pass an 
ordinance prohibiting any person from keep- 
ing more than five colonies of bees in the 
city limits. The ordinance was attacked in 
the superior court, and defeated. There is 
little doubt, in my mind, that such county 
ordinances as mentioned above would meet 
the same fate if taken into courts, for these 
reasons: One county can not legislate against 
another. Such regulation comes under 
State jurisdiction, while no court would al- 
low the destruction of healthy bees any 
sooner than it would domestic animals. If 
every county in the State should pass an 
ordinance identical with that of Imperial 
County, there would soon be a condition 
that would be intolerable. Migratory bee- 
keeping is a part of our molern-day progress 
— has come to stay, and can not be stopped 
by a few county boards. Such drastic ordi- 
nances, in my opinion, will hasten the day 
when we shall have a State law that will be 
effective without trying to prevent free 
movement, or the destruction of healthy 
bees, for the very good reason that these 
same counties want protection, and will 
back a good State law solidly when they 
meet defeat in what they have. I am not 
opi)osing quarantine laws by any means; 
they are becoming indispensable; but I am 
opposing those things that are neither good 
law nor common sense. 



156 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



(^(DmWOLP^aillDCDDD^ \^dG[]d [D] (D (D D BliGD © 



At Borodino, New York 



OVERSTOCKING A LOCALITY. 

"I have fifty colonies of bees and desire 
to increase to as many as my locality will 
support. Then, if I see my way clear, I may 
start some out-apiaries. Now, what I want 
to know is, about how many colonies I can 
profitably keep in one place. I have asked 
several beekeepers about this, and I find a 
great diversity of opinion. Some tell me 
that fifty is enough, as it takes more than 
two-thirds of the nectar in most fields to 
sustain the colonies during the year. Others 
say that Mr. Alexander kept 700 colonies in 
one apiary and got splendid returns from 
them. What is your opinion?" 

"Overstocking a locality is a subject 
which has puzzled many a beekeeper; and 
deciding upon the number of colonies of 
bees that may be kept profitably in one lo- 
cality is difficult, even for one who has 
given much thought to this subject. If 1 
am right. Dr. INIilier has said somewhere 
that there is a limit beyond which one can 
not profitably increase the number of colo- 
nies in an apiary; but just where that limit 
is, can, perhaps, never be learned. He said 
that, if he were obliged to make a guess, he 
would think about eighty colonies in one 
apiary would be the limit of his location. 
You will note that he was talking about his 
locality, which may be better than the one 
you are in, or it may not be as good. There- 
fore a knowledge of the locality one is in is 
one of the important factors which must be 
taken into consideration. 

Then, again, the seasons are so unlike in 
different localities that it will never be pos- 
sible to do much more than to estimate ap- 
proximately the number of colonies that 
may be profitably kept in a certain location. 
It will also become apparent to all that a 
different approximation must be made for 
each locality. 

" Mr. Alexander was in a most propitious 
locality — one in which there were thousands 
of acres of buckwheat sown every year. 
This, in addition to clover and basswood, 
gave something which every beekeeper 
would thoroughly enjoy. But Mr. Alex- 
ander did not decide that 700 colonies was 
about the right number for him to keep, 
without years of experience in and with his 
field. Therefore experience comes in as a 
very important factor, and that experience 
must cover several years in any given lo- 
cality before any thing like a correct esti- 
mate of how many colonies can be profitably 
kept can be made. 

" Still another factor which must be taken 
into consideration is the stability of the 
field. When I first began keeping bees, 
there were great forests in sight of the apiary 
in every direction, and many of the trees 
were basswood, some of them four to five 
feet across at the stump, and eighty feet 
tall, with great spreading branches. Bass- 
wood lumber of the best quality could be 



purchased then for $8.00 a thousand feet, 
and at that price there was little incentive 
to cut these trees, save those dying of old 
age. But in the years since then, the price 
of such lumber has gone to $12, $20, $25, $30, 
and now to $35. . The result has been the 
denuding of these forests until very few 
basswoods remain except in gullies and 
other out-of-the-way places where it is al- 
most impossible to get logs. In former 
years there was no failure in nectar from 
this source, so that, in three seasons out of 
four, during the blossoming of our bass- 
wood, 400 colonies set down here could not 
begin to collect the nectar. But now this is 
all changed, and a good crop of basswood 
honey from one-fourth that number is the 
exception rather than the rule. In fact, if 
mustard, white and alsike clover, and buck- 
wheat had not materially increased in this 
locality during the past fifteen years, bee- 
keeping would be no longer profitable, 
where for twenty years in succession my 
average yield of section honey was 85 
pounds per colony. With the prices at from 
22 to 28 cents a i^ound for section honey, 
apiculture was very profitable in those days 
when basswood forests surrounded many 
of the apiaries in this State. 

"In deciding this question of overstock- 
ing the home apiary to an extent sufficient 
for dividing the number and taking part of 
the colonies to a different locality, allow me 
to suggest that it costs more to manage bees 
away from home than it does in a beeyard 
near your back door. The average yield of 
the home apiary might be cut down con- 
siderably from the increase of numbers be- 
fore it would be profitable to start an out- 
apiary in some locality from five to ten 
miles distant. An out-apiary requires the 
purchase of a team, automobile, or some 
means of conveyance for use in going to 
and fro, as well as a change of methods, 
non-swarming and other systems, all of 
which bring added expense. But after once 
starting in the out-apiary business, the es- 
tablishing of one or more additional apiaries 
is not such an expensive affair as was that 
of the first one, for all of the things neces- 
sary for the first can be used in any of the 
apiaries subsequently started." 



How Bumblebees Puncture the Nectaries of Bean- 
blossoms 

When my broad beans began to bloom I noticed 
that the bumblebees were always around: yet in 
the majority of cases the blossoms failed to set. I 
then noticed a hole at the base of the flower like 
that made with a pin, and this hole was not found 
in the newly opened buds. One day while wonder- 
ing about this I saw one of the bumblebees, of 
which there are several kinds, go to a flower and 
deliberately eat a hole and then extract the honey 
as if it had been at the job for years. So it missed 
the pollen. 

Westley, B. C, Oct. 4. H. G. Slater. 



Mar 15. 1!I12 



157 



@DD@[PSlD ©®[P[P 



OQ©® 



BEES IN RELATION TO HORTICULTURE 



BY H. HARLEY SELWYN 

That the honeyliee {Aphis mellifica) forms 
an important link in successful agriculture 
is now very generally recognized. The large 
annual production of honey and wax due to 
the industry of these insects is of very con- 
siderable ecomonic importance; but in ad- 
dition they probably play almost as im- 
portant a part in materially increasing the 
yield and quality of the various fruits in 
the orchards and gardens scattered through- 
out the land. 

That bees are intended by nature to aid 
in the pollination of flowers, there is no 
doubt, as the pollen and nectar secreted by 
the flowers are both absolutely essential to 
the life of bees, and consequently they are 
eagerly sought for by them. It is true that 
other insects, as well as atmospheric condi- 
tions, aid in this work of pollination to a 
considerable extent; but these other insects 
are comparatively few in number during 
the earlier part of the season, and, besides, 
they appear to visit the flowers only for the 
nectar which they contain, whereas the bees 
are in search of both pollen and nectar; and 
at the time when the orchards are in bloom 
the requirements of the hive, on account of 
the many thousands of young larviP therein, 
re(iuire large quantities of pollen. P^or this 
reason, if climatic conditions should be un- 
favorable for the secretion of nectar, the 
bees would, nevertheless, visit the blossoms 
in order to gather the pollen which is so 
necessary, and in so doing accomplish the 
end in view, namely, that of transferring 
particles of pollen from one flower to an- 
other, or from the stamens to the pistils of 
individual flowers, and thus bring about 
their proper fertilization. 

IK THE BEES ABE KEPT AWAY NO FRUIT 
WILL SET 

Numerous experiments have proved con- 
clusively that comparatively little fruit will 
set if fertilization depends solely upon the 
carrying of the pollen by the wind and other 
minor agencies. In proof of this it has been 
recorded that two trees of the same kind, 
both heavily laden with bloom, were select- 
ed, the one being protected with cheese- 
cloth and the other left uncovered, with the 
result that the former set practically no fruit, 
while the one left accessible to the bees, of 
which there were large numbers in the vi- 
cinity, ow ing to the proximity of an apiary, 
bore an abundant crop. This is but one of 
the many striking examples which might 
be cited to show the importance of bees in 
relation to horticulture. 

There are, it is true, seasons when fruit 
trees of all kinds arc so heavily laden with 
lil(K)m, and the weather conditions are so 
i<ieal for pollination, that, even with the or- 
dinary agencies, sufficient fruit is set to in- 



sure good crops. Unfortunately there is 
also tlie reverse side of the question when 
the period of fruit bloom is accompanied by 
dull, cloudy, and possibly wet weather, 
with but scant periods of sunshine. At 
such a time the farmer or fruitgrower who 
is fortunate enough to have a large apiary 
in or near his orchard will surely benefit 
greatly, as, even if there are only a few 
hours of sunshine each day, tens of thou- 
sands of bees will visit the blossoms during 
that period and efTect the necessary fertil- 
ization which otherwise, owing to unfavor- 
able conditions, might and probably would 
not have taken place. It would be very 
difficult to say just how many colonies are 
required to the average acre, whether it be 
trees or flowers that the bees are forced to 
visit; but it is safe to say that most locali- 
ties are never overstocked with these very 
necessary insects. In fact, it is generally 
the reverse; and as a result there are un- 
doubtedly many tons of honey going to 
waste annually for the lack of gathering, 
not to mention the hosts of plants that 
never succeed in accomplishing that most 
necessary function, namely, the proper de- 
velopment of the seed ovary, and conse- 
quently do not reproduce their species to 
nearly the extent that nature intended. 

SPRAYING DURING FRUIT-BLOOM INJURIOUS 

So much has been said and written on 
the subject of spraying and its important 
relation or efTect on bees that it is hard to 
deal with the subject in other than a general 
way in an article of this nature; but perhaps 
a general resum^ of the main points would 
be of interest. 

The question of poisonous solutions used 
in spraying to combat the many injurious 
insects and fungi peculiar to fruit trees and 
bushes of all kinds, and the proper time for 
their application in one which is worthy of 
careful attention, especially in view of the 
fact that spraying is now being advocated 
as the one and only means of insuring the 
production of perfect fruit. It might be ex- 
pected that the individual who owns an or- 
chard, even though it be a small one, and 
who has become sufliciently familiar with 
up-to-date methods to practice spraying, 
would realize the injurious effects such 
spraying will have on any bees in the neigh- 
borhood if this work is done during the 
period of fruit bloom, and, consequently, 
would refrain from making the applications 
at .so critical a period; but, unfortunate to 
relate, there are still far too many occur- 
rences of this nature as the seasons come 
around, notwithstanding the elTorts of the 
numerous beekeepers' associations to en- 
lighten these misinformed individuals 

BEEKEEPING AT EXPERIMENT STATIONS 

That the importance of beekeeping is be- 
coming more and more generally recognized 
in the United States and Canada is evi- 



158 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



denced by the fact that specialists are being 
employed and apiaries established in con- 
nection with the various agricultural col- 
leges and experiment stations of both coun- 
tries. It is to be hoped that, by this means, 
in addition to the mass of useful informa- 
tion on the subject contained in the leading 
apicultural journals of the present day, this 
important branch of agriculture will make 
rapid stridesinthefuture. Notwithstanding 
the educational opportunities on the sub- 
ject and the improved methods now avail- 
able, there will probably always be a large 
number of beekeepers who will continue to 
keep their bees in a haphazard way — that is, 
in the old box hive or any other receptacle 
handy. It is, however, an ill wind that 
blows nobody good, as the saying goes, for 
the rapid spread of American and especially 
European foul brood may perhaps, in the 
end, prove to be a blessing in disguise, inas- 
much as it is almost sure to put out of busi- 
ness thousands of these so-called "beekeep- 
ers" who in reality do more harm than 
good in the neighborhood, as their bees are 
too few in number to be of very material 
assistance, but at the same time capable of 
transmitting the honey containing the 
germs of these maligant diseases. 
Ottawa, Ont., Can. 



BEES CAN NOT INJURE SOUND FRUIT 



How to Prevent Grapes from Being Punctured by 
other Insects and Birds 

BY PROF. H. A. SURFACE 



[A copy of the following letter by Prof. Surface, 
in answer to a correspondent, was sent to Glean- 
ings. We regard it as a most convincing state- 
ment; and coming from such a recognized author- 
ity we are glad to place it before our readers, with- 
holding the name of the original inquirer. — Ed.] 

Replying to your letter asking if there is 
any practical means of preventing bees 
from destroying grapes, I beg to say that 
the bees themselves do not attack the grapes 
excepting when the grapes themselves are 
overripe or have been punctured by other 
kinds of insects, such as wasps and yellow- 
jackets, or by birds, when they have been 
diseased by disease germs, which would eat 
their way through the skin of the grape. It 
is impossible for bees to make holes in 
grapes that have not been previously dam- 
aged in some way. I have tried this again 
and again. After the holes are once made 
the bees suck the grapes dry. This really 
is a benefit to the grapegrower, because it 
prevents his packing in his shipping pack- 
ages a lot of grapes that were damaged, and, 
therefore, would be sure to sour and start 
decay in the cluster, and spoil the package. 

However, what you need is information 
as to the method of preventing the grapes 
from being injured by the original depreda- 
tors. The most effective means of doing 
this on a limited scale is by bagging in pa- 
per bags. You can buy two-pound paper 
bags by the thousand or ten thousand at a 
low price. A woman can place hundreds of 



them around the clusters in a day. Fasten 
them with a pin at the base of the entire 
cluster of grapes. This should be done just 
after the blossoms fall, or before the grape 
berry becomes the full size of a buckshot. 
This will not only prevent damage as they 
become ripe, but will prevent injury by the 
curculio, the grapeberry moth, disease 
germs, etc., and will give you fruit that will 
justify it. 

If you were an experienced grapegrower 
you would not need to be asking for inform- 
ation as to how to prevent injury from them, 
because, in the great grape belts, this is 
handled by spraying: and there, where the 
production is by many tons per year, the 
proper thing to do is to spray the fruit and 
vines several times during the season with 
the Bordeaux mixture and arsenate of lead. 
Use the regular formula of Bordeaux mix- 
ture, of three pounds of bluestone and four 
pounds of lime in fifty gallons of water, 
and add to this two or three pounds of ar- 
senate of lead. Make the first spraying just 
after the buds burst in the spring, the next 
spraying after the blossoms drop, and about 
the time the bags would be put on if you 
were going to bag instead of spray. The 
next spraying should be about three weeks 
after this, and again should be repeated in 
three or four weeks for two or three intervals. 

If you are not a commercial grape-grower, 
the bagging will be found cheaper and more 
satisfactory than the spraying, because a 
man who does not understand thoroughly 
extensive spraying, will not, as a rule, do it 
properly. If you are an extensive grape- 
grower, but do not live in a region of large 
commercial growing of this fruit, I would 
by all means advise you to go during the 
proper season right into the grape belt as 
near to Northeast, in Erie County, as pos- 
sible, and see for yourself just the methods 
of cultivation and spraying that are there 
liracticed most successfully. The kinds of 
apparatus that are used, the methods of 
trimming and cultivating the vines, meth- 
ods of making and applying the spray liq- 
uid, all are better learned on the ground 
where this is being done extensively than 
by any other means. In that region we 
never hear any thing of damage to grapes 
by bees, becavise they gather their grapes 
and market them at the proper time, which 
is before they are bursting with dead-ripe- 
ness. They also spray, and cause the skin 
of the fruit to be healthy, and thus there 
are no holes by disease germs where the 
bees find entrance. 

You mention larger, stronger, and later 
foliage having been made on the vines dur- 
ing the past two years by the use of ni- 
trate of soda. This is, no doubt, due to the 
nitrate, as I have seen such results on al- 
most all plants where it is used. From 150 
to 200 pounds per acre is the amount gener- 
ally used on trees, vines, and, in fact, al- 
most all forms of vegetation. It should be 
applied when growth starts in the spring, 
and again in about a month, but not con- 
tinued after the early summer. 



Mar. K), 1912 

PROF. A. J. COOK, HORTICULTURAL COM- 
MISSIONER OF CALIFORNIA 

Something of the Life History and Doings of the 
Man who has been Asked by the Governor of 
California to Step up Higher 



BY E. R. ROOT 



For three or four issues back I have been 
telling something about the lives of emi- 
nent beekeepers who have ended their labors 
in this world, and who have gone to the 
great beyond. In this issue I ha\e a more 
l)leasing task — that of saying something 
about the life-work of a man who is still in 
the tlesh, and wlio, it is to be hoped, will 
be with us many years to come. I refer to 
none other than Prof. Albert J. Cook, who 
has just been appointed Horticultural Com- 
missioner of California. He needs no intro- 
duction to our older readers, for his contri- 
butions have graced these columns for many 
years. 

For twenty-seven years Professor Cook 
was instructor and Professor of Entomology 
and Zoology in tlie Micliigan Agricultural 
College. During the latter part of 189.> he 
was called to take a similar position at Po- 
mona College, Claremont, Cal., where he 
has labored for 17 years more. By the way, 
long service anywhere always speaks well 
for any man. 

During the latter part of last fall the Cali- 
fornia })apers announced that Professor 
Cook, of Pomona College, was about to be 
promoted again — to receive the appoint- 
ment of State Commissioner of Horticul- 
ture under Governor Johnson. Later on 
this ai)pointment was duly confirmed. The 
(lovernor, in exiilanation, says he appointed 
Cook "solely upon his merits," and that 
"his position is one of the most important 
ofTices in the State." And as one of his co- 
laborers has well said, "this is the crowning 
event in Professor Cook's remarkable career. „ 

. . Xo other man in the Stale nor in the 
country at large could bring to this particu- 
lar work more clean-cut and indubitable fit- 
ness than Professor Cook." 

Professor Cook will have placed at his dis- 
posal $100,000 to carry on the work in his 
department, and the responsibility of ap- 
pointing capable men to assist him is con- 
siderable, as the Governor says. When°we 
consider the fact that California probably 
])roduces more fruit than any other State in 
the Inion, and is destined to go still fur- 
ther, and that the keeping of bees is one of 
the big industries of the State, this appoint- 
ment looms up large. Indeed, we doubt if 
there is another commissioner of horticulture 
in all the Inited States who has a larger 
field of work than our own Professor Cook. 
I say "our own," l)ecause he has been so 
closely identified with the beekeeping in- 
terests of the country. Himself the author 
of one of the moht widely sold bee books, 
"The Beekeeper's Guide," a prolific writer 
for the bee journals, a number of times pres- 
ident of the North American and National 



150> 

Beekeepers' Association — well, we have a 
right to claim him, as much as have the- 
horticulturists of the country. 

I think it is fair to say that Prof. Cook is 
distinguished, not so much for the great 
things he may have discovered in science 
(and he has done his share), but rather be- 
cause he has been a great teacher. Hun- 
dreds of his students, some of whom have 
made their mark in the world, bear testi- 
mony to what he has done for them. He is 
loved and admired by his fellow-professors, 
and adored by his students, both at the 
Michigan Agricultural College and Pomona 




Professor A. J. Cook as he appeared when he was 
conducting his experiments in bee culture at the 
Michigan Agricultural College. 

College. The Pomona College paper, just 
received, is full of expressions of love and 
regret that he is to leave. I make just one 
extract: 

The loss to Pomona College will be felt most keen- 
ly by all of the students who have known Professor 
Cook personally. His genial nature, his great 
heart, his tremendous and infectious enthusiasm, 
his keen interest in the personal welfare of every 
student under him— these things have made him 
greatly beloved by all. His interest in his students 
has never, through all the years, been a perfunctory 
one, but always a living, active interest, that went 
right out and fought for them: an interest that not 
only helped them to find their life work and get in- 
to it, whatever it might be, but ever afterward sup- 
ported and encouraged them to great efTorts. In a 
(luiet way. unknown to the public, he has even 
financially assisted deserving students to complete 
their work, and for this he has been repaid in some 
things l)eyond the value of money— loyalty and 
love. ,, 1 •■ 

An indefatigable worker himself, he has 
the rare faculty of inspiring his students, 
and all those with whom he comes in con- 
tact, with his own habits of industry, zeal. 



160 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




PROF. ALBERT J. COOK AS HORTICULTURAL COMMISSIONER OF CALIFORNIA. 



and enthusiasm. His style of writing is 
natural and easy as well as fluent. As a 
lecturer he has few equals. 

But Professor Cook is an original investi- 
gator. He has done much, both at the 
Michigan Agricultural College and Pomona 
College, to advance the cause of bee culture, 



fruit culture, and horticulture in general. 
As a i)rofessor of Entomology in the Michi- 
gan Agricultural College lie conducted a 
long series of experiments showing the very 
important and intimate relation between 
the bees and fruit. He had a number of the 
fruit-trees at the Agricultural College, just 



Mar. 15. 1912 

as they were comiiiji; into bloom, covered 
with mosquito-netting. Some particular 
limbs were covered, while others were left 
to the visitation of bees and other insects. 
All of these experiments, showing conclu- 
sively the valuable work of the bees in pol- 
linating fruit-blossoms when no other in- 
sects could or would be present, were i)ub- 
lished in the bee journals at the time, and, 
later on, were incorporated in more perma- 
nent form in the A B C and X Y Z of Bee 
Culture under the head of " Fruit-blossoms," 
and also under the head of " Pollen." While 
other investigators had done something 
similar to this. Professor Cook conductetl 
his experiments on such an elaborate scale 
that he practically settled the matter for all 
time to come. 

Again, we find him among the first to pro- 
claim that honey is not evaporated nectar, 
as many had supposed. An elaborate series 
of experiments were conducted at the Agri- 
cultural College under his directions, the re- 
sult of all which showed that nectar, after it 
has been gathered by the bees, is transform- 
ed or "digested " into a new chemical prod- 
uct known as honey. He also claimed that 
sugar syrup, if fed thin enough, would be 
transformed also by the bees; and from this 
arose a sharp controversy at the time, wheth- 
er it was legitimate to feed bees sugar syrup 
and have them store it in sections and sell 
it as "honey." While Professor Cook nev- 
er contended that it was proper to sell it as 
honey without stating that it was sugar fed, 
he maintained that it had the properties of 
honey, and, if fed thin as nectar, so that the 
bees could properly invert it, that it was 
"honey." This stirred up a "bees' nest" 
among the fraternity at large, and the stings 
that were jabbed into Professor Cook at the 
time were something fierce. While scientif- 
ic men, including Dr. Wiley, admitted that 
there was a decided chemical change from 
nectar into honey, and that thin sugar syr- 
up fed slowly to bees took on the properties 
of honey, they contended that the product 
was not honey, because the nectar of flowers 
has certain j)roperties, including volatile 
oils, that are not found in sugar. The whole 
fraternity seemed to feel that the dogma of 
sugar honey was too dangerous to let go un- 
challenged, and the matter was dropped; 
but no one could or should question the hon- 
esty or sincerity of Professor Cook or those 
who stood with him on the proposition. 

Professor Cook also took the ground that, 
as honey was a predigested food, it could be 
eaten by children and certain invalids, when 
cane sugars would do harm. In this. Pro- 
fessor Cook seems to have had considerable 
support, although there are some food ex- 
perts who take no stock in this teaching. 
It is nevertheless true that not a few medi- 
cal men are beginning to recommend hon- 
ey in their dietaries; and recent issues of 
Gleanings have reported how honey is be- 
ing given to convalescents at hosjiitals. 

Whether Professor Cook is or has been al- 
ways right on these jiropositions, I can not 
say; but 1 have always noticed that, when 



161 

some pioneers of science attempt to enunci- 
ate a new theory or truth, he often meets a 
storm of opi)osition. (ialileo was pronounc- 
ed a heretic, and put in prison for saying 
what we all acknowledge as an unquestion- 
ed fact. There have been many CJalileos 
since, and there will be more to follow. 

r^ater on. Professor Cook took an active 
interest in spraying fruit-trees to destroy in- 
jurious insects and fungi. Indeed, in the 
language of another, "the remedies he first 
recommended are now common; and he was 
probably the first to demonstrate the efficacy 
and safety of Paris green for the codling 
moth." 

Again, we find that Professor Cook was 
one of the first to point out the danger to 
the bees and to the beekeeper from spray- 
ing trees while in bloom. He showed that 
spraying at such times is destructive to bees, 
and wholly unnecessary if not harmful from 
the standpoint of the fruitgrower. Later 
on we find him in the forefront advocating 
measures for the suppression of bee diseases, 
and Michigan was one of the first States 
in the Union to have a foul brood law. Dur- 
ing all this time he was teaching entomol- 
ogy and zoology, and going around lectur- 
ing at farmers' institutes, telling the farm- 
ers how to grow more and better crops. Aft- 
er going to California he continued his ac- 
tive interest in bees, devoting himself assid- 
uously to the work of his department. 

During the last four or five years his writ- 
ings have not appeared in the columns of 
our bee journals; for be it remembered he 
was approaching a time in life when he 
could not work night and day as he had 
done in his early career. But I find that, 
according to the college paper published at 
Pomona, he did much "to place his depart- 
ment in the college on the most efficient- 
working basis; and his services to the gen- 
eral public are warmly acknowledged by 
grateful men and women throughout the 
length and breadth of the State. His ex- 
periments in agricultural and horticultural 
matters have for many years been of a very 
extensive character. Taking all of these 
things into consideration. Governor .lohn- 
son could scarcely have found a man better 
equipped to undertake the duties of the new 
office, involving, as it does, an annual ap- 
propriation of $100,000 and a corps of assist- 
ants. 

Besides all his other qualities, Professor 
Cook is one of the most lovable Christian 
men I ever met. I have seen him in con- 
ventions, and time and time again he has, 
with that broad and loving spirit so charac- 
teristic of him, poured oil on troubled waters. 
He was, indeed, a great ])eace-maker, because 
he seemed to have the happy faculty of see- 
ing the good in everybody, and of trying to 
make every one happv- It goes without 
saying, that Professor Cook will harmonize 
the api)arently conflicting interests of the 
beekeepers and the fruitgrowers. If he 
has any thing to say about it (and he will 
have a good deal) there will be "no strife 
between me and thee, for we be brethren." 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




Fig. 1.— Tobacco farm of Fred M. Colton. ( iranby, Conn. 



THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN THE CONNECTI- 
CUT VALLEY 



BY E. H. SHATTUCK 



The subject of tobacco honey may sound 
a little odd, and the average beekeeper in 
Connecticut who has not investigated the 
matter thoroughly is a trifle alarmed on 
finding out that the tobacco plant is being 
allowed to blossom, and, as a consequence, 
yield nectar; and many of them feel that it 
will spoil the flavor of the late summer and 
fall honey to a certain extent. 

It is because of this feeling of unrest 
among the beekeepers of the Connecticut 
Valley that this article is penned, in the 
hope that it will reach, through Gleanings, 
a great number of the fraternity who live in 
the tobacco section. 

During the past few years "syndicates" 
and well-to-do farmers have begun raising 
under cloth what is called "shade-grown" 
tobacco, and also have commenced "pick- 
ing" the leaves from the outdoor tobacco, 
so called, in both instances allowing the 
plant to blossom and mature seed. LTntil 
these new methods were adopted all tobacco 
in the Connecticut Valley was topped, and 
the "suckers" picked off as they presented 
themselves, all blossoms thereby being 
headed off except, perhaps, a few plants in 
the field which were left to produce seed. 

The tobacco plant is self-fertilizing, a large 
part of the pollen being used by each indi- 
vidual flower. When the grower wishes to 
have "pure" seed true to name he ties a 
large paper bag over the young blossoms; 
and as the stem lengthens out he passes 
along and pushes the bag upward to give 



the flowers room to expand. In this wiiy 
all insects are kept out, and the result is 
seed that is an exact counterpart of the par- 
ent plant — that is, the offspring is such. 
One might think that, so long as no insect 
is needed to fertilize the blossom, the chances 
of a secretion of nectar would be slim, as 
nature supplies it abundantly only to those 
plants that need the help of the bee to car- 
ry the pollen from one flower to another; 
but, as a matter ot fact, a great deal of nec- 
tar is supplied in right seasons, and it is a 
help to have the bee visit the flowers to 
help disseminate the pollen grains; and it 
doubtless makes stronger and more fertile 
seed, as that is one of nature's strongest 
laws. I think the groM ers will find to their 
sorrow that the practice of raising seed un- 
der the paper bags, if long continued, will 
tend towartl weaker and therefore less hardy 
and sturdy plants. Does it not sound rea- 
sonable? The tobacco expert, who raises 
"Shade Grown " for the leaf only, does not 
leave openings for the bees, as it does not 
matter materially to him. But in spite of 
all he can do, the fields are so large that 
numerous openings present themselves to 
the industrious little insects, so that more 
or less of the nectar is saved. 

Remember the seed from these immense 
fields of tobacco is not saved. A small piece 
is arranged for, to cover the needs in this 
line. 

The year 1912 will see hundreds of addi- 
tional acres devoted to the raising of tobac- 
co by these new methods, in Hartford ( 'oun ty 
alone, as it has proved a very profitable 
crop, the leaf thus produced selling readily 
at advancing prices. This gives the bee- 
keeper a new and increasing source of hon- 



Msr. 15, 1912 

ey, and at a time of year when a dearth is 
usually on in this locality. The plant fur- 
nishes nectar between the buckwheat flow 
and the fall llowers, such as goldenrod, as- 
ters, etc., and is a heavy yielder in some 
seasons; but a cool dry summer, such as we 
have just experiencetl, stops the flow to a 
great extent. In liHl there was very little 
honey of any kind produced in this locality. 
In liMO the bees from my apiary swarmed 
on the tobacco, some colonies producing 100 
pounds of surplus in sections. It will be 
several years before the value of tobacco 
honey is fully known; and whether this 
new source of nectar will eventually help or 
retard the Connecticut beekeeper, will be a 
question that will be decided in the near 
future. 

I wish to emphasize especially the state- 
ment that our beekeepers have nothing to 
fear from the nectar of the tobacco plant. 
All the early section honey is ready to come 
otY the hive before the tobacco commences 
to yield, and it has been quite the rule in 
<"onnecticut to let the fall flow go to the 
brood nest for winter food, and this new 
source will fill the bill exactly, helping out 
largely in seasons when fall flowers fail, or 
are cut by early frosts. The bees winter 
finely on the honey; and if any sections are 
matle during this flow they will certainly 
sell as well as buckwheat, being somewhat 
lighter in color, and, for many uses, equal 
to any of the darker grades of honey, if not 
superior. If for any reason the beekeeper 
does not wish it to go into sections he can 
put on extracting supers and handle the 
product in any way he sees fit. 

Connecticut does not boast of many large 
apiaries, under 20 colonies being the rule in 



163 

this locality; but if the tobacco plant con- 
tinues to be raised and allowed to blossom, 
many more can be kept to advantage. 
More colonies have been lost during the 
winters for lack of supplies than any other 
one thing, as a good fall flow is the excep- 
tion rather than the rule. If the new source 
will fill the brood nest for winter, bees will 
increase much more rapidly, and give the 
beekeeper more assurance of success. 

Fig. 1 shows outdoor tobacco in full bloom 
owned by Fred M. Colton, of (iranby, Conn. 
Mr. Colton's tobacco-warehouse for sorting 
the crop is seen in the distance. About 60 
hands are employed in the place during the 
winter. Fig. -1 presents the tobacco blos- 
soms near at hand. A remarkable thing 
about the flower is that a bee will disappear 
in the depths of the flower, and remain per- 
haps a full minute, and, upon coming out, 
fly straight home. It can readily be seen 
that a field of 100 acres or more will keep 
quite a few bees busy, with such a supply to 
draw from. 

Fig. o gives an idea of the tents which are 
used to produce "shade grown" tobacco. 
Notice the splendid roadways that lead one 
through these vast fields, some of them be- 
ing nearly a mile in length. These roads 
occur every little way in order that the har- 
vesting may be the more easily carried on. 
A severe thunderstorm sometimes comes 
along, ripping the cloth olT from hundreds 
of acres, giving the bees a fine chance to 
visit the bloom. But the tents are never 
"bee tight," so that they find a way in if 
the nectar is to be had. 

People who have not visited the large tent 
plantations that have sprung up as if by 
magic can not realize the progress the in- 




Kig. 2.— Close view of tobacco blossoms. The honey from this source Is dark In color, but answers nice- 
ly for winter stores. 




I'ip. :{.— lobacco growing under cloth. Some ol these roadways aie ne r'.y a mile In length. 



Mar. l->. uni 

dustry is making. 1 am not a jiarty to the 
use of tobacco, and would not, if my way 
were law, promulgate the use of it; but it is 
here, and the honey part is certainly all 
right. 
Ciranby, Ct. 

*-•-« 

HOW FRUIT MAY BE IMPERFECTLY POLLI- 
NATED 

Spraying Trees in Blossom all Wrong, Even from 
a Fruitgrower's Standpoint 

BY ARTHUR C. MILLER 

We beekeepers are very careful not to per- 
mit the fruitgrowers to forget the importance 
of our bees to their business. We are not at 
all backward about reminding them of the 
sundry blunders and losses of some of their 
fellows in driving beekeepers from their vi- 
cinity, and then having to beg them to come 
back. We very diligently rub it in, for it 
gives us a deal of satisfaction to say " I told 
you so," and then you know it helps in a 
whole lot of nice little ways. These orchard- 
ists give some of us a nice spot for an api- 
ary, a room or a building for storage, ex- 
tracting, etc., sometimes do our carting, 
just so they may be sure of having the blos- 
soms well pollinated. 

Then sometimes we forget all about a crop 
of fruit-bloom honey. "Oh dear! no, we 
seldom get a crop of honey from apple 
blooms — perhaps only once in four or five 
years. Really it would be better for us to 
put the bees a couple of miles dow n the road. 
But as the bees are such a help to you, and 
you keep a sort of watchful eye over them, 
we are really very glad to help you out, even 
if we do get a little less honey." 

And after all our i)ains to oblige and ac- 
commodate, some of those chaps every now 
and then get very skeptical about the use- 
fulness of the bees to him. " Drat the con- 
founded stinging bugs, they are a consarn- 
ed nuisance. I got all the apples the trees 
would carry before you brought the pesky 
things here, and the sooner you take them 
away the better I'll like it." 

Most exceedingly unreasonable, very 
shortsighted, and so annoying, too, after all 
the jiains to which we have been to educate 
him to our point of view! Oh! well, he must 
be talked to again and shown his folly. 

Here is a fine bit of evidence, good enough 
to convince him or any other fruitgrower. 
This i)hotograph of an apple, cut horizontal- 
ly in two, shows four seed vesicles with fer- 
tilized and perfect seed, while the fifth con- 
tains only the dead and dried ovules which 
were not fertilized. And the result of such 
non-fertilization is plainly seen in the sur- 
rountiing jiulp. The apple on that side is 
flattened. If two or three vesicles were in 
that condition the a])ple would be much 
more deformed; in fact, (juite unmarketable. 

" Now, sir, that is because the blossom 
was not fully pollinated. ^ ou go to work 
and |)lant hundreds and thousands of trees 
all in one great orchard, and the blossoms 
are numbered by millions. And, at the 



Itio 

same time, old Dame Nature has not mass- 
ed the insects to do the work of carrying 
pollen. It is up to you to help her out; and 
the only way in which you can do it is to 
put a lot of bees there." 

"The bloomin' bees are in the way when 
I'm spraying." 

"Man, you're crazy to spray when the 
trees are in bloom. That spray, falling on 
the very sensitive stigma of the llower, i)art- 
ly or wholly ruins it, so that, even if pollen 
lodges there, it can do no good. A blossom 
only partly injured and then pollinated 
would give just such a sort of apple as 
shown. Furthermore, you are nowadays so 
confoundedly thorough in your work that 




The result of imperfect pollination. Note the 
shriveled condition of the upper seed and the de- 
pression in the apple on that side. 

seldom is there a spot on any tree not reach- 
ed by your spray. .Just do that when the 
trees are in full bloom, and you will be 
minus a crop of fruit that season. And 
here is the proof. One orchardist, spraying 
after the petals had fallen, came to one tree 
which, for some reason, was away behind 
the others, and was still in full bloom. To 
save himself the trouble of another trip, he 
sprayed it then, and nearly every little ap- 
ple dropped off. ( )f the few which matured, 
there were not a dozen perfect ones." 

We must not let the fruitmen lose sight 
of these facts. It is our duty to help them 
avoid loss, misfortune, and disappointment. 

And, by the way, that fruit-bloom honey 
sold like hot cakes, and at a fancy ]irice too 
— could have sold five times as much. Get 
after it, boys; it's a good thing. 

Providence, R. I. 

[As Mr. Miller says, the beeman should 
help educate the fruitgrower if he is ignorant 
of some of the fundamentals of his own 
business; for by so doing he helps his own 
business. Kvery beekeeper should know of 
the important work performed bj^ the bees, 
for he is almost sure to encounter some 
small fruitgrower who may jump to the con- 
clusion that bees are a nuisance rather than 
a benefit.— Ed.] 



166 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




W. C. Murdin, Gladstone, Manitoba, Can., and some of the products ol his 
bee-pollinated melon vines. 



HOW TO AVOID SPRING DWINDLING 

A Scheme for Helping the Weak Colonies in the 
Spring to Hold their Own 



be close enough to- 
gether so that they 
will overlap. Fasten 
a half sheet of foun- 
dation to the bottom 
of this trough, and 
then fasten the whole 
thing in an empty 
frame, a bee space 
from the t o p b a r . 
Bore a hole through 
the topbar for a fun- 
nel to use in filling 
the troughwith syrup. 
Place this feeder 
frame with its foun- 
dation beneath be- 
tween two empty 
combs in the hive, 
and always keep the 
feeder full. 

For the last fifteen 
years I have saved 1*7 
per cent of my weak 
colonies in the spring 
by this plan. The 
point is this: A very 
small cluster can not 
keep up the necessa- 
ry heat if there is a 
cold comb dividing it into two parts. Let 
this handful of bees cluster all together and 
you will be surprised at the results. 
Beeville, Texas. 



BY WILL, JENSEN 



In the spring of 1896, after much loss and 
many sad experiences in losing weak colo- 
nies, I was almost ready to give up. I had 
tried to be successful by following the ex- 
periences of others, and I had read every 
text book that I knew of that had any thing 
to say about spring dwindling, but still my 
fine young queens were left with a mere 
handful of bees in their hives. While I 
was thinking the matter over, a plan oc- 
curred to me one day which I proceeded to 
try at once. 

For every weakUng that I had, I got ready 
an empty comb, a frame containing half a 
sheet of brood foundation, and a comb of 
honey. I put the eitipty comb by the hive 
wall, the frame with the half sheet of foun- 
dation next, and finally the comb of honey. 
After lacerating that one comb of honey so 
the bees would be bound to load up, I filled 
the rest of the hive with empty combs and 
closed the entrance so that only four bees 
could come out at once In ten days I was 
surprised to see what wonderful progress 
these weak colonies had made; for on both 
sides of the foundation there was sealed 
brood. At this time I lacerated the comb 
of honey again. 

If there is no comb of honey on hand, rip 
from a 2 X 4, just the length of a frame in- 
side, a piece two inches deep by the width 
of the topbar; bore this piece full of holes, 
starting the bit on one of the narrow edges 
but not boring clear through. Let the holes 



THE VALUE OF BEES AS POLLINATORS OF 
MELON BLOSSOMS 



BY W. C. MURDIN 



To my way of thinking, gardening and 
beekeeping should always go together. 
From the time the vines begin to blossom 
until the frost kills them, the bees work on 
them and we have more melons, citrons, 
cucumbers, etc., than we ever had before we 
started to keep bees. Last year our vines 
were all loaded; in fact, some of them had 
almost too much fruit, and I am sure it is 
on account of the bees pollinating the blos- 
soms. The bees seem to work on every 
thing in the garden. Even potatoes, when 
they are in blossom, are visited. 

I have heard complaints from some that 
bees will "eat " fruit; but they do not both- 
er us in this way. We can not find that 
bees are troublesome in any way, in fact. 
Our garden is close to the main road where 
teams are passing only a few yards from 
the bees, but I have never heard of any one 
getting stung. I have found that bees are 
generally harmless if left alone. 

In my work around the hives I have nev- 
er used a smoker. When I want to do very 
much work, such as extracting, etc., I se- 
lect a time when the weather is warm and 
the bees good-natured. I use gloves and an 
Alexander veil, however. This veil, by the 
way, I regard very highly. It is nice and 
cool, is good protection, and yet one can see 
easily to do any kind of work. 



Mar. lo, 1912 



16T 



SAi; :. t r\:„, *,. I . V 




Hi Ji- 





\l)i:ir.v and orchard oi c. Koppenhafer, in the village of Brownhelm Center, Ohio. 



I think that white clothing annoys the 
bees less than darker-colored fabrics. I have 
made observations for a long time to deter- 
mine this point, and I find that the bees do 
not get stirred up as easily when I have on 
a white coat. One day last summer Mr. J. 
Boyd, who has his bees also in this garden, 
was with me; and while I received no stings, 
the bees kept stinging his black felt hat. 

Gladstone, Manitoba, Canada. 

[We are sure you would find it easier to 
work with your bees if you used a smoker. 
It is not necessary to blow smoke over the 
bees continually; but very often a little 
whiff of smoke at the right time prevents a 
general uprising, and enables the operator 
to go right on with the work without letting 
the bees find out they can have things all 
their own way. — Ed.] 



BEEKEEPING AND FRUITGROWING 

BY C. KOPPENHAFER 



I have a fruit farm of 7l4 acres in the vil- 
lage of Brownhelm Center, located among 
the trees as shown in Fig. 1. There are 
over forty colonies of bees which I find a 
great help in fertilizing the fruit-blossoms. 
In 1910 I secured $200 worth of fine honey 
from 23 colonies, spring count. 

Some of my neighbors across the street are 
making me a lot of trouble, and threaten- 
ing to compel me to get rid of my bees. I 
am not able to make them believe that the 
bees do not spoil their fruit, nor that they 
are of any benefit in the spring in fertilizing 
the blossoms. One man in particular said 
it was an imposition to the neighborhood to 
have the bees there; and if there was any 




Mr. and Mrs. ( '. Koppenhafer and their family of honey-eaters. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



law to make me dispose of them he would 
take advantage of it. However, for all that 
we are friends so far as I know. He was ex- 
asperated only when the grapes and plums 
were ripe. For a few days at that time the 
birds were very bad; and as the bees had 
nothing else to do, they of course were trou- 
blesome. I have over forty plum trees my- 
self, and also some grapes, and I know well 
enough that it is not the bees that do the 
mischief. It is also claimed that the bees 
damage the peaches; but I have my bees 
right in the peach orchard, and I find that 
they never work on any except the pecked 
or decayed ones. I picked all of my peaches 
without a veil, and never get stung. 

The other illustration shows you my fam- 
ily of honey-eating boys. I think the use 
of honey in the home avoids many a doctor 
bill. My wife is also of the same opinion. 
She takes great interest in the bees, and 
often hives swarms when I am not at home. 

Amherst, Ohio. 

BEES AND ORANGES 



nies, and last spring I increased these to 
forty-eight colonies. 

I have a fruit ranch of twelve acres — ten 
acres of oranges and about two acres of apri- 
cots; but I intend to take these out and put 
in oranges. I have raised berries of differ- 
ent varieties, but I am taking these out to 
put in oranges. I have found plenty of 
work to keep a man of sixty-three years 
busy. 

Redlands, Cal. 



THE MISREPRESENTATIONS OF LAND SHARKS 
AND THEIR VICTIMS 



The Truth about Wharton County, Texas 



BY W. H. MOSES 



BY J. SLIGEK 



My apiary is located on benches above the 
ground, because I have a weak back, and I 
can handle the frames more easily if the 
hives are up a few inches. In the spring 
of 1910 I began to build up the apiary and 
increased from ten to thirty-eight colonies. 
I intended to paint the front of every other 
hive green; but other work crowded me so 
that I neglected it, and, in consequence, I 
lost a lot of queens which, in returning from 
their flight, went into the wrong hives. 
That fall I united until I had twenty colo- 




J. .Sliger's ai>iary, i;e<tlands, Cal., which he runs in 

ranch. 



Many northern people are being persuad- 
ed to come to the coast country of Texas 
through the misrepresentation of land agents 
and others who hold out great inducements 
to homeseekers, offering them land at about 
$45.00 per acre, one-fifth cash and one-fifth 
per year without interest or taxes, telling 
them that they can grow two or three crops 
a year, each worth $150 to $200 per acre, and 
that they can grow oranges, grapefruit, and 
other thingsthat belong to tropical countries; 
and that the temperature seldom goes as 
low as 40. 

I have lived here in Wharton County 
since 1887, and have never seen a winter 
pass without a freeze. Here is a cold-weath- 
er record I have kept: 1899, Feb. 11, began 
to snow at 2: 80 p.m.; temperature 22 at 6 
P.M.; 18 at 7 p.m.; Feb. 12, zero at 8 a.m.; 
Feb. 13, 4 above at 7 a.m.; ice three and one- 
half inches in a tub in the yard. 

Nov. 3d and 4th, 
first frost that fall. 
1905. — Feb. 2, 
rained. Norther 
came up at 2 p. m. ; 
3, rained ; cold 
north wind; 4, 
rained. Temjiera- 
ture 30 at 12 p.m.; 
5, rained; 32 at 7:30 
P.M. ; 12, rained last 
night; north wind 
this morning; tem- 
perature, 3() at 7 
A.M.; 26 at 9 a.m.; 
24 at 11 A.M.; 22 at 
2 P.M.; 20 at 6 p.m.; 
13, temperature 16 
at 7 A.M.; 14, tem- 
perature 20 at 7 
A.M. The lake froze 
over hard; will hold 
me up (175 lbs.). 
March 20 and 21, 
frost; temperature, 
32—34. 

1907. — One rain 
in .January; one 
rain in February; 
one frost this win- 
jnneciiun w iih an orange ter — the warmest 



Mar. 15, 1912 



<l 


1 i 

^' ? Till k A , ■ 







Summer home of S!. Geo. Steven.s, surrounded by the birds, the tlowers, and the bees. 



and dryest winter in iO years. Bees gather- 
ed pollen .Jan. 8. March 15, Ijees very strong. 

1909. — .Jan. ol, no rain since Dec. 20. Only 
one freeze and three frosts this winter. 

Feb. 14, norther struck at 12 M. Tempera- 
ture, 5G; 32 at" p.m.: 15, 20 at 7 a.m.; 20, 
bees suffered a great loss in young brood. 

1911. — Jan. 1, bees gathering pollen to- 
day. Temperature 65 at 10 a.m.; 2, cloudy 
north wind; 30 at 10 a.m.; temperature 24 at 
4 p.m.; 3, 12 at 7 a.m.: June 13, temperature 
110 at 2 P.M. on my porch. 

1912. — Jan. 11, temjDcrature 60; bees flying 
nicely; 12, north wind blew last night, about 
8 P.M.; temperature, 18 at 11 a.m.; 13, tem- 
perature 10 at 8 a.m. Ice one and one-half 
inches thick on canal at Lane City. 

The boys are having a fine time on the 
ice. Two boys from Ohio think it is fine, 
but both broke the ice and went into water 
about two feet deep. 

Lane City, Tex., Jan. 14. 



LIVING CLOSE TO NATURE 



BY S. GEO. STEVENS 



Our first swarm of bees came to us in 
.luly, 1910; and, not knowing much of bees, 
I divided them and made two colonies. In 
the fall I took 5u lbs. of surplus comb honey 
from them, and wintereci them in good 
shape on their summer stands. 

This summer we made ten colonies of 
them with some little help from other bees 
I bought in August, and this fall I got about 
100 lbs. of honey, and all the hives were in 
good shape for winter — no feeding. With 
what I bought we have 32 colonies in all, 
and will winter them on summer stands. 



We have about our cottage a sort of com- 
bination of insect and bird life, in both of 
which we are very much interested. We 
feel that our first colony of bees was largely 
the cause of our interest in the birds. 

Duluth, Minn. 

[Our correspondent is a great friend of the 
birds, and he has tamed them until many 
of them will fly from the trees to eat from 
his hand. He has done a vast amount of 
good in writing articles for the press, con- 
demning in no uncertain terms the boys 
and men from the cities who take a fiendish 
delight in killing "these creatures who 
come to live with us, and who make life just 
that much more worth living." — Ed.] 



THE RIPENING OF NECTAR 

Does the Body of the Honey Vary According to the 
Humidity of the Season ? 

BY T. P. ROBINSON 



Arthur C. Miller, page 23, Jan. 1, tells 
how bees ripen nectar. lam not particular- 
ly familiar with the bee's way of depositing 
her load in the cell; neither do I know that 
bees ever take up this nectar again except 
to deposit it in a more convenient place, 
liut I doubt very much whether they make 
a practice of taking it up for the special 
purpose of curing it; and my doubts are 
based on the fact that the body of my hon- 
ey varies just as does the humidity of the 
season. This variation in body is further 
due to the strength of the colony. 

I have known many times when the evapo- 
rating or drying out of the water was almost 
entirely omitted, and the honey soured in the 



170 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 







The three best industries of Pecos Valley, New Mexico, iruit, bees, and alfalfa. 



combs. I have known this souring to be so 
bad that the combs would "burst" in the 
hive and the honey would run out freely. 
But these extreme cases have been largely 
confined to weak colonies. It is certain 
that the bees were bent on gathering all the 
nectar possible during the day, and were 
not numerous enough to fan it dry at night 
nor to create sufficient heat. 

THE FIELDERS DEPOSIT THE HONEY IN THE 
CELLS. 

In the editor's footnote, p. 24, Jan. 1, he 
says that it has been repeatedly stated that 
bees on returning from the field do not de- 
posit their nectar directly in the cells, but 
pass it around to bees in waiting which cure 
it before depositing it. Allow me to give 
contradictory evidence. 

Five years ago I had a yard of 100 stands 
of bees without food, and on the point of 
starvation. It had been raining for eight 
days, and all the colonies had been kept 
indoors. The weather had been dry for five 
weeks previous, and for ten days before the 
rains the bees had been gathering just 
enough honey to live on day by day. 
Brood-rearing had entirely ceased. I was 
watching, and was in readiness; but hoping 
that the weather would become fair I delay- 
ed feeding as long as possible. 

I observed that the bees were carrying out 
their last cells of drone and worker brood, 
for they had a little; so I took 25 pounds of 
sugar and 3 gallons of water and made a 
thin syrup, placed it out for the bees, and 
in 30 minutes it was all in the hives. I made 
an examination 35 minutes after placing 
out the food; and what did I see? I found 
this fluid in varying amounts in the cells in 
the brood-box from the deformed cells on 
the top bar to the imperfect cells on the bot- 
tom bars. The sole idea of the bees seemed 
to be to get the stuff in the hive. 

That night a great humming was heard, for 
it was in May. Now notice! Twenty-four 
hours later the queens had begun to lay, 
and this nectar in the meantime had been 



gathered up and placed in proper rings for 
the brood nest just above the eggs. 

The next day, 48 hours after the first feed, 
I gave them 1 lb. a colony instead of half 
a pound, as at first, and the bees made a 
worse scattering of it in the hive than be- 
fore, but by the next day all was gathered 
up and placed in proper order. No, bees do 
not pass the stufT around, but deposit it at 
once and go for more. 

It doesn't take much of a shake to scatter 
new nectar all over, then if combs are tilted 
too much the nectar will run out on the 
ground; but it tastes unlike honey, being 
watery and of strong flavor. 

DO BEES "roar" WITH THEIR WINGS? 

Mr. Miller doubts whether the great roar- 
ing could be caused by the wings of one col- 
ony of bees. I emphatically disagree. A 
good swarm of bees on the wing (and the 
bees do not all go with the swarm) can be 
heard plainly 100 yards away on a still day; 
but the hum of a colony at night would not 
seem so loud 50 ft. away. 

Bartlett, Tex. 

[That laden bees give their loads to other 
bees was not our statement, but an old cur- 
rent notion. We merely mentioned it in 
our footnote as an illustration of how old 
theories have to give way to later and more 
careful observation. Your statement on the 
point supports that made by A. C. Miller, 
which is doubtless right. — Ed.] 



A 200-COLONY 



APIARY IN A 
ORCHARD 



NEW MEXICO 



BY J. S. HIGHSMITH 



The illustration shown herewith is a pic- 
ture of my apiary of 200 colonies of fine Ital- 
ian bees. In 1910, by the 1st of September 
we had over 8000 pounds of surplus comb 
honey from alfalfa, which was very fine, be- 
ing clear and white. I began with only a 
few colonies in the spring of 1908. 



Mar. 15, 1912 



The picture represents three of the best 
products of Pecos \'alley — honey, fruit, and 
alfalfa. The apiary is in a small four-year- 
old apple orchard and is surrounded by 
fields of alfalfa. 

Artesia, New Mexico. 



THE HONEYBEE AS A FERTILIZING AGENT 



BY DR. E. F. PHILLIPS 



The honeybee is known widely as the pro- 
ducer of honey, and it is recognized that 
this makes it one of the minor agricultural 
animals. The total value of the crop pro- 
duced is not fully realized, and it is often a 
surprise, even to well-informed beekeepers, 
to learn that the average annual honey crop 
of the United States is worth about $20,000,- 
000. The American farmer produces crops 
of such gigantic proportions that a branch 
which can not be discussed in the millions 
is scarcely worthy of consideration. Even 
in this galaxy of wealth the honey-producer 
has no reason to be ashamed of his special- 
ty, and he may be further congratulated on 
the fact that his field is just beginning to 
be occupied. We can not yet foresee an 
overstocking of the country, and an over- 
production of honey will not take place un- 
til we are producing at least ten times what 
we do now. 

The subject which is here announced at 
this time does not, however, deal with the 
direct benefits which accrue to American 
agriculture through the offices of the honey- 
bee, but to what may be styled the indirect 
benefits. These are recognized by special- 
ists, but are passed over unnoticed by the 
average farmer or citizen, and it is to re- 
count the indirect benefits that this subject 
is assigned. 

POLLINATION OF FLOWERS 

As is well known, blossoms, before they 
set, must be pollinated. That means that 
pollen from the anthers, or male portion of 
the flower, must reach the stigma, or female 
portion. Different plants exhibit wide vari- 
ation in the arrangement of these parts, anfl 
it may be well to recount some of these dif- 
ferent plans. In some cases the male and 
female organs are in separate flowers, as in 
the case of corn, the male flowers being the 
tassel and the female llowers resulting in 
the ear. In other cases the types of flowers 
are borne on separate plants, as in the case 
of the muUierry. 

In the majority of plants, both anthers 
and pistils are found in the same flower; 
but even here an extremely wide variation 
is found. In some cases the anthers ripen 
earlier than the pistil, so that the i)ollen 
produced is ineffectual in producing fertil- 
ization of that particular llower. This is 
shown in the fireweed,or willowherb, which 
is an important honey plant, especially in 
Northern Michigan. The reverse condition 
in which the stigma matures is first observ- 
ed in the common figwort Scrojyhularia 



nodosa, and to some extent in horse chest- 
nuts. 

In other cases, the anthers and pistil ma- 
ture at the same time; but because of their 
relative position, self-fertilization of the 
blossom does not occur. Other arrange- 
ments of this kind might be mentioned; 
but enough has been said to indicate that 
flowers are often so arranged that self-fertil- 
ization is impossible. In some cases of pears 
and plums it has been shown that the pol- 
len is ineffectual in fertilizing the flower, 
even if placed on the stigma. These ar- 
rangements all confirm the popular belief 
in the dangers of close inbreeding, and point 
to the desirability and often the necessity 
of cross-fertilization. 

Fertilization of plants occurs in two gen- 
eral ways. Plants like willows, pines, oaks, 
and birches, and, in general, plants whose 
flowers are inconspicuous and often not even 
recognized by the layman as flowers, are so 
constructed that pollen is carried by the air 
currents from the anthers to the pistil. The 
pollen of such jolants is light and dry. Most 
flowers, however, are noi of this type, but 
require some agent to carry the pollen, and 
these agents are usually insects. Without 
the kindly offices of insects which are de- 
spised as an order of animals by the majori- 
ty of people, our fruit crops would cease to 
be, and the flowers which abound would no 
longer bloom. 

RELATION BETWEEN PLANTS AND INSECTS 

It may also be said that plants have a 
greater appreciation of insects than we have, 
for we see the most wonderful arrangements 
for attracting insects to the flowers so that 
their visits will result in cross- fertilization. 
The pollen is not intentionally carried and 
put in the right place, but is transported on 
the hairs or otherwise as the insect goes 
from one flower to another. Insects go to 
flowers to gather pollen or nectar to be used 
as food at once, or to be removed and stored, 
as in the case of the honeybee. Pollen is 
produced in such abundance as to act as an 
attraction to pollen-feeding insects, and still 
leave a sufficient quantity to insure proper 
fertilization. Nectar acts also as an attrac- 
tion, and probably serves no other pur])ose 
to the flower. 

The question of what insects are most im- 
portant in carrying pollen has not been suf- 
ficiently investigated. In the comprehen- 
sive investigations of Miiller, he found that 
in low Germany 2750 out of 6231 visits of in- 
sects to flowers observed were made by Bj/- 
menoptcra, and of this number 2191 were by 
Apidir, the family to which the honeybee 
belongs. He frequently refers to the fact 
that on some plants the honeybees and 
bumblebees play " by far the most impor- 
tant part in fertilizing our (German) indig- 
enous flowers." Waite, in his bulletin on 
"The Pollination of Pear Flowers" (Bui. 5, 
Div. of \eg. Pathology, U. S. Dept. Agr.), 
mentions a large number of species of in- 
sects which visit jjear blossoms, but says: 
"The common honeybee is the most regu- 
lar and important abundant visitor, and 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



probably does more good than any other 
species." 

In an article read before the Ontario Bee- 
keepers' Association in December, 1900, by 
the late Dr. James Fletcher, he said: "It 
can be shown that, owing to its size, weight, 
and habits, no insect is so well calculated to 
ensure the fertilization of fruit-blossoms as 
the honeybee, which flies rapidly from plant 
to plant, and, by running over the flowers 
in search of pollen or nectar, brushes ofT the 
pollen and carries this vitalizing element on 
the hairs of its body to the next flower visit- 
ed. The habit of the bees, which has fre- 
quently been noticed, of confining the vis- 
its, when collecting largely to the same kind 
of plant, is taken advantage of by the bee- 
keeper to store up at certain seasons partic- 
ular kinds of honey, such as apple, raspber- 
ry, basswood, clover, and buckwheat hon- 
eys. This habit is also manifestly advan- 
tageous to the plants on account of the pol- 
len which is carried by the bee being of the 
kind necessary for the fertilization of its 
flowers, which could not be affected if the 
pollen were that of some other kind of plant. ' ' 

In some work done at the Michigan Agri- 
cultural College it was shown that, of all the 
insects collected on apple trees in bloom, 
none were so abundant as the honeybee. 
On the other hand, similar collections made 
at the Connecticut Experiment Station at 
New Haven show^ed very few honeybees. 
The latter results may be explained by the 
fact that, in the preceding winter, over sev- 
enty-five per cent of the colonies of honey- 
bees in that section of the country died, and 
by the fact that bee diseases had probably 
further reduced the number of bees in that 
section, as they are abundant in that State. 
Moreover, we should not expect to find 
many bees in a city on the seashore. The 
growing of cucumbers under glass is an im- 
portant industry in Eastern Massachusetts 
and in other parts of the United States. 
The Massachusetts cucumber-growers annu- 
ally use about 1000 colonies of bees in their 
greenhouses to pollinate their blossoms, in 
place of the former method of pollinating by 
means of a camel's-hair brush. 

While the honeybee is, perhaps, no better 
equipped than other insects, especially oth- 
er bees, for carrying pollen, there is one re- 
spect in which it outranks all others as a 
valuable asset to the fruitgrower. AVe are 
not able to propagate other insects in quan- 
tity, and introduce them to orchards at the 
proper time; but it is a very simple matter 
to carry in colonies of bees to insure a crop, 
if the weather is fit for bees to fly. Many 
orchardists realize this, and keep bees solely 
for the benefits derived from cross-fertiliza- 
tion of the fruit-blossoms. 

COMMON INTERESTS OF THE BEEKEEPER 
AND FRUITGROWER. 

The interests of the beekeeper and of the 
fruitgrower are identical. In the past there 
has arisen from time to time bad feeling be- 
tween these two classes of farmers. The 
fruitgrower claims that the bees destroy his 
ripe fruit; but this has been entirely dis- 



proven. Bees never suck ripe fruit unless 
it is previously punctured by birds or in- 
sects, such as wasps, or unless it is decayed. 
On the other hand, the beekeeper claims 
that the fruitgrower sprays his trees while 
they are in bloom, thus kifling the bees. 
This procedure is not recommended by any 
entomologist, and is not practiced by well- 
informed orchardists. It is prohibited by 
law in New York and in some other States. 
Cases of this antagonism are still to be 
found, but they are becoming more and 
more rare. Let us hope that the time will 
soon come when the beekeepers and fruit- 
growers will meet in common conventions 
to discuss their problems in common. 

The production of the millions of dollars' 
worth of fruit in the United States depends 
largely on insect pollination; and no insect 
is so important in this work as the honey- 
bee. It is a most conservative estimate to 
claim that the honeybee does more good to 
American agriculture in its office as a cross 
pollinator than it does as a honey gatherer. 

Washington, D. C. 



HOW POLLEN IS COLLECTED 



The Part Played in the Process by the Auricle 



BY F. W. L. SliADEN, F. B. S. 



The pollen dust gathers on the body hairs 
of the bees as the result of the visits paid to 
the flowers. These hairs, as seen under the 
microscope, are branched, and therefore are 
admirably adapted to hold the pollen. 

In the bumblebee (and probably also the 
honeybee) the pollen dust in the hairs on 
the thorax is collected on brushes on the in- 
ner sides of the metatarsi, or basal joint of 
the foot, of the middle pair of legs, which 
are moistened with honey from the tongue 
to make the dust cohere. The pollen dust 
in the hairs on the abdomen is collected on 
brushes on the inner sides of the metatarsi 
of the hind legs, and this is probably moist- 
enetl by rubbing the hind legs together. 

After this the pollen is transferred to the 
corbicula (or pollen-basket) on the tibiie of 
the hind legs, where, as every one knows, it 
accumulates into a great lump as the result 
of repeated contributions from the metatar- 
si. But how does it get there? It is evident, 
as Cheshire observed, that the pollen on the 
right metatarsus is transferred to the left 
corbicula, and the pollen on the left meta- 
tarsus is transferred <o the right corbicula. 
Cheshire supposed ("Beesand Beekeeping," 
1886) that the metatarsus discharges its pol- 
len on the corbicula by scraping its brush 
on the upper side of the tibia; but I find 
that this is not the case. The pollen is 
scraped ofT the metatarsal brush by a comb 
(c) situated at the end of the tibia on the 
inside, and it passes into a small concave 
receiver (d) that joins the comb; then, 
when the leg is straightened, a projection on 
the metatarsus called the auricle (e) closes 
upon the receiver, compresses the pollen, 



Mar. 15. 1912 



173 



and at the same time forces it out to the 
lower end of the corbicula, which is here 
shghtly depressed and ahnost devoid of hairs. 
Tlie compression of the pollen in the re- 
ceiver is an essential i)art of the process; for 
loose pollen grains such as occur on the met- 
tatarsal brushes would not hold together in 
the corbicula. In the bumblebee the angle 
between (he surface of the receiver and that 
of the corbicula is obtuse, and thecompress- 
ed pollen easily passes from the one to the 
other; but in the honeybee there is a sharp 
angle at the corner, and the auricle bears a 
fringe of hairs (/') to guide the stream of 
pollen to the corbicula; also the honeybee's 
auricle is evidently pressed back by the pol- 
len, for it has no other means of escape. 




Fig, 1.— Juncture of tibia and metatarsus in hind leg of worker honey' 
bee, outer side. 

Fig. 2. — Diagrammatic section of the same, showing mode of conveying 
pollen. 

a, metatarsus: b. tibia; c, comb: d, receiver for pollen: e, auricle: /, 
fringe of hair on auricle. 



I forced a queen bumblebee to relax, and, 
after placing some pollen obtained from a 
comb taken out of one of my hives in the 
receiver, I straightened the leg. The pollen 
was immediately delivered to the corbicula. 
I was struck with the freedom of action of 
the joint, and noticed that the auricle could 
be placed in the receiver in various positions, 
so that it can not only compress pollen 
there, but it can scrape out the receiver, 
and, on the other hand, can deliver the pol- 



len high up on the corbicula. In the honey- 
bee the joint works still more freely. The 
fact that, in the bumblebee, the pollen 
always begins to collect at the apical end of 
the corbicula, is now clear, and we see why 
the corbicula is so smooth and bare, for the 
pollen actually slides up it. 

It is a significant fact that, although the 
corbicula is surrounded with a fringe of stiff 
hairs which act, as Cheshire observes, like 
the stakes that the farmer places round the 
sides of his wagon when he desires to carry 
hay, this fringe is interrupted at the spot 
where the receiver discharges its pollen on 
the corbicula. In the bumblebee the en- 
trance here to the corbicula carries only 
about three stiflf hairs. These hairs are short 
3^^ and upright, and widely 

separated from one an- 
other, and are some lit- 
tle way inside the en- 
trance. It is evident 
that their function is to 
provide a means of at- 
tachment for the pollen 
until the lump has 
grown large enough to 
be enclosed between the 
hairs at the sides of the 
corbicula. The entrance 
to the corbicula is, in the 
bumblebee, densely dot- 
ted with fluff (under the 
microscope mossy hairs) 
which also probably 
help to hold the pollen. 
In the honeybee there 
are no stiff hairs, and 
very little fluff in the en- 
trance to the corbicula. 

In the bumblebee the 
long hairs on either side 
of the entrance to the 
corbicula form a wide 
and shallow arch over 
it. The object of this 
arch is, no doubt, to 
help to support the 
lump of pollen on the 
corbicula without inter- 
ferring with the passage 
of fresh pollen to the 
corbicula. The arch also 
helps to guide the pol- 
len to the corbicula. In 
the honeybee the arch is 
less pronounced, and 
consists chiefly of hairs 
from the lower side, and 
these are so long as to 
stretch almost across the tibia. 

These facts add an interesting page to 
the wonderful story of the bee that is not 
given in our text books. How often have 
we seen the bees humming around the 
flowers, busily scraping their dangling legs 
together, and every now and then giving 
them a little jerk! At each jerk a minute 
quantity of pollen is tucked up on the cor- 
bicula. 
On examining the workers of several spe- 



174 

cies of Melipova from South America in 
my collection, I notice that, although they 
possess a very wide corbicula and a comb, the 
auricle is absent, and the metatarsi are ex- 
tremely narrow at the base. Apparently, 
therefore, in these bees, the pollen is not 
compacted, but is scrai)ed on the corbicula 
by the comb in a loose state, and the cor- 
bicula bears a beautiful rack, like a long- 
toothed comb, to retain it. The shape of 
the metatarsus in some species, however, 
suggests that it may be bent up so that its 
upper edge presses against the end of the 
tibia to form a pollen-press. 

In the solitary bees there is no corbicula, 
the pollen being conveyed on brushes sit- 
uated either on the hind legs or on the un- 
der side of the abdomen. 
SOME SPECIFIC observations; how honey 

IS MADE USE OF. 

On Feb. 11, a mild and sunny day, my 
bees were working busily on the winter 
stconite, Eranthis hiemalis; and by watch- 
ing them I was able to verify my opinion as 
to how the pollen is gathered as mentioned 
above. I watched one bee for over five 
minutes, rifling flower after flower. During 
this time its loads of pollen increased in 
size considerably; but it did not once cross 
its hind legs, rubbing the metatarsal 
brushes on the edges of the opposite tibia\ 
as Cheshire supposed, although it frequent- 
ly rubbed or scraped the inner sides of the 
metatarsi against one another, the motion 
being ahuafjs longitudinnl. 

I noticed that the pollen dust was gather- 
ed direct from the anthers on the metatar- 
sal brushes by the bee crawling about among 
the stamens and digging its legs in among 
them. In large open flowers, such as the 
winter aconite and the blossom of the apple, 
cherrv, and plum, the anthers of which are 
accesible to the hind legs, the pollen dust is 
probably always gathered in this way, 
namely, direct upon the metatarsi. 

But what makes the pollen dust cling to 
the metatarsal brushes? If a lump of pol- 
len from the corbicula of a bee be examined, 
it will be seen that it consists of pollen 
grains made into a paste with some liquid; 
and if the lump be tasted it will be discov- 
ered that this liquid is honey. Obviously, 
the metatarsal brushes are moistened with 
honey, and so the pollen dust adheres to 
them. It seems plain, too, that the honey 
comes from the tongue. But though I 
watched my bees carefully I never saw them 
lick their hind metatarsi, and I do not 
think that the tongue could reach the hind 
metatarsi. Indeed, the only way the bee 
could convey honey from its tongue to its 
hind legs would be through the agency of 
the fore and middle pairs of legs. The tarsi 
and metatarsi of the fore legs are covered 
with stiff bristles, which are adapted to re- 
ceive the honey, and the metatarsi on the 
middle legs are provided with brushes of 
stiff bristles which are similar. In watch- 
ing the bees working on the winter aconite 
I saw their middle and hind metatarsi 
rubbed together on several occasions, and, 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

in several bees I killed, the brushes on the fore 
metatarsi were saturated with honey. But 
this rubbing of the middle and hind legs 
together was seen to take place far too sel- 
dom (namely only three times during the 
whole of my observations, which lasted, I 
should think, nearly half an hour) to mois- 
ten effectively the pollen grains, and thus I 
am led to conclude that the moistening of 
the hind metatarsi is generally carried out 
during the flight from flower to flower. In- 
deed, if one thinks of it this flight pro- 
vides a most suitable interval in the work 
of the proverbially busy bee in which to 
discharge this apparently most necessary 
duty; and the bee, by acquiring the instinct 
to moisten its metatarsi, then would be able 
to do it mechanically, just as often as it is 
necessary. One must remember, too, that, 
during flight, the legs are free. 

I must ask for the indulgence of the read- 
er in dwelling so much on what I imagine, 
and so little on what I have actually seen; 
but this is a case in which the movements 
made by the bee are too quick to be follow- 
ed by the eye, and I think that an examin- 
ation of the pollen-collectingorgans, a study 
of the bees in the flowers, and the following 
of my argument, will bring conviction that 
the process of pollen-collecting is very much 
as I have described it. 

Ripple Court Apiary, England. 



NEW LAW ON SPRAYING IN OHIO 

What to Do if an Orchard is Too Large to Spray all 
the Trees when they are Not in Bloom 



BY N. E. SHAW 

Chie} Inspector Division of Nursery and Orchard 



[We wrote Prof. Shaw regarding the new spray- 
ing law in Ohio, and his reply follows. — Kd.] 

The new law does not become effective 
until May 31 of the present year. Spraying 
is required between the 1st of November 
and the 30th of April. This is for the de- 
struction of scale insects; and any solution 
which is used for this purpose can not be 
applied after foliage has appeared or buds 
have opened, because of the injury that 
would result. The material used for these 
applications would of necessity have to be 
the lime-sulphur wash, miscible oil, or some 
similar solution, and not an arsenical poi- 
son. 

I have received many inquiries from bee- 
men concerning the spraying of fruit trees 
while in bloom. Most of them are under 
the impression that there is a law in this 
State against spraying at this time; but, of 
course, such is not the case. Neither the 
Experiment Station at Wooster, the College 
of Agriculture, nor this department, all of 
which send out a spray calendar, advocate 
spraying when trees are in bloom. In fact, 
we lay stress upon the fact that no apjilica- 
tion should be made at this time, but after 
the blossoms have fallen, or at least most 
of them. Hecently one of our large com- 
mercial orchardists, whose acreage is too 



Mar. 15, 1912 



large for his spraying equipment, made the 
statement that he intends to begin spray- 
ing for codling worm before the blossoms 
have begun to fall, in order to cover his en- 
tire orchard in proper time. 

I called his attention to the fact that he 
would, no doubt, receive considerable inju- 
ry from such an application, to which he 
replied that it was about six of one and 
half a dozen of the other; because if he did 
not gel over his entire orchard the unspray- 
ed part would be of no use to him. 

I told him that, if his plan were very 
generally adopted, it would probably lead 
to the passage of a law prohibiting spray- 
ing at blooming time. 1 do not think that, 
should he undertake to do this, he will be 
very generally followed by others, because 
most of them have suitable spraying equip- 
ment for their needs; and wTiile this man 
has been looked up to considerably in the 
past, and has had his methods copied by 
others, he does not hold the same place as 
an orchardist in the estimation of others at 
the present time. 

I assure you I shall be glad to do whatev- 
er I can to enlighten our fruitgrowers on 
this matter, and hope that we shall never 
need a law to prevent spraying while trees 
are in full bloom. 

In regard to this compulsory-sjjraying 
law I will say that the same is not under 
the control of this Division, and we are in 
no wise responsible for its passage. 

Columbus, O., March 1. 



ARE HONEYBEES OF ANY VALUE TO THE 
ORCHARDIST? 



How Many Colonies are Needed per Acre of Fruit? 



BY BENJAMIN W. DOUGLASS 



The Greenhorn had just purchased a small 
orchard and had started out as a full-fledged 
convert to the "back-to-the-soil movement." 
Unlike many such greenhorns, he did not 
consider that he knew all there was to be 
known about farm and orchard work. He 
knew enough to know that you can not 
learn horticulture simply by reading books 
in the back parlor, and that fruitgrowing 
requires more than a theoretical knowledge 
in order to make it a success. 

Since I had known the Greenhorn for 
many years it was but natural that I should 
be asked to contribute my share of informa- 
tion toward making the new orchard a suc- 
cess, and I accordingly made a careful in- 
spection of his place soon after it was bought. 
This was in the spring of the year, shortly 
after the apple trees had blos.somed — and 
they had blossomed lavishly. To the own- 
er's surprise, however, the stand of fruit was 
exceedingly poor, although there had been 
no frost to injure the (lowers. 

"It seems to me, "said I, "that your only 
trouble here is a lack of pollination due to 
the absence of bees." 

"But," he replied, "I have a colony of 



bees up under the grape-arbor at the house, 
so that surely can't be the reason for the 
trouble." 

So I had to analyze the situation for him; 
and, briefly, this is what I said: 

"Your house and the single stand of bees 
are nearly a quarter of a mile from the main 
part of this orchard. The past weeks have 
been very wet and cold, although not cold 
enough for frost. The hours of sunshine 
have been very brief; and during the ])eriotl 
when the trees were in bloom the sun shone 
for only a few minutes at a time. ]3ee will 
not fly in such weather, or at best they (ly 
but a short distance from their hives. Con- 
sequently your crop has failed because you 
did not have numerous colonies of bees scat- 
tered through your orchard. If you had 
done so the bees would have taken advan- 
tage of every minute of sunshine and given 
you a full crop where you now have a fail- 
ure. If my theory in this is correct we 
should find that your trees near the house, 
in the 'family orchard,' have more fruit 
than these in the main orchard." 

We at once investigated, and found that 
the trees near the house had set a very fair 
crop of apples. In the main orchard there 
were more apples near the house than there 
were on the further side of the orchard; for, 
as I have said, in that part the crop was a 
failure. 

"Well," said the Greenhorn, "how many 
colonies of bees should I have on my twenty 
acres of orchard? and how close together 
should they be placed? or should they all be 
placed in one spot, such as the center of the 
tract?" 

Here was a question that I could not an- 
swer with any degree of finality. It is im- 
possible to draw a definite conclusion re- 
garding the exact number of bees that 
should be kept in order to assure good pol- 
lination. Some seasons very few bees will 
suffice, while it is possible to imagine a blos- 
soming season when any quantity of bees 
would fail to provide pollination. After a 
long series of observations on this subject I 
admit that I am still almost as far from a 
definite conclusion as I was at the start. 

In the spring of 1911 I assigned one of my 
assistants to a study of the insects concern- 
ed in the pollination of the apple, pear, and 
cherry. Without going into his results in 
detail I will quote from field notes made at 
different times during the season: 

April 20. — Warm and clear. An abun- 
dance of wild bees, and tlies of various 
species. Honeybees present in large num- 
bers. 

April 22. — Partly cloudy; cold and windy 
following a rain; native species of bees and 
flies very scarce; honeybees fairly common. 

May 9. — Warm and clear. Many small 
native bees on cherry; in numbers they ex- 
ceeded the honeybees. On the apple the 
honeybees were the most numerous, exceed- 
ing all other species. Syrphid flies were 
quite common throughout the orchard. 

These notes and studies were made in an 
orchard where there were about seventy col- 



176 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



onies of bees. Comparative notes made on 
other orchards in the vicinity on April 22 
showed that very few honeybees were to be 
found. This proved conclusively that the 
presence of the apiary in the orchard was of 
material value in securing pollination. 

There can be no rule as to the definite 
number of colonies that should be kept for 
each acre, because of several variable factors 
which enter into the problem. In the first 
place, individual colonies of bees will vary, 
not only in strength, but in the aggressive- 
ness of the members of the hive. Some col- 
onies will range better and cover more ground 
in unfavorable weather than other colonies. 
The main difficulty, of course, is due to the 
fact that no two seasons are exactly alike, 
and the number of colonies that would be 
satisfactory one year might be totally inad- 
equate the next season. 

During an unfavorable season a large 
number of colonies close to the trees may 
insure a full crop when all the other trees in 
the neighborhood fail. This was repeatedly 
shown in the orchard of Mr. George S. De- 
muth, at Peru, Indiana. Mr. Demuth was 
primarily a beekeeper, and his apiary was. 
located in a small orchard. Year after year 
this orchard set a full crop of fruit, even in 
cold rainy seasons when the neighbors all 
thought that the fruit was killed by frost. 
It is quite probable that no small part of the 
frost-killed fruit is simply injured by a lack 
of pollination. It is certainly true that 
fruit that is well pollinized is more vigorous, 
and consequently more resistant to insect 
and fungous injury, later in the season. 

To return to the Greenhorn. AVith a per- 
sistence that was most aggravating, he in- 
sisted that I had avoided his direct question 
as to the number of colonies that he should 
keep per acre, and how they should be spac- 
ed. In answering this direct question I will 
simply say that, for my own use, I am in- 
tending to keep bees in the orchard at the 
rate of one colony for each two acres of or- 
chard. For 140 acres of orchard I plan to 
have 70 colonies. These will not all be kept 
in one place, but will be divided up into 
groups of ten or fifteen each, and will be 
placed at advantageous points about the or- 
chard. I would avoid stringing the hives 
over a great space in the orchard, as there 
are some men who are afraid of bees, and 
there may be such a man in one of your 
gangs at spraying time. If the bees are 
bunched in one small locality the trees 
around them can be left unsprayed until 
late in the evening, and the work can be 
done after the bees are through flying. Un- 
der no circumstances should the trees right 
around the apiary be neglected because of 
the bees. In fact, they soon become accus- 
tomed to having people around them, and 
it is seldom that they cause any trouble. 

SOME MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SPRAYING 

Every season we have any number of ac- 
counts of how some farmer has killed all 
the bees in his neighborhood by spraying 
his fruit. Sometimes such a report is true. 
In the great majority of cases, however, it 



is not. When the practice of spraying first 
came into use a number of years ago, some 
manufacturers of spray-pumps published 
the directions for spraying in such a way 
that many farmers were led to an incorrect 
notion of the process. From this first mis- 
information has come much trouble, and 
many explanations have been needed to 
clear matters up between the fruitgrowers 
and the beekeepers. 

As a matter of fact, the interests of the 
fruitgrower and the beekeeper are indentical 
in many respects, and there is no cause for 
any misunderstanding between the two in- 
dustries. Many fruitgrowers are seeing the 
value of bees in the orchard, and many bee- 
keepers are beginning to realize the value 
of the honey harvest from the fruit bloom. 
No fruitgrower who pretends to know the 
first thing about spraying will attempt to 
spray his trees while they are in bloom. To 
do so would not only injure his friends the 
bees, but would also result in some actual 
damage to the blossoms. 

WHEN TO SPRAY 

The first spraying should be applied be- 
fore the buds open, at a time when the bees 
are not interested in the trees in any way. 
The second spraying comes after the petals 
have fallen; also a time when the bees are 
no longer interested in the orchard. Bees 
attend very strictly to their own business; 
and after the nectar has dried up in the 
flowers they are a dead issue so far as the 
honey-gatherers are concerned. It is the 
second spraying that usually causes the 
fight between the orchardist and his bee- 
keeping neighbor. Very often the neigh- 
bor will become alarmed as soon as he sees 
the spray-machine at work, and in some 
cases he will claim that every dead bee that 
he finds for weeks to come was killed by the 
arsenic spray. 

A NEW SPRAYING SOLUTION THAT IS RE- 
PELLENT TO INSECTS 

During the last two seasons a new spray 
material has come into very general use 
over the country. This is the dilute lime 
and sulphur solution as a substitute for the 
old Bordeaux mixture. The Bordeaux was 
simply a mixture of copper sulphate and 
lime, and it was used in connection with 
the arsenate of lead or with Paris green. 
The new sulphur spray requires the addi- 
tion of the arsenic, just as the Bordeaux did; 
but it possesses the added advantage to the 
beekeeper that it is repellent to all insects. 
The smell of the sulphur is so strong that 
trees sprayed with it are notably free from 
insects of all sorts during the period through 
which the smell lasts. In this way the bees 
are repelled along with certain injurious in- 
sects (notably the plum curculio) . This re- 
pellent action of the lime and sulphur will 
no doubt go a long way toward easing the 
fear of the beekeeper. For my own part I 
feel so sure of the repellent value of the sul- 
phur that I will venture the assertion that 
no harm would resiilt to the bees, even if 
the orchard should be sprayed while in full 



Mar. 15. 1912 



bloom. Of course it would be highly unde- 
sirable to spraj'^ the trees when they are in 
full bloom; but I simply make the state- 
ment to show my confidence in the repellent 
value of the solution. 

I should be very glad to hear the last of 
the controversy concerning the killing of 
bees by spraying; but I know that there 
will always be beekeepers who will not read, 
and fruitgrowers of the same class; and, 
further, that there will always be the indi- 
vidual who is ready to pick a fight with his 
neighbor. I have no doubt that the spray- 
machine will continue to be a sore point 
with beekeepers for many years, just as the 
stinging, stealing, and "eating" of fruit by 
his neighbor's bees will continue to be a 
thorn in the side of the unreading orchardist. 

In conclusion I will say that the Green- 
horn bought some bees, thereby improving 
his chances of success, and, incidentally, 
opening the way to much ultimate pleasure, 
although we will admit that beekeeping for 
the beginner is not an unmixed joy. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

♦-•-•^ 

THE RECENT NEW YORK STATE CONVEN- 
TION 



Raising Cells without Queen Cups or Grafdng; 

a Simple and Practical Plan for a Honey 

Producer 

BY R. F. HOLTEBMANN 



Many years have passed since I attended 
m.y first convention of beekeepers in New 
York. I am told it was thirty years ago at 
Rochester. Many beekeepers I have known 
have since then fallen by the way to remind 
us, too, of eternity. 

The convention which has just closed at 
Syracuse, and at which the writer was pres- 
ent (for the New York State Department of 
Agriculture was largely attended) , there ap- 
peared to be dozens of men who were operat- 
ing from 400 to (if I am not mistaken) over 
a thousand colonies of bees, and I heard of 
more like them in the State. These bee- 
keepers impress one; they know their busi- 
ness: they are not content with going in 
well-known and beaten paths, but they are 
on the outlook for improved methods, be 
they original with themselves or not. They 
have an understanding that, to combat 
ideas, is not to be antagonistic to individuals. 
The fire may fly in mental combat, but no 
friendships are disturbed by such conflict. 
Notably among that class is W. F. Marks 
and Geo. B. Howe, the latter one of the 
State inspectors. 

Of the many good things brought out at 
the convention, that which impressed me 
most was the production of queen cells by a 
method wliich does away with the necessity 
of larva> transfer or the making of queen- 
cell cups. In a private conversation the 
writer had been informed of this process by 
D. R. Hardy, Burrs Mills, N. Y. It appears 
that no one present claimed to be the origi- 
nators of this method; but the New York 
beekeepers appear among themselves to 



have given out the idea on the quiet, and 
Mr. Hardy, in the kindness of his heart, 
and out of pity for the uninitiated, had 
given me the wink. 

The plan was irade public when Mr. Os- 
car Dines, of Syracuse, took the floor on the 
morning of Feb. 1, following Mr. West on 
the subject, "Some Things I have Seen," 
and he made us sit up and listen when this 
method of queen-cell production was de- 
scribed. ISIr. Dines stated that he took a 
suitable comb (or two combs) and inserted 
it in the center of the brood chamber of the 
stock containing the queen from which he 
desired to breed. After the queen had laid 
in this comb, and the larvae were ready, the 
comb was cut to the midrib along the top- 
bar. Then a similar cut was made between 
the second and third row of cells from the 
topbar; another cutting between the third 
and fourth row; another between tlie sixth 
and seventh; another between the seventh 
and eighth row, and so on. The two rows 
of cells are destroyed to the septum, leaving 
rows one cell wide with a two-cell- wide space 
between, over the entire one side of the 
comb. A phosphorus match is now taken, 
and in the remaining rows one cell is left 
intact, and the larvae in the next two de- 
stroyed, and so on throughout the comb. 
This prevents the joining of queen cells by 
the bees. 

I should have mentioned that, before the 
comb is cut to the septum, it should be 
shaved down so as to leave only a shallow 
cell as in the Alley system. 

The comb is now mounted in a rim lyi 
inches deep, and as wide and long as the 
hive. This rim is then placed upon a hive 
with the comb lying horizontally over the 
brood nest. The comb is so suspended that 
the upper side of it is level with the top of 
the rim, leaving ample room underneath 
the cut-down comb wall and the topbars of 
the brood frames for the development of 
queen cells. 

Mr. Dines stated that he had secured 65 
fine queen cells by this method at one time 
by placing the prepared combs and rim on 
a queenless colony. Mr. Case, of New York 
(I regret I did not get his initials), staled 
that, by taking such a comb and giving it 
to a strong queenless colony three days after 
taking away all its brood, so that the colony 
had no other brood or larvse to care for, he 
had secured 105 fine cells. The septum of 
the comb became the foundation for the 
queen cell. It was thus readily handled. 
The upper side of the comb should be cover- 
ed over by pasteboard to prevent the bees 
from paying attention to the larviP in Ihe 
cells. When the cells started are ready, a 
beekeeper who wants to requeen need only 
go to the colonies he desires to requeen, re- 
move the old queen, and insert between the 
frames one of the- queen cells inserted in a 
West cell-protector, and the colony will se- 
cure a virgin queen when hatched. 

LARGE BROOD CHAMBERS. 

Many New York beekeepers are in fa\or 
of ample brood-chamber capacity. One of 



178 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



them, I do not remember who, stated that 
Mr. Mclntyre, the well-known Californian 
beekeeper, made it a point to buy queens 
from queen-breeders who use large hives, as 
he held that queens in such hives are likely 
to be more prolific, and are likely to throw 
progeny with better laying powers. 

Brantford, Ont. 

[The plan here described is similar to the 
Alley method that was given some 25 or 30 
years ago. The principal difference is in 
the manner of giving the prepared comb to 
the bees. Alley hung the comb in the reg- 
ular way in the hive; but in the plan here 
described, it is suspended ho7'izontally a,ho\e 
the brood nest. 

If we are correct. Dr. E. F. Phillips, of the 
Bureau of Entomology, gave this plan to 
the York State beekeepers some two or three 
years ago. Whether he or they originated 
the idea of placing the comb horizontally 
above the bees, we can not say. In any 
event, the plan has the merit of avoiding 
the use of queen cups and of grafting; and 
in the hands of the average beekeeper it 
would probably give better results than the 
grafting plan with queen cups. 

A caution should be entered against try- 
ing to get too many cells at one time from 
a colony. We have raised a good many 
thousands of queens; but our experience 
teaches us that the average colony will not 
take care of and feed ivell more than two 
dozen cells. They will build as many as a 
hundred; but queens from such cells are apt 
to be short-lived or poor layers. 

This method was described by Mr. Fried- 
man Greiner on page 170, 1911; but the very 
fact that it is giving such general satisfac- 
tion to our friends in New York would indi- 
cate that another description, as given above, 
will not come amiss. — Ed.] 



HONEY- CROP R EPORTS 

BY WESLEY FOSTER 



While attending the National Board 
meeting, some one (I think it w^as Mr. Pet- 
tit) asked me why Western beekeepers held 
back their report on crop conditions. I an- 
swered in an offhand way that it was, no 
doubt, because they hoped to get a better 
price by so doing. I have been looking 
over the honey reports that were sent in, 
and I do not find many that are very mis- 
leading. I am surprised that my report in 
the September 1st Gleanings, 1911, came 
as near being right as it did, for it was sent 
in before August 15. It is not possible to 
lell accurately about the alfalfa crop in this 
latitude until after August 1. Often the 
bees will do nothing, scarcely filling their 
hives and doing no swarming; then the sec- 
ond growth of alfalfa comes in bloom about 
August 1, or perhaps a little earlier, and a 
fair surplus is made in August and Septem- 
ber. I should not want to give a report on 
the honey crop until the middle of August; 
and then if the weather remains hot, and 
the alfalfa is yielding well, the crop may be 
doubled in the last ten days of August. 



In Gleanings for September 1 a good re- 
port was given of the California crop, al- 
though the crop was not as good as was ex- 
pected. Was the trouble that the beekeep- 
ers did not offer their crop for sale? I re- 
ported that the Colorado crop was larger 
than for some years, and I now think that 
was a little strong, although we still have a 
good deal of alfalfa honey (extracted) to dis- 
pose of. Without doubt more extracted 
honey was produced than the market could 
handle, and altogether too little comb hon- 
ey for the demand. Again, in Gleanings 
for October 15 a bountiful crop is reported 
from California. Was not part of the trou- 
ble because the producers did not offer their 
honey for sale soon enough? Idaho had a 
light crop in the west-central part, while in 
the Twin Falls and Idaho Falls districts it 
was good. The crop seems to have been 
good in Utah and Wyoming. 

The production of honey is increasing 
rapidly in the West, and new districts be- 
come of shipping importance almost every 
year. Many of these beemen are new, and 
do not look for a market until the honey is 
all harvested. A study of conditions in 
marketing should be made before rushing 
extensively into beekeeping. There are, 
undoubtedly, many inter-mountain regions 
which would produce a fine white article of 
comb honey, and there would be more mon- 
ey in comb honey than in extracted with 
market conditions as they are at present. 

I think that Fasteners are, perhaps, as 
much to blame for market conditions right 
now as are the Western producers. In the 
East, on account of the poor crop they put 
the price up; and just as they got things 
started at high prices then Western honey 
began to come east and knocked the bottom 
out of the market. 

In regard to Western market reports as a 
whole, nothing definite can be given before 
September or October. Many of the pro- 
ducers do not finish extracting until No- 
vember, and itishard to judge of the amount 
the supers will yield. Then we never think 
of offering much of our honey, especially 
the extracted, before the harvesting is pret- 
ty well out of the way. In case of comb 
honey some of us have learned to get it off 
as soon as possible, and often that is not 
early enough for the best price. 

As an example I figured that one apiary 
would run close to 100 pounds of extracted 
honey, per colony, spring count. I estimat- 
ed so much for each super on the hives. 
We did not finish extracting until Novem- 
ber, and found it was only about a 70-lb. 
crop. We shall have to figure on our crop 
reports not being in until later, if we want 
to know the conditions more definitely. 

There is nothing more necessary for the 
stability of the honey market than accurate 
reports, and a central head to direct the dis- 
tribution of the carload shipments of honey. 
The West is big, and its product so large 
that something will have to be done to hold 
things steady. This is a need that the new 
National Association can supply. 

Boulder, Col. 



Mar. 15, liH2 

IS THE LANGSTROTH FRAME TOO SMALL? 

The Size or Shape of Frames Not a Factor in Win- 
tering 

BY F. P. CLARE. 

As Mr. Simmins' article in the January 
issue of the Canadian Bee Journal may be 
confusing to beginners, and as Mr. S. in- 
vites criticism, I write to draw attention to 
what appears to me some of the errors in the 
ideas he advances. He asserts positively 
that the Langstroth frame is too shallow for 
successful ivintering, indoors or out, and too 
small for the honey season in any locality, 
and then, in the next breath, urges beekeep- 
ers to use a frame of less than three inches 
greater capacity. Laughable, is it not? 
Is it, Mr. Editor, a matter of " location mak- 
ing the difference"? Scores of us have 
proved here in Ontario that successful win- 
tering is secured, every time, by the quantity 
and quality of winter stores, and not by the 
size or sheipe of the frame. 

With an experience of over 30 years, with 
(at one time) 260 colonies of bees in 15, 12, 
10, and 8 inch depth hives, I assert positive- 
ly that, with an abundance of good stores, 
in a proper repository, bees will winter as 
successfully on the Langstroth frame as up- 
on any frame with which I am acquainted. 

If I were starting in the business again I 
would use no other, and ten of them in a 
hive. The points of superiority are many. 
Ten-inch lumber for the construction of 
hives can be procured quite readily, which 
is not as true of a deeper hive. When it 
comes to securing the harvest, by tiering 
up as well as placing in winter quarters, 
where do you find its superior? 

The larger the hive, the greater the quan- 
tity of bees produced, and the larger the 
amount of honey stored, is Mr. Simmins' 
reasoning. Possibly this may be true of 
some locations, but it certainly is not true 
of this part of Ontario. A queen that will 
keep eight Langstroth frames full of brood 
will have to lay over 2500 eggs daily for 
weeks at a time. Where can queens be 
found that will average better than this? 
Allowing two frames for honey and bee- 
bread, we have ten frames which experience 
has pro^•ed are ample for an average queen 
in most seasons and locations. 

Xow, if this capacity is doubled, what 
will be the result? Beebread and brood 
through both stories, if two stories are used 
and honey stored in the brood nest that 
should have gone into the super above the 
queen excluder. In addition to this, honey 
will be used by the bees, if not pure Italians, 
to raise thousands of bees that are too late in 
coming upon the stage of action to be of any 
value in securing the crop of white honey. 
"While great numbers of bees are all-impor- 
tant at the right time, out of season they 
are a detriment. 

Mr. Simmins blames the eight and ten 
frame Langstroth hives for the average crop 
reported by Mr. Root. Does not Mr. Sim- 
mins know that atmospheric conditions. 



179 

over which the beekeeper has no control, 
generally determine the amount df honey 
stored? Who has not been disapjwini' d in 
returns when bees were booming at tlie be- 
ginning of the harvest? Is the size of hive 
to blame for this? Thousands of colonies of 
bees are still kept in Viox hives and " gums " 
in mountainous regions and through the 
Southern States, and all these pull down the 
general average; but no intelligent beekeep- 
er considers Mr. R.'s figures as the average 
of his apiary. 

In conclusion, Mr. S., permit me to in- 
form you that a crop of from 200 to 400 
pounds of extracted honey has actually been 
produced by users of the despised Lang- 
stroth frame, and by those who have kept 
their bees in eight and ten frame Langstroth 
hives. 

And now, Mr. S., I want you to take your 
pencil and figure out the bees that would be 
in a hive that contains the "equivalent of 
two 16 X 10-inch eleven-frame chambers 
crammed solid with brood." 

Allowing 8)4x15)4 inches of brood comb 
to each frame, there are about 2882 inches 
of brood. Allowing 50 bees to the square 
inch, the result is 144,100 bees. Now allow 
as many more bees in the hive to care for 
the brood and to gather honey, and there 
will be 288,200 bees or about GO'lbs. of bees. 
Such a colony should store 600 pounds easi- 
ly, and the mother of that stock — is she for 
sale? and what will you take for her? Kind- 
ly address at once, and mark the letter rush. 
' Toronto, Canada. 

[If Mr. Simmins were more familiar with 
the diverse conditions in this country, with 
all shades of climate and temperature, he 
would not make the statement that a 10x16 
frame would enable us to do better winter- 
ing than now or to secure more honey. The 
Jumbo hive, with frames slightly larger, 
have been sold for years; but there is com- 
paratively little demand for them. More 
and more the tendency seems to be to get 
back to the original Langstroth frame. 
From 1885 to 1890 there was a rage for shal- 
low frames. During the latter part of the 
'90's there seemed to be a tendency toward 
the Qumby or Jumbo frame; but years of 
experience seemed to lead back to father 
Langstroth. During the early '80's the 
whole beekeeping world swung from the 
ten-frame Langstroth to the eight-frame; 
and now we are swinging back from the 
eight to the ten. There was formerly a be- 
lief that a deep frame would winter bees 
better than the Langstroth; but when these 
frames were tested side by side, year in and 
year out, the Langstroth always seemed to 
hold its own. It Is indeed remarkable that 
father Langstroth was so nearly right in 
so many things. While this winter may 
prove to be a severe one on bees, the size or 
shape of the frame will have nothing to do 
with it. — Ed.] 



Pyrox fills the barrel with the apples that used to 
be on top. Write Bowker Insecticide Co., Boston, 
for book. 



180 Gleanings in Bee Culture 



Artificial Pasturage for Bees ; Plants that Can be 
Grown Profitably 

What is the best known plant that can be raised 
for bee pasture? I am thinking of sowing one or 
two acres of mignonette. Do you think that bees 
will stop on that, and neglect gathering honey 
from basswood or white clover one-half to three 
miles distant? 

Oakfield, Wis., Feb. 22. F. W. Wells. 

[As a general rule we may say that it is not ad- 
visable to grow any plants for the honey alone. If, 
therefore, you wish to put out artificial pastures 
for the bees, grow some plant that will yield seed 
or hay in addition to the honey. For this purpose 
we know of nothing better than nor quite the 
equal of alslke clover that Is now being grown so 
extensively all over the United States. Next in 
order we would place buckwheat, red clover, sweet 
clover, and (in the Western States) alfalfa. Bass- 
wood is, of course, one of the greatest honey plants 
or trees in the world; but it takes so many years 
before it begins to yield nectar and lumber that the 
one who puts it out must have an idea for future 
generations. 

Ordinary white clover is, of course, a splendid 
honey plant, and it yields a good forage for pas- 
ture. It is also being grown to a considerable ex- 
tent. Red clover and peavine red clover yield con- 
siderable nectar; but the corolla tubes are so long 
that the average bee can not get very much honey 
from them. If, therefore, you desire to produce 
honey and hay you had better, by all means, grow 
alsike, sweet clover, or white clover, rather than 
either of the red clovers mentioned. 

Sweet clover is one of the most valuable honey 
plants we know of, and, when cut early enough, it 
yields valuable hay for stock. In many sections of 
the country sweet clover is being put in to prepare 
the soil for other clovers ; and on some waste 
lands where no other clover will thrive it will 
make fine pasturage for stock. 

Mignonette is a wonderful honey plant, but that 
is about all that can be said of it. There is only a 
limited demand for the seed. There would not be 
enough of it grown to pull the bees off from clover, 
if it were within three miles. 

Perhaps it would be well to explain that, in order 
to get any considerable amount of honey from arti- 
ficial pasturage, we have to figure on anywhere 
from five to ten acres of pasturage to a colony of 
bees. In some cases, and particularly some sea- 
sons, a much less acreage would be necessary. — 
ED.] 

Beehunting Pays 

In reply to P. C. Chadwlck, p. 39, 1 beg to say that 
any one would certainly know better than to save 
a swarm of bees from a tree if they are affected with 
foul brood. Right here the same law should apply, 
and should Impose a fine of $5.00 and costs for cut- 
ling a tree Infected with foul brood, and saving 
either bees or honey, and also for failure or neg- 
lect to destroy effectually the entire contents of 
such a tree by burning, so that other bees near it 
may have no chance to convey any of the honey 
therefrom, and thus spread the disease. As to 
whether beehunting pays In a financial way or not 
is wholly at the option of the operator. Would It 
pay to buy bees in the spring, and kill them in the 
fall to get their honey? Does it pay to cut down 
the apple tree to get the apples? Does it pay to 
cut the hickory tree to get the nuts? Does it pay 
to kill the sheep to get the wool? In fact, does it 
pay to kill the goose that lays the golden egg? All 
bosh! I have made no misstatement. It pays me 
to hunt bees, and under the same management it 
would pay Mr. Chadwick or any one else. I should 
like to live In a country where I could find nine 
beetrees while walking a distance of two miles. I 
would soon have the bees in hives, or destroyed if 
diseased. 

Union Center, Wis. Elias Fox. 



the apple bloom was in condition to poison the 
bees. It is true that the early apple bloom had 
fallen; but Rome Beauty was in full bloom, and 
the bees were working busily on the blossoms. My 
bees were very strong at that time. They died by 
the thousand, the ground near the hives and close 
to the alighting-board being covered with dead 
bees. There was a great Increase in the number of 
dead bees at the time of spraying, as the colonies 
were then very strong. 

The bees did not starve to death, for some of the 
hives contained 25 pounds of honey at the time the 
bees died. Others had more than that amount. 

The bees that did not die at once lingered in a 
weak condition. Moths fixed many; and others 
went into winter quarters with enough old honey 
for wintering, but not enough bees to cluster and 
keep warm. I do not understand why the bees 
that were weakened by the poison did not build up 
strong during the season. Many died in a few 
weeks after the spraying. 

Of 48 colonies but 12 are living. I think that 
three-fourths of all the bees in Pleasant Co. and in 
Wood Co. went the same route because of careless 
spraying. 

Salaraa, W. Va. Martin Wilkinson. 



Queen-rearing in Florida or Texas 

I am interested in the queen-rearing business, 
and would like to know of a place where 1 can rear 
early queens. How would the west coast of Flori- 
da or Southwestern Texas do for that business? Do 
you know of a better place than either of these? 
Can you suggest a definite location in either of the 
above or any other section of the country ? 

Bradford, Ky. M. A. Aulick. 

[The west coast of Florida would be a very good 
place to rear queens if you could get away from the 
water and rivers where there are mosquito hawks. 
One great difficulty in rearing queens in Florida is 
these hawks, and the large red ants that have 
nests in trees. The mosquito hawks will some- 
times paralyze queen-rearing operations in a few 
days, while the red ants will destroy whole colo- 
nies. There is no remedy for the mosquito hawks 
except to get into a locality where they have never 
been known to come in droves. You would have 
to get well away from water. In doing that you 
would get into desert country, probably where there 
would be no flora for bees. The nu isance of red ants 
can be overcome to some extent by plac'ng the 
hives on leveled-off ground where there is no vege- 
tation nor rubbish. Hives must be put up on stilts 
or framework. Grass or rubbish of any sort must 
be kept entirely away from the apiary for a dis- 
tance of 25 or 30 feet. Do not leave boards of any 
kind on the ground. The apiary should be in the 
open, away from any trees. 

Southwestern Texas might and probably would 
present better conditions for queen-rearing than 
any place in Florida. — Ed.] 



Bees Poisoned by Careless Spraying at an Experi- 
ment Station 

Some time ago I wrote you that my bees were 
killed as a result of our experiment station spray- 
ing apple trees while in bloom. They deny that 



Paper Protection Not Sufficient in Cold Climates 

Mr. Miller's paper protection, p. 73, Feb. 1, maybe 
sufficient to carry bees through winter in Rhode 
Island; but my experience here in Central Wiscon- 
sin has proved it to be a failure in severe winters. 
To satisfy myself as to the merits of the black pa- 
per as a winter protection, 1 prepared two colonies 
in the fall of 1910 by placing a super on top, filled 
with planer shavings: then the cover, and then 
over and around the hive and super, not common 
tarred paper, but a heavy tarred felt. One of the 
colonies so prepared was strong in bees, the other 
having a less quantity. The entrances were >^ in. 
deep by 7 in. long. The result was as follows: The 
stronger colony pulled through in a weak condi- 
tion with a heavy loss of bees. The other pulled 
through the cold weather; but before the first of 
April there was not a live bee in the hive. During 
the same winter I had 15 colonies in my cellar, a 
part of which were light, both in stores and bees; 
but all wintered well. During the past few sea- 
sons I have adopted the Alexander plan of wrap- 
ping my hives with felt on removing them from the 
cellar; and this with me has proved to be very val- 
uable. While I do not wish in any way to criticise 
Mr. Miller, yet I feel that I ought to sound a warn- 
ing to the inexperienced beekeeper not to attempt 



Mar. 15, li)12 



181 



to winter bees outdoors In a climate where the 
mercury goes down from 30 to 40" below zero un- 
less they are packed In chaff or double-walled 
hives. 
Elroy, Wis.. Feb. 9. Chas. Sheldon. 



Great Demand for Bees in Orchards 

Notwithstanding the extremely cold weather, 
bees have wintered much better than 1 expected. I 
have lost only a few. I have some tine colonies in 
strong condition which wintered outdoors in ten- 
frame slngie-walled hives. There is a wonderful 
demand for bees for fertilizing orchards In this 
.State, and 1 am sorry to say that bees are decreas- 
ing greatly. In consideration of the fact that the 
plantfng of orchards is going forward In remarlc- 
able leaps and bounds, the demand for bees will 
increase considerably. 

Notwithstanding the loss of bees by the unusual- 
ly severe winter, the remarkably poor honey sea- 
sons of the past two years, and the terrible en- 
croachment of bee diseases in tills State, I am very 
optimistic: and personally 1 am satisfied that with 
beekeeping, as with all other industries, the time 
to go into it is wlien all otlier peoi)le are going out. 
The future for this special branch in this State 
looks very good and promising to me. 

H. A. Surface, 

Harrisburg, Pa. Economic Zoologist. 



The Cover Picture for Feb. 15 

I can't tell you how surprised I was this morning 
to find on the cover of Gleanings for Feb. 15th the 
picture of our beeyard at our old home in Evart, 
Mich. The photograph was taken by W. Z. Hutch- 
inson while on a visit to us about sixteen years 
ago, and we still have the original copy. While I 
was recovering from my surprise at seeing the pic- 
ture in a place where we had no reason to look for 
it. I was thrown into fresh wonder as to how your 
father's Florida ducks and drakes got into our old 
trout stream; but in these days of moving pictures 
I suppose we are not to be surprised at any thing. 

The man in the picture is Mr. Walker, and the 
buildings shown were our barn and shed, the 
house not appearing. The stream was a beautiful 
creek called Twin Creek, and many were the beau- 
tiful speckled trout the boys from our neighbor- 
liood pulled out of it. The scene is just off the 
banks of the Muskegon River. If the picture looks 
half as good to your readers as to our family they 
are, no doubt, charmed with this specimen of Mr. 
Hutchinson's photographic skill. 

Cicero, 111. Mrs. Byron Walker. 



Honey Reports from California Not Misleading ; a 
Crop of 38 Tons 

I wish to enter a protest against what you say on 
page 35. Jan. 15, in regard to the honey reports from 
the West, when you make tlie statement that many 
of the reports were misleading, and that some pro- 
ducers were holding back the facts. The truth is, 
for Central California, that we did not expect a 
good crop early nor even in the middle of the sea- 
son. I thought when you published Madary's re- 
port that It was about right. Here in the valley 
the bees commence to gather surplus from alfalfa 
about .lune 1. We begin to extract honey .luiy 1, 
and get through Oct. 1. Last season we got the 
bulk of the honey during the last halt of the sea- 
son. Beekeei)ers tell me that this is true of the lo- 
cation west of us in the mountains. They have 
the sage first, then wild buckwheat, and last sea- 
son we had a late heavy flow from blue curl. 

I did not see any reports from Central California 
that looked misleading to me at the time they 
were published. ()f cour.se. when you say "the 
West." that is a big country, and you may have 
some excuse for talking so. 

My crop was 38 tons. Early In the season I did 
not expect 24 ; but we are having a hard fight 
against both American and European foul brood. 

Hanford, Cal. P. H. Bales. 

Recipe for Making Honey Vinegar 

You say that anybody who can make cider vine- 
gar can make honey vinegar. Nine out of ten, 
however, make the sweet vinegar sour, as nearly 
all use too much honey. In this case the microbes 
have died. 1 will here give a formula which will 



make good vinegar. If the wash water from cap- 
pings is used, or dirty honey from trees, etc., a hy- 
drometer must be used. This hydrometer must 
register 30 in the sweet water: and if clean honey 
is used in the proportion ol 7 lbs. of honey to 5 gal- 
lons of water it should register 30. Here is the 
formula: Honey, 7 lbs.: water, 5 gallons: potassium 
bicarbonate, V» ounce; sodium phosphate, /s ounce: 
ammonium chloride, Vi ounce; a piece of yeast the 
size of a pea. The chemicals are used for the pur- 
pose of causing fermentation. 

After a few days this makes a fine drink like 
sweet cider. When it has ceased to ferment, strain 
and put into a clean keg and add one quart of vin- 
egar and some mother. 

Hig Wells, Texas. Reader. 



Bees and Grapes 

Can you give me any information in regard to 
some productive plant to sow for my bees — some- 
thing that, with favorable weather conditions, will 
be In full flow about the time grapes are ripe? I 
had thought of Japanese buckwheat. If you would 
advise me to sow that, when should I do so, and 
how? How much would be required to sow half an 
acre? Where can I obtain it ? I wrote you last 
summer, saying my neighbor complained that the 
bees were destroying his grapes. My object is to 
sow something on my place that will be yielding 
about the time grapes are ripe, and see if that will 
help matters. 

Kewanee, 111. E. R. Wilkinson. 

[We do not know of any thing you could set out 
that would be in bloom about the time that grapes 
begin to ripen — or, rather, at the time when the 
bees are liable to be bothersome. If you will inves- 
tigate the matter thoroughly you will find that 
bees do not spoil nor injure in any way the sound 
fruit. See what Professor Surface and other writ- 
ers have to say in this Issue. If you could hand 
your copy of this number to your neighbor we be- 
lieve he will be convinced that the bees were sim- 
ply sucking the juice from grapes that were already 
spoiled. — E;d.] 

The Larger Part of Alfalfa Cut Before it Blooms 

I have been interested in the different theories 
given concerning alfalfa bloom not giving as much 
bloom as formerly, and the practical reason has 
been overlooked. By far the larger part of the 
crop is cut before it blooms. The sheep-feeders 
here, in the best alfalfa section of the Arkansas 
Valley (western part of Bent Co.) cut the first crop 
just as soon as it begins to bloom, and the three 
other crops before blooming. All that is left is a 
small portion for seed. It is like Whateley's rea- 
son for white sheep eating more than black — " be- 
cause there are more of them." So, conversely, 
the reason bees don't gather as much honey as for- 
merly from alfalfa is, the alfalfa is cut before It 
blooms. 

Of course, this sounds like treason to men with 
several hundred stands of bees to unload, and who 
use the real-estate-boomer slogan, " Be a booster 
and skin your sucker." I think men should be 
truthful in their statements concerning bee terri- 
tory. Any one interested can come and see during 
July, August, and September, when hay is being 
cut. It will be seen that the first crop, cut in June, 
Is the only one given any chance to bloom. 

Las Animas, Col. L. H. Sweetman. 

The Gravenstein Apple 

I can tell Mr. Root a little about the Gravenstein 
apple. I was born and raised close to the little vil- 
lage of Graven,stein. In the old garden belongmg 
to the old-time castle stood the old apple tree from 
which all Gravenstein apple trees originated. It is 
surely the best apple that grows: but the tree is 
not hardy enough to grow in all climates and un- 
der all conditions. On the Pacific coast, in Wash- 
ington and Oregon, is a climate like its native one, 
and there it grows to perfection. 

Brush, Col. Daniel Danielson. 



Bees Pleasant to Handle. 

I am glad to say that the bees of this country are 
not like those described by Mrs. Henry A. Gooch, 
p. 766, Dec. 15, but are very pleasing creatures for a 
woman to work with. Anna Sommer. 

Ronne, Bornholm, Denmark, Jan. 11. 



182 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



F'(DDDLT[Biy llP^a^T 



rair 



A. I. Root 



CHICKEN thieves; WHAT SHALL WE DO TO 

PROTECT OUR VALUABLE STOCK FROM 

THEIR DEPREDATIONS? 

In our issue for Feb. 15, p. 106, I spoke of 
losing a duck and a drake. Well, about 
the middle of January two more were gone 
when the flock came home at night; and 
finally on Sunday evening when they got 
home my only remaining drake was gone. It 
was not so much the loss of the five ducks 
as it was the fact that I must stop letting 
my ducks run at large in the drainage canal 
that adjoins my five acres. After losing the 
two we went to considerable expense and 
trouble in making a fence in the rocky bot- 
tom of the stream so as to give them a place 
to swim in close to the shore; but as this 
prevented them largely from getting the 
moss and shellfish, the yield of eggs soon 
dropped off. Last, and Vjy no means least, 
I was forced to conclude some one was 
taking lessons in theft — regular progressive 
lessons — and getting off " scot free "every 
time. Something had to be done. I hard- 
ly need tell you I prayed over the matter 
again and again. The outcome as to what 
was best to be done was the following, which 
I clip from the Bradentown Weekly Jour- 
nal: 

"thou SHALT NOT STEAL." 

Ed. Journal: — I have repeatedly, both In print 
and by correspondence, extolled Bradentown and 
vicinity as remarkably free from petty thieving, 
and remarked that, after being north all summer, 
we invariably find every thing about our premises 
intact on our return. Well, I greatly regret to be 
obliged to report we have at least a, few sinners as 
well as saints in our midst. Five choice breeding 
ducks (with excellent records) have been taken 
from our flock recently. All were taken in midday 
— the first, the day before Thanksgiving; the second, 
the day before New Year's day; two more in Jan- 
uary, and the last, a large choice drake, the only 
one I had left, was taken yesterday, February 11 
(probably while we were at church and Sunday- 
school) ; and to get him the culprit broke through 
a fence of barbed wire and poultry netting, drove 
him into a corner, and evidently killed him with 
stones taken out of the brook they waded through 
to get to the f«^nce. Although the loss of this drake 
just now blocks my work with the incubator, and 
is a great inconvenience to me, this is nothing 
compared to letting some one (possibly a boy or 
boys) go on vinhindered in the school of crime. 
Does it not behoove every industrious, law-abiding 
citizen to call a halt at such work in open daylight, 
and mostly, if not all, on Sunday? Such work may 
call a halt in developing an industry that this re- 
gion seems particularly adapted to. A. I. Root. 

The second clipping from the same jour- 
nal, a week later, gives the result, as yovi see: 

AN INTERRUPTED PILLAU. 

The parties who have been making raids on Mr. 
A. I. Roofs ducks, as published in last week's J^oh;-- 
ii'il. have been captured, and the ringleader, a 
young white man about 18 or 20 years old, is now in 
jail. Sheriff Wyatt walked up on them last Sun- 
day as they were gathered around a fire out in the 
woods cooking a I'lllau. Out of regard for the par- 
ents of the boys we withhold name.s. but we hope 
these parents will not withhold the lash. 

The arrest of the gang of five boys was 
owing to the kind service of Dr. Morgan, a 
near neighbor and a longtime subscriber to 
Gleanings. He had but two ducks, and 



at first decided to pen them up while at 
church on Sunday, but afterward conclud- 
ed to leave them out in the canal and stay 
at home from church and watch. About 
10 A.M. the ducks were missing. He follow- 
ed along up the stream, and on coming to a 
piece of woods he saw smoke arising. Fur- 
ther along he found the feathers, and then 
came upon five boys with a kettle, cooking 
their duck. Without alarming them he 
proceeded to the nearest house, and called 
up by telephone the sheriff. Now, here is 
something I want you all to make note of. 
When the oldest one, and evidently the 
ringleader, was arrested he had a cigarette in 
his mouth, and kept right on smoking it, 
proclaiming that /te "just happened " along, 
and was in no wise connected with the other 
youngsters; but (if I am correct) he was the 
one who announced, when the sheriff pro- 
ceeded to confiscate the kettle (duck and 
all), "Here! that is my kettle." 

Now, friends, would it be a very long 
jump, in "jumping at conclusions," to say 
it was cigarettes that stole my five ducks?" 

In that excellent book I have just referred 
to, the Corning Egg Farm, there is a chap- 
ter that is headed, " Policing the farm with 
bloodhounds, searchlights, and ritles;" and 
the chapter starts out with these words: 
"In the fall of each year, from almost every 
part of the country, come reports of what 
seems to be organized thieving in the poul- 
try line," and then the author tells about 
what they are doing with bloodhounds, 
searchlights, and sharpshooters. I need 
hardly tell you that these cigarette saloon- 
frequenters would just as soon take your 
most valuable fowl for a roast in the woods 
as any other, for there are veritable Aea^Aer?- 
right here in our land of schools and 
churches. Let me advise, in closing, the 
need of alaw-and-order club among poultry- 
men, with dogs and detectives, to punish 
such offenders until they have had enough 
of it. Let a fund of money be raised that 
will be ample to meet thexepense of getting 
the culprits, swift and sure. Since this 
matter came up, my neighbors, right and 
left, tell of having had valuable fowls stol- 
en. Let me here repeat a little story I told 
you some years ago. When I was witness- 
ing the early experiments of the Wright 
Bros. 1 boarded with a farmer whose wife 
was on a decline with the great white plague. 
To prolong the life of the poor woman (and 
they were jjoor financially) the doctors ad- 
vised poultry-keeping in order to have her 
in the open air as much as possible. She 
became quite enthusiastic, succeeded with 
the poultry, and was improving in health, 
when one morning as she went out to lib- 
erate her pets that she had lal)ored so hard 
for, to get them up to broiler age, she found 
every chick gone, and just the still empty 
coops. The shock and disai)pointment were 
so great she went into a decline, and not 



Mar. 15, 1912 

long after went down to her death. A 
neighbor, who had been having similar 
losses, got up in the night and attempted to 
stop some thieves who were just making off 
with a load of his chickens, and the thieves 
turned a gun on him and ordered him to 
go back. He aroused his neighbois, and 
they followed them until they were lost with 
their booty in the saloon haunts of the 
great city of Dayton, Ohio, with its hun- 
dreds of saloons running day and night. 
How long, O Ijord, shall this devastating 
curse alllict and discourage our hard-work- 
ing and law-abiding citizens? 

A BALANCED RATION; LETTUCE FOR DUCKS; 
MORE "DISCOVERIES," ETC. 

Somebody said Prof. Holden had put corn 
on the witness stand, and made corn answer 
his questions. Well, I have been putting 
ducks and chickens on the witness stand, 
and I am going to tell you what answers 
thej'^ have given me. By the way, what a 
big lot of valuable "discoveries" I am mak- 
ing lately! Just think of it! yesterday I got 
79 eggs from only 75 laying hens. Mrs. 
Root declares, however, that I should ex- 
l)lain to you all that I gathered the eggs so 
late the day before that several laid after 
they were gathered; and this reminds me 
that our hens have got on such a craze to 
lay lately that they commence, some of 
them, at sunrise, and some of them are on 
the nests laying at sunset. How did I suc- 
ceed in getting up such a "laying contest " ? 
That is just the wonderful discovery I am 
going to explain to you. 

When I was down on the island several 
years ago I told you about my flock of 
chickens that were all the time teasing for 
something and were never satisfied until I 
discovered they were hungry for animal 
food; and when I gave them a good "square 
meal " of fresh fish they all went and sat 
down in a row on a log, happy, contented, 
and saiisjied. That was a lesson I have not 
forgotten, and I try to feed my ducks and 
chicks so that they will "go off and sit 
down," quiet and happy. Whenever they 
fail to do this, especially young growing 
stock, you may be sure they are lacking 
something. When my first brood of ducks 
from the incubator were about a month old 
they were always teasing uproariously for 
something. Their first feed was bread and 
milk, and I supposed they were begging for 
their milk ration that had been dropped, be- 
cause milk costs so much down here. The 
only feed they would eat was a mash of bran 
and middlings; but they w-anted it all the 
time, and I soon noticed their droppings 
looked very much as if the coarse bran was 
imperfectly digested, and began to wonder 
if the fine Florida sand I had been depend- 
ing on for grit, was sufficient. I gave them 
some of the mica crystal grit that we always 
keep before the chickens, and there was an 
improvement. Seeing oyster shells advised 
by one of the poultry journals, for ducks, I 
tried them; and every pen of ducks, from 
the oldest to the youngest, took to them 



183 

greedily. One i)en of four-weeks-old ducks 
ate such a quantity I feared to let them 
have all they wanted; but not until our 
neighbor Rood began shipping lettuce did 
we discover the "long-felt want." They at 
once dropped their grain and every thing 
else for the coveted lettuce, when they fair- 
ly got a taste of it. Well, my discovery 
that we have been so long getting at is this: 
Lettuce is not only fi^ood for ducks, but it 
takes the place, largely, of the expensive 
grains, shorts, and raiddhngs. .Just as soon 
as they had lettuce, all they could consume 
(and it takes about a wheelbarrowful a day 
for twenty six-weeks-old ducks) the amount 
of grain needed dropped off amazingly, and 
the whole lot of ducks would go off and sit 
in a row, and stay there for hours— a thing 
they had hardly done before since the day 
they were hatched. Of course, I knew, ducks 
as well as chickens need green food as well 
as meat and grain; but as each of the three 
pens had quite a range, with Bermuda grass 
and other green stuff, it did not occur to me 
they were suffering for so large a quantity. 
They kept teasing for their masb, no matter 
how often I fed them, but they did not seem 
satisfied; but now they are growing at a rate 
that surprises everybody who passes along 
the highway. Have you not heard of babies 
that kept crying for something they scarce- 
ly seemed to know w^hat it was themselves? 
Well, is it not possible that, like the ducks, 
something was lacking in order to let the lit- 
tle darlings make flesh and blood and bones, 
as nature intended? It may not pay to 
grow lettuce for ducks and chickens alone — 
that is, when they are full grown; but it cer- 
tainly will pay, and pay well, to give small 
ducks and chicks all they can consume; 
and down here, where lettuce is grown by 
the acre, there is always more or less unfit 
to ship; and during this past very wet sea- 
son there has been an unusual amount that 
is just the thing for fowls, but too far in ma- 
turity to think of sending to the Northern 
markets, so you see this is just the place for 
the "duck man." The large quantity of 
nice head lettuce given the laying hens is 
probably what has caused the "laying con- 
test."* For a whole week, ending March 1, 
75 hens have averaged about 60 eggs a day, 
but the price is down now to 20 cts. a dozen 
here. 



The Russian government and the zemstvo 
organizations of that country are paying 
great attention to the development of bee- 
keeping. Schools of apiculture are main- 
tained, and staffs of apicultural instructors 
are sent to various points as needed. Peas- 
ants beginning beekeeping are given one or 
two proper hives free. In some cases hives 
are sold at low prices on the installment 
plan. Ajnculture is a favorite occupation 
of small landowners and the working classes. 
— Florida Times Union. 



*.Just recently I have also given them a 10-cent 
box of ground mustard, a teaspoonful daily. In 
their daily mash. 



184 

DISCRIMINATING AGAINST OUR OWN PEOPLE 

I clip the following from the Ohio Farmer 
for March 2: 

WANTED— A REAL PARCELS POST 

As you know, reader, from previovis articles that 
have appeared in The Ohio Farmer, In carrying 
packages by mail, our government actually dis- 
criminates against its own people, in favor of other 
nations. Our postoffice department at Washing- 
ton has " conventions.'' or agreements, with 29 oth- 
er nations, by which it carries packages weighing 
up to 11 pounds from any postofHce in this country 
to any postofflce in those countries, for 12 cents per 
pound. For 12 cents per poiind you can mail from 
your postoffice packages weighing up to 11 pounds, 
to London, P.erlin, Vienna, Stockholm, Rio Janei- 
ro. Valparaiso, Jerusalem, IMelbourne, Tokio, Pe- 
king, Mukden, and to more than 10,000 other foreign 
postofflces scattered over the globe. But a package 
mailed to the next town, in the United States, must 
not exceed 4 pounds in weight, and the carrying 
charge is 16 cents for each pound. 

And as though those discriminations were not 
enough, our postmaster-general has made arrange- 
ment with British po.stofflce authorities recently, 
whereby mail packages up to 11 pounds are carried 
from any postofHce in Kngland. Scotland. Ireland, 
or Wales, to any postoffice in the United States, for 
the following charge: Up to 3 lbs., 30 cents: up to 7 
lbs., 55 cents: up to 11 lbs., 79 cents. By this agree- 
ment a British subject can send 11 pounds in one 
package from his postofHce to your postofHce for 79 
cents: while you wishing to mail matter weighing 
11 pounds to your nearest postofHce in this country, 
must break it up into three packages of not over 4 
pounds each, and pay 81.76 postage— a discrimina- 
tion of 100 per cent against you. 

As allowed by law, the postmaster-general is 
steadily extending these special postal privileges 
to foreign nations. This is right, and best for all 
concerned. On the other hand, the only change 
congress has made in carrying parcels for our own 
people, during the last fifty years, was In 1875 when 
it raised the postage on parcels from 8 to 16 cents 
per pound— double the cost. 

Well, after you have read the above twice 
over (or more) read this, from another part 
of the same issue. 

EXPRESS CO. INVESTIGATION 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has found 
in its investigation of the express companies that 
they have made charges above their published 
rates, and now hold in their treasuries ¥81,957.893, a 
large proportion of which is excessive charges 
wrongfully obtained. Criminal proceedings have 
been ordered and an indictment has been returned 
against the Adams Co. The following are the com- 
panies and the amount in each treasury: American, 
S3.3.635,603: Adams, 824.133.486; United States. 810.737,- 
518: Wells-Fargo, 87,9:36.:^77: Southern, 83,902,853: 
Northern, 8999,551; Globe, 8386,856; Western, 882,787; 
National, 82350. 

Where is the man or woman who has not 
contributed (under protest) , more or less, to 
this fund of over eUfhty 'millions ? And how 
long is our postal department going to con- 
tinue to carry and deliver stuff for foreign 
nations at a lower price than she does to our 
own people? What is the matter of usf 
How about "By the people, for the people, 
and of the people " ? 



PUTNAM CO., FLA., AND ITS ARTESIAN WELLS. 

riLEANiNGS IN BEE CULTURE says that In Put- 
nam County, Florida "they do not have artesian 
wells," italicizing the " not." Has friend Root, who 
says that he owns land in that county, never ob- 
served the six-inch pipe at the back of the Putnam 
House, in Palatka, conveying the water from a 
flowing well at its base to the third story? The 
pressure on that pipe is so great that the writer re- 
members one day when the pipe gave way and all 
the gutters of the little city ran deep In sulphur 
water for days, blackening all the white-lead paint 
on the houses and the silver doorplates as well. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

That is only one of the numerous wells, some flow- 
ing, in Putnam County. — Jacksonville Times Union. 

We cheerfully give place to the above and 
humbly beg pardon for not being better post- 
ed. I had in mind, when making the 
statement, that there was no artesian well 
in the locality around and about Hunting- 
ton, where my property is located. If I am 
mistaken in this I should be very glad to be 
corrected. A. I. R. 



Kind Words from Our Customers. 



MILES APART ON EARTH, BUT CLOSE NEIGHBORS IN 
HEAVEN. 

Dear Friend and Brother in Christ Jesus: — We are 
a good many -miles apart here on earth; but when 
I read your writings In the Home department it Is 
an inspiration. It seems to set the "joy bells" 
ringing, and makes us close neighbors In heaven. 
May the Lord bless you, and give you health and 
strength for years to come to help convert this 
country to Jesus. The old saloon serpent is dying 
a mighty hard death in Oklahoma, but the tem- 
perance people are on top, praise the Lord. Law 
and order, and love for God and home predominate 
in Oklahoma. 

Perkins, Okla., July 28. Z. S. Hosselton. 



HOW GLEANINGS IN ITS MISSION ALL OVER THE 
WORLD HELPS PEOPLE. 

In reading Gleanings for three years I noticed 
you had an agent in Dunedin. New Zealand. I had 
a sister who went to New Zealand In an early day, 
and her address I did not know and she did not 
know mine. The thought struck me if I could get 
an advertisement in some prominent paper in the 
island T might find her. So I asked the Box Co. in 
Dunedin to put in an advertisement I sent to them, 
and I would stand all expense. So in time I got a 
copy of the Otago Daily Times, with my advertise- 
ment in it, and a letter from my sister, one from 
her son, and one from the Alliance Box Co., tell- 
ing me what they had done for me. and how much 
they were out of pocket, and said If I would hand 
it to you folks it would be all the same to them. 

Pipestone, Minn. Fraser Mackay. 



FOLKS WHO LIVE IN " GLASS HOUSES." 

Fie on you, Bro. Root, after your scolding screed 
of a short time ago, on the carelessness of us poor 
chicken "journalists." to allow The A. I. Root 
Company (p. 8) to print the Almighty with a small 
g ! (p. 94, Feb. 1). What will the Lord think of lt7 
and from Gleanings! 

Henville. I. Ketchem. 

[Friend K., I " own up " and thank you for your 
very kind reproof. I want to say, however, that 
there is no difflculty in understanding what our 
good friend wanted to say, even if he did use a 
small G, whereas if a line is misplaced or omitted 
entirely It makes the whole sentence unintelligible. 
Our old and faithful proofreader, "W. P.," writes 
me he marked the above for correction ; but our 
people, being behind hand, and rushed with the 
February issue, it got off without the correction 
being made. If the A. I. R. Co. lets this thing go 
on they will have to " take their medicine " like all 
the rest of us poor blundering mortals]. 



Convention Notices. 



The North Texas Beekeepers' Association will 
hold Its 31st meeting at Greenville. Texas, on the 
first Wednesday and Thursday in April. 1912. All 
beekeepers are cordiall.v invited to attend. We are 
expecting to have a great meeting. 

Greenville. Texas. • W. H. White, Sec. 



The annual nieeting of the Connecticut Beekeep- 
ers" Association will be held Saturday. April 13. 
1912, at Y. M. C. a. building. Ciood speaking. The 
matter of forming a branch of the National Asso- 
ciation will be considered. 

Hartford. James A, Smith, Sec. 



Published by The A. I, Root Company, Medina, Ohio 

H. H. Root, Assistant Editor E. R. Root, Editor A. L. Boyden, Advertising Manager 

A. I. Root, Editor Home Department j. T. Calvert, Business Manager 

Entered at the FostoflSce, Medina. Ohio, as Second-class Matter 



VOL. XL 



APRIL 1, 1912 



NO. 7 



(^D{l®D°DaiD 



CHEAP HONEY 



FOR MANUFACTURING PUR- 
POSES. 

An intimation has come to us that the 
bakers have discovered a new recipe by 
which they can use a cheaper substitute for 
extracted honey in their manufactured prod- 
ucts. Honey gives, as is well known, in 
cooking, a lasting quality to the cakes, be- 
cause it makes them keep almost indefinite- 
ly. Hitherto, it is said, no artificial substi- 
tute has been found to take its place; but 
we can not believe that there is any thing 
that can be made by man that will take the 
place of honey. Some of the bakers, per- 
haps, may put up a bluff that they have 
discovered something better and cheaper 
than honey for the purpose of getting honey 
for less money. We await results. 



DR. WILEY RESIGNS. 

It is with much regret that we note that 
Dr. Wiley has resigned from his position as 
Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry — a posi- 
tion that he has filled so faithfully for 29 
years. According to the newspaper account, 
ihe action was entirely voluntary on his 
part. He was completely exonerated from 
all guilt in connection with the charges 
that were brought against him; but he felt 
that his sphere of usefulness was limited, 
since the same parties might accuse him 
unjustly again, and so hamper him that he 
would be unable to give his undivided at- 
tention to his work. 

We understand that he does not intend to 
withdraw entirely from this kind of work; 
in fact, we believe he expects to do more of 
it than ever before, except that he will be 
established with an office in Washington, 
but not in the employ of the government. 
We certainly wish him success, for it is to 
the interest of the American people that he 
succeed. 

We believe the United States Govern- 
ment has lost one of its most efficient work- 
ers — one who believed in going ahead when 
he thought he was right, even though the 
stand he took might bring trouble to. him- 
self. Would that there were more fearless 
officials. 



MUCH INTEREST IN OUR AUTOMOBILE NUM- 
BER. 

We have almost enough material on hand 
to get out another special number on auto- 
mobiles if we chose to do so. Some very 
fine illustrations (over a dozen of them from 
as many different beekeepers), came in too 
late. There is, apparently, far more interest 
shown in the subject than we had antici- 
pated. But when we stop to think about 
it, it is not at all strange; for there is no 
class of producers to whom the motor vehi- 
cle is more an absolute necessity than bee- 
keepers. 

Possibly another year it would be well for 
us to issue another special number on this 
subject; but at present we have such a wealth 
of good material along other lines for special 
numbers to come, as well as for our regular 
numbers, that we feel that we can not de- 
vote very much more space to this question, 
interesting as it is. 

ANOTHER SWEET-CLOVER PAMPHLET. 

The Bokhara Seed Company, Falmouth, 
Ky., has just issued a sweet-clover pamphlet, 
entitled " Sweet Clover and How to Grow 
It," by E. E. Barton, a member of the 
American Breeders' Association. A descrip- 
tion of the plant is given, including the 
white sweet clover, the biennial yellow sweet 
clover, and several other varieties less com- 
mon. This description is given in such 
plain simple language that anybody can 
understand it. For instance, the nature of 
the plant is explained in that, with red 
clover, alfalfa, beans, peas, and numerous 
other kindred species, it belongs to the fam- 
ily of plants called legumes; "a group whose 
importance to agriculture is beginning to be 
recognized the world over, aud which fur- 
nishes in a large measure the food supply 
of both man and beast, as well as constitut- 
ing the main stay of the soil's fertility." 

The uses of sweet clover are mentioned, 
and the great value it has in supplying the 
two things most needed by the greater num- 
ber of farms — nitrogen and humus. Its 
value for pasturing and for hay is also 
brought out. "While alfalfa hay is rather 
active on the kidneys and bowels of horses, 
sweet clover has a slight corrective influence 



186 

in that regard; and for this reason it is de- 
sirable to mix sweet clover with alfalfa 
meadows, resulting in a more satisfactory 
hay, as well as assisting the inoculation of 
the soil where alfalfa is getting a start. On 
account of the frequent mowings of the al- 
falfa, the sweet clover will not be able to 
reseed, and will disappear from the alfalfa 
at the end of the second year." 

The value of this plant for honey was not 
overlooked, and the different varieties were 
compared as to their value to beekeepers. 
Then follow full particulars in regard to the 
seed and methods of sowing; the best time 
of year for sowing, the amount of seed, the 
nurse crop, etc. 

All this goes to show that farmers every- 
where are waking up to the value of this 
once despised iveed, and are calling for the 
seed to such an extent that the seed com- 
panies are getting out these special pam- 
phlets. For further particulars regarding 
the special pamphlet mentioned above, ad- 
dress The Bokhara Seed Company, Fal- 
mouth, Ky. 

HOW THE BEES HAVE WINTERED. 

As in former years, we find it difficult to 
give a comprehensive report of the prosjiects 
of the season; for, although we have hun- 
dreds of reports, there are not enough in 
any one State to give conclusive evidence. 
On account of the influence of local condi- 
tions, these reports from localities, often 
only a few miles apart, are more or less con- 
flicting. It is still too early for any thing 
definite from Canada. We will take up the 
States that we have heard from, one by one. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The early reports were any thing but hopeful. 
During the fore part of March there were good 
rains: but while most of the beekeepers feel some- 
what better over the outlook it is doubtful whether 
a bumper crop will be produced in any part of the 
State, owing to the rains having come so late. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Few reports. Very few days when bees could fly. 
but apparently most colonies have come through 
in very good condidion. 

FLORIDA. 

There is every indication now that there will be 
a fine crop of honey throughout Florida. While 
the winter was a little backward, the cold did no 
damage, and the copious rains have put every 
thing on the boom. In the vicinity of Bradentown, 
the orange blossoms opened up March 18. 

GEORGIA. 

The outlook has changed but very little from that 
given in our last issue. 

ILLINOIS. 

Reports are rather unfavorable. Colonies in cel- 
lars appear to be all right: but those wintered out 
of doors have suffered losses all the way up to 75 
per cent. One apiary of 58 colonies, all dead. 

INDIANA. 

Most colonies, wintered outside without protec- 
tion, dead. Colonies in cellars and those well pro- 
tected, and in good shape in the fall, are all right. 
liOsses average about the same as in Illinois. 

IOWA. 

Heavy loss in inost parts of the State, ranging 
from 40 to 60 per cent, and, in some instances, worse 
yet. Considerable honey dew gathered last fall. 

KANSAS. 

Loss .of colonies in single-walled hives close to 25 
per cent. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 

KENTUCKY. 

Few reports. I^oss of colonies in single-walled 
hives, possibly 50 per cent. 

MAINE. 

The few reports are all favorable. 

MARYLAND AND MASSACHUSETTS. 

Losses apparently not severe. 

MICHIGAN. 

Reports quite favorable, with the exception of 
one loss of 39 per cent. In another apiary, all colo- 
nies in fairly good shape with the exception of the 
golden Italians, which are nearly all dead. 

MINNESOTA. 

Half of the reports show favorable wintering, the 
others indicating a loss approaching seventy-five 
per cent. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Excellent prospects for good crop. 

MISSOURI. 

Colonies in good shape in fall, all right. Those 
without protection wintered very poorly. 

MONTANA. 

The few reports received are very favorable. 

NEBRASKA. 

Heaviest loss in years. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Losses very light, as a rule. 

NEW YORK. 

Large number of reports show that losses are ap- 
parently light. Colonies in cellars in good shape. 

OHIO. 

Many reports, most of which are favorable. In 
one or two localities loss approaches 60 per cent. 

OKLAHOMA. 

Few reports. Loss possibly 33 per cent. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

About half of the reports indicate serious loss. 
Causes — starvation, insufficient packing, long-con- 
tinued cold, etc. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Few reports. No serious losses as yet. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Few reports. Outdoors, 30 to 75 per cent loss. 
Cellar, 10 to 25 per cent. 

TENNESSEE. 

In some parts, owing to poor quality of stores and 
no packing, loss is quite heavy. Other reports more 
favorable. 

TEXAS. 

Good season expected. 

VERMONT. 

Few reports indicate close to 50 per cent loss. 

VIRGINIA. 

Few reports. No serious losses. 

WASHINGTON. 

Apparently little loss. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Most reports indicate a loss of about one-third. 

WISCONSIN. 

All reports agree on quite heavy loss out of doors: 
and, in some instances, in cellars also. 

In looking over these reports, the reader 
must remember that much depends upon 
the weather from this time on. Just now 
(INIarch 25) there is nearly ten inches of 
snow on the ground in this locality, the re- 
result of a March blizzard. If the weather 
turns very warm suddenly, and then gets 
colder again after a couple of weeks, the 
brood that will have been started may chill. 
In two w'eeks the conditions may have ta- 
Icen a decided turn one way or another. 

Look out for spring dwindling. This 
spring we expect to hear of an unusual 
amount of trouble from this source for the 
weak colonies will not stand very much. 



Apr. 1, 1912 



187 



THE VALUE OF HONEY BECOMING BETTER 
KNOWN. 

There have been so many sensational 
stories published in the press regarding 
bees and honey that have been misleading 
and untruthful that it is quite refreshing 
to f^nd occasionally an item that is true as 
well as interesting. The following, from 
The C/u'i.sfian Herald, indicates that the 
original writer knew what he was talking 
about, in this instance at least: 

HONKY BREAD. 

In Europe, where the food value of honey seems 
to be much better understood than in the United 
.States, enormous ciuautities are used. t)f late years 
we seem to be waking to a realization of the value 
of honey as a wholesome and delicious article of 
food, and also as to Its preservative (|ualities. 
Cakes and sweetbreads made with sugar soon be- 
come dry and crumbly, and to eet the good of them 
must be eaten when fresh: but when made up with 
honey they seem to retain their freshness indefi- 
nitely. In France honey bread a year or eighteen 
months old Is preferred to that just made. They 
say, "Mt has ripened." It is the preservative, or. 
rather, the unchanging quality of honey that 
makes it so popular with the best confectioners. 

As pointed out in the introduction to our 
new booklet, " The Use of Honey in Cook- 
ing," cakes ami cookies made with honey 
retain their moisture and freshness almost 
indefinitely — a fact which is not appreciat- 
ed by the general public. It is a question, 
however, whether the average housewife, on 
reading this clipping, would put very much 
faith in it, since she has been fooled so oft- 
en. At the same time, we are glad to see 
items appearing in which honey is given 
its just dues. Let the good work go on. 



WHAT make of automobile TO BUY. 

The various articles in this special num- 
ber show conclusively, we think, that auto- 
mobiles are cheaper than horses when the 
saving of time is taken into consideration. 
In fact, each user of a machine is so enthu- 
siastic and so sure that his own is the best 
make to buy that a prosi)ective customer is 
likely to be confused and unable to decide 
which way to turn. For the benefit of such 
we may say that there is no longer any 
great risk in buying a machine made by'a 
well-established firm that has been in the 
business long enough to know what is re- 
quired of a motor vehicle in the hands of an 
experienced driver and runningon all kinds 
of roads. There is quite an advantage, 
however, in purchasing from a local ilealer 
if possible, for he will not only see that his 
customer is taught to run the car but will 
take an interest, in most cases at least, in 
seeing that it is satisfactory in every re- 
spect. Man}' dealers handle more than one 
car, and usually the various makes they 
sell are quite dilTerent. It may be well, 
therefore, to consider briefly some of the 
different types; for after all a great deal de- 
pends on personal preference. A car that 
would exactly suit one person might not be 
satisfactory to the next one, even though 
the work required were the same. 



AIR-COOLED versus WATER-COOLED CYLIN- 
DERS. 

Some gasoline-engines are air-cooled and 
others are water-cooled, and we are asked 
repeatedly which method of cooling is the 
better. For small cylinders, air-cooling is 
quite satisfactory. There is no radiator to 
leak, and no pump to get out of order. On 
the other hand, the air-cooled automobile 
engine is not as quiet as the water-cooled, 
and it requires a somewhat greater quantity 
and better quality of lubricating oil. If of 
the four-cycle type, the exhaust valves are 
also a little more likely to warp with the 
heat, and give trouble about leaking, than 
if the cylinders and valve chambers are 
cooled by a water-jacket. And there is not 
as much trouble from leaks in water-cooling 
systems as there used to be, for the manu- 
facturers have abandoned the use of si eel in 
the radiators, i:»ipes, and tanks; and the 
rubber hose, if used at all, is of good quali- 
ty, so that it is strong and durable. It is 
true that air-cooled cylinders will never 
freeze in cold weather; but there is now no 
excuse for allowing water-cooled cylinders 
to freeze, for it is very easy to make an anti- 
freeze solution with either wood alcohol or 
glycerine mixed with water. 

TWO-CYCLE vs. FOUR-CYCLE AUTOMOBILE 
ENGINES. 

There has been a vast amount of discus- 
sion between automobile designers regard- 
ing the two-cycle engine — that is, one in 
which there are two strokes of the piston in 
the complete cycle, as against the one in 
which there are four strokes in the complete 
cycle like the average automobile engine. 
The four-cycle engine has an inlet and ex- 
haust valve for each cylinder. The opera- 
tion is something like this: The gasoline 
vapor is fired by the electric spark, and the 
force of this charge drives the piston down 
or away from the cylinder head, and the 
momentum of the flywheel carries it back 
again, when the exhaust valve opens and 
the burnt gases escape. As the piston 
starts down again, still carried by the mo- 
mentum of the flywheel, the inlet valve 
opens, and a fresh charge of gas is drawn 
into the cylinder. When the piston returns, 
this charge is compressed, ready to be fired 
once more, thus completing the cycle. Thus, 
there are four strokes of the piston in the 
complete cycle. In the two-cycle engine 
the piston acts as its own valve, allowing 
the burnt gases to escape through a port in 
the cylinder, which is uncovered when the 
piston reaches nearly the limit of its stroke; 
and when it moves back again toward the 
cylinder head a fresh charge which was 
drawn in is being compressed ready to be 
fired, so that there are only two strokes of 
the piston completing the cycle. 

Four-cycle engines are much more com- 
plicated, but they are more efficient; that is, 
they will develop a certain horse-power on 
a smaller amount of gasoline than would be 
used by a two-cycle engine of the same 
horse power. For this reason, perhaps, and 



188 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



also because the average four-cycle engine 
is somewhat more easily controlled, and 
steadier in running, a very large proportion 
of the manufacturers use this type. 

Among the advantages that may be men- 
tioned of the two-cycle engine are the sim- 
plicity, the ease of lubrication (for the oil 
may be mixed with the gasoline) , and the 
fact that the two-cycle engine of a given 
horse-power is lighter than a four-cycle en- 
gine developing the same power. In the 
past, quite a number of cars having two-cy- 
cle engines that were poorly designed turn- 
ed out to be failures, and this has caused 
considerable prejudice against this tyjje of 
engine, which is not well founded, in view 
of the fact that there are some manufactur- 
ers who for years have built good reliable 
automobiles in which this engine is used. 

THE TRANSMISSION QUESTION. 

The weakest point in most cars is the 
transmission, which changes the ratio of 
drive between the engine and the wheels. 
It would be impossible to go into even a 
brief discussion of the merits of the different 
types of transmission vised; but we will say 
that all forms of transmission have their 
faults and their limitations. For instance, 
the planetary transmission which is simple 
to operate is limited to two speeds forward 
only. It is difficult to learn to operate prop- 
erly the sliding-gear transmission that is 
used on the majority of cars manufactured, 
and the gears are short-lived unless equip- 
ped with the very best bearings. The fric- 
tion transmission which is the easiest to 
operate of all is expensive to build, and 
slightly less efficient than either of the other 
two drives; and this loss, though so small 
that it can not be detected in the running 
of the car nor in the amount of gasoline used, 
has caused considerable j^rejudice. This 
point is more fully discussed elsewhere in 
this issue. 

SOLID vs. PNEUMATIC TIRES. 

We are asked quite often as to the merits 
of solid tires as compared with pneumatic 
ones. The solid tires are perfectly satisfac- 
tory for motor trucks, wagons, etc, where 
the speed is not over fifteen miles per hour. 
They are lower in first cost, the expense of 
upkeep is less, and they never give serious 
trouble on the road. Pneumatic tires, how- 
ever, are much to be preferred for pleasure 
cars, as they ride easier, and they are much 
easier on the mechanism of the car, since 
the machinery is subject to much less vibra- 
tion when they are used. 

THREE RELIABLE TRUCKS. 

After the foregoing, it may seem like an 
impossibility to recommend any special car; 
but owing to the fact that so many have 
asked for advice, we desire to mention here 
three trucks — the Keo, the International 
Harvester, and the Chase. These are built 
especially for business, and we can give 
them our unqualified endorsement. The de- 
signs of these three machines are quite dif- 
ferent from each other; but we have no hes- 
itancy in recommending any one of them. 



There are undoubtedly other motor wagons 
or trucks that are perfectly satisfactory; but 
these particular machines are to be seen in 
service every day on the streets of most of 
our larger cities as well as on country roads, 
saving time for busy farmers, and we believe 
them to be particularly adapted for bee- 
keepers. 

We have had personal experience with the 
Reo. For instance, the one shown in our 
cover picture of this issue was purchased in 
1906. For four years it was used as a pleas- 
ure car, being fitted with a folding rear seat. 
The last two years it has been used as a gen- 
eral truck, the body shown being built here. 
It would be impossible to say how many 
miles this machine has traveled, but 15,000 
w^ould not be far out of the way. The orig- 
inal price was only $650, so it can be seen 
that the investment for this distance travel- 
ed has not been great. The repairs have 
been rather below normal if anything; and, 
although the machine needs a general over- 
hauling now, it is still capable of consider- 
ably more hard work. The 1912 model truck 
is shown on page 196. 

The International auto wagon made by 
the International Harvester Company of 
America, Chicago, 111., is used by the thou- 
sands by farmers and business men of all 
classes. It is equipped with a 20 h. p. two- 
cylinder opposed, air-cooled engine, which 
has had to be altered very little m design 
during the past few years, showing that it 
has proved v ery satisfactory in the hands of 
the users. The high wheels and solid tires 
make it possible to drive in mud or sand. 
In this connection, notice what Mr. Polhe- 
mus has to say, pages 204-206. 

The Chase motor truck is sold in perhaps 
larger quantities for commercial purposes 
than any other one make. Mr. Peterson's 
report of his success with this truck on iiage 
200 is not an unqualified endorsement, but 
it must be remembered that the one which 
he has is a very old model. Those turned 
out by the Chase Motor Truck Company, 
Syracuse, N. Y., at the present time are be- 
ing bought in large numbers by such large 
corporations as the Bell Telephone Com- 
pany, etc. This car has one of the simplest 
engines that we have ever seen. For in- 
stance, 167 parts found in the ordinary four- 
cylinder, four-cycle, water-cooled engine are 
eliminated in this three-cylinder, two-cycle, 
air-cooled motor, and it is a motor that "de- 
livers the goods" too. 

Occasionally, bargains may be picked up 
in second-hand cars; but as a rule they 
prove to be a big expense for a year or two; 
and then have to be sold for almost noth- 
ing. Then there is always the danger that 
the former owner, through abuse, may have 
weakened some vital part, such as the steer- 
ing knuckles, or axles, which may give out 
at any time without warning. The owner 
who drives the machine himself knows just 
how he has driven it, and, therefore, knows 
what to expect. As a rule, we believe that 
new cars prove to be more satisfactory in 
the end. 



Apr. 1, 1912 



189 



Dr. C. C. MiiiiiER, Marengo. 111. 



J. E. Crane, that paragraph of yours, p. 
153, about the beauty of flowers, thrilled 
me. Shake, old fellow, shake! 

Of all the appropriate things said about 
Prof. Cook in last Gleanings, none is more 
appropriate than the one which calls him 
lovable. 

Miss Mathilde Candler had much ex- 
perience with carbolic cloths as super-clear- 
ers before the advent of the Porter escape. 
They do the work quicklj'^ and efficiently, 
but sometimes kill brood. Have our British 
friends ever observed this? — American Bee 
Journal, 73. 

A. C. Miller thinks bees leave supers for 
brood-nest cold nights to warm their feet; 
J. E. Crane thinks it's to warm the brood. 
If I may risk butting in, 1 think both are 
right. The Creator sends them down to 
warm the brood and they think they're do- 
ing it to warm their toes. 

Geo. M. Steele wants me to retract that 
statement, p. 126, "We do not believe there 
are a dozen colonies showing all five band- 
ers in all the United States." He thinks 
he can produce the goods. But, friend 
Steele, I didn't say that. It was the editor. 
Go for him. I have troubles of my own. 

Mr. Editor, I see you have "honeybee," 
p. 154. The dictionary says "honey-bee." 
But the dictionary has only been waiting 
for you to make the lead, and will be glad 
to make the change. Two words used as 
one word should be joined by a hyphen; 
then when the word has passed its novitiate 
the hyphen should be thrown away, leaving 
the word all in one. A number of bee-terms 
should be thus shortened, as topbar, queen- 
cell, beekeeper, etc. 

After all, the frantic efiforts to clear the 
four murderers, mentioned on page 119, only 
succeeded in postponing the hanging a few 
days. They were hanged Feb. 16. Wheth- 
er death or imprisonment be the punish- 
ment for murder in any given State, the 
great thing needed is promptness, both in 
conviction and execution of sentence While 
I believe in capital punishment, I believe a 
man would hesitate more about committing 
murder if he were sure he would be securely 
imprisoned for life within a month of the 
murder, with no chance of a subsequent par- 
don, than he would if death were the penalty 
with nine chances in ten that he would get 
off scot free. 

A STUDY of tho.se census figures, page 68, 
brings some surprises. One would hardly 
guess that West Virginia would head the list 
as the State having most bees to the s(juare 
mile rather than one of those we call great 
honey States, such as Texas and California. 
As a matter of fact these come 24th and 26th 
on the list. Let us place the bees of each 



State in apiaries of 100 colonies each, and 
then distribute them evenly over the State. 
Then make a list, giving each State its 
number in the list, and ihe number of miles 
apart its 100-colony apiaries will be. Here 
are some of those at each end of the list: 

1. West Virginia, 4.7; 2. Kentucky, 5.1; 
3. North Carolina, 5.2; 4. Tennessee, 5.3; 5. 
New York, 5.6; 6. Delaware, 5.7; 7. Missouri, 
5.8; 46. Nebraska, 36.5; 47. Wyoming. 46.2; 
48. ISIontana, 48.0; 49. North Dakota, 119.6. 

Doesn't look as if North Dakota beekeep- 
ers would be v^ery sociable at a distance of 
nearly 120 miles apart, does it? 

Take it another way. In these same 
States establish apiaries 3]/^ miles apart all 
over the State, and then divide the bees of 
the State equally among these apiaries. 
Here's the number of colonies that will be 
in each apiary of each State: 

West Virginia, 44.66; Kentucky, 37.87; 
North Carolina, 36.17; Tennessee, 34.36; 
New York, 31.80; Delaware, 31.27; Missouri, 
29.28; Nebraska, .76; Wyoming, .47; Mon- 
tana, .43; North Dakota, .07. 

Pity those statistics are not full and en- 
tirely reliable. 

Brother Doolittlb has made a good 
job of showing up the importance of having 
many bees rather than many colonies, page 
102. No one who has given the matter 
much thought will dispute that it takes a 
larger projjort ion of the bees of a weak colo- 
ny to stay at home and keep the brood warm 
than of c\ strong colony. I feel a good bit 
like going a step further and saying that at 
least in some cases the absolute number re- 
quired to stay at home in the strong colony 
is less than in the weak. Take a colony of 
20,000 bees, and there may be a day warm 
enough to work on the flowers, but so cool 
that 10,000 of those 20,000 bees must stay at 
home or the brood will be chilled. Close by 
it is a colony of 80,000 bees, with brood in 
proportion. On that same day only 5000 
bees will be needed to stay home for the 
purpose of keeping the brood warm. (Just 
now we're not considering at all the number 
required to stay home to feed the young- 
sters.) Please bear in mind that sealed 
brood is a producer of heat, and when a big 
lot of it is massed together very few mature 
bees are needeil to keep the brood warm 
enough. Put it another way. Fill a hive 
with combs entirely filled with sealed brood, 
but not a bee in the hive outside the cells. 
Let the weather be warm enough so that 
none of that brood will chill, but cool enough 
so that, if it were any cooler, the brood 
would chill. Now in another hive at the 
same time let there br' a single frame of seal- 
ed brood, and that frame will certainly be 
chilled. It's hard to hammer too much on 
the importance of having colonies strong. 



190 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



IB©©[]S(B(B[pD[IDg] iSmCDDDg] GDd© [^(D©feD( 



Wesley Fosteb, Boulder, Colo. 



In an apiary of 105 colonies, half of which 
are being wintered in double-story eight and 
ten frame hives, and half in single-story 
eight and ten frame hives, four colonies up 
to date, February 15, have died. These four 
colonies were all in single-story hives. 

4>- 

spring meeting of the colorado state 

beekeepers' association. 

AVith the idea of uniting the interests of 
beekeepers on the western slope and Eastern 
Colorado, a spring meeting will be held in 
Montrose, probably early in May. The date 
will be announced a little later. The Mont- 
rose County Beekeepers' Association is to 
be our host, and they have promised us a 
good time. There will be a picnic and vari- 
ous other entertaining features. Every bee- 
keeper on the eastern side of the Rockies 
should make it a point to attend this meet- 
ing. There will be special rates on the rail- 
roads, and this will be an excellent time to 
see the western-slope country. Montrose 
County is as good a section of Colorado as 
one will find in riding over a good many 
hundred miles of Colorado rails. The county 
is young yet, and has hardly begun to grow. 

The orchards are mostly on the mesas, 
which rii^e a hundred feet or more above the 
valley. The freezes are said to slide down 
hill; but they so often come in the night 
that they can not find the edge of the mesa, 
and so camp out in the orchards unless the 
ever watchful orchardist smokes them out, 
when they slip downhill and nip the alfalfa 
bloom of the diversified farmer in the val- 
ley. The farmer who is content to raise al- 
falfa, wheat, onions, and spuds, and does 
not go in for the ?500 per acre (?) profits in 
orcharding, is supposed to have lost caste 
in this country; but upon inquiry I found 
that the reason for their losing caste is prin- 
cipally because these diversified farmers are 
holding most of the mortgages on the fruit 
ranches, and also sitting in the bank di- 
rectors' chairs! Montrose County is worth 
seeing. I can't tell it all. Go yourself and 
see where weeds grow like trees, and the 
pumpkin-patch is used by small boys to 
play hide and seek in. Why, I saw a pump- 
kin that weighed 147 lbs., and it wasn't fed 
milk either. It just had all the Gunnison 
water and black soil and Colorado sunshine 
it wanted. 

PARCELS POST NOW AN ISSUE. 

In taking up this question of parcels post, 
there are two things that should be thor- 
oughly understood: First, every express 
company is operating in violation of the 
law. Second, the law has been violated so 
long that nearly everybody has forgotten 
about it. Here is a part of it: "And de- 
clares it to be unlawful for any person or 
persons to establish any private express or 
expresses for the conveyance, or in any man- 



ner cause to be conveyed, or to provide for 
the conveyance or transportation by regular 
trips, or at stated periods or intervals, from 
one city, town, or other place, to any other 
city, town, or other places in the United 
States between and from and to which cities, 
towns, and other places the United States 
nf ail is regularly transported under the au- 
thority of the Postoffice Department, of any 
letter or ^^ackages, or packages of letters, or 
other properly transmittable matter in the 
United States mail, except newspapers, 
pamphlets, magazines, and periodicals. A 
penalty of $150 is inflicted by the act for its 
violation." 

The parcels-post limit now is four pounds, 
and the rate 16 cents a pound; but the rate 
for beans, peas, seeds, etc., for planting is 8 
cents a pound. If for human consumption, 
the charge is 16 cents a pound ; the charge 
is twice as much if the beans are to be eaten 
as if they are to be planted. Talk about 
the high cost of living! 

Now, suppose the express companies re- 
ceive an 11-pound package from Great Brit- 
ain's parcels post. They will deliver it any- 
where in the United States for 2-4 cents; 
while if we want to send it by post our Post- 
office Department charges us 16 cents a 
pound, and we have to divide it up into four- 
pound packages. 

The postoffice in Boulder will charge me 
64 cents on a four-pound package to New 
York; but if I send it to Berlin (through 
New York) , the charge is only 48 cents. 

There is no limit to the size of package 
carried by parcels post in Switzerland, and 
the rate is one cent a pound. In Belgium 
the limit is 132 pounds, and the rate about 
lYz cents a pound. Germany will carry by 
post up to 110 lbs. at a rate of about 1% cents 
a pound. Austria will do the same. France 
will carry up to 22 lbs. at 1>^ cents a pound. 
But we here in the United States have to 
pay 16 cents a pound, and can send but 4 
lbs. Mexico, which owns 51 per cent of the 
express companies' stock, will carry parcels 
at half the rates charged here. 

The average rural-delivery carrier's load 
is 25 lbs. It should be nearly a thousand 
pounds, and would be, under an intelligent 
parcels post. The rates could be put down, 
and it would not be long before we could 
have rates almost as reasonable as those in 
Europe. And, in addition, we can, from 
the additional profits, soon have the penny 
letter postage. 

The express companies have been paying 
dividends of 38 per cent, and this is made 
through a violation of the law. What are 
you going to do about it? 1 would suggest 
that you write your Senators and Congress- 
men at once, urging them to support a pro- 
gressive parcels-post measure. It will mean 
several dollars a year to you, as you will 
readily appreciate as soon as this betterment 
is in operation. 



Apr. 1, 1912 



19T 



racDT 



J. Lh Byer, Mt. Joy, Ont. 



I am glad to note, Mr. Editor, that you 
have reached the point where you do not 
say that a sealed cover is abs^olnUljj the best 
thing for our colder climate, and 1 confi- 
dently exi)ect to see in the near future that 
you will be (|uite sure they are not at all de- 
sirable, and that a dry ^jo/"o».s' material next 
to the bees is altogether to be preferred for 
outdoor wintering. 

These notes are written March 11, and 
this month so far seems likely to keep up 
the record for cold weather that has been 
established by the two months preceding. 
While every day in March has been fine 
and clear — bright sunshine prevailing about 
all the time, with no storms whatever — yet 
for all that, on eight mornings out of the 
eleven the thermometer has registered from 
zero to five below. 

P. C. Chadwick says, page 101, Feb. 15, 
that the average mortality of bees in Cali- 
fornia is ten per cent per annum. If that 
is correct, a lot of the talk about the winter- 
ing problem in the North is exaggerated, 
comparatively speaking, for many beekeep- 
ers in the colder climates do not lose more 
than that annually. In fact, I have good 
reason to believe that some of those who 
pay close attention to requeening, etc., do 
not have as high a rate of mortality as that. 

4?- 
By the way, the Feb. 15th issue is quite a 
"chicken special," and, judging from the 
dilTerent articles given, many beekeepers 
are " chickenkeepers " as well. One of our 
most successful men in Ontario combines 
chickens, bees, and fruit, and he certainly 
makes good in all three branches. Just a 
question whether a combination like that is 
not better for many than " keeping more 
bees." No doubt all will depend on the 
makeup of the man who is most concerned 
in the matter. 

In reference to G. H. Bedford's plan of 
finding queens, p. 720, Dec. 1, the plan cer- 
tainly looks easy. However, if they drive 
up as easily as he intimates, I would prefer 
to allow bees, queens, and all to go right up, 
with no excluder to hinder their progress. 
Then I would invert the prepared crate with 
the wire-cloth sides, and drive the bees down 
through an excluder into the hives again. 
In that way it seems to me that the queen 
would be sure to be found. If I relied on 
finding her trying to get up through the zinc 
I am afraid she would be overlooked too 
often. 

4>- 

Every year about this time, or earlier, re- 
ports appear from different sections further 
south, to the effect that the bees have been 
shut in five or six weeks without having a 
flight, and the fear is expressed that loss 



will result from this cause. What has al- 
ways puzzled me is, why a few weeks 
should work disaster, when we in the North 
often go from four to five months without 
having a day that the bees can take a cleans- 
ing flight. This present season our bees 
have not had a flight for three months, and 
during all that time we have had more zero 
weather than many of us have ever experi- 
enced before. Yet for all that, the bees ap- 
pear to be wintering all right outdoors; and 
if we should have a good day in the near 
future, I do not look for very heavy losses. 
The exception in my own apiaries will be 
almost altogether confined to the 20 hives I 
mentioned in the February 1st issue as be- 
ing wintered with no packing, the hives be- 
ing constructed with double boarding with 
heavy paper between the two. 

Regarding protection of apiaries in the 
matter of windbreaks, I must disagree most 
emphatically with friend Holtermann when 
he sanctions high board fences for that pur- 
pose. W^hile I would sooner have a high 
board fence than nothing, still it would be 
my last resort. My favorite location, wh^n 
it can be secured, is a site some distance 
south of a row of evergreens, with the bees 
in an orchard if possible. One of my apia- 
ries has evergreens on the north, east, and 
west sides, and is right in an apple orchard. 
The protection is about as near ideal as pos- 
sible. Another yard is also in an orchard, 
and has a row of evergreens on the north 
side. Still another yard is in an orchard; 
but instead of evergreens the farm buildings 
are on the north side about ten rods away, 
and this breaks the north winds. In all 
three yards the bees winter well as a rule. 
At the home yard there is a high board 
fence, and I certainly do not compare it 
with the evergreens so far as giving shelter 
to the apiary. 

About the middle of February we had a 
day that was almost warm enough for the 
bees to take a flight; but the wind was 
blowing cold from the north, although the 
sun was shining brightly. In spite of any 
thing we could do to prevent it, a number 
of colonies got stirred up, and a few bees 
came out of the hives. Wherever the bees 
fell on the snow where the sun would strike 
them, they got up and flew again; but if 
they fell in the shade th( y were done for. 
Toward evening I happened to take a look 
on the north side of the board fence, and 
there was a distinct line made by the dead 
bees that fell within the space nearest the 
fence that the sun did not strike. Scarcely 
a bee was on the snow beyond that line, but 
for eight or ten feet all along the fence there 
were hundreds of bees. With a protection 
higher than the fence, and further away 
from the yard, the conditions that caused 
the loss of so many bees are done away 
with. 



192 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



©(S)[]T]W(S[P©§lftD®QD^ mBGDd E)(D(i)DDi]GD(g 



At Borodino, New York 



TRANSFERRING BEES. 



"In some frames which I have bought 
the combs run from one frame to another 
to such an extent that I can not get any of 
them out without tearing them or the combs, 
or both. Please give something in Glean- 
ings regarding such a state of aflfairs." 

As I frequently receive letters of a similar 
nature, it may be well to devote a little time 
to this subject, even though it is a matter 
which has often been written about, and 
one found in practical books on bee culture. 
Our questioner puts the matter of crooked 
combs very strongly, for I have yet to see 
that colony of bees whose combs are so very 
crooked, or which run across the frames so 
badly that they can not be utilized in trans- 
ferring to other frames, and the frames they 
were in at first remain fairly good after the 
combs are cut from them, so that they can 
receive the combs from the second colony 
worked upon. 

The first thing necessary is to decide on 
the time to do this work. My time has al- 
ways been during the blossoming of the 
apple trees, for at this season there is little 
honey in the way, and the combs are not 
very full of brood unless there is an earlier 
yield of nectar. With the first flow of nec- 
tar to a sufficient extent to attract the bees 
into the fields in large numbers, and to en- 
able them to secrete wax enough to fasten 
the combs together, and to the frames, is 
the right time. Drive the bees away from 
the sides of the hive to which the combs 
are attached, and with a long knife or chisel 
cut these attachments so that nothing holds 
to the hive save where the ends of the 
frames rest. Next blow smoke enough over 
the tops of the frames to drive the bees off. 
Turn the hive bottom side up at once on an 
old blanket. By this time the bees will 
have become demoralized and quite well 
filled with honey. Place a box over the 
bottom of the hive, and give a few strokes 
either with the fists or with some sticks. 
The bees will at once proceed to run up into 
the box, and in a few minutes all will cluster 
there. 

This box of bees can then be set on the 
old stand, the old hive lifted off the whole 
mass of combs and frames, and the work of 
cutting out the combs to the best advantage 
and fitting all the worker comb into frames 
can be started. When all are nicely fitted 
into the new frames, and these frames put 
in the old hive (if that is good enough to 
use, or if not, in a new one) , this hive con- 
taining those combs which are judged use- 
ful should be set on the old stand, and the 
bees from the box hived into it, the same 
as is done in hiving a natural swarm. If 
there is not sufficient comb to fill all the 
frames the hive will hold, a division board 
is placed next to the last comb put in (a bee 



space from it), and the colony kept thus 
until a time comes when they will work 
foundation, when frames of foundation are 
inserted in the vacant space. Or if one 
happens to have empty combs in frames of 
the same size, this vacant space can be filled 
with these at the time of transferring. 
This is similar to the way our fathers trans- 
ferred, and the jilan used at the great field- 
day meeting in .June, 1906, near Philadel- 
phia, by Prof. Surface who demonstrated 
before the thousands gathered there at that 
time. 

But there is another way which I consider 
fully as good, if not better, for modern bee- 
keeping. This latter plan allows the bee- 
keeper to wait till nectar is coming in quite 
abundantly, or till about the time the bees 
swarm naturally, when a new hive with a 
full set of frames filled with comb founda- 
tion is prepared the same as if hiving a 
natural swarm on frames filled in this way. 
This new hive is set on the stand of the 
colony w^hich is to be transferred, and most 
of the bees and the queen are driven into a 
box as before, only the hive and combs are 
not disturbed by cutting or otherwise. After 
the queen and about two-thirds of the bees 
are in the box, the old hive is removed to a 
new stand, and the bees are hived from the 
box into this new hive as before. They will 
at once draw out the foundation in the 
frames, and the hive will soon be complete- 
ly filled M'ith the very best worker combs 
possible, and a good colony for securing sur- 
plus honey. In 21 days in the old hive with 
crooked combs will be a young queen about 
to begin to lay, or already doing so. The 
worker brood will have emerged from their 
cells, and every thing will be in shape for 
another transfer. The process is the same 
as the first, except that now all the bees are 
driven off their combs and hived in another 
new hive, prepared as was the first. We 
now have these old crooked combs where 
we can do what we please with them, while 
the bees are all on (or will be as soon as the 
foundation is drawn) the very best all 
straight worker combs, such as make the 
eyes of any apiarist sparkle with delight. 

Now, what shall be done with these old 
crooked combs? Some say dump the whole 
thing into the solar wax extractor, and let 
the sun separate the combs from the frames 
and the wax from the honey, as all can then 
be used to better advantage than in any 
other way. Without question, this is the 
easiest way out; but some way the heart of 
the one who commenced his beekeeping 
life between .30 and 50 years ago, before the 
advent of comb foundation, when every 
inch of worker comb was considered very 
valuable, still considers such comb of more 
worth than the wax it contains, therefore 
he generally fits all of the best of it into 
frames for use again. 



Apr. 1. 1912 



193 



@DO®[PSlD ©(I)[PCP®©^(o)DOd]®Di]©(l 



INTERNATIONAL AUTO WAGON SAVES EX- 
PENSE OF HIRED MAN 



BY N. L. HENTHORNE 

In this section of Colorado, tliirty-flve 
miles north of Denver, in the Platte \'alley, 
bee range is rather limited, thus making 
the maintenance of large apiaries in one lo- 
cation not conducive to the best results. 
The only alternative is to place from fifty to 
seventy-five colonies in different places 
throughout the district. I have between 
500 and GOOcolonies within a radius of twelve 
miles from my home, and this necessitates 
traveling from 100 to 150 miles every week 
during the swarming season. In order to 
get the work done I was obliged to keep a 
man to assist me; and my experience with 
hired help during the swarming season has 
been far from satisfactory at the best. The 
long drives I was compelled to make every 
day during the summerwere very fatiguing, 
for considerable time was spent on the road 
alone; and in order to keep the horses in 
shape I could not overwork them; and the 
cost of maintaining a driving outfit in this 
country amounts to about thirty dollars a 
month. 

A very important advantage of a motor 
vehicle is in getting to a yard and away 
again with a load of honey. With horses 
it is always risky if not dangerous. 

In view of the objections to horses as 
given, I became convinced that the auto- 
mobile is the only means of transportation 
in the bee business, and I decided to buy 
one. Upon investigation I learned that I 
could buy second-hand machines in Den- 
ver at prices ranging from $100 to $600; but 
I knew nothing at all about automobiles, 
and I believe investments in second-hand 
machinery to be inadvisable at best. There- 
fore I bought a new truck, manufactured 
by the International Harvester Company, 
the solid tires and the air-cooled cylinders 
being strong points in its favor, in iny esti- 
mation. The car is ostensibly built for ser- 
vice; but by adding a rear seat it can be 
turned into a pleasure car, as it rides quite 
comfortably. 

I held the wheel of my machine for the 
first time at four o'clock on the afternoon of 
•luly 11, 1911. The morning of the 12th I 
loaded on 72 empty eight-frame comb-hon- 
ey supers, and ran out 1% miles into the 
country, did the necessary work there, and 
reached home in time for the midday lunch. 
In the afternoon I went nine miles in anoth- 
er direction, arriving home at o : oO. 

Aside from the usual minor troubles of 
the inexperienced driver, I have had no 
trouble whatever with the machine; and in 
the 4(X)0 miles of travel which I have cover- 
ed with it I have not paid out a cent for re- 
pairs aside from one slight accident to the 
engine. During the summer I can make 



the distance of 100 miles with a load on eight 
gallons of gasoline and one gallon of oil— the 
former at 14 cents per gallon, and the latter 
at 43, making a total running expense of 
$1.55 per hundred miles. This machine 
can carry 1500 pounds twelve to fifteen miles 
per hour, and I have run into Denver with 
a load of honey, and out with supplies, in 
one afternoon— a distance of 70 miles, round 
trip. Mr. llauchfuss, of the Colorado Hon- 
ey-producers' Association, will verify ray 
statement that my honey arrived at the as- 
sociation in better condition than any other 
he received. I now expect to do all my own 
work this summer with the use of the truck. 
I can haul from 55 to 65 cases at a trip. 

Naturally there will be the expense of 
new tires in the future. The cost of tires is 
nine dollars each, put on; but I can say that 
I have never been delayed a minute because 
of tire trouble. I have made several trips 
into the mountains with my truck, and it 
works well on the mountain roads. I can 
hardly wait until fishing time comes for a 
run into the hills. I have used the machine 
in mud and sand with good success. Like 
all machinery it requires good care in order 
to do good work. 

Platteville, Colo. 



REO DRIVEN TEN THOUSAND MILES WITH- 
OUT REPAIRS. 



BY C. A. KINSEY. 



Since April, 1911, I have been driving a 
1910 25-30 h.p. five-passenger Reo, and have 
covered between eight and ten thousand 
miles. I have had no repairs made on the 
car so far, outside of tires, except to grind 
down two exhaust valves. The tire expense 
is something that depends a great deal on 
the quality of the lire, kind of rou<:a, and, 
most of all, on the carefulness of ine driver! 

AVith this Reo it is possible to start out at 
7 o'clock in the morning, with six grown 
people, two children, nine and ten years of 
age, lunch-baskets, fishing-tackles, etc., and 
go 45 miles up a rocky canyon into the heart 
of the Rocky Mountains, making a rise of 
nearly 3000 feet, si)end a good part of the 
day fishing and berrying, and get home 
again at 7 p.m. This car ordinarily will 
travel 15 miles on one gallon of gasolene. 
In this Gallatin Valley, surrounded by 
mountains, there is always an up grade, 
either going or coming, from 30 to 50 feet per 
mile. There is one particular road that 
rises some 1700 feet in a little less than four 
miles. The Mitchell and the Reo, with fa- 
vorable conditions, will take this grade on 
"the high." 

I know from personal experience that an 
auto is a boon to beekeepers. There is no 
danger from stings and resulting runaways 
as with horses. 

Helgrade, Mont. 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 



REO USED FOR DELIVERING HONEY IN THE 
WINTER 



BY JOHN C. BULL, 



I use my automobile mostly for delivering 
honey, as I work the house-to-house trade 
in the winter. My ma?hine is a Reo two- 
cylinder five-passenger tour"ng car, with 
detachable tonneau. I take the tonneau 
-off and put on a box for delivery work. I 
bought my car second hand after it had been 
used for about 16 months. I have had it 19 
months, and have driven from 5000 to 6000 
miles. The territory that I cover selling 
honey is 30 miles across; and to cover that 
ground with a horse and wagon would take 
twice the time. With the auto I can leave 
headquarters in the morning, drive 10 or 12 
miles, then deliver $75.00 to $90.00 worth of 
honey, and be back for supper, while to 
drive that distance with the average horse 
would take nearly all the day on the road, 
considering the loads that I carry, which 
sometimes amount to 725 lbs. at a trip. 

As to cost of upkeep, if the auto is used 
every day, and the horse the same, I think 
the cost would be nearly equal, although 
the auto would cover two or three times as 
much territory as the horse. The horse re- 
quires attention three times a day, while 
ttie auto, when not in use, costs nothing; 
and the time required to keep a car in shape 
is far less than taking care of a horse. The 
auto can be looked over and kept in shape 
at odd times or stormy days, so the time is 
not missed. 

As to reliability, almost any of the stand- 
ard makes of car have passed out of the ex- 
perimental stage. In the last two winters I 
have delivered some 26,000 lbs. of honey 
with my car, and have never been obliged 
to find another way to finish up a day's de- 
livering. I use it all winter, through cold, 
snow, and all kinds of roads. I find I can 
go almost anywhere a horse-drawn vehicle 
can. If a man has a car that can be used 
for pleasure or business both, he will find 
the pleasure ride is something that can not 
be measured in dollars and cents. 

Any one who has several out-apiaries and 
lots of traveling to do on the road will find 
a good automobile the best and most pay- 
ing investment he can make. 

Hammond, Ind. 

«--•-» 

WHY WE INVESTED IN A MOTOR BICYCLE 

BY C. CALVERT 

To explain matters, a friend and myself 
run about two hundred colonies of bees of 
our own, and we also have the oversight of 
about sixty colonies belonging to a friend 
who at present is abroad. 

Our own bees are located in various 
apiaries containing from thirty to fifty col- 
onies each. These apiaries are situated ten, 
eleven, twenty-two, and forty miles away 
from this town, so we have found it a weary 
and exhausting task to make the rounds of 
all of them on the ordinary bicycle. For 
example, to cycle nine or more miles up to 



the Cotswold Hills, do a heavy day's work, 
and then to return home on the cycle, per- 
haps when it is windy, or when the tempera- 
ture is 90, in the shade is somewhat like 
hard labor. So we determined to have a 
motor bicyle with a side car. The seat of 
the latter is detachable, and an oblong-shap- 
ed box with sides a few inches high, and 
large enough to carry a couple of hives of 
bees, can be screwed on in place of the seat. 
This box is also convenient for the convey- 
ance of syrup to the apiaries, and for bring- 
ing tins of honey home for bottling. It will, 
we hope, save a carrier's bill — a serious item 
to the beeman who does not keep horses. 
Driven bees, too (a commodity you probably 
do not know the meaning of in America, 
where I suppose straw skeps are not used) , 
may be obtained at long distances, and con- 
veyed easily on a motor cycle. It is esti- 
mated in this country that such a machine 
may be run a year at an expense of less than 
one penny a mile. This is, of course, tak- 
ing into account petroleum, new tires, 
breakages, license — in fact, every thing, and 
it is well-spent money, seeing that it saves, 
first, the wear and tear of bicycles for two 
men; and, second, a carrier's bill for con- 
veyance of bee produce, feeding syrcp, and 
appliances, and that it provides a quicker 
mode of transit to one's work, at which the 
beeman arrives perfectly cool and fresh, be- 
sides getting in two or more extra hours' 
work a day which otherwise are spent crawl- 
ing on the ordinary bicycle. 
Cheltenham, England. 



HAULING HONEY FROM OUTYARDS IN AN 
E. M. F. 



BY ROY TAIT 



In the spring, and during the first part of 
the season, we make the rounds to the out- 
yards once a week iii the auto. We leave 
home about 6 a.m. with extra hives filled 
with combs or full sheets of foundation, and 
at about 7:25 I reach our mountain yard, 20 
miles away. Our first machine was a Max- 
well; but now we have an E. M. F. 30 h. p. 
model. My next machine will be built to 
order. It will have an E. M. F. 30 h. p. en- 
gine, the Cartercar friction transmission, 
and the Midland fuU-fioating rear axle — that 
is, if I can have it built that way. I believe 
the E. M. F. car as built to-day, with re- 
movable tonneau, is the best car on the 
market for the money — $1100 at the factory. 
Its simplicity and durability will at once 
appeal to the mechanic as well as to the 
man who knows nothing about machinery. 

The greatest nuisance in motoring is the 
pneumatic tire; but the trouble can be over- 
come to a certain extent by using inner lin- 
ings, which prolong the life of the outer 
casing about one-half. 

I would not think of keeping bees in out- 
yards without an automobile. When I 
read of a man going to dozens of yards 
with a horse, I wonder. 

Grand Junction, Colo. 



Apr. 1. 1912 



195 




Wesley Foster and the Brush Runabout, purchased by the State of Colorado for use in bee Inspection. 



AN AMATEUR AUTOIST 



Some Knowledge Gained by Experience with a 
Brush Runabout 



BY WESLEY FOSTER 



Automobiles are taking such an important 
place in the beekeeping world that possibly 
my first month's experience with one may 
be interesting and valuable to the owner 
who is already or soon will be in the same 
fix that I am. December 1, 1911, I knew 
almost nothing about autos except that they 
have been honking at me at every crossing, 
and throwing dirt and burnt gasoline into 
my lungs ever since Bryan ran for president. 
Previous to December 1 had enjoyed perhaps 
three rides in automobiles. I had also run 
my uncle's gasoline-engine to operate a 
buzz-saw for making some bee supplies. 
The extent of my knowledge had been in 
reading advertisements and watching the 
changing models from year to year. I knew- 
that, to be right up to the times, one must 
have a new auto about every six months, 
but I did not know the use of a carbureter, 
spark plug, magneto, nor the various levers. 

On Dec. 1 the State purchased a Brush 
runabout for my use in bee inspection, 
and since that time I have been getting ac- 
quainted with nuts, burrs, grease of three 
kinds and oil of two, well scattered over my 
anatomy and clothes. I have washers and 
burrs in every pocket, and nuts and screws 
in my pocketbook. 



December 2 I went to Denver to bring the 
runabout to Boulder. The Overland Auto 
Co., from whom the auto was purchased, 
sent a young man along to show me how to 
run it. We left Denver about S : 30 p.m. for 
the 32-miIe drive to Boulder. The mechan- 
ic ran the machine to the outskirts of Den- 
ver and slowed up to let me take the st( er- 
ing wheel. A sudden crack, and our plate- 
glass windshield curled right over the en- 
gine shield! The nuts of both braces of the 
windshield were g^ne and the bolts were 
lest. We had not seen that everything was 
tight before starting. 

V\"e took off the windshield, and my com- 
panion carried it in his hands the rest of the 
way. I got along well running the auto on 
the straight road; but when it came to pass- 
ing a hay-rack I nearly alwa\ s forgot for an 
instant just what to do, and would put on 
the brake, thus throwing the engine out of 
gear, so that it would get to "going like six- 
ty," buzzing and singing like a drone. After 
having passed the team I would release the 
brake and let the engine back into gear so 
suddenly as to give it an awful wrench, send- 
ing the car ahead with a mighty jerk. Now 
I have learned how to pass teams with little 
difficulty and no jerking. 

Well, I ran the auto all the way home 
without the mechanic taking hold of any 
thing, though he gave me "pointers" and 
advice several times. The most valuable 
point for me right at the start was my bi- 
cycle experience in holding the handle-bars 



196 



Gleanings in Bee Culture 




The Reo loOO-lb. truck which is equipped with a single-cylinder 12 h. p. motor, planetary transmission, 
and a 44x72 inch body. 



firm, and also A. I. Root's suggestions and 
caution some time ago about guiding or 
steering too much. 

It was dark when we reached Boulder at 
6:15p.m., and the last twelve miles were 
driven by using the acetylene-gas light'«; 
but I took the mechanic to the train for his 
return trip and drove the auto home alone. 
I did not attempt to run it into the barn by 
its own power, but pushed it in by hand. I 
turned out the water by opening the faucet 
on the engine and radiator so it would not 
freeze, as we had no anti-freeze mixture in 
the radiator. 

The next morning in reading the instruc- 
tion bo